Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 Pocket Consultant

Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 Pocket Consultant

Microsoft Exchange Server 2013

Databases, Services, & Management

Pocket Consultant

The practical, portable guide for

Exchange administrators!

Portable and precise, this pocket-sized guide delivers ready answers for managing Exchange Server databases, transport services, mail flow, and Client

Access servers. Zero in on core procedures and commands through quick-reference tables, instructions, and lists. You’ll get the focused information you need to save time and get the job done—whether at your desk or in the field.

Get fast facts to:

Create and manage database availability groups

Administer mailbox databases

Manage mail flow—services, connections,

components, queues

Configure message transport services

Manage Client Access servers

Manage web and mobile-device access

Troubleshoot Outlook Web App and Outlook

Anywhere

Implement anti-spam and message filtering

Monitor and maintain servers

Diagnose and resolve problems

About the Author

William R. Stanek is a

Microsoft MVP with 20+ years of experience in systems management and advanced programming. He is an awardwinning author of more than

150 books, including Windows 8

Administration Pocket Consultant and Windows Server 2012 Inside

Out. He is the series editor for the Pocket Consultant line of books.

Also Look For

Microsoft Exchange Server 2013

Configuration & Clients

Pocket Consultant

William Stanek

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Microsoft Exchange Server

Celebrating 30 years!

Server 2013

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William R. Stanek

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Microsoft Exchange

Server 2013:

Databases, Services,

& Management

Pocket Consultant

William Stanek

Author and Series Editor

a01t681750.indd 1 9/18/2013 11:38:24 AM

PUBLISHED BY

Microsoft Press

A Division of Microsoft Corporation

One Microsoft Way

Redmond, Washington 98052-6399

Copyright © 2013 by William R. Stanek

All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of the publisher.

Library of Congress Control Number: 2013949891

ISBN: 978-0-7356-8175-0

Printed and bound in the United States of America.

Second Printing: J une 2014

Microsoft Press books are available through booksellers and distributors worldwide. If you need support related to this book, email Microsoft Press Book Support at [email protected] microsoft.com. Please tell us what you think of this book at http://www.microsoft.com/ learning/booksurvey.

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The example companies, organizations, products, domain names, email addresses, logos, people, places, and events depicted herein are fictitious. No association with any real company, organization, product, domain name, email address, logo, person, place, or event is intended or should be inferred.

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Cover: Best & Company Design a02l681750.indd 2 9/18/2013 3:59:37 PM

Acknowledgments

T o my readers—Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 Pocket Consultant: Databases,

Services, & Management is my 42nd book for Microsoft Press. Thank you for being there with me through many books and many years.

To my wife—for many years, through many books, many millions of words, and many thousands of pages she's been there, providing support and encouragement and making every place we've lived a home.

To my kids—for helping me see the world in new ways, for having exceptional patience and boundless love, and for making every day an adventure.

To Anne, Karen, Martin, Lucinda, Juliana, and many others who’ve helped out in ways both large and small.

Special thanks to my son Will for not only installing and managing my extensive dev lab for all my books since Windows 8 Pocket Consultant but for also performing check reads of all those books as well.

—William R. Stanek a03D681750.indd 3 9/23/2013 11:05:19 AM

a03D681750.indd 4 9/23/2013 11:05:19 AM

Contents

Introduction xiii

Chapter 1 Microsoft Exchange organizations: the essentials 1

Understanding Exchange Server 2013 organizations . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Organizational architecture

2

Front-end transport

Back-end transport

4

6

Site-based and group-based routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Routing boundaries

8

IP site links

On-premises, online, and cross-premises routing

9

12

Understanding data storage in Exchange Server 2013 . . . . . . . . . 13

Working with the Active Directory data store

14

Working with the Exchange store

16

Chapter 2 Managing data and availability groups 25

Navigating the Information Store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Basic database options

26

High availability database options

Working with Active Manager

Understanding managed availability

28

30

32

Creating and managing database availability groups . . . . . . . . . . 34

Pre-staging and preparing for database availability groups

Creating database availability groups

Managing availability group membership

34

39

42

a04c681750.indd 5

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9/24/2013 12:45:18 PM

Managing database availability group networks

Changing availability group network settings

Configuring database availability group properties

Removing servers from a database availability group

Removing database availability groups

Maintaining database availability groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Switching over servers and databases

55

Checking continuous replication status

Restoring operations after a DAG member failure

58

59

45

49

52

54

54

Chapter 3 Exchange database administration 63

Working with active mailbox databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Understanding mailbox databases

64

Preparing for automatic reseed

Creating mailbox databases

65

66

Setting the default offline address book

70

Setting mailbox database limits and deletion retention

71

Recovering deleted mailboxes

Recovering deleted items from mailbox databases

75

77

Working with mailbox database copies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Creating mailbox database copies

79

Setting replay, truncation, and preference values for database copies

Suspending and resuming replication

Activating lagged database copies

Updating mailbox database copies

Monitoring database replication status

Removing database copies

81

83

84

87

90

94

Managing mailbox databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

Mounting and dismounting databases

95

Setting the maintenance interval

Moving databases

98

100

Renaming databases

Deleting databases

102

103 vi

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Content indexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

Understanding indexing

103

Managing Exchange Store Search

Troubleshooting indexing

104

106

Chapter 4 Configuring transport services 107

Working with SMTP connectors, sites, and links . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

Connecting source and destination servers

108

Managing Active Directory site details

Managing Active Directory site link details

109

112

Creating Send connectors

Viewing and managing Send connectors

Configuring Send connector DNS lookups

Setting Send connector limits

114

122

125

126

Creating Receive connectors

Viewing and managing Receive connectors

Creating Inbound and Outbound connectors with

Exchange Online

128

135

139

Configuring transport limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

Setting organizational transport limits

142

Setting connector transport limits

Setting server transport limits

143

144

Completing Transport services setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

Configuring the postmaster address and mailbox

147

Configuring shadow redundancy

Configuring Safety Net

148

153

Enabling anti-spam features

Subscribing Edge Transport servers

154

156

Chapter 5 Managing and maintaining mail flow 163

Managing message pickup, replay, throttling, and back pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

Understanding message pickup and replay

Configuring and moving the Pickup and

Replay directories

164

165

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viii

Contents a04c681750.indd 8

Changing the message processing speed

166

Configuring messaging limits for the Pickup directory

167

Configuring message throttling

Understanding back pressure

168

169

Creating and managing accepted domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

Understanding accepted domains, authoritative domains, and relay domains

Viewing accepted domains

Creating accepted domains

Changing the accepted domain type and identifier

Removing accepted domains

170

171

173

174

176

Creating and managing email address policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

Viewing email address policies

176

Creating email address policies

Editing and applying email address policies

Removing email address policies

178

182

183

Configuring journal rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

Working with journal rules

184

Setting the NDR journaling mailbox

Creating journal rules

Managing journal rules

184

185

186

Creating and managing remote domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

Viewing remote domains

186

Creating remote domains

Configuring messaging options for remote domains

Removing remote domains

187

187

189

Configuring anti-spam and message filtering options . . . . . . . . 189

Filtering spam and other unwanted mail by sender

190

Filtering spam and other unwanted email by recipient 193

Filtering connections with IP block lists

195

Defining block list exceptions and global allow/block lists

Preventing internal servers from being filtered

201

205

Configuring transport rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

Understanding transport rules

205

Creating transport rules

Managing transport rules

206

208

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Chapter 6 Managing client access 209

Mastering Outlook Web App essentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

Getting started with Outlook Web App

210

Connecting to mailboxes and public folder data over the web

Working with Outlook Web App

Enabling and disabling web access for users

Troubleshooting Outlook Web App

212

213

216

217

Managing web and mobile access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221

Using Outlook Web App and Exchange ActiveSync with IIS

221

Working with virtual directories and web applications 222

226

Enabling and disabling Outlook Web App features

Configuring ports, IP addresses, and host names used by websites

Enabling SSL on websites

230

232

Restricting incoming connections and setting time-out values

Redirecting users to alternate URLs

Controlling access to the HTTP server

235

236

237

241

Throttling Client Access

Starting, stopping, and restarting websites

Configuring URLs and authentication for the OAB

Configuring URLs and authentication for OWA

244

244

246

Configuring URLs and authentication for Exchange

ActiveSync

Configuring URLs and authentication for ECP

247

248

Configuring POP3 and IMAP4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

Enabling the Exchange POP3 and IMAP4 services

250

Configuring POP3 and IMAP4 bindings

Configuring POP3 and IMAP4 authentication

252

253

Configuring connection settings for POP3 and IMAP4

254

Configuring message retrieval settings for POP3 and IMAP4

256

Managing Outlook Anywhere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

Working with Outlook Anywhere

257

Configuring URLs and authentication for

Outlook Anywhere

258

a04c681750.indd 9

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Chapter 7 Managing mobile messaging 261

Mastering mobile device and wireless access essentials . . . . . . . 261

Using Exchange ActiveSync and Outlook Web App for Devices

262

Managing Exchange ActiveSync and Outlook Web

App for Devices

Moving from remote mail to Outlook Anywhere

262

263

Managing Exchange Server features for mobile devices . . . . . . 267

Using Autodiscover

268

Using Direct Push

Using remote device wipe

271

272

Using password recovery

Configuring direct file access

Configuring remote file access

Using WebReady Document Viewing

276

277

282

283

Working with mobile devices and device policies . . . . . . . . . . . . 285

Viewing existing mobile device mailbox policies

285

Creating mobile device mailbox policies

Optimizing mobile device mailbox policies

288

291

Assigning mobile device mailbox policies

Removing mobile device mailbox policies

293

294

Managing device access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295

Chapter 8 Exchange Server 2013 maintenance, monitoring, and queuing 299

Performing tracking and logging activities in an organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

Using message tracking

Using protocol logging

Using connectivity logging

299

307

314

Monitoring events, services, servers, and resource usage . . . . . 317

Viewing events

317

Managing essential services

Monitoring Exchange messaging components

Using performance alerting

320

321

323 x

Contents a04c681750.indd 10 9/24/2013 12:45:19 PM

Working with queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328

Understanding Exchange queues

328

Accessing the Queue Viewer

330

Managing queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331

Understanding queue summaries and queue states

331

Refreshing the queue view

Working with messages in queues

332

333

Forcing connections to queues

Suspending and resuming queues

Deleting messages from queues

334

334

335

Chapter 9 Troubleshooting Exchange Server 2013 337

Troubleshooting essentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

Tracking server health

337

Tracking user and workload throttling

Tracking configuration changes

342

343

Testing service health, mail flow, replication, and more 344

Diagnosing and resolving problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

Identifying recovery actions

348

Identifying responders

Identifying monitors

350

352

Identifying probes

Viewing error messages for probes

Tracing probe errors

353

354

356

Using Log Parser Studio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359

Getting started with Log Parser Studio

359

Performing queries in Log Parser Studio

360

Index 363

About the author 381

What do you think of this book? We want to hear from you!

Microsoft is interested in hearing your feedback so we can continually improve our books and learning resources for you. To participate in a brief online survey, please visit: microsoft.com/learning/booksurvey

Contents

xi

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a04c681750.indd 12 9/24/2013 12:45:19 PM

a05i681750.indd 13

Introduction

M

icrosoft Exchange Server 2013 Pocket Consultant: Databases, Services, &

Management is designed to be a concise and compulsively usable resource for Exchange Server 2013 administrators. This is a resource guide that you’ll want on your desk at all times. The book covers everything you need to perform the core administrative tasks for Exchange databases, transport services, mail flow,  and Client Access servers, whether your servers are running on Windows Server

2012 or Windows Server 2008 R2. Because the focus of this book is on giving you maximum value in a pocket-size guide, you don’t have to wade through hundreds of pages of extraneous information to find what you’re looking for. Instead, you’ll  easily find exactly what you need to get the job done.

This book zeroes in on daily administrative procedures, frequently performed tasks, documented examples, and options that are representative although not necessarily inclusive. One of my goals is to keep the content so concise that the book remains compact and easy to navigate while at the same time ensuring that the book is packed with as much information as possible. Thus, instead of a hefty

1,000-page tome or a lightweight 100-page quick reference, you get a valuable resource guide that can help you quickly and easily perform common tasks, and solve problems.

Although you might not install Exchange Server 2013 on touch-enabled computers, you can still manage Exchange Server 2013 from your touch-enabled computers; therefore, understanding the touch UI in addition to the revised interfaces  options will be crucial to your success. For this reason, I discuss both the touch UI  and the traditional mouse and keyboard techniques throughout this book.

When you are working with touch–enabled computers, you can manipulate onscreen elements in ways that weren’t possible previously. You can enter text by using the on-screen keyboard and also in the following ways:

Tap  Tap an item by touching it with your finger. A tap or double-tap of elements on the screen generally is the equivalent of a mouse click or doubleclick.

Press and hold  Press your finger down and leave it there for a few seconds. Pressing and holding elements on the screen generally is the equivalent of a right-click.

Swipe to select Slide an item a short distance in the opposite direction compared to how the page scrolls. This selects the items and also might bring up related commands. If pressing and holding doesn’t display commands and options for an item, try using swipe to select instead.

Swipe from edge (slide in from edge) Starting from the edge of the screen, swipe or slide in. Sliding in from the right edge opens the Charms panel. Sliding in from the left edge shows open apps and allows you to easily switch between them. Sliding in from the top or bottom edge shows commands for the active element.

xiii

9/23/2013 6:10:42 PM

Pinch  Touch an item with two or more fingers and then move the fingers  toward each other. Pinching zooms in or shows less information.

Stretch  Touch an item with two or more fingers and then move the fingers  away from each other. Stretching zooms out or shows more information.

As you’ve probably noticed, a great deal of information about Exchange Server

2013 is available on the web and in other printed books. You can find tutorials,  reference sites, discussion groups, and more to make using Exchange Server 2013 easier. However, the advantage of reading this book is that much of the information you need to learn about Exchange Server 2013 is organized in one place and presented in a straightforward and orderly fashion. This book has everything you need to master Exchange databases, transport services, mail flow, and Client Access  servers.

In this book, I teach you how features work, why they work in the way that they  do, and how to customize features to meet your needs. I also offer specific examples  of how certain features can meet your needs, and how you can use other features to troubleshoot and resolve issues you might have. In addition, this book provides  tips, best practices, and examples of how to optimize Exchange Server 2013. This book won’t just teach you how to work with Exchange databases, transport services,  mail flow, and Client Access servers; it will teach you how to squeeze every last bit of  power out of these features and options while making the most of what Exchange

Server 2013 provides.

Unlike many other books about administering Exchange Server 2013, this book doesn’t focus on a specific user level. This isn’t a lightweight beginner book. Regardless of whether you are a beginning administrator or a seasoned professional, many of the concepts in this book will be valuable to you, and you can apply them to your

Exchange Server 2013 installations.

Who is this book for?

Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 Pocket Consultant: Databases, Services, & Manage-

ment covers the Standard and Enterprise editions of Exchange Server 2013. The book is designed for the following readers:

Current Exchange Server 2013 administrators

Current Windows administrators who want to learn Exchange Server 2013

Administrators upgrading to Exchange Server 2013 from Exchange Server

2007 or Exchange Server 2010

Administrators transitioning to Exchange Server 2013 from Exchange

Server 2003

Administrators transferring from other messaging servers

Managers and supervisors who have been delegated authority to manage mailboxes or other aspects of Exchange Server 2013

To pack in as much information as possible, I had to assume that you have basic  networking skills and a basic understanding of email and messaging servers. With this in mind, I don’t devote entire chapters to explaining why email systems are 

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Introduction a05i681750.indd 14 9/23/2013 6:10:42 PM

needed or how they work, nor do I devote entire chapters to installing Exchange 

Server 2013. I do, however, provide complete details on the components of 

Exchange organizations and how you can use these components to build a fully redundant and highly available messaging environment. You will also find complete details on all the essential Exchange administration tasks for availability groups, Exchange databases, mail flow, transport services, Client Access servers,  and much more.

I also assume that you are fairly familiar with Windows Server. If you need help  learning Windows Server, I highly recommend that you buy Windows Server 2012

Pocket Consultant or Windows Server 2012 Inside Out.

How is this book organized?

Rome wasn’t built in a day, nor was this book intended to be read in a day, or in a week, or even in a month for that matter. Ideally, you’ll read this book at your own  pace, a little each day as you work your way through each of the nine chapters. The chapters are arranged in a logical order, taking you from planning for availability groups and databases to Exchange Server maintenance and disaster recovery.

Ease of reference is an essential part of this hands-on guide. This book has an expanded table of contents and an extensive index for finding answers to problems  quickly. Many other quick-reference features have been added to the book as well, including quick step-by-step procedures, lists, tables with fast facts, and extensive cross references.

As with all Pocket Consultants, Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 Pocket Consultant:

Databases, Services, & Management is designed to be a concise and easy-to-use resource for managing Exchange servers. This is the readable resource guide that you’ll want on your desktop at all times. The book covers everything you need to perform the core administration tasks for the following:

Managing availability groups and Exchange databases

Managing mail flow and transport services

Working with Client Access servers

Managing mobile messaging users

Maintaining and monitoring Exchange servers

Backing up and restoring Exchange servers

Although designed and written to stand on its own, this book also can be used with Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 Pocket Consultant: Configuration & Clients, which focuses on the following:

Deploying Exchange Server 2013

Exchange administration essentials

Managing Exchange clients

Administration of users, contacts, and mailboxes

Configuring distribution groups and address lists

Implementing Exchange Server security and permissions

Introduction

xv

a05i681750.indd 15 9/23/2013 6:10:42 PM

Because the focus is on giving you maximum value in a pocket-size guide, you don’t have to wade through hundreds of pages of extraneous information to find  what you’re looking for. Instead, you’ll find exactly what you need to get the job  done, and you’ll find it quickly.

Conventions used in this book

I’ve used a variety of elements to help keep the text clear and easy to follow. You’ll  find code terms and listings in monospace type, except when I tell you to actually  enter a command; in which case, the command appears in bold type. When I introduce and define a new term, I put it in italics.

Other conventions include the following:

Best practices To examine the best technique to use when working with advanced configuration and administration concepts

Caution To warn you of potential problems

Important To highlight important concepts and issues

More info  To provide more information on the subject

Note To provide details on a point that needs emphasis

Real world To provide real-world advice when discussing advanced topics

Security alert To point out important security issues

Tip To offer helpful hints or additional information

I truly hope you find that Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 Pocket Consultant:

Databases, Services, & Management provides everything you need to perform essential administrative tasks as quickly and efficiently as possible. You are welcome  to send your thoughts to me at [email protected]. Follow me on Twitter at

WilliamStanek and on Facebook at www.facebook.com/William.Stanek.Author.

Other resources

No single magic bullet for learning everything you’ll ever need to know about

Exchange Server 2013 exists. Although some books are offered as all-in-one guides, there’s simply no way one book can do it all. With this in mind, I hope you use this  book as it is intended to be used—as a concise and easy-to-use resource. It covers  everything you need to perform core administration tasks for availability groups, databases, transport services, mail flow, and Client Access servers, but it is by no  means exhaustive.

Your current knowledge will largely determine your success with this or any other

Exchange resource or book. As you encounter new topics, take the time to practice what you’ve learned and read about. Seek out further information as necessary to get the practical hands-on know-how and knowledge you need.

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Introduction a05i681750.indd 16 9/23/2013 6:10:43 PM

For topics this book doesn’t cover, you might want to look to Microsoft Exchange

Server 2013 Pocket Consultant: Configuration & Clients. I also recommend that  you regularly visit the Microsoft website for Exchange Server (microsoft.com/

exchangeserver/) and support.microsoft.com to stay current with the latest changes.

To help you get the most out of this book, you can visit my corresponding website at pocket-consultant.com. This site contains information about Exchange Server 2013 and updates to the book.

Errata and book support

Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this book and its companion content. Any errors that have been reported since this book was published are listed on our Microsoft Press site:

http://aka.ms/ExDSM/errata

If you find an error that is not already listed, you can report it to us through the  same page.

If you need additional support, email Microsoft Press Book Support at 

[email protected].

Please note that product support for Microsoft software is not offered through the addresses above.

We want to hear from you

At Microsoft Press, your satisfaction is our top priority, and your feedback is our most valuable asset. Please tell us what you think of this book at:

http://www.microsoft.com/learning/booksurvey

The survey is short, and we read every one of your comments and ideas. Thanks in advance for your input!

Stay in touch

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a05i681750.indd 17

Introduction

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c03681750.indd 63

CHAP TE R 3

Exchange database administration

Working with active mailbox databases 63

Working with mailbox database copies 78

Managing mailbox databases 95

Content indexing 103

D atabases are containers for information. Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 uses mailbox databases to maintain user data. The information in a particular database isn’t exclusive to mailboxes and their associated user data—Exchange Server maintains related information within databases as well. Within mailbox databases, you’ll find information about Exchange logons and mailbox usage. Exchange also maintains information about full-text indexing, although the actual content indexes are stored in separate files. In this chapter, you’ll learn how to manage databases and the information they contain.

Working with active mailbox databases

Each Mailbox server installed in the organization has an information store. The information store operates as a service and manages the server’s databases. Each mailbox database has a database file associated with it. This file is stored in a location that you specify when you create or modify the mailbox database.

Mailbox databases can be either active databases or passive copies of databases. Users access active databases to get their mailbox data. Passive copies of databases are not actively being used and are the subject of the section, “Working with mailbox database copies” later in this chapter. You create passive copies of databases as part of a high-availability configuration as discussed in Chapter 2,

“Managing data and availability groups.”

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Understanding mailbox databases

Mailboxes are the normal delivery location for messages delivered within an organization. They contain messages, attachments, and other types of information that the user might have placed in the mailbox. Mailboxes, in turn, are stored in mailbox databases.

When you install a Mailbox server, Setup creates a default mailbox database. The default mailbox database is meant to be a starting point, and most Exchange organizations can benefit from having additional mailbox databases, especially as the number of users in the organization grows. Additional mailbox databases are created for many reasons, but the following reasons are the most common:

To provide a smaller unit of management Exchange has a practical limit of 2 terabytes (TB) on the size of databases, though you may find it easier to work with databases between 1 TB and 1.5 TB. Large databases require more time to move, restore, and recover compared to smaller databases. Additionally, when you establish database availability groups and create copies of a database, the entire database must be replicated from the source database to the database copies. During recovery, you can restore individual databases without affecting the performance or uptime of other databases on the system.

To impose a different set of mailbox rules on different sets of

users Each additional mailbox database can have its own property settings for maintenance, storage limits, deleted item retention, indexing, security, and policies. By placing a user’s mailbox in one mailbox database instead of another, you can apply a different set of rules.

To optimize Exchange performance Each mailbox database can have its own storage location. By placing the mailbox databases on different physical drives, you can improve the performance of Exchange Server 2013.

To create separate mailbox databases for different purposes For example, you might want to create a mailbox database called General In-Out to handle all general-purpose mailboxes being used throughout the organization. These general-purpose mailboxes could be set up as shared mailboxes for Postmaster, Webmaster, Technical Support, Customer Support, and other key functions.

When you create a mailbox database, you can specify the following information:

What the name of the database should be

Where the database file is to be located

When maintenance on the database should occur

Any limitations on mailbox size

Whether deleted items and mailboxes should be retained

Each mailbox database has a default offline address book (OAB). Microsoft Outlook

2007 and later clients access the default OAB and default public folder hierarchy on your organization’s Client Access servers. Exchange 2013 uses the mailbox provisioning load balancer to automatically select a database to use when you create or move a mailbox and do not explicitly specify the mailbox database to use. As the

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name implies, the purpose of the load balancer is to try to balance the workload across mailbox databases in the organization.

Although the load balancer uses multiple criteria to try to determine where a mailbox should be created or moved, the selection criteria does not take into account the proximity of the Mailbox server on which a database is stored to the computer or computers used by the user. Instead, the load balancer uses the Active Directory site where the mailbox task is being performed to determine which mailbox databases should be selected and only includes databases that are in the local site.

You can control the way automatic distribution works in several ways. You can temporarily or permanently exclude databases from the distribution process by using the

-IsSuspendedFromProvisioning and -IsExcludedFromProvisioning parameters of the

Set-MailboxDatabase cmdlet respectively. When either of these parameters is set to $True, Exchange excludes the related database from the automatic distribution process.

When selecting a database to use, the mailbox provisioning load balancer also checks the database management scopes of the administrator creating a mailbox.

Database management scopes are part of the role-based access control (RBAC) permissions model and are a way to limit the databases administrators can view and manage.

NOTE

By default, all administrators in an Exchange organization can see all the mailbox databases in the organization. When you create database management scopes in the organization, administrators will only be able to see databases included in a scope applied to them.

If you create custom scopes, Exchange uses these scopes to select databases.

Specifically, the load balancer only selects mailbox databases included in a scope applied to the administrator creating a mailbox. Therefore, if a database isn’t included in a scope applied to an administrator, the database won’t be selected for automatic distribution.

preparing for automatic reseed

Automatic reseed, new for Exchange 2013, allows you to quickly restore database redundancy after a disk failure, database corruption event, or other event that requires a reseed of a database to recover operations. For automatic reseed to work, however, you must pre-provision one or more spare disks. These spare disks are then used during the automatic reseed to recover the database copy. Here’s how automatic reseed works:

1.

The Microsoft Exchange Replication service scans the Information Store periodically for database copies that have a status of FailedAndSuspended.

2.

If the replication service finds a database copy with the FailedAndSuspended status, it performs prerequisite checks to evaluate the situation, which includes determining whether spares are available, whether anything could prevent the system from performing an automatic reseed, whether only a single copy of the database is available, and more.

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3.

If the prerequisite checks pass successfully, the Microsoft Exchange Replication service allocates and remaps an available spare before starting the seed operation.

4.

After the seed has been completed, the Microsoft Exchange Replication service verifies that the new copy has a Healthy status.

To prepare spare volumes on a server, you must complete the following steps:

1.

Mount the volumes that will contain databases under a single mount point, such as C:\PrimaryVols.

2.

Mount the volumes to mount points under this volume. For example, you could mount the first volume as C:\PrimaryVols\Volume1, the second volume as C:\PrimaryVols\Volume2, and so on.

3.

Create databases on the server in locations within the specified volumes, ensuring that there are fewer databases than mounted volumes.

Consider the following scenario to see how this would work in practice:

You have five volumes mounted under C:\PrimaryVols as C:\PrimaryVols\

Volume1, C:\PrimaryVols\Volume2, C:\PrimaryVols\Volume3, C:\PrimaryVols\

Volume4, and C:\PrimaryVols\Volume5.

You create three databases, locating the first database under C:\PrimaryVols\

Volume1, the second under C:\PrimaryVols\Volume2, and the third under

C:\PrimaryVols\Volume3.

You then have two spare volumes, mounted as C:\PrimaryVols\Volume4 and

C:\PrimaryVols\Volume5.

If a disk fails, a database copy becomes corrupted, or another event requiring reseed occurs, the failed database is automatically reseeded to one of the spare volumes.

You can identify the failure and automatic reseed tasks by reviewing the event logs. Related events are logged in the event logs under Applications and Services

Logs > Microsoft > Exchange > High Availability and under Applications and Services Logs > Microsoft > Exchange >MailboxDatabaseFailureItems.

Creating mailbox databases

You can create mailbox databases by using the New Mailbox Database Wizard. The default database file path and default log folder path are set automatically to be the same as those used for other Exchange data.

Any new mailbox databases you create using the Exchange Admin Center are configured to use the mailbox provisioning load balancer by default. When you create mailbox databases using the Exchange Management Shell, you can set the

–IsExcludedFromProvisioning parameter to $True to specify that the database should not be considered by the mailbox provisioning load balancer. Excluding a database from provisioning means new mailboxes are not automatically added to this database. Rather than excluding a database from provisioning, you can set the

–IsSuspendedFromProvisioning parameter to $True to specify that a database temporarily not be considered by the mailbox provisioning load balancer. Keep in mind

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that whether you exclude or suspend a database from provisioning is semantics as in either case the database won’t be used for provisioning.

To create a mailbox database, complete the following steps:

1.

In the Exchange Admin Center, select Servers in the feature pane, and then select Databases. In the main pane, you should see a list of active databases that are available in the Exchange organization.

2.

Tap or click the New button to open the New Database dialog box, shown in

Figure 3-1.

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FIGURE 3-1

Configure the new mailbox database.

3.

In the Mailbox Database text box, type a name for the mailbox database. The database name must be unique within the Exchange organization. Although the database name can contain spaces and special characters, it’ll be easier to work with the database if the name uses standard characters.

4.

Tap or click Browse to the right of the Server text box to open the Select Server dialog box. Figure 3-2 shows Mailbox servers listed by name, version, and exact build as well as associated database availability group, if applicable.

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FIGURE 3-2

Select a Mailbox server.

5.

Select the Mailbox server that will host the mailbox database, and then tap or click OK. Only Mailbox servers in the Active Directory forest to which you are connected are available.

6.

The database file path and log folder path are set to the default location for

Exchange data on the selected server. A subfolder with the mailbox database name will be created under the default database file path and the name of the .edb file for the database will be set the same as the database name. Similarly, a subfolder with the same name as the database name is created under the default log folder path. If you don’t want to use the default locations, enter the paths you want to use for the database file and the related logs in the text boxes provided.

REAL WORLD

Exchange creates folders if they do not exist, which is a good thing except when you mistype the intended path. Rather than type in a long file path, you might want to use copy and paste. In File Explorer, navigate to the exact folder path you want to use. Click in the folder path on the address bar to display and automatically select the folder path. press Ctrl+C to copy the path. In the New

Database dialog box, click in the path text box, press Ctrl+a, and then press the

Delete key. Finally, press Ctrl+V to paste in the path you copied previously.

7.

Select the Mount This Database check box if you want to mount this database. Mounting a database puts it online, making it available for use.

8.

Tap or click Save to create the mailbox database, and then tap or click OK. If an error occurred, you need to take the appropriate corrective action. Otherwise, you can now modify the properties of the mailbox database as necessary. To make the new database accessible to mailbox users, you must restart the Microsoft Exchange Information Store service.

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Exchange Server 2013 Standard edition supports up to five databases. Exchange

Server 2013 Enterprise edition supports up to 100 databases. However, if you install

Exchange Server 2013 Enterprise edition but forget to enter the product key, the server runs in Trial mode and only supports up to five databases as well.

If you try to create more databases than are supported by your edition of

Exchange, you’ll see an error stating that Exchange couldn’t mount the database. In the error details, you’ll also see a message stating MapiExceptionTooManyMounted-

Databases: Unable To Mount Database (see Figure 3-3). You can resolve this problem on a server running Enterprise edition by reducing the number of databases on the server or simply creating the database on a different server. To resolve this problem on a server running a standard or trial edition of Exchange Server 2013, you can upgrade the server to Enterprise edition by completing these steps:

1.

In Exchange Admin Center, select Servers on the feature pane, and then select Servers.

2.

Double-tap or double-click the server you want to upgrade. In the Properties dialog box, on the General page, the current edition should be listed as Trial

Edition or Standard Edition.

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FIGURE 3-3

An error showing that Exchange Admin Center was unable to mount the new database.

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3.

If the server is running Trial Edition, upgrade by entering a valid Enterprise product key in the text boxes provided, and then selecting Save. If the server is running Standard Edition, upgrade by selecting Change Product Key, entering a valid Enterprise product key in the text boxes provided, and then selecting Save.

4.

Tap or click OK. For the change to take effect, you must restart the Microsoft

Exchange Information Store service.

In the Exchange Management Shell, you can create mailbox databases by using the New-MailboxDatabase cmdlet. Listing 3-1 provides the syntax and usage.

NOTE

You use a separate cmdlet to mount the database. See the section “Mounting and dismounting databases” later in this chapter for details.

LISTING 3-1

New-MailboxDatabase cmdlet syntax and usage

Syntax

New-MailboxDatabase -Name DatabaseName

-Server ServerName

[-EdbFilePath DbFilePath] [-LogFolderPath FolderPath] {AddtlParams}

{AddtlParams}

[-DomainController FullyQualifiedName][-IsExcludedFromProvisioning <$true

| $false}] [-IsSuspendedFromProvisioning <$true | $false>]

[-OfflineAddressBook OfflineAddressBook]

New-MailboxDatabase -Recovery <$true | $false> -Server ServerName

[-DomainController FullyQualifiedName] [-EdbFilePath DbFilePath]

[-LogFolderPath FolderPath]

Usage

New-MailboxDatabase –Server "CorpServer88" –Name "Accounting Database"

-EdbFilePath "C:\Databases\Accounting\AccountingMail.edb"

-LogFolderPath "D:\DatabaseLogs\Accounting"

Setting the default offline address book

Mailbox databases can have different types of information associated with them, including a default OAB. You set related options for mailbox databases by using the

Client Settings page of the related Properties dialog box. To view this dialog box and update the messaging options, follow these steps:

1.

In the Exchange Admin Center, select the Servers feature, and then select

Databases. Next, double-tap or double-click the database you want to configure.

2.

In the Properties dialog box, tap or click the Client Settings page.

NOTE

If you can’t update the text boxes on the Client Settings page, it means that a policy has been applied to the mailbox database. You must directly edit or remove the policy and then make the necessary changes.

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3.

The Offline Address Book text box shows the OAB for the mailbox database.

OABs contain information regarding mail-enabled users, contacts, and groups in the organization, and they are used when users aren’t connected to the network. If the text box is empty, the global default is used. If you’ve created additional OABs beyond the global default, you can specify one of these additional OABs as the default for the mailbox database. Tap or click Browse, select the OAB you want to use, and then tap or click OK. Tap or click Save to apply the changes.

In the Exchange Management Shell, you can set the default OAB for mailbox databases by using the Set-MailboxDatabase cmdlet. Listing 3-2 provides the syntax and usage.

LISTING 3-2

Using the Set-MailboxDatabase cmdlet to set the default OAB

Syntax

Set-MailboxDatabase –Identity MailboxDatabase

[-OfflineAddressBook OABIdentity

Usage

Set-MailboxDatabase –Identity "Accounting Mail"

-OfflineAddressBook "\US Corporate"

Setting mailbox database limits and deletion retention

Mailbox database limits are designed to control the amount of information that users can store in their mailboxes. Users who exceed the designated limits might receive warning messages and might be subject to certain restrictions, such as the inability to send messages. Deleted item retention is designed to ensure that messages and mailboxes that might be needed in the future aren’t deleted inadvertently.

If retention is turned on, you can retain deleted messages and mailboxes for a specified period before they are permanently deleted and are nonrecoverable.

An average retention period for messages is about 14 days. The minimum retention period for mailboxes should be about 7 days. In most cases, you’ll want deleted messages to be maintained for a minimum of 5 to 7 days and deleted mailboxes to be maintained for a minimum of three to four weeks. An interval of 5 to 7 days is used for messages because users usually realize within a few days that they shouldn’t have deleted a message. A three-week to four-week interval is used for mailboxes because several weeks can (and often do) pass before users realize that they need a deleted mailbox or messages within a deleted mailbox. To understand why, consider the following scenario.

Sally leaves the company. A coworker is given permission to delete Sally’s user account and mailbox. Three weeks later, Sally’s boss realizes that she was the only person who received and archived the monthly reports sent through email from corporate headquarters. The only way to get reports for previous years is to recover

Sally’s mailbox, and you can do this if you’ve set a sufficiently long retention period.

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NOTE

Exchange has several features to ensure that mailbox items are retained according to policies set forth by an organization for legal reasons, including automatic archiving of old messages and retention policies. Deletion settings on the Limits page control the minimum length of time deleted items are retained if no retention tags specifically apply to deleted items.

To view or set limits and deletion retention for a mailbox database, follow these steps:

1.

In the Exchange Admin Center, select the Servers feature, and then select

Databases. Next, double-tap or double-click the database you want to configure.

2.

In the Properties dialog box, on the Limits page (shown in Figure 3-4), use the following options to set storage limits and deleted item retention:

Issue a warning at (GB) Sets the size limit, in gigabytes, that a mailbox can reach before Exchange Server issues a warning to the user. The warning tells the user to clear out the mailbox. If you don’t want Exchange to issue warnings, set the value to 0 or Unlimited.

Prohibit send at (GB) Sets the size limit, in gigabytes, that a mailbox can reach before the user is prohibited from sending any new mail. The restriction ends when the user clears out the mailbox and the total mailbox size is under the limit. If you don’t want Exchange to prohibit sending mail, set the value to 0 or Unlimited.

Prohibit send and receive at (GB) Sets the size limit, in gigabytes, that a mailbox can reach before the user is prohibited from sending and receiving mail. The restriction ends when the user clears out the mailbox and the total mailbox size is under the limit. If you don’t want Exchange to prohibit sending and receiving mail, set the value to 0 or Unlimited.

CAUTION

prohibiting send and receive might cause users to lose email. When a user sends a message to a user who is prohibited from receiving messages, a nondelivery report (NDr) is generated and delivered to the sender. the recipient never sees the email. Because of this, you should prohibit send and receive only in very rare circumstances. Your organizational policy will likely spell out those circumstances. to remove this restriction, set prohibit Send and receive to Unlimited or enter a value of 0.

Keep deleted items for (days) Sets the number of days to retain deleted items. An average retention period is 14 days. If you set the retention period to 0, deleted messages aren’t retained, and you can’t recover them in the same way you could if retention was enabled.

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FIGURE 3-4

Use the Limits page to set storage limits and deleted item retention for individual mailboxes and entire mailbox databases.

Keep deleted mailboxes for (days) Sets the number of days to retain deleted mailboxes. The default setting is 30 days. You’ll want to keep most deleted mailboxes for at least 7 days to allow the administrators to extract any data that might be needed. If you set the retention period to

0, deleted mailboxes are retained only if you select the next option, and then only until the database has been backed up. If a mailbox is backed up, you can recover it only by restoring it from backups.

Don’t permanently delete items until the database is backed

up Ensures that deleted mailboxes and items are archived into at least one backup set before they are removed.

3.

The Warning Message Interval sets the interval for sending warning messages to users whose mailboxes exceed the designated limits. To change this setting, select Customize. You can now set the warning interval using the

Customize Quota Notification Schedule dialog box, shown in Figure 3-5.

Times that are used for quota notification are filled in with a dark bar.

Times that aren’t used for quota notification are blank.

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FIGURE 3-5

Customize quota notification for mailboxes stored in the database.

IMPORTANT

the default interval for sending warning messages is daily between 1 a.M. and 1:15 a.M, which is an acceptable initial interval for small deployments. as your organization grows, however, you’ll want to optimize this interval to ensure that servers aren’t overburdened and that servers have enough time to process all the mailboxes.

4.

Show the time in hours or in 15-minute intervals by using the options provided. Click or tap the time interval to change the setting.

Hourly or 15-minute interval buttons are used to select or clear a particular interval for all the days of a week.

Days of the week buttons allow you to clear or select all the hours in a particular day.

The All button allows you to clear or select all the time periods.

5.

If you customized the notification schedule, tap or click OK to close the

Customize Quota Notification Schedule dialog box.

6.

Tap or click Save to apply your settings.

In the Exchange Management Shell, you can set limits for mailbox databases by using the Set-MailboxDatabase cmdlet. Listing 3-3 provides the syntax and usage.

When you set a limit, you can specify the value with KB (for kilobytes), MB (for megabytes), or GB (for gigabytes). The default value type is bytes. Additionally, it’s important to point out that the -MaintenanceSchedule and -QuotaNotificationSchedule parameters are not used with Exchange 2013.

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LISTING 3-3

Using the Set-MailboxDatabase cmdlet to set limits

Syntax

Set-MailboxDatabase [-Identity MailboxDatabase]

[-AllowFileRestore <$true | $false>] [-BackgroundDatabaseMaintenence <$true

| $false>] [-CircularLoggingEnabled <$true | $false>]

[-DataMoveReplicationConstraint <None | SecondyCopy | SecondDatacenter |

AllDatacenters | AllCopies>] [-DeletedItemRetention NumberDays]

[-DomainController DCName] [-EventHistoryRetentionPeriod NumberDays]

[-IndexEnabled <$true | $false>] [-IsExcludedFromProvisioning <$true |

$false>] [-IssueWarningQuota Limit] [-JournalRecipient RecipientId]

[-MailboxRetention NumberDays] [-MountAtStartup <$true | $false>]

[-Name Name] [-OfflineAddressBook OABId] [-ProhibitSendQuota Limit]

[-ProhibitSendReceiveQuota

Limit] [-RecoverableItemsQuota Limit]

[-RecoverableItemsWarningQuota Limit]

[-RetainDeletedItemsUntilBackup <$true | $false>]

Usage

Set-MailboxDatabase –Identity "Accounting Mail"

-IssueWarningQuota 1.9GB

-DeletedItemRetention 14

-MailboxRetention 30

-ProhibitSendQuota 2GB

-ProhibitSendReceiveQuota 2.4GB

-RetainDeletedItemsUntilBackup $true

recovering deleted mailboxes

When you delete a mailbox from a user account, the mailbox is retained as a disconnected mailbox according to the mailbox retention setting. You can reconnect the mailbox to the original user account or another user account if necessary. Similarly, when you delete a user account and the related mailbox, the mailbox is retained as a disconnected mailbox according to the mailbox retention setting. You can connect the mailbox to an existing user account if necessary.

When you move mailboxes between databases, mailboxes in the original (source) database are soft deleted. This means they are disconnected, marked as soft deleted, but retained in the original database until the deleted mailbox retention period expires. In Exchange Management Shell, you can use a DisconnectReason of “Soft-

Deleted” to find soft-deleted mailboxes.

To recover a deleted mailbox, complete the following steps:

1.

In the Exchange Admin Center, select Recipients in the feature pane, and then select Mailboxes.

2.

Tap or click the More button (this button shows three dots), and then select

Connect A Mailbox. The Connect A Mailbox dialog box shows all mailboxes marked for deletion but currently retained regardless of whether those mailboxes were disabled, deleted, or soft deleted.

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3.

In the Connect A Mailbox dialog box, shown in Figure 3-6, use the selection list provided to select the server in which you want to look for disconnected mailboxes.

FIGURE 3-6

Viewing disconnected mailboxes.

4.

Tap or click the mailbox to restore it, and then tap or click Connect. Connect the mailbox to the user account to which it was connected previously or to a different user account. If the original user account is available, select the Yes option to reconnect the mailbox to the original user account. If the original user isn’t available or you want to associate the mailbox with a different user, select the No option and follow the prompts.

NOTE

Deleted mailboxes aren’t necessarily marked as such immediately. It can take 15 minutes to an hour before the mailbox is marked as deleted and listed accordingly.

IMPORTANT

If you previously removed the mailbox rather than disabling it, the user account associated with the mailbox was deleted as well. Because each user account has a unique security identifier associated with it, you can’t simply re-create the user account to get back the same set of permissions and privileges. that said, if you want to connect the mailbox to a user account with the same name, you can do this by recovering the deleted account from active Directory before garbage collection has occurred or by recreating the account in active Directory Users and

Computers. the account will then be available for selection but when you’re connecting the mailbox to an account, you’ll need to choose the No option because

Exchange and active Directory see this as a different account.

You can use the Connect-Mailbox cmdlet to perform the same task following the syntax shown in Listing 3-4.

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LISTING 3-4

Connect-Mailbox cmdlet syntax and usage

Syntax

Connect-Mailbox -Identity OrigMailboxIdentity

-Database DatabaseIdentity

-User NewUserIdentity

[-ActiveSyncMailboxPolicy PolicyId] [-Alias Alias]

[-DomainController DCName] [-ManagedFolderMailboxPolicy PolicyId]

[-ManagedFolderMailboxPolicyAllowed <$true | $false>]

[-Archive <$true | $false>] [-Equipment <$true | $false>]

[-Room <$true | $false>] [-Shared <$true | $false>]

[-ValidateOnly <$true | $false>]

[-LinkedCredential Credential] [-LinkedDomainController DCName]

[-LinkedMasterAccount UserId]

Usage

Connect-Mailbox -Identity "Per Reitzel"

-Database "Accounting Mail" -User "CPANDL\perr" -Alias "perr"

Connect-Mailbox -Identity "Per Reitzel"

-Database "Accounting Mail" –LinkedDomainController CorpServer72

-LinkedMasterAccount "CPANDL\perr"

recovering deleted items from mailbox databases

You can recover deleted items from mailbox databases as long as you’ve either set a deleted item retention period for the database from which the items were deleted and the retention period hasn’t expired, or you have specified that Exchange should not permanently delete items from mailboxes until the database has been backed up and Exchange hasn’t been backed up yet. If either of these conditions are met, you can recover deleted items from mailbox databases.

To use Outlook 2010 or Outlook 2013 for recovery, complete the following steps:

1.

Log on as the user who deleted the message, and then start Outlook.

2.

Tap or click the Folders pane, and then select Recover Deleted Items.

3.

The Recover Deleted Items From dialog box appears. Select the items you want to recover, and then tap or click the Recover Selected Items button.

4.

Items you’ve recovered are copied to the Deleted Items folder. In the left pane, tap or click Deleted Items.

5.

In the Deleted Items folder, press and hold or right-click items you want to keep, select Move, and then tap or click Other Folder.

6.

In the Move Items dialog box, select the folder to which the item should be moved, and then tap or click OK.

NOTE

the steps are similar for Outlook 2007, except you start by tapping or clicking recover Deleted Items on the tools menu.

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To use Outlook Web App (OWA) for recovery, complete these steps:

1.

In a web browser, type https://servername.yourdomain.com/owa, where

servername is a placeholder for the HTTP virtual server hosted by Exchange

Server 2013 and yourdomain.com is a placeholder for your external domain name, such as https://mail.cpandl.com/owa.

2.

Next, log on as the user (or have the user log on). Type the user name in

domain\username format, such as pocket-consulta\bertk, or [email protected] format, such as [email protected]. Type the password, and then tap or click Sign In.

3.

In the left pane, press and hold or right-click Deleted Items, and then select

Recover Deleted Items.

4.

In the Recover Deleted Items dialog box, you’ll see a list of recoverable items.

Each listed item will have a selection check box. Select this check box for items you want to recover.

5.

Tap or click the Recover button, and then tap or click OK. Items you select will be restored to their default folders.

Working with mailbox database copies

When your Exchange organization uses database availability groups, Exchange replicates transaction logs from an active mailbox database on a source Mailbox server to other Mailbox servers in the database availability group that have passive copies of the database. On these servers, Exchange replays the transaction logs into the passive copy of the mailbox database by using either file mode or block mode replication. You can monitor the health and status of replication and database copies by using the Exchange Management tools.

The Mailbox server that hosts the active copy of a database is referred to as the

mailbox database primary for that database. A Mailbox server that hosts a passive copy of a database is referred to as a mailbox database secondary for that database.

You can move the active database to another Mailbox server in the database availability group by using the switchover process discussed in “Switching over servers and databases” in Chapter 2. In a switchover, the active copy of a database is dismounted on the current Mailbox server and a passive copy of the database is activated and mounted on another Mailbox server in the database availability group.

TIP

You can quickly distinguish between an active mailbox database and a passive copy of a database by reviewing the Copy Status column under the Database Copies page in the Exchange admin Center. Only the active database will have a status of

Mounted or Dismounted. For passive database copies, you’ll see the current status of replication for the database copy.

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Creating mailbox database copies

After you create a database availability group and add Mailbox servers to the group, you can create copies of mailbox databases to initiate replication. Within the group, replication occurs between the active mailbox database on a source Mailbox server and other Mailbox servers that host copies of the database. You cannot replicate a database outside of a database availability group, nor can you replicate an Exchange

2013 mailbox database to a server running an earlier version of Exchange.

Each database availability group can have up to 16 member servers, and you can create up to 16 instances of a database, including one active instance and 15 passive instances. You can create mailbox database copies only on Mailbox servers that do not host the active copy of a mailbox database, and you cannot create two copies of the same database on the same server.

Because all copies of a database use the same path on each server containing a copy, the database and log file paths for a database copy on each Mailbox server must not conflict with any other database paths. You need to ensure the database and log file paths for the database copy can be created in the same location as all other copies and that the paths do not conflict with any other database paths on the target server.

With respect to Active Directory, the member servers in an availability group must all be in the same Active Directory domain. You can create database copies on Mailbox servers in the same or different Active Directory Sites, and on the same or different network subnets. However, database copies are not supported between

Mailbox servers with roundtrip network latency greater than 250 milliseconds

(by default). Database copies are automatically assigned an identity in the format

DatabaseName\HostMailboxServerName, such as Engineering Primary Database\

MailServer36.

To create a copy of a mailbox database, complete the following steps:

1.

In the Exchange Admin Center, select Servers in the feature pane, and then select Databases. In the main pane, you should see a list of active databases that are available in the Exchange organization.

2.

Select the mailbox database that you want to copy to see a list of all copies of that database in the details pane. Whereas the active copy of a database normally is listed with a status of Active Mounted or Active Dismounted, passive copies are normally listed with a status of Passive Healthy.

3.

Tap or click the More button (this button shows three dots), and then select

Add A Database Copy. This opens the Add Mailbox Database Copy dialog box.

As shown in Figure 3-7, the dialog box shows you which servers already have a copy of the database and sets the activation preference number to the next value for the next database instance. You can set a lower preference value if desired.

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FIGURE 3-7

Add a mailbox database copy.

4.

Tap or click Browse. Select the Mailbox server that will host the mailbox database copy, and then tap or click OK. Although servers outside the database availability group and servers running earlier versions of Exchange may be listed in the Select Server dialog box, you’ll only want to select an Exchange

2013 Mailbox server in the same database availability group that doesn’t have a copy of the database already. Each Mailbox server in a database availability group can host only one copy of a database.

5.

Optionally, in the Activation Preference Number text box, specify the preference value for the database copy. The activation preference number represents the order of activation preference for a database copy after a failure or outage of the active copy. The preference value is a number equal to or greater than 1, where 1 has the highest preference. The preference value cannot be larger than the total number of database copies.

NOTE

active Manager uses the preference value only to break ties in the best-copy selection process. If two or more database copies are seen as the best choice for activation, the database copy with the highest preference is selected. Following this, when there is a tie, a database copy with a preference value of 3 would be selected before a database copy with a preference value of 4. For more information on active Manager, see “Working with active manager” in Chapter 2.

6.

If you want to configure replay lag time or postpone seeding, select More

Options. You’ll then be able to specify a replay lag time in days and postpone seeding. If you postpone seeding of the database, you’ll need to manually seed the database later.

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7.

Tap or click Save to create the mailbox database copy, and then click Close when the process completes. If an error occurred, you need to take the appropriate corrective action. Otherwise, you can now work with the database copy.

In the Exchange Management Shell, you can create mailbox database copies by using the Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy cmdlet. Listing 3-5 provides the syntax and usage. Use the –ReplayLagTime parameter to specify how long the Exchange Replication Service should wait before replaying log files. Use the –TruncationLagTime parameter to specify how long the Exchange Replication Service should wait before truncating logs that have been replayed.

TIP

Different database copies can have different lag times. If you want logs to be replayed immediately, set a relatively short replay lag time or none at all. If you want a cushion for protection against inadvertent changes, set a longer replay lag time. as an example, if you have three database copies, you might want two copies to have short replay lag times and one copy to have a long replay lag time.

NOTE

the new database copy will remain in a Suspended state if you use the

–Seedingpostponed parameter. When the database copy status is set to Suspended, the SuspendMessage is set to “replication is suspended for database copy ‘<Name>’ because database needs to be seeded.” You can seed the database as discussed in the

“Updating Mailbox Database Copies” section.

LISTING 3-5

Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy cmdlet syntax and usage

Syntax

Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity SourceDatabase

-MailboxServer TargetServer

[-ActivationPreference PrefValue]

[-ReplayLagTime Days.Hours:Minutes:Seconds]

[-SeedingPostponed <$true | $false>]

[-TruncationLagTime Days.Hours:Minutes:Seconds]

[-DomainController FullyQualifiedName]

Usage

Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity "Engineering Primary Database"

-MailboxServer "MailServer36" -ReplayLagTime 00:03:00

-TruncationLagTime 00:10:00 -ActivationPreference 2

Setting replay, truncation, and preference values for database copies

Replay and truncation values are designed to let you fine-tune the way replication works for each database copy. Replay lag time is the amount of time to delay log replay. Truncation lag time is the amount of time that you want to delay log truncation after a log has been successfully replayed. You can also set a relative preference value for database copies. The preference value sets the order of activation preference after a failure or outage affecting the active database, with a value of 1 indicating the highest preference, a value of 2 the next highest preference, and so on. You cannot set a database copy to a value higher than the number of database copies.

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Active Manager uses the preference value in the case of a tie during the best-copy selection process.

To set preference values for a database copy, complete the following steps:

1.

In the Exchange Admin Center, select Servers in the feature pane, and then select Databases. In the main pane, you should see a list of active databases that are available in the Exchange organization.

2.

Select the mailbox database with the copy that you want to manage. In the details pane, you’ll see a list of active and passive copies of the database, along with separate management options for each. Tap or click the View

Details option for the database copy you want to modify.

3.

The current activation preference number and replay lag time are listed.

Change the values as necessary, and then tap or click Save.

In the Exchange Management Shell, you can set replay, truncation, and preference values for mailbox database copies by using the Set-MailboxDatabaseCopy cmdlet. Listing 3-6 provides the syntax and usage.

LISTING 3-6

Set-MailboxDatabaseCopy cmdlet syntax and usage

Syntax

Set-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity Database\Server

[-ActivationPreference PrefValue]

[-ReplayLagTime Days.Hours:Minutes:Seconds]

[-TruncationLagTime Days.Hours:Minutes:Seconds]

[-DomainController FullyQualifiedName]

Usage

Set-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity "Tech Mail Database\MailServer36"

-ReplayLagTime 00:02:00 -TruncationLagTime 00:05:00

-ActivationPreference 6

In Exchange 2013, lagged copies automatically play down log files as necessary to accommodate adverse conditions, such as the following:

If Exchange 2013 detects that page patching is required for a lagged copy, the logs will be automatically replayed into the lagged copy to perform page patching.

If Exchange 2013 detects that a low disk space threshold has been reached or that no other log copies are available, the logs will be automatically replayed into the lagged copy.

If Exchange 2013 detects that there are too few available healthy copies

(active and passive) of a database for more than 24 hours, the logs will be automatically replayed into the lagged copy.

However, you must enable these options specifically. You enable lagged copy replay for all lagged copies in a particular database availability group by using the following command:

Set-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup DAGName -ReplayLagManagerEnabled $true

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DAGName is the name of the database availability group to configure.

You specify the low diskspace threshold as a percentage of free disk space before log replay occurs by using the registry value:

HKLM\Software\Microsoft\ExchangeServer\v15\Replay\Parameters\

ReplayLagPlayDownPercentDiskFreeSpace

For example, if you want Exchange to automatically play down lagged copies when the free disk space on the volume used by the active database reaches 10 percent, you’d edit the ReplayLagPlayDownPercentDiskFreeSpace value in the registry and set it to 10.

You specify the number of available healthy copies that triggers replay by using the following registry value:

HKLM\Software\Microsoft\ExchangeServer\v15\Replay\Parameters\

ReplayLagManagerNumAvailableCopies

By default, this value is set to 3, meaning replay is triggered whenever there are fewer than 3 copies of a database available for a 24-hour period. Although this value may work well in large deployments of Exchange, this value is not ideal for small deployments. Specifically, in deployments in which you have three or fewer Mailbox servers in a DAG, setting this value to 3 will cause lagged logs to play down every

24 hours whether you want them to or not.

NOTE

as lagged copies can use SafetyNet, recovery or activation of lagged copies is much easier than in Exchange 2010. Exchange 2013 also issues single copy alerts as part of the managed availability architecture. previously, single copy alert was implemented as a script that ran periodically as a scheduled task.

Suspending and resuming replication

As part of planned maintenance or for other reasons, it might be necessary to temporarily suspend replication activity for a database copy. In addition, prior to performing some administrative tasks, you need to suspend replication activity before you can complete the task—for example, before performing seeding. You can suspend and resume database copy activity by completing the following steps:

1.

In the Exchange Admin Center, select Servers in the feature pane, and then select Databases. In the main pane, you should see a list of active databases that are available in the Exchange organization.

2.

Select the mailbox database with the copy that you want to manage. In the details pane, you’ll see a list of active and passive copies of the database.

Whereas the active copy of a database is normally listed with a status of

Active Mounted or Active Dismounted, passive copies are normally listed with a status of Passive Healthy.

3.

Select the Suspend option for the passive database copy (not an active database) for which you want to suspend replication.

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4.

In the Suspend Database Copy dialog box, enter a comment as to why you are suspending replication. If you want to ensure replication can only be activated by you or another administrator, select This Copy Can Be Activated

Only By Manual Intervention.

5.

Tap or click Save to suspend continuous replication.

To resume replication later, tap or click Resume. If a suspend comment was provided, you can read the comment. Then tap or click Yes to resume continuous replication.

In the Exchange Management Shell, you can suspend and resume replication by using Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy and Resume-MailboxDatabaseCopy, respectively. Listings 3-7 and 3-8 provide the syntax and usage. If you only suspend activation by using the –ActivationOnly parameter, the database cannot be activated until you resume replication without specifying the –ReplicationOnly parameter.

The –ReplicationOnly parameter resumes replication without affecting the act ivation setting. For example, if the –ActivationSuspended parameter was set to

$True, the parameter remains set to $True.

LISTING 3-7

Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy cmdlet syntax and usage

Syntax

Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity Database\Server

[-ActivationOnly <$true | $false>] [-EnableReplayLag <$true | $false>]

[-DomainController FullyQualifiedName]

[-SuspendComment Comment]

Usage

Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity "Tech Mail Database\MailServer36"

-ActivationOnly

LISTING 3-8

Resume-MailboxDatabaseCopy cmdlet syntax and usage

Syntax

Resume-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity Database\Server

[-DisableReplayLag <$true | $false>] [-DisableReplayLagReason "Comment"]

[-ReplicationOnly <$true | $false>] [-DomainController FullyQualifiedName]

Usage

Resume-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity "Tech Mail Database\MailServer36"

activating lagged database copies

Lagged database copies have a replay lag time great than 0. You can activate a lagged copy by recovering the database copy from SafetyNet, by replaying all uncommitted log files, or by performing a point in time activation.

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Before you activate a lagged copy, you may want to preserve the original files for the lagged copy. If so, you need to create a snapshot of the volumes containing the database copy and its log files by suspending replication of the lagged copy you want to activate, and then creating a shadow copy of these volumes as detailed in the steps that follow:

1.

Suspend replication of the lagged copy you want to activate using the following command:

Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy Database\Server -SuspendComment "Comment"

-Confirm $False

Database is the name of the lagged copy, Server is the name of the server hosting the lagged copy, and Comment is a descriptive comment, such as:

Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy "Engineering DB\MailServer18"

-SuspendComment "Suspending replication to take a db snapshot"

-Confirm $False

2.

Create a snapshot of the database and log folders by using the following command:

Vssadmin create shadow /For="c:\Databases\Engineering DB"

Vssadmin create shadow /For="c:\Logs\Engineering DB"

3.

Optionally, copy the database and log files to another volume where you want to perform the recovery.

To recover a lagged copy from SafetyNet, complete the following steps:

1.

Because you don’t want the log files to replay when the database is mounted, move the log files for the database copy to an archive folder. This preserves the log files in case they are subsequently needed.

2.

To allow the database to mount without all the necessary transaction logs files, you’ll need to confirm that you accept the data loss. To do this, mount the database with the -AcceptDataLoss parameter as shown in this example:

Mount-Database "Engineering DB" -AcceptDataLoss

3.

Exchange will mount the database and then request redelivery of missing messages from SafetyNet. You can confirm that the lagged copy was successfully activated by viewing the database properties. In Exchange Admin

Center, select Servers in the feature pane, and then select Databases. Next, select the database copy you activated. In the Details pane, click View Details.

4.

After you verify that the database copy was successfully activated, you can delete the log files you moved to an archive folder, as these logs are no longer needed.

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To activate a lagged copy by replaying all uncommitted log files, complete the following steps:

1.

Activate the lagged copy on a specified server by using the following command:

Move-ActiveMailboxDatabase Database -ActivateOnServer Server

-SkipLagChecks

Database is the name of the lagged copy and Server is the name of the server hosting the lagged copy, such as:

Move-ActiveMailboxDatabase "Engineering DB" -ActivateOnServer

MailServer18 -SkipLagChecks

2.

Exchange will mount the database on the designated server and replay all the log files. The duration of the replay process depends on the amount of data to replay and the speed at which your server hardware can replay the logs.

3.

You can confirm that the lagged copy was successfully activated by viewing the database properties. In Exchange Admin Center, select Servers in the feature pane, and then select Databases. Next, select the database copy you activated. In the Details pane, click View Details.

To activate a lagged copy to a point in time, complete the following steps:

1.

Before you can activate a lagged copy to a point in time, you must first determine which log files are required to meet your recovery requirements.

Use the log file date and time to identify which log files you need and which log files should be moved to an archive directory until the recovery process is successfully completed. Specifically, any log file created after your recovery time should be moved to the archive directory.

2.

Next, you need to delete the checkpoint file for the lagged copy. This file has the .chk extension.

3.

At an elevated command prompt, use Eseutil to perform the recovery operation. The basic syntax is:

Eseutil /r ENN /a

ENN is the log generation prefix for the database, such as E00 or E01. This prefix is used with all the database files, so it’s easily identified when you access the database folder for the lagged copy.

4.

When all the logs have been replayed, the database will be in a clean state and you can optionally copy the database and log files to another volume where you want to perform the recovery. Keep in mind that the duration of the replay process depends on the amount of data to replay and the speed at which your server hardware can replay the logs.

5.

You can confirm that the lagged copy was successfully activated by viewing the database properties. In Exchange Admin Center, select Servers in the feature pane, and then select Databases. Next, select the database copy you activated. In the Details pane, click View Details.

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Updating mailbox database copies

Seeding is the process of initially replicating an active or passive database into a database copy. This creates a baseline passive copy of a database. Normally, seeding occurs automatically, and the length of time required to completely seed a database depends on the size of the source database, the available bandwidth on the network, and the level of activity on the servers involved. However, automatic seeding can fail, and in this case, you then need to manually initiate seeding.

REAL WORLD

an automatic seed produces a copy of an active or passive database on a target Mailbox server. automatic seeding occurs only during the creation of a new database or for a database that has never been backed up.

You can identify a problem with seeding by checking the state of the database copy.

When you create a database copy, the database should enter the Initializing state and then the Seeding state. When seeding is complete, the database copy should be in the healthy state. If the database remains in a Suspended state and does not complete initialization or seeding, there is a problem. Note also that if you are seeding when creating the copy, the task will not complete successfully until the seed is completed.

So, you simply watch the task progress and do not need to check copy status.

You can reseed a mailbox database copy anytime you suspect divergence has occurred. However, divergence isn’t necessarily a problem because incremental reseed (incremental resync) takes care of resolving the divergence. You would not need to do a full reseed except in circumstances in which resync isn’t possible—for example, when there is no overlap in log files between diverged copies, or when you’ve done something you shouldn’t have, like an offline defragmentation of a copy that causes uncorrectable divergence.

When you reseed a database, Exchange empties the database copy and replicates a new passive database copy. Typically, you won’t need to reseed database copies after the initial seeding has occurred; however, in some situations you might need to reseed a database copy. One state you can check for is the FailedAnd

Suspended state. In this state, Exchange has detected a failure and suspended replication replay because resolution of the failure explicitly requires administrator intervention. For example, if Exchange detects an unrecoverable divergence between the active mailbox database and a database copy, Exchange marks the database copy as

FailedAndSuspended. If an incremental resync doesn’t eventually resolve the problem, you need to resolve the underlying cause of the failure before the database copy can be transitioned to a healthy state, which includes reseeding the database.

Before you can seed or reseed a database, you must suspend replication. For very large databases—that is, those that are multiple terabytes (TB) in size—the preferred technique for seeding the initial passive copy of the database, if service level agreements allow or such an outage is acceptable, is to dismount the active copy of the database and copy the database file to the same location on the target Mailbox server in the same database availability group. Rather than copying the database

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over the network, which could take several days for a multiterabyte database, you should consider the following:

Copying the database to one or more disk drives, preferably hot-swappable drives that can be moved between the source and target servers

Copying the database to one or more logical unit numbers (LUNs) in your storage array that can be assigned to or is assigned to the target server

With this approach, the database will be unavailable until seeding is completed and you can mount the database. Alternatively, you can leave the active database online and use the Exchange Management tools to initiate the seeding process.

After you’ve created at least one baseline passive copy of a database, you can seed new passive copies from the baseline passive copy at any time by using an online or offline approach.

The size of the database, the available network bandwidth, network latency, and the activity levels on the source and target servers determine how long an over-thenetwork transfer or update takes. After the seeding process has started, don’t close the Exchange Admin Center or Exchange Management Shell until the process has completed. If you do, the seeding operation will be terminated and will need to be restarted.

Keep the following in mind when you are considering updating database copies:

When you seed a database using the Exchange Admin Center, both the database copy and the content index catalog are seeded. In the Exchange

Management Shell, you can specify that only the database copy should be seeded using the –DatabaseOnly parameter or that only the context index catalog should be seeded using the –CatalogOnly parameter.

Before you seed the database copy, you may want to manually remove existing files on the server that hosts the database copy. You can delete existing files in the Exchange Management Shell by using the –DeleteExistingFiles parameter; however, these options remove only the files Exchange checks for and might fail if other files are present.

When seeding is complete, Exchange automatically resumes replication. If you want to resume replication manually instead, you can use the –Manual-

Resume parameter in the Exchange Management Shell.

By default, seeding data is transferred over the replication network for the database availability group, unless you are seeding to a remote site, in which case it will default to the messaging network. You can override the defaults by using the –Network parameter. The network compression and encryption settings are used and determine whether the transferred data is compressed, encrypted, or both. You specify the networks to use by name in both management tools. In the Exchange Management Shell, you can override the network compression and encryption settings by using –Network-

Compression-Override and –NetworkEncryptionOverride, respectively.

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You can seed a database manually by completing the following steps:

1.

In the Exchange Admin Center, select Servers in the feature pane, and then select Databases. In the main pane, you should see a list of active databases that are available in the Exchange organization.

2.

Select the mailbox database with the copy that you want to manage. In the details pane, you’ll see a list of active and passive copies of the database.

3.

Select the Update option for the passive database copy (not an active database) that you want to update (see Figure 3-8).

TIP

the Exchange admin Center won’t let you reseed a database that’s in a healthy or other normal state. however, you can force a reseed by suspending the database, copying it, and then updating the database copy.

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FIGURE 3-8

Update a database copy.

4.

By default, Exchange will seed the database from the active copy of the database. If you want to use a passive copy for seeding, tap or click Browse. In the

Select Mailbox Server dialog box, select the source server hosting the passive copy you want to use and then tap or click OK.

5.

Tap or click Save to begin seeding. If an error occurred, you need to take the appropriate corrective action. Tap or click Close.

To seed a database copy in the Exchange Management Shell, you use the

Update-MailboxDatabaseCopy cmdlet. Listing 3-9 provides the syntax and usage.

Use the –Force parameter when seeding programmatically, and you will not be prompted for administrative input.

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LISTING 3-9

Update-MailboxDatabaseCopy cmdlet syntax and usage

Syntax

Update-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity Database\Server

-SourceServer ServerName

[-CancelSeed <$true | $false>]

[-BeginSeed <$true | $false>] [-CatalogOnly <$true | $false>]

[-DatabaseOnly <$true | $false>] [-DeleteExistingFiles <$true | $false>]

[-DomainController FullyQualifiedName] [-Force <$true | $false>]

[-ManualResume <$true | $false>] [-MaximumSeedsInParallel MaxNumSeeds]

[-NetworkCompressionOverride {"UseDAGDefault"|"Off"|"On"}]

[-NetworkEncryptionOverride {"UseDAGDefault"|"Off"|"On"}]

[-Network NetworkID] [-SafeDeleteExistingFiles <$true | $false>]

Usage

Update-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity "CS Mail\MailServer25"

-CatalogOnly -Force

Update-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity "CS Mail\MailServer25"

-DatabaseOnly

Update-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity "CS Mail\MailServer25"

-Network "EastCampusDAG1\Primary DAG Network"

-NetworkCompressionOverride "On" -NetworkEncryptionOverride "Off"

Monitoring database replication status

As an Exchange administrator, you need to monitor the health and status of database copies to ensure that they are available when needed. You can view key health and status information for a database copy by completing the following steps:

1.

In the Exchange Admin Center, select Servers in the feature pane, and then select Databases. In the main pane, you should see a list of active databases that are available in the Exchange organization.

2.

Select the mailbox database with the copy that you want to manage. In the details pane, you’ll see a list of active and passive copies of the database along with the current status of each. Table 3-1 lists the possible status values and any corrective action that might be required.

3.

Tap or click the View Details option for the database copy with which you want to work. This opens a properties dialog box.

4.

Use the information provided to determine the health and status of replication for the database copy. The information provided includes:

Database Displays the name of the selected database

Mailbox Server Displays the name of the Mailbox server that hosts the database copy

Content Index State Displays the status of content indexing for the database copy

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Status Displays the current health and status of replication for the database copy

Copy Queue Length Shows the number of log files waiting to be copied and checked

Replay Queue Length Shows the number of log files waiting to be replayed into this copy of the database

Error Messages Displays any current error status or error message for the database copy

Latest Available Log Time Shows the time associated with the latest available log generated by the active database copy

Last Inspected Log Time Shows the modification time of the last log that was successfully validated by the Mailbox server hosting the database copy

Last Copied Log Time Shows the modification time of the last log that was successfully copied

Last Replayed Log Time Shows the modification time of the last log that was successfully replayed by the Mailbox server hosting the database copy

Activation Preference Number Shows the activation preference value for the database copy

Replay Lag Time Shows the current replay lag time in days, if any

In the Exchange Management Shell, you can check the health and status of replication by using the Get-MailboxDatabaseCopyStatus cmdlet. Listing 3-10 provides the syntax and usage.

LISTING 3-10

Get-MailboxDatabaseCopyStatus cmdlet syntax and usage

Syntax

Get-MailboxDatabaseCopyStatus -Server ServerName

{AddtlParams}

Get-MailboxDatabaseCopyStatus [-Identity LocalDatabaseName]

[-Active <$true | $false>] [-Local <$true | $false>]] {AddtlParams}

{AddtlParams}

[-ConnectionStatus <$true | $false>] [-DomainController FullyQualifiedName]

[-ExtendedErrorInfo <$true | $false>] [-UseServerCache <$true | $false>]

Usage

Get-MailboxDatabaseCopyStatus –Server "MailServer35"

-ConnectionStatus –ExtendedErrorInfo

Get-MailboxDatabaseCopyStatus

Get-MailboxDatabaseCopyStatus –Identity "Accounting Mail"

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TABLE 3-1

Copy status values

COPY STATUS

Activation

Suspended

STATUS OF THE MAILBOX

DATABASE COPY

CORRECTIVE ACTION

Has been manually blocked from activation by an administrator.

Allow activation, if appropriate.

Disconnected And

Healthy

Has been disconnected, and was in the Healthy state when the loss of connection occurred.

This state can be reported during network failures between the active copy and the database copy.

Disconnected And

Resynchronizing

Is no longer connected to the active database copy, and was in the Resynchronizing state when the loss of connection occurred.

This state can be reported during network failures between the active copy and the database copy.

Dismounted

Dismounting

Failed

Failed And

Suspended

Is offline and not accepting client connections. Applies only to the active mailbox database.

Mount the database if maintenance is complete.

Is going offline and terminating client connections. Applies only to the active mailbox database.

N/A

Is in a failed state because it is not suspended, and is not able to copy or replay log files.

Exchange periodically checks to see whether the problem that caused the copy status to change to

Failed has been resolved.

If so, and barring no other issues, the copy status automatically changes to

Healthy.

Is in the Failed And Suspended state because a failure was detected and because resolution of the failure explicitly requires administrator intervention.

Take corrective action as appropriate. Exchange does not periodically check to see whether the problem has been resolved and does not automatically recover.

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COPY STATUS

Healthy

Initializing

Mounted

Mounting

Resynchronizing

Seeding

Service Down

Single Page

Restore

Suspended

STATUS OF THE MAILBOX

DATABASE COPY

Is successfully copying and replaying log files, or has successfully copied and replayed all available log files.

Is being created, or the

Microsoft Exchange Repli - cation service is starting up or has just been started, or the Mailbox Database copy is transitioning to another state.

CORRECTIVE ACTION

N/A

While the copy is in this state, Exchange is verifying that the database and log stream are in a consistent state. It should generally not be in this state for longer than 30 seconds.

Is online and accepting client connections. Applies only to active mailbox database.

Is coming online and not yet accepting client connections.

Applies only to active mailbox database.

Is being checked for any divergence between the active copy and this passive copy.

N/A

N/A

Is being seeded, the related content index is being seeded, or both.

Cannot connect to the replication service.

The copy status remains in this state until any divergence is detected and resolved.

Upon successful completion of seeding, the copy status should change to

Initializing.

Start or restart the

Microsoft Exchange

Replication service on the server that hosts the mailbox database copy.

Had a single page error, and this error is being corrected automatically.

Is in a suspended state as a result of an administrator manually suspending the database copy.

N/A

Resume replication if appropriate

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removing database copies

You can remove a passive database copy at any time by using the Exchange Management tools. After removing a database copy, you need to manually delete any database and transaction log files from the server.

NOTE

You cannot use these procedures to remove the active copy of a mailbox database. To remove a database that is an active copy, you must first switch the database over to a new active copy. alternatively, if you no longer want a database and its copies, you first need to remove all passive copies, and then you need to remove all mailboxes from the active database before you can delete it.

TIP

You can remove mailbox database copies only from a database availability group with a healthy status. If the database availability group doesn’t have a healthy status, you won’t be able to remove any mailbox database copies.

To remove a database copy, complete the following steps:

1.

In the Exchange Admin Center, select Servers in the feature pane, and then select Databases. In the main pane, you should see a list of active databases that are available in the Exchange organization.

2.

Select the mailbox database with the copy that you want to manage. In the details pane, you’ll see a list of active and passive copies of the database along with the current status of each.

3.

Tap or click the Remove option for the database copy you want to remove.

4.

When prompted to confirm, tap or click Yes. If an error occurred, you need to take the appropriate corrective action. Tap or click Close.

In the Exchange Management Shell, you can remove a database copy by using the Remove-MailboxDatabaseCopy cmdlet. Listing 3-11 provides the syntax and usage.

LISTING 3-11

Remove-MailboxDatabaseCopy cmdlet syntax and usage

Syntax

Remove-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity DatabaseName\ServerName]

[-DomainController FullyQualifiedName]

Usage

Remove-MailboxDatabaseCopy –Identity "CS Mail Database\MailServer24"

Before you remove a database using the shell, you may need to identify available copies of the database. To do this, enter the following command:

Get-MailboxDatabase DatabaseName | fl DatabaseCopies

Where DatabaseName is the name of the database you want to work with, such as:

Get-MailboxDatabase Development | fl databasecopies

As shown in this example, the output lists where copies of the database are available:

DatabaseCopies : {Development\MAILSERVER42, Development\MAILSERVER21}

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Managing mailbox databases

Now that you know how to create and use databases, let’s look at some general techniques you’ll use to manage databases.

NOTE

these techniques apply only to active mailbox databases. passive copies of mailbox databases are managed as discussed in the “Working with mailbox database copies” section earlier in this chapter.

Mounting and dismounting databases

You can only access databases that are mounted. If a database isn’t mounted, the database isn’t available for use. If a database isn’t mounted it means that an administrator has probably dismounted the database or that the drive on which the database is located isn’t online. It could also mean that the Exchange Information Store service is not running or that the drive, log drive, or both are online but out of disk space.

REAL WORLD

a dismounted database can also indicate that there are problems with the database, transaction log, and system files used by the database. During startup, Exchange Server 2013 obtains a list of database files registered in Active

Directory and then checks for the related files before mounting each database. If files are missing or corrupted, Exchange Server 2013 will be unable to mount the database.

Exchange Server 2013 then generates an error and logs it in the application event log on the Exchange server. a common error is Event ID 9547. an example of this error follows:

The Active Directory indicates that the database file

D:\Exchsrvr\mdbdata\Marketing.edb exists for the Microsoft

Exchange

Database; however, no such files exist on the disk.

this error tells you that the Exchange database (Marketing.edb) is registered in

Active Directory but Exchange Server 2013 is unable to find the file on the disk.

When Exchange Server 2013 attempts to start the corrupted mailbox database, you’ll see an additional error as well. the most common error is Event ID 9519. an example of this error follows:

Error 0xfffffb4d starting database Marketing on the Microsoft

Exchange Information Store.

this error tells you that Exchange Server 2013 couldn’t start the Marketing database.

You can try to restore the database to recover its data. If you are unable to restore the database file, you can create a copy of all database files and store them elsewhere and then recreate the database structures in the Exchange admin Center by mounting the database. When you mount the database, Exchange Server 2013 creates a new database file. As a result, the data in the original database files (and not the copies) is lost and cannot be recovered. Exchange Server 2013 displays a warning before mounting the database and recreating the database file. Tap or click Yes only when you are absolutely certain that you cannot recover the database.

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Be sure you don’t overwrite the database files containing the data you want to try to recover. You can still work on the database while users access the newly created empty database. this is effectively a dial-tone database that you are creating. then, take the damaged database file elsewhere, run repair, make the database consistent, and then use it to complete the dial-tone recovery process.

If you can’t restore or repair a database and you need as much of the data as you can get back, you might have clients in cached or offline mode with viable copies of the data that can be exported and imported.

Determining the status of databases

Mailbox databases have several associated states, including the following:

Mounted

Backup In Progress

Background Database Maintenance

You can determine the status of a database by following these steps:

1.

In the Exchange Admin Center, select Servers in the feature pane, and then select Databases. In the main pane, you should see a list of active databases that are available in the Exchange organization.

2.

Select the mailbox database that you want to work with to see a list of all copies of that database in the details pane. The status of each database copy also is listed in the details pane.

In the Exchange Management Shell, you can determine the status of all databases or specific databases by using the Get-MailboxDatabase. Listing 3-12 provides the syntax and usage for this cmdlet. To see status details, you can specify the status flags associated with each state you want to see as part of the formatted output. In the example, the Mounted, Backup In Progress, and Background Database Maintenance status values are listed as True or False.

LISTING 3-12

Getting database status details

Syntax

Get-MailboxDatabase [-Identity MailboxDatabase

| -Server Server]

[-DomainController DCName] [-DumpsterStatistics <$true | $false>]

[-IncludePreExchange2013 <$true | $false>]

[-Status <$true | $false>] | format-table Name, Mounted, BackupInProgress,

BackgroundDatabaseMaintenance

Usage for specific database

Get-MailboxDatabase –Identity "Eng DB" –Status | format-table Name,

Mounted, BackupInProgress, BackgroundDatabaseMaintenance

Usage for all databases on a server

Get-MailboxDatabase –Server "CORPSVR127" –Status | format-table

Name, Mounted, BackupInProgress, BackgroundDatabaseMaintenance

Usage for all databases

Get-MailboxDatabase –Status | format-table Name,

Mounted, BackupInProgress, BackgroundDatabaseMaintenance

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Dismounting and mounting databases

Before you perform maintenance on a Mailbox server in a database availability group, you should perform a server switchover so that the server’s active databases are transitioned and made active on one or more additional servers in the group. You might also want to suspend replication or block activation of passive copies on the server being maintained. For mailbox databases that are not part of an availability group, you should rarely dismount an active database, but if you need to do so, follow these steps:

1.

In the Exchange Admin Center, select Servers in the feature pane, and then select Databases. In the main pane, you should see a list of active databases that are available in the Exchange organization.

2.

Select the mailbox database that you want to copy to see a list of all copies of that database in the details pane. Note the status of the active database copy. If the copy is mounted, the status normally is listed as Active Mounted.

3.

Tap or click the More button (this button shows three dots), and then select

Dismount. When prompted, confirm the action by tapping or clicking Yes.

Exchange Server dismounts the database. Users will no longer be able to access the database and work with their server-based folders.

After you’ve dismounted a database and performed maintenance, recovery, or other procedures as necessary, you can remount the database by selecting the database, tapping or clicking the More button, and then selecting Mount. When prompted, confirm the action by tapping or clicking Yes.

In the Exchange Management Shell, you can dismount and mount databases by using the Dismount-Database and Mount-Database cmdlets, respectively. Listing 3-13 provides the syntax and usage for these cmdlets.

LISTING 3-13

Dismounting and mounting databases

Syntax

Dismount-Database –Identity DatabaseIdentity

[-DomainController FullyQualifiedName]

Mount-Database –Identity DatabaseIdentity

[-AcceptDataLoss

<$true | $false>] [-DomainController FullyQualifiedName]

[-Force

<$true | $false>]

Usage for dismounting a database

Dismount-Database –Identity "Eng DB"

Usage for mounting a database

Mount-Database –Identity "Eng DB"

Specifying whether a database should be automatically mounted

Normally, Exchange Server automatically mounts databases on startup. You can, however, change this behavior. For example, if you’re recovering an Exchange server from a complete failure, you might not want to mount databases until you’ve completed recovery. In this case, you can disable automatic mounting of databases.

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To enable or disable automatic mounting of a database, complete the following steps:

1.

In the Exchange Admin Center, select Servers in the feature pane, and then select Databases. In the main pane, you should see a list of active databases that are available in the Exchange organization.

2.

Double-tap or double-click the database with which you want to work.

3.

On the Maintenance page, do one of the following and then tap or click

Save:

a.

To ensure that a database isn’t mounted on startup, select the Don’t

Mount This Database At Startup check box.

b.

To mount the database on startup, clear the Don’t Mount This Database

At Startup check box.

In the Exchange Management Shell, you can enable or disable automatic mounting at startup by using the Set-MailboxDatabase. Listing 3-14 provides the syntax and usage for controlling automatic mounting.

LISTING 3-14

Controlling automatic mounting

Syntax

Set-MailboxDatabase –Identity DatabaseIdentity

–MountAtStartup <$true | $false>

Usage

Set-MailboxDatabase –Identity "Eng DB"

–MountAtStartup $false

Setting the maintenance interval

You should run maintenance routines against databases on a daily basis. The maintenance routines organize the databases, clear out extra space, and perform other essential housekeeping tasks. By default, the automatic background maintenance does some of this work, and Exchange Server runs extended, foreground maintenance tasks daily from 1:00 A.M. to 5:00 A.M. If this conflicts with other scheduled administrative tasks or activities on the Exchange server, you can change the maintenance settings by following these steps:

1.

In the Exchange Admin Center, select Servers in the feature pane, and then select Databases. In the main pane, you should see a list of active databases that are available in the Exchange organization.

2.

Double-tap or double-click the database with which you want to work. This opens a properties dialog box for the database.

3.

On the Maintenance page, note the current Maintenance Schedule, and then select Customize. You can now set the times when maintenance should occur by using the options in the Customize Maintenance dialog box, shown in

Figure 3-9.

Times that are used for maintenance are filled in with a dark bar.

Times that aren’t used for maintenance are blank.

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FIGURE 3-9

Customize the background maintenance schedule.

IMPORTANT

Ideally, you want to schedule background maintenance to occur during off-peak hours. as the size of databases and activity levels change, you’ll want to optimize this schedule to ensure that servers aren’t overburdened and that servers have enough time to perform necessary maintenance tasks.

4.

Show the time in hours or in 15-minute intervals using the options provided.

Change the setting for a time interval by tapping or clicking it.

Hourly or 15-minute interval buttons are used to select or clear a particular interval for all the days of a week.

Days of the week buttons allow you to clear or select all the hours in a particular day.

The All button allows you to clear or select all the time periods.

5.

Tap or click OK to close the Customize Maintenance Schedule dialog box.

6.

By default, Exchange performs background maintenance tasks by scanning the ESE 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Select or clear the related check box as appropriate. Note that if you change this setting, you must dismount and then remount the database for the change to take effect. Tap or click OK.

In the Exchange Management Shell, you can configure the maintenance schedule for a database by using Set-MailboxDatabase. Listing 3-15 provides the syntax and usage. In the example, replication is configured to occur between Friday at 9:00 P.M. and Monday at 1:00 A.M.

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LISTING 3-15

Setting the maintenance schedule

Syntax

Set-MailboxDatabase –Identity DatabaseIdentity

[–MaintenanceSchedule Schedule]

[-BackgroundDatabaseMaintenance <$true | $false>]

Usage

Set-MailboxDatabase –Identity "Eng DB"

–MaintenanceSchedule "Fri.9:00 PM-Mon.1:00 AM"

Moving databases

As discussed earlier, each database has a database file associated with it, and the location of this file has an important role in managing Exchange Server performance. You can view the current file and folder paths the database is using by entering:

Get-MailboxDatabase DatabaseName | fl *path

DatabaseName is the name of the database to check, such as:

Get-MailboxDatabase "Engineering" | fl *path

In the command output, the database file path is listed as EdbFilePath, the log folder path is listed as LogFolderPath and any associated temporary data folder is listed under TemporaryDataFolderPath, as shown in this example:

EdbFilePath : G:\Databases\Engineering\Engineering.edb

LogFolderPath : H:\Logs\Engineering

TemporaryDataFolderPath :

In the Exchange Management Shell, you can move databases by using the Move-

DatabasePath cmdlet. Listing 3-16 provides the syntax and usage. If the specified database is mounted, the database is automatically dismounted and then remounted, and it is unavailable to users while it’s dismounted. Additionally, you can perform a database move only while logged on to the affected Mailbox server, with one exception. If you are performing a configuration-only move, you can perform the configuration-only move from your management computer.

LISTING 3-16

Move-DatabasePath cmdlet syntax and usage

Syntax

Move-DatabasePath -Identity DatabaseIdentity

[-ConfigurationOnly <$true | $false>] [-EdbFilePath EdbFilePath]

[-DomainController DCName] [-Force <$true | $false>]

[-LogFolderPath FolderPath]

Usage

Move-DatabasePath -Identity "Engineering"

-EdbFilePath "K:\Databases\Engineering\Engineering.edb"

-LogFolderPath "L:\Logs\Engineering"

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You cannot move a database that is being backed up or a replicated mailbox database. To move a replicated mailbox database, you must disable circular logging if enabled, remove all replicated copies, and then perform the move operation. After the move is complete, you can add copies of the mailbox database and re-enable circular logging. You’ll also want to rebuild the content indexes for each copy of the database. To perform these and other related tasks, complete the following steps:

1.

Identify any replay lag or truncation lag settings for all copies of the mailbox database being moved by entering the following command:

Get-MailboxDatabase DatabaseName | fl *lag*

DatabaseName is the name of the database that you want to move.

2.

Disable circular logging if the option is enabled by entering the following command:

Set-MailboxDatabase DatabaseName -CircularLoggingEnabled $false

3.

Identify all copies of the database by entering the following command:

Get-MailboxDatabase DatabaseName | fl DatabaseCopies

4.

Remove the mailbox database copies by entering the following command for each copy:

Remove-MailboxDatabaseCopy DatabaseName\ServerName

DatabaseName is the name of the database copy to remove and ServerName is the name of the server.

5.

On each server that hosted a copy of the database, move the data files and log files for the database copy to a local archive folder, such as C:\Archives\

Database for the database files and C:\Archives\Logs for the log files. This preserves the files on the server so that the database copies don’t need to be reseeded after they have been recreated.

6.

Use the Move-DatabasePath cmdlet to move the database path and log path to a new location. The syntax is:

Move-DatabasePath -Identity DatabaseName

-EdbFilePath EdbFilePath

-LogFolderPath FolderPath

During the move operation, the database will be dismounted. When Exchange finishes moving the database, Exchange will automatically mount the database.

7.

On each server that hosted a passive copy of the database, create the required folders for the database and logs. For example, if you moved the database to K:\Databases\Engineering\Engineering.edb, you must create the K:\Databases\Engineering folder on each server. If you moved the log folder to L:\Logs\Engineering, you must also create the L:\Logs\Engineering folder on each server. Because the active copy of the database was moved already, you don’t need to create folders for the active copy.

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8.

On each server that hosted a passive copy of the database, move the preserved database files to the database folder and then move the preserved log files to the log folder. As the active copy of the database was moved already, you don’t need to move the preserved files for the active database.

9.

Use the Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy cmdlet to add a passive copy of the database to each server that previously hosted a passive copy of the database. The basic syntax is:

Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity SourceDatabase

-MailboxServer TargetServer

Don’t set any replay lag or truncation lag times yet because you want to ensure the databases are recovered using the local files (and without reseeding).

10.

Recreate the context indexes on each server that hosts an active or passive copy of the database. To do this, use the following commands to stop and then start the Microsoft Exchange Search service:

Stop-Service MSExchangeSearch

Start-Service MSExchangeSearch

11.

If you want to enable circular logging of the active copy of the database, enter the following command:

Set-MailboxDatabase DatabaseName -CircularLoggingEnabled $true

12.

Use the Set-MailboxDatabseCopy cmdlet to reconfigure replay lag and truncation lag times, as appropriate. The basic syntax is:

Set-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity Database\Server

[-ReplayLagTime Days.Hours:Minutes:Seconds]

[-TruncationLagTime Days.Hours:Minutes:Seconds]

After you’ve completed all these tasks, you should confirm that replication is working as expected by using the Get-MailboxDatabaseCopyStatus cmdlet. You also should use the Test-ReplicationHealth cmdlet to verify the health and status of the database availability group.

renaming databases

To rename a database, follow these steps:

1.

In the Exchange Admin Center, double-tap or double-click the database with which you want to work. This opens a properties dialog box for the database.

2.

In the Name text box, type the new name for the database. Tap or click Save.

NOTE

All objects in Active Directory are located by a unique identifier. This identifier uses the directory namespace and works through each element in the directory hierarchy to a particular object. When you change the name of a database, you change the namespace for all the objects in the database.

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In the Exchange Management Shell, you can rename databases by using the

–Name parameter of the Set-MailboxDatabase. Listing 3-17 provides the syntax and usage.

LISTING 3-17

Renaming a database

Syntax

Set-MailboxDatabase –Identity DatabaseIdentity

–Name NewName

Usage

Set-MailboxDatabase –Identity "Eng DB"

–Name "Engineering Mail Database"

Deleting databases

Before deleting a mailbox database, you must delete or move the mailboxes it contains. After you’ve moved items that you might need and deleted items you don’t need, you can delete the database by completing the following steps:

1.

In the Exchange Admin Center, select the database you want to delete, and then select the Delete button.

2.

When prompted, confirm the action by tapping or clicking Yes.

3.

After removing the database, you need to delete any database and transaction log files from the server.

In the Exchange Management Shell, you can delete databases by using the

Remove-MailboxDatabase. Listing 3-18 provides the syntax and usage.

LISTING 3-18

Removing databases

Syntax

Remove-MailboxDatabase –Identity DatabaseIdentity

[-DomainController FullyQualifiedName]

Usage

Remove-MailboxDatabase –Identity "Eng DB"

Content indexing

Content indexing is a built-in Exchange feature. Every Exchange server in your organization supports and uses some type of indexing. To manage indexing more effectively, use the techniques discussed in this section.

Understanding indexing

Content indexing enables fast searches and lookups through server-stored mailboxes. Exchange Server 2013 uses the content indexing engine from the Microsoft

Search Foundation. The Exchange Server storage engine automatically implements and manages Exchange Search. Exchange Search is used with searches for common

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key fields, such as message subjects. Users take advantage of Exchange Search every time they use the Find feature in Microsoft Office Outlook. With server-based mail folders, Exchange Search is used to quickly search To, From, Cc, and Subject fields.

With public folders, Exchange Search is used to quickly search From and Subject fields.

As you probably know, users can perform advanced searches in Office Outlook as well. For example, in Outlook 2010, all users need to do is tap or click in the Search box or press Ctrl+E to access the Search tools, tap or click Search Options, and then tap or click Advanced Find. In the Advanced Find dialog box, users can enter their search parameters and then tap or click Find Now.

When Exchange Server receives an advanced query for personal folders, it searches through every message in every folder. This means that as Exchange mailboxes grow, so does the time it takes to complete an advanced search. With standard searching,

Exchange Server is unable to search through message attachments.

With server-based folders, Exchange Server builds an index of all searchable text in a particular mailbox database before users try to search. The index can then be updated or rebuilt at a predefined interval. Then, when users perform advanced searches, they can quickly find any text within a document or attachment.

A drawback of content indexing is that it can be resource-intensive. As with any database, creating and maintaining indexes requires CPU time and system memory, which can affect Exchange performance. Full-text indexes also use disk space.

A newly created index uses approximately 10 to 20 percent of the total size of the

Exchange database (and is directly related to what’s in the database’s mailboxes).

This means that a 1-TB database would have an index of about 100 to 200 GB.

Each time you update an index, the file space that the index uses increases. Don’t worry—only changes in the database are stored in the index updates. This means that the additional disk space usage is incremental. For example, if the original 1-TB database grew by 1 GB, the index could use up to 201 GB of disk space (up to 200

GB for the original index and 1 GB for the update).

Managing Exchange Store Search

Exchange Server 2013 doesn’t allow administrators to configure how indexing works.

Full-text indexes are stored as part of the Exchange data files. Because of this, whatever folder location you use for Exchange data files will have an indexing subfolder, which contains all the Exchange Search data for the related database and all its related databases. By default, you’ll find full-text index files for a database in the

%SystemDrive%\Program Files\Microsoft\Exchange Server\V15\Mailbox\Database

Name\GUID folder where GUID is the database’s globally unique identifier.

NOTE

Exchange maintains full-text indexes as part of the database maintenance schedule. See the “Setting the maintenance interval” section earlier in this chapter for more information.

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Each database has an index. If you make a database copy, you are also making an index copy. There’s often no need to rebuild an index. That said, as part of the recovery process for a mailbox database, you might want to rebuild the related fulltext index catalog to ensure it’s current. You might also want to rebuild the full-text index after you’ve made substantial changes to a database or if you suspect the fulltext index is corrupted.

You can rebuild an index manually at any time. Exchange Server rebuilds an index by recreating it. This means that Exchange Server takes a new snapshot of the database and uses this snapshot to build the index from scratch. To manually rebuild an index, enter the following commands to stop and then start the Exchange Search service:

Stop-Service MSExchangeFastSearch

Start-Service MSExchangeFastSearch

Exchange Discovery relies on Exchange Search for databases and mailboxes within databases. You can enable or disable indexing for individual databases by setting the -IndexEnabled parameter of the Set-MailboxDatabase cmdlet to $true or $false, respectively. The following example disables indexing of the Engineering database:

Set-MailboxDatabase "Engineering Database" -IndexEnabled $false

When you disable indexing of a database, you also prevent the Exchange 2013

Discovery feature from returning messages from the database or server.

You can disable indexing for all databases on a server by stopping and disabling the Microsoft Exchange Search service. Here’s an example using the Exchange

Management Shell in which you stop and disable the Exchange Search service on a remote server named Server18:

Stop-Service MSExchangeFastSearch -ComputerName Server22

Set-Service MSExchangeFastSearch -StartupType Disabled -ComputerName

Server22

You can enable indexing for all databases on a server by enabling the Microsoft

Exchange Search service for automatic startup and starting the service. An example using the Exchange Management Shell follows:

Set-Service MSExchangeFastSearch -StartupType Automatic

-ComputerName Server18

Start-Service MSExchangeFastSearch -ComputerName MailServer11

When you disable indexing on a server, you also prevent Exchange Discovery for all databases on the server.

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troubleshooting indexing

You can quickly determine which databases have indexing enabled by using the following command:

Get-MailboxDatabase | ft Name,IndexEnabled

You can determine whether content indexing has a healthy status by using the following command:

Get-MailboxDatabaseCopyStatus | ft Identity, ActiveDatabaseCopy,

ContentIndexState -Auto

If you find that the context index for a passive database copy is outdated, you can rebuild or reseed the index. To reseed the index, enter the following command:

Update-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity Database\Server -CatalogOnly

Database is the name of the database and Server is the name of the server hosting the database, such as:

Update-MailboxDatabaseCopy -Identity Engineering\MailServer12

-CatalogOnly

If you need to troubleshoot Exchange Search issues, you can use Test-Exchange

Search. When you use the -Server parameter to specify the name of a server to check, the cmdlet tests all mailbox databases on the server simultaneously. If the server is a member of a DAG and has a passive copy of a database, the test is automatically performed against the server that has the active database copy.

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c09681750.indd 362 9/24/2013 2:17:00 PM

Index

A

A records, 108 accepted domains

defined, 170 creating, 173, 174 default, selecting, 174 identifier, changing, 174 modifying, 174, 175 removing, 176 types, 174 viewing, 171, 172 actions, for transport rules, 206

Active Directory configuring site boundaries, 10 data store, 14, 15 database availability groups and, 30

Edge subscription and, 158 hub sites, configuring, 110 site configuration details, viewing,

111 site-based routing and, 8 sites, renaming, 111

Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS)

Edge Transport server role and, 108

Exchange Server installations and, 2

Active Directory Lightweight Directory

Services (AD LDS), 108

Active Manager, 16, 17, 30–34 active monitoring managed availability and, 32

Outlook Web App and, 217

ActiveSync. See Exchange ActiveSync

ActiveSyncDevice cmdlets vs.

MobileDevice cmdlets, 274

Add cmdlets

Add-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup-

Server, 29, 44, 61

Add-IPAllowListEntry, 202

Add-IPBlockListEntry, 204

Add-IPBlockListProvider, 198, 199,

200, 201

Add-MailboxDatabaseCopy, 29, 61,

81, 102

Address (A) record, 108 address book policy, 243 address lists, 5 address policies. See email address policies address spaces, Send connectors and, 116,

119, 120 alerting. See performance alerting aliases, missing, 181 anonymous authentication, 237, 238,

239, 240 anti-spam

described, 189 agents, 155

Edge Transport servers and, 154

IP block lists, 195–201

Mailbox servers, enabling on, 154 recipient filtering, 193–195 sender filtering, 190–193 updates, configuring, 156 application log, 317 application pools, Outlook Web App and, 220 arbitration mailboxes, 16 architecture changes in Exchange Server

2013, 1, 2, 114 archive mailboxes, 16

ASP.NET Impersonation, 237, 241 attachments size limits, 141, 143 storage location, 18 attempt copy last logs (ACLL), 32 authentication

See also Forms authentication

Autodiscover and, 269

IIS and, 237–241 for mobile devices, 262

NTLM, 267 z01I681750.indd 363

363

9/24/2013 9:48:54 PM

authoritative domains

authentication (continued)

Outlook Anywhere, 259, 260

POP3 and IMAP4, 253, 254

Receive connectors and, 109, 136, 137

Send connectors and, 114, 119

Windows, 237–239, 253, 254 authoritative domains, 170, 174 autoblocking settings for mobile devices, 297

Autodiscover

described, 268 connection points and, 1 disabling and enabling, 270 health sets, 223 migrating mailboxes and, 13 mobile devices and, 268–271 automated messages, managing mail flow for, 186 automatic distribution, 65 automatic mounting, 97 automatic reseed, 65, 66 availability groups. See database availability groups (DAGs)

B

back end transport, 6, 8 back pressure, 169–170 backing up data, 27 database copies, 17 bandwidth limits, 235 base64 encoding, affect on message size, 141

Basic authentication, 237, 238, 239,

241, 254 bindings

IIS and, 230

POP3 and IMAP4, 252, 253 for Receive connectors, 129 blank senders, 191 blocking messages. See message filtering;

IP block lists

C

Categorizer, 8, 15 certificates creating, 233 installing, 234 requesting, 233, 234 trusting, 235 viewing, 232 checkpoint files message database, 18 queue database, 22 circular logging, 17, 101, 102

Clear-MobileDevice cmdlet

described, 274 syntax and usage, 275 client access

described, 209 layers, 221 throttling, 241–243

Client Access servers authentication settings for virtual directories, 238

Exchange Server 2013 server roles and, 1 as front end, 2, 114 proxying through, 121 purpose in Exchange Server 2013, 2

Receive connectors and, 128, 129 transport limits, 144

Client front-end connector, 128

Client Proxy connector, 128 client-server architecture in Exchange

2013, 2 client type Receive connectors, 131 cloud service, Exchange Online as, 12

Cluster Continuous Replication (CCR), 28 cluster name objects, 37, 38 clustering, 28, 30, 31

Company filter condition, 180

Compliance Management, journal rules and, 186 conditions, for transport rules, 205 configuration changes, tracking, 343, 344 configuration data type, 14

Connect-Mailbox cmdlet, 77 connection filters. See IP block lists connection limits domain, 127, 128 simultaneous outbound, 127 website, 235, 236 connection timeout values, 153, 235

ConnectionInactivityTimeout value, 153 connectivity logging configuring, 314, 315 log fields, list of, 316 properties and fields, 315, 316

364

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connectors. See Receive connectors; Send connectors contacts, Outlook Web App and, 215

Content Filter agent, 155 content indexing, 103–106 continuous replication changes since previous version, 28 checking status, 58, 59 circular logging, 17 cost of a route

IP site links and, 10 setting for a Send connector, 116 counters, 321–323

CPU utilization, 326, 327 cross-premises routing, 13 current log files circular logging and, 17 message database, 18, 19 queue database, 22 custom address lists, 5

Custom type Receive connectors, 109, 130

Custom type Send connectors, 109, 117 cutoff balance, throttling client access and, 242

D

data-center coordinator mode, 53

Data Collector Sets, 323 data pages, 19 data storage

Active Directory data store, 14 components, 16 data pages and, 19 data tables and, 19 default location for files, 19

Exchange store, 16 file types, 18 data tables, 19 data types, for replication, 14 database availability groups (DAGs)

described, 28

Active Manager and, 30–34 cmdlets for, 29 creating, 39–43 limit on number of servers, 17 manual network configuration, enabling, 45 membership, managing, 42–45 network cards and, 42

Department filter condition

network compression, 51 network encryption, 51 network settings, changing, 49–52 networks, creating, 46, 47 networks, managing, 45–49 permissions, 34, 40 pre-staging and preparing for, 34–39 properties, configuring, 52–55 removing, 54, 55 replication and, 30, 79 restoring operations after member failure, 59–62 routing messages, 8 servers, removing from, 54 witness servers, 34, 35 database copies activating lagged, 84–86 constraints, 30 creating, 79–81 removing, 94 replication status, monitoring, 90–93 setting replay, truncation, and preference values, 81 status values, list of, 91–93 database management scopes, 65

Database.edb file, 18 databases. See mailbox databases decommissioning Edge Transport servers,

162

Default front-end connector

described, 128 default message size limit, 143 delay notification messages, 127 delayed fan-out, 12, 110 deleted items recovering, 77, 78 retention periods, 71–75 deleted mailboxes recovering, 75–77 retention periods, 71–75 delivery groups boundaries, 8

Exchange versions and, 9 routing destinations and, 6, 110 specifying expansion servers as, 15

Delivery/Relay queue, 20 delivery reports, 305–307 delivery status notification (DSN) codes, 148

Department filter condition, 180

365

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destination delivery groups

destination delivery groups, 6 device access, 295, 297 dial-up connections, 264

Digest authentication, 237, 238, 239, 241 direct file access, 277–282

Direct Push, 262, 271, 272 discard status, 21 disconnected mailboxes, 75, 76 disk usage, performance alerts for,

327, 328

Dismount-Database cmdlet, 29, 97 dismounting mailbox databases, 95–98 distribution points configuring, 245 properties, 244

DNS lookups, configuring Send connectors, 125, 126 domain data type, 14

Domain Name System (DNS) suffix, Edge

Transport server role and, 108 domains accepted. See accepted domains authoritative, 170 coexistence, 171 relay, 170 remote, 186, 187 dynamic distribution groups

defined, 5 expansion servers and, 15 global catalogs and, 14

E

E##00000001.log file, 19

E##.chk file, 18

ECP. See Exchange Admin Center (ECP) directory

Edge subscriptions

Active Directory and, 11 creating connectors during, 109, 158 process, 157, 158 purpose, 156 removing, 162 synchronizing, 159 verifying, 160 viewing, 159

Edge Transport servers anti-spam features, 154 external relay domains and, 171

Mailbox servers and, 107 queues, 20 role, 2, 108 subscribing. See Edge subscriptions viewing Send connectors, 122

EdgeSync service, 156, 159

EHLO start command, 129

E##.log file, 18, 19 email address format options, 178, 180 email address policies

described, 176 address book, 243 creating, 178–180 custom, variables for, 180 editing and applying, 182 priority order, setting, 179, 182 purpose, 5 removing, 183 viewing, 176, 177

.eml message files, 164, 165 encryption disabling, 265

SSL and, 232 enumerating messages, 333 equipment mailboxes, 16

E##Res00001.jrs file, 19 error messages, for probes, 354–356 error tracing, for probes, 356, 357

E##tmp.log file, 18, 19 event logging application log, 317–319 automatic reseed, 66

Log Parser Studio and, 360 mailbox database failures, 66 managed availability and, 33 monitors and, 352 probes and, 353, 355 recovery actions, identifying,

348, 349 replication and, 30 event sources, list of, 318

Event Viewer, 317–319

EWS. See Exchange Web Services (EWS)

Exchange ActiveSync

described, 261 configuring URLs and authentication,

247 disabling and enabling, 263

IIS and, 263

366

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load balancing, 222 message size limits, 144 resetting, 248 safeguarding sensitive data, 262 synchronization, 262 transport limits, 144–145 web.config file location, 144

Exchange Admin Center (ECP) directory,

223, 248, 249

Exchange Health Manager Service, 33

Exchange Health Manager Worker process, 33

Exchange Management Shell, customizing views, 340

Exchange Online accepted domains and, 171 capabilities, 12 cmdlets for creating connectors, 140 compliance options, 184 disadvantages of, 12 hybrid deployments, role of Edge

Transport servers in, 107

Inbound connectors, 139 vs. on-premises, 12

Outbound connectors, 139 resolving mailbox conflicts with onpremises, 13

Exchange Replication service. See replication

Exchange Rich Text Format vs. Transport

Neutral Encapsulation Format (TNEF),

189

Exchange Search, 103–106

Exchange Server 2007

Edge Transport servers and, 2

Hub Transport Servers and, 6, 9, 15 journal rules and, 184 online vs. on-premises configurations, 12

Exchange Server 2010

Edge Transport servers and, 2 filter exceptions, 201 global allowed lists, 202

Hub Transport servers and, 6, 9, 15

IP block lists, 197, 200 journal rules and, 184 message filtering, 190, 193

Outlook Web App and, 212 transport dumpster, 21

externally secured authentication

Exchange Server 2013

Client Access servers and, 1 client-server architecture, 1, 2 continuous replication, 28 data storage, 13 database limits for specific editions, 69 database types, 16 expansion servers, 15 hybrid deployments, 107 installing, 2

Mailbox servers and, 1 mailbox types, 16 managing from touch-capable computers, xiii on-premises vs. online configuration,

12, 13 organizations and, 2

Outlook versions and, 1 previous editions, changes from, 1,

21, 25, 114, 149 routing and delivery, 9 server roles, 1 server types, 2 upgrading from Standard to Enterprise edition, 69

Exchange store, 16

Exchange Toolbox, 20

Exchange Trusted Subsystem group,

38, 39

Exchange Web Services (EWS) health sets, 223 limits, 145 message size limit, 144 web.config file location, 145

%ExchangeInstallpath% variable, 144 expansion servers, specifying as a delivery group, 15 expiration time-out configuring, 127 default, 126

Extended SMTP (ESMTP) sessions, 129

Extensible Storage Engine (ESE), 17, 26, 28 external DNS lookups, configuring, 125 external relay domains, 171, 174 externally secured authentication

Receive connectors and, 137

Send connectors and, 119

367

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failover

F

failover

defined, 29 clusters, 35, 36, 37 vs. switchover, 55

Failover Cluster Manager, 30, 31 fc (file compare) command, 344 file types for Exchange data store, 18 filtering. See message filtering; IP block lists firewalls, 39, 222

Forms authentication, 238, 241 forwarding mailboxes, 16

Front End Transport service

Client Access servers and, 114 incoming messages and, 6 mail transport and, 4

Receive connectors and, 130 routing and, 6 front-end proxying, 121 full-text indexes, 104, 105

G

Get cmdlets

Get-AcceptedDomain, 172

Get-AdSite, 111

Get-AdSiteLink, 112, 113

Get-AutodiscoverVirtualDirectory,

269, 270

Get-ClientAccessServer, 343

Get-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup,

29, 44

Get-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup-

Network, 29, 48

Get-EdgeSubscription, 159

Get-EmailAddressPolicy, 177

Get-ExchangeServer, 343

Get-HealthReport, 217, 225, 340

Get-IMAPSettings, 252

Get-IPAllowListEntry, 203

Get-IPBlockListConfig, 199

Get-IPBlockListEntry, 204

Get-IPBlockListProvider, 198

Get-JournalRule, 186

Get-Mailbox, 243

Get-MailboxDatabase, 29, 60, 96, 106

Get-MailboxDatabaseCopyStatus, 29,

62, 93, 102, 106

Get-MailboxServer, 343

Get-MessageTrackingLog, 302, 303

Get-MobileDevice, 274

Get-MobileDeviceMailboxPolicy, 286

Get-MobileDeviceStatistics, 275, 277

Get-MonitoringItemIdentity, 357

Get-OrganizationConfig, 344

Get-OutlookAnywhere, 257, 258

Get-OwaMailboxPolicy, 230

Get-OWAVirtualDirectory, 281

Get-OwaVirtualDirectory, 225

Get-OWAVirtualDirectory, 223,

280, 285

Get-POPSettings, 251

Get-ReceiveConnector, 137

Get-RecipientFilterConfig, 195

Get-RemoteDomain, 186, 187

Get-ResourcePolicy, 343

Get-SendConnector, 124

Get-SenderFilterConfig, 190, 193

Get-ServerHealth, 217, 223, 224,

340, 341

Get-ThrottlingPolicyAssociation, 342

Get-ThrottlingPolicy, 241, 243, 342

Get-TransportRule, 208

Get-TransportService, 344

Get-WorkloadPolicy, 342 global address list, 5 global allowed lists, 202 global block lists, 203 global catalogs, 14

Global Throttling Policy, 342

H

header firewall feature, 109 header size limits, 144 headers, Pickup directory and, 164 health indicators, 343 health sets

ActiveSync, 224

Autodiscover, 223

ECP, 223

Exchange Web Services (EWS), 223

368

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I

list of, 356, 357 monitors and, 339

OAB, 224

OWA, 218, 219, 224

PublicFolders, 224

RPC, 224

Windows PowerShell, 224

HELO start command, 129 high availability database options, 28–30

Information Store and, 25 managed availability and, 32 high availability transport (HAT) boundaries, shadow redundancy and, 149 hops, specifying maximum for Receive connectors, 133

HTTP default port settings, 251 optimizing protocol logging for,

311–313 protocol log files, 313, 314 redirection role service, 237 server, controlling access to, 237–241 hub sites, 110, 111

Hub Transport servers, 2, 6, 9 hybrid deployments

Mailbox servers and Edge Transport servers, 107 message routing and delivery, 107 on-premises and Exchange Online, connectors for, 139 hybrid organizations accepted domains and, 171 journal rules and, 184 idle user sessions, disconnecting, 235

IIS authentication, 237–241 bindings, 230–232

Exchange ActiveSync and, 263

Log Parser Studio and, 360 restarting, 225 troubleshooting, 225, 226 web applications and, 221, 222

IPv6 addresses, specifying for Receive connectors

IMAP4 (Internet Message Access

Protocol 4) authentication, 253, 254 bindings, 252, 253 configuring, 249–250 default port settings, 251 enabling, 250–251 message retrieval settings, 256, 257

Inbound connectors, 139 incoming messages, Mailbox Transport

Delivery service and, 6 incremental resync, 87 indexing, 103–106 information store, 16, 17, 25–34, 63 installing Exchange Server 2013, 2

Integrated Windows Authentication,

Receive connectors and, 137 internal DNS lookups, configuring, 125

Internal Relay Domain accepted domain type, 174 internal relay domains, 171

Internal type Receive connectors, 109, 130

Internal type Send connectors, 109, 117

Internet Message Access Protocol 4

(IMAP4). See IMAP4 (Internet Message

Access Protocol 4)

Internet type Receive connectors, 131

Internet type Send connectors, 117 interoperability with previous versions, site-based routing and, 8

Invoke-MonitoringProbe cmdlet, 358

IP Allow List, enabling, 202

IP block list services enabling and disabling, 200 priority order, 198, 200 return status codes for, 196, 197, 198

IP block lists applying, 196, 197, 198 enabling, 203 error messages, 200, 201 exceptions, 201, 202

IP site links, 10, 112, 113

IPv4 addresses, specifying for Receive connectors, 131

IPv6 addresses, specifying for Receive connectors, 131 z01I681750.indd 369

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9/24/2013 9:48:55 PM

journal rules

J

journal rules configuring, 184 creating, 185, 186 managing, 186

L

lagged database copies, activating, 84–86 least-cost routing path default behavior, changing, 113 determining, 109 message relay, 110 legacy Edge Transport servers. See Edge

Transport servers

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

(LDAP) queries, 14 line length, setting maximum, 189 linked mailboxes, 5, 16 load balancing

Exchange ActiveSync, 222 excluding a mailbox from provisioning, 66 mailbox databases, 64, 65

Outlook Web App, 222 local area networks (LANs), as sites, 10

Local Continuous Replication (LCR), 28 log files, 17–20

See also transaction logs current active, 22, 23 location, 23, 26 message tracking, 300–305 reserve, 22, 23 secondary, 22

Log Parser Studio, 359–361 logging

See also event logging circular, 17, 101, 102 connectivity, 314–316 protocol, 307–314

M

mailbox databases

described, 16 active vs. passive, 30, 63, 78 associated default files, 26 backing up data, 27 copies, creating, 79–81 copies, removing passive, 94 copy status values, 91–93 creating, 66–67 default, 64 deleting, 103 high availability options, 28 limits on specific editions of Exchange, 69 load balancing, 64, 65 maintenance intervals, setting,

98–100 mounting and dismounting, 95–98 moving, 100–102 naming, 26 primary vs. secondary, 78 recovering databases, 95, 96 recovering items deleted from, 77, 78 recovering mailboxes deleted from,

75–77 renaming, 102, 103 replication status, monitoring, 90–93 replication, suspending and resuming, 83, 84 retention periods, setting, 71–75 status, 96 storage limits, 26, 72, 73 system requirements, 17 updating copies, 87–90 viewing file and folder paths, 100 mailbox delivery queues, 329 mailbox-enabled recipients, 5 mailbox policies for mobile devices assigning, 293 creating, 288–292 optimizing, 291 options, 288–290 purpose, 263 removing, 294 viewing, 285–287 mailbox policies for Outlook Web App,

216, 217, 229, 230 mailbox provisioning load balancer.

See load balancing

Mailbox servers anti-spam features, enabling, 154 authentication settings for virtual directories, 239 as back end, 2, 114 connectors and, 109

370

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database limit and maximum size, 17

Edge Transport servers and, 107, 114

Exchange Server 2013 server roles and, 1 external DNS lookups, configuring,

125 internal DNS lookups, configuring,

126 queues, 20

Receive connectors and, 128, 129 routing and, 8, 9

Mailbox Transport Delivery service, incoming messages and, 6

Mailbox Transport service, 6, 8, 9

Mailbox Transport Submission service, outgoing messages and, 6 mailbox types, 16 mail-enabled recipients, 5 mail flow, testing, 345, 346 mail protocols, 108

Mail.que file, 22 maintenance intervals, setting, 98–100 managed availability, 32–34, 337, 338

Managed Store. See information store

MaxAllowedContentLength value, 145,

146

MaxDocumentDataSize key, ActiveSync limits and, 145

MaxReceivedMessageSize value, 145, 146

MaxRequestLength value, 145, 146 memory usage, performance alerting and,

323–326

MessageExpirationTimeout value, 153 message filtering

described, 189 blocking domains and senders, 192

Edge Transport servers and, 154

IP block lists. See IP block lists preventing on internal servers, 205 by recipient, 193–195 by sender, 190–193 message tracking configuring logs, 300, 301 delivery reports, 305–307 log fields, list of, 304 purpose, 299 reviewing logs manually, 303–305 searching logs, 302, 303 settings, 300

MSExchangeHMHost.exe

messages header limits, 141

Pickup directory limits, 167 processing speed, 166, 167 queueing, 11, 20, 21, 22 receive size limits, 141, 142 routing, 4, 6, 8–13 send size limits, 141, 143 throttling, 168, 169 messaging networks, 45, 50

Microsoft Exchange Online. See Exchange

Online

Microsoft Exchange Server 2013.

See Exchange Server 2013

Microsoft.Exchange.Store.Service.exe.

See Information Store

Microsoft Exchange Transport service

(MSExchangeTransport.exe), 23

Microsoft Exchange Writer, 17

Microsoft Outlook. See Outlook 2013

Microsoft-Server-ActiveSync directory,

224 migrating mailboxes from online to on-premises, 13

MIME types, 277, 278, 280, 281 mobile devices

Autodiscover and, 268–271 direct file access, 277–282

Direct Push and, 271, 272

Exchange ActiveSync and, 262, 263 mailbox policies, 285–295 managing access, 295–297

Outlook Anywhere and, 263–267 password recovery, 276–277 remote device wipe and, 272–275 remote file access, 282

WebReady Document Viewing,

283–284 monitor engine, 338 monitors, 352

Mount-Database cmdlet, 97 mounting mailbox databases, 57, 58, 68,

95–98

Move cmdlets

Move-ActiveMailboxDatabase, 29, 57

Move-DatabasePath, 29, 100

MSExchangeDagMgmt.exe. See database availability groups (DAGs)

MSExchangeHMHost.exe, 33

371

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MSExchangeHMWorker.exe

MSExchangeHMWorker.exe, 33

MSExchangeRepl.exe. See replication service msExchMDBAvailabilityGroup object, 35,

36 multihomed servers, 230 multimaster replication, 14

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions

(MIME) values, 277, 278 multivalued properties, shorthand for, 202

MX records, 108, 118

N

naming Exchange organizations, 2

NDR journaling mailbox, 184, 185 networks, database availability group,

45–52

New cmdlets

New-AcceptedDomain, 174

New-AutodiscoverVirtualDirectory,

270

New-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup, 29,

41

New-DatabaseAvailabilityGroupNetwork, 29, 49

New-EcpVirtualDirectory, 225

New-EdgeSubscription, 158

New-EmailAddressPolicy cmdlet, 181

New-JournalRule, 186

New-MailboxDatabase, 29, 70

New-MobileDeviceMailboxPolicy,

290, 291

New-OwaMailboxPolicy, 230

New-OwaVirtualDirectory, 225

New-OWAVirtualDirectory, 223

New-ReceiveConnector cmdlet, 133,

134, 143, 144

New-RemoteDomain cmdlet, 187

New-ResourcePolicy, 343

New-SendConnector cmdlet, 121, 143

New-ThrottlingPolicy, 241, 243, 342

New-TransportRule, 208

New-WorkloadManagementPolicy,

343

New-WorkloadPolicy, 342

New Mailbox Database Wizard, 66 non-delivery of messages, Mail Transport service and, 8 non-delivery reports, 127, 141, 144, 148 nonpersistent queues, 20 non-SMTP connectors, Replay directory and, 164

Ntds.dit file, 14

O

OAB directory health sets, 224 resetting, 245 web distribution points, 244 object-based storage, 19 offline address book (OAB), 64, 70, 71

Offline mode, Outlook Web App and, 215

On-Premises connector type, 139 organizations

Exchange environments and, 2 hybrid deployments, 107 recipients, managing, 5

Outbound Connection Failure Retry Interval (Seconds), 127 outbound connections, 127, 128

Outbound connectors, 139

Outbound Proxy front-end connector default message size limit, 143 purpose, 128 outgoing messages, Mailbox Transport

Submission service and, 6

Outlook 2013

Outlook Anywhere and, 264 recovering deleted items, 77

Outlook Anywhere

described, 264 configuring, 257–260, 265–269 connections and, 3

RPC over HTTP and, 264, 266 vs. remote mail, 264

Outlook Web Access disabling and enabling, 263 mailboxes, accessing, 213 public folders, accessing, 213

Outlook Web App

described, 210, 261

Active Monitoring and, 217 application pools, configuring, 220 configuration requirements, 210 contacts, 215 disabling, 216

372

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features, 211, 212, 214 health sets, 217, 218, 219 limits, 146 load balancing, 222 mailboxes, accessing, 212 mailbox policies, 216, 217, 229, 230 message size limit, 144

Offline mode, 215 password recovery, 276 remote device wipe and, 273 segmentation features, 226–230 troubleshooting, 217–221 versions, 210, 211 web.config file location, 146 overlapping recycling of worker processes, 147

OWA. See Outlook Web App

OWA directory configuring URLs and authentication,

246 health sets, 224 resetting, 247

P

page headers, 19

Partner connection type, 140

Partner type Receive connectors, 131

Partner type Send connectors

described, 117 header firewall feature and, 109 password recovery for mobile devices,

276 performance alerting, 323–328 performance monitoring, 321–323 performance objects, 321–323 persistent queues, 20

Pickup directory header fields and, 164 message routing and delivery, 163 messaging limits, 167 moving, 165 polling interval, 164

Transport servers and, 164 poison message queue, 20, 329 policies address book, 243 email address, 176–183

Global Throttling, 342 mailbox, for mobile devices, 285–294

protocol logging

mailbox, for Outlook Web Access,

216, 229, 230 mailbox, for Outlook Web App, 217 remote domains, 186 retention, 5, 243 polling interval maximum messages processed, 166

Pickup directory, 164

Replay directory, 165

POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3) authentication, 253, 254 bindings, 252, 253 configuring, 249 connection settings, 254–256 default port settings, 251 enabling, 250, 251 message retrieval settings, 256, 257 port settings for messaging protocols, 251 postmaster address, 147, 148

Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3). See POP3

(Post Office Protocol 3)

PowerShell. See Windows PowerShell preference values, 80, 81–83, 91 preprovisioned log files message database, 18 queue database, 22 pre-staging cluster name objects, 37 primary data files, 18, 19, 22 primary role holders, 31, 32 probe engine, 338, 339, 354 probes definitions, 353 error messages, 354–356 monitors and, 352 tracing errors, 356–358 properties for Receive connectors, 136 for Send connectors, 123

Protocol Analysis agent, 155 protocol logging configuring, 307–309 optimizing for HTTP, 311–313 properties and fields, 310, 311 purpose, 307 receive connector parameters, list of, 309 send connector parameters, list of,

309 working with log files, 313, 314

373

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provisioning with Autodiscover

provisioning with Autodiscover, 268 proxying through Client Access servers,

121 proxy settings, 266

Public directory, 224 public folder mailboxes, 16 public folders, Send As permission and, 5

Q

queueing messages. See messages queues deleting, 335 filtering messages, 333, 334 forcing connections to, 334 states, 331 summaries, 331 suspending and resuming, 334 types, 328–330 viewing, 330, 331, 333

Queue Viewer, 20, 330, 331, 332 quorum, 35 quorum resource, 31, 37 quota notifications, 73, 74

R

Receive connectors

described, 109 bindings, 129 creating, 128, 129, 130, 131, 133 defaults created to enable mail flow,

128 disabling and enabling, 136 header size limits, 144 managing, 135 maximum hops, specifying, 133 permissions, 137 properties, changing, 136 protocol logging, parameters for, 309 recipient limits, 144 removing, 136 security, 136 specifying IP addresses, 131 transport limits, 143 types of, 130 viewing, 135 recharge rate, client access and, 242

Recipient Filter agent, 155 recipient limits, 144 recipients

defined, 5 filtering, 179, 180, 193, 194 limits, 141 managing, 5 resolution of, 8 recovering mailbox databases, 95, 96 recovery actions, 348–350 recovery response, levels, 339 redirecting users to alternate URLs, 236,

237 relay domains, 170 relaying messages, 110 relay queues, 329 remote delivery queues, 20, 329 remote device wipe, 272–275 remote domains, 186–189 creating, 187 message options for, 187, 188, 189 policies, 186 removing, 189 settings, 186 viewing, 186 remote file access, 282 remote mail vs. Outlook Anywhere, 264 remote network settings, specifying, 131

Remove cmdlets

Remove-AcceptedDomain, 176

Remove-AutodiscoverVirtual-

Directory, 270, 271

Remove-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup,

29, 55

Remove-DatabaseAvailability-

GroupNetwork, 29, 49

Remove-DatabaseAvailability-

GroupServer, 29, 45, 61

Remove-EdgeSubscription, 162

Remove-EmailAddressPolicy, 183

Remove-IPAllowListEntry, 203

Remove-IPBlockList, 204

Remove-IPBlockListProvider, 198

Remove-JournalRule, 186

Remove-MailboxDatabase, 29, 103

Remove-MailboxDatabaseCopy, 29,

60, 61, 94

Remove-OwaVirtualDirectory, 225

Remove-OWAVirtualDirectory, 223

374

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Remove-ReceiveConnector, 139

Remove-RemoteDomain, 189

Remove-ResourcePolicy, 343

Remove-SendConnector, 125

Remove-ThrottlingPolicy, 241,

243, 342

Remove-TransportRule, 208

Remove-WorkloadPolicy, 342 renaming Active Directory sites, 111

Replay directory, 163–166 message routing and delivery, 163 moving, 166 non-SMTP connectors and, 164 polling interval, 165 replay lag time, 81–83, 91 replaying logs into lagged copies, 82, 83 replication automatic reseed and, 65 database availability groups and, 79 disabling, 46, 47 event logging, 30 monitoring status, 90–93 multimaster, 14 networks, 45, 50 seeding and, 87 service, 16, 17 suspending, 81, 83, 84 testing, 346, 347 reseeding databases, 65, 66, 87 reserve log files message database, 19 queue database, 22 resource thresholds, 343 responder engine, 338, 339 responders, identifying, 350 restarting websites, 244

Restore-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup cmdlet, 29, 54 restoring databases, 17, 65, 66 result types, 358

Resume-MailboxDatabaseCopy cmdlet,

29, 84 retention periods, 71–75 retention policies, 5, 243 retrying unsuccessful outbound connections, 127 return status codes for IP block list services, 196–198

security

role assignment policy, 243 roles, primary vs. secondary Active

Managers, 31, 32 room mailboxes, 16 routing cost of a route, 10 cross-premises, 13 delivery groups and, 6, 9 distribution group expansion servers, 15

Front End Transport service and, 4, 6 incoming messages, 6 multi-recipient messages, 12 site-based vs. group based, 8 routing destinations, delivery groups and, 110 routing headers, 109 row offsets, 19

RPC directory, 224, 258, 259

RPC MAPI, Transport service and, 6

RPC over HTTP. See Outlook Anywhere

RPC over TCP/IP, Outlook Anywhere and, 267

RPC sessions, Mailbox servers and, 3

S

SafeList aggregation feature, 193

Safety Net hold time, 154 parameters, list of, 154 queues, 20, 21, 22, 150, 153, 330

SAN (storage area network) implementation, 27 schema data type, 14 searching content indexing and, 103–105 tracking logs, 302, 303 secondary log files mailbox database, 19 queue database, 22 secondary role holders, 32 security

Exchange ActiveSync safeguards, 262 groups, specifying for Receive connectors, 137 header firewall feature, 109 mobile device mailbox policies, 263

375

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seeding databases

security (continued)

Outlook Anywhere and, 264, 267

Pickup directory permissions, 165

Receive connectors and, 136 remote device wipe, 272–275

Replay directory permissions, 165 seeding databases, 87–90 segmentation, 226 segmentation features enabling and disabling, 228, 229 listed, 227

Send As permission, 5

Send connectors

described, 108 address spaces and, 119, 120 creating, 114, 115, 116, 117 disabling, 123

DNS lookups, 125, 126 enabling, 123 for internal mail flow, 114 for Internet mail flow, 114, 115, 116 limits, 126, 127 linking to specific Receive connectors, 115 managing, 122, 123 maximum size for messages, 116, 121 properties, changing, 123 protocol logging, parameters for, 309 removing, 123 setting cost of, 116 transport limits, 143 types, 117 viewing, 122, 123

Sender Filter agent, 155 sender filtering, 190, 192, 193

Sender ID agent, 155 server health tracking, 337–342 transition states, list of, 33, 34 service health, testing, 344

Set cmdlets

Set-AcceptedDomain, 175

Set-ActiveSyncVirtualDirectory, 239,

282

Set-AdSite, 111, 112

Set-AdSiteLink, 113

Set-AutodiscoverVirtualDirectory,

239, 269, 271

Set-CASMailbox, 230, 294

Set-ContentFilterConfig, 201, 205

Set-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup, 29,

35, 37, 51, 52, 53, 82

Set-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup-

Network, 29, 51

Set-EcpVirtualDirectory, 225, 239

Set-EmailAddressPolicy, 183

Set-ExchangeServer, 343

Set-IMAPSettings, 252

Set-IPBlockListConfig, 199

Set-IPBlockListProvider, 198, 200,

201, 205

Set-IPBlockListProvidersConfig, 199,

202

Set-JournalRule, 186

Set-MailboxDatabase, 29, 65, 71, 74,

75, 98, 99, 100, 102, 103

Set-MailboxDatabaseCopy, 29, 82,

154

Set-MailboxServer, 58

Set-MailboxTransportService, 315

Set-MobileDeviceMailboxPolicy, 291,

292, 293

Set-OabVirtualDirectory, 239

Set-OutlookAnywhere, 260

Set-OwaMailboxPolicy, 230

Set-OWAVirtualDirectory, 225, 239,

280, 281, 284, 285

Set-POPSettings, 251

Set-PowerShellVirtualDirectory, 239

Set-ReceiveConnector, 138, 143, 144,

153, 169

Set-RecipientFilterConfig, 195

Set-RemoteDomai, 188

Set-ResourcePolicy, 343

Set-SendConnector, 124, 143, 153,

168

Set-SenderFilterConfig, 190, 191, 192

Set-SenderIdConfig, 205

Set-Service, 251

Set-ThrottlingPolicy, 241, 342

Set-ThrottlingPolicyAssociation, 342

Set-TransportConfig, 143, 151, 152,

154

Set-TransportRule, 208

Set-TransportServer, 147

376

z01I681750.indd 376 9/24/2013 9:48:57 PM

Set-TransportService, 153, 154, 155,

164, 166, 167, 168, 300, 315

Set-TransportService cmdlet, 165

Set-WebServicesVirtualDirectory, 239

Set-WorkloadPolicy, 342 shadow redundancy process, 149, 150 purpose, 148 queue, 20, 21, 329 shared mailboxes, 16 sharing policy, 243

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).

See SMTP site-based routing, 8 site bindings, 230–232 site links

described, 10 configuration information, viewing,

112

Exchange-specific costs, setting, 113 maximum size for messaages, 113 relaying messages across, 11 site membership, for Exchange servers, 9 slow networks, defining, 267 smart hosts

defined, 114 adding to Send connectors, 118 authentication and, 119

SMTP address spaces, 119, 120 connectors, 108 default port settings, 251 delivering messages, 6 primary address, 8 routing messages, 4

Send connectors, for Internet mail flow, 115, 116 standard vs. extended sessions, 129 soft-deleted mailboxes, 75 source servers, 120 source transport servers, 6 spam confidence levels, 191 spam filtering, 190, 191, 192, 193

SSL enabling on websites, 232–235

Outlook Anywhere and, 266

Standby Continuous Replication (SCR), 28

Test cmdlets

Start-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup cmdlet,

29, 53 starting websites, 244

State Or Province filter condition, 179

State values, list of, 341

Stop-DatabaseAvailabilityGroup cmdlet,

29, 54 stopping websites, 244 storage area network (SAN) implementation, 27 storage limits for mailbox databases,

72, 73 submission queue, 20, 328 subscribing Edge Transport servers, 156,

158

Suspend-MailboxDatabaseCopy cmdlet,

29, 84 switching over servers and databases,

55–58 switchover

defined, 29 vs. failover, 55 synchronizing

Edge subscriptions, 158 mobile devices, 271 preventing, 295 system services, 320, 321

T

temporary data files message database, 18 queue databasee, 22 temporary log (E##tmp.log) file, 19

Test cmdlets

Test-ActiveSyncConnectivity, 347

Test-ArchiveConnectivity, 347

Test-AssistantHealth, 347

Test-CalendarConnectivity, 347

Test-EcpConnectivity, 235, 347

Test-EdgeSynchronization, 160, 161,

347

Test-ExchangeSearch, 106, 347

Test-FederationTrust, 347

Test-FederationTrustCertificate, 347

Test-IMAPConnectivity, 252, 347

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Test cmdlets (continued)

Test-IPBlockListProvider, 199, 347

Test-IRMConfiguration, 347

Test-Mailflow, 345

Test-MAPIConnectivity, 252, 347

Test-MRSHealth, 347

Test-OAuthConnectivity, 347

Test-OutlookConnectivity, 347

Test-OutlookWebServices, 235, 348

Test-OWAConnectivity, 217, 223,

235, 348

Test-POPConnectivity, 252, 348

Test-PowerShellConnectivity, 348

Test-ReplicationHealth, 58, 59, 102,

346, 347

Test-SenderId, 348

Test-ServiceHealth, 344

Test-SmtpConnectivity, 348

Test-UMConnectivity, 348

Test-WebServicesConnectivity, 348 throttling client access, 241–243 messages, 168, 169 users, 342, 343 workloads, 342, 343 time-out values, setting, 235, 236

TLS connections, 253, 254

Tmp.edb file, 18, 22

TNEF (Transport Neutral Encapsulation

Format), remote domains and, 189 touch-capable computers, managing

Exchange Server 2013 using, xiii tracking logs event fields, 304 importing, 305 purpose, 300 searching, 302, 303 tracking messages. See message tracking transaction logs, 17, 18, 19, 22

Transient Failure Retry Attempts, 127

Transient Failure Retry Interval (Minutes),

127 transition state, 33, 34 transport dumpster queue, 330

Transport Layer Security, 136 transport limits

described, 141 connector, 143, 144 organizational, 142, 143 retrying unsuccessful connections,

127 server, 144, 145, 146

Transport Neutral Encapsulation Format

(TNEF) message data, remote domains and, 189 transport rules actions, 206, 207 conditions, 205, 207 creating, 206, 207 exceptions, 206, 208 managing, 208 transport servers destination delivery group and, 6

DNS lookups, 125

Pickup directory and, 164 queues, 20

Send connectors and, 114

Transport service back-end transport and, 6–8

Mailbox servers and, 114

Receive connectors and, 130 transporting messages. See Front End

Transport service; Mailbox Transport services; routing

TRN00000001.log file, 22

Trn.chk file, 22

Trn.log file, 22

TRNRes00001.jrs file, 22

Trntmp.log file, 22 troubleshooting steps, 348 truncation lag time, 81–83

U

Unified Messaging servers, 2 unreachable queue, 20, 330

Update-EmailAddressPolicy cmdlet, 181,

182

Update-MailboxDatabaseCopy cmdlet,

29, 89, 90, 106 upgrading to Exchange Server 2013

Enterprise edition, 69, 70 user mailboxes, 16 user throttling, 342, 343

378

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X-headers

V

virtual directories authentication on Client Access servers, 238 authentication on Mailbox servers,

239 recreating, 225 web applications and, 222–226 virtual directories for Autodiscover, resetting, 269

W

web applications

IIS and, 221, 222 root virtual directory, 222 web distribution points configuring, 245 properties, 244 web.config file location

Exchange ActiveSync, 144

Exchange Web Services, 145

Outlook Web App, 146

WebReady Document Viewing, 283–285 website limits, 236 websites, starting and stopping, 244 wide area network (WAN) links, as site boundaries, 10

Windows authentication, 237, 238, 239,

253, 254

Windows Failover Clustering, 28, 30, 36

Windows Firewall, witness server and, 39

Windows PowerShell directory, 224 throttling, 242 witness servers, 34, 35, 36, 40, 52, 53 working files, 18, 19 workload classifications, 342 workload throttling, 342, 343 wrapping text, 189

X

X.509 certificates, 232

X-headers, 109 z01I681750.indd 379

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