Year 2, Quality Assurance Project Plan

Year 2, Quality Assurance Project Plan
QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN
MASSPORT AIR QUALITY
MONITORING STUDY, YEAR 2
LOGAN INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
Prepared for
Massport
Capital Programs - Environmental Management
Logan Office Center
One Harborside Drive, Suite200S
East Boston, MA 02128-2909
Prepared by
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
2350 Post Road, Suite 102
Warwick, Rhode Island 02886
May 2011
Version: Revised
Original: August 2010
EA Project No.: 14774.01
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Contents, Page 1 of 1
May 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF ACRONYMS
Page
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................................ES-1
1.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT ..................................................................................................1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
2.
DATA GENERATION AND ACQUISITION ......................................................................9
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
3.
Background ....................................................................................................................1
Project Organization ......................................................................................................1
Project Description.........................................................................................................3
Quality Objectives and Criteria for Measurement Data ................................................7
Project Training Requirements ......................................................................................7
Documentation and Records ..........................................................................................8
Sampling Design ............................................................................................................9
Monitoring and Sampling Method Requirements..........................................................9
Sample Handling and Custody.......................................................................................9
Analytical Methods and Requirements ........................................................................10
Quality Control Requirements .....................................................................................11
Data Management ........................................................................................................11
ASSESSMENT AND OVERSIGHT ....................................................................................13
3.1 Assessment and Response Actions ..............................................................................13
3.2 Reports to Massport .....................................................................................................13
4.
DATA VALIDATION..........................................................................................................14
4.1
4.2
Data Review and Verification ......................................................................................14
Data Validation ............................................................................................................14
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B
Standard Operating Procedures
Maintenance List
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Logan International Airport
Quality Assurance Project Plan
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
List of Figures, Page 1 of 1
May 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
LIST OF FIGURES
Number
Figure
1
Logan International Airport
2
EA Project Team Organizational Chart
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Logan International Airport
Quality Assurance Project Plan
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
List of Tables, Page 1 of 1
May 2011
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LIST OF TABLES
Number
Table
1
Monitoring Methods
2
TO-11A Target Analyte List and Reporting Limits
3
TO-13A Target Analyte List and Reporting Limits
4
TO15-SIM Target Analyte List and Reporting Limits
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Logan International Airport
Quality Assurance Project Plan
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
List of Acronyms, Page 1 of 1
May 2011
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LIST OF ACRONYMS
BAM
BC
Beta attenuation monitor
Black carbon
DNPH
DQO
2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine
Data quality objective
EA
EIR
EOEA
EPA
ESPR/EDR
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc.
Environmental Impact Report
(Massachusetts) Executive Office of Environmental Affairs
(U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Status and Planning Report/Environmental Data Report
FRM
Federal Reference Method
GC/MS
Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
HAP
HPLC
Hazardous air pollutant
High-performance liquid chromatography
LAIP
LQL
Logan Airside Improvements Project
Lower quantifiable limit
MADPH
MassDEP
MEPA
Massachusetts Department of Public Health
Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection
Massachusetts Environmental Policy Act
NAMS/SLAMS
National Air Monitoring Stations/State and Local Air
Monitoring Stations
PAH
PM
Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon
Particulate matter
QA
QAPP
Quality assurance
Quality Assurance Project Plan
SOP
SVOC
Standard operating procedure
Semi-volatile organic compound
VOC
Volatile organic compound
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Quality Assurance Project Plan
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EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Executive Summary, Page ES-1 of ES-1
May 2011
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
As part of the Massachusetts Environmental Policy Act (MEPA) Certificate on the Final
Environmental Impact Report (EIR) for the Logan Airside Improvements Project (LAIP), the
Secretary of the Executive Office of Environmental Affairs (EOEA) has called for an air quality
study (the Logan International Airport Air Quality Monitoring Study) (Study). The purpose of
the Study is to monitor air quality conditions (with a focus on air toxics) in the vicinity of Logan
International Airport (Logan) in advance of, and following, the implementation the new
Centerfield Taxiway. The Centerfield Taxiway is one of the primary components of the LAIP.
The overall technical approach for conducting the second year of the Study is provided in the
Massport Logan International Airport Air Quality Monitoring Study Final Air Quality Work
Plan, May 2011. The Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport) is responsible for overall
implementation and completion of the Study. The technical aspects of the Study are being
managed by EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc. (EA).
The Quality Assurance Work Plan (QAPP) presents the field and laboratory procedures, data
management program, and methods for conducting the active monitoring program. The primary
components of the QAPP comprise of the following:






Project Management
Sampler Analysis
Data Generation and Acquisition
Assessment and Oversight
Data Management
Data Validation.
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Logan International Airport
Quality Assurance Project Plan
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
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May 2011
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1.
1.1
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
BACKGROUND
Logan International Airport (Logan) is New England’s largest transportation center and occupies
approximately 2,400 acres in East Boston, Massachusetts (see Figure 1). In 2005, Logan ranked
as the 20th busiest airport in the U.S. based on volume of over 27 million passengers. The
airfield contains six runways (i.e., 4R/22L, 4L/22R, 15R/33L, 15L/33R, 9/27 and 14/32);
associated taxiways, aprons, and terminal facilities; and is surrounded by Boston Harbor and the
communities of East Boston, South Boston, and Winthrop.
On 15 June 2001, the Secretary of the Executive Office of Environmental Affairs (EOEA) issued
a Massachusetts Environmental Policy Act (MEPA) Certificate on the Logan Airside
Improvements Project (LAIP) Final Environmental Impact Report (EIR). The LAIP serves as
the blueprint for a series of improvements to Logan over several years. One important
component of the LAIP is the Centerfield Taxiway, a new 9,300-foot taxiway to be constructed
between existing runways 4R/22L and 4L/22R. As part of the MEPA Certificate, the EOEA
Secretary called for an air quality study (the Logan International Airport Air Quality Monitoring
Study). The purpose of the Study is to monitor air quality conditions (with a focus on air toxics)
in the vicinity of Logan in advance of, and following, the implementation the new Centerfield
Taxiway. The Centerfield Taxiway is one of the primary components of the LAIP.
The Study will take place over five years (2007-2011), and air monitoring will be performed
over two distinct periods: the completed 12-month baseline period (September 2007 –
September 2008) and the 12-month follow-up period described in this document and the
accompanying Work Plan. Massport also expects that the data will be used for future studies by
the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MADPH) and the Massachusetts Department of
Environmental Protection (MassDEP) or others.
1.2
PROJECT ORGANIZATION
Massport is responsible for overall implementation and completion of the Study. Within
Massport, the work is being managed by the Environmental Project Manager, with oversight by
the Assistant Director of Capital Programs and Environmental Management. Other key roles
taken by Massport staff include Agency Coordination and EDR/ESPR Coordination.
The technical aspects of the Study are being managed by EA Engineering, Science, and
Technology, Inc. (EA) under the direction of Robert Newman, P.E., BCEE. Other key
contributors include Ronald Mack, EIT of EA and Andy Rezendez of Alpha Analytical
Laboratory. Figure 2 presents the EA Project Team organizational chart.
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Logan International Airport
Quality Assurance Project Plan
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
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May 2011
Figure 1 Logan International Airport
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Logan International Airport
Quality Assurance Project Plan
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
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May 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
Figure 2 EA Project Team Organizational Chart
1.3
PROJECT DESCRIPTION
The overall technical approach for conducting the second year of the Study is provided in the Air
Quality Monitoring Study Final Air Quality Work Plan, Massport Logan International Airport,
finalized in May 2011 .The technical approach was based on several important criteria, such as
the choice and locations of air monitoring sites, the selection of the pollutants analyzed, and the
monitoring or sampling methods to be used. This approach is detailed in the Air Quality
Monitoring Study Final Air Quality Work Plan, Massport Logan International Airport,
September 2007 (CDM 2007). Notably, the development of this approach relied heavily on
input from MassDEP/MADPH, the prior experiences of the Project Team in this highly
specialized field, as well as the outcomes of similar air monitoring programs conducted at other
airports both in the U.S. and abroad.
Air toxics (also known as hazardous air pollutants [HAPs]) are emitted from a variety of
emission sources, both natural and man-made. Therefore, the target pollutants for this Study are
specifically selected as they represent the primary forms of combustion products or evaporative
emissions from airport related sources. They include:


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
Carbonyls (e.g., formaldehyde)
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May 2011
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


Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs)/polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
Particulate matter (PM)
Black carbon (BC).
Although not classifiable as HAPs by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), PM and
BC serve as indicators (or surrogates) to the presence of fuel combustion products. Moreover,
both PM and BC are pollutants of concern to MassDEP/MADPH and the general public alike.
For the first year of monitoring, three primary monitoring sites and eight satellite monitoring
sites were established. These locations were selected based on several primary criteria including
MEPA Certificate requirements; distance and direction from the Centerfield Taxiway; nearby
emission sources and potential influences; meteorological conditions; site ownership
accessibility and security; and other factors, including shelter and the availability of electricity.
For additional details of the original work scope development please reference the Air Quality
Monitoring Study Final Air Quality Work Plan, Massport Logan International Airport,
September 2007 (CDM 2007)
This study will utilize monitoring methods that have been compiled by EPA as representing the
best elements of peer-reviewed, standardized methods for the determination of toxic organic
compounds in ambient air.
TABLE 1 MONITORING METHODS
Pollutant and Method
Meteorology (wind speed and direction,
temperature, and humidity)
PM2.5 mass using beta attenuation monitor (BAM)
with very sharp cut cyclone
BC using seven-wavelength aethalometer
VOC using Summa canister with GC/MS1 analysis2
(TO-15 SIM)
PM2.5 Federal Reference Method (FRM)
PM2.5 (Minivol)
Carbonyl compounds using DNPH3 adsorber with
HPLC4 analysis5 (TO-11A)
PAH using sequential sampler with Teflon-coated
glass-fiber filter and XAD®6 cartridge with GC/MS
analysis7 (TO-13A)
Technique
Averaging Time
Active
Continuous
Active
Real time
Active
Real time
Active
Integrated
Active
Active
Integrated
Integrated
Active
Integrated
Active
Integrated
1
GC/MS = gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
Target VOCs include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, and 1,3-butadiene.
DNPH = diphenylhydrazine.
4
HPLC = high performance liquid chromatography.
5
Target carbonyl compounds include acetaldehyde, acrolein, formaldehyde, and propionaldehyde.
6
PUF/XAD® = a “sandwich” of polyurethane foam and proprietary resin XAD sorbent.
7
Target PAHs include naphthalene, 1-methyl naphthalene, and 2-methyl naphthalene.
2
3
Tables 2, 3, and 4 provide the laboratory reporting limits for each of the organic compound
speciation methods (TO11A, TO-13A, and TO15 SIM).
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TABLE 2 TO-11A TARGET ANALYTE LIST AND
REPORTING LIMITS
Target Analyte List
Formaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
Propanal (propionaldehyde)
Acetone
Crotonaldehyde
Benzaldehyde
Isopentanal
Pentanal (valeraldehyde)
o-Tolualdehyde
m,p-Tolualdehyde
Hexanal (hexaldehyde)
Reporting Limit
(ug/cartridge)
0.05
0.1
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
0.25
Reporting Limit*
(ug/m3)
0.035
0.069
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
Reporting Limit*
(ppbv)
0.028
0.039
0.073
0.073
0.061
0.040
0.049
0.049
0.035
0.035
0.042
* Based upon a sample duration of 24 hrs and a flow rate of 1.0 L/min
TABLE 3 TO-13A TARGET ANALYTE LIST AND
REPORTING LIMITS
Target Analyte List
Acenaphthene
Fluoranthene
Naphthalene
Benzo(a)anthracene
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Chrysene
Acenaphthylene
Anthracene
Benzo(ghi)perylene
Fluorene
Phenanthrene
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
Pyrene
Perylene
Massport Air Monitoring Program
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Reporting Limit
(ug/cartridge)
Reporting Limit*
(ug/m3)
Reporting Limit*
(ppbv)
0.05
0.05
0.125
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.00018
0.00018
0.00046
0.00018
0.00018
0.00018
0.00018
0.00018
0.00018
0.00018
0.00018
0.00018
0.00018
0.00018
0.00018
0.00018
0.00018
2.9E-5
2.2E-5
8.7E-5
2.0E-5
1.8E-5
1.8E-5
1.8E-5
2.0E-5
2.9E-5
2.5E-5
1.6E-5
2.7E-5
2.5E-5
1.6E-5
1.6E-5
2.2E-5
1.8E-5
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Target Analyte List
Benzo(e)pyrene
1-methylnaphthalene
2-methylnaphthalene
Extraction Surrogates
2-fluorobiphenyl
4-terphenyl-d14
Field Surrogates
Fluoranthene-d10
Benzo(a)pyrene-d12
Reporting Limit
(ug/cartridge)
0.05
0.05
0.05
QC Criteria
60-120%
60-120%
QC Criteria
60-120%
60-120%
Reporting Limit*
(ug/m3)
Reporting Limit*
(ppbv)
0.00018
0.00018
0.00018
1.8E-5
3.1E-5
3.1E-5
QC Criteria
60-120%
60-120%
QC Criteria
60-120%
60-120%
QC Criteria
60-120%
60-120%
QC Criteria
60-120%
60-120%
* Based upon a sample duration of 24 hrs and a flow rate of 190 L / min
TABLE 4 TO15-SIM TARGET ANALYTE LIST AND
REPORTING LIMITS
Target Analyte List
1,3-butadiene
N-butane
Acrolein
Iso-pentane
N-pentane
2-methylpentane
3-methylpentane
Benzene
Cyclohexane
2,2,4-trimethylpentane
N-heptane
Toluene
Ethylbenzene
M/p-xylene
Styrene
O-xylene
N-nonane
1,3,5-trimethylbenzene
N-decane
1,2,3-trimethylbenzene
Butylbenzene
N-undecane
Massport Air Monitoring Program
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Reporting Limit
(ppbV)
0.05
0.05
0.50
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
Reporting Limit
(ug/m3)
0.110
0.119
1.140
0.147
0.147
0.176
0.176
0.160
0.172
0.233
0.205
0.188
0.217
0.217
0.213
0.217
0.262
0.246
0.291
0.246
0.274
0.320
Quality Assurance Project Plan
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1.4
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
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May 2011
QUALITY OBJECTIVES AND CRITERIA FOR MEASUREMENT DATA
Data quality objectives (DQOs) have been established by EPA (1994, 2006) for the National Air
Monitoring Stations/State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (NAMS/SLAMS) PM2.5
monitoring. The DQO process is a strategic planning approach used to ensure that an
environmental data collection effort will obtain data of sufficient quality to meet the needs of
decision makers. For all the measurements in this project, the following DQO categories and
values are specified:

Precision: Precision is the degree of mutual agreement among individual measurements
under prescribed conditions (Watson et al., 2001). For integrated samples with subsequent
laboratory analysis, precision is determined by periodic replicate analyses. For continuous
measurements, it is determined by periodic presentation of transfer standards to the
measurement system. The project goal for overall precision will be ±10 percent expressed as
the coefficient of variation for values that exceed ten times the lower quantifiable limit
(LQL). LQLs are determined by some multiple of the standard deviation of field blanks for
continuous instrument response to air that does not contain the measured pollutant.

Accuracy: Accuracy is the correctness of data and refers to the degree of difference between
observed and known, or true, values. Lacking commonly accepted standards (as is the case
for many organic compounds and BC), accuracy is estimated by comparisons with standard
references materials or between different analysis methods. A ±10 percent accuracy is
sought for this project.

Representativeness: Representativeness is the extent to which data accurately and precisely
represents a characteristic of a population, parameter variations at a sampling location, or an
environmental condition. It is usually determined by assessing whether a monitoring
location meets certain specified criteria for human exposure in space and time. The longterm monitoring periods and multiple monitoring sites included in this study have been
selected to represent different source emissions, transport conditions, and potential
community exposures, within resource constraints.

Completeness: Completeness is the percentage of valid data compared to the total expected
data. Completeness will be determined by site by reporting period, calendar quarter, and
calendar year. Completeness will be measured as a percentage of valid data for a given time
period. At least 75 percent of the scheduled sampling days for each quarter should have
valid data to estimate a quarterly average. In practice, actual completeness has generally
been greater than 90 percent quarterly and annually in studies of this type.
1.5
PROJECT TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
All field and laboratory technicians have academic degrees and training appropriate to their
assigned tasks. Job descriptions describe the duties of each person. Field technicians who will
be changing samples and maintaining instruments have experience in the air monitoring field,
have undergone initial instruction at the beginning of the project and have been supplied
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Version: Revised
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May 2011
operating manuals and standard operating procedures. Laboratory technicians have been
performing their assigned duties for several years and are subject to periodic refresher
instructions and annual evaluations.
1.6
DOCUMENTATION AND RECORDS
Each project participant maintains records that include sufficient information to reconstruct final
reported measurements from the variables originally gathered in the measurement process. This
includes, but is not limited to, information (raw data, electronic files, and/or hard copy printouts)
related to media preparation, sampler calibration, sample collection, sample handling (chain-ofcustody and processing activities), measurement instrument calibration, quality control checks of
sampling or measurement equipment, as-collected measurement values, an audit trail for any
modifications made to the as-collected measurement values, and traceability documentation for
reference standards.
Difficulties encountered during sampling or analysis are documented in narratives that indicate
the affected measurements. Electronic versions of data sets reflect the limitations associated
with individual measurement values.
The following electronic or hard copy documents are maintained by the analysts (e.g., chain-ofcustody forms in the laboratory with final data), field operators (e.g., activity logs), or data
managers (e.g., electronic logs):










Sampling information and chain-of-custody forms
Instrument calibration data forms
Field data log books
Electronic run logs
Electronic and/or manual daily activity logs
Electronic and/or manual preventative maintenance records
Electronic and/or manual data processing and validation logs
Electronic and/or manual data management activity logs
Records of assessment, such as performance evaluation records
Manage data through internet based portal.
Electronic data are stored on a networked computer that is backed up every day. All previous
versions of data sets are retained along with the final validated data set that is delivered to the
sponsor.
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Version: Revised
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May 2011
2. DATA GENERATION AND ACQUISITION
2.1
SAMPLING DESIGN
Prior to the first year of monitoring, three primary monitoring sites and eight satellite monitoring
sites were established. These locations were selected based on several primary criteria including
MEPA Certificate requirements; distance and direction from the Centerfield Taxiway; nearby
emission sources and potential influences; meteorological conditions; site ownership
accessibility and security; and other factors, including shelter and the availability of electricity.
Descriptions of each of the selected monitoring locations are provided in the following sections.
The sampling schedule has been selected to obtain hourly measurements of PM2.5 with a beta
attenuation monitor (BAM) and BC with an aethalometer. These short-term measurements will
cover every day and every hour of sampling along with meteorological measurements. PM2.5
will also be collected on filters with a Federal Reference Method (FRM) sampler every sixth day
at one of the primary sites (Annavoy site) for comparison with the other measurements. Active
samples for PM2.5 (collected using a minivol), VOC, carbonyls, and PAH will be collected over
24-hour periods every 6 days. The sampling schedule will coincide with the EPA standard 1 in 6
day sampling schedule, available here: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/files/ambient/pm25/
CALENDAR_2010.pdf.
2.2
MONITORING AND SAMPLING METHOD REQUIREMENTS
Several common quality control activities take place for all analyses:
1. Acceptance testing for contamination of substrates, reagents, and extraction vials prior to use.
2. Field and laboratory blank designation and analysis to determine blank levels and variability.
3. Periodic performance tests of flow rates for field samplers and of zero and span values for
laboratory instruments to determine reproducibility and calibration drift.
4. Data validation flags for field and laboratory operations that indicate deviations from
procedures.
Results from these common quality control activities are compiled into a separate database and
used to develop the data qualifications statement.
2.3
SAMPLE HANDLING AND CUSTODY
Sample handling, chain-of-custody, and archiving are specifically treated in the Standard
Operating Procedures (SOPs). The BAM and aethalometer measurements are in situ, with
instruments located in environmentally controlled shelters. To minimize sampling losses or
changes and to promote comparability among these instruments:
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1. Sample inlet lines are as short as possible by locating instruments close to the shelter ceiling.
2. Inlets are at a common height above rooftop level (~1.5 m), equivalent to the height of FRM
inlets.
3. Sample lines are of conducting material with straight or gently curving entries to instruments
to minimize particle losses.
4. Sample line diameters are as small as possible to minimize residence time that might cause
changes in temperature and humidity.
Filter, denuder, and absorber sections from particle monitors are prepared in clean laboratories
and shipped to and from the field by overnight transport in cooled (<4°C) containers containing
temperature indicators. Samples will be stored in coolers with ice before and after sampling.
Shipments are coordinated between the field and laboratory. These identifiers are entered into
field and laboratory data acquisition systems to track sample status at any time during the
project. The QA Manager will review chain-of-custody processes and data throughout the
project and recommend improvements.
2.4
ANALYTICAL METHODS AND REQUIREMENTS
Field and laboratory operations are described in SOPs that are attached in Appendix A. These
SOPs codify the actions that are taken to implement a measurement process over a specified time
period. State-of-the-art scientific information is incorporated into the SOP with each revision.
SOPs include the following elements:
1. A brief summary of the measurement method, its principles of operation, its expected
accuracy and precision, and the assumptions which must be met for it to be valid.
2. A list of materials, equipment, reagents, and suppliers. Specifications are given for each
expendable item and its storage location.
3. A general traceability path, the designation of primary standards or reference materials,
tolerances for transfer standards, and a schedule for transfer standard verification.
4. Startup, routine maintenance, and shutdown operating procedures and an abbreviated
checklist.
5. Copies of data forms with examples of filled out forms.
6. Routine maintenance schedules, maintenance procedures, and troubleshooting tips.
7. Internal calibration and performance testing procedures and schedules.
8. External performance auditing schedules.
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May 2011
9. References to relevant literature and related SOPs.
SOPs specify ongoing quality assurance (QA) procedures that include instrument calibrations,
minimum detection limit for measured species, monitoring operations, regular performance
checks, maintenance, documentation, chain-of-custody accounting, audit procedures, data
validation, and precision and accuracy calculations. Each monitoring site will include a site log
that will be used to document the time and activities involved with each operator visit. A field
sampling checklist SOP has been created specifically for this project and is included in
Appendix A.
2.5
QUALITY CONTROL REQUIREMENTS
Several types of standards are needed for calibration, auditing, and performance tests. Primary
standards are well characterized and protected, with stable concentrations to which all other
standards are traceable. Transfer standards are often more easily produced or commonly
available and are traceable to primary standards; these are used for calibration, performance
testing, and auditing. The same standards can be used for calibration and performance testing,
but audit standards should be independently traceable to primary standards. Performance tests
may measure instrument electronic response rather than response to a specific value of an
observable nature when transfer standards for the primary observable are lacking.
Methods for presenting these standards to instruments depend on the instrument audited. Flow
rates are relatively simple to verify using rotometers, but evaluating continuous monitor response
to particle size is impractical under field conditions. Certification documentation for rotometers
and dry gas meters will be kept at EA’s office, including certification results and dates of
certifications.
In addition to the field calibration and auditing of the active monitoring equipment performed by
field technicians on a regular basis, a QA performance and systems audit will be conducted by an
independent auditor within the first month of all of three Primary sites being in full operation.
Calibration, performance testing, and auditing methods for laboratory operations are largely
based on the preparation of standard solutions from mineral salts. The National Institute of
Standards and Technology does not provide these types of standards. Standard solutions in a
large range of concentrations are available commercially for inorganic monoatomic and
polyatomic ions.
Inter-laboratory comparisons will operate on the exchange of portions of the same filters or
sample extract. Mass, elemental, ion, and carbon analysis can all be performed on portions of
the same filter.
2.6
DATA MANAGEMENT
Data from the primary and satellite sites will be compiled into an electronic project database set
up by the project team. A telemetric system will provide real-time data to the database to ensure
that malfunctioning equipment is repaired in a timely fashion and anomalies are identified as
soon as possible. The following types of tables will be included in the project database:
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Logan International Airport
Quality Assurance Project Plan
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 12 of 14
May 2011

Measurement Locations: Each measurement location is identified with a unique
alphanumeric site ID accompanied by its name and address, its primary operator, and a
summary of measurements taken at the site for different monitoring periods. GPS
coordinates will be recorded at each location prior to commencing year 2 of the monitoring
program.

Variable Definitions: Each variable is assigned a unique code that is accompanied by its
definition, units, averaging time, measurement method, applicable temperature and pressure
adjustments, and data reporting format.

Data Validation Flags: Flags specific to each measurement are translated into a common set
of validation flags that are carried with each data point. These are currently being defined by
EPA for its speciation program, and this will be a starting point for data validation flags.

Data Tables: Basic data tables are constructed in normalized formats that have the same
structure for different types of data. Each record contains the site code, sample date
(MMDDYYYY), variable code, measurement value, measurement precision, validity code,
and validation level. These files will be transparent to most users and can be easily
manipulated into convenient data analysis forms. Missing or invalid measurements contain a
NULL value. Modern data management software permits this in place of the –99 (and
variants) previously used. Separate tables are produced for different averaging times and for
non-uniform data sets.

Validation Tables: Detailed information on specific samples indicating the nature of the data
qualification will be prepared. These tables also contain the validation level assigned to each
data item.
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Logan International Airport
Quality Assurance Project Plan
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 13 of 14
May 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
3.
3.1
ASSESSMENT AND OVERSIGHT
ASSESSMENT AND RESPONSE ACTIONS
The project manager will oversee day-to-day operations at the sampling sites. A need for
corrective action can be triggered by assessments of precision, accuracy, or completeness. The
most important triggers are standards (flow rates in the field and calibration standards in the
laboratory) that differ from specified values by more than the amounts specified in the
procedures. Other triggers can include an instrument not meeting basic performance criteria,
observations by any laboratory personnel of unusual performance by an instrument, or error
messages displayed by the controlling computers or the LIMS system.
A telemetry system will be implemented to monitor real time instrumentation. The telemetry
system, which will be checked daily via a web portal, will monitor the BAMs, aethelometers,
and meteorological units.
Time integrated analytical data will be monitored via a biweekly trending analysis. Data outliers
and potential issues with the sampling equipment will be identified via this trending analysis.
Trending analysis will also be performed on real time instrumentation.
Once a need for corrective action has been identified, two basic steps follow: identification of the
problem, and correction of the problem. Exactly what action is taken depends on what is
determined to be wrong; actions can include replacement of a defective part, correction of an
incorrect flow, resetting or adjusting of tuning parameters, and contacting manufacturer service
personnel.
3.2
REPORTS TO MASSPORT
Air monitoring will be conducted over a 12-month period. Combined with the meteorological
and other supporting data, a vast amount of information will be collected and verified. To distill
this material into meaningful information, the data will be assimilated into summary statistics
and graphical presentations that are intended to give the reviewers a comprehensive, yet concise,
display of the data. The BAM and aethalometer air monitoring data will be accessible to users in
real time through an EA hosted internet portal. Integrated sample results and other related data
will be added to the portal as it becomes available.
Quarterly summary reports outlining any issues identified that quarter relative to the monitoring
program , will be provided during the month following the end of a quarter. The quarterly
reports will provide all monitoring and analytical data collected during the previous quarter with
references to the EA hosted internet portal for real time and historical monitoring data, statistics,
etc. Upon completion of all monitoring and data quality review, a summary report will be
prepared covering the 12-month monitoring period. The report will be similar to the first year’s
monitoring report (CDM, August 2009).
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Logan International Airport
Quality Assurance Project Plan
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 14 of 14
May 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
4. DATA VALIDATION
4.1
DATA REVIEW AND VERIFICATION
The QA program is organized around providing continuing internal quality control checks. This
begins with proper training of the laboratory technicians so they can identify problems with
analyses and point these out to the Laboratory Operations or Laboratory Manager for resolution.
Other internal quality control checks include blank checks, certification of sampling media, and
the data analysis system. For example, the ability of Alpha’s data analysis system to merge
multiple samples into a single database allows for rapid and accurate cross-comparisons among
the samples. SOP quality control checks include the calibration procedures, the regular
calibration checks, and the duplicate analyses. Duplicate analyses are essential for determining
precision of analyses and provide information about the stability of the system over time.
4.2
DATA VALIDATION
Data validity levels are designated in the validation tables for different stages of data acquisition
and interpretation. Level 0 designates data sets downloaded from a field instrument that have not
been examined. These measurements are used to evaluate instrument performance and to
forecast conditions for special experiments. Level 0 data are not used for interpretive purposes.
Level 1 data has been evaluated by the measurement investigator prior to submission to the data
base. Values are removed for instrument downtime and performance tests, adjustments for
calibration deviations are applied, extreme values are investigated, internal comparisons are
made, blanks are subtracted, precisions are estimated and propagated, and appropriate data
qualification flags are assigned. These are submitted to the Data Manager, who applies several
additional tests. For sequential measurements, jump tests, standard deviation tests, and extreme
value tests often identify values that need to be investigated.
Level 2 data have completed inter-comparison tests between data sets. These tests often result in
the investigation of several samples that do not follow the same pattern as other measurements.
These samples are investigated; sometimes reanalyzed; and redesignated as valid, invalid, or
suspect as a result of the investigation.
Level 3 validation occurs after measurements are used to test hypotheses and values that are
found contradictory to other values have been investigated. The quality of these measurements
is especially important as they often indicate large deviations from conventional wisdom that
should not be confused with measurement error. The first assumption upon finding a
measurement inconsistent with physical expectations is that the unusual value is due to a
measurement error. If upon tracing the path of the measurement nothing unusual is found, the
value can be assumed to be a valid result of an environmental cause. Unusual values are
identified during the data interpretation process as the following: 1) extreme values; 2) values
that would normally track the values of other variables in a time series; and 3) values for
observables that would normally follow a qualitatively predictable spatial or temporal pattern.
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Logan International Airport
Quality Assurance Project Plan
APPENDIX A
Standard Operating
Procedures
MAGEE AETHALOMETER: OPERATION
AND MAINTENANCE
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Prepared by:
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc.
2374 Post Road, Suite 102
Warwick, RI 02886
(401) 736-3440
March 2011
Original: July 2010
Version: Revised
EA Project No.: 14774.01
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 1 of 16
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
1. GENERAL DISCUSSION
1.1
PURPOSE OF PROCEDURE
This standard operating procedure is intended to:

Provide a basic understanding of the principles behind the aethalometer for the determination
of light absorption measurements

Describe the routine procedure for set-up, calibration, operation and takedown

Detail the concerns and procedures which will insure valid light absorption measurements.
1.2
UNDERLYING PRINCIPLE
The aethalometer was developed as a real time analyzer for measuring particle light absorption
(babs), which is usually reported as black carbon (BC or soot) concentration. The aethalometer
measures attenuation of a beam of light transmitted through a quartz-fiber filter while the filter is
continually collecting the aerosol sample (Magee Scientific Mfg. Co., 1993). The rate of
accumulation of black carbon is proportional to both the black carbon concentration in the air
stream and to the flow rate. A sample stream drawn through a 1.13 cm2 area of a quartz-fiber
filter tape (i.e., exposed) where the black carbon is collected. A separate portion of the filter tape
outside of the sample stream (i.e., unexposed or referenced) is used as an optical reference. The
two parts of the filter, exposed and referenced, are illuminated by a stabilized lamp which
provides a diffuse lighting. The light passing through the exposed and referenced portions of the
filter is captured by two matched photodiodes. The optical signals from the diodes are converted
to voltages and digitized. The voltages are compared and converted to optical attenuation values
which are proportional to the quantity of aerosol black carbon collected on the filter. The rate of
increase of the black carbon loading yields the black carbon concentration in the sampled air
stream when the air flow in the sampling stream is known.
The optics and electronics of the aethalometer allow the instrument to operate in the range of 1
ng/cm2 to a maximum of 8 g/cm2 of black carbon on the filter. The minimum time resolution
of the instrument is the time required to collect 1 nanogram/cm2. At a standard sample flow rate
of 5 L/min. and a mean concentration of 1 g/m3, the minimum time resolution is on the order of
a fraction of a minute. An internal calibration coefficient converts the light attenuation
measurement to the units of ng/m3. An approximation of babs for each measurement interval can
be obtained by multiplying the mass concentration (ng/m3) by the mass absorption coefficient for
black carbon which is reported as 10-8 m2/ng (Clarke et al., 1987). However, a given mass of
elemental carbon (EC) aerosol can yield significantly different optical properties depending on
the geometric mass mean diameter, the shape of the particles, the complex refractive index, and
the presence of particle coatings or condensates (Clarke et al., 1987). Liousse et al. (1993) report
a range of between 5 to 20 m2/g for the specific attenuation coefficient which they related to
differences in the nature of the combustion source and the aging of the particles during transport.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Magee Scientific Seven Wavelength Aethalometer
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
1.3
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 2 of 16
March 2011
METHOD INTERFERENCES AND THEIR MINIMIZATION
The aethalometer measurement process involves the mechanical transfer of a quartz-fiber filter
across the sensing region, the activation of a diaphragm pump as well as sensitive electronic
sensors for measuring light attenuation. Each of these actions as well as the installation and
handling of the quartz-fiber filters is subject to potential biases from:

Careless handling of samples. Improper cleaning of the stainless steel filter support screen
between filter changes may lead to contamination of samples from previous samples or from
the cleaning process itself. The cleaning procedures described in this SOP must be followed
diligently to avoid contamination problems. Despite the fact that the operator may be
working within a dusty environment, an effort must be made to keep the instrument clean.
No object must touch the center area of the filters at any time; filters which are contaminated
by contact with fingers, tweezers, gloves, or table tops must be replaced.

Too much deposit material. Because the aethalometer is designed to automatically advance
at a pre-set concentration level, precautions should be taken to ensure that the pre-set limit
reflects the potential loading in the sampling environment over the time averaging period that
is used to derive concentration measurements.

Color of the filter tape. The filter tape should be as nearly transparent to light as possible.

Stray light. The light measured by the detector should be only that generated by the internal
lamp which has been transmitted through the filter tape. Light entering the detector by other
routes will not be attenuated by the aerosol deposit and will bias the measurement.

Changes in light intensity or detector response. Changes in the intensity of the lamp or
detector response during the sampling period will bias the readings.

Analog output voltage settings. The proper scaling between analog output voltage and
concentration of black carbon must be determined so as to maximize the sensitivity of the
instrument to the environment in which it will be used. Scaling between voltage and
concentration of black carbon is a linear relationship. The settings allow the voltage output
to relate to different ranges of expected BC concentrations. For an environment with high
concentration levels it would be appropriate to scale the output voltage as 10 volts represents
100 g/m3 this would allow the instrument to fully range the voltage over concentrations
from 0 to 100 g/m3. If the concentrations are high and the scaling is set low the analog
voltage will continually overload the signal. For example if the scaling 10 volts represents 5
g/m3 was chosen, but the concentrations were greater than 5 g/m3 then the analog output
would always read 10 volts. Conversely, if the actual concentrations in the environment are
low, but the scaling is set high there will be a resultant loss of sensitivity as the voltage
fluctuations associated with low concentrations will result in voltage measurements with
lower precision and accuracy.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Magee Scientific Seven Wavelength Aethalometer
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 3 of 16
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
1.4
RANGES AND TYPICAL VALUES OF MEASUREMENTS
Typical measurements of BC loadings range from less than 1 g/m3 for remote areas to 20 g/m3
for suburban areas (Liousse et al., 1993). These concentrations would result in light absorption
measurements in the range of approximately 10 to 200 Mm-1.
1.5
TYPICAL LOWER QUANTIFIABLE LIMITS, PRECISION, AND ACCURACY
The lower quantifiable limit according to the manufacturer’s specifications is 1 ng/m3.
According to Liousse et al. (1993) if filter attenuation is confined to less than 150 which
corresponds to a BC content of the order of 8 g the maximum attenuation error may be
estimated as 0.1% and the black carbon content (BC) is given with an accuracy of 0.003 g.
According to Molenar (pers. comm., 1995), the filter attenuation level should be set to 25% as he
found that at levels greater than 22% the calculation of babs is compromised. The optical path is
obtained from the ratio of the filtered air volume to the sampled filter area. The measurement
error in the optical path is primarily due to volume uncertainty and is estimated to be of the order
of 0.5% (Liousse et al., 1993). This uncertainty results in an error in the calculation of babs of
approximately 0.6% using the Beer-Lambert law.
1.6
PERSONNEL RESPONSIBILITIES
Field technicians and data analysts should read and understand the entire standard operating
procedure prior to deployment of the aethalometer. Familiarity with maintenance, programming,
data downloading and the structure of the output data files is necessary for obtaining valid
measurements. In addition the data analyst must be able to perform data validation and a
performance audit.
It is the responsibility of the Laboratory Supervisor to ensure the aethalometer procedures are
properly followed, to examine and document all documentation, to arrange for maintenance and
repair, to maintain the supplies necessary to insure uninterrupted measurements, and to deliver
the data to the project manager within the specified time period.
The EA quality assurance (QA) officer is responsible to determine the extent and methods of
quality assurance to be applied to each project, to estimate the level of effort involved in this
quality assurance, to update this procedure periodically, and to ascertain that these tasks are
budgeted and carried out as part of the performance on each contract.
1.7
DEFINITIONS
The following terms are used in this document:

Aethalometer: Instrument that estimates black carbon concentration based on the measured
attenuation of light through a quartz-fiber filter caused by the deposition of particles onto and
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Magee Scientific Seven Wavelength Aethalometer
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 4 of 16
March 2011
into the filter. The air sample is drawn into the instrument and through the filter by a
diaphragm pump. Flow is controlled internally by a mass flow meter.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Magee Scientific Seven Wavelength Aethalometer
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 5 of 16
March 2011
2. APPARATUS, INSTRUMENTATION, REAGENTS, AND FORMS
2.1
APPARATUS AND INSTRUMENTATION
2.1.1
Description
The aethalometer consists of 5 major components: the carbon sensing area, the tape drive system,
the pump, pump relay and mass flow controller. The following sections provide additional
information on each of these components.
2.1.1.1
The Sensing Area
In this part of the instrument the sample stream is drawn through a 1.13 cm2 area of the filter,
while another portion of the filter is used as an optical reference. Both parts of the filter are
illuminated by a stabilized lamp providing diffuse light through the transparent inlet. This
component also holds the matched photodiodes which measure the light attenuation and the
signal converter which changes the optical signals to voltages.
2.1.1.2
The Tape Transport System
The tape is advanced by a shaft controlled by a servo motor. To provide sufficient grip, a springloaded pressure roller presses the tape against the driving shaft. The spring pressure is removed
when the tape transport is inactive, to avoid breaking the fragile tape.
2.1.1.3
The Pump
The pump unit is a diaphragm type which contains a rubber compound membrane which
provides the suction. A length of PVC tubing is attached between the pump and the inlet on the
aethalometer. A length of Tygon tubing is attached to the exhaust fitting to carry the exhausted
air outside the environmentally controlled housing. The pump unit is operated on 110 V AC and
it obtains its power from an external relay linked to the aethalometer.
2.1.1.4
The Pump Relay
The pump relay activates the pump upon a signal from the aethalometer. The pump relay is
plugged into the mains and connected to the aethalometer via a communication cable.
2.1.1.5
The Mass Flow Controller
Within the aethalometer is a mass flow controller which regulates the air flow generated by the
external pump to a constant 5 L/min for aerosol sampling.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Magee Scientific Seven Wavelength Aethalometer
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 6 of 16
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
2.1.2
Instrument Characterization
To meet the performance specifications, the following ambient conditions have to be met: 1)
ambient temperature: 5-35 C, 2) relative humidity: 0-90%, with no condensation. The
aethalometer must be placed in a temperature-controlled environment for operation in ambient
conditions that exceed these ranges.
2.1.3
Maintenance
Regular maintenance for the aethalometer includes:

Checking the filter advance and replace as necessary (refer to Section 4.2.2).

For each tape change, ensure that the stainless steel filter support mesh screen above the optical
sensor is cleaned. Remove the locking screws attaching the top of the inlet cylinder to the
lifting plate, and carefully lift it up and away from the base. Clean any accumulation of quartzfiber from the top of the mesh screen. When replacing the inlet cylinder, check carefully that it
is properly seated on the base.

Check all tubing and connections between the aethalometer and the pump and the aethalometer
and the aerosol sampling tube at each site visit. Replace defective items immediately.

Perform a simple leak test after each tape change. This involves: i) removing the sample inlet
tube from the aerosol inlet fitting, ii) cursor to and highlight the Service window of the main
menu. Select Signals and then press the Pump key to turn on the vacuum pump. The sample
air flow rate is displayed on the screen. Block the inlet by placing a finger over it: the flow rate
should drop below 1 L/min. Reconnect the inlet tubing if the leak test is passed. Check all
connections if the leak test fails and repeat.

Check the pump diaphragm for wear at each site visit. Remove the top plate of the pump and
visually inspect the diaphragm for wear. The top plate is fixed with four 3/16" hex cap screws
which are removed with a 3/16" Allen wrench. Wear will be apparent if the diaphragm shows
excessive cracking, evidence of rubber residue and wear around the circumference.

Check that the light is operational via the Service window and replace if necessary.

Remove and replace the data collection disk.

Check the inlet orifice for blockage by debris and insects.
2.1.4 Spare Parts and Supplies
The following spare parts and supplies should be kept on hand to insure minimal interruptions in
analysis:
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Magee Scientific Seven Wavelength Aethalometer
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 7 of 16
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology








2.2
Quartz-fiber filter tapes (Pallflex, size 1"  30", type 2500QAT-UP)
vinyl gloves (Fisher Scientific, #11-393-26)
small Philips screwdriver
regular Philips screwdriver
3/16" Allen wrench
small adjustable wrench
small camel-hair brush
0-10 L/min calibrated rotameter.
FORMS AND PAPERWORK
A site log is used to record the date of each site visit and the activity, maintenance and
performance tests that are carried out on the aethalometer and other monitors at the sampling
site. The filter status should be reported (how much is left). This will help to track the sample
dots in case further analysis of filter samples is required. If the filter tape is near the end the tape
should be changed following the procedures detailed in Section 4.2.2.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Magee Scientific Seven Wavelength Aethalometer
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 8 of 16
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
3. CALIBRATION STANDARDS
3.1
PREPARATION, RANGES, AND TRACEABILITY OF STANDARDS
The manufacturer of the aethalometer does not provide calibration standards to verify the
precision and accuracy of this instrument. The precision and accuracy of this method are
functions of the air flow rate, filtration efficiency and the optical system. To check flows
through the system a primary standard (Bios DryCal is used every site visit to check the flows
through the critical orifices.
3.2
USE OF STANDARDS
The primary standard is used at the beginning of each deployment, once each sampling round
(once every sixth day), before and after the installation of a new filter tape and at the ending of
each project to check the flows through the critical orifices. A special adaptor is used to connect
the rotameter outlet to the aerosol sampling inlet.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Magee Scientific Seven Wavelength Aethalometer
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 9 of 16
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
4. PROCEDURES
4.1
GENERAL FLOW DIAGRAM
Not applicable.
4.2
ROUTINE OPERATION
4.2.1
Instrument Setup
To prepare the aethalometer for measurement operation the following setup procedure steps
should be taken.

Place the aethalometer on a sturdy stand or bench and if required a temperature controlled
environment.

Connect the AC power cord to the AC line input found at the lower left on the back of the
instrument.

Connect the pump power cord to the pump relay.

Connect the gray colored power output cord to the socket on the back of the aethalometer
(beside the AC power input).

Connect the both the aethalometer and the pump relay power cords to the mains.

Connect the black PVC aerosol sampling hose to the aerosol input connector on the
aethalometer (marked with a red A).

Connect the white/opaque PVC hose between the pump and the pump connection on the
aethalometer (marked with a red P). The pump to aethalometer hose length maybe up to 5
meters.

Run the black aerosol sampling line to the chosen exterior sampling location avoiding sharp
bends in the hose. The sampling position may be up to 10 meters away. The aerosol inlet
should be a rigid vertical inlet, facing downwards, with a cover to exclude rain and spray, and a
mesh screen to exclude insects if necessary.

Place a flash memory disk into the drive.

Turn the instrument on by turning the keyed switch to the vertical position. It will go through a
series of self-checks.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Magee Scientific Seven Wavelength Aethalometer
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 10 of 16
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology

Check the status of the tape and replace if necessary, or mark the take-up side with a sticker to
note the date and time of deployment or a site visit.

If the analog voltage output is to be recorded by a data logger it is necessary to check the
response of the analog output. Go to the Service window and highlight Analog Output, press
Enter. Attach a voltmeter to the lines that are originating from pin number 2 (positive) and pin
number 4 (negative). Monitor the voltage output and increase and decrease the voltage via the
keypad Up and Down arrows. Note the response of the voltmeter. If the voltage tracks
correctly it indicates the analog output is working properly. ESC to return to the main menu.
4.2.2
Loading the Filters
The quartz-fiber filters are loaded into the instrument with the front control panel setting in the
SERVICE/FILTER mode. The keys to be used and their respective functions are:

Cursor Up: lift inlet cylinder (release tape)

Cursor Down: lower inlet cylinder (clamp tape)

Tape Advance Key: advance tape through drive rollers (press to start, press escape or cursor
right to stop)

Pump: Turn pump on/off

ESC: return to main menu

Shift and Escape: press simultaneously to continue measurements
To change the tape, proceed as follows:

Remove the knurled screws holding the tape spool plates. Insert a new roll of tape onto the
right-hand hub center. Make sure the tape is loaded so that the tape enters the sensing region
with the smooth side facing upwards.

Use the Cursor Up key to lift the inlet cylinder.

Thread the tape through under the white guide roller and through the gap under the inlet
cylinder.

Press down on the lower pinch roller shaft end to make a small gap between the two drive
rollers, feed a bit of the tape between the rollers and release the lower pinch roller so that the
tape is gripped between the two rollers.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Magee Scientific Seven Wavelength Aethalometer
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 11 of 16
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology

Use the Tape Advance key to advance the tape, providing sufficient length to reach the take-up
hub on the left. Use ESC or Cursor Right key to stop the tape advance.

Make sure that the tape passes correctly between the optical sensors.

Clip the take-up end into the spring clip on the left-hand hub.

Replace the spool plates and the knurled screws.

Use the Cursor Down key to lower the inlet head.
4.2.3
Programming
Programming of the aethalometer involves setting the time averaging function, the filter
attenuation setting for automatic advance and if desired the filter advance set for a discrete time
interval. For measuring the analog output signal for data logging the analog output and its
scaling must also be set. The scaling factor chosen will be dependent upon the environment
being sampled. The greater the expected concentration of black carbon aerosol the greater
should be the scaling factor (refer to Section 1.3). Programming is done via the front panel
keypad in the Set-Up window. The following steps are taken:

Cursor to the Set-Up menu and press Enter.

Cursor down and highlight Timebase and press Enter. Select the time averaging interval and
press Enter.

Cursor to Filter Change to set the parameters for the automatic tape advance. The first window
selects the "attenuation level" (filter optical density) at which a tape advance is required. One
value from 25, 50 and 75 'units' can be selected. For maximum tape life select 75.

Press ESC to proceed to the second level to set the Filter Change. With this setting an
automatic tape advance can be set to a clock interval. Intervals from 1 minute to 168 hours are
possible. Selecting NO causes the tape advance to be determined only by filter saturation.

ESC from the Timing menu and highlight Output.

Within the Output sub-menu highlight Analog Output and press Enter. This field allows
voltage to be recorded with a data logger via the rear pin-out. Use the Cursor-Up button to
select the appropriate scaling parameter, highlight and press Enter. Press ESC twice to back
out.

Highlight Date/Time. Enter the correct date in the format MM/DD/YR, press Enter. Enter the
time in 24 hr format, Hr/Min/sec. Press Enter. The screen returns the date and times for a
check. A second Enter command accepts the date and time and backs out of this window.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Magee Scientific Seven Wavelength Aethalometer
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 12 of 16
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology

To save the program and store it in memory highlight Save and press Enter.

To review the current settings cursor to File, press Enter, cursor to View CF and press Enter.
The number of files will be displayed. Press Enter a second time and the current status of the
set-up configurations will be displayed. If an error is noted repeat the necessary steps and resave. Check the configuration file. If the new configuration is not changed from the old
settings consult the manufacturer.
4.3
Aethalometer Shutdown
Upon completion of a field project the following steps are taken to shut down the aethalometer.

Press ESC to halt the sampling sequence.

Cursor to Service, press Enter, highlight Flow, measure and record the flow with the calibrated
rotameter.

Press ESC to stop the pump.

Shut off the power with the keyed switch.

Disconnect the aerosol sampling and pump hoses.

Disconnect all the power cords and communications cables.

Pack the unit for transport.
4.4
ABBREVIATED OPERATIONAL CHECKLIST

Connect all power cords.

Connect hoses for aerosol sampling and to pump.

Turn on the instrument (one quarter clockwise turn to a vertical position).

Allow the instrument to go through its self-check and press any key as the machine indicates to
stop the automatic measurements to begin.

Check the tape status, replace if necessary.

Check disk is in front drive.

Check the configuration file, adjust if required.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Magee Scientific Seven Wavelength Aethalometer
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 13 of 16
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology

Check the flow, internal flow meter versus rotameter.

Leak test, check hose fittings if necessary.

Check date and time on front panel, adjust if necessary.

Initiate sampling. Press Shift / ESC simultaneously. Note, start the device synchronized to a
clock time. The instrument does not synchronize filter changes with a set time but with elapsed
time from initial start.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Magee Scientific Seven Wavelength Aethalometer
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 14 of 16
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
5. QUANTIFICATION
5.1
CALIBRATION PROCEDURES
The unit was calibrated and serviced prior to mobilization. The manufacturer recommends
minimization of calibrations. If a flow check indicates calibration if required (±0.2 LPM), refer
to the operation manual for guidance on performing a calibration.
5.2
DATA ACQUISITION
A telemetric system will be implemented to achieve real time data acquisition. The data will
also be acquired manually by retrieving the daily data generated by the aethalometer and stored
on a flash memory drive. The data will be will be incorporated into a database for review and
manipulation. Only manually downloaded data will be used for data interpretation.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Magee Scientific Seven Wavelength Aethalometer
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 15 of 16
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
6. QUALITY CONTROL
Quality control for the aethalometer consists of checking the following:

6.1
Consecutive flow checks should differ by no more than ± 0.5 units on the calibrated rotameter.
Large differences must be investigated on the assumption that leaks are responsible for the
discrepancy.
DATA VALIDATION AND FEEDBACK
Contact the field supervisor for instructions if difficulties are found.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Magee Scientific Seven Wavelength Aethalometer
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 16 of 16
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
7. REFERENCES
Clarke, A.D, K.J. Noone, J. Heintzenberg, S.G. Warren and D.S. Scott (1987). Aerosol Light
Absorption Measurement Techniques: Analysis and Intercomparisons. Atmospheric
Environment 21 (6), 1455-1465.
Liousse, C., H. Cachier, and S.G. Jennings (1993). Optical and Thermal Measurements of Black
Carbon Aerosol Content in Different Environments: Variation of the Specific Attenuation
Cross-Section, Sigma (). Atmospheric Environment 27A (8), 1203-1211.
Magee Scientific. (1998). User's Manual Aethalometer AE-31. Magee Scientific Mfg. Co., 1829
Francisco St., Berkeley, CA 94703.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Magee Scientific Seven Wavelength Aethalometer
BGI PQ200 AIR SAMPLER
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
PM2.5 Designation RFPS-0498-116
\
Prepared by:
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc.
2374 Post Road, Suite 102
Warwick, RI 02886
(401) 736-3440
April 2011
Original: July 2010
Version: Revised
EA Project No.: 14774.01
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 1 of 12
April 2011
1. GENERAL DISCUSSION
In general, the measurement goal of the BGI PQ200 Federal Reference Method PM2.5 Ambient
Air Sampler is to estimate the concentration, in units of micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3), of
particulates of aerodynamic diameters less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (µm) that have been
collected on a 46.2mm Teflon™ (polytetrafluoroethylene [PTFE]) filter. In order to understand
the size of 2.5 µm, a human hair is approximately 50 µm in diameter. One major objective for
the collection of the data is to compare PM2.5 concentrations to the annual (15.0 µg/m3 annual
arithmetic mean concentration) and daily (65 µg/m3 24-hour average concentration) National
Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). A description of the NAAQS and its calculation can
be found in the 18 July 1997 Federal Register notice. In addition, Appendix L of 40 Code of
Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 50 also provides the following summary of the measurement
principle:
An electrically powered air sampler draws ambient air at a constant volumetric flow rate into a
specially-shaped inlet and through an inertial particle size separator (very sharp cut cyclone
[VSCC]), where the suspended particulate matter in the PM2.5 size range is separated for
collection on a PTFE filter over the specified sampling period. The air sampler and other aspects
of this reference method are specified either explicitly in this appendix or generally with
reference to other applicable regulations or quality assurance guidance.
Each filter is weighed (after moisture and temperature equilibration) before and after sample
collection to determine the net weight (mass) gain due to collected PM2.5. The total volume of
air sampled is determined by the sampler from the measured flow rate at actual ambient
temperature and pressure and the sampling time. The mass concentration of PM2.5 in the ambient
air is computed as the total mass of collected particles in the PM2.5 size range divided by the
actual volume of air sampled and is expressed in µg/m3.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
BGI PQ200 Air Sampler
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 2 of 12
April 2011
2. INSTALLATION AND SITING
Assemble the sampler as described in the BGI, Inc. PQ200 Operations Manual shipped with the
sampler, which can also be found at http://www.bgiusa.com/aam/PQ200v188.pdf. Check the
sample site areas for safety.
Ensure there will be enough room for the operator to move freely while working and that the
physical conditions of the location will allow the operator to work safely.
The sampler should be set in a location unobstructed from every side. No tree limbs or other
hanging obstructions should be above the sampler. It is suggested that the horizontal distance
from the sampler to the closest vertical obstruction higher than the sampler be at least twice the
height of the vertical obstruction. Install the sampler on a reasonably level structure at a height
between 2 and 15 meters (6 and 45 ft) above the ground.
Connect the sampler to a grounded electrical outlet with 115 volts and at least 15 amp service.
Protect the connector from precipitation by placing it in the shelter or wrapping it with plastic
tape.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
BGI PQ200 Air Sampler
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 3 of 12
April 2011
3. CALIBRATION, FLOW CHECKS, AND LEAK CHECKS
3.1 CALIBRATION
A flow rate check should be performed each month. If the flow check is more than ±0.2 liters
per minute (LPM) from the target flow rate (16.67 LPM), recalibration is necessary. Otherwise,
the PQ200 should be calibrated every six months.
3.1.1 Flow
3.1.1.1 Calibration

From the Main menu, use the arrow keys until * Test & Calibration Menu flashes. Press
SELECT to enter the Test Menu.

From the Test menu, use the arrow keys until * Calibrate Flow flashes. Press SELECT to
enter Flow Calibration mode.

The next screen will display Target Q: 16.7 LPM. The numeric value will be flashing. (The
second and third lines display the current ambient temperature and barometric pressure, and
the ambient temperature and barometric pressure for the current calibration.)

Press SELECT (NEXT). The value preceding the decimal place will stop flashing, indicating
it can be edited.

Use the arrow buttons to increase or decrease the selected value. When done, press SELECT
(NEXT).

The value following the decimal will then stop flashing. Use the arrow keys to select a new
value. Press SELECT (NEXT). The calibration screen will then be displayed.

Press (EXIT) to advance to the next screen.

Press the ON/OFF (PUMP) button to turn on the pump. The Corrected Q: message will then
be displayed. (The value for corrected Q that is shown is for reference only.)

Use the arrow keys to adjust the pump speed to obtain the required flow rate on the
calibration device. The arrow keys alone will fine adjust the speed. To coarse adjust, hold
the SELECT key and the up or down arrow key simultaneously.

When satisfied that the flow rate is sufficient and stable, press the blank (OK) button to lock
the calibration into memory.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
BGI PQ200 Air Sampler
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 4 of 12
April 2011
NOTE: Calibrations must be performed at three (15.0, 18.4, and 16.7) separate flow rate
measurements, evenly spaced within the range of ± 10 percent of the operational flow rate of
16.7 LPM.
3.1.1.2 Verifying Flow Rate
The flow rate should be verified on a monthly basis.

Remove the size selective inlet from the top of the downtube, leaving the downtube in place.

Cap the downtube with a flow rate calibration instrument (a BGI deltaCal is preferable)
Devices that have a pulsatile component in their function are not suitable.

From the Main menu, use the arrow keys until * Test & Calibration Menu flashes. Press
SELECT to enter the Test Menu.

From the Test menu, press the down arrow until * Verify Flow Calibration flashes. Press
SELECT. The Check Flow Now! screen will be displayed, and the sampler will then begin
to pump air at the current selected flow rate.

Use a deltaCal to monitor the flow rate at the inlet.

When satisfied that the flow rate is as calibrated, press the ON/OFF key to exit this function.

If any offset is observed, make note of the offset, add or subtract it from the previously
observed Corrected Q value and recalibrate the flow rate accordingly.
3.1.1.3 Changing Flow Rate

From the Main menu, use the arrow buttons until * Set-Ups and Download flashes. Press
SELECT to enter the Setups and Download menu.

From the Set-Ups menu, use the arrow buttons if necessary until * More Selections flashes.
Press SELECT.

Once again, use the arrow buttons until * More Selections flashes. Press SELECT.

From the current menu, use the arrow buttons until * Set Flow Rate flashes. Press SELECT.
The Volume? message will be displayed.

The numeric value will be flashing. (The second and third lines display the current ambient
temperature and barometric pressure, and the ambient temperature and barometric pressure
for the current calibration.)
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
BGI PQ200 Air Sampler
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 5 of 12
April 2011

Press SELECT (NEXT). The value preceding the decimal place will stop flashing, indicating
it can be edited.

Use the arrow (EDIT) buttons to increase or decrease the selected value. When done, press
SELECT (NEXT).

The value following the decimal will then stop flashing. Again, use the arrow keys to select
a new value. Press (EXIT) to return to the Main menu.

Return to Section 3.1.1.1 to repeat the procedure for additional flowrates.
3.1.2 Temperature Probes
3.1.2.1 Procedure for Rev “T” PCBs
The temperature probe and a traceable thermometer are inserted into the copper or brass test
cylinder. Check to ensure that both have stabilized before adjusting. After stabilization, adjust
the trimpot on the PCB to match probe to thermometer.
3.1.3 Barometric Pressure
3.1.3.1 Equipment
The following apparatus is required to perform an accurate barometric pressure calibration, an
accurate, NIST traceable, barometer:





an accurate, mercury, manometer with a range of 100 millimeters of mercury
a small slotted screwdriver
rubber hose (proper size to secure to connections and fittings)
a "T" adapter for the hose
a pair of hemostats.
3.1.3.2 Procedure

At the Main screen, compare the PQ200 barometric reading to that of the NIST traceable
barometer (If the barometer reads in inches [typical US readings], multiply by 25.4 to obtain
millimeters). Adjust the "OFFSET" until they do agree.

Remove the tubing that is attached to the P1 port of the barometric pressure sensor and attach
a piece of hose to this port. At the end of the hose, attach a "T" adapter and attach pieces of
hose to the other two ends.

Attach one of the hoses to the manometer negative pressure fitting.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
BGI PQ200 Air Sampler
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 6 of 12
April 2011

Apply light suction to the last hose until the manometer reads 100 mmHg. Clamp off the
hose with the hemostats to prevent leakage.

Observe the displayed value. It should be 100 mmHg less than the current, ambient,
barometric pressure. If not, adjust the "GAIN". (After making a gain adjustment, the
"OFFSET" may require re-adjustment. Work back and forth a few times to obtain a 100mm
span and an ambient reading that agrees with the NIST barometer.)
3.2 LEAK TESTS
3.2.1 External Leak Test
External leak checks should be performed on a monthly basis.

Insert an unused filter into the filter holder. (Do not use this filter for PM2.5 sampling
following the leak test; however, it may be used for other flow calibration checks.)

Remove the inlet from the downtube and place the flow audit adapter on the top of the
downtube. Close the valve on the adapter to prevent air flow.

From the Main menu, use the arrow keys until * Test Menu flashes. Press SELECT to enter
the Test Menu.

From the Test menu, press the down arrow until * Leak Test flashes. Press SELECT. The
PQ200 LEAK TEST: In Progress! screen will be displayed. Ensure that the flow path is
sealed (i.e., the valve on the flow audit adapter is closed) and press SELECT to begin
evacuating the system.

The PQ200 will automatically evaluate the performance of the system and report whether the
system has passed or failed the leak test. This is a 2-minute test. The initial (locked)
pressure is displayed on the left side of the screen. This will be a number in excess of 75 cm
of water column. In order to pass the test, the actively displayed pressure (shown on the right
side of the screen) must not drop by more than 5 cm of water column during the 2-minute
timing interval.

If the leak test is passed, the sampler is operating properly. If the leak test is failed,
investigate and correct any malfunction:
•
make sure the audit adapter is securely seated on the downtube and that the valve is
completely closed
•
make sure the Filter Assembly is securely closed
•
make sure the filter cassette was securely closed and placed in the filter housing during
the leak test
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
BGI PQ200 Air Sampler
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 7 of 12
April 2011
•
visually inspect tubing for cracks or loose connections
•
visually check O-rings in the flow audit adapter and filter holder for cracks, deformation,
or improper seating.
If all of these items appear normal and the sampler continues to fail the leak check, contact
the manufacturer.

Turn off the sampler, remove the flow audit adapter and put the inlet back on the downtube.

Remove the filter. Discard the filter or retain it for future leak tests or flow calibration
checks.
3.2.2 Internal Leak Test
Internal leak checks should be performed on a monthly basis.
The purpose of the internal leak test is to determine if there is bypass leakage in the filter
cassette. This test is performed exactly as above with two changes. The flow audit adapter is
NOT installed on the end of the down tube and an impermeable membrane is placed in the filter
cassette below the filter. Use BGI part KT006, cassette fitted with membrane, or part RD006,
pack of six membranes.
All test procedures and corrective actions are as in Section 3.2.1.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
BGI PQ200 Air Sampler
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 8 of 12
April 2011
4. OPERATING PROCEDURES
4.1 INSTRUMENT SETUP
Nitrile gloves should be worn during all of the following activities:

Check time and day indicated on controller clock and correct if needed (note any corrections
greater than 30 minutes on field data sheet)

Turn wheel to lower filter stage until cartridge can be removed

Using cartridge opener, remove dummy filter, insert new filter into cartridge and secure

Record filter ID on COC and field data sheet

Place filter cartridge on stage and raise until snug

From the Main menu, use the arrow keys until * Run Sampler from Midnight to Midnight
flashes

Press SELECT. If the unit has been previously downloaded the following message will be
displayed:
•
•
•
•
Clearing Memory. Please Wait!, and then
Time Event Triggered Run, Saving Data!, and then
PQ200 Powering Down
The PQ200 is then programmed to power itself on and begin sampling at midnight.
4.2 SAMPLE COLLECTION
Nitrile gloves should be worn during all of the following activities:

Check time and day indicated on controller clock and correct if needed (note any corrections
greater than 30 minutes on field data sheet)

Select View Sample from the main menu

Select Last Sample

Record all requested information onto project Field Sampling Form

Connect laptop to FRM using RS-232 serial cable:
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
BGI PQ200 Air Sampler
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 9 of 12
April 2011
Click on File
Click on New
Enter generic job information, click save
You may now change the file if desired, click save
A blank summary sheet will be displayed
Go to the menu bar and click on DOWNLOAD, click begin
Allow five minutes for the download to complete
When download is complete, click Return.

Turn wheel to lower filter stage until cartridge can be removed

Place dummy filter into cartridge, place cartridge on stage and raise until snug

Place filter cartridge in appropriate filter container.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
BGI PQ200 Air Sampler
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 10 of 12
April 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
5. MAINTENANCE
5.1 MONTHLY MAINTENANCE
Refer to the manual for direction on how to properly conduct the required maintenance. The
following maintenance is required to be performed on a monthly basis:











VSCC
Empty Condensation Collector
Perform Flow Rate Verification
Clean Inlet Surfaces
Clean Interior of Sampler Case
Check Clock
Barometric Pressure Verification
Temperature Verification
Check Sample Transport Containers
External Leak Check
Internal Leak Check.
5.2 TRI-MONTHLY MAINTENANCE
Refer to the manual for direction on how to properly conduct the required maintenance. The
following maintenance is required to be performed every three months:





Coat Inlet and VSCC O-rings with Vacuum Grease
Clean Sampler Downtube
Inspect Water Seal Gasket on Downtube
Inspect and Service Pump and Electrical Components
Inspect and Service Cooling Air Filter and Fans.
5.3 BI-ANNUAL MAINTENANCE
Refer to the manual for direction on how to properly conduct the required maintenance. The
following maintenance is required to be performed twice per year:

Single Point Flow Calibration
5.4 ANNUAL MAINTENANCE
Refer to the manual for direction on how to properly conduct the required maintenance. The
following maintenance is required to be performed once per year:


Temperature Calibration
Pressure Calibration.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
BGI PQ200 Air Sampler
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 11 of 12
April 2011
6. QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL
6.1 FIELD BLANKS
A field blank is a sample filter that has been taken to the sample location, opened for 15 minutes,
and then closed. Such a cartridge is analyzed to determine the background PM2.5 concentrations
and to provide additional documentation of proper field handling techniques. One field blank
will be collected per 20 PM2.5 samples collected for this study and submitted for analysis with
the sample filters. Each field blank will be identified on the chain-of-custody form in accordance
with the project sample identification convention.
6.2 SAMPLE HANDLING AND PRESERVATION
All PM2.5 samples will be collected on 46.2 mm TeflonTM filters unless previously approved by
the Project Manager. All filters shall remain in laboratory provided containers prior to and
following sampling. Chilling/refrigeration is not required for PM2.5 samples. There is no
prescribed holding time for PM2.5 samples.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
BGI PQ200 Air Sampler
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 12 of 12
April 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
7. REFERENCES
BGI, Inc. Operations Manual, PQ200 Ambient Fine Particulate Sampler.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
BGI PQ200 Air Sampler
MET ONE BAM 1020 OPERATION,
MAINTENANCE AND FIELD CALIBRATION
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Prepared by:
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc.
2374 Post Road, Suite 102
Warwick, RI 02886
(401) 736-3440
March 2011
Original: July 2010
Version: Revised
EA Project No.: 14774.01
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 1 of 15
March 2011
1. GENERAL DISCUSSION
1.1
PURPOSE OF PROCEDURE
This procedure describes the operation of the Met One BAM 1020 sampler. The BAM 1020
automatically measures PM2.5 concentrations. This document is intended to supplement the Met
One BAM 1020 Operation Manual. It is recommended that the manual be used in conjunction
with this document during the installation, operation and calibration.
1.2
SUMMARY OF METHOD
The principle objective of these samplers is to determine the mass concentration of particulates
in units of ug/m3 on an hourly basis with the use of a C14 element (<60 Ci). This element emits
a constant source of high-energy electrons, also known as beta particles.
The beta rays in the BAM 1020 are attenuated as they collide with particles collected on a filter.
The decrease in signal detected by the BAM 1020 scintillation counter is inversely proportional
to the mass loading on the filter tape.
Although the BAM 1020, outfitted with a PM2.5 inlet, is not designated by the US EPA as an
equivalent or reference method, it can be used as a Federal Reference Method (FRM)
replacement with one year of acceptable correlated data. Otherwise, the data from this
instrument is used for real time and PM2.5 mapping applications. The BAM 1020 operates for 24
one-hour measurements with a filter change frequency of one hour utilizing a glass fiber filter
tape.
The BAM 1020 consists of three basic components:
1. The detector/data logger
2. The pump
3. The sampling inlet.
Each component is self-contained and may be easily disconnected for servicing and replacement.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Met One BAM 1020
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 2 of 15
March 2011
2. SITING, INSTALLATION AND INITIALIZATION OF EQUIPMENT
2.1
SITING OF SAMPLER
The BAM 1020 is designed to mount in an environmentally controlled enclosure, such as those
traditionally employed for multi-parameter ambient air quality monitoring stations. The BAM
1020 requires its own access to the ambient air through a hollow aluminum tube (5 or 9 ft in
length depending on the application.) mounted directly on top of the instrument which
penetrating the ceiling and roof of the shelter. The BAM 1020 can also be installed in special
miniature environmentally controlled shelters for roof top and stand alone applications.
Siting criteria that must be considered when situating the sampler includes:
1. Inlet Clearance: The instrument must be sited in accordance with the requirements of 40
CFR 58, APP. E. In summary, the sampler must be placed so as to avoid obstacles that
would interfere with the free flow of air to the inlet probe. The BAM inlet must be located at
least 2 meters from any active FRM PM2.5 sampler inlet. Because the inlet probe must be
directly mounted on the instrument and extended through the roof of the shelter, only
locations with available bench space directly beneath the sample intake should be considered.
2. Inlet Height: The inlet height should conform to USEPA guidance relative to PM samplers
(2 to 15 meters above the ground), but should be equivalent to other PM (2.5 or 10) reference
method samplers installed at the site. The intake must be at least 2 meters above the roof
surface.
3. Bench Placement: The BAM 1020 is capable of rack mounting. The instrument has an area
footprint of 19 in. wide by 15.5 in. deep, with a height of about 12 in. Room must be
allowed for access to the instrument wiring and plumbing and access for probe and
instrument separation and removal for service. The pump can easily be installed on a floor
but is connected to the instrument with tubing and wiring.
4. Electrical: The BAM 1020 requires two electrical outlets, one for the main instrument, and
the other for the pump. The main instrument needs to be plugged in to a protected, stable
source of 120 VAC electric power. An Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) should be used,
if necessary. Since the instrument is directly connected to a metal inlet tube protruding
above the shelter, the instrument should be separately and firmly grounded to a grounded
metal part of the shelter.
5. Probe Heater: The probe heater is a 4-in. wide heating coil held in place with set screws used
for controlling relative humidity in the sample. It should be mounted a minimum of 2 in.
away from the instrument or ceiling.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Met One BAM 1020
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 3 of 15
March 2011
6. Temperature Probe: The BAM 1020 requires an externally mounted ambient temperature
probe to properly adjust volumetric flow measurements. The probe is enclosed in a louvered
shield mounted on a cross arm on the external portion of the sampling probe. The required
wiring for this probe may require the creation of a second smaller hole in the roof/wall, for its
connection to the back of the instrument.
2.2
INSTALLATION PROCEDURE
2.3
PROBE INSTALLATION
A hole must be drilled in the roof of the shelter to accommodate the probe and associated
hardware. It is essential that the hole be aligned with the inlet coupling on the top of the BAM
1020, placed on the instrument bench below. It is also essential to ensure that the hole (plus the
smaller temperature probe hole), can be sealed to prevent water leakage into the shelter.
Arrangements for a roof contractor may need to be made if a hole will pose special problems or
the roof is under warranty. The following are detailed directions for installing the probe.
1. In the appropriate location inside of the shelter, drill a 1 3/8” hole vertically through the
ceiling directly above the instrument inlet coupling. Stop drilling as soon as the guide bit
penetrates the roof. A plumb bob is helpful for determining the proper location to drill once
the bench location is established.
2. Using the hole from the guide bit, drill downward from the roof until the hole is sufficiently
deep to fit the roof mounting plate. To prevent future leaks, place a copious amount of
silicone sealant on the underside of the mounting plate.
3. Bolt down the mounting plate with four lag bolts. Attach coupler with gasket and nut, to the
mounting plate. Slide sampling tube through the hole and attach to BAM 1020 (discussed
below). Tighten nut to secure probe.
4. Attach cross arm to the probe (outside) using an appropriately sized hex wrench. Hang the
sheltered temperature probe on the cross arm using the supplied plastic attachments.
5. Drill a small hole in the side wall (or use an existing hole) to feed the cable into the shelter to
the back of the instrument. The supplied cable is sufficiently long to use with an existing
hole, if one exists.
6. Seal up all roof joints and holes with roof tar or caulking and check for leaks.
7. Fit sharp cut cyclone and PM2.5 inlet/rain hat on top of probe.
2.4
INSTRUMENT INSTALLATION
The BAM 1020 must be placed on the bench at a location meeting the specifications described
above. Two protected 110 VAC outlets are required for the instrument and the pump.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Met One BAM 1020
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 4 of 15
March 2011
1. Loosen hex nuts at inlet coupling collar. Line up and lower probe (it must be loose at the
roof level) through probe heater into collar. The probe must appear straight and move all the
way down into the collar. After probe is fitted properly in the collar, tighten hex nuts to
secure sampling tube to instrument. Mark location of instrument on bench top with tape to
ensure that unit stays properly aligned during operation.
2. Attach ambient temperature probe wires to appropriate connections on back of BAM 1020
(see Appendix E of Revision E of the Met One manual).
3. Attach pump control wires from the pump to appropriately marked terminals on the back of
the BAM 1020.
4. Install the heating coil unit around the probe, at least two (2) in. above the BAM 1020 inlet
and at least two (2) in. below the shelter ceiling. Hold in place by tightening the hex screws.
Attach the heater control cable to the screw-in connection on the back of the BAM 1020. The
purpose of this heater is to prevent excessively humid air from biasing the measurements.
5. A plastic hose connects the pump to the back of the BAM 1020. This connection is secured
by pushing the hose into the connection at each end. To release the tubing, push the collar
‘in’ while pulling the tubing ‘out’.
6. Data logger terminals are located on the back of the BAM 1020 and are marked “Voltage
Out”. Voltage/Concentration ranges and Time must be coordinated between the BAM 1020
and the data logger to output correct data for the correct time period.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Met One BAM 1020
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 5 of 15
March 2011
3. INITIALIZATION OF BAM 1020
After external connections have been made the instrument can be initialized, the tape loaded and
the flow rate checked.
3.1 INITIALIZATION
Instrument measurement parameters are factory set and must not be changed without direction
from a met one engineer. However, certain parameters and quality assurance measurements
must be checked and adjusted at initialization and periodically during operation. True
measurements can only be checked through comparison with collocated instruments or from
measurements made during the same time period.
1. Most parameters can be checked and adjusted through the Setup Menu. Most of the items on
this menu require a password for access. The factory default password is “F1F2F3F4”,
entered through the buttons on the front panel.
2. Time and date can be adjusted on the Clock screen. The time and date must be checked (and
adjusted when necessary) during each visit. Time has been observed to drift on BAM 1020s
in the field and the instrument time must be coordinated to that in the data logger. After the
time is corrected on this screen, it is important to save the new settings using the SAVE
command prior to exiting.
3. The SAMPLE screen contains several important adjustable parameters. The communication
baud rate, as well as sampling and analysis time periods are displayed on this screen and
should not be adjusted. The Station # should be changed, based on the number assigned by
AAB to the site (ex. Annavoy= 01; Breman = 02, and Court Road = 03). The Range should
be set at 0.500 mg (the factory default value is 1.0 mg) and the Offset should be set at –0.005
mg/m3. Again, SAVE should be selected before exiting.
4. The EXTRA 1 screen contains the ‘e1 parameter’, which sets the lower limit on measured
concentrations. The default is –0.005, which enables negative instrument readings, when real
concentrations approach zero.
3.2
FLOW SETUP, TAPE INSTALLATION, AND LEAK CHECK
Flow setup, tape installation, and leak check procedures are covered in Sections 5.2, 5.3, and 5.4.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Met One BAM 1020
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 6 of 15
March 2011
4. OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES OF BAM 1020
4.1
GENERAL
The BAM 1020 is designed to operate on a one-hour cycle and to yield an hourly average
concentration of PM2.5. The BAM 1020 data firmware can also produce 24-hour averages for
comparison with PM2.5 FRM results.
4.2
OPERATIONAL TOOLS/MODES
1. Operate Mode – The Operate Mode is accessed from the Main Menu and is employed to
monitor and change the operating status of the BAM 1020. Selecting this mode will display
whether the instrument is currently operating or not and allows the operator to start and stop
the instrument’s operation through the “ON” and “OFF” toggle selections. When initially
installed and powered up, the BAM 1020 should start collecting a sample automatically
during the next hour. However, this status should be confirmed and turned on if necessary,
on this screen. The “NORMAL” selection from this menu allows the operator to review the
previous hour concentration and flow values, as well as confirm the flow calibration method
(should be ACTUAL). The “INST” (Instantaneous) selection allows the operator to monitor
instantaneous voltage outputs, as well as concentration and flow concentration values.
2. Soft Keys - The soft keys on the front faceplate can be used to monitor various instrument
parameters (in addition to Password submittal).

F1 – Pressing F1 will yield instantaneous concentration and flow values as well as
external sensor outputs (ambient temperature). There is a VOLT/ENG option to allow
the operator to view voltages. F1 outputs would be useful to troubleshoot data logger
disagreements and temperature sensor difficulties.

F2 – This function shows the average concentration, flow (air volume) and ambient
temperature sensor readings for the last hour. This information can be use to assess the
reasonability of those values and to demonstrate the instruments operation for site
visitors.

F3 – Is the Error Recall function, which displays the Date, Time and Nature of previous
instrument errors.

F4 – Is used to display average 24-hour concentration data from any one of the last 10
days.

F5 – This function is for data downloading from the internal data logger to an external
dedicated storage device.
3. Internal Data Logger – The BAM 1020 contains an internal data logger which records hourly
concentrations, flow rates and other parameters. This record can be downloaded on to a lap
top computer using the RS232 port. Monthly (and other intervals when needed) data
downloading for quality control is a standard required procedure and is discussed below in
further detail.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Met One BAM 1020
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 7 of 15
March 2011
5. QUALITY CONTROL AND MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES
5.1
MANDATORY CHECKS FOR EACH SITE VISIT
The following checks must be performed upon each visit to the site with a logbook entry
required of findings found.
1. Physically inspect the instrument.
2. Make sure menu is at the Main Menu display.
3. Open front face plate and check tape for proper operation. Tape should be properly threaded
and grey to black spots should appear at regular intervals on tape on take up side.
4. Check unused portion and estimate remaining tape supply.
5. Check probe and inlets for any missing or mis-installed components.
6. Check time and date. Modify if necessary.
7. Press OPERATE on the Main Menu.
8. Make sure that the OPERATION & STATUS MODES are both on.
9. Press NORMAL to view last hourly average.
10. Confirm that concentration, air volume and flow are reasonable and that ACTUAL is
displayed next to the flow indication.
11. Document activities at site electronic logbook or at log book at another prescribed location.
Include all actions performed on the BAM 1020, the times they were performed, as well as
any other observations and comments, which are relevant to the instrument operation or the
collected data.
5.2
LEAK CHECK PROCEDURES
The BAM 1020 must be leak checked every 2 weeks following the below procedure. Document
the results of the unadjusted flow response and any adjustments made in the logbook entry.
Failed leak checks must be investigated, repaired and documented. Failed leak checks will cause
the data to be questionable back to the last successful leak check.
See Section 1 for Nozzle/Stage Cleaning Procedures for leak check failures troubleshooting.
Upon repair, a follow-up leak check must be performed.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Met One BAM 1020
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 8 of 15
March 2011
Note: If the leak cannot be repaired by the field technician, EA must be notified immediately.
The leak check is performed as follows:
1. Remove the inlet and place closed leak check/flow check adapter on the sharp cut cyclone.
2. Select TEST from the main menu, followed by TAPE. Select ADVANCE once. Sampling
will stop. Plan on starting and completing work between ten (10) past the hour and the start
of the next hour to limit data loss to only one (1) hour.
3. Exit to the TEST menu again and select PUMP and PUMP ON.
4. Observe for about 30 seconds. The indicated flow rate should be 0.5 LPM or less. If the flow
rate is > 0.5 LPM, clean the nozzle/stage and retest.
Note: Blocking flow for extended time period could strain the pump.
5. Turn the pump off by selecting PUMP OFF.
6. Gently open leak check valve and remove adapter.
7. Reinstall the inlet and sharp cut cyclone.
8. Exit back out to the Main Screen.
9. Make a log entry of the results.
5.3
FLOW RATE QUALITY CONTROL CHECKS AND NOZZLE/STAGE
CLEANING PROCEDURES
5.3.1
Flow Rate Quality Control (Q.C.) Check Procedure
The Flow Rate Quality Control check must be performed once a month following the below
procedure. The results of the check must be documented in a log entry.
The flow rate Q.C. procedure is as follows:
Verify the flow rate measurement mode by selecting the SETUP/CALIBRATE screen.
1. The three (3) choices are ACTUAL, METERED and STD. ACTUAL should be chosen and
saved (if not present on the screen). This will enable the calibration of the instrument using a
one point volumetric measurement (at 16.7 liters/minute) using a BGI Delta Cal or equivalent
flow calibrator and ensure that data is expressed in milligrams per actual cubic meters.
Once the ACTUAL mode has been confirmed, proceed to the TEST category on the main
menu for flow rate verification and adjustment.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Met One BAM 1020
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 9 of 15
March 2011
Select TEST from the Main Menu.
Note: This will suspend ambient sampling. Note the time down in the log entry.
Then select FLOW. This screen will present prompts to verify Ambient Temperature and
Barometric Pressure as well as Volumetric Flow Rate. The Delta Cal measures those
parameters, in addition to flow rate.
2. Remove inlet, including PM2.5 inlet and sharp cut cyclone. Place Delta Cal adapter on the
instrument down tube, after ensuring that the BAM 1020’s pump is off so that the Delta Cal
can establish a zero flow baseline. Allow the Delta Cal to equilibrate for 5 to 10 minutes so
that steady and accurate baseline flow rate, ambient temperature and barometric pressure
measurements are established.
3. Turn on the pump by selecting the PUMP ON choice. (The screen indicator will
immediately offer the PUMP OFF choice.) The BAM flow rate, temperature and pressure
will now be indicated in the BAM column.
4. Let the pump run for 5 to 10 minutes to obtain a steady flow rate. Note the Delta Cal and
initial BAM 1020 flow rates, temperature and pressure readings. These are the data
validation values. If the temperature and/or pressure exceed the acceptable difference ( 4.0o
C and  10.0 mm/Hg) an adjustment will be needed. To adjust the temperature or pressure
readings, the pump must be turned off. While in the Flow Test Screen, move the cursor to
‘Reference Value’ for temperature or pressure, and adjust the values to the values reported by
the Delta Cal. Select ‘Adjust/Save’ and Exit from the screen.
5. After the temperature and pressure have been adjusted and saved, if necessary, adjust the
REFERENCE flow rate to that of the Delta Cal measurement. This is done by turning the
pump on and letting the flow rate settle out. A greater than 3% variance from 16.7 LPM (
0.5 liters/minute), would require adjustment. The flow rate on the Delta Cal should then
settle down to 16.7 LPM.
6. Select Adjust/Save and exit from the screen.
7. If the flow rate is unadjustable or grossly different by 0.3 LPM from the reference flow rate,
then a mechanical or electronic malfunction can be suspected and repair is necessary. Notify
the support personnel.
8. Proper heater operation should also be checked by selecting TEST>HEATER>HEATER
ON. The heater should warm up. This procedure may be bi-passed if the heater already feels
warm to the touch. Once heater operation is confirmed, select HEATER OFF.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Met One BAM 1020
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
5.3.2
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 10 of 15
March 2011
Nozzle/Stage Cleaning Procedures
The Nozzle/Stage Cleaning must be performed prior to a tape change and/or if a bi-weekly leak
check fails. A log entry must be documented.
The Nozzle/Stage Cleaning Procedure is a follows:
1. Nozzle/Stage should be cleaned only after the tape has been removed.
2. To remove the tape, from the Main Menu, press TAPE and then TENSION to verify that
nozzle is in the "UP" position.
3. Remove both rolls of tape on the clear plastic spool covers by unscrewing the captive knobs
and sliding the tape from under the nozzle/stage. You can break the tape, but it will need to
be rethreaded onto an empty take-up spool.
4. From the Main Menu, select TEST> PUMP.
5. On that screen, select MOVE NOZZLE, if the Nozzle status (on the screen) does not indicate
that it is pointing down.
6. Lift up the nozzle (against the spring) and insert a folded over alcohol pad beneath it. Relax
the nozzle and rotate the nozzle with fingers for several revolutions to wipe the nozzle clean.
7. Raise the nozzle using MOVE NOZZLE. Wipe the stage area with a new alcohol pad. Use
dental pick to gently remove filter tape residue from stage and target area. Re-wipe the area
with alcohol pad. If residue is found, make note in the log entry.
8. Reload the tape following the procedure in 19.6.4.
5.4
TAPE CHANGE PROCEDURE
The tape in the BAM 1020 should be changed every 60 days. The tape spools only hold a day or
so beyond 60 so it is imperative that change dates are kept track of. Log entries must also be
made for extra service to the instrument or in the event of an instrument change.
Note: Do not change tape prematurely.
Return tape remnants to the EA for potential testing purposes.
This procedure is also covered in the Met One Instruments BAM 1020 Particulate Monitor
Operation Manual, Rev. E.
Leak and Flow Q.C. checks must be performed immediately prior to a tape change and a log
entry must be documented.
The procedure for loading the tape is as follows:
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Met One BAM 1020
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 11 of 15
March 2011
1. From the Main Menu, press TAPE and then TENSION to verify that nozzle is in the "UP"
position.
2. Remove both of the clear plastic spool covers by unscrewing the captive knobs.
3. An empty core tube must be installed on the hub of the take-up spool, or filter tape edge
damage will occur.
4. Lift the end of roller shaft to unload pinch rollers from capstan shaft. Latch in "UP" position
by swinging the spring-loaded latch to the right.
Note: Special care should be taken when handling unused filter tape. Clean lint-free gloves
should be worn to avoid contamination of sample material. Gentle handling during filter tape
loading will reduce filter tape breakage.
5. Place full roll of filter tape on supply (right) spool, with tape feeding upward and counterclockwise.
6. Pass filter tape clockwise over supply tension roller, then counter-clockwise over right end
roller. See Figure 12: Filter Tape Loading Procedure in the Met One Instruments BAM 1020
Particulate Monitor Operation Manual, Rev. E.
7. Thread filter tape through sampling/measuring area.
8. Feed filter tape counter-clockwise over left end roller. Wrap it clockwise around take-up
tension roller.
9. Feed end of filter tape so that it enters the take-up spool in a counter-clockwise direction.
Using any available adhesive tape, attach the leading end of the filter tape to the core tube.
10. By hand, gently tension tape to initial point of slack removal.
11. Install both spool covers. The clamping force of the covers prevents tape slippage on spool
hubs.
12. Gently lower capstan pinch-rollers by releasing latch to left while supporting end of pinch
roller shaft.
13. Under TEST>TAPE Menu, select ADVANCE TAPE (6) positions. That will ensure that the
tape is secured in position and is advancing properly.
14. Tension the Tape by pressing TAPE and then TENSION, after the Tape is tensioned then
press SELF TEST. This will test the mechanical function of the instrument. After the
instrument passes this test, return to the main menu by pushing the EXIT command.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Met One BAM 1020
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 12 of 15
March 2011
15. Perform a leak check and flow rate check upon completion of the tape change and document
all results in the log entry.
5.5
PM2.5 INLET AND SHARP CUT CYCLONE REQUIREMENTS AND CLEANING
PROCEDURES
The PM2.5 inlet and sharp cut cyclone must be cleaned every two months and documented in a
log entry.
The cleaning procedure is as follows:
1. Inspect PM2.5 inlet and drop out jar for damage and gross dirt or contamination.
2. Unscrew top of inlet and wipe both halves including inlet fins, down tube pathway, baffles
and impingers with Kimwipes or equivalent. Use water if necessary. Alcohol wipes may also
be used.
3. Carefully disassemble sharp cut cyclone and wipe down all surfaces. Use alcohol wipes or
water, if necessary, but remember to dry thoroughly. When finished, reassemble carefully,
making sure that all o-rings are in place, all components are put together properly and in a
leak-free manner.
4. Place inlet and cyclone snugly back on the down tube, with the cyclone over the down tube
and the PM2.5 inlet over the cyclone.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Met One BAM 1020
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 13 of 15
March 2011
6. DATA DOWNLOAD PROCEDURE
The data download procedure will be performed by the BAM Support personnel on a once every
12-day basis. The procedure is a follows:
1. Laptop with Met One Comet software is required. A male nine pin to nine pin cable
(RS-232) is needed to connect the computer with the instrument. At the site, the cable should
be connected between the appropriate port on the computer and the higher of the two nine pin
ports on the back of the BAM 1020. The lower port is used for a printer.
2. Turn on computer and select Comet from the desktop shortcut (located at C:\ Program
Files\Met One\Comet).
3. Select appropriate existing station at prompt (i.e. Bremen). Click the “Retrieve Current”
button on left. Confirm all options are checked (Settings, Data, All, Alarm) and select
“New”. Then click “Retrieve”.
4. Once data download is complete review the alarm log by pressing the alarm tab.. If an error
has occurred since the previous data download, note the error type, date, and time of the error
on the field form and the site visit log.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Met One BAM 1020
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 14 of 15
March 2011
7. DATA HANDLING and QUALITY ASSURANCE
BAM 1020 hourly PM2.5 data must undergo quality assurance review. Since there are no direct
ways to assess instrument accuracy, other comparisons must be made to ensure the submission of
reasonable data. Data from the Met One BAM 1020 internal data logger is downloaded from the
instrument after the conclusion of each 12-day sample period, using a lap top computer. The
following checks should be made between the ESC data logger record and the instrument down
load.
1. One hour from each 24-hour period and the 24-hour daily average concentration for each day
should be compared between the monthly data logger record and the instrument down load.
Anomalous high and low values should also be examined and compared.
2. Review all entrees from the site logbook including the time and nature of visits, service,
problems, observations, miscellaneous instrument down time and quality control measures
which may affect the validity of the data as a whole or for individual hours. Make sure all
routine maintenance and other actions described by this SOP have been completed and
documented.
3. Instrument down load files should be reviewed for hours containing letter error indications
such as “L” for power loss or “F” for flow problems. A full set of error codes can be found
in the manual.
4. An overall cursory comparison should be made between data from the subject site and data
from the other two monitoring sites or a collocated instrument. PM2.5 concentration
fluctuations tend to be regional in nature so overall concentration magnitudes should be
similar between the sites in the network, even if located in different cities. Certain electronic
malfunctions in the BAM 1020 can be manifested by very low, but not necessarily zero
concentrations over extended time periods.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Met One BAM 1020
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 15 of 15
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
8. REFERENCES
Met One Instruments BAM 1020 Particulate Monitor Operation Manual, Rev. E.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Met One BAM 1020
CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC
METEOROLOGICAL STATION
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Prepared by:
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc.
2350 Post Road
Warwick, RI 02886
(401) 736-3440
July 2010
Version: Final
EA Project No.: 14774.01
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 1 of 10
July 2010
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1
PURPOSE
Monitoring air quality often requires the use of a meteorological station and datalogger to
measure and record weather conditions during a monitoring study. Weather data is often an
integral part of analyzing results from a monitoring study.
1.2
SCOPE
This document will define the installation, calibration, operation, maintenance, and disassembly
of the Campbell Scientific meteorological station in the field.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Meteorological Station SOP
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 2 of 10
July 2010
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
2. MATERIALS

Sensor Crossarm with one CM220 Mounting Kit (4-ft)

03001-LS12-LD12 - RM Young Wind Sentry Set with 12-foot cable per sensor (speed and
direction)

CS215-L9 - Temperature and Relative Humidity Probe with 9-foot cable

41303-5A- RM Young 6-Plate Gill Solar Radiation Shield

CR200- Data Logger

Wall Charger 18Vdc 1A Output with 7-ft cable

CR200 12V 7Ahr Sealed Rechargeable Battery

Right Angle Mounting Kit

Universal Tower Grounding Kit

(2) 4-Foot Long Galvanized Steel Pipes and Connector
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Meteorological Station SOP
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 3 of 10
July 2010
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
3. SENSORS SPECIFICATIONS
The wind speed and direction sensors and relative humidity and air temperature probes
manufacturer’s specifications are presented in the table below.
Parameter
Wind Speed
Wind Direction
Operating Range
0 to 50 m/s (112 mph), gust
survival of 60 m/s (134 mph)
360o mechanical, 355o
electrical (5o open)
Air Temperature
o
o
-40 C to +70 C
Relative Humidity
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
0 to 100% RH over -20oC to
+60oC
Accuracy
±0.5 m/s (1.1 mph)
±5o
±0.3oC at 25oC, ±0.4oC
over +5 to +40oC, ±0.9oC
over -40oC to +70oC
±2% over 10-90%, ±4%
over 0-100%
Meteorological Station SOP
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 4 of 10
July 2010
4. ASSEMBLY AND MOUNTING
4.1
SETUP OF MAST AND DATA LOGGER
1. Connect the two 4-foot 1.25 inch galvanized steel pipes with a Bushing connector to
construct mast.
2. Mount lighting rod at the top of the mast using the U-bolt clamp included with the
meteorological station.
3. Mount CM200 cross arm approximately 6-inches from the top of the mast using the cross
arm U-Bolt assembly and orient sensor cross arm north-south. Mount wind sensors and
temperature and humidity probe per the steps provided in Sections 4.2 and 4.3.
4. With a least two people, lift 8-foot high mast and insert into one of the corner support railing
supports on the trailer. Drill hole through the support railing and steel pipe and secure with 2inch bolt and nut assembly. Caulk small gap between support railing and steel mast.
5. Place data logger in the trailer. Run cables through notch between air conditioning unit and
trailer mounting opening. Mount data logger to interior trailer wall and plug into nearest
outlet. Connect back-up battery pack into data logger per the Campbell Scientific Data
Logger manual and place on the work bench.
4.2
WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION SENSORS
1. Sensors should be located away from obstructions (e.g., trees and buildings). Height of the
sensors should be at least 8 feet above the roof of the trailer.
2. Install cupwheel to the anemometer shaft using the provided Allen `wrench.
3. Mount and clamp the RM Young Wind Sentry to the provided 12 inch long mounting pipe
provided with the unit using screw collar bracket.
4. Attach mounting pipe to one end of the CM200 cross arm using CM220 bracket.
5. Solder, shrink wrap and electric tape the 9-foot cable with an extension cable.
6. Secure cable to steel mast and railing of the trailer using Zip-lock ties.
7. Run cable through notch between air conditioning unit and trailer mounting opening and
connect to CR200 data logger following the procedures set forth in the wiring diagram
included in the free Windows software program.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Meteorological Station SOP
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 5 of 10
July 2010
8. Align wind vane to true north using a compass and procedures set forth in the RM Young
Wind Sentry manual (magnetic declination in the vicinity of Logan International Airport
is approximately15 degrees West).
4.3
RELATIVE HUMIDITY/AIR TEMPERATURE PROBE INSTALLATION
1. Sensors should be located over open level terrain. The surface should be covered by short
grass or natural earth surface. Sensors should be protected from thermal radiation and
adequately ventilated.
2. Attach the RM Young 6-plate Gill solar radiation shield to the CM200 cross arm using the Ubolt included with the radiation shield.
3. Solder, shrink wrap and electric tape the 9-foot cable with an extension cable.
4. Insert the probe into the radiation shield by following the procedures set forth in the
manufacturer’s manual.
5. Secure cable to the crossarm, extension pole and railing of the trailer using Zip-lock ties.
6. Run cable through notch between air conditioning unit and trailer mounting opening and
connect to CR200 data logger following the procedures set forth in the wiring diagram
included in the free Windows software program.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Meteorological Station SOP
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 6 of 10
July 2010
5. DATA LOGGER SETUP AND OPERATIONS
1. Download the PC200W Starter software from Campbell Scientific’s website (
http://www.campbellsci.com/index.cfm
2. Follow data logger wire connections per the Campbell Scientific sensors and data logger
manuals.
3. Connect laptop to the data logger with RS232 9-pin cable.
4. Program data logger to collect 15-minute measurements, set data logger clock to local
standard time and record battery voltage data.
5. Wind speed, wind direction, temperature, and humidity data will be collected in
chronological order and tabulated according to the observation time. The observation time is
defined as the time at the beginning of the specified averaging period. Hourly data will be
collected based on averaging a group of 15-minute samples.
6. Data will be downloaded manually to a laptop computer at least every 12 days and monthly
files will be archived on compact diskette.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Meteorological Station SOP
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 7 of 10
July 2010
6. ROUTINE SERVICE CHECKS
6.1
BI-MONTHY CHECKS
1. Review datalogger data for correct operations of the sensor during each site visit
(approximately every 12 days).
2. Perform a visual inspection of the sensors to assure that the sensors have not been damaged
and are operating properly.
3. Use a hand-held thermometer and anemometer to check readings from the temperature and
wind speed sensors. Readings may be slightly off due to difference in height of measurement.
Compare results to concurrent Logan International Airport meteorological data (available at
http://www.erh.noaa.gov/er/box/).
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Meteorological Station SOP
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 8 of 10
July 2010
7. MAINTENANCE, CALIBRATION AND AUDITS
7.1
WIND SENSORS
1. Conduct a visual and audio inspection of anemometer at low wind speeds every site visit.
Verify that the cup assembly and wind vane rotate freely. Inspect the sensor for physical
damage.
2. Replace anemometer bearings when they become noisy, or wind speed threshold increases
above an acceptable level. The condition of the bearings can be checked with a paper clip as
described in the RM Young manual.
3. An independent performance audit of the anemometer and wind vane will be conducted once
for every 12 months of field use.
7.2
RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND TEMPERATURE PROBE
1. Check monthly to make sure that radiation shield is free from dust and debris.
2. Every six months check the white filter on the end of the sensor of similar debris. If dirt or
salt is ingrained into the filter, it should be cleaned with distilled water or replaced.
3. Manufacturer recommends replacing the sensor after several years rather than conducting
factory calibration due to its low cost.
4. An independent performance audit of the relative humidity and temperature probe will be
conducted once for every 12 months of field use.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Meteorological Station SOP
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 9 of 10
July 2010
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
8. TROUBLESHOOTING
Before starting any troubleshooting procedure, refer to the sensor operating manual for specific
information pertaining to troubleshooting. Record malfunctions and repairs in study field
notebook.
Troubleshooting should attempt to isolate the source of the malfunction and reduce the
maintenance time. The following should be checked if a problem exists:
1. Visually Inspect Sensor
A. Check for signs of damage
B. Verify that the sensor assembly is turning freely.
2. Check for loss of voltage supply by reviewing battery voltage data collected by the CM200
data logger.
3. Check for proper operation of the sensor bearings. Bad bearings may affect the starting
threshold.
4. Verify that the cable connections are secure.
5. Verify proper data logger initialization.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Meteorological Station SOP
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 10 of 10
July 2010
9. DISASSEMBLING METEOROLOGICAL STATION
1. Disconnect cables from the data logger and remove data logger from the trailer wall.
2. Disconnect backup battery supply from data logger. Place data logger and battery supply in a
protective box.
3. Remove support ties securing cables to the steel mast and crossarm and disconnect cables
from sensors.
4. Disassemble steel mast to level just above railing of the trailer.
5. Remove crossarm assembly from steel mast.
6. Disconnect and remove grounding kit assembly from trailer.
7. Carefully remove each sensor, disassemble as necessary and place in protective box.
8. Store equipment, steel mast and crossarm at the Massport storage room.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Meteorological Station SOP
AIRMETRICS MINIVOL PORTABLE
PM SURVEY SAMPLER FIELD OPERATIONS
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Prepared by:
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc.
2374 Post Road, Suite 102
Warwick, RI 02886
(401) 736-3440
March 2011
Original: July 2010
Version: Revised
EA Project No.: 14774.01
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 1 of 20
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
1. GENERAL DISCUSSION
1.1
PURPOSE OF PROCEDURE
This procedure describes the operation of the Airmetrics MiniVol Tactical Air Sampler for the
collection of suspended particulate matter in PM2.5 size fraction on substrates that are amenable
to laboratory analyses. The sampler is powered by a rechargeable battery and can be
programmed to begin and end sampling at predetermined times.
1.2
MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLE
The Minivol sampler draws ambient air at 5 L/min through greased impactors followed by a
filter. Assurance of this flow rate is achieved by calibrating the internal rotameter against a
transfer standard rotameter, accounting for average ambient temperature and atmospheric
pressure at the monitoring site. The sampler is attached to a charged battery pack prior to field
sampling, making the sampler siting independent of external power. Each sampler has two battery
packs to allow for 'continuous' field sampling; while the sampler is operating on one battery (up to
24 sampling hours on a single charge), the other battery is charged using an AC power adaptor.
The battery pack can also be continuously charged at the sampling site with an 18V DC step down
transformer. The sampler can also be directly connected to a 12V step down transformer;
however, not with the 18V charging transformer, as this will damage the electronics.
The Minivol’s inlet contains greased PM10 and PM2.5 inlets in series. The PM10 inlet precedes
the PM2.5 inlet to reduce overloading of the PM2.5 impactor with coarse particles. Air is drawn
through the inlet, filter pack, and an internal rotameter filter by a twin cylinder diaphragm pump.
The internal rotameter does not read the appropriate L/min, but its reading can be correlated with
the reading from the transfer rotameter that is put over the filter pack. An elapsed time meter
totalizes the sampler operating time, and the difference between its reading before and after
sampling is the total sampling time. Total sampled volume is flow rate (5 L/min) times sampling
time (typically 1440 min for a 24-hour sample). The sampler turns off prior to the designated off
time when the battery voltage falls below 13.0 volts. A pressure sensor determines when the
filter overloads, thereby decreasing the flow rate to below 10% of the set flow rate. If this
situation occurs, a "low-battery" or "low flow" indicator light remains lit until the circuit is reset
and action should be taken to service the sampler and/or battery pack.
Samples are collected on numbered filter packs in Nuclepore polycarbonate filter holders (with
an extender section). The filter pack is loaded with a pre-weighed 47 mm diameter Gelman
PTFE Teflon membrane filter (Gelman #R2PJ047). The reading from the sampler rotameter is
recorded at the beginning and end of each sampling period and related to the external transfer
rotameter. The sample volume is calculated from the average of the beginning and ending flow
rates and the sample duration. A programmable timer can be set to run up to six on/off-cycles
(i.e., 12 programming steps) within a 24-hour period or a 24-hour on/off-cycle beginning and
ending on any day of the week for up to six days. The sampler may be mounted on a variety of
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 2 of 20
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
structures (e.g., telephone, power, light poles) using the sampler's universal mounting bracket.
Typical sampling heights are ~3 m above ground level to avoid locally raised dust. Figure 1
illustrates the portable PM2.5 sampler mounted on a pole.
1.3
MEASUREMENT INTERFERENCES
1.3.1
Passive Deposition
Passive deposition occurs when particles and gases deposit on filters prior to and after sampling.
Field blanks are used to quantify this bias, which is usually less than 30 μg of mass per 47 mm
diameter filter over a 24- to 48-hour passive period. One out of ten filters is a field blank that
goes through all of the same processes as a sample, except that no air is drawn through it.
1.3.2
Particle Bounce off the Impactor Plate
Particles larger than 10 μm can become re-entrained in the air flow after bouncing off the
impactor plate. This situation is minimized by cleaning and greasing the impactor plate after
every 5th sample. The cleaning frequency can be increased or decreased depending on the
ambient loadings and degree of soiling observed on the impactors.
1.3.3
Gaseous Absorption and Particle Volatilization
Nitric acid and organic gases may be absorbed by particles on the filter. Organic vapors adsorb
onto quartz fiber filters. Conversely, ammonium nitrate can dissociate and the particulate nitrate
and ammonium can escape as nitric acid and ammonia gas. Filters should be unloaded and
refrigerated immediately after sampling to minimize long-term volatilization. Quartz filters
should be baked and acceptance tested for carbon levels prior to sampling to minimized adsorbed
organic gases.
1.3.4
Filter Integrity and Contamination
Filter integrity is compromised by improper handling which causes pieces of the filter to be lost
after the pre-exposure weighing. Filter contamination results from material other than sampled
aerosol being deposited on the filter (e.g., fingerprints, dirt). The effects of filter material losses
are minimized by performing gravimetric analysis on Teflon membrane filters which are less
friable than the quartz- fiber filters. Filter material losses and contamination are minimized by
the placement and removal of filters to and from filter cassettes in controlled laboratory
conditions. Gloved hands and forceps are used in this filter processing. Spare loaded filter
cassettes are provided in the field to minimize the need for filter loading and unloading in the
field. Each filter cassette is separately sealed prior to and after sampling. Batches of filters are
inspected and submitted to chemical analysis prior to use to assure that they meet minimal blank
concentration levels when received from the manufacturer.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 3 of 20
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
1.3.5
Particle Loss During Transport
Particles have been found to be dislodged from filters during transport of coarse (greater than 2.5
microns) particles which are heavily loaded on the filter. The low flow rate (5 liters/minute) of
the portable sampler minimizes overloading of filters for the specified (24 hour) sample duration.
1.3.6
Transmission Losses
Particles passing through a size-selective inlet could result in particle losses. Calculations show
that diffusion and impaction losses are less than 1% for particles less than 10 μm in aerodynamic
diameter.
1.4
RANGES AND TYPICAL VALUES
The range of concentrations measured by this method is limited by the sensitivity of the
analytical instruments and the standard deviation of the values obtained by the dynamic blank.
For 24-hour average mass concentrations, the range is approximately 6 to 300 μg/m3.
1.5
TYPICAL LOWER QUANTIFIABLE LIMITS, PRECISION, AND ACCURACY
For mass concentrations, the typical lower quantifiable limit is approximately 3 to 6 μg/m3 for
the flow rates and 24-hour sample durations used in this project. The precision is calculated
from replicate laboratory analysis and flow rate performance tests. This precision is between 6
and 9 μg/filter or between approximately 1 and 2 μg/m3 for a 24-hour sampler representing a
sample volume of 7.2 m3. Accuracy is generally within the measurement precision.
Figure 1 Sample Mounting Bracket
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 4 of 20
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
Figure 2 Sampler Layout
1.6
RESPONSIBILITIES
The site operator is responsible for carrying out this standard operating procedure and for the
completion and submission of all documents. The field operations supervisor is responsible for
scheduling the site operator visits, identifying and correcting deficiencies, and coordinating sample
transfer with the laboratory. The laboratory supervisor is responsible for preparing samples,
transmitting them to the field, receiving them from the field, reviewing documentation and sample
integrity, and communicating deficiencies and remedial action to the field operations supervisor.
1.7


1.8

DEFINITIONS
The Minivol portable PM2.5 sampler is the entire sampling unit.
The shipping boxes are insulated carrying cases which contain loaded filters.
RELATED PROCEDURES
EMSL Analytical SOP, Analysis of Airborne Dust Particles by Gravimetry
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 5 of 20
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
2. APPARATUS, INSTRUMENTATION, SUPPLIES, AND FORMS
2.1
INSTRUMENTATION
2.1.1
Minivol Sampler
Figures 2 and 3 illustrate the control panel and the interior hardware for the Minivol. There may
be some deviations from this figure owing to changes in configuration with different
manufacturing batches.
2.1.2
Universal Mounting Bracket
The universal mounting bracket is illustrated in Figure 1 and can be mounted vertically or
horizontally. The bracket is equipped with stainless steel u-bolts and plastic vee blocks for 2”
OD or smaller pipe, fence posting, or other metal tubing. These can also be removed to strap the
bracket to a larger diameter object using ratchet straps or hose clamps. The bracket extension is
attached to the base of the minivol and can be detached from the pole via a quick-release.
2.1.3
Nuclepore Filter Holders and Impactor Assembly
Figure 4 illustrates the impactor and filter pack assembly. The filters cassettes are individually
packaged in a plastic case by the laboratory. Adhesive bar-coded ID labels are affixed to each
filter case. The first three digits designate the site ID (i.e., BOS for Boston), the fourth digit
specifies the sampler type (i.e., P for portable sampler), and the fifth digit specifies filter
substrate type (i.e, T for Teflon-membrane). The remaining three digits are the numerical ID
numbers which are unique to each filter pack. Each filter cassette and the accompanying field
data sheet are sealed in a separate ziplock bag with sampling site and date recorded on the field
data sheet and marked on the ziplock bag.
2.1.4
Calibration Rotameter, Test Filter Pack, and Filter Adapter
The calibration rotameter should have a mark at the 5 L/min level based on a laboratory
calibration and adjustment to the temperature and pressure of the sampling location. This will
not necessarily be at the 5 L/min reading of the rotameter. The calibration rotameter is placed
over the test filter pack mounted on the sampler and the flow is adjusted to the 5 L/min mark. A
mark should then be placed on the internal sampler rotameter, which may not read 5 L/min. This
mark should be periodically verified throughout the project. A Gillibrator bubble meter, which is
more precise but more difficult to use, may also be applied.
2.1.5
Leak Testing Vacuum Gauge with Quick Disconnect Barb
To check for leaks, remove the impactor/filter holder assembly from the inlet tube. Make
sure that the inlet tube is fully extended and the compression fitting is tight. Cover the air inlet
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 6 of 20
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
tube with the palm of the hand while the pump is running. The ball in the flowmeter should drop
to zero and remain there without movement. Note: the “Low Flow” indicator LED will activate
and the sampler will shutdown after 15-20 seconds, push the reset button twice to reactivate the
sampler. If the ball does not drop to zero, a leak exists somewhere in the hoses and fittings
between the inlet and the flowmeter. Leaks on the inlet side of the pump are especially critical,
since flow measurement will not accurately reflect the amount of air passing through the filter.
The sampler will be measuring air passing through the filter, plus whatever air may be entering
through the leak. If there is a leak use the following procedures to isolate the leak. After each
procedure check the sampler for leaks before moving to the next step.

Verify that the inlet tube is extended and the compression fitting is tight.

Remove the four faceplate thumbscrews and the sampler mount thumbscrew to
access the sampler pump and plumbing.

Verify that all push-on hose fittings are secure.

Check for cracks in the flowmeter inlet and outlet.

Check for cracks in the pulse dampener.
Check and tighten all compression fittings.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 7 of 20
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
Figure 3 Sampler Interior Hardware
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 8 of 20
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
Figure 4 PM2.5 Impactor/Filter Holder Assembly
2.2
SUPPLIES
The following supplies are needed for impactor cleaning and re-greasing:




Soap and water
Low vapor pressure grease (Airmetrics 903-004)
Semi-rigid straight edge (ex. small stainless steel ruler) to apply grease
Paper towel or Kim Wipe to wipe excess grease from non-impactor surfaces.
The following supplies are needed if filters are to be loaded and unloaded in the field. This will
normally take place in the laboratory.

47 mm Petrislides. Filters are placed into these slides for mass determination before loading
and exposed filters are transferred from the filter holder with identical ID to the Petri slide
after sampling.

Blank ID Labels. If the original ID label becomes damaged or will not stick, the ID is copied
onto a blank label, with ball point pen, and placed on the filter pack or Petri slide.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 9 of 20
March 2011

Disposable gloves. Gloves are worn whenever filters are loaded or unloaded from filter
packs. Gloves are discarded when they have come into contact with any contaminant and
after each loading or unloading session.

Forceps, to move filters between Petrislides and filter holders. Filters should never be
touched with bare hands.

18 x 24-in. laboratory bench cover. The bench cover is the work surface used to unload
filters from the holders and into their slides in the laboratory. It should be replaced for each
filter processing session.
2.3
DATA SHEETS
Figure 5 illustrates a field data sheet that comes with the samples. A photocopy of the data sheet
is kept by the field technician, and the original data sheet is returned to the laboratory with the
exposed filters.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 10 of 20
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
3. CALIBRATION STANDARDS
The initial flow rate is set using a primary standard (Bios Dry Cal) immediately prior to the
sampling event. The flow rate is then audited following the sampling event using the primary
standard. The flow volume is calculated using the average of the two readings, multiplied by the
sample duration.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 11 of 20
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
4. SAMPLER OPERATION
4.1
FLOW DIAGRAM
Figure 6 summarizes the routine field operating procedure for the portable PM10 sampler
operation. Filter changing and flow rate performance tests are performed between each sampling
period and require approximately 5 to 10 minutes per sampler. Impactor cleaning and greasing is
carried out after every 24-hour sample run if it is not an integral part of the filter pack.
4.2
START UP
4.2.1
Clean the PM10 and PM2.5 Impactors
The PM10 and PM2.5 impactors should be cleaned and greased after every 5th sample run to
minimize particle bouncing and re-entrainment. Impactor cleaning should be performed in a well
ventilated area by the following procedure:
1. Separate the sections of the filter holder assembly. Remove the EMT from the impactor by
pulling on it with your fingers and set aside.
2. Clean the impactor/filter holder assembly with soapy water and rinse thoroughly. Let
impactor assembly air dry.
3. Apply a thin coat of low vapor pressure grease to the o-rings on the impactor and the o-rings
in the filter holder outlet and louvered inlet.
4. Wipe the Easy Maintenance Target (EMT) impactor with a clean lint-free cloth or paper
towel.
5. Apply a small amount of low vapor pressure grease to the EMT in a spreading motion using
a semi-rigid straight edge (stainless steel ruler). Remove excess grease using a clean lint free
cloth or paper towel.
6. Reinsert the EMT into the impactor.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 12 of 20
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
Figure 6 Flow Diagram for Routine Operation
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
4.2.2
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 13 of 20
March 2011
Prepare the Battery Pack
If the Minivol is running independently of electrical power and batteries must be recharged, do
the following:
1. Charge the battery for at least 5 hours by connecting the charging plug of the 18V AC/DC
adaptor to the uncharged battery and plugging the adaptor into an AC receptacle. Disconnect
AC/DC adaptor from battery pack after charging. After a 24-hour sample run, remove the
used battery from the sampler and store in a cool environment until it needs to be recharged.
2. The voltage on each charged battery should be checked with a volt-ohm meter (VOM) or
preferably, a test circuit with 3 12-volt flashlight bulbs in series prior to going to the field.
Insert the VOM probe/test circuit into the odd color socket on the battery pack and in the
socket closest to the battery recharger jack. The voltage reading should be 13 volts or higher.
If the battery cannot be adequately charged, record the battery ID number and do not use the
battery pack.
4.3
ROUTINE OPERATIONS
The sampler is positioned with the intake upward. It should be located in an unobstructed area at
least 30 cm from any obstacle to air flow. The sampler mounting bracket may be attached to a
power pole and the bracket extension may be attached via the quick-release. To begin sampling:
1. Inspect the filters and data sheets. Data sheets similar to Figure 5 accompany the pre-labeled
unexposed filter packs. Write the sampling site and date for each filter pack on the ziplock
bag. Be sure each filter pack in the shipping case is clean (no obvious foreign material on the
filter). The data sheets should contain filter IDs for each site and sample date. Be sure the
filter pack ID number matches the number on the field data sheet. If it is not the same,
change the field data sheet. Replace filters which do not pass inspection and make a note on
the data sheet.
2. Open the pelican case.
3. Program the timer clock as follows:
A. Press and hold the "CLOCK" key (lower left hand corner of the Programmer Timer in
Figure 2) for the next four steps.
B. Press the "WEEK" key until the correct day of the week is displayed.
C. Press the "HOUR" key until the correct hour of the day is displayed. Note that there are
12 am and 12 pm hours.
D. Press the "MIN" key until the correct minute of the day is displayed.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 14 of 20
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
E. Verify the displayed clock time and release the "CLOCK" key.
F. Example of the clock reading for Thursday at 10:55 am:
AM
Th
10.5532
4. To start the first period of sampling (Programming Step 1 with "1ON"):
A. Timer display indicates "1ON" (lower left hand corner of the display) and begin
programming start sampling day and time.
B. Press the "WEEK" key to select the day of the week for sampling. There are 10
consecutive steps for this key. Steps 1 to 7: Sampling on any day of the week (display
shows Mo, Tu, Ws, Th, or Fr as the "WEEK" key is pressed each time). Step 8:Sampling
daily on weekdays with the same power on or off time (display shows all five days: Mo Tu
Ws Th Fr). Step 9: Sampling on weekends with the same power on or off time (display
shows: Sa Su). Step 10:
Sampling on every day of the week with the same on or off
time (display shows all 7 days of the week). If you missed the selection, you need to cycle
through all 10 steps and start with step 1 again. Select "Fr" on step 5 to begin sampling on
Friday.
C. Press the "HOUR" key to select the start sampling hour. The "HOUR" key is
incremented by one hour as the key is pressed from 1 to 12 AM and 1 to 12 PM. Select
"AM 12" to start sampling at midnight for a 24-hour sampling schedule. Press the "MIN"
key to select the start sampling minute. The "MIN" key is incremented by one minute as
the key is pressed each time from minute :01 to :59. Select ":00" to start sampling at
midnight. The display should read as follows to start sampling at midnight (12:01 AM) on
Friday:
C.
AM
Fr
D. 1ON
12:01
5. To stop first period of sampling:
A. Press the "PROG" key and display shows "1OFF". Start to program end of sampling time.
B. Repeat the steps above to select the day of the week and stop sampling time at 11:59 PM
on Friday. The display should appear as follows to stop sampling at midnight (11:59
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 15 of 20
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
PM) on the same day (i.e., Friday). Note that an hour before midnight is used to
minimize confusion.
PM
1OFF
Fr
11:59
C. Continue to program next sampling date and time of press "RST/RCL" (reset/recall) key
to clear the LCD to read as follows for the remaining programming steps (steps 3ON to
6OFF).
D. Push the "CLOCK" to resume the current time.
E. Place the "ON/AUTO/OFF" key in the "AUTO" mode. A bar appears at the lower edge
of the LCD.
6. Install Charged Battery Pack in Sampler: Place a charged battery pack inside the sampler.
Press the "ON/AUTO/OFF" switch from "AUTO" to "ON" mode and pump will be turned
on. Leave the pump running for 2 minutes to ensure battery has adequate voltage to start the
pump and check the pump flow. Press the "ON/AUTO/OFF" key to turn pump "OFF".
7. Install the clean impactor if it is not already part of the filter pack. Disconnect the impactor
section from the filter assembly and remove the rain cap (see Figure 4). Pushing with thumb
from the bottom, remove the impactor through the top of the tube into palm of free hand.
Inspect the O-rings on the impactor assembly for fitness and replace if necessary. Remove
any extraneous material from the impactor assembly. Carefully re-insert the clean impactor
assembly into the tube (from the top) until the top of the impactor is even with the top of the
tube.
8. Install the unexposed filter into the filter cassette unless it has been preloaded in the
laboratory. The filter packs should be stored in an enclosure to avoid contaminating the filter.
Install the filter cassette into the impactor assembly. Make sure the new filter ID corresponds
to the ID on the data sheet for that site and date. Install the filter assembly.
9. Attach the filter pack and inlet assembly to the sampler using the quick disconnect push
down on the sleeve of the receptacle, insert the barb of the filter holder, and pull up on the
sleeve until it snaps into place. Record the sampler ID.
10. Check the beginning flow rate. Turn the pump "ON" manually by switching
"ON/AUTO/OFF" key to "ON". Attach the quick disconnect plug to the inlet to perform the
leak check. If the rotameter indicates more than 0.2 L/min, there is a leak. Check all filter
holder joints. A set-point for 5 L/min will have been determined during calibration of each
sampler. This set-point will correspond to an actual flow rate of 5 L/min. Adjust the pump
speed with the "Sampling Flow Adjustment" (see Figure 2) until the rotameter reads the setpoint value to the nearest 0.1 L/min, taking the reading at the center of the ball. The sampler
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 16 of 20
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
must warm up for at least one minute for the flow to stabilize. When the flow rate stabilizes
at the set point, press "ON/AUTO/OFF" key to turn "OFF" and then "AUTO" to stop the
pump. Enter the "Initial" flow rate and "Start" the elapsed time meter reading (located on the
top of the programmable timer, see Figure 2) on the pre-assigned field data sheet. (The
elapsed time meter is comprised of a six digit readout: the first four digits (in white)
represent number in hours; the last two digits (in red) represent numbers in 0.1 and 0.01 of an
hour.)
11. Record the initial elapsed time for the new sample on its data sheet.
12. Verify the "Programmable Timer" is in the "AUTO" mode. This is very important, as
the sampler will not start unless it is in the AUTO mode.
13. Return the pump and timer assembly to the sampler housing. Reassemble the handle. Use
the extension hook to place sampler on mounting bracket, making certain that it is securely
resting on the bracket hooks. Get underneath the sampler to hold it vertically to avoid
breaking the inlet assembly and position the handle in the bracket holder.
14. Often the prior sample will be removed at the time the sampler is taken down to put in a new
filter pack. When this is the case, follow these steps:
A. Record the sample end elapsed time on the data sheet.
B. Before removing the sample, turn the pump "ON" by pressing the "ON/AUTO/OFF" key.
Let the pump warm up for 1 minute to get a stable flow reading. Record the final flow
rate indicated on the rotameter to the nearest 0.1 unit on the field data sheet (take the
reading at center of the ball). Final flow rate should not vary more than  10% of the
initial flow rate over a 24-hour sampling period.
C. Remove the exposed filter pack from the sampler using the quick disconnect. Unscrew
the inlet assembly from the filter pack. Remove the inlet and screw the filter pack cap
(red plastic cap with Nuclepore cap section) onto the exposed filter pack and store in the
labeled ziplock bag with the completed field data sheet.
D. Remove discharged battery pack and install charged battery pack. Follow the
instructions above to prepare for a new sample.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 17 of 20
March 2011
Brief summary of routine operating procedures (copy and tape on sampler housing).
Set up
1. Install unexposed filter pack. Be sure that the sample ID corresponds to
the appropriate sampling site and date on the field data sheet. Verify
Programmable Timer Clock Time with current day and time. Verify
program "ON/OFF" date and time.
2. Turn pump "ON", measure "Initial" Flow Rate, record on field data sheet,
turn pump "OFF".
3. Record "Start" Elapsed Time on field data sheet.
4. Place "ON/AUTO/OFF" key in "AUTO" mode. Verify this before
mounting sampler. Check sampler again if you can’t remember if you
did it.
Pick up
5. Verify that the exposed filter pack sampled correctly. Note if Low Battery
or Low Flow light is "ON".
2. Record the "End" Elapsed Time and verify that it was sampled for 24
hours.
3. Turn pump "ON", record "Final Flow Rate on field data sheet, and turn the
pump "OFF".
4. Place the exposed filter cassette into the original case.
5. Place exposed filter cassette and completed field data sheet into the labeled
ziplock bag.
6. Remove used impactor and install clean impactor if needed.
4.3
SHUTDOWN
At the end of each month, perform one set of leak and performance tests. Record the condition
of the sampler in the station logbook.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 18 of 20
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
5. QUANTIFICATION
5.1
CALIBRATION PROCEDURES
A. Mark Rotameter Scales with Set-point Readings: The actual flow rate through each
rotameter is:
Qact =
(aQi+b)((760/P2)(T2/298))0.5
where
Qact =
actual flow rate at temperature T2 and pressure P2 in liters per minute
Qi =
a =
indicated rotameter reading in standard liters per minute
linear regression slope for relationship between rotameter reading and
true flow rate at standard conditions
b
linear regression intercept for relationship between rotameter reading
and true flow at standard conditions
=
The 5 L/min set-point is obtained from the above equation by substituting 5 for
Qact and solving for Qi. The set-point is located on a piece of tape applied to the
rotameter scale for typical temperatures and pressures in the sampling area.
B. The pump is turned "ON" using "ON/AUTO/OFF" key. The flow rate is adjusted to the setpoint value with the "Flow Rate Adjustment" key (see Figure 2).
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 19 of 20
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
6. QUALITY CONTROL
6.1
LEAK CHECKS
A leak check is performed every 30 days as described in Section 2.1.5.
6.2
CALIBRATION CHECKS
The flow rate measurement is checked monthly against a transfer standard.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Revised
Page 20 of 20
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
7. QUALITY AUDITING
Audits of flow rates are performed by an independent auditor with independent standards on an
annual basis.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Airmetrics Minivol Portable PM Survey Sampler
CARBONYL SAMPLING (EPA METHOD TO-11a)
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Prepared by:
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc.
2374 Post Road, Suite 102
Warwick, RI 02886
(401) 736-3440
March 2011
Version: Final
EA Project No.: 14774.01
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 1 of 7
March 2011
1. GENERAL DISCUSSION
This standard operating procedure (SOP) is designed to provide instruction on collecting
ambient carbonyl compounds (aldehydes and ketones) using the SKC PCXR8 personal air
sampling pump. The procedure follows the tenets/specifications presented in the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency’s Compendium Method TO-11A.
Aldehydes and ketones belong to a class of compounds called carbonyl compounds. The most
common carbonyls in air include formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone. Carbonyls in air are
collected by drawing air through a cartridge impregnated with acidified 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), which is very reactive toward carbonyls. The resulting products
(hydrazones) in the cartridge are measured in the laboratory using high-performance liquid
chromatography to determine the levels of the carbonyl compounds originally present in the air.
The PCXR8 personal air sampling pump is a battery-powered personal air sampler that is capable
of programmed start/stop and duration sampling. The pump can also be operated while
connected to AC power.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Carbonyl Sampling Using SKC PCXR8
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 2 of 7
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
2. INSTRUMENTATION AND SUPPLIES
2.1
INSTRUMENTATION
2.1.1
PCRX8 Personal Air Sampling Pump
Figure 1 illustrates the components of the PCXR8 personal sampling pump. There may be some
deviations from this figure due to changes in configuration with different manufacturing batches.
Figure 1 PCXR8 Personal Sampling Pump Components
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Carbonyl Sampling Using SKC PCXR8
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 3 of 7
March 2011
2.1.2 Sampling Inlet and Tubing
The sampling pump shall be located within a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment.
Stainless steel tubing shall be installed through the roof of the shelter to allow for sampling of
ambient air. A 0.2 micron particulate filter shall be installed at the inlet to prevent particulate
from entering the pump. The inlet shall be pointed downwards to prevent precipitation from
entering the sampling line.
2.2
SUPPLIES
2.2.1
LpDNPH Cartridge
LpDNPH cartridges are designed specifically for sampling carbonyls in air. Carbonyls are
trapped on a high purity silica adsorbent coated with DNPH, where they are converted to the
hydrazone derivatives. The derivatives are eluted from the cartridge in acetonitrile and are
analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography.
2.2.2
Ozone Scrubber
The ozone scrubber is a closed polypropylene tube containing high purity potassium iodide.
Potassium iodide traps ozone, which is frequently present in sampling atmospheres and can
create negative formaldehyde interference in DNPH-coated devices. Ozone scrubbers shall be
installed on the inlet side of the LpDNPH cartridges prior to each sampling event.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Carbonyl Sampling Using SKC PCXR8
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 4 of 7
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
3. OPERATING PROCUDURES
3.1
INSTRUMENT SETUP

Locate the sampler in the shelter where the stainless steel sampling line can lead to the
outside. Strap the line to a pole or similar object to raise the inlet of the line several feet
above the roof of the structure.

Install the 0.2 micron particulate filter to the inlet of the stainless steel sampling line.

Install the LpDNPH sampling cartridge and ozone scrubber onto sampling inlet of the pump
using the supplied luer fittings.

Close the package in which the sampling cartridge was provided using the interlocking seal.

Label the package according to the project sample identification convention.

Set the pump flow rate:
o Press “Flow and Battery Check” and adjust the flow using the flow adjustment screw
until the flow is approximately 1.2 liters per minute (LPM) on the internal rotometers.
(Previous calibrations have shown that a 1.2 LPM flow rate as indicated on the internal
rotometers is approximately equal to 1.0 LPM per a primary standard.)
o Using a Bios DryCal or other primary flow standard, check the flow rate by connecting
the sampling cartridge to the DryCal using silicone tubing.
o The target flow rate for carbonyl sampling is 1.0 LPM. Adjust the flow rate accordingly.
o Press “Flow and Battery Check” to place the pump into “hold.”

Set pump for midnight to midnight sampling:
o Determine the number of minutes until sampling start time (for midnight-to-midnight
sampling):

= 60*(24 – [next hour in military time]) + (60- [current minute of hour]). For
example, if setting pump at 2:46 pm: 60*(24-15) + (60-46) = 554 minutes
o Enter number of minutes for delay start:


Press “Set-Up”
Using “Digit Select” and “Digit Set” ,set the delay start time, in minutes
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Carbonyl Sampling Using SKC PCXR8
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 5 of 7
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology


“Digit Set” increases the value of the flashing digit
“Digit Select” advances the flashing digit.
o Enter Sampling Period:


Press “Mode”
Use “Digit Select” and “Digit Set” to enter 1440 for midnight-to-midnight sampling.
o Enter Pump Period:

3.2
 Press “Mode”
 Use “Digit Select” and “Digit Set” to enter 1440 for midnight-to-midnight sampling.

Enter all required information onto the project Field Sampling Form.
SAMPLE COLLECTION
The sample will be collected on the day following the sampling day to allow for midnight-tomidnight sampling:

Remove the pump and cartridge from the sampling line.

Using the primary standard, measure the final flow rate through the cartridge and ozone
scrubber.

Record the final flow rate and any other requested information on the project Field Sampling
Form.

Remove the sampling cartridge and ozone scrubber from the pump. Dispose of the ozone
scrubber.

Place the caps on each end of the sampling cartridge to seal it from ambient air.

Place the capped sampling cartridge within its provided package and close using the
interlocking seal.

Confirm that the sample ID is written on the sample cartridge package.

Place in a clean cooler with ice for subsequent delivery to a laboratory.

Fill out a chain-of-custody form and either deliver to the appropriate laboratory or arrange for
laboratory courier service.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Carbonyl Sampling Using SKC PCXR8
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 6 of 7
March 2011
4. QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL
4.1
FIELD BLANKS
A field blank is a sample cartridge that has been taken to the sample location, opened, and then
closed. Such a cartridge is analyzed to determine the background carbonyl concentrations and to
provide additional documentation of proper field handling techniques. One field blank will be
collected per 20 carbonyl samples collected for this study and submitted for analysis with the
sample cartridges. Each field blank will be identified on the chain-of-custody form in
accordance with the project sample identification convention.
4.2
SAMPLE HANDLING AND PRESERVATION
All carbonyl samples will be collected on Supelco S10 cartridges unless previously approved by
the Project Manager. All cartridges shall be chilled to 4°C prior to and following sampling. All
cartridges shall remain in the manufacturer supplied resealable packages prior to and following
sampling. Holding time for carbonyl samples is 14 days from the sampling date.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Carbonyl Sampling Using SKC PCXR8
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 7 of 7
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
5. REFERENCES
Desert Research Institute. 2008. Standard Operating Procedure, DRI Carbonyl Sampler
Operations, DRI SOP #1-710r4. January 20.
SKC, Inc. Operating Instruction, Universal Sample Pump, Catalog No. 224-PCRX8.
United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2009. Standard Operating Procedure for
Measurement of Carbonyl Compounds for the EPA School Air Toxics Program. August 12.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Carbonyl Sampling Using SKC PCXR8
SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND
SAMPLING (EPA METHOD TO-13a)
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Prepared by:
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc.
2374 Post Road, Suite 102
Warwick, RI 02886
(401) 736-3440
March 2011
Version: Final
EA Project No.: 14774.01
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 1 of 8
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
1. GENERAL DISCUSSION
This Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is designed to provide instruction on simultaneously
collecting suspended airborne particulates as well as trap semi-volatile organic compounds such
as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
The Polyurethane Foam (PUF) Sampler, commonly known as the PUF Sampler, is composed of
an aluminum shelter, dual chamber sampling head, flow venturi, Magnehelic® gauge, voltage
variator/elapsed time indicator, blower motor, exhaust hose, and seven-day skip timer.
The dual chamber sampling head contains both filtering systems. The upper chamber supports
the 4-in. diameter microquartz particulate filter, while the lower chamber houses the glass
cartridge that contains the PUF and XAD-2® for vapor entrapment. The blower motor is
manufactured with a bypass and cooling fan to permit the motor to operate at low sampling flow
rates for periods of long duration without motor failure from overheating. The optimum flow
rate for the sampler is 0.225 m3/min., which yields a total volume of air sampled per 24 hours of
greater than 300 m3. Note, however, that the extra course frit glass cartridges used in this study
restrict flow such that typical flow rates are on the order of 0.15 m3/min. yielding sample
volumes on the order of 210 to 220 m3 for a 24-hour sampling period. The voltage variator
adjusting screw alters the blower motor speed to achieve the desired flow rate. The air flow rate
is measured through the flow venturi utilizing a 0-100" Magnehelic® gauge. A seven-day skip
timer is used to automatically initiate and terminate sampling at preset times. The actual length
of sampling is measured by the elapsed time indicator. The entire assembly is housed in a
specially-designed aluminum shelter that provides protection from precipitation while
maintaining ample space for air entering or leaving the sampler. The height of the shelter puts
the air inlet at about one meter above grade.
This SOP is designed to be a step-by-step method for operating the sampler to be used in
conjunction with the manufacturer’s Operations Manual (http://www.tisch-env.com/tisch/pdf/
te1000.PDF). Maintenance and troubleshooting should be conducted using the Tisch TE-PUF
Operations Manual.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Sampling
Tisch TE-1000 PUF Sampler SOP
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 2 of 8
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
2. INSTALLATION AND SITING
Assemble the sampler as described in the Tisch Environmental, Inc. TE-PUF Operations Manual
shipped with the sampler, which can also be found at http://www.tisch-env.com/tisch/pdf/
te1000.PDF. Check the sample site areas for safety.
Ensure there will be enough room for the operator to move freely while working and that the
physical conditions of the location will allow the operator to work safely.
The sampler should be set in a location unobstructed from every side. No tree limbs or other
hanging obstructions should be above the sampler. It is suggested that the horizontal distance
from the sampler to the closest vertical obstruction higher than the sampler be at least twice the
height of the vertical obstruction. The exhaust hose should be stretched out in a downwind
direction if possible. Install the sampler on a reasonably level structure at a height between 2
and 15 meters above the ground.
Connect the sampler to a grounded electrical outlet with 115 volts and at least 15 amp service.
Protect the connector from precipitation by placing it in the shelter or wrapping it with plastic
tape.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Sampling
Tisch TE-1000 PUF Sampler SOP
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 3 of 8
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
3. CALIBRATION
Calibration of the PUF Sampler is required upon installation, after motor maintenance is
performed, at least once every three months, and after 360 sampling hours.
Calibration of the PUF Sampler is performed without a foam plug (TE-1010) or filter paper in
the sampling module. However, the empty glass cartridge must remain in the module to ensure a
good seal through the module.

Install the TE-5040A Calibrator (orifice) on top of the 4-in. filter holder. Tighten and make
sure there are no leaks.

Open both ports on top of the manometer and connect tubing from the manometer port to the
pressure tap on the TE-5040A Calibrator. Leave the opposite side of the manometer port
open to the atmosphere.

Open the ball valve fully (the handle should be straight up); this is located inside of the
shelter directly above the blower motor.

Turn the system on by tripping the manual switch on the timer. Allow a few minutes for the
motor to warm up.

Adjust and tighten the voltage control screw (Variac) on the TE-5010 to obtain a reading of
70 in. on the dial of the Magnehelic® gauge.

Do not adjust the voltage control screw again until completion of calibration.

With 70 in. on the gauge as your first calibration point, record this figure and the orifice
manometer reading on your data sheet. To read a manometer, one side goes up and one goes
down, add both sides together and this is your inches of water.

Close the ball valve slightly to readjust the dial gauge down to 60 in. Record this figure and
the orifice manometer reading on your data sheet.

Using the above procedure, adjust the ball valve for readings at 50, 40, and 30 in. and enter
them into the EA PUF Calibration electronic spreadsheet. You should have 5 sets of
numbers, 10 numbers in all.

Manually turn sampler off.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Sampling
Tisch TE-1000 PUF Sampler SOP
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 4 of 8
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
4. OPERATING PROCUDURES
4.1
INSTRUMENT SETUP
Nitrile gloves should be worn during all of the following activities:

Release the three swing bolts on the 4-in. filter holder and remove the cover. (Note:
NEVER OPERATE PUF SAMPLER WITH COVER ON; this will decrease motor life.)

Using a spray bottle and clean wipes, decontaminate the sampling head with hexane.

Install a clean glass fiber filter on the support screen between the two white Teflon gaskets
and secure it with the hold-down ring and swing bolts.

Unscrew and remove the 4-in. filter holder and sampling module cap, leaving the module
tube in place with the dummy glass cartridge exposed.

Remove the laboratory-prepared glass sampling cartridge from the laboratory-supplied cooler
and unwrap from the bubble wrap and supplied aluminum foil.

Load the glass cartridge into the module tube. Fasten the glass cartridge with the module cap
and 4-in. filter holder assembly while making sure that the module assembly, 4-in. filter
holder, and all fittings are snug.

Label the tag provided with the sampling cartridge according to the project identification
convention.

If a sampling platform is utilized, place the PUF Sampler on the sampling platform to
provide sufficient sampling height.

Ensure the Magnehelic® gauge is set at zero when the sampler is off. Adjust using the inset
screw as needed.

Allow the motor to warm up for five minutes, then set for the desired flow rate using the
voltage control screw (with the ball valve completely open). Turn off the sampler.

Set the timer for midnight-to-midnight sampling for the sampling day.

Observe and record the initial Magnehelic® gauge reading on the project Field Sampling
Form. Enter all other required information onto the project Field Sampling Form, including
the elapsed time reading.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Sampling
Tisch TE-1000 PUF Sampler SOP
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 5 of 8
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
4.2
SAMPLE COLLECTION
The sample will be collected on the day following the sampling day to allow for midnight-tomidnight sampling.
Nitrile gloves should be worn during all of the following activities:

Ensure the Magnehelic® gauge is set at zero when the sampler is off. Adjust using the inset
screw as needed.

Record the final elapsed time reading on the project Field Sampling Form.

Allow the unit to warm up for five minutes. Record the final Magnehelic® gauge reading.

Open the bubble wrap and aluminum foil provided by the laboratory.

Unscrew and remove the 4-in. filter holder and sampling module cap, leaving the module
tube in place with the sampling glass cartridge exposed.

Remove the glass cartridge and place on the aluminum foil.

Release the three swing bolts on the 4-in. filter holder. Remove the glass fiber filter. Gently
fold the filter as necessary and place within the sampling cartridge. Wrap the sampling
cartridge in the laboratory-supplied aluminum foil.

Attach the completed sample label to the sampling cartridge via the aluminum twist tie.

Place the sampling cartridge and label in the bubble wrap and place in an iced cooler.

Fill out the chain-of-custody form and either deliver to the appropriate laboratory or arrange
for laboratory courier service.

Upon returning to the office, complete the flow calculation spreadsheet to determine the flow
volume of the sample. Use data obtained from an online database to determine the average
temperature and barometric pressure data for the sampling day.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Sampling
Tisch TE-1000 PUF Sampler SOP
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 6 of 8
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
5. MAINTENANCE
Maintenance shall be performed in accordance with the Tisch TE-1000 Manual, available at
http://www.tisch-env.com/tisch/pdf/te1000.PDF.
The PUF Sampler should be inspected routinely and cleaned as needed. Power cords should be
inspected for cracks, crimps, etc. Power cords should not be immersed in water. Gaskets should
be inspected regularly to ensure they are sealing properly. Compromised gaskets must be
replaced immediately.
Motor maintenance includes motor carbon brush replacement every 4 months or 400 to 500
hours of operation. Also, the motor flange gasket and motor cushion should be inspected during
motor brush replacement and replaced as necessary.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Sampling
Tisch TE-1000 PUF Sampler SOP
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 7 of 8
March 2011
6. QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL
6.1
FIELD BLANKS
A field blank is a sample cartridge that has been taken to the sample location, opened, and then
closed. Such a cartridge is analyzed to determine the background semi-volatile organic
compound concentrations and to provide additional documentation of proper field handling
techniques. One field blank will be collected per 20 semi-volatile organic compound samples
collected for this study and submitted for analysis with the sample cartridges. Each field blank
will be identified on the chain-of-custody form in accordance with the project sample
identification convention.
6.2
SAMPLE HANDLING AND PRESERVATION
All TO-13 samples will be collected on PUF and XAD sandwich cartridges unless previously
approved by the Project Manager. All cartridges shall be chilled to 4°C following sampling. All
cartridges shall be tightly wrapped in aluminum foil and placed in a dedicated resealable plastic
bag prior to and following sampling. Holding time for TO-13 samples is 7 days from the
sampling date.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Sampling
Tisch TE-1000 PUF Sampler SOP
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 8 of 8
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
7. REFERENCES
Tisch Environmental, Inc. Operations Manual, TE-PUF Poly-Urethane Foam High Volume Air
Sampler.
United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2009. Standard Operating Procedure for
Measurement of Semi-volatile Organic Compounds Using the Tisch Environmental, Inc. TEPUF Sampler. August 24.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Sampling
Tisch TE-1000 PUF Sampler SOP
VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND SAMPLING
(EPA METHOD TO-15)
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE
Prepared by:
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, Inc.
2374 Post Road, Suite 102
Warwick, RI 02886
(401) 736-3440
March 2011
Version: Final
EA Project No.: 14774.01
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 1 of 7
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
1. GENERAL DISCUSSION
This Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is designed to provide instruction on collecting
volatile organic compounds in air using an evacuated canister and a passive air sampling kit.
The procedure presented is designed for sampling volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in
ambient air, based on the collection of whole air samples in SUMMA treated canisters to final
pressures below atmospheric. The samples are then analyzed using EPA Compendium Methods
TO-15 SIM - Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Air Collected in
Specially Prepared Canisters and analyzed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
(GC/MS) using Alpha Analytical Laboratory of Mansboro, MA. The canisters are 2.7-liter
stainless steel vessels whose internal walls are SUMMA treated with an inert pure chrome-nickel
oxide compound to reduce the reactivity of the air sample in the canister. The canisters are
outfitted with a stainless steel bellows valve, equipped with a 1/4" Swagelock fitting on the inlet.
The canisters are then evacuated to approximately 29.5 inches of mercury (“Hg) and are ready
for use. The collection approach is passive, meaning no 110 volt AC power is required. The
canister is attached to a programmable timer/solenoid, a vacuum regulator, and a sample probe.
Figure 1 presents the complete VOC sampling system. When the programmable timer opens the
solenoid at a preset time, the canister is filled with ambient air at an integrated collection rate
across the 24-hour sampling duration. This SOP is designed to be a step by step procedure for
operating the sampling system described, and is to be used in conjunction with the
manufacturer’s operator’s manual(s). Maintenance and troubleshooting should be conducted
using the relevant operator’s manual(s).
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Volatile Organic Compound Sampling SOP
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 2 of 7
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
2. INSTALLATION AND SITING
Inspect the site area to ensure there will be enough physical space for the operator to move freely
while working, and ensure there is nothing at the location that will negatively impact the safety
of the operator. The sampler should be mounted in a location that is unobstructed on all sides.
There should be no tree limbs or other hanging obstructions above the sampler. The inlet of the
sampling system must be positioned at least 2 meters above grade (ideal), but not more than 15
meters above grade.
The sampling system consists of three components: a sample canister, a programmable
timer/solenoid (Nutech 2701), and a passive vacuum regulator. The programmable timer will
remain at the designated shelter for charging between sampling events. All other components
will be received from Alpha Analtyical Laboratory where the cans will have been cleaned and
evacuated and the flow controllers will have been cleaned and calibrated for 24 hour sampling.
For this project the SUMMA canister will be located indoors, with a stainless steel line leading
through the roof of the shelter to the exterior. A 0.2 micron Swagelock particulate filter will be
installed at the inlet to prevent particulate from entering the SUMMA canisters.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Volatile Organic Compound Sampling SOP
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 3 of 7
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
3. OPERATING PROCUDURES
3.1
INSTRUMENT SETUP
Nitrile gloves should be worn during all of the following activities:

Ensure the timer is fully charged. The timer should have at least two bars of battery. If not,
allow for additional charging and return to the site to set up the sample once two bars of
battery are attained.

Assemble the sampling system. All connections should be made with teflon tape. Hand
tighten, and then tighten an additional quarter turn using wrenches to ensure a tight fit.


o Remove the plug from the SUMMA canister.
o Connect the timer to the SUMMA canister using Swagelock reducer.
o Connect the flow controller and vacuum gauge to the timer using Swagelock
reducer. A “candy cane” inlet may be provided by the laboratory and connected
to the flow controller. These are typically used in ambient air sampling. If so,
remove the “candy cane” inlet and place in the provided bubble wrap for future
delivery back to the laboratory.
Conduct a leak test to ensure all connections are secure.
o Connect a plug to the flow controller inlet.
o Turn on the electronic vacuum gauge by pressing the “On” button.
o Press the “Manu” button on the timer/valve to manually open the solenoid valve.
On the display the word “Open” should then be displayed.
o Fully open the SUMMA canister valve for several seconds.
o Read the vacuum measurement and record the reading on the project Field
Sampling Form.
o Monitor the vacuum reading on the gauge for several seconds. The reading
should be constant. If the vacuum reading is decreasing, a leak is present in the
sampling line. If a leak is present, retighten all connections and conduct another
leak test. If the leak persists, disconnect and reconnect all connections in the
sampling line. If the leak continues, the timer may be compromised, contact the
Project Manager for futher guidance.
Once a successful leak test has been completed, the timer can be programmed for
sampling. Press “Enter” to wake up the timer.
o Check the time on the timer. If it is inaccurate by greater than five minutes, set
the time.
 To set the time, press “Set” twice.
 The display will show flashing digits that can be changed by pressing the
left and right arrow keys.
 Set the day by pressing the set button and using the arrows to set to the
appropriate day.
 Press the “Enter” key to set the time and day.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Volatile Organic Compound Sampling SOP
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 4 of 7
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
o Set the timer/valve for the sampling event
 Press “Set”
 Enter “01” and then “Enter” to enter first set point
 Use the arrow keys to set to “Open” and press “Enter”
 Set time to 00:01 and press “Enter”
 Use arrow keys to set to appropriate day
 Press “Set”
 Enter “01” and then “Enter” to enter sample ending set point
 Use the arrow keys to set to “Closed” and press “Enter”
 Set time to 23:59 and press “Enter”
 Use arrow keys to set to appropriate day
 Press “Auto”
 Close the solenoid valve by pressing the “Manu” button again.
o The timer is now set for midnight to midnight sampling
4.2

Connect the flow controller (with the “candy cane” inlet removed) to the stainless steel
sampling line that extends to the exterior.

Open the valve on the SUMMA canister.
SAMPLE COLLECTION
The sample will be collected on the day following the sampling day to allow for midnight-tomidnight sampling.
Nitrile gloves should be worn during all of the following activities:

Activate the timer by pressing “Enter”. The total elapsed time should be displayed on the
timer. Record the elapsed time on the project Field Sampling Form.

Open the solenoid valve of the timer by pressing “Manu”.

Read the vacuum gauge and record the reading on the project Field Sampling Form.

Close the valve on the SUMMA canister.

If the pressure is zero, make a note in the note section on the project Field Data Sheet. Upon
returning to the office, make a note of the zero pressure reading in the Sample Tracking
spreadsheet under the “Data Flag” column.

Disconnect all of the sampling components.
o Charge the timer by plugging the timer into the USB charger in the stations.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Volatile Organic Compound Sampling SOP
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 5 of 7
March 2011
o Place the flow controller and vacuum gauge in the bubble wrap bag provided by
the laboratory.
o Replace the plug onto the SUMMA canister and place in laboratory supplied
crate.

Fill out the chain-of-custody form and either deliver to the appropriate laboratory or arrange
for laboratory courier service.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Volatile Organic Compound Sampling SOP
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 6 of 7
March 2011
4. QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL
6.1
LABORATORY DUPLICATES
A laboratory duplicate is a sample that is run as a quality control check by the laboratory. One
sample per analysis run is split and analyzed separately. The results are compared to determine
the accuracy of the analysis. Laboratory duplicates are randomly selected by the laboratory and
therefore a set amount will not be prescribed by this document.
6.2
SAMPLE HANDLING AND PRESERVATION
All TO-15 samples will be collected in laboratory supplied SUMMA canisters unless previously
approved by the Project Manager. No refrigeration is required for TO-15 samples. All SUMMA
canisters shall be kept in secured laboratory supplied crates prior to and following sampling.
There is no holding time for TO-15 samples.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Volatile Organic Compound Sampling SOP
EA Project No.: 14774.01
Version: Final
Page 7 of 7
March 2011
EA Engineering, Science, and Technology
5. REFERENCES
United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2009. Standard Operating Procedure for
Measurement of Volatile Organic Compounds for the EPA School of Air Toxics. August 5.
Standard Operating Procedures
Massport Air Monitoring Program
Volatile Organic Compound Sampling SOP
APPENDIX B
Maintenance List
Maintenance Schedule
Massport Air Quality Monitoring Study
Year 2
Logan International Airport
Maintenance Activity
Frequency
BAM Unit
Nozzle and Vane Cleaning
Leak Check
Flow Check
Enclosure Cleaning
Capstan Shaft and Pinch Roller Tires Cleaning
Check Clock
Replace Filter Tape
Run Self Test
Full Flow Calibration
Clean PM10 Head
Clean PM2.5 Inlet
Clean Cyclone
Replace/Clean Pump Muffler
Test Flow Controller
Test Pump
Test Filter RH and Temperature Sensors
Smart Heater Test
Replace Nozzle O‐Ring
Clean Internal Debris Filter
Clean Membrane Span Foil
Beta Detector Count Rate Test
Beta Detector Dark Count Test
Test Analog Output
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
2 Months
2 Months
2 Months
2 Months
2 Months
2 Months
6 Months
6 Months
6 Months
6 Months
6 Months
Yearly
Yearly
Yearly
Yearly
Yearly
Yearly
Aethelometer
Flow check
Replace Filter Tape
Cleaning
Monthly
6 Months
Yearly
Meteorological
Inspect Anemometer (Visual and Auditory)
Inspect Wind Vane (Visual and Auditory)
Clean Temperature Probe Radiation Shield of Dust
Clear the White Filter on the Temperature Probe
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
Maintenance Schedule
Massport Air Quality Monitoring Study
Year 2
Logan International Airport
Maintenance Activity
Frequency
FRM
Clean Cyclone
Service Water Collector Bottle
Flow Rate Verification
Clean Inlet Surfaces
Clean Interior of Sampler Case
Check Clock
Pressure Verification
Temperature Verification
Check Sample Transport Containers
External Leak Check
Internal Leak Check
Coat Inlet and Impactor O‐rings with Vacuum Grease
Clean Sampler Downtube
Inspect Water Seal Gasket on Downtube
Inspect and Service O‐rings of Impactor
Inspect and Service Pump and Electrical Components
Inspect and Service Cooling Air Filter and Fans
Single Point Flow Calibration
Temperature Calibration
Pressure Calibration
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
Monthly
3 Months
3 Months
3 Months
3 Months
3 Months
3 Months
6 Months
Yearly
Yearly
PUF Sampler
Inspect and Clean
Calibrate
Replace Carbon Brushes
Monthly
3 Months
4 Months
Minivols
Impactor Holder Cleaning
Filter Holder Cleaning
Monthly
Monthly
TO‐11a Sampler
Visually Inspect Filter Trap (Replace if Necessary)
Monthly
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