The Pacific War 1941-45

The Pacific War 1941-45
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
Empire of the Sun
The Pacific War 1941-45
Game Design by Mark Herman
Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction.......................................................... 2
12.0 National Status..................................................... 24
2.0 Setting Up The Game........................................... 5
13.0 Supply & Attrition................................................ 27
3.0 General Course Of Play........................................ 5
14.0 Inter Service Rivalry............................................ 28
4.0 Sequence Of Play................................................. 5
15.0 War In Europe....................................................... 29
5.0 Strategy Cards...................................................... 6
16.0 Winning The Campaign Scenarios........................... 29
6.0 Offensives............................................................. 9
17.0 Scenarios.............................................................. 31
7.0 Movement & Stacking.......................................... 12
18.0 Master Scenario List............................................. 37
8.0 Battle Resolution.................................................. 17
19.0 Comprehensive Example Of Play.......................... 40
9.0 Reinforcements & Amphibious Shipping Points.. 21
20.0 Designer’s Notes.................................................. 44
10.0 Replacements........................................................ 22
Bibliography.................................................................. 45
11.0 Strategic Warfare.................................................. 23
Index ............................................................................. 46
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
P.O. Box 1308, Hanford, CA 93232-1308
www.GMTGames.com
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
v2.0
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
1.0 Introduction
Empire of the Sun is a game about the Pacific War during World War
II. One player takes the side of the Japanese and the other the Western
Allies. The Japanese try to out perform their historical counterpart
and force the Allies into a negotiated end to the war, while the Allies
try to destroy Japan’s military and place its industry within range of
Allied B29s and Naval forces. If the Allies cannot keep pace with
their historical counterpart, the only recourse is the invasion of the
Japanese Home Islands themselves.
1.1 Causes of the War
The war in the Pacific during World War II had many underlying
causes, the most notable being the Japanese view that they had a
manifest right to become the dominant force in Asia. The Japanese
psyche correctly saw themselves as the equals of any Western nation. It was the view in Tokyo that the only barrier to becoming
a world class power was their lack of natural resources, denied
to them by nature. Using the precedent of their Western mentors,
they embraced the colonial model of empire, which made them
desirous to dominate China and the Dutch East Indies. As a result
of this viewpoint, the quasi-mutinous units of the Japanese Imperial Army with Imperial instigation presented Tokyo with a fait
accompli when they attacked and conquered Manchuria in 1931.
This foreign adventure, and attempts by succeeding Japanese governments to gain international recognition for their unique status on
the Asian mainland, continued to bring consternation and friction to
Japan’s relations with the Western powers.
More significantly, this philosophy ran afoul of long standing, and
long un-enforced, US policies for an ‘open door’ in China. The US
had maintained a romantic image of their extensive trade relationship with China, which was not supported by economic reality.
However, important families, such as the Roosevelt’s, had made
their fortune in the China trade, and they fought diplomatically to
maintain unfettered US access to the Chinese market.
Continuous low-level offensives and the collapse of central authority
in China exploded in 1937 into the full scale invasion of Northern
China. This invasion was marked by significant Japanese brutality
to the Chinese populace, as epitomized by the rape of Nanking.
However, China was more than Japan could swallow and the Chinese
Nationalist government under Chiang Kai Shek refused to surrender,
to the extreme frustration of the Japanese government.
The German blitzkrieg of Europe in 1939-1941 defeated or laid
low many of the Western colonial powers, whose far-flung empires
became vulnerable to military conquest. Operation Barbarossa and
the perceived imminent collapse of the Soviet Union, coupled with
American economic sanctions, led the Japanese government to
determine that the moment to strike had arrived. The Japanese felt
that they had to act now or forever forfeit their dream to become a
world power. Although US cryptanalysts were reading many of the
Japanese diplomatic and low level military codes, they were still
caught off guard on December 7, 1941, when the Imperial Japanese
Navy attacked the US Pacific fleet in its Pearl Harbor anchorage.
The impact of this attack would see the United States wreck terrible
vengeance upon the Japanese Empire for their ‘day of infamy’ and
their moment in the sun.
1.2 Components
1.21 Die
Empire of the Sun uses a single ten sided die for all random number
functions. The number 0 represents results equal to zero and less than
one. A zero die roll does not represent 10, as in some games.
1.22 Map
The single map sheet is an equal area projection of the Pacific Ocean
and portions of Asia that were involved in the war. Each hex is
about 150 miles across. The terrain varies from the Owen Stanley
Mountains in New Guinea to the atolls of the Central Pacific. Also
included on the map are the all important airfields and ports that
represent the logistical infrastructure required by combat units for
offensives. For consistency all map spellings have been taken from
Sample Carrier Unit
Sample Ground Unit
Starts on its reduced side
Unit Size
Unit ID
Attack
Set Up Hex
Range
Defense
Sample Air Unit
Attack Defense
Attack
Unit ID
Non-Replaceable Dot
Extended Range
Range
Unit ID
Unit Type
Game Turn Arrival
Attack
Defense
Control Markers
Unit ID
Commander
Range
Defense
Sample Naval Unit
Sample HQ Unit
Star indicates unit
arrives only through
an Event Card
Unit ID
Unit Type
Set Up Hex
Japanese
Efficiency
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
U.S.
British
Russian
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
a single period source, the September 1943, National Geographic
Society map (see Bibliography).
1.23 Counters
The counters represent the units that the players maneuver and
with which they conduct combat to gain their victory conditions.
The Ground units represent a variety of different sized units from
regiments up to armies. Air Units represent large regional air forces.
Naval units represent a large mix of Capital ships, some of whose
names are used for the unit designation, and varying numbers of
Cruisers, Light Cruisers, and Destroyers. Counters in play on the
map are always viewable by both players.
Example Counters: All non aircraft carrier naval and land units have
two values, attack (left value) and defense (right value). Air units
and aircraft carriers have three values, attack (left), defense (center),
and range in hexes (right); this last often split into two ranges, a
normal followed by an extended (sometimes in parentheses). All
HQs have two values, range in hexes (left value), efficiency rating
(right value). The only other values are either hex set up (a four digit
number) or a game turn number for the entry of the unit (one or two
digits). Units that have a white triangle on their front side begin the
game at reduced strength, with their back side up, where their hex
set up or game turn of entry is found. All other numbers are historical
designations and generally have no effect on play.
1.24 Strategy Cards
There are two decks of Strategy cards, one Allied and one Japanese.
A card has five pieces of information: Card number, Card Type (Military, Political, Resource, Reaction), Operations Value, Intelligence
Values, and Event. The card number is for reference and does not
have play considerations. When a card is played for its Operations
Value it is called an Operations card, hereafter called an OC in the
rules. If it is used as an event, it is called an Event card, hereafter
called an EC in the rules. It should be noted that many events allow
the player to conduct an offensive, but playing an event to conduct
an offensive does not make that card an OC play, it remains an EC
play. A number of cards are phrased to have effects that last more
than one turn after they are played and have corresponding counters
as a mnemonic device. Event title is for historical purposes only.
Intelligence
Values
Card Card NumType
ber
1.3 Glossary
Aircraft Carrier: All CV, CVL, and CVE type naval units are
collectively known as aircraft carriers or carriers. When the rules
reference aircraft carriers, they are referring to all three types. When
distinctions are required in the rules, they are cited by their particular
naval unit type letter designator.
Aircraft Range: Air units (land based aircraft units) have two
range values (normal and extended) on their counter. If an air unit’s
extended range is in parentheses, it cannot participate in a battle if
it uses this range to move during an Offensive. Consequently, an
aircraft unit cannot react using its parenthetical value, since all reaction units have to participate in a battle in order to reaction move. An
aircraft unit’s range is the distance in hexes that it can move from
airfield to airfield, and the distance in hexes it can be from a battle
that it participates in. When an aircraft uses its extended range in
battle only, its attack strength is halved for combat purposes.
DESIGN NOTE: The normal range is the operational range of the
fighters in the air unit, whereas the extended range represents solely
the two engine bombers traveling alone. Only the Allies had four
engine bombers, which are in separate Long Range Bomber air
units that have one range value.
Aircraft Carrier air range: Aircraft carrier naval units also possess
an aircraft range. It acts in a manner analogous to the normal range
of air units. In order to participate in a battle, this is the maximum
distance in hexes that an aircraft carrier may be from a battle hex.
DESIGN NOTE: The Japanese have a small advantage when apportioning hits in air naval combat due to their superior aircraft
carrier range.
Aircraft Zone Of Influence (ZOI): (see 7.35) All in supply air and
carrier units project a 2 hex zone of influence, which can only be
neutralized by the presence of an opposing, in supply non-LRB air
unit or carrier projecting its Zone of Influence into the same hex.
A Zone of Influence that is not neutralized impacts several game
functions, such as blocking HQ ranges for unit activation and lines
of communication for supply determination. An aircraft zone of
influence cannot be neutralized for Special Reaction purposes (6.27)
or intelligence die rolls. Certain event cards temporarily cancel
Aircraft Zones of Influence.
Card Symbols
These symbols are provided to help players notice these important
cards even when the card is partially covered up.
Operations Value
Surprise Attack
Ambush
Intercept
Attack Response
Interservice Rivalry
Interservice Rivalry
China
US Political Will
War in Europe
Weather
Gandhi
Tojo
Black = Military
Yellow = Political
Green = Resource
Blue = Reaction
Event
If the Event title
is in red, then the
card must be removed from play if
used as an event.
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
PLAY NOTE: This is an important concept in the game as you will
regularly find yourself thinking about your position in terms of
aircraft ZOI.
one hex island. Atolls are also one hex islands. One hex islands only
count for rule 16.47, if they meet one of its other critieria.
Allied: This term refers to any unit controlled by the Allied player,
and includes British, Australian, New Zealand, Indian, Dutch, Chinese, and US units.
Japanese Held China: All coastal hexes in China are Japanese
controlled except for Hong Kong, which starts the 1941 campaign
scenario as Allied controlled and should be so indicated by an Allied flag.
Allied Control: All hexes that are outside the Japanese Empire
Boundary, outside Korea, and outside the coastal hexes of China
(except Hong Kong, which is Allied controlled), begin the 1941
campaign scenario under Allied control. Each other scenario will
specify initial control locations individually in relation to the scenario starting situation.
Japanese Army: The Japanese Army consists of all Japanese
ground units of army (XXXX) size and all Japanese Air Divisions
(ID numbered less than 20 and with a single engine aircraft symbol
on their unit counter, including the Tainan [T] air unit). SN and SS
brigades (X size indicated units) are not Japanese Army units, but
Navy ground units.
Amphibious Assault Capable Units: Only certain ground units are
amphibious assault capable. All Japanese, US Army, US Marine, and
Commonwealth British (except the 7th Armor Brigade), Australian,
and New Zealand ground units are amphibious assault capable. All
Dutch, Commonwealth Indian, and Chinese ground units are not
amphibious assault capable.
Japanese Navy: The Japanese Navy consists of all Japanese naval
units, all Flotilla air units (numbered 21 or greater and with a twoengine plane symbol), and SN & SS ground units. These 5 Japanese
Brigade sized (X indicated) land units are considered Japanese Navy
units (including the SS Brigade) for purposes of the rules.
Chinese Units: This refers to the three Chinese ground units.
Commonwealth: This term refers to the subset of Allied units that
are neither the US, Dutch, or Chinese. Commonwealth units share
the same Tan background color, but are differentiated by a secondary
color on the counter. That is, they are British (red unit symbol or
stripe for air/naval units), Australian (yellow unit symbol or stripe
for air/naval units), New Zealanders (purple unit symbol), or Indian
(brown unit symbol). Whenever the rules refer to Commonwealth
units, they refer to all Commonwealth units. If the rules specify a
specific nationality, such as Indian, this refers to only units with
the Commonwealth background color and the brown unit symbol
indicating an India unit.
Control: All hexes begin the game either under Allied or Japanese
control. All hexes within the Japanese Empire Boundary, all hexes
of Korea, and all coastal hexes of China (except Hong Kong) begin
the campaign game scenario under Japanese control. All other hexes
on the map begin under Allied control. Control of a hex can only
change due to the actions of ground units. Air and/or naval units
alone can never change who controls a hex. The side whose ground
units to either pass through or occupy a hex controls that hex. As
hexes change from their original ownership, denote this by placing
either a Japanese flag to indicate Japanese control or a US OR British
flag to indicate Allied control (there are also two Soviet flags for use
with the Manchurian Invasion special event card). The use of flags
to denote control is for mnemonic purposes and the players may
place and remove flags in any manner that they require so that they
can remember who controls particular hexes. There is no difference
between the US and British flag for denoting control purposes, the
distinction is for aesthetic purposes only.
Discard Pile: These are cards that have been played but will be
available to play again after a shuffling event
Empire of Japan Boundary: There is a boundary on the map. All
hexes within the boundary are Japanese controlled (except Hong
Kong) unless the scenario defines a particular location as starting
under Allied control. For more details, see Control just above.
Island: Any hex containing land on the map that is not part of the
Asian mainland (containing India, China, etc.) or part of Australia is
considered to be an island, including hexes classed as an atoll. If the
land mass of an island crosses no hex sides, that is, it has six water
hex sides, that island is considered a special class of island called a
Long Range Bomber (LRB): Only the Allied player has LRB units.
LRB units are all air units with ranges of 6 or greater. LRB units have
distinct uses in the game and are so cited where appropriate. Note
that though LRB units have the same historical unit ID number as
their parent normal air unit, they are considered separate units for
all game purposes unless specifically noted otherwise.
Named Location: Cities, with or without intrinsic defense, Resource
hexes, and hexes with ports or airfields are named locations.
Pre-War Units: Most of the units that start the game on the map
(those with set up hexes on the counter) and certain others are denoted by a dot on their counters. These are defined as pre-war units.
Pre-war units cannot receive replacements.
DESIGN NOTE: Pre-war units were in two categories: professional
soldiers and colonial constabulary troops who were trained for
internal security.
Range: Range is the distance between two hexes. When counting
range do not include the starting hex the HQ or combat unit occupies,
but include the destination hex in the calculation.
Removed From Play Pile: These are cards that once played will
not return to play during the current game.
Rounding: Any time the players have to round a number or value
that is fractional, round it up, never down.
Strategy Cards: The engine of the game is the play of the strategy
cards. A strategy card can be played as an Operations card (OC),
which uses the large numerical value at the top of the card(1, 2, or
3) or as an Event card (EC), which uses the written event. If the
text of a card contradicts the rules, the event text supersedes the
rules. Players in the game receive their own set of Strategy cards
(one Japanese and one Allied). The Japanese player is the only player
that may use the Japanese Strategy cards and the Allied player is the
only player that may use the Allied player cards.
Supply Eligible. A port or airfield from which a path of hexes can
be traced to an ultimate supply source.
Unplayable Ocean Hexside: No naval movement, including
Amphibious Assault, or supply can be traced across an unplayable
Ocean hexside. These are the game effects of Unplayable Ocean
hexsides .
US: This term refers to the subset of Allied units that are American.
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
US Army: The US Army consists of all Corps (XXX unit size
designated) American ground units, the P Brigade, and the 11th
Airborne Division, plus all American Air Force units. These units
are blue background.
US Navy: The US Navy consists of all American naval units, Marine
Air units (VMF211 is Marine), the SF Brigade, Marine Divisions
and Brigades. US Navy units are also blue, but of a larger size than
Army units and have a naval ship silhouette. All Marine units are
olive green.
2.0 Setting Up The Game
Empire of the Sun has a wide variety of scenarios to play based on
the duration of the gaming experience you are seeking. Consequently
setup varies depending upon where you would like to begin to reflect
the historical situation for that starting point. The counters are configured around the full campaign scenario. All other scenarios are a
subset of the full campaign scenario. For any given scenario, once
the initial setup is accomplished, the units enter play according to
the portion of the full campaign game that you are playing.
PLAY NOTE: It is suggested that you segregate counters according
to their game turn of entry. Play testing has shown that this is the
most efficient way to organize the playing pieces.
2.1 Scenarios
The full campaign scenario is 12 turns long; with turn 1 (December
’41) as a special short turn (see rule 17.11 for details). The game
can also be started on game turn 2, using an alternative setup which
starts with the Japanese January 1942 position. In addition, there
are 3 yearly scenarios (1942, 1943, 1944) with alternate setups,
and multi-year scenarios that use one of the yearly starts with the
victory conditions of one of the later yearly scenarios. The yearly
scenarios are recommended for tournament and single sitting play
situations.
2.2 Full Campaign Setup
All units in the game that set up at the beginning of game turn 1
(December 1941) of the full Campaign Scenario have their hex
location written on the counter. If the front of the counter has a
white triangle in the upper right corner, that unit begins play on its
reduced side, where the setup information is located. A unit that
has a turn number instead a hex setup location, is a reinforcement
unit. A reinforcement unit is slated to enter on the designated game
turn, although game play may delay or remove the reinforcement
from play. If a unit has a star instead of a number, this means the
unit may only come into use through the play of the appropriate
linked strategy card event. Both sides have a number of markers,
some of which are on the map tracks at the beginning of play, and
others that are not, but are used to denote changes of control or the
initiation of particular events during play. Other scenarios list the
specific starting locations for markers, units, and their strengths as
needed to set up the scenario (see 17.1 for full details).
2.3 Playing A Scenario Other Than The Full
Campaign
Each scenario, other than the full campaign scenario, has an initial
setup for all units listed. If a unit is to be set up at reduced strength it
is so indicated, otherwise the unit begins at full strength. The game
turn of entry for units that would have entered the game beyond
the start of a particular scenario is common for all scenarios. For
example, the 1943 scenario begins on game turn 5. The reinforce-
ments for both sides for game turns 6 and 7 are those indicated on
the counters and are the same for the 1943 scenario and the full
campaign game.
PLAY NOTE: The counter information is configured around the full
campaign game. When you play the other scenarios you are essentially entering the war at a particular point in time and continuing
along the historical path for as long as the scenario indicates.
3.0 General Course Of Play
Each turn begins with each player bringing in reinforcement units
and repairing units with replacements. The Allied player then conducts Strategic Warfare, which includes resolving submarine warfare
and strategic bombing. Successful Strategic Warfare reduces the
number of cards the Japanese player will receive. The surrender of
critical US Allies during a previous turn will reduce the number of
cards that the Allied player receives. Based on this, the players are
dealt a variable number of cards.
The heart of the game is the Offensives Phase, where the two opponents alternate playing a strategy card, thus conducting an offensive
or implementing an event. When the players have exhausted all of
the cards in their hand, the game turn enters the Political Phase. During the Political Phase players determine the status of each nation
represented in the game to see if they surrender. The game turn ends
with a determination of the supply status of units on the board and
whether they will or will not feel the effects of attrition. At this time,
if this was not the last turn of a scenario, another game turn is begun,
or if it is the last turn of a scenario, victory is determined.
PLAY NOTE: If this is the first time that you are reading these rules,
then it is recommended that the player segregate the counters into
a set that have hex setup locations and those that have a game turn
of entry. Take the units with hex setups and place them on the map
where indicated. After completing this go to the comprehensive example of play and move the counters according to the narrative. It
is our belief that this ‘best practice’ will facilitate your introduction
into the game system.
4.0 Sequence of Play
The following sequence represents all of the portions of a single
game turn. It is repeated in the indicated order for each game turn
until the game ends.
4.1 The Strategic Phase
4.11 Reinforcement Segment
Each player receives the scheduled reinforcements for the current
turn. The Allied player first receives delayed reinforcements from
the previous game turn due to War In Europe effects (WIE, see
9.21), and then either receives the current turn’s reinforcements
(no delay) and places them on the map or places them in the delay
box due to the WIE or the effect of an event. If the WIE is at level 1
or greater, the Allied player rolls the die for certain classes of units
that may be temporarily lost by being diverted to Europe. Japanese
reinforcements are never delayed or diverted. See Reinforcements
(9.0) for where new units can be placed on the map.
4.12 Replacement Segment
Both players may receive replacements. Replacements are used to
flip reduced units that are in supply to their full strength side, or
resurrect units from those eliminated in combat. See Replacements
(rule 10.0) for the conditions of replacement use.
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
4.13 Strategic Warfare Segment
The Allied player conducts Submarine warfare and Strategic Bombing. See Strategic Warfare (11.0). The effect of strategic warfare will
be to reduce the number of cards that will be dealt to the Japanese
player for the current turn.
4.14 Deal Strategy Cards Segment
The Japanese player receives from 4 to 7 cards, depending on the
outcome of Strategic warfare, from the top of the Japanese Card deck.
The Allied player receives from 4 to 7 cards, depending on the game
turn and whether certain Allied nations have surrendered, from the
top of the Allied Card deck. The sole exception to this is during turn
one of the full Campaign Scenario. In this instance, the Allied player
receives no cards and the Japanese player receives only Japanese
cards #1 and #2 (see 17.11). Throughout the game each player is
entitled to know the following information: the number of cards in
a player’s hand (but not the specific cards); which cards are in the
discard pile (cards that have been played but could possibly return
to play) ; and which cards have been removed from play. Note there
are other ways for cards to return to play besides reshuffling.
4.2 The Offensives Phase
4.21 Initiative Segment
The player with the most Strategy cards in their hand goes first, unless the player with fewer cards uses a Future Offensives card as an
EC for their first played card. In all other cases, the player with the
most cards must go first. In case of ties, the Japanese player must go
first for all game turns in 1941 and 1942, whereas the Allied player
must go first for all 1943 through 1945 game turns. (See 6.29.A)
4.22 Offensives Segment
Players alternate being the Offensives player, playing Strategy cards,
either as OCs or ECs to conduct offensives (the moving of units on
the map and the resolution of resulting combats) or implement other
game functions through events. The Offensives player activates units
as per the OC or EC played, moves units if desired, and then declares
battles. The opposing player is considered the Reaction player and
acts in reaction to the play of cards and the activation of forces by
the Offensives player
After battles are declared for the offensive, the intelligence condition
under which they will be resolved is determined. All Offensives are
Surprise Attack unless the Reaction player plays a Reaction card
or makes a successful intelligence die roll against the card’s OC or
EC intelligence value. If the Reaction player plays a Reaction card
that specifies an intelligence condition, this condition (Intercept or
Ambush) is the one used for the Offensive. If the Reaction player
makes a successful intelligence die roll, the intelligence condition
always becomes Intercept.
Once the intelligence condition for the offensive has been determined, the Reaction player may move units (if the condition is
intercept or ambush, never during surprise attack) to participate in
declared battles only. In addition the Reaction player may play one or
more additional reaction cards, if desired. Finally, all battles for the
offensive are resolved battle hex by battle hex in any order desired by
the Offensives player. After all battles and post battle movement for
the offensive have been completed, the players reverse roles and the
new Offensives player starts again with the play of a Strategy card
as an OC or an EC, or passes. This segment ends when both players
have played all strategy cards in their hands for the turn.
4.3 The Political Phase
4.31 National Status Segment
The player whose units (in or out of supply) occupy, or were the last
to occupy, a particular hex controls the hex. If the Japanese player
has gained control of the hex, place a Japanese flag on the hex. If
the Allied player has gained control of the hex, place an Allied flag
(it doesn’t matter whether a US or British flag is used, the difference is for aesthetic reasons only). Alternatively, a convention may
be adopted that any hex without a Japanese flag is considered to be
controlled by the Allied player, which should cut down on map clutter
and facilitate a quicker set up. If, due to hex control, the conditions
for one or more nations to surrender exist, these surrenders occur
at this time.
4.32 US Political Will Segment
Adjust the US Political Will track for any conditions that alter its
setting due to changes in hex control and other factors noted in
rule 16.4.
4.4 The Attrition Phase
All ground and air units determine their supply state (13.0). If they
are out of supply, they are flipped from their full strength to their
reduced strength side. Air and Ground units already on their reduced
side may be eliminated. Naval units are unaffected by attrition.
4.5 The End of Turn Phase
If the US Political Will marker is in the Zero (Negotiations) box,
the Japanese player wins the game. If the conditions for automatic
Allied victory have occurred, the Allied player wins the game. If it is
the last turn of the game, determine the winner as per the campaign
or scenario victory conditions for the game that was played. If none
of these conditions are true, advance the game turn marker and
conduct a new game turn. Flip or remove various game markers as
indicated by the rules (e.g., China Offensive conducted to its other
side or remove Tokyo Express marker respectively).
5.0 Strategy Cards
Each player has a deck of unique Strategy cards. A player can only
draw and play Strategy cards from their own deck, although some
cards allow you to force the other player to discard from their hand.
Each turn a player draws a hand of 4 to 7 Strategy cards. Players
alternate playing strategy cards during the Offensives segment of
the Offensives Phase. They must play a Strategy card, play one of
a limited number of passes, or discard a Strategy card. When both
players have played all of the Strategy cards in their hand, the Offensives Phase of the game turn is concluded.
DESIGN NOTE: Strategy cards are the heart of my card driven game
system as used in my earlier We The People and For The People
designs. The cards are the mechanism through which all movement,
battle, and events are initiated during the game.
A Strategy card may be played as either an Operations Card (OC),
as an Event Card (EC) or discarded. When played as an OC card,
the player may perform one of the following actions:
A. Conduct an OC Offensive (6.0).
B. Conduct a China OC Offensive (12.72).
C. Withdraw an air unit (7.33).
D. Withdraw an HQ (7.54).
E. Bring a HQ into play from the game turn record track (7.56).
It should be noted that many Events enable Offensives and Offensives can also be conducted by an OC play. These Offensives have
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
differences that are covered later in the rules.
5.12 Operations Value And Offensives Player Unit Activation
Played and discarded strategy cards are placed in a separate Discard
pile for later reuse unless the card text specifies otherwise. The
Discard pile is disclosed information and can be examined by either
player. Some cards indicate that if played as an event (EC) they are
completely removed from play. Note that a card that is discarded,
rather than played, is placed in the Discard pile for possible reuse,
even if it indicates it is a card that would normally be removed from
use after being played. An un-played discard is not considered to be
a played card for removal from the game purposes.
5.13 Operations Value And Reaction Player Unit Activation
5.1 Operations Value
Each card has an Operations value of 1, 2, or 3. The Operations
value of the card is used for a number of game functions, most
notably as a movement multiplier and an activation value. In this
game, unlike many other card driven games using similar systems,
the Operations value is used for various game functions, even if the
card is played as an event.
5.11 Operations Value And Movement
The movement allowance of a unit for the current Offensive is the
unit’s base movement value (naval = 5, ground = 1, air = range/extended range) times the Operations value of the Card. For example
with a 2 OC value, ground units have 2 movement points, aircraft may
move twice their range, and naval units may move 10 hexes.
Movement Allowance Chart
OC
Land*** Air
Air
Air LRB
Value MA
MA
MA
MA MA
(R=2) (ER=4**) (ER=5) (R=6)
LRB Naval
MA
MA
(R=8)
1 OC
1
2*
4*
5*
6*
8*
5
2 OC
2
4*
8*
10*
12*
16*
10
3 OC
3
6*
12*
15*
18*
24*
15
Key: MA= Movement Allowance measured in Movement Points,
ER=Extended Range, R= Range, LRB=Long Range Bomber
Range
*= The printed range of an Air unit represents the maximum distance
that unit may move during a ‘leg’ of movement. Each OC multiple
is an additional leg that the unit may move. However, the start and
end points of a single leg (for a 1 OC situation) or a series of legs
(for 2 & 3 OC situations) must be into a friendly airfield location
(even if occupied by an enemy naval unit) that is not a battle hex.
Additionally, for 2 & 3 OC situations, the ends and starts of the
inner leg segments, that is the end of the first leg that is also the
start of the second, and the end of the second that is also the start
of the third, must be friendly airfields. For example, an LRB with a
range of 6 would be able to use only one leg with a 1 OC, that is, its
range would be 6 hexes to another friendly airfield having left from
a friendly airfield or a battle hex. However, with a 2 OC, it could
move 2 legs of up to 6 hexes each, starting in a friendly airfield or
a battle hex, but the second leg would have to start at a friendly
airfield and must end at a friendly airfield .
**=Air units with parenthetical extended range cannot participate
in battle if they use their extended range.
***= All Japanese, US, Commonwealth British (except Armor
Brigade), Australian, and New Zealand ground units may use Amphibious Assault and strategic transport. Dutch, Indian, and Chinese
units may not use Amphibious Assault or strategic transport.
When a Strategy card is played as an Operations Card, the Operations value is added to the Efficiency rating of the HQ initiating the
Operation to determine the number of units that may be activated.
When played as an Event Card, the number of offensives units that
may be activated is indicated by the event Logistics value plus the
Efficiency rating of the HQ being used, or specified by the text of
the card. Units must be in supply to be activated by an EC or OC
play.
Unless the Reaction player plays a reaction event that specifies
a logistic value, the Reaction player activates a number of units
equal to the Operations Card value of the Strategy card played by
the Offensives player (whether played as an OC or an EC) plus the
efficiency rating of the HQ that is being used to initiate the reaction. Note that this means that the Offensives player OC value
figures into the Reaction player activation. If the Reaction event
specifies a logistic value, then the Reaction player does not use the
Offensives player’s OC value, and instead uses the Reaction event
Logistics value plus the reacting HQ’s efficiency rating to determine
the number of units that can be activated.
5.2 Intelligence Values
All Strategy cards have an OC, and usually an EC, intelligence
value on the card. All Offensives are by default a surprise attack
unless the Reaction player alters this condition to an intercept or
ambush intelligence condition. The Reaction always has the option to alter the intelligence condition for the Offensive by playing
an Intelligence Reaction card whose text indicates an intercept or
ambush intelligence condition. In all other situations, except when
the Offensive event (EC) specifically indicates a surprise attack, the
Reaction player may, as an alternative to playing a Reaction card to
change the intelligence condition, attempt to change the condition
by making an intelligence die roll. A successful intelligence die roll
changes the intelligence condition to intercept. If an EC Offensive
text indicates that the intelligence condition is a surprise attack, this
can only be altered by the play of an Intelligence Reaction card,
never by an intelligence die roll.
5.21 Changing Intelligence Condition
With a Reaction Card
If the Reaction player has in hand a Reaction card that alters the intelligence condition (intelligence or counteroffensive
Reaction cards) to intercept or ambush,
it may be played. The Reaction player
is not obligated to play a held Reaction
card, this is strictly an option. The Reaction card text will alter the intelligence
condition to intercept or ambush, which
becomes the intelligence condition for the
entire Offensive and how ALL battles are resolved. If a Reaction card
is played, its intelligence condition always dominates and becomes
the condition for the offensive.
EXAMPLE: The Japanese play card 3, Malaya: Colonel Tsugi-Unit
82, which specifies an intelligence condition of surprise attack.
The Allies cannot make an intelligence die roll due to the specified
surprise attack, so must play a reaction card if wishing to alter the
intelligence condition. The Allied player plays card 26, US Army
Breaks Japanese Army Codes, which changes the intelligence condition to ambush.
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
5.22 Changing Intelligence Condition With an Intelligence Die
Roll
If the Reaction player does not play a card and the Offensive event
(EC) did not specify surprise attack, the Reaction player may opt to
make an intelligence die roll. The card used to initiate the Offensive
has an OC and an EC intelligence value. If the Offense was initiated
by the OC intelligence value of the card, then use the OC value. If
the Offensive was initiated by an event (EC), then use the EC intelligence value. If the die roll is equal to or less than the appropriate
Offensive card intelligence value, then the roll is successful and the
intelligence condition for the Offensive is intercept. If the die roll is
greater than the specified value, then the roll is not successful, and
the intelligence condition for the Offensive is surprise attack. Note
again that if the intelligence die roll is successful, the intelligence
condition is intercept for the entire Offensive and for the resolution
of ALL battles.
EXAMPLE: The Japanese play card 10, 2nd Operational Phase
as an EC. The EC intelligence value on the card is 7. If the Allies
make an intelligence die roll of 7 or less the intelligence condition
is intercept, otherwise it defaults to surprise attack.
Air Reconnaissance: There is one way in which the intelligence die
roll may be modified. If at any time during the movement of any of
the Offensives player’s unit(s), those units move into, through, or
exit an opposing air ZOI, the Reaction player subtracts 2 from their
intelligence die roll. However, an unmodified die roll of 9 is always
considered a failed die roll and a surprise attack result, regardless
of any die roll modifier.
D. Special Conditions
Many military events have Offensive player special conditions
that pertain to the entire offensive, but do not extend beyond the
offensive unless specifically stated as such. If a portion of an event
is mandatory for the event, the card will state it as such, using words
such as “only”, (example, “SW Pac HQ only”). Otherwise follow
the card text as closely as possible to derive all of the event benefits. Note that a particular situation coupled with a card indication
of “no additional effect” still allows the card to be played if either
situation can be met.
EXAMPLE: On Allied card 33, the text states, ...”this event ends a
US inter-service rivalry. Flip the US Inter-service rivalry marker to
its Strategic Agreement side. If the US Inter-Service Rivalry marker is
already on Strategic Agreement side there is no additional effect.”. In
this example, the event text has been followed since the inter-service
rivalry component can be met in either status (Inter-service rivalry
or Strategic Agreement). Another example is in Japanese Reaction card 34, which states,”...no additional impact if Inter-Service
rivalry is already in effect, Draw one Strategy card.”. Effectively,
this card can be played to draw a card regardless of the US interservice rivalry status.
5.32 Reaction Events
5.3 Events
Each Strategy card has an event. When a player uses a Strategy
card as an Event Card, the player follows the text of the event. If
the text of an event contradicts the rules, the card text supersedes
the rules of the game and is used instead. There are four classes
of events: Military events, Reaction events, Resource events, and
Political events.
When a player is in the role of a Reaction player, the only strategy
cards that may be played are those that state in their title they are
a reaction event. Only the player currently cast in the role of Reaction player may play Reaction cards. A reaction event may be
played in response to an Offensive after the Offensives player has
completed moving all offensive units, provided there are one or
more declared battle hexes or the text of the card indicates the card
may be played otherwise. A Reaction player is limited to playing
a maximum of three Reaction events (played simultaneously) in
response to a specific offensive, not per battle within that offensive.
There are five general categories of Reaction events: intelligence,
attack (submarine, kamikaze, and skip bombing), counteroffensive,
weather, and personage.
5.31 Military Events
A. Intelligence
Military Events allow the player to conduct larger Offensives than the
OC value of the card would allow. All military events have a Logistic
value. The number of units that may be activated by a military
event is the Logistics (not the Operations value) value of the
event plus the efficiency rating of the HQ the player is using for
the offensive. Military event cards often have a variety of activation, intelligence ,and condition text. If a player cannot comply with
all of an event’s clauses, the card may be played only as an OC or
discarded, but it may not be used as an Event Card.
A. Activation Instructions
Many military events have Offensive restrictions on which named
HQs can or cannot be used if the Military event is to occur.
B. Intelligence Conditions
Military events often have intelligence and other conditions listed
on the card, which must be followed if the event is to be played. If
the Intelligence states ‘Surprise Attack’ the Reaction player cannot
make an intelligence die roll to alter the intelligence condition (use
OC value for special reaction), but may still play a Reaction card in
order to alter the intelligence condition from Surprise Attack.
C. Reinforcement Units
Certain Military events come with a special unit (e.g., Slim’s Burma
Offensive brings the British 7th Armor Brigade into play). Place the
new unit according to the card text.
A player may choose to make an intelligence die roll to determine
if a reaction to the Offensive can occur. Once the Reaction player
has failed an intelligence die roll, Reaction cards may no longer be
played to alter the intelligence condition for that offensive unless
the event text specifically indicates otherwise. Regardless of the
intelligence condition or whether an intelligence die roll was made,
the Reaction player may always play non-intelligence Reaction
cards. A player may play more than one Reaction event during an
offensive and, if both intercept and ambush intelligence conditions
are possible, the intelligence condition is ambush.
B. Attack
Attack Reaction cards indicate the potential for some amount of additional damage the Offensives player may take due to a submarine,
kamikaze, or skip bombing attack. Follow the text instructions on
the individual card. Attack Reaction events usually engage units
activated for the Offensive unless specifically exempted by the text
of the card. Attack events may be played in addition to other Reaction
cards, or as stand-alone events in reaction to an Offensive.
C. Counteroffensive
There are several general types of Reaction events that enable the
Reaction player to activate military units in a manner identical to
a normal Offensive and alter the intelligence condition to intercept
for the remainder of the Offensive. Counteroffensive cards have a
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
logistics value, which the Reaction player uses for the number of
units that can be activated, although the Reaction player still uses the
Offensive card’s OC value for determining unit movement points.
D. Weather
There are several weather Reaction events that cancel Offensives
that activate units (with or without battle hexes), and which may be
played after Offensives player movement and before an intelligence
die roll. Canceling an Offensive due to weather causes the Offensives player to place the moved units back at their starting locations,
ending the Offensive. The cancelation of the offensive also prevents
any event bonuses or reinforcement units from entering play. The
cancelled offensive card has not been played, so event cards that are
removed from play if played as an EC are placed in the discard pile
and not removed from play. The reaction player may not play any
other events in conjunction with a Weather card. Any Amphibious
Shipping Points that the Offensives player intended to use for the
cancelled Offensive are not considered used and are still available
for use during the current game turn. All Weather cards are removed
from play if played as an event.
E. Personage
There are a few events that focus on the impact of a famous personage (e.g., Ghandi, Wingate). Follow the text instructions to resolve
these Reaction cards.
5.33 Resource Events
Only the Offensives player may play Resource events. Resource
events give the player new units or replacements. If a Resource event
gives the player a reinforcement unit, it is placed on the map using
the same restrictions as if it arrived during the Reinforcement phase.
If the event states that the replacements must be used immediately,
then the player places the replacements as if it were currently the
reinforcement phase, with all the same restrictions. Sometimes the
card text specifies a choice to either use the replacements immediately or save them for future use. If the player chooses to save them,
record the amount on the strategic resource track with the appropriate
marker. If for any reason, the Offensives player cannot fulfill the
conditions under which the reinforcement unit is supplied, the unit
is lost. Similarly, if for any reason the Offensives player cannot use
or save all or some of the available replacements, unused replacements are permanently lost.
5.34 Political Events
Political events are those that move a marker on one of the game
tracks. There are five kinds of political events: Chinese offensives,
India Stability, War In Europe, US Political Will changes, and Inter-Service Rivalry. Each of these types of events specifies which
game track is affected and the direction and distances the marker
for that track is moved.
5.35 Drawing a Card
Many events state that a player draws a strategy card if the event is
played. A player never draws a card if the Strategy card played is
played as an OC. A draw may only occur if a Strategy card is played
as an Event. A player may not use a card just drawn during the current
offensive. A player may never draw more than three cards in this
manner during any Offensive phase. Once a player has drawn three
cards, all additional events played for the remainder of the current
Offensive phase ignore further card draws.
PLAY NOTE: It is suggested that the players use the Japanese flag
and British Roundel counters on the Strategic Record Track as a
reminder of how many cards have been drawn during the turn.
5.36 Removing a Card
A large number of the events in the game specify that they are removed
from the game. A card that is used as an Event and that has this provision is removed from the game after its initial use and cannot be used
again during the remainder of the game for any purpose. If the card
is played as an OC, it is not removed from the game.
5.37 Special Events Cards
Two cards, Tojo Resigns and Soviets
Invade Manchuria, are Special Event
cards and must be played during the
Offensive phase of the turn in which
they are drawn, if the event conditions
are met. Additionally, they may not be
played as a Future Offensive. The only
choice the player retains is when to play
them during the Offensives phase in
which they are drawn. If a Special Event
card occurs on a game turn prior to when
it can be played (e.g., Tojo Resigns), the
card may be played as an OC and causes
a reshuffling of the deck at the end of the
current game turn to re-include the card
and all of the other cards in the discard
pile (not those removed from play). If
a Special Event is discarded due to the
play of another event or player action,
the Special Event occurs the instant the
card is discarded.
6.0 Offensives
Offensives are the core of the game. A player plays one Strategy
card as either an Operations Card or an Event Card whose text
specifies an offensive. A Strategy card may be played as either
an OC or an EC, but not both. The player initiating an offensive
is known as the Offensives player and the other player is known
as the Reaction player until the conclusion of the offensive. Offensives allow a player to move a variable number of units that
begin within range of one HQ and to declare battle for particular
hexes at the conclusion of movement. More than one HQ may be
used if so specified by an event.
6.1 Offensives Overview
Players alternate being the Offensives player, playing Strategy Cards
either as Operations Cards (OC) or Event Cards (EC) to conduct
offensives (6.0) or to implement other game functions through
events (5.3). The player initiating an offensive is referred to as the
Offensives Player and the opponent is referred to as the Reaction
Player until the conclusion of the offensive. To initiate an Offensive,
the Offensives player plays one Strategy Card as either an Event
Card (EC) whose text specifies an offensive or as an Operations
Card (OC).
At the conclusion of an Offensive, the opponent becomes the Offensives player and plays a card, which starts another Offensive or
causes an event, and play continues in this manner until both players
have played all of their Strategy Cards. If one player runs out of
cards, the other player continues to play them one at a time as the
Offensives player until all cards are played.
DESIGN NOTE: There are differences, noted throughout the rules,
between conducting an Offensive using OCs and ECs. An OC represents a localized action conducted with local forces. Consequently
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an OC offensive can be used to declare only one battle hex. Since
an OC offensive uses less high-level command resources, it is considered more operationally secure and less likely to be discovered
and intercepted by the enemy. An EC offensive is larger in scope
with superior logistic preparation. An EC offensive can encompass
any number of declared battle hexes, but the increased requirement
for coordination makes operational security more challenging and
is more likely to tip off the opposition.
6.2 Offensives Sequence
When an Offensive is declared, players conduct the following steps
in sequence. Once Step 7 is concluded, the Offensive is complete.
Step 1. The Offensives player activates supplied units within Activation Range of an eligible HQ (6.21).
Step 2. The Offensives player moves activated units (6.23).
Step 3. The Offensives player declares battle hexes (6.24) and announces the Offensive’s Intelligence Condition (6.25 A). If no battle
hexes are declared or created due to Special Reaction (6.27), skip to
Step 7, Post Battle Movement. Otherwise proceed to Step 4.
Step 4. The Reaction player attempts to change the Offensive’s Intelligence Condition by playing an appropriate Reaction card (6.25 B)
or making an intelligence die roll (6.25 C-E). If, at the conclusion of
this Step, the Offensive’s Intelligence Condition is Surprise Attack,
skip to Step 6; otherwise proceed to Step 5.
Step 5. The Reaction player activates and moves units to participate
in battles either declared by Offensives player or created by Special
Reaction (6.26).
Step 6. Players resolve all battles (8.0).
Step 7. Players conduct post battle movement (8.6). Reaction player
first, followed by the Offensive player. At the conclusion of post
battle movement the offensive is concluded.
6.21 Offensives Player Unit Activation
A player may activate a number of units equal to the efficiency
rating of the HQ being used to conduct the offensive PLUS either
the OC value or the Event logistic value. The units to be activated
must be in supply and within the HQ range (7.52) of the HQ used
for the offensive. In order to be activated, a path of hexes is traced
from the HQ to the unit being activated. Opposing Aircraft Zones of
Influence (7.35) can affect the path traced for activation. HQs have
specific nationalities they can activate, unless excepted by an events
card text. Specifically, Allied HQs are one of three nationalities: US
(e.g., Central, South (Ghormley or Halsey), and Southwest), Commonwealth (e.g., Malaya, SEAC), or Joint (e.g. ANZAC, ABDA).
The Japanese have only one type of HQ.
A. US HQs can activate US units (Blue or Green units) and Chinese
units.
B. Commonwealth HQs can activate Commonwealth, Chinese, and
US Air units (Blue or Green US air units).
C. Joint HQs can activate any Allied unit. Note: Only Joint HQs
can activate Dutch units.
D. Japanese HQs can activate any Japanese unit.
6.22 Unit Movement Allowances
The distance active or reactive units may move is equal to the OC
value of the Offensive card being played times the unit type’s base
movement allowance (naval = 5, ground = 1, air = normal/extended
range). (See 5.11 for a table with specifics and restrictions). Exception: if the card is played as an EC, the event may allow Offensive
player movement greater than the OC value of the card and takes
precedence.
6.23 Sequencing of Moves During an Offensive
When moving units during an Offensive, each stack of units should
be moved to completion before another unit or stack is moved. The
major impediment to movement during an Offensive is the location of un-neutralized opposing air Zones Of Influence (ZOI). All
supplied air and aircraft carrier naval units project a two hex zone
around them that restricts the movement of all unit types conducting
strategic movement and ground units moving via amphibious assault.
Air ZOI are in effect at all times. The moving player (Offensive or
Reactive) can neutralize opposing ZOI by the judicious movement
of non-LRB air and aircraft carrier units during the Offensive.
Consequently the sequence of moves during an Offensive can have
different outcomes.
PLAY NOTE: Moving air and aircraft carrier units first to locations where they neutralize opposing air ZOI enables ground units
to move with less restriction. Moving ground units with an aircraft
carrier neutralizes opposing ZOI as the carrier is moved. Following the opposite sequence could prevent amphibious assaults or
strategic movement from occurring because they could not move
into un-neutralized opposing air ZOI.
6.24 Declaring Battle Hexes
After all Offensive unit movement, the Offensives player declares
which hex(s) are battle hexes. Any hex that contains Offensive and
Reaction units (including HQs) must be declared a battle hex. Hexes
that contain Reaction units only, but are in range of activated Offensives player air and carrier units may be declared battle hexes. On the
play of an OC a player can declare one battle hex. Although an OC
Offensive can only declare one battle hex, units may move through
and may end their movement in unoccupied opposing controlled
hexes. Note that more than one battle may occur on the play of an
OC due to possible Special Reactions (6.27) by the Reaction player.
On the play of an EC a player can declare as many battle hexes as
desired within the limitations of the other rules of battle. For each
declared battle hex, the Offensives player must state which units will
participate in the battle for that hex. No unit may participate in more
than one battle per Offensive, however, a unit may participate in
one battle per each Offensive conducted during the game turn. After
Offensive unit movement, if no battles were declared, the Offensive
is concluded and it is now the other player’s turn to play a Strategy
card. Exception: 6.27, Special Reaction Move.
6.25 Offensive Intelligence Condition Determination
The intelligence condition for an Offensive is the same for all battle
hexes during that offensive. This procedure is not conducted individually for each battle hex. Consequently, if the reaction player
is successful in changing the intelligence condition, this affects all
declared battle hexes for the offensive.
A. The intelligence condition of the Offensive is initially determined by the Strategy card played to initiate it. If the card is being
played as an OC or if the Event does not specify the intelligence
condition, the default intelligence condition for the Offensive is
Surprise Attack.
B. The Reaction player may attempt to change the intelligence condition by doing one of two things. First, the Reaction player could
choose to play a Reaction card that specifies the intelligence condition as Intercept or Ambush. The play of a Reaction card supersedes
the intelligence condition specified by a Strategy card. If more than
one Reaction card is played and both intercept and ambush intelligence conditions are specified, the intelligence condition becomes
ambush. Exception: Weather Cards are played first.
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
C. Second, if the Reaction player did not play a card and the Offensive card did not specifically call for surprise attack, the Reaction
player can opt to make an intelligence die roll. An intelligence die
roll can change the intelligence condition from Surprise Attack to
Intercept (never to Ambush, which can only be done through the play
of a Reaction card). Once the Reaction player makes an intelligence
die roll, it precludes the ability to play a Reaction card to change
the intelligence condition unless the Reaction card text specifically
allows it. The Reaction player may only make one intelligence die
roll per Offensive. Exception: Weather Cards are played first.
D. The Intelligence Die Roll Procedure is as follows. The card used
to initiate the Offensive has an OC and an EC intelligence value. If
the Offense was initiated by the OC value of the card, then use the
OC intelligence value. If the Offensive was initiated by an event
(EC), then use the EC intelligence value. If the die roll is equal to
or less than the appropriate Offensive card intelligence value, then
the die roll is successful and the intelligence condition for the Offensive is intercept. If the die roll is greater than the specified value,
then the roll is not successful, and the intelligence condition for the
Offensive is surprise attack.
E. There is one way in which the intelligence die roll may be modified. If at any time during the movement of any of the Offensives
player’s units, those units move into, through, or exits an opposing
air ZOI (cannot be neutralized, see 5.22), the reaction player subtracts
2 from their intelligence die roll. However, an unmodified die roll of
9 is always considered a failed die roll and a surprise attack result,
regardless of any die roll modifier.
6.26 Reaction Move
If the intelligence condition is Surprise Attack there is no Reaction
move and the Offensives player immediately resolves all battles
initiated by the Offensive. If the intelligence condition is Intercept
or Ambush, the reaction player may designate one (and only one)
in supply HQ as the reacting HQ, if at least one declared battle hex
is within range of this HQ (this range cannot be blocked by any
means). Although not every battle hex may be within range of the
designated reacting HQ, any units it activates may react into any
declared battle hex that their movement allowance allows them to
reach. The Reaction HQ may only activate units that are in supply
and within activation range of the HQ. The activation path can be
traced into a hex occupied by opposing land units if the hex is a
declared battle hex. The reaction player may activate a number of units equal to the HQ’s efficiency rating plus the OC
value of the Offensives player’s Strategy card (regardless of
whether it was played as an OC or an EC) or the logistic value
of a counteroffensive Reaction card if one was played. No more
than one ASP may be used during Reaction movement. The use
of Organic Naval Unit Transport (7.46) is not constrained during
Reaction movement.
The Reaction player may only activate units that will participate in
a declared battle. Any unit that cannot be moved such that it can
participate in a battle may not be activated. All restrictions that
govern Offensive activation apply to Reaction activation, except
they cannot use strateigc movement. Reaction units may only
participate in a declared battle hex or in those created by a Special
Reaction Move (6.27). Reaction units that are in a battle hex may
be activated. Only air and carrier units may use reaction movement
to leave a battle hex before combat is resolved, but if they do so,
they must still participate in the battle in the hex they departed from
(exception: 7.43 Ground Disengagement). A Reaction player is not
obligated to move any units just because the intelligence condition
is Intercept or Ambush, but any units activated and moved must
11
participate in a battle.
6.27 Special Reaction (SR) Move
If an opposing ground unit ends its Offensive move in an unoccupied
Reaction player controlled city, Resource hex, port, or airfield hex
that is within range of a Reaction HQ and in a Reaction aircraft Zone
Of Influence (whether neutralized or not by the presence of Offensive
non-LRB air units), the Reaction player may attempt a Special Reaction. To make this Special Reaction the Reaction player must make
a successful intelligence die roll (it may not be activated through the
play of a reaction card). If the roll is successful, the hex is declared a
battle hex and the Reaction player conducts a normal reaction move.
This can occur whether the Offensives player declared a battle hex
(or hexes) or not. If the Reaction player was already reacting to a
declared battle hex (or hexes), this additional battle hex (or hexes)
is included within the normal reaction move and counts toward
the total number of reaction activations, but it is not automatic; it
must be rolled for on a hex by hex basis. Hexes entered via ground
movement alone are not eligible for Special Reaction. If a Special
Reaction occurs on a surprise
attack EC event, use the OC
intelligence value. Offensive
units that were not committed
to a battle, but are stacked with
or in range of the SR battle
can now be included. Special
Reaction does not change the
intelligence condition.
EXAMPLE: The Japanese move land /carrier units into unoccupied
Kauai, which is within range of the Central Pacific HQ and within
the ZOI of the US 7th AF air unit on Oahu. Ordinarily, since the
Japanese did not declare any battle hexes, the Allied player would
be unable to react. However, due to the 7th AF air unit ZOI, the Allied player can roll for a reaction and, if successful, Kauai would be
declared a battle hex and the Allied player could conduct a normal
reaction move. If the Japanese in this example had declared one or
more battle hexes and the Reaction player had made a successful
Special Reaction die roll, the Reaction player could still declare
Kauai a battle hex and include it within its Reaction move. In effect,
this rule allows a Reaction player with air superiority to respond to
an occupation of a city, port, or airfield location that did not involve
a normally declared battle.
6.28 Battle and Concluding the Offensive
Each battle is resolved as per the requirements of rule 8.0, and then all
units, Reaction player first, conduct post battle movement (see 8.6).
At this time the offensive is concluded and the other
player plays a Strategy card to start a new offensive
or as an event, or the Offensives phase is concluded if
both players are out of cards.
6.29 Future Offensives
Once per game turn each player may designate one Strategy card
to be held over for a future game turn to conduct an offensive,
event, or a reaction. A player may never have more than one card
designated as a Future Offensives card at any given time. A player
cannot designate a card as a future offensive card if one is currently
designated. To designate a future offensives card, the player, as the
play of a strategy card, takes the card and places it face down next to
the map and places the Future Offensives marker on top of the card
to indicate its status. This is that player’s action and play alternates
to the other player. A Future Offensive card is not counted for hand
size purposes or initiative purposes.
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A. Future Offensive Card Play to Win Initiative
If a player has fewer cards than the opposing player, the player with
the fewer cards can automatically win the initiative and go first if the
first card played is a Future Offensive card. The Future Offensive
card can be played only as an EC to win the initiative in this manner.
In all other cases, rule 4.21 determines initiative.
B. Future Offensive Card During the Offensives Phase
A Strategy card cannot be played as a future offensive in the same
game turn in which it was designated as a future offensive, nor as
the last card played by the owning player during an Offensives
Phase, either as an Offensive or a Reaction. Other than this restriction, a Future Offensive card may be played any time a player could
normally play a strategy card during the Offensives Phase. A player
may discard a future offensive card instead of playing a Strategy card
from their hand or play the card as an Offensive (as an OC or an EC)
or Reaction card or as an event. A player may keep the same future
offensive card for multiple turns. The only drawback of doing this
is that another card cannot be designated as a future offensive card
as long as the current future offensive designated card has not been
used. Note: Any card except Special Event cards Tojo Resigns and
Manchurian Offensive may be played as Future Offensives.
7.0 Movement and Stacking
7.1 Base Movement Allowance
The distance a unit may move during an offensive or reaction is based
on the unit type’s base movement allowance times the OC value of
the Offensive card or an EC text that supersedes the OC value. See
5.11 for the Operations Value and Movement Table.
7.11 All units have a base movement allowance. This Base Movement Allowance is:
GROUND: 1 movement point.
NAVAL: 5 movement points.
AIR: Equal to the unit’s range in movement points. If two
ranges are on the counter, use either value.
PLAY NOTE: Some units have a parenthetical extended range. If
a player uses the parenthetical extended range, the air unit cannot participate in a battle. To use an air unit with a parenthetical
extended range in a battle, the unit would have to be moved using
the normal range.
7.12 Movement through Enemy-Occupied Hexes
During Offensive and Reactive movement, air and naval units can
move through hexes occupied by enemy units. Offensive naval units
that end their movement in enemy occupied hexes will cause the declaration of a battle hex (see 6.24). Ground units conducting strategic
or amphibious assault are treated as naval units for purposes of this
rule except that such ground units cannot enter unneutralized enemy
air ZOI amongst other restrictions (see 7.44 and 7.45). A ground unit
that enters a battle hex by ground movement or amphibious assault
must cease movement in the hex, which will immediately become
a declared battle hex (see 6.24).
PLAY NOTE: The time scale in Empire of the Sun is very large and
units moving through enemy occupied hexes during an offensive is
intended and a common occurrence. This is very different from most
wargames and is often questioned during the initial playthrough.
The movement of naval and air forces is temporal as they move to a
fight whereas ground units entering a space with an enemy ground
unit cease movement as this represents two ground units with spatial
presence running into each other.
7.2 Naval Unit Movement and Stacking
In the game naval units can move through hexes occupied by enemy units. In effect, the naval movement rules represent a real-life
situation where naval units are in constant motion and occupy a
common hex only as an artifact of the hexgrid system and the game
sequence.
7.21 Naval Movement
A naval unit expends one movement point for each hex entered.
The player moves one unit or one stack of units at a time, and must
complete the movement of a stack or single unit before beginning
the movement of another. Naval units may enter any hex via a water
hex side so long as it is not via an unplayable ocean hex side. Naval
units may never cross an all land hex side. Certain land hexes in the
game have two hex sides of coastline separated by an un-crossable
land mass. In these cases one of these coastlines has graphically
been shown to be unplayable ocean. Naval units may not enter a
hex through an unplayable ocean hex side.
EXAMPLE: Hex 2220 Soerabaja cannot be entered by a naval unit
from hexes 2119, 2120, or 2221, but could be entered from hexes
2219, 2319, and 2320.
Naval units can normally enter and move through un-neutralized
opposing air ZOI, but may not do so if they are moving with a ground
unit conducting amphibious assault or are conducting strategic naval
movement. Carriers at sea do not neutralize enemy air Zones of Influence while using Strategic Naval Movement. Naval units must end
their movement either in a battle hex, or in a hex from which friendly
carrier naval units and non-carrier units they are stacked with may
participate in a battle, or in a hex containing a friendly port, or in
(or in range of) an unoccupied, enemy controlled hex that contains
a friendly ground unit. If a naval unit, after post battle movement
(see rule 8.6) cannot end an Offensive in a friendly controlled port
hex for any reason, it is eliminated.
7.22 Emergency Naval Move
If, at the conclusion of an offensive or during the Political phase
(through National Surrender), a player gains control of a hex which
contains opposing naval units that were not active, the naval units may
make an emergency naval move. If there is a friendly port within 10
hexes, then the Naval units are placed (not moved) to that location. If
more than one friendly port is within range, the owning player chooses
the port to which the units are moved. Opposing air Zones Of Influence have no effect on an emergency naval move. If no friendly port
is within ten hexes, then the naval units are eliminated.
EXAMPLE: When the Philippines surrenders, the US Asiatic CA
naval unit is in the Leyte hex. The CA is placed in any friendly port
within 10 hexes, such as hex 2220 Soerabaja.
7.23 Strategic Naval Movement
An Offensives naval unit only may move twice the movement point
value allowed by an offensive if it moves from a friendly port to
another friendly port. A naval unit that uses strategic naval movement cannot enter a battle or enter an un-neutralized opposing air
Zone Of Influence.
7.24 Naval Unit Stacking
During an offensive or battle, any number of naval units may be
stacked in a hex. When not conducting an offensive or battle, no more
than 6 naval units of one player of any type (CV, BB, CA, etc.) may
be in the same hex. If there are over stacked units, the owning player
removes the excess naval units from play until the hex is within the
stacking limits. If the naval units were in supply when so removed,
they are placed on the game turn record track to be returned to play
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13
during the next turn as reinforcements (which cannot be delayed). If
the overstacked naval units were out of supply, they are eliminated.
7.3 Air Movement and Stacking.
move must participate in combat resolution in that battle hex, even
though they have left it.
7.3 Air Movement and Stacking
If, at the conclusion of an offensive, the Offensives player gains
control of a hex (even through national surrender) which contains
opposing air units (that were or were not activated), the opposing air
units may make an emergency air move. If there is a friendly airfield
within normal or extended range, the air unit is placed, not moved,
to that location. If more than one airfield meets this condition, the
owning player chooses the airfield to which the units are moved. If
no friendly airfield is within range then the air units are eliminated.
An air unit may use its parenthesized extended range for Emergency
Air Movement, even if it participated in a battle.
In the game air units can move through hexes occupied by enemy
units. In effect, the air movement rules represent a real-life situation
where air units are in constant motion and occupy a common hex
only as an artifact of the hexgrid system and the game sequence.
7.31 Air Movement
An air unit moves in increments, or “legs,” equal to or less than
its extended range (the larger range value) or normal range for
units that do not have an extended range. An air unit must land in a
friendly controlled hex that has an airfield (not affected by enemy
naval unit) at the end of each leg of movement (see the * indication
for a more detailed explanation in 5.11). The player moves one
unit or one stack of units at a time, and must complete the movement of a stack or single unit before beginning the movement of
another. Air units never enter the battle hex, unless they started the
offensive in the battle hex. To participate in a battle, an air unit
must occupy a friendly hex with an airfield within range of the
battle or be in the battle hex itself. An air unit with an extended
range in parentheses that uses its extended range at any point in its
movement cannot participate in a battle. Consequently, Reaction air
units with a parenthetical extended range can only react with their
normal range. Air units that move out of a battle hex in a Reaction
7.32 Emergency Air Move
EXAMPLE: The Japanese attack, capture, and gain control over
Wake Island, but the Marine air unit has not been eliminated. Since
there is no friendly airfield within 4 hexes of Wake Island, the air
unit is eliminated. If the air unit had been a US long range air unit
with a range of 6 hexes, then the air unit could have been placed
on Midway (assuming it was Allied controlled), which is within 6
hexes of Wake.
7.33 Strategic Air Transport
Offensive air units may conduct strategic transport during an offensive by moving up to twice their Offensive movement allowance
from an airfield to another friendly airfield. Despite this the air unit
must move through intermediary airfields within each range incre-
The 22nd air moves from Saigon to Kota Bharu to be within 3
hexes of Singapore and the BB Kongo 2/CA Mogami naval units
move into the Singapore hex and declare another battle hex. The
Japanese can declare two battle hexes because card 23 was played
as an EC whereas if it was played as an OC only one battle hex
could have been declared.
Comprehensive Offensive Example:
At the beginning of the 1942 scenario the Malaya Peninsula has
the Japanese 15th Army in Kuala Lumpur (1913) and the 25th
Army (reduced) in Kota Bharu (2112). In support are air and naval forces in French Indo-China (22nd Air Flotilla in Saigon hex
2212 and the BB Kongo 2 and CA Mogami naval units in Cam
Ranh hex 2311). The Allied player has the 3rd Indian Corps in
Kuantan (2014) and the 8th Australian Division, Malaya Air unit
and Malaya HQ in Singapore (2015).
The Japanese player opens the 1942 game turn with Japanese card
23: Operation RE, which is played as an EC. The Japanese player
can use any HQ to activate units with a logistics value of 3. The
Japanese player designates the South HQ in Saigon (2212) as the
HQ for the Offensive, so 4 units (log value of 3 + South efficiency
rating of 1). The Japanese player activates the 15th army, the 22nd
air flotilla, BB Kongo 2, and CA Mogami naval units. The Japanese move the 15th army into Kuantan and declare a battle hex.
The Allied player now determines what if any reaction will be
made. The Japanese Military strategy card did not specify the Intelligence condition as surprise attack, so the Allied player can either
make an intelligence die roll to alter the intelligence condition or
play a reaction card. Luckily the Allied player is holding Allied
card 5: Operation Matador, which is a Reaction counteroffensive
card. The Allies play this card and alters the Intelligence condition
to intercept. Since this is a counteroffensive card, the Allies can
use its logistic value of 3 instead of the Japanese OC value of 2.
This allows the Allies to use the Malaya HQ to activate land and
air units plus the Force Z naval unit.
The Allies activate the 3rd Indian Corps, the 8th Australian Division and the Malaya air unit. Since Force Z is already eliminated,
the Allies cannot activate it. The Allies are entitled to activate
4 units also, but there are no other Commonwealth air or land
units within range of the Malaya HQ and so this last activation is
lost. The British cannot move the 8th Australian division into the
Kuantan hex, because Singapore has already been declared a battle
hex. The British Malaya air unit if it had been attacked solely by
the BB naval unit could have flown off to strike from afar, but the
presence of the Japanese air unit in the battle makes this a moot
maneuver, so it stays put. The text condition on Japanese card 23,
cannot be fulfilled, so it is ignored, but the Japanese will subtract
two from their ground combat die roll due to terrain. The event
text on Allied card 5, allows the Allies add +2 to their air-naval
combat die roll due to Singapore’s defenses.
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Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
ment (leg). As an example, a US air unit with an extended range of
four is activated on an Offensive with a 2 OC value. If the air unit
were to use Air Strategic Transport it could move up to 16 hexes (4
legs),but must land at an airfield every four hexes in order to move
this far. At no time during its movement can the air unit enter an unneutralized opposing aircraft Zone Of Influence (7.35). It cannot be
used in a battle during the offensive that it uses strategic transport.
A second form of strategic transport is available for air units. In
this form, an air unit may be voluntarily withdrawn from the map
as the complete play for any OC, and returns to play (it cannot be
delayed) during the next game turn as a reinforcement, under the
normal rules for the placement of reinforcements.
7.34 Air Unit Stacking
Stacking is evaluated at the conclusion of any strategy card play
whether it was played as an offensive or event. No more than three
friendly air and/or ground units (of any size) may be stacked in a hex.
If there are overstacked units, the owning player removes the excess
units, air units first, from play until the hex is within the stacking
limits. If the units were in supply when so removed, they are placed
on the game turn record track to be returned to play the turn after
the next turn as reinforcements (which cannot be delayed). If the
overstacked units were out of supply, they are eliminated.
Note that several pairs of US air units and the Commonwealth SEAC air units have the same unit designations,
but one of these air units will always be a Long Range
Bomber air unit while the other is not. Two air units
with the same designation count as one unit for stacking
purposes, but not activation purposes (e.g., there are two
US 7th Air Force air units).
7.35 Aircraft Zone Of Influence
All in supply air and carrier units project a 2 hex Zone Of Influence
(ZOI), which can only be neutralized by the presence of an opposing, in supply, non-LRB air unit or aircraft carrier unit projecting its
Zone Of Influence into the same hex. The corollary of this is an out
of supply air or aircraft carrier unit does not have an Air ZOI.
An Air ZOI is in effect at all times. A Zone Of Influence that is unneutralized impacts several game functions:
A. No unit may enter or exit an Air ZOI when conducting strategic
movement.
B. Ground units conducting amphibious assault may not enter or
exit an Air ZOI.
C. An Air ZOI blocks an HQ activation range path that enters or
exits the air ZOI across an all water hex side.
D. An Air ZOI blocks a supply path that enters or exits the air ZOI
across an all water hex side.
An Air ZOI Does Not Affect:
A. Ground movement from a contiguous land hex to another contiguous land hex across a land hex side.
B. Naval or air unit movement (other than strategic movement).
C. An HQ activation range path that enters or exits a hex across a
land hex side.
D. A supply path that enters or exits a hex across a land hex side.
E. An HQ range when used to maintain reduced units during the
Attrition phase.
EXAMPLE: In the Philippines the SW HQ is in Manila
(2813) with the FEAF AF air
unit and the Reserve Corps.
In an adjacent hex (2913) is
the reduced SL Corps and on
Samar/Leyte is the P Brigade.
If the Japanese have an air
unit located on 2911, its ZOI
covers all of Luzon. The SW
HQ is in supply because the
FEAF air unit neutralizes the
Japanese air units’ ZOI far
enough to allow access into
the South China Sea, where
we will assume a path can be
traced to the South map edge. The SW Pac HQ can trace a path to
all the ground units in this example. If you remove the FEAF air
unit from this example, the SW Pac HQ is out of supply because
it cannot trace out of an un-neutralized opposing air ZOI. If you
take the same example, but move the Japanese air unit from 2911
to Davao (2915) and remove the FEAF air unit, the SW Pac HQ is
in supply because Manila is not in the Japanese air unit’s ZOI. The
SW Pac HQ can trace an activation path to the SL Corps because
even though it is in. the Japanese air ZOI the SW Pac can trace
to it through land hexsides, but the P Brigade cannot be activated
because it sits in the Japanese air ZOI and the path must cross a
water hex side, which is blocked by the air ZOI.
7.36 Air Ferry in Hex 5408
The airfield in this hex represents the ability of Allied air units (only)
to use this location as an airfield for “landing leg” increment purposes
when moving on to another location. At no time may an air or ground
unit end its move in this hex. The only thing that temporarily neutralizes this Allied ability to use this hex in this manner is the presence
of a Japanese naval unit in this hex during an Offensive.
7.4 Ground Unit Movement and Stacking
EXAMPLE OF AIR ZOI: Both the Japanese and Allied Air
ZOI are shown. Hexes marked “N” are neutralized hexes
where neither side has a ZOI.
Ground units have three ways of moving, generally described as one
if by land and two if by sea. Ground units may move from a land
hex to another land hex across a land hex side expending a variable
number of movement points for each hex entered. A ground unit
may not enter a hex if it has insufficient movement points to do so.
This means that during certain low value OC Offensives, ground
units may be unable to conduct ground movement due to insuf-
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Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
ficient movement points. The player moves one unit or one stack
of units at a time, and must complete the movement of a stack or
single unit before beginning the movement of another. A ground unit
must cease movement whenever it enters an opposing occupied hex
containing land or air units, but is not inhibited by the presence of
opposing naval units.
Additionally, ground units have two ways to move across all ocean
hex sides. The first is strategic transport, which allows amphibious
assault capable ground units to move from a friendly coastal hex
(with or without a port) to a friendly supply eligible port along a
path that never moves through an un-neutralized opposing aircraft
Zone Of Influence (7.35). The second is actual amphibious assault,
and allows amphibious capable ground units to move from a friendly
coastal hex (with or without a port) to any other coastal hex which
can contain enemy ground units. A ground unit using amphibious
assault moves like a naval unit and uses the movement allowance
determined for the Offensive. If the destination hex of the amphibious assault contains an enemy ground unit the hex must be declared
a battle hex (6.24).
7.41 Ground Movement
A ground unit spends a variable number of movement points to enter
a land hex. A ground unit spends 1 movement point to enter an open
terrain hex, 3 movement points to enter a mountain hex, and 2 movement points to enter all other terrain types. A unit entering a hex that
contains no enemy units via a transport route (see map key) spends
half a movement point. A ground unit during reaction movement may
move via a transport route, but may not enter a battle hex using the
transport route movement rate if an enemy ground unit is present.
A ground unit may not enter a hex unless it has sufficient remaining
movement points to do so, and a ground unit may not cross an allocean hexside by normal ground movement (exception: Japanese
Barge movement). A ground unit must cease movement when it
enters a hex containing opposing land or air units or an opposing
HQ, but it is not inhibited by the presence of naval units.
7.42 Movement Restrictions
A. Japanese ground units may not enter non-coastal Chinese hexes
(for example, Japanese land units in hex 2508 [Yungning] cannot
move directly to hexes 2408 or 2507 by normal ground movement).
Japanese air units may not attack Chinese units in China.
DESIGN NOTE: Only Chinese CBI forces are in the game.
B. Japanese ground units may enter Northern India, but may move
no further into India. See the National boundary definitions. Japanese air and naval units may attack Allied units in any portion of
India that is in play.
C. No ground or air units may enter Soviet territory for any reason.
If there is no other choice the unit is permanently removed from
play.
D. No Allied ground units, except Chinese ground units, may enter
non-coastal China hexes.
E. Chinese ground units can only operate in Burma, Northern India,
Kunming, and all hexes adjacent to Kunming. Chinese units that are
forced to move into any other land hex are eliminated.
7.43 Ground Disengagement
A ground unit may move from a hex containing an opposing Offensives ground unit that just entered the hex if it has a land hex it can
move to that is not the one from which the opposing unit(s) entered
the hex AND if its attack strength (or combined strength if more than
one unit) is greater than (not equal to) that of the opposing unit(s).
15
Otherwise a ground unit cannot leave the hex. If a successful ground
disengagement occurs, the moving unit may continue to move if it
has remaining movement.
7.44 Strategic Ground Transport
An Amphibous Assault capable Ground unit may move from a
coastal hex (with or without a port) to a friendly port a distance
equal to the distance a friendly naval unit in the current offensive
may move. Since a naval unit can move twice its movement allowance if it moves from a friendly port to a friendly port, a ground
unit conducting Strategic Transport that starts its move in a friendly
port may also double its movement allowance. The path of the
move may never enter an un-neutralized opposing aircraft Zone Of
Influence (7.35) and can never enter a battle hex. The ground unit
must finish its movement in a friendly port or it cannot attempt the
move. A given ground unit may not combine Strategic Transport
with other forms of movement in the same offensive. Note that
strategic ground transport does not require the use of amphibious
shipping points (ASPs). A port captured during the Offensive counts
as a friendly port and can be used during the Offensive for Strategic
Ground Transportation.
DESIGN NOTE: This is an administrative naval movement using
slow troop transports, which is why it does not use an ASP.
7.45 Amphibious Assault (Offensive and Reaction)
All Japanese, US, Commonwealth British (except Armor Brigade),
Australian, and New Zealand ground units are Amphibious Assault
capable. Dutch, Indian, and Chinese units are not and may not use
Amphibious Assault. A ground unit that moves in this manner may
move from any coastal hex (with or without a port) to any coastal
hex (with or without a port) a distance equal to the distance a naval
unit in the current offensive may move. An Amphibious Assault
never doubles the distance it may move, even if it enters a friendly
port at the conclusion of its move. An amphibious assault may enter
any non-mountain coastal hex (exception Port Moresby, hex 3823,
can be amphibiously assaulted even though it is a mountain hex)
whether or not it contains enemy ground units. Note that Event cards
that restrict the activation of naval units do not prevent amphibious
units from using amphibious assault, and that Inter-service rivalry
being in effect does not prevent Army units (Japanese or US) from
using amphibious assault movement.
A. Amphibious Assault ASP Requirements
(Offensive and Reaction)
One Amphibious Shipping Point (ASP) must be available for each
ground unit of division size (XX) or smaller that conducts an Amphibious Assault. Each Corps or Army sized unit (XXX or XXXX)
requires one ASP for each step (e.g., a reduced Corps or Army sized
unit requires one ASP and a full strength Corps or Army unit requires
two ASP). Exception: The Japanese Korean Army costs
two ASP, not 1 ASP, per step (e.g., A full strength Korean
Army costs 4 ASP to move by Amphibious Assault). An
amphibious shipping point can be used only once per
game turn. Note its use by moving the Amphibious Shipping Used
marker on the Strategic Record. If insufficient amphibious shipping
points are available, the units for which there are insufficient ASPs
cannot conduct Amphibious Assault.
Important: During Reaction no more than one ASP may be used for
Reaction movement. This has no effect on Japanese organic transport
(see 7.46), as this type of movement does not use an ASP.
B. Amphibious Assault Restrictions (Offensive and Reaction)
The path taken by the Amphibious Assault ground unit(s) may not
enter or exit a hex that currently contains an opposing naval unit
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Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
(active or inactive), unless the assaulting unit moves with a friendly
naval unit for the entire length of its movement. An Amphibious
Assault unit may never enter or exit a hex within an un-neutralized
opposing aircraft Zone Of Influence, even if moving with a nonaircraft carrier naval unit. If for any reason the amphibious assault
ground unit finds itself in an un-neutralized opposing air ZOI, it must
cease it movement and is placed back in its hex of origin.
Important: If Amphibious Assault ground unit(s) are without an
accompanying friendly naval unit and opposing naval forces of
any type end their movement in the battle hex as part of reaction
movement, the assault is cancelled and the battle is considered lost.
Each ground unit takes a one step loss and, if not eliminated, each
unit then conducts post battle movement from the hex.
PLAY NOTE: Moving an amphibious force with an aircraft carrier unit always neutralizes opposing Aircraft Zones of Influence
throughout the move. Additionally, positioning a CV in a position
that neutralizes an opposing air Zone Of influence prior to moving
the amphibious assault unit allows the Amphibious Assault unit to
move through the area.
DESIGN NOTE: Amphibious Assault is the use of specialized naval
units to conduct the amphibious invasions that were the hallmark
of the Pacific War. The movement through opposing units is very
restrictive on purpose. Invasions cannot bypass opposing locations
that contain active naval and air forces. These forces would first
have to be neutralized before the precious combat troops would be
put in harm’s way. Although the Amphibious Assault forces enter
the battle hex, this is a mechanical convenience to speed play. In
actuality, if the air naval struggle for a hex were not successful, the
troop transports would be turned around at sea beyond the range of
the battle as the Japanese did at the Battle of the Coral Sea. Lightly
escorted offensives did occur, though very rarely, such as the capture
of the Admiralty Islands, when the defenses were primarily garrison
troops and total surprise was achieved.
C. Concluding Amphibious Assault (Offensive Only)
If at the conclusion of battle resolution containing an amphibious
assault, the Offensive Amphibious Assaulting ground unit(s) are not
in a friendly controlled hex (e.g., the assaulting forces lost the airnaval or ground battle), the Offensive amphibious assaulting unit(s)
only may conduct post battle movement like a naval unit, but must
end their movement in a friendly port or coastal hex. If this is not
possible, the Amphibious Assaulting unit(s) are eliminated.
D. US Army Amphibious Assault Special Restrictions
There is a special restriction for US Army ground units (Blue US
ground units). They may only conduct amphibious assault movement
into a Japanese controlled and occupied one hex island if they end
their movement in a hex containing a US Marine unit that also just
completed amphibious assault movement into that hex. In all other
circumstances, the presence of a US Marine unit is not required for
a US Army unit to conduct Amphibious Assault. Nor are there any
restrictions on US Army ground units for amphibious assaults on
multi-hex islands or during Reaction.
DESIGN NOTE: Besides Marine units whose raison d’etre is
amphibious assault, many Allied army units were trained in this
operational art during the war. The US Army restriction maintains
the role the US Marines had in late war amphibious invasions,
although there were some solely Army invasions during the New
Guinea and Philippines campaigns.
and 4th SN and the
SS). These units can
conduct amphibious assault by either using one amphibious shipping point per unit or they
can conduct amphibious assault by beginning the offensive stacked
with and moving their entire move with a CA, CL, or APD naval unit
at no cost in amphibious shipping points. Each naval unit of these
types, at either reduced or full strength, can move one of these five
brigade sized units. If the naval unit is eliminated during an offensive,
the ground unit it was transporting is also eliminated. If the naval
unit loses a step there is no effect on the transported unit.
EXAMPLE: On the December ’41 game turn, the Japanese CA
Aoba can enable the South Seas (SS Brigade) detachment to conduct
Amphibious Assault by moving as a stack from Truk to Rabaul, New
Britain. Units transporting and units to be transported must start
the move in the same location.
PLAY NOTE: There are only a handful of naval and ground unit
combinations that can conduct this type of move, but it is a useful
way to cheaply capture unoccupied opposing bases, especially
early in the war.
7.47 Japanese Barges
When the Japanese play the Japanese Barge event, the Japanese
flip their ASP marker onto its Barges side and the Barges marker
should be placed near the Japanese player. During any Offensive
(only, not for a Reaction) that has a 3 OC value card (even if played
as an Event), the Japanese can move 1 ground unit of any size as an
amphibious assault at the cost of zero ASP, across one all sea hex
side as its entire move. This move can initiate a battle, and is treated
like any other amphibious assault. If forced to retreat, the Offensives
unit uses barge movement to return to its original hex. The Japanese
lose this capability or have it superseded for the remainder of the
game by the play of the Allied PT Boat event card.
7.48 Ground Unit Stacking
Stacking is evaluated at the conclusion of any strategy card play
whether it was played as an offensive or event. No more than three
friendly air and/or ground units (of any size) may be stacked in a hex.
If there are overstacked units, the owning player removes the excess
units from play, air units first, until the hex is within the stacking
limits. If the units were in supply when so removed, they are placed
on the game turn record track to be returned to play the turn after
the next turn as reinforcements (which cannot be delayed). If the
overstacked units were out of supply, they are eliminated.
7.49 British Armor Brigade
The Allied player can receive the 7th Armor Brigade
through the play of an event card. When 7th Armor
Brigade enters open terrain hexes or moves along
Transportation Routes into non-Open hexes, it moves normally like
all other ground units. If the 7th Armor Brigade enters a non-Open
hex without the benefit of a Transportation Route, the unit must immediately cease movement, even if it has movement points remaining. Effectively the 7th Armor Brigade, assuming it has sufficient
movement points to enter a non-open hex without the benefit of a
transportation route, can move one non-open hex per Offensive. The
7th Armor Brigade may not use Amphibious Assault, but may use
Strategic Ground transport.
7.46 Japanese (only) Organic Naval Unit Transport Capability
The Japanese have five brigade sized land units (1st, 2nd, 3rd ,
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
7.5 Headquarter Units
Headquarters (HQs) represent command infrastructure.
Each side begins the game with a number of HQs in play
and can receive new HQs as reinforcements or through
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
card events. HQs cannot be eliminated per se, as they represent a
ubiquitous command infrastructure. HQs do not move per se, but can
be repositioned voluntarily (by the play of an OC) or involuntarily
due to opposing actions. However, a few of the Allied HQs cannot
be returned to play if voluntarily or involuntarily removed and are
indicated by a dot (Allied ABDA and Malaya HQs).
7.51 HQ Capabilities
HQs have two values: Command Range and Efficiency Rating. An
HQ’s command range is used to determine the range at which a HQ
can trace an activation for Offensives and Reaction moves. The HQ
range is used to determine where reinforcements and replacements
can be placed. It is also used for determining whether units are in
supply and if they can sustain themselves on the map if they are out
of supply. An HQs’ efficiency rating is used in conjunction with an
OC value or a Logistics value to determine the number of units the
HQ can activate during an Offensive or Reaction. HQs do not count
toward stacking limits, but there may never be more than one HQ
(of either side) in a hex at a time. If for any reason this condition
cannot be met, then all HQs except the first one to have entered the
hex are involuntarily repositioned.
7.52 Tracing HQ Activation Range
A unit must be activated to move (exceptions: Emergency Naval
Move, Emergency Air Move, Ground Disengagement, and Retreat).
For a unit to be activated it must both be within activation range of an
in-supply HQ and have a supply line from the same or a different HQ
(See Supply 13.1). A unit is within activation range if an unblocked
hex path can be traced from a supplied appropriate (7.53) activating
HQ to the unit and the path does not exceed the HQ’s range.
An activation path can be traced across any hexside except the
following:
• A water hexside of an un-neutralized enemy ZOI hex.
• Any land hexside of a hex occupied solely by an enemy ground
or air unit.
Unlike a supply line (13.1), an activation range can be traced across
unplayable hexsides and across land hexes ‘as the crow flies’ without
the need for friendly ports.
PLAY NOTE: There are four kinds of paths traced from HQs to units
that are similar, but slightly different. The most restrictive is the supply path (13.1). There are also, the intelligence path for determining
reaction (6.26), activation range (7.52), and attrition (13.4).
7.53 HQ Nationality Restrictions
All HQs are limited to which unit nationalities they can activate
during an Offensive. Japanese HQs can activate any Japanese unit.
Allied HQs come in one of three types: US, Commonwealth, and
Joint. The Allied HQ National Command Chart denotes which units
can be activated and supplied by a particular Allied National HQ.
Allied HQ National Command Chart
HQ
Nationality
US
Common-
wealth
Joint
US
Units
Common- Chinese
wealth Units Units
Dutch
Units
Yes
No
Yes
No
Air Units
Only
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
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7.54 Voluntary HQ Withdrawal Repositioning
HQs cannot move per se and do not count toward stacking limits,
but they can be voluntarily withdrawn from the map as the complete
play for any OC. Nothing can stop the voluntary withdrawal of an
HQ. The withdrawn HQ is placed on the game turn record track for
re-entry on the next game turn. An HQ on the game turn record track
returns to play during the reinforcement phase of the next game turn
as a normal reinforcement and thus cannot be delayed.
7.55 Involuntary HQ Repositioning
If an HQ finds itself alone in a hex that is entered by an opposing
ground unit, or if an HQ finds itself at the conclusion of a battle or
national surrender in an opposing controlled hex, the HQ is involuntarily removed from play. An HQ that does not have a dot on it is
placed on the game turn record track and returns to play during the
reinforcement phase of the next game turn as a normal reinforcement.
If an HQ with a dot (ABDA or Malaya HQs) is removed from play
voluntarily or involuntarily it is permanently removed from play.
7.56 HQ Return
An HQ that is repositioned (voluntary or involuntary) is placed on
the game turn record track. An HQ on the game turn record track
returns during the reinforcement phase of the next game turn and
cannot be delayed. A player can bring HQs on the game turn track
into play earlier by playing an OC of any value and placing the
HQ in any friendly controlled supply eligible port in the Japanese
Home Islands for the Japanese, or in Australia, Oahu, or India for
the Allies, with the return to play being the sole action for the play
of that card.
PLAY NOTE: An HQ that returns to play as a reinforcement can
be placed in any friendly controlled supply eligible port whereas a
returning HQ is geographically restricted to where it can return.
Consequently, to move an HQ into a more forward position usually
requires it to be brought back into play as a reinforcement vice the
restrictions of a returning HQ.
8.0 Battle Resolution
Each battle is conducted in two steps, first Air & Naval combat is
resolved, and then Ground combat is resolved. There are two separate
combat results tables, air/naval and ground. Although both types of
combat use similar procedures, they use different die roll modifiers.
In general, activated forces of the Offensives player are moved and
battle hexes are declared. Then the Reaction player activates forces,
which are in or moved to one or more declared battle hexes. Finally
battles between the activated forces of each player (plus any inactive forces of the Reaction player that began the Offensive in what
became a declared battle hex) are resolved.
8.1 Who Participates in Battle
All units in the same hex must participate in the same battle. No
unit of either player can participate in more than one battle per
offensive.
8.11 Air and Aircraft Carrier Units in Battle
Activated air and aircraft carrier units can participate in a battle if
they are within their air range of the battle hex. An air unit that is
in a battle hex must participate in that battle and cannot participate
in another battle that is within its range. If a Reaction player air
unit starts its Reaction in a battle hex and reacts out of the hex, it
must still participate in that battle even though it is now not in the
battle hex.
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8.12 Naval Units in Battle
DESIGN NOTE: Land based air units that are operating at extended
range are using their two engine aircraft only. This reduces their
combat potential due to the lack of their shorter ranged fighters and
the fact that bomb loads are reduced at longer ranges. LRB units
have factored into their combat ratings their basic ineffectiveness
against naval units and the fact that the Pacific theater for the most
part had sparse infrastructure targets that were not easy to damage
with high altitude bombing. The Strategic bombing campaign against
Japan is handled as a separate procedure.
8.13 Ground Units in Battle
Player Note on calculating combat strength: In order to avoid
players counting factors, the game system gives equal weight to
all factors brought into a battle. The flip side of this is that there
are times that you must sum a string of small numbers that add up
to a large value, occasionally in excess of one hundred. To avoid
the need for having a calculator handy we have created a graphical abacus. There are two US Stars (dark blue and a lighter blue)
that can be used in conjunction with the Strategic record track. To
use this, designate one counter as a 1s (lighter blue) and another
as a 10s (darker blue). Physically move the ones counter one box
for each available combat factor, moving the 10 counter one space
forward each time ten combat factors have been counted. When
you are finished you will have a direct read out of the
total number of combat factors. We have also supplied
a number matrix to handle the CRT combat multiplier
calculation. Between these two techniques a player can
make the occasional larger calculation without a calculator. Also feel free to do these mathematical operations
in your head, or, should you desire, use a calculator.
Activated non-aircraft carrier naval units that enter the battle hex
add their naval strengths into the total air-naval combat value. Nonaircraft carrier naval units that are not in a battle hex, but in a hex
with an aircraft carrier naval unit, do not use their combat value in
battle resolution, but their presence with the aircraft carriers makes
them part of the losses procedure. Aircraft carrier units that are within
their air range of the battle hex, including actually residing in the
battle hex, always add their combat value to the air-naval combat.
All ground units in a declared battle hex must participate in the
ground combat portion of the battle. Offensive ground units that
enter a battle hex through amphibious assault only participate in the
ground portion of the battle if their side wins the air-naval battle.
If the Offensives player loses the air-naval battle (does not affect
Reaction ground units) and there is a mix of units that entered the hex
through ground movement and amphibious assault, only the ground
units that entered by ground movement participate in the battle.
8.14 Supply in Battle
Supply has no effect on battle resolution. Its effects are accounted
for in the Attrition Phase of the turn.
DESIGN NOTE: Combat in Empire of the Sun is not intended to
be an operational or tactical analysis of air, naval, and ground
interactions in the Pacific. The goal is to reward the player for
bringing a balanced mix of forces, which, in combination with good
intelligence, bring superior firepower to bear, while achieving an
historical loss rate. Surface naval units that are stacked with aircraft
carriers, but not physically located in the battle hex, reflect escorts,
whose defense values protect the carriers, but do not contribute to
surface combat, which is why their combat values are not applied
offensively. Also, the fact that surface ships in the battle hex can
apply their hits to units that are within range of, but not in the battle
hex, is an abstraction that reflects a surface action that occurs in the
vicinity of the battle hex between those forces. However, as long as
carriers are not in the battle hex, it requires the presence of opposing air or carrier units (on a one for one basis) in order for them
to take battle damage.
The system will recreate the outcomes from the campaigns fought
during the war, but due to the strategic level of play, will give little
insight, except at that macro level, into why the outcomes were
achieved. Combat tends to be bloody, given the time scale and the
attritional nature of much of the conflict that is below the scale of the
game, but must be accounted for through this mechanism. It should
also be noted that some battles actually represent a series of battles.
For example a large naval battle in the Guadalcanal hex could
represent all of the losses taken in the Battles of Eastern Solomon,
Santa Cruz, and Guadalcanal. A game with more granularity and
detail than Empire of the Sun is required for a more cause and effect
view of Pacific War combat resolution.
8.2 The Air Naval Combat Procedure
A. Both sides add up their activated air and naval attack strength
in the battle hex and add any activated air, CV, CVL, CVE units
that are in range of the battle hex. The Reaction player also adds
in the strengths of any inactive naval and air units that began the
offensive in the battle hex, even if they remained inactive after
reaction activation. In air naval combat, air units that are using
their non-parenthetical extended range in battle, not movement,
halve their attack strengths (round up) in combat (at normal range
they are full strength). This general procedure is modified by the
following cases.
B. Roll a die (modifying as appropriate) for each player to determine
the combat effectiveness rating. Each player’s total attack strength
times effectiveness rating results in the total hits made by the player.
The player causing the hits to the opposing player’s units applies
these hits, that is, picks the units subject to taking the results. Hits
can only be applied once, and then are used up for that battle resolution. Excess hits cannot be accumulated, and are lost. Non-activated
units in the battle hex can be hit.
Die Roll Modifiers
1. Ambush: Allies +4
2. Surprise Attack: +3
3. 1943 game turn: +1 for the Allied player if any US air or aircraft
carrier units are present.
4. 1944 or 1945 game turn: +3 for the Allied player if any US air
or aircraft carrier units are present.
5. Event Modifier: + any battle modifiers specified by an EC. Note:
Some event cards have special battle modifiers.
DESIGN NOTE: Modifiers 3 and 4 reflect the growing technological
superiority of US aircraft and improved combat doctrine.
Air Naval Combat Results Table
Modified
1D10 Die Roll = Combat Effectiveness Rating
0,1,2 = One Quarter (.25) (round up if required)
3,4,5 = One Half (.5) (round up if required)
6,7,8 = One (1)
9 = One* (1*)
9 or greater = One (1)
*=If the die roll was a 9 before any required modification, then that
side has achieved a critical hit in addition to receiving a one result.
See 8.2.F. How To Apply Hits.
C. If the intelligence condition was Intercept, both players simulta-
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
neously apply a number of hits equal to their combat effectiveness
rating times their total air-naval strength.
EXAMPLE: The Allied player has a 12 attack strength CV unit, a
4 attack strength LRB unit, a 10 attack strength air unit at normal
range, a 10 attack strength air unit at extended range, and a 16
attack strength BB unit in the battle hex. The Allied strength total
would be 47 (12+4+10+5+16). The intelligence condition is intercept, so there is no die roll modifier. On a roll of 2 or less, 12 hits
would be assessed against Japanese units, on a die roll of 3-5, 24
hits would be assessed, and on a roll of 6 or greater, 47 hits would
be assessed.
D. If the intelligence condition was surprise attack, the Offensives
player applies all hits first. Surviving Reaction player units in the
battle hex then calculate their combat strength, make a die roll on
the CRT, and apply any hits to the Offensives player’s units.
E. If the intelligence condition was ambush (only possible on the
play of a reaction card), the Reaction player applies all hits first.
Only surviving Offensives player units then calculate a result and
apply hits to the Reaction player’s units.
F. How to Apply Hits. The player who rolled the die applies all hits
against opposing units. Hits cannot be avoided if a legitimate target
can be damaged or eliminated. They may be applied in any manner
within the restrictions on how hits scored can be applied. All restrictions on how to apply hits are in effect at all times. If any situation
arises which seems to create a contradiction amongst the restrictions,
the player who rolls the die is to determine the outcome.
DESIGN NOTE: No matter how well a set of conditions is written
there are always disagreements, especially during a tournament. In
cases of disagreement, the attackers view prevails.
PLAY NOTE: Combat only gives limited possible results and the trick
is to understand how applying hits, which can create a wide range of
battle outcomes, can be best apportioned, and how to guard against
as much damage as possible by force composition. It is important
to remember to bring screening forces to prevent having precious
aircraft carriers eliminated.
HISTORICAL NOTE: The common perception is that the Pacific War
was dominated by carrier warfare. At the macro level this is a true
statement, but in fact by late 1942 the pre-war carrier forces had
hunted each other into virtual extinction. This is why the signature
surface battles of the Solomons campaign became the dominant form
of naval combat until US shipyards began to turn out an unending
stream of Essex class carriers. Players will often see a similar ebb
and flow pattern develop regarding their available carrier forces.
1. If a number of hits equal to an opposing unit’s defense strength
are applied, the unit is flipped to its reduced side or eliminated if
already on its reduced side.
2. Full strength units must be reduced before reduced units can be
eliminated. Units that have only one side are considered to be reduced units. Non-aircraft carrier naval units that are not in a battle
hex, but stacked with an aircraft carrier naval unit that participates
in the battle, can and must take losses before any reduced strength
unit can be eliminated, with the exception of a critical hit.
3. No unit can take a second consecutive hit (full strength to
eliminated), until all units that can be reduced are first reduced in
strength. Excess hits are lost if this condition cannot be fulfilled.
Continuing the example from case C above, the 47 attack strength
Allied force gets a 6 or greater die roll and applies 47 hits to the
Japanese air and naval units. Using the hits available, the Allied
19
player reduces all of the Japanese units except for one full strength
unit, which remains with a defense of 18, and the Allied player only
has 10 unapplied hits. The Allied player could not eliminate one of
the reduced Japanese units because there remains a full strength
unit, so the remaining 10 hits are lost.
4. Air, CV, CVL, and CVE units that are not in a hex containing
opposing naval units (they are within range of the battle, but not
actually in the battle hex), cannot receive hits unless the opposing
force also possesses at least one Air, CV, CVL, and CVE unit. For
each unit that is so matched, a unit can take hits. For example, if one
side had one air and one CV unit and the opposition had three CV,
CVL, or CVE units, hits could be applied to only two of the three
units. In all cases the side applying the hits chooses which aircraft
carrier or air units take the hits. Non-air capable naval units can
always be the target of hits generated during an air naval battle and
are unaffected by the restrictions in this case.
EXAMPLE: If the Japanese side had one carrier and achieved 45
hits versus an Allied force with two full strength carriers, it is possible that a large number of hits could go unapplied because the
inability to reduce one of the two Allied carriers would prevent any
reduced strength unit from being eliminated, since there would still
be a full strength Allied naval unit present.
The corollary of this condition is if one side has no air or carrier
units present and the other does have one or more present, none of
the air or carrier units can be damaged if they are not actually in the
battle hex with opposing naval units.
5. If a player was the only side with air and/or naval units in the air
naval battle, then hits may be applied to any opposing ground units
in the hex. If opposing air or naval units were present in the battle,
hits can only be applied to air and/or naval units. The last ground
step in a hex cannot be eliminated due to air and naval hits; when
there is a choice for what will be the last ground step, Reaction
choice. Intrinsic defense strength is always considered the last step
in a hex. Additional hits that cannot be so used are lost.
6. Critical Hit. If a critical hit is achieved (by an unmodified nine die
roll or due to an event), the player may circumvent the restriction of
case number 2 or 3 above, and apply hits in any manner desired, even
eliminating units while other full strength units remain. Continuing the example above, the Allied player has played the Rochefort
card making the intelligence condition an Ambush with a special
condition that allows any modified die roll that is nine or greater
to be considered a critical hit. The Allied player could apply the 10
unapplied hits to eliminate one of the reduced Japanese units, even
though a full strength naval unit remained.
Additionally, any time a player achieves a critical hit, and is mathematically unable to achieve at least a one step loss, then one step
loss is assessed to the opposing unit with the lowest defense strength
that can receive the hits (in case of ties, Reactive players choice).
DESIGN NOTE: This simulates the ability of the Ambushing force,
or a fortuitous opportunity during a battle, to pick off a portion
of the opposing force. This is how a Midway like outcome would
occur in the game. There are only two Allied cards that enable the
Ambush condition, so it is not the normal state of affairs unless you
can roll a lot of 9s.
7. Japanese Naval Aircraft Range Advantage. In an air naval
battle where the Allied player has not achieved a critical hit and the
Japanese player has more than one aircraft carrier unit present, then
this case applies. After all hits have been applied the Japanese player
can reduce one Japanese aircraft carrier or eliminate a Japanese
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Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
aircraft carrier and recover one step lost by another aircraft carrier
(either from reduced to full strength or from eliminated to reduced
strength). The number of hits represented by this is not calculated,
this is a one step for one step transfer.
8.34 No Air-Naval Combat Was Conducted
EXAMPLE: Assuming the Allied player had not achieved a critical hit, and the Japanese player had a CV and a CVL naval unit
amongst the units that the Allied player had reduced from full to
reduced strength, the Japanese player could shift one step lost by
the CV onto the CVL, eliminating it and bringing the CV back to
full strength.
8.4 Ground Combat Procedure
DESIGN NOTE: This rule is intended to capture two effects. First
the Japanese naval aircraft for much of the war out ranged the
better armed US naval aircraft. Second Japanese doctrine often
had any light carriers in their formation forward of the larger fleet
carriers. What is being simulated here are the US pilots hitting the
isolated CVL and expending their ordnance without finding the
larger fleet carriers.
8.3 Determining The Winner Of The Air Naval Combat
Both sides add up the attack strengths of the surviving air & naval
units which contributed attack strength in the battle, active or inactive. Air units that had their attack strengths halved for the battle
due to range, continue to do so for this calculation. Only non-CV
naval units in the battle hex are considered for this calculation (for
example, a BB naval unit in the battle hex counts, but a BB naval
unit that is escorting the distant carriers which also participated in
the battle does not, since it did not contribute its attack values for the
battle). The side with the higher total is the winner of the air-naval
combat. In case of ties the Reaction player wins. Special exception:
If the Reaction player has one or more air or carrier units present, and
the Offensives player has no surviving air or carrier units present,
the Reaction player automatically wins the battle, regardless of the
attack strengths involved.
DESIGN NOTE: Air power was the critical variable in World War
II naval combat. The special exception covers the potential situations, such as Guadalcanal, where even small numbers of air units
could prevent powerful surface units from sustained operations in
the area.
8.31 No Surviving Air or Naval Units
If no air or naval units survive the battle, then the result is considered
an offensives player victory.
8.32 Reaction Player Victory
If the Reaction player is the winner, the battle is concluded. Move on
to conduct any remaining battles. If this was the last battle, go to post
battle movement. Exception: If Offensive ground units entered the
hex via ground, not amphibious assault movement, then immediately
conduct a ground battle before resolving other battles. See 8.13.
8.33 Offensives Player Victory
If the Offensives player wins and any ground units, through amphibious assault or land movement, remain in the battle hex with Reaction ground units (active or inactive), a ground combat procedure is
conducted. If the Offensives player loses the ground battle, then the
battle is concluded and any ground units in the battle hex must retreat
or withdraw. If the Offensives player wins the ground combat, the
battle is won and the Offensives player gains control of the hex.
DESIGN NOTE: If a side gains air naval supremacy over the battle
hex, the ground forces can engage. If not, it is assumed that amphibious assault forces are turned back as at Coral Sea.
If for whatever reason, neither player had any air or naval units
present, then the Ground combat occurs, just as if it had been an
offensives player air-naval victory.
A. Ground combat is always simultaneous, regardless of the intelligence condition. Both sides add up their activated ground unit
attack values plus the attack strengths of any inactive ground units
that began the offensive in the battle hex, even if they remained
inactive after reactive activation, and then conduct a combat effectiveness die roll. The basic procedure is similar to Air-Naval
combat, but Ground combat uses a different Combat Results Table
and has different die roll modifiers. This general procedure is modified by the cases that follow. The player who rolled the die applies
all hits against opposing units in any manner within the restrictions
on how hits may be applied. All restrictions on how to apply hits
apply at all times. If any situation arises which seems to create a
contradiction amongst the restrictions, the player who rolls the die
determines the outcome.
Ground Combat Die Roll Modifiers
Offensives Player Modifiers
1. If only the Offensives player has naval units in the battle hex after
air-naval combat, then the Offensives player adds +2 to the die roll
for shore bombardment.
2. If after air naval combat the Offensives player is the only player
with active air and/or carrier units participating in the ground battle
(there are no surviving active or inactive Reaction player air or
carrier units) then the Offensives player adds +2 to the die roll for
air superiority.
3. Certain terrain types modify the Offensive player’s die roll:
JUNGLE: subtract one from the die roll (–1).
MIXED: subtract two from the die roll (–2).
MOUNTAINS: subtract three from the die roll (–3).
Note: There is no modifier for City type terrain.
Reaction Player Modifiers
If the Reaction player had any land units in a hex prior to the Offensives player conducting an Amphibious assault into that hex, the
Reaction player adds +3 to the die roll.
Both Players
Event Modifiers, that is any battle modifier specified by an EC played
as the current Event for the Offensive or in Reaction to the Offensive,
or any such condition created by the previous play of an EC (for
example, Japanese Defense doctrine) are added to any other battle
modifiers that are in effect as indicated from above. Note that some
event cards have special combat modifiers that are cumulative with
other modifiers. The sole exception is the Japanese card Col. Tsugi
where the bonus ground combat modifier is the final modifier used
in the ground battle and is not cumulative with other modifiers.
Armor Modifier
If the British 7th Armor Brigade is in the battle the Allies add +1 to
their combat die roll for armor superiority.
Ground Combat Results Table
Modified Die Roll = Combat Effectiveness Rating
Less than Zero, 0, 1, or 2 = One Half (.5) (round up if required)
3, 4, 5, or 6 = One (1)
7 or 8 = One and One Half (1.5) (round up if required)
9 & More = Two (2)
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Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
B. How to Apply Hits. Each player applies to the opposing units
a number of hits equal to their combat effectiveness rating times
their ground strength.
1. Only ground units can be hit. Non-activated units in the battle
hex can be hit.
2. If a number of hits equal to an opposing unit’s defense strength
are applied, the unit is flipped to its reduced side or eliminated if
already on its reduced side.
3. Full strength units must be reduced before reduced units or single
step units can be eliminated.
4. No unit may take a second hit (full strength to eliminated), until
all units are first reduced in strength. Excess hits are lost if this
condition cannot be fulfilled.
5. Offensive ground units that conducted amphibious assault to
enter the battle hex have their defense strength halved (rounding
up if required) for calculating hits.
C. Concluding Ground Combat.
1. If, after all hits are applied, only one side has ground units in the
hex, that side is the winner. If not, the side that took the most step
losses during ground combat retreats during post battle movement.
Flipping a ground unit from its full strength to its reduced strength
side or the elimination of a reduced unit counts as one step lost. If it is
a tie, the Reaction player wins and the Offensives player retreats.
2. It is possible for both sides to be eliminated in a ground combat.
If this happens, the Reaction player maintains control of the hex,
but all forces are still eliminated.
DESIGN NOTE: What is being simulated here is that both sides’
units are no longer combat effective, and a remnant force remains
in the defender’s hex.
3. If the Offensives player is the only one with surviving ground
units in the battle hex, the hex is now controlled by that player and
air & naval units may conduct post battle movement to that hex. If
the Reaction player is the only one with surviving ground units in
the battle hex, the Reaction player maintains control of the hex.
DESIGN NOTE: Ground combat is quite bloody given the time
scale of the game. If both sides are eliminated, it is not the case that
everyone was dead, but that the forces of both sides are no longer
combat effective. For the Allies, this means the unit needs to be rebuilt. For the Japanese, this means the unit is usually lost, because
the unit in fact fought to the last man. In addition, there were times,
especially during the Solomons campaigns, that both sides occupied
the same island. For the sake of simplicity, this situation is treated
a bit abstractly, given the length of the game turns.
8.5 Retreat
A retreating Offensives ground unit that entered a hex by ground
movement must retreat into the hex from which it entered the
battle. A retreating Offensives ground unit that has entered a hex
by amphibious assault movement conducts post battle movement
like a naval unit. A retreating Reaction ground unit is moved by the
Offensives player into an adjacent named location friendly to the
retreating unit if possible; if this is not possible, the unit is moved
into an adjacent hex that contains no Offensives unit and is not a
hex from which an Offensives ground unit entered the battle (no
overstacking). If these conditions cannot be met or if the battle-hex
is a one-hex island, the Reaction ground unit is eliminated.
21
8.6 Post Battle Movement
Post battle movement is conducted after all battles are concluded.
Only active units that have conducted no form of strategic movement
can conduct post battle movement. Movement allowances for air and
naval units in post battle movement are equal to those allowances
used for the Offensive. Ground units do not conduct post battle
movement except to retreat (8.5). The Reaction player conducts post
battle movement first, followed by the Offensives player. No form
of strategic movement is allowed during post battle movement.
8.61 Reaction Post Battle Movement
If a battle hex is captured by the Offensive, any Reaction player
ground units retreat if they can; if they cannot they are eliminated
(e.g., one hex island). If the Reaction ground units win they remain
in the battle hex. Active Reaction player units move and must end
their movement in a Reaction player controlled hex (e.g., air units on
airfields, naval units in port). The hex must be in supply and within
range of a friendly HQ if possible, but if this is not possible, then
any controlled hex is allowed. If no such locations are available the
unit(s) are eliminated. Reaction player air or naval units in the battle
hex can conduct emergency movement (See 7.22, 7.32).
8.62 Offensives Post Battle Movement
After all battle is concluded, all surviving Offensives units may either
end their move in the hex they occupy (if allowed or required) or
move to a friendly airfield (if air) or port (if naval). Land units may
only leave the hex they occupy if forced to retreat from combat.
After losing a battle Offensives ground units that used amphibious
assault conduct post battle movement like a naval unit but may not
voluntarily move into or through opposing occupied hexes or opposing non-neutralized air zones of influence. Exception: Due to losses
from air naval combat a ground unit that used amphibious assault
can find themselves during post battle movement in an unneutralized enemy air ZOI. In this circumstance the ground unit may enter
enemy air ZOIs until it enters a hex free of enemy air ZOIs when the
normal restriction is once again in effect. Naval units may remain
or move to a friendly controlled hex that contains a port. Air units
may move to a friendly controlled hex that contains an airfield.
Any unit that must move to a friendly location but is unable to do
so is eliminated.
9.0 Reinforcements & Amphibious
Shipping Points
9.1 Receiving Reinforcements:
9.l1 Reinforcement Placement
All reinforcements arrive on a schedule or due to an Event Card.
Place a ground or naval unit reinforcement in a friendly supply
eligible port hex within Activation range of an HQ that can activate
the unit. Place an air unit reinforcement in a friendly supply eligible
airfield hex within Activation Range of an HQ that can activate the
unit. Never place a reinforcement unit in an un-neutralized enemy
ZOI. HQs used for reinforcement placement must have begun the
turn on the map (not arriving as a reinforcement in the current turn).
HQs arriving as reinforcements can place reinforcement units only
in the hex they occupy. The Allied player places all reinforcements
first, and then the Japanese player does so. Placement of a reinforcement cannot alter enemy ZOI to allow other placements. When
placing reinforcements, stacking and placement restrictions cannot
be violated. An HQ arriving as a reinforcement must be placed in a
friendly supply eligible port.
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9.12 Special Allied Reinforcement Restrictions
Allied HQs are one of three nationalities: US (e.g., Central, South
[Ghormley or Halsey], Southwest), Commonwealth (e.g., Malaya,
SEAC), or Joint (e.g. ANZAC, ABDA). US HQs do not have an
Army or Navy distinction during US Inter-Service rivalry. Allied
reinforcements have restrictions on which nationality HQ they can
use for placement purposes.
A. US ground and naval units may only be placed in range of US,
and Joint HQs, whereas US air units may be placed in range of any
friendly HQ.
B. Commonwealth units may only be placed in range of Commonwealth or Joint HQs.
C. There are no reinforcements that are not US or Commonwealth
in the game, but whenever a Chinese unit needs to be placed as if it
were a reinforcement, it can only be placed in Kunming (2407).
9.13 Japanese Reinforcements
All Japanese HQs may be used to place any Japanese reinforcement unit. Unlike combat units that have Army or Navy distinctions during Inter-service rivalry. Japanese HQs are effectively
Joint HQs.
9.14 Entry Problem Reinforcements
If for any reason a reinforcement unit does not have a usable point
of entry (because an appropriate HQ is not available or any other
reason), the owning player may voluntarily delay the entry of that
reinforcement. The unit remains in the Delayed Reinforcement box
until it can correctly enter play during a subsequent reinforcement
phase. An Allied delayed reinforcement is eligible, each turn it
remains in the delay box, to be sent to Europe, and must make the
appropriate die roll to determine this.
9.2 Delayed Reinforcements
9.21 The War in Europe
Allied reinforcements can be delayed due to the War in Europe
(WIE) level or an event. At the beginning of the reinforcement
phase, the Allied player brings into play all units in the Delayed
Reinforcement box. After doing this, if the WIE level is No Effect,
the Allied player receives all new reinforcements for this turn. If the
WIE level is 1 or greater, or if required by Inter-Service Rivalry or
an Event Card play, all Allied reinforcements for this turn are placed
in the delay box. Certain units when being placed in the delay box
may be Sent To Europe (See 9.22).
9.22 Sent to Europe Eligible Units
US Army (blue) ground and air units (but not Marines) plus US CVE
(not CV or CVL) naval units are eligible to be sent to Europe. All
other units are exempt from being Sent to Europe.
9.23 Unit Types that Cannot be Delayed
HQ units and US B29 Air units can never be delayed.
9.24 Sent to Europe Die Roll
A die roll is made individually for each eligible unit when it is placed
in the Delayed Reinforcement box, even if this occurred due to an
event. If the Sent to Europe die roll for a unit falls in the indicated
range (determined by the current War In Europe level), the reinforcement is placed on the game turn track 3 turns later, to re-enter play
as a reinforcement. When a Sent to Europe unit re-enters play as a
reinforcement, it is as if it were attempting to enter play for the first
time. A unit can be Sent to Europe multiple times per game.
WIE Level:
None:
Level 1:
Level 2:
Level 3:
Level 4:
Die Roll Result Range
No die roll
0-1
0-3
0-5
0-7
9.3 Amphibious Shipping Points (ASPs)
At the start of each scenario both sides begin with a number of
Amphibious Shipping Points (ASPs) as indicated by the scenario.
Each ASP can only be used once per turn. Each time an ASP is used,
move the owner’s ASP Used marker on the Strategic Record track
as a way of recording how many of the available ASPs were used
during the current turn. At the start of a new turn, reset the markers
to indicate the full level.
9.31 Allied ASPs
The Allied player receives 1 ASP reinforcement per game turn
beginning with game turn 2 unless the WIE level is 3 or 4. These
reinforcement ASPs permanently increase the level available for
subsequent turns. There is no way to reduce the Allied ASP level,
including its reinforcement additions, once they are received. The
Allies can gain further permanent or temporary ASP additions due
to certain event cards (e.g., Edwin Booz: Defense Consultant and
Olympic & Coronet respectively).
9.32 Japanese ASPs
The Japanese begin each scenario with a pre-determined number
of ASPs. They begin the full Campaign scenario with 7 ASPs. The
Japanese do not receive any permanent reinforcement ASPs during
the game. The Japanese can gain additional temporary ASPs through
certain card events. The Japanese permanently lose one ASP each
time the Allies make a successful submarine warfare attack, in addition to other effects that may occur due to the attack. The Japanese
can never lose their last ASP for any reason, so once reduced to 1
ASP, they can be reduced no further by any action.
9.33 Japanese Barges and Allied PT Boats
One Japanese card is a Barge Event card. If played during the game,
this gives the Japanese a limited ability to allow ground units to
cross one sea hex side into an adjacent island. The Allied play of
the PT Boat card cancels the Japanese Barge capability, or, if played
before the Japanese play the Barge card, supersedes the ability for
the Japanese to play this event later in the game. See rule 7.47.
10.0 Replacements
Each side receives replacements in several ways to bring reduced
strength units to full strength and to bring eliminated units back into
play at reduced or full strength. To receive replacements, reduced
units already on the map must be supplied and not in an un-neutralized enemy ZOI. Eliminated units returning to the map are treated
identically to reinforcements. The Allied player places all replacements first, and then the Japanese player does so. Unless specifically
indicated otherwise (in the following rules or on an Event Card),
replacements that are not used in the turn of their arrival are lost.
10.1 Pre-War Unit Restrictions
Some Pre-War units from the Allied and Japanese sides cannot accept
replacements and consequently when eliminated are permanently
removed from play. These units that cannot accept replacements are
marked with a single dot on the front of their unit counters.
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10.2 Japanese Replacements
(1307), Trincomalee (1308), Singapore (2015), Hong Kong (2709),
or Townsville (3727).
The Japanese player receives a limited number of naval replacements
during the course of the game as indicated on the Replacements
Chart. These may be used to either bring reduced naval units to full
strength or bring eligible naval units from the eliminated unit pile
back into play as a reinforcement at reduced or full strength. Japanese naval unit replacement steps are not lost if not used and may
be carried over from game turn to game turn. Keep track of them
with the naval replacement marker on Strategic track.
10.34 Chinese Replacements
10.21 Japanese Naval Unit Scheduled Replacements
10.22 Japanese Air Unit Replacements
There are no scheduled replacements for Japanese air units. The
Japanese player may receive a small number of air replacements
through the play of certain events.
10.23 Japanese Ground Unit Replacements
There are no scheduled replacements for Japanese ground units.
During the replacement segment, the Japanese player may bring up
to two replacement steps from China. This is done by reducing the
available number of Japanese divisions in China by one or two and
bringing one reduced strength ground unit that is in supply back to
full strength for each China division taken, or one eliminated unit
back at reduced strength for each division taken, or one eliminated
unit back at full strength for two divisions taken. If no Japanese
divisions in China are available, the Japanese player may not receive ground unit replacements. The available Japanese divisions
in China are recorded by moving the marker on the China Divisions
track. Additionally, the play of some Event cards may yield Japanese ground replacements, which the Japanese player must use as
required by the card text.
10.3 Allied Replacements
10.31 Ground Replacements
If China has not surrendered, the Allied player receives one Chinese
replacement per odd numbered game turn. This Chinese replacement
may be used to either bring an eliminated Chinese army back from
the eliminated pile at reduced strength into hex 2407 (Kunming)
or to bring a reduced strength Chinese army back to full strength.
Note that since Kunming cannot be attacked it will always be an
available location for returning Chinese army units. A Chinese
replacement can be placed in Kunming only if it is a supply source
(See 12.75). Chinese replacements that cannot be used in the turn
they are received are lost. Other replacements may not be used for
Chinese units.
10.35 Dutch
There are no replacements for Dutch units. Once a Dutch unit is
eliminated it is permanently removed from the game.
11.0 Strategic Warfare
Strategic Warfare is all about determining Japanese and Allied Strategy Card hand size. The number of Strategy cards, which represent
resources in the game, drawn for each side is determined by conditions on the map and the outcome of Allied Strategic Warfare.
11.1 Japanese Strategy Cards
11.11 Resource Hexes
The Japanese player is entitled to draw one Strategy card for each
2 resource hexes under Japanese control, rounding up, at the start
of the Strategic Warfare Segment as the base Japanese draw. The
14 resource hexes are:
The Allied player receives a specific number of ground replacements as per the Replacement chart. If these replacements cannot be
used, they are lost (they go to Europe). The Allied player receives
two ground replacements per game turn, starting with game turn 2.
These replacements must be used or they are also lost. US Marine
Division and any US or Commonwealth Corps sized units can be
brought back from the eliminated unit pile as a reduced strength unit
through the use of 1 replacement, or a reduced unit can be brought
back to full strength by the use of one replacement. A unit in the
eliminated pile can be brought back to full strength in a single turn
by using two replacements.
The Japanese player controls a
resource hex if it has a Japanese control marker on it as per the hex control rules. See 12.1 Hex Control.
10.32 Air Replacements
The Allied player receives 5 air replacements per game turn. Each
of these may be used to bring an eligible air unit back from the
eliminated unit pile at reduced strength or bring a reduced strength
unit back to full strength. Additionally, two replacements may be
used to bring an eliminated unit back into play at full strength. If
these replacements are not used during the turn, they are lost (they
go to Europe).
10.33 Naval Replacements
The Allied player receives a number of specific naval replacements
as per the Replacement chart. If they cannot be used, they are lost.
The Allied player gains one or two US naval replacements per turn
(except on turn 1) if they control Oahu (5808) is under Allied control. Each of these may be used to bring an eligible naval unit back
from the eliminated unit pile at reduced strength or bring a reduced
strength unit back to full strength. Additionally, two replacements
may be used to bring an eliminated unit back into play at full strength.
The Allied player gains one Commonwealth naval replacement on
game turns 6, 9 and 12, if they control any one of the hexes Colombo
1813, 1916, 2017: Sumatra
2008: Burma
2014: Malaya
2220: Java
2415, 2517, 2616: Borneo
2813: Philippines
3219: New Guinea
3302, 3303: Manchuria
3305: Korea
11.12 Japanese Strategic Reserves
For game turns 2 through 4 the Japanese player draws 7 cards per turn
to represent pre-existing strategic reserves, regardless of the number
of resource hexes controlled. This draw of cards can be reduced due
to Submarine warfare; however the minimum number of cards that
the Japanese player can draw for any turn is 4 cards.
11.2 Submarine Warfare
11.21 Submarine Warfare Procedure
Before the Japanese card draw is made, the Allied player conducts
submarine warfare. The Allied player rolls the die and subtracts
the game turn number from the die roll. The result is then modified
by the factors in 11.22 below. If the modified result is zero or less,
the Japanese draw is reduced by one card. In addition the Japanese
player permanently loses one Amphibious Shipping point and has
any existing Escort modifier reduced from +4 to +2 or from +2 to
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zero. However, the Japanese cannot lose their last ASP in this manner
and cannot have their Escort modifier reduced below zero.
11.22 Submarine Warfare Modifiers
There are two potential modifiers to the Allied submarine warfare
die roll.
Submarine Warfare Modifiers
A. Japanese escort events, each of which add 2 to the Submarine
warfare die roll.
B. The Allied player adds 1 to the die roll for all 1942 game turns
due to defective torpedoes.
11.3 Strategic Bombing
11.31 B29 Availability
Only US B29 LRB units may conduct Strategic Bombing (the 20th
BC arrives on turn 9 and the 21st BC arrives on turn 10). A B29
must be on a supply eligible airfield within its 8 hex range of Tokyo
or be in supply in the Air units in China box in order to conduct
Strategic Bombing. B29 reinforcements cannot be delayed and they
may conduct strategic bombing on their turn of entry if they meet
all of the appropriate conditions. A B29 returned to play through
replacements may not conduct strategic bombing during the turn it
was returned from elimination. B29s that conduct Strategic Bombing
cannot participate in Battles during Offensives, but may attempt to
activate in reaction if opposing units enter their hex.
PLAY NOTE: If, through a combination of event cards or military
successes, the Japanese player manages to eliminate a B29 unit, it
will not be available for strategic bombing the next game turn even
if the Allies use air replacements to bring it back into play.
11.32 Strategic Bombing Procedure
The Allied player rolls a die for each B29 unit that is participating
in Strategic Bombing. A full strength B29 successfully strategically
bombs Japan on a die roll of 0-8 and fails on a die roll of 9. A reduced
strength B29 successfully strategically bombs Japan on a die roll of
0-4 and fails on a die roll of 5-9. Each successful strategic bombing
reduces the Japanese Strategy card draw for that game turn by one.
An unsuccessful strategic bombing has no effect. When conducting
strategic bombing any time a full or reduced strength B29 rolls a
9, the B29 loses one step unless the Allies control an airfield that is
within 3 hexes of Tokyo. This hex can be the same hex the B29 is
located in (for instance, Iwo Jima, hex 3709). The Japanese High
Altitude Interceptors event prevents the loss of a Japanese card for
purposes of rule 16.43,but does not change the success of a B29
attack for purposes of rule 16.2.
11.33 B29 Event Cards
There are Allied event cards that reference B29 unit locations that
may reduce the Japanese hand during the Offensives phase. These
effects are in addition to any Strategic bombing effects. Note: The
Japanese can lose at most two cards during Strategic Bombing, but
may lose additional cards due to B29 events during the game turn.
11.4 Japanese Passing
If the Japanese receive 6 cards they receive one pass, if they receive
5 or less cards they receive 2 passes. The Japanese cannot receive
less than 4 cards during the Strategy draw phase. A pass may be used
instead of the play of a card during the Offensives phase. Unused
passes are lost at the end of the Offensives phase.
11.5 Allied Strategy Cards
11.51 Allied Draw
except during the first three game turns. On game turn one the Allied
player receives no cards. On game turn 2 the Allied player draws 5
cards and 2 passes. On game turn 3 the Allied player draws 6 cards
and 1 pass. Thereafter the Allied player draws 7 cards per game turn.
The Allied player’s minimum Strategy card draw is 4 cards per turn,
even if the conditions would dictate a smaller hand. Allied passes
are used in the same way as passes for the Japanese player, and, as
with the Japanese player, cannot be accumulated.
11.52 Allied Draw Limitations
The Allied player loses one card draw per turn for each of the following conditions plus gains one pass per card lost up to two:
A. If China surrenders or has previously surrendered.
B. If India surrenders or has previously surrendered.
C. If Australia surrenders or has previously surrendered.
D. If the War In Europe is at level 4 at the beginning of the game
turn.
12.0 National Status
A nation surrenders if the opposing player controls certain hexes of
that nation during the National Status Segment. If Japan surrenders
the game is over and the Allied player wins the game. If an Allied
nation surrenders, the Japanese player automatically gains control of
all of its on map airfields and ports that are not occupied by Allied
units. An Allied nation can only surrender once per game. However,
should the Allies recapture the locations that the Japanese player had
to capture to make the nation surrender, they regain control of all of
that nation’s airfields and ports except for those that have a Japanese
unit (of any type) in the hex. In this case those occupied hexes remain
Japanese until they are evacuated or abandoned. Additionally, as
noted in rule 11.52, the Allied card draw does not recover along with
the recapture of a nation that has previously surrendered.
PLAY NOTE: Surrender markers have been supplied to keep track
of which nations have surrendered over the course of the game.
DESIGN NOTE: We have chosen not to burden the map with extensive map boundaries and other means of denoting to which nation
each and every island belongs. From a game point of view it is
only important to know which ports, airfields, and resource hexes
belong to a given nation. Consequently, we have defined many of
these boundaries in terms of their distance from some key hex. Most
are obvious, but this section of the rules defines them specifically
for all game purposes.
12.1 Hex Control
The last player to have a ground unit using normal movement to
enter or pass through a hex controls the hex. Ground units that
enter a hex via amphibious assault (using an ASP, organic naval,
or barge transport) and are not eliminated or forced to retreat in
battle gain control of the hex prior to post-battle movement. Control
markers are placed at the instant control is established.
For example, during an Allied Offensive, Japanese controlled
Guadalcanal (4423) is declared a battle hex and the Allies win,
eliminating all Japanese ground units on Guadalcanal. The Allies
have in the Guadalcanal hex US CA Northampton and 1st Marine
Division, and on Espiritu Santo (4825) the 13th AF non-LRB air unit
that participated in the battle. Just prior to post battle movement, the
1st Marine Division gains control of the Guadalcanal hex and the
CA Northampton remains in the Guadalcanal hex, while the 13th
AF non-LRB air unit moves to the Guadalcanal hex.
The Allied player receives a Strategy card draw of 7 cards per turn,
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12.2 Philippines
dalay (2106), Lashio (2206), AND Mytkiyina (2305). Remove all
Commonwealth units that have Burma (B) in their unit designation
from play during the National Status Segment.
12.21 Philippines Definition
The Philippines are defined as
all hexes that are contiguous
land hexes with Manila (2813)
or Davao (2915) or an island hex
within 2 hexes of Manila/Corregidor, plus Jolo Island (2715).
The key Philippines bases are
hexes: 2715, 2812, 2813, 2911,
2915, 3014.
12.6 India
DESIGN NOTE: India was too large for the Japanese to conquer,
but it could be made unstable and taken out of the war due to the
Gandhi peace movement and the requirements of garrisoning a
very unstable native population, which could defect from Allied
offensive operations.
12.61 Movement in India
12.22 Philippine Surrender
The Philippines surrender when the Japanese player controls Manila (2813) and Davao (2915). Remove all allied ground units in
Philippine hexes from play during the National Status Segment. If
the unit is eligible for return to the game, such as a US HQ, it can
do so through the appropriate reinforcement and HQ rules . Any
US air or naval units in Philippine hexes when it surrenders use an
Emergency Air or Naval move.
12.3 Malaya and Siam
12.31 Malaya Definition
Malaya is defined as all contiguous land hexes within 3 hexes of
Singapore (2015). The key bases are: 1912, 1913, 2012, 2014,
2015, 2112.
12.32 Malaya Surrenders
Malaya surrenders when the Japanese player controls Singapore
(2015) and Kuantan (2014). No Allied units are removed from play
due to the surrender of Malaya.
12.33 Siam Definition and Surrender
Siam has no forces and does not surrender per se, but is treated as
individual hexes. The last side to have ground units pass through a
Siam hex controls it.
12.4 Dutch East Indies
12.41 Dutch East Indies Definition
The Dutch East Indies comprises the Islands of Sumatra (1813,
1914, 1916, 1917,2017), Java (2018, 2019, 2220), Borneo (2216,
2318, 2415, 2517, 2616), Celebes (2620, 2719, 2917), Bali (2320),
Amboina (2919), Timor (2721), and Morotai (3017).
DESIGN NOTE: The Dutch East Indies comprises most of the islands
surrounding those that are defined above. Since they have no bases
they rarely come into play. Consequently we have simplified the
definition to what has impact vice geographical correctness.
12.42 Dutch East Indies Surrender
The Dutch East Indies surrender when the Japanese player controls
the seven resource spaces on Sumatra, Borneo, & Java, AND controls
Tjilatjap (2019). When the Dutch East Indies surrender, all Dutch
units are removed from play during the National Status Segment
and the Japanese now control all Dutch airfields and ports that do
not contain US or Commonwealth ground units.
12.5 Burma
12.51 Burma Definition
Burma has a border on the map, but for completeness is defined as
comprising the bases in hexes: 2006, 2008, 2106, 2206, 2305 and
the adjacent jungle hexes without bases.
12.52 Burma Surrender
25
Burma surrenders when the Japanese control Rangoon (2008), Man-
India is defined as having three parts. Northern India consists of
Jorhat (2104), Dimapur (2005), Ledo (2205), Dacca (1905), and
Imphal-Kohima (2105). Mainland India is composed of all Indian
coastal hexes that are not in Northern India and Ceylon. Ceylon
consists of all hexes on that island. Japanese units may never enter
Mainland India, although Japanese air and naval units may attack
Mainland India hexes that are within range. Allied units may enter
any hex in India.
12.62 India Surrender
If the Japanese player controls all hexes of Northern India, move the
India marker to its Unrest box during the National Status Segment.
Other events may also move the India marker into the Unrest box.
If India is in unrest for two consecutive National Status Segments,
move the marker into the India Unstable box. If India is unstable for
two consecutive National Status Segments, India surrenders. The
India marker has two sides. Flip the marker over to denote the second
turn in a box. If at any time the Allied player controls any portion
of Northern India, by attacking out of Calcutta, or via Amphibious
invasion, or by card play, during the next National Status Segment
move the marker to the India Stable position to begin the cycle again.
Once India surrenders, it cannot come back into the war.
PLAY NOTE: India surrenders when the it has been Unstable for two
consecutive National Status segments. Japanese cards 15 and 82 are
Gandhi cards that can change the status of the India marker from
Unrest to Unstable, if it is already in the Unrest box, but not whether
it has been Unstable for two consecutive National Status Segments.
For example, if the India marker was on Unrest, 2nd turn and one
of the Gandhi events moved the marker into the Unstable box, the
marker would be flipped to its India front side as the marker had not
yet spent one National Status Segment in the Unrest box.
12.63 Implications of India Surrendering
All Indian Commonwealth units are removed from the game. All
other Commonwealth units in India are either placed on Ceylon or
the Maldive Islands (1005), or are permanently removed from the
game if all of Ceylon and the Maldive Islands are Japanese controlled. Hexes units are moved to must be supply eligible and not
within an un-neutralized Japanese aircraft Zone Of Influence. Units
that would overstack are permanently removed from play (by the
Allied player’s choice).
12.7 China
12.71 Moving in China
Non-Chinese Allied or Japanese units may enter/attack only Chinese
coastal hexes. Chinese units may only enter Northern India, Burma,
Kunming (hex 2407), and all hexes adjacent to Kunming. The one
notable exception to this is Allied air units. Up to two air units may
fly from any Northern India airfield to the Air Units In China Box
and vice versa. The distance between and any Northern Indian airfield and the Air Units in China box is considered one ‘leg’ (12.71)
regardless of the air unit’s actual range factor. If there are no Allied
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controlled Northern India airbases, air units in China may not leave
China until the situation is rectified. If China surrenders, these air
units are removed from play and return as reinforcements, unless
there are no Allied controlled Northern India airbases, in which case
they are removed from play. Hong Kong, hex 2509, and the island
of Formosa (Taiwan) are not considered to be parts of China.
12.72 China Offensives
The Japanese player may launch OC and EC Chinese offensives.
EC Chinese offensives are based on the play of a particular event
card. OC Chinese offensives are due to the Japanese player playing
any 3OC and successfully conducting a China OC Card Offensive.
An OC Chinese offensive can occur no more than once per turn,
but there is no limit to the number of Chinese Offensive Event
cards that can be played per turn. Additionally, the Japanese player
is restricted to conducting an OC China Offensive only during an
even numbered game turn (thus up to a maximum of 6 per game). A
successful Japanese conducted Chinese Offensive moves the China
marker one or more (for some events) boxes toward Government
Collapse. Unsuccessful Japanese conducted Chinese Offensives or
the Allied play of a China Offensive event moves the China marker
one or more (for some events) boxes on the China track toward
Stable Front. A China OC Card Offensive is resolved by the following procedure:
A. The Japanese player first determines an Offensive Baseline value.
To do this, take the number of Japanese Divisions in China (see the
specific scenario set up for the starting level of this track) and subtract
from this value any Allied Burma Road support as indicated by the
marker position on the Burma Road Status track. In addition, add
one to the China Offense die roll for each Allied air support unit (one
per air unit, see C). The Japanese player then rolls the die. If this
die roll is equal to or less than the Offensive Baseline value, move
the marker on the Chinese Government Front Status track one box
toward or into the Government Collapsed box. On all other results,
the marker does not move unless the China Offensive failed and
the Allies had at least one Air unit in China, in which case it moves
one box to the right. The marker can never move beyond the China
Stable or China Collapses boxes.
B. The Japanese player may also play any number of Chinese Offensive Event Cards in addition to their periodic Chinese Offensive
OC offensives.
C. The Allied player increases the China Offensive die roll by one
for each non-LRB air unit in China. This is done during any Reinforcement Segment by placing the air unit in the Air units in China
Box, or the air unit can fly to China from a Northern Indian airbase.
Special Exception: If the 14th Air Force LRB air unit is in China it
increases the China Offensive die roll by one. No more than 2 Air
units in China of which only one can be a B29.
D. The only other ways the Allied player can move the China
marker to the right is by playing a China Offensive Event Card,
or through the play of the first option on the Soviet Invasion of
Manchuria event.
12.73 China Surrenders
The instant (does not wait for the National Status Segment) the
Chinese marker is in the China Collapses box during the Offensive
Segment, China surrenders. If China surrenders, all Allied air units
in China are placed on the game turn track to return as reinforcements in the next game turn. These reinforcements may be delayed.
In addition, permanently remove all Chinese units from the game.
Please note that China cannot collapse based on an Event card play,
but only due to a Chinese offensive initiated by an OC. If an Event
card play would move the China marker into the Government Collapsed box, it is instead simply not moved.
DESIGN NOTE: China was always too much for the Japanese to
swallow. Surrender in this context means that the Central government has collapsed and the portions not under Japanese control
have fallen into the hands of local warlords. The Japanese might
have been able to make separate deals with these warlords, while
continuing the conflict against the Communists allowing Japan to
annex the occupied portions of China.
12.74 B29 and Allied Air Units in China
Up to two Allied air units may be in the Air Units in China box
(hereafter called China Box) at any one time, but only one of these
air units may be a B29. Allied air units are in supply in the China
Box if the Burma Road is open or the HUMP is active and there is
a supply eligible airfield in Northern India (regardless of road status). If China has not surrendered and the Burma Road is open, the
Allied player may place Allied Air units as reinforcements directly
into the China box as long as there are never more than 2 air units
in the China Box, only one of which may be a B29. Allied air units
(including B29s) that are activated during an offensive (to include
reaction) can fly from a Northern India supply eligible airfield to
the China Box and vice versa. The distance between the China box
and any airfield in Northern India is considered one ‘leg’ (7.31)
regardless of the air unit’s actual range factor. A B29 unit in China
is considered to be in range of Tokyo only for Strategic Bombing
and 16.2 Allied Victory purposes.
12.75 Kunming, Allied Supply, and Chinese Army Units
Kunming is a supply source if the Burma Road is open (See 12.76)
or the HUMP is active (through the play of Allied event card 17)
and there is a supply eligible Northern India airfield. Any Allied
unit is in supply if it can trace an overland supply path directly to
Kunming. This is an exception to the normal supply rules where
an HQ is required to place a unit in supply. This supply path can
be used to activate a unit assuming an activation path also exists.
Kunming and all adjacent hexes are considered Allied controlled
and occupied for all game purposes.
Chinese Army units can be activated by any Allied HQ in range.
Unsupplied Chinese Army units cannot be activated and suffer attrition normally. Chinese units may enter only Northern India, Burma,
Kunming (hex 2407), and hexes adjacent to Kunming. If forced to
enter a hex in any other nation, Chinese units are eliminated.
12.76 Burma Road
The Burma Road is the strategic transport route in hexes 2206, 2306,
and 2407. If a contiguous strategic transport route can be traced from
Kunming to Madras, through Allied controlled hexes, the Burma
Road is open; if not the Burma Road is closed. Each scenario will
specify in its set up the starting status of the Burma Road. Place the
Burma Road marker in the appropriate box. Whenever the Japanese
control one or more hexes that interrupt the route, the Burma Road
marker is placed in the Burma Road closed/ NO HUMP box.
Regardless of the Burma Road status, if the Allies play card 17:
Chinese Airlift, HUMP Operations into China event, the HUMP
is active and the Burma Road marker is flipped to its HUMP side
for the remainder of the game. If the Burma Road is closed and the
marker is on its HUMP side, the Burma Road marker is placed in
the Burma Road/HUMP box as long as the Allies control a supply
eligible Northern India airfield. If the Allies do not control a supply
eligible Northern India airfield, the Burma Road marker is placed
in the Burma Road/ NO HUMP box, but returns to the Burma Road
Closed/ HUMP box as soon as this condition can be met. During a
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Japanese player Chinese OC Offensive, the Allied player subtracts
the Burma Road support modifier from the Chinese Offensive
baseline value.
12.77 Japanese Intrinsic Strength in China.
Each city hex in Japanese occupied China is considered to contain
one intrinsic, 9-12, one step, Japanese ground unit, for each 4 boxes
still remaining on the Japanese Divisions In China track. This count
is rounded up, so, for example, if there are 5 remaining boxes on
the track, there would be two intrinsic units per hex of China. This
information is incorporated into the track. These steps are always the
last ones eliminated in the hex (do not count for stacking purposes),
if there are other non-intrinsic units present. These units are considered no longer present in a hex controlled by the Allies, but are not
permanently eliminated from the hex, and return to consideration
if the hex returns to Japanese control.
Note: Hong Kong (hex 2509) begins the 1941 Campaign Scenario as
Allied controlled, but once it becomes Japanese controlled or begins
a scenario as Japanese controlled it has Japanese intrinsic strength
(see map) and adheres to all rules in this section (12.77).
12.8 Australia
12.91 Manchuko
Japanese and Allied units may enter all hexes of Japan except for
Manchuko. Manchuko may be conquered by the play of the Soviet
Manchurian Offensive card at the appropriate time, but may otherwise not be entered.
12.92 Marshall Islands
The Marshall Islands are defined as all islands that are within 2 hexes
of 4415 Eniwetok and 4715 Kwajalein. If the Allies control these
two hexes during the National Surrender phase, then all islands in
the Marshall Islands that do not contain land units become Allied
controlled. Any Japanese air or naval units in these hexes can immediately use emergency air-naval movement.
12.93 Japanese Surrender
Japan surrenders when all hexes on Honshu are Allied controlled
or if no ultimate Japanese Supply Source can trace a path of hexes
to a Resource hex for three consecutive National Status segments.
This path is traced like a supply line. If the Allies control all Chinese
coastal port hexes and Korea, the Japanese can no longer remove
Japanese China divisions from China and cannot conduct any further
China Offensives (OC or EC).
12.94 Invading Japan
12.81 Australian Territory
Australia has two parts, mainland Australia and the mandates. Mainland Australia consists of all hexes in Australia. The Mandates consist of the following locations and all one hex islands or contiguous
land hexes adjacent to them: Admiralty Is. (3820), Kavieng (4020),
Rabaul (4021), Bougainville (4222), Guadalcanal (4423).
12.82 Australian Surrender
If all Australian coastal airfields and ports on mainland Australia
(not the Mandates) are Japanese controlled during a National Status
Segment, then Australia surrenders. Australian units already in play
are unaffected by Australia surrendering, and continue to be available
for normal use by the Allied player.
12.83 Terms of Australian Surrender
Australia can only surrender once per game. Allied units can regain
control of Australian mainland hexes later in the game and use them,
but it doesn’t undo the earlier surrender. Any Australian reinforcements that would arrive after Australia surrenders are permanently
lost. Reduced Australian units that remain in play may receive
replacements, but if eliminated, they are removed from the game.
12.84 Mandate Control
Whoever controls Rabaul (4021) and Guadalcanal (4423) during
a National Status Segment controls all Mandate hexes that are not
occupied by opposing ground units.
12.85 New Guinea
Whoever controls all the ports plus the resource hex on New Guinea
automatically gains control of all named locations on New Guinea
that are not occupied by opposing units.
12.9 Japan
27
Japan consists of six parts: Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, Shikoku,
Manchuko (hexes 3302 and 3303 plus all adjacent hexes except
3304), Korea (3305 and adjacent hexes), and the Mandates (Formosa,
Sakhalin Is, the Kuriles, Okinawa, Iwo Jima, Marcus, the Marianas
minus Guam, the Carolines, and the Marshall Islands); see the map
boundary. The Japanese Home Islands consist of only Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku. Note: Card text references to Japanese
islands means Japanese Home Islands.
Each city hex in the Japanese Home Islands, that is Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku, is considered to contain an intrinsic
12-12, one step ground unit (no stacking affect). This step is always
the last one eliminated in the hex. Once an Allied control marker is
placed in a Japanese hex, this intrinsic ground step is permanently
eliminated, even if the Japanese later regain control of the hex.
13.0 Supply and Attrition
Supply status (supplied, unsupplied, or supply-eligible) must be
determined to activate a unit, to determine whether or not an air
unit exerts a ZOI, for attrition determination, and when placing
reinforcements and replacements.
13.1 Supply Lines
An HQ or unit must be linked by a supply line to a supply source
to be considered supplied (or supply-eligible). An HQ is in supply
if an unblocked hex path of any length can be traced from the HQ
to an appropriate ultimate supply source (13.2). A unit is supplied
if an unblocked hex path can be traced from a supplied appropriate
(7.53) activating HQ to the unit and the path does not exceed the
HQ’s range. A supply line can be traced across any hexside except
the following:
• An unplayable hexside (see map)
• A water hexside of an un-neutralized enemy ZOI hex.
• Any all land hexside of a non-port coastal hex that the path has
entered across a sea-hexside.
• Any land hexside of an enemy controlled port hex that the path
has entered across a sea-hexside.
• Any sea hexside of an enemy controlled port hex that the path
has entered across a land hexside.
• A land hexside of any hex occupied solely by an enemy ground
or air unit.
Important: During an Offensive, any activated unit remains supplied
until the end of the Offensive.
In rare local situations where the ZOI of Japanese and Allied air
units mutually render one another unsupplied (that is absent the
ZOI projected by the Allied air unit, The Japanese player’s air unit
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would be in supply and thus exert a ZOI; but that Japanese ZOI,
if projected would cut supply to the Allied air unit in question),
only Allied air units are considered to exert a ZOI for supply status
determination.
13.2 Ultimate Supply Sources
Ultimate Supply Source paths are used to determine the supply status
of HQs and the supply eligibility of ports and airfields. Each hex
on the east, south, and west map edges is an Allied ultimate supply
source. Each Japanese controlled city hex in the Japanese Home
Islands is a Japanese ultimate supply source.
13.3. Emergency Supply Routes
13.31 The Hump
Play of the China Airlift (Allied #17) card establishes a supply
line between Kunming and any Allied controlled supply-eligible
Northern India airfield.
13.32. Tokyo Express
Play of the Big Tokyo Express Operation (Japanese #28) or the
Tokyo Express (Japanese #44) card allows the Japanese player to
place the Tokyo Express marker in play to create a temporary supply
line between any one Japanese HQ and any one hex within range of
that HQ for the duration of the Offensive. Units in the hex with the
Tokyo Express marker are automatically supplied. Nothing can sever
a Tokyo Express marker supply. Place the Tokyo Express marker
in the hex as a mnemonic. After the Offensive, the Tokyo Express
marker remains in the hex until one of three events occurs: (1) the
hex becomes Allied controlled; (2) another Japanese card is played
that moves the Tokyo Express marker to another location; or (3) the
game turn ends. There can never be more than one Tokyo Express
marker in play at any time.
SUPPLY PATH EXAMPLE 1: The ZOI of two US air units block a
Japanese supply path by sea to the Japanese corps on Java. However,
the Japanese player can trace a supply path across Borneo from
friendly port (A) to friendly port (B), and then back out to sea. Note
that the supply line across Borneo can pass through an empty hex
controlled by the Allied player.
13.4 Attrition
During the Attrition Segment, all unsupplied full strength air and
ground units are flipped to their reduced strength sides (naval units
are not affected by attrition). An emergency supply route (China
Airlift, Tokyo Express) prevents attrition in the affected hex. Unsupplied reduced strength air and ground units that are within range of
any friendly HQ (whether the HQ is supplied or not) remain on their
reduced side. Unsupplied reduced strength air and ground units are
not within range of a friendly HQ are eliminated. When determining range from HQ to unit for purposes of determining attrition,
the hex path cannot be blocked by enemy units or opposing ZOI.
Attrition is calculated and applied simultaneously, so it is possible
that opposing units can mutually attrite each other. Note that units
with only one side (e.g., Dutch regiments, the US Marine Wake unit)
are considered to be on their reduced side.
14.0 Inter-Service Rivalry
Inter-Service rivalry can only be triggered by the play of the appropriate Event card. Inter-Service rivalry can only end due to the play
of an Event card (Exception: One year scenario special rules 17.26,
17.37, and 17.47). Both sides experienced inter-service rivalry during the war. When these conditions were present, the coordination
of military units and logistics was less effective. To simulate this,
certain events create inter-service rivalry, which is denoted by flipping the appropriate Inter-Service rivalry marker to its Inter-Service
rivalry side on the map. When an Event card ends Inter-Service
Rivalry, flip the appropriate marker to its Strategic Agreement side
to designate this condition.
14.1 US Inter-Service Rivalry
If US Inter-Service rivalry is in effect the following conditions
prevail:
SUPPLY PATH EXAMPLE 2: In this situation a Japanese air unit
at (B) neutralizes the allied air ZOI to allow passage of the supply
path to unit (D). Note that while a Supply path can pass through an
enemy controlled hex (A and E), it may not use an enemy controlled
port to enter the hex across a land hexside and exit it across a sea
hexside and vice versa.
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A. All US Army/Air Corps (not Allied or US Marine/Navy) reinforcements are automatically delayed.
B. All WIE diverted to Europe die rolls have 1 subtracted from
them.
C. A US HQ cannot activate both US Army units and US Naval
units during the same offensive (see glossary) or in reaction to
the same offensive. Only one of these can be activated for that
offensive or reaction to that offensive, either US Army units OR
US Naval units, though other Allied units are not so restricted.
US Army ground units may use Amphibious Assault during
inter-service rivalry.
14.2 Japanese Inter-Service Rivalry
If Japanese Inter-Service rivalry is in effect the following conditions prevail:
A. An HQ cannot activate both army and naval units (see glossary)
in the same offensive or in reaction to the same offensive.
B. The Japanese can only use one half (round up) of their amphibious shipping points while this condition persists.
15.7 Maximum Levels
The WIE level may never increase beyond +3or decrease beyond
–7. Actions that would exceed these limits are ignored and do not
accumulate.
16.0 Winning The Campaign Scenarios
These victory conditions apply to the Full Campaign Scenario (17.1),
the Shortened Campaign Scenario (17.8) and the Even Shorter
Campaign Scenario (17.9). The other six scenarios covering shorter
periods during the war (17.2 - 17.7) have their own victory conditions detailed individually.
16.1 Automatic Victory
If Japan surrenders the game immediately ends and the Allied player
wins. If during any End Of Turn Phase, the US Political Will marker
is in the Negotiations Box (Zero), the game ends and the Japanese
player wins. If none of these conditions occur, then there is no automatic victory, and the winner is determined at the conclusion of
game turn 12 by the following conditions.
16.2 Allied Victory
15.0 War In Europe
The War In Europe (WIE) level is denoted by the WIE track. The
current WIE status is either No Effect or a level from 1 to 4, based
on the location of the WIE marker on the track. War In Europe Event
cards increase (Allied) or decrease (Japanese) the WIE level. Different levels of WIE have varying game effects as follows.
15.1 No Effect
No Effect: Level of +1 to +3
No impact on play.
15.2 Level 1
Level 1: WIE Level of 0 to –2
A. Allied reinforcements delayed.
B. US Sent to Europe range is 0-1.
15.3 Level 2
Level 2: WIE Level of –3 to –4
A. Allied reinforcements delayed.
B. US Sent to Europe range is 0-3.
15.4 Level 3
Level 3: WIE Level of –5 to –6
A. Allied reinforcements delayed.
B. US Sent to Europe range is 0-5.
C. Allies lose their Amphibious Shipping point reinforcement.
15.5 Level 4
Level 4: WIE Level of –7
A. Allied reinforcements delayed.
B. US Sent to Europe range is 0-7.
C. Allies lose their Amphibious Shipping point reinforcement.
D. Allies draw one less card (see 11.52 D).
E. Move the US Political Will marker one box to the left during the
National Status Segment.
15.6 Modified Die Rolls
29
Die rolls that are less than zero are treated as zero. Die rolls that are
greater than nine are treated as a modified nine.
The Allied player wins if, during the game turn 12 End Of Turn
Phase, Japan has been successfully strategically bombed on four
consecutive turns, has 1 or zero resource hexes, and a B29 is in
range of Tokyo, or Japan has surrendered.
DESIGN NOTE: The most difficult part of this design was how to determine Allied victory, while still making the game interesting for the
Japanese player. There was never a chance that Japan could “win”
the war. Their strategy, and the best they could have hoped for, was
that the US would negotiate a settlement of less than unconditional
surrender. In addition, I needed to force the historical mindset on
the Allied player that an invasion of Japan had to be contemplated
and planned for, especially since most wartime personages were
unaware of the Manhattan project until the A-bomb was ready for
operational use. Consequently, to make a contest of it, the Allied
player must perform a bit better than was achieved historically by
the conclusion of the war or the Allies must carry out the invasion of
the home islands. The notion here is that, if a variety of factors associated with the Japanese decision to surrender were delayed, other
paths may have been chosen. So, if the Allies have to invade Japan
to win the game, it is because the Manhattan project was delayed,
the Soviets failed to invade Manchuria, or the Allies were unable to
destroy Japanese industry due to a later starting B29 campaign. If
the Allies do not complete the surrender of Japan through invasion,
it is assumed that the high casualty cost causes a move to negotiate
an end to hostilities, resulting in a phrrhic Japanese victory.
16.3 Japanese Victory
If the Allied player does not win by the conclusion of game turn 12,
the Japanese player wins.
16.4 US Political Will
The US Political Will marker moves due to the play of an event or
during the National Status Segment when the following conditions
occur.
16.41 Allied Surrenders
Australia: Reduce US Political Will by 2.*
Burma: Reduce US Political Will by 1.*
China: Reduce US Political Will by 2.
Dutch East Indies: Reduce US Political Will by 1.*
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India: Reduce US Political Will by 2.
Malaya: Reduce US Political Will by 1.*
Philippines: Reduce US Political Will by 1.*
All Allied nations on this list have surrendered: Reduce US Political
Will by 2. * = If this Allied Nation has surrendered to the Japanese
and is subsequently recaptured by the Allies, US Political Will is
increased by the value lost when this Nation originally surrendered.
For example if the Allies recapture Malaya the US Political Will is
increased by 1.
Any other locations that are not mentioned above have no impact on
US Political Will when they surrender or change control.
16.42 Occupation of Alaska or Hawaii
Alaska is considered occupied if a Japanese unit continuously occupies any single hex in Aleutian Islands (Hexes 4600–5100) at the
end of any three consecutive US Political Will Segments: Reduce
US Political Will by 1. This result can be earned only one time per
game. Hawaii is considered occupied if a Japanese unit continuously occupies any hex in the major Hawaiian Islands (Hexes 5708,
5808, 5908) or Midway (5108) at the end of any two consecutive
US Political Will Segments: Reduce US Political Will by 1. This
result also can be earned only one time per game.
16.43 Strategic Warfare
A. If the Japanese control 3 or less Resource hexes during any game
turn between turn 5 and 12, increase US Political Will by 3. This
can occur only once per game.
B. If US Strategic Bombing reduces the Japanese card draw by one or
more cards, shift the US Political Will marker 1 to the Right, even if
the Japanese card draw cannot be reduced further due to already being at minimum. This can occur no more than once per game turn.
16.44 Events
A. Operation Z: Pearl Harbor Attack Event: The play of this card
increases US Political Will by 8.
B. Other Event cards increase or decrease US Political Will as per
the event text.
16.45 US Casualties
If, as a result of a combat when the Allies are the Offensives player
the entire attacking force in a ground battle is eliminated and at least
one of the ground units was a US land unit of division or corps size
(XX or XXX) that can receive replacements , the Allied player automatically loses1 Political Will point, moving the marker one box
to the left. No losses are taken for Allied units other than US units.
The Allies cannot lose more than one Political Will point per game
turn due to this condition. Note: US ground units that cannot receive
replacements do not count for purposes of this rule.
16.46 Strategic Naval Situation
If at the end of any game turn there are no US carrier units on the
map, the Allied player loses one US political will point, moving
the marker one box to the left. The Allied player loses an additional
US political will point if there are no US naval units of any type
on the map.
16.47 Progress of the War
From game turn 4 until the end of the game, if by the end of the US
Political Will Segment the Allies fail to capture and retain control of
Japanese controlled hexes (that contain a named location, Resource,
port, or airfield) equal to or greater than 4 or the number of ASPs
available at the conclusion of the reinforcement phase, whichever
is smaller, then the Allies lose 1 political will point. The capture of
Allied controlled hexes has no impact on this calculation, except
the re-capture of hexes that began the turn as Japanese controlled
hexes. One hex islands that do not contain a resource, port, or airfield do not count for progress of the war purposes. Hexes captured
due to National Surrender do count for calculating the Allied total
of captured hexes.
EXAMPLE: On game turn 4 the Allies have 3 ASPs at the conclusion of the Reinforcement phase. Therefore 3, not 4 is the number
of Japanese hexes that must be captured. During the turn the Allies
capture 5 Japanese controlled hexes and the Japanese re-capture
3of those hexes for a net difference of 2 hexes captured and retained,
which is less than the required 4 so US Political Will is reduced by
one. Changes in national status that alter the control of a group of
hexes count for the Allies toward achieving their goal.
16.48 War in Europe Level 4
See 15.5, E.
16.49 Tournament Play
Although the full campaign scenario is designed for the ultimate
EOTS playing experience, it will often be a bit lengthy for the time
constraints of a tournament situation. The yearly scenarios (1942,
1943, and 1944) were designed with tournament play in mind. It
should take two players well versed in the rules approximately 2
hours to play a year scenario, although it will take longer when you
are learning the system.
The year scenarios were designed to be as balanced as possible,
but play style is a hard thing to define and it is often the case that
a player favors one side or another in a tournament situation. It is
suggested that players use the bidding system to determine sides in
a tournament situation.
Tournament Bidding
A. Non-Campaign Scenario Bidding
Players bid victory points to determine which side they will play.
After the pieces are set up, both players write down on a piece of
paper a number of victory points that they are bidding to play a particular side. A player can choose either side and can bid any number
of victory points they desire. A player must pick a side, but is allowed
to bid zero victory points. There are two possible outcomes: both
players pick the same side or each player picks a different side.
1. If both players pick the same side, the player who bid more points
gets to play that side. If the winning player is playing the Japanese
side, the bid number of victory points is subtracted from the Japanese
total at the end of the scenario. If the winning player is playing the
Allied side, the bid amount is added to the total of Japanese victory
points at the end of the scenario.
EXAMPLE: If Mark bids 1 VP to play the Japanese and Grant bids
0 VPs to play the Japanese, Mark gets the Japanese and subtracts
1VP from his VP total at the end of the scenario. If, on the other hand,
both Mark and Grant bid for the Allied side, and the winning bid was
2 VPs, then the player with the Japanese would have 2 VPs added to
his total at the end of the scenario.
2. If both players pick different sides, the net difference is added or
subtracted from the Japanese total.
EXAMPLE: If Mark bids 2 VPs to play the Japanese and Grant bids
3 VPs to play the Allies, each player gets the side they bid, but Mark
(the Japanese player) adds 1VP to his total at the end of the scenario,
however, if Mark had bid 3 VPs to play the Japanese and Grant bid
2 VPs to play the Allies, then Mark (still as the Japanese player)
would subtract 1VP from his total at the end of the scenario.
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3. In cases of ties, a high die roll determines the winning bid. In case
of tie die rolls, re-roll until someone wins.
Optional: The Allies may choose Allied card 4: Arcadia Conference
as one of their cards for game turn 2.
PLAYER NOTE: Playtesting results indicate that a bid of higher
than 3 victory points for any side is probably excessive.
DESIGN NOTE: This card has been very hard to get right, as the
Japanese went into the war without foreknowledge of how successful they would be in catching the Allies unprepared for war.
Consequently, they went into this initial operation with some critical assumptions that need to be accounted for in order to give you
the opportunity to write your own history of this event within a
reasonable set of historical restrictions. Players who want a more
unrestrictive environment can unofficially relax the restriction on
where the Japanese can Amphibious Assault.
B. Campaign Game Bidding
Players bid US Political Will boxes to determine which side they
will play. After the pieces are set up, both players write down on
a piece of paper a number of US Political Will boxes that they are
bidding to play a particular side. A player can choose either side and
can bid any number of US Political Will boxes they desire. A player
must pick a side, but is allowed to bid zero US Political Will boxes.
There are two possible outcomes: both players pick the same side
or each player picks a different side.
1. If both players pick the same side, the player who bid more US
Political Will boxes gets to play that side. If the winning player is
playing the Japanese side, the US Political Will bid is added to the
US Political Will total at the conclusion of Operation Z when the US
Political Will is normally set at +8. If the winning player is playing
the Allied side, the bid amount is subtracted from the US Political
Will total at the conclusion of Operation Z.
2. If both players pick different sides, the net difference of US Political Will bids are added or subtracted from the initial US Political
Will total of +8 at the conclusion of Operation Z.
DESIGN NOTE: The 1942 campaign scenario and the yearly scenarios were intended as the main format for tournament play.
17.0 Scenarios
The counters are geared for the start of the full campaign scenario.
In order to set up the campaign game, set up all of the counters with
hex setup locations in those hexes. All other units enter the game on
their indicated game turn of entry.
17.1 The Full Campaign, Dec ’41-Aug ’45
17.11 December 1941 Special Turn
This is a mini-turn consisting of the Japanese player only playing
two specific Strategy cards as Event cards in the following order:
Card 1: Operation Z- Attack on Pearl Harbor.
All Japanese naval units must remain together. Allied units at sea
(e.g., US CVs) may not be attacked. Follow all event text.
Card 2: IAI-Operation No. 1- Conquest of SE Asia
The Allied player may not react to any Japanese moves that are not
specified in the event descriptions. No Allied air units project Zones
of Influence during IAI, but all Allied air units that are not in a battle
hex can automatically participate in a battle hex that is within range
of its location. For the duration of the IAI card only, due to pre-war
coastal fortifications, Manila (hex 2813) and Singapore (hex 2015)
prevent Japanese amphibious assault unless the ground units are
escorted by a Japanese naval unit (adhering to all restrictions in
7.45 B) and the Japanese cannot use the Shore Bombardment die
roll modifier in the ensuing Ground combat. The Japanese may
only use Amphibious Assault to hexes that are within 5 hexes of a
Japanese controlled port.
At the conclusion of IAI the Allies get a one time Emergency Naval
Move for all of their naval units. After this Allied action finish out
the remaining phases of the turn, except the Attrition Phase, and
then start normal play.
17.12 Game Turns 2 to 12 follow the rules normally.
17.13 Winning the Game, see 16.0
17.14 Track Marker Starting Locations
Here are there starting locations for the game markers:
• US Political Will Marker: begins in the Zero box on the US Political Will track.
• China Marker: begins in the Stable Front Box on the China
track.
• Japanese Division in China marker: begins on the 12 box of the
Japanese Divisions In China track.
• Burma Road marker: begins on its NO HUMP side in the Burma
Road Open box on the Burma Road track.
• India Marker: begins on its Normal side on the India track in the
India Stable box.
• War In Europe Marker: begins on the WIE track in the Zero box.
• Japanese Amphibious Shipping Marker: begins on its No Barge
side on the Strategic Record track in the 7 box.
• US Amphibious Shipping Marker: begins on the Strategic Record
Track in the Zero box.
• Japanese Resource Marker: begins on the Strategic Record Track
in the 3 box.
• Game Turn Marker: begins on its PM Tojo side on the Game Turn
track, in the 1: December ’41 box.
• US Inter-Service Rivalry Marker: begins on its Strategic Agreement side in the Inter-Service Rivalry box.
• Japanese Inter-Service Rivalry Marker: begins on its Strategic
Agreement side in the Inter-Service Rivalry box.
• There are no units in the Delayed Reinforcement box on the
map.
• Allied & Japanese Pass markers are in the zero box on the Strategic
Record track.
CONTROL MARKERS: There is an Allied control marker on Guam
(3814) and Hong Kong (2709).
17.2 1942
This scenario is three game turns long and begins on game turn 2 at
the beginning of the Offensives Phase. There is no Reinforcement,
Replacement, or Strategic Warfare Segments conducted for game
turn 2, as it has already been incorporated into the starting locations.
Similarly, Japanese cards #1 & #2 are not in play and should be put
aside. Set up the units and markers for both sides as described and
then play out the game normally. The game is concluded at the end
of game turn 4.
17.21 Allied Setup:
Set up all game turn 1 Allied units in their starting locations with
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the exceptions of the following units that are permanently removed
from play (these are the units that were destroyed during game turn
1) and the other listed units that have alternate setup locations and are
reduced or improved in strength. If a unit is not listed here, it begins
on its counter indicated starting location at its original strength. Note:
the US 7th air units were both eliminated during game turn 1, but
have been brought back into play with replacements.
Eliminated at start Allied units:
BB MD/CA
Mindanao (M) Corps
HK Division
Force Z
NL Corp
17.25 Special Rules
A. Japanese cards 1 and 2 have been played and are removed from
play. All other cards are eligible for use in this scenario. For game
turn 2, the Japanese receives 7 cards and the Allied player receives
5 cards and 2 passes.
B. No nations have surrendered. The Japanese control all hexes
originally part of the Japanese Empire.
C. The Allies get a free Emergency Naval Move for all naval units
prior to the play of the first Japanese Strategy card play.
Place all Japanese units in the hexes indicated. All units are at full
strength unless otherwise indicated. No Japanese units start this
scenario having been eliminated.
3607:
3704:
3706:
3814:
4017:
4021:
4715:
The Japanese have 4 Resource hexes under control, instead of 3.
The Japanese have 11 Divisions in China.
The Allies have 1 Amphibious Shipping Points.
US Political Will is at +8 instead of Zero.
The following Allied units are in the Delay Box: All game turn 2
reinforcements except the British HQ (SEAC), which is in Calcutta
hex 1805.
17.22 Japanese Setup:
3004:
3007:
3009:
3305:
3407:
All markers are in their Campaign Game (17.14 ) starting positions
with the following exceptions:
17.24 Delay Box
Repositioned, Altered, or Replaced Allied Units:
1805: SEAC HQ
2813: US FEAF Air unit (reduced strength)
2912: SL Corps (reduced strength)
2917: 19th LRB air unit (reduced strength)
3014: CA US Asia Naval (reduced strength)
5108: 7AF Air Force
5808: 7AF LRB Air unit
5808: CV Lexington (full strength)
5808: CV Enterprise (full strength)
5808 CA N Orlns (reduced strength)
1912:
1913:
2012:
2109:
2110
2112:
2212:
2311:
2415:
2709:
2812:
2909:
2911:
2913:
2915:
17.23 Markers
.......................... Japanese Control marker
.......................... 15th Army
.......................... Japanese Control marker
.......................... 38th Army
.......................... 28th Army (reduced)
.......................... 25th Army (reduced)
.......................... HQ (South), 22nd Air Flotilla
.......................... BB Kongo 2, CA Mogami
.......................... 2nd SN
.......................... 17th Army (reduced)
.......................... 5th Air Division, 14th Army
.......................... 21st Air Flotilla, CA Takao
.......................... 1 SN
.......................... 19th Army (reduced)
.......................... 16th Army (reduced), CVL Ryuho, CVL
Zuiho, CA Nachi
.......................... 2nd Air Division
.......................... 35th Army (reduced)
.......................... 23rd Air Flotilla
.......................... Korean Army
.......................... HQ (Combined Fleet), BB Nagato, Yamato
(reduced), 25th Air Flotilla
.......................... 3rd Air Division, 4th Air Division
.......................... 27th Army (reduced)
.......................... 1st Air Division, Eastern District Army, 18th
Army (reduced), CV Akagi, CV Soryu, CV
Shokaku, BB Kongo 1
.......................... 3rd SN
.......................... HQ (South Seas), APD Kamikaze
.......................... SS Brigade, CA Aoba
.......................... 4th SN (reduced), 24th Air Flotilla, CL
Tenyru
D. For Tournament Play (1942 or Shortened Campaign Scenario
17.8) the Allied player may choose Card 4: Arcadia Conference as
one of the five cards received on game turn 2. This is at the option
of the Allied player and must be announced to the Japanese player
prior to drawing any cards. If the Japanese do not receive any military
offense cards in their opening hand (e.g., Military Events that have
a logistic value) they may discard a 3 OC card of their choice, or
one of lesser value if no 3 OC cards are in the Japanese hand, and
replace that card with Japanese card 47: VADM Kondo.
17.26 Short Game Inter-Service Rivalry and Political Will Events
During yearly scenarios any time Inter-Service Rivalry comes into
effect for either player, that player can remove Inter-Service Rivalry
at any Offensives card play by playing a 3OC value card as a Remove
Inter-Service Rivalry play (flip the marker to its Strategic Agreement
side). This is then the entire effect for that card play, and counts for
that player as a complete card play action. In addition, all events
that modify US Political Will can only be played as OC not EC
(Doolittle’s Raid, Bataan Death March, Tojo, Tokyo Rose).
17.27 Victory Conditions
Automatic Victory: If the Japanese do not control at least 11 of the
14 Resource hexes by the conclusion of game turn 4, they lose the
game and the Allies win an automatic victory. If an automatic victory
has not occurred then the Japanese player gains victory points for the
following conditions at the conclusion of game turn 4. Victory points
are assessed at the end of game turn 4 unless otherwise indicated.
A. If China surrenders receive a bonus 5 victory points.
B. For closing the Burma Road, 1 victory point.
C. For isolating Townsville from Oahu, e.g., no supply line can be
drawn between the two locations, 5 victory points.
D. For controlling each hex of Northern India, 1 victory point per
hex. The Japanese receive a 2-victory point bonus for controlling
all Northern India hexes.
E. For India Unrest, 1 victory point (only awarded on the last game
turn).
F. For India Unstable, 2 victory points (not cumulative with India
Unrest; only awarded on the last game turn).
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
G. For Control of Australian Mandates, 1 victory point.
H. For each box US Political Will is 5or below, 1 victory point per
box. Example a US Political Will of 5 equals 1 victory point.
I. For each box US Political Will is 6 or above, minus 1 victory
point per box. Example a US Political Will of 7equals 2 victory
points.
J. For the capture Kauai or Hawaii, 1 victory point, for each hex,
if controlled and occupied at the end of any game turn, but only
once per hex per game.
K. For the capture Oahu, 3 victory points if controlled and occupied
at the end of any game turn, but only once per game.
Victory Point Levels:
•
•
•
•
Allied Decisive Victory: Japanese have 2 or less victory points.
Allied Tactical Victory: Japanese have 3 to 5 victory points.
Japanese Tactical Victory: Japanese have 6-9 victory points.
Japanese Decisive Victory: Japanese have 10 or more victory
points.
17.3 1943
This scenario is three game turns long and begins on game turn 5
at the beginning of the Offensives Phase. There is no Reinforcement, Replacement, or Strategic Warfare Segments conducted for
game turn 5, as it has already been incorporated into the starting
locations. Set up the units and markers for both sides as described
and then play out the game normally. The game is concluded at the
end of game turn 7.
17.31 Allied Setup:
Place all Allied units in the hexes indicated. All units are at full
strength unless otherwise indicated.
Eliminated at start Allied units:
US Units
AVG Air unit
CV Wasp
BB MD/CA
CA N Orleans
CA Northampton
CA US Asia
DD US Asia
Marines-Wake
Marine-211
NL Corps
SL Corps
R Corps
M Corps
P Brigade
FEAF Air unit
19th LRB Air unit
ABDA HQ
South Pacific HQ (Ghormley)
Force Z
Australian 8th Division
HK Division
don
1805 Calcutta:............ CW SEAC HQ, CW SEAC Air unit
1905 Dacca:............... CW 15th Corps, US 10AF LRB Air unit
Air Units in China:....... US 14AF LRB Air unit
2006 Akyab:.............. CW 4th Indian Corps
2104 Jarhat:............... US 14AF Air unit
2105 Imphal/Kohima:CW 33rd Corps
2205 Ledo:................. CW 1st Indian Corps (reduced), Chinese 5th
Army
2407 Kunming:.......... Chinese 6th, 66th Armies (all reduced)
3023 Darwin:............. Aus 1st Corps
3626 Cairns:............... US 5AF Air unit, Us 5AF LRB Air unit, US
1st Marine Division
3727 Townsville:....... US SW HQ, Aus 2nd Corps, Aus CA Kent
3823 Port Morseby:... ANZAC HQ, Aus Port Moresby Brigade
(reduced), Aus 3rd Corps, Aus Air unit
3922 Buna:................. US XIth Corps
4024 Gili-Gili:........... US Ist Corps
4423 Guadalcanal:..... US XIV Corps, US 2nd Marine Division,
US 1MAW Marine Air unit
4825 Espiritu Santo:.. US 2MAW Marine Air unit, US 13AF Air
unit, US 13AF LRB Air unit, US Marine SF
Brigade
4828 Noumea:........... US Halsey HQ, NZ 3rd Division, US CV
Lexington (reduced), US CV Enterprise
(reduced), BB Washington, BB North Carolina
5100 Dutch Harbor:... US 11AF Air unit, US 11AF LRB Air
unit,
5108 Midway:............ US 7AF LRB Air unit
5808 Oahu:................ US Central Pacific HQ, US 7AF Air unit,
US Xth Corps, US Marine Brigade, US BB
Miss
17.32 Japanese Setup:
Place all Japanese units in the hexes indicated. The Japanese control
all of their original hexes within the Japanese Empire boundary. All
14 resource hexes are controlled by the Japanese, if no Japanese unit
is present, a control marker should be placed to indicate this resource
hex control. Malaya, Philippines, Dutch East Indies, and Burma
have surrendered. In addition, the Japanese control the Australian
Mandates, so all hexes in these countries and locations are Japanese
controlled unless occupied by an Allied unit. Key bases are indicated
with a control maker, but this list is not exhaustive and does not supplant full Japanese player control of those surrendered nations.
Eliminated at start Japanese units:
BB Kongo2
CV Akagi
CV Soryu
CVL Ryujo
CL Tenyru
Tainan Air unit
Japanese 1943 Set up
Commonwealth Units
All at start units (units with hex setup) except those in Australia and
New Guinea plus the CVL Hermes
Dutch Units
All Dutch units
Allied Setup
33
1005 Maldive Islands: CV Indomitable, BB Warspite, CA Lon-
All units are at full strength unless otherwise indicated.
1813: Medan............... Control Marker
1916 Palembang:....... 25th Army, 3rd Air Division (both reduced)
2008 Rangoon:........... 28th Army, 5th Air Division
2014 Kuantan:........... Control Marker
2015 Singapore:......... Control Marker
2017 Banka:............... Control Marker
2018 Batavia:............. Control Marker
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
34
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
2106 Mandalay:......... 33rd Army
2019 Tjilatjap:........... Control Marker
2110 Bangkok:........... Control Marker
2206 Lashio:.............. 15th Army
2212 Saigon:.............. South HQ, 38th Army, 27 Air Flotilla
2220 Soerabaja:......... 16th Army (reduced), 23rd Air Flotilla
2305 Myitkyina:........ Control Marker
2415 Miri:.................. Control Marker
2517 Balikpapan:....... Control Marker
2616 Tarakan:............ 37th Army (reduced)
2620 Makassar:.......... 28th Air Flotilla
2709 Hong Kong:...... Control Marker
2813 Manila:.............. 14th Army
2909 Tainan............... 22nd Air Flotilla (reduced)
2915 Davao:............... 35th Army, 8th Air Division
3004 Peking:.............. 2nd Air Division, 4th Air Division
3119: Sarong:.............. 7th Air Division
3219: .......................... Control Marker
3305 Seoul:................ Korean Army
3319 Biak:................. Control Marker
3407 Kure:................. Yamamoto Combined Fleet HQ, CVL Junyo,
BB Nagato, CA Mogami (reduced)
3520 Hollandia:......... Control Marker
3620 Altape:.............. Control Marker
3704 Hakodate:.......... 27th Army (reduced)
3706 Tokyo:............... Eastern District (ED) Army 1st Air Division
3720 Wewak:............. 19th Army, 6th Air Division
3721 Madang:............ Control Marker
3814 Guam:............... Control Marker
3813 Saipan/Tinian:... 31st Army (reduced)
3822 Lae:................... 18th Army
4017 Truk:................. South Seas HQ, 26th Air Flotilla, BB Yamato,
CV Shokaku, CVL Zuiho, BB Kongo 1, CA
Nachi
4021 Rabaul:.............. 17th Army, 21st Air Flotilla (reduced), 25th
Air Flotilla (reduced), CA Aoba (reduced),
CA Takao, APD Kamikaze
4222 Buin:................. Control Marker
4322 New Georgia:.... South Seas Detachment (SS Bde)
4600 Attu/Kiska:....... 2nd SN (reduced)
4612 Wake Island:..... 4th SN (reduced)
4715 Kwajalein:......... 3rd SN, 24th Air Flotilla (reduced)
4719 Nauru:............... Control Marker
5018 Tarawa:............. 1st SN
• Burma Road Closed/ Hump
• India: Stable
17.34 Delay Box
Allied Game Turn 5 Reinforcements
17.35 Strategy Cards
Japanese Strategy cards 1, 2, 5, 6, 13, 15, 18, 39, 55, 73, 78 have
been played and are removed from play. Allied Strategy cards 1, 3,
4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, 20, 51 have been played and are
removed from play. Allied cards 13 and 15 are in the discard pile.
Japanese cards 8, 12, 14, 20, 25, 29, and 35 are in the discard pile.
The Allies have card 29 and the Japanese have card 26 as future offensives cards. Bridge over the River Kwai card had been played,
Rangoon to Bangkok transportation route is open. All other cards
are eligible for use in this scenario. For game turn 5, the Japanese
player receives 7 cards and the Allied player receives 7 cards.
17.36 Political Situation
The Japanese control all hexes originally part of the Japanese Empire. The following countries have surrendered and the Japanese
control all of these hexes unless specifically noted in the Allied Set
Up: Malaya, Philippines, Dutch East Indies, Burma, or Australian
Mandates
17.37 Short Game Inter-Service Rivalry and Political Will Events
During yearly scenarios any time Inter-Service Rivalry comes into
effect for either player, that player can remove Inter-Service Rivalry
at any Offensives card play by playing a 3OC value card as a Remove
Inter-Service Rivalry play (flip the marker to its Strategic Agreement
side). This is then the entire effect for that card play, and counts for
that player as a complete card play action. In addition, all events
that modify US Political Will can only be played as OC not EC
(Doolittle’s Raid, Bataan Death March, Tojo, Tokyo Rose).
17.38 Victory Conditions
The Japanese player gains victory points for the following conditions
at the conclusion of game turn 7. Victory points are assessed at the
end of game turn 7, unless otherwise indicated.
A. If China surrenders receive a bonus 5 victory points.
B. For closing the Burma Road, 1 victory point.
C. For isolating Townsville from Oahu, e.g., no supply line can be
drawn between the two locations, 5 victory points.
D. For controlling each hex of Northern India, 1 victory point per
hex. The Japanese receive a 2-victory point bonus for controlling
all Northern India hexes.
17.33 Markers
E. For India Unrest, 1 victory point (only awarded on the last game
turn).
•
•
•
•
•
•
F. For India Unstable, 3 victory points (not cumulative with India
Unrest; only awarded on the last game turn).
All markers are in the following positions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Game Turn 5: PM Tojo
The Japanese have 14 Resource hexes under control.
The Japanese have 7 Amphibious Shipping Points.
The Japanese Divisions Available In China is in the 7 box.
The Allies have 4 Amphibious Shipping Points.
China Government Front Status Track: Major Breakthrough
Box
US Political Will is at +6.
Japanese Inter-Service Rivalry: Yes
US Inter-Service Rivalry: Yes
Japanese Air Replacements: 2
Japanese Naval Replacements: 1
WIE: –1 (Delay Allied Reinforcements)
Japanese Barges
G. For Control of the Australian Mandates, 3 victory points.
H. For each box US Political Will is 5or below, 1 victory point per
box. Example a US Political Will of 5 equals 1 victory point.
I. For each box US Political Will is 6 or above, minus 1 victory
point per box. Example a US Political Will of 7equals 2 victory
points.
J. For the capture Kauai or Hawaii, 1 victory point, for each hex,
if controlled and occupied at the end of any game turn, but only
once per hex per game.
K. For the capture Oahu, 3 victory points if controlled and occupied
at the end of any game turn, but only once per game.
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
L. If the Allies control the Australian Mandates, minus 3 victory
points.
M.If the Allies do not control the Australian Mandates, but control
4 or more Australian Mandate hexes, minus 1 victory point.
N. If the Allies control the Marshall Islands, minus 3 victory
points.
O. If the Allies control New Guinea, minus 3 victory points.
P. If the Allies do not control New Guinea, but control 4 or more
New Guinea ports, minus 1 victory point.
Q. If the Allies control a port that is 11 or less hexes from Tokyo,
minus 3 victory points.
R. If the Allies control a Resource hex, minus 1 victory point per
Resource hex.
Victory Point Levels:
•
•
•
•
Allied Decisive Victory: Japanese have 2 or less victory points.
Allied Tactical Victory: Japanese have 3 to 5 victory points.
Japanese Tactical Victory: Japanese have 6-9 victory points.
Japanese Decisive Victory: Japanese have 10 or more victory
points.
17.4 1944
This scenario is three game turns long and begins on game turn 8
at the beginning of the Offensives Phase. There is no Reinforcement, Replacement, or Strategic Warfare Segments conducted for
game turn 8, as it has already been incorporated into the starting
locations. Set up the units and markers for both sides as described
and then play out the game normally. The game is concluded at the
end of game turn 10.
17.41 Allied Setup:
Place all Allied units in the hexes indicated. All units are at full
strength unless otherwise indicated.
Eliminated at start Allied units:
US Units
AVG Air Unit
CV Wasp
BB MD/CA
CA N Orleans
CA Northampton
CA US Asia
DD US Asia
Marines-Wake
Marine-211
NL Corps
SL Corps
R Corps
M Corps
P Brigade
FEAF Air unit
19th LRB Air unit
ABDA HQ
South Pacific HQ (Ghormley)
Force Z
Australian 8th Division
HK Division
Commonwealth Units
All Non-Australian at start units (units with hex setup).
CVL Hermes
Dutch Units
All Dutch units
35
Allied Setup
1005 Maldive Islands.:CV Indomitable, BB Warspite, CA London
1805 Calcutta:............ CW SEAC HQ, CW SEAC Air unit, CW
SEAC LRB Air Unit
1905 Dacca:............... CW 15th Corps, US 10AF LRB Air unit
Air Units in China Box: US 14AF LRB Air unit
2006 Akyab:.............. CW 4th Indian Corps
2104 Jarhat:............... US 14AF Air unit
2105 Imphal/Kohima:.. CW 33rd Corps
2205 Ledo:................. 77th Special Forces Brigade, Chinese 5th
Army (reduced)
2407 Kunming:.......... Chinese 6th Army (reduced), Chinese 66th
Army (reduced)
3023 Darwin:............. Aus 1st Corps
3626 Cairns:............... US 11th Airborne Division
3727 Townsville:....... US SW HQ, Aus 2nd Corps, Aus CA Kent
3822 Lae:................... US XI Corps, Aus 3rd Corps
3823 Port Morseby: .. Aus ANZAC HQ, Aus 4th Corps, US 5AF
Air unit, Us 5AF LRB Air unit, Aus Air
unit
3921 Gasmata:........... US 1st Marine Division
3922 Buna:................. US Ist Corps
4024 Gili-Gili:........... Aus Port Moresby Brigade (reduced)
4122 Woodlark:......... Control Marker
4222 Bougainville:.... US 3rd Marine Division, US 2MAW Marine
Air unit, US XIV Corps
4322: New Georgia:.... NZ 3rd Division, US 13AF Air unit, US
13AF LRB Air unit
4423 Guadalcanal:..... US Marine SF Brigade
4826 Efate:................. US 6th Marine Division, US CVL Cowpens,
US CVL B. Wood, US CVE Sangamon, US
CVL Bataan, US CVE Casablanca, US BB
NJ
4828 Noumea:........... US Halsey HQ, US CV Lexington, US CV
Enterprise, CV Essex, CV Bunker Hill, BB
Washington, BB North Carolina, US IXth
Corps
5018 Tarawa:............. US 7AF Air unit, US 7AF LRB Air unit, US
2nd Marine Division
5100 Dutch Harbor.... US 11AF Air unit, US 11AF LRB Air unit
5108 Midway............. US 1MAW Marine Air unit
5808 Oahu:................ US Central Pacific HQ, US Xth Corps,
XXIVth Corps, US Marine Brigade, US BB
Miss, US CVL San Jacinto, US BB Mass,
US CV Franklin, US CV Intrepid, US CV
Hancock
17.42 Japanese Setup:
Place all Japanese units in the hexes indicated. The Japanese control
all of their original hexes within the Japanese Empire boundary. All
14 resource spaces are controlled by the Japanese. If no Japanese
units present a control marker should be placed. Malaya, Philippines, Dutch East Indies, and Burma have surrendered. In addition,
the Japanese control the Australian Mandates, so all hexes in these
countries and locations are Japanese controlled unless occupied by
an Allied unit. Key bases are indicated with a control maker, but
this list is not exhaustive and does not supplant Japanese control of
the indicated nations.
Eliminated at start Japanese units:
BB Kongo2
CV Akagi
CV Soryu
CVL Ryujo
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
36
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
17.43 Markers
CL Tenyru
CA Aoba
21st Air Flotilla
50th Air Flotilla
1st SN Brigade
2nd SN Brigade
SS Brigade
Tainan Air unit
Combined Fleet HQ (Yamamoto)
All markers are in the following positions:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Japanese 1944 Setup
All units are at full strength unless otherwise indicated.
1813:
1916
2008
2014
2015
Medan............... Control Marker
Palembang:....... 25th Army (reduced), 9th Air Division
Rangoon:........... 28th Army, 5th Air Division (reduced),
Kuantan:........... Control Marker
Singapore:......... 29th Army (reduced), 28th Air Flotilla (reduced)
2017 Banka:............... Control Marker
2018 Batavia:............. Control Marker
2019 Tjilatap:............. Control Marker
2106 Mandalay:......... 33rd Army
2110 Bangkok:........... Control Marker
2206 Lashio:.............. 15th Army
2212 Saigon:.............. South HQ, 38th Army
2220 Soerabaja:......... 16th Army (reduced)
2305 Myitkyina:........ Control Marker
2409 Hanoi:............... 8th Air Division
2415 Miri:.................. Control Marker
2517 Balikpapan:....... Control Marker
2616 Tarakan:............ 37th Army (reduced)
2813 Manila:.............. 14th Army, 23rd Air Flotilla
2909 Tainan............... 3rd Air Division (reduced)
2915 Davao:............... 35th Army
3004 Peking:.............. 2nd Air Division, 4th Air Division
3119: Sarong:.............. Control Marker
3219: .......................... Control Marker
3305 Seoul:................ Korean Army
3319 Biak:................. Control Marker
3407 Kure:................. Combined Fleet HQ (Ozawa), CVL Junyo,
BB Nagato, CA Mogami (reduced), CVL
Kaiyo, CV Shokaku, CV Taiho, 11th Air
Division
3416 Pelelu:............... 26th Air Flotilla (reduced)
3520 Hollandia:......... 2nd Army (reduced)
3615 Ulithi:................ BB Yamato, CVL Zuiho, BB Kongo 1
3620 Altape:.............. Control Marker
3704 Hakodate:.......... 27 Air Flotilla (reduced), 51st Air Flotilla,
27th Army (reduced)
3706 Tokyo:............... Eastern District (ED) Army 1st Air Division,
10th Air Division
3720 Wewak:............. 19th Army (reduced), 6th Air Division
(reduced), 7th Air Division (reduced)
3721 Madang:............ 18th Army (reduced)
3813 Saipan/Tinian:... South Seas HQ, 31st Army (reduced), 61st
Air Flotilla, 62nd Air Flotilla
3814 Guam:............... Control Marker
4017 Truk:................. 22nd Air Flotilla (reduced), CA Nachi
4021 Rabaul:.............. 17th Army, 25th Air Flotilla (reduced),
CA Takao (reduced), APD Kamikaze (reduced)
4612 Wake Island:..... 4th SN (reduced)
4715 Kwajalein:......... 3rd SN, 24th Air Flotilla (reduced)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Game Turn 8: PM Tojo
The Japanese have 14 Resource hexes under control.
The Japanese have 5 Amphibious Shipping Points
The Japanese Divisions Available In China is in the 5 box.
The Allies have 8 Amphibious Shipping Points.
China Government Front Status Track: Major Breakthrough
Japanese Card #31 has been played: +1 Ground Combat DRM in
effect.
US Political Will is at +5.
Japanese Inter service Rivalry: Yes
US Inter service Rivalry: Yes
Japanese Air Replacements: 0
Japanese CVL Replacements: 0
WIE: +2
PT Boats- No Japanese Barges
Burma Road Closed/ Hump
India: Stable
17.44 Delay Box
No Allied units are in the delay box.
17.45 Strategy Cards
Japanese Strategy cards 1, 2, 5, 6, 13, 15, 18, 26, 31, 39, 51, 53,
54, 55, 73, 78 have been played and are removed from play. Allied
Strategy cards 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, 23,
24, 27, 30, 39, 41, 42, 47, 51, 73 have been played and are removed
from play. Japanese card 7 is in the discard pile, as is Allied card
2. The Allies have card 45 and the Japanese have card 4 as future
offensives cards. All other cards are eligible for use in this scenario.
For game turn 8, the Japanese player receives 6 cards plus 1 pass
and the Allied player receives 7 cards.
17.46 Political Situation
The Japanese control all hexes originally part of the Japanese Empire.
The following countries have surrendered and the Japanese control all
of their hexes unless specifically noted in the Allied Setup:
Malaya
Philippines
Dutch East Indies
Burma
Australian Mandates
17.47 Short Game Inter-Service Rivalry and Political Will Events
During yearly scenarios any time Inter-Service Rivalry comes into
effect for either player, that player can remove Inter-Service Rivalry
at any Offensives card play by playing a 3OC value card as a Remove
Inter-Service Rivalry play (flip the marker to its Strategic Agreement
side). This is then the entire effect for that card play, and counts for
that player as a complete card play action. In addition, all events
that modify US Political Will can only be played as OC not EC
(Doolittle’s Raid, Bataan Death March, Tojo, Tokyo Rose).
17.48 Victory Conditions
The Japanese player gains victory points for the following conditions
at the conclusion of game turn 10. Victory points are assessed at the
end of game turn 10 unless otherwise indicated.
A. If China surrenders receive a bonus 5 victory points.
B. For closing the Burma Road, 1 victory point.
C. For isolating Townsville from Oahu, e.g., no supply line can be
drawn between the two locations, 5 victory points.
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
D. For controlling each hex of Northern India, 1 victory point per
hex. The Japanese receive a 2-victory point bonus for controlling
all Northern India hexes.
E. For India Unrest, 1 victory point.
F. For India Unstable, 2 victory points (not cumulative with India
Unrest).
G. For Control of Australian Mandates, 1 victory point.
H. For each box US Political Will is 5or below, 1 victory point per
box.Example a US Political Will of 5equals 1 victory point.
I. For each box US Political Will is 6 or above, minus 1 victory
point per box. Example a US Political Will of 7equals 2 victory
points.
J. For the capture Oahu, 3 victory points if controlled and occupied
at the end of any game turn, but only once per game.
K. Control of New Guinea, 5 victory points
L. If the Allies do not control New Guinea, 3 victory points.
M.If the Allies have not captured Rabaul (4021) or placed it out of
supply on the last turn of the scenario, 3 victory points.
N. If the Allies control no Philippine port hexes, 5 victory points.
O. If the Allies control 1 in supply Philippine port, 3 victory points
(corollary if the Allies control 2 in supply Philippine ports, 0
victory points).
P. If the Allies do not control a port hex within 8 hexes of Tokyo
(3706), 5 victory points.
Victory Point Levels:
Allied Decisive Victory: Japanese have 2 or less victory points.
Allied Tactical Victory: Japanese have 3 to 5 victory points.
Japanese Tactical Victory: Japanese have 6 to 9 victory points.
Japanese Decisive Victory: Japanese have 10 or more victory
points.
17.5 1942-1943
For this scenario, use the starting conditions and setup of the 1942
scenario (17.2) but play turns 2-7 and use the victory conditions of
the 1943 scenario (17.3).
17.6 1943-1944
For this scenario, use the starting conditions and setup of the 1943
scenario (17.3) but play turns 5-10 and use the victory conditions
of the 1944 scenario (17.4).
17.7 1942-1944
For this scenario, use the starting conditions of the 1942 scenario
(17.2) but play turns 2-10 and use the victory conditions of the 1944
scenario (17.4).
17.8 The Shortened Campaign (1942-1945)
This scenario starts as if for the 1942 Scenario (17.2) and uses all
of the setup requirements of that scenario, but plays the rest of
war, using the Campaign Scenario (17.1) conditions and length for
everything else, including victory conditions.
17.9 The Even Shorter Campaign (1943-1945)
This scenario starts as if for the 1943 Scenario (17.3) and uses all
of the setup requirements of that scenario, but plays the rest of
war, using the Campaign Scenario (17.1) conditions and length for
everything else, including victory conditions.
37
18.0 Master Scenario Setup List
This extensive chart shows the setup location for every counter at the
beginning of the four yearly starts. Numbers in brackets [ ] indicate
that a unit sets up on its reduced side.
DESIGN NOTE: The Designer and Developer of this game have
over fifty years of experience designing and publishing games.
We have learned that no matter how many times you check this
quantity of numbers, it is possible that some unintended mistakes
are made. In any situation where there is ambiguity, the hierarchy
of correctness is the counters are always correct, followed by the
master scenario list, and last the scenario listings.
US
Scenario Hex Setup/Game Turn of Entry
Numbers in brackets [ ] set up at reduced strength
Unit
Type
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
Unit
Designation1941194219431944
5AF
5AF LRB
7AF
7AF LRB
10AF LRB
11AF
11AF LRB
13AF
13AF LRB
14AF
14AF LRB
19 LRB
20BC
21BC
AVG
FEAF
Marine 211
Marine 1 MAW
Marine 2 MAW
Marine 3 MAW
Marine 1M Div
Marine 2M Div
Marine 3M Div
Marine 5M Div
Marine 6M Div
Marine M Bde
Marine SF Bde
Marine W Bde
M Corps
NL Corps
P Brigade
R Corps
SL Corps
11 Division
I Corps
2
2
5808
5808
2
3
3
3
3
Event
4
2812
9
10
2008
2812
4612
2
4
9
3
4
6
10
8
2
2
4612
2915
2812
3014
2813
2913
8
[3]
Delay 3626
3823
Delay 3626
3823
5108
5808
5018
5808
5108
5018
Delay 1905
1905
3
5100
5100
3
5100
5100
3
4825
4322
3
4825
4322
Event 2104
2104
4
China Box China Box
[2917] Elim
Elim
9
9
9
10
10
10
2008
Elim
Elim
[2813] Elim
Elim
4612
Elim
Elim
Delay 4423
5108
4
4825
4222
9
9
9
3
3626
3921
4
4423
5018
6
6
4222
10
10
10
8
8
4826
Delay 5808
5808
Delay 4825
4423
4612
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
3014
Elim
Elim
2813
Elim
Elim
[2912] Elim
Elim
8
8
3626
[3]
4024
3922
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
38
Ground
IX Corps
8
8
8
Ground
X Corps
5808
5808
5808
Ground
XI Corps
2
Delay 3922
Ground
XIV Corps
[3]
[3]
4423
Ground XXIV Corps
5
5
Delay
HQ
C Pac
5808
5808
5808
HQ
S Pac Gho
3
3
Elim
HQ
S Pac Hal
Event Event 4828
HQ
SW Pac
2813
2813
3727
Naval
BB Mass
5
5
Delay
Naval
BB MD/CA
5808
Elim
Elim
Naval
BB Miss
2
Delay 5808
Naval
BB Missouri
9
9
9
Naval BB N Carolina
3
3
4828
Naval BB New Jersey
7
7
7
Naval BB New York
9
9
9
Naval BB Washington
4
4
4828
Naval
BC Alaska
10
10
10
Naval CA Balitmore
11
11
11
Naval CA N. Orleans 5808 [5808] Elim
Naval CA Northampton
2
Delay Elim
Naval
CA US Asia
3014 [3014] Elim
Naval CV B. H. Richard 10
10
10
Naval CV Bunker Hill
6
6
6
Naval CV Enterprise [5609] 5808 [4828]
Naval
CV Essex
6
6
6
Naval
CV Franklin
7
7
7
Naval
CV Hancock
8
8
8
Naval
CV Intrepid
7
7
7
Naval CV Lexington [5410] 5808 [4828]
Naval CV Shangri La
9
9
9
Naval
CV Wasp
3
3
Elim
Naval
CVE C. Bay
10
10
10
Naval CVE Casablanca
8
8
8
Naval CVE Casablnc 2
10
10
10
Naval CVE Sangamon
6
6
6
Naval
CVL Bataan
7
7
7
Naval CVL Belleau Wood 6
6
6
Naval CVL Cowpens
6
6
6
Naval CVL San Jacinto
5
5
Delay
Naval
DD US Asia
2616
2616
Elim
Unit
Type
4828
5808
3822
4222
5808
5808
Elim
4828
3727
5808
Elim
5808
9
4828
4826
9
4828
10
11
Elim
Elim
Elim
10
4828
4828
4828
5808
5808
5808
4828
9
Elim
10
4826
10
4826
4826
4826
4826
5808
Elim
Commonwealth/Joint
Unit
Designation1941194219431944
Air
Aus
3727
Air
FE
1905
Air
MA
2015
Air
SEAC
2
Air
SEAC LRB
5
Ground 7 Armor Brigade Event
Ground
77 Brigade
Event
3727
1905
2015
Delay
5
Event
Event
3823
Elim
Elim
1805
Delay
Event
Event
3823
Elim
Elim
1805
1805
Event
2205
Ground 1 Australian Corps
Ground 2 Australian Corps
Ground 3 Australian Corps
Ground 4 Australian Corps
Ground 8A Division
Ground 1B Division
Ground B Ind Division
Ground 15 British Corps
Ground 33 British Corps
Ground HK Division
Ground
1 Ind Corps
Ground
2 Ind Corps
Ground
3 Ind Corps
Ground
4 Ind Corps
Ground 3NZ Division
Ground PM Brigade
HQ
ABDA
HQ
ANZAC
HQ
Malaya
HQ
SEAC
Naval BB Duke of York
Naval
BB Force Z
Naval
BB Warspite
Naval
CA Exeter
Naval
CA Kent
Naval
CA London
Naval CV Indomitable
Naval CV Victorious
Naval
CVL Hermes
Chinese
Unit
Type
Ground
Ground
Ground
Dutch
3023
3727
3
8
2015
2108
2008
3
3
2709
2105
1805
2014
4
3
3823
Event
3
2015
2
10
2015
2
1307
3727
4
2
10
2
3023
3727
3
8
2015
2108
2008
3
3
Elim
2105
1805
2014
4
3
3823
Event
3
2015
1805
10
Elim
Delay
1307
3727
4
Delay
10
Delay
3023
3023
3727
3727
3823
3822
8
3823
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
1905
1905
2105
2105
Elim
Elim
[2205] Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
2006
2006
4828
4322
[3823] [4024]
Elim
Elim
3823
3823
Elim
Elim
1805
1805
10
10
Elim
Elim
1005
1005
Elim
Elim
3727
3727
1005
1005
1005
1005
10
10
Elim
Elim
Unit
Designation1941194219431944
5 Army
6 Army
66 Army
[2407] [2407] 2205 [2205]
[2407] [2407] [2407] [2407]
[2407] [2407] [2407] [2407]
Unit
Type
Unit
Designation1941194219431944
Air
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Naval
Dut
1 Regiment
2 Regiment
3 Regiment
4 Regiment
5 Regiment
6 Regiment
7 Regiment
8 Regiment
J Division
CA Dutch
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
2019
1916
1813
2616
2919
2517
2917
2719
2721
2019
2019
2019
1916
1813
2616
2919
2517
2917
2719
2721
2019
2019
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Elim
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
Japanese
Scenario Hex Setup/Game Turn of Entry
Numbers in brackets [ ] set up at reduced strength
Unit
Type
Unit
Designation1941194219431944
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
Ground
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
50
51
61
62
T
1 SN Brigade
2 SN Brigade
3 SN Brigade
4 SN Brigade
SS Brigade
2 Army
14 Army
15 Army
16 Army
17 Army
18 Army
19 Army
25 Army
27 Army
28 Army
29 Army
31 Army
32 Army
33 Army
35 Army
36 Army
37 Army
3706
3004
3607
3607
2909
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
3009
2212
3009
4715
2
3
4
5
6
6
8
8
Event
2909
2311
4017
4715
4017
[7]
2909
2211
[3416]
[2708]
[3706]
[3209]
[2509]
[3704]
[2]
[8]
[3]
[9]
[5]
[3007]
10
[4]
3706
3004
3607
3607
2812
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
2909
2212
3009
4715
3407
3
4
5
6
6
8
8
Event
2911
2415
3814
[4715]
4021
[7]
2812
1913
[2915]
[2709]
[3706]
[2913]
[2112]
[3704]
[2110]
[8]
[3]
[9]
[5]
[3007]
10
[4]
3706
3004
[1916]
3004
2008
3720
3119
2915
6
7
8
9
[4021]
[2909]
2220
[4715]
[4021]
4017
2212
2620
6
6
8
8
Elim
5018
[4600]
4715
[4612]
4322
[7]
2813
2206
[2220]
4021
3822
3720
[1916]
[3704]
2008
[8]
[3813]
[9]
2106
2915
10
[2616]
3706
3004
[2909]
3004
[2008]
[3720]
[3720]
2409
1916
3706
3407
9
Elim
[4017]
2813
[4715]
[4021]
[3416]
[3704]
[2015]
Elim
3704
3813
3813
Elim
Elim
Elim
4715
[4612]
Elim
[3520]
2813
2206
[2220]
4021
[3721]
[3720]
[1916]
[3704]
2008
[2015]
[3813]
[9]
2106
2915
10
[2616]
Ground
38 Army
2211
Ground
39 Army
[10]
Ground
ED Army
3706
Ground Korean Army
3305
HQ Comb Fleet Oza Event
HQ Comb Fleet Yam 3407
HQ
South
2212
HQ
South Seas
4017
Naval APD Kamikaze 4017
Naval
BB Kongo 1
3705
Naval
BB Kongo 2
2909
Naval
BB Nagato
3407
Naval
BB Yamato
[2]
Naval
CA Aoba
4017
Naval
CA Mogami
2311
Naval
CA Nachi
3416
Naval
CA Takao
2909
Naval
CL Tenyru
4715
Naval
CV Akagi
3705
Naval
CV Shokaku
3705
Naval
CV Soryu
3705
Naval
CV Taiho
8
Naval
CVL Amagi
9
Naval
CVL Junyo
3
Naval
CVL Kaiyo
[7]
Naval
CVL Ryuho
3416
Naval
CVL Zuiho
3407
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
39
2109
2212
2212
[10]
[10]
[10]
3706
3706
3706
3305
3305
3305
Event Event 3407
3407
3407
Elim
2212
2212
2212
4017
4017
3813
4017
4021 [4021]
3706
4017
3615
2311
Elim
Elim
3407
3407
3407
[3407] 4017
3615
4021 [4021] Elim
2311 [3407] [3407]
2915
4017
4017
2909
4021 [4021]
4715
Elim
Elim
3706
Elim
Elim
3706
4017
3407
3706
Elim
Elim
8
8
3407
9
9
9
3
3407
3407
[7]
[7]
3407
2915
Elim
Elim
2915
4017
3615
40
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
19.0 Comprehensive Example of Play
Game Turn 1: December 1941
Card 1: Operation Z
The Japanese naval units CVs Akagi, Soryu, Shokaku, Kongo move
from Ominato (hex 3705) to hex 5506 and attack Oahu (hex 5808).
There is no US response to the attack. The Japanese die roll is a 8,
so 36 hits are apportioned to the US forces in the hex which defend
at half strength. Historical result: Eliminate BB MD/CA (10 hits),
eliminate both 7th AF unit (20 hits), reduce CA New Orleans (4
hits) for a total of 34 hits, 2 are unused. Japanese naval units return
to Tokyo (hex 3706). The US CVs move to the Oahu hex and the
US Political Will marker is moved to the +8 box on the US Political Will track.
Card 2: IAI: Operation No. 1 Conquest of SE Asia
DESIGN NOTE: IAI was one of the key historical examples of
economy of force. The Japanese gained the majority of their objectives within one month of Pearl Harbor. EOTS allows you to see
the broad outlines of this conquest and much of the initial order of
battle is designed to give some insight into the complexity of this
multi-dimensional plan. Due to the small-scale nature of some of
these operations that are below the granularity of EOTS, although
all key features are accounted for, some of the smaller detachments
are subsumed into the broader tapestry of the game design. It is
important to note that the card indicates that there are no Allied
ZOI during this Offensive. The order of the Japanese moves would
be different if this had to be taken into account.
The Japanese player has 26 activations for this Offensive. Each
group of coordinated activations will be described below in a roughly
West to East direction. Battle resolution occurs after all Offensive
and Reaction movement has been completed. Since the Allies have
no reaction movement during the 1st game turn (except for Force Z
mandated movement), the battle resolution description is included
in each Offensive axis of advance.
Malaya
1. 22nd Air Flotilla in hex 2212 is activated and is within range of
Malaya peninsula.
2. In support of the 25th Army, BB Kongo 2 in hex 2909 moves to
hex 2112 (it was actually in distant support).
5. 2211: 38th Army moves to
2109 via 2110 (Strategic Route
not yet built, which requires
the Bridge Over the River
Kwai event card).
6. Battle is declared for hex
2112, where the Japanese
during the Air Naval combat
eliminate Force Z and take no
losses in return.
7. Post Battle movement:
Kongo 2 moves to Cam Ranh
hex 2311.
Borneo
1. 2311: Activate CA Mogami
and 2nd SN to Miri hex 2415
using Amphibious Assault.
The CA Mogami supplies the
Amphibious transport negating the need for the use of an
ASP.
2. There is no battle since
the hex is unoccupied, place
a Japanese control marker in Situation after Post Battle Movethe hex and increase Japanese ment.
resources by one by moving the
Japanese resource marker from the 3 to the 4 box of the Strategic
Record Track.
3. 2509: 25th Army reduced (represents elements of the 5th and 18th
divisions) uses Amphibious Assault movement (1 Amphibious Shipping Point= ASP) to move to Kota Bharu: 2112; this causes Force Z
in hex 2015 to be moved to hex 2112 during Reaction movement.
3. Post Battle movement: CA Mogami returns to Cam Ranh hex
2311.
4. 2211: 15th Army (includes the Imperial Guard division) moves to
Kuala Lumpur hex 1913 via 2110, 2011, 2012, 1912 and capturing
all hexes as they are passed through.
1. 2708: Activate the 17th Army reduced and move to Hong Kong
hex 2709; declare a battle hex.
Hong Kong
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
2. Battle Resolution: The Japanese 17th Army has a -2 DRM
and achieves a one times result scoring 9 hits. This is sufficient to
eliminate the British Hong Kong Division. The British Hong Kong
Division has insufficient strength to damage the Japanese 17th Army,
which captures Hong Kong.
41
11. Battle Resolution: Hex 2913, Japanese Zuiho conducts air naval combat against SL Corps but has insufficient hits to reduce the
ground unit. The 19th Army adds two to its die roll (air and naval
modifiers minus 2 for mixed terrain) and gets a result sufficient to
reduce the SL Corps, which then retreats into hex 2912.
12. Battle Resolution: Samar/Leyte hex 3014, the Japanese CVL
Ryuho attacks at 3 hex range, so only the Japanese player can cause
damage in this battle since the US CA Asia naval unit is a surface
unit. The Japanese player adds 3 to the die roll for Surprise Attack
and achieves a one times result that causes 6 hits, which reduces
the US CA Asia naval unit.
13. Battle Resolution: Hex 2915, the Japanese conduct air naval
combat using the Nachi to fire at the Mindanao Corps. This can be
done because there are no US air or naval units present in the battle.
The Nachi achieves a one times result causing 10 hits. This is sufficient to reduce the Mindanao Corps. The ensuing ground combat
sees the 16th Army achieve a result scoring 14 hits, which is sufficient to eliminate the Mindanao Corps and win the battle.
Philippines
1. 2909 and 3009: Activate 5th Air Division, 21st Air Flotilla and
23rd Air Flotilla.
2. 2909: Activate 1st SN and use Amphibious Assault (1 ASP) to
move to hex 2911.
14. Post Battle Movement: The two US air units in hex 2812 use
emergency air movement with the FEAF air unit being placed in
the Manila hex (2813) and the 19th LRB being placed in Menando
hex 2917. The CVL Ryuho, CVL Zuhio, and CA Nachi end their
movement in Davao hex 2915. CA Takao returns to Tainan hex
2909. The 5th Air Division moves to hex 2812. The 21st Air Flotilla
moves to hex 2909.
South Pacific
1. 4017: Activate the 3rd SN and APD Kamikaze (supplies organic
naval transport) which conduct an Amphibious Assault to Guam
3. 2909: Activate 14th Army and use Amphibious Assault (2 ASP)
to move to hex 2812; declare battle hex.
4. 2909: Activate CA Takao and move to hex 2812.
5. 3407: Activate CVL Zuiho and move it to hex 2913.
6. 3209: Activate 19th Army reduced and use Amphibious Assault
(1 ASP) to move to hex 2913; declare battle hex.
7. 3416: Activate 16th Army reduced and use Amphibious Assault
(1 ASP) to move to Davao hex 2915; declare battle hex.
8. 3416: Activate CA Nachi and move it to Davao hex 2915.
9. 3416: Activate CVL Ryuho and move to within 3 hexes of 3014
Samar/Leyte; declare battle hex.
10. Battle Resolution: Hex 2812, Japanese air units on Formosa
(hexes 2909 and 3009) in conjunction with CA Takao attack US FE
and 19th Air Units (famous B-17 19th Bomber Squadron). Since
this is a Surprise attack all Japanese attacks are resolved first with
surviving US units then responding in kind. Japanese strength is 54
Air strength points reduced to 27 due to use of extended range plus
12 for CA Takao, the die roll has 3 added to it for Surprise Attack
and achieves a .5 result for a total of 20 hits. This reduces both US
air units (FE takes 10 hits and 19th takes 9 for a total of 19). The
Japanese win the air naval battle enabling an ensuing ground combat
with the 14th Army moving via amphibious assault. The 14th Army
attacks the NL Corps. The Japanese get +2 for having naval support
in the hex, but the inactive air units in the battle hex prevents the
Japanese from getting an additional +2 for air superiority, while the
NL Corps gets a +3. The Japanese 14th Army gets 27 hits on the NL
Corps destroying it, and receives 6 hits, losing one step.
Post Battle Movement Situation.
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
42
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
hex 3814. The move is unopposed and Guam becomes Japanese
controlled. The APD Kamikaze returns to Truk hex 4017.
2. 4017: Activate the South Seas Detachment and the CA Aoba (supplies Amphibious transport) which conduct an Amphibious Assault
of Rabaul hex 4021. The move is unopposed and Rabaul becomes
Japanese controlled. The CA Aoba remains at Rabaul.
later in the game, they will need to bring an aircraft carrier to bear
to neutralize the Marine 211 air units air ZOI, which the Japanese
24th Air Flotilla cannot do from Kwajalein due to range. Historically,
the Japanese brought the CV Soryu naval unit to bear to complete
the conquest of Wake.
This concludes the Japanese move of 26 activations for Game Turn
1.
Political Phase
During the Political phase the players would determine if any countries surrender and if there are any changes to US Political Will. No
countries meet their surrender criteria and no other US Political Will
criteria is met, so the US Political Will remains at +8, concluding
the political phase.
Attrition Phase
There is no Attrition Phase for game turn 1 (see 17.11).
Game Turn 2
At the beginning of game turn 2; the Allies receive a number of
reinforcements during the Reinforcement phase. Since the War in
Europe (WIE) marker is in the zero box, the level is 1, which means
that Allied reinforcements are delayed, place all Allied game turn 2
reinforcements in the delay box. In addition one US Army and three
US Army air units are in the delay box, which due to the WIE level
of 1 means that a divert to Europe roll is made for these units. Each
unit makes a die roll and on a zero or one the unit is removed from
play for 3 game turns. The Allies lose one of their Army air units
in this manner. The Japanese place their reinforcements on the map
(this portion of the example was included to show where it would
occur, but in the actual 1942 scenario the Allies were luckier and
did not lose any units).
Replacement Phase
Wake
1. 4715: Activate the 4th SN, CL Tenyru (supplies organic naval
transport) and the 24th Air Flotilla. The 4th SNLF uses Amphibious Assault movement to move to Wake hex 4612; declares a battle
hex.
2. Battle Resolution: Hex 4612: Due to Marine 211 air unit, air
naval combat is conducted. The Japanese have an attack strength of
9 (Air units 10 attack strength is halved due to extended range plus 4
for the CL Tenyru). The Japanese add 3 to their die roll for Surprise
attack but roll low and get a half result achieving 5 hits (round up).
This is insufficient to eliminate VMF 211. Due to the fact that the
Japanese have 9 factors (5 air plus 4 for the CL Tenyru) versus 1
for the US, they have sufficient air and naval superiority to conduct
ground combat. The Japanese 4th SN adds 2 to its die roll because
it is the only side with naval units in the hex, but does not get the
additional air modifier because of the presence of Marine 211 air
unit. The Japanese achieve a one times their strength outcome which
results in 4 hits, which is insufficient to damage the Wake Marine
Brigade. The Marine die roll is a 9 (Semper Fi) and achieves 4 hits.
Since the Japanese 4th SN moved to Wake via amphibious assault
its defense strength is halved from 6 to 3, so the Marines cause the
4th SN to take a step loss. Since the Japanese took more losses than
the Marines, the Marines win the battle and retain control Wake. The
4th SN conducts post battle movement with the CL Tenyru back to
Kwajalein hex 4715.
It should be noted, that the Japanese were able to conduct this attack
on Wake because the IAI event card neutralizes Allied air ZOI for
the duration of the Offensive. If the Japanese decide to attack Wake
During the replacement phase of game turn 2, the Japanese receive
no replacements per se, but they choose to take one China Division
replacement. They move the China Division marker from 12 to 11
and increase one in supply Japanese army ground unit from reduced
to full strength (this portion of the example was included to show
where it would occur, but in the actual 1942 scenario the Japanese
have not taken this replacement yet). The Allies receive 2 ground, 5
air, and two US naval replacements (one plus the standard one US
naval if they hold Oahu). The Allied player brings the two 7th AF air
units back into play at full strength for the cost of 4 air replacements,
losing one unused replacement. The 7th non-LRB and LRB AF air
units are placed in Midway (5108) and Oahu (5808) respectively.
The two US CV naval units are brought up to full strength and there
are no Allied ground units available to receive the ground replacements. This ends the replacement phase.
Strategic Warfare Segment
During the Strategic warfare segment, the Allies conduct submarine
warfare. The die roll result is 2, which has 1 added to it for defective torpedoes. This total (3) has the current game turn number
subtracted from this total for a result of 1. Since 1 is greater than
zero, there is no effect for submarine warfare. If there had been no
torpedo modifier the submarine warfare result would have seen
the Japanese lose one strategy card. As it is, the Japanese will now
have 7 cards dealt to them. The Allies have 5 cards dealt to them
and receive 2 passes.
It is the beginning of the Offensives Phase and the Japanese have
more cards than the Allies, so they have the initiative and go first.
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
43
At the beginning of the 1942 scenario the Malaya Peninsula has the
Japanese 15th Army in Kuala Lumpur (1913) and the 25th Army
(reduced) in Kota Bharu (2112). In support are air and naval forces
in French Indo-China (22nd Air Flotilla in Saigon hex 2212 and the
BB Kongo 2 and CA Mogami naval units in Cam Ranh hex 2311).
The Allied player has the 3rd Indian Corps in Kuantan (2014) and
the 8th Australian Division, Malaya Air unit and Malaya HQ in
Singapore (2015).
The Japanese player opens the 1942
game turn with Japanese card 23: Operation RE, which is played as an EC.
The Japanese player can use any HQ to
activate units with a logistics value of
3. The Japanese player designates the
South HQ in Saigon (2212) as the HQ
for the Offensive, so 4 units (log value
of 3 + South efficiency rating of 1). The
Japanese player activates the 15th army,
the 22nd air flotilla, BB Kongo 2, and
CA Mogami naval units. The Japanese
move the 15th army into Kuantan and declare a battle hex. The
22nd air moves from Saigon to Kota Bharu to be within 3 hexes
of Singapore and the BB Kongo 2/CA Mogami naval units move
into the Singapore hex and declare another battle hex. The Japanese
can declare two battle hexes because card 23 was played as an EC
whereas if it was played as an OC only one battle hex could have
been declared.
The Allied player now determines what if
any reaction will be made. The Japanese
Military strategy card did not specify
the Intelligence condition as surprise
attack, so the Allied player can either
make an intelligence die roll to alter the
intelligence condition or play a reaction
card. Luckily the Allied player is holding Allied card 5: Operation Matador,
which is a Reaction counteroffensive
card. The Allies play this card and alters
the Intelligence condition to intercept.
Since this is a counteroffensive card, the Allies can use its logistic
value of 3 instead of the Japanese OC value of 2. This allows the
Allies to use the Malaya HQ to activate land and air units plus the
Force Z naval unit.
The Allies activate the 3rd Indian Corps, the 8th Australian Division and the Malaya air unit. Since Force Z is already eliminated,
the Allies cannot activate it. The Allies are entitled to activate 4
units also, but there are no other Commonwealth air or land units
within range of the Malaya HQ and so this last activation is lost.
The British cannot move the 8th Australian division into the Kuantan hex, because Singapore has already been declared a battle hex.
The British Malaya air unit if it had been attacked solely by the BB
naval unit could have flown off to strike from afar, but the presence
of the Japanese air unit in the battle makes this a moot maneuver,
so it stays put. The text condition on Japanese card 23, cannot be
fulfilled, so it is ignored, but the Japanese will subtract two from
their ground combat die roll due to terrain. The event text on Allied
card 5, allows the Allies add +2 to their air-naval combat die roll
due to Singapore’s defenses.
have 6 (Ma-6). Since the intelligence condition is intercept combat
is simultaneous, the Japanese roll a 6 and the Allies roll a 7, which
has 2 added to it for 9. The result is a 1 times result for both sides.
The Japanese apply 45 hits, which eliminates the British Ma air
unit, that required only 18 hits to eliminate, whereas the Japanese
take no hits, since 6 hits is insufficient to damage any Japanese unit.
Only an unmodified 9 (not the modified 9 that was achieved) for
a critical hit would have caused a step loss to the 22nd air unit or
CA (weakest unit). There are no ground units present, so this battle
is concluded.
Battle of Kuantan: There is no air-naval combat since none of these
types of units are present. Both sides add up their ground combat
values. The Japanese have 18 (15th –18) versus an Allied total of
9 (3 Ind-9 ). All ground combat is simultaneous and the Japanese
subtract 2 from their die roll for terrain. The Japanese roll a 1,
whereas the British roll a 7. The Japanese result is a .5 times result
yielding 9 hits, whereas the British is a 1.5 times result yielding 13
hits. Hits are applied simultaneously whereby first the British unit
is flipped to its reduced (9 hits). The Japanese have the full strength
15th army reduced in strength (12 hits) and the remaining hit cannot
be applied. The Allies lost one step and the Japanese lost 1 step, so
the Allies win the ground combat and the battle. Kuantan remains
Allied controlled and the Japanese retreat back into the hex the
entered the battle from.
During Post combat movement, the BB Kongo 2 and CA Mogami
naval units return to Cam Ranh and the 22nd air unit remains in Kota
Baru. There is no Japanese post battle movement from the Kuantan
battle hex. This concludes post battle movement, it is now the Allied
players turn to play a strategy card or pass.
This ends the comprehensive example of play.
Battle of Singapore: Both sides add up their combat values, the
Japanese have 45 (BB-13 + CA-12 + 22nd - 20) and the Allies
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
44
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
from the military planners. Consequently, the Allied player must
play the game with the historical mindset that they will probably
have to invade Japan to end the war.
The Allies can still avoid the invasion of Japan, but they have to
perform militarily on par with their predecessors. If not, the development of the A-bomb is considered to be delayed by six months
forcing the invasion of Nippon and the possibility that the U.S., if
faced with a very successful defense, would fall off of unconditional
surrender, if only by a little, giving the Japanese a face saving ‘game’
victory. Although it is possible that the Japanese earlier in the war
can defeat the Allies through superior play and force an early negotiation, this will usually not be the case.
My history with Pacific War games.
The Pacific War has always fascinated me. Twenty years ago when
I was running Victory Games I did my Pacific War design, which
examined the war from an Operational point of view. That game was
intended to play out famous campaigns with the strategic scenario a
necessary, but fundamentally unplayable addition due to its length.
Ever since then I wanted to do a game that covered the entire conflict
in one, albeit long, sitting.
Once I had sorted out the ‘how do the Japanese’ win issue, I then
focused on the types of strategies and decisions the players had to
master to win. The military portion of the game focuses on major
axes of advance. Empire of the Sun is a strategic game. The player
is not focused on the battles, but on resourcing and prosecuting the
major axes of advance across the Pacific. For the Japanese it is the
Southern offensive to secure the resources of the Dutch East Indies
and its environs while creating blocking positions in the West versus the British and the East versus the Americans/Australians that
dominates their thinking. For the Allies it is the fight across the
Central Pacific (Nimitz), Southwest Pacific (Macarthur), and ChinaBurma-India (Mountbatten). In the earlier incarnations of the game
I had a fully articulated China front. However, the amount of special
rules and decision making took too much of the focus away from the
main event, so I abstracted it into the current system where the key
resource decisions were preserved, but for much less work.
I created the card driven game (CDG) genre to enable me to portray
the political nature of the American Revolution in my We The People
game and bring historical uncertainty and tension back into gaming. When I did For The People, I expanded my CDG system by
increasing the detail associated with the military dimension of the
war over my previous effort. At that time I developed the desire to do
a more traditional military wargame, where my CDG system could
bring the military uncertainty back into more traditional hex based
games. This would allow me to integrate the interesting political and
military events into the fabric of this design. It was the combination
of this desire and my earlier goal of doing a strategic level Pacific
War game that has led to what you now hold in your hands.
This set of design decision then led to what card events would
represent in the game. In some ways this was the knottier issue,
since in my earlier CDGs most of the events were political or auxiliary military events. It was clear that the major use of the events
in Empire of the Sun would fall into several assymetric categories.
For the Japanese, the events would be the ability of the Japanese
to manipulate U.S. Political Will to reduce the Allied push for unconditional surrender and the military situation in Europe to delay
the Allied buildup in the Pacific. For the Allies the events would
primarily be the large Offensives that will take the Allies across the
Pacific, while prosecuting the War in Europe, so it does not divert
resources from the Pacific.
Major Design Challenges
Once the big pieces of the design were in place I focused on the major
dimensions of the military game. The most important feature of the
Pacific conflict was the importance of land-based air power. The pace
and objectives of the historical axes of advance were focused on the
ability to push the air units forward to cover the next advance. Much
of what players will concern themselves with are which bases are
they going to attack or defend heavily. Due to this need to advance
the air umbrella, players will quickly discover why the battles in
the Pacific were fought where they were. In fact in one playtest I
discovered a graphic error from my original map because I couldn’t
figure out why I could not get some of my land based air in range of
Leyte until I realized that Ulthi had been left off the map.
As unrealistic as this notion appears in historical hindsight, it was
the ultimate solution to this design issue. I was also persuaded by
research into the development of the A-bomb that although the U.S.
would inevitably solve the design and engineering issues required
to create a weapon from nuclear theory it was not a forgone conclusion that it had to occur on the historical timeline. In addition the
extremely secret nature of the Manhattan Project kept its existence
The other big issue was the brittleness of Japanese air units and their
military in general. By 1943 the U.S. have deployed a new navy to
replace the one that they started the war with, while the Japanese
get almost all of their naval forces on the first turn. The Japanese
get few if any replacements, so economy of force operations are
critical to Japanese success.
20.0 Designer’s Notes
The key challenge in the game was how to deal with the victory
conditions. The historical reality was the Japanese never had any
chance of winning the war. The U.S. never devoted more than 20%
of its overall resources to the Pacific War, so once Germany was
defeated it was only a matter of time until Japan would be defeated.
The solution was in how to define Japanese victory. The Japanese
intellectually, if not emotionally, understood that they could not defeat the United States in a long war. They felt that if they could make
the U.S. pay an prohibitive cost for its inevitable counter offensive
they could coerce a negotiated settlement from the Allies that would
allow Japan to ‘legalize’ some of its key conquests.
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
Continued on page 48
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
45
Bibliography
I have literally read hundreds of books on the Pacific War and a
bibliography of my entire collection would take more space here
than it is worth. I offer a few works that I feel I used more than
others for this game and that you may want to consult if you are
interested in reading up on this topic.
ently there are a lot of ways to spell the place names on the EOTS
map when they are translated into English. I have chosen to use
this period source for all spellings in the game, most of which are
now out of vogue.
Madej, W. Victor, The Japanese Armed Forces Order of Battle,
1937-1945 (volumes I and II) and U.S. Army and Marine Corps
Order of Battle: Pacific Theater of Operations 1941-1945 (volumes I and II)
A series of historical reprints that extensively covers Japanese and
Allied ground orders of battle.
Morrison, Samuel Eliot, History of the U.S. Naval Operations in
World War II
Allen, Louis, Burma: The Longest War 1941-45
Perhaps this should be called the longest read. Allen’s book is a
very slow but detailed account of military operations in the ChinaBurma-India Theater of operations during the war. It is mentioned
above other works on this theater, because it consistently appears
as the primary source cited by other works on this topic.
Bergerud, Eric, Touched With Fire and Fire in the Sky
Two very well written and researched books on ground and air
combat (respectively) during the Solomons campaign. Gives
excellent insight into operational factors that dominated combat
in the Pacific.
Comptroller of Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, The Japanese Air
Forces in World War II
I have no clue why a British finance office would be in charge of
this kind of material. In any event this is a great reference book
on Japanese air organization and command structure during the
war.
Costello, John, The Pacific War 1941-1945
There are numerous one volume general histories that were used
at one time or another in researching this game and my earlier
Pacific War game. This one is a good start if you haven’t read
much on this topic before.
Dorn, Frank, The Sino-Japanese War 1937-41
Dorn’s book is a good background reference on the origins of the
Sino-Japanese conflict prior to U.S. entry into the war.
Dull, Paul S., A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy
(1941-1945)
Dull’s work is the original English source book that views the
naval war in the Pacific from the Japanese perspective. The book
is based on original Japanese documents and gives interesting
perspective and detail on Japanese naval operations.
Grosvenor, Gilbert (editor); Pacific Ocean and the Bay of Bengal
map, compiled and drawn in the cartographic section of the National Geographic Society, September 1943.
The map projection is drawn from an equal area projection taken
from a U.S. Army Engineering section map from 1942. Appar-
A multi-volume set of books that are the official U.S. navy account
of its operations during World War II. These books are a great
reference source for order of battle information and narratives of
the major military operations.
Okumiya, Masatake and Horikoshi, Jiro, Zero: The Story of Japan’s
Air War in the Pacific 1941-1945
An excellent Japanese account on air operations during the war,
based on the personal experience of the authors. Although it was
not a source for the game per se, a must read is Samurai which is
a riveting personal account from Japan’s highest surviving ace.
Prados, John, Combined Fleet Decoded
John and I go back to our SPI days. In my opinion this is John’s best
work over a long and distinguished career. A must read with cogent
analysis, based on impeccable research, on how U.S. intelligence
successes and failures impacted Pacific military operations.
Pu-Yu, Hu, A Brief History of Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945)
A little known book out of Taiwan that is translated from the Chinese. A tough read grammatically with a heavy Chiang Kai-shek
bias. Its main value is it details many military operations in China
that are close to impossible to find in any Western texts.
Tuchman, Barbara, Stilwell and the American Experience in
China
A great read with a heavy anti-Chiang Kai-shek flavor. Details
many of the personalities that drove much of the inactivity in this
Theater during the war.
Williams, Mary H. (compiled for the Center of Military History
U.S. Army), U.S. Army In World War II: Chronology 1941-45
The entire Green Book series are useful reference books that cover
World War II from a U.S. Army perspective. This volume covers
the key events of every day of World War II from 1941 until its
conclusion. In addition I used most of the other volumes in this
series at one time or another to check information.
Willmott, H.P., Empires in the Balance and The Barrier and the
Javelin
Two excellent books on the development of Pacific War strategies up to Guadalcanal. Unfortunately the author has yet to finish
the series, which is a shame because he is perhaps the best living
World War II historian out there.
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
46
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
Index
1942 Scenario, 17.2
1942-1943 Scenario, 17.5
1942-1944 Scenario, 17.7
1943 Scenario, 17.3
1943-1944 Scenario, 17.6
1944 Scenario, 17.4
Air and Aircraft Carrier Units In Battle, 8.11
Air Ferry in Gardner Hex, 7.36
Air Movement & Stacking, 7.3
Air Movement, 7.31
Air Naval Combat If Ambush, 8.2E
Air Naval Combat Applying Hits, 8.2F
Air Naval Combat If Intercept, 8.2C
Air Naval Combat If Surprise Attack, 8.2D
Air Unit Stacking, 7.34
Aircraft Zone Of Influence, 7.35
Alaska And Hawaii, 16.42
Allied ASPs, 9.31
Allied Campaign Victory, 16.2
Allied Draw Limitations, 11.52
Allied Draw, 11.51
Allied Replacements, 10.31
Allied Replacements. 10.3
Allied Strategy Cards, 11.5
Allied Surrenders, 16.41
Amphibious Assault, 7.45
Amphibious Assault ASP Requirements, 7.45A
Amphibious Assault Conclusion, 7.45C
Amphibious Assault Restrictions, 7.45B
Amphibious Assault Special US Restrictions, 7.45D
Amphibious Shipping Points, 9.3
Attrition Phase, 4.4
Attrition, 13.4
Australia, 12.8
Australian Surrenders, 12.82
Australian Territory, 12.81
Automatic Campaign Victory, 16.1
B29 Availability, 11.31
B29 Event Cards, 11.33
B29s and Allied Air Units In China, 12.74
Base Movement Allowance, 7.1
Battle and Concluding the Offensive, 6.28
Battle Resolution. 8.0
Bibliography, 20.0
British Armor Brigade, 7.49
Burma Definition, 12.51
Burma Road, 12.76
Burma Surrender, 12.52
Burma, 12.5
Campaign Game Set Up, 2.2
Campaign Scenario (Dec ’41 - Aug ’45), 17.1
Campaign Track Marker Starting Locations, 17.14
Causes Of The War, 1.1
Changing Intelligence Condition With A Reaction Card, 5.21
Changing Intelligence Condition With An Intelligence Die Roll,
5.22
China Offensives, 12.72
China Surrenders, 12.73
China, 12.7
Chinese Army Units, 12.75
Chinese Replacements, 10.32
Components, 1.2
Counters,1.23
Deal Strategy Cards Segment, 4.14
December 1941 Special Turn, 17.11
Declaring Battle Hexes, 6.24
Delayed Reinforcements, 9.2
Designer’s Comprehensive Example Of Play, 18.0
Designer’s Notes, 19.0
Determining The Winner Of The Air Naval Combat, 8.3
Die, 1.21
Drawing A Card, 5.35
Dutch East Indies Definition, 12.41
Dutch East Indies Surrender, 12.42
Dutch East Indies, 12.4
Dutch. 10.33
Emergency Air Movement, 7.32
Emergency Naval Movement, 7.22
Emergency Supply Routes, 13.3
End Of Turn Phase, 4.5
Entry Problem Reinforcements, 9.14
Even Shorter Campaign Scenario (1943-1945), 17.9
Events & US Political Will, 16.44
Events, 5.3
Future Offensives, 6.29
General Course Of Play, 3.0
Glossary, 1.3
Ground Combat Applying Hits, 8.4B
Ground Combat Concluding, 8.4C
Ground Combat Procedure, 8.4
Ground Disengagement, 7.43
Ground Movement, 7.41
Ground Unit Movement & Stacking, 7.4
Ground Unit Stacking, 7.48
Ground Units In Battle, 8.13
Headquarters Units, 7.5
Hex Control, 12.1
HQ Capabilities, 7.51
HQ National Restrictions, 7.53
HQ Return, 7.56
Implications Of India Surrendering, 12.63
Index, 21.0
India Surrender, 12.62
India, 12.6
Initiative Segment, 4.21
Intelligence Values, 5.2
Inter Service Rivalry, 14.0
Introduction, 1.0
Invading Japan, 12.94
Involuntary HQ Repositioning, 7.55
Japan, 12.9
Japanese (only) Organic Naval Unit Transport Capability, 7.46
Japanese Air Unit Replacements, 10.22
Japanese ASPs, 9.32
Japanese Barges and Allied PT Boats, 9.33
Japanese Barges, 7.47
Japanese Campaign Victory, 16.3
Japanese Ground Unit Replacements, 10.23
Japanese Inter Service Rivalry, 14.2
Japanese Intrinsic Strength In China, 12.77
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
Index
Japanese Naval Scheduled Replacements, 10.21
Japanese Passing, 11.4
Japanese Reinforcements, 9.13
Japanese Replacements, 10.2
Japanese Strategic Reserves, 11.12
Japanese Strategy Cards, 11.1
Japanese Surrender, 12.93
Kunming, Allied Supply, and Chinese Army units, 12.75
Malaya and Siam, 12.3
Malaya Definition, 12.31
Malaya Surrender, 12.32
Manchuko, 12.91
Mandate Control, 12.84
Map, 1.22
Marshall Islands, 12.92
Military Events, 5.31
Movement & Stacking, 7.0
Movement In India, 12.61
Movement Restrictions, 7.42
Moving In China, 12.71
National Status Segment, 4.31
National Status, 12.0
Naval Movement, 7.21
Naval Unit Movement & Stacking, 7.2
Naval Unit Stacking, 7.24
Naval Units In Battle, 8.12
New Guinea,12.85
No Air Naval Combat Was Conducted, 8.34
No Surviving Air or Naval Units, 8.31
Offensive Intelligence Determination, 6.25
Offensives Player Unit Activation, 6.21
Offensives Player Victory, 8.33
Offensives Post Battle Movement, 8.62
Offensives Phase, 4.2
Offensives Procedure, 6.2
Offensives Segment, 4.22
Offensives, 6.0
Operations Value and Movement, 5.11
Operations Value and Offensives Player Activation, 5.11
Operations Value and Reaction Player Activation, 5.12
Operations Value, 5.1
Overview Of An Offensive, 6.1
Philippine Surrender, 12.22
Philippines Definition, 12.21
Philippines, 12.2
Placement, 9.11
Political Events, 5.34
Post Battle Movement, 8.6
Pre-War Unit Restrictions, 10.1
Procedure Warfare Procedure, 11.21
Progress of the War & US Political Will, 16.47
Reaction Events, 5.32
Reaction Move, 6.26
Reaction Player Victory, 8.32
Reaction Post Battle Movement, 8.61
Receiving Reinforcements, 9.1
Reinforcement Segment, 4.11
Reinforcements, 9.0
Removing A Card, 5.36
Replacement Segment, 4.12,
Replacements, 10.0
Resource Events, 5.33
Resource Hexes, 11.11
Retreat, 8.5
Scenarios, 17.0
Scenarios, 2.1,
Sent To Europe Die Roll, 9.24
Sent To Europe Eligible Units, 9.22
Sequence Of Play, 4.0
Sequencing of Moves During an Offensive, 6.23
Setting Up, 2.0
Shortened Campaign Scenario (1942-1945), 17.8
Siam Definition and Surrender, 12.33
Special Allied Reinforcement Restrictions, 9.12
Special Event Cards, 5.37
Special Reaction Move, 6.27
Stacking, 7.0
Strategic Air Transport, 7.33
Strategic Bombing Procedure, 11.32
Strategic Bombing, 11.3
Strategic Ground Transport, 7.44
Strategic Naval Movement, 7.23
Strategic Naval Situation & US Political Will, 16.46
Strategic Phase, 4.1
Strategic Warfare & US Political Will, 16.43
Strategic Warfare Segment, 4.13
Strategic Warfare, 11.0
Strategy Cards, 1.24
Strategy Cards, 5.0
Submarine Warfare Modifiers, 11.22
Submarine Warfare, 11.2
Supply & Attrition, 13.0
Supply Lines, 13.1
Terms of Australian Surrender, 12.83
The Air Naval Combat Procedure, 8.2
The Hump, 13.31
The Political Phase, 4.3
The War In Europe, 9.21
Tokyo Express, 13.32
Tournament Bidding, 16.49
Tournament Play, 16.49
Tracing HQ Range, 7.52
Ultimate Supply Sources, 13.2
Unit Movement Allowance, 6.22
Unit Types That Cannot Be Delayed, 9.23
US Casualties & US Political Will, 16.45
US Inter Service Rivalry, 14.1
US Political Will Segment, 4.32
US Political Will, 16.4
Voluntary HQ Withdrawal Repositioning, 7.54
War In Europe, 15.0
Who Participates In Battle, 8.1
WIE Level 1, 15.2
WIE Level 2, 15.3
WIE Level 3, 15.4
WIE Level 4, 15.5
WIE Modified Die Rolls, 15.6
WIE No Effect, 15.1
Winning The Campaign Scenarios, 16.0
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
47
48
Empire of the Sun (v2.0)
Continued from page 44
I modeled the two sides air power very differently. The Japanese get
new units throughout the game and in the aggregate have more total
combat factors than the Allies if you add up the unit strengths, but
it is irreplaceable. The Allied air units represent the key air forces
that supported the major axes of advance. The Allies get less air
units, but they are for all intents and purposes immortal. Allied air
strength remains fairly constant over the course of the game; with
improvements in aircraft represented through die roll modifiers. The
Allies must regularly conduct air offensives to reduce Japanese air
units just as they did historically over the Solomons. The Allied units
quickly recover full strength, while the Japanese get weaker over
time. If the Allies fail to be aggressive and use up their replacements,
they will face a stronger than historical Japanese air force at the end
of the game. This both captures the nature of the two sides military
philosophies and forces the players to fight the historical air war. If
the Japanese hold too much air power back to preserve it, they allow
the Allies to re-conquer Asia ahead of schedule removing the need
to invade Japan in order to win. The outcome of the game turns on
how the two sides prosecute their air strategies.
While I am on the subject of combat, it is important to understand
what the air, naval, and land battle system is portraying. This is a
strategic game and combat is a necessary way to show who has
done a better job at resourcing their offensives. Empire of the Sun
only handles operational and tactical considerations in the most
aggregate of terms. Combat in most cases represents numerous
engagements that occurred in a geographical area over the course
of months. Consequently it is meant to reward the player who can
maintain a combined arms force with more mass than your opponent to be victorious. How I handled the intelligence element of the
conflict was adapted from my earlier VG Pacific War design. This
intelligence system combined with the two-tiered combat process
seems to capture in the aggregate the broad-brush combat outcomes
that I was looking for with as little mechanical overhead as possible.
This lets the players focus on the critical strategic decisions needed
to prosecute their offensive drives, while not being distracted by
unnecessary tactical details.
The one other minor consideration that I wanted to put in the design
was interservice rivalry. This affected both sides in similar ways and
hopefully will yield some historical insights on why some less than
stellar decisions were made during the war.
Lastly, I would like to thank Stephen Newberg for agreeing to develop this game with me. Stephen and I go way back to my days in
SPI, but we have never had an opportunity to work together. What
started out as two old friends joking around on Consimworld has
led to a very enjoyable collaboration. As always I want to thank my
beautiful wife of 25 years, Carole and my children Lara and Grant,
who have supported a lifetime of Dad being down in the Batcave (my
downstairs office) doing what I love most, being a game designer.
I hope you enjoy my latest effort.
Mark Herman
Potomac, Maryland, USA
August 2004
A Brief Note From The Developer: I want to thank Mark for making
this outright fun, which developing sometimes is not, and I most
especially want to thank the play testers that stuck with this project,
whose team leaders are in the credits just below, for always journeymen like service throughout, and often well above and beyond that.
You guys did just great.
Stephen Newberg
North Oyster, British Columbia, Canada
January 2005
Inventory
A complete game of Empire of the Sun contains:
1 22 x 34 inch mapsheet
2 Decks of Strategy Cards (82 Japanese and 83 Allied)
2 Sets of counters
2 Player Aid Cards
1 Rules Booklet
1 die
Game Credits
GAME DESIGNER: Mark Herman
GAME DEVELOPER: Stephen Newberg
ART DIRECTOR: Rodger MacGowan
BOX ART AND PACKAGE DESIGN: Rodger MacGowan
GAME MAP: Mark Simonitch
COUNTERS: Mark Simonitch and Dave Lawrence
PLAY TEST COORDINATOR: Andy Lewis
2nd Edition Rules Editing: Robert Ryer
PLAY TEST TEAM LEADERS: Stan Buck, Tom Cannon, Dave
Casper, Don Chappell, Andy Daglish, Eric Feifer, Ricky Gray,
Mark Herman, Stephen Newberg, James Pei, Peter Rich, Alan
Snider, Bill Thoet & Arrigo Velicogna
Special Thanks to all of the members of the Empire of the Sun
topic on Consimworld who have contributed to these rules with
their thoughtful questions and suggestions.
PRODUCTION COORDINATION: Tony Curtis
PRODUCERS: Tony Curtis, Rodger MacGowan, Andy Lewis,
Gene Billingsley and Mark Simonitch
PRINTING NOTE: The corner triangle is hard to see on the following eight
Japanese units: 2nd, 28th, 29th, 31st, 32nd, 33rd, 37th and 39th armies.
These units start on their reduced side in the Campaign Game.
CARD ERRATA: Japanese Card 27 treat a die roll of 5 as no effect.
GMT Games, LLC
P.O. Box 1308, Hanford, CA 93232-1308
www.GMTGames.com
© 2007 GMT Games, LLC
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