mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Users Manual

mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Users Manual
mikroElektronika
C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
microcontrollers
mikroC
for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
Making it simple
mikro
User’s manual
Development tools - Books - Compilers
www.mikroe.com
ICD
Develop your applications quickly and easily with the world's
most intuitive C compiler for dsPIC/PIC24 Microcontrollers (families dsPIC30/33 and PIC24).
IN-CIRCUIT
Highly sophisticated IDE provides the power you need with the
simplicity of a Windows based point-and-click environment.
SUPPORTED
from V4.0
With useful implemented tools, many practical code examples,
broad set of built-in routines, and a comprehensive Help, mikroC
for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 makes a fast and reliable tool, which
can satisfy needs of experienced engineers and beginners alike.
DEBUGGER
making it simple...
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
Reader’s note
June 2007.
DISCLAIMER:
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 and this manual are owned by mikroElektronika and are
protected by copyright law and international copyright treaty. Therefore, you should treat this
manual like any other copyrighted material (e.g., a book). The manual and the compiler may
not be copied, partially or as a whole without the written consent from the mikroEelktronika.
The PDF-edition of the manual can be printed for private or local use, but not for distribution.
Modifying the manual or the compiler is strictly prohibited.
HIGH RISK ACTIVITIES
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compiler is not fault-tolerant and is not designed, manufactured or intended for use or resale as on-line control equipment in hazardous environments requiring fail-safe performance, such as in the operation of nuclear facilities, aircraft
navigation or communication systems, air traffic control, direct life support machines, or
weapons systems, in which the failure of the Software could lead directly to death, personal
injury, or severe physical or environmental damage ("High Risk Activities"). mikroElektronika
and its suppliers specifically disclaim any express or implied warranty of fitness for High Risk
Activities.
LICENSE AGREEMENT:
By using the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compiler, you agree to the terms of this
agreement. Only one person may use licensed version of mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24 compiler at a time.
Copyright © mikroElektronika 2003 - 2006.
This manual covers mikroC version 4.0.0.0 and the related topics. Newer versions may
contain changes without prior notice.
COMPILER BUG REPORTS:
The compiler has been carefully tested and debugged. It is, however, not possible to
guarantee a 100 % error free product. If you would like to report a bug, please contact us at
the address [email protected] Please include next information in your bug report:
- Your operating system
- Version of mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
- Code sample
- Description of a bug
CONTACT US:
mikroElektronika
Voice: + 381 (11) 30 66 377, + 381 (11) 30 66 378
Fax:
+ 381 (11) 30 66 379
Web:
www.mikroe.com
E-mail: [email protected]
dsPIC, PIC24, dsPICmicro and MPLAB is a Registered trademark of Microchip company.
Windows is a Registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. All other trade and/or services marks
are the property of the respective owners.
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MikroElektronika: Development tools - Books - Compilers
mikr oC for dsPIC User ’s manual
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 IDE
CHAPTER 2
Building Applications
CHAPTER 3
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Reference
CHAPTER 4
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Libraries
MikroElektronika: Development tools - Books - Compilers
making it simple...
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
QUICK OVERVIEW ..........................................................................................1
Code Editor ....................................................................................................3
CODE EXPLORER ..........................................................................................6
SOFTWARE SIMULATOR ..............................................................................7
Watch Window........................................................................................8
Stopwatch Window ................................................................................10
RAM Window..........................................................................................11
ERROR WINDOW ............................................................................................12
STATISTICS ....................................................................................................13
Procedures (Graph) Window ..................................................................14
Procedures (Locations) Window ............................................................14
RAM Window..........................................................................................15
ROM Window ........................................................................................15
INTEGRATED TOOLS ....................................................................................16
USART Terminal ....................................................................................16
ASCII Chart ............................................................................................17
7 Segment Display Decoder ..................................................................18
Filter Desinger ........................................................................................19
UDP Terminal..........................................................................................20
Graphic LCD Bitmap Editor ....................................................................21
KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS..............................................................................22
IDE Shortcuts ........................................................................................22
Basic Editor shortcuts ............................................................................22
Advanced Editor shortcuts......................................................................22
mikroICD Debugger and Software Simulator Shortcuts ........................23
PROJECTS ......................................................................................................26
New Project ............................................................................................26
Edit Project ............................................................................................27
Extended functionality of the Project Files tab ......................................28
Add/Remove Files from Project..............................................................28
SOURCE FILES ..............................................................................................29
Search Paths ..........................................................................................29
Managing Source Files ..........................................................................30
COMPILATION ................................................................................................32
Output Files ............................................................................................32
Assembly View ......................................................................................32
Error Messages ......................................................................................33
Compiler Warning Messages ................................................................34
mikroICD (In-Circuit Debugger) ....................................................................35
mikroICD Debugger Options ..................................................................36
mikroICD Debugger Example ................................................................37
mikroICD (In-Circuit Debugger) Overview..............................................40
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 SPECIFICS ................................................................46
Types Efficiency......................................................................................46
Nested Calls Limitations ........................................................................46
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
Limits of Indirect Approach Through PSV ..............................................46
Limits of Pointer to Function ..................................................................46
mikroC SPECIFICS ........................................................................................47
ANSI Standard Issues ............................................................................47
Predefined Globals and Constants ........................................................48
Accessing Individual Bits ........................................................................48
Interrupts ................................................................................................49
Linker Directives ....................................................................................50
Code Optimization ..................................................................................51
Indirect Function Calls ............................................................................52
LEXICAL ELEMENTS ......................................................................................53
Whitespace ............................................................................................53
Whitespace in strings ............................................................................54
Line Splicing with Backslash (\) ..............................................................54
Comments ..............................................................................................55
TOKENS ..........................................................................................................57
Integer Constants ..................................................................................58
Floating Point Constants ........................................................................60
Character Constants ..............................................................................61
String Constants ....................................................................................63
Enumeration Constants ..........................................................................64
Pointer Constants ..................................................................................64
Constant Expressions ............................................................................65
KEYWORDS ....................................................................................................66
IDENTIFIERS....................................................................................................67
Case Sensitivity ......................................................................................67
Uniqueness and Scope ..........................................................................67
Identifier Examples ................................................................................67
PUNCTUATORS ..............................................................................................68
Brackets..................................................................................................68
Parentheses............................................................................................68
Braces ....................................................................................................69
Comma ..................................................................................................69
Semicolon ..............................................................................................70
Colon ......................................................................................................70
Asterisk (Pointer Declaration) ................................................................70
CONCEPTS ......................................................................................................71
Equal Sign ..............................................................................................71
Pound Sign (Preprocessor Directive) ....................................................71
OBJECTS AND LVALUES ..............................................................................72
Objects....................................................................................................72
Objects and Declarations ......................................................................72
Lvalues ..................................................................................................73
Rvalues ..................................................................................................73
Scope......................................................................................................74
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
Visibility ..................................................................................................75
NAME SPACES................................................................................................76
DURATION ......................................................................................................77
Static Duration ........................................................................................77
Local Duration ........................................................................................77
TYPES ..............................................................................................................79
Type Categories ....................................................................................79
FUNDAMENTAL TYPES..................................................................................80
Arithmetic Types ....................................................................................80
Enumerations..........................................................................................82
Enumeration Scope ................................................................................84
Void Type ................................................................................................84
DERIVED TYPES ............................................................................................85
Arrays ....................................................................................................85
Pointers ..................................................................................................88
Pointer Arithmetic ..................................................................................92
Structures ..............................................................................................96
Unions ....................................................................................................101
Bit Fields ................................................................................................102
TYPES CONVERSIONS ..................................................................................104
Standard Conversions ............................................................................104
Explicit Types Conversions (Typecasting) ..............................................106
DECLARATIONS..............................................................................................108
Introduction to Declarations....................................................................108
Linkage ..................................................................................................110
Storage Classes ....................................................................................112
Type Qualifiers........................................................................................114
Typedef Specifier ....................................................................................115
asm Declaration......................................................................................116
Initialization ............................................................................................118
FUNCTIONS ....................................................................................................119
Function Declaration ..............................................................................119
Function Prototypes................................................................................120
Function Definition..................................................................................121
Function Reentrancy ..............................................................................121
Function Calls ........................................................................................122
Argument Conversions ..........................................................................123
Ellipsis ('...') Operator ............................................................................124
OPERATORS ..................................................................................................125
Operators Precedence and Associativity................................................125
Arithmetic Operators ..............................................................................127
Relational Operators ..............................................................................129
Bitwise Operators ..................................................................................130
Logical Operators ..................................................................................133
Conditional Operator ? : ........................................................................135
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Assignment Operators............................................................................136
Sizeof Operator ......................................................................................138
Comma Expressions ..............................................................................139
STATEMENTS ..................................................................................................141
Labeled Statements ................................................................................141
Expression Statements ..........................................................................142
Selection Statements ..............................................................................142
Iteration Statements................................................................................145
Jump Statements ....................................................................................148
Compound Statements (Blocks) ............................................................150
PREPROCESSOR............................................................................................151
Preprocessor Directives ........................................................................151
Macros ....................................................................................................152
Macros with Parameters ........................................................................154
Undefining Macros..................................................................................155
File Inclusion ..........................................................................................156
Preprocessor Operators ........................................................................157
Conditional Compilation..........................................................................158
BUILT-IN ROUTINES ......................................................................................162
Hib ..........................................................................................................163
Lob..........................................................................................................163
Higherb ..................................................................................................164
Highestb..................................................................................................164
Lo............................................................................................................165
Hi ............................................................................................................165
Vdelay_ms ..............................................................................................166
Delay_ms................................................................................................166
Delay_us ................................................................................................166
Get_Fosc_kHz ........................................................................................167
Delay_Cyc ..............................................................................................167
LIBRARY ROUTINES ......................................................................................168
Adc_Read ..............................................................................................169
ADC Library ....................................................................................................169
Adc1_Read ............................................................................................170
Adc2_Read ............................................................................................171
Library Example......................................................................................172
Adc_Read ..............................................................................................172
Hardware Connection ............................................................................174
Advanced SPI Ethernet Library ....................................................................175
EthSetGateWayAddr ..............................................................................178
EthSetIPMask ........................................................................................178
EthSetMACAddr ....................................................................................178
EthSetIPAddr ..........................................................................................178
MACIsTxReady ......................................................................................179
MACInit ..................................................................................................179
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
EthInit......................................................................................................179
MACGet ..................................................................................................180
MACGetHeader ......................................................................................180
MACDiscardRx ......................................................................................181
MACGetArray ........................................................................................181
MACPut ..................................................................................................182
MACPutHeader ......................................................................................182
MACPutArray..........................................................................................183
MACFlush ..............................................................................................183
MACSetRxBuffer ....................................................................................184
MACDiscardTx........................................................................................184
MACSetTxBuffer ....................................................................................185
MACReserveTxBuffer ............................................................................186
MACSetDuplex ......................................................................................187
MACGetFreeRxSize ..............................................................................187
ARPPut ..................................................................................................188
ARPGet ..................................................................................................188
IPIsTxReady ..........................................................................................189
ARPInit....................................................................................................189
IPSetTxBuffer ........................................................................................190
IPPutArray ..............................................................................................191
IPPutHeader ..........................................................................................191
IPGetHeader ..........................................................................................192
IPGetArray ..............................................................................................193
IPSetRxBuffer ........................................................................................194
ICMPPut ................................................................................................195
ICMPIsTxReady......................................................................................195
ICMPGet ................................................................................................196
TCPListen ..............................................................................................197
TCPInit....................................................................................................197
TCPConnect ..........................................................................................198
TCPIsConnected ....................................................................................199
TCPDisconnect ......................................................................................200
TCPIsPutReady ......................................................................................201
TCPPut ..................................................................................................202
TCPFlush................................................................................................203
TCPIsGetReady......................................................................................204
TCPGet ..................................................................................................205
TCPGetArray ..........................................................................................206
TCPDiscard ............................................................................................207
TCPProcess............................................................................................208
UDPOpen ..............................................................................................209
UDPInit ..................................................................................................209
TCPTick ..................................................................................................209
UDPClose ..............................................................................................210
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MikroElektronika: Development tools - Books - Compilers
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
UDPIsPutReady......................................................................................211
UDPPut ..................................................................................................212
UDPFlush ..............................................................................................213
UDPIsGetReady ....................................................................................214
UDPGet ..................................................................................................215
UDPDiscard ............................................................................................216
UDPProcess ..........................................................................................217
UDPOpenSocket ....................................................................................218
UDPRead................................................................................................218
UDPWrite................................................................................................218
HTTPServer............................................................................................219
HTTPInit..................................................................................................219
StackTask................................................................................................219
StackInit ..................................................................................................219
Library Example......................................................................................220
Hardware Connection ............................................................................224
Library Routines ....................................................................................225
CAN Library ....................................................................................................225
CAN1GetOperationMode........................................................................226
CAN1SetOperationMode ........................................................................226
CAN1Initialize ........................................................................................227
CAN1SetBaudRate ................................................................................228
CAN1SetMask ........................................................................................229
CAN1SetFilter ........................................................................................230
CAN1Read..............................................................................................231
CAN1Write..............................................................................................232
CAN2GetOperationMode........................................................................233
CAN2SetOperationMode ........................................................................233
CAN2Initialize ........................................................................................234
CAN2SetBaudRate ................................................................................235
CAN2SetMask ........................................................................................236
CAN2SetFilter ........................................................................................237
CAN2Read..............................................................................................238
CAN2Write..............................................................................................239
CAN Constants ......................................................................................240
Library Example......................................................................................243
Hardware Connection ............................................................................245
Library Routines ....................................................................................246
CANSPI Library ..............................................................................................246
CANSPI1GetOperationMode..................................................................247
CANSPI1SetOperationMode ..................................................................247
CANSPI1Init............................................................................................248
CANSPI1SetBaudRate ..........................................................................249
CANSPI1SetMask ..................................................................................250
CANSPI1SetFilter ..................................................................................251
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
CANSPI1Read........................................................................................252
CANSPI1Write ........................................................................................253
CANSPI2GetOperationMode..................................................................254
CANSPI2SetOperationMode ..................................................................254
CANSPI2Init............................................................................................255
CANSPI2SetBaudRate ..........................................................................256
CANSPI2SetMask ..................................................................................257
CANSPI2SetFilter ..................................................................................258
CANSPI2Read........................................................................................259
CANSPI2Write ........................................................................................260
CANSPI Constants ................................................................................261
Library Example......................................................................................264
Hardware Connection ............................................................................266
Library Routines ....................................................................................267
Compact Flash Library ..................................................................................267
Cf_Init ....................................................................................................268
Cf_Enable ..............................................................................................269
Cf_Detect................................................................................................269
Cf_Read_Byte ........................................................................................270
Cf_Disable ..............................................................................................270
Cf_Read_Init ..........................................................................................270
Cf_Write_Init ..........................................................................................271
Cf_Read_Word ......................................................................................271
Cf_Write_Word ......................................................................................272
Cf_Write_Byte ........................................................................................272
Cf_Write_Sector ....................................................................................273
Cf_Read_Sector ....................................................................................273
Cf_Fat_Init ..............................................................................................274
Cf_Fat_QuickFormat ..............................................................................275
Cf_Fat_Assign ........................................................................................276
Cf_Fat_Read ..........................................................................................277
Cf_Fat_Reset..........................................................................................277
Cf_Fat_Append ......................................................................................278
Cf_Fat_Rewrite ......................................................................................278
Cf_Fat_Delete ........................................................................................278
Cf_Fat_Set_File_Date ............................................................................279
Cf_Fat_Write ..........................................................................................279
Cf_Fat_Get_File_Size ............................................................................280
Cf_Fat_Get_File_Date............................................................................280
Cf_Fat_Get_Swap_File ..........................................................................281
Library Example......................................................................................283
Hardware Connection ............................................................................284
FIR_Radix ..............................................................................................285
Library Routines ....................................................................................285
DSP (Digital Signal Processing) Library ......................................................285
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MikroElektronika: Development tools - Books - Compilers
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
IIR_Radix ................................................................................................286
FFT ........................................................................................................287
VectorPower ..........................................................................................288
Vector_Set ..............................................................................................288
BitReverseComplex ................................................................................288
VectorScale ............................................................................................289
Vector_Subtract ......................................................................................289
Vector_Multiply ......................................................................................290
Vector_Negate ........................................................................................290
Vector_Max ............................................................................................291
Vector_Min..............................................................................................291
Vector_Correlate ....................................................................................292
Vector_Dot ..............................................................................................292
Vector_Add ............................................................................................293
Vector_Convolve ....................................................................................293
Matrix_Subtract ......................................................................................294
Matrix_Transponse ................................................................................294
Matrix_Multiply........................................................................................295
Matrix_Scale ..........................................................................................295
Matrix_Add..............................................................................................296
Library Routines ....................................................................................297
ECAN Library (Enhanced Controller Area Network) ..................................297
ECAN1DmaChannelInit ..........................................................................298
ECAN1GetOperationMode ....................................................................299
ECAN1SetOperationMode......................................................................299
ECAN1Initialize ......................................................................................300
ECAN1FilterDisable................................................................................301
ECAN1SelectTxBuffers ..........................................................................301
ECAN1SetBufferSize..............................................................................302
ECAN1FilterEnable ................................................................................302
ECAN1SetBaudRate ..............................................................................303
ECAN1SetMask......................................................................................304
ECAN1SetFilter ......................................................................................305
ECAN1Read ..........................................................................................306
ECAN1Write ..........................................................................................307
ECAN2DmaChannelInit ..........................................................................308
ECAN2GetOperationMode ....................................................................309
ECAN2SetOperationMode......................................................................309
ECAN2Initialize ......................................................................................310
ECAN2FilterDisable................................................................................311
ECAN2SelectTxBuffers ..........................................................................311
ECAN2SetBufferSize..............................................................................312
ECAN2FilterEnable ................................................................................312
ECAN2SetBaudRate ..............................................................................313
ECAN2SetMask......................................................................................314
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ECAN2SetFilter ......................................................................................315
ECAN2Read ..........................................................................................316
ECAN2Write ..........................................................................................317
ECAN Constants ....................................................................................318
Library Example......................................................................................322
Hardware Connection ............................................................................324
Eeprom_Erase........................................................................................325
Library Routines ....................................................................................325
EEPROM Library ............................................................................................325
Eeprom_Read ........................................................................................326
Eeprom_Erase_Block ............................................................................326
Eeprom_Write ........................................................................................327
Eeprom_Write_Block ..............................................................................327
Library Example......................................................................................328
dsPIC30: ................................................................................................329
Flash Memory Library ....................................................................................329
Library Routines ....................................................................................330
PIC24 and dsPIC33: ..............................................................................330
Flash_Write_Block..................................................................................331
Flash_Erase32........................................................................................331
Flash_Write_Compact ............................................................................332
Flash_Write_Init......................................................................................333
Flash_Write_Loadlatch4 ........................................................................334
Flash_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact ........................................................335
Flash_Read4 ..........................................................................................336
Flash_Write_DoWrite..............................................................................336
Flash_Erase............................................................................................337
Flash_Read4_Compact ..........................................................................337
Flash_Write ............................................................................................338
Flash_Write_Compact ............................................................................339
Flash_Read_Compact ............................................................................340
Flash_Read ............................................................................................340
Library Example......................................................................................341
Library Routines ....................................................................................344
Graphic LCD Library ......................................................................................344
Glcd_Init..................................................................................................345
Glcd_Config ............................................................................................346
Glcd_Set_Side........................................................................................347
Glcd_Set_X ............................................................................................347
Glcd_Read_Data ....................................................................................348
Glcd_Set_Page ......................................................................................348
Glcd_Write_Data ....................................................................................349
Glcd_Fill..................................................................................................349
Glcd_Line................................................................................................350
Glcd_Dot ................................................................................................350
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Glcd_H_Line ..........................................................................................351
Glcd_V_Line ..........................................................................................351
Glcd_Rectangle ......................................................................................352
Glcd_Box ................................................................................................352
Glcd_Circle ............................................................................................353
Glcd_Set_Font........................................................................................353
Glcd_Write_Char ....................................................................................354
Glcd_Write_Text ....................................................................................354
Library Example......................................................................................355
Glcd_Image ............................................................................................355
Hardware Connection ............................................................................357
Library Routines ....................................................................................358
I2C Library ......................................................................................................358
I2C_Start ................................................................................................359
I2C_Init ..................................................................................................359
I2C_Wait_For_Idle..................................................................................360
I2C_Restart ............................................................................................360
I2C_Write................................................................................................361
I2C_Read................................................................................................361
I2c_Set_Active........................................................................................362
I2C_Stop ................................................................................................362
I2C1_Start ..............................................................................................363
I2C1_Init ................................................................................................363
I2C1_Wait_For_Idle................................................................................364
I2C1_Restart ..........................................................................................364
I2C1_Write..............................................................................................365
I2C1_Read..............................................................................................365
I2C2_Init ................................................................................................366
I2C1_Stop ..............................................................................................366
I2C2_Restart ..........................................................................................367
I2C2_Start ..............................................................................................367
I2C2_Wait_For_Idle................................................................................368
I2C2_Read..............................................................................................368
I2C2_Stop ..............................................................................................369
I2C2_Write..............................................................................................369
Library Example......................................................................................370
Hardware Connection ............................................................................371
Keypad_Key_Press ................................................................................372
Keypad_Init ............................................................................................372
Library Routines ....................................................................................372
Keypad Library................................................................................................372
Library Example......................................................................................373
Keypad_Key_Click..................................................................................373
Hardware Connection ............................................................................375
Lcd_Custom_Config ..............................................................................376
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
Library Routines ....................................................................................376
LCD Custom Library (4-bit interface)............................................................376
Lcd_Custom_Out_Cp ............................................................................377
Lcd_Custom_Out....................................................................................377
Lcd_Custom_Cmd ..................................................................................378
Lcd_Custom_Chr_Cp ............................................................................378
Lcd_Custom_Chr....................................................................................378
LCD Commands ....................................................................................379
Library Example......................................................................................380
Hardware Connection ............................................................................381
Lcd8_Custom_Config ............................................................................382
Library Routines ....................................................................................382
LCD8 Custom Library (8-bit interface)..........................................................382
Lcd8_Custom_Config_TwoDataPorts ....................................................383
Lcd8_Custom_Out_CP ..........................................................................384
Lcd8_Custom_Out..................................................................................384
Lcd8_Custom_Chr..................................................................................384
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd ................................................................................385
Lcd8_Custom_Chr_CP ..........................................................................385
Library Example......................................................................................385
LCD Commands ....................................................................................386
Hardware Connection ............................................................................387
Library Routines ....................................................................................388
Manchester Code Library ..............................................................................388
Man_Receive..........................................................................................389
Man_Receive_Init ..................................................................................389
Man_Receive_Config ............................................................................389
Man_Send ..............................................................................................390
Man_Send_Init........................................................................................390
Man_Send_Config ..................................................................................390
Library Example......................................................................................391
Man_Synchro..........................................................................................391
Hardware Connection ............................................................................393
Multi Media Card Library................................................................................394
Library Routines ....................................................................................395
Mmc_Init ................................................................................................395
Mmc_Write_Sector ................................................................................396
Mmc_Read_Sector ................................................................................396
Mmc_Read_Csd ....................................................................................397
Mmc_Read_Cid ......................................................................................397
Mmc_Fat_Init ..........................................................................................398
Mmc_Fat_QuickFormat ..........................................................................399
Mmc_Fat_Assign ....................................................................................400
Mmc_Fat_Rewrite ..................................................................................401
Mmc_Fat_Reset ....................................................................................401
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
making it simple...
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
Mmc_Fat_Read ......................................................................................401
Mmc_Fat_Delete ....................................................................................402
Mmc_Fat_Append ..................................................................................402
Mmc_Fat_Write ......................................................................................402
Mmc_Set_File_Date ..............................................................................403
Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Date........................................................................403
Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Size ........................................................................404
Mmc_Fat_Get_Swap_File ......................................................................405
Library Example......................................................................................407
Hardware Connection ............................................................................412
Library Routines ....................................................................................413
OneWire Library ..............................................................................................413
Ow_Write ................................................................................................414
Ow_Read................................................................................................414
Ow_Reset ..............................................................................................414
Library Example......................................................................................415
Hardware Connection ............................................................................417
Library Routines ....................................................................................418
Port Expander Library ....................................................................................418
Expander_Read_Byte ............................................................................419
Expander_Init..........................................................................................419
Expander_Read_PortA ..........................................................................420
Expander_Write_Byte ............................................................................420
Expander_Read_PortAB ........................................................................421
Expander_Read_PortB ..........................................................................421
Expander_Write_PortB ..........................................................................422
Expander_Write_PortA ..........................................................................422
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA................................................................423
Expander_Write_PortAB ........................................................................423
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB ............................................................424
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB................................................................424
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortB..................................................................425
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortA..................................................................425
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortAB ..............................................................426
Library Example......................................................................................426
Hardware Connection ............................................................................427
Ps2_Init ..................................................................................................428
Library Routines ....................................................................................428
PS/2 Library ....................................................................................................428
Ps2_Key_Read ......................................................................................429
Ps2_Config ............................................................................................429
Special Function Keys ............................................................................430
Library Example......................................................................................431
Hardware Connection ............................................................................432
Pwm_Init ................................................................................................433
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
Library Routines ....................................................................................433
PWM Library....................................................................................................433
Pwm_Stop ..............................................................................................434
Pwm_Start ..............................................................................................434
Pwm_Set_Duty ......................................................................................434
Library Example......................................................................................435
Hardware Connection ............................................................................435
Library Routines ....................................................................................436
PWM Motor Library ........................................................................................436
Pwm_Mc_Init ..........................................................................................437
Pwm_Mc_Stop........................................................................................438
Pwm_Mc_Start........................................................................................438
Pwm_Mc_Set_Duty ................................................................................438
Library Example......................................................................................439
Hardware Connection ............................................................................439
Library Routines ....................................................................................440
RS-485 Library ................................................................................................440
RS485Master_Receive ..........................................................................441
RS485Master_Init ..................................................................................441
RS485Slave_Init ....................................................................................442
RS485Master_Send ..............................................................................442
RS485Slave_Send ................................................................................443
RS485Slave_Receive ............................................................................443
Library Example......................................................................................444
Hardware Connection ............................................................................446
Soft_I2C_Init ..........................................................................................447
Library Routines ....................................................................................447
Software I2C Library ......................................................................................447
Soft_I2C_Read ......................................................................................448
Soft_I2C_Start ........................................................................................448
Soft_I2C_Stop ........................................................................................449
Soft_I2C_Write ......................................................................................449
Library Example......................................................................................450
Soft_Spi_Config ......................................................................................451
Library Routines ....................................................................................451
Software SPI Library ......................................................................................451
Soft_Spi_Read........................................................................................452
Soft_Spi_Read........................................................................................452
Library Example......................................................................................453
Soft_Spi_Write ........................................................................................453
Soft_Uart_Init..........................................................................................455
Library Routines ....................................................................................455
Software UART Library ..................................................................................455
Soft_Uart_Write ......................................................................................456
Soft_Uart_Read ......................................................................................456
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MikroElektronika: Development tools - Books - Compilers
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
making it simple...
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
Library Example......................................................................................457
Sound_Play ............................................................................................458
Sound_Init ..............................................................................................458
Library Routines ....................................................................................458
Library Example......................................................................................459
Hardware Connection ............................................................................460
Spi1_Init ..................................................................................................461
Library Routines ....................................................................................461
SPI Library ......................................................................................................461
Spi1_Init_Advanced ..............................................................................462
Spi1_Write ..............................................................................................464
Spi1_Read ..............................................................................................464
Spi2_Init ..................................................................................................465
Spi2_Init_Advanced ..............................................................................466
Spi2_Write ..............................................................................................468
Spi2_Read ..............................................................................................468
Spi_Init ....................................................................................................469
Spi_Init_Advanced ................................................................................470
Spi_Write ................................................................................................472
Spi_Read ................................................................................................472
Spi_Set_Active ......................................................................................473
Library Example......................................................................................474
Hardware Connection ............................................................................475
Library Routines ....................................................................................476
SPI Ethernet Library ......................................................................................476
SPI_Ethernet_doPacket ........................................................................477
SPI_Ethernet_Init....................................................................................477
SPI_Ethernet_getByte ............................................................................478
SPI_Ethernet_putByte ............................................................................478
SPI_Ethernet_UserTCP..........................................................................479
SPI_Ethernet_UserUDP ........................................................................480
HW Connection ......................................................................................488
Library Routines ....................................................................................489
SPI Graphic LCD Library................................................................................489
Spi_Glcd_Init ..........................................................................................490
Spi_Glcd_Config ....................................................................................490
Spi_Glcd_Set_Page ..............................................................................491
Spi_Glcd_Set_Side ................................................................................491
Spi_Glcd_Write_Data ............................................................................492
Spi_Glcd_Read_Data ............................................................................492
Spi_Glcd_Set_X ....................................................................................492
Spi_Glcd_Dot..........................................................................................493
Spi_Glcd_Fill ..........................................................................................493
Spi_Glcd_V_Line ....................................................................................494
Spi_Glcd_Line ........................................................................................494
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
Spi_Glcd_Rectangle ..............................................................................495
Spi_Glcd_H_Line ....................................................................................495
Spi_Glcd_Circle ......................................................................................496
Spi_Glcd_Box ........................................................................................496
Spi_Glcd_Set_Font ................................................................................497
Spi_Glcd_Write_Char ............................................................................497
Spi_Glcd_Image ....................................................................................498
Spi_Glcd_Write_Text ..............................................................................498
Library Example......................................................................................499
Hardware Connection ............................................................................501
Spi_Lcd_Config ......................................................................................502
Library Routines ....................................................................................502
SPI LCD Library (4-bit interface) ..................................................................502
Spi_Lcd_Out_Cp ....................................................................................503
Spi_Lcd_Out ..........................................................................................503
Spi_Lcd_Init ............................................................................................503
Spi_Lcd_Cmd ........................................................................................504
Spi_Lcd_Chr_Cp ....................................................................................504
Spi_Lcd_Chr ..........................................................................................504
LCD Commands ....................................................................................505
Library Example (default pin settings) ....................................................505
Hardware Connection ............................................................................506
Library Routines ....................................................................................507
SPI LCD8 (8-bit interface) Library ................................................................507
Spi_Lcd8_Init ..........................................................................................508
Spi_Lcd8_Config ....................................................................................508
Spi_Lcd8_Out_Cp ..................................................................................509
Spi_Lcd8_Out ........................................................................................509
Spi_Lcd8_Cmd ......................................................................................510
Spi_Lcd8_Chr_Cp ..................................................................................510
Spi_Lcd8_Chr ........................................................................................510
LCD Commands ....................................................................................511
Library Example (default pin settings) ....................................................511
Hardware Connection ............................................................................512
SPI T6963C Graphic LCD Library..................................................................513
Library Routines ....................................................................................514
Spi_T6963C_Init ....................................................................................515
Spi_T6963C_writeCommand..................................................................516
Spi_T6963C_writeData ..........................................................................516
Spi_T6963C_fill ......................................................................................517
Spi_T6963C_waitReady ........................................................................517
Spi_T6963C_setPtr ................................................................................517
Spi_T6963C_dot ....................................................................................518
Spi_T6963C_write_char ........................................................................518
Spi_T6963C_write_text ..........................................................................519
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
Spi_T6963C_rectangle ..........................................................................520
Spi_T6963C_line ....................................................................................520
Spi_T6963C_circle ................................................................................521
Spi_T6963C_box ....................................................................................521
Spi_T6963C_sprite ................................................................................522
Spi_T6963C_image ................................................................................522
Spi_T6963C_setBit ................................................................................523
Spi_T6963C_clearBit ..............................................................................523
Spi_T6963C_set_cursor ........................................................................523
Spi_T6963C_displayTxtPanel ................................................................524
Spi_T6963C_displayGrPanel ................................................................524
Spi_T6963C_negBit................................................................................524
Spi_T6963C_panelFill ............................................................................525
Spi_T6963C_setTxtPanel ......................................................................525
Spi_T6963C_setGrPanel ........................................................................525
Spi_T6963C_cursor_height ....................................................................526
Spi_T6963C_txtFill ................................................................................526
Spi_T6963C_grFill ..................................................................................526
Spi_T6963C_cursor ................................................................................527
Spi_T6963C_text ....................................................................................527
Spi_T6963C_graphics ............................................................................527
Library Example......................................................................................528
Spi_T6963C_cursor_blink ......................................................................528
Hardware Connection ............................................................................533
T6963C Graphic LCD Library ........................................................................534
Library Routines ....................................................................................535
T6963C_init ............................................................................................536
T6963C_setPtr........................................................................................538
T6963C_writeCommand ........................................................................538
T6963C_writeData..................................................................................538
T6963C_dot ............................................................................................539
T6963C_fill..............................................................................................539
T6963C_waitReady ................................................................................539
T6963C_write_char ................................................................................540
T6963C_write_text..................................................................................541
T6963C_rectangle ..................................................................................542
T6963C_line ..........................................................................................542
T6963C_circle ........................................................................................543
T6963C_box ..........................................................................................543
T6963C_sprite ........................................................................................544
T6963C_image ......................................................................................544
T6963C_setBit ........................................................................................545
T6963C_clearBit ....................................................................................545
T6963C_set_cursor ................................................................................545
T6963C_displayTxtPanel........................................................................546
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
T6963C_displayGrPanel ........................................................................546
T6963C_negBit ......................................................................................546
T6963C_panelFill....................................................................................547
T6963C_setTxtPanel ..............................................................................547
T6963C_setGrPanel ..............................................................................547
T6963C_cursor_height ..........................................................................548
T6963C_txtFill ........................................................................................548
T6963C_grFill ........................................................................................548
T6963C_cursor ......................................................................................549
T6963C_text ..........................................................................................549
T6963C_graphics ..................................................................................549
T6963C_cursor_blink..............................................................................550
Library Example......................................................................................550
Hardware Connection ............................................................................555
Library Routines ....................................................................................556
UART Library ..................................................................................................556
Uart1_Init ................................................................................................557
Uart1_Init_Advanced ..............................................................................558
Uart1_Data_Ready ................................................................................559
Uart2_Write_Char ..................................................................................560
Uart1_Read_Char ..................................................................................560
Uart2_Init ................................................................................................561
Uart2_Init_Advanced ..............................................................................562
Uart2_Data_Ready ................................................................................563
Uart2_Write_Char ..................................................................................564
Uart2_Read_Char ..................................................................................564
Uart_Init ..................................................................................................565
Uart_Init_Advanced ................................................................................566
Uart_Read_Char ....................................................................................567
Uart_Data_Ready ..................................................................................567
Uart_Set_Active......................................................................................568
Uart_Write_Char ....................................................................................568
Uart_Set_Active......................................................................................569
Hardware Connection ............................................................................570
isalnum ..................................................................................................571
Library Routines ....................................................................................571
ANSI C Ctype Library ....................................................................................571
isalpha ....................................................................................................572
isgraph ....................................................................................................572
isdigit ......................................................................................................572
iscntrl ......................................................................................................572
islower ....................................................................................................573
isspace....................................................................................................573
ispunct ....................................................................................................573
isupper ....................................................................................................574
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MikroElektronika: Development tools - Books - Compilers
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
tolower ....................................................................................................574
toupper....................................................................................................574
isxdigit ....................................................................................................574
acos ........................................................................................................575
Library Routines ....................................................................................575
ANSI C Math Library ......................................................................................575
ceil ..........................................................................................................576
atan2 ......................................................................................................576
atan ........................................................................................................576
asin ........................................................................................................576
fabs ........................................................................................................577
exp ..........................................................................................................577
cosh ........................................................................................................577
cos ..........................................................................................................577
log ..........................................................................................................578
ldexp ......................................................................................................578
frexp........................................................................................................578
floor ........................................................................................................578
sin ..........................................................................................................579
pow ........................................................................................................579
modf........................................................................................................579
log10 ......................................................................................................579
tanh ........................................................................................................580
tan ..........................................................................................................580
sqrt..........................................................................................................580
sinh ........................................................................................................580
atof..........................................................................................................581
abs ..........................................................................................................581
Library Routines ....................................................................................581
ANSI C Stdlib Library ....................................................................................581
div ..........................................................................................................582
atol ..........................................................................................................582
atoi ..........................................................................................................582
min ..........................................................................................................583
max ........................................................................................................583
labs ........................................................................................................583
ldiv ..........................................................................................................583
Div Structures ........................................................................................584
xtoi ..........................................................................................................584
srand ......................................................................................................584
rand ........................................................................................................584
memchr ..................................................................................................585
Library Routines ....................................................................................585
ANSI C String Library ....................................................................................585
memcmp ................................................................................................586
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
strcat ......................................................................................................586
memset ..................................................................................................586
memmove ..............................................................................................586
memcpy ..................................................................................................586
strlen ......................................................................................................587
strcpy ......................................................................................................587
strcmp ....................................................................................................587
strchr ......................................................................................................587
Strncmp ..................................................................................................588
strspn ......................................................................................................588
strncpy ....................................................................................................588
strncat ....................................................................................................588
Strrchr ....................................................................................................589
Strpbrk ....................................................................................................589
Strcspn....................................................................................................589
Strstr ......................................................................................................589
ByteToStr ................................................................................................590
Library Routines ....................................................................................590
Conversions Library ......................................................................................590
WordToStr ..............................................................................................591
ShortToStr ..............................................................................................591
LongToStr ..............................................................................................592
IntToStr ..................................................................................................592
LongWordToStr ......................................................................................593
FloatToStr ..............................................................................................593
Dec2Bcd ................................................................................................594
Bcd2Dec16 ............................................................................................594
Dec2Bcd16 ............................................................................................595
Setjmp ....................................................................................................596
Library Routines ....................................................................................596
Setjmp Library ................................................................................................596
Longjmp ..................................................................................................597
Library Example......................................................................................598
sprintf ......................................................................................................599
Library Routines ....................................................................................599
Sprint Library ..................................................................................................599
Library Example......................................................................................603
sprinti ......................................................................................................603
sprintl ......................................................................................................603
Time_dateToEpoch ................................................................................607
Library Routines ....................................................................................607
Time Library ....................................................................................................607
Time_dateDiff..........................................................................................608
Time_epochToDate ................................................................................608
Library Example......................................................................................609
page
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MikroElektronika: Development tools - Books - Compilers
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
making it simple...
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
SinE3 ......................................................................................................611
Library Routines ....................................................................................611
Trigonometry Library......................................................................................611
CosE3 ....................................................................................................612
Button ....................................................................................................613
Util Library ......................................................................................................613
PrintOut ..................................................................................................614
PrintOut Example ..................................................................................618
Contact us: ............................................................................................619
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
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MikroElektronika: Development tools - Books - Compilers
CHAPTER
1
mikroC for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 IDE
QUICK OVERVIEW
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 is a powerful, feature-rich development tool for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 micros. It is designed to provide the programmer with the easiest possible solution to
developing applications for embedded systems, without compromising performance or control.
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 and C fit together well: dsPIC is designed as PIC with digital signal processing capabilities. These are Microchip's first inherent 16-bit (data) microcontrollers. They build on
the PIC's existing strength offering hardware MAC (multiply-accumulate), barrel shifting, bit reversal, (16x16)-bit multiplication and other digital signal processing operations. Having a wide range
of application, being prized for its efficiency, dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCUs are a natural choice for
developing embedded systems. mikroC provides a successful match featuring highly advanced IDE,
ANSI compliant compiler, broad set of hardware libraries, comprehensive documentation, and plenty of ready-to-run examples.
MikroElektronika: Development tools - Books - Compilers
making it simple...
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
Watch
Window
Code
Explorer
Code
Editor
Project
Summary
Debugger
Settings
Error
Window
Code
Assistant
Breakpoints
Window
mikroC allows you to quickly develop and deploy complex applications:
- Write your C source code using the built-in Code Editor (Code and Parameter
Assistants, Syntax Highlighting, Auto Correct, Code Templates, and more.)
- Use included mikroC libraries to dramatically speed up the development: data
acquisition, memory, displays, conversions, communication etc. Practically all
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 chips are supported.
- Monitor your program structure, variables, and functions in the Code Explorer.
- Generate commented, human-readable assembly, and standard HEX compatible
with all programmers.
- Inspect program flow and debug executable logic with the integrated mikroICD
Debugger or Software Simulator.
- Get detailed reports and graphs: RAM and ROM map, code statistics, assembly
listing, calling tree, and more.
- dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 and C provides plenty of examples to expand, develop, and
use as building bricks in your projects.
page
2
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
making it simple...
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
CODE EDITOR
The Code Editor is advanced text editor fashioned to satisfy needs of professionals. General code editing is the same as working with any standard text-editor,
including familiar Copy, Paste and Undo actions, common for Windows environment.
Advanced Editor Features:
- Adjustable Syntax Highlighting
- Code Assistant
- Parameter Assistant
- Code Templates (Auto Complete)
- Auto Correct for common typos
- Bookmarks and Goto Line
You can configure the Syntax Highlighting, Code Templates and Auto Correct
from the Editor Settings dialog. To access the Settings, click Tools › Options from
the drop-down menu, click the Show Options Icon or press F12 key.
Tools Icon.
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
making it simple...
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
Code Assistant [CTRL+SPACE]
If you type a first few letter of a word and then press CTRL+SPACE, all the valid
identifiers matching the letters you typed will be prompted in a floating panel (see
the image). Now you can keep typing to narrow the choice, or you can select one
from the list using the keyboard arrows and Enter.
Parameter Assistant [CTRL+SHIFT+SPACE]
The Parameter Assistant will be automatically invoked when you open parenthesis
“(” or press Shift+Ctrl+Space. If the name of a valid function precedes the parenthesis, then the expected parameters will be displayed in a floating panel. As you
type the actual parameter, the next expected parameter will become bold.
Code Template [CTRL+J]
You can insert the Code Template by typing the name of the template (for
instance, whiles), then press Ctrl+J and the Code Editor will automatically generate a code.
You can add your own templates to the list. Select Tools › Options from the dropdown menu, or click the Show Options Icon and then select the Auto Complete
Tab. Here you can enter the appropriate keyword, description and code of your
template.
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
making it simple...
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
Auto Correct
The Auto Correct feature corrects common typing mistakes. To access the list of
recognized typos, select Tools › Options from the drop-down menu, or click the
Show Options Icon and then select the Auto Correct Tab. You can also add your
own preferences to the list.
Also, the Code Editor has a feature to comment or uncomment the selected code
by simple click of a mouse, using the Comment Icon and Uncomment Icon from
the Code Toolbar.
Comment /
Uncomment Icon.
Comment/Uncomment
The Code Editor allows you to comment or uncomment selected block of code by
a simple click of a mouse, using the Comment/Uncomment icons from the Code
Toolbar.
Bookmarks
Bookmarks make navigation through a large code easier.
To set a bookmark, use Ctrl+Shift+number. To jump to a bookmark, use
Ctrl+number.
Goto Line
The Goto Line option makes navigation through a large code easier.
Use the shortcut Ctrl+G to activate this option.
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
CODE EXPLORER
The Code Explorer is placed to the left of the main window by default and gives
clear view of each item declared inside the source code. You can jump to a declaration of any item by right clicking it. To expand/collapse the treeview in the Code
Explorer, use the icon.
Collapse/Expand
All Icon.
Also, there are two more tab windows available in the Code Explorer. QHelp Tab
lists all available built-in and library functions, for a quick reference. Doubleclicking a routine in the QHelp view opens the relevant Help topic. The Keyboard
Tab lists all available keyboard shortcuts in the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24.
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
SOFTWARE SIMULATOR
Start Debugger
The Source-level Software Simulator is an integral component of the mikroC for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 environment. It is designed to simulate operations of the
Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCUs and assist users in debugging C code
written for these devices.
After you have successfully compiled your project, you can run the Software
Simulator by selecting Run › Start Debugger from the drop-down menu, or by
clicking the Start Debugger Icon . Starting the Software Simulator makes more
options available: Step Into, Step Over, Step Out, Run to Cursor, etc. Line that is
to be executed is color highlighted (blue by default).
Note: The Software Simulator simulates the program flow and execution of
instruction lines, but it cannot fully emulate dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 device behavior (it doesn’t update timers, interrupt flags, etc).
Name
Description
Function
Key
Start
Debugger
Run/Pause
Debugger
Start Software Simulator.
[F9]
Run or pause Software Simulator.
[F6]
Stop Debugger
Stop Software Simulator.
Toggle
Breakpoints
Run to cursor
Step Into
Step Over
Step Out
Toggle breakpoint at the current cursor position. To
view all breakpoints, select Run › View
Breakpoints from the drop-down menu. Double
clicking an item in the Breakpoints Window List
locates the breakpoint.
Execute all instructions between the current
instruction and cursor position.
Execute the current C (single or multi–cycle)
instruction, then halt. If the instruction is a routine
call, enter the routine and halt at the first instruction following the call.
Execute the current C (single or multi–cycle)
instruction, then halt. If the instruction is a routine
call, skip it and halt at the first instruction following the call.
Execute all remaining instructions in the current
routine, return and then halt.
[Ctrl+F2]
[F5]
[F4]
[F7]
[F8]
[Ctrl+F8]
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
Watch Window
The Software Simulator Watch Window is the main Software Simulator window
which allows you to monitor program items while simulating your program. To
show the Watch Window, select View › Debug Windows › Watch from the dropdown menu.
The Watch Window displays variables and registers of the MCU, with their
addresses and values. There are two ways to add variable/register into the watch
list:
ADD Button
- by its real name (variable's name in "C" code). Just select wanted variable/regis
ter from Select variable from list drop-down menu and click the Add Button .
- by its name ID (assembly variable name). Simply type name ID of the
variable/register you want to display into Search the variable by assemby name
box and click the Add Button .
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Remove Button
Variables can also be removed from the Watch window, just select the variable that
you want to remove and then click the Remove Button .
Add All Button will add all variables.
Add All Button
Remove All Button will remove all variables.
You can also expand/collapse complex variables i.e. struct type variables, strings...
Remove All Button
Values are updated as you go through the simulation. Recently changed items are
colored red.
Properties Button
Double clicking a variable or clicking the Properties Button opens the Edit Value
window in which you can assign a new value to the selected variable/register.
Also, you can choose the format of variable/register representation between decimal, hexadecimal, binary, float or character. All representations except float are
unsigned by default. For signed representation click the check box next to the
Signed label.
An item's value can also be changed by double clicking item's value field and typing the new value directly.
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Stopwatch Window
The Software Simulator Stopwatch Window is available from the drop-down
menu, View › Debug Windows › Stopwatch.
The Stopwatch Window displays the current count of cycles/time since the last
Software Simulator action. Stopwatch measures the execution time (number of
cycles) from the moment Software Simulator was started and can be reset at any
time. Delta represents the number of cycles between the line where Software
Simulator action started and the line where Software Simulator action ended.
Note: The user can change the clock in the Stopwatch Window, which will recalculate values for the newly specified frequency. Changing the clock in the
Stopwatch Window does not affect the actual project settings – it only provides a
simulation.
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RAM Window
The Software Simulator RAM Window is available from the drop-down menu,
View › Debug Windows › RAM.
The RAM Window displays the map of MCU’s RAM, with recently changed
items colored red. You can change value of any field by double-clicking it.
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ERROR WINDOW
In case that errors were encountered during compiling, the compiler will report
them and won’t generate a hex file. The Error Window will be prompted at the
bottom of the main window by default.
The Error Window is located under message tab, and displays location and type of
errors the compiler has encountered. The compiler also reports warnings, but these
do not affect the output; only errors can interefere with the generation of hex.
Double click the message line in the Error Window to highlight the line where the
error was encountered.
Consult the Error Messages for more information on errors recognized by the
compiler.
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STATISTICS
Statistics Icon.
After successful compilation, you can review statistics of your code. Select View ›
View Statistics from the drop-down menu, or click the Statistics Icon . There are
five tab windows:
Memory Usage Window
Provides overview of RAM and ROM memory usage in form of histogram.
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Procedures (Graph) Window
Displays functions in form of histogram, according to their memory allotment.
Procedures (Locations) Window
Displays how functions are distributed in microcontroller’s memory.
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RAM Window
Summarizes all GPR and SFR registers and their addresses. Also displays symbolic names of variables and their addresses.
ROM Window
Lists op-codes and their addresses together with a human-readable assembler code.
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INTEGRATED TOOLS
USART
Terminal
Icon
USART Terminal
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes the USART communication terminal for RS232 communication. You can launch it from the drop-down menu
Tools › USART Terminal or by clicking the USART Terminal Icon .
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ASCII
Chart
Icon
ASCII Chart
The ASCII Chart is a handy tool, particularly useful when working with LCD display. You can launch it from the drop-down menu Tools › ASCII chart or by clicking the View ASCII Chart Icon
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7 Segment Display Decoder
The 7 Segment Display Decoder is a convenient visual panel which returns decimal/hex value for any viable combination you would like to display on 7seg. Click
on the parts of 7 segment image to get the requested value in the edit boxes. You
can launch it from the drop-down menu Tools › 7 Segment Decoder.
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Filter Desinger
The Filter designer is a tool for designing FIR and IIR filters. It has an user-friendly visual interface for setting the filter parameters. Filter designer output is the
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compatible code. You can launch it from the
drop-down menu Tools › Filter Designer.
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UDP Terminal
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes the UDP Terminal. You can
launch it from the drop-down menu Tools › UDP Terminal.
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Graphic LCD Bitmap Editor
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes the Graphic LCD Bitmap Editor.
Output is the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compatible code. You can launch
it from the drop-down menu Tools › GLCD Bitmap Editor.
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KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS
Below is a complete list of keyboard shortcuts available in mikroC for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 IDE. You can also view keyboard shortcuts in the Code Explorer window, tab Keyboard.
IDE Shortcuts
F1
CTRL+N
CTRL+O
CTRL+F9
CTRL+SHIFT+F5
F11
Help
New Unit
Open
Compile
View breakpoints
Start PICFlash Programmer
Basic Editor shortcuts
F3
CTRL+A
CTRL+C
CTRL+F
CTRL+H
CTRL+P
CTRL+S
CTRL+SHIFT+S
CTRL+V
CTRL+X
CTRL+Y
CTRL+Z
Find, Find Next
Select All
Copy
Find
Replace
Print
Save unit
Save As
Paste
Cut
Redo
Undo
Advanced Editor shortcuts
CTRL+SPACE
CTRL+SHIFT+SPACE
CTRL+D
CTRL+G
CTRL+J
CTRL+<number>
CTRL+SHIFT+<number>
CTRL+SHIFT+I
CTRL+SHIFT+U
Code Assistant
Parameters Assistant
Find declaration
Goto line
Insert Code Template
Goto bookmark
Set bookmark
Indent selection
Unindent selection
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ALT+SELECT
Select columns
mikroICD Debugger and Software Simulator Shortcuts
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
CTRL + F8
F9
CTRL+F2
Run to Cursor
Toggle breakpoint
Run/Pause Debugger
Step into
Step over
Step Out
Debug
Reset
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CHAPTER
2
Building
Applications
Creating applications in mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 is easy and intuitive.
Project Wizard allows you to set up your project in just few clicks: name your
application, select chip, set flags, and get going.
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 allows you to distribute your projects in as
many files as you find appropriate. You can then share your mikroCompiled
Libraries (.mcl files) with other developers without disclosing the source code.
The best part is that you can use .mcl bundles created by mikroPascal or
mikroBasic!
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PROJECTS
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 organizes applications into projects, consisting of a single project file (extension .dpc) and one or more source files (extension .c). You can compile source files only if they are a part of a project.
The project file contains the following information:
- project name and optional description,
- target device,
- device flags (config word),
- device clock,
- list of the project source files with paths.
New Project
New Project.
The easiest way to create a project is by means of the New Project Wizard, dropdown menu Project › New Project or by clicking the New Project Icon . Just fill
the dialog with desired values (project name and description, location, device,
clock, config word) and the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 will create the
appropriate project file.
There is also slider for the dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 data memory usage. You can
specify static and dynamic memory consumption. Static memory is assigned for
global variables and dynamic memory is assigned for local variables. Neither the
static nor dynamic memory can occupy more than 80 % of total data memory
space.
Also, an empty source file named after the project will be created by default. The
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 does not require you to have source file named
the same as the project, it’s just a matter of convenience.
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Edit Project
Edit Project.
Later, you can change project settings from the drop-down menu Project › Edit
Project or by clicking the Edit Project Icon . You can rename the project, modify
its description, change chip, clock, config word, etc.
To delete a project, simply delete the folder in which the project file (extension
.dpc) is stored.
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Add/Remove Files from Project
The project can contain any number of source files (extension .c). The list of relevant source files is stored in the project file (extension .dpc).
Add to Project.
To add source file to the project, select Project › Add to Project from the dropdown menu, or click the Add to Project Icon . Each added source file must be selfcontained, i.e. it must have all necessary definitions after preprocessing.
To remove file(s) from the project, select Project › Remove from Project from
the drop-down menu, or click the Remove from the Project Icon .
Remove from
Project.
Note: For inclusion of the header files (extension .h), use the preprocessor directive #include. See File Inclusion for more information.
Extended functionality of the Project Files tab
By using the Project Files' features, the user can easily reach, add or remove
source library and output files (mouse right click activates the menues).
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SOURCE FILES
Source files containing C code should have the extension .c. List of source files
relevant for the application is stored in project file with extension .dpc, along
with other project information. You can compile source files only if they are part
of a project.
Use the preprocessor directive #include to include headers. Do not rely on preprocessor to include other source files — see Projects for more information.
Search Paths
Paths for Source Files (.c)
You can specify your own custom search paths: select Tools › Options from the
drop-down menu and then select Search Path.
In the project settings, you can specify either absolute or relative path to the
source file. If you specify a relative path, the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
will look for the file in the following locations, in this particular order:
1. the project folder (folder which contains the project file .dpc),
2. custom search paths,
3. the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 installation folder › “uses” folder.
Paths for Header Files (.h)
Header files are included by means of preprocessor directive #include. If you
place an explicit path to the header file in preprocessor directive, only that location
will be searched.
You can specify your own custom search paths: select Tools › Options from the
drop-down menu and then select Search Path.
In the project settings, you can specify either absolute or relative path to the header. If you specify a relative path, the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 will look
for the file in the following locations, in this particular order:
1. the project folder (folder which contains the project file .h),
2. the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 installation folder › “include” folder
3. custom search paths
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Managing Source Files
New File.
Creating a new source file
To create a new source file, do the following:
1. Select File › New from the drop-down menu, or press Ctrl+N, or click the New
File Icon.
2. A new tab will be opened. This is a new source file.
Select File › Save As from the drop-down menu and name it as you want.
If you use the New Project Wizard, an empty source file, named after the project
with extension .c, will be created automatically. The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24 does not require you to have a source file named the same as the project,
it’s just a matter of convenience.
Opening an Existing File
Open File Icon.
1. Select File › Open from the drop-down menu, or press Ctrl+O, or click the
Open File Icon . In Open Dialog browse to the location of the file that you want
to open, select it and click the Open button.
2. The selected file is displayed in its own tab. If the selected file is already open,
its current Editor tab will become active.
Printing an Open File
Print File Icon.
1. Make sure that the window containing the file that you want to print is the
active window.
2. Select File › Print from the drop-down menu, or press Ctrl+P.
3. In the Print Preview Window, set a desired layout of the document and click the
OK button. The file will be printed on the selected printer.
Saving File
Save File Icon.
1. Make sure that the window containing the file that you want to save is the
active window.
2. Select File › Save from the drop-down menu, or press Ctrl+S, or click the Save
File Icon.
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Saving File Under a Different Name
1. Make sure that the window containing the file that you want to save is the
active window.
2. Select File › Save As from the drop-down menu. The New File Name dialog
will be displayed.
3. In the dialog, browse to the folder where you want to save the file.
4. In the File Name field, modify the name of the file you want to save.
5. Click the Save button.
Closing a File
1. Make sure that the tab containing the file that you want to close is the active
tab.
2. Select File › Close from the drop-down menu, or right click the tab of the file
that you want to close.
3. If the file has been changed since it was last saved, you will be prompted to
save your changes.
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COMPILATION
Compile Icon.
When you have created the project and written the source code, it's time to compile it. Select Run › Compile from the drop-down menu, or click the Compile
Icon from the Compiler Toolbar.
Progress bar will appear to inform you about the status of compiling. If there are
some errors, you will be notified in the Error Window. If no errors are encountered, the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 will generate output files.
Output Files
Upon successful compilation, the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 will generate
output files in the project folder (folder which contains the project file .dpc).
Output files are summarized in the table below:
Intel HEX file (.hex)
Intel style hex records. Use this file to program dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCU.
Binary mikro Compiled Library (.mcl)
mikro Compiled Library. Binary distribution of application that can be included in
other projects.
List File (.lst)
Overview of dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 memory allotment: instruction addresses, registers, routines and labels.
Assembler File (.asm)
Human readable assembly with symbolic names, extracted from the List File.
Assembly View
View Assembly
Icon.
After compiling the program in the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24, you can
click the View Assembly icon or select Project › View Assembly from the dropdown menu to review the generated assembly code (.asm file) in a new tab window. Assembly is human-readable with symbolic names. All physical addresses
and other information can be found in the Statistics Window or in List File (.lst).
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ERROR MESSAGES
Error Messages
-
Specifier needed
Invalid declarator
Expected '(' or identifier
Integer const expected
Array dimension must be greater then 0
Local objects cannot be extern
Declarator error
Bad storage class
Arguments cannot be of void type
Specifer/qualifier list expected
Address must be greater than 0
Identifier redefined
case out of switch
default label out of switch
switch exp. must evaluate to integral type
continue outside of loop
break outside of loop or switch
void func cannot return values
Unreachable code
Illegal expression with void
Left operand must be pointer
Function required
Too many chars
Undefined struct
Nonexistent field
Aggregate init error
Incompatible types
Identifier redefined
Function definition not found
Signature does not match
Cannot generate code for expression
Too many initializers of subaggregate
Nonexistent subaggregate
Stack Overflow: func call in complex expression
Syntax Error: expected %s but %s found
Array element cannot be function
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-
Function cannot return array
Inconsistent storage class
Inconsistent type
%s tag redefined
Illegal typecast
%s is not a valid identifier
Invalid statement
Constant expression required
Internal error %s
Too many arguments
Not enough parameters
Invalid expression
Identifier expected, but %s found
Operator [%s] not applicable to these operands [%s]
Assigning to non-lvalue [%s]
Cannot cast [%s] to [%s]
Cannot assign [%s] to [%s]
lvalue required
Pointer required
Argument is out of range
Undeclared identifier [%s] in expression
Too many initializers
Cannot establish this baud rate at %s MHz clock
Compiler Warning Messages
- Highly inefficent code: func call in complex expression
- Inefficent code: func call in complex expression
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mikroICD (In-Circuit Debugger)
The mikroICD is a highly effective tool for a Real-Time debugging on hardware
level. The mikroICD debugger enables you to execute the mikroC for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 program on a host dsPIC30/33 or PIC24 microcontroller and view variable values, Special Function Registers (SFR), RAM, CODE and EEPROM memory along with the mikroICD code execution on hardware.
Step No. 1
If you have appropriate hardware and software for using the mikroICD select
mikroICD Debug Build Type before compiling the project.
Step No. 2
Choosing the mikroICD Debug build type will select the mikroICD Debugger
automatically. The Debugger Tool can also be selected from the Debugger › Select
Debugger drop-down menu.
Compile the project and program dsPIC30/33 or PIC24 MCU.
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Step No. 3
Start Debugger
Run the mikroICD by selecting Run › Start Debugger from the drop-down menu
or by clicking the Start Debugger Icon . Starting the Debugger makes more
options available: Step Into, Step Over, Run to Cursor, etc. Line that is to be executed is color highlighted (blue by default). There is also notification about the
program execution and it can be found in the Watch Window (yellow status bar).
Note that some functions take more time to execute; execution is indicated with
"Running..." message in the Watch Window Status Bar.
mikroICD Debugger Options
Name
Description
Function
Key
Start
Debugger
Run/Pause
Debugger
Start Debugger.
[F9]
Run or pause Debugger.
[F6]
Stop Debugger
Stop Debugger.
Toggle
Breakpoints
Run to cursor
Step Into
Step Over
Step Out
Toggle breakpoint at the current cursor position. To
view all breakpoints, select Run › View
Breakpoints from the drop-down menu. Double
clicking an item in the Breakpoints Window List
locates the breakpoint.
Execute all instructions between the current
instruction and cursor position.
Execute the current C (single or multi–cycle)
instruction, then halt. If the instruction is a routine
call, enter the routine and halt at the first instruction following the call.
Execute the current C (single or multi–cycle)
instruction, then halt. If the instruction is a routine
call, skip it and halt at the first instruction following the call.
Execute all remaining instructions in the current
routine, return and then halt.
[Ctrl+F2]
[F5]
[F4]
[F7]
[F8]
[Ctrl+F8]
Note: when the mikroICD is halted MCU peripherals are not active.
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mikroICD Debugger Example
Here is a step-by-step mikroICD Debugger Example.
Step No. 1
First you have to write a program. We will show how the mikroICD works using
this example:
void main(){
char text[21]="mikroElektronika";
char i=0;
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
PORTD = 0x00;
TRISD = 0x00;
Lcd_Custom_Config(&PORTB,3,2,1,0, &PORTD,0,2,1);
Lcd_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
Lcd_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CURSOR_OFF);
for(i=1;i<17;i++)
Lcd_Custom_Chr(1,i,text[i-1]);
}
Step No. 2
After successful compilation and MCU programming press F9 to start the
mikroICD. After the mikroICD initialization a blue active line should appear.
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Step No. 3
We will debug the program line by line. To execute code line by line press [F8].
However, it is not recommended to use Step Over [F8] over Delay routines and
routines containing delays. In this case use Run to cursor [F4] function or Run
[F6] function combined with Breakpoints.
All changes are read from MCU and loaded into the Watch Window. Note that
ADPCFG has changed its value to 0x1FFF.
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Step No. 4
Step Into [F7] and Step Over [F8] are mikroICD debugger functions that are used
in stepping mode. There is also a Real-Time mode supported by the mikroICD.
Functions that are used in the Real-Time mode are Run/Pause Debugger [F6] and
Run to cursor [F4]. Pressing F4 executes the code until the program reaches the
cursor position line.
Step No. 5
Run(Pause) Debugger [F6] and Toggle Breakpoints [F5] are mikroICD debugger
functions that are used in the Real-Time mode. Pressing F5 marks the line selected
by the user for breakpoint. F6 executes code until the breakpoint is reached. After
reaching that breakpoint Debugger halts. Here in our example we will use breakpoints for writing a word "mikroElektronika" on LCD char by char. Breakpoint is
set on LCD_Chr and the program will stop every time this function is reached.
After reaching breakpoint we must press F6 again to continue the program execution.
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Breakpoints are divided into two groups: hardware and software breakpoints. The
hardware breakpoints are placed in the MCU and provide fastest debugging.
Number of hardware breakpoints is limited (4 for PIC24 and dsPIC33 family, for
dsPIC30 family this number depends on the MCU used). If all hardware brekpoints are used, then the next breakpoint will be software breakpoint. These breakpoints are placed inside the mikroICD and simulate hardware breakpoints.
Software breakpoints are much slower than hardware breakpoints. These differences between hardware and software breakpoints are not visible in the mikroICD
software but their different timings are quite notable.That's why it is important to
know that there are two types of breakpoints. The picture below demonstrates
step-by-step execution of the code used in above mentioned examples.
mikroICD (In-Circuit Debugger) Overview
Watch Window
Debugger Watch Window is the main Debugger window which allows you to
monitor program execution. To show the Watch Window, select Debug Windows
› Watch from the View drop-down menu.
The Watch Window displays variables and registers of the MCU, with their
addresses and values. Values are updated along with the mikroICD code execution
on hardware. Recently changed items are coloured red.
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There are two ways to add variable/register into the watch list:
ADD Button
Remove Button
- by its real name (variable's name in "C" code). Just select wanted variable/regis
ter from Select variable from list drop-down menu and click the Add Button .
- by its name ID (assembly variable name). Simply type name ID of the
variable/register you want to display into Search the variable by assemby name
box and click the Add Button .
Variables can also be removed from the Watch window, just select the variable that
you want to remove and then click the Remove Button .
Add All Button will add all variables.
Add All Button
Remove All Button will remove all variables.
Remove All Button
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Properties Button
Double clicking a variable or clicking the Properties Button opens the Edit Value
window in which you can assign a new value to the selected variable/register.
Also, you can choose the format of variable/register representation between decimal, hexadecimal, binary, float or character. All representations except float are
unsigned by default. For signed representation click the check box next to the
Signed label.
An item's value can also be changed by double clicking item's value field and typing the new value directly.
EEPROM Window
To show the mikroICD EEPROM Window, select Debug Windows › EEPROM
from the View drop-down menu.
The EEPROM window shows current content of the MCU's internal EEPROM
memory. There are two action buttons concerning the EEPROM watch window :
- Flush EEPROM. Writes data from the EEPROM window into MCU's internal
EEPROM memory.
- Read EEPROM. Reads data from MCU's internal EEPROM memory and loads
it up into the EEPROM window.
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Code Window
To show the mikroICD Code Window, select Debug Windows › Code from the
View drop-down menu.
The Code window shows code (hex format) written into the MCU. There is an
action button concerning the Code window :
- Read Code. Reads code from the MCU and loads it up into the Code Window.
Code reading is resources consuming operation so the user should wait until the
reading is over.
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RAM Window
To show the mikroICD RAM Window, select Debug Windows › RAM from the
View drop-down menu.
The RAM Window displays the map of MCU’s RAM, with recently changed
items colored red.
The user can edit and change the values in the RAM window. RAM window content will be written to the MCU before the next instruction execution.
Common Errors
- Programming the MCU while the mikroICD is active.
- Debugging Release build version of the program with the mikroICD debugger.
- Debugging program code which has been changed, but has not been compiled
and programmed into the MCU.
- Selecting an empty line in the code for Run to cursor [F4] and Toggle
Breakpoints [F5] functions.
- Trying to Step Into [F7] the mikroC dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Library routines.
Use Step Over [F8] command for these routines.
- Trying to use Code Protection or PBOR programmer options while using the
mikroICD.
- Using mikroICD with Code Protection fuse ON.
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3
mikroC for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 Language
Reference
C offers unmatched power and flexibility in programming microcontrollers.
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 adds even more power with an array of
libraries, specialized for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 HW modules and communications. This chapter should help you learn or recollect C syntax, along with the
specifics of programming dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers. If you are
experienced in C programming, you will probably want to consult mikroC for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Specifics first.
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dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 SPECIFICS
In order to get the most from the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compiler, the
user should be familiar with certain aspects of dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCU. This
knowledge is not essential, but it can provide a better understanding of
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24's capabilities and limitations, and their impact on the code
writing.
Types Efficiency
First of all, the user should know that dsPIC30/33 and PIC24's ALU, which performs arithmetic operations, is optimized for working with int type.Although the
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 is capable of handling types like char or short,
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 will generate a better code for int type so use char and
short only in places where you can significantlly save RAM (e.g. for arrays char
a[30]).
Nested Calls Limitations
There are no Nested Calls Limitations, except by RAM size. A Nested call represents a function call within the function body, either to itself (recursive calls) or to
another function.
Recursive calls, as a form of cross-calling, are supported by the mikroC for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 but they should be used very carefully due to dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 stack and memory limitations. Also calling functions from interrupt is
allowed. Calling function from both interrupt and main thread is allowed but it
shouldn't be forgotten what this kind of programming technics causes.
Limits of Indirect Approach Through PSV
Constant aggregates are stored in Flash and are accessible trough PSV, which
means that there can be max 32KByte of constants.
Limits of Pointer to Function
Currentlly pointer to functions are 16-bit variables. For functions which address
exceeds 16 bit limit, the compiler uses handle (16-bit pointer on GOTO). A handle
usage is automatic compiler process so there is no need for the user to intervene.
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mikroC SPECIFICS
ANSI Standard Issues
Divergence from the ANSI C Standard
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 diverges from the ANSI C standard in a
few areas. Some of these modifications are improvements intended to facilitate
dsPIC programming, while others are the result of dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 hardware limitations.
- Case Sensitivity. Check identifiers
- The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 treats identifiers declared with the const
qualifier as “true constants” (C++ style). This allows using const objects in
places where ANSI C expects a constant expression. If aiming at portability, use
the traditional preprocessor defined constants. See Type Qualifiers and Constants.
- The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 allows C++ style single–line comments
using two adjacent slashes (//). The comment can start at any position and
extends until the next new line. See Comments.
- A number of standard C libraries (ctype, math, stdlib, string) have been imple
mented; check the individual functions for divergence.
- The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 does not provide automatic initialization
for objects. Uninitialized globals and objects with static duration will take ran
dom values from memory.
Features currently under construction:
Anonymous structures and unions are not supported at present.
Implementation-defined Behavior
Certain sections of the ANSI standard have implementation-defined behavior. This
means that the exact behavior of some C code can vary from compiler to compiler.
This Help contains the sections describing how the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24 compiler behaves in such situations.
The most notable specifics include:
- Storage Classes
- Bit Fields
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Predefined Globals and Constants
To facilitate dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 programming, the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24 implements a number of predefined globals and constants.
All dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 SFR registers are implicitly declared as global variables of volatile unsigned int. These identifiers have an external linkage, and are
visible in the entire project. When creating a project, the mikroC for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 will include an appropriate (*.c) file from defs folder, containing declarations of available SFR registers and constants (such as PORTB, ADPCFG, etc).
All identifiers are in upper case, identical to nomenclature in the Microchip
datasheets. All dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 SFR registers are also available as structures with bitfields named identically to the Microchip datasheets in order to facilitate bit access e.g
TRISBbits.TRISB3 = 1.
For a complete set of predefined globals and constants, look for “Defs” in the
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 installation folder, or probe the Code Assistant
for specific letters (Ctrl+Space in the Code Editor).
Accessing Individual Bits
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 allows you to access individual bits of 16bit variables. Simply use the direct member selector (.) with a variable, followed
by one of identifiers F0, F1, … , F15 with F15 being the most significant bit.
There is no need for any special declarations; this kind of selective access is an
intrinsic feature of the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 and can be used anywhere in the code. Identifiers F0–F15 are not case sensitive and have a specific
namespace. You may override them with your own members F0–F15 within any
given structure.
If you are familiar with a particular MCU, you can also access bits by name:
// Clear TRISB3
TRISBbits.TRISB3 = 0;
See Predefined Globals and Constants for more information on register/bit names.
Note: If aiming at portability, avoid this style of accessing individual bits, use the
bit fields instead.
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Interrupts
The dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 interrupt controller module reduces numerous peripheral interrupt request signals to a single interrupt request signal to the dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 CPU and has the following features:
- Up to 8 processor exceptions and software traps
- 7 user selectable priority levels
- Interrupt Vector Table (IVT) with up to 62 vectors (dsPIC30) or up to 118 vectors (dsPIC33 and PIC24)
- A unique vector for each interrupt or exception source
- Fixed priority within a specified user priority level
- Alternate Interrupt Vector Table (AIVT) for debug support
ISRs are organized in IVT. ISR is defined as a standard function but with the org
directive afterwards which connects the function with specific interrupt vector. For
example org 0x1A is IVT address of Timer1 interrupt source of the dsPIC
30F3014 MCU. For more information on IVT refer to the dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
Family Reference Manual.
ISR's are organized in IVT. ISR is defined as standard function but with org 0x26
directive afterwards. 0x26 is IVT address of U1RX(UART1 Receiver) interrupt
source.For more info about IVT can be found in dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Family
Reference Manual.
Function Calls from Interrupt
Calling functions from within the interrupt routine is possible. The compiler takes
care about the registers being used, both in "interrupt" and in "main" thread, and
performs "smart" context-switching between them two, saving only the registers
that have been used in both threads. It is not recommended to use function call
from interrupt. In case of doing that take care of stack depth.
Here is a simple example of handling the interrupts from Timer1 (if no other interrupts are allowed):
//-------------- Interrupt routine
void Timer1Int() org 0x1A {
//** it is necessary to clear manually the interrupt flag:
IFS0 = IFS0 & 0xFFF7;
// Clear TMR1IF
//** user code starts here
LATB = ~ PORTB;
// Invert PORTB
//** user code ends here
}//~!
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Linker Directives
The mikroC uses an internal algorithm to distribute objects within memory. If you
need to have a variable or routine at specific predefined address, use the linker
directives absolute and org.
Directive absolute
Directive absolute specifies the starting address in RAM for a variable. If the variable is multi-byte, higher bytes will be stored at the consecutive locations.
Directive absolute is appended to declaration of a variable:
short x absolute 0x22;
// Variable x will occupy 1 byte at address 0x22
int y absolute 0x23;
// Variable y will occupy 2 bytes at addresses 0x23 and 0x24
Be careful when using the absolute directive, as you may overlap two variables by
accident. For example:
char i absolute 0x33;
// Variable i will occupy 1 byte at address 0x33
long jjjj absolute 0x30;
// Variable will occupy 4 bytes at 0x30, 0x31, 0x32, 0x33; thus,
// changing i changes jjjj highest byte at the same time, and vice
// versa
Directive org
Directive org specifies the starting address of routine in ROM.
Directive org is appended to the function definition. Directives applied to nondefining declarations will be ignored, with an appropriate warning issued by the
linker. Here is a simple example:
void func(char par) org 0x200 {
// Function will start at address 0x200
nop;
}
Note: See also funcall pragma.
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Code Optimization
Optimizer has been added to extend the compiler usability, cut down the amount
of code generated and speed-up its execution. The main features are:
Constant folding
All expressions that can be evaluated in the compile time (i.e. are constant) are
being replaced by their results. (3 + 5 -> 8);
Constant propagation
When a constant value is being assigned to a certain variable, the compiler recognizes this and replaces the use of the variable by constant in the code that follows,
as long as the value of a variable remains unchanged.
Copy propagation
The compiler recognizes that two variables have the same value and eliminates
one of them further in the code.
Value numbering
The compiler "recognizes" if two expressions yield the same result and can therefore eliminate the entire computation for one of them.
"Dead code" ellimination
The code snippets that are not being used elsewhere in the programme do not
affect the final result of the application. They are automatically removed.
Stack allocation
Temporary registers ("Stacks") are being used more rationally, allowing VERY
complex expressions to be evaluated with a minimum stack consumption.
Local vars optimization
No local variables are being used if their result does not affect some of the global
or volatile variables.
Better code generation and local optimization
Code generation is more consistent and more attention is payed to implement specific solutions for the code "building bricks" that further reduce output code size.
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Indirect Function Calls
If the linker encounters an indirect function call (by a pointer to function), it
assumes that any of the functions addresses of which were taken anywhere in the
program, can be called at that point. Use the #pragma funcall directive to instruct
the linker which functions can be called indirectly from the current function:
#pragma funcall <func_name> <called_func>[, <called_func>,...]
A corresponding pragma must be placed in the source module where the function
func_name is implemented. This module must also include declarations of all
functions listed in the called_func list.
These functions will be linked if the function func_name is called in the code no
matter whether any of them was called or not.
Note: The #pragma funcall directive can help the linker to optimize function frame
allocation in the compiled stack.
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LEXICAL ELEMENTS
The following topics provide a formal definition of the mikroC for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 lexical elements. They describe different categories of word-like units
(tokens) recognized by the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24.
In the tokenizing phase of compilation, the source code file is parsed (that is, broken down) into tokens and whitespace. The tokens in the mikroC for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 are derived from a series of operations performed on your programs by
the compiler and its built-in preprocessor.
Whitespace
Whitespace is a collective name given to spaces (blanks), horizontal and vertical
tabs, newline characters and comments. Whitespace can serve to indicate where
tokens start and end, but beyond this function, any surplus whitespace is discarded. For example, two sequences:
int i; float f;
and
int i;
float f;
are lexically equivalent and parse identically to give the six tokens:
int
i
;
float
f
;
The ASCII characters representing whitespace can occur within literal strings, in
which case they are protected from the normal parsing process (they remain as
part of the string).
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Whitespace in strings
The ASCII characters representing whitespace can occur within string literals. In
that case they are protected from the normal parsing process (they remain as a part
of the string). For example,
char name[] = "mikro foo";
parses into seven tokens, including a single string literal token:
char
name
[
]
=
"mikro foo"
;
/* just one token here! */
Line Splicing with Backslash (\)
A special case occurs if a line ends with a backslash (\). Both backslash and new
line character are discarded, allowing two physical lines of a text to be treated as
one unit. So, the following code
"mikroC \
Compiler"
parses into "mikroC Compiler". Refer to String Constants for more information.
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Comments
Comments are pieces of a text used to annotate a program and technically are
another form of whitespace. Comments are for the programmer’s use only; they
are stripped from the source text before parsing. There are two ways to delineate
comments: the C method and the C++ method. Both are supported by mikroC for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24. You should also follow the guidelines on the use of whitespace and delimiters in comments, discussed later in this topic to avoid other
portability problems.
C comments
C comment is any sequence of characters placed after the symbol pair /*. The
comment terminates at the first occurance of the pair */ following the initial /*.
The entire sequence, including four comment-delimiter symbols, is replaced by
one space after macro expansion.
In the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24,
int /* type */ i /* identifier */;
parses as:
int i;
Note that the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 does not support a nonportable
token pasting strategy using /**/. For more information on token pasting, refer to
the Preprocessor Operators.
C++ comments
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 allows single-line comments using two
adjacent slashes (//). The comment can start in any position and extends until the
next new line.
The following code
int i;
int j;
// this is a comment
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parses as:
int i;
int j;
Nested comments
ANSI C doesn’t allow nested comments. The attempt to nest a comment like this:
/*
int /* declaration */ i; */
fails, because the scope of the first /* ends at the first */. This gives us
i ; */
which would generate a syntax error..
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TOKENS
Token is the smallest element of a C program that compiler can recognize. The
parser separates tokens from the input stream by creating the longest token possible using the input characters in a left–to–right scan.
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 recognizes the following kinds of tokens:
- keywords
- identifiers
- constants
- operators
- punctuators (also known as separators)
Tokens can be concatenated (pasted) by means of the preprocessor operator ##.
See the Preprocessor Operators for details.
Token Extraction Example
Here is an example of token extraction. Take a look at the following example code
sequence:
inter =
a+++b;
First, note that inter would be parsed as a single identifier, rather than as the keyword int followed by the identifier.
The programmer who has written the code might have intended to write
inter = a + (++b), but it wouldn’t work that way. The compiler would parse it
into the seven following tokens:
inter
=
a
++
+
b
;
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
variable identifier
assignment operator
variable identifier
postincrement operator
addition operator
variable identifier
statement terminator
Note that +++ parses as ++ (the longest token possible) followed by +.
According to the operator precedence rules, our code sequence is actually:
inter (a++)+b;
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CONSTANTS
Constants or literals are tokens representing fixed numeric or character values.
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 supports:
- integer constants
- floating point constants
- character constants
- string constants (strings literals)
- enumeration constants
The data type of a constant is deduced by the compiler using such clues as a
numeric value and format used in the source code.
Integer Constants
Integer constants can be decimal (base 10), hexadecimal (base 16), binary (base
2), or octal (base 8). In the absence of any overriding suffixes, the data type of an
integer constant is derived from its value.
Long and Unsigned Suffixes
The suffix L (or l) attached to any constant forces that constant to be represented
as a long. Similarly, the suffix U (or u) forces a constant to be unsigned. Both L
and U suffixes can be used with the same constant in any order or case: ul, Lu,
UL, etc.
In the absence of any suffix (U, u, L, or l), a constant is assigned the “smallest”
of the following types that can accommodate its value: short, unsigned short,
int, unsigned int, long int, unsigned long int.
Otherwise:
- If a constant has the U suffix, its data type will be the first of the following that
can accommodate its value: unsigned short, unsigned int, unsigned long
int.
- If a constant has the L suffix, its data type will be the first of the following that
can accommodate its value: long int, unsigned long int.
- If a constant has both L and U suffixes, (LU or UL), its data type will be
unsigned long int.
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Decimal
Decimal constants from -2147483648 to 4294967295 are allowed. Constants
exceeding these bounds will produce an “Out of range” error. Decimal constants
must not use an initial zero. An integer constant that has an initial zero is interpreted as an octal constant. Thus,
int i = 10;
int i = 010;
int i = 0;
/* decimal 10 */
/* decimal 8 */
/* decimal 0 = octal 0 */
In the absence of any overriding suffixes, the data type of a decimal constant is
derived from its value, as shown below:
Value Assigned to Constant
Assumed Type
< -2147483648
Error: Out of range!
-2147483648 – -32769
long
-32768 – -129
int
-128 – 127
short
128 – 255
unsigned short
256 – 32767
int
32768 – 65535
unsigned int
65536 – 2147483647
long
2147483648 – 4294967295
unsigned long
> 4294967295
Error: Out of range!
Hexadecimal
All constants starting with 0x (or 0X) are taken to be hexadecimal. In the absence
of any overriding suffixes, the data type of an hexadecimal constant is derived
from its value, according to the rules presented above. For example, 0xC367 will
be treated as unsigned int.
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Binary
All constants starting with 0b (or 0B) are taken to be binary. In the absence of any
overriding suffixes, the data type of an binary constant is derived from its value,
according to the rules presented above. For example, 0b11101 will be treated as
short.
Octal
All constants with an initial zero are taken to be octal. If an octal constant contains
the illegal digits 8 or 9, an error is reported. In the absence of any overriding suffixes, the data type of an octal constant is derived from its value, according to the
rules presented above. For example, 0777 will be treated as int.
Floating Point Constants
A floating-point constant consists of:
- Decimal integer
- Decimal point
- Decimal fraction
- e or E and a signed integer exponent (optional)
- Type suffix: f or F or l or L (optional)
Either decimal integer or decimal fraction (but not both) can be omitted. Either
decimal point or letter e (or E) with a signed integer exponent (but not both) can
be omitted. These rules allow conventional and scientific (exponent) notations.
Negative floating constants are taken as positive constants with an unary operator
minus (-) prefixed.
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 limits floating-point constants to the range
±1.17549435082 * 10-38 .. ±6.80564774407 * 1038.
Here are some examples:
0.
-1.23
23.45e6
2e-5
3E+10
.09E34
//
//
//
//
//
//
=
=
=
=
=
=
0.0
-1.23
23.45 * 10^6
2.0 * 10^-5
3.0 * 10^10
0.09 * 10^34
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The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 floating-point constants are of the type
double. Note that the mikroC for dsPIC’s implementation of ANSI Standard considers float and double (together with the long double variant) to be the same type.
Character Constants
A character constant is one or more characters enclosed in single quotes, such as
'A', '+', or '\n'. In the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24, single-character
constants are of the unsigned int type. Multi-character constants are referred to as
string constants or string literals. For more information refer to String Constants.
Escape Sequences
A backslash character (\) is used to introduce an escape sequence, which allows a
visual representation of certain nongraphic characters. One of the most common
escape constants is the newline character (\n).
A backslash is used with octal or hexadecimal numbers to represent an ASCII
symbol or control code corresponding to that value; for example, '\x3F' for the
question mark. Any value within legal range for data type char (0 to 0xFF for the
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24) can be used. Larger numbers will generate the
compiler error “Out of range”.
For example, the octal number \777 is larger than the maximum value allowed
(\377) and will generate an error. The first nonoctal or nonhexadecimal character
encountered in an octal or hexadecimal escape sequence marks the end of the
sequence.
Note: You must use the sequence \\ to represent an ASCII backslash, as used in
operating system paths.
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The following table shows the available escape sequences in mikroC:
Sequence
Value
Char
What it does
\a
0x07
BEL
Audible bell
\b
0x08
BS
Backspace
\f
0x0C
FF
Formfeed
\n
0x0A
LF
Newline (Linefeed)
\r
0x0D
CR
Carriage Return
\t
0x09
HT
Tab (horizontal)
\v
0x0B
VT
Vertical Tab
\\
0x5C
\
Backslash
\'
0x27
'
Single quote (Apostrophe)
\"
0x22
"
Double quote
\?
0x3F
?
Question mark
\O
any
O = string of up to 3 octal digits
\xH
any
H = string of hex digits
\XH
any
H = string of hex digits
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String Constants
String constants, also known as string literals, are a special type of constants
which store fixed sequences of characters. A string literal is a sequence of any
number of characters surrounded by double quotes:
"This is a string."
The null string, or empty string, is written like "". A literal string is stored internally as a given sequence of characters plus a final null character. A null string is
stored as a single null character. The characters inside the double quotes can
include escape sequences. This code, for example:
"\t\"Name\"\\\tAddress\n\n"
prints like this:
"Name"\
Address
The "Name" is preceded by two tabs; The Address is preceded by one tab. The
line is followed by two new lines. The \" provides interior double quotes. The
escape character sequence \\ is translated into \ by the compiler.
Adjacent string literals separated only by whitespace are concatenated during the
parsing phase. For example:
"This is " "just"
" an example."
is an equivalent to
"This is just an example."
Line continuation with backslash
You can also use the backslash (\) as a continuation character to extend a string
constant across line boundaries:
"This is really \
a one-line string."
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Enumeration Constants
Enumeration constants are identifiers defined in enum type declarations. The identifiers are usually chosen as mnemonics to contribute to legibility. Enumeration
constants are of int type. They can be used in any expression where integer constants are valid.
For example:
enum weekdays { SUN = 0, MON, TUE, WED, THU, FRI, SAT };
The identifiers (enumerators) used must be unique within the scope of the enum
declaration. Negative initializers are allowed. See Enumerations for details of
enum declarations.
Pointer Constants
A pointer or pointed-at object can be declared with the const modifier. Anything
declared as const cannot change its value. It is also illegal to create a pointer that
might violate a non-assignability of the constant object.
Consider the following examples:
int i;
int * pi;
int * const cp = &i;
const int ci = 7;
const int * pci;
const int * const cpc =
// i is an int
// pi is a pointer to int (uninitialized)
// cp is a constant pointer to int
// ci is a constant int
// pci is a pointer to constant int
&ci;
// cpc is a constant pointer to a
//
constant int
The following assignments are legal:
i = ci;
*cp = ci;
++pci;
pci = cpc;
//
//
//
//
//
//
Assign const-int to int
Assign const-int to
object-pointed-at-by-a-const-pointer
Increment a pointer-to-const
Assign a const-pointer-to-a-const to a
pointer-to-const
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The following assignments are illegal:
ci = 0;
ci--;
*pci = 3;
cp = &ci;
cpc++;
pi = pci;
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
NO--cannot assign to a const-int
NO--cannot change a const-int
NO--cannot assign to an object
pointed at by pointer-to-const.
NO--cannot assign to a const-pointer,
even if value would be unchanged.
NO--cannot change const-pointer
NO--if this assignment were allowed,
you would be able to assign to *pci
(a const value) by assigning to *pi.
Similar rules are applayed to the volatile modifier. Note that both const and
volatile can appear as modifiers to the same identifier.
Constant Expressions
A constant expressions can be evaluated during translation rather that runtime and
accordingly may be used in any place that a constant may be.
Constant expressions can consist only of the following:
- literals,
- enumeration constants,
- simple constants (no constant arrays or structures),
- sizeof operators.
Constant expressions cannot contain any of the following operators, unless the
operators are contained within the operand of a sizeof operator: assignment,
comma, decrement, function call, increment.
Each constant expression can evaluate to a constant that is in the range of representable values for its type.
Constant expression can be used anywhere a constant is legal.
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KEYWORDS
Keywords are words reserved for special purposes and must not be used as normal
identifier names.
Beside standard C keywords, all relevant SFR are defined as global variables and
represent reserved words that cannot be redefined (for example: TMR0, PCL, etc).
Probe the Code Assistant for specific letters (Ctrl+Space in Editor) or refer to
Predefined Globals and Constants.
Here is an alphabetical listing of keywords in C:
asm
auto
break
case
char
const
continue
default
do
double
else
enum
extern
float
for
goto
if
int
long
register
return
short
signed
sizeof
static
struct
switch
typedef
union
unsigned
void
volatile
while
Also, the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes a number of predefined
identifiers used in libraries. You could replace them by your own definitions, if
you want to develop your own libraries. For more information, see mikroC for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Libraries.
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IDENTIFIERS
Identifiers are arbitrary names of any length given to functions, variables, symbolic constants, user-defined data types, and labels. All these program elements will
be referred to as objects throughout the help (don't get confused with the meaning
of object in object-oriented programming). Identifiers can contain the letters a to z
and A to Z, underscore character “_”, and digits 0 to 9. The only restriction is that
the first character must be a letter or an underscore.
Case Sensitivity
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 identifiers are not case sensitive at present,
so that Sum, sum, and suM represent an equivalent identifier. However, future versions of the mikroC for dsPIC will offer an option of activating/suspending case
sensitivity. The only exceptions at present are the reserved words main and interrupt which must be written in lower case.
Uniqueness and Scope
Although identifier names are arbitrary (according to the stated rules), if the same
name is used for more than one identifier within the same scope and sharing the
same name space then error arises. Duplicate names are legal for different name
spaces regardless of scope rules. For more information on scope, refer to Scope
and Visibility.
Identifier Examples
Here are some valid identifiers:
temperature_V1
Pressure
no_hit
dat2string
SUM3
_vtext
… and here are some invalid identifiers:
7temp
%higher
int
j23.07.04
// NO -- cannot begin with a numeral
// NO -- cannot contain special characters
// NO -- cannot match reserved word
// NO -- cannot contain special characters (dot)
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PUNCTUATORS
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 punctuators (also known as separators)
are:
[ ] – Brackets
( ) – Parentheses
{ } – Braces
, – Comma
; – Semicolon
: – Colon
* – Asterisk
= – Equal sign
# – Pound sign
Most of these punctuators also function as operators.
Brackets
Brackets [ ] indicate single and multidimensional array subscripts:
char ch, str[] = "mikro";
int mat[3][4];
ch = str[3];
/* 3 x 4 matrix */
/* 4th element */
Parentheses
Parentheses ( ) are used to group expressions, isolate conditional expressions,
and indicate function calls and function parameters:
d = c * (a + b);
if (d == z) ++x;
func();
void func2(int n);
/*
/*
/*
/*
override normal precedence */
essential with conditional statement */
function call, no args */
function declaration with parameters */
Parentheses are recommended in macro definitions to avoid potential precedence
problems during expansion:
#define CUBE(x) ((x)*(x)*(x))
For more information, refer to Operators Precedence And Associativity and
Expressions.
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Braces
Braces { } indicate the start and end of a compound statement:
if (d == z) {
++x;
func();
}
The closing brace serves as a terminator for the compound statement, so a semicolon is not required after the }, except in structure declarations. Often, the semicolon is illegal, as in
if (statement)
{ ... };
else
{ ... };
/* illegal semicolon! */
For more information, refer to Compound Statements.
Comma
The comma (,) separates the elements of a function argument list:
void func(int n, float f, char ch);
The comma is also used as an operator in comma expressions. Mixing the two
uses of comma is legal, but you must use parentheses to distinguish them. Note
that (exp1, exp2) evalutates both but is equal to the second:
/* call func with two args */
func(i, j);
/* also calls func with two args! */
func((exp1, exp2), (exp3, exp4, exp5));
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Semicolon
Semicolon (;) is a statement terminator. Any legal C expression (including the
empty expression) followed by a semicolon is interpreted as a statement, known as
an expression statement. The expression is evaluated and its value is discarded. If
the expression statement has no side effects, the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24 might ignore it.
a + b;
++a;
;
/* evaluate a + b, but discard value */
/* side effect on a, but discard value of ++a */
/* empty expression or a null statement */
Semicolons are sometimes used to create an empty statement:
for (i = 0; i < n; i++) ;
For more information, see Statements.
Colon
Use the colon (:) to indicate a labeled statement. For example:
start: x = 0;
...
goto start;
Labels are discussed in Labeled Statements.
Asterisk (Pointer Declaration)
The asterisk (*) in a declaration denotes the creation of a pointer to a type:
char *char_ptr;
/* a pointer to char is declared */
Pointers with multiple levels of indirection can be declared by indicating a pertinent number of asterisks:
int **int_ptr;
double ***double_ptr;
/* a pointer to an array of integers */
/* a pointer to a matrix of doubles */
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You can also use the asterisk as an operator to either dereference a pointer or as
the multiplication operator:
i = *int_ptr;
a = b * 3.14;
For more information, see Pointers.
Equal Sign
The equal sign (=) separates variable declarations from initialization lists:
int test[5] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};
int x = 5;
The equal sign is also used as the assignment operator in expressions:
int a, b, c;
a = b + c;
For more information, see Assignment Operators.
Pound Sign (Preprocessor Directive)
Pound sign (#) indicates a preprocessor directive when it occurs as the first nonwhitespace character on a line. It signifies a compiler action, not necessarily associated with a code generation. See the Preprocessor Directives for more information. # and ## are also used as operators to perform token replacement and merging during the preprocessor scanning phase. See the Preprocessor Operators.
CONCEPTS
This section covers some basic concepts of language, essential for understanding
of how C programs work. First, we need to establish the following terms that will
be used throughout the help:
- Objects and lvalues
- Scope and Visibility
- Name Spaces
- Duration
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OBJECTS AND LVALUES
Objects
An object is a specific region of memory that can hold a fixed or variable value
(or set of values). This use of a term object is different from the same term, used
in object-oriented languages, which is more general. Our definiton of the word
would encompass functions, variables, symbolic constants, user-defined data
types, and labels.
Each value has an associated name and type (also known as a data type). The
name is used to access the object and can be a simple identifier or complex
expression that uniquely refers the object.
Objects and Declarations
Declarations establish a necessary mapping between identifiers and objects. Each
declaration associates an identifier with a data type.
Associating identifiers with objects requires each identifier to have at least two
attributes: storage class and type (sometimes referred to as data type). The mikroC
for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compiler deduces these attributes from implicit or
explicit declarations in the source code. Usually, only the type is explicitly specified and the storage class specifier assumes the automatic value auto.
Generally speaking, an identifier cannot be legally used in a program before its
declaration point in the source code. Legal exceptions to this rule (known as forward references) are labels, calls to undeclared functions, and struct or union tags.
The range of objects that can be declared includes:
- Variables
- Functions
- Types
- Arrays of other types
- Structure, union, and enumeration tags
- Structure members
- Union members
- Enumeration constants
- Statement labels
- Preprocessor macros
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The recursive nature of the declarator syntax allows complex declarators. You’ll
probably want to use typedefs to improve legibility if constructing complex
objects.
Lvalues
Lvalue is an object locator: an expression that designates an object. An example of
lvalue expression is *P, where P is any expression evaluating to a non-null pointer.
A modifiable lvalue is an identifier or expression that relates to an object that can
be accessed and legally changed in memory. A const pointer to a constant, for
example, is not a modifiable lvalue. A pointer to a constant can be changed (but its
dereferenced value cannot).
Historically, l stood for “left”, meaning that lvalue could legally stand on the left
(the receiving end) of an assignment statement. Now only modifiable lvalues can
legally stand to the left of an assignment operator. For example, if a and b are nonconstant integer identifiers with properly allocated memory storage, they are both
modifiable lvalues, and assignments such as a = 1 and b = a + b are legal.
Rvalues
The expression a + b is not lvalue: a + b = a is illegal because the expression
on the left is not related to an object. Such expressions are sometimes called rvalues (short for right values).
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SCOPE AND VISIBILITY
Scope
The scope of an identifier is a part of the program in which the identifier can be
used to access its object. There are different categories of scope: block (or local),
function, function prototype, and file. These categories depend on how and where
identifiers are declared.
Block
- The scope of an identifier with block (or local) scope starts at the declaration
point and ends at the end of the block containing the declaration (such block is
known as the enclosing block). Parameter declarations with a function definition
also have block scope, limited to the scope of the function body.
File
- File scope identifiers, also known as globals, are declared outside of all blocks;
their scope is from the point of declaration to the end of the source file.
Function
- The only identifiers having function scope are statement labels. Label names can
be used with goto statements anywhere in the function in which the label is
declared. Labels are declared implicitly by writing label_name: followed by a
statement. Label names must be unique within a function.
Function prototype
- Identifiers declared within the list of parameter declarations in a function prototype (not as a part of a function definition) have a function prototype scope. This
scope ends at the end of the function prototype.
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Visibility
The visibility of an identifier is a region of the program source code from which
an identifier’s associated object can be legally accessed.
Scope and visibility usually coincide, though there are circumstances under which
an object becomes temporarily hidden by the appearance of a duplicate identifier:
the object still exists but the original identifier cannot be used to access it until the
scope of the duplicate identifier ends.
Technically, visibility cannot exceed a scope, but a scope can exceed visibility. See
the following example:
void f (int i) {
int j;
j = 3;
{
double j;
j = 0.1;
// auto by default
// int i and j are in scope and visible
// nested block
// j is local name in the nested block
// i and double j are visible;
// int j = 3 in scope but hidden
}
j += 1;
// double j out of scope
// int j visible and = 4
}
// i and j are both out of scope
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NAME SPACES
Name space is a scope within which an identifier must be unique. The mikroC for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 uses four distinct categories of identifiers:
1. goto label names - must be unique within the function in which they are
declared.
2. Structure, union, and enumeration tags - must be unique within the block in
which they are defined. Tags declared outside of any function must be unique.
3. Structure and union member names - must be unique within the structure or
union in which they are defined. There is no restriction on the type or offset of
members with the same member name in different structures.
4. Variables, typedefs, functions, and enumeration members - must be unique with
in the scope in which they are defined. Externally declared identifiers must be
unique among externally declared variables.
Duplicate names are legal for different name spaces regardless of the scope rules.
For example:
int blue = 73;
{ // open a block
enum colors { black, red, green, blue, violet, white } c;
/* enumerator blue = 3 now hides outer declaration of int blue */
struct colors { int i, j; };
double red = 2;
// ILLEGAL: colors duplicate tag
// ILLEGAL: redefinition of red
}
blue = 37;
// back in int blue scope
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DURATION
Duration, closely related to a storage class, defines a period during which the
declared identifiers have real, physical objects allocated in memory. We also distinguish between compile-time and run-time objects. Variables, for instance, unlike
typedefs and types, have real memory allocated during run time. There are two
kinds of duration: static and local.
Static Duration
Memory is allocated to objects with static duration as soon as execution is underway; this storage allocation lasts until the program terminates. Static duration
objects usually reside in fixed data segments allocated according to the memory
model in force. All globals have static duration. All functions, wherever defined,
are objects with static duration. Other variables can be given static duration by
using the explicit static or extern storage class specifiers.
In the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24, static duration objects are not initialized
to zero (or null) in the absence of any explicit initializer.
Don’t mix static duration with file or global scope. An object can have static duration and local scope – see the example below.
Local Duration
Local duration objects are also known as automatic objects. They are created on
the stack (or in a register) when an enclosing block or a function is entered. They
are deallocated when the program exits that block or function. Local duration
objects must be explicitly initialized; otherwise, their contents are unpredictable.
The storage class specifier auto can be used when declaring local duration variables, but it is usually redundant, because auto is default for variables declared
within a block.
An object with local duration also has local scope because it does not exist outside
of its enclosing block. On the other hand, a local scope object can have static
duration.
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For example:
void f() {
/* local duration variable; init a upon every call to f */
int a = 1;
/* static duration variable; init b only upon first call to f */
static int b = 1;
/* checkpoint! */
a++;
b++;
}
void main() {
/* At checkpoint,
f(); // a=1, b=1,
f(); // a=1, b=2,
f(); // a=1, b=3,
// etc.
}
we will have: */
after first call,
after second call,
after third call,
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TYPES
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 is a strictly typed language, which means
that every object, function, and expression must have a strictly defined type,
known in the time of compilation. Note that the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24 works exclusively with numeric types. The type serves:
- to determine the correct memory allocation required initially.
- to interpret the bit patterns found in the object during subsequent access.
- in many type-checking situations, to ensure that illegal assignments are trapped.
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 supports many standard (predefined) and
user-defined data types, including signed and unsigned integers in various sizes,
floating-point numbers with various precisions, arrays, structures, and unions. In
addition, pointers to most of these objects can be established and manipulated in
memory.
The type determines how much memory is allocated to an object and how the program will interpret the bit patterns found in the object’s storage allocation. A given
data type can be viewed as a set of values (often implementation-dependent) that
identifiers of that type can assume, together with a set of operations allowed with
these values. The compile-time operator sizeof allows you to determine the size in
bytes of any standard or user-defined type.
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 standard libraries and your own program
and header files must provide unambiguous identifiers (or expressions derived
from them) and types so that the mikroC for dsPIC can consistently access, interpret, and (possibly) change the bit patterns in memory corresponding to each
active object in your program.
Type Categories
A common way to categorize types is to divide them into:
- fundamental
- derived
The fudamental types represent types that cannot be split up into smaller parts.
They are sometimes referred to as unstructured types. The fundamental types are
void, char, int, float, and double, together with short, long, signed, and unsigned
variants of some of them. For more information on fundamental types, refer to the
topic Fundamental Types.
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The derived types are also known as structured types and they include pointers to
other types, arrays of other types, function types, structures, and unions. For more
information on derived types, refer to the topic Derived Types.
FUNDAMENTAL TYPES
The fudamental types represent types that cannot be divided into more basic elements, and are the model for representing elementary data on machine level. The
fudamental types are sometimes referred to as unstructured types, and are used as
elements in creating more complex derived or user-defined types.
The fundamental types include:
- Arithmetic Types
- Enumerations
- Void Type
Arithmetic Types
The arithmetic type specifiers are built up from the following keywords: void,
char, int, float and double, together with the prefixes short, long, signed and
unsigned. From these keywords you can build both integral and floating-point
types.
Integral Types
The types char and int, together with their variants, are considered to be integral
data types. Variants are created by using one of the prefix modifiers short, long,
signed and unsigned.
In the table below is an overview of the integral types – keywords in parentheses
can be (and often are) omitted.
The modifiers signed and unsigned can be applied to both char and int. In the
absence of the unsigned prefix, signed is automatically assumed for integral
types. The only exception is char, which is unsigned by default. The keywords
signed and unsigned, when used on their own, mean signed int and unsigned
int, respectively.
The modifiers short and long can only be applied to int. The keywords short
and long, used on their own, mean short int and long int, respectively.
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Below is the overview of arithmetic types:
Size in
bytes
Range
(unsigned) char
1
0 .. 255
signed char
1
- 128 .. 127
(signed) short (int)
1
- 128 .. 127
unsigned short (int)
1
0 .. 255
(signed) int
2
-32768 .. 32767
unsigned (int)
2
0 .. 65535
(signed) long (int)
4
-2147483648 .. 2147483647
unsigned long (int)
4
0 .. 4294967295
Type
Floating-point Types
The types float and double, together with the long double variant, are considered
to be floating-point types. The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24’s implementation of an ANSI Standard considers all three to be the same type.
Floating point in the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 is implemented using the
Microchip AN575 32-bit format (IEEE 754 compliant).
An overview of the floating-point types is shown in the table below:
Size in
bytes
Range
float
4
-1.5 * 1045 .. +3.4 * 1038
double
4
-1.5 * 1045 .. +3.4 * 1038
long double
4
-1.5 * 1045 .. +3.4 * 1038
Type
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Enumerations
An enumeration data type is used for representing an abstract, discreet set of values with appropriate symbolic names.
Enumeration Declaration
Enumeration is declared like this:
enum tag {enumeration-list};
Here, tag is an optional name of the enumeration; enumeration-list is a commadelimited list of discreet values, enumerators (or enumeration constants). Each
enumerator is assigned a fixed integral value. In the absence of explicit initializers,
the first enumerator is set to zero, and the value of each succeeding enumerator is
set to a value of its predecessor increased by one.
Variables of the enum type are declared the same as variables of any other type.
For example, the following declaration:
enum colors { black, red, green, blue, violet, white } c;
establishes a unique integral type, enum colors, variable c of this type, and set of
enumerators with constant integer values (black = 0, red = 1, ...). In the mikroC
for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24, a variable of an enumerated type can be assigned any
value of the type int – no type checking beyond that is enforced. That is:
c = red;
c = 1;
// OK
// Also OK, means the same
With explicit integral initializers, you can set one or more enumerators to specific
values. The initializer can be any expression yielding a positive or negative integer
value (after possible integer promotions). Any subsequent names without initializers will be increased by one. These values are usually unique, but duplicates are
legal.
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The order of constants can be explicitly re-arranged. For example:
enum colors { black,
red,
green,
blue=6,
violet,
white=4 };
//
//
//
//
//
//
value
value
value
value
value
value
0
1
2
6
7
4
Initializer expression can include previously declared enumerators. For example,
in the following declaration:
enum memory_sizes { bit = 1, nibble = 4 * bit,
byte = 2 * nibble, kilobyte = 1024 * byte };
nibble would acquire the value 4, byte the value 8, and kilobyte the value
8192.
Anonymous Enum Type
In our previous declaration, the identifier colors is the optional enumeration tag
that can be used in subsequent declarations of enumeration variables of type
colors:
enum colors bg, border;
// declare variables bg and border
As with struct and union declarations, you can omit the tag if no further variables
of this enum type are required:
/* Anonymous enum type: */
enum {black, red, green, blue, violet, white} color;
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Enumeration Scope
Enumeration tags share the same name space as structure and union tags.
Enumerators share the same name space as ordinary variable identifiers:
int blue = 73;
{ // open a block
enum colors { black, red, green, blue, violet, white } c;
/* enumerator blue = 3 now hides outer declaration of int blue */
struct colors { int i, j; };
double red = 2;
// ILLEGAL: colors duplicate tag
// ILLEGAL: redefinition of red
}
blue = 37;
// back in int blue scope
Void Type
void is a special type indicating the absence of any value. There
void; instead, void is used for deriving more complex types.
are no objects of
Void Functions
Use the void keyword as a function return type if the function does not return a
value.
void print_temp(char temp) {
Lcd_Out_Cp("Temperature:");
Lcd_Out_Cp(temp);
Lcd_Chr_Cp(223); // degree character
Lcd_Chr_Cp('C');
}
Use void as a function heading if the function does not take any parameters.
Alternatively, you can just write empty parentheses:
main(void) { // same as main()
...
}
Generic Pointers
Pointers can be declared as void, which means that they can point to any type.
These pointers are sometimes called generic.
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DERIVED TYPES
The derived types are also known as structured types. They are used as elements
in creating more complex user-defined types. The derived types include:
- arrays
- pointers
- structures
- unions
Arrays
Array is the simplest and most commonly used structured type. A variable of array
type is actually an array of objects of the same type. These objects represent elements of an array and are identified by their position in array. An array consists of
a contiguous region of storage exactly large enough to hold all of its elements.
Array Declaration
Array declaration is similar to variable declaration, with the brackets added after
identifer:
type array_name[constant-expression]
This declares an array named as array_name composed of elements of type.
The type can be scalar type (except void), user-defined type, pointer, enumeration, or another array. Result of the constant-expression within the brackets
determines the number of elements in array. If an expression is given in an array
declarator, it must evaluate to a positive constant integer. The value is the number
of elements in the array.
Each of the elements of an array is numbered from 0 through the number of elements minus one. If the number is n, elements of array can be approached as
variables array_name[0] .. array_name[n-1] of type.
Here are a few examples of array declaration:
#define MAX = 50
int vector_one[10];
float vector_two[MAX];
float vector_three[MAX - 20];
/* an array of 10 integers */
/* an array of 50 floats
*/
/* an array of 30 floats
*/
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Array Initialization
An array can be initialized in declaration by assigning it a comma-delimited
sequence of values within braces. When initializing an array in declaration, you
can omit the number of elements – it will be automatically determined according
to the number of elements assigned. For example:
/* Declare an array which holds number of days in each month: */
int days[12] = {31,28,31,30,31,30,31,31,30,31,30,31};
/* This declaration is identical to the previous one */
int days[] = {31,28,31,30,31,30,31,31,30,31,30,31};
If you specify both the length and starting values, the number of starting values
must not exceed the specified length. Vice versa is possible, in this case the trailing “excess” elements will be assigned to some encountered runtime values from
memory.
In case of array of char, you can use a shorter string literal notation. For example:
/* The two declarations are identical: */
const char msg1[] = {'T', 'e', 's', 't', '\0'};
const char msg2[] = "Test";
For more information on string literals, refer to String Constants.
Arrays in Expressions
When name of the array comes up in expression evaluation (except with operators
& and sizeof ), it is implicitly converted to the pointer pointing to array’s first
element. See Arrays and Pointers for more information.
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Multi-dimensional Arrays
An array is one-dimensional if it is of scalar type. One-dimensional arrays are
sometimes referred to as vectors.
Multidimensional arrays are constructed by declaring arrays of array type. These
arrays are stored in memory in such way that the right most subscript changes
fastest, i.e. arrays are stored “in rows”. Here is a sample 2-dimensional array:
float m[50][20];
/* 2-dimensional array of size 50x20 */
Variable m is an array of 50 elements, which in turn are arrays of 20 floats each.
Thus, we have a matrix of 50x20 elements: the first element is m[0][0], the last
one is m[49][19]. First element of the 5th row would be m[0][5].
If you are not initializing the array in the declaration, you can omit the first dimension of multi-dimensional array. In that case, array is located elsewhere, e.g. in
another file. This is a commonly used technique when passing arrays as function
parameters:
int a[3][2][4];
/* 3-dimensional array of size 3x2x4 */
void func(int n[][2][4]) { /* we can omit first dimension */
//...
n[2][1][3]++; /* increment the last element*/
}//~
void main() {
//...
func(a);
}//~!
You can initialize a multi-dimensional array with an appropriate set of values
within braces. For example:
int a[3][2] = {{1,2}, {2,6}, {3,7}};
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Pointers
Pointers are special objects for holding (or “pointing to”) memory addresses. In
the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24, address of an object in memory can be
obtained by means of an unary operator &. To reach the pointed object, we use an
indirection operator (*) on a pointer.
A pointer of type “pointer to object of type” holds the address of (that is, points to)
an object of type. Since pointers are objects, you can have a pointer pointing to a
pointer (and so on). Other objects commonly pointed to include arrays, structures,
and unions.
A pointer to a function is best thought of as an address, usually in a code segment,
where that function’s executable code is stored; that is, the address to which control is transferred when that function is called.
Although pointers contain numbers with most of the characteristics of unsigned
integers, they have their own rules and restrictions for declarations, assignments,
conversions, and arithmetic. The examples in the next few sections illustrate these
rules and restrictions.
Pointer Declarations
Pointers are declared the same as any other variable, but with * ahead of identifier.
A type at the beginning of declaration specifies the type of a pointed object. A
pointer must be declared as pointing to some particular type, even if that type is
void, which really means a pointer to anything. Pointers to void are often called
generic pointers, and are treated as pointers to char in the mikroC for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24.
If type is any predefined or user-defined type, including void, the declaration
type *p;
/* Uninitialized pointer */
declares p to be of type “pointer to type”. All scoping, duration, and visibility
rules are applied to the p object just declared. You can view the declaration in this
way: if *p is an object of type, then p has to be a pointer to such object (object of
type).
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Note: You must initialize pointers before using them! Our previously declared
pointer *p is not initialized (i.e. assigned a value), so it cannot be used yet.
Note: In case of multiple pointer declarations, each identifier requires an indirect
operator. For example:
int *pa, *pb, *pc;
/* is same as: */
int *pa;
int *pb;
int *pc;
Once declared, though, a pointer can usually be reassigned so that it points to an
object of another type. The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 lets you reassign
pointers without typecasting, but the compiler will warn you unless the pointer
was originally declared to be pointing to void. You can assign the void* pointer to
the non-void* pointer – refer to void for details.
Null Pointers
A null pointer value is an address that is guaranteed to be different from any valid
pointer in use in a program. Assigning the integer constant 0 to a pointer assigns a
null pointer value to it.
For example:
int *pn = 0;
/* Here's one null pointer */
/* We can test the pointer like this: */
if ( pn == 0 ) { ... }
The pointer type “pointer to void” must not be confused with the null pointer. The
declaration
void *vp;
declares that vp is a generic pointer capable of being assigned to by any “pointer
to type” value, including null, without complaint.
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Assignments without proper casting between a “pointer to type1” and a “pointer
to type2”, where type1 and type2 are different types, can invoke a compiler
warning or error. If type1 is a function and type2 isn’t (or vice versa), pointer
assignments are illegal. If type1 is a pointer to void, no cast is needed. If type2 is
a pointer to void, no cast is needed.
Function Pointers
Function Pointers are pointers, i.e. variables, which point to the address of a function.
// Define a function pointer
int (*pt2Function) (float, char, char);
Note: Thus functions and function pointers with different calling convention
(argument order, arguments type or return type is different) are incompatible with
each other.
Assign an address to a Function Pointer
It's quite easy to assign the address of a function to a function pointer. You simply
take the name of a suitable and known function or member function. It's optional
to use the address operator & infront of the function's name.
//Assign an address to the function pointer
int DoIt (float a, char b, char c){ return a+b+c; }
pt2Function = &DoIt; // assignment
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Example:
int addC(char x,char y){
return x+y;
}
int subC(char x,char y){
return x-y;
}
int mulC(char x,char y){
return x*y;
}
int divC(char x,char y){
return x/y;
}
int modC(char x,char y){
return x%y;
}
//array of pointer to functions that receive two chars and returns
int
int
(*arrpf[])(char,char) = { addC ,subC,mulC,divC,modC};
int res;
char i;
void main() {
for (i=0;i<5;i++){
res = arrpf[i](10,20);
}
}//~!
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Pointer Arithmetic
Pointer arithmetic in C is limited to:
- assigning one pointer to another,
- comparing two pointers,
- comparing pointer to zero (NULL),
- adding/subtracting pointer and an integer value,
- subtracting two pointers.
The internal arithmetic performed on pointers depends on the memory model in
force and the presence of any overriding pointer modifiers. When performing
arithmetic with pointers, it is assumed that the pointer points to an array of
objects.
Arrays and Pointers
Arrays and pointers are not completely independent types in the mikroC for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24. When the name of an array comes up in expression evaluation (except with operators & and sizeof ), it is implicitly converted to the pointer pointing to array’s first element. Due to this fact, arrays are not modifiable lvalues.
Brackets [ ] indicate array subscripts. The expression
id[exp]
is defined as
*((id) + (exp))
where either:
id is a pointer and exp is an integer, or
id is an integer and exp is a pointer.
The following is true:
&a[i]
a[i]
=
=
a + i
*(a + i)
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According to these guidelines, we can write:
pa = &a[4];
x = *(pa + 3);
y = *pa + 3;
// pa points to a[4]
// x = a[7]
// y = a[4] + 3
Also, you need to be careful with operator precedence:
*pa++;
(*pa)++;
// is equal to *(pa++), increments the pointer!
// increments the pointed object!
Following examples are also valid, but better avoid this syntax as it can make the
code really illegible:
(a + 1)[i] = 3;
// same as: *((a + 1) + i) = 3, i.e. a[i + 1] = 3
(i + 2)[a] = 0;
// same as: *((i + 2) + a) = 0, i.e. a[i + 2] = 0
Assignment and Comparison
The simple assignment operator (=) can be used to assign value of one pointer to
another if they are of the same type. If they are of different types, you must use a
typecast operator. Explicit type conversion is not necessary if one of the pointers is
generic (of the void type).
Assigning the integer constant 0 to a pointer assigns a null pointer value to it.
Two pointers pointing to the same array may be compared by using relational
operators ==, !=, <, <=, >, and >=. Results of these operations are the same as if
they were used on subscript values of array elements in question:
int *pa = &a[4], *pb = &a[2];
if (pa == pb) {.../* won't be executed as 4 is not equal to 2 */ }
if (pa > pb) {.../* will be executed as 4 is greater than 2 */ }
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You can also compare pointers to zero value – testing in that way if the pointer
actually points to anything. All pointers can be successfully tested for equality or
inequality to null:
if (pa == NULL) { ... }
if (pb != NULL) { ... }
Note: Comparing pointers pointing to different objects/arrays can be performed at
programmer’s own responsibility — a precise overview of data’s physical storage
is required.
Pointer Addition
You can use operators +, ++, and += to add an integral value to a pointer. The
result of addition is defined only if the pointer points to an element of an array
and if the result is a pointer pointing to the same array (or one element beyond it).
If a pointer is declared to point to type, adding an integral value n to the pointer
increments the pointer value by n * sizeof(type) as long as the pointer
remains within the legal range (first element to one beyond the last element). If
type has a size of 10 bytes, then adding 5 to a pointer to type advances the pointer
50 bytes in memory. In case of the void type, the size of a step is one byte.
For example:
int a[10];
int *pa = &a[0];
// array a containing 10 elements of int
// pa is pointer to int, pointing to a[0]
*(pa + 3) = 6;
// pa+3 is a pointer pointing to a[3],
// so a[3] now equals 6
pa++; // pa now points to the next element of array, a[1]
There is no such element as “one past the last element”, of course, but a pointer is
allowed to assume such a value. C “guarantees” that the result of addition is
defined even when pointing to one element past array. If P points to the last array
element, P+1 is legal, but P+2 is undefined.
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This allows you to write loops which access the array elements in a sequence by
means of incrementing pointer — in the last iteration you will have a pointer
pointing to one element past an array, which is legal. However, applying the indirection operator (*) to a “pointer to one past the last element” leads to undefined
behavior.
For example:
void f (some_type a[], int n) {
/* function f handles elements of array a; */
/* array a has n elements of some_type */
int i;
some_type *p = &a[0];
for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
/* .. here we do something with *p .. */
p++;
/* .. and with the last iteration p exceeds
the last element of array a */
}
/* at this point, *p is undefined! */
}
Pointer Subtraction
Similar to addition, you can use operators -, --, and -= to subtract an integral
value from a pointer.
Also, you may subtract two pointers. Difference will equal the distance between
the two pointed addresses, in bytes.
For example:
int
int
int
i =
pi2
a[10];
*pi1 = &a[0];
*pi2 = &a[4];
pi2 - pi1;
-= (i >> 1);
/* i equals 8 */
/* pi2 = pi2 - 4: pi2 now points to [0] */
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Structures
A structure is a derived type usually representing a user-defined collection of
named members (or components). These members can be of any type, either fundamental or derived (with some restrictions to be discussed later), in any
sequence. In addition, a structure member can be a bit field.
Unlike arrays, structures are considered to be single objects. The mikroC for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 structure type lets you handle complex data structures
almost as easily as single variables.
Note: the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 does not support anonymous structures (ANSI divergence).
Structure Declaration and Initialization
Structures are declared using the keyword struct:
struct tag { member-declarator-list };
Here, tag is the name of the structure; member-declarator-list is a list of
structure members, actually a list of variable declarations. Variables of structured
type are declared same as variables of any other type.
The member type cannot be the same as the struct type being currently declared.
However, a member can be a pointer to the structure being declared, as in the following example:
struct mystruct { mystruct s;};
struct mystruct { mystruct *ps;};
/* illegal! */
/* OK */
Also, a structure can contain previously defined structure types when declaring an
instance of a declared structure. Here is an example:
/* Structure defining a dot: */
struct Dot {float x, y;};
/* Structure defining a circle: */
struct Circle {
double r;
struct Dot center;
} o1, o2; /* declare variables o1 and o2 of circle type */
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Note that you can omit structure tag, but then you cannot declare additional
objects of this type elsewhere. For more information, see the “Untagged
Structures” below.
Structure is initialized by assigning it a comma-delimited sequence of values within braces, similar to array. Referring to declarations from the previous example:
/* Referring to declarations from the example above: */
/* Declare and initialize dots p and q: */
struct Dot p = {1., 1.}, q = {3.7, -0.5};
/* Declare and initialize circle o1: */
struct Circle o1 = {1., {0., 0.}};
// radius is 1, center is at (0, 0)
Incomplete Declarations
Incomplete declarations are also known as forward declarations. A pointer to a
structure type A can legally appear in the declaration of another structure B before
A has been declared:
struct A;
// incomplete
struct B {struct A *pa;};
struct A {struct B *pb;};
The first appearance of A is called incomplete because there is no definition for it
at that point. An incomplete declaration is allowed here, because the definition of
B doesn’t need the size of A.
Untagged Structures and Typedefs
If the structure tag is omitted, an untagged structure is created. The untagged
structures can be used to declare the identifiers in the comma-delimited memberdeclarator-list to be of the given structure type (or derived from it), but additional
objects of this type cannot be declared elsewhere. It is possible to create a typedef
while declaring a structure, with or without tag:
/* With tag: */
typedef struct mystruct { ... } Mystruct;
Mystruct s, *ps, arrs[10]; /* same as struct mystruct s, etc. */
/* Without tag: */
typedef struct { ... } Mystruct;
Mystruct s, *ps, arrs[10];
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Usually, there is no need to use both tag and typedef: either can be used in structure type declarations. Untagged structure and union members are ignored during
initialization.
Note: See also Working with structures.
Working with Structures
Structures represent user-defined types. A set of rules regarding the application of
structures is strictly defined.
Assignment
Variables of the same structured type may be assigned one to another by means of
simple assignment operator (=). This will copy the entire contents of the variable
to destination, regardless of the inner complexity of a given structure.
Note that two variables are of the same structured type only if they are both
defined by the same instruction or using the same type identifier. For example:
/* a and b are of the same type: */
struct {int m1, m2;} a, b;
/* But c and d are _not_ of the same type although
their structure descriptions are identical: */
struct {int m1, m2;} c;
struct {int m1, m2;} d;
Size of Structure
The size of the structure in memory can be retrieved by means of the operator
sizeof. It is not necessary that the size of the structure is equal to the sum of its
members’ sizes. It is often greater due to certain limitations of memory storage.
Structures and Functions
A function can return a structure type or a pointer to a structure type:
mystruct func1();
mystruct *func2();
// func1() returns a structure
// func2() returns pointer to structure
A structure can be passed as an argument to a function in the following ways:
void func1(mystruct s);
void func2(mystruct *sptr);
// directly
// via pointer
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Structure Member Access
Structure and union members are accessed using the following two selection operators:
. (period)
-> (right arrow)
The operator . is called the direct member selector and it is used to directly access
one of the structure’s members. Suppose that the object s is of struct type S. Then
if m is a member identifier of type M declared in s, the expression
s.m
// direct access to member m
is of type M, and represents the member object m in s.
The operator -> is called the indirect (or pointer) member selector. Suppose that
ps is a pointer to s. Then if m is a member identifier of type M declared in s, the
expression
ps->m // indirect access to member m;
// identical to (*ps).m
is of type M, and represents the member object m in s. The expression ps->m is a
convenient shorthand for (*ps).m.
For example:
struct mystruct {
int i;
char str[21];
double d;
} s, *sptr = &s;
...
s.i = 3;
sptr -> d = 1.23;
// assign to the i member of mystruct s
// assign to the d member of mystruct s
The expression s.m is an lvalue, provided that s is an lvalue and m is not an array
type. The expression sptr->m is an lvalue unless m is an array type.
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Accessing Nested Structures
If structure B contains a field whose type is structure A, the members of A can be
accessed by two applications of the member selectors:
struct A {
int j; double x;
};
struct B {
int i; struct A a; double d;
} s, *sptr;
//...
s.i = 3;
s.a.j = 2;
sptr->d = 1.23;
sptr->a.x = 3.14;
//
//
//
//
assign
assign
assign
assign
3 to
2 to
1.23
3.14
the i member of B
the j member of A
to the d member of B
to x member of A
Structure Uniqueness
Each structure declaration introduces a unique structure type, so that in
struct A {
int i,j; double d;
} aa, aaa;
struct B {
int i,j; double d;
} bb;
the objects aa and aaa are both of type struct A, but the objects aa and bb are of
different structure types. Structures can be assigned only if the source and destination have the same type:
aa = aaa;
aa = bb;
/* but
aa.i =
aa.j =
aa.d =
/* OK: same type, member by member assignment */
/* ILLEGAL: different types */
you can assign member by member: */
bb.i;
bb.j;
bb.d;
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Unions
Union types are derived types sharing many of syntactic and functional features of
structure types. The key difference is that a union members share the same memory space.
Note: The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 does not support anonymous unions
(ANSI divergence).
Union Declaration
Unions are declared same as structures, with the keyword union used instead of
struct:
union tag { member-declarator-list };
Unlike structures’ members, the value of only one of union’s members can be
stored at any time. Let’s have a simple example:
union myunion {
int i;
double d;
char ch;
} mu, *pm;
// union tag is 'myunion'
The identifier mu, of the type myunion, can be used to hold a 2-byte int, 4-byte
double or single-byte char, but only one of them at a certain moment. The identifier pm is a pointer to union myunion.
Size of Union
The size of a union is the size of its largest member. In our previous example, both
sizeof(union myunion) and sizeof(mu) return 4, but 2 bytes are unused
(padded) when mu holds the int object, and 3 bytes are unused when mu holds
char.
Union Member Access
Union members can be accessed with the structure member selectors (. and ->),
be careful when doing this. Check the example on the following page.
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Referring to declarations from the previous example:
pm = &mu;
mu.d = 4.016;
tmp = mu.d; // OK: mu.d = 4.016
tmp = mu.i; // peculiar result
pm->i = 3;
tmp = mu.i;
// OK: mu.i = 3
The third line is legal, since mu.i is an integral type. However, the bit pattern in
mu.i corresponds to parts of the previously assigned double. As such, it probably
won’t provide an useful integer interpretation.
When properly converted, a pointer to a union points to each of its members, and
vice versa.
Bit Fields
Bit fields are specified numbers of bits that may or may not have an associated
identifier. Bit fields offer a way of subdividing structures into named parts of userdefined sizes.
Structures and unions can contain bit fields that can be up to 16 bits.
You cannot take the address of a bit field.
Note: If you need to handle specific bits of 8-bit variables (char and unsigned
short) or registers, you don’t need to declare bit fields. Much more elegant solution is to use the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24’s intrinsic ability for individual bit access — see Accessing Individual Bits for more information.
Bit Fields Declaration
Bit fields can be declared only in structures and unions. Declare a structure normally and assign individual fields like this (fields need to be unsigned):
struct tag { unsigned bitfield-declarator-list; }
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Here, tag is an optional name of the structure; bitfield-declarator-list is a list of bit
fields. Each component identifer requires a colon and its width in bits to be explicitly specified. Total width of all components cannot exceed two bytes (16 bits).
As an object, bit fields structure takes two bytes. Individual fields are packed
within two bytes from right to left. In bitfield-declarator-list, you can omit identifier(s) to create artificial “padding”, thus skipping irrelevant bits.
For example, if we need to manipulate only bits 2–4 of a register as one block, we
could create a structure:
struct {
unsigned
mybits
: 2,
: 3;
// Skip bits 0 and 1, no identifier here
// Relevant bits 2, 3, and 4
// Bits 5, 6, and 7 are implicitly left out
} myreg;
Here is an example:
typedef struct
lo_nibble :
hi_nibble :
high_byte :
{
4;
4;
8;} myunsigned;
which declares the structured type myunsigned containing three components:
lo_nibble (bits 3..0), hi_nibble (bits 7..4) and high_byte (bits 15..8).
Bit Fields Access
Bit fields can be accessed in the same way as the structure members. Use direct
and indirect member selector (. and ->). For example, we could work with our
previously declared myunsigned like this:
// Declare a bit field Value_For_PortB:
myunsigned Value_For_PortB;
void main() {
//...
Value_For_PortB.lo_nibble = 7;
Value_For_PortB.hi_nibble = 0x0C;
Value_For_PortB.high_byte = 0xAA;
PORTB = *(unsigned *) (void *)&Value_For_PortB;
// typecasting :
// 1. address of structure to pointer to void
// 2. pointer to void to pointer to unsigned
// 3. dereferencing to obtain the value
}
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TYPES CONVERSIONS
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 is a strictly typed language, with each
operator, statement and function demanding appropriately typed operands/arguments. However, we often have to use objects of “mismatching” types in expressions. In that case, type conversion is needed.
Conversion of object of one type means that object's type is changed into another
type. The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 defines a set of standard conversions
for built-in types, provided by compiler when necessary. For more information,
refer to the Standard Conversions.
Conversion is required in following situations:
- if a statement requires an expression of particular type (according to language
definition), and we use an expression of different type,
- if an operator requires an operand of particular type, and we use an operand of
different type,
- if a function requires a formal parameter of particular type, and we pass it an
object of different type,
- if an expression following the keyword return does not match the declared func
tion return type,
- if intializing an object (in declaration) with an object of different type.
In these situations, compiler will provide an automatic implicit conversion of
types, without any programmer's interference. Also, the programmer can demand
conversion explicitly by means of the typecast operator. For more information,
refer to the Explicit Typecasting.
Standard Conversions
Standard conversions are built in the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24. These
conversions are performed automatically, whenever required in the program. They
can also be explicitly required by means of the typecast operator (refer to the
Explicit Typecasting).
The basic rule of automatic (implicit) conversion is that the operand of simpler
type is converted (promoted) to the type of more complex operand. Then, the type
of the result is that of more complex operand.
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Arithmetic Conversions
When using arithmetic expression, such as a + b, where a and b are of different
arithmetic types, the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 performs implicit type
conversions before the expression is evaluated. These standard conversions
include promotions of “lower” types to “higher” types in the interests of accuracy
and consistency.
Assigning a signed character object (such as a variable) to an integral object
results in automatic sign extension. Objects of type signed char always use sign
extension; objects of type unsigned char always has its high byte set to zero when
converted to int.
Converting a longer integral type to a shorter type truncates the higher order bits
and leaves low-order bits unchanged. Converting a shorter integral type to a longer
type either sign-extends or zero-fills the extra bits of the new value, depending on
whether the shorter type is signed or unsigned, respectively.
Note: Conversion of floating point data into integral value (in assignments or via
explicit typecast) produces correct results only if the float value does not exceed
the scope of destination integral type.
In details:
Here are the steps the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 uses to convert the
operands in an arithmetic expression:
First, any small integral types are converted according to the following rules:
1. char converts to int
2. signed char converts to int, with the same value
3. short converts to int, with the same value, sign-extended
4. unsigned short converts to unsigned int, with the same value, zero-filled
5. enum converts to int, with the same value
After this, any two values associated with an operator are either int (including the
long and unsigned modifiers) or float (equivalent with double and long double in
the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24).
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1. If either operand is float, the other operand is converted to float
2. Otherwise, if either operand is unsigned long, the other operand is converted
to unsigned long
3. Otherwise, if either operand is long, the other operand is converted to long
4. Otherwise, if either operand is unsigned, the other operand is converted to
unsigned
5. Otherwise, both operands are int
The result of the expression is the same type as that of the two operands.
Here are several examples of implicit conversion:
2+3.1
5/4*3.
3.*5/4
// = 2. + 3.1 = 5.1
// = (5/4)*3. = 1*3. = 1.*3. = 3.0
// = (3.*5)/4 = (3.*5.)/4 = 15./4 = 15./4. = 3.75
Pointer Conversions
Pointer types can be converted to other pointer types using the typecasting mechanism:
char *str;
int *ip;
str = (char *)ip;
More generally, the cast (type*) will convert a pointer to type “pointer to type”.
Explicit Types Conversions (Typecasting)
In most situations, compiler will provide an automatic implicit conversion of types
where needed, without any user interference. Also, you can explicitly convert an
operand to another type using the prefix unary typecast operator:
(type) object
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This will convert object to a specified type. Parentheses are mandatory.
For example:
char a, b;
/* Following line will coerce a to unsigned int: */
(unsigned int) a;
/* Following line will coerce a to double,
then coerce b to double automatically,
resulting in double type value: */
(double) a + b;
// equivalent to ((double) a) + b;
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DECLARATIONS
Introduction to Declarations
A declaration introduces one or several names to a program – it informs the compiler what the name represents, what its type is, what operations are allowed with
it, etc. This section reviews concepts related to declarations: declarations, definitions, declaration specifiers, and initialization.
The range of objects that can be declared includes:
- Variables
- Constants
- Functions
- Types
- Structure, union, and enumeration tags
- Structure members
- Union members
- Arrays of other types
- Statement labels
- Preprocessor macros
Declarations and Definitions
Defining declarations, also known as definitions, beside introducing the name of
an object, also establish the creation (where and when) of an object; that is, the
allocation of physical memory and its possible initialization. Referencing declarations, or just declarations, simply make their identifiers and types known to the
compiler.
Here is an overview. Declaration is also a definition, except if:
- it declares a function without specifying its body,
- it has an extern specifier, and has no initializator or body (in case of func.),
- it is a typedef declaration.
There can be many referencing declarations for the same identifier, especially in a
multifile program, but only one defining declaration for that identifier is allowed.
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Let’s have an example:
/* Here is a nondefining declaration of function max; */
/* it merely informs compiler that max is a function */
int max();
/* Here is a definition of function max: */
int max(int x, int y) {
return (x>=y) ? x : y;
}
int i;
int i;
/* Definition of variable i */
/* Error: i is already defined! */
Declarations and Declarators
The declaration contains specifier(s) followed by one or more identifiers (declarators). The declaration begins with optional storage class specifiers, type specifiers,
and other modifiers. The identifiers are separated by commas and the list is terminated by a semicolon.
Declarations of variable identifiers have the following pattern:
storage-class [type-qualifier] type var1 [=init1], var2 [=init2],
...;
where var1, var2,... are any sequence of distinct identifiers with optional initializers. Each of the variables is declared to be of type; if omitted, type defaults to
int. Specifier storage-class can take values extern, static, register, or
the default auto. Optional type-qualifier can take values const or
volatile. For more details, refer to Storage Classes and Type Qualifiers.
For example:
/* Create 3 integer variables called x, y, and z
and initialize x and y to the values 1 and 2, respectively: */
int x = 1, y = 2, z;
// z remains uninitialized
/* Create a floating-point variable q with static modifier,
and initialize it to 0.25: */
static float q = .25;
These are all defining declarations; storage is allocated and any optional initializers are applied.
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Linkage
An executable program is usually created by compiling several independent translation units, then linking the resulting object files with preexisting libraries. A term
translation unit refers to a source code file together with any included files, but
without the source lines omitted by conditional preprocessor directives. A problem
arises when the same identifier is declared in different scopes (for example, in different files), or declared more than once in the same scope.
The linkage is a process that allows each instance of an identifier to be associated
correctly with one particular object or function. All identifiers have one of two
linkage attributes, closely related to their scope: external linkage or internal linkage. These attributes are determined by the placement and format of your declarations, together with an explicit (or implicit by default) use of the storage class
specifier static or extern.
Each instance of a particular identifier with external linkage represents the same
object or function throughout the entire set of files and libraries making up the
program. Each instance of a particular identifier with internal linkage represents
the same object or function within one file only.
Linkage Rules
Local names have internal linkage; the same identifier can be used in different
files to signify different objects. Global names have external linkage; identifier
signifies the same object throughout all program files.
If the same identifier appears with both internal and external linkage within the
same file, the identifier will have internal linkage.
Internal Linkage Rules:
1. names having file scope, explicitly declared as static, have internal linkage,
2. names having file scope, explicitly declared as const and not explicitly,
declared as extern, have internal linkage,
3. typedef names have internal linkage,
4. enumeration constants have internal linkage .
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External Linkage Rule:
1. names having file scope, that do not comply to any of previously stated internal
linkage rules, have external linkage.
The storage class specifiers auto and register cannot appear in an external declaration. No more than one external definition can be given for each identifier in a
translation unit declared with internal linkage. An external definition is an external
declaration that defines an object or a function and also allocates a storage. If an
identifier declared with external linkage is used in an expression (other than as
part of the operand of sizeof), then exactly one external definition of that identifier must be somewhere in the entire program.
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Storage Classes
Associating identifiers with objects requires each identifier to have at least two
attributes: storage class and type (sometimes referred to as data type). The mikroC
for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compiler deduces these attributes from implicit or
explicit declarations in the source code.
A storage class dictates the location (data segment, register, heap, or stack) of
object and its duration or lifetime (the entire running time of the program, or during execution of some blocks of code). A storage class can be established by the
syntax of a declaration, by its placement in the source code, or by both of these
factors:
storage-class type identifier
The storage class specifiers in the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 are:
auto
register
static
extern
Auto
The auto modifer is used to define that a local variable has a local duration. This
is the default for local variables and is rarely used. auto can not be used with
globals. See also Functions.
Register
At the moment the modifier register technically has no special meaning. The
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compiler simply ignores requests for register
allocation..
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Static
A global name declared with the static specifier has internal linkage, meaning
that it is local for a given file. See Linkage for more information.
A local name declared with the static specifier has static duration. Use static
with a local variable to preserve the last value between successive calls to that
function. See Duration for more information.
Extern
A name declared with the extern specifier has external linkage, unless it has been
previously declared as having internal linkage. A declaration is not a definition if it
has the extern specifier and is not initialized. The keyword extern is optional for
a function prototype.
Use the extern modifier to indicate that the actual storage and initial value of the
variable, or body of the function, is defined in a separate source code module.
Functions declared with extern are visible throughout all source files in the program, unless the function is redefined as static.
See Linkage for more information.
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Type Qualifiers
Type qualifiers const and volatile are optional in declarations and do not actually affect the type of declared object.
Qualifier const
The qualifier const implies that a declared object will not change its value during
runtime. In declarations with the const qualifier all objects need to be initialized.
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 treats objects declared with the const qualifier the same as literals or preprocessor constants. If the user tries to change an
object declared with the const qualifier compiler will report an error.
For example:
const double PI = 3.14159;
Qualifier volatile
The qualifier volatile implies that a variable may change its value during runtime independently from the program. Use the volatile modifier to indicate that a
variable can be changed by a background routine, an interrupt routine, or I/O port.
Declaring an object to be volatile warns the compiler not to make assumptions
concerning the value of an object while evaluating expressions in which it occurs
because the value could be changed at any moment.
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Typedef Specifier
The specifier typedef introduces a synonym for a specified type. The typedef declarations are used to construct shorter or more convenient names for types already
defined by the language or declared by the user.
The specifier typedef stands first in the declaration:
typedef <type-definition> synonym;
The typedef keyword assigns the synonym to the <type-definition>. The
synonym needs to be a valid identifier.
A declaration starting with the typedef specifier does not introduce an object or a
function of a given type, but rather a new name for a given type. In other words,
the typedef declaration is identical to a “normal” declaration, but instead of
objects, it declares types. It is a common practice to name custom type identifiers
with starting capital letter — this is not required by the mikroC for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24.
For example:
// Let's declare a synonym for "unsigned long int":
typedef unsigned long int Distance;
// Now, synonym "Distance" can be used as type identifier:
Distance i; // declare variable i of unsigned long int
In typedef declaration, as in any declaration, you can declare several types at once.
For example:
typedef int *Pti, Array[10];
Here, Pti is synonym for type “pointer to int”, and Array is synonym for type
“array of 10 int elements”.
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asm Declaration
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 allows embedding assembly in the source
code by means of the asm declaration. The declarations _asm and __asm are also
allowed in the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 and have the same meaning.
Note that numerals cannnot be used as absolute addresses for SFR or GPR variables in assembly instructions. Symbolic names may be used instead (listing will
display these names as well as addresses).
Assembly instructions can be grouped by the asm keyword (or _asm, or __asm):
asm {
block of assembly instructions
}
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 comments (both single-line and multi-line)
are allowed in embedded assembly code.
If you plan to use a certain C variable in embedded assembly only, make sure that
it will not be eliminated by optimization process; otherwise, linker will issue an
error. This does not apply to predefined globals such as PORTB.
For example, the following code will not be compiled, as linker won’t be able to
recognize the variable myvar:
unsigned myvar;
void main() {
asm {
MOVLW 10 // just a test
MOVLW _myvar
MOVLW 0
// just a test
MOVLW _myvar+1
}
}
Adding the following line (or similar) above the asm block would let linker know
that variable is used:
if (myvar)
;
The syntax that is being used in the asm blocks is a bit different from that in version 2.0.0.0.
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Variable mangling is altered and is now more in C-manner. For example, for variable named :
- _myVar, if it is global.
- FARG_+XX, if it is local (this is myVar's actual position in the local function
frame).
- _myVar_L0(+XX), if it is a local static variable (+XX to access further individ
ual bytes).
The only types whose name remains the same in asm as it is in the mikroC for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 are constants, e.g. INTCON, PORTB, WREG, GIE, etc.
Accessing individual bytes is different as well. For example, a global variable
"g_var" of type long (i.e. 4 bytes) can be accessed like this:
MOVF
_g_var+0, 0
;puts least-significant byte of g_var in W register
MOVF
_g_var+1, 0
;second byte of _g_var; corresponds to Hi(g_var)
MOVF
_g_var+2, 0
MOVF
_g_var+3, 0
;... etc.
;Higher(g_var)
;Highest(g_var)
Syntax for retrieving address of an object is different. For objects located in flash
ROM:
MOVLW
#_g_var
MOVLW
@#_g_var
MOVLW
@@#_g_var
;... and so on.
;first byte of address
;second byte of address
;third byte of address
For objects located in RAM:
MOVLW
CONST1
MOVLW
@CONST1
... and so on.
;first byte of address
;second byte of address
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Initialization
The initial value of a declared object can be set at the time of declaration (initialization). A part of the declaration which specifies the initialization is called initializer.
Initializers for globals and static objects must be constants or constant expressions. The initializer for an automatic object can be any legal expression that evaluates to an assignment-compatible value for the type of the variable involved.
Scalar types are initialized with a single expression, which can optionally be
enclosed in braces. The initial value of an object is that of the expression; the
same constraints for type and conversions as for simple assignments are applied to
initializations too.
For example:
int i = 1;
char *s = "hello";
struct complex c = {0.1, -0.2};
// where 'complex' is a structure (float, float)
For structures or unions with automatic storage duration, the initializer must be
one of the following:
- an initializer list,
- a single expression with compatible union or structure type. In this case, the
initial value of the object is that of the expression.
For more information, refer to Structures and Unions.
Also, you can initialize arrays of character type with a literal string, optionally
enclosed in braces. Each character in the string, including the null terminator, initializes successive elements in the array. For more information, refer to Arrays.
Automatic Initialization
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 does not provide automatic initialization
for objects. Uninitialized globals and objects with static duration will take random
values from memory.
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FUNCTIONS
Functions are central to C programming. Functions are usually defined as subprograms which return a value based on a number of input parameters. Return value
of the function can be used in expressions – technically, function call is considered
to be an expression like any other.
C allows a function to create results other than its return value, referred to as side
effects. Often, the function return value is not used at all, depending on the side
effects. These functions are equivalent to procedures of other programming languages, such as Pascal. C does not distinguish between procedure and function –
functions play both roles.
Each program must have a single external function named main marking the entry
point of the program. Functions are usually declared as prototypes in standard or
user-supplied header files, or within program files. Functions have external linkage
by default and are normally accessible from any file in the program. This can be
restricted by using the static storage class specifier in function declaration (see
Storage Classes and Linkage).
Note: Check the dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Specifics for more information on functions’ limitations on the dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 micros.
Function Declaration
Functions are declared in user's source files or made available by linking precompiled libraries. The declaration syntax of the function is:
type function_name(parameter-declarator-list);
The function_name must be a valid identifier. This name is used to call the function; see Function Calls for more information.
type represents the type of function result, and can be of any standard or userdefined type. For functions that do not return value the void type should be used.
The type can be omitted in global function declarations, and function will assume
the int type by default.
Function type can also be a pointer. For example, float* means that a function
result is a pointer to float. The generic pointer void* is also allowed.
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The function cannot return an array or another function.
Within parentheses, parameter-declarator-list is a list of formal arguments that
function takes. These declarators specify the type of each function parameter. The
compiler uses this information to check validity of function calls. If the list is
empty, a function does not take any arguments. Also, if the list is void, a function
also does not take any arguments; note that this is the only case when void can be
used as an argument’s type.
Unlike variable declaration, each argument in the list needs its own type specifier
and possible qualifier const or volatile.
Function Prototypes
A function can be defined only once in the program, but can be declared several
times, assuming that the declarations are compatible. When declaring a function,
the formal argument's identifier does not have to be specified, but its type does.
This kind of declaration, commonly known as the function prototype, allows better
control over argument number, type checking and type conversions. The name of a
parameter in function prototype has its scope limited to the prototype. This allows
one parameter identifier to have different name in different declarations of the
same function:
/* Here are two prototypes of the same function: */
int test(const char*)
int test(const char*p)
// declares function test
// declares the same function test
Function prototypes are very useful in documenting code. For example, the function Cf_Init takes two parameters: Control Port and Data Port. The question is,
which is which? The function prototype:
void Cf_Init(char *ctrlport, char *dataport);
makes it clear. If a header file contains function prototypes, the user can read that
file to get the information needed for writing programs that call these functions. If
a prototype parameter includes an identifier, then the indentifier is only used for
error checking.
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Function Definition
Function definition consists of its declaration and function body. The function
body is technically a block – a sequence of local definitions and statements
enclosed within braces {}. All variables declared within function body are local to
the function, i.e. they have function scope.
The function itself can be defined only within the file scope, which means that
function declarations cannot be nested.
To return the function result, use the return statement. The statement return in
functions of the void type cannot have a parameter – in fact, the return statement
can be omitted altogether if it is the last statement in the function body.
Here is a sample function definition:
/* function max returns greater one of its 2 arguments: */
int max(int x, int y) {
return (x>=y) ? x : y;
}
Here is a sample function which depends on side effects rather than return value:
/* function converts Descartes coordinates (x,y)
to polar coordinates (r,fi): */
#include <math.h>
void polar(double x, double y, double *r, double *fi) {
*r = sqrt(x * x + y * y);
*fi = (x == 0 && y == 0) ? 0 : atan2(y, x);
return; /* this line can be omitted */
}
Function Reentrancy
Functions reentrancy is allowed. Remember that the dsPIC’s and PIC24 has stack
and memory limitations which can varies greatly between MCUs.
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Function Calls
A function is called with actual arguments placed in the same sequence as their
matching formal parameters. Use the function-call operator ():
function_name(expression_1, ... , expression_n)
Each expression in the function call is an actual argument. Number and types of
actual arguments should match those of formal function parameters. If types do
not match, implicit type conversions rules will be applied. Actual arguments can
be of any complexity, but order of their evaluation is not specified.
Upon function call, all formal parameters are created as local objects initialized by
the values of actual arguments. Upon return from a function, a temporary object is
created in the place of the call, and it is initialized by the expression of the return
statement. This means that the function call as an operand in complex expression
is treated as a function result.
If the function has no result (type void) or the result is not needed, then the function call can be written as a self-contained expression.
In C, scalar arguments are always passed to the function by value. The function
can modify the values of its formal parameters, but this has no effect on the actual
arguments in the calling routine. A scalar object can be passed by the address if a
formal parameter is declared as a pointer. The pointed object can be accessed by
using the indirection operator *.
// For example, Lcd_Init takes the address of PORT,
// so it can change the value of an actual argument:
Lcd_Init(&PORTB);
// This would be wrong; you would pass the value
// of PORT to the function:
Lcd_Init(PORTB);
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Argument Conversions
If a function prototype has not been previously declared, the mikroC for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 converts integral arguments to a function call according to
the integral widening (expansion) rules described in Standard Conversions. If a
function prototype is in scope, the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 converts the
passed argument to the type of the declared parameter according to the same conversion rules as in assignment statements.
If a prototype is present, the number of arguments must match. The types need to
be compatible only to the extent that an assignment can legally convert them. The
user can always use an explicit cast to convert an argument to a type that is
acceptable to a function prototype.
Note: If the function prototype does not match the actual function definition, the
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 will detect this if and only if that definition is
in the same compilation unit as the prototype. If you create a library of routines
with the corresponding header file of prototypes, consider including that header
file when you compile the library, so that any discrepancies between the prototypes and actual definitions will be detected.
The compiler is also able to force arguments to the proper type. Suppose you have
the following code:
int limit = 32;
char ch = 'A';
long res;
extern long func(long par1, long par2);
main() {
//...
res = func(limit, ch);
}
// function call
Since the program has the function prototype for func, it converts limit and ch to
long, using the standard rules of assignment, before it places them on the stack for
the call to func.
Without the function prototype, limit and ch would be placed on the stack as an
integer and a character, respectively; in that case, the stack passed to func will not
match size or content that func expects, which can cause problems.
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Ellipsis ('...') Operator
The ellipsis ('...') consists of three successive periods with no whitespace intervening. An ellipsis can be used in the formal argument lists of function prototypes to
indicate a variable number of arguments, or arguments with varying types. For
example:
void func (int n, char ch, ...);
This declaration indicates that func will be defined in such a way that calls must
have at least two arguments, int and char, but can also have any number of additional arguments.
Example:
#include <stdarg.h>
int addvararg(char a1,...){
va_list ap;
char temp;
va_start(ap,a1);
while( temp = va_arg(ap,char))
a1 += temp;
return a1;
}
int res;
void main() {
res = addvararg(1,2,3,4,5,0);
res = addvararg(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,0);
}//~!
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OPERATORS
Operators are tokens that trigger some computation when applied to variables and
other objects in an expression.
- Arithmetic Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Bitwise Operators
- Logical Operators
- Reference/Indirect Operators
- Relational Operators
- Structure Member Selectors
- Comma Operator ,
- Conditional Operator ? :
- Array subscript operator []
- Function call operator ()
- sizeof Operator
- Preprocessor Operators # and ##
Operators Precedence and Associativity
There are 15 precedence categories, some of them contain only one operator.
Operators in the same category have equal precedence.
If duplicates of operators appear in the table, the first occurrence is unary and the
second binary. Each category has an associativity rule: left-to-right (->), or rightto-left (<-). In the absence of parentheses, these rules resolve a grouping of
expressions with operators of equal precedence.
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Precedence
Operands
Operators
Associativity
15
2
14
1
13
2
12
2
+
11
2
10
2
9
2
8
2
&
left-to-right
7
2
^
left-to-right
6
2
|
left-to-right
5
2
&&
left-to-right
4
2
||
left-to-right
3
3
?:
left-to-right
2
2
1
2
()
!
~
&
[]
.
++
-(type)
*
<
=
&=
*=
^=
+
sizeof
/
left-to-right
->
*
right-to-left
left-to-right
%
-
left-to-right
<<
>>
left-to-right
<=
>
==
!=
/=
|=
>=
%=
+=
-=
<<=
>>=
,
left-to-right
left-to-right
right-to-left
left-to-right
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Arithmetic Operators
Arithmetic operators are used to perform mathematical computations. They have
numerical operands and return numerical results. The type technically represents
small integers, so the char variables can be used as operands in arithmetic operations. All arithmetic operators associate from left to right.
Operator
Operation
Precedence
Binary Operators
+
addition
12
-
subtraction
12
*
multiplication
13
/
division
13
%
modulus operator returns the remainder of
integer division (cannot be used with floating
points)
13
Unary Operators
+ (unary)
unary plus does not affect the operand
14
- (unary)
unary minus changes the sign of operand
14
++
increment adds one to the value of the
operand. Postincrement adds one to the value
of the operand after it evaluates; while preincrement adds one before it evaluates
14
--
decrement subtracts one from the value of the
operand. Postdecrement subtracts one from
the value of the operand after it evaluates;
while predecrement subtracts one before it
evaluates.
14
Note: Operator * is context sensitive and can also represent the pointer reference
operator. See Pointers for more information.
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Binary Arithmetic Operators
Division of two integers returns an integer, while remainder is simply truncated:
/* for example: */
7 / 4;
// equals 1
7 * 3 / 4;
// equals 5
/* but: */
7. * 3./ 4.;
// equals 5.25 as we are working with floats
Remainder operand % works only with integers; sign of result is equal to the sign
of first operand:
/* for example:
9 % 3;
//
7 % 3;
//
-7 % 3;
//
*/
equals 0
equals 1
equals -1
We can use arithmetic operators for manipulating characters:
'A' + 32;
'G' - 'A' + 'a';
// equals 'a' (ASCII only)
// equals 'g' (both ASCII and EBCDIC)
Unary Arithmetic Operators
Unary operators ++ and -- are the only operators in C which can be either prefix
(e.g. ++k, --k) or postfix (e.g. k++, k--).
When used as prefix, operators ++ and -- (preincrement and predecrement) add or
subtract one from the value of operand before the evaluation. When used as suffix,
operators ++ and -- add or subtract one from the value of operand after the evaluation.
For example:
int j = 5; j = ++k;
/* k = k + 1, j = k, which gives us j = 6, k = 6 */
int j = 5; j = k++;
/* j = k, k = k + 1, which gives us j = 5, k = 6 */
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Relational Operators
Use relational operators to test equality or inequality of expressions. If the expression evaluates to true, it returns 1; otherwise it returns 0.
All relational operators associate from left to right.
Relational Operators Overview
Operator
Operation
Precedence
==
equal
9
!=
not equal
9
>
greater than
10
<
less than
10
>=
greater than or equal
10
<=
less than or equal
10
Relational Operators in Expressions
Precedence of arithmetic and relational operators was designated in such a way to
allow complex expressions without parentheses to have expected meaning:
a + 5 >= c - 1.0 / e
// i.e. (a + 5) >= (c - (1.0 / e))
Always bear in mind that relational operators return either 0 or 1. Consider the following examples:
/* ok: */
5 > 7
/* returns 0 */
10 <= 20
/* returns 1 */
/* this can be tricky: */
8 == 13 > 5
/* returns 0, as: 8 == (13 > 5) -> 8 == 1
-> 0 */
14 > 5 < 3
/* returns 1, as: (14 > 5) < 3 -> 1 < 3
-> 1 */
a < b < 5
/* returns 1, as: (a < b) < 5 -> (0 or 1)
< 5 -> 1*/
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Bitwise Operators
Use the bitwise operators to modify the individual bits of numerical operands.
Bitwise operators associate from left to right. The only exception is the bitwise
complement operator ~ which associates from right to left.
Bitwise Operators Overview
Operator
Operation
Precedence
&
bitwise AND; compares pairs of bits and
returns 1 if both bits are 1, otherwise returns 0
8
|
bitwise (inclusive) OR; compares pairs of bits
and returns 1 if either or both bits are 1, otherwise returns 0.
6
^
bitwise exclusive OR (XOR); compares pairs
of bits and returns 1 if the bits are complementary, otherwise returns 0.
7
~
bitwise complement (unary); inverts each bit
14
<<
bitwise shift left; moves the bits to the left,
discards the far left bit and assigns 0 to the far
right bit.
11
>>
bitwise shift right; moves the bits to the right,
discards the far right bit and if unsigned
assigns 0 to the far left bit, otherwise sign
extends
11
Logical Operations on Bit Level
&
0
1
|
0
1
^
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
~
0
1
1
0
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Bitwise operators &, | and ^ perform logical operations on the appropriate pairs of
bits of their operands. Operator ~ complements each bit of its operand. For example:
0x1234 & 0x5678
/* equals 0x1230 */
/* because ..
0x1234 : 0001 0010 0011 0100
0x5678 : 0101 0110 0111 1000
---------------------------&
: 0001 0010 0011 0000
.. that is, 0x1230 */
/* Similarly: */
0x1234 | 0x5678;
0x1234 ^ 0x5678;
~ 0x1234;
/* equals 0x567C */
/* equals 0x444C */
/* equals 0xEDCB */
Note: Operator & can also be a pointer reference operator. Refer to Pointers for
more information.
Bitwise Shift Operators
Binary operators << and >> move the bits of the left operand by a number of positions specified by the right operand, to the left or right, respectively. Right operand
has to be positive.
With shift left (<<), far left bits are discarded and “new” bits on the right are
assigned zeroes. Thus, shifting unsigned operand to the left by n positions is
equivalent to multiplying it by 2n if all discarded bits are zero. This is also true for
signed operands if all discarded bits are equal to a sign bit.
000001 <<
0x3801 <<
5;
4;
/* equals 000040 */
/* equals 0x8010, overflow! */
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With shift right (>>), right most bits are discarded, and the “freed” bits on the left
are assigned zeroes (in case of unsigned operand) or the value of the sign bit (in
case of signed operand). Shifting operand to right by n positions is equivalent to
dividing it by 2n.
0xFF56 >>
0xFF56u >>
4;
4;
/* equals 0xFFF5 */
/* equals 0x0FF5 */
Bitwise vs. Logical
Be aware of the principle difference between how bitwise and logical operators
work. For example:
0222222 & 0555555;
0222222 && 0555555;
/* equals 000000 */
/* equals 1 */
~ 0x1234;
! 0x1234;
/* equals 0xEDCB */
/* equals 0 */
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Logical Operators
Operands of logical operations are considered true or false, that is non-zero or
zero. Logical operators always return 1 or 0. Operands in a logical expression
must be of scalar type.
Logical operators && and || associate from left to right. Logical negation operator
! associates from right to left.
Logical Operators Overview
Operator
Operation
Precedence
&&
logical AND
5
||
logical OR
4
!
logical negation
14
&&
0
1
||
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
!
0
1
1
0
Precedence of logical, relational, and arithmetic operators was designated in such
a way to allow complex expressions without parentheses to have an expected
meaning:
c >= '0' && c <= '9'; // reads as: (c >= '0') && (c <= '9')
a + 1 == b || ! f(x); // reads as: ((a + 1) == b) || (! (f(x)))
Logical AND && returns 1 only if both expressions evaluate to be nonzero, otherwise returns 0. If the first expression evaluates to false, the second expression will
not be evaluated. For example:
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a > b && c < d;
// reads as (a > b) && (c < d)
// if (a > b) is false (0), (c < d) will not be evaluated
Logical OR || returns 1 if either of expression evaluates to be nonzero, otherwise
returns 0. If the first expression evaluates to true, the second expression is not
evaluated. For example:
a && b || c && d; /* reads as: (a && b) || (c && d) */
/* if (a && b) is true (1), (c && d) will not be evaluated */
Logical Expressions and Side Effects
General rule regarding complex logical expressions is that the evaluation of consecutive logical operands stops at the very moment the final result is known. For
example, if we have an expression a && b && c where a is false (0), then operands
b and c will not be evaluated. This is very important if b and c are expressions, as
their possible side effects will not take place!
Logical vs. Bitwise
Be aware of the principle difference between how bitwise and logical operators
work. For example
0222222 & 0555555
0222222 && 0555555
/* equals 000000 */
/* equals 1 */
~ 0x1234
! 0x1234
/* equals 0xEDCB */
/* equals 0 */
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Conditional Operator ? :
The conditional operator ? : is the only ternary operator in C. Syntax of the conditional operator is:
expression1 ? expression2 : expression3
Expression1 evaluates first. If its value is true, then expression2 evaluates
and expression3 is ignored. If expression1 evaluates to false, then expression3 evaluates and expression2 is ignored. The result will be the value of
either expression2 or expression3 depending upon which evaluates. The fact
that only one of these two expressions evaluates is very important if you expect
them to produce side effects!
Conditional operator associates from right to left.
Here are a couple of practical examples:
/* Find max(a, b): */
max = (a > b) ? a : b;
/* Convert small letter to capital: */
/* (no parentheses are actually necessary) */
c = (c >= 'a' && c <= 'z') ? (c - 32) : c;
Conditional Operator Rules
Expression1 must be a scalar expression; expression2 and expression3
must obey one of the following rules:
1. Both expressions have to be of arithmetic type. expression2 and expression3 are
subject to usual arithmetic conversions, which determines the resulting type.
2. Both expressions have to be of compatible struct or union types. The resulting
type is a structure or union type of expression2 and expression3.
3. Both expressions have to be of void type. The resulting type is void.
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4. Both expressions have to be of type pointer to qualified or unqualified versions
of compatible types. The resulting type is a pointer to a type qualified with all
type qualifiers of the types pointed to by both expressions.
5. One expression is a pointer, and the other is a null pointer constant. The resulting type is a pointer to a type qualified with all type qualifiers of the types
pointed to by both expressions.
6. One expression is a pointer to an object or incomplete type, and the other is a
pointer to a qualified or unqualified version of void. The resulting type is that
of the non-pointer-to-void expression.
Assignment Operators
Unlike many other programming languages, C treats value assignment as operation (represented by an operator) rather than instruction.
Simple Assignment Operator
For a common value assignment, a simple assignment operator (=) is used:
expression1 = expression2
The expression1 is an object (memory location) to which the value of expression2
is assigned. Operand expression1 has to be lvalue and expression2 can be any
expression. The assignment expression itself is not lvalue.
If expression1 and expression2 are of different types, the result of the expression2
will be converted to the type of expression1, if necessary. Refer to Type
Conversions for more information.
Compound Assignment Operators
C allows more comlex assignments by means of compound assignment operators.
The syntax of compound assignment operators is:
expression1 op= expression2
where op can be one of binary operators +, -, *, /, %, &, |, ^, <<, or >>.
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Thus, we have 10 different compound assignment operators: +=, -=, *=, /=,
%=, &=, |=, ^=, <<=, and >>=. All of these associate from right to left. Spaces
separating compound operators (e.g. + =) will generate error.
Compound assignment has the same effect as
expression1 = expression1 op expression2
except the lvalue expression1 is evaluated only once. For example,
expression1 += expression2
is the same as
expression1 = expression1 + expression2
Assignment Rules
For both simple and compound assignment, the operands expression1 and expression2 must obey one of the following rules:
1. expression1 is of qualified or unqualified arithmetic type and expression2 is of
arithmetic type.
2. expression1 has a qualified or unqualified version of structure or union type
compatible with the type of expression2.
3. expression1 and expression2 are pointers to qualified or unqualified versions of
compatible types and the type pointed to by left has all qualifiers of the type
pointed to by right.
4. Either expression1 or expression2 is a pointer to an object or incomplete type
and the other is a pointer to a qualified or unqualified version of void. The type
pointed to by left has all qualifiers of the type pointed to by right.
5. expression1 is a pointer and expression2 is a null pointer constant.
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Sizeof Operator
The prefix unary operator sizeof returns an integer constant that represents the
size of memory space (in bytes) used by its operand (determined by its type, with
some exceptions). The operator sizeof can take either a type identifier or an
unary expression as an operand. You cannot use sizeof with expressions of function type, incomplete types, parenthesized names of such types, or with lvalue that
designates a bit field object.
Sizeof Applied to Expression
If applied to expression, the sizeof an operand is determined without evaluating
the expression (and therefore without side effects). The result of the operation will
be the size of the type of the expression’s result.
Sizeof Applied to Type
If applied to a type identifier, sizeof returns the size of the specified type. The unit
for type size is sizeof(char) which is equivalent to one byte.
The operation sizeof(char) gives the result 1, whether char is signed or
unsigned.
sizeof(char)
sizeof(int)
sizeof(unsigned long)
sizeof(float)
/*
/*
/*
/*
returns
returns
returns
returns
1
2
4
4
*/
*/
*/
*/
When the operand is a non-parameter of array type, the result is the total number
of bytes in the array (in other words, an array name is not converted to a pointer
type):
int i, j, a[10];
//...
j = sizeof(a[1]);
/* j = sizeof(int) = 2 */
i = sizeof(a);
/* i = 10*sizeof(int) = 20 */
/* To get the number of elements in an array: */
int num_elem = i/j;
If the operand is a parameter declared as array type or function type, sizeof gives
the size of the pointer. When applied to structures and unions, sizeof gives the
total number of bytes, including any padding. The operator sizeof cannot be
applied to a function.
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EXPRESSIONS
Expression is a sequence of operators, operands, and punctuators that specifies a
computation. Formally, expressions are defined recursively: subexpressions can be
nested without formal limit. However, the compiler will report an out-of-memory
error if it can’t compile an expression that is too complex.
In ANSI C, the primary expressions are: constant (also referred to as literal), identifier, and (expression), defined recursively.
Expressions are evaluated according to a certain conversion, grouping, associativity and precedence rules, which depends on the operators used, presence of parentheses and data types of the operands. The precedence and associativity of the
operators are summarized in Operator Precedence and Associativity. The way
operands and subexpressions are grouped does not necessarily specify the actual
order in which they are evaluated by the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24.
Expressions can produce lvalue, rvalue, or no value. Expressions might cause side
effects whether they produce a value or not.
Comma Expressions
One of the specifics of C is that it allows using of comma as a sequence operator
to form so-called comma expressions or . Comma expression is a comma-delimited list of expressions – it is formally treated as a single expression so it can be
used in places where an expression is expected. The following sequence:
expression_1, expression_2;
results in the left-to-right evaluation of each expression, with the value and type
of expression_2 giving the result of the whole expression. Result of expression_1 is discarded.
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Binary operator comma (,) has the lowest precedence and associates from left to
right, so that a, b, c is same as (a, b), c. This allows us to write sequences
with any number of expressions:
expression_1, expression_2, ... expression_n;
which results in the left-to-right evaluation of each expression, with the value
and type of expression_n giving the result of the whole expression. Results of
other expressions are discarded, but their (possible) side-effect do occur.
For example:
result = (a = 5, b /= 2, c++);
/* returns preincremented value of variable c, but also
intializes a, divides b by 2, and increments c */
result = (x = 10, y = x + 3, x--, z -= x * 3 - --y);
/* returns computed value of variable z,
and also computes x and y */
Note
Do not confuse comma operator (sequence operator) with comma punctuator
which separates elements in a function argument list and initializator lists. To
avoid ambiguity with commas in function argument and initializer lists, use parentheses. For example,
func(i, (j = 1, j + 4), k);
calls function func with three arguments (i, 5, k), not four.
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STATEMENTS
Statements specify a flow of control as the program executes. In the absence of
specific jump and selection statements, statements are executed sequentially in the
order of appearance in the source code.
Statements can be roughly divided into:
- Labeled Statements
- Expression Statements
- Selection Statements
- Iteration Statements (Loops)
- Jump Statements
- Compound Statements (Blocks)
Labeled Statements
Every statement in program can be labeled. Label is an identifier added before the
statement like this:
label_identifier : statement;
There is no special declaration of a label – it just “tags” the statement.
Label_identifier has a function scope and label cannot be redefined within
the same function.
Labels have their own namespace: label identifier can match any other identifier in
the program.
A statement can be labeled for two reasons:
1. The label identifier serves as a target for the unconditional goto statement,
2. The label identifier serves as a target for the switch statement. For this
purpose, only case and default labeled statements are used:
case constant-expression : statement
default : statement
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Expression Statements
Any expression followed by a semicolon forms an expression statement:
expression;
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 executes an expression statement by evaluating the expression. All side effects from this evaluation are completed before
the next statement starts executing. Most of expression statements are assignment
statements or function calls.
A null statement is a special case, consisting of a single semicolon (;). The null
statement does nothing, and therefore is useful in situations where the mikroC for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 syntax expects a statement but the program does not need
one. For example, a null statement is commonly used in “empty” loops:
for (; *q++ = *p++ ;);
/* body of this loop is a null statement */
Selection Statements
Selection or flow-control statements select from alternative courses of action by
testing certain values. There are two types of selection statements in C: if
and switch.
If Statement
The if statement is used to implement a conditional statement. The syntax of the
statement is:
if
if (expression) statement1 [else statement2]
If expression evaluates to true, statement1 executes. If expression is false,
statement2 executes. The expression must evaluate to an integral value; otherwise, the condition is ill-formed. Parentheses around the expression are mandatory.
The else keyword is optional, but no statements can come between if and else.
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Nested if statements
Nested if statements require additional attention. General rule is that the nested
conditionals are parsed starting from the innermost conditional, with each else
bound to the nearest available if on its left:
if (expression1) statement1
else if (expression2)
if (expression3) statement2
else statement3
/* this belongs to: if (expression3) */
else statement4
/* this belongs to: if (expression2) */
Note: #if and #else preprocessor statements (directives) look similar to if and
else statements, but have very different effects. They control which source file
lines are compiled and which are ignored.
Switch Statement
The switch statement is used to pass control to a specific program branch, based
on a certain condition. The syntax of the switch statement is:
switch (expression) {
case constant-expression_1 : statement_1;
.
.
.
case constant-expression_n : statement_n;
[default : statement;]
}
First, the expression (condition) is evaluated. The switch statement then compares it to all available constant-expressions following the keyword case. If a
match is found, switch passes control to that matching case causing the statement following the match evaluates. Note that constant-expressions must evaluate to integer. It is not possible to have two same constant expressions evaluating
to the same value.
Parentheses around expression are mandatory.
.
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Upon finding a match, program flow continues normally: the following instructions will be executed in natural order regardless of the possible case label. If no
case satisfies the condition, the default case evaluates (if the label default is
specified).
For example, if a variable i has value between 1 and 3, the following switch
would always return it as 4:
switch
case
case
case
}
(i) {
1: i++;
2: i++;
3: i++;
To avoid evaluating any other cases and relinquish control from switch, each
case should be terminated with break.
Here is a simple example with switch. Suppose we have a variable phase with
only 3 different states (0, 1, or 2) and a corresponding function (event) for each of
these states. This is how we could switch the code to the appopriate routine:
switch (state) {
case 0: Lo(); break;
case 1: Mid(); break;
case 2: Hi(); break;
default: Message("Invalid state!");
}
Nested switch
Conditional switch statements can be nested – labels case and default are then
assigned to the innermost enclosing switch statement.
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Iteration Statements
Iteration statements allows to loop a set of statements. There are three forms of
iteration statements in the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24:
- while
- do
- for
While Statement
The while keyword is used to conditionally iterate a statement. The syntax of the
while statement is:
while (expression) statement
The statement executes repeatedly until the value of expression is false. The
test takes place before statement is executed. Thus, if expression evaluates to
false on the first pass, the loop does not execute. Note that parentheses around
expression are mandatory.
Here is an example of calculating scalar product of two vectors, using the while
statement:
int s = 0, i = 0;
while (i < n) {
s += a[i] * b[i];
i++;
}
Note that body of a loop can be a null statement. For example:
while (*q++ = *p++);
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Do Statement
The do statement executes until the condition becomes false. Syntax of do statement is:
do statement while (expression);
The statement is executed repeatedly as long as the value of expression
remains non-zero. The expression is evaluated after each iteration, so the loop
will execute statement at least once.
Parentheses around expression are mandatory.
Note that do is the only control structure in C which explicitly ends with semicolon (;). Other control structures end with statement which means that they
implicitly include a semicolon or a closing brace.
Here is an example of calculating scalar product of two vectors, using the do
statement:
s = 0; i = 0;
do {
s += a[i] * b[i];
i++;
} while (i < n);
For Statement
The for statement implements an iterative loop. Syntax of for statement is:
for ([init-exp]; [condition-exp]; [increment-exp]) statement
Before the first iteration of the loop, expression init-exp sets the starting variables for the loop. You cannot pass declarations in init-exp.
Expression condition-exp is checked before the first entry into the block;
statement is executed repeatedly until the value of condition-exp is false.
After each iteration of the loop, increment-exp increments a loop counter.
Consequently, i++ is functionally the same as ++i.
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All the expressions are optional. If condition-exp is left out, it is assumed to be
always true. Thus, “empty” for statement is commonly used to create an endless
loop in C:
for ( ; ; ) statement
The only way to break out of this loop is by means of break statement.
Here is an example of calculating scalar product of two vectors, using the for
statement:
for (s = 0, i = 0; i < n; i++) s += a[i] * b[i];
You can also do it like this:
/* valid, but ugly */
for (s = 0, i = 0; i < n; s += a[i] * b[i], i++);
but this is considered a bad programming style. Although legal, calculating the
sum should not be a part of the incrementing expression, because it is not in the
service of loop routine. Note that we used a null statement (;) for a loop body.
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Jump Statements
A jump statement, when executed, transfers control unconditionally. There are four
such statements in mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24: break, continue, goto,
and return.
Break Statement
Sometimes it is necessary to stop the loop within its body. Use the break statement within loops to pass control to the first statement following the innermost
switch, for, while, or do block.
Break is commonly used in switch statements to stop its execution upon the first
positive match. For example:
switch (state) {
case 0: Lo(); break;
case 1: Mid(); break;
case 2: Hi(); break;
default: Message("Invalid state!");
}
Continue Statement
The continue statement within loops is used to “skip the cycle”. It passes control
to the end of the innermost enclosing end brace belonging to a looping construct.
At that point the loop continuation condition is re-evaluated. This means that continue demands the next iteration if the loop continuation condition is true.
Specifically, the continue statement within the loop will jump to the marked position as it is shown below:
while (..) {
...
if (val>0) continue;
...
// continue jumps
here}
do {
...
if (val>0) continue;
...
// continue jumps
here
while (..);
for (..;..;..) {
...
if (val>0) continue;
...
// continue jumps
here
}
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Goto Statement
The goto statement is used for unconditional jump to a local label — for more
information on labels, refer to Labeled Statements. The syntax of the goto statement is:
goto label_identifier;
This will transfer control to the location of a local label specified by label_identifier. The label_identifier has to be a name of the label within the same
function in which the goto statement is. The goto line can come before or after the
label.
is used to break out from any level of nested control structures but it cannot
be used to jump into block while skipping that block’s initializations – for example, jumping into loop’s body, etc.
goto
The use of goto statement is generally discouraged as practically every algorithm
can be realized without it, resulting in legible structured programs. One possible
application of the goto statement is breaking out from deeply nested control structures:
for (...) {
for (...) {
...
if (disaster) goto Error;
...
}
}
.
.
.
Error: /* error handling code */
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Return Statement
The return statement is used to exit from the current function back to the calling
routine, optionally returning a value. The syntax is:
return [expression];
This will evaluate expression and return the result. Returned value will be automatically converted to the expected function type, if needed. The expression is
optional; if omitted, the function will return a random value from memory.
Note: Statement return in functions of void type cannot have an expression –
in fact, you can omit the return statement altogether if it is the last statement in
the function body.
Compound Statements (Blocks)
The compound statement, or block, is a list (possibly empty) of statements
enclosed in matching braces { }. Syntactically, the block can be considered to be a
single statement, but it also plays a role in the scoping of identifiers. An identifier
declared within the block has a scope starting at the point of declaration and ending at the closing brace. Blocks can be nested to any depth up to the limits of
memory.
For example, the for loop expects one statement in its body, so we can pass it a
compound statement:
for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
int temp = a[i];
a[i] = b[i];
b[i] = temp;
}
Note that, unlike other statements, compound statements do not end with semicolon (;), i.e. there is never a semicolon following the closing brace.
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PREPROCESSOR
Preprocessor is an integrated text processor which prepares the source code for
compiling. Preprocessor allows:
- inserting text from a specifed file to a certain point in the code (see File
Inclusion),
- replacing specific lexical symbols with other symbols (see Macros),
- conditional compiling which conditionally includes or omits parts of the code
(see Conditional Compilation).
Note that preprocessor analyzes text at token level, not at individual character
level. Preprocessor is controled by means of preprocessor directives and preprocessor operators.
Preprocessor Directives
Any line in the source code with a leading # is taken as a preprocessing directive
(or control line), unless # is within a string literal, in a character constant, or
embedded in a comment. The initial # can be preceded or followed by a whitespace (excluding new lines).
A null directive consists of a line containing the single character #. This line is
always ignored.
Preprocessor directives are usually placed at the beginning of the source code, but
they can legally appear at any point in a program. The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24 preprocessor detects preprocessor directives and parses the tokens embedded in them. A directive is in effect from its declaration to the end of the program
file.
Here is one commonly used directive:
#include <math.h>
For more information on including files with the #include directive, refer to File
Inclusion.
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The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 supports standard preprocessor directives:
# (null directive)
#define
#elif
#else
#endif
#error
#if
#ifdef
#ifndef
#include
#line
#undef
Note: For the time being only funcall #pragma is supported.
Line Continuation with Backslash (\)
If you need to break directive into multiple lines, you can do it by ending the line
with a backslash (\):
#define MACRO
This directive continues to \
the following line.
Macros
Macros provide a mechanism for a token replacement, prior to compilation, with
or without a set of formal, function-like parameters.
Defining Macros and Macro Expansions
The #define directive defines a macro:
#define macro_identifier <token_sequence>
Each occurrence of macro_identifier in the source code following this control
line will be replaced in the original position with the possibly empty
token_sequence (there are some exceptions, which are discussed later). Such
replacements are known as macro expansions.token_sequence is sometimes called
the body of a macro. An empty token sequence results in the removal of each
affected macro identifier from the source code.
No semicolon (;) is needed to terminate a preprocessor directive. Any character
found in the token sequence, including semicolons, will appear in a macro expansion.token_sequence terminates at the first non-backslashed new line encountered.
Any sequence of whitespace, including comments in the token sequence, is
replaced with a single-space character.
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After each individual macro expansion, a further scan is made of the newly
expanded text. This allows the possibility of using nested macros: the expanded
text can contain macro identifiers that are subject to replacement. However, if the
macro expands into something that looks like a preprocessing directive, such
directive will not be recognized by the preprocessor. Any occurrences of the macro
identifier found within literal strings, character constants, or comments in the
source code will not be expanded.
A macro won’t be expanded during its own expansion (so #define MACRO
MACRO won’t expand indefinitely).
Let’s have an example:
/* Here are some simple macros: */
#define ERR_MSG "Out of range!"
#define EVERLOOP for( ; ; )
/* which we could use like this: */
main() {
EVERLOOP {
...
if (error) {Lcd_Out_Cp(ERR_MSG); break;}
...
}
}
Attempting to redefine an already defined macro identifier will result in a warning
unless the new definition is exactly the same token-by-token definition as the
existing one. The preferred strategy where definitions might exist in other header
files is as follows:
#ifndef BLOCK_SIZE
#define BLOCK_SIZE 512
#endif
The middle line is bypassed if BLOCK_SIZE is currently defined; if BLOCK_SIZE
is not currently defined, the middle line is invoked to define it.
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Macros with Parameters
The following syntax is used to define a macro with parameters:
#define macro_identifier(<arg_list>) token_sequence
Note that there can be no whitespace between macro_identifier and “(”. The
optional arg_list is a sequence of identifiers separated by commas, like the argument list of a C function. Each comma-delimited identifier has the role of a formal
argument or placeholder.
Such macros are called by writing
macro_identifier(<actual_arg_list>)
in the subsequent source code. The syntax is identical to that of a function call;
indeed, many standard library C “functions” are implemented as macros.
However, there are some important semantic differences.
The optional actual_arg_list must contain the same number of comma-delimited token sequences, known as actual arguments, as found in the formal arg_list
of the #define line – there must be an actual argument for each formal argument.
An error will be reported if the number of arguments in two lists is not the same.
A macro call results in two sets of replacements. First, the macro identifier and the
parenthesis-enclosed arguments are replaced by the token sequence. Next, any formal arguments occurring in the token sequence are replaced by the corresponding
real arguments appearing in actual_arg_list. Like with simple macro definitions, rescanning occurs to detect any embedded macro identifiers eligible for
expansion.
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Here is a simple example:
// A simple macro which returns greater of its 2 arguments:
#define _MAX(A, B) ((A) > (B)) ? (A) : (B)
// Let's call it:
x = _MAX(a + b, c + d);
/* Preprocessor will transform the previous line into:
x = ((a + b) > (c + d)) ? (a + b) : (c + d) */
It is highly recommended to put parentheses around each argument in the macro
body in order to avoid possible problems with operator precedence.
Undefining Macros
You can undefine a macro using the #undef directive.
#undef macro_identifier
Directive #undef detaches any previous token sequence from the macro_identifier; the macro definition has been forgotten, and the macro_identifier is
undefined. No macro expansion occurs within #undef lines.
The state of being defined or undefined is an important property of an identifier,
regardless of the actual definition. The #ifdef and #ifndef conditional directives, used to test whether any identifier is currently defined or not, offer a flexible
mechanism for controlling many aspects of a compilation.
After a macro identifier has been undefined, it can be redefined with #define,
using the same or a different token sequence.
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File Inclusion
The preprocessor directive #include pulls in header files (extension .h) into the
source code. Do not rely on preprocessor to include source files (extension .c) —
see Add/Remove Files from Project for more information.
The syntax of the #include directive has two formats:
#include <header_name>
#include "header_name"
The preprocessor removes the #include line and replaces it with the entire text of
a header file at that point in the source code. The placement of #include can
therefore influence the scope and duration of any identifiers in the included file.
The difference between these two formats lies in searching algorithm employed in
trying to locate the include file.
If the #include directive is used with the <header_name> version, the search is
made successively in each of the following locations, in this particular order:
1. the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 installation folder › “include” folder
2. user's custom search paths
The "header_name" version specifies a user-supplied include file; the mikroC for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 will look for the header file in the following locations, in
this particular order:
1. the project folder (folder which contains the project file .ppc)
2. the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 installation folder › “include” folder
3. user's custom search paths .
Explicit Path
If you place an explicit path in the header_name, only that directory will be
searched. For example:
#include "C:\my_files\test.h"
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Note: There is also a third version of the #include directive, rarely used, which
assumes that neither < nor " appear as the first non-whitespace character following
#include:
#include macro_identifier
It assumes that macro definition that will expand macro identifier into a valid
delimited header name with either <header_name> or "header_name" formats
exists.
Preprocessor Operators
The # (pound sign) is a preprocessor directive when it occurs as the first nonwhitespace character on a line. Also, # and ## perform operator replacement and
merging during the preprocessor scanning phase.
Operator #
In C preprocessor, a character sequence enclosed by quotes is considered a token
and its content is not analyzed. This means that macro names within quotes are not
expanded.
If you need an actual argument (the exact sequence of characters within quotes) as
a result of preprocessing, use the # operator in macro body. It can be placed in
front of a formal macro argument in definition in order to convert the actual argument to a string after replacement.
For example, let’s have macro LCD_PRINT for printing variable name and value on
LCD:
#define LCD_PRINT(val) Lcd_Custom_Out_Cp(#val ": "); \
Lcd_Custom_Out_Cp(IntToStr(val));
(note the backslash as a line-continuation symbol)
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Now, the following code,
LCD_PRINT(temp)
will be preprocessed to this:
Lcd_Out_Cp("temp" ": "); Lcd_Out_Cp(IntToStr(temp));
Operator ##
Operator ## is used for token pasting. Two tokens can be pasted(merged) together
by placing ## in between them (plus optional whitespace on either side). The preprocessor removes whitespace and ##, combining the separate tokens into one
new token. This is commonly used for constructing identifiers.
For example, see the definition of macro SPLICE for pasting two tokens into one
identifier:
#define SPLICE(x,y) x ## _ ## y
Now, the call SPLICE(cnt, 2) expands to identifier cnt_2.
Note: mikroC does not support the older nonportable method of token pasting
using (l/**/r).
Conditional Compilation
Conditional compilation directives are typically used to make source programs
easy to change and easy to compile in different execution environments. The
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 supports conditional compilation by replacing
the appropriate source-code lines with a blank line.
All conditional compilation directives must be completed in the source or include
file in which they have begun.
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Directives #if, #elif, #else, and #endif
The conditional directives #if, #elif, #else, and #endif work very similar to the
common C conditional statements. If the expression you write after #if has a
nonzero value, the line group immediately following the #if directive is retained
in the translation unit.
Syntax is:
#if constant_expression_1
<section_1>
[#elif constant_expression_2
<section_2>]
...
[#elif constant_expression_n
<section_n>]
[#else
<final_section>]
#endif
Each #if directive in a source file must be matched by a closing #endif directive.
Any number of #elif directives can appear between #if and #endif directives,
but at most one #else directive is allowed. The #else directive, if present, must
be the last directive before #endif.
can be any program text that has meaning to compiler or preprocessor.
The preprocessor selects a single section by evaluating constant_expression following each #if or #elif directive until it finds a true (nonzero) constant expression. The constant expressions are subject to macro expansion.
sections
If all occurrences of constant-expression are false, or if no #elif directives
appear, the preprocessor selects the text block after the #else clause. If the #else
clause is omitted and all instances of constant_expression in the #if block are
false, no section is selected for further processing.
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Any processed section can contain further conditional clauses, nested to any
depth. Each nested #else, #elif, or #endif directive belongs to the closest preceding #if directive.
The net result of the preceding scenario is that only one code section (possibly
empty) will be compiled.
Directives #ifdef and #ifndef
The #ifdef and #ifndef directives can be used anywhere #if can be used and
they can test whether an identifier is currently defined or not. The line
#ifdef identifier
has exactly the same effect as #if 1 if identifier is currently defined, and the same
effect as #if 0 if identifier is currently undefined. The other directive, #ifndef,
tests true for the “not-defined” condition, producing the opposite results.
The syntax thereafter follows that of #if, #elif, #else, and #endif.
An identifier defined as NULL is considered to be defined.
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CHAPTER
4
mikroC for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 Libraries
mikroC for dsPIC provides a number of built-in and library routines which help you develop
your application faster and easier. ADC Library, Advanced SPI Ethernet Library, CAN Library,
CANSPI Library, Compact Flash Library, DSP Library,Enhanced CAN Library, EEPROM
Library, Flash Memory Library, Graphic LCD Library, I²C Library, Keypad Library, LCD
Custom Library, LCD8 Custom Library, Manchester Code Library, Multi Media Card Library,
OneWire Library,Port Expander Library, PS/2 Library, PWM Library, PWM Motor Library,
RS-485 Library, Software I²C Library,Software SPI Library, Software UART Library, Sound
Library, SPI Library, SPI Ethernet Library, SPI Graphic LCD Library,SPI LCD Library, SPI
LCD8 Library, SPI T6963C Graphic LCD Library, T6963C Graphic LCD Library, UART
Library,ANSI C Ctype Library, ANSI C Math Library, ANSI C Stdlib Library, ANSI C String
Library, Miscellaneous Libraries,Conversions Library, Setjmp Library, Sprint Library, Time
Library, Trigonometry Library, Util Library and Built-in Routines are included along with practical, ready-to-use code examples.
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BUILT-IN ROUTINES
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 compiler provides a set of useful built-in
utility functions.
The Lob, Hib, Higherb, Highestb, Lo and Hi routines are implemented as macros.
If you want to use these functions you must include built_in.h header file (located in the inlclude folder of the compiler) into your project.
The Delay_us and Delay_ms routines are implemented as “inline”; i.e. code is
generated in the place of a call, so the call doesn’t count against the nested call
limit.
The Vdelay_ms, Delay_Cyc and Get_Fosc_kHz are actual C routines. Their
sources can be found in Delays.c file located in the uses folder of the compiler.
Lob
Hib
Higherb
Highestb
Lo
Hi
Delay_us
Delay_ms
Vdelay_ms
Delay_Cyc
Get_Fosc_kHz
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Lob
Prototype
unsigned short Lob(unsigned long number);
Returns
Low byte of number, bits 7..0.
Description
The function returns low byte of number. The function does not interpret bit patterns of
number – it merely returns 8 bits as found in register.This is an “inline” routine; code is
generated in the place of the call, so the call doesn’t count against the nested call limit.
Parameters : number - input number
Requires
Nothing.
Example
unsigned char tmp
unsigned long d = 0xB1AC30F4;
...
tmp = Lob(d); // tmp equals to 0xF4
Hib
Prototype
unsigned short Hib(unsigned long number);
Returns
High byte of number, bits 15..8.
Description
The function returns high byte of number. The function does not interpret bit patterns of
number – it merely returns 8 bits as found in register. This is an “inline” routine; code is
generated in the place of the call, so the call doesn’t count against the nested call limit.
Parameters : number - input number
Requires
Nothing.
Example
unsigned char tmp
unsigned long d = 0xB1AC30F4;
...
tmp = Hib(d); // tmp equals to 0x30
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Higherb
Prototype
unsigned short Higherb(unsigned long number);
Returns
Higher byte of number, bits 23..16.
Description
The function returns higher byte of number. The function does not interpret bit patterns
of number – it merely returns 8 bits as found in register. This is an “inline” routine;
code is generated in the place of the call, so the call doesn’t count against the nested call
limit. Parameters : number: input number
Requires
Nothing.
Example
unsigned char tmp
unsigned long d = 0xB1AC30F4;
...
tmp = Higherb(d); // tmp equals to 0xAC
Highestb
Prototype
unsigned short Highestb(unsigned long number);
Returns
Highest byte of number, bits 31..24.
Description
The function returns highest byte of number. The function does not interpret bit patterns
of number – it merely returns 8 bits as found in register. This is an “inline” routine;
code is generated in the place of the call, so the call doesn’t count against the nested call
limit. Parameters : number - input number.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
unsigned char tmp
unsigned long d = 0xB1AC30F4;
...
tmp = Highestb(d); // tmp equals to 0xB1
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Hi
Prototype
unsigned int Hi(unsigned long number);
Returns
High word of number, bits 31..16.
Description
The function returns high word of number. The function does not interpret bit patterns
of number – it merely returns 8 bits as found in register. This is an “inline” routine;
code is generated in the place of the call, so the call doesn’t count against the nested call
limit. Parameters : number: input number.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
unsigned tmp
unsigned long d = 0xB1AC30F4;
...
tmp = Hi(d); // tmp equals to 0xB1AC
Lo
Prototype
unsigned int Lo(unsigned long number);
Returns
Low word of number, bits 15..0.
Description
The function returns low word of number. The function does not interpret bit patterns of
number – it merely returns 8 bits as found in register.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of the call, so the call doesn’t
count against the nested call limit. Parameters : number: input number.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
unsigned tmp
unsigned long d = 0xB1AC30F4;
...
tmp = Lo(d); // tmp equals to 0x30F4
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Delay_us
Prototype
void Delay_us(const unsigned long time_in_us);
Description
Creates a software delay in duration of time_in_us microseconds.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of the call, so the call doesn’t
count against the nested call limit. Parameters : time_in_us: delay time in microseconds. Valid values: constant values, range of applicable constants depends on the oscillator frequency.
Example
Delay_us(10);
/* Ten microseconds pause */
Delay_ms
Prototype
void Delay_ms(const unsigned int time_in_ms);
Description
Creates a software delay in duration of time_in_ms microseconds. This is an “inline”
routine; code is generated in the place of the call, so the call doesn’t count against the
nested call limit. Parameters : time_in_ms: delay time in milliseconds. Valid values:
constant values, range of applicable constants depends on the oscillator frequency
Note: For generating delays with variable as input parameter use the Vdelay_ms routine.
Example
Delay_ms(1000);
/* One second pause */
Vdelay_ms
Prototype
void Vdelay_ms(unsigned Time_ms);
Description
Creates a software delay in duration of Time_ms milliseconds. Generated delay is not as
precise as the delay created by Delay_ms. Parameters - Time_ms: delay time in milliseconds. Note: Vdelay_ms is a library function rather than a built-in routine; it is presented in this topic for the sake of convenience.
Example
unsigned pause = 1000;
...
Vdelay_ms(pause); // ~ one second pause
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Delay_Cyc
Prototype
void Delay_Cyc(unsigned int x, unsigned int y);
Description
Creates a delay based on MCU clock. Delay lasts for x*16384 + y MCU clock cycles.
Parameters :
x: NumberOfCycles divided by 16384
y: remaining of the NumberOfCycles/16384 division
Note: Delay_Cyc is a library function rather than a built-in routine; it is presented in this
topic for the sake of convenience.
Example
Delay_Cyc(1, 10);
/* 1x16384 + 10 = 16394 cycles pause */
Get_Fosc_kHz
Prototype
unsigned long Get_Fosc_kHz(void);
Returns
Device clock in KHz.
Description
The function returns device clock in KHz, rounded to the nearest integer.
Note: Get_Fosc_kHz is a library function rather than a built-in routine; it is presented
in this topic for the sake of convenience.
Example
unsigned long clk;
...
clk = Clock_Khz();
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LIBRARY ROUTINES
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a set of libraries which simplifies the
initialization and use of dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCU and its modules.
Currently available libraries are:
-
ADC Library
Advanced SPI Ethernet Library CAN Library
CANSPI Library
Compact Flash Library
DSP Library
Enhanced CAN Library
EEPROM Library
Flash Memory Library
Graphic LCD Library
I²C Library
Keypad Library
LCD Custom Library
LCD8 Custom Library
Manchester Code Library
Multi Media Card Library
OneWire Library
Port Expander Library
PS/2 Library
PWM Library
PWM Motor Library
RS-485 Library
Software I²C Library
Software SPI Library
Software UART Library
Sound Library
SPI Library
SPI Ethernet Library
SPI Graphic LCD Library
SPI LCD Library
SPI LCD8 Library
SPI T6963C Graphic LCD Library
T6963C Graphic LCD Library
UART Library
ANSI
ANSI
ANSI
ANSI
C
C
C
C
Ctype Library
Math Library
Stdlib Library
String Library
Conversions Library
Setjmp Library
Sprint Library
Time Library
Trigonometry Library
Util Library
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ADC Library
ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) module is available with a number of
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCU modules. ADC is an electronic circuit that converts
continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. ADC Library provides you a comfortable work with the module.
Library Routines
dsPIC30 and PIC24FJ Functions
ADC_Read
dsPIC33F and PIC24HJ Functions
Adc1_Read
Adc2_Read
Adc_Read
dsPIC30 and PIC24FJ Functions
Adc_Read
Prototype
unsigned Adc_Read(unsigned channel);
Returns
10-bit or 12-bit (MCU dependent) unsigned value from the specified channel.
Description
The function reads the specified analog channel input. The internal ADC dsPIC30F and
PIC24FJ module is set to:
- single channel conversion
- unsigned integer data format
- auto-convert
- VRef+ : AVdd, VRef- : AVss
- instruction cycle clock
- conversion clock : 32*Tcy
- auto-sample time : 31TAD;
Parameters : channel represents the channel from which the analog value is to be
acquired. Refer to the appropriate Datasheet for channel-to-pin mapping.
Note: The function sets the appropriate bit in the ADPCFG registers to enable analog
function of the chosen pin.
Requires
The dsPIC30F and PIC24FJ MCU with built-in ADC module. A Datasheet documentation for specific device should be consulted. Before using the function, be sure to configure the appropriate TRISx bits to designate pins as inputs.
Example
unsigned ch_1;
...
ch_1 = Adc_Read(1);
/* read analog value from channel 1 */
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dsPIC33F and PIC24HJ Functions
Adc1_Read
Prototype
unsigned Adc1_Read(unsigned channel, unsigned AdcMode)
Returns
10-bit or 12-bit (MCU dependent) unsigned value from the specified channel.
Description
The function reads the specified analog channel input. This library works with ADC1
module.
The internal ADC dsPIC33FJ and PIC24HJ module is set to:
- single channel conversion
- unsigned integer data format
- auto-convert
- VRef+ : AVdd, VRef- : AVss
- instruction cycle clock
- conversion clock : 32*Tcy
- auto-sample time : 31TAD;
Parameters :
channel represents the channel from which the analog value is to be acquired. Refer to
the appropriate Datasheet for channel-to-pin mapping.
AdcMode represents ADC resolution. Valid values: ADC_10bit and ADC_12bit. These
are library predefined constants, ADC_10bit=0 and ADC_12bit=1.
Note: The function sets the appropriate bit in the ADPCFG registers to enable analog
function of the chosen pin.
Requires
The dsPIC33FJ and PIC24HJ MCU with built-in ADC1 module. A Datasheet documentation for specific device should be consulted. Before using the function, be sure to configure the appropriate TRISx bits to designate pins as inputs.
Example
unsigned ch_1;
...
ch_1 = Adc1_Read(1,ADC_10bit);
/* read analog value from channel 1 in 10-bit resolution */
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Adc2_Read
Prototype
unsigned Adc2_Read(unsigned channel, unsigned AdcMode)
Returns
10-bit or 12-bit (MCU dependent) unsigned value from the specified channel.
Description
The function reads the specified analog channel input. This library works with the
ADC2 module.
The internal ADC dsPIC33FJ and PIC24HJ module is set to:
- single channel conversion
- unsigned integer data format
- auto-convert
- VRef+ : AVdd, VRef- : AVss
- instruction cycle clock
- conversion clock : 32*Tcy
- auto-sample time : 31TAD;
Parameters :
channel represents the channel from which the analog value is to be acquired. Refer to
the appropriate Datasheet for channel-to-pin mapping.
AdcMode represents ADC resolution. Valid values: ADC_10bit and ADC_12bit. These
are library predefined constants, ADC_10bit=0 and ADC_12bit=1.
Note: The function sets the appropriate bit in the ADPCFG registers to enable analog
function of the chosen pin.
Requires
The dsPIC33FJ and PIC24HJ MCU with built-in ADC2 module. A Datasheet documentation for specific device should be consulted. Before using the function, be sure to configure the appropriate TRISx bits to designate pins as inputs.
Example
unsigned ch_1;
...
ch_1 = Adc2_Read(1,ADC_12bit);
/* read analog value from channel 1 in 12-bit resolution */
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Adc_Read
Prototype
unsigned Adc_Read(unsigned channel, unsigned AdcMode)
Returns
10-bit or 12-bit (MCU dependent) unsigned value from the specified channel.
Description
This function calls Adc1_Read. It is kept to maintain backwards compatibility with previous versions of the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24.
Requires
The dsPIC33FJ and PIC24HJ MCU with built-in ADC1 module. A Datasheet documentation for specific device should be consulted. Before using the function, be sure to configure the appropriate TRISx bits to designate pins as inputs.
Example
unsigned ch_1;
...
ch_1 = Adc_Read(1, ADC_12bit);
// read analog value from ADC1 module channel 1 in 12-bit res.
Library Example
dsPIC30 and PIC24FJ Functions
This code snippet reads analog value from the channel 10 and sends its lower byte
to UART1.
unsigned adcRes;
char txt[6];
void Uart1_Write_Text(char *txt_to_wr) {
while (*txt_to_wr)
Uart1_Write_Char(*(txt_to_wr++));
}
void main() {
TRISBbits.TRISB10 = 1; // set pin as input - needed for ADC to work
Uart1_Init(9600);
while (1) {
adcRes = Adc_Read(10);
WordToStr(adcRes, txt);
Uart1_Write_Text(txt);
Delay_ms(50);
}
}//~!
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dsPIC33F and PIC24HJ Functions
In this simple example, the analog input value is read from the channel 1 in 12-bit
resolution and sent to USART.
unsigned adcRes;
char txt[6];
void Uart1_Write_Text(char *txt_to_wr) {
while (*txt_to_wr)
Uart1_Write_Char(*(txt_to_wr++));
}
void main() {
TRISBbits.TRISB1 = 1; // set pin as input - needed for ADC to work
Uart1_Init(9600);
while (1) {
adcRes = Adc1_Read(1, ADC_12bit);
WordToStr(adcRes, txt);
Uart1_Write_Text(txt);
Delay_ms(50);
}
}//~!
}
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RG13
RG15
RC1
RC2
RC3
RC4
RG6
RG7
RG8
MCLR
RG9
Vss
Vdd
RA12
RA13
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
10K
VCC
dsPIC30F6014A
RC14
RC13
RD0
RD11
RD10
RD9
RD8
RA15
RA14
Vss
OSC2
OSC1
Vdd
RG2
RG3
RF6
RF7
RF8
RF2
RF3
RB6
RB7
RA9
RA10
AVdd
AVss
RB8
RB9
RB10
RB11
Vss
Vdd
RB12
RB13
RB14
RB15
RD14
RD15
RF4
RF5
Reset
RG12
RG14
RA7
RA6
RG0
RG1
RF1
RF0
Vdd
Vss
RD7
RD6
RD5
RD4
RD13
RD12
RD3
RD2
RD1
Hardware Connection
VCC
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Advanced SPI Ethernet Library
This library is designed to simplify handling of the underlying hardware
(ENC28J60). However, certain level of knowledge about the Ethernet and
Ethernet-based protocols (ARP, IP, TCP/IP, UDP/IP, ICMP/IP) is expected from
the user. The Ethernet is a high–speed and versatile protocol, but it is not a simple
one. Once you get used to it, however, you will make your favorite dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 available to a much broader audience than you could do with the
RS232/485 (UART) or CAN.
The ENC28J60 is a stand-alone Ethernet controller with an industry standard
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI™). It is designed to serve as an Ethernet network
interface for any controller equipped with SPI.
The ENC28J60 meets all of the IEEE 802.3 specifications. It incorporates a number of packet filtering schemes to limit incoming packets. It also provides an internal DMA module for fast data throughput and hardware assisted IP checksum calculations. Communication with the host controller is implemented via two interrupt pins and the SPI, with data rates of up to 10 Mb/s. Two ENC28J60 pins are
dedicated for LED link and network activity indication.
Note: This library uses TIMER1 for timeout logic.
Library Routines
Ethernet Initialization
EthSetMACAddr
EthSetIPAddr
EthSetIPMask
EthSetGateWayAddr
EthInit
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Media Access Control Layer (MAC)
MACInit
MACIsTxReady
MACGetHeader
MACGet
MACGetArray
MACDiscardRx
MACPutHeader
MACPut
MACPutArray
MACFlush
MACDiscardTx
MACSetTxBuffer
MACSetRxBuffer
MACReserveTxBuffer
MACGetFreeRxSize
MACSetDuplex
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP and ARPTask)
ARPGet
ARPPut
ARPInit
Internet Protocol (IP)
IPIsTxReady
IPSetTxBuffer
IPPutHeader
IPPutArray
IPGetHeader
IPGetArray
IPSetRxBuffer
Internet Control Message Protocol(ICMP)
ICMPIsTxReady
ICMPPut
ICMPGet
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Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
TCPInit
TCPListen
TCPConnect
TCPIsConnected
TCPDisconnect
TCPIsPutReady
TCPPut
TCPFlush
TCPGet
TCPGetArray
TCPDiscard
TCPProcess
TCPTick
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
UDPInit
UDPOpen
UDPClose
UDPIsPutReady
UDPPut
UDPFlush
UDPIsGetReady
UDPGet
UDPDiscard
UDPProcess
UDPWrite
UDPRead
UDPOpenSocket
Other
StackInit
StackTask
HTTPInit
HTTPServer
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EthSetMACAddr
Prototype
void EthSetMACAddr(char MACByte1, char MACByte2, char MACByte3,
char MACByte4, char MACByte5, char MACByte6);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This routine sets MAC address.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// Sets MAC address
EthSetMACAddr(00,02,04,06,08,10);
EthSetIPAddr
Prototype
void EthSetIPAddr(char IpByte1, char IpByte2, char IpByte3, char
IpByte4);
Description
This routine sets IP address.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// Sets IP address
EthSetIPAddr(192,168,20,1);
EthSetIPMask
Prototype
void EthSetIPMask(char IPMaskByte1, char IPMaskByte2, char
IPMaskByte3, char IPMaskByte4);
Description
This routine sets IP address mask.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// Sets address mask
EthSetIPMask(255,255,255,0);
EthSetGateWayAddr
Prototype
void EthSetGateWayAddr(char GateWayByte1, char GateWayByte2, char
GateWayByte3, char GateWayByte4);
Description
This routine sets Gateway IP address.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// Sets Gateway IP address
EthSetGateWayAddr(192,168,20,1);
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EthInit
Prototype
void EthInit(unsigned int * RstPort, unsigned int RstPin,
unsigned int* CSPort, unsigned int CSPin);
Description
This routine initializes NIC and global variable needed for Ethernet connection.
Requires
EthSetMACAddr, EthSetIPAddr, EthSetIPMask need to be set before calling this routine. Calling EthSetGateWayAddr before this routine is optional.
Example
// Initializes Ethernet connection
EthInit(PORTF,0,PORTF,1);
MACInit
Prototype
void MACInit(unsigned int * RstPort, unsigned int RstPin,
unsigned int* CSPort, unsigned int CSPin);
Description
This function initializes MAC layer. It initializes internal buffers and resets the NIC to a
known state. All pending transmissions and receptions are discarded.
Requires
As specified for the entire library (MAC.c).
Example
// Initialize MAC Module
MACInit(PORTF,0,PORTF,1);
MACIsTxReady
Prototype
char MACIsTxReady();
Returns
(!=0) - If at least one MAC transmit buffer is empty.
(==0) - If all MAC transmit buffers are full.
Description
This function indicates whether at least one MAC transmit buffer is empty or not.
Requires
As specified for the entire library (MAC.c).
Example
// Check MAC transmit readiness...
if ( MACIsTxReady() )
{
// Transmit buffer is empty, transmit a message.
...
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MACGetHeader
Prototype
char MACGetHeader(MAC_ADDR *remote, unsigned char *type);
Returns
(!=0) : If a data packet is received and found to be valid. All parameters are populated.
(==0) : If no data packet is received or found to be invalid.
Description
This function checks the MAC receive buffer; if any packet is found, it returns the
remote host and data packet information. Remote specifies Remote MAC address and
type represents Data packet type. Possible values for type parameter are: MAC_IP (An
IP data packet is received), MAC_ARP (An ARP data packet is received)
MAC_UNKNOWN (An unknown or unsupported data packet is received).
Requires
As specified for the entire library (MAC.c).
Example
// Get possible data packet info.
if ( MACGetHeader(&RemoteNodeMAC, &PacketType) )
{
// A packet is received, process it.
...
// Once done, discard it.
MACDiscardRx();
...
MACGet
Prototype
unsigned char MACGet();
Returns
Data byte.
Description
This function returns the next byte from an active transmit or receive buffer.
Requires
MACGetHeader, MACPutHeader, MACSetRxBuffer or MACSetTxBuffer must be
called.
Example
// Get possible data packet info.
if ( MACGetHeader(&RemoteNode, &PacketType) )
{
// A packet is received, process it.
data = MACGet();
...
// When done, discard it.
MACDiscardRx();
...
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MACGetArray
Prototype
unsigned int MACGetArray(unsigned char *val, unsigned int len);
Returns
Total number of bytes fetched.
Description
This function fetches an array of bytes from the active transmit or receive buffer. val
represents pointer to a byte array and len represents number of bytes to fetch.
Requires
MACGetHeader, MACPutHeader,MACSetRxBuffer or MACSetTxBuffer must be
called.
Example
// Get possible data packet info.
if ( MACGetHeader(&RemoteNode, &PacketType) )
{
// A packet is received, process it.
actualCount = MACGetArray(data, count);
...
MACDiscardRx
Prototype
void MACDiscardRx();
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This function discards the active receive buffer data and marks that buffer as free.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// Get possible data packet info.
if ( MACGetHeader(&RemoteNode, &PacketType) )
{
// A packet is received, process it.
actualCount = MACGetArray(data, count);
...
// Done processing it. Discard it.
MACDiscardRx();
...
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MACPutHeader
Prototype
void MACPutHeader(MAC_ADDR *remote, unsigned char type, unsigned
int dataLen);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This function assembles the MAC header and loads it to an active transmit buffer.
remote - Remote node MAC address, type - Type of data packet being sent. Possible
values for this parameter are: MAC_IP(An IP data packet is to be transmitted) and
MAC_ARP(An ARP data packet is to be transmitted), data - Number of bytes for this
packet, including IP header.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// Check to see if at least one transmit buffer is empty
if ( MACIsTxReady() )
{
// Assemble IP packet with total IP packet size of 100 bytes
// including IP header.
MACPutHeader(&RemoteNodeMAC, MAC_IP, 100);
...
MACPut
Prototype
void MACPut(unsigned char val);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This function loads the given data byte into an active transmit or receive buffer. val Data byte to be written.
Requires
MACGetHeader, MACPutHeader, MACSetRxBuffer or MACSetTxBuffer must be
called.
Example
// Check to see if at least one transmit buffer is empty
if ( MACIsTxReady() )
{
// Assemble IP packet with total IP packet size of 100 bytes
// including IP header.
MACPutHeader(&RemoteNodeMAC, MAC_IP, 100);
// Now put the actual IP data bytes
MACPut(0x55);
...
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MACPutArray
Prototype
void MACPutArray(unsigned char *val, unsigned int len);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This function writes an array of data bytes into an active transmit or receive buffer. val
- Data bytes to be written. len - Total number of bytes to write.
Requires
MACGetHeader, MACPutHeader, MACSetTxBuffer or MACSetRxBuffer must be
called.
Example
// Check to see if at least one transmit buffer is empty
if ( MACIsTxReady() )
{
// Assemble IP packet with total IP packet size of 100 bytes
// including IP header.
MACPutHeader(&RemoteNodeMAC, MAC_IP, 100);
// Now put the actual IP data bytes
MACPut(0x55);
MACPutArray(data, count);
...
MACFlush
Prototype
void MACFlush();
Description
This function marks active transmit buffer as ready for transmission.
Requires
MACPutHeader or MACSetTxBuffer must have been called.
Example
// Check to see if at least one transmit buffer is empty
if ( MACIsTxReady() )
{
// Assemble IP packet with total IP packet size of 100 bytes
// including IP header.
MACPutHeader(&RemoteNodeMAC, MAC_IP, 100);
// Put the actual IP data bytes
MACPut(0x55);
MACPutArray(data, count);
...
// Now transmit it.
MACFlush();
...
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MACDiscardTx
Prototype
void MACDiscardTx(BUFFER buffer);
Description
This function discards given transmit buffer content and marks it as free.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// Check to see if at least one transmit buffer is empty
if ( MACIsTxReady() )
{
// Assemble IP packet with total IP packet size of 100 bytes
// including IP header.
MACPutHeader(&RemoteNodeMAC, MAC_IP, 100);
// Get current transmit buffer
buffer = MACGetTxBuffer();
// Reserve it.
MACReserveTxBuffer (Buffer);
// Put the actual IP data bytes
...
// Now transmit it.
MACFlush();
// No longer need this buffer
MACDiscardTx(buffer);
...
MACSetRxBuffer
Prototype
void MACSetRxBuffer(unsigned int offset);
Description
This function sets the access location for the active receive buffer. offset - Location
(with respect to beginning of buffer) where next access is to occur.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// Get possible data packet info.
if ( MACGetHeader(&RemoteNode, &PacketType) )
{
// A packet is received, process it.
actualCount = MACGetArray(data, count);
...
// Fetch data beginning at offset 20
MACSetRxBuffer(20);
data = MACGet();
...
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MACSetTxBuffer
Prototype
void MACSetTxBuffer(BUFFER buffer, unsigned int offset);
Description
This function sets the access location for a given transmit buffer and makes that transmit
buffer active. buffer - A transmit buffer where this access offset will be applied. offset - Location (with respect to beginning of buffer) where next access is to occur.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// Check to see if at least one transmit buffer is empty
if ( MACIsTxReady() )
{
// Assemble IP packet with total IP packet size of 100 bytes
// including IP header.
MACPutHeader(&RemoteNodeMAC, MAC_IP, 100);
// Get current transmit buffer
buffer = MACGetTxBuffer();
// Put the actual IP data bytes
...
//Calculate the checksum of data packet that is being transmitted
...
// Now update the checksum in this packet.
// To update the checksum, set transmit buffer access to checksum
MACSetTxBuffer(buffer, checksumLocation);
...
// Now transmit it.
MACFlush();
...
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MACReserveTxBuffer
Prototype
void MACReserveTxBuffer(BUFFER buffer);
Description
This function reserves a given transmit buffer and marks it as unavailable. This function
is useful for TCP layer where a message would be queued until it is correctly acknowledged by remote host. buffer - A transmit buffer to reserve. This value must be a valid
transmit buffer identifier as returned by MACGetTxBuffer function.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// Check to see if at least one transmit buffer is empty
if ( MACIsTxReady() )
{
// Transmit IP packet with total IP packet size of 100 bytes
// including IP header.
MACPutHeader(&RemoteNodeMAC, MAC_IP, 100);
// Get current transmit buffer
buffer = MACGetTxBuffer();
// Reserve it, to be discarded when ACK is received.
MACReserveTxBuffer(buffer);
// Put the actual IP data bytes
...
//Calculate the checksum of data packet that is being transmitted
...
// Now update the checksum in this packet.
// To update the checksum, set transmit buffer access to checksum
MACSetTxBuffer(buffer, checksumLocation);
...
// Now transmit it.
MACFlush();
...
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MACGetFreeRxSize
Prototype
unsigned int MACGetFreeRxSize();
Returns
Total number of bytes available for future data packets.
Description
This function returns total receive buffer size available for future data packets.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// Get available receive buffer size
freeRxBuffer = MACGetFreeRxSize();
MACSetDuplex
Prototype
void MACSetDuplex(DUPLEX DuplexState);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This routine sets FULL-DUPLEX or HALF-DUPLEX communication mode. Input
value can be 1 for FULL-DUPLEX, 0 for HALF-DUPLEX and 2 for NIC defined communication mode.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
MACSetDuplex(1); //FULL-DUPLEX communication is set
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ARPGet
Prototype
char ARPGet(NODE_INFO *remote, unsigned char *opCode);
Returns
(!=0) - If a valid ARP packet that was addressed to local host was fetched; remote and
opCode contain valid values.
(==0) - Either unknown ARP code was fetched or this packet was not addressed to local
host.
Description
This function fetches complete ARP packet and returns necessary information. remote Remote node information such as MAC and IP addresses. opCode - ARP code. Possible
values for this parameter are: ARP_REPLY ("ARP Reply" packet is received),
ARP_REQUEST (“ARP Request” packet is received), ARP_UNKNOWN (An
unknown ARP packet is received).
Requires
MACGetHeader is already called AND Received MAC packet type == MAC_ARP
Example
// If MAC packet is received...
if ( MACGetHeader(&RemoteNode, &PacketType) )
{
// If this is an ARP packet, fetch it.
If ( PacketType == MAC_ARP )
{
// This is ARP packet.
ARPGet(&RemoteNode, &ARPCode);
...
ARPPut
Prototype
void ARPPut(NODE_INFO *remote, unsigned char opCode);
Description
This function loads MAC buffer with valid ARP packet. remote - Remote node information such as MAC and IP addresses. opCode - ARP code. Possible values for this parameter are: ARP_REPLY (Transmit this packet as "ARP Reply"), ARP_REQUEST
(Transmit this packet as "ARP Request").
Requires
ARPIsTxReady == TRUE
Example
// Check to see if transmit buffer is available
if ( ARPIsTxReady() )
{
// Transmit it
ARPPut(&RemoteNode, ARP_REQUEST);
...
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ARPInit
Prototype
void ARPInit();
Description
This function initializes the ARPTask state machine and prepares it to handle ARP
requests and replies.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// Initialize ARPTask
ARPInit();
...
IPIsTxReady
Prototype
char IPIsTxReady();
Returns
(!=0) - If there is at least one transmit buffer empty.
(==0) - If there is no empty transmit buffer.
Description
This is a macro that calls MACIsTxReady in turn.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// If IP transmit buffer is ready, transmit IP packet
if ( IPIsTxReady() )
{
// Assemble IP packet.
IPPutHeader(&Remote, MAC_TCP, IPPacketLen);
...
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IPSetTxBuffer
Prototype
void IPSetTxBuffer(BUFFER buffer, unsigned int offset);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This is a macro to allow higher level layer set transmit buffer access pointer. This macro
takes IP header into account before calling MACSetTxBuffer. buffer - Transmit buffer
identifier whose access pointer is to be set. offset - An offset with respect to IP Data.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// If IP transmit buffer is ready, transmit IP packet
if ( IPIsTxReady() )
{
// Assemble IP packet.
IPPutHeader(&Remote, MAC_TCP, IPPacketLen);
// Get current transmit buffer id.
buffer = MACGetTxBuffer();
// Load transmit data
...
// Calculate checksum checkHi:checkLo
...
// Update the checksum.
IPSetTxBuffer(buffer, checkLocation);
MACPut (checkHi);
MACPut (checkLo);
...
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IPPutHeader
Prototype
unsigned int IPPutHeader(NODE_INFO *remote, char protocol,
unsigned int len);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This function assembles a valid IP header and loads it into active transmit buffer. remote
- Remote node information such as MAC and IP addresses. protocol - Protocol to use
for this data packet. Possible values for this parameter are: IP_PROT_ICMP (Assemble
this packet as ICMP), IP_PROT_TCP (Assemble this packet as TCP segment),
IP_PROT_UDP (Assemble this packet as UDP segment). len - Total length of IP data
bytes, excluding IP header.
Requires
IPIsTxReady == TRUE
Example
// Check to see if transmit buffer is available
if ( IPIsTxReady() )
{
// Load the header
IPPutHeader(&RemoteNode, IP_PROT_ICMP, ICMP_HEADER_SIZE+dataLen);
// Load ICMP data
IPPutArray(ICMPData, dataLen);
// Mark it as ready to be transmitted
MACFlush();
...
IPPutArray
Prototype
void IPPutArray(char *buffer, unsigned int len);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This macro loads an array of bytes into the active transmit buffer. buffer - Data array
to be loaded. len - Total number of items in data array.
Requires
IPIsTxReady == TRUE
Example
// Check to see if transmit buffer is available
if ( IPIsTxReady() )
{
// Load the header
IPPutHeader(&RemoteNode, IP_PROT_ICMP, ICMP_HEADER_SIZE+dataLen);
// Load ICMP data
IPPutArray(ICMPData, dataLen);
// Mark it as ready to be transmitted
MACFlush();
...
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IPGetHeader
Prototype
char IPGetHeader(IP_ADDR *localIP, NODE_INFO *remote, char *protocol, unsigned int *len);
Returns
(!=0) - A valid IP packet was received. Remote IP address, packet protocol and packet
length parameters are populated.
(==0) - An invalid IP packet was received. Parameters are not populated.
Description
This function fetches the IP header from the active transmit buffer and validates it.
localIP - Local node information such as MAC and IP addresses, remote - Remote
node information such as MAC and IP addresses, protocol - Protocol associated with
this IP packet. Possible values for this parameter are: IP_PROT_ICMP (This is an ICMP
packet), IP_PROT_TCP (This is a TCP packet), IP_PROT_UDP (This is a UDP packet),
all others Unknown protocol. len - Total length of IP data in this packet.
Requires
MACGetHeader == TRUE
Example
// Check to see if any packet is ready
if ( MACGetHeader(&RemoteMACAddr, &PacketType) )
{
// Check what kind of protocol it is
if ( PacketType == MAC_IP )
{
// This is IP packet. Fetch it.
IPGetHeader(&Local, &Remote, &IPProtocol, &IPLen);
// Process this IP packet.
...
// When done processing this packet, discard it
MACDiscardRx();
}
else
{
// This is not an IP packet. Handle it
...
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IPGetArray
Prototype
unsigned int IPGetArray(char *val, unsigned int len);
Returns
Total number of bytes fetched.
Description
This macro fetches an array of bytes from an active transmit or receive buffer. val data buffer. len - Number of bytes to fetch.
Requires
IPGetHeader, IPPutHeader, IPSetRxBuffer or IPSetTxBuffer must be called.
Example
// Check to see if any packet is ready
if ( MACGetHeader(&RemoteMACAddr, &PacketType) )
{
// Check what kind of protocol it is
if ( PacketType == MAC_IP )
{
// This is IP packet. Fetch it.
IPGetHeader(&Remote, &IPProtocol, &IPLen);
// Get 20 bytes of data
IPGetArray(IPData, 20);
...
// When done processing this packet, discard it
MACDiscardRx();
}
else
{
// This is not an IP packet. Handle it
...
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IPSetRxBuffer
Prototype
void IPSetRxBuffer(unsigned int offset);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This macro allows a higher level layer to set the receive buffer access pointer. It takes
the IP header into account before calling MACSetRxBuffer. offset - An offset with
respect to IP Data.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// Check to see if any packet is ready
if ( MACGetHeader(&RemoteMACAddr, &PacketType) )
{
// Check what kind of protocol it is
if ( PacketType == MAC_IP )
{
// This is IP packet. Fetch it.
IPGetHeader(&Remote, &IPProtocol, &IPLen);
// Fetch 20th byte within IP data.
IPSetRxBuffer(20);
data = MACGet();
...
// When done processing this packet, discard it
MACDiscardRx();
}
else
{
// This is not an IP packet. Handle it
...
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ICMPIsTxReady
Prototype
char ICMPIsTxReady();
Returns
(!=0) - If there is at least one transmit buffer empty.
(==0) - If there is no empty transmit buffer.
Description
This macro determines if at least one transmit buffer is empty.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// If IP transmit buffer is ready, transmit IP packet
if ( ICMPIsTxReady() )
{
// Transmit ICMP packet.
...
ICMPPut
Prototype
void ICMPPut(NODE_INFO *remote, ICMP_CODE code, char *data, char
len, unsigned int id, unsigned int seq);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This function assembles a valid ICMP packet and transmits it. remote - Remote node
information such as MAC and IP addresses, code - ICMP code to be used for this ICMP
packet. Possible values for this parameter are: ICMP_ECHO_REPLY (This is an ICMP
Echo reply packet), ICMP_ECHO_REQUEST (This is an ICMP Echo request packet).
data - ICMP data. len - ICMP data length. id - ICMP packet identifier. seq - ICMP
packet sequence number.
Requires
IPIsTxReady == TRUE
Example
// Check to see if transmit buffer is available
if ( ICMPIsTxReady() )
{
// Transmit ICMP packet.
ICMPPut(&RemoteNode, ICMP_ECHO_REPLY, data, datalen, id, seq);
// Done. ICMP is put into transmit queue.
...
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ICMPGet
Prototype
void ICMPGet(NODE_INFO *remote, ICMP_CODE *code, char *data, char
*len, unsigned int *id, unsigned int *seq);
Returns
(!=0) - A valid ICMP packet was received. All parameters are populated.
(==0) - An invalid ICMP packet was received. Parameters are not populated.
Description
This function fetches the ICMP header from the active transmit buffer and validates it.
remote - Remote node information such as MAC and IP addresses. code - ICMP code
for received ICMP packet. Possible values for this parameter are: ICMP_ECHO_REPLY
(An ICMP Echo reply packet is received), ICMP_ECHO_REQUEST (An ICMP Echo
request packet is received), for all others (An unknown/unsupported packet is received).
data - ICMP data. len - ICMP data length. id - ICMP packet identifier. seq - ICMP
packet sequence number.
Requires
IPGetHeader == TRUE
PacketType == IP_PROT_ICMP
Example
// Check to see if any packet is ready
if ( IPGetHeader(&Remote, &IPProtocol, &IPLen) )
{
// Check what kind of protocol it is
if ( IPProtocol == IP_PROT_ICMP )
{
// This is ICMPP packet. Fetch it.
ICMPGet(&ICMPCode, data, &dataLen, &id, &seq);
// Process this ICMP packet.
...
// When done processing this packet, discard it
MACDiscardRx();
}
else
{
// This is not an ICMP packet. Handle it
...
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TCPInit
Prototype
void TCPInit();
Description
This function initializes the TCP state machine and prepares it for multiple TCP connections.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// Initialize TCP
TCPInit();
TCPListen
Prototype
TCP_SOCKET TCPListen(TCP_PORT port);
Returns
A valid socket identifier if there is at least one free socket. INVALID_SOCKET if there
is no socket available.
Description
This function assigns one of the available sockets to listen on given TCP port. port TCP Port number on which to listen.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
...
switch(smState)
{
case SM_LISTEN:
// Listen for HTTP requests.
httpSocket = TCPListen(80);
If ( httpSocket == INVALID_SOCKET )
{
// Socket is not available
// Return error.
...
}
else
smState = SM_LISTEN_WAIT;
return;
case SM_LISTEN_WAIT:
// Wait for connection...
...
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TCPConnect
Prototype
TCP_SOCKET TCPConnect(NODE_INFO *remote, TCP_PORT port);
Returns
A valid socket identifier if there is at least one free socket. INVALID_SOCKET if there
is no socket available.
Description
This function initiates a connection request to a remote host on a given remote port.
remote - Remote host that needs to be connected. port - TCP Port number on remote
host to connect to.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
...
switch(smState)
{
case SM_CONNECT:
// Connect to a remote FTP server.
ftpSocket = TCPConnect(&RemoteNode, 21);
If ( ftpSocket == INVALID_SOCKET )
{
// Socket is not available
// Return error.
}
else
smState = SM_CONNECT_WAIT;
return;
case SM_CONNECT_WAIT:
// Wait for connection...
...
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TCPIsConnected
Prototype
char TCPIsConnected(TCP_SOCKET socket);
Returns
(!=0) If given socket is connected to remote host.
(==0) If given socket is not connected to remote host.
Description
This function determines whether a given socket is connected to remote host or not.
socket - Socket identifier for which the connection is to be checked.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
switch(smState)
{
case SM_CONNECT:
// Connect to a remote FTP server.
ftpSocket = TCPConnect(&RemoteNode, 21);
If ( ftpSocket == INVALID_SOCKET )
{
// Socket is not available
// Return error.
}
else
smState = SM_CONNECT_WAIT;
return;
case SM_CONNECT_WAIT:
// Wait for connection...
if ( TCPIsConnected(ftpSocket) )
smState = SM_CONNECTED;
return;
...
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TCPDisconnect
Prototype
void TCPDisconnect(TCP_SOCKET socket);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This function requests remote host to disconnect.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
switch(smState)
{
case SM_CONNECT:
// Connect to a remote FTP server.
ftpSocket = TCPConnect(&RemoteNode, 21);
If ( ftpSocket == INVALID_SOCKET )
{
// Socket is not available
// Return error.
}
else
smState = SM_CONNECT_WAIT;
return;
case SM_CONNECT_WAIT:
// Wait for connection...
if ( TCPIsConnected(ftpSocket) )
smState = SM_CONNECTED;
return;
case SM_CONNECTED:
// Send data
...
// Disconnect
TCPDisconnect(ftpSocket);
...
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TCPIsPutReady
Prototype
char TCPIsPutReady(TCP_SOCKET socket);
Returns
(!=0) - If given socket is ready to transmit.
(==0) - If given socket is not connected or there is no transmit buffer ready.
Description
This function determines if a socket is ready to transmit. A socket is ready to transmit
when it is connected to a remote host and its transmit buffer is empty. socket - Socket
identifier that needs to be checked.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
...
switch(smState)
{
case SM_CONNECT:
// Connect to a remote FTP server.
ftpSocket = TCPConnect(&RemoteNode, 21);
If ( ftpSocket == INVALID_SOCKET )
{
// Socket is not available
// Return error.
}
else
smState = SM_CONNECT_WAIT;
return;
case SM_CONNECT_WAIT:
// Wait for connection...
if ( TCPIsConnected(ftpSocket) )
smState = SM_CONNECTED;
return;
case SM_CONNECTED:
// Send data
if ( TCPIsPutReady(ftpSocket) )
{
// Send data
...
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TCPPut
Prototype
char TCPPut(TCP_SOCKET socket, char byte);
Returns
(!=0) - If a given data byte was successfully loaded into the transmit buffer and there is
room for more data.
(==0) - If a given data byte was successfully loaded into the transmit buffer and there is
no room for more data.
Description
This function loads a data byte into the transmit buffer for a given socket. socket Socket identifier that needs to be checked. byte - Data byte to be loaded.
Requires
TCPIsPutReady == TRUE
Example
...
switch(smState)
{
case SM_CONNECT:
// Connect to a remote FTP server.
ftpSocket = TCPConnect(&RemoteNode, 21);
If ( ftpSocket == INVALID_SOCKET )
{
// Socket is not available
// Return error.
}
else
smState = SM_CONNECT_WAIT;
return;
case SM_CONNECT_WAIT:
// Wait for connection...
if ( TCPIsConnected(ftpSocket) )
smState = SM_CONNECTED;
return;
case SM_CONNECTED:
// Send data
if ( TCPIsPutReady(ftpSocket) )
{
// Send data
TCPPut(ftpSocket, dataByte);
...
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TCPFlush
Prototype
void TCPFlush(TCP_SOCKET socket);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This function marks given socket transmit buffer as ready to be transmitted. socket Socket identifier that needs to be transmitted.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
...
switch(smState)
{
case SM_CONNECT:
// Connect to a remote FTP server.
ftpSocket = TCPConnect(&RemoteNode, 21);
If ( ftpSocket == INVALID_SOCKET )
{
// Socket is not available
// Return error.
}
else
smState = SM_CONNECT_WAIT;
return;
case SM_CONNECT_WAIT:
// Wait for connection...
if ( TCPIsConnected(ftpSocket) )
smState = SM_CONNECTED;
return;
case SM_CONNECTED:
// Send data
if ( TCPIsPutReady(ftpSocket) )
{
// Send data
TCPPut(ftpSocket, dataByte);
...
// Now transmit it.
TCPFlush(ftpSocket);
...
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TCPIsGetReady
Prototype
char TCPIsGetReady(TCP_SOCKET socket);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
(!=0) - If given socket contains receive data.
(==0) - If given socket does not contain any data.
Requires
This function determines if the given socket contains receive data. socket - Socket
identifier that needs to be transmitted.
Example
...
switch(smState)
{
case SM_LISTEN:
// Listen to HTTP socket
httpSocket = TCPListen(&RemoteNode, 80);
If ( httpSocket == INVALID_SOCKET )
{
// Socket is not available
// Return error.
}
else
smState = SM_LISTEN_WAIT;
return;
case SM_LISTEN_WAIT:
// Wait for connection...
if ( TCPIsConnected(httpSocket) )
smState = SM_CONNECTED;
return;
case SM_CONNECTED:
// Fetch data
if ( TCPIsGetReady(httpSocket) )
{
// Fetch data
...
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TCPGet
Prototype
char TCPGet(TCP_SOCKET socket, char *byte);
Returns
(!=0) - If a byte was read.
(==0) - If no byte was read.
Description
This function fetches one data byte from a given socket receive buffer. socket - Socket
identifier that needs to be fetched. byte - Data byte that was read.
Requires
TCPIsGetReady == TRUE
Example
...
switch(smState)
{
case SM_LISTEN:
// Listen to HTTP socket
httpSocket = TCPListen(&RemoteNode, 80);
If ( httpSocket == INVALID_SOCKET )
{
// Socket is not available
// Return error.
}
else
smState = SM_LISTEN_WAIT;
return;
case SM_LISTEN_WAIT:
// Wait for connection...
if ( TCPIsConnected(httpSocket) )
smState = SM_CONNECTED;
return;
case SM_CONNECTED:
// Fetch data
if ( TCPIsGetReady(httpSocket) )
{
// Fetch data
TCPGet(httpSocket, &dataByte);
...
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TCPGetArray
Prototype
unsigned int TCPGetArray(TCP_SOCKET socket, char *byte, unsigned
int count);
Returns
Total number of data bytes read.
Description
This function fetches a data array from a given socket receive buffer. socket - Socket
identifier that needs to be fetched. byte - Data array that was read. count - Total number of bytes to read.
Requires
TCPIsGetReady == TRUE
Example
...
switch(smState)
{
case SM_LISTEN:
// Listen to HTTP socket
httpSocket = TCPListen(&RemoteNode, 80);
If ( httpSocket == INVALID_SOCKET )
{
// Socket is not available
// Return error.
}
else
smState = SM_LISTEN_WAIT;
return;
case SM_LISTEN_WAIT:
// Wait for connection...
if ( TCPIsConnected(httpSocket) )
smState = SM_CONNECTED;
return;
case SM_CONNECTED:
// Fetch data
if ( TCPIsGetReady(httpSocket) )
{
// Fetch 20 bytes of data
TCPGetArray(httpSocket, buffer, 20);
...
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TCPDiscard
Prototype
char TCPDiscard(TCP_SOCKET socket);
Returns
(!=0) - If receive buffer for given was successfully discarded.
(==0) - If receive buffer for given buffer was already discarded.
Description
This function releases the receive buffer associated with a given socket. socket - Socket
identifier that needs to be transmitted.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
...
switch(smState)
{
case SM_LISTEN:
// Listen to HTTP socket
httpSocket = TCPListen(&RemoteNode, 80);
If ( httpSocket == INVALID_SOCKET )
{
// Socket is not available
// Return error.
}
else
smState = SM_LISTEN_WAIT;
return;
case SM_LISTEN_WAIT:
// Wait for connection...
if ( TCPIsConnected(httpSocket) )
smState = SM_CONNECTED;
return;
case SM_CONNECTED:
// Fetch data
if ( TCPIsGetReady(httpSocket) )
{
// Fetch 20 bytes of data
TCPGetArray(httpSocket, buffer, 20);
// Process data.
...
// Release the buffer.
TCPDiscard(httpSocket);
...
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TCPProcess
Prototype
char TCPProcess(NODE_INFO *remote, unsigned int len);
Returns
(!=0) - If this function (task) has completely processed current packet.
(==0) - If this function (task) has partially processed current packet.
Description
This function acts as "TCPTask". It fetches an already received TCP packet and executes
the TCP State machine for matching sockets. This function must be called only when a
TCP packet is received.
Requires
IPGetHeader == TRUE
IPProtocol = IP_PRO_TCP
Example
...
switch(smState)
{
case SM_STACK_IDLE:
if ( MACGetHeader(&RemoveMAC, &MACFrameType) )
{
if ( MACFrameType == MAC_IP )
smState = SM_STACK_IP;
...
return;
case SM_STACK_IP:
if ( IPGetHeader(&RemoteNode, &IPFrameType, &IPDataCount) )
{
if ( IPFrameType == IP_PROT_TCP )
smState = SM_STACK_TCP;
...
return;
case SM_STACK_TCP:
if ( TCPProcess(&RemoteNode, IPDataCount) )
smState = SM_STACK_IDLE;
return;
...
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TCPTick
Prototype
void TCPTick();
Description
This function acts as another "TCPTask" in addition to TCPProcess. This function
checks time-out conditions for all sockets and attempts to recover from them.
Requires
IPGetHeader == TRUE
IPProtocol = IP_PRO_TCP
Example
TCPTick();
UDPInit
Prototype
void UDPInit();
Description
This function initializes the UDP module and prepares it for multiple UDP connections.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// Initialize UDP
UDPInit();
UDPOpen
Prototype
UDP_SOCKET UDPOpen(UDP_PORT localPort, NODE_INFO *remoteNode,
TCP_PORT remotePort);
Returns
A valid socket identifier if there is at least one free socket. INVALID_UDP_SOCKET if
there is no socket available.
Description
This function prepares the next available UDP socket on a given port for possible data
transfer. Either the local or remote node may initiate the data transfer. localPort - Local
UDP port number on which data transfer will occur. remoteNode - Remote host that
contains remotePort. remotePort - UDP Port number on remote host to transfer the data
to and from.
Example
...
switch(smState)
{
case SM_OPEN:
// Talk to a remote DHCP server.
DHCPSocket = UDPOpen(68, &DHCPServerNode, 67);
If ( DHCPSocket == INVALID_UDP_SOCKET )
{
// Socket is not available. Return error.
}
else // Broadcast DHCP Broadcast message.
break;
...
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UDPClose
Prototype
void UDPClose(UDP_SOCKET socket);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This function closes a given UDP socket and declares it as a free socket. socket Identifier of socket that needs to be closed.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
...
switch(smState)
{
case SM_OPEN:
// Talk to a remote DHCP server.
DHCPSocket = UDPOpen(68, &DHCPServerNode, 67);
If ( DHCPSocket == INVALID_UDP_SOCKET )
{
// Socket is not available
// Return error.
}
else
// Send DHCP request...
...
// Close the socket
UDPClose(DHCPSocket);
break;
...
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UDPIsPutReady
Prototype
char UDPIsPutReady(UDP_SOCKET socket);
Returns
(!=0) - If a given socket is ready to transmit.
(==0) - If there is no transmit buffer ready.
Description
This macro determines if a given socket is ready to transmit. A socket is ready to transmit when at least one of the MAC transmit buffers is empty. It also sets the given socket
as an active UDP socket. socket - Identifier of the socket that needs to be checked and
set active.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
...
switch(smState)
{
case SM_OPEN:
// Talk to a remote DHCP server.
DHCPSocket = UDPOpen(68, &DHCPServerNode, 67);
If ( DHCPSocket == INVALID_UDP_SOCKET )
{
// Socket is not available
// Return error.
}
else
// Broadcast DHCP Broadcast message.
smState = SM_BROADCAST;
break;
case SM_BROADCAST:
if ( UDPIsPutReady(DHCPSocket) )
{
// Socket is ready to transmit. Transmit the data...
...
}
break;
...
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UDPPut
Prototype
char UDPPut(unsigned char byte);
Returns
(!=0) - If a given data byte was successfully loaded into the transmit buffer and there is
room for more data.
(==0) - If a given data byte was successfully loaded into the transmit buffer and there is
no room for more data.
Description
This function loads a data byte into the transmit buffer for an active socket. byte - Data
byte to be loaded.
Requires
UDPIsPutReady == TRUE
Example
...
switch(smState)
{
case SM_OPEN:
// Talk to a remote DHCP server.
DHCPSocket = UDPOpen(68, &DHCPServerNode, 67);
If ( DHCPSocket == INVALID_UDP_SOCKET )
{
// Socket is not available
// Return error.
}
else
// Broadcast DHCP Broadcast message.
smState = SM_BROADCAST;
break;
case SM_BROADCAST:
if ( UDPIsPutReady(DHCPSocket) )
{
// Socket is ready to transmit. Transmit the data...
// Note that there is DHCPSocket parameter in UDPPut.
// This UDPPut call will use active socket
// as set by UDPIsPutReady() - that is DHCPSocket.
UDPPut(0x55);
...
}
break;
...
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UDPFlush
Prototype
void UDPFlush();
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This function marks the active socket transmit buffer as ready to be transmitted.
Requires
UDPPut() is already called and the requested UDP socket is set as the active socket by
calling UDPIsPutReady().
Example
...
switch(smState)
{
case SM_OPEN:
// Talk to a remote DHCP server.
DHCPSocket = UDPOpen(68, &DHCPServerNode, 67);
If ( DHCPSocket == INVALID_UDP_SOCKET )
{
// Socket is not available
// Return error.
}
else
// Broadcast DHCP Broadcast message.
smState = SM_BROADCAST;
break;
case SM_BROADCAST:
if ( UDPIsPutReady(DHCPSocket) )
{
// Socket is ready to transmit. Transmit the data...
// Note that there is DHCPSocket parameter in UDPPut.
// This UDPPut call will use active socket
// as set by UDPIsPutReady() - that is DHCPSocket.
UDPPut(0x55);
...
// Now transmit it.
UDPFlush();
}
break;
...
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UDPIsGetReady
Prototype
char UDPIsGetReady(UDP_SOCKET socket);
Returns
(!=0) - If a given socket contains received data.
(==0) - If a given socket does not contain any data.
Description
This function determines if the given socket contains received data. It also sets a given
socket as an active socket. socket - Identifier for the socket that needs to be transmitted and set active.
Requires
UDPOpen() is already called. The value of socket must be that returned by UDPOpen()
call.
Example
switch(smState)
{
case SM_OPEN:
// Talk to a remote DHCP server.
DHCPSocket = UDPOpen(68, &DHCPServerNode, 67);
If ( DHCPSocket == INVALID_UDP_SOCKET )
{
// Socket is not available
// Return error.
}
else
// Wait for response from DHCP server
smState = SM_WAIT_FOR_DATA;
break;
case SM_WAIT_FOR_DATA:
if ( UDPIsGetReady(DHCPSocket) )
{
// Socket does contain some data. Fetch it and process it.
...
}
break;
...
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UDPGet
Prototype
char UDPGet(unsigned char *byte);
Returns
(!=0) If a byte was read.
(==0) If no byte was read.
Description
This function fetches one data byte from an active socket receive buffer. byte - Data
byte that was read.
Requires
UDPIsGetReady == TRUE
Example
...
switch(smState)
{
case SM_OPEN:
// Talk to a remote DHCP server.
DHCPSocket = UDPOpen(68, &DHCPServerNode, 67);
If ( DHCPSocket == INVALID_UDP_SOCKET )
{
// Socket is not available
// Return error.
}
else
// Wait for response from DHCP server
smState = SM_WAIT_FOR_DATA;
break;
case SM_WAIT_FOR_DATA:
if ( UDPIsGetReady(DHCPSocket) )
{
// Socket does contain some data. Fetch it all.
// buffer is a pointer to BYTE.
while( UDPGet(buffer) )
buffer++;
// Process it.
...
// Discard the socket buffer.
...
}
break;
...
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UDPDiscard
Prototype
char UDPDiscard();
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This function releases the receive buffer associated with an active socket.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
...
switch(smState)
{
case SM_OPEN:
// Talk to a remote DHCP server.
DHCPSocket = UDPOpen(68, &DHCPServerNode, 67);
If ( DHCPSocket == INVALID_UDP_SOCKET )
{
// Socket is not available
// Return error.
}
else
// Wait for response from DHCP server
smState = SM_WAIT_FOR_DATA;
break;
case SM_WAIT_FOR_DATA:
if ( UDPIsGetReady(DHCPSocket) )
{
// Socket does contain some data. Fetch it all.
// buffer is a pointer to BYTE.
while( UDPGet(buffer) )
buffer++;
// Process it..
...
// Discard the socket buffer.
UDPDiscard();
}
break;
...
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UDPProcess
Prototype
char UDPProcess(NODE_INFO *remote, unsigned int len);
Returns
(!=0) - If this function (task) has completely processed the current packet.
(==0) - If this function (task) has partially processed the current packet.
Description
This function acts as “UDPTask”. It fetches an already received UDP packet and assigns
it to a matching UDP socket. This function must be called only when a UDP packet is
received. remote - Remote node from which the current UDP packet was received. len
- Total length of UDP packet length, including UDP header.
Requires
IPGetHeader == TRUE
IPProtocol = IP_PRO_UDP
Example
...
switch(smState)
{
case SM_STACK_IDLE:
if ( MACGetHeader(&RemoveMAC, &MACFrameType) )
{
if ( MACFrameType == MAC_IP )
smState = SM_STACK_IP;
...
return;
case SM_STACK_IP:
if ( IPGetHeader(&RemoteNode, &IPFrameType, &IPDataCount) )
{
if ( IPFrameType == IP_PROT_UDP )
smState = SM_STACK_UDP;
...
return;
case SM_STACK_UDP:
if ( UDPProcess(&RemoteNode, IPDataCount) )
smState = SM_STACK_IDLE;
return;
...
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UDPWrite
Prototype
unsigned char UDPWrite(unsigned int UDPSocket, char * UDPBuffer,
char NoBytes);
Returns
Number of written bytes.
Description
Sends data over UDP protocol. UDPSocket - Writes data to this socket. UDPBuffer Data to be sent. NoBytes.
Requires
Requires UDPInit and UDPOpenSocket.
Example
socket = UDPOpenSocket(10001, 192,168,20,1, 10001);
//assign socket for UDP protocol
numofbytes = UDPWrite(socket, mydata);
UDPRead
Prototype
unsigned char UDPRead(unsigned int UDPSocket, char * UDPBuffer);
Returns
Number of read bytes.
Description
Reads data over UDP protocol. UDPSocket - Reads data from this socket. UDPBuffer Data to be read.
Requires
Requires UDPInit and UDPOpenSocket.
Example
socket = UDPOpenSocket(10001, 192,168,20,1, 10001);
//assign socket for UDP protocol
numofbytes = UDPRead(socket, mydata);
UDPOpenSocket
Prototype
unsigned int UDPOpenSocket(unsigned int LocUDPPort, char
RemoteIPByte1, char RemoteIPByte2, char RemoteIPByte3, char
RemoteIPByte4, unsigned int RemUDPPort);
Returns
Number of initialized UDP socket.
Description
Opens socket for UDP communication with remote node. LocUDPPort - NIC Udp port,
RemoteIPByte1 ... RemoteIPByte4 - Remote host IP address, RemUDPPort Remote host UDP port.
Requires
Requires UDPInit.
Example
socket = UDPOpenSocket(10001, 192,168,20,1, 10001);
//assign socket for UDP protocol
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StackInit
Prototype
void StackInit(unsigned int * RstPort, unsigned int RstPin,
unsigned int* CSPort, unsigned int CSPin);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This routine initializes stack and its components.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
StackInit(PORTF, 0, PORTF, 1); //initialize stack
StackTask
Prototype
void StackTask(void);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This routine executes Stack FSM.
Requires
StackInit() must be called before calling this routine.
Example
StackTask();
HTTPInit
Prototype
void HTTPInit(void);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This routine initializes HTTP protocol.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
HTTPInit();
HTTPServer
Prototype
void HTTPServer(void);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This routine starts HTTP server.
Requires
HTTPInit(); must be called before using this routine.
Example
HTTPServer();
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
Library Example
The following example is a simple demonstration of the SPI Ethernet Library.
dsPIC is assigned an IP address of 192.168.20.25 and will respond to ping if connected to a local area network.
#include "SerEth.h"
//#include "Tick.h"
#define BaudRate 9600
#define DefaultUDPPort 10001
void *CopyConst2Ram(void * dest, const void * sors, unsigned char
n)
{
char *
ramptr;
const char *
constptr;
constptr = sors;
ramptr = dest;
while(n--)
*ramptr++ = *constptr++;
return dest;
}
unsigned int main_socket;
static char Buffer0[8];
static char Buffer1[8];
void Interrupt_T1 (void) org 0x001A
{
TimeOutUpdate();
}
static void ReadAnalogInputs(void)
{
unsigned int ADCResult;
ADCResult = Adc_Read(0);
IntToStr(ADCResult, Buffer0);
ADCResult = Adc_Read(1);
IntToStr(ADCResult, Buffer1);
}
#define DISPLAY
(0)
// continues...
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// continued...
#define
#define
#define
#define
#define
#define
LED_D2
LED_D3
ANALOGINPUT_0
ANALOGINPUT_1
SETLED_D2
SETLED_D3
(0x00)
(0x01)
(0x02)
(0x03)
(0x04)
(0x05)
const char HTTP_DEFAULT_PAGE[] = "CENTER.HTM";
const char EXECUTE_PAGE[] = "EXECUTE.CGI";
const char UNKNOWN_PAGE[] = "UNKNOWN.HTM";
void HTTPExecCmd(unsigned char** argv, unsigned char argc)
{
char command;
char var;
command = argv[0][0] - '0';
switch(command)
{
case DISPLAY:
var = argv[1][0] - '0';
switch(var)
{
case LED_D2:
LATDbits.LATD2 ^= 1;
break;
case LED_D3:
LATDbits.LATD3 ^= 1;
break;
}
CopyConst2Ram((void*)argv[0],
(const void*)EXECUTE_PAGE, sizeof(EXECUTE_PAGE));
break;
default:
CopyConst2Ram((void*)argv[0],
(const void*)UNKNOWN_PAGE, sizeof(UNKNOWN_PAGE));
break;
}
}
//continues...
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// continued...
unsigned int HTTPGetVar(char var, unsigned int ref, char* val)
{
switch(var)
{
case LED_D2:
*val = LATDbits.LATD2 ? '1':'0';
break;
case LED_D3:
*val = LATDbits.LATD3 ? '1':'0';
break;
case ANALOGINPUT_0:
*val = Buffer0[(char)ref];
if ( Buffer0[(char)ref] == '\0' )
return 0xFFFF;
(char)ref++;
return ref;
case ANALOGINPUT_1:
*val = Buffer1[(char)ref];
if ( Buffer1[(char)ref] == '\0' )
return 0xFFFF;
(char)ref++;
return ref;
case SETLED_D2:
*val = LATDbits.LATD2 ? '0':'1';
break;
case SETLED_D3:
*val = LATDbits.LATD3 ? '0':'1';
break;
}
return 0xFFFF;
}
char Bbuffer[20] = "
char i = 0;
";
// continues..
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// continued...
void main(void)
{
static unsigned long t = 0;
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
PORTD = 0;
TRISD = 0;
// Set up analog inputs
TRISBbits.TRISB0 = 1;
TRISBbits.TRISB1 = 1;
// Set up the LEDs.
LATD = 0x00;
LATDbits.LATD2 = 1;
LATDbits.LATD3 = 1;
TRISD = 0x00;
// Initialize Usart module
Uart1_Init(19200);
U1MODEbits.ALTIO = 1;
Delay_ms(100);
// Enable interrupts
INTCON1bits.NSTDIS = 1;
EthSetIPAddr(192, 168, 20, 60);
EthSetMACAddr(0x00, 0x02, 0x04, 0x06, 0x08, 0x0A);
EthSetIPMask(0xFF, 0xFF, 0xFF, 0x00);
EthSetGateWayAddr(192, 168, 20, 60);
EthInit( &PORTF, 0, &PORTF, 1);
// Open UDP communication sockets needed
main_socket = UDPOpenSocket(DefaultUDPPort, 192, 168, 20, 1,
DefaultUDPPort);
while(1)
{
if ( TickGetDiff(TickGet(), t) >= TICK_SECOND/2 )
{
t = TickGet();
LATDbits.LATD0 ^= 1;
}
StackTask();
// Process incoming UDP packets and send a reply if needed.
// User specific code.
if(i = UDPRead(main_socket, Bbuffer)) {
Bbuffer[i] = 0;
UDPWrite(main_socket, Bbuffer, strlen(Bbuffer));
}
HTTPServer();
ReadAnalogInputs();
}
}
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Hardware Connection
VCC
VCC3.3
VCC3.3
100nF
1
2
4
5
7
8
9
10
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
OE
B0
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
A7
B6
GND
B7
100nF
VCC3.3
100nF
VCC3.3
100nF
20
19
18
17
10uF
16
15
13
1K
1K
14
VCC3.3
1
12
VCAP
2
11
4
WOL3.3
5
MISO3.3
6
MOSI
7
SCK
8
ETH-CS
9
ETH-RST
10
LEDA
LEDB
CLKOUT
INT
WOL
SO
SI
SCK
CS
RESET
11
GND-RX
12
13
14
ENC28J60/SP
INT3.3
VCC
GND
3
10K
MISO
ETH-INT
ETH-WOL
6
A0
A1
74HCT245
3
VCC
DIR
VCC3.3
OSC-VCC
OSC2
OSC1
OSC-GND
PLL-GND
PLL-VCC
RX-VCC
TX-GND
TPIN-
TPOUT+
TPIN+
TPOUT-
RBIAS
TXVCC
28
27
VCC3.3
26
22pF
25
24
23
25 MHz
22
22pF
21
20
FP2
FERRITE
BEAD
19
18
51R
17
11
1
51R
3
1K2
12
16
15
2
1K2
7
6
8
51R
10nF
TD+
A2
K2
CT
TDRD+
CT
RD-
RJ45
A1
K1
10nF
9
51R
10
RG13
RG12
RG14
RA7
RA6
RG0
RG1
RF1
RF0
Vdd
Vss
RD7
RD6
RD5
RD4
RD13
RD12
RD3
RD2
RD1
VCC
dsPIC30F6014A
RC14
RC13
RD0
RD11
RD10
RD9
RD8
RA15
RA14
Vss
OSC2
OSC1/CLKI
Vdd
RG2
RG3
RF6
RF7
RF8
RF2
RF3
22pF
22pF
RB6
RB7
RA9
RA10
AVdd
AVss
RB8
RB9
RB10
RB11
Vss
Vdd
RB12
RB13
RB14
RB15
RD14
RD15
RF4
RF5
RG15
RC1
RC2
RC3
RC4
RG6
RG7
RG8
MCLR
RG9
Vss
Vdd
RA12
RA13
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
CAN LIBRARY
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library (driver) for working
with the dsPIC30F CAN module.
The CAN is a very robust protocol that has error detection and signalization,
self–checking and fault confinement. Faulty CAN data and remote frames are retransmitted automatically, similar to the Ethernet.
Data transfer rates depend on distance. For example, 1 Mbit/s can be achieved at
network lengths below 40m while 250 Kbit/s can be achieved at network lengths
below 250m. The grater distance the lower maximum bitrate that can be achieved .
The lowest bitrate defined by the standard is 200Kbit/s. Cables used are shielded
twisted pairs.
CAN supports two message formats:
- Standard format, with 11 identifier bits and
- Extended format, with 29 identifier bits
Note: Consult the CAN standard about CAN bus termination resistance.
Library Routines
CAN1SetOperationMode
CAN1GetOperationMode
CAN1Initialize
CAN1SetBaudRate
CAN1SetMask
CAN1SetFilter
CAN1Read
CAN1Write
CAN2SetOperationMode
CAN2GetOperationMode
CAN2Initialize
CAN2SetBaudRate
CAN2SetMask
CAN2SetFilter
CAN2Read
CAN2Write
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The following routines are for an internal use by the library only:
- RegsToCAN1ID
- CAN1IDToRegs
- RegsToCAN2ID
- CAN2IDToRegs
Be sure to check CAN constants necessary for using some of the functions.
CAN1SetOperationMode
Prototype
void CAN1SetOperationMode(unsigned int mode, unsigned int WAIT);
Description
Sets the CAN1 module to requested mode. Parameters :
- mode :CAN1 module operation mode. Valid values: CAN_OP_MODE constants. See
CAN constants.
- WAIT: CAN1 mode switching verification request. If WAIT == 0, the call is non-block
ing. The function does not verify if the CAN1 module is switched to requested mode
or not. Caller must use CAN1GetOperationMode to verify correct operation mode
before performing mode specific operation. If WAIT != 0, the call is blocking – the
function won’t “return” until the requested mode is set.
Requires
The CAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the CAN1 module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN bus.
Example
// set the CAN1 module into configuration mode (wait inside
// CAN1SetOperationMode until this mode is set)
CAN1SetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_CONFIG, 0xFF);
CAN1GetOperationMode
Prototype
unsigned int CAN1GetOperationMode(void);
Returns
Current operation mode.
Description
The function returns current operation mode of the CAN1 module. Check the
CAN_OP_MODE constants (see CAN constants) or device datasheet for operation mode
codes.
Requires
The CAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the CAN1 module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN bus.
Example
// check whether the CAN1 module is in Normal mode and if it is
// then do something.
if (CAN1GetOperationMode() == CAN_MODE_NORMAL) {
...
}
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CAN1Initialize
Prototype
void CAN1Initialize(unsigned int SJW, unsigned int BRP, unsigned
int PHSEG1, unsigned int PHSEG2, unsigned int PROPSEG, unsigned
int CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description
Initializes the CAN1 module. The internal dsPIC30F CAN1 module is set to:
- Disable CAN capture
- Continue CAN operation in Idle mode
- Do not abort pending transmissions
- Fcan clock : 4*Tcy (Fosc)
- Baud rate is set according to given parameters
- CAN mode is set to Normal
- Filter and mask registers IDs are set to zero
- Filter and mask message frame type is set according to CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS value
SAM, SEG2PHTS, WAKFIL and DBEN bits are set according to CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS
value. Parameters:
SJW as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN1 Module)
BRP as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN1 Module)
PHSEG1 as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN1 Module)
PHSEG2 as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN1 Module)
PROPSEG as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN1 Module)
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS is formed from predefined constants. See CAN constants
Note: CAN mode NORMAL will be set on exit.
Requires
The CAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the CAN1 module. MCU must
be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the
CAN bus.
Example
// initialize the CAN1 module with appropriate baud rate and mes
// sage acceptance flags along with the sampling rules
unsigned int can_config_flags;
...
can_config_flags = CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
// Form value to be used
CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
// with CAN1Initialize
CAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG &
CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
CAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
CAN1Initialize(1,3,3,3,1,can_config_flags);
// initialize the CAN1 module
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CAN1SetBaudRate
Prototype
void CAN1SetBaudRate(unsigned int SJW, unsigned int BRP, unsigned
int PHSEG1, unsigned int PHSEG2, unsigned int PROPSEG, unsigned
int CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description
Sets CAN1 baud rate. Due to complexity of the CAN protocol, you can not simply force
a bps value. Instead, use this function when CAN1 is in Config mode. Refer to datasheet
for details.
SAM, SEG2PHTS, WAKFIL and DBEN bits are set according to CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS
value. Refer to datasheet for details. Parameters:
SJW as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN1 Module)
BRP as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN1 Module)
PHSEG1 as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN1 Module)
PHSEG2 as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN1 Module)
PROPSEG as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN1 Module)
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS is formed from predefined constants. See CAN constants.
Requires
The CAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the CAN1 module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN bus.
CAN1 must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored. See
CAN1SetOperationMode.
Example
// set required baud rate and sampling rules
unsigned int can_config_flags;
...
CAN1SetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (CAN1 module must be in config mode for
// baud rate settings)
can_config_flags = CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
// Form value to be used
CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
// with CAN1SetBaudRate
CAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG &
CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
CAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
CAN1SetBaudRate(1,3,3,3,1,can_config_flags);
// set the CAN1 module baud rate
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CAN1SetMask
Prototype
void CAN1SetMask(unsigned int CAN_MASK, long val, unsigned int
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description
The function sets mask for advanced filtering of messages. Parameters:
CAN_MASK: CAN module mask number.
Valid values: CAN_MASK constants. See CAN constants
val: mask register value. This value is bit-adjusted to appropriate buffer mask registers
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of message to filter. Valid values:
CAN_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG,
CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG,
CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG.
(see CAN constants)
Requires
The CAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the the CAN1 module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN bus. CAN1 must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be
ignored. See CAN1SetOperationMode.
Example
// set appropriate filter mask and message type value
CAN1SetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (CAN1 module must be in config mode for
// mask settings)
// Set all B1 mask bits to 1 (all filtered bits are relevant):
// Note that -1 is just a cheaper way to write 0xFFFFFFFF.
// Complement will do the trick and fill it up with ones.
CAN1SetMask(CAN_MASK_B1, -1, CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
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CAN1SetFilter
Prototype
void CAN1SetFilter(unsigned int CAN_FILTER, long val, unsigned
int CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description
The function sets message filter.
Parameters:
- CAN_FILTER: CAN module filter number. Valid values: CAN_FILTER constants. See
CAN constants
- val: filter register value. This value is bit-adjusted to appropriate filter registers
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of message to filter. Valid values: CAN_CON
FIG_STD_MSG and CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG. See CAN constants.
Requires
The CAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the CAN1 module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN bus. CAN1 must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be
ignored. See CAN1SetOperationMode.
Example
// set appropriate filter value and message type
CAN1SetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (CAN1 module must be in config mode for
// filter settings)
/* Set id of filter B1_F1 to 3: */
CAN1SetFilter(CAN_FILTER_B1_F1, 3, CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
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CAN1Read
Prototype
unsigned int CAN1Read(unsigned long *id, char *data, unsigned int
*dataLen, unsigned int *CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS);
Returns
0 if nothing is received
0xFFFF if one of the Receive Buffers is full (message received)
Description
If at least one full Receive Buffer is found, it will be processed in the following way:
Message ID is retrieved and stored to location pointed by id pointer
Message data is retrieved and stored to array pointed by data pointer
Message length is retrieved and stored to location pointed by dataLen pointer
Message flags are retrieved and stored to location pointed by CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS
pointer.
Parameters:
id: message identifier address
data: an array of bytes up to 8 bytes in length
dataLen: data length address
CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags address. For message receive flags format refer to
CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS constants (see CAN constants).
Requires
The CAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the CAN1 module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN bus.
The CAN1 module must be in a mode in which receiving is possible. See
CAN1SetOperationMode.
Example
// check the CAN1 module for received messages. If any was
// received do something.
unsigned int msg_rcvd, rx_flags, data_len;
char data[8];
unsigned long msg_id;
...
CAN1SetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode (CAN1 module must be in mode in which receive
// is possible)
...
rx_flags = 0;
// clear message flags
if (msg_rcvd = CAN1Read(&msg_id, data, &data_len, &rx_flags)) {
...
}
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CAN1Write
Prototype
unsigned int CAN1Write(long id, char *Data, unsigned int DataLen,
unsigned int CAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS);
Returns
0 if all Transmit Buffers are busy
0xFFFF if at least one Transmit Buffer is available
Description
If at least one empty Transmit Buffer is found, the function sends message in the queue
for transmission.
Parameters:
id: CAN1 message identifier. Valid values: 11 or 29 bit values, depending on message
type (standard or extended)
Data: data to be sent
DataLen: data length. Valid values: 0..8
CAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags. Valid values: CAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS constants.
See CAN constants.
Requires
The CAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the CAN1 module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN bus.
The CAN1 module must be in mode in which transmission is possible. See
CAN1SetOperationMode.
Example
// send message extended CAN message with appropriate ID and data
unsigned int tx_flags;
char data[8];
unsigned long msg_id;
...
CAN1SetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode (CAN1 must be in mode in which transmission is
// possible)
tx_flags = ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
ECAN_TX_XTD_FRAME &
ECAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
// set message flags
CAN1Write(msg_id, data, 1, tx_flags);
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CAN2SetOperationMode
Prototype
void CAN2SetOperationMode(unsigned int mode, unsigned int WAIT);
Description
Sets the CAN2 module to requested mode.
Parameters :
- mode: CAN2 module operation mode. Valid values: CAN_OP_MODE constants. See
CAN constants.
- WAIT: CAN2 mode switching verification request. If WAIT == 0, the call is nonblocking. The function does not verify if the CAN2 module is switched to requested
mode or not. Caller must use CAN2GetOperationMode to verify correct operation
mode before performing mode specific operation. If WAIT != 0, the call is blocking
- the function won’t “return” until the requested mode is set.
Requires
The CAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the CAN2 module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN bus.
Example
// set the CAN2 module into configuration mode (wait inside
// CAN2SetOperationMode until this mode is set)
CAN2SetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_CONFIG, 0xFF);
CAN2GetOperationMode
Prototype
unsigned int CAN2GetOperationMode(void);
Returns
Current operation mode.
Description
The function returns current operation mode of the CAN2 module. Check
CAN_OP_MODE constants (see CAN constants) or device datasheet for operation mode
codes.
Requires
The CAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the CAN2 module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN bus.
Example
// check whether the CAN2 module is in Normal mode and if it is
// then do something.
if (CAN2GetOperationMode() == CAN_MODE_NORMAL) {
...
}
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CAN2Initialize
Prototype
void CAN2Initialize(unsigned int SJW, unsigned int BRP, unsigned
int PHSEG1, unsigned int PHSEG2, unsigned int PROPSEG, unsigned
int CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description
Initializes the CAN2 module. The internal dsPIC30F CAN2 module is set to:
- Disable CAN capture
- Continue CAN operation in Idle mode
- Do not abort pending transmissions
- Fcan clock : 4*Tcy (Fosc)
- Baud rate is set according to given parameters
- CAN mode is set to Normal
- Filter and mask registers IDs are set to zero
- Filter and mask message frame type is set according to CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS value
SAM, SEG2PHTS, WAKFIL and DBEN bits are set according to CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS
value.
Parameters:
SJW as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN2 Module)
BRP as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN2 Module)
PHSEG1 as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN2 Module)
PHSEG2 as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN2 Module)
PROPSEG as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN2 Module)
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS is formed from predefined constants. See CAN constants
Note: CAN mode NORMAL will be set on exit.
Requires
The CAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the CAN2 module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN bus.
Example
// initialize the CAN2 module with appropriate baud rate and mes
// sage acceptance flags along with the sampling rules
unsigned int can_config_flags;
...
can_config_flags = CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
// Form value to be used
CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
// with CAN2Initialize
CAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG &
CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
CAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
CAN2Initialize(1,3,3,3,1,can_config_flags);
// initialize the CAN2 module
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CAN2SetBaudRate
Prototype
void CAN2SetBaudRate(unsigned int SJW, unsigned int BRP, unsigned
int PHSEG1, unsigned int PHSEG2, unsigned int PROPSEG, unsigned
int CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description
Sets CAN2 baud rate. Due to complexity of the CAN protocol, you can not simply force
a bps value. Instead, use this function when CAN2 is in Config mode.
SAM, SEG2PHTS and WAKFIL bits are set according to CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS value. Refer
to datasheet for details.
Parameters:
SJW as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN2 Module)
BRP as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN2 Module)
PHSEG1 as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN2 Module)
PHSEG2 as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN2 Module)
PROPSEG as defined in MCU's datasheet (CAN2 Module)
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS is formed from predefined constants. See CAN constants.
Requires
The CAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the CAN2 module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN bus.
CAN2 must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored. See
CAN2SetOperationMode.
Example
// set required baud rate and sampling rules
unsigned int can_config_flags;
...
CAN2SetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (CAN2 module must be in config mode for
// baud rate settings)
can_config_flags = CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
// Form value to be used
CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
// with CAN2SetBaudRate
CAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG &
CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
CAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
CAN2SetBaudRate(1,3,3,3,1,can_config_flags);
// set the CAN2 module baud rate
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CAN2SetMask
Prototype
void CAN2SetMask(unsigned int CAN_MASK, long val, unsigned int
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description
The function sets mask for advanced filtering of messages.
Parameters:
CAN_MASK: CAN2 module mask number. Valid values: CAN_MASK constants. See CAN
constants
val: mask register value. This value is bit-adjusted to appropriate buffer mask registers
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of message to filter. Valid values:
CAN_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG,
CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG,
CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG.
(see CAN constants) .
Requires
The CAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the CAN2 module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN bus. CAN2 must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be
ignored. See CAN2SetOperationMode.
Example
// set appropriate filter mask and message type value
CAN2SetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (CAN2 module must be in config mode for
// mask settings)
// Set all B1 mask bits to 1 (all filtered bits are relevant):
// Note that -1 is just a cheaper way to write 0xFFFFFFFF.
// Complement will do the trick and fill it up with ones.
CAN2SetMask(CAN_MASK_B1, -1, CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
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CAN2SetFilter
Prototype
void CAN2SetFilter(unsigned int CAN_FILTER, long val, unsigned
int CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description
The function sets message filter.
Parameters:
- CAN_FILTER: CAN2 module filter number. Valid values: CAN_FILTER constants (see
CAN constants)
- val: filter register value. This value is bit-adjusted to appropriate filter registers
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of message to filter. Valid values:
CAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG and CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG. See CAN constants.
Requires
The CAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the CAN2 module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN bus. CAN2 must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be
ignored. See CAN2SetOperationMode.
Example
// set appropriate filter value and message type
CAN2SetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (CAN2 module must be in config mode for
// filter settings)
/* Set id of filter B1_F1 to 3: */
CAN2SetFilter(CAN_FILTER_B1_F1, 3, CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
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CAN2Read
Prototype
unsigned int CAN2Read(unsigned long *id, char *data, unsigned int
*dataLen, unsigned int *CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS);
Returns
0 if nothing is received
0xFFFF if one of the Receive Buffers is full (message received)
Description
If at least one full Receive Buffer is found, it will be processed in the following way:
- Message ID is retrieved and stored to location pointed by id pointer
- Message data is retrieved and stored to array pointed by data pointer
- Message length is retrieved and stored to location pointed by dataLen pointer
- Message flags are retrieved and stored to location pointed by CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS
pointer
Parameters:
- id: message identifier address
- data: an array of bytes up to 8 bytes in length
- dataLen: data length address.
- CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags address. For message receive flags format
refer to CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS constants (see CAN constants).
Requires
The CAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the CAN2 module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN bus.
The CAN2 module must be in a mode in which receiving is possible. See
CAN2SetOperationMode.
Example
// check the CAN2 module for received messages. If any was
// received do something.
unsigned int msg_rcvd, rx_flags, data_len;
char data[8];
unsigned long msg_id;
...
CAN2SetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode (CAN2 module must be in mode in which receive
// is possible)
...
rx_flags = 0;
// clear message flags
if (msg_rcvd = CAN2Read(&msg_id, data, &data_len, &rx_flags)) {
...
}
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CAN2Write
Prototype
unsigned int CAN2Write(long id, char *Data, unsigned int DataLen,
unsigned int CAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS);
Returns
0 if all Transmit Buffers are busy
0xFFFF if at least one Transmit Buffer is available
Description
If at least one empty Transmit Buffer is found, the function sends message in the queue
for transmission.
Parameters:
- id: CAN2 message identifier. Valid values: 11 or 29 bit values, depending on message
type (standard or extended)
- Data: data to be sent
- DataLen: data length. Valid values: 0..8
- CAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags.
Valid values: CAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS constants. See CAN constants.
Requires
The CAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the CAN2 module.
MCU must be connected to the CAN transceiver (MCP2551 or similar) which is connected to the CAN bus.
The CAN2 module must be in mode in which transmission is possible. See
CAN2SetOperationMode.
Example
// send message extended CAN message with appropriate ID and data
unsigned int tx_flags;
char data[8];
unsigned long msg_id;
...
CAN2SetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode (CAN2 must be in mode in which transmission is
// possible)
tx_flags = ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
ECAN_TX_XTD_FRAME &
ECAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
// set message flags
CAN2Write(msg_id, data, 1, tx_flags);
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CAN Constants
There is a number of constants predefined in the CAN library. You need to be
familiar with them in order to be able to use the library effectively. Check the
example at the end of the chapter.
CAN_OP_MODE
CAN_OP_MODE constants define CAN operation mode. The functions
CAN1SetOperationMode and CAN2SetOperationMode expect one of these as
their argument:
const unsigned int
CAN_MODE_BITS
CAN_MODE_NORMAL
CAN_MODE_DISABLE
CAN_MODE_LOOP
CAN_MODE_LISTEN
CAN_MODE_CONFIG
CAN_MODE_LISTEN_ALL
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0x00E0, // Use this to access opmode bits
0x00,
0x01,
0x02,
0x03,
0x04,
0x07;
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS
constants define flags related to the CAN module configuration. The functions CAN1Initialize, CAN1SetBaudRate, CAN2Initialize,
CAN2SetBaudRate expect one of these (or a bitwise combination) as their argument:
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS
const unsigned int
CAN_CONFIG_DEFAULT
CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_BIT
CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON
CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_OFF
= 0xFF,
// 11111111
= 0x01,
= 0xFF,
= 0xFE,
// XXXXXXX1
// XXXXXXX0
CAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_BIT = 0x02,
CAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_ON = 0xFF,
CAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF = 0xFD,
// XXXXXX1X
// XXXXXX0X
CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_BIT
CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_ONCE
CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE
= 0x04,
= 0xFF,
= 0xFB,
// XXXXX1XX
// XXXXX0XX
= 0x08,
= 0xFF,
= 0xF7,
// XXXX1XXX
// XXXX0XXX
CAN_CONFIG_MSG_TYPE_BIT
CAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG
CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG
// continues..
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// ..continued
CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_BIT
CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON
CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_OFF
= 0x10,
= 0xFF,
= 0xEF,
// XXX1XXXX
// XXX0XXXX
CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_TYPE_BIT = 0x20,
CAN_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG = 0xDF,
CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE = 0xFF;
// XX0XXXXX
// XX1XXXXX
You may use bitwise AND (&) to form config byte out of these values. For example:
init = CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
CAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG
&
CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
CAN_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG &
CAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
...
CANInitialize(1, 1, 3, 3, 1, init);
// initialize CAN
CAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS
CAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS
are flags related to transmission of a CAN message:
const unsigned int
CAN_TX_PRIORITY_BITS
CAN_TX_PRIORITY_0
CAN_TX_PRIORITY_1
CAN_TX_PRIORITY_2
CAN_TX_PRIORITY_3
CAN_TX_FRAME_BIT
CAN_TX_STD_FRAME
CAN_TX_XTD_FRAME
=
=
=
=
=
0x03,
0xFC,
0xFD,
0xFE,
0xFF,
//
//
//
//
XXXXXX00
XXXXXX01
XXXXXX10
XXXXXX11
= 0x08,
= 0xFF,
= 0xF7,
// XXXXX1XX
// XXXXX0XX
CAN_TX_RTR_BIT
= 0x40,
CAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME = 0xFF,
CAN_TX_RTR_FRAME
= 0xBF;
// X1XXXXXX
// X0XXXXXX
You may use bitwise AND (&) to adjust the appropriate flags. For example:
/* form value to be used with CANSendMessage: */
send_config = CAN_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
CAN_TX_XTD_FRAME &
CAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
...
CANSendMessage(id, data, 1, send_config);
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CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS
are flags related to reception of CAN message. If a particular
bit is set then corresponding meaning is TRUE or else it will be FALSE.
CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS
const unsigned int
CAN_RX_FILTER_BITS = 0x0007,
CAN_RX_FILTER_1
CAN_RX_FILTER_2
CAN_RX_FILTER_3
CAN_RX_FILTER_4
CAN_RX_FILTER_5
CAN_RX_FILTER_6
=
=
=
=
=
=
CAN_RX_OVERFLOW
= 0x08,
0x00,
0x01,
0x02,
0x03,
0x04,
0x05,
CAN_RX_INVALID_MSG = 0x10,
CAN_RX_XTD_FRAME
CAN_RX_RTR_FRAME
// Use this to access filter
// bits
= 0x20,
= 0x40,
CAN_RX_DBL_BUFFERED = 0x80;
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
Set if Overflowed else
cleared
Set if invalid else
cleared
Set if XTD message else
cleared
Set if RTR message else
cleared
Set if this message was
hardware double-buffered
You may use bitwise AND (&) to adjust the appropriate flags. For example:
if (MsgFlag & CAN_RX_OVERFLOW != 0) {
...
// Receiver overflow has occurred.
// We have lost our previous message.
}
CAN_MASK
constants define mask codes. The functions CAN1SetMask and
CAN2SetMask expect one of these as their argument:
CAN_MASK
const unsigned int
CAN_MASK_B1 = 0,
CAN_MASK_B2 = 1;
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CAN_FILTER
CAN_FILTER constants define filter codes. The functions CAN1SetFilter and
CAN2SetFilter expect one of these as their argument:
const unsigned int
CAN_FILTER_B1_F1
CAN_FILTER_B1_F2
CAN_FILTER_B2_F1
CAN_FILTER_B2_F2
CAN_FILTER_B2_F3
CAN_FILTER_B2_F4
=
=
=
=
=
=
0,
1,
2,
3,
4,
5;
Library Example
The code is a simple demonstration of CAN Library routines usage.
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
int aa, aa1, len, aa2;
char data[8];
long id;
int zr;
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
PORTB = 0;
TRISB = 0;
aa = 0;
aa1 = 0;
aa2 = 0;
aa1 =
CAN_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
CAN_TX_XTD_FRAME &
CAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
aa =
CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG &
CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
CAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
data[0] = 9;
CAN1Initialize(1,3,3,3,1,aa);
CAN1SetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
id = -1;
// Form value to be used
// with CAN1Write
// Form value to be used
// with CAN1Initialize
// initialize CAN
// set CONFIGURATION mode
//continues...
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//..continued
CAN1SetMask(CAN_MASK_B1,id,CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// set all mask1 bits to ones
CAN1SetMask(CAN_MASK_B2,id,CAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// set all mask2 bits to ones
CAN1SetFilter(CAN_FILTER_B2_F3,3,CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// set id of filter B1_F1 to 3
CAN1SetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode
id = 12111;
CAN1Write(id,data,1,aa1);
while (1) {
zr = CAN1Read(&id , data , &len, &aa2);
if ((id == 3u) && zr) {
PORTB = data[0];
// output data at portB
data[0]++ ;
Delay_ms(10);
id = 12111;
CAN1Write(id, data, 1,aa1);
// send incremented data back
}
}
}//~!
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Hardware Connection
CAN RX of MCU
CAN TX of MCU
10R
1
2
VCC
3
TX-CAN RS
GND CANH
8
7
6
VCC CANL
4
RXD
Vref
5
MCP2551
Shielded
twisted pair
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CANSPI Library
The SPI module is available with a number of the dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCUs.
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library (driver) for working
with mikroElektronika's CANSPI Add-on boards (with MCP2515 or MCP2510)
via SPI interface.
In the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24, each routine of the CAN library has its
own CANSPI counterpart with identical syntax. For more information on
Controller Area Network, consult the CAN Library. Note that an effective communication speed depends on SPI and certainly is slower than “real” CAN.
Note:
CANSPI1 library uses SPI1 module for SPI interface.
CANSPI2 library uses SPI2 module for SPI interface.
Note:
CANSPI1 module refers to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Add-on board connected
to SPI1 module of MCU.
CANSPI2 module refers to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Add-on board connected
to SPI2 module of MCU.
Library Routines
CANSPI1SetOperationMode
CANSPI1GetOperationMode
CANSPI1Init
CANSPI1SetBaudRate
CANSPI1SetMask
CANSPI1SetFilter
CANSPI1Read
CANSPI1Write
CANSPI2SetOperationMode
CANSPI2GetOperationMode
CANSPI2Init
CANSPI2SetBaudRate
CANSPI2SetMask
CANSPI2SetFilter
CANSPI2Read
CANSPI2Write
Following routines are for the internal use by compiler only:
RegsToCANSPI1ID, CANSPI2IDToRegs
CANSPI1IDToRegs, RegsToCANSPI2ID
Be sure to check CANSPI constants necessary for using some of the functions.
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CANSPI1SetOperationMode
Prototype
void CANSPI1SetOperationMode(char mode, char WAIT);
Description
Sets the CANSPI1 module to requested mode.
Parameters :
- mode: CANSPI1 module operation mode.
Valid values: CANSPI_OP_MODE constants (see CANSPI constants).
- WAIT: CANSPI1 mode switching verification request. If WAIT == 0, the call is nonblocking. The function does not verify if the CANSPI1 module is switched to
requested mode or not. Caller must use CANSPI1GetOperationMode to verify correct
operation mode before performing mode specific operation. If WAIT != 0, the call is
blocking – the function won’t “return” until the requested mode is set.
Requires
The CANSPI1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI1 module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
// set the CANSPI1 module into configuration mode (wait inside
// CANSPI1SetOperationMode until this mode is set)
CANSPI1SetOperationMode(CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG, 0xFF);
CANSPI1GetOperationMode
Prototype
char CANSPI1GetOperationMode(void);
Returns
Current operation mode.
Description
The function returns current operation mode of the CANSPI1 module. Check
CANSPI_OP_MODE constants (see CANSPI constants) or device datasheet for operation
mode codes.
Example
// check whether the CANSPI1 module is in Normal mode and if it
// is do something.
if (CANSPI1GetOperationMode() == CANSPI_MODE_NORMAL) {
...
}
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CANSPI1Init
Prototype
void CANSPI1Init( char SJW, char BRP, char PHSEG1, char PHSEG2,
char PROPSEG, char CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS, unsigned int * RstPort, char
RstPin, unsigned int * CSPort, char CSPin);
Description
Initializes the CANSPI1 module. Stand-Alone CAN controller in the CANSPI module is
set to:
- Disable CAN capture
- Continue CAN operation in Idle mode
- Do not abort pending transmissions
- Fcan clock : 4*Tcy (Fosc)
- Baud rate is set according to given parameters
- CAN mode : Normal
- Filter and mask registers IDs are set to zero
- Filter and mask message frame type is set according to CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS value
SAM, SEG2PHTS, WAKFIL and DBEN bits are set according to CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS
value. Parameters:
SJW as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
BRP as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
PHSEG1 as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
PHSEG2 as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
PROPSEG as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS is formed from predefined constants (see CANSPI constants) .
Requires
The CANSPI1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI1 module.
The SPI1 module needs to be initialized. See the Spi1_Init and Spi1_Init_Advanced routines. MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or
similar hardware. See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
// initialize the CANSPI1 module with the appropriate baud rate
// and message acceptance flags along with the sampling rules
unsigned int can_config_flags;
...
can_config_flags = CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
CANSPI_CONFIG_STD_MSG
&
CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
CANSPI_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG &
CANSPI_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
...
CANSPI1Initialize(1, 1, 3, 3, 1, can_config_flags);
// initialize CANSPI1
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CANSPI1SetBaudRate
Prototype
void CANSPI1SetBaudRate( char SJW, char BRP, char PHSEG1, char
PHSEG2, char PROPSEG, char CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description
Sets the CANSPI1 module baud rate. Due to complexity of the CAN protocol, you can
not simply force a bps value. Instead, use this function when the CANSPI1 module is in
Config mode.
SAM, SEG2PHTS and WAKFIL bits are set according to CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS value.
Refer to datasheet for details. Parameters:
SJW as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
BRP as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
PHSEG1 as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
PHSEG2 as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
PROPSEG as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS is formed from predefined constants (see CANSPI constants).
Requires
The CANSPI1 module must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored.
See CANSPI1SetOperationMode. The CANSPI1 routines are supported only by MCUs
with the SPI1 module. MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at the bottom of this
page.
Example
// set required baud rate and sampling rules
unsigned int can_config_flags;
...
CANSPI1SetOperationMode(CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (CANSPI1 module mast be in config mode
// for baud rate settings)
can_config_flags = CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
CANSPI_CONFIG_STD_MSG
&
CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
CANSPI_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG &
CANSPI_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
CANSPI1SetBaudRate(1, 1, 3, 3, 1, can_config_flags);
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CANSPI1SetMask
Prototype
void CANSPI1SetMask(unsigned short CAN_MASK, long value, unsigned
short CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description
Configures mask for advanced filtering of messages. The parameter value is bit-adjusted
to the appropriate mask registers. Parameters:
- CAN_MASK: CANSPI1 module mask number.
Valid values: CANSPI_MASK constants (see CANSPI constants)
- value: mask register value
- CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of message to filter. Valid values:
CANSPI_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG,
CANSPI_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CANSPI_CONFIG_STD_MSG,
CANSPI_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG.
(see CANSPI constants).
Requires
The CANSPI1 module must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored.
See CANSPI1SetOperationMode. The CANSPI1 routines are supported only by MCUs
with the SPI1 module. MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at the bottom of this
page.
Example
// set the appropriate filter mask and message type value
CANSPI1SetOperationMode(CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (CANSPI1 module must be in config mode
// for mask settings)
// Set all B1 mask bits to 1 (all filtered bits are relevant):
// Note that -1 is just a cheaper way to write 0xFFFFFFFF.
// Complement will do the trick and fill it up with ones.
CANSPI1SetMask(CANSPI_MASK_B1, -1, CANSPI_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
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CANSPI1SetFilter
Prototype
void CANSPI1SetFilter(unsigned short CAN_FILTER, long value,
unsigned short CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description
Configures message filter. The parameter value is bit-adjusted to the appropriate filter
registers. Parameters:
- CAN_FILTER: CANSPI1 module filter number.
Valid values: CANSPI_FILTER constants (see CANSPI constants)
- value: filter register value
- CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of message to filter. Valid values:
CANSPI_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG,
CANSPI_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CANSPI_CONFIG_STD_MSG,
CANSPI_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG.
(see CANSPI constants).
Requires
The CANSPI1 module must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored.
See CANSPI1SetOperationMode.
The CANSPI1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI1 module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
// set the appropriate filter value and message type
CANSPI1SetOperationMode(CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (CANSPI1 module must be in config mode
// for filter settings)
/* Set id of filter B1_F1 to 3: */
CANSPI1SetFilter(CANSPI_FILTER_B1_F1, 3, CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
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CANSPI1Read
Prototype
unsigned short CANSPI1Read(long *id, unsigned short *data,
unsigned short *datalen, unsigned short *CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS);
Returns
0 if nothing is received
0xFFFF if one of the Receive Buffers is full (message received)
Description
If at least one full Receive Buffer is found, it will be processed in the following way:
- Message ID is retrieved and stored to location provided by the id parameter
- Message data is retrieved and stored to a buffer provided by the data parameter
- Message length is retrieved and stored to location provided by the dataLen parameter
- Message flags are retrieved and stored to location provided by the
CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS parameter
Parameters:
id: message identifier storage address
data: data buffer (an array of bytes up to 8 bytes in length)
dataLen: data length storage address.
CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags storage address
Requires
The CANSPI1 module must be in a mode in which receiving is possible. See CANSPI1SetOperationMode.
The CANSPI1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI1 module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
// check the CANSPI1 module for received messages. If any was
// received do something.
unsigned int msg_rcvd, rx_flags, data_len;
char data[8];
unsigned long msg_id;
...
CANSPI1SetOperationMode(CANSPI_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode (CANSPI1 module must be in mode in which
// receive is possible)
...
rx_flags = 0;
// clear message flags
if (msg_rcvd = CANSPI1Read(msg_id, data, data_len, rx_flags)) {
...
}
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CANSPI1Write
Prototype
unsigned short CANSPI1Write(long id, unsigned short *data,
unsigned short datalen, unsigned short CAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS);
Returns
0 if all Transmit Buffers are busy
0xFFFF if at least one Transmit Buffer is available
Description
If at least one empty Transmit Buffer is found, the function sends message in the queue
for transmission.
Parameters:
- id: CAN message identifier. Valid values: 11 or 29 bit values, depending on message
type (standard or extended)
- Data: data to be sent (an array of bytes up to 8 bytes in length)
- DataLen: data length. Valid values: 1 to 8
CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags
Requires
The CANSPI1 module must be in mode in which transmission is possible. See CANSPI1SetOperationMode.
The CANSPI1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI1 module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
// send message extended CAN message with the appropriate ID and
// data
unsigned int tx_flags;
char data[8];
long msg_id;
...
CANSPI1SetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode (CANSPI1 must be in mode in which transmission
// is possible)
tx_flags = CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_0 & CANSPI_TX_XTD_FRAME;
// set message flags
CANSPI1Write(msg_id, data, 2, tx_flags);
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CANSPI2SetOperationMode
Prototype
void CANSPI2SetOperationMode(char mode, char WAIT);
Description
Sets the CANSPI module to requested mode.
Parameters :
- mode: CANSPI2 module operation mode.
Valid values: CANSPI_OP_MODE constants (see CANSPI constants).
- WAIT: CANSPI2 mode switching verification request. If WAIT == 0, the call is nonblocking. The function does not verify if the CANSPI2 module is switched to
requested mode or not. Caller must use CANSPI2GetOperationMode to verify correct
operation mode before performing mode specific operation. If WAIT != 0, the call is
blocking – the function won’t “return” until the requested mode is set.
Requires
The CANSPI2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI2 module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
// set the CANSPI2 module into configuration mode (wait inside
// CANSPI2SetOperationMode until this mode is set)
CANSPI2SetOperationMode(CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG, 0xFF);
CANSPI2GetOperationMode
Prototype
char CANSPI2GetOperationMode(void);
Returns
Current operation mode.
Description
The function returns current operation mode of the CANSPI2 module.
Requires
The CANSPI2 routines are supported only by the MCUs with SPI2 module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
// check whether the CANSPI2 module is in Normal mode and if it
// is do something.
if (CANSPI2GetOperationMode() == CANSPI_MODE_NORMAL) {
...
}
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CANSPI2Init
Prototype
void CANSPI2Init( char SJW, char BRP, char PHSEG1, char PHSEG2,
char PROPSEG, char CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS, unsigned int * RstPort, char
RstPin, unsigned int * CSPort, char CSPin);
Description
Initializes the CANSPI2 module. Stand-Alone CAN controller in the CANSPI module is
set to:
- Disable CAN capture
- Continue CAN operation in Idle mode
- Do not abort pending transmissions
- Fcan clock : 4*Tcy (Fosc)
- Baud rate is set according to given parameters
- CAN mode : Normal
- Filter and mask registers IDs are set to zero
- Filter and mask message frame type is set according to CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS value
SAM, SEG2PHTS, WAKFIL and DBEN bits are set according to CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS
value.
Parameters:
SJW as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
BRP as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
PHSEG1 as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
PHSEG2 as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
PROPSEG as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS is formed from predefined constants (see CANSPI constants)
Requires
The CANSPI2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI2 module.
The SPI2 module needs to be initialized. See Spi2_Init and the Spi2_Init_Advanced routines. MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or
similar hardware. See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
// initialize the CANSPI2 module with the appropriate baud rate
// and message acceptance flags along with the sampling rules
unsigned int can_config_flags;
...
can_config_flags = CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
CANSPI_CONFIG_STD_MSG
&
CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
CANSPI_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG &
CANSPI_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
...
CANSPI2Initialize(1, 1, 3, 3, 1, can_config_flags);
// initialize CANSPI2
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CANSPI2SetBaudRate
Prototype
void CANSPI2SetBaudRate( char SJW, char BRP, char PHSEG1, char
PHSEG2, char PROPSEG, char CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description
Sets the CANSPI2 module baud rate. Due to complexity of the CAN protocol, you can
not simply force a bps value. Instead, use this function when the CANSPI2 module is in
Config mode.
SAM, SEG2PHTS and WAKFIL bits are set according to CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS value. Refer
to datasheet for details.
Parameters:
SJW as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
BRP as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
PHSEG1 as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
PHSEG2 as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
PROPSEG as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS is formed from predefined constants (see CANSPI constants)
Requires
The CANSPI2 module must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored.
See CANSPI2SetOperationMode.
The CANSPI2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI2 module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
// set required baud rate and sampling rules
unsigned int can_config_flags;
...
CANSPI2SetOperationMode(CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (CANSPI2 module mast be in config mode
// for baud rate settings)
can_config_flags = CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
CANSPI_CONFIG_STD_MSG
&
CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
CANSPI_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG &
CANSPI_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
CANSPI2SetBaudRate(1, 1, 3, 3, 1, can_config_flags);
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CANSPI2SetMask
Prototype
void CANSPI2SetMask(unsigned short CAN_MASK, long value, unsigned
short CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description
Configures mask for advanced filtering of messages. The parameter value is bit-adjusted
to the appropriate mask registers.
Parameters:
- CAN_MASK: CANSPI2 module mask number.
Valid values: CANSPI_MASK constants (see CANSPI constants)
- value: mask register value
- CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of message to filter. Valid values:
CANSPI_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG,
CANSPI_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CANSPI_CONFIG_STD_MSG,
CANSPI_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG.
(see CANSPI constants)
Requires
The CANSPI2 module must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored.
See CANSPI2SetOperationMode.
The CANSPI2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI2 module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
// set the appropriate filter mask and message type value
CANSPI2SetOperationMode(CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (CANSPI2 module must be in config mode
// for mask settings)
// Set all B1 mask bits to 1 (all filtered bits are relevant):
// Note that -1 is just a cheaper way to write 0xFFFFFFFF.
// Complement will do the trick and fill it up with ones.
CANSPI2SetMask(CANSPI_MASK_B1, -1, CANSPI_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
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CANSPI2SetFilter
Prototype
void CANSPI2SetFilter(unsigned short CAN_FILTER, long value,
unsigned short CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Description
Configures message filter. The parameter value is bit-adjusted to the appropriate filter
registers.
Parameters:
- CAN_FILTER: CANSPI2 module filter number.
Valid values: CANSPI_FILTER constants (see CANSPI constants)
- value: filter register value
- CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of message to filter. Valid values:
CANSPI_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG,
CANSPI_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CANSPI_CONFIG_STD_MSG,
CANSPI_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG.
(see CANSPI constants).
Requires
The CANSPI2 module must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored.
See CANSPI2SetOperationMode.
The CANSPI2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI2 module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
// set the appropriate filter value and message type
CANSPI2SetOperationMode(CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (CANSPI2 module must be in config mode
// for filter settings)
/* Set id of filter B1_F1 to 3: */
CANSPI2SetFilter(CANSPI_FILTER_B1_F1, 3, CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
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CANSPI2Read
Prototype
unsigned short CANSPI2Read(long *id, unsigned short *data,
unsigned short *datalen, unsigned short *CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS);
Returns
0 if nothing is received
0xFFFF if one of the Receive Buffers is full (message received)
Description
If at least one full Receive Buffer is found, it will be processed in the following way:
- Message ID is retrieved and stored to location provided by the id parameter
- Message data is retrieved and stored to a buffer provided by the data parameter
- Message length is retrieved and stored to location provided by the dataLen parameter
- Message flags are retrieved and stored to location provided by the
CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS parameter
Parameters:
id: message identifier storage address
data: data buffer (an array of bytes up to 8 bytes in length)
dataLen: data length storage address
CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags storage address.
Requires
The CANSPI2 module must be in a mode in which receiving is possible. See CANSPI2SetOperationMode.
The CANSPI2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI2 module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
// check the CANSPI2 module for received messages. If any was
// received do something.
unsigned int msg_rcvd, rx_flags, data_len;
char data[8];
unsigned long msg_id;
...
CANSPI2SetOperationMode(CANSPI_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode (CANSPI2 module must be in mode in which
// receive is possible)
...
rx_flags = 0;
// clear message flags
if (msg_rcvd = CANSPI2Read(msg_id, data, data_len, rx_flags)) {
...
}
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CANSPI2Write
Prototype
unsigned short CANSPI2Write(long id, unsigned short *data,
unsigned short datalen, unsigned short CAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS);
Returns
0 if all Transmit Buffers are busy
0xFFFF if at least one Transmit Buffer is available
Description
If at least one empty Transmit Buffer is found, the function sends message in the queue
for transmission.
Parameters:
- id: CAN message identifier.
Valid values: 11 or 29 bit values, depending on message type (standard or extended)
- Data: data to be sent (an array of bytes up to 8 bytes in length)
- DataLen: data length. Valid values: 1 to 8
- CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags
Requires
The CANSPI2 module must be in mode in which transmission is possible. See CANSPI2SetOperationMode.
The CANSPI2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI2 module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at the bottom of this page.
Example
// send message extended CAN message with the appropriate ID and
// data
unsigned int tx_flags;
char data[8];
long msg_id;
...
CANSPI2SetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode (CANSPI2 must be in mode in which transmission
// is possible)
tx_flags = CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_0 & CANSPI_TX_XTD_FRAME;
// set message flags
CANSPI2Write(msg_id, data, 2, tx_flags);
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CANSPI Constants
There is a number of constants predefined in the CANSPI library. You need to be
familiar with them in order to be able to use the library effectively. Check the
example at the end of the chapter.
CANSPI_OP_MODE
The CANSPI_OP_MODE constants define CANSPI operation mode. The functions CANSPI1SetOperationMode and CANSPI2SetOperationMode expect one of
these as their argument:
const char
CANSPI_MODE_BITS
CANSPI_MODE_NORMAL
CANSPI_MODE_SLEEP
CANSPI_MODE_LOOP
CANSPI_MODE_LISTEN
CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG
=
=
=
=
=
=
0xE0, // Use this to access opmode
0x00,
0x20,
0x40,
0x60,
0x80;
bits
CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS
The CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS constants define flags related to the CANSPI module
configuration. The functions CANSPI1Init, CANSPI2Init, CANSPI1SetBaudRate,
CANSPI2SetBaudRate, CANSPI1SetMask, CANSPI2SetMask, CANSPI1SetFilter
and CANSPI2SetFilter expect one of these (or a bitwise combination) as their
argument:
const char
CANSPI_CONFIG_DEFAULT
CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_BIT
CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON
CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_OFF
= 0xFF,
= 0x01,
= 0xFF,
= 0xFE,
// 11111111
// XXXXXXX1
// XXXXXXX0
CANSPI_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_BIT = 0x02,
CANSPI_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_ON = 0xFF,
CANSPI_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF = 0xFD,
// XXXXXX1X
// XXXXXX0X
CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_BIT
CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_ONCE
CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE
= 0x04,
= 0xFF,
= 0xFB,
// XXXXX1XX
// XXXXX0XX
CANSPI_CONFIG_MSG_TYPE_BIT
CANSPI_CONFIG_STD_MSG
CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG
= 0x08,
= 0xFF,
= 0xF7,
// XXXX1XXX
// XXXX0XXX
// continues..
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// ..continued
CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_BIT
CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON
CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_OFF
CANSPI_CONFIG_MSG_BITS
CANSPI_CONFIG_ALL_MSG
CANSPI_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG
CANSPI_CONFIG_VALID_STD_MSG
CANSPI_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG
= 0x10,
= 0xFF,
= 0xEF,
// XXX1XXXX
// XXX0XXXX
= 0x60,
= 0xFF,
= 0xDF,
= 0xBF,
= 0x9F;
// X11XXXXX
// X10XXXXX
// X01XXXXX
// X00XXXXX
You may use bitwise AND (&) to form config byte out of these values. For example:
init = CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
CANSPI_CONFIG_STD_MSG
&
CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
CANSPI_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG &
CANSPI_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
...
CANSPIInit(1, 1, 3, 3, 1, init);
// initialize CANSPI
CANSPI_TX_MSG_FLAGS
CANSPI_TX_MSG_FLAGS are flags related to transmission of a CAN
const char
CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_BITS = 0x03,
CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_0
= 0xFC,
// XXXXXX00
CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_1
= 0xFD,
// XXXXXX01
CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_2
= 0xFE,
// XXXXXX10
CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_3
= 0xFF,
// XXXXXX11
CANSPI_TX_FRAME_BIT
CANSPI_TX_STD_FRAME
CANSPI_TX_XTD_FRAME
= 0x08,
= 0xFF,
= 0xF7,
// XXXXX1XX
// XXXXX0XX
CANSPI_TX_RTR_BIT
= 0x40,
CANSPI_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME = 0xFF,
CANSPI_TX_RTR_FRAME
= 0xBF;
// X1XXXXXX
// X0XXXXXX
message:
You may use bitwise AND (&) to adjust the appropriate flags. For example:
/* form value to be used as sending message flag : */
send_config = CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
CANSPI_TX_XTD_FRAME &
CANSPI_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
...
CANSPI1Write(id, data, 1, send_config);
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CANSPI_RX_MSG_FLAGS
are flags related to reception of CAN message. If a particular bit is set then corresponding meaning is TRUE or else it will be FALSE.
CANSPI_RX_MSG_FLAGS
const char
CANSPI_RX_FILTER_BITS
CANSPI_RX_FILTER_1
CANSPI_RX_FILTER_2
CANSPI_RX_FILTER_3
CANSPI_RX_FILTER_4
CANSPI_RX_FILTER_5
CANSPI_RX_FILTER_6
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0x07,//Use this to access filter bits
0x00,
0x01,
0x02,
0x03,
0x04,
0x05,
CANSPI_RX_OVERFLOW
= 0x08,//Set
CANSPI_RX_INVALID_MSG = 0x10,//Set
CANSPI_RX_XTD_FRAME
= 0x20,//Set
CANSPI_RX_RTR_FRAME
= 0x40,//Set
CANSPI_RX_DBL_BUFFERED = 0x80;
//Set if this message was hardware
if
if
if
if
Overflowed else cleared
invalid else cleared
XTD message else cleared
RTR message else cleared
double-buffered
You may use bitwise AND (&) to adjust the appropriate flags. For example:
if (MsgFlag & CANSPI_RX_OVERFLOW != 0) {
...
// Receiver overflow has occurred.
// We have lost our previous message.
}
CANSPI_MASK
The CANSPI_MASK constants define mask codes. The functions
CANSPI1SetMask and CANSPI1SetMask expect one of these as their argument:
const char
CANSPI_MASK_B1 = 0,
CANSPI_MASK_B2 = 1;
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CANSPI_FILTER
The CANSPI_FILTER constants define filter codes. The functions
CANSPI1SetFilter and CANSPI2SetFilter expects one of these as their argument:
const char
CANSPI_FILTER_B1_F1
CANSPI_FILTER_B1_F2
CANSPI_FILTER_B2_F1
CANSPI_FILTER_B2_F2
CANSPI_FILTER_B2_F3
CANSPI_FILTER_B2_F4
=
=
=
=
=
=
0,
1,
2,
3,
4,
5;
Library Example
The code is a simple demonstration of CANSPI Library routines usage.
char
aa, aa1, len, aa2;
char
data[8];
long
id;
unsigned short
zr;
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
PORTB = 0;
TRISB =0;
aa = 0;
aa1 = 0;
aa2 = 0;
aa = CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG &
CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
CANSPI_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG;
aa1 = CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
CANSPI_TX_XTD_FRAME &
CANSPI_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
// form value to be used
//
with CANSPI1Init
// form value to be used
//
with CANSPI1Write
Spi1_Init();
CANSPI1Init(1,3,3,3,1,aa, &PORTF, 1, &PORTF, 0);
// initialize the external CAN module
// continues ..
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// .. continued
CANSPI1SetOperationMode(CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF); // set CONFIGURATION mode
ID=-1;
CANSPI1SetMask(CANSPI_MASK_B1,id,CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// set all mask1 bits to ones
CANSPI1SetMask(CANSPI_MASK_B2,id,CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// set all mask2 bits to ones
CANSPI1SetFilter(CANSPI_FILTER_B2_F4,3,CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// set id of filter B1_F1 to 3
CANSPI1SetOperationMode(CANSPI_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode
data[0] = 7;
id = 12111;
CANSPI1Write(id,data,1,aa1);
while(1) {
zr = CANSPI1Read(&id , data , &len, &aa2); // receive data, if any
if ((id == 3) && (zr)) {
PORTB = data[0];
data[0]++;
// output data at portB
id=12111;
delay_ms(100);
CANSPI1Write(id,data,1,aa1);
if (len == 2) {
// send incremented data back
PORTD = data[1];
// if message contains two data bytes
}
// output second byte at portd
}
}
}//~!
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Hardware Connection
VCC
100K
VCC
1
2
3
5
6
7
Vdd
RX
RST
CLKO
CS
TX0
SO
TX1
SI
TX2
SCK
OSC2
8
9
17
16
15
14
13
12
INT
OSC1 RX0B
Vss
18
RX1B
13
14
MCP2510
10R
2
VCC
3
TX-CAN RS
GND CANH
VCC
10
8 MHz
1
VCC
11
GND
OSC1
OSC2
dsPIC4013
4
TX
RF0
RF2
RF3
RF6
30
26
25
24
8
7
6
VCC CANL
4
RXD
Vref
5
MCP2551
Shielded
twisted pair
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Compact Flash Library
The Compact Flash Library provides routines for accessing data on Compact Flash
card (abbr. CF further in text). CF cards are widely used memory elements, commonly used with digital cameras. Great capacity and excellent access time of only
a few microseconds make them very attractive for microcontroller applications.
In CF card, data is divided into sectors. One sector usually comprises 512 bytes.
Routines for file handling, the Cf_Fat routines, are not performed directly but successively through 512B buffer.
Notes: - Routines for file handling can be used only with FAT16 file system.
- Library functions create and read files from the root directory only.
Note: Library functions populate both FAT1 and FAT2 tables when writing to
files, but the file data is being read from the FAT1 table only; i.e. there is no
recovery if the FAT1 table gets corrupted.
Note: If CF card has Master Boot Record (MBR), the library will work with the
first available primary (logical) partition that has non-zero size. If CF card has
Volume Boot Record (i.e. there is only one logical partition and no MBRs), the
library works with entire card as a single partition. For more information on MBR,
physical and logical drives, primary/secondary partitions and partition tables,
please consult other resources, e.g. Wikipedia and similar.
Note: Before writing operation, make sure not to overwrite boot or FAT sector as
it could make your card on PC or digital camera unreadable. Drive mapping tools,
such as Winhex, can be of great assistance.
Library Routines
Cf_Init
Cf_Detect
Cf_Enable
Cf_Disable
Cf_Read_Init
Cf_Read_Byte
Cf_Read_Word
Cf_Write_Init
Cf_Write_Byte
Cf_Write_Word
Cf_Read_Sector
Cf_Write_Sector
Cf_Fat_Init
Cf_Fat_QuickFormat
Cf_Fat_Assign
Cf_Fat_Reset
Cf_Fat_Read
Cf_Fat_Rewrite
Cf_Fat_Append
Cf_Fat_Delete
Cf_Fat_Write
Cf_Fat_Set_File_Date
Cf_Fat_Get_File_Date
Cf_Fat_Get_File_Size
Cf_Fat_Get_Swap_File
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Cf_Init
Prototype
void Cf_Init(unsigned *port_A012, unsigned pin_A0, unsigned
pin_A1, unsigned pin_A2, unsigned *port_RDY, unsigned pin_RDY,
unsigned *port_WE, unsigned pin_WE, unsigned *port_OE, unsigned
pin_OE, unsigned *port_CD1, unsigned pin_CD1, unsigned *port_CE1,
unsigned pin_CE1, unsigned *port_Data);
Description
Initializes ports appropriately for communication with CF card.
Parameters :
- port_A012: address pins port.
- pin_A2, pin_A1, pin_A0: address pins
- port_RDY: ready signal port address
- pin_RDY: ready signal pin
- port_WE: write enable port address
- pin_WE: write enable pin
- port_OE: output enable port address
- pin_OE: output enable pin
- port_CD1: chip detect port address
- pin_CD1: chip detect pin
- port_CE1: chip enable port address
- pin_CE1: chip enable pin
- port_Data: data port. Pins <7:0> are used.
Example
//-------------- Init for EasydsPIC2
void Cf_Init_EASYdsPIC2() {
Cf_Init(&PORTB,8,9,10, &PORTC,15, &PORTC,14, &PORTC,13,
&PORTB,12, &PORTB,11, &PORTB);
}//~
//-------------- Init for dsPICPRO
void Cf_Init_dsPICPRO2() {
Cf_Init(&PORTD,8,9,10, &PORTG,14, &PORTG,12, &PORTD,11,
&PORTG,15, &PORTG,13, &PORTD);
}//~
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Cf_Detect
Prototype
unsigned Cf_Detect(void);
Returns
1 - if CF card was detected
0 - otherwise
Description
Checks for presence of CF card by reading the chip detect pin.
Important: The dsPIC30 family MCU and CF card voltage levels are different. The
user must ensure that MCU's pin connected to CD line can read CF card Logical One
correctly.
Requires
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card. See
Cf_Init.
Example
// Wait until CF card is inserted:
do
asm nop;
while (!Cf_Detect());
Cf_Enable
Prototype
void Cf_Enable(void);
Description
Enables the device. Routine needs to be called only if you have disabled the device by
means of the Cf_Disable routine. These two routines in conjunction allow you to
free/occupy data line when working with multiple devices.
Requires
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card. See
Cf_Init.
Example
// enable compact flash
Cf_Enable();
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Cf_Disable
Prototype
void Cf_Disable(void);
Description
Routine disables the device and frees the data lines for other devices. To enable the
device again, call Cf_Enable. These two routines in conjunction allow you to
free/occupy data line when working with multiple devices.
Requires
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card. See
Cf_Init.
Example
Cf_Disable();
Cf_Read_Init
Prototype
void Cf_Read_Init(unsigned long address, unsigned short sectcnt);
Description
Initializes CF card for reading. Parameters :
- address: the first sector to be prepared for reading operation.
- sectcnt: number of sectors to be prepared for reading operation.
Requires
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card. See
Cf_Init.
Example
// initialize compact flash for reading from sector 590
Cf_Read_Init(590, 1);
Cf_Read_Byte
Prototype
unsigned Cf_Read_Byte(void);
Returns
Returns a byte read from CF.
Note: Higher byte of the unsigned return value is cleared.
Description
Reads one byte from CF location currently pointed to by internal read pointers. These
pointers will be autoicremented after complete reading.
Requires
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card. See
Cf_Init.
CF card must be initialized for reading operation. See Cf_Read_Init.
Example
// Read a byte from compact flash:
char data;
...
data = Cf_Read_Byte();
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Cf_Read_Word
Prototype
unsigned Cf_Read_Word(void);
Returns
Returns a word (16-bit) read from CF.
Description
Reads one word from CF location currently pointed to by internal read pointers. These
pointers will be autoicremented by 2 after complete reading. The reading process is
implemented as two sequential byte reads. A byte read from lower address is placed into
lower byte of the result. A byte read from higher address is placed into higher byte of
the result.
Requires
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card. See
Cf_Init.
CF card must be initialized for reading operation. See Cf_Read_Init.
Example
// Read word and display it on PORTC:
PORTC = Cf_Read_Word();
Cf_Write_Init
Prototype
void Cf_Write_Init(unsigned long address, unsigned short sectcnt);
Description
Initializes CF card for writing.
Parameters :
- address: the first sector to be prepared for writing operation.
- sectcnt: number of sectors to be prepared for writing operation.
Requires
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card.
See Cf_Init.
Example
// initialize compact flash for writing to sector 590
Cf_Write_Init(590, 1);
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Cf_Write_Byte
Prototype
void Cf_Write_Byte(unsigned short data);
Description
Writes a byte to CF location currently pointed to by writing pointers. These pointers will
be autoicremented after complete reading.
Parameters :
- data: byte to be written.
Requires
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card.
See Cf_Init.
CF card must be initialized for writing operation. See Cf_Write_Init.
Example
char data = 0xAA;
...
Cf_Write_Byte(data);
Cf_Write_Word
Prototype
void Cf_Write_Word(unsigned data);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Writes a word to CF location currently pointed to by internal writing pointers. These
pointers will be autoicremented by 2 after complete reading. Writing process is implemented as two sequential byte writes. Lower byte of data is placed into CF location with
lower address. Higher byte of data is placed into CF location with higher address.
Parameters :
- data: word to be written.
Requires
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card.
See Cf_Init.
CF card must be initialized for writing operation. See Cf_Write_Init.
Example
unsigned data = 0xAAAA;
...
Cf_Write_Word(data);
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Cf_Read_Sector
Prototype
void Cf_Read_Sector(unsigned sector_number, unsigned char
*buffer);
Description
Reads one sector (512 bytes). Read data is stored into buffer provided by the buffer
parameter.
Parameters :
sector_number: sector to be read.
buffer: data buffer of at least 512 bytes in length.
Requires
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card.
See Cf_Init.
Example
// read sector 22
char data[512];
...
Cf_Read_Sector(22, data);
Cf_Write_Sector
Prototype
void Cf_Write_Sector(unsigned sector_number, unsigned char
*buffer);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Writes 512 bytes of data provided by the buffer parameter to one CF sector.
Parameters :
sector_number: sector to be written to.
buffer: data buffer of 512 bytes in length.
Requires
The corresponding MCU ports must be appropriately initialized for CF card.
See Cf_Init.
Example
// write to sector 22
char data[512];
...
Cf_Write_Sector(22, data);
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Cf_Fat_Init
Prototype
unsigned short Cf_Fat_Init(unsigned *port_A012, unsigned pin_A0,
unsigned pin_A1, unsigned pin_A2, unsigned *port_RDY, unsigned
pin_RDY, unsigned *port_WE, unsigned pin_WE, unsigned *port_OE,
unsigned pin_OE, unsigned *port_CD1, unsigned pin_CD1, unsigned
*port_CE1, unsigned pin_CE1, unsigned *port_Data);
Returns
0 - if CF card was detected and successfully initialized
1 - if FAT16 boot sector was not found
255 - if card was not detected
Description
Initializes CF card, reads CF FAT16 boot sector and extracts necessary data needed by
the library.
Parameters :
- port_A012: address pins port.
- pin_A2, pin_A1, pin_A0: address pins
- port_RDY: ready signal port address
- pin_RDY: ready signal pin
- port_WE: write enable port address
- pin_WE: write enable pin
- port_OE: output enable port address
- pin_OE: output enable pin
- port_CD1: chip detect port address
- pin_CD1: chip detect pin
- port_CE1: chip enable port address
- pin_CE1: chip enable pin
- port_Data: data port address. Pins <7:0> are used.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
//--- init the FAT library - dsPICPRO2
if (!Cf_Fat_Init(&PORTD,8,9,10, &PORTG,14, &PORTG,12, &PORTD,11,
&PORTG,15, &PORTG,13, &PORTD))
{
...
}
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Cf_Fat_QuickFormat
Prototype
unsigned short Cf_Fat_QuickFormat(unsigned *port_A012, unsigned
pin_A0, unsigned pin_A1, unsigned pin_A2, unsigned *port_RDY,
unsigned pin_RDY, unsigned *port_WE, unsigned pin_WE, unsigned
*port_OE, unsigned pin_OE, unsigned *port_CD1, unsigned pin_CD1,
unsigned *port_CE1, unsigned pin_CE1, unsigned *port_Data, char
*cf_fat_label);
Returns
0 - if CF card was detected, successfully formated and initialized
1 - if FAT16 format was unseccessful
255 - if card was not detected
Description
Formats to FAT16 and initializes CF card.
Parameters :
- port_A012: address pins port.
- pin_A2, pin_A1, pin_A0: address pins
- port_RDY: ready signal port address
- pin_RDY: ready signal pin
- port_WE: write enable port address
- pin_WE: write enable pin
- port_OE: output enable port address
- pin_OE: output enable pin
- port_CD1: chip detect port address
- pin_CD1: chip detect pin
- port_CE1: chip enable port address
- pin_CE1: chip enable pin
- port_Data: data port address. Pins <7:0> are used.
- cf_fat_label: volume label (11 characters in length).
If less than 11 characters are provided, the label will be padded with spaces.
Note: This routine can be used instead or in conjunction with Cf_Fat_Init routine.
Note: If CF card already contains a valid boot sector, it will remain unchanged (except
volume label field) and only FAT and ROOT tables will be erased. Also, the new volume label will be set.
Requires
Nothing
Example
//--- format and initialize the FAT library - dsPICPRO2
if (!Cf_Fat_Init(&PORTD,8,9,10, &PORTG,14, &PORTG,12, &PORTD,11,
&PORTG,15, &PORTG,13, &PORTD, "mikroE"))
{
...
}
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Cf_Fat_Assign
Prototype
unsigned Cf_Fat_Assign(char *filename, char file_cre_attr);
Returns
- 0 if file does not exist and no new file is created.
- 1 if file already exists or file does not exist but a new file is created.
Description
Assigns file for file operations (read, write, delete...). All subsequent file operations will
be applied over the assigned file. Parameters :
- filename: name of the file that should be assigned for file operations. The file name
should be in DOS 8.3 (file_name.extension) format. The file name and extension will
be automatically padded with spaces by the library if they have less than length
required (i.e. "mikro.tx" -> "mikro .tx "), so the user does not have to take care of that.
The file name and extension are case insensitive. The library will convert them to
proper case automatically, so the user does not have to take care of that.
Also, in order to keep backward compatibility with the first version of this library, file
names can be entered as UPPERCASE string of 11 bytes in length with no dot
character between the file name and extension (i.e. "MIKROELETXT" ->
MIKROELE.TXT). In this case the last 3 characters of the string are considered to be
file extension.
- file_cre_attr: file creation and attributs flags. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate file attribut:
BIT MASK
Description
0
0x01
Read Only
1
0x02
Hidden
2
0x04
System
3
0x08
Volume Label
4
0x10
Subdirectory
5
0x20
Archive
6
0x40
Device (internal use only, never found on disk)
7
0x80
File creation flag. If the file does not exist and
this flag is set, a new file with specified name
will be created.
Note: Long File Names (LFN) are not supported.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
Example
// create file with archive attribut if it does not already exist
Cf_Fat_Assign("MIKRO007.TXT",0xA0);
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Cf_Fat_Reset
Prototype
void Cf_fat_Reset(unsigned long *size);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Opens currently assigned file for reading.
Parameters :
- size: buffer to store file size to. After file has been open for reading its size is
returned through this parameter.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
File must be previously assigned. See Cf_Fat_Assign.
Example
unsigned long size;
...
Cf_Fat_Reset(size);
Cf_Fat_Read
Prototype
void Cf_Fat_Read(unsigned char *bdata);
Description
Reads a byte from currently assigned file opened for reading. Upon function execution
file pointers will be set to the next character in the file.
Parameters :
bdata: buffer to store read byte to. Upon this function execution read byte is returned
through this parameter.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
File must be previously assigned. See Cf_Fat_Assign.
File must be open for reading. See Cf_Fat_Reset.
Example
char character;
...
Cf_Fat_Read(&character);
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Cf_Fat_Rewrite
Prototype
void Cf_fat_Rewrite();
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Opens currently assigned file for writing. If the file is not empty its content will be
erased.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
The file must be previously assigned. See Cf_Fat_Assign.
Example
// open file for writing
Cf_Fat_Rewrite();
Cf_Fat_Append
Prototype
void Cf_fat_Append();
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Opens currently assigned file for appending. Upon this function execution file pointers
will be positioned after the last byte in the file, so any subsequent file writing operation
will start from there.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
File must be previously assigned. See Cf_Fat_Assign.
Example
// open file for appending
Cf_Fat_Append();
Cf_Fat_Delete
Prototype
void Cf_Fat_Delete();
Description
Deletes currently assigned file from CF card.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
File must be previously assigned. See Cf_Fat_Assign.
Example
// delete current file
Cf_Fat_Delete();
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Cf_Fat_Write
Prototype
void Cf_fat_Write(char *fdata, unsigned data_len);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Writes requested number of bytes to currently assigned file opened for writing.
Parameters :
- fdata: data to be written.
- data_len: number of bytes to be written.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
File must be previously assigned. See Cf_Fat_Assign.
File must be open for writing. See Cf_Fat_Rewrite or Cf_Fat_Append.
Example
char file_contents[42];
...
Cf_Fat_Write(file_contents, 42);//write data to the assigned file
Cf_Fat_Set_File_Date
Prototype
void Cf_fat_Set_File_Date(unsigned int year, unsigned short
month, unsigned short day, unsigned short hours, unsigned short
mins, unsigned short seconds);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Sets the date/time stamp. Any subsequent file writing operation will write this stamp to
currently assigned file's time/date attributs.
Parameters :
- year: year attribute. Valid values: 1980-2107
- month: month attribute. Valid values: 1-12
- day: day attribute. Valid values: 1-31
- hours: hours attribute. Valid values: 0-23
- mins: minutes attribute. Valid values: 0-59
- seconds: seconds attribute. Valid values: 0-59
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
File must be previously assigned. See Cf_Fat_Assign.
File must be open for writing. See Cf_Fat_Rewrite or Cf_Fat_Append.
Example
Cf_Fat_Set_File_Date(2005,9,30,17,41,0);
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Cf_Fat_Get_File_Date
Prototype
void Cf_fat_Get_File_Date(unsigned int *year, unsigned short
*month, unsigned short *day, unsigned short *hours, unsigned
short *mins, unsigned short *seconds);
Description
Reads time/date attributes of currently assigned file.
Parameters :
- year: buffer to store year attribute to. Upon function execution year attribute is
returned through this parameter.
- month: buffer to store month attribute to. Upon function execution month attribute is
returned through this parameter.
- day: buffer to store day attribute to. Upon function execution day attribute is returned
through this parameter.
- hours: buffer to store hours attribute to. Upon function execution hours attribute is
returned through this parameter.
- mins: buffer to store minutes attribute to. Upon function execution minutes attribute is
returned through this parameter.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
File must be previously assigned. See Cf_Fat_Assign.
Example
unsigned year;
char month, day, hours, mins;
...
Cf_Fat_Get_File_Date(&year, &month, &day, &hours, &mins);
Cf_Fat_Get_File_Size
Prototype
unsigned long Cf_fat_Get_File_Size();
Returns
Size of the currently assigned file in bytes.
Description
This function reads size of currently assigned file in bytes.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
File must be previously assigned. See Cf_Fat_Assign.
Example
unsigned long my_file_size;
...
my_file_size = Cf_Fat_Get_File_Size();
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Cf_Fat_Get_Swap_File
Prototype
unsigned long Cf_Fat_Get_Swap_File(unsigned long sectors_cnt,
char *filename, char file_attr);
Returns
Number of the start sector for the newly created swap file, if there was enough free
space on CF card to create file of required size.
0 - otherwise.
Description
This function is used to create a swap file of predefined name and size on the CF media.
If a file with specified name already exists on the media, search for consecutive sectors
will ignore sectors occupied by this file. Therefore, it is recommended to erase such file
if it exists before calling this function. If it is not erased and there is still enough space
for a new swap file, this function will delete it after allocating new memory space for a
new swap file.
The purpose of the swap file is to make reading and writing to CF media as fast as possible, by using the Cf_Read_Sector() and Cf_Write_Sector() functions directly, without
potentially damaging the FAT system. Swap file can be considered as a "window" on the
media where the user can freely write/read data. It's main purpose in the mikroC's
library is to be used for fast data acquisition; when the time-critical acquisition has finished, the data can be re-written into a "normal" file, and formatted in the most suitable
way.
Parameters:
- sectors_cnt: number of consecutive sectors that user wants the swap file to have.
- filename: name of the file that should be assigned for file operations. The file name
should be in DOS 8.3 (file_name.extension) format. The file name and extension will be
automatically padded with spaces by the library if they have less than length required
(i.e. "mikro.tx" -> "mikro .tx "), so the user does not have to take care of that. The file
name and extension are case insensitive. The library will convert them to proper case
automatically, so the user does not have to take care of that.
Also, in order to keep backward compatibility with the first version of this library, file
names can be entered as UPPERCASE string of 11 bytes in length with no dot character
between the file name and extension (i.e. "MIKROELETXT" -> MIKROELE.TXT). In
this case the last 3 characters of the string are considered to be file extension.
- file_attr: file creation and attributs flags. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate
file attribut:
//continues on the next page ...
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//continued from the previous page ...
BIT MASK
Description
0
0x01
Read Only
1
0x02
Hidden
2
0x04
System
3
0x08
Volume Label
4
0x10
Subdirectory
5
0x20
Archive
6
0x40
Device (internal use only, never found on disk)
7
0x80
Not Used
Note: Long File Names (LFN) are not supported.
Requires
CF card and CF library must be initialized for file operations. See Cf_Fat_Init.
Example
// Try to create a swap file with archive atribute, whose size
// will be at least 1000 sectors.
// If it succeeds, it sends the No. of start sector over USART
unsigned long size;
...
size = Cf_Fat_Get_Swap_File(1000, "mikroE.txt", 0x20);
if (size) {
Usart_Write(0xAA);
Usart_Write(Lo(size));
Usart_Write(Hi(size));
Usart_Write(Higher(size));
Usart_Write(Highest(size));
Usart_Write(0xAA);
}//~
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Library Example
The following example writes 512 bytes at sector no.620, and then reads the data and sends it over
UART1 for a visual check. Hardware configurations in this example are made for the dsPICPRO2
board and dsPIC30F6014A.
char buff[512];
//-------------- Init for dsPICPRO2
void Cf_Init_dsPICPRO2() {
Cf_Init(&PORTD,8,9,10, &PORTG,14, &PORTG,12, &PORTD,11, &PORTG,15, &PORTG,13,
&PORTD);
}//~
void initCF() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
Cf_Init_dsPICPRO2();
//--- CD1 does not work on non-TTL inputs
//while (CF_Detect() == 0) ;
// wait until CF card is inserted
//Delay_ms(500);
// wait for a while until the card is stabilized
}//~
//-------------void testBytes() {
unsigned int i, tmp;
//--- write some data
CF_Write_Init(620,1);
// Initialize writing at sector address 620
// for 1 sector (byte)
Uart1_Write_Char('s');
// Notify that writing has started
Delay_ms(1000);
for (i=0; i<=511; i++) {
// Write 512 bytes to sector 590
CF_Write_Byte(i);
}
Delay_ms(1000);
//--- read written data
CF_Read_Init(620,1);
// Initialize read from sector address 620
Delay_ms(1000);
//
for 1 sector (byte)
Cf_Read_Sector(620, buff);
for (i=0; i<=511; i++) {
// Read 512 bytes from initialized sector
Uart1_Write_Char(buff[i]);
}
}//~
//-------------- Main program
void main() {
Uart1_Init(19200);
initCF();
testBytes();
}//~!
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RG13
RG12
RG14
RA7
RA6
RG0
RG1
RF1
RF0
Vdd
Vss
RD7
RD6
RD5
RD4
RD13
RD12
RD3
RD2
RD1
Hardware Connection
dsPIC30F6014A
RC14
RC13
RD0
RD11
RD10
RD9
RD8
RA15
RA14
Vss
OSC2
OSC1/CLKI
Vdd
RG2
RG3
RF6
RF7
RF8
RF2
RF3
VCC
RB6
RB7
RA9
RA10
AVdd
AVss
RB8
RB9
RB10
RB11
Vss
Vdd
RB12
RB13
RB14
RB15
RD14
RD15
RF4
RF5
RG15
RC1
RC2
RC3
RC4
RG6
RG7
RG8
MCLR
RG9
Vss
Vdd
RA12
RA13
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
VCC
RD7
RD6
RD5
50
RD4
49
25
24
48
23
47
22
46
21
45
20
44
19
43
18
42
17
41
16
40
15
39
14
38
13
37
12
36
11
35
10
34
9
33
8
32
7
31
6
30
5
29
4
28
3
27
2
26
1
RD3
RD2
RD1
RD0
RG14
RG12
RD11
RG15
RG13
RD10
Compact Flash
Card
RD9
RD8
VCC
10K
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DSP (Digital Signal Processing) Library
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes a libraries for DSP engine.
Library Routines
FIR_Radix
IIR_Radix
FFT
BitReverseComplex
Vector_Set
VectorPower
Vector_Subtract
VectorScale
Vector_Negate
Vector_Multiply
Vector_Min
Vector_Max
Vector_Dot
Vector_Correlate
Vector_Convolve
Vector_Add
Matrix_Transponse
Matrix_Subtract
Matrix_Scale
Matrix_Multiply
Matrix_Add
FIR_Radix
Prototype
unsigned FIR_Radix(unsigned FilterOrder, const unsigned
*ptrCoeffs, unsigned BuffLength, unsigned *ptrInput, unsigned
Index);
Description
This function applies FIR filter to ptrInput. Input samples must be in Y data space.
FilterOrder is order of the filter + 1.
ptrCoeffs is address of filter coeffitients in program memory.
BuffLength represents number of samples ptrInput points to.
ptrInput is address of input samples.
Index index of current sample.
Returns
sum(k=0..N-1)(coef[k]*input[N-k]) -Current sample of processed signal(B[n])
N - buffer length
k - Current index
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IIR_Radix
Prototype
unsigned IIR_Radix (const int BScale, const int AScale, const
signed *ptrB, const signed *ptrA, unsigned FilterOrder, unsigned
*ptrInput, unsigned Input_Len, unsigned *ptrOutput, unsigned
Index);
Description
This function applies IIR filter to ptrInput. Input and output samples must be in Y data
space.
AScale A Scale factor
BScale B Scale factor
ptrB Address of B coefficients (In program memory)
ptrA Address of A coefficients (In program memory)
FilterOrder is order of the filter + 1.
ptrInput is address of input samples.
Input_Len represents number of samples ptrInput points to.
ptrOutput is address of output samples. Output length is equal to Input length.
Index index of current sample.
Returns
y[n]=sum(k=0..N)(Acoef[k]*x[n-k]) - sum(k=1..M)(Bcoef[k]*y[n-k])
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FFT
Prototype
void Fft(unsigned log2N, const unsigned *TwiddleFactorsAddress,
unsigned *Samples);
Description
Function applies FFT transformation to input samples, input samples must be in Y data
space.
N - buffer length (must be the power of 2).
TwiddleFactorsAddress is address of costant array which contains complex twiddle
factors.The array is expected to be in program memory.
Samples array of input samples.
Upon completion complex array of FFT samples is placed in the Samples parameter.
Operation
F(k) = 1/N*sum_n (f(n)*WN(kn)), WN(kn) = exp[-(j*2*pi*k*n)/N]
Fn - array of complex input samples
n in {0, 1,... , N-1}, and k in {0, 1,... , N-1}, with N = 2^m, m element of Z.
WN - TwiddleFactors
The amplitude of current FFT sample is calculated as:
F[k]=sqrt(Re[k]^2+ Im[k]^2)
Note
Complex array of FFT samples is placed in Samples parameter. Input Samples are
arranged in manner Re,Im,Re,Im... (where Im is always zero). Output samples are
arranged in the same manner but Im parts are different from zero. Output samples are
symmetrical (First half of output samples (index from 0 to N/2) is identical as second
half of output samples(index from N/2 to N).
Input data is a complex vector such that the magnitude of the real and imaginary parts of
each of its elements is less than 0.5. If greater or equal to this value the results could
produce saturation. Note that the output values are scaled by a factor of 1/N, with N the
length of the FFT. input is expected in natural ordering, while output is produced in bit
reverse ordering.
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BitReverseComplex
Prototype
void BitReverseComplex(unsigned log2N, unsigned *ReIm);
Description
This function does Complex (in-place) Bit Reverse re-organization.
N - buffer length (must be the power of 2).
ReIm - Output Sample(from FFT).
Note
Input samples must be in Y data space.
Vector_Set
Prototype
void Vector_Set(unsigned *input, unsigned size, unsigned value);
Description
Sets size elements of input to value, starting from the first element.
Size must be > 0. Length of input is limited by available ram.
VectorPower
Prototype
unsigned VectorPower(unsigned N, unsigned *Vector);
Description
Function returns result of power value (powVal) in radix point 1.15
Operation
powVal = sum (srcV[n] * srcV[n]) with n in {0, 1,... , numElems-1}
Input
Input samples must be in Y data space.
Note
AccuA used, not restored
CORCON saved, used, restored
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Vector_Subtract
Prototype
void Vector_Subtract(unsigned *dest, unsigned *v1, unsigned *v2,
unsigned numElems);
Description
This procedure does substraction of two vectors. numElems must be less or equal to
minimum size of two vectors.
v1 - First Vector
v2 - Second Vector
dest - Result Vector
Operation
dstV[n] = srcV1[n] - srcV2[n]
with n in {0, 1,... , numElems-1}
Note
AccuA used, not restored.
CORCON saved, used, restored.
VectorScale
Prototype
void VectorScale(unsigned N, int ScaleValue, unsigned *SrcVector,
unsigned *DestVector);
Description
This procedure does vector scaling with scale value.
N - Buffer length
SrcVector - original vector
DestVector - scaled vector
ScaleValue - Scale Value
Operation
dstV[n] = sclVal * srcV[n],
with n in {0, 1,... , numElems-1}
Note
AccuA used, not restored.
CORCON saved, used, restored
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Vector_Negate
Prototype
void Vector_Negate(unsigned *srcVector, unsigned *DestVector,
unsigned numElems);
Description
This procedure does negation of vector.
srcVector - Original vector
destVector - Result vector
numElems - Number of Elements
Operation
dstV[n] = (-1)*srcV1[n] + 0,
0 <= n < numElems
Note
Negate of 0x8000 is 0x7FFF.
AccuA used, not restored.
CORCON saved, used, restored.
Vector_Multiply
Prototype
void Vector_Multiply(unsigned *v1, unsigned *v2, unsigned *dest,
unsigned numElems);
Description
This procedure does multiplication of two vectors.
numElems must be less or equal to minimum size of two vectors.
v1 - First Vector
v2 - Second Vector
dest - Result Vector
Operation
dstV[n] = srcV1[n] * srcV2[n]
with n in {0, 1,... , numElems-1}
Note
AccuA used, not restored.
CORCON saved, used, restored
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Vector_Min
Prototype
unsigned Vector_Min(unsigned *Vector, unsigned numElems, unsigned
*MinIndex);
Description
This function find min. value in vector.
Vector - Original vector.
numElems - Number of elements
MinIndex - Index of minimum value
Operation
minVal = min {srcV[n], n in {0, 1,...numElems-1}
if srcV[i] = srcV[j] = minVal, and i < j, then minIndex = j
Returns
minimum value (minVal)
Vector_Max
Prototype
unsigned Vector_Max(unsigned *Vector, unsigned numElems, unsigned
*MaxIndex);
Description
This function find max. value in vector.
Vector - Original vector.
numElems - Number of elements
MaxIndex - Index of maximum value
Operation
maxVal = max {srcV[n], n in {0, 1,...numElems-1} }
if srcV[i] = srcV[j] = maxVal, and i < j, then maxIndex = j
Returns
maximum value (maxVal)
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Vector_Dot
Prototype
unsigned Vector_Dot(unsigned *v1, unsigned *v2, unsigned
numElems);
Description
Procedure calculates vector dot product.
v1 - First vector.
v2 - Second vector
numElems - Number of elements
Operation
dotVal = sum (srcV1[n] * srcV2[n]),
with n in {0, 1,... , numElems-1}
Note
AccuA used, not restored.
CORCON saved, used, restored.
Vector_Correlate
Prototype
void Vector_Correlate(unsigned *v1, unsigned *v2, unsigned *dest,
unsigned numElemsV1, unsigned numElemsV2);
Description
Procedure calculates Vector correlation (using convolution).
v1 - First vector.
v2 - Second vector
numElemsV1 - Number of the first vector elements
numElemsV2 - Number of the second vector elements
dest - Result vector
Operation
r[n] = sum_(k=0:N-1){x[k]*y[k+n]},
where:
x[n] defined for 0 <= n < N,
y[n] defined for 0 <= n < M, (M <= N),
r[n] defined for 0 <= n < N+M-1.
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Vector_Convolve
Prototype
void Vector_Convolve(unsigned *v1, unsigned *v2, unsigned *dest,
unsigned numElemsV1, unsigned numElemsV2);
Description
Procedure calculates Vector using convolution.
v1 - First vector.
v2 - Second vector
numElemsV1 - Number of the first vector elements
numElemsV2 - Number of the second vector elements
dest - Result vector
Operation
y[n] = sum_(k=0:n){x[k]*h[n-k]}, 0 <= n < M
y[n] = sum_(k=n-M+1:n){x[k]*h[n-k]}, M <= n < N
y[n] = sum_(k=n-M+1:N-1){x[k]*h[n-k]}, N <= n < N+M-1
Note
AccuA used, not restored.
CORCON saved, used, restored.
Vector_Add
Prototype
void Vector_Add(unsigned *dest, unsigned *v1, unsigned *v2,
unsigned numElems);
Description
Procedure calculates vector addition.
v1 - First vector.
v2 - Second vector
numElemsV1 - Number of vector elements
dest - Result vector
Operation
dstV[n] = srcV1[n] + srcV2[n],
with n in {0, 1,... , numElems-1}
Note
AccuA used, not restored.
CORCON saved, used, restored.
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Matrix_Transponse
Prototype
void Matrix_Transpose(unsigned * src, unsigned * dest, unsigned
num_rows, unsigned num_cols);
Description
Procedure does matrix transposition.
src - Original matrix.
dest - Result matrix
numRows - Number of matrix rows
numCols - Number of matrix columns
Operation
dstM[i][j] = srcM[j][i]
Matrix_Subtract
Prototype
void Matrix_Subtract(unsigned * src1, unsigned * src2, unsigned *
dest, unsigned num_rows, unsigned num_cols);
Description
Procedure does matrix substraction.
src1 - First matrix.
src2 - Second matrix
dest - Result matrix
numRows - Number of matrix rows
numCols - Number of matrix columns
Operation
dstM[i][j] = srcM1[i][j] - srcM2[i][j]
Note
AccuA used, not restored.
AccuB used, not restored.
CORCON saved, used, restored.
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Matrix_Scale
Prototype
void Matrix_Scale(unsigned scale_value, unsigned *src1, unsigned
*dest, unsigned num_rows, unsigned num_cols);
Description
Procedure does matrix scale.
ScaleValue - Scale Value
src1 - Original matrix
dest - Result matrix
numRows - Number of matrix rows
numCols - Number of matrix columns
Operation
dstM[i][j] = srcM[j][i]
Note
AccuA used, not restored.
CORCON saved, used, restored.
Matrix_Multiply
Prototype
void Matrix_Multiply(unsigned * src1, unsigned * src2, unsigned *
dest, unsigned numRows1, unsigned numCols2, unsigned
numCols1Rows2);
Description
Procedure does matrix multiply.
src1 - First Matrix
src2 - Second Matrix
dest - Result Matrix
numRows1 - Number of the first matrix rows
numCols2 - Number of the second matrix columns
numCols1Rows2 - Number of the first matrix columns and second matrix rows
Operation
dstM[i][j] = sum_k(srcM1[i][k]*srcM2[k][j]),
with
i in {0, 1, ..., numRows1-1}
j in {0, 1, ..., numCols2-1}
k in {0, 1, ..., numCols1Rows2-1}
Note
AccuA used, not restored.
CORCON saved, used, restored.
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Matrix_Add
Prototype
void Matrix_Add(unsigned * src1, unsigned * src2, unsigned *
dest, unsigned numRows, unsigned numCols);
Description
Procedure does matrix addition.
src1 - First Matrix
src2 - Second Matrix
dest - Result Matrix
numRows1 - Number of the first matrix rows
numCols2 - Number of the second matrix columns
Operation
dstM[i][j] = srcM1[i][j] + srcM2[i][j]
Note
AccuA used, not restored.
CORCON saved, used, restored.
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ECAN Library (Enhanced Controller Area Network)
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library (driver) for working
with the dsPIC33FJ and pic24HJ ECAN module.
ECAN is a very robust protocol that has error detection and signalling, self–checking and fault confinement. Faulty ECAN data and remote frames are re-transmitted automatically, similar to the Ethernet.
Data transfer rates depend on distance. For example, 1 Mbit/s can be achieved at
network lengths below 40m while 250 Kbit/s can be achieved at network lengths
below 250m. The grater distance the lower maximum bitrate that can be achieved .
The lowest bitrate defined by the standard is 200Kbit/s. Cables used are shielded
twisted pairs. ECAN supports two message formats:
- Standard format, with 11 identifier bits, and
- Extended format, with 29 identifier bits
ECAN message format and DMA RAM buffer definiton can be found in the
ECan_Defs.h header file located in the ECAN project folder. Read this file carefully and make appropriate adjustments for mcu in use. Also, if a new project is to
be created this file has to be copied, adjusted and included into the project via
include pragma directive with corresponding Search Path updating.
Note: ECAN buffers are located in DMA RAM, so two DMA channels are used
for message transfer, one for each direction (ECAN->DMA RAM, DMA RAM>ECAN). See the ECAN1DmaChannelInit and ECAN2DmaChannelInit routines.
Note: Consult CAN standard about CAN bus termination resistance.
Library Routines
ECAN1DmaChannelInit
ECAN1SetOperationMode
ECAN1GetOperationMode
ECAN1Initialize
ECAN1SelectTxBuffers
ECAN1FilterDisable
ECAN1FilterEnable
ECAN1SetBufferSize
ECAN1SetBaudRate
ECAN1SetMask
ECAN1SetFilter
ECAN1Read
ECAN1Write
ECAN2DmaChannelInit
ECAN2SetOperationMode
ECAN2GetOperationMode
ECAN2Initialize
ECAN2SelectTxBuffers
ECAN2FilterDisable
ECAN2FilterEnable
ECAN2SetBufferSize
ECAN2SetBaudRate
ECAN2SetMask
ECAN2SetFilter
ECAN2Read
ECAN2Write
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The following routines are for the internal use by the library only:
RegsToECAN1ID, RegsToECAN2ID
ECAN1IDToRegs, ECAN2IDToRegs
Be sure to check the ECAN constants necessary for using some of the functions.
ECAN1DmaChannelInit
Prototype
unsigned ECAN1DmaChannelInit(unsigned DmaChannel, unsigned
ChannelDir, void *DmaRamBuffAdd);
Returns
0 - if dma channel parameter is valid
0x0001 - if dma channel is already in use (busy)
0xFFFF - if dma channel parameter is invalid
Description
The function preforms initialization of the DMA module for ECAN.
Parameters:
- DmaChannel: DMA Channel number. Valid values: 0..7.
- ChannelDir: transfer direction.
Valid values: 1 (dma ram to peripheral) and 0 (peripheral to dma ram).
- DmaRamBuffAdd: DMA RAM buffer address.
DMA RAM location is MCU dependent, refer to datasheet for valid address range.
Requires
Example
The ECAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN1 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
//channel0 will transfer 8 words from dma ram at 0x4000 to ECAN1
ECAN1DmaChannelInit(0, 1, 0x4000);
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ECAN1SetOperationMode
Prototype
void ECAN1SetOperationMode(unsigned int mode, unsigned int WAIT);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Sets the ECAN1 module to requested mode.
Parameters :
- mode: ECAN1 module operation mode. Valid values: ECAN_OP_MODE constants.
See ECAN constants.
- WAIT: ECAN1 mode switching verification request. If WAIT == 0, the call is nonblocking. The function does not verify if the ECAN1 module is switched to requested
mode or not. Caller must use ECAN1GetOperationMode to verify correct operation
mode before performing mode specific operation. If WAIT != 0,
the call is blocking – the function won’t “return” until the requested mode is set
and no additional verification is necessary.
Requires
The ECAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN1 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
Example
// set the ECAN1 module into configuration mode (wait inside
// ECAN1SetOperationMode until this mode is set)
ECAN1SetOperationMode(ECAN_MODE_CONFIG, 0xFF);
ECAN1GetOperationMode
Prototype
unsigned int ECAN1GetOperationMode(void);
Returns
Current operation mode.
Description
The function returns current operation mode of the ECAN1 module. Check
ECAN_OP_MODE constants (see ECAN constants) or device datasheet for operation mode
codes.
Requires
The ECAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN1 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
Example
// check whether the ECAN1 module is in Normal mode and if it is
// do something.
if (ECAN1GetOperationMode() == ECAN_MODE_NORMAL)
{
...
}
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ECAN1Initialize
Prototype
void ECAN1Initialize(unsigned int SJW, unsigned int BRP, unsigned
int PHSEG1, unsigned int PHSEG2, unsigned int PROPSEG, unsigned
int ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Initializes the ECAN1 module. The internal ECAN1 module is set to:
- Disable ECAN capture
- Continue ECAN operation in Idle mode
- Abort all pending transmissions
- Clear all transmit control registers
- Fcan clock : Fcy (Fosc/2)
- Baud rate is set according to given parameters
- ECAN mode is set to Normal
- Filter and mask registers remain unchanged
SAM, SEG2PHTS, WAKFIL and DBEN bits are set according to the ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS
value. Parameters:
- SJW as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN1 Module)
- BRP as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN1 Module)
- PHSEG1 as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN1 Module)
- PHSEG2 as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN1 Module)
- PROPSEG as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN1 Module)
- ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS ECAN module configuration flags. Each bit corresponds to the
appropriate ECAN module parameter. Should be formed out of predefined ECAN flag
constants. See ECAN constants
Note: ECAN mode NORMAL will be set on exit.
Requires
The ECAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN1 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
Example
// initialize the ECAN1 module with appropriate baud rate and
// message acceptance flags along with the sampling rules
unsigned int ecan_config_flags;
...
ecan_config_flags = ECAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
// Form value to be used
ECAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
// with ECANInitialize
ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG &
ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
ECAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
ECAN1Initialize(1, 3, 3, 3, 1, ecan_config_flags);
// initialize the ECAN1 module
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ECAN1SelectTxBuffers
Prototype
unsigned ECAN1SelectTxBuffers(unsigned txselect);
Returns
0 - if input parameter is valid
0xFFFF - if input parameter is invalid
Description
The function designates the ECAN1 module's transmit buffers.
Parameters:
- txselect: transmit buffer select. By setting bits in the txselect lower byte
corresponding buffers are enabled for transmition. The ECAN module supports up to 8
transmit buffers. Also, by clearing bits in the txselect lower byte corresponding buffers
are enabled for reception.
Requires
Example
The ECAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN1 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
The ECAN1 module must be initialized. See the ECAN1Initialize routine.
/* Buffers 0 and 2 are enabled for transmition: */
ECAN1SelectTxBuffers(0x0005);
ECAN1FilterDisable
Prototype
void ECAN1FilterDisable(unsigned fltdis);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
The function disables receive filters.
Parameters:
- fltdis: filter disable selection parameter. Each bit corresponds to appropriate filter.
By settung bit the corresponding filter is to be disabled.
Requires
Example
The ECAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN1 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus. The ECAN1 module must be initialized. See the ECAN1Initialize routine.
/* Filters 0, 4, 8, 12 are to be disabled: */
ECAN1FilterDisable(0x1111);
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ECAN1FilterEnable
Prototype
void ECAN1FilterEnable(unsigned flten);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
The function enables receive filters.
Parameters:
- flten: filter enable selection parameter. Each bit corresponds to appropriate filter.
By setting bit the corresponding filter will be enabled.
Requires
Example
The ECAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN1 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
The ECAN1 module must be initialized. See the ECAN1Initialize routine.
/* Filters 0, 4, 8, 12 are to be enabled: */
ECAN1FilterEnable(0x1111);
ECAN1SetBufferSize
Prototype
unsigned ECAN1SetBufferSize(unsigned Ecan1BuffSize);
Returns
0 - if input parameter is valid
0xFFFF - if input parameter is invalid
Description
The function configures the total number of receive and transmit buffers in DMA RAM.
Parameters:
- Ecan1BuffSize: Number of ECAN1 DMA RAM receive and transmit buffers. Valid
values: 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 32. Each buffer is 16 bytes long.
Note: The same value should be used for DMA RAM buffer definition in the
ECan_Defs.h header file located in the ECAN project folder.
Requires
Example
The ECAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN1 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
The ECAN1 module must be initialized. See the ECAN1Initialize routine.
/* DMA RAM will have 16 rx+tx buffers */
ECAN1SetBufferSize(16);
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ECAN1SetBaudRate
Prototype
void ECAN1SetBaudRate(unsigned int SJW, unsigned int BRP,
unsigned int PHSEG1, unsigned int PHSEG2, unsigned int PROPSEG,
unsigned int ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Sets ECAN1 module baud rate. Due to complexity of the ECAN protocol, you can not
simply force the bps value. Instead, use this function when ECAN1 is in Config mode.
Refer to datasheet for details.
SAM, SEG2PHTS and WAKFIL bits are set according to the ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS value.
Parameters:
- SJW as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN1 Module)
- BRP as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN1 Module)
- PHSEG1 as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN1 Module)
- PHSEG2 as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN1 Module)
- PROPSEG as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN1 Module)
- ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS ECAN module configuration flags. Each bit corresponds to
the appropriate ECAN module parameter. Should be formed out of predefined ECAN
flag constants. See ECAN constants .
Requires
Example
The ECAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN1 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus. The ECAN1 module must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will
be ignored. See ECAN1SetOperationMode.
// set required baud rate and sampling rules
unsigned int ecan_config_flags;
...
ECAN1SetOperationMode(ECAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (ECAN1 module mast be in config mode
// for baud rate settings)
ecan_config_flags = ECAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
// Form value to be used
ECAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
// with ECAN1SetBaudRate
ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG &
ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
ECAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
ECAN1SetBaudRate(1, 3, 3, 3, 1, ecan_config_flags);
// set ECAN1 module baud rate
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ECAN1SetMask
Prototype
void ECAN1SetMask(unsigned int ECAN_MASK, long val, unsigned int
ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
The function configures appropriate mask for advanced message filtering.
Parameters:
- ECAN_MASK: ECAN module mask number. Valid values: ECAN_MASK constants.
See ECAN constants
- val: mask register value.
This value is bit-adjusted to appropriate buffer mask registers
- ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of messages to filter. Valid values:
ECAN_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG,
ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & ECAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG,
ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG.
(see ECAN constants).
Requires
Example
The ECAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN1 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
The ECAN1 module must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored.
See ECAN1SetOperationMode.
// set appropriate filter mask and message type value
ECAN1SetOperationMode(ECAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode
// (ECAN1 module must be in config mode for mask settings)
// Set all mask0 bits to 1 (all filtered bits are relevant):
// Note that -1 is just a cheaper way to write 0xFFFFFFFF.
// Complement will do the trick and fill it up with ones.
ECAN1SetMask(ECAN_MASK_0, -1, ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
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ECAN1SetFilter
Prototype
void ECAN1SetFilter(unsigned int ECAN_FILTER, long val, unsigned
int ECAN_FILTER_MASK, unsigned int ECAN_FILTER_RXBUFF, unsigned
int ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
The function configures and enables appropriate message filter.
Parameters:
- ECAN_FILTER: ECAN module filter number.
Valid values: ECAN_FILTER constants. See ECAN constants
- val: filter register value. This value is bit-adjusted to appropriate filter registers
- ECAN_FILTER_MASK: mask register corresponding to filter.
Valid values: ECAN_MASK constants. See ECAN constants
- ECAN_FILTER_RXBUFF: receive buffer corresponding to filter.
Valid values: ECAN_RX_BUFFER constants. See ECAN constants
- ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of messages to filter.
Valid values: ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG and ECAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG.
See ECAN constants
Requires
The ECAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN1 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
The ECAN1 module must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored.
See ECAN1SetOperationMode.
Example
// set appropriate filter value and message type
ECAN1SetOperationMode(ECAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (ECAN1 module must be in config mode
// for filter settings)
/* Set id of filter 10 to 3, mask2, receive buffer 7, extended
messages: */
ECAN1SetFilter(ECAN_FILTER_10, 3, ECAN_MASK_2, ECAN_RX_BUFFER_7,
ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
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ECAN1Read
Prototype
unsigned int ECAN1Read(unsigned long *id, char *data, unsigned
int *dataLen, unsigned int *ECAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS);
Returns
0 - if none of Receive Buffers is full
0xFFFF - if at least one of Receive Buffers is full (message received)
Description
If at least one full Receive Buffer is found, it will be processed in the following way:
- Message ID is retrieved and stored to location pointed by the id pointer
- Message data is retrieved and stored to array pointed by the data pointer
- Message length is retrieved and stored to location pointed by the dataLen pointer
- Message flags are retrieved and stored to location pointed by the
ECAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS pointer
Parameters:
- id: message identifier address
- data: an array of bytes up to 8 bytes in length
- dataLen: data length address
- ECAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags address. For message receive flags format
refer to the ECAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS constants (see ECAN constants).
Requires
Example
The ECAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN1 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
The ECAN1 module must be in a mode in which receiving is possible. See
ECAN1SetOperationMode.
// check the ECAN1 module for received messages. If any was
// received do something.
unsigned int msg_rcvd, rx_flags, data_len;
char data[8];
unsigned long msg_id;
...
ECAN1SetOperationMode(ECAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode (ECAN1 module must be in a mode in which
receiving is possible)
...
rx_flags = 0;
// clear message flags
if (msg_rcvd = ECAN1Read(&msg_id, data, &data_len, &rx_flags)) {
...
}
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ECAN1Write
Prototype
unsigned int ECAN1Write(long id, char *Data, unsigned int
DataLen, unsigned int ECAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS);
Returns
0 - if all Transmit Buffers are busy
0xFFFF - if at least one Transmit Buffer is empty and available for transmition
Description
If at least one empty Transmit Buffer is found, the function sends message in the queue
for transmission.
Parameters:
- id: ECAN1 message identifier. Valid values: all 11 or 29 bit values,
depending on message type (standard or extended)
- Data: data to be sent
- DataLen: data length. Valid values: 0..8
- ECAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags. Valid values: ECAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS
constants. See ECAN constants.
Requires
Example
The ECAN1 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN1 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
The ECAN1 module must be in a mode in which transmission is possible. See
ECAN1SetOperationMode.
//send message extended ECAN message with appropriate ID and data
unsigned int tx_flags;
char data[8];
unsigned long msg_id;
...
ECAN1SetOperationMode(ECAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode (ECAN1 must be in a mode in
// which transmission is possible)
tx_flags = ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
ECAN_TX_XTD_FRAME &
ECAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
// set message flags
ECAN1Write(msg_id, data, 1, tx_flags);
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ECAN2DmaChannelInit
Prototype
unsigned ECAN2DmaChannelInit(unsigned DmaChannel, unsigned
ChannelDir, void *DmaRamBuffAdd);
Returns
0 - if dma channel parameter is valid
0x0001 - if dma channel already in use (busy)
0xFFFF - if dma channel parameter is invalid.
Description
The function preforms initialization of the DMA module for ECAN.
Parameters:
- DmaChannel: DMA Channel number. Valid values: 0..7.
- ChannelDir: transfer direction.
Valid values: 1 (dma ram to peripheral) and 0 (peripheral to dma ram).
- DmaRamBuffAdd: DMA RAM buffer address.
DMA RAM location is MCU dependent, refer to datasheet for valid address range.
Requires
The ECAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN2 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
Example
/* channel 0 will transfer 8 words from dma ram at 0x4000 to
ECAN2 */
ECAN2DmaChannelInit(0, 1, 0x4000);
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ECAN2SetOperationMode
Prototype
void ECAN2SetOperationMode(unsigned int mode, unsigned int WAIT);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Sets the ECAN2 module to requested mode.
Parameters :
- mode: ECAN2 module operation mode. Valid values: ECAN_OP_MODE constants.
See ECAN constants.
- WAIT: ECAN2 mode switching verification request. If WAIT == 0, the call is nonblocking. The function does not verify if the ECAN2 module is switched to requested
mode or not. Caller must use ECAN2GetOperationMode to verify correct operation
mode before performing mode specific operation. If WAIT != 0, the call is
blocking – the function won’t “return” until the requested mode is set and no
additional verification is necessary.
Requires
The ECAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN2 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
Example
// set the ECAN2 module into configuration mode (wait inside
// ECAN2SetOperationMode until this mode is set)
ECAN2SetOperationMode(ECAN_MODE_CONFIG, 0xFF);
ECAN2GetOperationMode
Prototype
unsigned int ECAN2GetOperationMode(void);
Returns
Current operation mode.
Description
The function returns current operation mode of the ECAN2 module. Check the
ECAN_OP_MODE constants (see ECAN constants) or device datasheet for operation mode
codes.
Requires
The ECAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN2 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
Example
// check whether the ECAN2 module is in Normal mode and if it is
// do something.
if (ECAN2GetOperationMode() == ECAN_MODE_NORMAL)
{
...
}
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ECAN2Initialize
Prototype
void ECAN2Initialize(unsigned int SJW, unsigned int BRP, unsigned
int PHSEG1, unsigned int PHSEG2, unsigned int PROPSEG, unsigned
int ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Initializes the ECAN2 module. The internal ECAN2 module is set to:
- Disable ECAN capture
- Continue ECAN operation in Idle mode
- Abort all pending transmissions
- Clear all transmit control registers
- Fcan clock : Fcy (Fosc/2)
- Baud rate is set according to given parameters
- ECAN mode is set to Normal
- Filter and mask registers remain unchanged
SAM, SEG2PHTS, WAKFIL and DBEN bits are set according to the ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS
value.
Parameters:
- SJW as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN2 Module)
- BRP as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN2 Module)
- PHSEG1 as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN2 Module)
- PHSEG2 as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN2 Module)
- PROPSEG as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN2 Module)
- ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS ECAN module configuration flags. Each bit corresponds to the
appropriate ECAN module parameter. Should be formed out of predefined ECAN flag
constants. See ECAN constants
Requires
The ECAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN2 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
Example
// initialize the ECAN2 module with appropriate baud rate and
// message acceptance flags along with the sampling rules
unsigned int ecan_config_flags;
...
ecan_config_flags = ECAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
// Form value to be used
ECAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
// with ECANInitialize
ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG &
ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
ECAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
ECAN2Initialize(1, 3, 3, 3, 1, ecan_config_flags);
// initialize the ECAN2 module
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ECAN2SelectTxBuffers
Prototype
unsigned ECAN2SelectTxBuffers(unsigned txselect);
Returns
0 - if input parameter is valid
0xFFFF - if input parameter is invalid
Description
The function designates ECAN2 module's transmit buffers.
Parameters:
txselect: transmit buffer select. By setting bits in the txselect lower byte corresponding buffers are enabled for transmition. ECAN supports up to 8 transmit buffers. Also,
by claring bits in the txselect lower byte corresponding buffers are enabled for reception.
Requires
Example
The ECAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN2 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus. The ECAN2 module must be initialized. See the ECAN2Initialize routine.
/* Buffers 0 and 2 are enabled for transmition: */
ECAN2SelectTxBuffers(0x0005);
ECAN2FilterDisable
Prototype
void ECAN2FilterDisable(unsigned fltdis);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
The function disables receive filters.
Parameters:
- fltdis: filter disable selection parameter. Each bit corresponds to appropriate filter.
By settung bit the corresponding filter is to be disabled.
Requires
Example
The ECAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN2 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
The ECAN2 module must be initialized. See the ECAN2Initialize routine.
/* Filters 0, 4, 8, 12 are to be disabled: */
ECAN2FilterDisable(0x1111);
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ECAN2FilterEnable
Prototype
void ECAN2FilterEnable(unsigned flten);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
The function enables receive filters.
Parameters:
- flten: filter enable selection parameter. Each bit corresponds to appropriate filter.
By setting bit the corresponding filter will be enabled.
Requires
Example
The ECAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN2 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
The ECAN2 module must be initialized. See the ECAN2Initialize routine.
/* Filters 0, 4, 8, 12 are to be enabled: */
ECAN2FilterEnable(0x1111);
ECAN2SetBufferSize
Prototype
unsigned ECAN2SetBufferSize(unsigned Ecan2BuffSize);
Returns
0 - if input parameter is valid
0xFFFF - if input parameter is invalid
Description
The function configures the overall number of receive and transmit buffers in DMA
RAM. Parameters:
Ecan2BuffSize: Number of ECAN2 DMA RAM receive and transmit buffers. Valid
values: 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 32. Each buffer is 16 bytes long.
Note: The same value should be used for DMA RAM buffer definition in the
ECan_Defs.h header file located in the ECAN project folder
Requires
Example
The ECAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN2 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
The ECAN2 module must be initialized. See the ECAN2Initialize routine.
/* DMA RAM will have 16 rx+tx buffers */
ECAN2SetBufferSize(16);
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ECAN2SetBaudRate
Prototype
void ECAN2SetBaudRate(unsigned int SJW, unsigned int BRP,
unsigned int PHSEG1, unsigned int PHSEG2, unsigned int PROPSEG,
unsigned int ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Sets ECAN2 module baud rate. Due to complexity of the ECAN protocol, you can not
simply force the bps value. Instead, use this function when ECAN2 is in Config mode.
Refer to datasheet for details.
SAM, SEG2PHTS and WAKFIL bits are set according to the ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS value.
Parameters:
- SJW as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN2 Module)
- BRP as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN2 Module)
- PHSEG1 as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN2 Module)
- PHSEG2 as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN2 Module)
- PROPSEG as defined in MCU's datasheet (ECAN2 Module)
- The ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS ECAN module configuration flags. Each bit corresponds
to the appropriate ECAN module parameter. Should be formed out of predefined ECAN
flag constants. See ECAN constants
Requires
Example
The ECAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN2 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.The ECAN2 module must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be
ignored. See ECAN2SetOperationMode.
// set required baud rate and sampling rules
unsigned int ecan_config_flags;
...
ECAN2SetOperationMode(ECAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (ECAN2 module mast be in config mode
// for baud rate settings)
ecan_config_flags = ECAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
// Form value to be used
ECAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
// with ECAN2SetBaudRate
ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG &
ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
ECAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
ECAN2SetBaudRate(1, 3, 3, 3, 1, ecan_config_flags);
// set the ECAN2 module baud rate
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ECAN2SetMask
Prototype
void ECAN2SetMask(unsigned int ECAN_MASK, long val, unsigned int
ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
The function configures appropriate mask for advanced message filtering.
Parameters:
- ECAN_MASK: ECAN module mask number. Valid values: ECAN_MASK constants.
See ECAN constants
- val: mask register value.
This value is bit-adjusted to appropriate buffer mask registers
- ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of messages to filter. Valid values:
ECAN_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG,
ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & ECAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG,
ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG.
(see ECAN constants)
Requires
The ECAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN2 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
The ECAN2 module must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored.
See ECAN2SetOperationMode.
Example
// set appropriate filter mask and message type value
ECAN2SetOperationMode(ECAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (ECAN2 module must be in config mode
// for mask settings)
// Set all mask0 bits to 1 (all filtered bits are relevant):
// Note that -1 is just a cheaper way to write 0xFFFFFFFF.
// Complement will do the trick and fill it up with ones.
ECAN2SetMask(ECAN_MASK_0, -1, ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
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ECAN2SetFilter
Prototype
void ECAN2SetFilter(unsigned int ECAN_FILTER, long val, unsigned
int ECAN_FILTER_MASK, unsigned int ECAN_FILTER_RXBUFF, unsigned
int ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
The function configures and enables appropriate message filter.
Parameters:
- ECAN_FILTER: ECAN module filter number.
Valid values: ECAN_FILTER constants. See ECAN constants
- val: filter register value. This value is bit-adjusted to appropriate filter registers
- ECAN_FILTER_MASK: mask register corresponding to filter. Valid values:
ECAN_MASK constants. See ECAN constants
- ECAN_FILTER_RXBUFF: receive buffer corresponding to filter. Valid values:
ECAN_RX_BUFFER constants. See ECAN constants
- ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of messages to filter. Valid values:
ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG or ECAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG. See ECAN constants.
Requires
The ECAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN2 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
The ECAN2 module must be in Config mode, otherwise the function will be ignored.
See ECAN2SetOperationMode.
Example
// set appropriate filter value and message type
ECAN2SetOperationMode(ECAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (ECAN2 module must be in config mode
// for filter settings)
/* Set id of filter 10 to 3, mask2, receive buffer 7, extended
messages: */
ECAN2SetFilter(ECAN_FILTER_10, 3, ECAN_MASK_2, ECAN_RX_BUFFER_7,
ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
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ECAN2Read
Prototype
unsigned int ECAN2Read(unsigned long *id, char *data, unsigned
int *dataLen, unsigned int *ECAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS);
Returns
0 - if none of Receive Buffers is full
0xFFFF - if at least one of Receive Buffers is full (message received)
Description
If at least one full Receive Buffer is found, it will be processed in the following way:
- Message ID is retrieved and stored to location pointed by the id pointer
- Message data is retrieved and stored to array pointed by the data pointer
- Message length is retrieved and stored to location pointed by the dataLen pointer
- Message flags are retrieved and stored to location pointed by the
ECAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS pointer
Parameters:
- id: message identifier address
- data: an array of bytes up to 8 bytes in length
- dataLen: data length address
- ECAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags address. For message receive flags format refer
to the ECAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS constants (see ECAN constants).
Requires
Example
The ECAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN2 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
The ECAN2 module must be in a mode in which receiving is possible. See
ECAN2SetOperationMode.
// check the ECAN2 module for received messages. If any was
// received do something.
unsigned int msg_rcvd, rx_flags, data_len;
char data[8];
unsigned long msg_id;
...
ECAN2SetOperationMode(ECAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode (ECAN2 module must be in a mode in which
// receiving is possible)
...
rx_flags = 0;
// clear message flags
if (msg_rcvd = ECAN2Read(&msg_id, data, &data_len, &rx_flags)) {
...
}
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ECAN2Write
Prototype
unsigned int ECAN2Write(long id, char *Data, unsigned int
DataLen, unsigned int ECAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS);
Returns
0 - if all Transmit Buffers are busy
0xFFFF - if at least one Transmit Buffer is empty and available for transmition nsmit
Buffer is empty and available for transmition
Description
If at least one empty Transmit Buffer is found, the function sends message in the queue
for transmission.
Parameters:
- id: ECAN2 message identifier. Valid values: all 11 or 29 bit values, depending on
message type (standard or extended)
- Data: data to be sent
- DataLen: data length. Valid values: 0..8
- ECAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags. Refer to the ECAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS
constants. See ECAN constants.
Requires
The ECAN2 routines are supported only by MCUs with the ECAN2 module.
Microcontroller must be connected to ECAN transceiver which is connected to the
ECAN bus.
The ECAN2 module must be in a mode in which receiving is possible. See
ECAN2SetOperationMode.
Example
// send message extended ECAN message with
// appropriate ID and data
unsigned int tx_flags;
char data[8];
unsigned long msg_id;
...
ECAN2SetOperationMode(ECAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode (ECAN2 must be in a mode in which transmis
// sion is possible)
tx_flags = ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
ECAN_TX_XTD_FRAME &
ECAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
// set message flags
ECAN2Write(msg_id, data, 1, tx_flags);
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ECAN Constants
There is a number of constants predefined in the ECAN library. You need to be
familiar with them in order to be able to use the library effectively. Check the
example at the end of the chapter.
ECAN_OP_MODE
The ECAN_OP_MODE constants define ECAN operation mode. The functions
ECAN1SetOperationMode and ECAN2SetOperationMode expect one of these as
their argument:
const unsigned int
ECAN_MODE_BITS
=
ECAN_MODE_NORMAL
=
ECAN_MODE_DISABLE =
ECAN_MODE_LOOP
=
ECAN_MODE_LISTEN
=
ECAN_MODE_CONFIG
=
ECAN_MODE_LISTEN_ALL
0x00E0,// Use this to access opmode
0x00,
0x01,
0x02,
0x03,
0x04,
= 0x07;
bits
ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS
The ECAN_CONFIG_FLAGS constants define flags related to the ECAN module configuration. The functions ECAN1Initialize, ECAN2Initialize, ECAN1SetBaudRate
and ECAN2SetBaudRate expect one of these (or a bitwise combination) as their
argument:
const unsigned int
ECAN_CONFIG_DEFAULT
ECAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_BIT
ECAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON
ECAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_OFF
= 0xFF,
= 0x01,
= 0xFF,
= 0xFE,
// 11111111
// XXXXXXX1
// XXXXXXX0
ECAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_BIT = 0x02,
ECAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_ON = 0xFF,
ECAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF = 0xFD,
// XXXXXX1X
// XXXXXX0X
ECAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_BIT
ECAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_ONCE
ECAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE
= 0x04,
= 0xFF,
= 0xFB,
// XXXXX1XX
// XXXXX0XX
ECAN_CONFIG_MSG_TYPE_BIT
ECAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG
ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG
= 0x08,
= 0xFF,
= 0xF7,
// XXXX1XXX
// XXXX0XXX
// continues..
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// ..continued
ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_TYPE_BIT
ECAN_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG
ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE
= 0x20,
= 0xDF,
= 0xFF;
// XX0XXXXX
// XX1XXXXX
You may use bitwise AND (&) to form config byte out of these values. For example:
init = ECAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
ECAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
ECAN_CONFIG_STD_MSG
&
ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
ECAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
...
ECAN1Initialize(1, 1, 3, 3, 1, init);
// initialize ECAN1
ECAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS
are flags related to transmission of ECAN message. The
functions ECAN1Write and ECAN2Write expect one of these (or a bitwise combination) as their argument:
ECAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS
const unsigned int
ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_BITS
ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_0
ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_1
ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_2
ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_3
ECAN_TX_FRAME_BIT
ECAN_TX_STD_FRAME
ECAN_TX_XTD_FRAME
=
=
=
=
=
0x03,
0xFC,
0xFD,
0xFE,
0xFF,
//
//
//
//
XXXXXX00
XXXXXX01
XXXXXX10
XXXXXX11
= 0x08,
= 0xFF,
= 0xF7,
// XXXXX1XX
// XXXXX0XX
ECAN_TX_RTR_BIT
= 0x40,
ECAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME = 0xFF,
ECAN_TX_RTR_FRAME
= 0xBF;
// X1XXXXXX
// X0XXXXXX
You may use bitwise AND (&) to adjust the appropriate flags. For example:
/* form value to be used with CANSendMessage: */
send_config = ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
ECAN_TX_XTD_FRAME &
ECAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
...
ECAN1SendMessage(id, data, 1, send_config);
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ECAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS
are flags related to reception of ECAN message. If a particular bit is set then corresponding meaning is TRUE or else it will be FALSE.
ECAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS
const unsigned int
ECAN_RX_FILTER_BITS = 0x000F, //
//
ECAN_RX_FILTER_0
= 0x00,
//
ECAN_RX_FILTER_1
= 0x01,
//
ECAN_RX_FILTER_2
= 0x02,
//
ECAN_RX_FILTER_3
= 0x03,
ECAN_RX_FILTER_4
= 0x04,
ECAN_RX_FILTER_5
= 0x05,
ECAN_RX_FILTER_6
= 0x06,
ECAN_RX_FILTER_7
= 0x07,
ECAN_RX_FILTER_8
= 0x08,
ECAN_RX_FILTER_9
= 0x09,
ECAN_RX_FILTER_10
= 0x0A,
ECAN_RX_FILTER_11
= 0x0B,
ECAN_RX_FILTER_12
= 0x0C,
ECAN_RX_FILTER_13
= 0x0D,
ECAN_RX_FILTER_14
= 0x0E,
//
ECAN_RX_FILTER_15
= 0x0F,
//
ECAN_RX_OVERFLOW
= 0x10,
ECAN_RX_INVALID_MSG = 0x20,
ECAN_RX_XTD_FRAME
= 0x40,
ECAN_RX_RTR_FRAME
= 0x80;
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
Use this to access filter
bits
filter0 match
filter1 match
...
...
filter15 match
Set if Overflowed else
cleared
Set if invalid else
cleared
Set if XTD message else
cleared
Set if RTR message else
cleared
You may use bitwise AND (&) to adjust the appropriate flags. For example:
if (MsgFlag & ECAN_RX_OVERFLOW != 0) {
...
// Receiver overflow has occurred.
// We have lost our previous message.
}
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ECAN_MASK
The ECAN_MASK constants define mask codes. The functions ECAN1SetMask and
ECAN2SetMask expect one of these as their argument:
const unsigned int
ECAN_MASK_0 = 0,
ECAN_MASK_1 = 1,
ECAN_MASK_2 = 2;
ECAN_FILTER
The ECAN_FILTER constants define filter codes. The functions ECAN1SetFilter
and ECAN2SetFilter expects one of these as their argument:
const unsigned int
ECAN_FILTER_0
ECAN_FILTER_1
ECAN_FILTER_2
ECAN_FILTER_3
ECAN_FILTER_4
ECAN_FILTER_5
ECAN_FILTER_6
ECAN_FILTER_7
ECAN_FILTER_8
ECAN_FILTER_9
ECAN_FILTER_10
ECAN_FILTER_11
ECAN_FILTER_12
ECAN_FILTER_13
ECAN_FILTER_14
ECAN_FILTER_15
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0,
1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9,
10,
11,
12,
13,
14,
15;
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Library Example
The code is a simple demonstration of the ECAN protocol.
#include "ECan_Defs.h"
unsigned int Can_Init_Flags, Can_Send_Flags, Can_Rcv_Flags; // can flags
unsigned int Rx_Data_Len;
// received data length in bytes
char RxTx_Data[8];
// can rx/tx data buffer
char Msg_Rcvd;
// reception flag
unsigned long Tx_ID, Rx_ID;
// can rx and tx ID
void C1Interrupt(void) org 0x005A
{
IFS2bits.C1IF = 0;
if(C1INTFbits.TBIF) {
C1INTFbits.TBIF = 0;
// ECAN event iterrupt
// clear ECAN interrupt flag
// was it tx interrupt?
// if yes clear tx interrupt flag
}
if(C1INTFbits.RBIF) {
C1INTFbits.RBIF = 0;
}
// was it rx interrupt?
// if yes clear rx interrupt flag
}
void main() {
// Set PLL : Fosc = ((Fin/PLLPRE)*PLLDIV)/PLLPOST ; (((10MHz/2)*32)/4) = 20MHz
// refer the pic24 family datasheet for more details
CLKDIV &= 0xFFE0; //CLKDIVbits.PLLPRE = 0;
PLLFBD = 0x1E;
//PLLFBDbits.PLLDIV = 0x1E;
CLKDIV &= 0xFF3F; //CLKDIVbits.PLLPOST = 1;
CLKDIV |= 0x00C0;
AD1PCFGH = 0xFFFF;
AD1PCFGL = 0xFFFF;
AD2PCFGL = 0xFFFF;
//
// all ports digital I/O
//
/* Clear Interrupt Flags */
IFS0=0;
IFS1=0;
IFS2=0;
IFS3=0;
IFS4=0;
//continues...
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// continued ...
/* Enable ECAN1
IEC2bits.C1IE
C1INTEbits.TBIE
C1INTEbits.RBIE
Interrupt */
= 1;
= 1;
= 1;
PORTB = 0;
TRISB = 0;
// enable ECAN1 interrupts
// enable ECAN1 tx interrupt
// enable ECAN1 rx interrupt
// clear PORTB
// set PORTB as output,
// for received message data displaying
Can_Init_Flags = 0;
Can_Send_Flags = 0;
Can_Rcv_Flags = 0;
//
// clear flags
//
Can_Send_Flags = ECAN_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
ECAN_TX_XTD_FRAME &
ECAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
Can_Init_Flags = ECAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
ECAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG &
ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
ECAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
// Form value to be used
// with CANSendMessage
// Form value to be used
// with CANInitialize
RxTx_Data[0] = 9;
// set initial data to be sent
ECAN1DmaChannelInit(0, 1, &ECAN1RxTxRAMBuffer); // init dma channel 0 for
// dma to ECAN peripheral transfer
ECAN1DmaChannelInit(2, 0, &ECAN1RxTxRAMBuffer); // init dma channel 2 for
// ECAN peripheral to dma transfer
ECAN1Initialize(1, 3, 3, 3, 1, Can_Init_Flags); // initialize ECAN
ECAN1SetBufferSize(ECAN1RAMBUFFERSIZE);
// set number of rx+tx buffers in DMA RAM
ECAN1SelectTxBuffers(0x000F);
// select transmit buffers
// 0x000F = buffers 0:3 are transmit buffers
ECAN1SetOperationMode(ECAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode
ECAN1SetMask(ECAN_MASK_0, -1, ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// set all mask1 bits to ones
ECAN1SetMask(ECAN_MASK_1, -1, ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// set all mask2 bits to ones
ECAN1SetMask(ECAN_MASK_2, -1, ECAN_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE &
ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// set all mask3 bits to ones
ECAN1SetFilter(ECAN_FILTER_10, 3, ECAN_MASK_2, ECAN_RX_BUFFER_7,
ECAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG); // set id of filter10 to 3,
// assign mask2 to filter10
// assign buffer7 to filter10
//continues...
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// continued ...
ECAN1SetOperationMode(ECAN_MODE_NORMAL, 0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode
Tx_ID = 12111;
// set transmit ID
ECAN1Write(Tx_ID, RxTx_Data, 1, Can_Send_Flags);
// send initial message
while (1) {// endless loop
Msg_Rcvd = ECAN1Read(&Rx_ID , RxTx_Data , &Rx_Data_Len, &Can_Rcv_Flags);
// read received message
if ((Rx_ID == 3u) && Msg_Rcvd) {
// if message received check id
PORTB = RxTx_Data[0];
// id correct, output data at PORTB
RxTx_Data[0]++ ;
// increment received data
Delay_ms(10);
ECAN1Write(Tx_ID, RxTx_Data, 1, Can_Send_Flags);
// send incremented data back
}
}
}//~!
Hardware Connection
CAN RX of MCU
CAN TX of MCU
10R
1
2
VCC
3
TX-CAN RS
GND CANH
8
7
6
VCC CANL
4
RXD
Vref
5
MCP2551
Shielded
twisted pair
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EEPROM Library
EEPROM data memory is available with a number of dsPIC30 family. The
mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 includes a library for comfortable work with
MCU's internal EEPROM.
Note: Only dsPIC30 MCUs have EEPROM memory.
Library Routines
Eeprom_Erase
Eeprom_Erase_Block
Eeprom_Read
Eeprom_Write
Eeprom_Write_Block
Eeprom_Erase
Prototype
void Eeprom_Erase(unsigned long address);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Erases a single (16-bit) location from EEPROM memory.
Parameters :
- address: address of the EEPROM memory location to be erased.
Note: CPU is not halted for the Data Erase cycle. The user can poll WR bit, use NVMIF
or Timer IRQ to detect the end of erase sequence.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
unsigned long eeAddr = 0x7FFC80;
...
Eeprom_Erase(eeAddr);
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Eeprom_Erase_Block
Prototype
void Eeprom_Erase_Block(unsigned long address);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Erases one EEPROM row (16 words block) from EEPROM memory.
Parameters :
- address: starting address of the EEPROM memory block to be erased.
Note: CPU is not halted for the Data Erase cycle. The user can poll WR bit, use NVMIF
or Timer IRQ to detect the end of erase sequence.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
unsigned long eeAddr = 0x7FFC20;
...
Eeprom_Erase_Block(eeAddr);
Eeprom_Read
Prototype
unsigned int Eeprom_Read(unsigned long address);
Returns
Word from the specified address.
Description
Reads data from specified address.
Parameters :
- address: address of the EEPROM memory location to be read.
Requires
It is the user’s responsibility to obtain proper address parity (in this case, even).
Example
unsigned long eeAddr = 0x7FFC20;
unsigned int temp;
...
temp = Eeprom_Read(eeAddr);
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Eeprom_Write
Prototype
void Eeprom_Write(unsigned long address, unsigned int data);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Writes data to specified address.
Parameters :
address: address of the EEPROM memory location to be written.
data: data to be written.
Note: Specified memory location will be erased before writing starts.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
unsigned int eeWrite = 0xAAAA;
unsigned long wrAddr = 0x7FFC30;
...
Eeprom_Write(wrAddr, eeRead);
Eeprom_Write_Block
Prototype
void Eeprom_Write_Block(unsigned long address, unsigned int
*data);
Description
Writes one EEPROM row (16 words block) of data.
Parameters :
- address: starting address of the EEPROM memory block to be written.
- data: data block to be written.
Note: Specified memory block will be erased before writing starts.
Requires
It is the user's responsibility to maintain proper address alignment. In this case, address
has to be a multiply of 32, which is the size (in bytes) of one row of MCU's EEPROM
memory.
Example
unsigned long wrAddr = 0x7FFC20;
unsigned int iArr[16] = {'m', 'i', 'k', 'r', 'o', 'E', 'l', 'e',
'k', 0};
...
Eeprom_Write_Block(wrAddr, iArr);
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Library Example
The example demonstrates using the EEPROM Library. Hardware configurations
in this example are made for the dsPICPRO2 board and dsPIC30F6014A.
#include <built_in.h>
unsigned int eeRead;
unsigned long eeAddr;
unsigned int iArr[16] = {'m', 'i', 'k', 'r', 'o', 'E', 'l', 'e', 'k', 0};
unsigned char dArr[16];
void main() {
unsigned i;
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
//--- disable analog inputs
TRISB = 0;
LATB = 0xFFFF;
eeRead = 0xAAAA;
eeAddr = 0x7FFC80;
while (eeRead < 0xAABA) {
Eeprom_Write(eeAddr, eeRead++);
while(NVMCONbits.WR) ;
LATB = Eeprom_Read(eeAddr);
eeAddr += 2;
// wait for write to finish,
// then, read the just-written
// data.
Delay_ms(500);
}
//--- write entire row of EEPROM data,...
Eeprom_Write_Block(0x7FFC20, iArr);
while(NVMCONbits.WR) ;
//--- ...read the data back...
eeRead = 1; eeAddr = 0x7FFC20; i = 0;
while(eeRead) {
eeRead = Eeprom_Read(eeAddr);
dArr[i++] = Lo(eeRead);
eeAddr += 2;
}
//--- ...and display it on LCD.
Lcd_Custom_Config(&PORTD, 7,6,5,4, &PORTB, 4,0,6);
Lcd_Custom_Out(2,1, dArr);
}//~!
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Flash Memory Library
This library provides routines for accessing microcontroller's (internal) Flash
memory.
On the dsPIC30/33 and PIC24, Flash memory is mapped to address space 3:2,
which means that every 3 consecutive bytes of Flash have 2 consecutive address
locations available. That is why mikroE's library allows data to be written to flash
in two ways: "regular" and "compact". In the "regular" mode, which is used for
word(16-bit) variables, the 3rd (un-addressable) flash memory byte remains
unused. In the "compact" mode, which can be used for 1 byte-sized
variables/arrays, all flash bytes are being used.
All dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCUs use the RTSP module to perform
Read/Erase/Write operations on Flash memory. This, together with the internal
structure of the Flash, imposes certain rules to be followed when working with
Flash memory:
dsPIC30:
- Erasing can be done only in 32-instructions (64 addresses, 96 bytes) memory
blocks. This means that the block start address should be a multiply of 64 (i.e.
have 6 lower bits set to zero).
- Data is read and written in 4-instructions (8 addresses, 12 bytes) blocks.This
means that the block start address should be a multiply of 8 (i.e. have 3 lower
bits set to zero).
- On the dsPIC30s, 2 address locations are assigned on every 3 bytes of (flash)
program memory. Due to this specific and non-one-to-one address mapping, the
mikroC offers two sets of Flash handling functions: "regular" and "compact".
- Using the "regular" set, the user can write one byte of data to a single address,
which means that each byte of written data has its own address, but on every 2
written bytes one byte of Flash memory remains empty.
Using the "compact" set, every byte of Flash memory, including those nonaddressable, is filled with data; this method can only be used for data organized
in bytes.
The "compact" functions have _Compact as name suffix.
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- For run-time FLASH read/write, the dsPIC30's RTSP module is being used. It
organizes data into rows and panels. Each row contains write latches that can
hold 4 instructions (12 bytes). The number of panels varies from one dsPIC30
MCU model to another. Because of that, the flash write sequence has been split
into several operations (_Write_Init(), _Write_LoadLatch4(),
_Write_DoWrite()), in order to be usable on all dsPICs.
PIC24 and dsPIC33:
- Erasing can be done only in 512-instructions (1024 addresses, 1536 bytes)
memory blocks, which means that the block start address should be a multiply of
1024 (i.e. have 10 lower bits set to zero).
- Data is read and written in 64-instructions (128 addresses, 192 bytes) blocks.
This means that the block start address should be a multiply of 128 (i.e. have 7
lower bits set to zero).
- On the dsPIC33 and PIC24s, 2 address locations are assigned on every 3 bytes of
(flash) program memory. Due to this specific and non-one-to-one address
mapping, the mikroC offers two sets of Flash handling functions: "regular" and
"compact".
Using the "regular" set, the user can write one byte of data to a single address,
which means that each byte of written data has its own address, but on every 2
written bytes one byte of Flash memory remains empty.
Using the "compact" set, every byte of Flash memory, including those nonaddressable, is filled with data; this method can only be used for data organized
in bytes.
The "compact" functions have _Compact as name suffix.
Library Routines
dsPIC30:
Flash_Erase32
Flash_Write_Block
Flash_Write_Compact
Flash_Write_Init
Flash_Write_Loadlatch4
Flash_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact
Flash_Write_DoWrite
Flash_Read4
Flash_Read4_Compact
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PIC24 and dsPIC33:
Flash_Erase
Flash_Write
Flash_Write_Compact
Flash_Read
Flash_Read_Compact
dsPIC30:
Flash_Erase32
Prototype
void Flash_Erase32(unsigned long address);
Description
Erases one block (32 instructions, 64 addresses, 96 bytes)from the program FLASH
memory. Parameters :
address: starting address of the FLASH memory block
Requires
Example
Note: The user should take care about the address alignment (see the explanation at the
beginning of this page).
//--- erase the 32-instruction block, starting from address
// 0x006000
Flash_Erase32(0x006000);
Flash_Write_Block
Prototype
void Flash_Write_Block(unsigned long address, unsigned int
*data);
Description
Fills one writeable block of Flash memory (4 instructions, 8 addresses, 12 bytes) in the
"regular" mode. Addresses and data are being mapped 1-on-1. This also means that 3rd
byte of each program location remains unused. Parameters:
- address: starting address of the FLASH memory block
- data: data to be written
Requires
The block to be written to must be erased first, either from the user code (through the
RTSP), or during the programming of MCU. Please note that block size that is to be
erased is different from the one that can be written with this function!
Note: The user should take care about the address alignment (see the explanation at the
beginning of this page).
Example
unsigned long flash_address = 0x006000;
unsigned int Buffer[4] = {'A', 'B', 'C', 'D'};
...
Flash_Write_Block(flash_address, Buffer);
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Flash_Write_Compact
Prototype
void Flash_Write_Compact(unsigned long address, void *data,
unsigned bytes);
Description
Fills a portion of Flash memory using the dsPIC30 RTSP module, in the "compact"
manner. In this way, several blocks of RTSP's latch can be written in one pass. One latch
block contains 4 instructions (8 addresses, 12 bytes). Up to 8 latch blocks can be written
in one round, resulting in a total of 8*12 = 96 bytes. This method uses all available
bytes of the program FLASH memory, including those that are not mapped to address
space (every 3rd byte). Parameters :
- address: starting address of the FLASH memory block
- data: data to be written
bytes: number of bytes to be written. The amount of bytes to be written must be a multiply of 12, since this is the size of the RTSP's write latch(es).
Requires
The block to be written to must be erased first, either from the user code Flash_Erase32,
or during the programming of MCU. Please note that block size that is to be erased is
different from the one that can be written with this function!
Note: The user should take care about the address alignment (see the explanation at the
beginning of this page).
Example
unsigned long flash_address = 0x006000;
char cArr[] = "supercalifragillisticexpialidotious";
...
Flash_Write_Compact(flash_address, Buffer, 36);
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Flash_Write_Init
Prototype
void Flash_Write_Init(unsigned long address, void* data);
Description
Initializes RTSP for write-to-FLASH operation. Parameters :
- address: starting address of the FLASH memory block
- data: data to be written
Requires
The block to be written to must be erased first, either from the user code
Flash_Erase32, or during the programming of MCU. Please note that block size that
is to be erased is different from the one that can be written with this function!
Note: The user should take care about the address alignment (see the explanation at the
beginning of this page).
Example
//--- Initializes the Flash to be written, starting from
// address 0x006100, the data is located at *pv1
void *pv1;
...
Flash_Write_Init(0x006100, pv1);
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Flash_Write_Loadlatch4
Prototype
void Flash_Write_Loadlatch4(void);
Description
Loads the current RTSP write latch with data (4 instructions, 8 addresses, 12 bytes). The
data is filled in the "regular" mode.
Requires
The block to be written to must be erased first, either from the user code Flash_Erase32,
or during the programming of MCU. Please note that block size that is to be erased is
different from the one that can be written with this function!
This function is used as a part of the Flash write sequence, therefore the
Flash_Write_Init function must be called before this one.
This function can be called several times before commiting the actual write-to-Flash
operation Flash_Write_DoWrite. This depends on the organization of the RTSP module
for the certain dsPIC30. Please consult the Datasheet for particular dsPIC30 on this subject.
Example
//--- writes data from an array, in "regular" manner
unsigned int iArr[16] = {'m', 'i', 'k', 'r', 'o', 'E', 'l', 'e',
'k'};
void * pv1;
...
pv1 = iArr;
Flash_Write_Init(0x006100, pv1);
Flash_Write_Loadlatch4();
Flash_Write_Loadlatch4();
Flash_Write_DoWrite();
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Flash_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact
Prototype
void Flash_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact(void);
Description
Loads the current RTSP write latch with data (4 instructions, 8 addresses, 12 bytes). The
data is filled in the "compact" mode.
Requires
The block to be written to must be erased first, either from the user code
Flash_Erase32, or during the programming of MCU. Please note that block size that
is to be erased is different from the one that can be written with this function!
This function is used as a part of the Flash write sequence, therefore the
Flash_Write_Init function must be called before this one.
This function can be called several times before committing actual write-to-Flash operation Flash_Write_DoWrite. This depends on the organization of the RTSP module for
the certain dsPIC30. Please consult the Datasheet for particular dsPIC30 on this subject.
Example
//--- writes data from an array of char, in "compact" manner
char cArr[] = "supercalifragillisticexpialidotious"; //35+1 bytes
void * pv1;
...
pv1 = cArr;
Flash_Write_Init(0x006000, pv1); //init
Flash_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact(); //12 bytes
Flash_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact(); //12 bytes
Flash_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact(); //12 bytes
Flash_Write_DoWrite();
//commit write
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Flash_Write_DoWrite
Prototype
void Flash_Write_DoWrite(void);
Description
Commits the FLASH write operation.
Requires
The block to be written to must be erased first, either from the user code
Flash_Erase32, or during the programming of MCU. Please note that block size that
is to be erased is different from the one that can be written with this function!
This function is used as a part of the Flash write sequence, therefore Flash_Write_Init
and certain number of Flash_Write_Loadlatch4 or
Flash_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact function calls must be made before this one.
This function is to be called once, at the and of the FLASH write sequence.
Example
//--- writes data from an array, in "regular" manner
unsigned int iArr[16] = {'m', 'i', 'k', 'r', 'o', 'E', 'l', 'e',
'k'};
void * pv1;
...
pv1 = iArr;
Flash_Write_Init(0x006100, pv1);
Flash_Write_Loadlatch4();
Flash_Write_Loadlatch4();
Flash_Write_DoWrite();
Flash_Read4
Prototype
unsigned int* Flash_Read4(unsigned long address, unsigned int
*write_to);
Returns
Starting address of RAM buffer for storing read data.
Description
Reads one latch row (4 instructions, 8 addresses) in the "regular" mode. Parameters :
- address: starting address of the FLASH memory block to be read
- write_to: starting address of RAM buffer for storing read data
Requires
Note: The user should take care of the address alignment (see the explanation at the
beginning of this page).
Example
//--- reads 8 bytes (4 words) from location 0x006000 and stores
// it to *pv1;
unsigned int *pv1;
...
Flash_Read4(0x006000, pv1);
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Flash_Read4_Compact
Prototype
void* Flash_Read4_Compact(unsigned long address, void *write_to);
Returns
Starting address of RAM buffer for storing read data.
Description
Reads one latch row (4 instructions, 8 addresses) in the "compact" mode. Parameters :
- address: starting address of the FLASH memory block to be read
- write_to: starting address of RAM buffer for storing read data
Requires
Note: The user should take care of the address alignment (see the explanation at the
beginning of this page).
Example
//--- reads 12 bytes (4 words) from location 0x006000 and stores
// it to *pv1;
unsigned int *pv1;
...
Flash_Read4_Compact(0x006000, pv1);
PIC24 and dsPIC33:
Flash_Erase
Prototype
void Flash_Erase(unsigned long address);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Erases one block (512 instructions, 1024 addresses, 1536 bytes) from the program
FLASH memory. Parameters :
- address: starting address of the FLASH memory block
Requires
Note: The user should take care about the address alignment (see the explanation at the
beginning of this page).
Example
//--- erase the flash memory block, starting from address
// 0x006400
unsigned long flash_address = 0x006400;
...
Flash_Erase(flash_address);
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Flash_Write
Prototype
void Flash_Write(unsigned long address, unsigned int *data);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Fills one writeable block of Flash memory (64 instructions, 128 addresses, 192 bytes) in
the "regular" mode. Addresses and data are being mapped 1-on-1. This also means that
3rd byte of each program location remains unused. Parameters :
- address: starting address of the FLASH memory block
- data: data to be written
Requires
The block to be written to must be erased first, either from the user code (through the
RTSP), or during the programming of MCU. Please note that block size that is to be
erased is different from the one that can be written with this function!
Note: The user should take care about the address alignment (see the explanation at the
beginning of this page).
Example
unsigned int iArr[64] = {'m', 'i', 'k', 'r', 'o', 'E', 'l', 'e',
'k', 't', 'r', 'o', 'n', 'i', 'k', 'a'};
void * pv1;
...
pv1 = iArr;
Flash_Write(0x006500, pv1);
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Flash_Write_Compact
Prototype
void Flash_Write_Compact(unsigned long address, char *data);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Fills a portion of Flash memory (64 instructions, 128 addresses, 192 bytes) using the
dsPIC33 and PIC24s RTSP (Run Time Self Programming) module, in the "compact"
manner. This method uses all available bytes of the program FLASH memory, including
those that are not mapped to address space (every 3rd byte). Parameters :
- address: starting address of the FLASH memory block
- data: data to be written
Requires
The block to be written to must be erased first, either from the user code
(Flash_Erase), or during the programming of MCU. Please note that block size that is
to be erased is different from the one that can be written with this function!
Note: The user should take care of the address alignment (see the explanation at the
beginning of this page).
Example
char cArr[] =
"supercalifragillisticexpialidotiousABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPRSTUVWXYZ1234"
;
void * pv1;
...
pv1 = cArr;
Flash_Write_Compact(0x006400, pv1);
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Flash_Read
Prototype
unsigned int* Flash_Read(unsigned long address, unsigned int
*write_to, unsigned NoWords);
Returns
Address of RAM buffer for storing read data.
Description
Reads required number of words from the flash memory in the "regular" mode.
Parameters :
- address: starting address of the FLASH memory block to be read
- write_to: starting address of RAM buffer for storing read data
- NoWords: number of words to be read
Requires
Note: The user should take care of the address alignment (see the explanation at the
beginning of this page).
Example
unsigned Buffer[64];
unsigned long start_address = 0x6500;
...
Flash_Read(start_address, Buffer, 10);
Flash_Read_Compact
Prototype
void* Flash_Read_Compact(unsigned long address, void *write_to,
unsigned NoBytes);
Returns
Address of RAM buffer for storing read data.
Description
Reads required number of bytes from the flash memory in the "compact" mode.
Parameters :
- address: starting address of the FLASH memory block to be read
- write_to: starting address of RAM buffer for storing read data
- NoBytes: number of bytes to be read
Requires
Note: The user should take care of the address alignment (see the explanation at the
beginning of this page).
Example
char Buffer[64];
unsigned long start_address = 0x6500;
...
Flash_Read_Compact(start_address, Buffer, 10);
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Library Example
In these examples, various techniques of reading/writing from/to on-chip FLASH
memory are shown.
dsPIC30:
char cArr[] = "supercalifragillisticexpialidotious";
char cArr2[40];
void * pv1;
unsigned bb;
void main() {
unsigned i;
pv1 = cArr;
/*
// This is what Flash_Write_Compact() does 'benath the hood'
Flash_Write_Init(0x006000, pv1);
Flash_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact();
Flash_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact();
Flash_Write_Loadlatch4_Compact();
Flash_Write_DoWrite();
*/
//--- erase the block first
Flash_Erase32(0x006000);
//--- write compact format to flash
Flash_Write_Compact(0x006000, pv1, 36);
//--- read compact format
pv1 = cArr2;
Flash_Read4_Compact(0x006000, pv1);
pv1 += 12;
Flash_Read4_Compact(0x006008, pv1);
pv1 += 12;
Flash_Read4_Compact(0x006010, pv1);
pv1 += 12;
*pv1 = 0; //termination
//--- show what has been written
i = 0;
Uart1_Init(9600);
Uart1_Write_Char('s'); Uart1_Write_Char('t'); Uart1_Write_Char('a');
Uart1_Write_Char('r');
Uart1_Write_Char('t'); Uart1_Write_Char(10);
// continues ...
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// continued ...
while(cArr2[i]) {
bb = cArr2[i++];
Uart1_Write_Char(bb);
}
//--- now for some non-compact flash-write
pv1 = iArr;
//--- erase the block first
Flash_Erase32(0x006100);
Flash_Write_Init(0x006100, pv1);
Flash_Write_Loadlatch4();
Flash_Write_Loadlatch4();
Flash_Write_DoWrite();
}//~!
PIC24 and dsPIC33:
unsigned int iArr[64] = {'m', 'i', 'k', 'r', 'o', 'E', 'l', 'e', 'k', 't', 'r',
'o', 'n', 'i', 'k', 'a'};
char cArr[] = "supercalifragillisticexpialidotiousABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPRSTUVWXYZ1234";
char cArr2[64];
void * pv1;
void main() {
unsigned i, k;
AD1PCFG = 0xFFFF;
PORTB = 0x0004;
TRISB = 1;
for(i=16;i<64;i++)
iArr[i] = 'x';
for(i=64;i<192;i++)
cArr[i] = 'y';
// press RB0 to continue
while (!PORTB.f0)
;
//--- erase the block first
Flash_Erase(0x006400);
//--- now for some non-compact flash-write
pv1 = iArr;
Flash_Write(0x006500, pv1);
PORTB = 0x0008;
//continues ...
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//continued...
//--- write compact format to flash
pv1 = cArr;
Flash_Write_Compact(0x006400, pv1);
PORTB = 0x0010;
//--- read compact format
pv1 = cArr2;
Flash_Read_Compact(0x006400, pv1, 64);
pv1[64] = 0; //termination
//--- show what has been written
i = 0;
Uart1_Init(9600);
Uart1_Write_Char('s'); Uart1_Write_Char('t'); Uart1_Write_Char('a');
Uart1_Write_Char('r');
Uart1_Write_Char('t'); Uart1_Write_Char(10);
while(cArr2[i])
Uart1_Write_Char(cArr2[i++]);
PORTB = 0x0018;
}//~!
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Graphic LCD Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for drawing and writing
on the commonly used Samsung (KS108/KS107) Graphic LCD 128x64.
Note: mikroElektronika's development system based initialization routines can be
found in the setup library files located in the Uses folder.
Library Routines
Basic routines:
Glcd_Init
Glcd_Config
Glcd_Set_Side
Glcd_Set_X
Glcd_Set_Page
Glcd_Read_Data
Glcd_Write_Data
Advanced routines:
Glcd_Fill
Glcd_Dot
Glcd_Line
Glcd_V_Line
Glcd_H_Line
Glcd_Rectangle
Glcd_Box
Glcd_Circle
Glcd_Set_Font
Glcd_Write_Char
Glcd_Write_Text
Glcd_Image
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Glcd_Init
Prototype
void Glcd_Init(unsigned int *cs1_port, unsigned int cs1_pin,
unsigned int *cs2_port, unsigned int cs2_pin, unsigned int
*rs_port, unsigned int rs_pin, unsigned int *rw_port, unsigned
int rw_pin, unsigned int *rst_port, unsigned int rst_pin,
unsigned int *en_port, unsigned int en_pin, unsigned int
*data_port);
Description
Initializes the GLCD module. Each of the control lines is both port and pin configurable,
while data lines must be on a single port (pins <0:7>). Parameters :
- cs1_port: chip select 1 signal port address
- cs1_pin: chip select 1 signal pin
- cs2_port: chip select 2 signal port address
- cs2_pin: chip select 2 signal pin
- rs_port: register select (data/instruction) signal port address
- rs_pin: register select (data/instruction) signal pin
- rw_port: read/write signal port address
- rw_pin: read/write signal pin
- rst_port: reset signal port address
- rst_pin: reset signal pin
- en_port: enable signal port address
- en_pin: enable signal pin
- data_port: data port
Example
// Init for EasydsPIC2 development system
Glcd_Init(&PORTF,0, &PORTF,1, &PORTD,0, &PORTD,1, &PORTD,3,
&PORTD,2, &PORTB);
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Glcd_Config
Prototype
void Glcd_Config(unsigned *cs1_port, unsigned cs1_pin, unsigned
*cs2_port, unsigned cs2_pin, unsigned *rs_port, unsigned rs_pin,
unsigned *rw_port, unsigned rw_pin, unsigned *rst_port, unsigned
rst_pin, unsigned *en_port, unsigned en_pin, unsigned
*data_portLo, unsigned *data_portHi, char ports_config);
Description
Initializes the GLCD module. Each of the control lines is both port and pin configurable.
GLCD data lines can be configured on two MCU ports.
Parameters :
- cs1_port: chip select 1 signal port address
- cs1_pin: chip select 1 signal pin
- cs2_port: chip select 2 signal port address
- cs2_pin: chip select 2 signal pin
- rs_port: register select (data/instruction) signal port address
- rs_pin: register select (data/instruction) signal pin
- rw_port: read/write signal port address
- rw_pin: read/write signal pin
- rst_port: reset signal port address
- rst_pin: reset signal pin
- en_port: enable signal port address
- en_pin: enable signal pin
- data_port_Lo: MCU's port connected to GLCD's D3..D0 data lines
- data_port_Hi: MCU's port connected to GLCD's D7..D4 data lines
- ports_config: connection descriptor. Valid values: 0..3.
The ports_config values are determining which nibble of data_port_Lo and
data_port_Hi is used:
0
1
2
3
Example
=
=
=
=
data_port_Lo
data_port_Lo
data_port_Lo
data_port_Lo
pins<3..0>
pins<3..0>
pins<7..4>
pins<7..4>
and
and
and
and
data_port_Hi
data_port_Hi
data_port_Hi
data_port_Hi
pins<3..0>
pins<7..4>
pins<3..0>
pins<7..4>
// Init for EasydsPIC3 development system
Glcd_Config(&PORTB,4, &PORTB,5, &PORTF,0,&PORTF, 1,&PORTF,
5,&PORTF, 4, &PORTB, &PORTD, 0);
// or just call the appropriate system based initialization rou
// tine
Glcd_Init_EasyDsPIC3();
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Glcd_Set_Side
Prototype
void Glcd_Set_Side(unsigned short x_pos);
Description
Selects GLCD side. Refer to the GLCD datasheet for detailed explaination.
Parameters :
x_pos: position on x-axis. Valid values: 0..127
The parameter x_pos specifies the GLCD side: values from 0 to 63 specify the left side,
values from 64 to 127 specify the right side.
Note: For side, x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this
page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init and Glcd_Config routines.
Example
The following two lines are equivalent, and both of them select the left side of GLCD:
Glcd_Select_Side(0);
Glcd_Select_Side(10);
Glcd_Set_X
Prototype
void Glcd_Set_X(unsigned short x_pos);
Description
Sets x-axis position to x_pos dots from the left border of GLCD within the selected side.
Parameters :
x_pos: position on x-axis. Valid values: 0..63
Note: For side, x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this
page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init and Glcd_Config routines.
Example
Glcd_Set_X(25);
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Glcd_Set_Page
Prototype
void Glcd_Set_Page(unsigned short page);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Selects page of the GLCD. Parameters :
page: page number. Valid values: 0..7
Note: For side, x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this
page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init and Glcd_Config routines.
Example
Glcd_Set_Page(5);
Glcd_Read_Data
Prototype
unsigned int Glcd_Read_Data(void);
Returns
One byte from GLCD memory, formatted as a word (16-bit).
Description
Reads data from from the current location of GLCD memory and moves to the next
location.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init and Glcd_Config routines.
GLCD side, x-axis position and page should be set first. See functions
Glcd_Set_Side, Glcd_Set_X, and Glcd_Set_Page.
Example
unsigned int data;
...
data = Glcd_Read_Data();
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Glcd_Write_Data
Prototype
void Glcd_Write_Data(unsigned short ddata);
Description
Writes one byte to the current location in GLCD memory and moves to the next location. Parameters :
ddata: data to be written.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init and Glcd_Config routines.
GLCD side, x-axis position and page should be set first. See functions
Glcd_Set_Side, Glcd_Set_X, and Glcd_Set_Page.
Example
unsigned short data;
...
Glcd_Write_Data(data);
Glcd_Fill
Prototype
void Glcd_Fill(unsigned short pattern);
Description
Fills GLCD memory with the byte pattern.Parameters :
- pattern: byte to fill GLCD memory with
To clear the GLCD screen, use Glcd_Fill(0).
To fill the screen completely, use Glcd_Fill(0xFF).
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init and Glcd_Config routines.
Example
// Clear screen
Glcd_Fill(0);
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Glcd_Dot
Prototype
void Glcd_Dot(unsigned short x_pos, unsigned short y_pos,
unsigned short color);
Description
Draws a dot on GLCD at coordinates (x_pos, y_pos). Parameters :
x_pos: x position. Valid values: 0..127
y_pos: y position. Valid values: 0..63
color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines a dot state: 0 clears dot, 1 puts a dot, and 2 inverts dot
state.
Note: For x and y axis layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init and Glcd_Config routines.
Example
// Invert the dot in the upper left corner
Glcd_Dot(0, 0, 2);
Glcd_Line
Prototype
void Glcd_Line(int x_start, int y_start, int x_end, int y_end,
unsigned short color);
Description
Draws a line on GLCD. Parameters :
- x_start: x coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..127
- y_start: y coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..63
- x_end: x coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..127
- y_end: y coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the line color: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init and Glcd_Config routines.
Example
// Draw a line between dots (0,0) and (20,30)
Glcd_Line(0, 0, 20, 30, 1);
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Glcd_V_Line
Prototype
void Glcd_V_Line(unsigned short y_start, unsigned short y_end,
unsigned short x_pos, unsigned short color);
Description
Draws a vertical line on GLCD. Parameters :
- y_start: y coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..63
- y_end: y coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..63
- x_pos: x coordinate of vertical line. Valid values: 0..127
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the line color: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init and Glcd_Config routines.
Example
// Draw a vertical line between dots (10,5) and (10,25)
Glcd_V_Line(5, 25, 10, 1);
Glcd_H_Line
Prototype
void Glcd_H_Line(unsigned short x_start, unsigned short x_end,
unsigned short y_pos, unsigned short color);
Description
Draws a horizontal line on GLCD. Parameters :
- x_start: x coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..127
- x_end: x coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..127
- y_pos: y coordinate of horizontal line. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the line color: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init and Glcd_Config routines.
Example
// Draw a horizontal line between dots (10,20) and (50,20)
Glcd_H_Line(10, 50, 20, 1);
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Glcd_Rectangle
Prototype
void Glcd_Rectangle(unsigned short x_upper_left, unsigned short
y_upper_left, unsigned short x_bottom_right, unsigned short
y_bottom_right, unsigned short color);
Description
Draws a rectangle on GLCD. Parameters :
- x_upper_left: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_upper_left: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..63
- x_bottom_right: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner.
Valid values: 0..127
- y_bottom_right: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the rectangle border: 0 white, 1 black, and 2
inverts each dot.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init and Glcd_Config routines.
Example
// Draw a rectangle between dots (5,5) and (40,40)
Glcd_Rectangle(5, 5, 40, 40, 1);
Glcd_Box
Prototype
void Glcd_Box(unsigned short x_upper_left, unsigned short
y_upper_left, unsigned short x_bottom_right, unsigned short
y_bottom_right, unsigned short color);
Description
Draws a box on GLCD. Parameters :
- x_upper_left: x coordinate of the upper left box corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_upper_left: y coordinate of the upper left box corner. Valid values: 0..63
- x_bottom_right: x coordinate of the lower right box corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_bottom_right: y coordinate of the lower right box corner. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the box fill: 0 white, 1 black, and 2
inverts each dot.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init and Glcd_Config routines.
Example
// Draw a box between dots (5,15) and (20,40)
Glcd_Box(5, 15, 20, 40, 1);
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Glcd_Circle
Prototype
void Glcd_Circle(int x_center, int y_center, int radius, unsigned
short color);
Description
Draws a circle on GLCD. Parameters :
- x_center: x coordinate of the circle center. Valid values: 0..127
- y_center: y coordinate of the circle center. Valid values: 0..63
radius: radius size
color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the circle line: 0 white, 1 black, and 2
inverts each dot.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init and Glcd_Config routines.
Example
// Draw a circle with center in (50,50) and radius=10
Glcd_Circle(50, 50, 10, 1);
Glcd_Set_Font
Prototype
void Glcd_Set_Font(const char *activeFont, unsigned short
aFontWidth, unsigned short aFontHeight, unsigned int aFontOffs);
Description
Sets font that will be used with Glcd_Write_Char and Glcd_Write_Text routines.
Parameters :
- activeFont: font to be set. Needs to be formatted as an array of char
- aFontWidth: width of the font characters in dots.
- aFontHeight: height of the font characters in dots.
- aFontOffs: number that represents difference between the mikroC for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 character set and regular ASCII set (eg. if 'A' is 65 in ASCII character, and
'A' is 45 in the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 character set, aFontOffs is 20). \
Demo fonts supplied with the library have an offset of 32, which means that they start
with space.
The user can use fonts given in the file “__Lib_GLCD_fonts.c” file located in the
Uses folder or create his own fonts.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init and Glcd_Config routines.
Example
// Use the custom 5x7 font "myfont" which starts with space (32):
Glcd_Set_Font(myfont, 5, 7, 32);
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Glcd_Write_Char
Prototype
void Glcd_Write_Char(unsigned short chr, unsigned short x_pos,
unsigned short page_num, unsigned short color);
Description
Prints character on the GLCD. Parameters :
- chr: character to be written
- x_pos: character starting position on x-axis. Valid values: 0..(127-FontWidth)
- page_num: the number of the page on which character will be written.
Valid values: 0..7
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the character: 0 white, 1 black, and 2
inverts each dot.
Note: For x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init and Glcd_Config routines. Use
Glcd_Set_Font to specify the font for display; if no font is specified, then default 5x8
font supplied with the library will be used.
Example
// Write character 'C' on the position 10 inside the page 2:
Glcd_Write_Char('C', 10, 2, 1);
Glcd_Write_Text
Prototype
void Glcd_Write_Text(char *text, unsigned short x_pos, unsigned
short page_num, unsigned short color);
Description
Prints text on GLCD. Parameters :
- text: text to be written
- x_pos: text starting position on x-axis.
- page_num: the number of the page on which text will be written. Valid values: 0..7
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the text: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts
each dot.
Note: For x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init and Glcd_Config routines. Use
Glcd_Set_Font to specify the font for display; if no font is specified, then default 5x8
font supplied with the library will be used.
Example
//Write text "Hello world!" on the position 10 inside the page 2:
Glcd_Write_Text("Hello world!", 10, 2, 1);
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Glcd_Image
Prototype
void Glcd_Image(const unsigned short *image);
Description
Displays bitmap on GLCD.
Parameters :
- image: image to be displayed. Bitmap array can be located in both code and RAM
memory (due to the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 pointer to const and pointer to
RAM equivalency).
Use the mikroC’s integrated GLCD Bitmap Editor (menu option Tools › GLCD Bitmap
Editor) to convert image to a constant array suitable for displaying on GLCD.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init and Glcd_Config routines.
Example
// Draw image my_image on GLCD
Glcd_Image(my_image);
Library Example
The following drawing demo tests advanced routines of GLCD library.
#include "bmp1.h"
char cArr[20];
char *someText;
void Delay2S(){
delay_ms(2000);
}//~
void main() {
unsigned short ii;
unsigned int jj;
sometext = cArr;
//--- turn off A/D inputs
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
// Init for dsPICPRO3 development system
Glcd_Init(&PORTB,2, &PORTB,3, &PORTB,4, &PORTB,5, &PORTB,7, &PORTB,6, &PORTD);
Delay_100ms();
// continues...
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//continued...
lMainLoop:
Glcd_Fill(0x00);
Glcd_Image( maska_bmp );
Delay2S();
Glcd_Fill(0x00);
Glcd_Circle(63,32, 20, 1);
Delay2S();
Glcd_Line(120,1, 5,60, 1);
Glcd_Line(12,42, 5,60, 1);
Delay2S();
Glcd_Rectangle(12,20, 93,57, 1);
Delay2S();
Glcd_Line(120,12, 12,60, 1);
Delay2S();
Glcd_H_Line(5,15, 6, 1);
Glcd_Line(0,12, 120,60, 1);
Glcd_V_Line(7,63, 127, 1);
Delay2S();
for (ii = 1; ii <= 10; ii++)
Glcd_Circle(63,32, 3*ii, 1);
Delay2S();
Glcd_Box(12,20, 70,57, 2);
Delay2S();
Glcd_Set_Font(defaultFont, 5,7, 48);
someText = "BIG:ONE";
Glcd_Write_Text(someText, 5,3, 2);
Delay2S();
someText = "SMALL:NOT:SMALLER";
Glcd_Write_Text(someText, 20,5, 1);
Delay2S();
Glcd_Fill(0x00);
Glcd_Set_Font(System3x6, 3, 6, 0x20);
Glcd_Write_Text(someText, 10,5, 1);
Delay2S();
goto lMainLoop;
}//~!
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Hardware Connection
Right side
Left side
0
x=0
0
8
16
24
32
40
48
56
x=63 x=0
x axis
x=63
CS1
CS2
GND
VCC
Vo
RS
R/W
E
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
RST
Vee
LED+
LED-
1
127
20
page0
page1
page2
page3
page4
page5
page6
page7
y axis
VCC
SW
VCC
GLCD BCK
Contrast
Adjustment
ON
10R
Vee
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
VCC
VCC
Vo
20
mikroElektronika
dsPICPRO3
R/W
RS
CS2
CS1
RG15
RC1
RC2
RC3
RC4
RG6
RG7
RG8
MCLR
RG9
Vss
Vdd
RA12
RA13
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
dsPIC30F6014A
RC14
RC13
RD0
RD11
RD10
RD9
RD8
RA15
RA14
Vss
OSC2
OSC1/CLKI
Vdd
RG2
RG3
RF6
RF7
RF8
RF2
RF3
D0
E
RST
RB6
RB7
RA9
RA10
AVdd
AVss
RB8
RB9
RB10
RB11
Vss
Vdd
RB12
RB13
RB14
RB15
RD14
RD15
RF4
RF5
Development system
D3
D2
D1
D7
D6
D5
D4
RB4
RB5
RB6
RD0
RD1
RD2
RD3
RD4
RD5
RD6
RD7
RB7
RG13
RG12
RG14
RA7
RA6
RG0
RG1
RF1
RF0
Vdd
Vss
RD7
RD6
RD5
RD4
RD13
RD12
RD3
RD2
RD1
1
CS1
CS2
GND
VCC
Vo
RS
R/W
E
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
RST
Vee
LED+
LED-
RB2
RB3
5K
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
I2C Library
The I²C full master MSSP module is available with a number of the dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 MCU models. The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a
library which supports the master I²C mode.
Note: For the dsPIC33 and PIC24 MCUs with the multiple I²C modules there are
I2C1 (supports I²C1 module), I2C2 (supports I²C2 module) and I2C (supports both
I²C modules) libraries. Switching between I²C modules in I2C library is done by
the I2C_Set_Active function (both I²C modules have to be previously initialized).
Library Routines
dsPIC30:
I2C_Init
I2C_Start
I2C_Restart
I2C_Wait_For_Idle
I2C_Read
I2C_Write
I2C_Stop
PIC24 and dsPIC33:
I2C1_Init
I2C1_Start
I2C1_Restart
I2C1_Wait_For_Idle
I2C1_Read
I2C1_Write
I2C1_Stop
I2C2_Init
I2C2_Start
I2C2_Restart
I2C2_Wait_For_Idle
I2C2_Read
I2C2_Write
I2C2_Stop
I2C_Init
I2C_Start
I2C_Restart
I2C_Wait_For_Idle
I2C_Read
I2C_Write
I2C_Stop
I2C_Set_Active
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I2C_Init
Prototype
void I2C_Init(unsigned long scl);
Description
Configures and initializes the I²C (dsPIC30) i.e. I²C1 (dsPIC33 and PIC24) module with
default settings.
This function enables the I2C module by setting the I2CEN bit. The rest of the bits in
I2C control register remains unchanged. Default initialization (after reset) of I2C module is:
- continue operation in IDLE mode
- IPMI mode disabled
- 7-bit slave address
- slew rate control enabled
- general call address disabled
- software or receive clock stretching disabled
Parameters :
- scl: requested serial clock rate.
Refer to the MCU's datasheet for correct values of the scl in respect with Fosc.
Requires
MCU with the I²C1 module.
Example
// Initialize the I2C1 module with clock_rate=100000
I2C_Init(100000);
I2C_Start
Prototype
void I2C_Start(void);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Determines if the I²C bus is free and issues START signal.
Note: if MCU has 2 I²C modules, active module will be used. See I2C_Set_Active
routine.
Requires
MCU with at least one I²C module.
Used I²C module must be initialized before using this function. See I2C1_Init,
I2C2_Init and I2C_Init routines.
Example
// Issue START signal
I2C_Start();
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I2C_Restart
Prototype
void I2C_Restart(void);
Description
Issues repeated START signal.
Note: if MCU has 2 I²C modules, active module will be used. See I2C_Set_Active routine.
Requires
MCU with at least one I²C module.
Used I²C module must be initialized before using this function. See I2C1_Init,
I2C2_Init and I2C_Init routines.
Example
// Issue RESTART signal
I2C_Restart();
I2C_Wait_For_Idle
Prototype
void I2C_Wait_For_Idle(void);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Waits for the I²C bus to become free. This is a blocking function.
Note: if MCU has 2 I²C modules, active module will be used. See I2C_Set_Active routine.
Requires
MCU with at least one I²C module.
Used I²C module must be initialized before using this function. See I2C1_Init,
I2C2_Init and I2C_Init routines.
Example
unsigned char data;
...
I2C_Wait_For_Idle();
I2C_Write(data);
...
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I2C_Read
Prototype
unsigned char I2C_Read(unsigned ack);
Returns
Received data.
Description
Reads a byte from the I²C bus. Parameters :
- ack: acknowledge signal parameter. If the ack==0 acknowledge signal will be sent
after reading, otherwise the not acknowledge signal will be sent.
Note: if MCU has 2 I²C modules, active module will be used. See I2C_Set_Active routine.
Requires
MCU with at least one I²C module.
Used I²C module must be initialized before using this function. See I2C1_Init,
I2C2_Init and I2C_Init routines.
Also, START signal needs to be issued in order to use this function. See I2C_Start.
Example
unsigned char take;
...
// Read data and send the not_acknowledge signal
take = I2C_Read(1);
I2C_Write
Prototype
unsigned I2C_Write(unsigned char data);
Returns
0 - if there were no errors.
1 - if write collision was detected on the I²C bus.
Description
Sends data byte via the I²C bus. Parameters :
- data: data to be sent
Note: if MCU has 2 I²C modules, active module will be used. See I2C_Set_Active routine.
Requires
MCU with at least one I²C module.
Used I²C module must be initialized before using this function. See I2C1_Init,
I2C2_Init and I2C_Init routines.
Also, START signal needs to be issued in order to use this function. See I2C_Start.
Example
unsigned char data;
unsigned error;
...
error = I2C_Write(data);
error = I2C_Write(0xA3);
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I2C_Stop
Prototype
void I2C_Stop(void);
Description
Issues STOP signal.
Note: if MCU has 2 I²C modules, active module will be used. See I2C_Set_Active routine.
Requires
MCU with at least one I²C module.
Used I²C module must be initialized before using this function. See I2C1_Init,
I2C2_Init and I2C_Init routines.
Example
// Issue STOP signal
I2C_Stop();
I2c_Set_Active
Prototype
void I2C_Set_Active(char I2cNo);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Sets the active I²C module which will be used by I2C_Start, I2C_Restart,
I2C_Wait_For_Idle, I2C_Read, I2C_Write and I2C_Stop routines. Parameters :
I2cNo: module number. Valid values: 1 (I²C1) and 2 (I²C2).
Requires
Routine is available only for MCUs with two I²C modules.
Used I²C module must be initialized before using this function. See I2C1_Init,
I2C2_Init and I2C_Init routines.
Example
//Set I2C2 module active
I2C_Set_Active(2);
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I2C1_Init
Prototype
void I2C1_Init(unsigned long scl);
Description
Initializes the I²C1 module.
This function enables the I2C1 module by setting the I2CEN bit. The rest of the bits in
I2C1CON register remains unchanged. Default initialization (after reset) of I2C1 module is:
- continue operation in IDLE mode
- IPMI mode disabled
- 7-bit slave address
- slew rate control enabled
- general call address disabled
- software or receive clock stretching disabled
Parameters :
- scl: requested serial clock rate.
Refer to the MCU's datasheet for correct values of the scl in respect with Fosc.
Requires
MCU with the I²C1 module. Supported by the dsPIC33 and PIC24 MCUs only.
Example
// Initialize the I2C1 module with clock_rate=100000
I2C1_Init(100000);
I2C1_Start
Prototype
void I2C1_Start(void);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Determines if the I²C bus is free and issues START signal.
Requires
MCU with the I²C1 module. The I²C1 module must be initialized before using this function. See I2C1_Init. Supported by the dsPIC33 and PIC24 MCUs only.
Example
// Issue START signal
I2C1_Start();
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I2C1_Restart
Prototype
void I2C1_Restart(void);
Description
Issues repeated START signal.
Requires
MCU with the I²C1 module. The I²C1 module must be initialized before using this function. See I2C1_Init. Supported by the dsPIC33 and PIC24 MCUs only.
Example
// Issue RESTART signal
I2C1_Restart();
I2C1_Wait_For_Idle
Prototype
void I2C1_Wait_For_Idle(void);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Waits for the I²C bus to become free. This is a blocking function.
Requires
MCU with the I²C1 module. The I²C1 module must be initialized before using this function. See I2C1_Init. Supported by the dsPIC33 and PIC24 MCUs only.
Example
unsigned char data;
...
I2C1_Wait_For_Idle();
I2C1_Write(data);
...
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I2C1_Read
Prototype
unsigned char I2C1_Read(unsigned ack);
Returns
Received data.
Description
Reads a byte from the I²C bus. Parameters :
- ack: acknowledge signal parameter. If the ack==0 acknowledge signal will be sent
after reading, otherwise the not acknowledge signal will be sent.
Requires
MCU with the I²C1 module. The I²C1 module must be initialized before using this function. See I2C1_Init.
Also, START signal needs to be issued in order to use this function. See I2C1_Start.
Supported by the dsPIC33 and PIC24 MCUs only.
Example
unsigned char take;
...
// Read data and send the not_acknowledge signal
take = I2C1_Read(1);
I2C1_Write
Prototype
unsigned I2C1_Write(unsigned char data);
Returns
0 - if there were no errors.
1 - if write collision was detected on the I²C bus.
Description
Sends data byte via the I²C bus. Parameters :
- data: data to be sent
Requires
MCU with the I²C1 module. The I²C1 module must be initialized before using this function. See I2C1_Init. Also, START signal needs to be issued in order to use this function.
See I2C1_Start. Supported by the dsPIC33 and PIC24 MCUs only.
Example
unsigned char data;
unsigned error;
...
error = I2C1_Write(data);
error = I2C1_Write(0xA3);
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I2C1_Stop
Prototype
void I2C1_Stop(void);
Description
Issues STOP signal.
Requires
MCU with the I²C1 module. The I²C1 module must be initialized before using this function. See I2C1_Init. Supported by the dsPIC33 and PIC24 MCUs only.
Examples
// Issue STOP signal
I2C1_Stop();
I2C2_Init
Prototype
void I2C2_Init(unsigned long scl);
Description
Initializes the I²C2 module.
This function enables the I2C2 module by setting the I2CEN bit. The rest of the bits in
I2C2CON register remains unchanged. Default initialization (after reset) of I2C2 module is:
- continue operation in IDLE mode
- IPMI mode disabled
- 7-bit slave address
- slew rate control enabled
- general call address disabled
- software or receive clock stretching disabled
Parameters :
- scl: requested serial clock rate.
Refer to the MCU's datasheet for correct values of the scl in respect with Fosc.
Requires
MCU with the I²C2 module. Supported by the dsPIC33 and PIC24 MCUs only.
Example
// Initialize the I2C2 module with clock_rate=100000
I2C2_Init(100000);
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I2C2_Start
Prototype
void I2C2_Start(void);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Determines if the I²C bus is free and issues START signal.
Requires
MCU with the I²C2 module. The I²C2 module must be initialized before using this function. See I2C2_Init. Supported by the dsPIC33 and PIC24 MCUs only.
Example
// Issue START signal
I2C2_Start();
I2C2_Restart
Prototype
void I2C2_Restart(void);
Description
Issues repeated START signal.
Requires
MCU with the I²C2 module. The I²C2 module must be initialized before using this function. See I2C2_Init. Supported by the dsPIC33 and PIC24 MCUs only.
Example
// Issue RESTART signal
I2C2_Restart();
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I2C2_Wait_For_Idle
Prototype
void I2C2_Wait_For_Idle(void);
Returns
Waits for the I²C bus to become free. This is a blocking function.
Description
Waits for I²C bus to become free.
Requires
MCU with the I²C2 module. The I²C2 module must be initialized before using this function. See I2C2_Init. Supported by the dsPIC33 and PIC24 MCUs only.
Example
unsigned char data;
...
I2C2_Wait_For_Idle();
I2C2_Write(data);
...
I2C2_Read
Prototype
unsigned char I2C2_Read(unsigned ack);
Returns
Received data.
Description
Reads a byte from the I²C bus. Parameters :
- ack: acknowledge signal parameter. If the ack==0 acknowledge signal will be sent
after reading, otherwise the not acknowledge signal will be sent.
Requires
MCU with the I²C2 module. The I²C2 module must be initialized before using this function. See I2C2_Init.
Also, START signal needs to be issued in order to use this function. See I2C2_Start.
Supported by the dsPIC33 and PIC24 MCUs only.
Example
unsigned char take;
...
// Read data and send the not_acknowledge signal
take = I2C2_Read(1);
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I2C2_Write
Prototype
unsigned I2C2_Write(unsigned char data);
Returns
0 - if there were no errors.
1 - if write collision was detected on the I²C bus.
Description
Sends data byte via the I²C bus. Parameters :
data: data to be sent
Requires
MCU with the I²C2 module. The I²C2 module must be initialized before using this function. See I2C2_Init. Also, START signal needs to be issued in order to use this function.
See I2C2_Start. Supported by the dsPIC33 and PIC24 MCUs only.
Example
unsigned char data;
unsigned error;
...
error = I2C2_Write(data);
error = I2C2_Write(0xA3);
I2C2_Stop
Prototype
void I2C2_Stop(void);
Description
Issues STOP signal.
Requires
MCU with the I²C2 module. The I²C2 module must be initialized before using this function. See I2C2_Init. Supported by the dsPIC33 and PIC24 MCUs only.
Example
// Issue STOP signal
I2C2_Stop();
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
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Library Example
This code demonstrates working with the I²C library. Program sends data to EEPROM (data is written at the address 2). After that, program reads data from the
same EEPROM address and displays it on PORTB for visual check. See the figure
below how to interface the 24C02 to dsPIC30/33 and PIC24.
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
PORTB = 0;
TRISB = 0;
dAddr = 0x02;
I2c_Init(100000);
I2c_Start();
I2c_Write(0xA2);
I2c_Write(dAddr);
I2c_Write(0xF4);
I2c_Stop();
//
//
//
//
issue I2C
send byte
send byte
send data
start signal
via I2C (command to 24cO2)
(address of EEPROM location)
(data to be written)
Delay_100ms();
I2c_Start();
I2c_Write(0xA2);
I2c_Write(0x02);
I2c_Restart();
I2c_Write(0xA3);
PORTB = I2c_Read(1);
I2c_Stop();
// issue I2C start signal
// send byte via I2C (device address + W)
// send byte (data address)
// issue I2C signal repeated start
// send byte (device address + R)
// Read the data (NO acknowledge)
}//~!
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Hardware Connection
VCC
VCC
1
11
12
13
14
VCC
GND
OSC1
OSC2
3
1K
4
1K
dsPIC4013
VCC
2
A0
Vcc
A1
WP
NC
SCL
GND
SDA
8
7
6
5
24C02
34
RF2
33
RF3
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
KEYPAD LIBRARY
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for working with 4x4
keypad. The library routines can also be used with 4x1, 4x2, or 4x3 keypad. For
connections explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
Library Routines
Keypad_Init
Keypad_Key_Press
Keypad_Key_Click
Keypad_Init
Prototype
void Keypad_Init(unsigned *key_port);
Description
Initializes given port for working with keypad. Parameters :
key_port keypad port.
Note: The Keypad library uses lower byte (bits <7..0>) of key_port.
Example
// Initialize PORTB<7:0> pins for communication with keypad
Keypad_Init(&PORTB);
Keypad_Key_Press
Prototype
unsigned Keypad_Key_Press(void);
Returns
The code of a pressed key (1..16), 0 if no key is pressed.
Description
Checks if any key is pressed and returns the key code.
Requires
Port needs to be initialized for working with the Keypad library, see Keypad_Init.
Example
unsigned kp;
...
kp = Keypad_Key_Press();
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Keypad_Key_Click
Prototype
unsigned Keypad_Key_Click(void);
Returns
The code of a clicked key (1..16), 0 if no key is clicked.
Description
Call to Keypad_Key_Click is a blocking call: the function waits until some key is
pressed and released. When released, the function returns 1 to 16, depending on the key.
If more than one key is pressed simultaneously the function will wait until all pressed
keys are released. After that the function will return the code of the first pressed key.
Requires
Port needs to be initialized for working with the Keypad library, see Keypad_Init.
Example
unsigned kp;
...
kp = Keypad_Key_Click();
Library Example
The following code can be used for testing the keypad. It is written for keypad_4x3 or _4x4. The
code returned by the keypad functions (1..16) is transformed into ASCII codes [0..9,A..F], and is
then sent via UART1.
unsigned kp;
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
Keypad_Init(&PORTB);
// PORTB [7..0]
Uart1_Init(9600);
Delay_ms(200);
Uart1_Write_Char('R');
do {
//--- Wait for key to be pressed
do {
//kp = Keypad_Key_Click();
// choose the key detecting function
kp = Keypad_Key_Press();
} while (!kp);
// continues...
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// continued...
//--- Prepare value for output
switch (kp) {
// uncomment this block for keypad4x3 //
/* case 10:
case 11:
case 12:
default:
kp
kp
kp
kp
= 42; break;
= 48; break;
= 35; break;
+= 48;
// '*'
// '0'
// '#'
*/
// uncomment this block for keypad4x4 //
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
case
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:
9:
10:
11:
12:
13:
14:
15:
16:
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
kp
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
49;
50;
51;
65;
52;
53;
54;
66;
55;
56;
57;
67;
42;
48;
35;
68;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
break;
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
1
2
3
A
4
5
6
B
7
8
9
C
*
0
#
D
}
//--- Send on UART1
Uart1_Write_Char(kp);
} while (1);
} //~!
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RG13
1
2
3
A
4
5
6
B
7
8
9
C
*
0
#
D
Reset
RG15
RC1
RC2
RC3
RC4
RG6
RG7
RG8
MCLR
RG9
Vss
Vdd
RA12
RA13
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
dsPIC30F6014A
RC14
RC13
RD0
RD11
RD10
RD9
RD8
RA15
RA14
Vss
OSC2
OSC1
Vdd
RG2
RG3
RF6
RF7
RF8
RF2
RF3
RB6
RB7
RA9
RA10
AVdd
AVss
RB8
RB9
RB10
RB11
Vss
Vdd
RB12
RB13
RB14
RB15
RD14
RD15
RF4
RF5
10K
VCC
RG12
RG14
RA7
RA6
RG0
RG1
RF1
RF0
Vdd
Vss
RD7
RD6
RD5
RD4
RD13
RD12
RD3
RD2
RD1
Hardware Connection
KEYPAD
4X4
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LCD Custom Library (4-bit interface)
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for communication with
LCDs (with HD44780 compliant controllers) through the 4-bit interface. An example of LCD connections is given on the schematic at the bottom of this page.
Note: mikroElektronika's development system based initialization routines can be
found in the setup library files located in the Uses folder.
Note: Only Lcd_Custom_Config routine uses the RW pin (RW pin is configured as
output and set to zero). If the user needs this pin for other purposes, it can be
reconfigured after the Lcd_Custom_Config call.
Library Routines
Lcd_Custom_Config
Lcd_Custom_Out
Lcd_Custom_Out_Cp
Lcd_Custom_Chr
Lcd_Custom_Chr_Cp
Lcd_Custom_Cmd
Lcd_Custom_Config
Prototype
void Lcd_Custom_Config(unsigned *data_port, char db3, char db2,
char db1, char db0, unsigned *ctrl_port, char rs, char ctrl_rw,
char enable);
Description
Initializes LCD with custom pin settings. Parameters :
- data_port: data port
- db3: data bit 3
- db2: data bit 2
- db1: data bit 1
- db0: data bit 0
- ctrl_port: control port
- rs: register select (data/instruction) signal pin
- ctrl_rw: read/write signal pin
- enable: enable signal pin
Example
// Init for EasydsPIC3 development system
Lcd_Custom_Config(&PORTB, 3,2,1,0, &PORTD, 0,2,1);
// or just call the appropriate system based initialization rou
// tine
Lcd_Custom_Init_EasyDsPIC3();
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Lcd_Custom_Out
Prototype
void Lcd_Custom_Out(char row, char column, char *text);
Description
Prints text on LCD starting from specified position. Both string variables and literals can
be passed as a text. Parameters :
- row: starting position row number
- column: starting position column number
- text: text to be written
Requires
Port with LCD must be initialized. See Lcd_Config.
Example
// Write text "Hello!" on LCD starting from row 1, column 3:
Lcd_Custom_Out(1, 3, "Hello!");
Lcd_Custom_Out_Cp
Prototype
void Lcd_Custom_Out_Cp(char *text);
Description
Prints text on LCD at current cursor position. Both string variables and literals can be
passed as a text. Parameters :
- text: text to be written
Requires
The LCD module needs to be initialized. See Lcd_Custom_Config routine.
Example
// Write text "Here!" at current cursor position:
Lcd_Custom_Out_Cp("Here!");
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Lcd_Custom_Chr
Prototype
void Lcd_Custom_Chr(unsigned row, unsigned column, char
out_char);
Description
Prints character on LCD at specified position. Both variables and literals can be passed
as a character. Parameters :
- row: writing position row number
- column: writing position column number
- out_char: character to be written
Requires
The LCD module needs to be initialized. See Lcd_Custom_Config routine.
Example
// Write character "i" at row 2, column 3:
Lcd_Custom_Chr(2, 3, 'i');
Lcd_Custom_Chr_Cp
Prototype
void Lcd_Custom_Chr_Cp(char out_char);
Description
Prints character on LCD at current cursor position. Both variables and literals can be
passed as a character. Parameters :
out_char: character to be written
Requires
The LCD module needs to be initialized. See Lcd_Custom_Config routine.
Example
// Write character "e" at current cursor position:
Lcd_Custom_Chr_Cp('e');
Lcd_Custom_Cmd
Prototype
void Lcd_Custom_Cmd(char out_char);
Description
Sends command to LCD. Parameters :
- out_char: command to be sent
Note: Predefined constants can be passed to the function, see Available LCD
Commands.
Requires
The LCD module needs to be initialized. See Lcd_Custom_Config table.
Example
// Clear LCD display:
Lcd_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
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LCD Commands
LCD Command
Purpose
LCD_FIRST_ROW
Move cursor to 1st row
LCD_SECOND_ROW
Move cursor to 2nd row
LCD_THIRD_ROW
Move cursor to 3rd row
LCD_FOURTH_ROW
Move cursor to 4th row
LCD_CLEAR
Clear display
LCD_RETURN_HOME
Return cursor to home position, returns a shifted display to original position. Display data RAM is unaffected.
LCD_CURSOR_OFF
Turn off cursor
LCD_UNDERLINE_ON
Underline cursor on
LCD_BLINK_CURSOR_ON
Blink cursor on
LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_LEFT
Move cursor left without changing display data RAM
LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_RIGHT
Move cursor right without changing display data RAM
LCD_TURN_ON
Turn LCD display on
LCD_TURN_OFF
Turn LCD display off
LCD_SHIFT_LEFT
Shift display left without changing display data RAM
LCD_SHIFT_RIGHT
Shift display right without changing display data RAM
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Library Example
char text[6] = "mikro";
void main() {
//--- PORTB - all digital
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
Lcd_Custom_Config(&PORTB, 3,2,1,0, &PORTD, 0,2,1);
Lcd_Custom_Out(1,3, text);
Lcd_Custom_Out(2,6, text);
Lcd_Custom_Chr(2,7, 'a');
Lcd_Custom_Out(1,10, text);
Lcd_Custom_Chr(1,11, 'o');
}//~!
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Hardware Connection
2
3
4
5
RB0
RB1
RB2
VCC
11
VCC
12
GND
13
OSC1
14
OSC2
dsPIC4013
RB3
RD0
34
33
RD1
22
RD2
VCC
10K
RB3
RB2
RB1
GND
GND
RB0
GND
GND
RD1
Vee
RD0
RD2
GND
VCC
VCC
LCD4 Test
mikroElektronika
LCD 2X16
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LCD8 Custom Library (8-bit interface)
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for communication with
LCDs (with HD44780 compliant controllers) through the 8-bit interface. An example of LCD connections is given on the schematic at the bottom of this page.
Note: mikroElektronika's development system based initialization routines can be
found in the setup library files located in the Uses folder.
Note: Only Lcd8_Custom_Config routine uses the RW pin (RW pin is configured
as output and set to zero). If the user needs this pin for other purposes, it can be
reconfigured after the Lcd8_Custom_Config call.
Library Routines
Lcd8_Custom_Config
Lcd8_Custom_Config_TwoDataPorts
Lcd8_Custom_Out
Lcd8_Custom_Out_Cp
Lcd8_Custom_Chr
Lcd8_Custom_Chr_Cp
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd
Lcd8_Custom_Config
Prototype
void Lcd8_Custom_Config(unsigned int * data_port, unsigned int
db7, unsigned int db6, unsigned int db5, unsigned int db4,
unsigned int db3, unsigned int db2, unsigned int db1, unsigned
int db0, unsigned int * ctrl_port, unsigned int rs, unsigned int
ctrl_rw, unsigned int enable);
Description
Initializes LCD with custom pin settings. Parameters :
- data_port: data port
- db7: data bit 7
- db6: data bit 6
- db5: data bit 5
- db4: data bit 4
- db3: data bit 3
- db2: data bit 2
- db1: data bit 1
- db0: data bit 0
- ctrl_port: control port
- rs: register select (data/instruction) signal pin
- ctrl_rw: read/write signal pin
- enable: enable signal pin
Example
// Init for EasydsPIC2 development system
Lcd8_Custom_Config(&PORTB,7,6,5,4,3,2,1,0, &PORTD,0,1,2);
// or just call the appropriate system based init routine
Lcd8_Custom_Init_EasyDsPIC2();
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Lcd8_Custom_Config_TwoDataPorts
Prototype
void Lcd8_Custom_Config_TwoDataPorts(unsigned int * data_portHi,
unsigned int db7, unsigned int db6, unsigned int db5, unsigned
int db4, unsigned int * data_portLo, unsigned int db3, unsigned
int db2, unsigned int db1, unsigned int db0, unsigned int *
ctrl_port, unsigned int rs, unsigned int ctrl_rw, unsigned int
enable);
Description
Initializes LCD with custom pin settings. LCD data lines can be configured on two
MCU ports. Parameters :
- data_portHi: MCU's port connected to LCD's D7..D4 data lines
- db7: data bit 7
- db6: data bit 6
- db5: data bit 5
- db4: data bit 4
- data_portLo: MCU's port connected to LCD's D3..D0 data lines
- db3: data bit 3
- db2: data bit 2
- db1: data bit 1
- db0: data bit 0
- ctrl_port: control port
- rs: register select (data/instruction) signal pin
- ctrl_rw: read/write signal pin
- enable: enable signal pin
Example
// Init for EasydsPIC3 development system
Lcd8_Custom_Config_TwoDataPorts(&PORTD, 3, 2, 1, 0, &PORTB, 3, 2,
1, 0, &PORTF, 0, 1, 4);
// or just call the appropriate system based initialization rou
// tine
Lcd8_Custom_Init_EasyDsPIC3();
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Lcd8_Custom_Out
Prototype
void Lcd8_Custom_Out(unsigned int row, unsigned int column, char
*text);
Description
Prints text on LCD starting from the specified position. Both string variables and literals
can be passed as a text. Parameters :
- row: starting position row number
- column: starting position column number
- text: text to be written
Requires
The LCD module needs to be initialized. See Lcd8_Custom_Config and
Lcd8_Custom_Config_TwoDataPorts routines.
Example
// Write text "Hello!" on LCD starting from row 1, column 3:
Lcd8_Custom_Out(1, 3, "Hello!");
Lcd8_Custom_Out_CP
Prototype
void Lcd8_Custom_Out_CP(char *text);
Description
Prints text on LCD at current cursor position. Both string variables and literals can be
passed as a text. Parameters :
- text: text to be written
Requires
The LCD module needs to be initialized. See Lcd8_Custom_Config and
Lcd8_Custom_Config_TwoDataPorts routines.
Example
// Write text "Here!" at current cursor position:
Lcd8_Custom_Out_CP("Here!");
Lcd8_Custom_Chr
Prototype
void Lcd8_Custom_Chr(unsigned int row, unsigned int column,
unsigned int out_char);
Description
Prints character on LCD at the specified position. Both variables and literals can be
passed as a character. Parameters :
- row: writing position row number
- column: writing position column number
- out_char: character to be written
Requires
The LCD module needs to be initialized. See Lcd8_Custom_Config and
Lcd8_Custom_Config_TwoDataPorts routines.
Example
// Write character "i" at row 2, column 3:
Lcd8_Custom_Chr(2, 3, 'i');
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Lcd8_Custom_Chr_CP
Prototype
void Lcd8_Custom_Chr_CP(unsigned int out_char);
Description
Prints character on LCD at current cursor position. Both variables and literals can be
passed as a character. Parameters :
- out_char: character to be written
Requires
The LCD module needs to be initialized. See Lcd8_Custom_Config and
Lcd8_Custom_Config_TwoDataPorts routines.
Example
// Write character "e" at current cursor position:
Lcd8_Custom_Chr_CP('e');
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd
Prototype
void Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(unsigned int out_char);
Description
Sends command to LCD. Parameters :
- out_char: command to be sent
Note: Predefined constants can be passed to the function, see Available LCD
Commands.
Requires
The LCD module needs to be initialized. See Lcd8_Custom_Config and
Lcd8_Custom_Config_TwoDataPorts routines.
Example
// Clear LCD display:
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
Library Example
Here is an example of using the Lcd8 Custom Library.
void main(){
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
//--- PORTB - all digital
Lcd8_Custom_Config(&PORTB, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, &PORTD, 0, 1, 2);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CURSOR_OFF);
Lcd8_Custom_Out(1, 1, "mikroElektronika");
Lcd8_Custom_Chr(2, 1,'c');
Lcd8_Custom_Chr_CP('?');
Lcd8_Custom_Out_CP("for_dsPIC");
}//~!
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LCD Commands
LCD Command
Purpose
LCD_FIRST_ROW
Move cursor to 1st row
LCD_SECOND_ROW
Move cursor to 2nd row
LCD_THIRD_ROW
Move cursor to 3rd row
LCD_FOURTH_ROW
Move cursor to 4th row
LCD_CLEAR
Clear display
LCD_RETURN_HOME
Return cursor to home position, returns a shifted display to original position. Display data RAM is unaffected.
LCD_CURSOR_OFF
Turn off cursor
LCD_UNDERLINE_ON
Underline cursor on
LCD_BLINK_CURSOR_ON
Blink cursor on
LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_LEFT
Move cursor left without changing display data RAM
LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_RIGHT
Move cursor right without changing display data RAM
LCD_TURN_ON
Turn LCD display on
LCD_TURN_OFF
Turn LCD display off
LCD_SHIFT_LEFT
Shift display left without changing display data RAM
LCD_SHIFT_RIGHT
Shift display right without changing display data RAM
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Hardware Connection
RB0
RB1
RB2
RB4
RB5
RB6
RB7
VCC
11
VCC
12
GND
13
OSC1
14
OSC2
dsPIC4013
RB3
RD0
34
33
RD1
RD2
22
VCC
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
RD2
RD1
Vee
RD0
VCC
GND
VCC
10K
LCD8 Test
mikroElektronika
LCD 2X16
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Manchester Code Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for handling Manchester
coded signals. The Manchester code is a code in which data and clock signals are
combined to form a single self-synchronizing data stream; each encoded bit contains a transition at the midpoint of a bit period, the direction of transition determines whether the bit is 0 or 1; the second half is the true bit value and the first
half is the complement of the true bit value (as shown in the figure below).
Notes: The Manchester receive routines are blocking calls (Man_Receive_Config,
Man_Receive_Init and Man_Synchro). This means that MCU will wait until the
task has been performed (e.g. byte is received, synchronization achieved, etc).
Library Routines
Man_Receive_Config
Man_Receive_Init
Man_Receive
Man_Send_Config
Man_Send_Init
Man_Send
Man_Synchro
The following routines are for the internal use by compiler only:
Manchester_0
Manchester_1
Manchester_Out
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Man_Receive_Config
Prototype
void Man_Receive_Config(unsigned int *port, unsigned int rxpin);
Description
The function configures Receiver pin and performs synchronization procedure in order
to retrieve baud rate out of incoming signal. Parameters :
- port: Receiver port
- rxpin: Receiver pin
Note: In case of multiple persistent errors on reception, the user should call this routine
once again or Man_Synchro routine to enable synchronization.
Example
// Configure Receiver on pin RD3:
Man_Receive_Config(&PORTD, 3);
Man_Receive_Init
Prototype
void Man_Receive_Init(unsigned int *port);
Description
The function configures Receiver pin as pin3 of the MCU's port. After that, the function
performs synchronization procedure in order to retrieve baud rate out of incoming signal. Parameters :
- port: Receiver port
Note: In case of multiple persistent errors on reception, the user should call this routine
once again or Man_Synchro routine to enable synchronization.
Example
// Configure Receiver on pin RD3:
Man_Receive_Config(&PORTD);
Man_Receive
Prototype
unsigned int Man_Receive(unsigned int *error);
Returns
One byte from signal.
Description
The function extracts one byte from incoming signal. Parameters :
- error: error flag. If signal format does not match the expected, the error flag will be
set to non-zero.
Requires
To use this function, the user must prepare the MCU for receiving. See
Man_Receive_Config or Man_Receive_Init.
Example
unsigned int data = 0, error = 0;
...
data = Man_Receive(&error);
if (error)
{ /* error handling */ }
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Man_Send_Config
Prototype
void Man_Send_Config(unsigned int *port, unsigned int txpin);
Description
The function configures Transmitter pin. Parameters :
- port: Transmitter port
- txpin: Transmitter pin
Example
// Configure Transmitter on pin RD0:
Man_Send_Config(&PORTD, 0);
Man_Send_Init
Prototype
void Man_Send_Init(unsigned int *port);
Description
The function configures Transmitter pin as pin0 of the MCU's port.
Parameters :
- port: Transmitter port
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// Configure Transmitter on pin RD0:
Man_Send_Init(&PORTD);
Man_Send
Prototype
void Man_Send(unsigned int data);
Description
Sends one byte. Parameters :
- data: data to be sent
Note: Baud rate used is 500 bps.
Requires
To use this function, the user must prepare the MCU for sending. See
Man_Send_Config or Man_Send_Init.
Example
unsigned int msg;
...
Man_Send(msg);
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Man_Synchro
Prototype
unsigned int Man_Synchro();
Returns
Half of the manchester bit length, given in multiples of 10us.
Description
Measures half of the manchester bit length with 10us resolution.
Requires
To use this function, you must first prepare the MCU for receiving. See
Man_Receive_Config or Man_Receive_Init.
Example
unsigned int man__half_bit_len;
...
man__half_bit_len = Man_Synchro();
Library Example
The following code is code for the Manchester receiver, it shows how to use the
Manchester Library for receiving data:
unsigned int
ERR,
*error,
ErrorCount,
temp;
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
TRISF = 0;
ERR = 0;
Uart1_Init(9600);
error = &ERR;
ErrorCount = 0;
Lcd8_Custom_Init_EasyDsPIC3();
Man_Receive_Config(&PORTD, 3);
while (1) {
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_FIRST_ROW);
while (1)
{
temp = Man_Receive(error);
if (temp == 0x0B)
break;
if (ERR)
break;
}
do
// Initialize LCD
// Configure and synchronize receiver
// Wait for the start marker
// We got the starting sequence
// Exit so we do not loop forever
//continues ...
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//continued ...
{
temp = Man_Receive(error); // Attempt byte receive
Uart1_Write_Char(0Xff);
// Indicate new reception
Uart1_Write_Char(temp);
// Display received byte on usart terminal
if (ERR)
{
Lcd8_Custom_Chr_CP('?');
Uart1_Write_Char('?');
ErrorCount++;
if (ErrorCount > 20)
{
//Man_Receive_Init(&PORTD);
// alternative:
temp = Man_Synchro();
ErrorCount = 0;
}
}
else
{
if (temp != 0x0E)
// Don't write the } marker on LCD
Lcd8_Custom_Chr_CP(temp);
}
Delay_ms(25);
}
while (temp != 0x0E) ;
}
}//~!
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Hardware Connection
Transmitter RF
module
11
12
Antenna
13
14
VCC
GND
OSC1
OSC2
VCC
dsPIC4013
VCC
RD0
34
VCC
A
RT4
In
GND
VCC
Antenna
11
VCC
12
13
14
VCC
GND
OSC1
OSC2
VCC
A
RR4
Out
dsPIC4013
Receiver RF
module
19
RD3
GND
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Multi Media Card Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for handling data on
MMC and SD memory cards using SPI interface.
Note: Routines for file handling can be used only with FAT16 file system.
Note: Library functions create and read files from the root directory only.
Note: Library functions populate both FAT1 and FAT2 tables when writing to
files, but the file data is being read from the FAT1 table only; i.e. there is no
recovery if the FAT1 table gets corrupted.
Note: If MMC/SD card has Master Boot Record (MBR), the library will work
with the first available primary (logical) partition that has non-zero size. If
MMC/SD card has Volume Boot Record (i.e. there is only one logical partition
and no MBRs), the library works with entire card as a single partition. For more
information on MBR, physical and logical drives, primary/secondary partitions
and partition tables, please consult other resources, e.g. Wikipedia and similar.
Note: Before write operation, make sure you don’t overwrite boot or FAT sector as
it could make your card on PC or digital camera unreadable. Drive mapping tools,
such as Winhex, can be of a great assistance.
Note: Library uses SPI module for communication. The user must initialize the
appropriate SPI module before using the MMC Library. For MCUs with two SPI
modules it is possible to initialize both of them and then switch by using the
Spi_Set_Active() function. See the Spi Library functions.
The SPI module has to be initialized through Spi_Init_Advanced routine with the
following parameters:
- SPI Master
- 8bit mode
- secondary prescaler 1
- primary prescaler 64
- Slave Select disabled
- data sampled in the middle of data output time
- clock idle high
- Serial output data changes on transition from active clock state to idle clock state
Note: Once the MMC/SD card is initialized, the user can reinitialize SPI at higher
speed. See the Mmc_Init and Mmc_Fat_Init routines.
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Library Routines
Mmc_Init
Mmc_Read_Sector
Mmc_Write_Sector
Mmc_Read_Cid
Mmc_Read_Csd
Mmc_Fat_Init
Mmc_Fat_QuickFormat
Mmc_Fat_Assign
Mmc_Fat_Reset
Mmc_Fat_Read
Mmc_Fat_Rewrite
Mmc_Fat_Append
Mmc_Fat_Delete
Mmc_Fat_Write
Mmc_Fat_Set_File_Date
Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Date
Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Size
Mmc_Fat_Get_Swap_File
Mmc_Init
Prototype
unsigned Mmc_Init(unsigned *port, unsigned cspin);
Returns
0 - if MMC/SD card was detected and successfully initialized
1 - otherwise
Description
Initializes MMC through hardware SPI interface. Parameters:
- port: chip select signal port address.
- cspin: chip select pin.
Requires
The appropriate hardware SPI module must be previously initialized.
Example
// Initialize the SPI module
Spi_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_8_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_64, _SPI_SS_DISABLE,
_SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH,
_SPI_ACTIVE_2_IDLE);
// Loop until MMC is initialized
while (Mmc_Init(&PORTG, 9))
;
// Reinitialize the SPI module at higher speed (change primary
// prescaler).
Spi_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_8_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_4,_SPI_SS_DISABLE,
_SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH,
_SPI_ACTIVE_2_IDLE);
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Mmc_Read_Sector
Prototype
unsigned Mmc_Read_Sector(unsigned long sector, char *dbuff);
Returns
0 - if reading was successful
1 - if an error occurred
Description
The function reads one sector (512 bytes) from MMC card. Parameters:
- sector: MMC/SD card sector to be read.
- dbuff: buffer of minimum 512 bytes in length for data storage.
Requires
MMC/SD card must be initialized. See Mmc_Init.
Example
// read sector 510 of the MMC/SD card
unsigned int error;
unsigned long sectorNo = 510;
char dataBuffer[512];
...
error = Mmc_Read_Sector(sectorNo, dataBuffer);
Mmc_Write_Sector
Prototype
unsigned Mmc_Write_Sector(unsigned long sector, char *dbuff);
Returns
0 - if writing was successful
1 - if there was an error in sending write command
2 - if there was an error in writing (data rejected)
Description
The function writes 512 bytes of data to one MMC card sector. Parameters:
- sector: MMC/SD card sector to be written to.
- dbuff: data to be written (buffer of minimum 512 bytes in length).
Requires
MMC/SD card must be initialized. See Mmc_Init.
Example
// write to sector 510 of the MMC/SD card
unsigned int error;
unsigned long sectorNo = 510;
char dataBuffer[512];
...
error = Mmc_Write_Sector(sectorNo, dataBuffer);
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Mmc_Read_Cid
Prototype
unsigned Mmc_Read_Cid(char *data_cid);
Returns
0 - if CID register was read successfully
1 - if there was an error while reading
Description
The function reads 16-byte CID register. Parameters:
- data_cid: buffer of minimum 16 bytes in length for storing CID register content.
Requires
MMC/SD card must be initialized. See Mmc_Init.
Example
unsigned int error;
char dataBuffer[16];
...
error = Mmc_Read_Cid(dataBuffer);
Mmc_Read_Csd
Prototype
unsigned Mmc_Read_Csd(char *data_csd);
Returns
0 - if CSD register was read successfully
1 - if there was an error while reading
Description
The function reads 16-byte CSD register. Parameters:
- data_csd: buffer of minimum 16 bytes in length for storing CSD register content.
Requires
MMC/SD card must be initialized. See Mmc_Init.
Example
unsigned int error;
char dataBuffer[16];
...
error = Mmc_Read_Csd(dataBuffer);
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Mmc_Fat_Init
Prototype
unsigned Mmc_Fat_Init(unsigned *port, unsigned pin);
Returns
0 - if MMC/SD card was detected and successfully initialized
1 - if FAT16 boot sector was not found
255 - if MMC/SD card was not detected
Description
Initializes MMC/SD card, reads MMC/SD FAT16 boot sector and extracts necessary
data needed by the library. Parameters:
- port: chip select signal port address.
- pin: chip select pin.
Note: MMC/SD card has to be formatted to FAT16 file system.
Requires
The appropriate hardware SPI module must be previously initialized.
Example
// Initialize the SPI module
Spi_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_8_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_64,_SPI_SS_DISABLE,
_SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH, _SPI_ACTIVE_2_IDLE);
// Initialize MMC/SD card and MMC_FAT16 library globals
Mmc_Fat_Init(&PORTG, 9);
// Reinitialize the SPI module at higher speed (change primary
// prescaler).
Spi_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_8_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_4,_SPI_SS_DISABLE,
_SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH, _SPI_ACTIVE_2_IDLE);
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Mmc_Fat_QuickFormat
Prototype
unsigned Mmc_Fat_QuickFormat(unsigned *port, unsigned pin, char *
mmc_fat_label);
Returns
0 - if MMC/SD card was detected, successfully formated and initialized
1 - if FAT16 format was unseccessful
255 - if MMC/SD card was not detected
Description
Formats to FAT16 and initializes MMC/SD card.
Parameters:
- port: chip select signal port address.
- pin: chip select pin.
- mmc_fat_label: volume label (11 characters in length). If less than 11 characters are
provided, the label will be padded with spaces.
Note: This routine can be used instead or in conjunction with Mmc_Fat_Init routine.
Note: If MMC/SD card already contains a valid boot sector, it will remain unchanged
(except volume label field) and only FAT and ROOT tables will be erased. Also, the
new volume label will be set.
Requires
The appropriate hardware SPI module must be previously initialized.
Example
// Initialize the SPI module
Spi_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_8_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_64,_SPI_SS_DISABLE,
_SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH, _SPI_ACTIVE_2_IDLE);
// Format and initialize MMC/SD card and MMC_FAT16
// library globals
Mmc_Fat_QuickFormat(&PORTG, 9, "mikroE");
// Reinitialize the SPI module at higher speed
// (change primary prescaler).
Spi_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_8_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_4,_SPI_SS_DISABLE,
_SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH, _SPI_ACTIVE_2_IDLE);
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Mmc_Fat_Assign
Prototype
unsigned Mmc_Fat_Assign(char *filename, char file_cre_attr);
Returns
1 - if file already exists or file does not exist but a new file is created.
0 - if file does not exist and no new file is created.
Description
Assigns file for file operations (read, write, delete...). All subsequent file operations will
be applied on an assigned file. Parameters:
- filename: name of the file that should be assigned for file operations. File name
should be in DOS 8.3 (file_name.extension) format. The file name and extension will be
automatically padded with spaces by the library if they have less than length required
(i.e. "mikro.tx" -> "mikro .tx "), so the user does no have to take care of that. The file
name and extension are case insensitive. The library will convert them to proper case
automatically, so the user does not have to take care of that.
Also, in order to keep backward compatibility with the first version of this library, file
names can be entered as UPPERCASE string of 11 bytes in length with no dot character
between file name and extension (i.e. "MIKROELETXT" -> MIKROELE.TXT). In this
case last 3 characters of the string are considered to be file extension.
- file_cre_attr: file creation and attributs flags. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate file attribut:
BIT MASK
Description
0
0x01
Read Only
1
0x02
Hidden
2
0x04
System
3
0x08
Volume Label
4
0x10
Subdirectory
5
0x20
Archive
6
0x40
Device (internal use only, never found on disk)
7
0x80
File creation flag. If the file does not exist and
this flag is set, a new file with specified name
will be created.
Note: Long File Names (LFN) are not supported.
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations. See
Mmc_Fat_Init.
Example
// create file with archive attribut if it does not already exist
Mmc_Fat_Assign("MIKRO007.TXT",0xA0);
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Mmc_Fat_Reset
Prototype
void Mmc_Fat_Reset(unsigned long *size);
Description
Opens currently assigned file for reading. Parameters:
- size: buffer to store file size to. After file has been open for reading its size is
returned through this parameter.
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations.
See Mmc_Fat_Init.
The file must be previously assigned. See Mmc_Fat_Assign.
Example
unsigned long size;
...
Mmc_Fat_Reset(size);
Mmc_Fat_Read
Prototype
void Mmc_Fat_Read(unsigned char *bdata);
Description
Reads a byte from the currently assigned file opened for reading. Upon function execution file pointers will be set to the next character in the file. Parameters:
- bdata: buffer to store read byte to. Upon this function execution read byte is returned
through this parameter.
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations.
See Mmc_Fat_Init.
The file must be previously assigned. See Mmc_Fat_Assign.
The file must be opened for reading. See Mmc_Fat_Reset.
Example
char character;
...
Mmc_Fat_Read(&character);
Mmc_Fat_Rewrite
Prototype
void Mmc_Fat_Rewrite();
Description
Opens the currently assigned file for writing. If the file is not empty its content will be
erased.
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations.
See Mmc_Fat_Init.
The file must be previously assigned. See Mmc_Fat_Assign.
Example
// open file for writing
Mmc_Fat_Rewrite();
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Mmc_Fat_Append
Prototype
void Mmc_Fat_Append();
Description
Opens the currently assigned file for appending. Upon this function execution file pointers will be positioned after the last byte in the file, so any subsequent file write operation will start from there.
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations.
See Mmc_Fat_Init.
The file must be previously assigned. See Mmc_Fat_Assign.
Example
// open file for appending
Mmc_Fat_Append();
Mmc_Fat_Delete
Prototype
void Mmc_Fat_Delete();
Description
Deletes currently assigned file from MMC/SD card.
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations.
See Mmc_Fat_Init.
The file must be previously assigned. See Mmc_Fat_Assign.
Example
// delete current file
Mmc_Fat_Delete();
Mmc_Fat_Write
Prototype
void Mmc_Fat_Write(char *fdata, unsigned data_len);
Description
Writes requested number of bytes to the currently assigned file opened for writing.
Parameters:
- fdata: data to be written.
- data_len: number of bytes to be written.
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations.
See Mmc_Fat_Init.
The file must be previously assigned. See Mmc_Fat_Assign.
The file must be opened for writing. See Mmc_Fat_Rewrite or Mmc_Fat_Append.
Example
char file_contents[42];
...
Mmc_Fat_Write(file_contents, 42);
// write data to the assigned file
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Mmc_Set_File_Date
Prototype
void Mmc_Fat_Set_File_Date(unsigned int year, unsigned short
month, unsigned short day, unsigned short hours, unsigned short
mins, unsigned short seconds);
Description
Sets the date/time stamp. Any subsequent file write operation will write this stamp to the
currently assigned file's time/date attributs. Parameters:
- year: year attribute. Valid values: 1980-2107
- month: month attribute. Valid values: 1-12
- day: day attribute. Valid values: 1-31
- hours: hours attribute. Valid values: 0-23
- mins: minutes attribute. Valid values: 0-59
- seconds: seconds attribute. Valid values: 0-59
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations.
See Mmc_Fat_Init.
The file must be previously assigned. See Mmc_Fat_Assign.
The file must be opened for writing. See Mmc_Fat_Rewrite or Mmc_Fat_Append.
Example
Mmc_Fat_Set_File_Date(2005,9,30,17,41,0);
Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Date
Prototype
void Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Date(unsigned int *year, unsigned short
*month, unsigned short *day, unsigned short *hours, unsigned
short *mins);
Description
Reads time/date attributes of the currently assigned file. Parameters:
- year: buffer to store year attribute to. Upon function execution year attribute is
returned through this parameter.
- month: buffer to store month attribute to. Upon function execution month attribute is
returned through this parameter.
- day: buffer to store day attribute to. Upon function execution day attribute is returned
through this parameter.
- hours: buffer to store hours attribute to. Upon function execution hours attribute is
returned through this parameter.
- mins: buffer to store minutes attribute to. Upon function execution minutes attribute is
returned through this parameter.
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations.
See Mmc_Fat_Init.
The file must be previously assigned. See Mmc_Fat_Assign.
Example
unsigned year;
char month, day, hours, mins;
...
Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Date(&year, &month, &day, &hours, &mins);
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Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Size
Prototype
unsigned long Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Size();
Returns
Size of the currently assigned file in bytes.
Description
This function reads size of the currently assigned file in bytes.
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations.
See Mmc_Fat_Init.
The file must be previously assigned. See Mmc_Fat_Assign.
Example
unsigned long my_file_size;
...
my_file_size = Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Size();
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Mmc_Fat_Get_Swap_File
Prototype
unsigned long Mmc_Fat_Get_Swap_File(unsigned long sectors_cnt,
char* filename, char file_attr);
Returns
- Number of the start sector for the newly created swap file, if there was enough free
space on the MMC/SD card to create file of required size.
- 0 - otherwise.
Description
This function is used to create a swap file of predefined name and size on the MMC/SD
media. If a file with specified name already exists on the media, search for consecutive
sectors will ignore sectors occupied by this file. Therefore, it is recommended to erase
such file if it already exists before calling this function. If it is not erased and there is
still enough space for a new swap file, this function will delete it after allocating new
memory space for a new swap file.
The purpose of the swap file is to make reading and writing to MMC/SD media as fast
as possible, by using the Mmc_Read_Sector() and Mmc_Write_Sector() functions
directly, without potentially damaging the FAT system. The swap file can be considered
as a "window" on the media where the user can freely write/read data. It's main purpose
in the mikroC's library is to be used for fast data acquisition; when the time-critical
acquisition has finished, the data can be re-written into a "normal" file, and formatted in
the most suitable way.
Parameters:
- sectors_cnt: number of consecutive sectors that user wants the swap file to have.
- filename: name of the file that should be assigned for file operations. File name
should be in DOS 8.3 (file_name.extension) format. The file name and extension will be
automatically padded with spaces by the library if they have less than length required
(i.e. "mikro.tx" -> "mikro .tx "), so the user does no have to take care of that. The file
name and extension are case insensitive. The library will convert them to proper case
automatically, so the user does not have to take care of that.
Also, in order to keep backward compatibility with the first version of this library, file
names can be entered as UPPERCASE string of 11 bytes in length with no dot character
between file name and extension (i.e. "MIKROELETXT" -> MIKROELE.TXT). In this
case last 3 characters of the string are considered to be file extension.
- file_attr: file creation and attributs flags. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate
file attribut:
//continues on the next page ...
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//continued from the previous page ...
BIT MASK
Description
0
0x01
Read Only
1
0x02
Hidden
2
0x04
System
3
0x08
Volume Label
4
0x10
Subdirectory
5
0x20
Archive
6
0x40
Device (internal use only, never found on disk)
7
0x80
Not Used
Note: Long File Names (LFN) are not supported.
Requires
MMC/SD card and MMC library must be initialized for file operations.
See Mmc_Fat_Init.
Example
// Try to create a swap file with archive atribute,
// whose size will be at least 1000 sectors.
// If it succeeds, it sends No. of start sector over USART
unsigned long size;
...
size = Mmc_Fat_Get_Swap_File(1000, "mikroE.txt", 0x20);
if (size) {
Usart_Write(0xAA);
Usart_Write(Lo(size));
Usart_Write(Hi(size));
Usart_Write(Higher(size));
Usart_Write(Highest(size));
Usart_Write(0xAA);
}//~
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Library Example
The following example demonstrates usage of the mmc and mmc_fat routines. Hardware configurations in this example are made for the EasydsPIC3 board and dsPIC30F4013.
#include <spi_const.h>
const char SWAP_FILE_MSG[] = "Swap file at: ";
char
fat_txt[20] = "FAT16 not found",
file_contents[50] = "XX MMC/SD FAT16 library by Anton Rieckertn";
char
filename[14] = "MIKRO00xTXT";
unsigned
loop, loop2;
unsigned short
caracter;
unsigned long
i, size;
char Buffer[512];
// File names
//I-I-I--------- Writes string to USART
void I_Write_Str(char *ostr) {
unsigned i;
i = 0;
while (ostr[i]) {
Uart1_Write_Char(ostr[i++]);
}
}//~
//M-M-M--------- Creates a new file and writes some data to it
void M_Create_New_File() {
filename[7] = 'A';
Mmc_Fat_Assign(&filename, 0xA0);// Will not find file and then create file
Mmc_Fat_Rewrite();
// To clear file and start with new data
for(loop = 1; loop <= 99; loop++) {
// We want 5 files on the MMC card
Uart1_Write_Char('.');
file_contents[0] = loop / 10 + 48;
file_contents[1] = loop % 10 + 48;
Mmc_Fat_Write(file_contents, 42);
// write data to the assigned file
}
}//~
//continues...
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// continued...
//M-M-M--------- Creates many new files and writes data to them
void M_Create_Multiple_Files() {
for(loop2 = 'B'; loop2 <= 'Z'; loop2++) {
Uart1_Write_Char(loop2);
// signal the progress
filename[7] = loop2;
// set filename
Mmc_Fat_Assign(&filename, 0xA0);// find existing file or create a new one
Mmc_Fat_Rewrite();
// To clear file and start with new data
for(loop = 1; loop <= 44; loop++) {
file_contents[0] = loop / 10 + 48;
file_contents[1] = loop % 10 + 48;
Mmc_Fat_Write(file_contents, 42); // write data to the assigned file
}
}
}//~
//M-M-M--------- Opens an existing file and rewrites it
void M_Open_File_Rewrite() {
filename[7] = 'C';
Mmc_Fat_Assign(&filename, 0);
Mmc_Fat_Rewrite();
for(loop = 1; loop <= 55; loop++) {
file_contents[0] = loop / 10 + 64;
file_contents[1] = loop % 10 + 64;
Mmc_Fat_Write(file_contents, 42);
// write data to the assigned file
}
}//~
//M-M-M--------- Opens an existing file and appends data to it
//
(and alters the date/time stamp)
void M_Open_File_Append() {
filename[7] = 'B';
Mmc_Fat_Assign(&filename, 0);
Mmc_Fat_Set_File_Date(2005,6,21,10,35,0);
Mmc_Fat_Append();
// Prepare file for append
Mmc_Fat_Write(" for mikroElektronika 2005n", 27);
// Write data to the assigned file
}//~
//continues...
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// continued...
//M-M-M--------- Opens an existing file, reads data from it and puts it to USART
void M_Open_File_Read() {
filename[7] = 'B';
Mmc_Fat_Assign(&filename, 0);
Mmc_Fat_Reset(&size);
// To read file, procedure returns size of file
for (i = 1; i <= size; i++) {
Mmc_Fat_Read(&caracter);
Uart1_Write_Char(caracter);// Write data to USART
}
}//~
//M-M-M--------- Deletes a file. If the file doesn't exist,
//it will first be created
//and then deleted.
void M_Delete_File() {
filename[7] = 'F';
Mmc_Fat_Assign(filename, 0);
Mmc_Fat_Delete();
}//~
//M-M-M--------- Tests whether file exists, and if so sends its creation date
//
and file size via USART
void M_Test_File_Exist(char fLetter) {
unsigned long fsize;
unsigned int year;
unsigned short month, day, hour, minute;
unsigned char outstr[12];
filename[7] = fLetter;
if (Mmc_Fat_Assign(filename, 0)) {
//--- file has been found - get its date
Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Date(&year, &month, &day, &hour, &minute);
WordToStr(year, outstr);
I_Write_Str(outstr);
ByteToStr(month, outstr);
I_Write_Str(outstr);
WordToStr(day, outstr);
I_Write_Str(outstr);
WordToStr(hour, outstr);
I_Write_Str(outstr);
WordToStr(minute, outstr);
I_Write_Str(outstr);
//--- get file size
fsize = Mmc_Fat_Get_File_Size();
LongToStr((signed long)fsize, outstr);
I_Write_Str(outstr);
}
//continues...
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// continued...
else {
//--- file was not found - signal it
Uart1_Write_Char(0x55);
Delay_ms(1000);
Uart1_Write_Char(0x55);
}
}//~
//-------------- Tries to create a swap file, whose size will be at least 100
//
sectors (see Help for details)
void M_Create_Swap_File() {
unsigned int i;
for(i=0; i<512; i++)
Buffer[i] = i;
size = Mmc_Fat_Get_Swap_File(5000, "mikroE.txt", 0x20);
// see help on this function for details
if (size) {
LongToStr((signed long)size, fat_txt);
I_Write_Str(fat_txt);
for(i=0; i<5000; i++) {
Mmc_Write_Sector(size++, Buffer);
Uart1_Write_Char('.');
}
}
}//~
// Main. Uncomment the function(s) to test the desired
// operation(s)
void main() {
//--- prepare PORTD for signalling
PORTD = 0;
TRISD = 0;
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
//--- set up USART for the file read
Spi1_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_8_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_64,
_SPI_SS_DISABLE, _SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH,
_SPI_ACTIVE_2_IDLE);
Uart_Init(19200);
U1MODEbits.ALTIO = 1;
Delay_ms(200);
// clear the way for SPI
// wait for the UART module to stabilize
//continues...
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// continued...
//--- init the FAT library
if (!Mmc_Fat_Init(&PORTB,8)) {
// reinitialize spi at higher speed
Spi1_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_8_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_4,
_SPI_SS_DISABLE, _SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH,
_SPI_ACTIVE_2_IDLE);
//--- Test start
PORTD = 0x0005;
// --- Test routines. Uncomment
// them one-by-one to test certain features
M_Create_New_File();
M_Create_Multiple_Files();
M_Open_File_Rewrite();
M_Open_File_Append();
M_Delete_File();
M_Create_Swap_File();
M_Open_File_Read();
M_Test_File_Exist('F');
M_Test_File_Exist('B');
// this file will not exist here
// this file will exist here
}
else {
I_Write_Str(fat_txt);
}
//--- Test termination
PORTD = 0xFFFF;
}//~!
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Hardware Connection
SPI-MISO
MMC-CS#
SPI-MOSI
SPI-SCK
2K2
2K2
VCC3
2K2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
3K3
3K3
CS
Din
GND
+3.3V
SCK
GND
Dout
3K3
10
VCC
11
12
13
MC33269 VCC
DT-3.3
3
GND
1
2
14
VCC
GND
OSC1
OSC2
VIN
VOUT
RB8
VCC3
dsPIC4013
MMC-CS#
MMC/SD
CARD
RF2
RF3
RF6
26
25
24
10uF
SPI-SCK
SPI-MOSI
SPI-MISO
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
MMC
Back view
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OneWire Library
The OneWire library provides routines for communication via the Dallas OneWire
protocol, e.g. with DS18x20 digital thermometer. OneWire is a Master/Slave protocol, and all communication cabling required is a single wire. OneWire enabled
devices should have open collector drivers (with single pull-up resistor) on the
shared data line.
Slave devices on the OneWire bus can even get their power supply from data line.
For detailed schematic see device datasheet.
Some basic characteristics of this protocol are:
- single master system,
- low cost,
- low transfer rates (up to 16 kbps),
- fairly long distances (up to 300 meters),
- small data transfer packages.
Each OneWire device has also a unique 64-bit registration number (8-bit device
type, 48-bit serial number and 8-bit CRC), so multiple slaves can co-exist on the
same bus.
Note: Oscillator frequency Fosc needs to be at least 4MHz in order to use the routines with Dallas digital thermometers.
Library Routines
Ow_Reset
Ow_Read
Ow_Write
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Ow_Reset
Prototype
unsigned int Ow_Reset(unsigned int *port, unsigned int pin);
Returns
- 0 if the device is present
- 1 if the device is not present
Description
Issues OneWire reset signal for DS18x20. Parameters :
- port: OneWire bus port
- pin: OneWire bus pin
Requires
Devices compliant with the Dallas OneWire protocol.
Example
// Issue Reset signal on One-Wire Bus connected to pin RF6
Ow_Reset(&PORTF,6);
Ow_Read
Prototype
unsigned short Ow_Read(unsigned int *port, unsigned int pin);
Returns
Data read from an external device over the OneWire bus.
Description
Reads one byte of data via the OneWire bus. Parameters :
- port: OneWire bus port
- pin: OneWire bus pin
Requires
Devices compliant with the Dallas OneWire protocol.
Example
// Read a byte from the One-Wire Bus connected to pin RF6
// unsigned short read_data;
...
read_data = Ow_Read(&PORTF, 6);
Ow_Write
Prototype
void Ow_Write(unsigned int *port, unsigned int pin, unsigned
short par);
Description
Writes one byte of data via the OneWire bus. Parameters :
- port: OneWire bus port
- pin: OneWire bus pin
- par: data to be written
Requires
Devices compliant with the Dallas OneWire protocol.
Example
// Send a byte to the One-Wire Bus connected to pin RF6
Ow_Write(&PORTF, 6, 0xCC);
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Library Example
This example reads the temperature using DS18x20 connected to pin RF6. After
reset, MCU obtains temperature from the sensor and prints it on the LCD. Be sure
to set Fosc appropriately in your project, to pull-up RF6 line and to turn off the
PORTF leds.
// Set TEMP_RESOLUTION to the corresponding resolution of your DS18x20 sensor:
// 18S20: 9 (default setting; can be 9,10,11,or 12)
// 18B20: 12
const unsigned short TEMP_RESOLUTION = 9;
char *text = "000.0000";
unsigned temp;
void Display_Temperature(unsigned int temp2write) {
const unsigned short RES_SHIFT = TEMP_RESOLUTION - 8;
char temp_whole;
unsigned int temp_fraction;
// check if temperature is negative
if (temp2write & 0x8000) {
text[0] = '-';
temp2write = ~temp2write + 1;
}
// extract temp_whole
temp_whole = temp2write >> RES_SHIFT ;
// convert temp_whole to characters
if (temp_whole/100)
text[0] = temp_whole/100 + 48;
text[1] = (temp_whole/10)%10 + 48;
text[2] = temp_whole%10
+ 48;
// extract temp_fraction
temp_fraction = temp2write << (4-RES_SHIFT);
temp_fraction &= 0x000F;
temp_fraction *= 625;
// convert temp_fraction to characters
text[4] = temp_fraction/1000
+ 48;
text[5] = (temp_fraction/100)%10 + 48;
text[6] = (temp_fraction/10)%10 + 48;
text[7] =
temp_fraction%10
+ 48;
// continues ...
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// continued ...
// print temperature on LCD
Lcd8_Custom_Out(2, 5, text);
}//~
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
Lcd8_Custom_Config(&PORTD,7,6,5,4,3,2,1,0, &PORTB, 4, 5, 6);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CURSOR_OFF);
Lcd8_Custom_Out(1, 1, " Temperature:
");
// Print degree character, 'C' for Centigrades
Lcd8_Custom_Chr(2,13,223);
Lcd8_Custom_Chr(2,14,'C');
//--- main loop
do {
//--- perform temperature reading
Ow_Reset(&PORTF,6);
// Onewire reset signal
Ow_Write(&PORTF,6,0xCC);
// Issue command SKIP_ROM
Ow_Write(&PORTF,6,0x44);
// Issue command CONVERT_T
Delay_us(120);
Ow_Reset(&PORTF,6);
Ow_Write(&PORTF,6,0xCC);
Ow_Write(&PORTF,6,0xBE);
// Issue command SKIP_ROM
// Issue command READ_SCRATCHPAD
temp = Ow_Read(&PORTF,6);
temp = (Ow_Read(&PORTF,6) << 8) + temp;
//--- Format and display result on Lcd
Display_Temperature(temp);
Delay_ms(500);
} while (1);
}//~!
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Hardware Connection
125 C
-50 C
10K
VCC
RC14
RC13
RD0
RD11
RD10
RD9
RD8
RA15
RA14
Vss
OSC2
OSC1
Vdd
RG2
RG3
RF6
RF7
RF8
RF2
RF3
dsPIC30F6014A
VCC
4K7
GND
VCC
DQ
RB6
RB7
RA9
RA10
AVdd
AVss
RB8
RB9
RB10
RB11
Vss
Vdd
RB12
RB13
RB14
RB15
RD14
RD15
RF4
RF5
Reset
RG15
RC1
RC2
RC3
RC4
RG6
RG7
RG8
MCLR
RG9
Vss
Vdd
RA12
RA13
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
VCC
RG12
RG14
RA7
RA6
RG0
RG1
RF1
RF0
Vdd
Vss
RD7
RD6
RD5
RD4
RD13
RD12
RD3
RD2
RD1
RG13
DS1820
VCC
RD7
RD6
RD5
RD4
RD3
RD2
RD1
RD0
RB6
Vee
RB5
RB4
VCC
GND
VCC
10K
Temperature:
025.5000 C
LCD 2X16
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Port Expander Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for communication with
the Microchip’s Port Expander MCP23S17 via SPI interface. Connections of the
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCU and MCP23S17 is given on the schematic at the bottom of this page.
Note: Library uses the SPI module for communication. The user must initialize the
appropriate SPI module before using the Port Expander Library. For MCUs with
two SPI modules it is possible to initialize both of them and then switch by using
the Spi_Set_Active() function. See the Spi Library functions.
Note: Library does not use Port Expander interrupts.
Library Routines
Expander_Init
Expander_Read_Byte
Expander_Write_Byte
Expander_Read_PortA
Expander_Read_PortB
Expander_Read_PortAB
Expander_Write_PortA
Expander_Write_PortB
Expander_Write_PortAB
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortA
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortB
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortAB
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Expander_Init
Prototype
void Expander_Init(char ModuleAddress, unsigned int *rstport,
unsigned int rstpin, unsigned int *csport, unsigned int cspin);
Description
Initializes Port Expander using SPI communication.
Port Expander module settings :
- hardware addressing enabled
- automatic address pointer incrementing disabled (byte mode)
- BANK_0 register adressing
- slew rate enabled
Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this
page
- rstport: Port Expander's reset signal port address
- rstpin: Port Expander's reset signal pin
- csport: Port Expander's chip select signal port address
- cspin: Port Expander's chip select signal pin
Requires
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See Spi1_Init, Spi1_Init_Advanced,
Spi2_Init, Spi2_Init_Advanced, Spi_Init and Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
// initialize the SPI1 module and Port Expander
Spi1_Init();
Expander_Init(0, &PORTF, 0, &PORTF, 1);
Expander_Read_Byte
Prototype
char Expander_Read_Byte(char ModuleAddress, char RegAddress);
Returns
Byte read.
Description
The function reads byte from Port Expander. Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of
this page
- RegAddress: Port Expander's internal register address.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Read a byte from Port Expander's register
char read_data;
...
read_data = Expander_Read_Byte(0,1);
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Expander_Write_Byte
Prototype
void Expander_Write_Byte(char ModuleAddress, char RegAddress,
char Data);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Routine writes a byte to Port Expander. Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of
this page
- RegAddress: Port Expander's internal register address
- Data: data to be written
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Write a byte to the Port Expander's register
Expander_Write_Byte(0,1,$FF);
Expander_Read_PortA
Prototype
char Expander_Read_PortA(char ModuleAddress);
Returns
Byte read.
Description
The function reads byte from Port Expander's PortA. Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of
this page.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Port Expander's PortA should be configured as input. See
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA and Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB routines.
Example
// Read a byte from Port Expander's PORTA
char read_data;
...
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA(0,0xFF);
// set expander's porta to be input
...
read_data = Expander_Read_PortA(0);
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Expander_Read_PortB
Prototype
char Expander_Read_PortB(char ModuleAddress);
Returns
Byte read.
Description
The function reads byte from Port Expander's PortB. Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of
this page
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Port Expander's PortB should be configured as input. See
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB and Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB routines.
Example
// Read a byte from Port Expander's PORTB
char read_data;
...
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB(0,0xFF);
// set expander's portb to be input
...
read_data = Expander_Read_PortB(0);
Expander_Read_PortAB
Prototype
unsigned int Expander_Read_PortAB(char ModuleAddress);
Returns
Word read.
Description
The function reads word from Port Expander's ports. PortA readings are in the higher
byte of the result. PortB readings are in the lower byte of the result. Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of
this page.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Port Expander's PortA and PortB should be configured as inputs. See
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA, Expander_Set_DirectionPortB and
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB routines.
Example
// Read a byte from Port Expander's PORTA and PORTB
unsigned int read_data;
...
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB(0,0xFFFF);
// set expander's porta and portb to be input
...
read_data = Expander_Read_PortAB(0);
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Expander_Write_PortA
Prototype
void Expander_Write_PortA(char ModuleAddress, char Data);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
The function writes byte to Port Expander's PortA. Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of
this page
- Data: data to be written
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Port Expander's PortA should be configured as output. See
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA and Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB routines.
Example
// Write a byte to Port Expander's PORTA
...
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA(0,0x00);
// set expander's porta to be output
...
Expander_Write_PortA(0, 0xAA);
Expander_Write_PortB
Prototype
void Expander_Write_PortB(char ModuleAddress, char Data);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
The function writes byte to Port Expander's PortB. Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of
this page
- Data: data to be written
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Port Expander's PortB should be configured as output. See
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB and Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB routines.
Example
// Write a byte to Port Expander's PORTB
...
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB(0,0x00);
// set expander's portb to be output
...
Expander_Write_PortB(0, 0x55);
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Expander_Write_PortAB
Prototype
void Expander_Write_PortAB(char ModuleAddress, unsigned int
Data);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
The function writes word to Port Expander's ports. Data to be written to PortA are in the
higher byte of the result. PortB readings are in the lower byte of the result.
Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of
this page
- Data: data to be written. Data to be written to PortA are passed in Data's higher byte.
Data to be written to PortB are passed in Data's lower byte
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Port Expander's PortA and PortB should be configured as outputs. See
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA, Expander_Set_DirectionPortB and
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB routines.
Example
// Write a byte to Port Expander's PORTA and PORTB
...
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB(0,0x0000);
// set expander's porta and portb to be output
...
Expander_Write_PortAB(0, 0xAA55);
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA
Prototype
void Expander_Set_DirectionPortA(char ModuleAddress, char Data);
Description
The function sets Port Expander's PortA direction. Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of
this page
- Data: data to be written to the PortA direction register. Each bit corresponds to the
appropriate pin of the PortA register. Set bit designates corresponding pin as input.
Cleared bit designates corresponding pin as output.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Set Port Expander's PORTA to be output
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA(0,0x00);
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Expander_Set_DirectionPortB
Prototype
void Expander_Set_DirectionPortB(char ModuleAddress, char Data);
Description
The function sets Port Expander's PortB direction. Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of
this page
- Data: data to be written to the PortB direction register. Each bit corresponds to the
appropriate pin of the PortB register. Set bit designates corresponding pin as input.
Cleared bit designates corresponding pin as output.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Set Port Expander's PORTB to be input
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB(0,0xFF);
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB
Prototype
void Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB(char ModuleAddress, unsigned int
Direction);
Description
The function sets Port Expander's PortA and PortB direction. Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this
page
- Direction: data to be written to direction registers. Data to be written to the PortA
direction register are passed in Direction's higher byte. Data to be written to the PortB
direction register are passed in Direction's lower byte. Each bit corresponds to the
appropriate pin of the PortA/PortB register. Set bit designates corresponding pin as
input. Cleared bit designates corresponding pin as output.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Set Port Expander's PORTA to be output and PORTB to be input
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB(0,0x00FF);
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Expander_Set_PullUpsPortA
Prototype
void Expander_Set_PullUpsPortA(char ModuleAddress, char Data);
Description
The function sets Port Expander's PortA pull up/down resistors. Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of
this page
- Data: data for choosing pull up/down resistors configuration. Each bit corresponds to
the appropriate pin of the PortA register. Set bit enables pull-up for corresponding pin.
Requires
PORT Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Set Port Expander's PORTA pull-up resistors
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortA(0, 0xFF);
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortB
Prototype
void Expander_Set_PullUpsPortB(char ModuleAddress, char Data);
Description
The function sets Port Expander's PortB pull up/down resistors. Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of
this page
- Data: data for choosing pull up/down resistors configuration. Each bit corresponds to
the appropriate pin of the PortB register. Set bit enables pull-up for corresponding pin.
Requires
PORT Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Set Port Expander's PORTB pull-up resistors
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortB(0, 0xFF);
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Expander_Set_PullUpsPortAB
Prototype
void Expander_Set_PullUpsPortAB(char ModuleAddress, unsigned int
PullUps);
Description
The function sets Port Expander's PortA and PortB pull up/down resistors. Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this
page
- PullUps: data for choosing pull up/down resistors configuration. PortA pull up/down
resistors configuration is passed in PullUps's higher byte. PortB pull up/down resistors
configuration is passed in PullUps's lower byte. Each bit corresponds to the appropriate
pin of the PortA/PortB register. Set bit enables pull-up for corresponding pin.
Requires
PORT Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Set Port Expander's PORTA and PORTB pull-up resistors
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortAB(0, 0xFFFF);
Library Example
The example demonstrates how to communicate with Port Expander MCP23S17.
Note that Port Expander pins A2 A1 A0 are connected to GND so Port Expander
Hardware Address is 0.
unsigned int
i;
void main(){
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
TRISB = 0x00;
LATB = 0xFF;
Delay_ms(2000);
Spi1_Init();
// initialize SPI1 module
Expander_Init(0, &PORTF, 0, &PORTF, 1); // initialize port expander
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA(0, 0);
// set expander's porta to be output
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB(0,0xFF);
// set expander's portb to be input
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortB(0,0xFF); // set pull ups to the expander's portb pins
i = 0;
while(1) {
Expander_Write_PortA(0, i++); // write i to expander's porta
LATB = Expander_Read_PortB(0);
// read expander's portb and write it to the LATB register
if(i == 255)
i = 0;
Delay_ms(20);
}
}//~
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Hardware Connection
MCP23S17
1
2
3
GPA7
GPA6
GPB2
GPA5
GPB3
GPA4
GPB4
GPA3
GPB5
GPA2
GPB6
GPA1
GPB7
GPA0
5
6
7
VCC
8
9
10
RF1 11
RF6 12
RF3 13
RF2 14
1
3
5
VDD
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
VCC
21
11
20
INTA
12
19
VSS
CS
INTB
RESET
SCK
A2
SI
A1
SO
A0
13
18 RF0
14
17
16
15
1
3
5
7
7
2
4
6
8
9
10
9
10
PORTB
OSC1
OSC2
RF0
RF1
RF2
RF3
RF6
2
4
6
8
VCC
VCC
GND
dsPIC4013
4
GPB0
GPB1
VCC
30
29
26
25
24
PORTA
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PS/2 Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for communication with
the common PS/2 keyboard.
Note: The library does not utilize interrupts for data retrieval, and requires the
oscillator clock to be at least 6MHz.
Note: The pins to which a PS/2 keyboard is attached should be connected to the
pull-up resistors.
Note: Although PS/2 is a two-way communication bus, this library does not provide MCU-to-keyboard communication; e.g. pressing the Caps Lock key will not
turn on the Caps Lock LED.
Library Routines
Ps2_Init
Ps2_Config
Ps2_Key_Read
Ps2_Init
Prototype
void Ps2_Init(unsigned int *port);
Description
Initializes MCU for work with the PS/2 keyboard with default pin settings (pin 13 is
connected to Data line and pin 14 is connected to Clock line). Parameters :
- port: MCU's port initialized for communication with keyboard
Requires
Both Data and Clock lines need to be in the pull-up mode.
Example
//Initialize PORTC (with default pin settings) for work with the
//PS/2 keyboard
Ps2_Init(&PORTC);
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Ps2_Config
Prototype
void Ps2_Config(unsigned int *port, unsigned int clkpin, unsigned
int datapin);
Description
Initializes the MCU for work with the PS/2 keyboard with custom pin settings.
Parameters :
- port: MCU's port initialized for communication with keyboard
- clkpin: clock signal pin
- datapin: data signal pin
Requires
Both Data and Clock lines need to be in the pull-up mode.
Example
//Initialize PORTB for work with the PS/2 keyboard.
//Pin RB2 is connected to Clock signal. Pin RB3 is connected to
//Data signal.
Ps2_Config(&PORTB, 2, 3);
Ps2_Key_Read
Prototype
unsigned int Ps2_Key_Read(unsigned int *value, unsigned int *special, unsigned int *pressed);
Returns
- 1 if reading of a key from the keyboard was successful
- 0 if no key was pressed
Description
The function retrieves information on key pressed. Parameters :
- value: holds the value of the key pressed. For characters, numerals, punctuation
marks, and space value will store the appropriate ASCII code. Routine “recognizes”
the function of Shift and Caps Lock, and behaves appropriately. For special function
keys see Special Function Keys Table.
- special: is a flag for special function keys (F1, Enter, Esc, etc). If key pressed is one
of these, special will be set to 1, otherwise 0.
- pressed: is set to 1 if the key is pressed, and 0 if it is released.
Requires
PS/2 keyboard needs to be initialized. See Ps2_Init and Ps2_Config routines.
Example
unsigned int value, special, pressed;
...
// Press Enter to continue:
do {
if (Ps2_Key_Read(&value, &special, &pressed)) {
if ((value == 13) && (special == 1)) break;
}
} while (1);
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Special Function Keys
Key
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
F10
F11
F12
Enter
Page Up
Page Down
Backspace
Value Returned
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Key
Insert
Delete
Windows
Ctrl
Shift
Alt
Print Screen
Pause
Caps Lock
End
Home
Scroll Lock
Num Lock
Left Arrow
Right Arrow
Up Arrow
Down Arrow
Escape
Tab
Value Returned
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
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Library Example
This simple example reads values of the pressed keys on the PS/2 keyboard and sends them via
UART.
unsigned int
keydata = 0, special = 0, down = 0;
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
Uart1_Init(9600);
Ps2_Init(&PORTC);
// Init PS/2 Keyboard on PORTC
// pin 13 is connected to Data line
// pin 14 is connected to Clock line
Delay_ms(100);
// Wait for keyboard to finish
Uart1_Write_Char('s'); Uart1_Write_Char('t'); Uart1_Write_Char('a');
Uart1_Write_Char('r'); Uart1_Write_Char('t'); Uart1_Write_Char('!');
do {
if(Ps2_Key_Read(&keydata, &special, &down)) {
if(down && (keydata == 16)) {// Backspace
Uart1_Write_Char(0x08);
}
else if(down && (keydata == 13)) {// Enter
Uart1_Write_Char('r');
// send carriage return to usart terminal
//Uart1_Write_Char('n');
// uncomment this line if usart terminal also expects line feed
// for new line transition
}
else if(down && !special && keydata) {
//Uart1_Write_Char(keydata >> 8);
Uart1_Write_Char(keydata);
}
}
Delay_ms(1);// debounce
} while(1);
}//~
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Hardware Connection
VCC
VCC
11
12
13
1K
+5V
1K
14
VCC
GND
OSC1
OSC2
RC13
DATA
NC
GND
VCC
CLK
NC
RC14
dsPIC4013
VCC
PS2
CONNECTOR
NC
CLK
+5V
NC
DATA
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PWM Library
The CCP module is available with a number of dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCUs.
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library which simplifies using
of the PWM HW Module.
Note: PWM module uses either Timer2 or Timer3 module.
Library Routines
Pwm_Init
Pwm_Set_Duty
Pwm_Start
Pwm_Stop
Pwm_Init
Prototype
unsigned int Pwm_Init( unsigned int freq_hz , unsigned int
enable_channel_x, unsigned int timer_prescale, unsigned int
use_timer_x);
Returns
- 0xFFFF - if timer settings are not valid
- Calculated timer period, otherwise
Description
Initializes the PWM module with duty ratio 0. Parameters :
- freq_hz: PWM frequency in Hz (refer to device datasheet for correct values in
respect with Fosc)
- enable_channel_x: number of PWM channel to be initialized. Refer to MCU's
datasheet for available PWM channels
- timer_prescale: timer prescaler parameter. Valid values: 1, 8, 64, and 256
- use_timer_x: timer to be used with the PWM module.
Valid values: 2 (Timer2) and 3 (Timer3)
Note: number of available PWM channels depends on MCU. Refer to MCU datasheet
for details.
Requires
MCU must have the HW PWM Module.
Example
// Initializes the PWM module at 5KHz, channel 1, no clock
// prescale, timer2 :
unsigned int pwm_period1;
...
pwm_period1 = Pwm_Init(5000, 1, 0, 2);
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Pwm_Set_Duty
Prototype
void Pwm_Set_Duty(unsigned duty, unsigned channel);
Description
The function changes PWM duty ratio. Parameters :
- duty: PWM duty ratio.
Valid values: 0 to timer period returned by the Pwm_Init function.
- channel: number of PWM channel to change duty to.
Note: number of available PWM channels depends on MCU. Refer to MCU datasheet
for details.
Requires
MCU must have the HW PWM Module.
PWM channel must be properly initialized. See Pwm_Init routine.
Example
// Set channel 1 duty ratio to 50%:
unsigned int pwm_period1;
...
Pwm_Set_Duty(pwm_period1/2, 1);
Pwm_Start
Prototype
void Pwm_Start(char enable_channel_x);
Description
Starts PWM at requested channel . Parameters :
- enable_channel_x: number of PWM channel
Note: number of available PWM channels depends on MCU. Refer to MCU datasheet
for details.
Requires
MCU must have the HW PWM Module.
PWM channel must be properly configured. See the Pwm_Init and Pwm_Set_Duty
routines.
Example
// start PWM at channel 1
Pwm_Start(1);
Pwm_Stop
Prototype
void Pwm_Stop(char disable_channel_x);
Description
Stops PWM at requested channel. Parameters :
- disable_channel_x: number of PWM channel
Note: number of available PWM channels depends on MCU. Refer to MCU datasheet
for details.
Requires
MCU must have the HW PWM Module.
Example
// stop PWM at channel 1
Pwm_Stop(1);
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Library Example
The example changes PWM duty ratio on channels 1 and 2 continually. If LEDs
are connected to channels 1 and 2, gradual change of emitted light will be noticeable.
void main() {
unsigned pwm_period1, pwm_period2, i1 = 0, i2 = 0;
pwm_period1 = Pwm_Init(5000, 1, 0, 2);
pwm_period2 = Pwm_Init(10000, 2, 0, 3);
Pwm_Start(1);
Pwm_Start(2);
while(1) {
Pwm_Set_Duty(i1, 1);
Pwm_Set_Duty(i2, 2);
if (i1++ == pwm_period1)
i1 = 0;
if (i2++ == pwm_period2)
i2 = 0;
Delay_ms(1);
}
}//~
Hardware Connection
GND
9
OSC1
10
OSC2
VCC
13
VCC
dsPIC2010
8
RE0
RE1
26
25
1K
1K
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PWM Motor Library
The PWM Motor Control module is available with a number of dsPIC30/33
MCUs. The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library which simplifies
using the PWM Motor Control module.
Library Routines
Pwm_Mc_Init
Pwm_Mc_Set_Duty
Pwm_Mc_Start
Pwm_Mc_Stop
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Pwm_Mc_Init
Prototype
unsigned int Pwm_Mc_Init(unsigned int freq_hz , unsigned int
pair_output_mode, unsigned int enable_output_x, unsigned int
clock_prescale_output_postscale);
Returns
Calculated timer period.
Description
Initializes the Motor Control PWM module with duty ratio 0. The function calculates
timer period, writes it to the MCU's PTPER register and returns it as the function result.
Parameters :
- freq_hz: PWM frequency in Hz (refer to device datasheet for correct values in
respect with Fosc).
- pair_output_mode: output mode for output pin pairs:
1 = independent, 0 = complementary.
if bit_0 is equal to 1 then PWM channels PWM1L and PWM1H will be independent,
if bit_1 is equal to 0 then PWM channels PWM2L and PWM2H will be complementary
...
- enable_output_x: bits <7..0> are enabling corresponding PWM channels
[PWM4H.PWM3H.PWM2H.PWM1H.PWM4L.PWM3L.PWM2L.PWM1L].
If bit value is equal to 0 then corresponding PWM channel is disabled
(pin is standard I/O).
If bit value is equal to 1 then corresponding PWM channel is enabled
(pin is PWM output).
For detalied explanation consult the "Motor Control PWM Module" section in device
datasheet.
- clock_prescale_output_postscale: PWM clock prescaler/postscaler settings.
Values <0..3> <0..15> correspond to prescaler/postscaler < 1:1, 1:4, 1:16,
1:64> <1:1, 1:2, ..., 1:16>
Note: number of available PWM channels depends on MCU. Refer to MCU datasheet
for details.
Requires
The dsPIC30/33 MCU must have the Motor Control PWM module.
Example
/*Initializes the PWM module at 5KHz, complementary pin-pair output, output enabled on pins 4l..1l, no clock prescale and no
clock postscale:*/
unsigned int duty_50;
...
Pwm_Mc_Init(5000, 1, 0x0F, 0);
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Pwm_Mc_Set_Duty
Prototype
void Pwm_Mc_Set_Duty(unsigned duty, unsigned channel);
Description
The function changes PWM duty ratio. Parameters :
- duty: PWM duty ratio. Valid values: 0 to timer period returned by the Pwm_Mc_Init
function.
- channel: number of PWM channel to change duty to.
Note: number of available PWM channels depends on MCU. Refer to MCU datasheet
for details.
Requires
The dsPIC30/33 MCU must have the Motor Control PWM module.
The PWM module needs to be initalized. See the Pwm_Mc_Init function.
Example
//Set duty ratio to 50% at channel 1:
Pwm_Mc_Init(5000,1,0xF,0);
Pwm_Mc_Set_Duty(32767, 1);
Pwm_Mc_Start
Prototype
void Pwm_Mc_Start(void);
Description
Starts the Motor Control PWM module (channels initialized in the Pwm_Mc_Init function).
Note: number of available PWM channels depends on MCU. Refer to MCU datasheet
for details.
Requires
The dsPIC30/33 MCU must have the Motor Control PWM module.
The PWM module needs to be initalized. See the Pwm_Mc_Init function.
Example
// start the Motor Control PWM module
Pwm_Mc_Start();
Pwm_Mc_Stop
Prototype
void Pwm_Mc_Stop(void);
Description
Stops the Motor Control PWM module.
Requires
The dsPIC30/33 MCU must have the Motor Control PWM module.
Example
// stop the Motor Control PWM module
Pwm_Mc_Stop();
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Library Example
The example changes PWM duty ratio on channel 1 continually. If LED is connected to the channel 1, a gradual change of emitted light will be noticeable.
unsigned int i;
unsigned int duty_50;
void main(){
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
PORTB = 0xAAAA;
TRISB = 0;
Delay_ms(1000);
duty_50 = Pwm_Mc_Init(5000,1,0x01,0);
// Pwm_Mc_Init returns 50% of the duty
Pwm_Mc_Set_Duty(i = duty_50,1);
Pwm_Mc_Start();
do
{
i--;
Pwm_Mc_Set_Duty(i,1);
Delay_ms(1);
if (i == 0)
i = duty_50 * 2 - 1;
// Let us not allow overflow
PORTB = i;
}
while(1);
}//~
Hardware Connection
GND
9
OSC1
10
OSC2
VCC
13
VCC
dsPIC2010
8
RE0
RE1
26
25
1K
1K
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RS-485 Library
RS-485 is a multipoint communication which allows multiple devices to be connected to a single bus. The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a set of
library routines for comfortable work with RS485 system using Master/Slave
architecture. Master and Slave devices interchange packets of information. Each of
these packets contains synchronization bytes, CRC byte, address byte and the data.
Each Slave has unique address and receives only packets addressed to it. The
Slave can never initiate communication.
It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that only one device transmits via 485 bus
at a time.
The RS-485 routines require the UART module. Pins of UART need to be attached
to RS-485 interface transceiver, such as LTC485 or similar (see schematic at the
bottom of this page).
Library constants: START byte value = 150. STOP byte value = 169. Address
50 is the broadcast address for all Slaves (packets containing address 50 will be
received by all Slaves except the Slaves with addresses 150 and 169).
Note: The library uses the UART module for communication. The user must initialize the appropriate UART module before using the RS-485 Library. For MCUs
with two UART modules it is possible to initialize both of them and then switch
by using the Uart_Set_Active function. See the Uart Library functions.
Library Routines
RS485Master_Init
RS485Master_Receive
RS485Master_Send
RS485Slave_Init
RS485Slave_Receive
RS485Slave_Send
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RS485Master_Init
Prototype
void Rs485master_Init(unsigned int *port, unsigned int pin);
Description
Initializes MCU as a Master for RS-485 communication. Parameters :
- port: RE/DE port address
- pin: RE/DE pin. This pin is connected to RE/DE input of RS-485 transceiver(see
schematic at the bottom of this page). RE/DE signal controls RS-485 transceiver
operation mode. Valid values: 1 (for Transmitting) and 0 (for receiving).
Requires
UART HW module needs to be initialized. See Uart_Init.
Example
// intialize mcu as a Master for RS-485 communication
Rs485master_Init(&PORTF, 4);
RS485Master_Receive
Prototype
void RS485Master_Receive(unsigned short *data);
Description
Receives messages from Slaves. Messages are multi-byte, so this routine must be called
for each byte received. Parameters :
- data: 7 byte buffer for storing received data.
Data will be stored in the following manner:
- data[0..2]: message content
- data[3]: number of message bytes received, 1–3
- data[4]: is set to 255 when message is received
- data[5]: is set to 255 if error has occurred
- data[6]: address of the Slave which sent the message
The function automatically adjusts data[4] and data[5] upon every received message. These flags need to be cleared by software.
Requires
MCU must be initialized as a Master for RS-485 communication.
See RS485Master_Init.
Example
char msg[8];
...
RS485Master_Receive(msg);
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RS485Master_Send
Prototype
void RS485Master_Send(unsigned short *data, unsigned short datalen, unsigned short address);
Description
Sends message to Slave(s). Message format can be found at the bottom of this page.
Parameters :
- data: data to be sent
- datalen: number of bytes for transmition. Valid values: 0 to 3.
- address: Slave(s) address
Requires
MCU must be initialized as a Master for RS-485 communication.
See RS485Master_Init.
It is the user’s responsibility to ensure (by protocol) that only one device sends data via
485 bus at a time.
Example
char msg[8];
...
// send 3 bytes of data to slave with address 0x12
RS485Master_Send(msg, 3, 0x12);
RS485Slave_Init
Prototype
void Rs485Slave_Init(unsigned int *port, unsigned int pin, char
address);
Description
Initializes MCU as a Slave for RS-485 communication. Parameters :
- port: RE/DE port address
- pin: RE/DE pin. This pin is connected to RE/DE input of RS-485 transceiver(see
schematic at the bottom of this page). RE/DE signal controls RS-485 transceiver
operation mode. Valid values: 1 (for Transmitting) and 0 (for receiving).
- address: Slave address.
Requires
UART HW module needs to be initialized. See Uart_Init.
Example
// intialize mcu as a Slave for RS-485 with address 160
Rs485slave_Init(&PORTF, 4, 160);
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RS485Slave_Receive
Prototype
void RS485Slave_Receive(unsigned short *data);
Description
Receives messages from Master. If Slave address and Message address field don't match
then the message will be discarded. Messages are multi-byte, so this routine must be
called for each byte received. Parameters :
- data: 6 byte buffer for storing received data.
Data will be stored in the following manner:
- data[0..2]: message content
- data[3]: number of message bytes received, 1–3
- data[4]: is set to 255 when message is received
- data[5]: is set to 255 if error has occurred
The function automatically adjusts data[4] and data[5] upon every received message. These flags need to be cleared by software.
Requires
MCU must be initialized as a Slave for RS-485 communication. See
RS485Slave_Init.
Example
char msg[8];
...
RS485Slave_Read(msg);
RS485Slave_Send
Prototype
void RS485Slave_Send(unsigned short *data, unsigned short datalen);
Description
Sends message to Master. Message format can be found at the bottom of this page.
Parameters :
- data: data to be sent
- datalen: number of bytes for transmition. Valid values: 0 to 3.
Requires
MCU must be initialized as a Slave for RS-485 communication. See
RS485Slave_Init. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure (by protocol) that only one
device sends data via 485 bus at a time.
Example
char msg[8];
...
// send 2 bytes of data to the master
RS485Slave_Send(msg, 2);
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Library Example
The example demonstrates working with the dsPIC as a Master node in RS-485 communication.
Master sends message to Slave with address 160 and waits for a response. After the response is
received, the first byte of received data is incremented and sent back to the Slave. The received
data is displayed on PORTB while error on receiving (0xAA) and number of consecutive unsuccessful retries are displayed on PORTD. Hardware configurations in this example are made for the
EasydsPIC3 board and dsPIC30F4013.
char dat[10];
int i,j;
long you = 0;
// buffer for receving/sending messages
//-------------- Interrupt routine
void interrupt_uart() org 0x26 {
Rs485master_Receive(dat);
IFS0bits.U1RXIF = 0;
}//~!~
//ensure interrupt not pending
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
PORTB = 0;
TRISB = 0;
PORTD = 0;
TRISD = 0;
Uart1_Init(9600);
Rs485master_Init(&PORTF, 4);
dat[0] = 0xAa;
dat[1] = 0xF0;
dat[2] = 0x0F;
dat[5] = 0;
dat[6] = 0;
Rs485master_Send(dat,1,160);
dat[4] = 0;
dat[5] = 0;
U1STAbits.URXISEL = 0;
INTCON1bits.NSTDIS = 1;
IFS0bits.U1RXIF = 0;
IEC0bits.U1RXIE = 1;
// intialize mcu as a master
// ensure that message received flag is 0
// ensure that error flag is 0
//no nesting of interrupts
//ensure interrupt not pending
//enable intterupt
// continues ...
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// continued ...
while (1){
// upon completed valid message receiving
//
data[4] is set to 255
you++;
if (dat[5]) {
// if error detected, signal it by
PORTD = 0xAA;
//
setting PORTD to 0xAA
}
if (dat[4]) {
// if message received successfully
you = 0;
dat[4] = 0;
//
clear message received flag
j = dat[3];
for (i = 1; i <= j; i++) {
PORTB = dat[i-1]; // show data on PORTB
}
// increment received dat[0]
dat[0] = dat[0]+1;
//
and send it to slave
Delay_ms(10);
Rs485master_Send(dat,1,160);
}
if (you > 100000) { // if in 100000 poll-cycles the answer
PORTD++;
//
was not detected, signal
you = 0;
//
failure of send-message
Rs485master_Send(dat,1,160);
if (PORTD > 10) { // if sending failed 10 times
PORTD = 0;
Rs485master_Send(dat,1,50);
// send message on broadcast address
}
}
}
}//~!
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Hardware Connection
Shielded pair
no longer than 300m
11
56R
VCC
12
4K7
13
14
1
2
3
R0
Vcc
RE
B
DE
4
DI
8
7
VCC
GND
OSC1
OSC2
dsPIC4013
VCC
56R
6
RF0
RF2
RF3
30
26
25
A
GND
5
4K7
LTC485
VCC
56R
4K7
1
2
3
4
R0
Vcc
RE
B
DE
A
DI
GND
56R
8
7
6
5
4K7
LTC485
4.7uF +
+
V+
C1C2+
+
C2-
4.7uF
VT2out
R2in
+
MAX232
C1+
4.7uF
Vcc
GND
T1 OUT
R1IN
PC
R1out
T1in
T2in
R2out
RTS
GND
4.7uF
TX
RX
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Software I2C Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides routines for implementing
Software I²C communication. These routines are hardware independent and can be
used with any MCU. The Software I²C library enables you to use MCU as Master
in I²C communication. Multi-master mode is not supported.
Note: This library implements time-based activities, so interrupts need to be disabled when using Software I²C.
Note: All I²C Library functions are blocking-call functions (they are waiting for
I²C clock line to become logical one).
Library Routines
Soft_I2C_Init
Soft_I2C_Start
Soft_I2C_Read
Soft_I2C_Write
Soft_I2C_Stop
Note: Every hardware I²C library function has its own counterpart in this software
library, except I2C_Repeated_Start. Soft_I2C_Start is used instead of
I2C_Repeated_Start.
Soft_I2C_Init
Prototype
void Soft_I2C_Init(unsigned int *portOut, int sda, int clk);
Description
Configures the software I²C module. Parameters :
- portOut: software I²C port address
- sda: serial data line pin
- clk: serial clock line pin
Example
// Initialize Software I2C communication on pins RB1(sda) and
// RB2(clk)
Soft_I2C_Init(&PORTB, 1, 2);
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Soft_I2C_Start
Prototype
void Soft_I2C_Start(void);
Description
Determines if the I²C bus is free and issues START signal.
Requires
Software I²C must be configured before using this function. See Soft_I2C_Init routine.
Example
// Issue START signal
Soft_I2C_Start();
Soft_I2C_Read
Prototype
unsigned short Soft_I2C_Read(unsigned int ack);
Returns
One byte from the Slave.
Description
Reads one byte from the slave.
Parameters :
- ack: acknowledge signal parameter. If the ack==0 not acknowledge signal will be sent
after reading, otherwise the acknowledge signal will be sent.
Requires
Soft I²C must be configured before using this function. See Soft_I2C_Init routine.
Also, START signal needs to be issued in order to use this function.
See Soft_I2C_Start routine.
Example
unsigned short take;
...
// Read data and send the not_acknowledge signal
take = Soft_I2C_Read(0);
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Soft_I2C_Write
Prototype
unsigned short Soft_I2C_Write(unsigned short Data);
Returns
- 0 if there were no errors.
- 1 if write collision was detected on the I²C bus.
Description
Sends data byte via the I²C bus. Parameters :
- Data: data to be sent
Requires
Soft I²C must be configured before using this function. See Soft_I2C_Init routine.
Also, START signal needs to be issued in order to use this function. See
Soft_I2C_Start routine.
Example
unsigned short data, error;
...
error = Soft_I2C_Write(data);
error = Soft_I2C_Write(0xA3);
Soft_I2C_Stop
Prototype
void Soft_I2C_Stop(void);
Description
Issues STOP signal.
Requires
Soft I²C must be configured before using this function. See Soft_I2C_Init routine.
Example
// Issue STOP signal
Soft_I2C_Stop();
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Library Example
The example demonstrates use of the Software I²C Library. The dsPIC30/33 or
PIC24 MCU is connected (SCL, SDA pins) to PCF8583 RTC (real-time clock).
Program sends date/time to RTC.
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
Soft_I2C_Init(&PORTB, 4,
// Initialize Software I2C
Soft_I2C_Start();
Soft_I2C_Write(0xA0);
Soft_I2C_Write(0);
Soft_I2C_Write(0x80);
Soft_I2C_Write(0);
Soft_I2C_Write(0);
Soft_I2C_Write(0x30);
Soft_I2C_Write(0x11);
Soft_I2C_Write(0x30);
Soft_I2C_Write(0x08);
Soft_I2C_Stop();
Soft_I2C_Start();
Soft_I2C_Write(0xA0);
Soft_I2C_Write(0);
Soft_I2C_Write(0);
Soft_I2C_Stop();
3);
communication (full master mode) on pins RB4 and RB3
// Issue start signal
// Address PCF8583
// Start from word at address 0 (configuration word)
// Write 0x80 to config. (pause counter...)
// Write 0 to cents word
// Write 0 to seconds word
// Write 0x30 to minutes word
// Write 0x11 to hours word
// Write 0x24 to year/date word
// Write 0x08 to weekday/month
// Issue stop signal
//
//
//
//
//
Issue start signal
Address PCF8583
Start from word at address 0
Write 0 to config word (enable counting)
Issue stop signal
}//~!
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Software SPI Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides routines for implementing
Software SPI communication. These routines are hardware independent and can be
used with any MCU. The Software SPI Library provides easy communication with
other devices via SPI: A/D converters, D/A converters, MAX7219, LTC1290, etc.
The library configures SPI to the master mode, clock = 20kHz, data sampled at the
middle of interval, clock idle state low and data transmitted at low to high edge.
Note: The Software SPI library implements time-based activities, so interrupts
need to be disabled when using it.
Library Routines
Soft_Spi_Config
Soft_Spi_Init
Soft_Spi_Read
Soft_Spi_Write
Soft_Spi_Config
Prototype
void Soft_Spi_Config(unsigned int *port, const unsigned short
SDI, const unsigned short SD0, const unsigned short SCK);
Description
Configures and initializes the software SPI module. Parameters :
- portOut: software SPI port address
- SDI: serial data input line pin
- SD0: serial data output line pin
- SCK: serial clock line pin
Example
// Initialize Software SPI communication on pins RB4(SDI),
// RB5(SDO) and RB3(SCK)
Soft_Spi_Config(&PORTB, 4, 5, 3);
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Soft_Spi_Read
Prototype
void Soft_Spi_Init(unsigned int *port);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Configures and initializes the software SPI module.
Parameters :
- port: software SPI port address
SPI pinout is fixed to : SDI=pin4, SDO=pin5 and SCK=pin3.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
// Initialize Software SPI communication on PORTB with default
// pinout( pin4(SDI), pin5(SDO) and pin3(SCK) )
Soft_Spi_Init(&PORTB);
Soft_Spi_Read
Prototype
unsigned short Soft_Spi_Read(char data);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This routine performs 3 operations simultaneously. It provides clock for the Software
SPI bus, reads a byte and sends a byte. Parameters :
- data: data to be sent.
Requires
Soft SPI must be initialized before using this function. See Soft_Spi_Config and
Soft_Spi_Init routines.
Example
unsigned short data_read;
char data_send;
...
// Read a byte and assign it to data_read variable
// (data_send byte will be sent via SPI during the Read opera
// tion)
data_read = Soft_Spi_Read(data_send);
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Soft_Spi_Write
Prototype
void Soft_Spi_Write(char data);
Description
This routine sends one byte via the Software SPI bus. Parameters :
- data: data to be sent.
Requires
Soft SPI must be initialized before using this function. See Soft_Spi_Config and
Soft_Spi_Init routines.
Example
// Write a byte to the Soft SPI bus
Soft_Spi_Write(0xAA);
Library Example
This code demonstrates using library routines for Soft_SPI communication. Also,
this example demonstrates working with max7219. Eight 7 segment displays are
connected to MAX7219. MAX7219 is connected to SDO, SDI, SCKL pins are
connected accordingly.
//MAX 7219 chip_util Library
//Defines------------#define CHIP_SELECT F1
//---------end-defines
void max7219_init1() {
PORTB.CHIP_SELECT = 0;
Soft_SPI_Write(0x09);
Soft_Spi_Write(0xFF);
PORTB.CHIP_SELECT = 1;
PORTB.CHIP_SELECT = 0;
Soft_Spi_Write(0x0A);
Soft_Spi_Write(0x0F);
PORTB.CHIP_SELECT = 1;
PORTB.CHIP_SELECT = 0;
Soft_Spi_Write(0x0B);
Soft_Spi_Write(0x07);
PORTB.CHIP_SELECT = 1;
// SELECT MAX
// BCD mode for digit decoding
// DESELECT MAX
// SELECT MAX
// Segment luminosity intensity
// DESELECT MAX
// SELECT MAX
// Display refresh
// DESELECT MAX
// continues ...
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// continues ...
PORTB.CHIP_SELECT = 0;
Soft_Spi_Write(0x0C);
Soft_Spi_Write(0x01);
PORTB.CHIP_SELECT = 1;
// SELECT MAX
// Turn on the display
// DESELECT MAX
PORTB.CHIP_SELECT = 0;
Soft_Spi_Write(0x00);
Soft_Spi_Write(0xFF);
PORTB.CHIP_SELECT = 1;
// SELECT MAX
// No test
// DESELECT MAX
}
unsigned int i;
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
TRISB.CHIP_SELECT = 0;
Delay_ms(100);
Soft_Spi_Init(&PORTB);
// Soft_Spi_Config(&PORTB, 4,5,3);
// configure individual pins
max7219_init1();
for (i = 1; i<=8u; i++) {
PORTB.CHIP_SELECT = 0;
Soft_Spi_Write(i);
Soft_Spi_Write(8-i);
PORTB.CHIP_SELECT = 1;
}
//
//
//
//
// standard configuration
select max7219
send i to max7219 (digit place)
send i to max7219 (digit)
deselect max7219
}//~!
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Software UART Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides routines for implementing
Software UART communication. These routines are hardware independent and can
be used with any MCU. The Software UART Library provides easy communication with other devices via the RS232 protocol.
Note: The Software UART library implements time-based activities, so interrupts
need to be disabled when using it.
Library Routines
Soft_Uart_Init
Soft_Uart_Read
Soft_Uart_Write
Soft_Uart_Init
Prototype
unsigned Soft_Uart_Init(unsigned int *port, unsigned int rx,
unsigned int tx, unsigned long baud_rate, unsigned int inverted);
Description
Configures and initializes the software UART module. Parameters :
- port: software UART port address
- rx: receiver pin
- tx: transmiter pin
- baud_rate: requested baudrate. Maximum baud rate depends on the MCU’s clock
and working conditions
- inverted: if set to non-zero value, indicates inverted logic on output
Example
// Initialize Software UART communication on pins RB1(Rx),
// RB2(Tx), at 9600 bps
Soft_Uart_Init(&PORTB, 1, 2, 9600, 0);
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Soft_Uart_Read
Prototype
char Soft_Uart_Read(int *error);
Returns
Byte received via UART.
Description
The function receives a byte via software UART. This is a blocking function call (waits
for start bit). Parameters :
- error: error parameter will be zero if the transfer was successful
Requires
Software UART must be initialized before using this function. See the Soft_Uart_Init
routine.
Example
char data;
int error;
...
// wait until data is received
do
data = Soft_Uart_Read(&error);
while (error);
// Now we can work with data:
if (data) {...}
Soft_Uart_Write
Prototype
void Soft_Uart_Write(char data);
Description
This routine sends one byte via the Software UART bus. Parameters :
- data: data to be sent.
Requires
Software UART must be initialized before using this function. See the Soft_Uart_Init
routine.
Be aware that during transmission, software UART is incapable of receiving data – data
transfer protocol must be set in such a way to prevent loss of information.
Example
char some_byte = 0x0A;
...
// Write a byte via Soft Uart
Soft_Uart_Write(some_byte);
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Library Example
This example demonstrates simple data exchange via software UART. If MCU is
connected to the PC, you can test the example from the mikroC for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 USART communication terminal, launch it from the drop-down
menu Tools › USART Terminal or simply click the USART Terminal Icon.
void main() {
char *txt = "mikroe";
int i = 0;
int error;
// Initialize Software Uart communication
Soft_Uart_Init(&PORTF, 2,3, 56000, 0);
// Write text to Software Uart
while(txt[i]){
Soft_Uart_Write(txt[i++]);
}
// Receive byte and send it back via Software Uart
while (1){
i = Soft_Uart_Read(&error);
if (!error)
Soft_Uart_Write(i);
else
Soft_Uart_Write('e'),Soft_Uart_Write(i);
}
}//~!
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Sound Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a Sound Library to supply users
with routines necessary for sound signalization in their applications. Sound generation needs additional hardware, such as piezo-speaker (example of piezo-speaker
interface is given on the schematic at the bottom of this page).
Library Routines
Sound_Init
Sound_Play
Sound_Init
Prototype
void Sound_Init(unsigned *snd_port, unsigned snd_pin);
Description
Configures the appropriate MCU pin for sound generation. Parameters :
- snd_port: sound output port address
- snd_pin: sound output pin
Example
// Initialize the pin RB2 for playing sound
Sound_Init(&PORTB, 2);
Sound_Play
Prototype
void Sound_Play(unsigned freq_in_hz, unsigned duration_ms);
Description
Generates the square wave signal on the appropriate pin. Parameters :
- freq_in_hz: signal frequency in Hertz (Hz)
- duration_ms: signal duration in miliseconds (ms)
Requires
In order to hear the sound, you need a piezo speaker (or other hardware) on designated
port. Also, you must call Sound_Init to prepare hardware for output before using this
function.
Example
// Play sound of 1KHz in duration of 100ms
Sound_Play(1000, 100);
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Library Example
The example is a simple demonstration of how to use the Sound Library for playing tones on a piezo speaker.
void Tone1() {
Sound_Play(500, 200); // Period = 2ms <=> 500Hz, Duration = 200ms
}//~
void Tone2() {
Sound_Play(555, 200); // Period = 1.8ms <=> 555Hz
}//~
void Tone3() {
Sound_Play(625, 200); // Period = 1.6ms <=> 625Hz
}//~
void Melody() {
// Plays the melody "Yellow house"
Tone1(); Tone2(); Tone3(); Tone3();
Tone1(); Tone2(); Tone3(); Tone3();
Tone1(); Tone2(); Tone3();
Tone1(); Tone2(); Tone3(); Tone3();
Tone1(); Tone2(); Tone3();
Tone3(); Tone3(); Tone2(); Tone2(); Tone1();
}//~
void ToneA() {
Sound_Play(1250, 20);
}
void ToneC() {
Sound_Play(1450, 20);
}
void ToneE() {
Sound_Play(1650, 80);
}
void Melody2() {
unsigned short i;
for (i = 9; i > 0; i--) {
ToneA(); ToneC(); ToneE();
}
}//~
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
TRISB = 0x1F;
// initialize AN pins as digital
Sound_Init(&PORTF, 3);
Sound_Play(2000, 100);
// continues ...
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// continued ...
while (1) {
if (Button(&PORTB,4,1,1))
Tone1();
while (PORTB & 0x10) ;
// endless loop
// RB4 plays Tone1
// Wait for button to be released
if (Button(&PORTB,3,1,1))
Tone2();
while (PORTB & 0x08) ;
// RB3 plays Tone2
// Wait for button to be released
if (Button(&PORTB,2,1,1))
Tone3();
while (PORTB & 0x04) ;
// RB2 plays Tone3
if (Button(&PORTB,1,1,1))
Melody2();
while (PORTB & 0x02) ;
// RB1 plays Melody2
if (Button(&PORTB,0,1,1))
Melody();
while (PORTB & 0x01) ;
// RB0 plays Melody
// Wait for button to be released
// Wait for button to be released
}
}//~!
Hardware Connection
300R
PIEZO
SPEAKER
RB4
2
RB4
4
3
5
6
RB6
RB1
RB2
RB3
RB4
RB5
RB6
RB7
RB7
VCC
11
12
13
VCC
14
VCC
GND
OSC1
OSC2
dsPIC4013
RB5
RB0
RF3
25
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SPI Library
The SPI module is available with all dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCUs. The mikroC
for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for initializing the Slave mode and
initializing and comfortable work with the Master mode. The dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24 can easily communicate with other devices via SPI: A/D converters, D/A
converters, MAX7219, LTC1290, etc.
Note: For the dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCUs with the multiple SPI modules there
are SPI1 (supports SPI1 module), SPI2 (supports SPI2 module) and SPI (supports
both SPI modules) libraries. Switching between the SPI modules in the SPI library
is done by the Spi_Set_Active function (both SPI modules have to be previously
initialized).
Library Routines
Spi1_Init
Spi1_Init_Advanced
Spi1_Read
Spi1_Write
Spi2_Init
Spi2_Init_Advanced
Spi2_Read
Spi2_Write
Spi_Init
Spi_Init_Advanced
Spi_Read
Spi_Write
Spi_Set_Active
Spi1_Init
Prototype
void Spi1_Init(void);
Description
Configures and initializes the SPI1 module with default settings. Default settings:
- Master mode
- 8-bit data mode
- secondary prescaler 1:1
- primary prescaler 64:1
- Slave Select disabled
- input data sampled in the middle of interval
- clock idle state low
- Serial output data changes on transition from active clock state to idle clock state
Requires
MCU must have the SPI1 module.
Example
// Initialize the SPI1 module with default settings
Spi1_Init();
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Spi1_Init_Advanced
Prototype
void Spi1_Init_Advanced(unsigned master_mode, unsigned mode16,
unsigned sec_prescaler, unsigned pri_prescaler, unsigned
slave_select, unsigned data_sample, unsigned clock_idle, unsigned
edge);
Description
Configures and initializes the SPI1 module.
The parameter master_mode determines the working mode for SPI1. It can have the
following values:
//--- Master/Slave mode, SPI1CON1<5>
_SPI_MASTER
= 0x0020,
_SPI_SLAVE
= 0x0000,
// Master mode
// Slave mode
The parameter mode16 determines the data length mode, which can be 8-bits (per transmitions cycle) or 16-bits. It is being configured as follows:
//--- data length select, SPI1CON1<10>
_SPI_16_BIT
= 0x0400, // 16-bit mode
_SPI_8_BIT
= 0x0000, // 8-bit mode
The parameter sec_prescaler determines the value of the secondary SPI clock prescaler.
This parameter is used only in the Master Mode. Valid settings are:
//--- secondary prescale (Master mode),
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1
= 0x001C, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_2
= 0x0018, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_3
= 0x0014, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_4
= 0x0010, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_5
= 0x000C, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_6
= 0x0008, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_7
= 0x0004, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_8
= 0x0000, //
SPI1CON1<4:2>
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
1:1
2:1
3:1
4:1
5:1
6:1
7:1
8:1
The parameter pri_prescaler determines the value of the primary SPI clock prescaler.
This parameter is used only in the Master Mode. Valid settings are:
//--- primary prescale (Master mode),
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_1
= 0x0003,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_4
= 0x0002,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_16
= 0x0001,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_64
= 0x0000,
SPI1CON1<1:0>
// primary prescale
// primary prescale
// primary prescale
// primary prescale
1:1
4:1
16:1
64:1
The parameter slave_select determines whether the Slave Select (SS) pin is used in communication. This parameter is valid in the Slave Mode only.
//continues on the next page ...
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//continued from the previous page ...
It can be:
//--- Slave select enable bit (Slave Mode), SPI1CON1<7>
_SPI_SS_ENABLE = 0x0080, // SS used for the Slave mode
_SPI_SS_DISABLE = 0x0000, // SS not used for the Slave mode
The parameter data_sample determines the sample moment (phase) of input data. It can
be:
//--- SPI data input sample phase, SPI1CON1<9>
_SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE = 0x0000,
// data sampled in the middle of data output time
_SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_END = 0x2000,
// data sampled at end of data output time
The parameter clock_idle determines the behaviour of the SPI clock (CLK) line in
IDLE phase:
//--- Clock Polarity
_SPI_CLK_IDLE_LOW =
// IDLE state is Lo,
_SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH =
// IDLE state is Hi,
Select bit, SPI1CON1<6>
0x0000,
ACTIVE state is Hi
0x0040,
ACTIVE state is Lo
The parameter edge determines on which clock edge data is considered to be valid.
Possible settings are:
//--- Clock EDGE select bit (where output data is valid),
// SPI1CON1<8>
_SPI_ACTIVE_2_IDLE
= 0x0000,
// data is valid on ACTIVE-to-IDLE transition
// (data changes on IDLE-to-ACTIVE transition)
_SPI_IDLE_2_ACTIVE
= 0x0100;
// data is valid on IDLE-to-ACTIVE transition
// (data changes on ACTIVE-to-IDLE transition)
Requires
MCU must have the SPI1 module.
Example
/* Set SPI1 to the Master Mode, data length is 16-bit, clock =
Fcy (no clock scaling), data sampled in the middle of interval,
clock IDLE state high and data transmitted at low to high clock
edge:*/
Spi1_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_16_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_1, _SPI_SS_DISABLE, _SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE,
_SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH, _SPI_ACTIVE_2_IDLE);
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Spi1_Read
Prototype
unsigned Spi1_Read(unsigned data_out);
Returns
Received data.
Description
Reads one word or byte (depending on mode set by init routines) from the SPI bus.
Parameters :
- data_out: dummy data for clock generation (see device Datasheet for SPI module
implementation details).
Requires
MCU must have the SPI1 module.
SPI1 must be initialized before using this function.
See the Spi1_Init_Advanced and Spi1_Init routines.
Example
// read a byte from the SPI bus
char take, buffer;
...
take = Spi1_Read(buffer);
Spi1_Write
Prototype
void Spi1_Write(unsigned data_out);
Description
Writes one word or byte (depending on mode set by init routines) via the SPI bus.
Parameters :
- data_out: data to be sent
Requires
MCU must have the SPI1 module.
SPI1 must be initialized before using this function.
See the Spi1_Init_Advanced and Spi1_Init routines.
Example
// write a byte to the SPI bus
char buffer;
...
Spi1_Write(buffer);
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Spi2_Init
Prototype
void Spi2_Init(void);
Description
Configures and initializes the SPI2 module with default settings. Default settings:
- Master mode
- 8-bit data mode
- Serial output data changes on transition from active clock state to Idle clock state
secondary prescaler 1:1
- primary prescaler 64:1
- Slave Select disabled
- input data sampled in the middle of interval
- clock idle state low
- Serial output data changes on transition from active clock state to idle clock state
Requires
MCU must have the SPI2 module.
Example
// Initialize the SPI2 module with default settings
Spi2_Init();
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Spi2_Init_Advanced
Prototype
void Spi2_Init_Advanced(unsigned master_mode, unsigned mode16,
unsigned sec_prescaler, unsigned pri_prescaler, unsigned
slave_select, unsigned data_sample, unsigned clock_idle, unsigned
edge);
Description
Configures and initializes the SPI2 module.
The parameter master_mode determines the working mode for SPI2. It can have the following values:
//--- Master/Slave mode, SPI2CON1<5>
_SPI_MASTER
= 0x0020,
_SPI_SLAVE
= 0x0000,
// Master mode
// Slave mode
The parameter mode16 determines the data length mode, which can be 8-bits (per transmitions cycle) or 16-bits. It is being configured as follows:
//--- data length select, SPI2CON1<10>
_SPI_16_BIT
= 0x0400, // 16-bit mode
_SPI_8_BIT
= 0x0000, // 8-bit mode
The parameter sec_prescaler determines the value of the secondary SPI clock prescaler.
This parameter is used only in the Master Mode. Valid settings are:
//--- secondary prescale (Master mode),
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1
= 0x001C, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_2
= 0x0018, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_3
= 0x0014, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_4
= 0x0010, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_5
= 0x000C, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_6
= 0x0008, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_7
= 0x0004, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_8
= 0x0000, //
SPI2CON1<4:2>
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
1:1
2:1
3:1
4:1
5:1
6:1
7:1
8:1
The parameter pri_prescaler determines the value of the primary SPI clock prescaler.
This parameter is used only in the Master Mode. Valid settings are:
//--- primary prescale (Master mode),
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_1
= 0x0003,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_4
= 0x0002,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_16
= 0x0001,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_64
= 0x0000,
SPI2CON1<1:0>
// primary prescale
// primary prescale
// primary prescale
// primary prescale
1:1
4:1
16:1
64:1
The parameter slave_select determines whether the Slave Select (SS) pin is used in communication. This parameter is valid in the Slave Mode only.
//continues on the next page ...
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//continued from the previous page ...
It can be:
//--- Slave select enable bit (Slave Mode), SPI2CON1<7>
_SPI_SS_ENABLE = 0x0080, // SS used for the Slave mode
_SPI_SS_DISABLE = 0x0000, // SS not used for the Slave mode
The parameter data_sample determines the sample moment (phase) of input data. It can
be:
//--- SPI data input sample phase, SPI2CON1<9>
_SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE
= 0x0000,
// data sampled in the middle of data output time
_SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_END
= 0x2000,
// data sampled at end of data output time
The parameter clock_idle determines the behaviour of the SPI clock (CLK) line in IDLE
phase:
//--- Clock Polarity
_SPI_CLK_IDLE_LOW =
// IDLE state is Lo,
_SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH =
// IDLE state is Hi,
Select bit, SPI2CON1<6>
0x0000,
ACTIVE state is Hi
0x0040,
ACTIVE state is Lo
The parameter edge determines on which clock edge data is considered to be valid.
Possible settings are:
// Clock EDGE select bit (where output data is valid),
// SPI2CON1<8>
_SPI_ACTIVE_2_IDLE
= 0x0000,
// data is valid on ACTIVE-to-IDLE transition
// (data changes on IDLE-to-ACTIVE transition)
_SPI_IDLE_2_ACTIVE
= 0x0100;
// data is valid on IDLE-to-ACTIVE transition
// (data changes on ACTIVE-to-IDLE transition)
Requires
MCU must have the SPI2 module.
Example
/*Set SPI2 to the Master Mode, data length is 16-bit, clock = Fcy
(no clock scaling), data sampled in the middle of interval, clock
IDLE state high and data transmitted at low to high clock edge:*/
Spi2_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_16_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_1, _SPI_SS_DISABLE, _SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE,
_SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH, _SPI_ACTIVE_2_IDLE);
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Spi2_Read
Prototype
unsigned Spi2_Read(unsigned data_out);
Returns
Received data.
Description
Reads one word or byte (depending on mode set by init routines) from the SPI bus.
Parameters :
- data_out: dummy data for clock generation (see device Datasheet for SPI module
implementation details).
Requires
MCU must have the SPI2 module.
SPI2 must be initialized before using this function.
See the Spi2_Init_Advanced and Spi2_Init routines.
Example
// read a byte from the SPI bus
char take, buffer;
...
take = Spi2_Read(buffer);
Spi2_Write
Prototype
void Spi2_Write(unsigned data_out);
Description
Writes one word or byte (depending on mode set by init routines) via the SPI bus.
Parameters :
- data_out: data to be sent
Requires
MCU must have the SPI2 module.
SPI2 must be initialized before using this function.
See the Spi2_Init_Advanced and Spi2_Init routines.
Example
// write a byte to the SPI bus
char buffer;
...
Spi2_Write(buffer);
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Spi_Init
Prototype
void Spi_Init(void);
Description
Configures and initializes the SPI1 module with default settings.
Default settings:
- Master mode
- 8-bit data mode
- secondary prescaler 1:1
- primary prescaler 64:1
- Slave Select disabled
- input data sampled in the middle of interval
- clock idle state low
- Serial output data changes on transition from active clock state to idle clock state
Requires
MCU must have the SPI1 module.
Example
// Initialize the SPI1 module with default settings
Spi_Init();
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Spi_Init_Advanced
Prototype
void Spi_Init_Advanced(unsigned master_mode, unsigned mode16,
unsigned sec_prescaler, unsigned pri_prescaler, unsigned
slave_select, unsigned data_sample, unsigned clock_idle, unsigned
edge);
Description
Configures and initializes the SPI1 module.
The parameter master_mode determines the working mode for SPI1. It can have the
following values:
//--- Master/Slave mode, SPI1CON1<5>
_SPI_MASTER
= 0x0020,
_SPI_SLAVE
= 0x0000,
// Master mode
// Slave mode
The parameter mode16 determines the data length mode, which can be 8-bits (per transmitions cycle) or 16-bits. It is being configured as follows:
//--- data length select, SPI1CON1<10>
_SPI_16_BIT
= 0x0400, // 16-bit mode
_SPI_8_BIT
= 0x0000, // 8-bit mode
The parameter sec_prescaler determines the value of the secondary SPI clock prescaler.
This parameter is used only in the Master Mode. Valid settings are:
//--- secondary prescale (Master mode),
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1
= 0x001C, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_2
= 0x0018, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_3
= 0x0014, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_4
= 0x0010, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_5
= 0x000C, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_6
= 0x0008, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_7
= 0x0004, //
_SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_8
= 0x0000, //
SPI1CON1<4:2>
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
secondary prescale
1:1
2:1
3:1
4:1
5:1
6:1
7:1
8:1
The parameter pri_prescaler determines the value of the primary SPI clock prescaler.
This parameter is used only in the Master Mode. Valid settings are:
//--- primary prescale (Master mode),
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_1
= 0x0003,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_4
= 0x0002,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_16
= 0x0001,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_64
= 0x0000,
SPI1CON1<1:0>
// primary prescale
// primary prescale
// primary prescale
// primary prescale
1:1
4:1
16:1
64:1
The parameter slave_select determines whether the Slave Select (SS) pin is used in communication. This parameter is valid in the Slave Mode only.
//continues on the next page ...
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//continued from the previous page ...
It can be:
//--- Slave select enable bit (Slave Mode), SPI1CON1<7>
_SPI_SS_ENABLE = 0x0080, // SS used for the Slave mode
_SPI_SS_DISABLE = 0x0000, // SS not used for the Slave mode
The parameter data_sample determines the sample moment (phase) of input data. It can
be:
//--- SPI data input sample phase, SPI1CON1<9>
_SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE = 0x0000,
// data sampled in the middle of data output time
_SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_END = 0x2000,
// data sampled at end of data output time
The parameter clock_idle determines the behaviour of the SPI clock (CLK) line in IDLE
phase:
//--- Clock Polarity
_SPI_CLK_IDLE_LOW =
// IDLE state is Lo,
_SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH =
// IDLE state is Hi,
Select bit, SPI1CON1<6>
0x0000,
ACTIVE state is Hi
0x0040,
ACTIVE state is Lo
The parameter edge determines on which clock edge data is considered to be valid.
Possible settings are:
//--- Clock EDGE select bit (where output data is valid),
// SPI1CON1<8>
_SPI_ACTIVE_2_IDLE
= 0x0000,
// data is valid on ACTIVE-to-IDLE transition
// (data changes on IDLE-to-ACTIVE transition)
_SPI_IDLE_2_ACTIVE
= 0x0100;
// data is valid on IDLE-to-ACTIVE transition
// (data changes on ACTIVE-to-IDLE transition)
Requires
MCU must have the SPI1 module.
Example
/* Set SPI1 to the Master Mode, data length is 16-bit, clock =
Fcy (no clock scaling), data sampled in the middle of interval,
clock IDLE state high and data transmitted at low to high clock
edge:*/
Spi_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_16_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1,
_SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_1, _SPI_SS_DISABLE, _SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE,
_SPI_CLK_IDLE_HIGH, _SPI_ACTIVE_2_IDLE);
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Spi_Read
Prototype
unsigned Spi_Read(unsigned data_out);
Returns
Received data.
Description
Reads one word or byte (depending on mode set by init routines) from the SPI bus.
Parameters :
- data_out: dummy data for clock generation
(see device Datasheet for SPI modules implementation details)
Note: if MCU has 2 SPI modules, active module will be used. See the Spi_Set_Active
routine.
Requires
Routine requires at least one SPI module.
Used SPI module must be initialized before using this function. See the Spi1_Init,
Spi1_Init_Advanced, Spi2_Init, Spi2_Init_Advanced, Spi_Init and
Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
// read a byte from the SPI bus
char take, buffer;
...
take = Spi_Read(buffer);
Spi_Write
Prototype
void Spi_Write(unsigned data_out);
Description
Writes one word or byte (depending on mode set by init routines) via the SPI bus.
Parameters :
- data_out: data to be sent
Note: if MCU has 2 SPI modules, active module will be used. See Spi_Set_Active routine.
Requires
Routine requires at least one SPI module.
Used SPI module must be initialized before using this function. See the Spi1_Init,
Spi1_Init_Advanced, Spi2_Init, Spi2_Init_Advanced, Spi_Init and
Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
// write a byte to the SPI bus
char buffer;
...
Spi_Write(buffer);
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Spi_Set_Active
Prototype
void Spi_Set_Active(char SpiNo);
Description
Sets the active SPI module which will be used by the Spi_Read and Spi_Write routines.
Parameters :
SpiNo: module number. Valid values: 1 (for SPI1) and 2 (for SPI2) .
Requires
Routine is available only for MCUs with two SPI modules.
Used SPI module must be initialized before using this function. See the Spi1_Init,
Spi1_Init_Advanced, Spi2_Init, Spi2_Init_Advanced, Spi_Init and
Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
//Sets the SPI2 module active
Spi_Set_Active(2);
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Library Example
The code demonstrates how to use SPI library functions for communication
between SPI2 module of the MCU and MCP4921 DAC chip.
const char CS_PIN = 1;
const char LD_PIN = 2;
unsigned int value;
void InitMain() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF; // Set AN pins as digital
Spi2_Init(); // Initialize SPI2 module
TRISC.CS_PIN = 0; // Set CS pin as output
TRISC.LD_PIN = 0; // Set LD pin as output
}//~
// DAC increments (0..4095) --> output voltage (0..Vref)
void DAC_Output(unsigned int valueDAC) {
char temp;
PORTC.CS_PIN = 0; // Select DAC module
PORTC.LD_PIN = 0; // Enable data transfer
// Send 2 bytes of valueDAC variable
temp = (valueDAC >> 8) & 0x0F; // Prepare hi-byte for transfer
// It's a 12-bit number, so only
// lower nibble of high byte is used
temp |= 0x30; // Set MCP4921 control bits
Spi2_Write(temp); // Send data via SPI
temp = valueDAC; // Prepare lo-byte for transfer
Spi2_Write(temp); // Send data via SPI
PORTC.LD_PIN = 1; // Disable data transfer
PORTC.CS_PIN = 1; // Deselect DAC module
}//~
// continues ...
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// continued ...
void main() {
InitMain();
value = 2047; // When program starts, DAC gives
// the output in the mid-range
while (1) { // Main loop
DAC_Output(value++);
if (value > 4095)
value = 0;
Delay_ms(10);
}
}//~!
Hardware Connection
VCC
2
4
VOUT
GND
CS
SCK
VREF
SDI
LDAC
8
DAC
CONNECTOR
7
6
2
3
VCC
1
1
Vref
1K
5
MCP4921
RG13
RG12
RG14
RA7
RA6
RG0
RG1
RF1
RF0
Vdd
Vss
RD7
RD6
RD5
RD4
RD13
RD12
RD3
RD2
RD1
VCC
Reset
dsPIC30F6014A
RC14
RC13
RD0
RD11
RD10
RD9
RD8
RA15
RA14
Vss
OSC2
OSC1/CLKI
Vdd
RG2
RG3
RF6
RF7
RF8
RF2
RF3
RB6
RB7
RA9
RA10
AVdd
AVss
RB8
RB9
RB10
RB11
Vss
Vdd
RB12
RB13
RB14
RB15
RD14
RD15
RF4
RF5
10K
VCC
RG15
RC1
RC2
RC3
RC4
RG6
RG7
RG8
MCLR
RG9
Vss
Vdd
RA12
RA13
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
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SPI Ethernet Library
The ENC28J60 is a stand-alone Ethernet controller with an industry standard
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI™). It is designed to serve as an Ethernet network
interface for any controller equipped with SPI.
The ENC28J60 meets all IEEE 802.3 specifications. It incorporates a number of
packet filtering schemes to limit incoming packets. It also provides an internal
DMA module for fast data throughput and hardware assisted IP checksum calculations. Communication with the host controller is implemented via two interrupt
pins and SPI, with data rates of up to 10 Mb/s. Two ENC28J60 pins are dedicated
for LED link and network activity indication.
This library is designed to simplify handling of the underlying hardware
(ENC28J60). It works with any dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 with integrated SPI and
more than 4 Kb ROM memory. 32 to 40 MHz clock is recommended to get from 8
to 10 MHz SPI clock, otherwise the dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 should be clocked by
ENC clock output due to ENC silicone bug in the SPI hardware. If you try lower
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 clock speed, there might be board hang or some requests
might be missed.
Note: For advanced users there is a header file (enc28j60_libprivate.h) in the
uses folder of the compiler with detailed description of all functions which are
implemented in the SPI Ethernet Library.
Note: The Library uses the SPI module for communication. The user must initialize the appropriate SPI module before using the SPI Ethernet Library. For MCUs
with two SPI modules it is possible to initialize both of them and then switch by
using the Spi_Set_Active() function. See the Spi Library functions.
Library Routines
SPI_Ethernet_Init
SPI_Ethernet_doPacket
SPI_Ethernet_putByte
SPI_Ethernet_getByte
SPI_Ethernet_UserTCP
SPI_Ethernet_UserUDP
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SPI_Ethernet_Init
Prototype
void Spi_Ethernet_Init(unsigned int *resetPort, unsigned int
resetBit, unsigned int *CSportPtr, unsigned int CSbit, unsigned
char *mac, unsigned char *ip, unsigned char fullDuplex);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
This function initializes ENC controller. This function is split into 2 parts in order to
help linker when coming short of memory. Parameters:
- resetPort: reset signal port address
- resetBit: reset signal pin
- CSportPtr: chip select signal port address
- CSbit: chip select signal pin
- mac: 6 char array containing MAC address
- ip: 4 char array containing IP address
- fullDuplex: communication mode parameter.
Valid values: SPI_Ethernet_HALFDUPLEX and SPI_Ethernet_FULLDUPLEX
Requires
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See the Spi1_Init, Spi1_Init_Advanced,
Spi2_Init, Spi2_Init_Advanced, Spi_Init and Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
Spi_Ethernet_Init(&PORTF, 0, &PORTF, 1, myMacAddr, myIpAddr,
Spi_Ethernet_FULLDUPLEX);
SPI_Ethernet_doPacket
Prototype
void SPI_Ethernet_doPacket();
Description
The function checks if a packet was received. If the packet has been received the function processes it in the following manner:
- reply to ARP & ICMP echo requests automatically
- upon TCP request the SPI_Ethernet_UserTCP function
is called for further processing
- upon UDP request the SPI_Ethernet_UserUDP function
is called for further processing
Note: SPI_Ethernet_doPacket must be called as often as possible in user code.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized . See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
Example
SPI_Ethernet_doPacket();
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SPI_Ethernet_putByte
Prototype
void SPI_Ethernet_putByte(unsigned char v);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Stores one byte to address pointed by the ENC28J60 write pointer (EWRPT).
Parameters:
- v: value to store
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized . See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
Example
char data;
...
SPI_Ethernet_putByte(data);
SPI_Ethernet_getByte
Prototype
unsigned char SPI_Ethernet_getByte();
Returns
Byte read from ENC28J60 memory.
Description
Gets byte from address pointed by the ENC28J60 read pointer (ERDPT).
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized . See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
Example
char buffer;
buffer = SPI_Ethernet_getByte();
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SPI_Ethernet_UserTCP
Prototype
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_UserTCP(unsigned char *remoteHost,
unsigned int remotePort, unsigned int localPort, unsigned int
reqLength);
Returns
- 0 - if there should not be a reply to the request.
- Length of TCP/HTTP reply data field, otherwise
Description
This function is internally called by the library. The user accesses to the TCP/HTTP
request by successive calls to SPI_Ethernet_getByte(). The user puts data in the
transmit buffer by successive calls to SPI_Ethernet_putByte(). The function must
return the length in bytes of the TCP/HTTP reply, or 0 if there is nothing to transmit. If
there is no need to reply to the TCP/HTTP requests, just define this function with
return(0) as a single statement.
Parameters:
- remoteHost: client's IP address
- remotePort: client's TCP port
- localPort: port to which the request is sent
- reqLength: TCP/HTTP request data field length
Note: The function source code is provided with appropriate example projects. The code
should be adjusted by the user to achieve desired reply.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized . See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
Example
This function is internally called by the library.
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SPI_Ethernet_UserUDP
Prototype
unsigned int SPI_Ethernet_UserUDP(unsigned char *remoteHost,
unsigned int remotePort, unsigned int destPort, unsigned int
reqLength);
Returns
Length of UDP reply data field, or 0 if the library should not reply to the request.
Description
This function is internally called by the library. The user accesses to the UDP request by
successive calls to SPI_Ethernet_getByte(). The user puts data in the transmit
buffer by successive calls to SPI_Ethernet_putByte(). The function must return the
length in bytes of the UDP reply, or 0 if nothing to transmit. If you don't need to reply to
the UDP requests, just define this function with a return(0) as single statement.
Parameters:
- remoteHost: client's IP address
- remotePort: client's port
- destPort: port to which the request is sent
- reqLength: UDP request data field length
Note: The function source code is provided with appropriate example projects. The code
should be adjusted by the user to achieve desired reply.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized . See SPI_Ethernet_Init.
Example
This function is internally called by the library.
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Library Example
The following example is a simple demonstration of the SPI Ethernet Library. IP
address 192.168.20.60 is assigned to the MCU+ENC28J60 server. The server will
respond to ping, the TCP and UDP requests if connected to a local area network.
Hardware configurations in this example are made for the dsPICPRO2 board and
dsPIC30F6014A.
#define Spi_Ethernet_HALFDUPLEX
#define Spi_Ethernet_FULLDUPLEX
0
1
/************************************************************
* ROM constant strings
*/
const unsigned char httpHeader[] = "HTTP/1.1 200 OK\nContent-type: " ; // HTTP header
const unsigned char httpMimeTypeHTML[] = "text/html\n\n" ;
// HTML MIME type
const unsigned char httpMimeTypeScript[] = "text/plain\n\n" ;
// TEXT MIME type
unsigned char httpMethod[] = "GET /";
/*
* web page, split into 2 parts :
* when coming short of ROM, fragmented data is handled more efficiently by linker
*
* this HTML page calls the boards to get its status, and builds itself with
javascript
*/
const char
*indexPage =
"<meta http-equiv=\"refresh\" content=\"3;url=http://192.168.20.60\">\
<HTML><HEAD></HEAD><BODY>\
<h1>dsPIC + ENC28J60 Mini Web Server</h1>\
<a href=/>Reload</a>\
<script src=/s></script>\
<table><tr><td valign=top><table border=1 style=\"font-size:20px ;font-family: terminal ;\">\
<tr><th colspan=2>ADC</th></tr>\
<tr><td>AN10</td><td><script>document.write(AN10)</script></td></tr>\
</table></td><td><table border=1 style=\"font-size:20px ;font-family: terminal ;\">\
<tr><th colspan=2>PORTB</th></tr>\
<script>\
var str,i;\
str=\"\";\
for(i=0;i<8;i++)\
{str+=\"<tr><td bgcolor=pink>BUTTON #\"+i+\"</td>\";\
if(PORTB&(1<<i)){str+=\"<td bgcolor=red>ON\";}\
else {str+=\"<td bgcolor=#cccccc>OFF\";}\
str+=\"</td></tr>\";}\
// continues...
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// continued...
document.write(str) ;\
</script>\
" ;
const char
*indexPage2 = "</table></td><td>\
<table border=1 style=\"font-size:20px ;font-family: terminal ;\">\
<tr><th colspan=3>PORTD</th></tr>\
<script>\
var str,i;\
str=\"\";\
for(i=0;i<8;i++)\
{str+=\"<tr><td bgcolor=yellow>LED #\"+i+\"</td>\";\
if(PORTD&(1<<i)){str+=\"<td bgcolor=red>ON\";}\
else {str+=\"<td bgcolor=#cccccc>OFF\";}\
str+=\"</td><td><a href=/t\"+i+\">Toggle</a></td></tr>\";}\
document.write(str) ;\
</script>\
</table></td></tr></table>\
This is HTTP request #<script>document.write(REQ)</script></BODY></HTML>\
" ;
/***********************************
* RAM variables
*/
unsigned char
myMacAddr[6] = {0x00, 0x14, 0xA5, 0x76, 0x19, 0x3f};// my MAC address
unsigned char
myIpAddr[4] = {192, 168, 20, 60} ;
// my IP address
unsigned char
getRequest[15] ;
// HTTP request buffer
unsigned char
dyna[31] ;
// buffer for dynamic response
unsigned long
httpCounter = 0 ;
// counter of HTTP requests
/*******************************************
* functions
*/
/*
* put the constant string pointed to by s to the ENC transmit buffer
*/
//continues...
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// continued ...
unsigned int
putConstString(const char *s)
{
unsigned int ctr = 0 ;
while(*s)
{
Spi_Ethernet_putByte(*s++) ;
ctr++ ;
}
return(ctr) ;
}
/*
* put the string pointed to by s to the ENC transmit buffer
*/
unsigned int
putString(char *s)
{
unsigned int ctr = 0 ;
while(*s)
{
Spi_Ethernet_putByte(*s++) ;
ctr++ ;
}
return(ctr) ;
}
/*
* this function is called by the library
* the user accesses to the HTTP request by successive calls to
Spi_Ethernet_getByte()
* the user puts data in the transmit buffer by successive calls to
Spi_Ethernet_putByte()
* the function must return the length in bytes of the HTTP reply, or 0 if nothing
to transmit
*
* if you don't need to reply to the HTTP requests,
* just define this function with return(0) as a single statement
*
*/
// continues...
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// continued...
unsigned int
Spi_Ethernet_UserTCP(unsigned char *remoteHost, unsigned int
remotePort, unsigned int localPort, unsigned int reqLength)
{
unsigned int
len = 0 ;
// my reply length
unsigned int
i ;
// general purpose integer
if(localPort != 80)
{
return(0) ;
}
// I listen only to web request on port 80
// get 10 first bytes only of the request, the rest does not matter here
for(i = 0 ; i < 10 ; i++)
{
getRequest[i] = Spi_Ethernet_getByte() ;
}
getRequest[i] = 0 ;
if(memcmp(getRequest, httpMethod, 5))
// only the GET method is supported here
{
return(0) ;
}
httpCounter++ ;
// one more request done
if(getRequest[5] == 's')
// if request path name starts with s, store dynamic data in transmit buffer
{
// the text string replied by this request can be interpreted
// as javascript statements
// by browsers
len = putConstString(httpHeader) ;
// HTTP header
len += putConstString(httpMimeTypeScript) ; // with text MIME type
// add AN10 value to reply
intToStr(ADC_Read(10), dyna) ;
len += putConstString("var AN10=") ;
len += putString(dyna) ;
len += putConstString(";") ;
// continues...
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// continued...
// add PORTB value (buttons) to reply
len += putConstString("var PORTB=") ;
intToStr(PORTB, dyna) ;
len += putString(dyna) ;
len += putConstString(";") ;
// add PORTD value (LEDs) to reply
len += putConstString("var PORTD=") ;
intToStr(PORTD, dyna) ;
len += putString(dyna) ;
len += putConstString(";") ;
// add HTTP requests counter to reply
intToStr(httpCounter, dyna) ;
len += putConstString("var REQ=") ;
len += putString(dyna) ;
len += putConstString(";") ;
}
else if(getRequest[5] == 't' // if request path name starts with t,
//toggle PORTD (LED) bit number that comes after
{
unsigned char
bitMask = 0 ;
// for bit mask
if(isdigit(getRequest[6])) // if 0 <= bit number <= 9, bits 8 & 9
// does not exist but does not matter
{
bitMask = getRequest[6] - '0' ; // convert ASCII to integer
bitMask = 1 << bitMask ;
// create bit mask
PORTD ^= bitMask ;
// toggle PORTD with xor operator
}
}
if(len == 0)
{
len
len
len
len
}
// what to do by default
=
+=
+=
+=
putConstString(httpHeader) ; // HTTP header
putConstString(httpMimeTypeHTML) ; // with HTML MIME type
putConstString(indexPage) ;
// HTML page first part
putConstString(indexPage2) ;
// HTML page second part
return(len) ; // return to the library with the number of bytes to transmit
}
// continues...
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// continued...
/*
* this function is called by the library
* the user accesses to the UDP request by successive calls to Spi_Ethernet_getByte()
* the user puts data in the transmit buffer by successive calls to
* Spi_Ethernet_putByte()
* the function must return the length in bytes of the UDP reply, or 0 if nothing to
* transmit
* if you don't need to reply to the UDP requests,
* just define this function with return(0) as a single statement
*/
unsigned int
Spi_Ethernet_UserUDP(unsigned char *remoteHost, unsigned int
remotePort, unsigned int destPort, unsigned int reqLength)
{
unsigned int
len ;
// my reply length
unsigned char
*ptr ;
// pointer to the dynamic buffer
// reply is made of the remote host IP address in human-readable format
byteToStr(remoteHost[0], dyna) ;
// first IP address byte
dyna[3] = '.' ;
byteToStr(remoteHost[1], dyna + 4) ;
// second
dyna[7] = '.' ;
byteToStr(remoteHost[2], dyna + 8) ;
// third
dyna[11] = '.' ;
byteToStr(remoteHost[3], dyna + 12) ;
// fourth
dyna[15] = ':' ;
// add separator
// then remote host port number
intToStr(remotePort, dyna + 16) ;
dyna[22] = '[' ;
intToStr(destPort, dyna + 23) ;
dyna[29] = ']' ;
dyna[30] = 0 ;
// the total length of the request is the
// length of the dynamic string plus the text of the request
len = 30 + reqLength ;
// puts the dynamic string into the transmit buffer
ptr = dyna ;
while(*ptr)
{
Spi_Ethernet_putByte(*ptr++) ;
}
// then puts the request string converted into
// upper char into the transmit buffer
while(reqLength--)
{
Spi_Ethernet_putByte(toupper(Spi_Ethernet_getByte())) ;
}
return(len) ; // back to the library with the length of the UDP reply
}
// continues...
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/*
* main entry
*/
void
main()
{
ADPCFG |= 0xFBFF;
PORTB = 0 ;
TRISB = 0xffff ;
PORTD = 0 ;
TRISD = 0 ;
// all digital but rb10(AN10)
// set PORTB as input for buttons and adc
// set PORTD as output,
/*
* starts ENC28J60 with :
* reset bit on RC0
* CS bit on RC1
* my MAC & IP address
* full duplex
*/
// for faster SPI communication use Spi1_Init_Advanced settings
Spi_Init();
/*Spi1_Init_Advanced(_SPI_MASTER, _SPI_8_BIT, _SPI_PRESCALE_SEC_1, SPI_PRESCALE_PRI_4,
_SPI_SS_DISABLE, _SPI_DATA_SAMPLE_MIDDLE, _SPI_CLK_IDLE_LOW, _SPI_IDLE_2_ACTIVE);*/
Spi_Ethernet_Init(&PORTF,0, &PORTF, 1, myMacAddr, myIpAddr, Spi_Ethernet_FULLDUPLEX) ;
while(1)
// do forever
{
Spi_Ethernet_doPacket() ;
// process incoming Ethernet packets
/*
* add your stuff here if needed
* Spi_Ethernet_doPacket() must be called as often as possible
* otherwise packets could be lost
*/
}
}
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HW Connection
VCC
VCC3.3
VCC3.3
100nF
1
2
4
5
7
8
9
10
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
B0
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
A7
B6
GND
B7
100nF
VCC3.3
100nF
VCC3.3
100nF
20
19
18
17
10uF
16
15
13
1K
1K
14
VCC3.3
1
12
VCAP
2
11
4
WOL3.3
5
MISO3.3
6
MOSI
7
SCK
8
ETH-CS
9
ETH-RST
10
LEDA
LEDB
CLKOUT
INT
WOL
SO
SI
SCK
CS
RESET
11
GND-RX
12
13
14
ENC28J60/SP
INT3.3
VCC
GND
3
10K
MISO
ETH-INT
ETH-WOL
6
A0
A1
OE
74HCT245
3
VCC
DIR
VCC3.3
OSC-VCC
OSC2
OSC1
OSC-GND
PLL-GND
PLL-VCC
RX-VCC
TX-GND
TPIN-
TPOUT+
TPIN+
TPOUT-
RBIAS
TXVCC
28
27
VCC3.3
26
22pF
25
24
23
25 MHz
22
22pF
21
20
FP2
FERRITE
BEAD
19
18
51R
17
11
15
1
51R
3
1K2
12
16
2
1K2
7
6
8
51R
10nF
TD+
A2
K2
CT
TDRD+
CT
RD-
RJ45
A1
K1
10nF
9
51R
10
RG13
RG12
RG14
RA7
RA6
RG0
RG1
RF1
RF0
Vdd
Vss
RD7
RD6
RD5
RD4
RD13
RD12
RD3
RD2
RD1
VCC
dsPIC30F6014A
RC14
RC13
RD0
RD11
RD10
RD9
RD8
RA15
RA14
Vss
OSC2
OSC1/CLKI
Vdd
RG2
RG3
RF6
RF7
RF8
RF2
RF3
22pF
22pF
RB6
RB7
RA9
RA10
AVdd
AVss
RB8
RB9
RB10
RB11
Vss
Vdd
RB12
RB13
RB14
RB15
RD14
RD15
RF4
RF5
RG15
RC1
RC2
RC3
RC4
RG6
RG7
RG8
MCLR
RG9
Vss
Vdd
RA12
RA13
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
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SPI Graphic LCD Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for operating Graphic
LCD 128x64 (with commonly used Samsung KS108/KS107 controller) via SPI
interface.
Note: This library supports the dsPIC30 only due to the dsPIC33 and PIC24 voltage incompatibility with the Samsung KS0108 based GLCD modules.
Note: The library uses the SPI module for communication. User must initialize the
appropriate SPI module before using the SPI GLCD Library. For MCUs with two
SPI modules it is possible to initialize both of them and then switch by using the
Spi_Set_Active() function. See the Spi Library functions.
Note: This Library is designed to work with the mikroElektronika's Serial
LCD/GLCD Adapter Board pinout, see schematic at the bottom of this page for
details.
Library Routines
Basic routines:
SPI_Glcd_Config
Spi_Glcd_Init
Spi_Glcd_Set_Side
Spi_Glcd_Set_Page
Spi_Glcd_Set_X
Spi_Glcd_Read_Data
Spi_Glcd_Write_Data
Advanced routines:
Spi_Glcd_Fill
Spi_Glcd_Dot
Spi_Glcd_Line
Spi_Glcd_V_Line
Spi_Glcd_H_Line
Spi_Glcd_Rectangle
Spi_Glcd_Box
Spi_Glcd_Circle
Spi_Glcd_Set_Font
Spi_Glcd_Write_Char
Spi_Glcd_Write_Text
Spi_Glcd_Image
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Spi_Glcd_Config
Prototype
void Spi_Glcd_Config(char DeviceAddress, unsigned int *rstport,
unsigned int rstpin, unsigned int *csport, unsigned int cspin);
Description
Initializes the GLCD module via SPI interface. Parameters :
- DeviceAddress: spi expander hardware address,
see schematic at the bottom of this page
- rstport: reset signal port address
- rstpin: reset signal pin
- csport: chip select signal port address
- cspin: chip select signal pin
Requires
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See Spi1_Init, Spi1_Init_Advanced,
Spi2_Init, Spi2_Init_Advanced, Spi_Init and Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
// initialize the SPI1 module and GLCD module
Spi_Init();
Spi_Glcd_Config(0, &PORTF, 0, &PORTF, 1);
Spi_Glcd_Init
Prototype
void Spi_Glcd_Init();
Description
Initializes the GLCD module via SPI interface with the DeviceAddress=0, reset signal connected to the RF0 pin and the chip celect signal connected to the RF1 pin.
Note: The Spi_Glcd_Init() routine can be changed by the user. Source code is
located in the setup library file in the Uses folder.
Requires
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See Spi1_Init, Spi1_Init_Advanced,
Spi2_Init, Spi2_Init_Advanced, Spi_Init and Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
// initialize the SPI1 module and GLCD module
Spi_Init();
Spi_Glcd_Init();
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Spi_Glcd_Set_Side
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Set_Side(char x_pos);
Description
Selects GLCD side. Refer to the GLCD datasheet for detail explanation. Parameters :
- x_pos: position on x-axis. Valid values: 0..127
The parameter x_pos specifies the GLCD side: values from 0 to 63 specify the left side,
values from 64 to 127 specify the right side.
Note: For side, x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this
page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
/*The following two lines are equivalent, and both of them select
the left side of GLCD:*/
SPI_Glcd_Set_Side(0);
SPI_Glcd_Set_Side(10);
Spi_Glcd_Set_Page
Prototype
void Spi_Glcd_Set_Page(char page);
Description
Selects page of GLCD. Parameters :
- page: page number. Valid values: 0..7
Note: For side, x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this
page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized. See Spi_Glcd_Init.
Example
Spi_Glcd_Set_Page(5);
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Spi_Glcd_Set_X
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Set_X(char x_pos);
Description
Sets x-axis position to x_pos dots from the left border of GLCD within the selected
side.
Parameters :
- x_pos: position on x-axis. Valid values: 0..63
Note: For side, x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this
page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized. See Spi_Glcd_Init.
Example
Spi_Glcd_Set_X(25);
Spi_Glcd_Read_Data
Prototype
char Spi_Glcd_Read_Data();
Returns
One byte from GLCD memory.
Description
Reads data from the current location of GLCD memory and moves to the next location.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Glcd_Init routine.
GLCD side, x-axis position and page should be set first. See the functions
Spi_Glcd_Set_Side, Spi_Glcd_Set_X, and Spi_Glcd_Set_Page.
Example
char data;
...
data = Spi_Glcd_Read_Data();
Spi_Glcd_Write_Data
Prototype
void Spi_Glcd_Write_Data(char data);
Description
Writes one byte to the current location in GLCD memory and moves to the next location. Parameters :
- data: data to be written
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Glcd_Init routine.
GLCD side, x-axis position and page should be set first. See the functions
Spi_Glcd_Set_Side, Spi_Glcd_Set_X, and Spi_Glcd_Set_Page.
Example
char data;
...
Spi_Glcd_Write_Data(data);
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Spi_Glcd_Fill
Prototype
void Spi_Glcd_Fill(char pattern);
Description
Fills GLCD memory with byte pattern. Parameters :
- pattern: byte to fill GLCD memory with
To clear the GLCD screen, use Spi_Glcd_FillGlcd_Fill(0).
To fill the screen completely, use Spi_Glcd_Fill(0xFF).
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Clear screen
Spi_Glcd_Fill(0);
Spi_Glcd_Dot
Prototype
void Spi_Glcd_Dot(char x_pos, char y_pos, char color);
Description
Draws a dot on GLCD at coordinates (x_pos, y_pos). Parameters :
- x_pos: x position. Valid values: 0..127
- y_pos: y position. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the dot state: 0 clears dot, 1 puts a dot, and 2 inverts
dot state.
Note: For x and y axis layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Invert the dot in the upper left corner
Spi_Glcd_Dot(0, 0, 2);
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Spi_Glcd_Line
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Line(int x_start, int y_start, int x_end, int
y_end, char color);
Description
Draws a line on GLCD. Parameters :
- x_start: x coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..127
- y_start: y coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..63
- x_end: x coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..127
- y_end: y coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
Parameter color determines the line color: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a line between dots (0,0) and (20,30)
Spi_Glcd_Line(0, 0, 20, 30, 1);
Spi_Glcd_V_Line
Prototype
void Spi_Glcd_V_Line(char y_start, char y_end, char x_pos, char
color);
Description
Draws a vertical line on GLCD. Parameters :
- y_start: y coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..63
- y_end: y coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..63
- x_pos: x coordinate of vertical line. Valid values: 0..127
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
Parameter color determines the line color: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a vertical line between dots (10,5) and (10,25)
Spi_Glcd_V_Line(5, 25, 10, 1);
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Spi_Glcd_H_Line
Prototype
void Spi_Glcd_H_Line(char x_start, char x_end, char y_pos, char
color);
Description
Draws a horizontal line on GLCD. Parameters :
- x_start: x coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..127
- x_end: x coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..127
- y_pos: y coordinate of horizontal line. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the line color: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a horizontal line between dots (10,20) and (50,20)
Spi_Glcd_H_Line(10, 50, 20, 1);
Spi_Glcd_Rectangle
Prototype
void Spi_Glcd_Rectangle(char x_upper_left, char y_upper_left,
char x_bottom_right, char y_bottom_right, char color);
Description
Draws a rectangle on GLCD. Parameters :
- x_upper_left: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_upper_left: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..63
- x_bottom_right: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner.
Valid values: 0..127
- y_bottom_right: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the rectangle border: 0 white, 1 black, and 2
inverts each dot.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a rectangle between dots (5,5) and (40,40)
Spi_Glcd_Rectangle(5, 5, 40, 40, 1);
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Spi_Glcd_Box
Prototype
void Spi_Glcd_Box(char x_upper_left, char y_upper_left, char
x_bottom_right, char y_bottom_right, char color);
Description
Draws a box on GLCD.
Parameters :
- x_upper_left: x coordinate of the upper left box corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_upper_left: y coordinate of the upper left box corner. Valid values: 0..63
- x_bottom_right: x coordinate of the lower right box corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_bottom_right: y coordinate of the lower right box corner. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the box fill: 0 white, 1 black, and 2
inverts each dot.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a box between dots (5,15) and (20,40)
Spi_Glcd_Box(5, 15, 20, 40, 1);
Spi_Glcd_Circle
Prototype
void Spi_Glcd_Circle(int x_center, int y_center, int radius, char
color);
Description
Draws a circle on GLCD.
Parameters :
- x_center: x coordinate of the circle center. Valid values: 0..127
- y_center: y coordinate of the circle center. Valid values: 0..63
- radius: radius size
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the circle line: 0 white, 1 black, and 2
inverts each dot.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a circle with center in (50,50) and radius=10
Spi_Glcd_Circle(50, 50, 10, 1);
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Spi_Glcd_Set_Font
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Set_Font(const char *activeFont, char aFontWidth,
char aFontHeight, unsigned int aFontOffs);
Description
Sets font that will be used with Spi_Glcd_Write_Char and Spi_Glcd_Write_Text routines. Parameters :
- activeFont: font to be set. Needs to be formatted as an array of char
- aFontWidth: width of the font characters in dots.
- aFontHeight: height of the font characters in dots.
- aFontOffs: number that represents difference between the mikroC character set and
regular ASCII set (eg. if 'A' is 65 in ASCII character, and 'A' is 45 in the mikroC
character set, aFontOffs is 20). Demo fonts supplied with the library have
an offset of 32, which means that they start with space.
The user can use fonts given in the file “__Lib_GLCD_fonts.c” file located in the
Uses folder or create his own fonts.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Use the custom 5x7 font "myfont" which starts with space (32):
Spi_Glcd_Set_Font(myfont, 5, 7, 32);
Spi_Glcd_Write_Char
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Write_Char(char chr1, char x_pos, char page_num,
char color);
Description
Prints character on GLCD. Parameters :
- chr1: character to be written
- x_pos: character starting position on x-axis. Valid values: 0..(127-FontWidth)
- page_num: the number of the page on which character will be written.
Valid values: 0..7
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the character: 0 white, 1 black, and 2
inverts each dot.
Note: For x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Glcd_Init routine. Use
the Spi_Glcd_Set_Font to specify the font for display; if no font is specified, then the
default 5x8 font supplied with the library will be used.
Example
// Write character 'C' on the position 10 inside the page 2:
Spi_Glcd_Write_Char('C', 10, 2, 1);
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Spi_Glcd_Write_Text
Prototype
void SPI_Glcd_Write_Text(char text[], char x_pos, char page_num,
char color);
Description
Prints text on GLCD. Parameters :
- text: text to be written
- x_pos: text starting position on x-axis.
- page_num: the number of the page on which text will be written.
Valid values: 0..7
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the text: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts
each dot.
Note: For x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Glcd_Init routine. Use
the Spi_Glcd_Set_Font to specify the font for display; if no font is specified, then the
default 5x8 font supplied with the library will be used.
Example
//Write text "Hello world!" on the position 10 inside the page 2:
Spi_Glcd_Write_Text("Hello world!", 10, 2, 1);
Spi_Glcd_Image
Prototype
void Spi_Glcd_Image(const char *image);
Description
Displays bitmap on GLCD. Parameters :
- image: image to be displayed. Bitmap array can be located in both code and RAM
memory (due to the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 pointer to const and pointer to
RAM equivalency).
Use the mikroC’s integrated GLCD Bitmap Editor (menu option Tools › GLCD Bitmap
Editor) to convert image to a constant array suitable for displaying on GLCD.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw image my_image on GLCD
Spi_Glcd_Image(my_image);
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Library Example
The example demonstrates how to communicate to KS0108 GLCD via the SPI
module, using serial to parallel convertor MCP23S17.
extern const unsigned short
truck_bmp[];
char ii;
unsigned int jj;
char *someText;
void delay2S() {
Delay_ms(2000);
}
void main() {
ADPCFG |= 0xFF;
// for faster spi communication use Spi_Init_Advanced function
Spi_Init();
Spi_Glcd_Init(0, &PORTF, 0, &PORTF, 1);
Spi_Glcd_Fill(0xAA);
delay2S();
while(1) {
Spi_Glcd_Image( truck_bmp );
delay2S();
Spi_Glcd_Fill(0x00);
for(jj = 1; jj <= 40; jj++)
Spi_Glcd_Dot(jj,jj,1);
delay2S();
Spi_Glcd_Fill(0x00);
Spi_Glcd_Line(120, 1, 5,60, 1);
delay2S();
Spi_Glcd_Line(12, 42, 5,60, 1);
delay2S();
Spi_Glcd_Rectangle(12, 20, 93,57, 1);
delay2S();
//continues ...
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//continued..
Spi_Glcd_Line(120, 12, 12,60, 1);
delay2S();
Spi_Glcd_H_Line(5, 40, 6, 1);
delay2S();
Spi_Glcd_Line(0, 12, 120, 60, 1);
Spi_Glcd_V_Line(7, 63, 127, 1);
delay2S();
for(ii = 1; ii <= 10; ii++)
Spi_Glcd_Circle(63, 32, 3*ii, 1);
delay2S();
Spi_Glcd_Box(12, 20, 70, 57, 2);
delay2S();
Spi_Glcd_Fill(0x00);
Spi_Glcd_Set_Font(&System3x6, 3, 6, 32);
someText = "SMALL FONT: 3X6";
Spi_Glcd_Write_Text(someText, 20, 5, 1);
Spi_Glcd_Set_Font(&FontSystem5x8, 5, 8, 32);
someText = "Large Font 5x8";
Spi_Glcd_Write_Text(someText, 3, 4, 1);
delay2S();
}
}//~!
1
0
16
24
32
40
48
56
x=63 x=0
CS1
CS2
GND
VCC
Vo
RS
R/W
E
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
RST
Vee
LED+
LED-
x=0
8
Right side
Left side
0
127
x axis
x=63
20
page0
page1
page2
page3
page4
page5
page6
page7
y axis
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Hardware Connection
MCP23S17
1
D1
2
D2
3
D3
4
D4
5
6
D5
7
D6
8
VCC
D7
9
10
RF1 11
RF6 12
RF3 13
RF2 14
GPB0
GPA7
GPB1
GPA6
GPB2
GPA5
GPB3
GPA4
GPB4
GPA3
GPB5
GPA2
GPB6
GPA1
GPB7
GPA0
VDD
INTA
VSS
INTB
28
27
26
RST
25
E
24
RW
23
RS
22
CS2
21
CS1
VCC
11
20
12
19
RESET
CS
SCK
A2
SI
A1
SO
A0
18
13
RF0
14
17
16
15
VCC
GND
OSC1
OSC2
dsPIC4013
D0
RF0
RF1
RF2
RF3
RF6
30
29
26
25
24
Vee
VCC
Contrast
Adjustment
1
CS1
CS2
GND
VCC
Vo
RS
R/W
E
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
RST
Vee
LED+
LED-
VCC
Vo
5K
20
mikroElektronika
EasydsPIC4
Development system
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SPI LCD Library (4-bit interface)
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for communication with
LCD (with HD44780 compliant controllers) in 4-bit mode via SPI interface.
Note: This library supports the dsPIC30 only due to the dsPIC33 and PIC24 voltage incompatibility with the LCD modules.
Note: The library uses the SPI module for communication. The user must initialize
the appropriate SPI module before using the SPI LCD Library. For MCUs with
two SPI modules it is possible to initialize both of them and then switch by using
the Spi_Set_Active() function. See Spi Library functions.
Note: This Library is designed to work with the mikroElektronika's Serial LCD
Adapter Board pinout. See schematic at the bottom of this page for details.
Library Routines
Spi_Lcd_Config
Spi_Lcd_Init
Spi_Lcd_Out
Spi_Lcd_Out_Cp
Spi_Lcd_Chr
Spi_Lcd_Chr_Cp
Spi_Lcd_Cmd
Spi_Lcd_Config
Prototype
void Spi_Lcd_Config(char DeviceAddress, unsigned int *rstport,
unsigned int rstpin, unsigned int *csport, unsigned int cspin);
Description
Initializes the LCD module via SPI interface. Parameters :
- DeviceAddress: spi expander hardware address,
see schematic at the bottom of this page
- rstport: reset signal port address
- rstpin: reset signal pin
- csport: chip select signal port address
- cspin: chip select signal pin
Requires
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See Spi1_Init, Spi1_Init_Advanced,
Spi2_Init, Spi2_Init_Advanced, Spi_Init and Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
// initialize the SPI1 module and LCD module
Spi_Init();
Spi_Lcd_Config(0, &PORTF, 0, &PORTF, 1);
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Spi_Lcd_Init
Prototype
void Spi_Lcd_Init();
Description
Initializes the LCD module via SPI interface with the DeviceAddress=0, reset signal
connected to the RF0 pin and the chip celect signal connected to the RF1 pin.
Note: The Spi_Lcd_Init() routine can be changed by the user. Source code is located in the setup library file in the Uses folder.
Requires
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See Spi1_Init, Spi1_Init_Advanced, Spi2_Init,
Spi2_Init_Advanced, Spi_Init and Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
// initialize the SPI1 module and LCD module
Spi_Init();
Spi_Lcd_Init();
Spi_Lcd_Out
Prototype
void Spi_Lcd_Out(char row, char column, char *text);
Description
Prints text on the LCD starting from specified position. Both string variables and literals
can be passed as a text. Parameters :
- row: starting position row number
- column: starting position column number
- text: text to be written
Requires
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Lcd_Config and
Spi_Lcd_Init routines.
Example
// Write text "Hello!" on LCD starting from row 1, column 3:
Spi_Lcd_Out(1, 3, "Hello!");
Spi_Lcd_Out_Cp
Prototype
void Spi_Lcd_Out_CP(char *text);
Description
Prints text on the LCD at current cursor position. Both string variables and literals can
be passed as a text. Parameters :
- text: text to be written
Requires
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Lcd_Config and
Spi_Lcd_Init routines.
Example
// Write text "Here!" at current cursor position:
Spi_Lcd_Out_CP("Here!");
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Spi_Lcd_Chr
Prototype
void Spi_Lcd_Chr(char Row, char Column, char Out_Char);
Description
Prints character on LCD at specified position. Both variables and literals can be passed
as character. Parameters :
- Row: writing position row number
- Column: writing position column number
- Out_Char: character to be written
Requires
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Lcd_Config and
Spi_Lcd_Init routines.
Example
// Write character "i" at row 2, column 3:
Spi_Lcd_Chr(2, 3, 'i');
Spi_Lcd_Chr_Cp
Prototype
void Spi_Lcd_Chr_CP(char Out_Char);
Description
Prints character on LCD at current cursor position. Both variables and literals can be
passed as character. Parameters :
- Out_Char: character to be written
Requires
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Lcd_Config and
Spi_Lcd_Init routines.
Example
// Write character "e" at current cursor position:
Spi_Lcd_Chr_Cp('e');
Spi_Lcd_Cmd
Prototype
void Spi_Lcd_Cmd(char out_char);
Description
Sends command to LCD. Parameters :
- out_char: command to be sent
Note: Predefined constants can be passed to the function, see Available LCD
Commands.
Requires
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Lcd_Config and
Spi_Lcd_Init routines.
Example
// Clear LCD display:
Spi_Lcd_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
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LCD Commands
LCD Command
Purpose
LCD_FIRST_ROW
Move cursor to 1st row
LCD_SECOND_ROW
Move cursor to 2nd row
LCD_THIRD_ROW
Move cursor to 3rd row
LCD_FOURTH_ROW
Move cursor to 4th row
LCD_CLEAR
Clear display
LCD_RETURN_HOME
Return cursor to home position, returns a shifted display to original position. Display data RAM is unaffected.
LCD_CURSOR_OFF
Turn off cursor
LCD_UNDERLINE_ON
Underline cursor on
LCD_BLINK_CURSOR_ON
Blink cursor on
LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_LEFT
Move cursor left without changing display data RAM
Lcd_Move_Cursor_Right
Move cursor right without changing display data RAM
LCD_TURN_ON
Turn LCD display on
LCD_TURN_OFF
Turn LCD display off
LCD_SHIFT_LEFT
Shift display left without changing display data RAM
LCD_SHIFT_RIGHT
Shift display right without changing display data RAM
Library Example (default pin settings)
Use Spi_Lcd_Init for default pin settings (see the first figure below).
char *text = "mikroElektronika";
void main() {
Spi1_Init();
Spi_Lcd_Init();
Spi_Lcd_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
Spi_Lcd_Cmd(LCD_CURSOR_OFF);
Spi_Lcd_Out(1,6, "mikroE");
Spi_Lcd_Chr_CP('!');
Spi_Lcd_Out(2,1, text);
Spi_Lcd_Out(3,1,"mikroE");
Spi_Lcd_Out(4,15,"mikroE");
}//~!
// initializes spi1 by default
// initialize lcd over spi interface
// Clear display
// Turn cursor off
// Print text to LCD, 1st row, 6th column
// append !
// Print text to LCD, 2nd row, 1st column
// for lcd with more than two rows
// for lcd with more than two rows
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Hardware Connection
MCP23S17
1
2
E
4
D4
5
D5
6
D6
7
D7
8
VCC
3
9
10
RF1 11
RF6 12
RF3 13
RF2 14
GPA7
GPB1
GPA6
GPB2
GPA5
GPB3
GPA4
GPB4
GPA3
GPB5
GPA2
GPB6
GPA1
GPB7
GPA0
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
VDD
INTA
VSS
INTB
21
20
VCC
19
CS
RESET
A2
SCK
18
RF0
VCC
17
13
16
SI
A1
SO
A0
14
15
GND
OSC1
OSC2
dsPIC4013
RS
GPB0
RF0
RF1
RF2
RF3
RF6
30
29
26
25
24
VCC
Contrast
Adjustment
5K
14
GND
VCC
VEE
RS
R/W
E
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
1
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SPI LCD8 (8-bit interface) Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for communication with
LCD (with HD44780 compliant controllers) in 8-bit mode via SPI interface.
Note: This library supports the dsPIC30 only due to the dsPIC33 and PIC24 voltage incompatibility with the LCD modules.
Note: Library uses the SPI module for communication. The user must initialize the
appropriate SPI module before using the SPI LCD Library. For MCUs with two
SPI modules it is possible to initialize both of them and then switch by using the
Spi_Set_Active() function. See Spi Library functions.
Note: This Library is designed to work with mikroElektronika's Serial
LCD/GLCD Adapter Board pinout, see schematic at the bottom of this page for
details.
Library Routines
Spi_Lcd8_Config
Spi_Lcd8_Init
Spi_Lcd8_Out
Spi_Lcd8_Out_Cp
Spi_Lcd8_Chr
Spi_Lcd8_Chr_Cp
Spi_Lcd8_Cmd
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Spi_Lcd8_Config
Prototype
void Spi_Lcd8_Config(char DeviceAddress, unsigned int *rstport,
unsigned int rstpin, unsigned int *csport, unsigned int cspin);
Description
Initializes the LCD module via SPI interface.
Parameters :
- DeviceAddress: spi expander hardware address,
see schematic at the bottom of this page
- rstport: reset signal port address
- rstpin: reset signal pin
- csport: chip select signal port address
- cspin: chip select signal pin
Requires
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See Spi1_Init, Spi1_Init_Advanced,
Spi2_Init, Spi2_Init_Advanced, Spi_Init and Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
// initialize the SPI1 module and LCD module in 8-bit mode
Spi_Init();
Spi_Lcd8_Config(0, &PORTF, 0, &PORTF, 1);
Spi_Lcd8_Init
Prototype
void Spi_Lcd8_Init();
Description
Initializes the LCD module via SPI interface with the DeviceAddress=0, reset signal
connected to the RF0 pin and the chip celect signal connected to the RF1 pin.
Note: Spi_Lcd8_Init() routine can be changed by the user. Source code is located
in setup library file in the Uses folder.
Requires
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See Spi1_Init, Spi1_Init_Advanced,
Spi2_Init, Spi2_Init_Advanced, Spi_Init and Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
// Initialize the SPI1 module and LCD module in 8-bit mode
Spi_Init();
Spi_Lcd8_Init();
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Spi_Lcd8_Out
Prototype
void Spi_Lcd8_Out(unsigned short row, unsigned short column, char
*text);
Description
Prints text on LCD starting from specified position. Both string variables and literals can
be passed as a text. Parameters :
- row: starting position row number
- column: starting position column number
- text: text to be written
Requires
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Lcd8_Config and
Spi_Lcd8_Init routines.
Example
// Write text "Hello!" on LCD starting from row 1, column 3:
Spi_Lcd8_Out(1, 3, "Hello!");
Spi_Lcd8_Out_Cp
Prototype
void Spi_Lcd8_Out_CP(char *text);
Description
Prints text on LCD at current cursor position. Both string variables and literals can be
passed as a text.
Parameters :
- text: text to be written
Requires
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Lcd8_Config and
Spi_Lcd8_Init routines.
Example
// Write text "Here!" at current cursor position:
Spi_Lcd8_Out_Cp("Here!");
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Spi_Lcd8_Chr
Prototype
void Spi_Lcd8_Chr(unsigned short row, unsigned short column, char
out_char);
Description
Prints character on LCD at specified position. Both variables and literals can be passed
as character. Parameters :
- row: writing position row number
- column: writing position column number
- out_char: character to be written
Requires
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Lcd8_Config and
Spi_Lcd8_Init routines.
Example
// Write character "i" at row 2, column 3:
Spi_Lcd8_Chr(2, 3, 'i');
Spi_Lcd8_Chr_Cp
Prototype
void Spi_Lcd8_Chr_CP(char out_char);
Description
Prints character on LCD at current cursor position. Both variables and literals can be
passed as character. Parameters :
- out_char: character to be written
Requires
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Lcd8_Config and
Spi_Lcd8_Init routines.
Example
// Write character "e" at current cursor position:
Spi_Lcd8_Chr_Cp('e');
Spi_Lcd8_Cmd
Prototype
void Spi_Lcd8_Cmd(char out_char);
Description
Sends command to LCD. Parameters :
- out_char: command to be sent
Note: Predefined constants can be passed to the function, see Available LCD
Commands.
Requires
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see Spi_Lcd8_Config and
Spi_Lcd8_Init routines.
Example
// Clear LCD display:
Spi_Lcd8_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
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LCD Commands
LCD Command
Purpose
LCD_FIRST_ROW
Move cursor to 1st row
LCD_SECOND_ROW
Move cursor to 2nd row
LCD_THIRD_ROW
Move cursor to 3rd row
LCD_FOURTH_ROW
Move cursor to 4th row
LCD_CLEAR
Clear display
LCD_RETURN_HOME
Return cursor to home position, returns a shifted display to original position. Display data RAM is unaffected.
LCD_CURSOR_OFF
Turn off cursor
LCD_UNDERLINE_ON
Underline cursor on
LCD_BLINK_CURSOR_ON
Blink cursor on
LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_LEFT
Move cursor left without changing display data RAM
Lcd_Move_Cursor_Right
Move cursor right without changing display data RAM
LCD_TURN_ON
Turn LCD display on
LCD_TURN_OFF
Turn LCD display off
LCD_SHIFT_LEFT
Shift display left without changing display data RAM
LCD_SHIFT_RIGHT
Shift display right without changing display data RAM
Library Example (default pin settings)
Use Spi_Lcd8_Init for default pin settings (see the first figure below).
char *text = "mikroE";
void main() {
Spi1_Init();
// initialize spi interface
Spi_Lcd8_Init();
// intialize lcd in 8bit mode via spi
Spi_Lcd8_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
// Clear display
Spi_Lcd8_Cmd(LCD_CURSOR_OFF);
// Turn cursor off
Spi_Lcd8_Out(1,6, text);
// Print text to LCD, 1st row, 6th column...
Spi_Lcd8_Chr_CP('!');
// append '!'
Spi_Lcd8_Out(2,1, "mikroelektronika"); // Print text to LCD, 2nd row, 1st column...
Spi_Lcd8_Out(3,1, text);
// for lcd modules with more than two rows
Spi_Lcd8_Out(4,15, text);
// for lcd modules with more than two rows
}//~!
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Hardware Connection
MCP23S17
D1
2
D2
3
D3
4
D4
5
D5
6
D6
7
D7
8
VCC
1
9
10
RF1 11
RF6 12
RF3 13
RF2 14
GPB0
GPA7
GPB1
GPA6
GPB2
GPA5
GPB3
GPA4
GPB4
GPA3
GPB5
GPA2
GPB6
GPA1
GPB7
GPA0
28
27
26
25
RS
24
23
E
22
VDD
INTA
VSS
INTB
21
20
VCC
19
CS
RESET
A2
SCK
18
RF0
VCC
17
13
16
SI
A1
SO
A0
14
15
GND
OSC1
OSC2
dsPIC4013
D0
RF0
RF1
RF2
RF3
RF6
30
29
26
25
24
VCC
Contrast
Adjustment
5K
14
GND
VCC
VEE
RS
R/W
E
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
1
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SPI T6963C Graphic LCD Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for working with
GLCDs based on TOSHIBA T6963C controller via SPI interface. The Toshiba
T6963C is a very popular LCD controller for the use in small graphics modules. It
is capable of controlling displays with a resolution up to 240x128. Because of its
low power and small outline it is most suitable for mobile applications such as
PDAs, MP3 players or mobile measurement equipment. Although this controller is
small, it has a capability of displaying and merging text and graphics and it manages all interfacing signals to the displays Row and Column drivers.
Note: This library supports the dsPIC30 only due to the dsPIC33 and PIC24 voltage incompatibility with a certain T6963C based GLCD modules.
Note: GLCD size based initialization routines can be found in setup library files
located in the Uses folder. The user must make sure that used MCU has appropriate ports and pins. If this is not the case the user should adjust initialization routines.
Note: The library uses the SPI module for communication. The user must initialize
the appropriate SPI module before using the Spi T6963C GLCD Library. For
MCUs with two SPI modules it is possible to initialize both of them and then
switch by using the Spi_Set_Active() function. See the Spi Library functions.
Note: This Library is designed to work with mikroElektronika's Serial GLCD
240x128 and 240x64 Adapter Boards pinout, see schematic at the bottom of this
page for details.
Note: Some mikroElektronika's adapter boards have pinout different from T6369C
datasheets. Appropriate relations between these labels are given in the table below:
Adapter Board
T6369C datasheet
RS
C/D
R/W
/RD
E
/WR
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Library Routines
Spi_T6963C_Init
Spi_T6963C_writeData
Spi_T6963C_writeCommand
Spi_T6963C_setPtr
Spi_T6963C_waitReady
Spi_T6963C_fill
Spi_T6963C_dot
Spi_T6963C_write_char
Spi_T6963C_write_text
Spi_T6963C_line
Spi_T6963C_rectangle
Spi_T6963C_box
Spi_T6963C_circle
Spi_T6963C_image
Spi_T6963C_sprite
Spi_T6963C_set_cursor
Note: The following low level library routines are implemented as macros. These
macros can be found in the Spi_T6963C.h header file which is located in the SPI
T6963C example projects folders.
Spi_T6963C_clearBit
Spi_T6963C_setBit
Spi_T6963C_negBit
Spi_T6963C_displayGrPanel
Spi_T6963C_displayTxtPanel
Spi_T6963C_setGrPanel
Spi_T6963C_setTxtPanel
Spi_T6963C_panelFill
Spi_T6963C_grFill
Spi_T6963C_txtFill
Spi_T6963C_cursor_height
Spi_T6963C_graphics
Spi_T6963C_text
Spi_T6963C_cursor
Spi_T6963C_cursor_blink
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Spi_T6963C_Init
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_Init(unsigned int width, unsigned int height,
unsigned int fntW, char DeviceAddress, unsigned int *rstport,
unsigned int rstpin, unsigned int *csport, unsigned int cspin,
unsigned char wr, unsigned char rd, unsigned char cd, unsigned
char rst);
Description
Initalizes the Graphic Lcd controller. Parameters :
- width: width of the GLCD panel
- height: height of the GLCD panel
- fntW: font width
- DeviceAddress: spi expander hardware address,
see schematic at the bottom of this page
- rstport: port expander's reset signal port address
- rstpin: port expander's reset signal pin
- csport: port expander's chip select signal port address
- cspin: port expander's chip select signal pin
- wr: write signal pin on GLCD control port
- rd: read signal pin on GLCD control port
- cd: cd signal pin on GLCD control port
- rst: rst signal pin on GLCD control port
Display RAM organization:
The library cuts RAM into panels : a complete panel is one graphics panel followed by a
text panel (see schematic below).
schematic:
GRAPHICS PANEL #0
PANEL 0
TEXT PANEL #0
GRAPHICS PANEL #1
PANEL 1
TEXT PANEL #2
//continues on the next page ...
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//continued from the previous page ...
Requires
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See the Spi1_Init, Spi1_Init_Advanced,
Spi2_Init, Spi2_Init_Advanced, Spi_Init and Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
Spi_Init();
Spi_T6963C_Init(240, 64, 8, &PORTF, 0, &PORTF, 1, 0, 1, 3, 4, 0);
/*
* init display for 240 pixel width and 64 pixel height
* 8 bits character width
* reset pin on PORTF.0
* chip select pin on PORTF.1
* bit 0 is !WR
* bit 1 is !RD
* bit 3 is !CD
* bit 4 is RST
* chip enable, reverse on, 8x8 font internaly set in the library
* device address is 0
*/
Spi_T6963C_writeData
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_writeData(unsigned char data);
Description
Writes data to T6963C controller via SPI interface. Parameters :
- data: data to be written
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_writeData(AddrL);
Spi_T6963C_writeCommand
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_writeCommand(unsigned char data);
Description
Writes command to T6963C controller via SPI interface. Parameters :
- data: command to be written
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_writeCommand(Spi_T6963C_CURSOR_POINTER_SET);
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Spi_T6963C_setPtr
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_setPtr(unsigned int p, unsigned char c);
Description
Sets the memory pointer p for command c. Parameters :
- p: address where command should be written
- c: command to be written
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_setPtr(T6963C_grHomeAddr + start, T6963C_ADDRESS_POINTER_SET);
Spi_T6963C_waitReady
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_waitReady();
Description
Pools the status byte, and loops until Toshiba GLCD module is ready.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_waitReady();
Spi_T6963C_fill
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_fill(unsigned char v, unsigned int start,
unsigned int len);
Description
Fills controller memory block with given byte. Parameters :
- v: byte to be written
- start: starting address of the memory block
- len: length of the memory block in bytes
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_fill(0x33,0x00FF,0x000F);
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Spi_T6963C_dot
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_dot(int x, int y, unsigned char color);
Description
Draws a dot in the current graphic panel of GLCD at coordinates (x, y). Parameters :
- x: dot position on x-axis
- y: dot position on y-axis
- color: color parameter.
Valid values: Spi_T6963C_BLACK and Spi_T6963C_WHITE
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_dot(x0, y0, pcolor);
Spi_T6963C_write_char
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_write_char(unsigned char c, unsigned char x,
unsigned char y, unsigned char mode);
Description
Writes a char in the current text panel of GLCD at coordinates (x, y). Parameters :
- c: char to be written
- x: char position on x-axis
- y: char position on y-axis
- mode: mode parameter.
Valid values: Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_OR, Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR,
Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_AND and Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_TEXT
Mode parameter explanation:
- OR Mode: In the OR-Mode, text and graphics can be displayed and the data is
logically “OR-ed”. This is the most common way of combining text and graphics for
example labels on buttons.
- XOR-Mode: In this mode, the text and graphics data are combined via the logical
“exclusive OR”. This can be useful to display text in negative mode, i.e. white text on
black background.
- AND-Mode: The text and graphic data shown on display are combined via the logical
“AND function”.
- TEXT-Mode: This option is only available when displaying just a text. The Text
Attribute values are stored in the graphic area of display memory.
For more details see the T6963C datasheet.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_write_char("A",22,23,AND);
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Spi_T6963C_write_text
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_write_text(unsigned char *str, unsigned char x,
unsigned char y, unsigned char mode);
Description
Writes text in the current text panel of GLCD at coordinates (x, y). Parameters :
- str: text to be written
- x: text position on x-axis
- y: text position on y-axis
- mode: mode parameter.
Valid values: Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_OR, Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR,
Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_AND and Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_TEXT
Mode parameter explanation:
- OR Mode: In the OR-Mode, text and graphics can be displayed and the data is
logically “OR-ed”. This is the most common way of combining text and graphics for
example labels on buttons.
- XOR-Mode: In this mode, the text and graphics data are combined via the logical
“exclusive OR”. This can be useful to display text in negative mode, i.e. white text on
black background.
- AND-Mode: The text and graphic data shown on the display are combined via
the logical “AND function”.
- TEXT-Mode: This option is only available when displaying just a text. The Text
Attribute values are stored in the graphic area of display memory.
For more details see the T6963C datasheet.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_write_text("GLCD LIBRARY DEMO, WELCOME !", 0, 0,
T6963C_ROM_MODE_EXOR);
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Spi_T6963C_line
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_line(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1, unsigned
char pcolor);
Description
Draws a line from (x0, y0) to (x1, y1). Parameters :
- x0: x coordinate of the line start
- y0: y coordinate of the line end
- x1: x coordinate of the line start
- y1: y coordinate of the line end
- pcolor: color parameter.
Valid values: Spi_T6963C_BLACK and Spi_T6963C_WHITE
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_line(0, 0, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE);
Spi_T6963C_rectangle
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_rectangle(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1,
unsigned char pcolor);
Description
Draws a rectangle on GLCD.
Parameters :
- x0: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- y0: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- x1: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- y1: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: Spi_T6963C_BLACK and
Spi_T6963C_WHITE
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_rectangle(20, 20, 219, 107, T6963C_WHITE);
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Spi_T6963C_box
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_box(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1, unsigned char
pcolor);
Description
Draws a box on the GLCD
Parameters :
- x0: x coordinate of the upper left box corner
- y0: y coordinate of the upper left box corner
- x1: x coordinate of the lower right box corner
- y1: y coordinate of the lower right box corner
- pcolor: color parameter.
Valid values: Spi_T6963C_BLACK and Spi_T6963C_WHITE
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_box(0, 119, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE);
Spi_T6963C_circle
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_circle(int x, int y, long r, unsigned char pcolor);
Description
Draws a circle on the GLCD.
Parameters :
- x: x coordinate of the circle center
- y: y coordinate of the circle center
- r: radius size
- pcolor: color parameter.
Valid values: Spi_T6963C_BLACK and Spi_T6963C_WHITE
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_circle(120, 64, 110, T6963C_WHITE);
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Spi_T6963C_image
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_image(const char *pic);
Description
Displays bitmap on GLCD.
Parameters :
- pic: image to be displayed. Bitmap array can be located in both code and
RAM memory (due to the mikroC for dsPIC30 pointer to const and pointer to RAM
equivalency).
Use the mikroC’s integrated GLCD Bitmap Editor (menu option Tools › GLCD Bitmap
Editor) to convert image to a constant array suitable for displaying on GLCD.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_image(my_image);
Spi_T6963C_sprite
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_sprite(unsigned char px, unsigned char py, const
char *pic, unsigned char sx, unsigned char sy);
Description
Fills graphic rectangle area (px, py) to (px+sx, py+sy) with custom size picture.
Parameters :
- px: x coordinate of the upper left picture corner
- py: y coordinate of the upper left picture corner
- pic: picture to be displayed
- sx: picture width
- sy: picture height
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_sprite(76, 4, einstein, 88, 119); // draw a sprite
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Spi_T6963C_set_cursor
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_set_cursor(unsigned char x, unsigned char y);
Description
Sets cursor to row x and column y. Parameters :
- x: cursor position row number
- y: cursor position column number
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_set_cursor(cposx, cposy);
Spi_T6963C_clearBit
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_clearBit(unsigned int b);
Description
Clears control port bit(s). Parameters :
- b: bit mask. The function will clear bit x on control port if bit x in bit mask is set to 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
// clear bits 0 and 1 on control port
Spi_T6963C_clearBit(0x0003);
Spi_T6963C_setBit
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_setBit(unsigned int b);
Description
Sets control port bit(s). Parameters :
- b: bit mask. The function will set bit x on control port if bit x in bit mask is set to 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
// set bits 0 and 1 on control port
Spi_T6963C_setBit(0x0003);
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Spi_T6963C_negBit
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_negBit(unsigned int b);
Description
Negates control port bit(s). Parameters :
- b: bit mask. The function will negate bit x on control port if bit x in bit mask is set to
1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
// negate bits 0 and 1 on control port
Spi_T6963C_negBit(0x0003);
Spi_T6963C_displayGrPanel
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_displayGrPanel(unsigned int n);
Description
Display selected graphic panel. Parameters :
- n: graphic panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
// display graphic panel 1
Spi_T6963C_displayGrPanel(1);
Spi_T6963C_displayTxtPanel
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_displayTxtPanel(unsigned int n);
Description
Display selected text panel. Parameters :
- n: text panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
// display text panel 1
Spi_T6963C_displayTxtPanel(1);
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Spi_T6963C_setGrPanel
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_setGrPanel(unsigned int n);
Description
Compute start address for selected graphic panel and set appropriate internal pointers.
All subsequent graphic operations will be preformed at this graphic panel.
Parameters :
- n: graphic panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
// set graphic panel 1 as current graphic panel.
Spi_T6963C_setGrPanel(1);
Spi_T6963C_setTxtPanel
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_setTxtPanel(unsigned int n);
Description
Compute start address for selected text panel and set appropriate internal pointers. All
subsequent text operations will be preformed at this text panel.
Parameters :
- n: text panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
// set text panel 1 as current text panel.
Spi_T6963C_setTxtPanel(1);
Spi_T6963C_panelFill
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_panelFill(unsigned char v);
Description
Fill current panel in full (graphic+text) with appropriate value (0 to clear).
Parameters :
- v: value to fill panel with.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
// clear current panel
Spi_T6963C_panelFill(0);
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Spi_T6963C_grFill
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_grFill(unsigned char v);
Description
Fill current graphic panel with appropriate value (0 to clear). Parameters :
- v: value to fill graphic panel with.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
// clear current graphic panel
Spi_T6963C_grFill(0);
Spi_T6963C_txtFill
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_txtFill(unsigned char v);
Description
Fill current text panel with appropriate value (0 to clear). Parameters :
- v: this value increased by 32 will be used to fill text panel.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
// clear current text panel
Spi_T6963C_txtFill(0);
Spi_T6963C_cursor_height
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_cursor_height(unsigned char n);
Description
Set cursor size. Parameters :
- n: cursor height. Valid values: 0..7.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_cursor_height(7);
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Spi_T6963C_graphics
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_graphics(unsigned int n);
Description
Enable/disable graphic displaying. Parameters :
- n: graphic enable/disable parameter.
Valid values: 0 (disable graphic dispaying) and 1 (enable graphic displaying).
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
// enable graphic displaying
Spi_T6963C_graphics(1);
Spi_T6963C_text
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_text(unsigned int n);
Description
Enable/disable text displaying. Parameters :
- n: text enable/disable parameter.
Valid values: 0 (disable text dispaying) and 1 (enable text displaying).
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
// enable text displaying
Spi_T6963C_text(1);
Spi_T6963C_cursor
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_cursor(unsigned int n);
Description
Set cursor on/off. Parameters :
- n: on/off parameter.
Valid values: 0 (set cursor off) and 1 (set cursor on).
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
// set cursor on
Spi_T6963C_cursor(1);
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Spi_T6963C_cursor_blink
Prototype
void Spi_T6963C_cursor_blink(unsigned int n);
Description
Enable/disable cursor blinking. Parameters :
- n: cursor blinking enable/disable parameter. Valid values: 0 (disable cursor blinking)
and 1 (enable cursor blinking).
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_T6963C_init routine.
Example
// enable cursor blinking
Spi_T6963C_cursor_blink(1);
Library Example
The following drawing demo tests advanced routines of the Spi T6963C GLCD
library. Hardware configurations in this example are made for the EasydsPIC3
board and dsPIC30F4013.
#include
"Spi_T6963C.h"
/*
* bitmap pictures stored in ROM
*/
extern const char mc[] ;
extern const char einstein[] ;
void main(void)
{
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
char
int
char
int
panel ;
// current panel
i ;
// general purpose register
curs ;
// cursor visibility
cposx, cposy ; // cursor x-y position
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
PORTB = 0 ;
TRISB = 0xFF ;
//continues...
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//continued...
/*
* init display for 240 pixel width and 128 pixel height
* 8 bits character width
* data bus on MCP23S17 portB
* control bus on MCP23S17 portA
* bit 2 is !WR
* bit 1 is !RD
* bit 0 is !CD
* bit 4 is RST
*
* chip enable, reverse on, 8x8 font internaly set in library
*/
// for the faster spi use Spi_Init_Advanced function
Spi_Init();
Spi_T6963C_Init_240x128();
/*
* enable both graphics and text display at the same time
*/
Spi_T6963C_graphics(1) ;
Spi_T6963C_text(1) ;
panel = 0 ;
i = 0 ;
curs = 0 ;
cposx = cposy = 0 ;
/*
* text messages
*/
Spi_T6963C_write_text(" GLCD LIBRARY DEMO, WELCOME !", 0,
0, Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR) ;
Spi_T6963C_write_text(" EINSTEIN WOULD HAVE LIKED mC", 0,
15, Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR) ;
/*
* cursor
*/
Spi_T6963C_cursor_height(8) ;
Spi_T6963C_set_cursor(0, 0) ;
Spi_T6963C_cursor(0) ;
// 8 pixel height
// move cursor to top left
// cursor off
//continues...
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//continues...
/*
* draw rectangles
*/
Spi_T6963C_rectangle(0, 0, 239, 127, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
Spi_T6963C_rectangle(20, 20, 219, 107, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
Spi_T6963C_rectangle(40, 40, 199, 87, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
Spi_T6963C_rectangle(60, 60, 179, 67, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
/*
* draw a cross
*/
Spi_T6963C_line(0, 0, 239, 127, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
Spi_T6963C_line(0, 127, 239, 0, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
/*
* draw solid boxes
*/
Spi_T6963C_box(0, 0, 239, 8, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
Spi_T6963C_box(0, 119, 239, 127, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
/*
* draw circles
*/
Spi_T6963C_circle(120,
Spi_T6963C_circle(120,
Spi_T6963C_circle(120,
Spi_T6963C_circle(120,
Spi_T6963C_circle(120,
Spi_T6963C_circle(120,
Spi_T6963C_circle(120,
64,
64,
64,
64,
64,
64,
64,
10, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
30, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
50, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
70, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
90, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
110, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
130, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
Spi_T6963C_sprite(76, 4, einstein, 88, 119) ;
// draw a sprite
Spi_T6963C_setGrPanel(1) ; // select other graphic panel
Spi_T6963C_image(mc);
//fill the graphic screen with a picture
//continued...
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//continues...
for(;;)
{
/*
* if RB1 is pressed, toggle the display
* between graphic panel 0 and graphic 1
*/
if(PORTB & 0b00000010)
{
panel++ ;
panel &= 1 ;
Spi_T6963C_displayGrPanel(panel) ;
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
/*
* if RB2 is pressed, display only graphic panel
*/
else if(PORTB & 0b00000100)
{
Spi_T6963C_graphics(1) ;
Spi_T6963C_text(0) ;
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
/*
* if RB3 is pressed, display only text panel
*/
else if(PORTB & 0b00001000)
{
Spi_T6963C_graphics(0) ;
Spi_T6963C_text(1) ;
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
/*
* if RB4 is pressed, display text and graphic
* panels
*/
else if(PORTB & 0b00010000)
{
Spi_T6963C_graphics(1) ;
Spi_T6963C_text(1) ;
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
//continued...
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//continues...
/*
* if RB5 is pressed, change cursor
*/
else if(PORTB & 0b00100000)
{
curs++ ;
if(curs == 3) curs = 0 ;
switch(curs)
{
case 0:
// no cursor
Spi_T6963C_cursor(0) ;
break ;
case 1:
// blinking cursor
Spi_T6963C_cursor(1) ;
Spi_T6963C_cursor_blink(1) ;
break ;
case 2:
// non blinking cursor
Spi_T6963C_cursor(1);
Spi_T6963C_cursor_blink(0) ;
break ;
}
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
/*
* move cursor, even if not visible
*/
cposx++ ;
if(cposx == Spi_T6963C_txtCols)
{
cposx = 0 ;
cposy++ ;
if(cposy == Spi_T6963C_grHeight /
Spi_T6963C_CHARACTER_HEIGHT)
{
cposy = 0 ;
}
}
Spi_T6963C_set_cursor(cposx, cposy) ;
Delay_ms(100) ;
}
}//~!
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Hardware Connection
MCP23S17
1
D1
2
D2
3
D3
4
D4
5
D5
6
D6
VCC
D7
7
8
9
10
RF1 11
RF6 12
RF3 13
RF2 14
GPB0
GPA7
GPB1
GPA6
GPB2
GPA5
GPB3
GPA4
GPB4
GPA3
GPB5
GPA2
GPB6
GPA1
GPB7
GPA0
28
27
FS
26
MD
25
RST
24
CE
23
E
22
RW
21
RS
20
INTA
VDD
VCC
19
VSS
CS
INTB
RESET
A2
SCK
18
RF0
VCC
17
13
16
SI
A1
SO
A0
14
15
GND
OSC1
OSC2
dsPIC4013
D0
RF0
RF1
RF2
RF3
RF6
30
29
26
25
24
Toshiba T6963C Graphic LCD (240x128)
mikroE
EasydsPIC3
Dev. tool
VSS
VDD
Vo
RS
R/W
E
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
CE
RST
VEE
MD
FS
NC/A
A
K
VCC
22
1
50R
VCC
10K
Contrast
Adjustment
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T6963C Graphic LCD Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a library for working with
GLCDs based on TOSHIBA T6963C controller. The Toshiba T6963C is a very
popular LCD controller for the use in small graphics modules. It is capable of controlling displays with a resolution up to 240x128. Because of its low power and
small outline it is most suitable for mobile applications such as PDAs, MP3 players or mobile measurement equipment. Although small, this contoller has a capability of displaying and merging text and graphics and it manages all the interfacing signals to the displays Row and Column drivers.
Note: This library supports the dsPIC30 only due to the dsPIC33 and PIC24 voltage incompatibility with a certain T6963C based GLCD modules.
Note: ChipEnable(CE), FontSelect(FS) and Reverse(MD) have to be set to appropriate levels by the user outside of the T6963C_init() function. See the Library
Example code at the bottom of this page.
Note: GLCD size based initialization routines can be found in setup library files
located in the Uses folder. The user must make sure that used MCU has appropriate ports and pins. If this is not the case the user should adjust initialization routines.
Note: Some mikroElektronika's adapter boards have pinout different from T6369C
datasheets. Appropriate relations between these labels are given in the table below:
Adapter Board
T6369C datasheet
RS
C/D
R/W
/RD
E
/WR
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Library Routines
T6963C_init
T6963C_writeData
T6963C_writeCommand
T6963C_setPtr
T6963C_waitReady
T6963C_fill
T6963C_dot
T6963C_write_char
T6963C_write_text
T6963C_line
T6963C_rectangle
T6963C_box
T6963C_circle
T6963C_image
T6963C_sprite
T6963C_set_cursor
Note: The following low level library routines are implemented as macros. These
macros can be found in the T6963C.h header file which is located in the T6963C
example projects folders.
T6963C_clearBit
T6963C_setBit
T6963C_negBit
T6963C_displayGrPanel
T6963C_displayTxtPanel
T6963C_setGrPanel
T6963C_setTxtPanel
T6963C_panelFill
T6963C_grFill
T6963C_txtFill
T6963C_cursor_height
T6963C_graphics
T6963C_text
T6963C_cursor
T6963C_cursor_blink
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T6963C_init
Prototype
void T6963C_init(unsigned int width, unsigned int height,
unsigned int fntW, unsigned int *data, unsigned int *cntrl,
unsigned int wr, unsigned int rd, unsigned int cd, unsigned int
rst);
Description
Initalizes the Graphic Lcd controller.
Parameters :
- width: width of the GLCD panel
- height: height of the GLCD panel
- fntW: font width
- data: data PORT
- cntrl: control PORT
- wr: write signal pin
- rd: read signal pin
- cd: command/data signal pin
- rst: reset signal pin
Display RAM organization:
The library cuts the RAM into panels : a complete panel is one graphics panel followed
by a text panel (see schematic below).
schematic:
GRAPHICS PANEL #0
PANEL 0
TEXT PANEL #0
GRAPHICS PANEL #1
PANEL 1
TEXT PANEL #2
//continues on the next page ...
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//continued from the previous page ...
Requires
Nothing.
Example
T6963C_init(240, 128, 8, &PORTF, &PORTD, 5, 7, 6, 4) ;
/*
* init display for 240 pixel width and 128 pixel height
* 8 bits character width
* data bus on PORTF
* control bus on PORTD
* bit 5 is !WR
* bit 7 is !RD
* bit 6 is C!D
* bit 4 is RST
*/
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T6963C_writeData
Prototype
void T6963C_writeData(unsigned char data);
Description
Writes data to T6963C controller. Parameters :
- data: data to be written
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_writeData(AddrL);
T6963C_writeCommand
Prototype
void T6963C_writeCommand(unsigned char data);
Description
Writes command to T6963C controller. Parameters :
- data: command to be written
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_writeCommand(T6963C_CURSOR_POINTER_SET);
T6963C_setPtr
Prototype
void T6963C_setPtr(unsigned int p, unsigned char c);
Description
Sets the memory pointer p for command c. Parameters :
- p: address where command should be written
- c: command to be written
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_setPtr(T6963C_grHomeAddr + start,
T6963C_ADDRESS_POINTER_SET);
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T6963C_waitReady
Prototype
void T6963C_waitReady(void);
Description
Pools the status byte, and loops until Toshiba GLCD module is ready.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_waitReady();
T6963C_fill
Prototype
void T6963C_fill(unsigned char v, unsigned int start, unsigned
int len);
Description
Fills controller memory block with given byte. Parameters :
- v: byte to be written
- start: starting address of the memory block
- len: length of the memory block in bytes
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_fill(0x33,0x00FF,0x000F);
T6963C_dot
Prototype
void T6963C_dot(int x, int y, unsigned char color);
Description
Draws a dot in the current graphic panel of GLCD at coordinates (x, y).
Parameters :
- x: dot position on x-axis
- y: dot position on y-axis
- color: color parameter. Valid values: T6963C_BLACK and T6963C_WHITE
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_dot(x0, y0, pcolor);
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T6963C_write_char
Prototype
void T6963C_write_char(unsigned char c, unsigned char x, unsigned
char y, unsigned char mode);
Description
Writes a char in the current text panel of GLCD at coordinates (x, y).
Parameters :
- c: char to be written
- x: char position on x-axis
- y: char position on y-axis
- mode: mode parameter.
Valid values: T6963C_ROM_MODE_OR, T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR,
T6963C_ROM_MODE_AND and T6963C_ROM_MODE_TEXT
Mode parameter explanation:
- OR Mode: In the OR-Mode, text and graphics can be displayed and the data is
logically “OR-ed”. This is the most common way of combining text and graphics for
example labels on buttons.
- XOR-Mode: In this mode, the text and graphics data are combined via the logical
“exclusive OR”. This can be useful to display text in the negative mode, i.e. white text
on black background.
- AND-Mode: The text and graphic data shown on display are combined via the logical
“AND function”.
- TEXT-Mode: This option is only available when displaying just a text. The Text
Attribute values are stored in the graphic area of display memory.
For more details see the T6963C datasheet.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_write_char('A',22,23,AND);
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T6963C_write_text
Prototype
void T6963C_write_text(unsigned char *str, unsigned char x,
unsigned char y, unsigned char mode);
Description
Writes text in the current text panel of GLCD at coordinates (x, y). Parameters :
- str: text to be written
- x: text position on x-axis
- y: text position on y-axis
- mode: mode parameter. Valid values: T6963C_ROM_MODE_OR,
T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR, T6963C_ROM_MODE_AND and
T6963C_ROM_MODE_TEXT
Mode parameter explanation:
- OR Mode: In the OR-Mode, text and graphics can be displayed and the data is
logically “OR-ed”. This is the most common way of combining text and graphics for
example labels on buttons.
- XOR-Mode: In this mode, the text and graphics data are combined via the logical
“exclusive OR”. This can be useful to display text in the negative mode, i.e. white text
on black background.
- AND-Mode: The text and graphic data shown on display are combined via the logical
“AND function”.
- TEXT-Mode: This option is only available when displaying just a text. The Text
Attribute values are stored in the graphic area of display memory.
For more details see the T6963C datasheet.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_write_text(" GLCD LIBRARY DEMO, WELCOME !", 0, 0,
T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR);
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T6963C_line
Prototype
void T6963C_line(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1, unsigned char
pcolor);
Description
Draws a line from (x0, y0) to (x1, y1). Parameters :
- x0: x coordinate of the line start
- y0: y coordinate of the line end
- x1: x coordinate of the line start
- y1: y coordinate of the line end
- pcolor: color parameter.
Valid values: T6963C_BLACK and T6963C_WHITE
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_line(0, 0, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE);
T6963C_rectangle
Prototype
void T6963C_rectangle(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1, unsigned
char pcolor);
Description
Draws a rectangle on GLCD.
Parameters :
- x0: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- y0: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- x1: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- y1: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: T6963C_BLACK and T6963C_WHITE
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_rectangle(20, 20, 219, 107, T6963C_WHITE);
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T6963C_box
Prototype
void T6963C_box(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1, unsigned char
pcolor);
Description
Draws a box on GLCD
Parameters :
- x0: x coordinate of the upper left box corner
- y0: y coordinate of the upper left box corner
- x1: x coordinate of the lower right box corner
- y1: y coordinate of the lower right box corner
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: T6963C_BLACK and T6963C_WHITE
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_box(0, 119, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE);
T6963C_circle
Prototype
void T6963C_circle(int x, int y, long r, unsigned char pcolor);
Description
Draws a circle on GLCD.
Parameters :
- x: x coordinate of the circle center
- y: y coordinate of the circle center
- r: radius size
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: T6963C_BLACK and T6963C_WHITE
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_circle(120, 64, 110, T6963C_WHITE);
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T6963C_image
Prototype
void T6963C_image(const char *pic);
Description
Displays bitmap on GLCD.
Parameters :
- pic: image to be displayed. Bitmap array can be located in both code and RAM
memory (due to the mikroC for dsPIC30 pointer to const and
pointer to RAM equivalency).
Use the mikroC’s integrated GLCD Bitmap Editor (menu option Tools › GLCD Bitmap
Editor) to convert image to a constant array suitable for displaying on GLCD.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_image(mc);
T6963C_sprite
Prototype
void T6963C_sprite(unsigned char px, unsigned char py, const char
*pic, unsigned char sx, unsigned char sy);
Description
Fills graphic rectangle area (px, py) to (px+sx, py+sy) with custom size picture.
Parameters :
- px: x coordinate of the upper left picture corner
- py: y coordinate of the upper left picture corner
- pic: picture to be displayed
- sx: picture width
- sy: picture height
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_sprite(76, 4, einstein, 88, 119); // draw a sprite
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T6963C_set_cursor
Prototype
void T6963C_set_cursor(unsigned char x, unsigned char y);
Description
Sets cursor to row x and column y.
Parameters :
- x: cursor position row number
- y: cursor position column number
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_set_cursor(cposx, cposy);
T6963C_clearBit
Prototype
void T6963C_clearBit(unsigned int b);
Description
Clears control port bit(s).
Parameters :
- b: bit mask. The function will clear bit x on control port if bit x in bit mask is set to 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// clear bits 0 and 1 on control port
T6963C_clearBit(0x0003);
T6963C_setBit
Prototype
void T6963C_setBit(unsigned int b);
Description
Sets control port bit(s).
Parameters :
- b: bit mask. The function will set bit x on control port if bit x in bit mask is set to 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// set bits 0 and 1 on control port
T6963C_setBit(0x0003);
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T6963C_negBit
Prototype
void T6963C_negBit(unsigned int b);
Description
Negates control port bit(s).
Parameters :
- b: bit mask.The function will negate bit x on control port if bit x in bit mask is set to 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// negate bits 0 and 1 on control port
T6963C_negBit(0x0003);
T6963C_displayGrPanel
Prototype
void T6963C_displayGrPanel(unsigned int n);
Description
Display selected graphic panel.
Parameters :
- n: graphic panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// display graphic panel 1
T6963C_displayGrPanel(1);
T6963C_displayTxtPanel
Prototype
void T6963C_displayTxtPanel(unsigned int n);
Description
Display selected text panel.
Parameters :
- n: text panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// display text panel 1
T6963C_displayTxtPanel(1);
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T6963C_setGrPanel
Prototype
void T6963C_setGrPanel(unsigned int n);
Description
Compute start address for selected graphic panel and set appropriate internal pointers.
All subsequent graphic operations will be preformed at this graphic panel.
Parameters :
- n: graphic panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// set graphic panel 1 as current graphic panel.
T6963C_setGrPanel(1);
T6963C_setTxtPanel
Prototype
void T6963C_setTxtPanel(unsigned int n);
Description
Compute start address for selected text panel and set appropriate internal pointers. All
subsequent text operations will be preformed at this text panel.
Parameters :
- n: text panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// set text panel 1 as current text panel.
T6963C_setTxtPanel(1);
T6963C_panelFill
Prototype
void T6963C_panelFill(unsigned char v);
Description
Fill current panel in full (graphic+text) with appropriate value (0 to clear).
Parameters :
- v: value to fill panel with.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// clear current panel
T6963C_panelFill(0);
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T6963C_grFill
Prototype
void T6963C_grFill(unsigned char v);
Description
Fill current graphic panel with appropriate value (0 to clear).
Parameters :
- v: value to fill graphic panel with.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// clear current graphic panel
T6963C_grFill(0);
T6963C_txtFill
Prototype
void T6963C_txtFill(unsigned char v);
Description
Fill current text panel with appropriate value (0 to clear).
Parameters :
- v: this value increased by 32 will be used to fill text panel.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// clear current text panel
T6963C_txtFill(0);
T6963C_cursor_height
Prototype
void T6963C_cursor_height(unsigned char n);
Description
Set cursor size.
Parameters :
- n: cursor height. Valid values: 0..7.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
T6963C_cursor_height(7);
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T6963C_graphics
Prototype
void T6963C_graphics(unsigned int n);
Description
Enable/disable graphic displaying.
Parameters :
- n: on/off parameter.
Valid values: 0 (disable graphic dispaying) and 1 (enable graphic displaying).
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// enable graphic displaying
T6963C_graphics(1);
T6963C_text
Prototype
void T6963C_text(unsigned int n);
Description
Enable/disable text displaying.
Parameters :
- n: on/off parameter.
Valid values: 0 (disable text dispaying) and 1 (enable text displaying).
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// enable text displaying
T6963C_text(1);
T6963C_cursor
Prototype
void T6963C_cursor(unsigned int n);
Description
Set cursor on/off.
Parameters :
- n: on/off parameter. Valid values: 0 (set cursor off) and 1 (set cursor on).
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// set cursor on
T6963C_cursor(1);
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T6963C_cursor_blink
Prototype
void T6963C_cursor_blink(unsigned int n);
Description
Enable/disable cursor blinking.
Parameters :
- n: on/off parameter.
Valid values: 0 (disable cursor blinking) and 1 (enable cursor blinking).
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the T6963C_init routine.
Example
// enable cursor blinking
T6963C_cursor_blink(1);
Library Example
The following drawing demo tests advanced routines of the T6963C GLCD library. Hardware
configurations in this example are made for the dsPICPRO2 board and dsPIC30F6014A.
/*
* bitmap pictures stored in ROM
*/
extern const char mc[] ;
extern const char einstein[] ;
void main(void)
{
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
char
int
char
int
panel ;
i ;
curs ;
cposx, cposy ;
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
TRISD = 0xFFFF;
TRISF = 0 ;
PORTF = 0b00000000 ;
// current panel
// general purpose register
// cursor visibility
// cursor x-y position
// portF is output only
// chip enable, reverse on, 8x8 font
//continues...
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//continued...
/*
* init display for 240 pixel width and 128 pixel height
* 8 bits character width
* data bus on PORTB
* control bus on PORTF
* bit 2 is !WR
* bit 1 is !RD
* bit 0 is !CD
* bit 4 is RST
*/
T6963C_Init_240x128();
//T6963C_init(240, 128, 8, &PORTB, &PORTF, 2, 1, 0, 4) ;
/*
* enable both graphics and text display at the same time
*/
T6963C_graphics(1) ;
T6963C_text(1) ;
panel = 0 ;
i = 0 ;
curs = 0 ;
cposx = cposy = 0 ;
/*
* text messages
*/
T6963C_write_text(" GLCD LIBRARY DEMO, WELCOME !", 0, 0,
T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR) ;
T6963C_write_text(" EINSTEIN WOULD HAVE LIKED mC", 0, 15,
T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR) ;
/*
* cursor
*/
T6963C_cursor_height(8) ;
T6963C_set_cursor(0, 0) ;
T6963C_cursor(0) ;
// 8 pixel height
// move cursor to top left
// cursor off
/*
* draw rectangles
*/
T6963C_rectangle(0, 0, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE) ;
T6963C_rectangle(20, 20, 219, 107, T6963C_WHITE) ;
T6963C_rectangle(40, 40, 199, 87, T6963C_WHITE) ;
T6963C_rectangle(60, 60, 179, 67, T6963C_WHITE) ;
//continues...
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//continued...
/*
* draw a cross
*/
T6963C_line(0, 0, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE) ;
T6963C_line(0, 127, 239, 0, T6963C_WHITE) ;
/*
* draw solid boxes
*/
T6963C_box(0, 0, 239, 8, T6963C_WHITE) ;
T6963C_box(0, 119, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE) ;
/*
* draw circles
*/
T6963C_circle(120,
T6963C_circle(120,
T6963C_circle(120,
T6963C_circle(120,
T6963C_circle(120,
T6963C_circle(120,
T6963C_circle(120,
64,
64,
64,
64,
64,
64,
64,
10, T6963C_WHITE) ;
30, T6963C_WHITE) ;
50, T6963C_WHITE) ;
70, T6963C_WHITE) ;
90, T6963C_WHITE) ;
110, T6963C_WHITE) ;
130, T6963C_WHITE) ;
T6963C_sprite(76, 4, einstein, 88, 119) ;
// draw a sprite
T6963C_setGrPanel(1) ;// select other graphic panel
T6963C_image(mc) ;
// fill the graphic screen with a picture
for(;;)
{
/*
* if RD0 is pressed, toggle the display between
* graphic panel 0 and graphic 1
*/
if(PORTDbits.RD0)
{
panel++ ;
panel &= 1 ;
T6963C_displayGrPanel(panel) ;
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
//continues...
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//continued...
/*
* if RD1 is pressed, display only graphic panel
*/
else if(PORTDbits.RD1)
{
T6963C_graphics(1) ;
T6963C_text(0) ;
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
/*
* if RD2 is pressed, display only text panel
*/
else if(PORTDbits.RD2)
{
T6963C_graphics(0) ;
T6963C_text(1) ;
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
/*
* if RD3 is pressed, display text and graphic
* panels
*/
else if(PORTDbits.RD3)
{
T6963C_graphics(1) ;
T6963C_text(1) ;
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
/*
* if RD4 is pressed, change cursor
*/
else if(PORTDbits.RD4)
{
curs++ ;
if(curs == 3) curs = 0 ;
//continues...
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//continued...
switch(curs)
{
case 0:
// no cursor
T6963C_cursor(0) ;
break ;
case 1:
// blinking cursor
T6963C_cursor(1) ;
T6963C_cursor_blink(1) ;
break ;
case 2:
// non blinking cursor
T6963C_cursor(1) ;
T6963C_cursor_blink(0) ;
break ;
}
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
/*
* move cursor, even if not visible
*/
cposx++ ;
if(cposx == T6963C_txtCols)
{
cposx = 0 ;
cposy++ ;
if(cposy == T6963C_grHeight / T6963C_CHARACTER_HEIGHT);
{
cposy = 0 ;
}
}
T6963C_set_cursor(cposx, cposy) ;
Delay_ms(100) ;
}
}//~!
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Hardware Connection
RG13
RG12
RG14
RA7
RA6
RG0
RG1
RF1
RF0
Vdd
Vss
RD7
RD6
RD5
RD4
RD13
RD12
RD3
RD2
RD1
RD
C/D
VCC
10K
VCC
Reset
RC14
RC13
RD0
RD11
RD10
RD9
RD8
RA15
RA14
Vss
dsPIC30F6014A
OSC2
OSC1/CLKI
Vdd
RG2
RG3
RF6
RF7
RF8
RF2
RF3
FS
WR
CE
D6
D7
RST
MD
RB6
RB7
RA9
RA10
AVdd
AVss
RB8
RB9
RB10
RB11
Vss
Vdd
RB12
RB13
RB14
RB15
RD14
RD15
RF4
RF5
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
RG15
RC1
RC2
RC3
RC4
RG6
RG7
RG8
MCLR
RG9
Vss
Vdd
RA12
RA13
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
Toshiba T6963C Graphic LCD (240x128)
mikroE
dsPICPRO2
Dev. tool
VSS
VDD
Vo
RS
R/W
E
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
CE
RST
VEE
MD
FS
NC/A
A
K
22
1
RF0
RF1
RF2
RB0
RB1
RB2
RB3
RB4
RB5
RB6
RB7
RF3
RF4
RF5
RF6
VCC
VCC
50R
10K
Contrast
Adjustment
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UART Library
The UART hardware module is available with a number of dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
MCUs. The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 UART Library provides comfortable work with the Asynchronous (full duplex) mode.
Note: For the dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 MCUs with the multiple UART modules
there are the UART1 (supports UART1 module), UART2 (supports UART2 module) and UART (supports both UART modules) libraries. Switching between the
UART modules in the UART library is done by the Uart_Set_Active function
(both UART modules have to be previously initialized).
Library Routines
Uart1_Init
Uart1_Init_Advanced
Uart1_Data_Ready
Uart1_Read_Char
Uart1_Write_Char
Uart2_Init
Uart2_Init_Advanced
Uart2_Data_Ready
Uart2_Read_Char
Uart2_Write_Char
Uart_Init
Uart_Init_Advanced
Uart_Data_Ready
Uart_Read_Char
Uart_Write_Char
Uart_Set_Active
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Uart1_Init
Prototype
void Uart1_Init(unsigned long baud_rate);
Description
Configures and initializes the UART1 module.
The internal UART1 module module is set to:
- continue operation in IDLE mode
- default Tx and Rx pins
- loopback mode disabled
- 8-bit data, no parity
- 1 STOP bit
- transmitter enabled
- generate interrupt on transmission end
- interrupt on reception enabled
- Address Detect mode disabled
Parameters :
- baud_rate: requested baud rate
Refer to the device data sheet for baud rates allowed for specific Fosc.
Note: For the dsPIC33 and pic24 MCUs, the compiler will choose for which speed the
calculation is to be performed (high or low). This does not mean that it is the best choice
for desired baud rate. If the baud rate error generated in this way is too big then
Uart1_Init_Advanced routine, which allows speed selection, should be used.
Requires
MCU with the UART1 module.
Example
// Initialize hardware UART and establish communication at 2400
Uart1_Init(2400);
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
Uart1_Init_Advanced
Prototype
(dsPIC30)
void Uart1_Init_Advanced(unsigned long baud_rate, unsigned int
parity, unsigned int stop_bits);
Prototype
(dsPIC33 and
PIC24)
void Uart1_Init_Advanced(unsigned long baud_rate, unsigned int
parity, unsigned int stop_bits, unsigned int high_low_speed);
Description
Configures and initializes the UART1 module.
Parameters :
- baud_rate: requested baud rate
- parity: parity and data selection parameter. Valid values:
6 : 9-bit data, no parity
4 : 8-bit data, odd parity
2 : 8-bit data, even parity
0 : 8-bit data, no parity
- stop_bits: stop bit selection parameter. Valid values:
1 : 2 STOP bits
0 : 1 STOP bit
- high_low_speed: high/low speed selection parameter.
Available only for dsPIC33 and pic24 MCUs. Valid values:
0 : use low speed calculations
1 : use high speed calculations
other : let the compiler decide which speed (low or high) to use.
This does not mean that it is the best choice for desired baud rate
Refer to the device data sheet for baud rates allowed for specific Fosc.
Requires
MCU with the UART1 module.
Example
/*dsPIC30 family example
Initialize hardware UART and establish communication at 2400
bps, 8-bit data, even parity and 2 STOP bits*/
Uart1_Init_Advanced(2400, 2, 1);
/* dsPIC33 and pic24 family example
Initialize hardware UART and establish communication at
2400 bps, 8-bit data, even parity, 2 STOP bits and high speed
baud rate calculations */
Uart1_Init_Advanced(2400, 2, 1, 1);
page
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Uart1_Data_Ready
Prototype
unsigned Uart1_Data_Ready(void);
Returns
- 1 if data is ready for reading
- 0 if there is no data in the receive register
Description
The function tests if data in receive buffer is ready for reading.
Requires
MCU with the UART1 module.
The UART1 module must be initialized before using this routine. See the Uart1_Init
routine.
Example
unsigned receive;
...
// read data if ready
if (Uart1_Data_Ready())
receive = Uart1_Read_Char();
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Uart1_Read_Char
Prototype
unsigned Uart1_Read_Char(void);
Returns
Received byte.
Description
The function receives a byte via UART1. Use the Uart1_Data_Ready function to test
if data is ready first.
Requires
MCU with the UART1 module.
The UART1 module must be initialized before using this routine.
See Uart1_Init routine.
Example
unsigned receive;
...
// read data if ready
if (Uart1_Data_Ready())
receive = Uart1_Read_Char();
Uart2_Write_Char
Prototype
void Uart1_Write_Char(unsigned char data);
Description
The function transmits a byte via the UART1 module.
Parameters :
- data: data to be sent
Requires
MCU with the UART1 module.
The UART1 module must be initialized before using this routine.
See Uart1_Init routine.
Example
unsigned char data = 0x1E;
...
Uart1_Write_Char(data);
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Uart2_Init
Prototype
void Uart2_Init(unsigned long baud_rate);
Description
Configures and initializes the UART2 module.
The internal UART2 module module is set to:
- continue operation in IDLE mode
- default Tx and Rx pins
- loopback mode disabled
- 8-bit data, no parity
- 1 STOP bit
- transmitter enabled
- generate interrupt on transmission end
- interrupt on reception enabled
- Address Detect mode disabled
Parameters :
- baud_rate: requested baud rate
Refer to the device data sheet for baud rates allowed for specific Fosc.
Note: For the dsPIC33 and pic24 MCUs, the compiler will choose for which speed the
calculation is to be performed (high or low). This does not mean that it is the best choice
for desired baud rate. If the baud rate error generated in this way is too big then
Uart2_Init_Advanced routine, which allows speed selection, should be used.
Requires
MCU with the UART2 module.
Example
// Initialize the UART2 module and establish communication at
// 2400 bps
Uart2_Init(2400);
page
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Uart2_Init_Advanced
Prototype
(dsPIC30)
void Uart2_Init_Advanced(unsigned long baud_rate, unsigned int
parity, unsigned int stop_bits);
Prototype
(dsPIC33 and
PIC24)
void Uart2_Init_Advanced(unsigned long baud_rate, unsigned int
parity, unsigned int stop_bits, unsigned int high_low_speed);
Description
Configures and initializes the UART2 module.
Parameters :
- baud_rate: requested baud rate
- parity: parity and data selection parameter. Valid values:
6 : 9-bit data, no parity
4 : 8-bit data, odd parity
2 : 8-bit data, even parity
0 : 8-bit data, no parity
- stop_bits: stop bit selection parameter. Valid values:
1 : 2 STOP bits
0 : 1 STOP bit
- high_low_speed: high/low speed selection parameter.
Available only for dsPIC33 and pic24 MCUs. Valid values:
0 : use low speed calculations
1 : use high speed calculations
- other : let the compiler decide which speed (low or high) to use.
This does not mean that it is the best choice for desired baud rate
Refer to the device data sheet for baud rates allowed for specific Fosc.
Requires
MCU with the UART2 module.
Example
/*dsPIC30 family example
Initialize hardware UART and establish communication at
2400 bps, 8-bit data, even parity and 2 STOP bits */
Uart2_Init_Advanced(2400, 2, 1);
/*dsPIC33 and pic24 family example
Initialize hardware UART and establish communication at
2400 bps, 8-bit data, even parity, 2 STOP bits and high speed
baud rate calculations*/
Uart2_Init_Advanced(2400, 2, 1, 1);
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Uart2_Data_Ready
Prototype
unsigned Uart2_Data_Ready(void);
Returns
- 1 if data is ready for reading
- 0 if there is no data in the receive register
Description
The function tests if data in receive buffer is ready for reading.
Requires
Routine requires the UART2 module.
The UART2 module must be initialized before using this routine.
See Uart2_Init routine.
Example
unsigned receive;
...
// read data if ready
if (Uart2_Data_Ready())
receive = Uart2_Read_Char();
page
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Uart2_Read_Char
Prototype
unsigned Uart2_Read_Char(void);
Returns
Received byte.
Description
The function receives a byte via UART2. Use the Uart2_Data_Ready function to test
if data is ready first.
Requires
Routine requires the UART2 module.
The UART2 module must be initialized before using this routine.
See Uart2_Init routine.
Example
unsigned receive;
...
// read data if ready
if (Uart2_Data_Ready())
receive = Uart2_Read_Char();
Uart2_Write_Char
Prototype
void Uart2_Write_Char(unsigned char data);
Description
The function transmits a byte via the UART2 module.
Parameters :
- data: data to be sent
Requires
Routine requires the UART2 module.
The UART2 module must be initialized before using this routine.
See Uart2_Init routine.
Example
unsigned char data = 0x1E;
...
Uart2_Write_Char(data);
page
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Uart_Init
Prototype
void Uart_Init(unsigned long baud_rate);
Description
Configures and initializes the UART1 module.
The internal UART1 module module is set to:
- continue operation in IDLE mode
- default Tx and Rx pins
- loopback mode disabled
- 8-bit data, no parity
- 1 STOP bit
- transmitter enabled
- generate interrupt on transmission end
- interrupt on reception enabled
- Address Detect mode disabled
Parameters :
- baud_rate: requested baud rate
Refer to the device data sheet for baud rates allowed for specific Fosc.
Note: For the dsPIC33 and PIC24 MCUs, the compiler will choose for which speed the
calculation is to be performed (high or low). This does not mean that it is the best choice
for desired baud rate. If the baud rate error generated in this way is too big then
Uart_Init_Advanced routine, which allows speed selection, should be used.
Requires
Routine requires the UART1 module.
Example
// Initialize hardware UART and establish communication at
// 2400 bps
Uart_Init(2400);
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Uart_Init_Advanced
Prototype
(dsPIC30)
void Uart_Init_Advanced(unsigned long baud_rate, unsigned int
parity, unsigned int stop_bits);
Prototype
(dsPIC33 and
PIC24)
void Uart_Init_Advanced(unsigned long baud_rate, unsigned int
parity, unsigned int stop_bits, unsigned int high_low_speed);
Description
Configures and initializes the UART module.
Parameters :
- baud_rate: requested baud rate
- parity: parity and data selection parameter. Valid values:
6 : 9-bit data, no parity
4 : 8-bit data, odd parity
2 : 8-bit data, even parity
0 : 8-bit data, no parity
- stop_bits: stop bit selection parameter. Valid values:
1 : 2 STOP bits
0 : 1 STOP bit
- high_low_speed: high/low speed selection parameter.
Available only for dsPIC33 and pic24 MCUs. Valid values:
0 : use low speed calculations
1 : use high speed calculations
- other : let the compiler decide which speed (low or high) to use.
This does not mean that it is the best choice for desired baud rate
Refer to the device data sheet for baud rates allowed for specific Fosc.
Requires
Routine requires the UART1 module.
Example
/* dsPIC30 family example
Initialize hardware UART and establish communication at
2400 bps, 8-bit data, even parity and 2 STOP bits */
Uart_Init_Advanced(2400, 2, 1);
/* dsPIC33 and pic24 family example
Initialize hardware UART and establish communication at
2400 bps, 8-bit data, even parity, 2 STOP bits and high speed
baud rate calculations */
Uart_Init_Advanced(2400, 2, 1, 1);
page
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Uart_Data_Ready
Prototype
unsigned Uart_Data_Ready(void);
Returns
- 1 if data is ready for reading
- 0 if there is no data in the receive register
Description
The function tests if data in receive buffer is ready for reading.
Note: if MCU has 2 UART modules, active module will be used. See Uart_Set_Active
routine.
Requires
Routine requires at least one UART module.
Used UART module must be initialized before using this routine.
See Uart1_Init, Uart2_Init and Uart_Init routines.
Example
unsigned receive;
...
// read data if ready
if (Uart_Data_Ready())
receive = Uart_Read_Char();
Uart_Read_Char
Prototype
unsigned Uart_Read_Char(void);
Returns
Received byte.
Description
The function receives a byte via UART. Use the Uart_Data_Ready function to test if
data is ready first.
Note: if MCU has 2 UART modules, active module will be used. See
Uart_Set_Active routine.
Requires
Routine requires at least one UART module.
Used UART module must be initialized before using this routine.
See Uart1_Init, Uart2_Init and Uart_Init routines.
Example
unsigned receive;
...
// read data if ready
if (Uart_Data_Ready())
receive = Uart_Read_Char();
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Uart_Write_Char
Prototype
void Uart_Write_Char(unsigned char data);
Description
The function transmits a byte via the UART module.
Parameters :
- data: data to be sent
Note: if MCU has 2 UART modules, active module will be used. See Uart_Set_Active
routine.
Requires
Routine requires at least one UART module.
Used UART module must be initialized before using this routine.
See Uart1_Init, Uart2_Init and Uart_Init routines.
Example
unsigned char data = 0x1E;
...
Uart_Write_Char(data);
Uart_Set_Active
Prototype
void Uart_Set_Active(char UartNo);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Sets active UART module which will be used by Uart_Data_Ready,
Uart_Read_Char and Uart_Write_Char routines.
Parameters :
- UartNo: module number. Valid values: 1 (for UART1) and 2 (for UART2)
Requires
Routine is available only for MCUs with two UART modules.
Used UART module must be initialized before using this routine.
See Uart1_Init, Uart2_Init and Uart_Init routines.
Example
// Activate UART2 module
Uart_Set_Active(2);
page
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
Uart_Set_Active
This example demonstrates simple data exchange via UART. If MCU is connected
to the PC, you can test the example from the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24
USART communication terminal, launch it from the drop-down menu
Tools › USART Terminal or simply click the USART Terminal Icon.
unsigned rx1;
void main() {
Uart1_Init(9600);
Uart1_Write_Char('s');
while(1)
{
if (Uart1_Data_Ready()) {
rx1 = Uart1_Read_Char();
Uart1_Write_Char(rx1);
}
}
}//~!
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
Hardware Connection
PC
6
RS-232
CON
9
1
5
SUB-D 9p
CONNECT
MCU TO PC
Receive
data (Rx)
SERIAL
CABLE
CONNECT
PC TO MCU
6
RS-232
CON
9
8
SUB-D 9p
4
9
5
1
5
2
7
3
1
6
Send
Data (Tx)
10uF
10uF
C1+
VS+
C1C2+
C2VS-
MAX232
10uF
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
11
12
13
14
VCC
T2OUT
R2IN
VCC
GND
T1OUT
R1IN
R1OUT
T1IN
T2IN
R2OUT
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
VCC
GND
OSC1
OSC2
dsPIC4013
VCC
10uF
RF2
RF3
26
25
Rx
Tx
page
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
ANSI C Ctype Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a set of standard ANSI C library
functions for testing and mapping characters.
Note: Not all of the standard functions have been included.
Note: The functions have been mostly implemented according to the ANSI C standard, but certain functions have been modified in order to facilitate dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 programming. Be sure to skim through the description before using
standard C functions.
Library Routines
isalnum
isalpha
iscntrl
isdigit
isgraph
islower
ispunct
isspace
isupper
isxdigit
toupper
tolower
isalnum
Prototype
unsigned int isalnum(unsigned int character);
Description
Function returns 1 if the character is alphanumeric (A-Z, a-z, 0-9), otherwise returns
zero.
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isalpha
Prototype
unsigned int isalpha(unsigned int character);
Description
Function returns 1 if the character is alphabetic (A-Z, a-z), otherwise returns zero.
iscntrl
Prototype
unsigned int iscntrl(unsigned int character);
Description
Function returns 1 if the character is a control or delete character(decimal 0-31 and
127), otherwise returns zero.
isdigit
Prototype
unsigned int isdigit(unsigned int character);
Description
Function returns 1 if the character is a digit (0-9), otherwise returns zero.
isgraph
Prototype
unsigned int isgraph(unsigned int character);
Description
Function returns 1 if the character is a printable, excluding the space (decimal 32),
otherwise returns zero.
page
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islower
Prototype
unsigned int islower(unsigned int character);
Description
Function returns 1 if the character is a lowercase letter (a-z), otherwise returns zero.
ispunct
Prototype
unsigned int ispunct(unsigned int character);
Description
Function returns 1 if the character is a punctuation (decimal 32-47, 58-63, 91-96,
123-126), otherwise returns zero.
isspace
Prototype
unsigned int isspace(unsigned int character);
Description
Function returns 1 if the character is a white space (space, CR, HT, VT, NL, FF), otherwise returns zero.
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isupper
Prototype
unsigned int isupper(unsigned int character);
Description
Function returns 1 if the character is an uppercase letter (A-Z), otherwise returns
zero.
isxdigit
Prototype
unsigned int isxdigit(unsigned int character);
Description
Function returns 1 if the character is a hex digit (0-9, A-F, a-f), otherwise returns
zero.
toupper
Prototype
unsigned int toupper(unsigned int character);
Description
If the character is a lowercase letter (a-z), the function returns an uppercase letter.
Otherwise, the function returns an unchanged input parameter.
tolower
Prototype
unsigned int tolower(unsigned int character);
Description
If the character is an uppercase letter (A-Z), function returns a lowercase letter.
Otherwise, function returns an unchanged input parameter.
page
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mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 - C Compiler for Microchip dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 microcontrollers
ANSI C Math Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a set of standard ANSI C library
functions for floating point math handling.
Note: Not all of the standard functions have been included.
Note: The functions have been mostly implemented according to the ANSI C standard, but certain functions have been modified in order to facilitate dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 programming. Be sure to skim through the description before using
standard C functions.
Library Routines
acos
asin
atan
atan2
ceil
cos
cosh
exp
fabs
floor
frexp
ldexp
log
log10
modf
pow
sin
sinh
sqrt
tan
tanh
acos
Prototype
double acos(double x);
Description
Function returns the arc cosine of parameter x; that is, the value whose cosine is x. The
input parameter x must be between -1 and 1 (inclusive). The return value is in radians,
between 0 and pi (inclusive).
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asin
Prototype
double asin(double x);
Description
Function returns the arc sine of parameter x; that is, the value whose sine is x. The input
parameter x must be between -1 and 1 (inclusive). The return value is in radians,
between -pi/2 and pi/2 (inclusive).
atan
Prototype
double atan(double f);
Description
Function computes the arc tangent of parameter f; that is, the value whose tangent is f.
The return value is in radians, between -pi/2 and pi/2 (inclusive).
atan2
Prototype
double atan2(double y, double x);
Description
This is the two-argument arc tangent function. It is similar to computing the arc tangent
of y/x, except that the signs of both arguments are used to determine the quadrant of the
result and x is permitted to be zero. The return value is in radians, between -pi and pi
(inclusive).
ceil
Prototype
double ceil(double x);
Description
Function returns value of parameter x rounded up to the next whole number.
page
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cos
Prototype
double cos(double f);
Description
Function returns the cosine of f in radians. The return value is from -1 to 1.
cosh
Prototype
double cosh(double x);
Description
Function returns the hyperbolic cosine of x, defined mathematically as (ex+e-x)/2. If
the value of x is too large (if overflow occurs), the function fails.
exp
Prototype
double exp(double x);
Description
Function returns the value of e — the base of natural logarithms — raised to the power
of x (i.e. ex).
fabs
Prototype
double fabs(double d);
Description
Function returns the absolute (i.e. positive) value of d.
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floor
Prototype
double floor(double x);
Description
Function returns the value of parameter x rounded down to the nearest integer.
frexp
Prototype
double frexp(double value, int *eptr);
Description
Function splits a floating-point value value into a normalized fraction and an integral
power of 2. The return value is the normalized fraction and the integer exponent is
stored in the object pointed to by eptr.
ldexp
Prototype
double ldexp(double value, int newexp);
Description
Function returns the result of multiplying the floating-point number value by 2 raised
to the power exp (i.e. returns x*2n).
log
Prototype
double log(double x);
Description
Function returns the natural logarithm of x (i.e. loge(x)).
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log10
Prototype
double log10(double x);
Description
Function returns the base-10 logarithm of x (i.e. log10(x)).
modf
Prototype
double modf(double val, double *iptr);
Description
Function returns the signed fractional component of val, placing its whole number
component into the variable pointed to by iptr.
pow
Prototype
double pow(double x, double y);
Description
Function returns the value of x raised to the power of y (i.e. xy). If the x is negative,
function will automatically cast the y into unsigned long.
sin
Prototype
double sin(double f);
Description
Function returns the sine of f in radians. The return value is from -1 to 1.
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sinh
Prototype
double sinh(double x);
Description
Function returns the hyperbolic sine of x, defined mathematically as (ex-e-x)/2. If the
value of x is too large (if overflow occurs), the function fails.
sqrt
Prototype
double sqrt(double x);
Description
Function returns the non negative square root of x.
tan
Prototype
double tan(double x);
Description
Function returns the tangent of x in radians. The return value spans the allowed range of
floating point in the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24.
tanh
Prototype
double tanh(double x);
Description
Function returns the hyperbolic tangent of x, defined mathematically as
sinh(x)/cosh(x).
page
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ANSI C Stdlib Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a set of standard ANSI C library
functions of general utility.
Note: Not all of the standard functions have been included.
Note: Functions have been mostly implemented according to the ANSI C standard,
but certain functions have been modified in order to facilitate dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24 programming. Be sure to skim through the description before using standard C functions.
Library Routines
abs
atof
atoi
atol
div
ldiv
labs
max
min
rand
srand
xtoi
abs
Prototype
int abs(int a);
Description
Function returns the absolute (i.e. positive) value of a.
atof
Prototype
double atof(char *s)
Description
Function converts the input string s into a double precision value and returns the value.
Input string s should conform to the floating point literal format, with an optional whitespace at the beginning. The string will be processed one character at a time, until the
function reaches a character which it doesn’t recognize (including a null character).
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atoi
Prototype
int atoi(char *s);
Description
Function converts the input string s into an integer value and returns the value. The
input string s should consist exclusively of decimal digits, with an optional whitespace
and a sign at the beginning. The string will be processed one character at a time, until
the function reaches a character which it doesn’t recognize (including a null character).
atol
Prototype
long atol(char *s)
Description
Function converts the input string s into a long integer value and returns the value. The
input string s should consist exclusively of decimal digits, with an optional whitespace
and a sign at the beginning. The string will be processed one character at a time, until
the function reaches a character which it doesn’t recognize (including a null character).
div
Prototype
div_t div(int numer, int denom);
Description
Function computes the result of division of the numerator numer by the denominator
denom; the function returns a structure of type div_t comprising quotient (quot) and
remainder (rem), see Div Structures.
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ldiv
Prototype
ldiv_t ldiv(long numer, long denom);
Description
Function is similar to the div function, except that the arguments and result structure
members all have type long.
Function computes the result of division of the numerator numer by the denominator
denom; the function returns a structure of type div_t comprising quotient (quot) and
remainder (rem), see Div Structures.
labs
Prototype
long labs(long x);
Description
Function returns the absolute (i.e. positive) value of a long integer x.
max
Prototype
int max(int a, int b);
Description
Function returns greater of the two integers, a and b.
min
Prototype
int min(int a, int b);
Description
Function returns lower of the two integers, a and b.
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rand
Prototype
int rand();
Description
Function returns a sequence of pseudo-random numbers between 0 and 32767. Function
will always produce the same sequence of numbers unless srand() is called to seed the
starting point.
srand
Prototype
void srand(unsigned x);
Description
Function uses x as a starting point for a new sequence of pseudo-random numbers to be
returned by subsequent calls to rand. No values are returned by this function.
xtoi
Prototype
unsigned xtoi(register char *s);
Description
Function converts the input string s consisting of hexadecimal digits into an integer
value. The input parameter s should consist exclusively of hexadecimal digits, with an
optional whitespace and a sign at the beginning. The string will be processed one character at a time, until the function reaches a character which it doesn’t recognize (including a null character).
Div Structures
typedef struct divstruct {
int quot;
int rem;
} div_t;
typedef struct ldivstruct {
long quot;
long rem;
} ldiv_t;
typedef struct uldivstruct {
unsigned long quot;
unsigned long rem;
} uldiv_t;
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ANSI C String Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides a set of standard ANSI C library
functions useful for manipulating strings and RAM memory.
Note: Not all of the standard functions have been included.
Note: Functions have been mostly implemented according to the ANSI C standard,
but certain functions have been modified in order to facilitate dsPIC30/33 and
PIC24 programming. Be sure to skim through the description before using standard C functions.
Library Routines
memchr
memcmp
memcpy
memmove
memset
strcat
strchr
strcmp
strcpy
strlen
strncat
strncpy
strspn
strncmp
strstr
strcspn
strpbrk
strrchr
memchr
Prototype
void *memchr(void *p, unsigned int n, unsigned int v);
Description
Function locates the first occurrence of int n in the initial v words of memory area starting at the address p. The function returns the pointer to this location or 0 if the n was
not found. For parameter p you can use either a numerical value (literal/variable/constant) indicating memory address or a dereferenced value of an object, for example
&mystring or &PORTB.
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memcmp
Prototype
int memcmp(void *s1, void *s2, int n);
Description
Function compares the first n characters of objects pointed to by s1 and s2 and returns
zero if the objects are equal, or returns a difference between the first differing characters
(in a left-to-right evaluation). Accordingly, the result is greater than zero if the object
pointed to by s1 is greater than the object pointed to by s2 and vice versa.
memcpy
Prototype
void *memcpy(void *d1, void *s2, int n);
Description
Function copies n characters from the object pointed to by s2 into the object pointed to
by d1. If copying takes place between objects that overlap, the behavior is undefined.
The function returns address of the object pointed to by d1.
memmove
Prototype
void *memmove(void *to, void *from, register int n);
Description
Function copies n characters from the object pointed to by from into the object pointed
to by to. Unlike memcpy, the memory areas to and from may overlap. The function
returns address of the object pointed to by to.
memset
Prototype
void *memset(void *p1, char character, int n);
Description
Function copies the value of the character into each of the first n characters of the
object pointed by p1. The function returns address of the object pointed to by p1.
strcat
Prototype
char *strcat(char *to, char *from);
Description
Function appends a copy of the string from to the string to, overwriting the null character at the end of to. Then, a terminating null character is added to the result. If copying
takes place between objects that overlap, the behavior is undefined. to string must have
enough space to store the result. The function returns address of the object pointed to by
to.
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strchr
Prototype
char *strchr(char *ptr, char chr);
Description
Function locates the first occurrence of character chr in the string ptr. The function
returns a pointer to the first occurrence of character chr, or a null pointer if chr does not
occur in ptr. The terminating null character is considered to be a part of the string.
strcmp
Prototype
int strcmp(char *s1, char *s2);
Description
Function compares strings s1 and s2 and returns zero if the strings are equal, or returns a
difference between the first differing characters (in a left-to-right evaluation).
Accordingly, the result is greater than zero if s1 is greater than s2 and vice versa.
strcpy
Prototype
char *strcpy(char *to, char *from);
Description
Function copies the string from into the string to. If copying is successful, the function
returns to. If copying takes place between objects that overlap, the behavior is undefined.
strlen
Prototype
int strlen(char *s);
Description
Function returns the length of the string s (the terminating null character does not count
against string’s length).
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strncat
Prototype
char *strncat(char *to, char *from, int size);
Description
Function appends not more than size characters from the string from to to. The initial
character of from overwrites the null character at the end of to. The terminating null
character is always appended to the result. The function returns to.
strncpy
Prototype
char *strncpy(char *to, char *from, int size);
Description
Function copies not more than size characters from string from to to. If copying takes
place between objects that overlap, the behavior is undefined. If from is shorter than size
characters, then to will be padded out with null characters to make up the difference.
The function returns the resulting string to.
strspn
Prototype
int strspn(char *s1, char *s2);
Description
Function returns the length of the maximum initial segment of s1 which consists entirely
of characters from s2. The terminating null character at the end of the string is not compared.
Strncmp
Prototype
int strncmp(char *s1, char *s2, char len);
Description
Function lexicographically compares not more than len characters (characters that follow the null character are not compared) from the string pointed by s1 to the string
pointed by s2. The function returns a value indicating the s1 and s2 relationship:
Value
< 0
= 0
> 0
Meaning
s1 "less than" s2
s1 "equal to" s2
s1 "greater than" s2
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Strstr
Prototype
char *strstr(char *s1, char *s2);
Description
Function locates the first occurrence of the string s2 in the string s1 (excluding the terminating null character).
The function returns pointer to first occurrence of s2 in s1; if no string was found, function returns 0. If s2 is a null string, the function returns 0.
Strcspn
Prototype
char *strcspn(char * s1, char *s2);
Description
Function computes the length of the maximum initial segment of the string pointed to by
s1 that consists entirely of characters that are not in the string pointed to by s2.
The function returns the length of the initial segment.
Strpbrk
Prototype
char *strpbrk(char * s1, char *s2);
Description
Function searches s1 for the first occurrence of any character from the string s2. The terminating null character is not included in the search. The function returns pointer to the
matching character in s1. If s1 contains no characters from s2, the function returns 0.
Strrchr
Prototype
char *strrchr(char * ptr, unsigned int chr);
Description
Function searches the string ptr for the last occurrence of character chr. The null character terminating ptr is not included in the search. The function returns pointer to the last
chr found in ptr; if no matching character was found, function returns 0.
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Conversions Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Conversions Library provides routines for
numerals to strings and BCD/decimal conversions.
Library Routines
You can get text representation of numerical value by passing it to one of the following routines:
ByteToStr
ShortToStr
WordToStr
IntToStr
LongToStr
LongWordToStr
FloatToStr
The following functions convert decimal values to BCD and vice versa:
Dec2Bcd
Bcd2Dec16
Dec2Bcd16
ByteToStr
Prototype
void ByteToStr(unsigned short input, char *output);
Description
Converts input byte to a string. The output string has fixed width of 4 characters including null character at the end (string termination). The output string is right justified and
remaining positions on the left (if any) are filled with blanks.
Parameters :
- input: byte to be converted
- output: destination string
Requires
Destination string should be at least 4 characters in length.
Example
unsigned short t = 24;
char txt[4];
...
ByteToStr(t, txt); // txt is " 24" (one blank here)
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ShortToStr
Prototype
void ShortToStr(short input, char *output);
Description
Converts input signed short number to a string. The output string has fixed width of 5
characters including null character at the end (string termination). The output string is
right justified and remaining positions on the left (if any) are filled with blanks.
Parameters :
- input: signed short number to be converted
- output: destination string
Requires
Destination string should be at least 5 characters in length.
Example
short t = -24;
char txt[5];
...
ShortToStr(t, txt);
// txt is " -24" (one blank here)
WordToStr
Prototype
void WordToStr(unsigned input, char *output);
Description
Converts input word to a string. The output string has fixed width of 6 characters
including null character at the end (string termination). The output string is right justified and the remaining positions on the left (if any) are filled with blanks.
Parameters :
- input: word to be converted
- output: destination string
Requires
Destination string should be at least 6 characters in length.
Example
unsigned t = 437;
char txt[6];
...
WordToStr(t, txt);
// txt is "
437" (two blanks here)
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IntToStr
Prototype
void IntToStr(int input, char *output);
Description
Converts input signed integer number to a string. The output string has fixed width of 7
characters including null character at the end (string termination). The output string is
right justified and the remaining positions on the left (if any) are filled with blanks.
Parameters :
- input: signed integer number to be converted
- output: destination string
Requires
Destination string should be at least 7 characters in length.
Example
int j = -4220;
char txt[7];
...
IntToStr(j, txt);
// txt is " -4220" (one blank here)
LongToStr
Prototype
void LongToStr(long input, char *output);
Description
Converts input signed long integer number to a string. The output string has fixed width
of 12 characters including null character at the end (string termination). The output
string is right justified and the remaining positions on the left (if any) are filled with
blanks.
Parameters :
- input: signed long integer number to be converted
- output: destination string
Requires
Destination string should be at least 12 characters in length.
Example
long jj = -3700000;
char txt[12];
...
LongToStr(jj, txt);
// txt is "
-3700000" (three blanks here)
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LongWordToStr
Prototype
void LongWordToStr(unsigned long input, char *output);
Description
Converts input unsigned long integer number to a string. The output string has fixed
width of 11 characters including null character at the end (string termination). The output string is right justified and the remaining positions on the left (if any) are filled with
blanks.
Parameters :
- input: unsigned long integer number to be converted
- output: destination string
Requires
Destination string should be at least 11 characters in length.
Example
unsigned long jj = 3700000;
char txt[11];
...
LongToStr(jj, txt);
// txt is "
3700000" (three blanks here)
FloatToStr
Prototype
unsigned char FloatToStr(float fnum, unsigned char *str);
Description
Converts a floating point number to a string. Parameters :
- fnum: floating point number to be converted
- str: destination string
The output string is left justified and null terminated after the last digit.
Note: Given floating point number will be truncated to 7 most significant digits before
conversion.
Requires
Destination string should be at least 14 characters in length.
Example
float ff1 = -374.2;
float ff2 = 123.456789;
float ff3 = 0.000001234;
char txt[15];
...
FloatToStr(ff1, txt); // txt is "-374.2"
FloatToStr(ff2, txt); // txt is "123.4567"
FloatToStr(ff3, txt); // txt is "1.234e-6"
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Dec2Bcd
Prototype
unsigned short Dec2Bcd(unsigned short decnum);
Returns
Converted BCD value.
Description
Converts input unsigned short integer number to its appropriate BCD representation.
Parameters :
- decnum: unsigned short integer number to be converted
Example
unsigned short a, b;
...
a = 22;
b = Dec2Bcd(a);
// b equals 34
Bcd2Dec16
Prototype
unsigned Bcd2Dec16(unsigned bcdnum);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Converts 16-bit BCD numeral to its decimal equivalent.
Parameters :
- bcdnum: 16-bit BCD numeral to be converted
Example
unsigned a, b;
...
a = 0x1234;
b = Bcd2Dec16(a);
// a equals 4660
// b equals 1234
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Dec2Bcd16
Prototype
unsigned Dec2Bcd16(unsigned decnum);
Returns
Converted BCD value.
Description
Converts unsigned 16-bit decimal value to its BCD equivalent.
Parameters :
- decnum: unsigned 16-bit decimal number to be converted
Example
unsigned a, b;
...
a = 2345;
b = Dec2Bcd16(a);
// b equals 9029
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Setjmp Library
The Setjmp library contains functions and types definitions for bypassing the normal function call and return discipline.
jmp_buf is an array of unsigned int type suitable for holding information needed
to restore a calling environment. Type declaration is contained in the sejmp.h
header file which can be found in the include folder of the compiler.
Library Routines
Setjmp
Longjmp
Setjmp
Prototype
int Setjmp(jmp_buf env);
Returns
- 0 if the return is from direct invocation
- nonzero value if the return is from a call to Longjmp
(this value will be set by the Longjmp routine).
Description
This function saves calling position for a later use by Longjmp.
Parameters :
- env: buffer suitable for holding information needed for restoring calling environment
Requires
Nothing.
Example
jmp_buf buf;
...
Setjmp(buf);
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Longjmp
Prototype
void Longjmp(jmp_buf env, int val);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Restores calling environment saved in env buffer by the most recent invocation of
Setjmp. If there has been no such invocation, or the function containing the invocation
of Setjmp has terminated in the interim, the behavior is undefined.
Parameters :
- env: buffer holding the information saved by the corresponding Setjmp invocation
- val: value to be returned by the corresponding Setjmp function
Requires
Invocation of Longjmp must occur before return from the function in which Setjmp
was called encounters.
Example
jmp_buf buf;
...
Longjmp(buf, 2);
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Library Example
This example demonstrates function cross calling using the Setjmp and Longjmp
functions. When called, Setjmp saves its calling environment in its jmp_buf argument for a later use by Longjmp. Longjmp, on the other hand, restores the environment saved by the most recent invocation of Setjmp with the corresponding
jmp_buf argument.
#include <Setjmp.h>
jmp_buf buf;
// Note: Program flow diagrams are indexed according
//
to the sequence of execution
void func33(){
Delay_ms(1000);
asm nop;
Longjmp(buf, 2);
asm nop;
}
void func(){
portb = 3;
if (Setjmp(buf) == 2)
portb = 1;
else
func33();
}
void main() {
PORTB = 0;
TRISB = 0;
asm nop;
func();
asm nop;
Delay_ms(1000);
PORTB = 0xFFFF;
}
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Sprint Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 provides the standard ANSI C Sprintf
function for easy data formatting.
Note: In addition to ANSI C standard, the Sprint Library also includes two limited
versions of the sprintf function (sprinti and sprintl). These functions take less
ROM and RAM and may be more convenient for use in some cases.
Library Routines
sprintf
sprintl
sprinti
sprintf
Prototype
sprintf(char *wh, const char *f,...);
Returns
The function returns the number of characters actually written to destination string.
Description
sprintf is used to format data and print them into destination string. Parameters :
- wh: destination string
- f: format string
The f argument is a format string and may be composed of characters, escape
sequences, and format specifications. Ordinary characters and escape sequences are
copied to the destination string in the order in which they are interpreted. Format specifications always begin with a percent sign (%) and require additional arguments to be
included in the function call.
The format string is read from left to right. The first format specification encountered
refers to the first argument after f and then converts and outputs it using the format
specification. The second format specification accesses the second argument after f, and
so on. If there are more arguments than format specifications, then these extra arguments are ignored. Results are unpredictable if there are not enough arguments for the
format specifications. The format specifications have the following format:
% [flags] [width] [.precision]
[{ l | L }]
conversion_type
Each field in the format specification can be a single character or a number which specifies a particular format option. The conversion_type field is where a single character
specifies that the argument is interpreted as a character, string, number, or pointer, as
shown in the following table: // continues on the next page ...
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Description
// continued from previous page
...
Conversion
Type
Argument
Type
Output Format
d
int
u
unsigned
int
Unsigned decimal number
o
unsigned
int
Unsigned octal number
x
unsigned
int
Unsigned hexadecimal number using 0123456789abcdef
X
double
Unsigned hexadecimal number using
0123456789ABCEDF
f
double
Floating-point number using the format [-]dddd.dddd
e
double
Floating-point number using the format [-]d.dddde[-]dd
E
double
Floating-point number using the format [-]d.ddddE[-]dd
g
double
Floating-point number using either e or f format,
whichever is more compact for the specified value and
precision
c
int
int is converted to unsigned char, and the resulting
Signed decimal number
character is written
s
char *
String with a terminating null character
p
void *
Pointer value, the X format is used
%
none
A % is written. No argument is converted. The complete
conversion specification shall be %%.
The flags field is where a single character is used to justify the output and to print +/signs and blanks, decimal points, and octal and hexadecimal prefixes, as shown in the
following table.
// continues on the next page ...
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Description
// continued from previous page
...
Meaning
Flags
-
Left justify the output in the specified field width.
+
Prefix the output value with + or - sign if the output is a signed type.
space
(' ')
Prefix the output value with a blank if it is a signed positive value.
Otherwise, no blank is prefixed.
#
Prefixes a non-zero output value with 0, 0x, or 0X when used with o,
x, and X field types, respectively. When used with e, E, f, g, and
G field types, the # flag forces the output value to include a decimal
point. The # flag is ignored in all other cases.
*
Ignore format specifier.
The width field is a non-negative number that specifies the minimum number of printed characters. If a number of characters in the output value is less than width, then
blanks are added on the left or right (when the - flag is specified) to pad to the minimum
width. If width is prefixed with 0, then zeros are padded instead of blanks. The width
field never truncates a field. If a length of the output value exceeds the specified width,
all characters are output.
The precision field is a non-negative number that specifies a number of characters to
print, number of significant digits or number of decimal places. The precision field can
cause truncation or rounding of the output value in the case of a floating-point number
as specified in the following table.
// continues on the next page ...
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Description
// continued from previous page
...
Flags
Meaning of the precision field
d, u, o,
x, X
The precision field is where you specify a minimum number of digits
that will be included in the output value. Digits are not truncated if the
number of digits in the argument exceeds that defined in the precision
field. If a number of digits in the argument is less than the precision
field, the output value is padded on the left with zeros.
f
The precision field is where you specify a number of digits to the
right of the decimal point. The last digit is rounded.
e, E
The precision field is where you specify a number of digits to the
right of the decimal point. The last digit is rounded.
g
c, C
s
The precision field is where you specify a maximum number of significant digits in the output value.
The precision field has no effect on these field types.
The precision field is where you specify a maximum number of characters in the output value. Excess characters are not output.
The optional characters l or L may immediately precede conversion_type to respectively
specify long versions of the integer types d, i, u, o, x, and X.
You must ensure that the argument type matches that of the format specification. You
can use type casts to ensure that the proper type is passed to sprintf.
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sprintl
*wh, const char *f,...);
Prototype
sprintl(char
Returns
The function returns the number of characters actually written to destination string.
Description
The same as sprintf, except it doesn't support float-type numbers.
sprinti
*wh, const char *f,...);
Prototype
sprinti(char
Returns
The function returns the number of characters actually written to destination string.
Description
The same as sprintf, except it doesn't support long integers and float-type numbers.
Library Example
This is a demonstration of usage of some standard C library functions located in
the c_math library. Various calculations are performed and the result is being
printed on Lcd (8bit mode) using the Sprintf function.
#define PI 3.14159265358979
double ww, pp, xx = 1.2587538e+1;
char niz[30];
void main(){
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
Lcd8_Custom_Config(&PORTD,7,6,5,4,3,2,1,0, &PORTB, 4, 5, 6);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CURSOR_OFF);
while(1){
Lcd8_Custom_Out(1,1,"
Easy_math
Lcd8_Custom_Out(2,1,"
demo:
Delay_ms(2000);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
");
");
pp = sin(PI/2.);
sprintf(niz, "
sin(PI/2)=");
// continues ...
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// continued ...
Lcd8_Custom_Out(1,1,niz);
sprintf(niz, "%9g", pp);
Lcd8_Custom_Out(2,1,niz);
Delay_ms(2000);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
pp = cos(PI);
sprintf(niz, "
cos(PI)=" );
Lcd8_Custom_Out(1,1,niz);
sprintf(niz, "%9g", pp);
Lcd8_Custom_Out(2,1,niz);
Delay_ms(2000);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
pp = sinh(PI/4.);
sprintf(niz, "
sinh(PI/4)=");
Lcd8_Custom_Out(1,1,niz);
sprintf(niz, "%12.5g", pp);
Lcd8_Custom_Out(2,1,niz);
Delay_ms(2000);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
pp = cosh(PI/4.);
sprintf(niz, "
cosh(PI/4)=");
Lcd8_Custom_Out(1,1,niz);
sprintf(niz, "%11.5g", pp);
Lcd8_Custom_Out(2,1,niz);
Delay_ms(2000);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
pp = tan(PI/4.);
sprintf(niz, "
tan(PI/4)=");
Lcd8_Custom_Out(1,1,niz);
sprintf(niz, "%8g", pp);
Lcd8_Custom_Out(2,1,niz);
Delay_ms(2000);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
pp = asin(sin(PI/2.));
sprintf(niz, "asin(sin(PI/2))=");
Lcd8_Custom_Out(1,1,niz);
sprintf(niz, "%11.5g", pp);
Lcd8_Custom_Out(2,1,niz);
Delay_ms(2000);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
// continues ...
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// continued ...
pp = acos(cos(PI));
sprintf(niz, " acos(cos(PI))=");
Lcd8_Custom_Out(1,1,niz);
sprintf(niz, "%12g", pp);
Lcd8_Custom_Out(2,1,niz);
Delay_ms(2000);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
pp = asin(sin(PI/4.));
sprintf(niz, "asin(sin(PI/4))=");
Lcd8_Custom_Out(1,1,niz);
sprintf(niz, "%12.5g", pp);
Lcd8_Custom_Out(2,1,niz);
Delay_ms(2000);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
pp = acos(cos(PI/4.));
sprintf(niz, "acos(cos(PI/4))=");
Lcd8_Custom_Out(1,1,niz);
sprintf(niz, "%12.5g", pp);
Lcd8_Custom_Out(2,1,niz);
Delay_ms(2000);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
pp = atan(tan(PI/4.));
sprintf(niz, "atan(tan(PI/4))=");
Lcd8_Custom_Out(1,1,niz);
sprintf(niz, "%12.5g", pp);
Lcd8_Custom_Out(2,1,niz);
Delay_ms(2000);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
pp = exp(xx);
sprintf(niz, " exp(%g) =", xx);
Lcd8_Custom_Out(1,1,niz);
sprintf(niz, "%14e", pp);
Lcd8_Custom_Out(2,1,niz);
Delay_ms(2000);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
// continues ...
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// continued ...
ww = log10(xx);
sprintf(niz, "log10(%g)=", xx);
Lcd8_Custom_Out(1,1,niz);
sprintf(niz, "%12g", ww);
Lcd8_Custom_Out(2,1,niz);
Delay_ms(2000);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
ww = pow(xx,2.);
sprintf(niz, " pow(%g,%g)=", xx, 2.);
Lcd8_Custom_Out(1,1,niz);
sprintf(niz, "%12g", ww);
Lcd8_Custom_Out(2,1,niz);
Delay_ms(2000);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
pp =
pow(atan(exp(log(sin(cos(PI/4.))))),atan(exp(log(cos(sin(PI/4.))))));
sprintf(niz, " complex_exp=");
Lcd8_Custom_Out(1,1,niz);
sprintf(niz, "%12g", pp);
Lcd8_Custom_Out(2,1,niz);
Delay_ms(2000);
Lcd8_Custom_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
}
}//~!
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Time Library
The Time Library contains functions and type definitions for time calculations in
the UNIX time format which counts the number of seconds since the "epoch".
This is very convenient for programs that work with time intervals: the difference
between two UNIX time values is a real-time difference measured in seconds.
What is the epoch?
Originally it was defined as the beginning of 1970 GMT. ( January 1, 1970 Julian
day ) GMT, Greenwich Mean Time, is a traditional term for the time zone in
England.
The TimeStruct type is a structure type suitable for time and date storage. Type
declaration is contained in timelib.h which can be found in the mikroC for
dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Time Library Demo example folder.
Library Routines
Time_dateToEpoch
Time_epochToDate
Time_dateDiff
Time_dateToEpoch
Prototype
long Time_dateToEpoch(TimeStruct *ts);
Returns
Number of seconds since January 1, 1970 0h00mn00s.
Description
This function returns the unix time : number of seconds since January 1, 1970
0h00mn00s. Parameters :
- ts: time and date value for calculating unix time.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
#include "timelib.h"
...
TimeStruct ts1;
long epoch ;
...
/*
* what is the epoch of the date in ts ?
*/
epoch = Time_dateToEpoch(&ts1) ;
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Time_epochToDate
Prototype
void Time_epochToDate(long e, TimeStruct *ts);
Description
Converts the unix time to time and date.
Parameters :
- e: unix time (seconds since unix epoch)
- ts: time and date structure for storing conversion output
Example
#include "timelib.h"
...
TimeStruct ts2;
long epoch ;
...
/*
* what date is epoch 1234567890 ?
*/
epoch = 1234567890 ;
Time_epochToDate(epoch, &ts2) ;
Time_dateDiff
Prototype
long Time_dateDiff(TimeStruct *t1, TimeStruct *t2);
Returns
Time difference in seconds as a signed long.
Description
This function compares two dates and returns time difference in seconds as a signed
long. Result is positive if t1 is before t2, result is null if t1 is the same as t2 and result is
negative if t1 is after t2. Parameters :
- t1: time and date structure (the first comparison parameter)
- t2: time and date structure (the second comparison parameter)
Note: This function is implemented as macro in the timelib.h header file which can
be found in the mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 Time Library Demo example folder.
Example
#include "timelib.h"
...
TimeStruct ts1, ts2;
long diff ;
...
/*
* how many seconds between these two dates contained in ts1 and
* ts2 buffers?
*/
diff = Time_dateDiff(&ts1, &ts2) ;
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Library Example
This example demonstrates TimeLibraryDemo (simplified c-like time library for
the dsPIC MCU).
#include
"timelib.h"
char
*libday[] =
{
"monday",
"tuesday",
"wednesday",
"thursday",
"friday",
"saturday",
"sunday"
} ;
TimeStruct ts1, ts2 ;
main()
{
char
long
long
ts1.ss
ts1.mn
ts1.hh
ts1.md
ts1.mo
ts1.yy
buf[256] ;
epoch ;
diff ;
=
=
=
=
=
=
0 ;
7 ;
17 ;
23 ;
5 ;
2006 ;
// what is the epoch of the date in ts ?
epoch = Time_dateToEpoch(&ts1) ;
*buf = 0 ;
sprintf( buf, (const char *)"epoch of %.2d/%.2d/%.4d
%.2dh%.2dmn%.2ds (GMT+0) is : %ld, it was a %s\n",
(unsigned) ts1.md,
(unsigned) ts1.mo,
(unsigned) ts1.yy,
(unsigned) ts1.hh,
(unsigned) ts1.mn,
(unsigned) ts1.ss,
epoch,
libday[ts1.wd]
) ;
// continues ...
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// continued ...
/*
* what date is epoch 1234567890 ?
*/
epoch = 1234567890 ;
Time_epochToDate(epoch, &ts2) ;
sprintf(buf, (const char *)"Please, celebrate epoch %ld on
%.2d/%.2d/%.4d at %.2dh%.2dmn%.2ds (GMT+0), it will be a %s\n",
epoch,
(unsigned) ts2.md,
(unsigned) ts2.mo,
(unsigned) ts2.yy,
(unsigned) ts2.hh,
(unsigned) ts2.mn,
(unsigned) ts2.ss,
libday[ts2.wd]
) ;
/*
* how many seconds between these two dates there are ?
*/
diff = Time_dateDiff(&ts1, &ts2) ;
sprintf(buf, (const char *)"There are %ld seconds from
%.2d/%.2d/%.4d %.2dh%.2dmn%.2ds to %.2d/%.2d/%.4d
%.2dh%.2dmn%.2ds\n",
diff,
(unsigned) ts1.md,
(unsigned) ts1.mo,
(unsigned) ts1.yy,
(unsigned) ts1.hh,
(unsigned) ts1.mn,
(unsigned) ts1.ss,
(unsigned) ts2.md,
(unsigned) ts2.mo,
(unsigned) ts2.yy,
(unsigned) ts2.hh,
(unsigned) ts2.mn,
(unsigned) ts2.ss
) ;
}//~!
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Trigonometry Library
The mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24 implements fundamental trigonometry
functions. These functions are implemented as look-up tables. Trigonometry functions are implemented in integer format in order to save memory.
Library Routines
SinE3
CosE3
SinE3
Prototype
int sinE3(unsigned angle_deg);
Returns
The function returns the sine of input parameter.
Description
The function calculates sine multiplied by 1000 and rounded up to the nearest integer:
result = round_up(sin(angle_deg)*1000)
Parameters :
- angle_deg: input angle in degrees
Note: Return value range: -1000..1000.
Example
int res;
...
res = sinE3(45);
// result is 707
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CosE3
Prototype
int cosE3(unsigned angle_deg);
Returns
The function returns the cosine of input parameter.
Description
The function calculates cosine multiplied by 1000 and rounded up to the nearest integer:
result = round_up(cos(angle_deg)*1000)
Parameters :
- angle_deg: input angle in degrees
Note: Return value range: -1000..1000.
Example
int res;
...
res = cosE3(196);
// result is -193
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Util Library
The Util library contains miscellaneous routines useful for a project development.
Button
Prototype
unsigned int Button(unsigned int *port, unsigned int pin,
unsigned int time, unsigned int active_state);
Returns
- 255 if the pin was in the active state for given period.
- 0 otherwise
Description
The function eliminates the influence of contact flickering upon pressing a button
(debouncing). The Button pin is tested just after the function call and then again after
the debouncing period has expired. If the pin was in the active state in both cases then
the function returns 255 (true).
Parameters :
- port: button port address
- pin: button pin
- time: debouncing period in milliseconds
- active_state: determines what is considered as active state.
Valid values: 0 (logical zero) and 1 (logical one)
Example
Read RB0, to which the button is connected to and invert PORTD on transition from "1"
to "0" (release the button):
unsigned int oldstate;
void main() {
ADPCFG = 0xFFFF;
TRISB = 0xFFFF;
TRISD = 0x0000;
do {
if (Button(&PORTB, 0, 1, 1))
oldstate = 1;
if (oldstate && Button(&PORTB, 0, 1, 0)) {
LATD = ~LATD;
oldstate = 0;
}
} while(1);
}
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PrintOut
Prototype
void PrintOut(void (*prntoutfunc)(char ch), const char *f,...);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
PrintOut is used to format data and print them in a way defined by the user through a
print handler function.
Parameters :
- prntoutfunc: print handler function
- f: format string
The f argument is a format string and may be composed of characters, escape sequences,
and format specifications. Ordinary characters and escape sequences are copied to the
print handler in order in which they are interpreted. Format specifications always begin
with a percent sign (%) and require additional arguments to be included in the function
call.
The format string is read from left to right. The first format specification encountered
refers to the first argument after the f parameter and then converts and outputs it using
the format specification. The second format specification accesses the second argument
after f, and so on. If there are more arguments than format specifications, the extra arguments are ignored. Results are unpredictable if there are not enough arguments for the
format specifications. The format specifications have the following format:
% [flags] [width] [.precision]
[{ l | L }]
conversion_type
Each field in the format specification can be a single character or a number which specifies a particular format option. The conversion_type field is where a single character
specifies that an argument is interpreted as a character, string, number, or pointer, as
shown in the following table:
// continues ...
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Description
// continued ...
Conversion
Type
Argument Type
Output Format
d
int
u
unsigned int
Unsigned decimal number
o
unsigned int
Unsigned octal number
x
unsigned int
Unsigned hexadecimal number using
0123456789abcdef
X
double
Unsigned hexadecimal number using
0123456789ABCEDF
f
double
Floating-point number using the format
[-]dddd.dddd
e
double
Floating-point number using the format
[-]d.dddde[-]dd
E
double
Floating-point number using the format
[-]d.ddddE[-]dd
g
double
Floating-point number using either e or f format, whichever is more compact for the specified value and precision
c
int
int is converted to an unsigned char, and
the resulting character is written
s
char *
String with a terminating null character
p
void *
Pointer value, the X format is used
%
none
Signed decimal number
A % is written. No argument is converted. The
complete conversion specification shall be %%.
// continues ...
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Description
// continued ...
The flags field is where a single character is used to justify the output and to print +/signs and blanks, decimal points, and octal and hexadecimal prefixes, as shown in the
following table.
Flags
Meaning
-
Left justify the output in the specified field width.
+
Prefix the output value with + or - sign if the output is a signed type.
space
(' ')
Prefix the output value with a blank if it is a signed positive value.
Otherwise, no blank is prefixed.
#
Prefix a non-zero output value with 0, 0x, or 0X when used with o,
x, and X field types, respectively. When used with the e, E, f, g,
and G field types, the # flag forces the output value to include a decimal point. In any other case the # flag is ignored.
*
Ignore format specifier.
The width field is a non-negative number that specifies a minimum number of printed
characters. If a number of characters in the output value is less than width, blanks are
added on the left or right (when the - flag is specified) in order to pad to the minimum
width. If the width is prefixed with 0, then zeros are padded instead of blanks. The
width field never truncates a field. If the length of the output value exceeds the specified
width, all characters are output.
The precision field is a non-negative number that specifies the number of characters
to print, number of significant digits, or number of decimal places. The precision field
can cause truncation or rounding of the output value in the case of a floating-point number as specified in the following table.
// continues ...
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Description
// continued ...
Flags
Meaning of the precision field
d, u, o,
x, X
The precision field is where you specify the minimum number of
digits that will be included in the output value. Digits are not truncated if the number of digits in an argument exceeds that defined in the
precision field. If the number of digits in the argument is less than
the precision field, the output value is padded on the left with zeros.
f
The precision field is where you specify the number of digits to the
right of the decimal point. The last digit is rounded.
e, E
The precision field is where you specify the number of digits to the
right of the decimal point. The last digit is rounded.
g
c, C
s
The precision field is where you specify the maximum number of
significant digits in the output value.
The precision field has no effect on these field types.
The precision field is where you specify the maximum number of
characters in the output value. Excess characters are not output.
The optional characters l or L may immediately precede conversion_type to respectively specify long versions of the integer types d, i, u, o, x, and X.
You must ensure that the argument type matches that of the format specification. You
can use type casts to ensure that the proper type is passed to printout.
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PrintOut Example
void PrintHandler(char c){
Uart1_Write_Char(c);
}
void main(){
Uart1_Init(9600);
Delay_ms(100);
PrintOut(PrintHandler, "/*\r\n"
" * Project name:\r\n"
"
PrintOutExample (Sample usage of
PrintOut() function)\r\n"
" * Copyright:\r\n"
"
(c) MikroElektronika, 2006.\r\n"
" * Revision History:\r\n"
"
20060710:\r\n"
"
- Initial release\r\n"
" * Description:\r\n"
"
Simple demonstration on usage of the
PrintOut() function\r\n"
" * Test configuration:\r\n"
"
MCU:
dsPIC30F4013\r\n"
"
Dev.Board:
EASYdsPIC2\r\n"
"
Oscillator:
EC, %6.3fMHz\r\n"
"
Ext. Modules:
None.\r\n"
"
SW:
mikroC for dsPIC30/33
and PIC24 v3.0.0.0.\r\n"
" * NOTES:\r\n"
"
None.\r\n"
" */\r\n", Get_Fosc_kHz()/1000.);
}//~!
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Contact us:
If you are experiencing problems with any of our products or you just want additional information, please let us know.
Technical Support for compiler
If you are experiencing any trouble with mikroC for dsPIC30/33 and PIC24,
please do not hesitate to contact us - it is in our mutual interest to solve these
issues.
Discount for schools and universities
mikroElektronika offers a special discount for educational institutions. If you
would like to purchase mikroC (dsPIC30/33 and PIC24) for purely educational
purposes, please contact us.
Problems with transport or delivery
If you want to report a delay in delivery or any other problem concerning distribution of our products, please use the link given below.
Would you like to become mikroElektronika's distributor?
We in mikroElektronika are looking forward to new partnerships. If you would
like to help us by becoming distributor of our products, please let us know.
Other
If you have any other question, comment or a business proposal, please contact
us:
mikroElektronika
Admirala Geprata 1B
11000 Belgrade
EUROPE
Phone: + 381 (11) 30 66 377, + 381 (11) 30 66 378
Fax:
+ 381 (11) 30 66 379
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MikroElektronika: Development tools - Books - Compilers
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