Blu-ray Disc
Blu-ray Disc
Blu-ray Disc
Blu-ray Disc
Media type
High-density optical disc
H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2
H.264/MPEG-4 AVC
25 GB (single-layer)
50.1 GB (dual-layer)
100.1/128 GB (BDXL)
Block size
64 kb ECC
Read mechanism
405 nm diode laser:
1× @ 36 Mbit/s (4.5 MB/s) 2× @ 72 Mbit/s (9 MB/s) 4× @ 144 Mbit/s (18 MB/s) 6× @ 216 Mbit/s (27 MB/s) 8× @ 288
Mbit/s (36 MB/s) 12× @ 432 Mbit/s (54 MB/s)
Developed by
Blu-ray Disc Association
120 mm diameter (4,72 in)
1.2 mm thickness
Data storage
High-definition video (1080p) High-definition audio
Stereoscopic 3D
PlayStation 3 games
Future PlayStation 4 games
Future Xbox One games
Optical discs
Blu-ray Disc (BD) is a digital optical disc data storage format designed to supersede the DVD format. The plastic
disc is 120 mm in diameter and 1.2 mm thick, the same size as DVDs and CDs. Conventional (pre-BD-XL) Blu-ray
Discs contain 25 GB per layer, with dual layer discs (50 GB) being the industry standard for feature-length video
discs. Triple layer discs (100 GB) and quadruple layers (128 GB) are available for BD-XL re-writer drives.[3] The
name Blu-ray Disc refers to the blue laser used to read the disc, which allows information to be stored at a greater
density than is possible with the longer-wavelength red laser used for DVDs. The major application of Blu-ray Discs
Blu-ray Disc
is as a medium for video material such as feature films. Besides the hardware specifications, Blu-ray Disc is
associated with a set of multimedia formats. Generally, these formats allow for the video and audio to be stored with
greater definition than on DVD.
The format was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association, a group representing makers of consumer electronics,
computer hardware, and motion pictures. The first Blu-ray Disc prototypes were unveiled in October 2000, and the
first prototype player was released in April 2003 in Japan. Afterwards, it continued to be developed until its official
release in June 2006. As of June 2008[4], more than 2,500 Blu-ray Disc titles were available in Australia and the
United Kingdom, with 3,500 in the United States and Canada. In Japan, as of July 2010[4], more than 3,300 titles
have been released.
During the high definition optical disc format war, Blu-ray Disc competed with the HD DVD format. Toshiba, the
main company that supported HD DVD, conceded in February 2008, releasing its own Blu-ray Disc player in late
The information density of the DVD format was limited by the
wavelength of the laser diodes used. Following protracted
development, blue laser diodes operating at 405 nanometers became
available on a production basis. Sony started two projects in
collaboration with Philips[6] applying the new diodes: UDO (Ultra
Density Optical), and DVR Blue (together with Pioneer), a format of
rewritable discs that would eventually become Blu-ray Disc (more
specifically, BD-RE). The core technologies of the formats are similar.
The first DVR Blue prototypes were unveiled at the CEATEC
A blank rewritable Blu-ray Disc (BD-RE).
exhibition in October 2000 by Sony. A trademark for the "Blue Disc"
logo was filed February 9, 2001. On February 19, 2002, the project
was officially announced as Blu-ray Disc, and Blu-ray Disc Founders was founded by the nine initial members.
The first consumer device arrived in stores on April 10, 2003: the Sony BDZ-S77, a $3,800 (US) BD-RE recorder
that was made available only in Japan. But there was no standard for prerecorded video, and no movies were
released for this player.
Hollywood studios insisted that players be equipped with digital rights management before they would release
movies for the new format, and they wanted a new DRM system that would be more secure than the failed Content
Scramble System (CSS) used on DVDs.
On October 4, 2004, the name "Blu-ray Disc Founders" was officially changed to the Blu-ray Disc Association
(BDA), and 20th Century Fox joined the BDA's Board of Directors.
The Blu-ray Disc physical specifications were completed in 2004.
In January 2005, TDK announced that they had developed an ultra-hard yet very thin coating polymer for Blu-ray
Discs; this was a significant technical advance because a far tougher protection was desired in the consumer market
to protect bare disks against scratching and damage compared to DVD, while technically Blu-ray Disc required a
much thinner layer for the denser and higher frequency blue laser. Cartridges, originally used for scratch protection,
were no longer necessary and were scrapped.
The BD-ROM specifications were finalized in early 2006.
Blu-ray Disc
AACS LA, a consortium founded in 2004, had been developing the DRM platform that could be used to securely
distribute movies to consumers. However, the final AACS standard was delayed, and then delayed again when an
important member of the Blu-ray Disc group voiced concerns. At the request of the initial hardware manufacturers,
including Toshiba, Pioneer, and Samsung, an interim standard was published that did not include some features, such
as managed copy.
Launch and sales developments
The first BD-ROM players (e.g. Sony BDP-S1) were shipped in mid-June 2006, though HD DVD players beat them
to market by a few months.
The first Blu-ray Disc titles were released on June 20, 2006: 50 First Dates, The Fifth Element, Hitch, House of
Flying Daggers, Twister, Underworld: Evolution, xXx (all Sony), and MGM's The Terminator.[7] The earliest
releases used MPEG-2 video compression, the same method used on standard DVDs. The first releases using the
newer VC-1 and AVC formats were introduced in September 2006.[8] The first movies using 50 GB dual-layer discs
were introduced in October 2006. The first audio-only albums were released in May 2008.[9][10]
The first mass-market Blu-ray Disc rewritable drive for the PC was the BWU-100A, released by Sony on July 18,
2006. It recorded both single and dual-layer BD-Rs as well as BD-REs and had a suggested retail price of US $699.
Competition from HD DVD
The DVD Forum, chaired by Toshiba, was split over whether to develop the more expensive blue laser technology.
In March 2002, the forum approved a proposal endorsed by Warner Bros. and other motion picture studios that
involved compressing HD content onto dual-layer standard DVD-9 discs. In spite of this decision, however, the
DVD Forum's Steering Committee announced in April that it was pursuing its own blue-laser high-definition video
solution. In August, Toshiba and NEC announced their competing standard, Advanced Optical Disc. It was finally
adopted by the DVD Forum and renamed HD DVD the next year, after being voted down twice by DVD Forum
members who were also Blu-ray Disc Association members—a situation that drew preliminary investigations by the
U.S. Department of Justice.
HD DVD had a head start in the high-definition video market, as Blu-ray Disc sales were slow to gain market share.
The first Blu-ray Disc player was perceived as expensive and buggy, and there were few titles available.
The appearance of the Sony PlayStation 3, which contained a Blu-ray Disc player for primary storage, helped
support Blu-ray. Sony also ran a more thorough and influential marketing campaign for the format. 2006 also saw
the launch of AVCHD camcorders, whose recordings can be played back on many Blu-ray Disc players without
re-encoding, but not on HD DVD players.
By January 2007, Blu-ray Discs had outsold HD DVDs, and during the first three-quarters of 2007, BD outsold HD
DVD by about two to one. At CES 2007, Warner proposed Total Hi Def—a hybrid disc containing Blu-ray on one
side and HD DVD on the other, but it was never released.
In a June 28, 2007 press release, Twentieth Century Fox cited Blu-ray Disc's adoption of the BD+ anticopying
system as key to their decision to support the Blu-ray Disc format.
On January 4, 2008, a day before CES 2008, Warner Bros. (the only major studio still releasing movies in both HD
DVD and Blu-ray Disc format) announced that it would release only in Blu-ray Disc after May 2008. This
effectively included other studios that came under the Warner umbrella, such as New Line Cinema and
HBO—though in Europe, HBO distribution partner, the BBC, announced it would, while keeping an eye on market
forces, continue to release product on both formats. This led to a chain reaction in the industry, with major U.S.
retailers such as Best Buy, Walmart, and Circuit City and Canadian chains such as Future Shop dropping HD DVD
in their stores. A then major European retailer, Woolworths, dropped HD DVD from its inventory. Netflix and
Blockbuster—major DVD rental companies—said they would no longer carry HD DVD.
Blu-ray Disc
Following these new developments, on February 19, 2008, Toshiba announced it would end production of HD DVD
devices, allowing Blu-ray Disc to become the industry standard for high-density optical discs. Universal Studios, the
sole major movie studio to back HD DVD since its inception, said shortly after Toshiba's announcement: "While
Universal values the close partnership we have shared with Toshiba, it is time to turn our focus to releasing new and
catalog titles on Blu-ray Disc." Paramount Pictures, which started releasing movies only in HD DVD format during
late 2007, also said it would start releasing in Blu-ray Disc. Both studios announced initial Blu-ray lineups in May
2008. With this, all major Hollywood studios supported Blu-ray.
Future prospects and market trends
According to Media Research, high-definition software sales in the US were slower in the first two years than DVD
software sales. 16.3 million DVD software units were sold in the first two years (1997–98) compared to 8.3 million
high-definition software units (2006–07). One reason given for this difference was the smaller marketplace (26.5
million HDTVs in 2007 compared to 100 million SDTVs in 1998). Former HD DVD supporter Microsoft has stated
that they are not planning to make a Blu-ray Disc drive for the Xbox 360.
Shortly after the "format war" ended, Blu-ray disc sales began to increase. A study by The NPD Group found that
awareness of Blu-ray Disc had reached 60% of U.S. households. Nielsen VideoScan sales numbers showed that for
some titles, such as 20th Century Fox's Hitman, up to 14% of total disc sales were from Blu-ray, although the
average Blu-ray sales for the first half of the year were only around 5%. In December 2008, the Blu-ray Disc version
of The Dark Knight sold 600,000 copies on the first day of its launch in the United States, Canada, and the United
Kingdom. A week after the launch, The Dark Knight BD had sold over 1.7 million copies worldwide, making it the
first Blu-ray Disc title to sell over a million copies in the first week of release.
Blu-ray Disc sales in United States and Canada
Year Cumulative sales (millions)
According to Singulus Technologies AG, Blu-ray is being adopted faster than the DVD format was at a similar
period in its development. This conclusion was based on the fact that Singulus Technologies has received orders for
21 Blu-ray dual-layer machines during the first quarter of 2008, while 17 DVD machines of this type were made in
the same period in 1997. According to GfK Retail and Technology, in the first week of November 2008, sales of
Blu-ray recorders surpassed DVD recorders in Japan. According to the Digital Entertainment Group, the total
number of Blu-ray Disc playback devices (both set-top box and game console) sold in the U.S. had reached 28.5
million by the end of 2010.
Blu-ray faces competition from video on demand and from new technologies that allow access to movies on any
format or device, such as Digital Entertainment Content Ecosystem or Disney's Keychest.[11] Some commentators
have suggested that renting Blu-ray will play a vital part in keeping the technology affordable while allowing it to
move forward. In an effort to increase sales, studios are releasing movies in combo packs with Blu-ray Discs and
DVDs as well as digital copies that can be played on computers and iPods. Some are released on "flipper" discs with
Blu-ray on one side and DVD on the other. Other strategies are to release movies with the special features only on
Blu-ray Discs and none on DVDs.
Blu-ray Disc
Ongoing development
Although the Blu-ray Disc specification has been finalized, engineers
continue to work on advancing the technology. By 2005, quad-layer
(128 GB) discs had been demonstrated on a drive with modified optics
and standard unaltered optics. Hitachi stated that such a disc could be
used to store 7 hours of 32 Mbit/s video (HDTV) or 3 hours and 30
minutes of 64 Mbit/s video (Cinema 4K). In August 2006, TDK
announced that they had created a working experimental Blu-ray Disc
capable of holding 200 GB of data on a single side, using six 33 GB
data layers.
Also, behind closed doors at CES 2007, Ritek revealed that they had
successfully developed a High Definition optical disc process that
extends the disc capacity to ten layers, which increases the capacity of
the discs to 250 GB. However, they noted that the major obstacle is
that current read/write technology does not support the additional
Front of an experimental 200 GB rewritable
Blu-ray Disc.
JVC has developed a three-layer technology that allows putting both standard-definition DVD data and HD data on a
BD/(standard) DVD combination. If successfully commercialized, this would enable the consumer to purchase a disc
that can be played on DVD players and can also reveal its HD version when played on a BD player. Japanese optical
disc manufacturer Infinity announced the first "hybrid" Blu-ray Disc/(standard) DVD combo, to be released
February 18, 2009. This disc set of the TV series "Code Blue" featured four hybrid discs containing a single Blu-ray
Disc layer (25 GB) and two DVD layers (9 GB) on the same side of the disc.
In January 2007, Hitachi showcased a 100 GB Blu-ray Disc, consisting of four layers containing 25 GB each. Unlike
TDK and Panasonic's 100 GB discs, they claim this disc is readable on standard Blu-ray Disc drives that are
currently in circulation, and it is believed that a firmware update is the only requirement to make it readable to
current players and drives.
In December 2008, Pioneer Corporation unveiled a 400 GB Blu-ray Disc (containing 16 data layers, 25 GB each)
that will be compatible with current players after a firmware update. Its planned launch is in the 2009–10 time frame
for ROM and 2010–13 for rewritable discs. Ongoing development is underway to create a 1 TB Blu-ray Disc as soon
as 2013.
At CES 2009, Panasonic unveiled the DMP-B15, the first portable Blu-ray Disc player, and Sharp introduced the
LC-BD60U and LC-BD80U series, the first LCD HDTVs with integrated Blu-ray Disc players. Sharp has also
announced that they will sell HDTVs with integrated Blu-ray Disc recorders in the United States by the end of 2009.
Set-top box recorders are not being sold in the U.S. due to fears of piracy. However, personal computers with
Blu-ray recorder drives are available.
On January 1, 2010, Sony, in association with Panasonic, announced plans to increase the storage capacity on their
Blu-ray Discs from 25 GB to 33.4 GB via a technology called i-MLSE (Maximum likelihood Sequence Estimation).
The higher-capacity discs, according to Sony, will be readable on current Blu-ray Disc players with a firmware
upgrade. No date has been set to include the increased space, although in 2010 reported that "it will
likely happen sometime later this year."
On July 20, 2010, the research team of Sony and Japanese Tohoku University announced the joint development of a
blue-violet laser, which will help in creating Blu-ray discs with a capacity of 1 TB using only two layers (and
potentially more than 1 TB with additional layering). By comparison, the first blue laser was invented in 1996, with
the first prototype discs coming four years later.
Blu-ray Disc
On January 7, 2013, Sony announced that it would release "Mastered in 4K" Blu-ray Disc titles which are sourced at
4K and encoded at 1080p. "Mastered in 4K" Blu-ray Disc titles can be played on existing Blu-ray Disc players and
will support a larger color space using xvYCC.
On January 14, 2013, Blu-ray Disc Association president, Andy Parsons, stated that a task force was created three
months prior to conduct a study concerning an extension to the Blu-ray Disc specification that would add support for
4K Ultra HD video.
Physical media
Comparison of several forms of disk storage showing tracks
(not-to-scale); green denotes start and red denotes end.
* Some CD-R(W) and DVD-R(W)/DVD+R(W) recorders operate
in ZCLV, CAA or CAV modes.
Comparison of various optical storage media
Diameter Layers
Standard disc size, single layer
Standard disc size, dual layer
3 100,103,356,416
4 128,001,769,472 122,072.00 128.0
Standard disc size, XL 3 layer
Standard disc size, XL 4 layer
95,466.00 100.1
Mini disc size, single layer
Mini disc size, dual layer
Laser and optics
While a DVD uses a 650 nm red laser, Blu-ray Disc uses a 405 nm "blue" laser diode. Note that even though the
laser is called "blue", its color is actually in the violet range. The smaller beam focuses more precisely, thus enabling
it to read information recorded in pits that are less than half the size of those on a DVD, and can consequently be
spaced more closely, resulting in a shorter track pitch, enabling a Blu-ray Disc to hold about five times the amount of
information that can be stored on a DVD.
Blu-ray Disc
The lasers are GaN (gallium nitride) laser diodes that produce 405 nm light directly, that is, without frequency
doubling or other nonlinear optical mechanisms.[13] Conventional DVDs use 650 nm red lasers, and CDs use 780 nm
near-infrared lasers.
The minimum "spot size" on which a laser can be focused is limited by diffraction, and depends on the wavelength
of the light and the numerical aperture of the lens used to focus it. By decreasing the wavelength, increasing the
numerical aperture from 0.60 to 0.85, and making the cover layer thinner to avoid unwanted optical effects, the laser
beam can be focused to a smaller spot, which effectively allows more information to be stored in the same area. For
Blu-ray Disc, the spot size is 580 nm. This allows a reduction of the pit size from 400 nm for DVD to 150 nm for
Blu-ray Disc, and of the track pitch from 740 nm to 320 nm. See Compact Disc for information on optical discs'
physical structure.
In addition to the optical improvements, Blu-ray Discs feature improvements in data encoding that further increase
the amount of content that can be stored.
Hard-coating technology
Since the Blu-ray Disc data layer is closer to the surface of the disc compared to the DVD standard, it was at first
more vulnerable to scratches. The first discs were housed in cartridges for protection, resembling Professional Discs
introduced by Sony in 2003.
Using a cartridge would increase the price of an already expensive medium, so hard-coating of the pickup surface
was chosen instead. TDK was the first company to develop a working scratch-protection coating for Blu-ray Discs. It
was named Durabis. In addition, both Sony and Panasonic's replication methods include proprietary hard-coat
technologies. Sony's rewritable media are spin-coated, using a scratch-resistant and antistatic coating. Verbatim's
recordable and rewritable Blu-ray Discs use their own proprietary technology, called Hard Coat.[14]
The Blu-ray Disc specification requires the testing of resistance to scratches by mechanical abrasion. In contrast,
DVD media are not required to be scratch-resistant, but since development of the technology, some companies, such
as Verbatim, implemented hard-coating for more expensive lineups of recordable DVDs.
Recording speed
BD drive speeds
Drive speed
Data rate
~Write time (minutes)
Mbit/s MB/s Single-Layer Dual-Layer
Blu-ray Disc
Usually prerecorded Blu-ray Disc titles ship in packages similar but slightly smaller (18.5 mm shorter and 1 mm
thinner: 135 mm x 171.5 mm x 13 mm.) than a standard DVD keep case, generally with the format prominently
displayed in a horizontal stripe across the top of the case (blue for Blu-ray, red for PlayStation 3 Greatest Hits
Games, and clear for PlayStation 3 regular games).
Mini Blu-ray Disc
The "Mini Blu-ray Disc" (also, "Mini-BD" and "Mini Blu-ray") is a compact 8 cm (~3 in)-diameter variant of the
Blu-ray Disc that can store approximately 7.5 GB of data. It is similar in concept to the MiniDVD and MiniCD.
Recordable (BD-R) and rewritable (BD-RE) versions of Mini Blu-ray Disc have been developed specifically for
compact camcorders and other compact recording devices.
Blu-ray Disc recordable
"Blu-ray Disc recordable" refers to two optical disc formats that can be recorded with an optical disc recorder.
BD-Rs can be written to once, whereas BD-REs can be erased and re-recorded multiple times. The current practical
maximum speed for Blu-ray Discs is about 12×. Higher speeds of rotation (10,000+ rpm) cause too much wobble for
the discs to be written properly, as with the 20× and 52× maximum speeds, respectively, of standard DVDs and CDs.
Since September 2007, BD-RE is also available in the smaller 8 cm Mini Blu-ray Disc size.[15]
On September 18, 2007, Pioneer and Mitsubishi codeveloped BD-R LTH ("Low to High" in groove recording),
which features an organic dye recording layer that can be manufactured by modifying existing CD-R and DVD-R
production equipment, significantly reducing manufacturing costs. In February 2008, Taiyo Yuden, Mitsubishi, and
Maxell released the first BD-R LTH Discs,[16] and in March 2008, Sony's PlayStation 3 gained official support for
BD-R LTH Discs with the 2.20 firmware update.[17] In May 2009 Verbatim/Mitsubishi announced the industry's first
6X BD-R LTH media, which allows recording a 25 GB disc in about 16 minutes.[18]
Unlike the previous releases of 120 mm optical discs (i.e., CDs and standard DVDs), Blu-ray recorders hit the
market almost simultaneously with Blu-ray's debut.
BD9 and BD5
The BD9 format was proposed to the Blu-ray Disc Association by Warner Home Video as a cost-effective
alternative to the 25/50 GB BD-ROM discs. The format was supposed to use the same codecs and program structure
as Blu-ray Disc video, but recorded onto less expensive 8.5 GB dual-layer DVD. This red-laser media could be
manufactured on existing DVD production lines with lower costs of production than the 25/50 GB Blu-ray media.
Usage of BD9 for releasing content on "pressed" discs has never caught on. After the end of the format war, major
producers ramped up the production of Blu-ray Discs and lowered their prices to the level of DVDs. On the other
hand, the idea of using inexpensive DVD media became popular among individual users. A lower-capacity version
of this format that uses single-layer 4.7 GB DVDs has been unofficially called BD5. Both formats are being used by
individuals for recording high definition content in Blu-ray format onto recordable DVD media.
Despite the fact that the BD9 format has been adopted as part of the BD-ROM basic format, none of the existing
Blu-ray player models support it explicitly. As such, the discs recorded in BD9 and BD5 formats are not guaranteed
to play on standard Blu-ray Disc players.
AVCHD and AVCREC also use inexpensive media like DVDs, but unlike BD9 and BD5 these formats have limited
interactivity, codec types, and data rates.
Blu-ray Disc
The BDXL format supports 100 GB and 128 GB write-once discs and
100 GB rewritable discs for commercial applications. It was defined in
June 2010.
BD-R 3.0 Format Specification (BDXL) defined a multi-layered disc
recordable in BDAV format with the speed of 2× and 4×, capable of
100/128 GB and usage of UDF2.5/2.6.
BD-RE 4.0 Format Specification (BDXL) defined a multi-layered disc
rewritable in BDAV with the speed of 2× and 4×, capable of 100 GB
and usage of UDF2.5 as file system.
BDXL discs are not compatible with existing BD drives, though a
firmware update may be available for some newer drives.[citation needed]
100 GB BDXL Triple layer disc made by Sharp
The IH-BD (Intra-Hybrid Blu-ray) format includes a 25 GB write-once layer (BD-R) and a 25 GB read-only layer
(BD-ROM), designed to work with existing Blu-ray Discs.
Software standards
Blu-ray Disc specifies the use of Universal Disk Format (UDF) 2.50 as a convergent friendly format for both PC and
consumer electronics environments. It is used in the latest specifications of BD-ROM, BD-RE and BD-R.
In the first BD-RE specification (defined in 2002), the BDFS (Blu-ray Disc File System) was used. The BD-RE 1.0
specification was defined mainly for the digital recording of High-definition television (HDTV) broadcast television.
The BDFS was replaced by UDF 2.50 in the second BD-RE specification in 2005, in order to enable interoperability
among consumer electronics Blu-ray recorders and personal computer systems. These optical disc recording
technologies enabled PC recording and playback of BD-RE. BD-R can use UDF 2.50/2.60.
The Blu-ray Disc application (BDAV application) for recording of digital broadcasting has been developed as
System Description Blu-ray Rewritable Disc Format part 3 Audio Visual Basic Specifications. The requirements
related with computer file system have been specified in System Description Blu-ray Rewritable Disc Format part 2
File System Specifications version 1.0 (BDFS).
Initially, the BD-RE version 1.0 (BDFS) was specifically developed for recording of digital broadcasting using the
Blu-ray Disc application (BDAV application). To support UDF, these requirements are superseded by the Blu-ray
Rewritable Disc File System Specifications version 2.0 (UDF) (a.k.a. RE 2.0) and Blu-ray Recordable Disc File
System Specifications version 1.0 (UDF) (a.k.a. R 1.0). Additionally, a new application format, BDMV (System
Description Blu-ray Disc Prerecorded Format part 3 Audio Visual Basic Specifications) for High Definition Content
Distribution was developed for BD-ROM. The only file system developed for BDMV is the System Description
Blu-ray Read-Only Disc Format part 2 File System Specifications version 1.0 (UDF) which defines the requirements
for UDF 2.50.
Blu-ray Disc
Directory and file structure
All BD-ROM application files are stored under a “BDMV” directory.
• BDMV directory: contains the PLAYLIST, CLIPINF, STREAM, AUXDATA and BACKUP directories.
• PLAYLIST directory: contains the Database files for Movie PlayLists.
• xxxxx.mpls files: store information corresponding to Movie PlayLists. One file is created for each Movie
PlayList. The filenames of these files are in the form “xxxxx.mpls”, where “xxxxx” is a 5-digit number
corresponding to the Movie PlayList.
• CLIPINF directory: contains the Database files for Clips.
• zzzzz.clpi files: store Clip information associated with a Clip AV stream file. The filenames of these files
are in the form “zzzzz.clpi”, where “zzzzz” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Clip.
• STREAM directory: contains AV stream files.
• zzzzz.m2ts file: contains a BDAV MPEG-2 transport stream. The names of these files are in the form
“zzzzz.m2ts”, where “zzzzz” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Clip. The same 5-digit number “zzzzz”
is used for an AV stream file and its associated Clip information file.
• SSIF directory: If used, Stereoscopic Interleaved files shall be placed under this directory.
• zzzzz.ssif file: is a Stereoscopic Interleaved file that is composed from two BDAV MPEG-2 transport
streams. Both of the streams include an MPEG-4 MVC view video stream for left eye or right eye
respectively. This file is used only when 3D video is played back. The 5-digit number “zzzzz” is the same
as the number used for the AV stream file “zzzzz.m2ts” that includes the MPEG-4 MVC Base view video
• AUXDATA directory: contains Sound data files and Font files.
• sound.bdmv file: stores data relating to one or more sounds associated with HDMV Interactive Graphic
streams applications. This file may or may not exist under the AUXDATA directory. If it exists, there shall
be only one sound.bdmv file.
• aaaaa.otf file: stores the font information associated with Text subtitle applications. The names of these files
are in the form “aaaaa.otf”, where “aaaaa” is a 5-digit number corresponding to the Font.
• BACKUP directory: contains copies of the "index.bdmv” file, the “MovieObject.bdmv” file, all the files in the
PLAYLIST directory and all files in the CLIPINF directory.
• index.bdmv file: stores information describing the contents of the BDMV directory. There is only one
index.bdmv file under the BDMV directory.
• MovieObject.bdmv file: stores information for one or more Movie Objects. There is only one
MovieObject.bdmv under the BDMV directory.
Media format
Container format
Audio, video and other streams are multiplexed and stored on Blu-ray Discs in a container format based on the
MPEG transport stream. It is also known as BDAV MPEG-2 transport stream and can use filename extension
.m2ts.[] Blu-ray Disc titles authored with menu support are in the BDMV (Blu-ray Disc Movie) format and contain
audio, video, and other streams in BDAV container.[19][20] There is also the BDAV (Blu-ray Disc Audio/Visual)
format, the consumer oriented alternative to the BDMV format used for movie releases. The BDAV format is used
on BD-REs and BD-Rs for audio/video recording. BDMV format was later defined also for BD-RE and BD-R (in
September 2006, in the third revision of BD-RE specification and second revision of BD-R specification). Blu-ray
Disc employs the MPEG transport stream recording method. That enables transport streams of digital broadcasts to
be recorded as they are without altering the format.[21] It also enables flexible editing of a digital broadcast that is
recorded as is and where the data can be edited just by rewriting the playback stream. Although it is quite natural, a
Blu-ray Disc
function for high-speed and easy-to use retrieval is built in.[22] Blu-ray Disc Video use MPEG transport streams,
compared to DVD's MPEG program streams. This allows multiple video programs to be stored in the same file so
they can be played back simultaneously (e.g., with "picture-in-picture" effect).
The BD-ROM specification mandates certain codec compatibilities for both hardware decoders (players) and movie
software (content). Windows Media Player does not come with the codecs required to play Blu-ray discs.[23]
High-definition video may be stored on BD-ROMs with up to 1920×1080 pixel resolution at up to 60 (59.94) fields
per second. Officially, progressive scan video can go up to 1920×1080 pixel resolution at 24 frames per second, or
up to 59.94 frames per second at a resolution of 1280×720 pixels. Many current Blu-ray players and recorders now
support 1920×1080 video at the full 60p and 50p progressive format.[24]
Frame rate[a] Aspect ratio
60p (59.94p)[c] 16:9
30i (29.97i)
1440×1080[b] 30i (29.97i)
1440×1080[b] 25i
1440×1080[b] 24p
60p (59.94p)
30i (29.97i)
4:3 or 16:9
4:3 or 16:9
^ a All frame rates are properly listed in frames per second. Some manufacturers will list field rate for interlaced
material, but this is incorrect industry practice. To avoid confusion, only FRAME rates should ever be listed.
^ b MPEG-2 at 1440×1080 was previously not supported in a draft version of the specification from March 2005.
^ c The 60p and 50p progressive formats are not officially part of the Blu-ray disc specification. Nevertheless, many
recent Blu-ray video players and recorders support both formats.
For video, all players are required to support H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2, H.264/MPEG-4 Part 10: AVC, and SMPTE
VC-1. BD-ROM titles with video must store video using one of the three mandatory formats; multiple formats on a
single title are allowed. Blu-ray Disc supports video with a bit depth of 8-bits per color YCbCr with 4:2:0 chroma
The choice of formats affects the producer's licensing/royalty costs as well as the title's maximum run time, due to
differences in compression efficiency. Discs encoded in MPEG-2 video typically limit content producers to around
two hours of high-definition content on a single-layer (25 GB) BD-ROM. The more-advanced video formats (VC-1
and MPEG-4 AVC) typically achieve a video run time twice that of MPEG-2, with comparable quality.
Blu-ray Disc
MPEG-2 was used by many studios (including Paramount Pictures, which initially used the VC-1 format for HD
DVD releases) for the first series of Blu-ray Discs, which were launched throughout 2006.[25] Modern releases are
now often encoded in either MPEG-4 AVC or VC-1, allowing film studios to place all content on one disc, reducing
costs and improving ease of use. Using these formats also frees a lot of space for storage of bonus content in HD
(1080i/p), as opposed to the SD (480i/p) typically used for most titles. Some studios, such as Warner Bros., have
released bonus content on discs encoded in a different format than the main feature title. For example, the Blu-ray
Disc release of Superman Returns uses VC-1 for the feature film and MPEG-2 for some of its bonus content. Today,
Warner and other studios typically provide bonus content in the video format that matches the feature.
For audio, BD-ROM players are required to support Dolby Digital (AC-3), DTS, and linear PCM. Players may
optionally support Dolby Digital Plus and DTS-HD High Resolution Audio as well as lossless formats Dolby
TrueHD and DTS-HD Master Audio. BD-ROM titles must use one of the mandatory schemes for the primary
soundtrack. A secondary audiotrack, if present, may use any of the mandatory or optional codecs.
Specification of BD-ROM Primary audio streams:
LPCM (Lossless)
Max. Bitrate
27.648 Mbit/s
Dolby TrueHD
DTS Digital
DTS-HD Master
Audio (Lossless)
640 kbit/s 4.736
18.64 Mbit/s
1.524 Mbit/s
24.5 Mbit/s
3.0 Mbit/s
Max. Channel 8 (48 kHz,
96 kHz),
6 (192 kHz)
8 (48 kHz,
96 kHz),
6 (192 kHz)
8 (48 kHz, 96 kHz),
6 (192 kHz)
16, 20, 24
16, 24
16, 24
16, 24
16, 20, 24
16, 24
48 kHz, 96 kHz,
192 kHz
48 kHz
48 kHz
48 kHz, 96 kHz,
192 kHz
48 kHz
48 kHz, 96 kHz,
192 kHz
48 kHz
48 kHz,
96 kHz
Bit rate
For users recording digital television programming, the recordable Blu-ray Disc standard's initial data rate of
36 Mbit/s is more than adequate to record high-definition broadcasts from any source (IPTV, cable/satellite, or
terrestrial). BD Video movies have a maximum data transfer rate of 54 Mbit/s, a maximum AV bitrate of 48 Mbit/s
(for both audio and video data), and a maximum video bit rate of 40 Mbit/s. This compares to HD DVD movies,
which have a maximum data transfer rate of 36 Mbit/s, a maximum AV bitrate of 30.24 Mbit/s, and a maximum
video bitrate of 29.4 Mbit/s.
Application format
• BDAV or BD-AV (Blu-ray Disc Audio/Visual): a consumer-oriented Blu-ray video format used for audio/video
recording (defined in 2002).
• BDMV or BD-MV (Blu-ray Disc Movie): a Blu-ray video format with menu support commonly used for movie
• BDMV Recording specification (defined in September 2006 for BD-RE and BD-R).
• RREF (Realtime Recording and Editing Format): a subset of BDMV designed for realtime recording and
editing applications.
Blu-ray Disc
Java software support
At the 2005 JavaOne trade show, it was announced that Sun Microsystems' Java cross-platform software
environment would be included in all Blu-ray Disc players as a mandatory part of the standard. Java is used to
implement interactive menus on Blu-ray Discs, as opposed to the method used on DVD-video discs. DVDs use
pre-rendered MPEG segments and selectable subtitle pictures, which are considerably more primitive and rarely
seamless. At the conference, Java creator James Gosling suggested that the inclusion of a Java virtual machine, as
well as network connectivity in some BD devices, will allow updates to Blu-ray Discs via the Internet, adding
content such as additional subtitle languages and promotional features not included on the disc at pressing time. This
Java Version is called BD-J and is built on a profile of the Globally Executable MHP (GEM) standard; GEM is the
worldwide version of the Multimedia Home Platform standard.
Player profiles
The BD-ROM specification defines four Blu-ray Disc player profiles, including an audio-only player profile
(BD-Audio) that does not require video decoding or BD-J. All of the video-based player profiles (BD-Video) are
required to have a full implementation of BD-J, with varying levels of hardware support.
Grace Period [d] Bonus View BD-Live[e] Blu-ray 3D
Profile 3.0 [c]
Profile 1.0
Profile 1.1
Built-in persistent memory
64 KB
64 KB
64 KB
64 KB?
Local storage capability[a]
256 MB
1 GB
1 GB
Secondary video decoder (PiP)
Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory
Secondary audio decoder[b]
Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory
Virtual file system
Mandatory Mandatory Mandatory
Internet connection capability
Profile 2.0 Profile 5.0
Mandatory Mandatory
^ a This is used for storing audio/video and title updates. It can either be built-in memory or removable media, such as a memory card or USB
flash memory.
^ b A secondary audio decoder is typically used for interactive audio and commentary.
^ c Profile 3.0 is a separate audio-only player profile. The first Blu-ray Disc album to be released was Divertimenti, by record label Lindberg Lyd,
and it has been confirmed to work on the PS3.
^ d Also known as Initial Standard profile.
^ e Also known as Final Standard profile.
On November 2, 2007, the Grace Period Profile was superseded by Bonus View as the minimum profile for new
BD-Video players released to the market. When Blu-ray Disc software not authored with interactive features
dependent on Bonus View or BD-Live hardware capabilities is played on Profile 1.0 players, it is able to play the
main feature of the disc, but some extra features may not be available or will have limited capability.
The biggest difference between Bonus View and BD-Live is that BD-Live requires the Blu-ray Disc player to have
an Internet connection to access Internet-based content. BD-Live features have included Internet chats, scheduled
chats with the director, Internet games, downloadable featurettes, downloadable quizzes, and downloadable movie
trailers. Note that while some Bonus View players may have an Ethernet port, these are used for firmware updates
and are not used for Internet-based content. In addition, Profile 2.0 also requires more local storage in order to
Blu-ray Disc
handle this content.
With the exception of the latest players and the PlayStation 3, Profile 1.0 players cannot be upgraded to be Bonus
View or BD-Live compliant.[26]
Region codes
As with the implementation of region
codes for DVDs, Blu-ray Disc players
sold in a specific geographical region
are designed to play only discs
authorized by the content provider for
that region. This is intended to permit
content providers (motion picture
studios, etc.) to do effective price
According to the Blu-ray Disc
Regions for the Blu-ray Disc standard: A/1: The Americas (except Greenland) and their
players...(and) Blu-ray Disc-equipped
Dependent territorydependencies, East Asia (except mainland China and Mongolia), and
computer systems are required to
Southeast Asia. B/2: Africa, Middle East, Western AsiaSouthwest Asia, Europe (except
Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan), Australia, New Zealand, and their Dependent
support regional coding." However,
territorydependencies. C/3: Central Asia, East Asia (mainland China and Mongolia only),
"Use of region playback codes is
South Asia, Eastern Europe (Belarus, Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan only), and their
optional for content providers..."[27]
Dependent territorydependencies.
Some current estimates suggest 70% of
available [movie] Blu-ray Discs from the major studios are region-code-free and can therefore be played on any
Blu-ray Disc player, in any region.[28]
Movie studios have different region coding policies. Among major U.S. studios, Warner Bros., Paramount Pictures,
Universal Studios, Sony Pictures, and Walt Disney Pictures have released most of their titles region-free.[29] MGM
and Lions Gate Entertainment have released a mix of region-free and region-coded titles. 20th Century Fox has
released most of their titles region-coded.
The Blu-ray Disc region coding scheme divides the world into three regions, labeled A, B, and C.
Includes most North, Central, and South American and Southeast Asian countries plus Taiwan, Japan, Hong Kong, Macau, and
Includes most European, African, and Southwest Asian countries plus Australia and New Zealand.
Includes the remaining central and south Asian countries, as well as China and Russia.
In circumvention of region coding restrictions, stand-alone Blu-ray Disc players are sometimes modified by third
parties to allow for playback of Blu-ray Discs (and DVDs) with any region code.[30] Instructions ("hacks")
describing how to reset the Blu-ray region counter of computer player applications to make them multi-region
indefinitely are also regularly posted to video enthusiast websites and forums. Unlike DVD region codes, Blu-ray
region codes are verified only by the player software, not by the optical drive's firmware.
Blu-ray Disc
Digital rights management
The Blu-ray Disc format employs several layers of digital rights management (DRM) which restrict the usage of the
disks. This has led to extensive criticism of the format by organizations opposed to DRM, such as the Free Software
High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection
Blu-ray equipment is required to implement the High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP) system to
encrypt the data sent by players to rendering devices through physical connections. This is aimed at preventing the
copying of copyrighted content as it travels across cables. Through a protocol flag in the media stream called the
Image Constraint Token (ICT), a Blu-ray Disc can enforce its reproduction in a lower resolution whenever a full
HDCP-compliant link is not used. In order to ease the transition to high definition formats, the adoption of this
protection method was postponed until 2011.
Advanced Access Content System
The Advanced Access Content System (AACS) is a standard for
content distribution and digital rights management. It was developed
by AS Licensing Administrator, LLC (AACS LA), a consortium that
includes Disney, Intel, Microsoft, Panasonic, Warner Bros., IBM,
Toshiba, and Sony.
Since the appearance of the format on devices in 2006, several
successful attacks have been made on it. The first known attack relied
on the trusted client problem. In addition, decryption keys have been
extracted from a weakly protected player (WinDVD). Since keys can
be revoked in newer releases, this is only a temporary attack, and new
keys must continually be discovered in order to decrypt the latest discs.
The AACS decryption process.
BD+ was developed by Cryptography Research Inc. and is based on their concept of Self-Protecting Digital
Content.[31] BD+, effectively a small virtual machine embedded in authorized players, allows content providers to
include executable programs on Blu-ray Discs. Such programs can:
• examine the host environment to see if the player has been tampered with. Every licensed playback device
manufacturer must provide the BD+ licensing authority with memory footprints that identify their devices.
• verify that the player's keys have not been changed.
• execute native code, possibly to patch an otherwise insecure system.
• transform the audio and video output. Parts of the content will not be viewable without letting the BD+ program
unscramble it.
If a playback device manufacturer finds that its devices have been hacked, it can potentially release BD+ code that
detects and circumvents the vulnerability. These programs can then be included in all new content releases.
The specifications of the BD+ virtual machine are available only to licensed device manufacturers. A list of licensed
commercial adopters is available from the BD+ website [32].
The first titles using BD+ were released in October 2007. Since November 2007, versions of BD+ protection have
been circumvented by various versions of the AnyDVD HD program. Other programs known to be capable of
circumventing BD+ protection are DumpHD (versions 0.6 and above, along with some supporting software),[33]
MakeMKV, and two applications from DVDFab (Passkey and HD Decrypter).
Blu-ray Disc
BD-ROM Mark is a small amount of cryptographic data that is stored separately from normal Blu-ray Disc data,
aiming to prevent replication of the discs. The cryptographic data is needed to decrypt the copyrighted disc content
protected by AACS. A specially licensed piece of hardware is required to insert the ROM-Mark into the media
during mastering. During replication, this ROM Mark is transferred together with the recorded data to the disc. In
consequence, any copies of a disc made with a regular recorder will lack the ROM-Mark data, and will be
unreadable on standard players.
Backward compatibility
Though not compulsory, the Blu-ray Disc Association recommends that Blu-ray Disc drives be capable of reading
standard DVDs and CDs, for backward compatibility. A few early Blu-ray Disc players released in 2006 could play
DVDs but not CDs.
AVCHD was originally developed as a high definition format for consumer tapeless camcorders. Derived from the
Blu-ray Disc specification, AVCHD shares a similar random access directory structure, but is restricted to lower
audio and video bitrates, simpler interactivity, and the use of AVC-video and Dolby AC-3 (or linear PCM) audio.
Being primarily an acquisition format, AVCHD playback is not universally supported by all devices that support
Blu-ray Disc playback. Nevertheless, many such devices are capable of playing AVCHD recordings from removable
media, such as DVDs, SD/SDHC memory cards, "Memory Stick" cards, and hard disk drives.
AVCREC uses a BDAV container to record high definition content on conventional DVDs. Presently AVCREC is
tightly integrated with the Japanese ISDB broadcast standard and is not marketed outside of Japan. AVCREC is used
primarily in set-top digital video recorders and in this regard is comparable to HD REC.
Blu-ray 3D
The Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA) created a task force made up of executives from the film industry and the
consumer electronics and IT sectors to help define standards for putting 3D film and 3D television content on a
Blu-ray Disc. On December 17, 2009, the BDA officially announced 3D specs for Blu-ray Disc, allowing backward
compatibility with current 2D Blu-ray players. The BDA has said, "The Blu-ray 3D specification calls for encoding
3D video using the "Stereo High" profile defined by Multiview Video Coding (MVC), an extension to the ITU-T
H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC) codec currently supported by all Blu-ray Disc players. MPEG4-MVC
compresses both left and right eye views with a typical 50% overhead compared to equivalent 2D content, and can
provide full 1080p resolution backward compatibility with current 2D Blu-ray Disc players." This means the MVC
(3D) stream is backward compatible with H.264/AVC (2D) stream, allowing older 2D devices and software to
decode stereoscopic video streams, ignoring additional information for the second view.
Sony has released a firmware upgrade for PlayStation 3 consoles that enables 3D Blu-ray Disc playback. It
previously released support for 3D gaming on April 21, 2010 (followed by the availability of 3D movies). Since the
version 3.70 software update in August 9, 2011, the PlayStation 3 can support DTS-HD Master Audio and DTS-HD
High Resolution Audio while playing 3D Blu-ray. Dolby TrueHD is used on a small minority of Blu-ray 3D
releases, and bitstreaming is supported by slim PlayStation 3 models only (fat PS3 models decode internally and
send audio as LPCM).
Blu-ray Disc
Blu-ray FAQ (http:/ / www. blu-ray. com/ faq/ #bluray_developers). Retrieved on 2010-12-22.
http:/ / www. blu-ray. com/ faq/ #bluray_vs_dvd_comparison
http:/ / www. bit-tech. net/ hardware/ 2011/ 02/ 23/ pioneer-bdxl-bdr-206-review/ 1
http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ w/ index. php?title=Blu-ray_Disc& action=edit
Yomiuri Shimbun. Page 1. July 19, 2009. Ver. 13S.
Panasonic, Sony, Philips And TDK Awarded Emmy For Blu-Ray Contribution (http:/ / inlatest. com/ 20101102199/ bluray-emmy/ )
Sony Rearranges Blu-ray Release Schedule (http:/ / bluray. highdefdigest. com/ news/ show/ Sony/ Disc_Announcements/
Sony_Rearranges_Blu-ray_Release_Schedule/ 107). High-Def Digest, June 15, 2006.
[8] Full Specs in for Warner's September 26 Lineup; Studio to Go VC-1 for Blu-ray? (http:/ / bluray. highdefdigest. com/ news/ show/ Warner/
Disc_Announcements/ Full_Specs_in_for_Warners_Sept_26_Lineup_Studio_to_Go_VC-1_for_Blu-ray/ 209), BLU-RAY NEWS, High-Def
Digest, August 30, 2006
[9] TRONDHEIMSOLISTENE - in folk style (http:/ / www. 2l. no/ pages/ album/ 068. html), 2L the Nordic sound website May 2008,
Trondheim Soloists (http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Trondheim_Soloists) Wiki
[10] HTForum (http:/ / www. hometheaterforum. com/ forum/ thread/ 272252/ htf-blu-ray-audio-review-nine-inch-nails-ghosts-i-iv) web review,
Ghosts I-IV Deluxe Edition Package (HALO Twenty Six DE) (http:/ / ghosts. nin. com/ main/ order_options) NIN order site May 1, 2008
Ghosts I-IV (http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Ghosts_I–IV) Wiki
[11] Ryan Nakashima. Hollywood hopes an ensemble cast boosts Blu-ray (http:/ / news. yahoo. com/ s/ ap/ 20091214/ ap_on_hi_te/
us_tec_blu_christmas). Associated Press. December 14, 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-14.
[12], The Authoritative Blu-Ray Disc FAQ, section 9.2 (http:/ / www. hughsnews. ca/ faqs/ authoritative-blu-ray-disc-bd-faq/
[13] 3. Laser Diodes for Blu-ray Discs (http:/ / www. sony. net/ Products/ SC-HP/ laserdiodewld/ tec/ index03. html), Sony, says Blu-ray Disc
laser diodes use GaN
[14] http:/ / www. verbatim. com/ subcat/ optical-media/ blu-ray/
[15] Hitachi First in Industry to Release Blu-ray Disc Camcorder (http:/ / techon. nikkeibp. co. jp/ english/ NEWS_EN/ 20070803/ 137462/ )
Naoki Asakawa, Nikkei Electronics, Nikkei Business Publications, 2007-08-03.
[16] Taiyo Yuden, Mitsubishi and Maxell Release First LTH BD-R Discs (http:/ / www. cdrinfo. com/ Sections/ News/ Details.
[17] PS3 firmware update v2.20 available – added support for LTH BD-R (http:/ / www. afterdawn. com/ news/ archive/ 13371. cfm)
[18] Verbatim/MKM certified BD-R LTH type media makes performance leap to 6X (http:/ / www. reuters. com/ article/ pressRelease/
idUS108367+ 21-May-2009+ BW20090521)
[19] Glossary – BD-MV (Blu-ray Movie) and BDAV container (http:/ / www. afterdawn. com/ glossary/ terms/ bd-mv. cfm),
Retrieved on 2009-07-26
[20] Glossary – BDAV container (http:/ / www. afterdawn. com/ glossary/ terms/ bdav. cfm), Retrieved on 2009-07-26
[21] Blu-ray Disc Association (March 2008) BD-RE – Audiovisual Application Format Specification for BD-RE 2.1 (http:/ / www. blu-raydisc.
com/ Assets/ Downloadablefile/ BD-RE_Part3_V2. 1_WhitePaper_080406-15271. pdf) (PDF), Technical White Papers – BD RE (http:/ /
www. blu-raydisc. com/ en/ Technical/ TechnicalWhitePapers/ BDRE. html), Retrieved on 2009-07-28
[22] Blu-ray Disc Association (August 2004) Blu-ray Disc Format, White paper (http:/ / www. blu-raydisc. com/ Assets/ Downloadablefile/
general_bluraydiscformat-15263. pdf) (PDF) Page 22, Retrieved on 2009-07-28
[23] Windows 7 Media player will not play back BluRay discs (http:/ / answers. microsoft. com/ en-us/ windows/ forum/ windows_7-pictures/
windows-7-media-player-will-not-play-back-bluray/ 36f826cd-db66-45e7-bfad-1ad7f37f42af)
[24] For example: Panasonic DMR-BWT720
[25] Statistics Page (http:/ / www. blu-raystats. com/ Stats/ Stats. php?ReleaseDate=2006). Retrieved on 2010-12-22.
[26] Profile 1.1 (http:/ / www. afterdawn. com/ glossary/ term. cfm/ profile_1_1),, December 22, 2010
[27] "How does regional coding work in the computer space?" (http:/ / us. blu-raydisc. com/ #/ pages/ faq) FAQ retrieved
October 24, 2009
[28] "Latest Confirmed Region Free Blu-Rays" (http:/ / regionfreemovies. com/ ). Retrieved October 24, 2009.
[29] although titles released by Warner's New Line Cinema division were initially region-coded, but subsequently have been released without
region-coding. Titles released by other labels on behalf of New Line are still subject to region-coding.
[30] "First Region Free Blu-ray Players Available" (http:/ / www. engadgethd. com/ 2008/ 06/ 26/ first-region-free-blu-ray-players-available/ ) Retrieved October 24, 2009.
[31] Content Protection – BD+ and Blu-ray (http:/ / www. cryptography. com/ technology/ spdc/ bluray. html) from
[32] http:/ / www. bdplusllc. com/ home/ list_of_adopters_content_participants_and_eligible_code_developers
[33] (http:/ / forum. doom9. org/ showthread. php?t=123111)
Blu-ray Disc
External links
• Blu-ray Disc Association (
• Blu-ray Disc Association's Technical White Papers (
• Blu-ray Disc License Office (
Article Sources and Contributors
Article Sources and Contributors
Blu-ray Disc Source: Contributors: (jarbarf), 1-555-confide, 12345e, 1297, 13over30, 159753, 23prootie, 2D, 5 albert square, 842U,
9allenride9, A Nobody, A Softer Answer, A5b, ABombbmoBA, ACSE, AGToth, AMK1211, ANNAfoxlover, ARC Gritt, AVM, Abdowiki, Abhilash1219, Abhishek2617, Acdx, Aceleo,
Achowat, Acps110, Action Jackson IV, Adamwankenobi, Adashiel, Addison1111, Adi4094, Adoniscik, Af648, Againbrush, Ageo020, Ahmeq, Aislan7777, Ajblanck, Ajfweb, Ajuk, Akamad,
Akata, Akbg, Alansohn, Alberto Cyone, Aleenf1, Alex43223, AlexOvShaolin, Alexei-ALXM, AlexiusHoratius, Algocu, Alistair1978, AlistairMcMillan, Alitomwallace, AllPurposeGamer,
Allysizzle, Alnokta, AltiusBimm, Alyssa hoffel, Americanadian, Amish Gramish, AmishThrasher, Amplitude101, Anand.gopalraj, Anclation, Andonic, AndperseAndy, Andreas -horn- Hornig,
Andreas Toth, Andrejj, Andrewferrier, Andrewpmk, Andries, Andru.valpy, Andyluciano, Anegel, Angela, Angrysockhop, Animum, Anishviswa, Ansend, Anthonynow12, Aoneal, Apedia,
Apollo2011, Apostrophe, Apyule, Ara16, Are1981, Arfew, Arichnad, Ariedartin, Armando, Arnocs, ArnoldReinhold, Artem-S-Tashkinov, Arthur Rubin, Arthur2045, Arwengoenitz, Asasa64,
Aschmitz, Ascidian, Asdfff, Ash, Asim18, Aspensti, Astronautics, At0m1qu3, Athanos, Audiodude, Audriusa, Auntof6, Aussie Evil, Austin512, Avanze, AzaPutra, Azkanaz, Aznkiller92,
B00gsta, BATTISFORD, BIONICLE233, BaSH PR0MPT, Back ache, BackwardsBoy, Bailey1987, Bakasuprman, Barek, Bark, BaseballDetective, Baylink, BeauMartinez, Beck162, Ben Ben,
BenStrauss, Benc, Bender235, Benhutchings, BernhardFischbein, Beterc, Betterworld, BigPimpinBrah, Biggiesized, Billywhack, Binarybits, Bkkeim2000, Blackbryson, Bladestorm, Blainster,
Blake Burba, Blanchette, BlastOButter42, Blehfu, BlueMario1016, Bluray1, Bmahoney, Bmhcjs, Bob A, Bobadigilatis, Bobblewik, Bobo192, Bobthegoat2001, Boccobrock, Bodgroup, Boing!
said Zebedee, Boirun03, Bollinger, Bonadea, Bongwarrior, Bookcats, Boomer1962, Boomshanka, Borgx, Borisborf, BoryslawBobulski, Boson, Bradeos Graphon, Bradleyjx, Bradpeczka,
Branddobbe, Brandmeister, Brazil4Linux, BreadonArrival, Brett 91091, Brianski, Brianstr4, Brockmichael, BrokenSegue, Bryan Derksen, Bryandelgado7, Bsherr, Bubba hotep, Burntsauce,
Bushisu, Bytre, C.Fred, C0nanPayne, CPTGbr, CR85747, CRobClark, Cadsuane Melaidhrin, Calamari, Calton, Camann, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CanadianLinuxUser, CanesOL79,
CanisRufus, Canterbury Tail, Capricorn42, Captain-tucker, Carlosguitar, Carter.sanders, Casbboy, Casey1234, Caster23, Cat5nap, Catbar, Caulde, Cb6, Cburnett, Cdnomad, Celarnor, Cesaar,
CesarB, Chase me ladies, I'm the Cavalry, Chatfecter, Cheakamus, Cheeseman1995, Cheesemeister, Chen, Chevymontecarlo, ChicXulub, Chicago god, ChimpanzeeUK, Chowbok, Chris the
speller, Chris1219, Chris1294, ChrisErbach, ChrisGualtieri, Chrisarro, Chrisjeric, Chrysaor, Cinephobia, Cinnamon42, Ck lostsword, Ckatz, Cleared as filed, Cliché Online, Closedmouth,
Cloud668, Clovis Sangrail, Cmglee, Coasterman1234, Cobaltbluetony, Cochonfou, Coco99, Codeage, Codyrank, Coffee, Cogswobble, Coinmac, Colin99, Colonies Chris, Colt9033, Cometstyles,
CommonsDelinker, Comp.arch, Conquerist, Coolman007, CrazyGoodman, Crazyviolinist, Cricobr, Crissov, Crongcrang, Crotalus horridus, Crystallina, Csnu5, Ctachme, Cybercobra, Cyp,
CzarNick, Czechnmymail, D Thong, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, DJ LoPaTa, DJ1AM, DMacks, DORC, DRAGON Elemental, DStoykov, DVDHunter, DaDude1996, Dajes13, Dalf, Damian Yerrick,
Damicatz, Dammax07, Dan Harkless, Dan027, Dan100, Dandy Sephy, Danhash, Daniel Olsen, Daniel.Cardenas, DanielEng, DanielGuirguis, Dannykean, Danorux, Danrok, Dark Dragon Sword,
Dark ixion, Darkage7, Darkman007e, DarthRaider, Darthluke12694, Darz Mol, Dasari99, DataSurfer, DaveFlash, DaveTompkins, DavesL, Davewild, David Latapie, David Levy, Davie4125,
Davinche, Dboyz-x.etown, Dcoetzee, Dcouzin, Dddhany, De728631, DeAn, Deacon of Pndapetzim, Dead Screem, Deafgeek, Deathawk, Deathtrap3000, Dee Jay Randall, Dejin, Delta759,
Deman 24, Denisarona, Denniskly, Denniss, Denzelio, DerHexer, DevonTheDude, Dexkaden, Dhollm, Diaa abdelmoneim, Dianelos, Dicklyon, Dictonarychan, DieSwartzPunkt, Digero, Dinjiin,
Discospinster, Dismas, Distantbody, Diza, Dkikizas, Dlrohrer2003, Dmanning, Dnc323, Doc Strange, DocWatson42, Doctor Hexagon, Doctor Whom, Dogosaurus, DoktorDec, Donarreiskoffer,
Doodledoo, DoubleBlue, DoubleCross, Doug Bell, DouglasGreen, DougsTech, DrBob, Dragon1515, Drakcap, Drake Redcrest, Dreadstar, Dream out loud, Dryke, Dsc, Dtaw2001, Dtcdthingy,
Dtgriscom, Dthomsen8, Dungeon Siege, Dutch gecko, Dvdstiff, Dysanzw, Dysepsion, Dziban303, E2eamon, EVula, EXonyte, Eadyd110, EagleEyes, Eb.eric, Ebe123, Ebertek, Eclipsed aurora,
Ed g2s, EddieVanZant, Editers-lol, Editore99, Edokter, Edward, Eeeper T Gozza, Effer, Egil, Ehudshapira, El C, ElectroPro, ElementoX, Elipongo, ElliotX, Eltigremania, Elven6, Elving, Elwyn,
Emaus,, Endymi0n, Enviroboy, EoGuy, Epbr123, Ephilei, Eric Shalov, Erier2003, Erik9, Ernestooooo, Esanchez7587, Escaper7, Esperant, Euchiasmus, Euphdance, Evanh2008,
Evice, Evildeathmath, Ewc21, Exert, Eyesnore, FMAFan1990, FMAN, FT2, FaerieInGrey, Fairseeder, FaithLehaneTheVampireSlayer, Falcon8765, Falcon9x5, Fantumphool, Feb30th1712,
Felisopus, Fellix, Fetofs, Feudonym, Feureau, Ffgamera, Fgnievinski, Fig wright, Fireice, Fireman biff, FirstPrinciples, Fish and karate, Flapitrr, FlashSheridan, Flata, Flix11, Floydgeo,
Fluffystar, Fluktuacia, Flums, Flux.books, FlyHigh, Flyer22, Foobar, Foolip, Forteblast, FourthLineGoon, Fraggle81, Frap, Frecklefoot, Freedonian, Freelance-ivan, Freemacblurayplayer,
Fresheneesz, Frietjes, Frip1000, Frosted14, Froth, Frvernchanezzz, Funky Monkey 2000, FunnyDrink, Furrykef, Fycafterpro, G&CP, GB fan, Gabbe, Gabriel mark, Gaius Cornelius, Gamester17,
Gamewin1, GargoyleMT, Gateman1997, Gatoatigrado, Gboxdance, Ge0rge, Gearsfan1player, Gekster, Genius101, Geoffadams, George Ho, George Ponderevo, George100, Georgethree33,
Ghiraddje, Ginsengbomb, Gkmwibvmpdm, Gl1d3r, Glane23, Glen7565, Glocks Out, Gloriamarie, Goatboy, Gogo Dodo, GoingBatty, GoldKanga, Good Girl Gone Gonzo, Goodone121,
Gouryella, Graham87, GrandDrake, Grandscribe, Grayshi, GreenRay Disc: Die Zukunft, Greg L, GregorB, Grika, Groat, Groink, Groogle, Gsarwa, Gscshoyru, Gtwfan52, Gundamforce,
Gunegune, Gunnar Guðvarðarson, Gurch, Gusme, Guy Harris, Gwinva, Gzibocod, Gökhan, HJ Mitchell, HJames, Haakon, Haganah, Halaqah, Hallandnash, HamburgerRadio, Hanzolot, Harry
Stockx, Harryboyles, Harumphy, Haseo9999, Hawaiian717, Hdt83, Hdtvinfoeu, Hellcat fighter, HelloAnnyong, Henry W. Schmitt, Hersfold, Hervegirod, Heymid, Hgrosser, Hibernian, Hippo99,
Hmrox, Hollywoodinhidef, Holoman, Homania, Hu12, Huaiwei, Hugh Bennett, Hughey, Hughtcool, Huntster, Hydeblake, Hydrargyrum, Hyperspacey, I B Wright, IP, Ialuvtimos,
Iamcuriousblue, IanManka, Ianblair23, Ianweller, Ibadibam, Icedog, Icedude24, Idohdustin, Ike-bana, Illyria05, Imdaking, Imforpbj, InShaneee, Inexplicable, Ino5hiro, Instinct, Interiot,
InternetMeme, Intersting, Invertedninja, Invincible Ninja, Inzy, Irfanshaharuddin, Iridescent, IrisKawling, Isaacsurh, Ixfd64, J. M., J.delanoy, J04n, JBird7986, JEckart, JJBunks, JLaTondre,
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Jezhotwells, JiMidnite, Jidan, Jiggelmaster7, Jim1138, JimVC3, Jimbo1qaz, Jimmythefisher, Jimomighty, Jj98, Jmf145, Jn314, Joe Sewell, JoeTrumpet, Joelawson14, Joelisfar, John, John a s,
John of Reading, JohnSawyer, Jojhutton, Jojojojojojo123, Jok2000, Jon513, Jonabbey, JonathanKao23, Jonny-mt, JonoP, Jonorza, Jordan Brown, Jordgette, JordoCo, Jorvik, Jouster, Joylitas,
Joystick74, Jrockley, Jtalledo, Juckum, Judicatus, Jugglars, Julesd, Julian Herzog, Julian019763, Junk2b4sjg, Just James, JustinRossi, Justvideo, Juux, Jwking, Jyjyjy, JzG, K. Annoyomous,
KG007, KGasso, Kai445, Kallir00, KamasamaK, Karlo12345, Karma Thief, Katieh5584, Katimawan2005, Kbk, Kbolino, Kcmurphy88, Keilana, Kelpie3483, Kelvin 101, Kencaesi, KennethJ,
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Litefantastic, Llbbl, Lnkrbt, Locke Cole, Locution, Lolputing, Lool lool man, Lothar von Richthofen, Lotje, Lowellian, LucasVB, Lucassucks, Lugia2453, Luk, Luna Santin, M0rphzone, MER-C,
MK8, MKoltnow, MSJapan, MWielage, Mac, MadmanNova, Malik Shabazz, Malik54321, Manganeez, Mankind 2k, Manop, Manway, Map42892, Mark Bergsma, MarkSweep, Markjeff,
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Mboverload, Mbslrm, McPantaloon, MccullarsJ, Mcurrier, Mdrejhon, Melonkelon, MeowMixer, Message From Xenu, Metaleggman, Metricopolus, Mewtu, Mgcsinc, Miaow Miaow, Michael
Frind, MichaelJanich, Michaelbryson, Michaelmas1957, Micheallovesbenalot, Middayexpress, Middleman 77, Midgrid, Midjungards, Mifter, Mihai cartoaje, Mihhkel, Mike mgoblue,
Mike92591, MikeJ9919, Mikekearn, Mikeloco14, Mikepelley, Mikerattee, Mikus, Mild Bill Hiccup, Millionairex, MindTooth, Minna Sora no Shita, MinuteHand, Mirror Vax, Mistamagic28,
Mkdw, Mmace, Mmernex, Mmzh786, Mod.torrentrealm, Momentendz, Momo san, Monkey328pooh, Monkeyblue, Morqueozwald, Mosesklee, Mps, Mr overseer, MrMALevin, MrOllie, Mrand,
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Nx, O Fenian, OF4J, Ocee, Oconnorrory, Octane, Ohconfucius, Ohnoitsjamie, Okedem, Oldag07, Oli Filth, Omicronpersei8, On3moresoul, Oneiros, Onesonic11, Onkelringelhuth, Ontarget777,
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Srleffler, Ssj4android, Ssolbergj, St.daniel, Stacyl143, StarChild74, Starbuck001, Starionwolf, Starwind Amada, StasMalyga, Stellaayou, Stephan Leeds, Stephen P Simpson, Steve.jensen,
Steve3849, Stevo1000, Stevo81989, Stickee, Stopnaggin, Storm Rider, Streltzer, Strz4life, StuffOfInterest, Stukov, SudoMonas, Sujayt, Sukiari, SummerWithMorons, Supachikn, Super Rad!,
Supercoop, Superkrups20056, Superm401, Susurrus, Svippong, Sw flintstone, Swisspass, Swotboy2000, Swtenlow, SynergyBlades, THIRTY-FOUR, TJ Spyke, TJJFV, TJJay3rd, TJRC, TKD,
TMSTKSBK, TNTfan101, TTE, TVfanatic2K, TWR9930, TaerkastUA, Taichi, Takanoha, Taladar, Talkstr8t, Tanthalas39, Taotriad, Tbac, Tcncv, Team6and7, Technology Hunter, Tempshill,
Ten Surp, Ten1312, TerokNor, Testecull, Th1rt3en, ThaPantha, Thallous, The Bread, The Goat, The High Fin Sperm Whale, The Inedible Bulk, The JPS, The Last Melon, The Rambling Man,
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