Game Manual - 12 O`Clock High!
E pi lEps y Wa r n i n g
PLEASE READ THIS NOTICE BEFORE PLAYING THIS GAME OR BEFORE
ALLOWING YOUR CHILDREN TO PLAY.
Certain individuals may experience epileptic seizures or loss of
consciousness when subjected to strong, flashing lights for long
periods of time. Such individuals may therefore experience a seizure
while operating computer or video games. This can also affect
individuals who have no prior medical record of epilepsy or have
never previously experienced a seizure.
If you or any family member has ever experienced epilepsy symptoms
(seizures or loss of consciousness) after exposure to flashing lights,
please consult your doctor before playing this game.
Parental guidance is always suggested when children are using a
computer and video games. Should you or your child experience
dizziness, poor eyesight, eye or muscle twitching, loss of
consciousness, feelings of disorientation or any type of involuntary
movements or cramps while playing this game, turn it off immediately
and consult your doctor before playing again.
PRECAUTIONS DURING USE:
• Do not sit too close to the monitor.
Sit as far as comfortably possible.
• Use as small a monitor as possible.
• Do not play when tired or short on sleep.
• Take care that there is sufficient lighting in the room.
• Be sure to take a break of 10-15 minutes every hour.
© 2010 Matrix Games Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Matrix Games Ltd. and the Matrix Games
Ltd. logo are trademarks of Matrix Games Ltd . All other trademarks and trade names are the
properties of their respective owners and Matrix Games Ltd. make no claim thereto.
USE OF THIS PRODUCT IS SUBJECT TO THE ACCEPTANCE OF THE LICENSE AGREEMENT AND LIMITED WARRANTY
WORLD WAR II ARRIVES EARLY IN THE PACIFIC
Many additional man-years of development from a dedicated and experienced team including
subject matter experts and experienced programmers has resulted in an improved War in the
Pacific experience across the board. This is the entire War in the Pacific down to individual
aircraft, vehicles, ships, guns and squads - more than just a game, it’s an encyclopedia of the
war compiled from many sources to an unmatched level of detail. Add in a much improved AI
and more secure PBEM play and you have the makings of a new classic!
The Entire War in the Pacific on One Map! – If you thought the original map was something
to behold, wait until you see the new one! Completely redone to a 40 nautical mile per hex
scale (instead of the original 60 mile per hex scale) and with the original distance distortions
and inaccuracies greatly reduced, this is the most accurate and most stunning map of
the theater ever created. In addition, the smaller scale has allowed us to add a number of
important bases that would not fit in the larger scale, but which played a key role in the
strategy of various operations. On top of that, Admiral’s Edition now has off-map movement
through map edge boxes representing major bases across the world, allowing more realistic
movement of Allied assets and arrival of reinforcements and resources.
Find out more at: www.matrixgames.com
CONTENTS
1.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
1.7.
2.
2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.3.1.
3.
3.1.
3.2.
3.2.1.
3.3.
3.3.1.
3.3.2.
3.3.3.
3.3.4.
3.3.5.
3.3.6.
3.3.7.
3.3.8.
3.3.9.
3.3.10.
3.3.11.
4.
4.1.
4.2.
5.
5.1.
5.1.1.
5.1.2.
5.1.3.
5.1.4.
5.1.5.
5.2.
5.2.1.
5.2.2.
5.2.3.
GARY GRIGSBY’S WAR IN THE EAST............................................................... 16
Minimum System Requirements....................................................................... 16
Recommended System Requirements............................................................... 16
Installation Procedure....................................................................................... 16
Uninstalling the Game....................................................................................... 16
Product Updates............................................................................................... 16
Game Forums................................................................................................... 17
Need Help?....................................................................................................... 18
INTRODUCTION................................................................................................ 18
Background...................................................................................................... 18
The Game......................................................................................................... 18
The Main Manual.............................................................................................. 19
The Hardcopy Manual......................................................................................... 19
GETTING STARTED........................................................................................... 19
Glossary............................................................................................................ 19
Controls............................................................................................................ 23
Hotkey List......................................................................................................... 23
Starting a Game and the Main Menu................................................................. 27
Human/Computer Opponent Selection................................................................. 27
Difficulty Level................................................................................................... 27
Game Options.................................................................................................... 28
User Preferences................................................................................................ 30
Map Preferences................................................................................................ 33
Pick Scenario..................................................................................................... 36
Play by E-Mail (PBEM)........................................................................................ 36
Load Saved Game.............................................................................................. 37
Multiplayer......................................................................................................... 37
Credits.............................................................................................................. 40
Editor................................................................................................................ 40
SEQUENCE OF PLAY......................................................................................... 40
Game Turn Overview......................................................................................... 40
Logistics Phase Details..................................................................................... 41
GAME INTERFACE............................................................................................ 44
Top Panel.......................................................................................................... 45
Title Bar............................................................................................................. 45
Menu Tabs and Associated Toolbars.................................................................... 45
Soft Factors....................................................................................................... 49
Mode Toolbar..................................................................................................... 50
General Information and City Box....................................................................... 52
The Main Map Area........................................................................................... 53
Hex Pop-up........................................................................................................ 54
Hex Selection and Unit Counter Border Colour...................................................... 56
Unit Bar............................................................................................................. 58
5
5.3.
5.3.1.
5.3.2.
5.3.3.
5.3.4.
5.3.5.
5.3.6.
5.3.7.
5.3.8.
5.3.9.
5.3.10.
5.4.
5.4.1.
5.4.2.
5.4.3.
5.4.4.
5.4.5.
5.4.6.
5.4.7.
5.4.8.
5.4.9.
5.4.10.
5.4.11.
5.4.12.
5.4.13.
5.4.14.
5.4.15.
5.4.16.
5.4.17.
5.4.18.
5.4.19.
5.4.20.
5.4.21.
5.4.22.
5.4.23.
5.4.24.
5.4.25.
5.4.26.
5.4.27.
5.4.28.
5.4.29.
5.4.30.
5.4.31.
6.
6.1.
6
Using the Interface to Conduct Actions.............................................................. 61
Move Mode (F1)................................................................................................. 61
Rail Mode (F2)................................................................................................... 64
Naval Transport Mode (F3).................................................................................. 66
Amphibious Transport Mode (F4)......................................................................... 67
Air Recon Mode (F5)........................................................................................... 68
Bomb Unit Mode (F6).......................................................................................... 68
Bomb Airfield Mode (F7)..................................................................................... 69
Bomb City Mode (F8).......................................................................................... 70
Air Transport Mode (F9)...................................................................................... 71
Air Transfer Mode (F10)...................................................................................... 74
Interface Screens and Windows........................................................................ 75
Order of Battle (OOB) Screen.............................................................................. 75
Show Losses Screen.......................................................................................... 76
Production Screen.............................................................................................. 79
City Production List Window................................................................................ 83
Victory Screen.................................................................................................... 84
Weather Screen................................................................................................. 87
Air Doctrine Screen............................................................................................ 88
Reinforcement and Withdrawal Schedule............................................................. 89
Commander’s Report.......................................................................................... 90
Save Game Screen............................................................................................. 91
Combat Resolution Report and Battle Locator (F11).............................................. 92
Logistics Phase Event Log Screen....................................................................... 96
Combat Unit Detail............................................................................................. 98
Support Unit Detail Window............................................................................... 100
Pick Support Unit Window................................................................................. 102
HQ Unit Detail Window...................................................................................... 103
Air Base Unit Detail Window.............................................................................. 105
Air Group Unit Detail Window............................................................................ 108
Select Air Group Unit from National Reserve Window.......................................... 110
Ground Element Detail Window......................................................................... 111
Leader Detail Window....................................................................................... 112
Pick New Leader Window................................................................................. 113
Unit Table of Equipment (TOE) Window............................................................... 114
TOE Upgrade Window....................................................................................... 114
Pick New HQ Window....................................................................................... 115
Unit Supply Detail window................................................................................. 115
City Detail Window........................................................................................... 118
Pick Target Type Window.................................................................................. 120
Pick Air Units for Mission Window...................................................................... 120
Find Hex/City/Unit/Air Group Unit Window.......................................................... 121
Pick Unit Type Window (Soviet Player Only)........................................................ 122
MAP AND TERRAIN........................................................................................ 122
Map Area ....................................................................................................... 122
6.1.1.
6.2.
6.2.1.
6.2.2.
6.3.
6.3.1.
6.3.2.
6.3.3.
6.3.4.
6.4.
7.
7.1.
7.1.1.
7.1.2.
7.1.3.
7.2.
7.2.1.
7.2.2.
7.3.
7.4.
7.4.1.
7.5.
7.5.1.
7.5.2.
7.5.3.
7.5.4.
7.5.5.
7.6.
7.6.1.
7.6.2.
7.6.3.
7.6.4.
7.6.5.
7.6.6.
7.6.7.
7.7.
7.7.1.
8.
8.1.
8.1.1.
8.1.2.
8.1.3.
8.1.4.
8.1.5.
8.2.
Map Boundary Areas........................................................................................ 123
Terrain............................................................................................................ 123
Types of Terrain Hexes...................................................................................... 123
Terrain Features............................................................................................... 125
Hexes and Zones of Control............................................................................. 126
Control of Hexes............................................................................................... 126
Zones of Control............................................................................................... 127
Conversion of Enemy Hexes.............................................................................. 127
Conversion of Isolated Hexes............................................................................ 127
Stacking......................................................................................................... 128
GROUND UNITS.............................................................................................. 128
Combat Value (CV)........................................................................................... 128
Initial and Modified Combat Value in Battles....................................................... 129
Vehicle Shortage CV Modifier............................................................................ 129
Zero CV Units................................................................................................... 129
Ground Elements and Tables of Equipment (TOE)............................................. 130
Ground Elements.............................................................................................. 130
Table of Equipment (TOE)/Unit Level Order of Battle (OB)..................................... 132
Depleted and Unready Units............................................................................ 133
Support Units.................................................................................................. 134
Antiaircraft Support Units in Cities..................................................................... 134
Combat units.................................................................................................. 135
Fortified Regions and Zones.............................................................................. 135
Attachment of Support Units to Combat Units..................................................... 136
Combat Unit Buildup, Breakdown and Merging................................................... 137
Static Combat Units.......................................................................................... 140
SS Division Re-designation............................................................................... 141
Headquarter Units (HQ)................................................................................... 141
Headquarter Unit Types..................................................................................... 142
Attachment of Combat Units to Headquarter Units and Command Capacity.......... 144
Attachment of Support Units to Headquarter Units.............................................. 145
Provision of HQ Support and Command Range .................................................. 148
Headquarters Unit Relocation............................................................................ 148
Soviet Military District and Front Transformations............................................... 149
German Army Group South Re-designation........................................................ 150
Combat and Headquarters Unit Auto-Attachment............................................. 150
Auto-Attachment Rules..................................................................................... 150
AIR UNITS...................................................................................................... 152
Air Group Units................................................................................................ 152
Air Group Unit Aircraft Status............................................................................ 152
Air Group Unit Group Types............................................................................... 152
Air Group Unit Functional Types......................................................................... 153
Air Group Unit Names....................................................................................... 154
Air Group Unit Aircraft Model Upgrade/Downgrade and Swaps............................ 156
Air Base Units................................................................................................. 158
7
8.2.1.
8.2.2.
8.3.
8.3.1.
8.3.2.
8.4.
8.4.1.
8.4.2.
9.
163
9.1.
9.1.1.
9.1.2.
9.1.3.
9.2.
9.2.1.
9.2.2.
9.2.3.
9.2.4.
9.3.
9.3.1.
9.3.2.
9.4.
9.4.1.
9.4.2.
9.5.
9.5.1.
9.5.2.
9.5.3.
9.5.4.
170
9.6.
9.6.1.
10.
10.1.
10.2.
10.3.
11.
11.1.
11.1.1.
11.1.2.
11.1.3.
11.2.
11.2.1.
11.2.2.
8
Soviet Air Base Unit Names............................................................................... 159
Disbandment of SAD Air Base Units................................................................... 159
Air Headquarters Units.................................................................................... 160
Air Headquarters Units Attachment Restrictions.................................................. 160
Soviet Air Command HQ Re-designation............................................................ 160
National Air Reserve and Air Group Unit Transfer............................................. 161
National Air Reserve Transfer Restrictions.......................................................... 161
Transfer of Air Group Units to the National Air Reserve........................................ 162
MORALE, ELITE UNITS, EXPERIENCE, FATIGUE, ATTRITION, AND RELIABILITY..
Unit Morale .................................................................................................... 163
Ground Unit Morale Changes............................................................................ 163
Air Group Unit Morale Changes......................................................................... 164
Basic Levels of National Morale......................................................................... 164
Elite Units....................................................................................................... 165
Modifiers for Elite Unit Types ............................................................................ 166
Creation of Soviet Guards Ground Units ............................................................ 166
Creation of Soviet Guards Air Units.................................................................... 167
Soviet Shock Army Attached Unit Morale Bonus................................................. 167
Experience...................................................................................................... 167
Ground Element Experience.............................................................................. 167
Air Group Unit Experience................................................................................. 168
Fatigue........................................................................................................... 168
Ground Element Fatigue................................................................................... 168
Air Group Unit Fatigue...................................................................................... 169
Attrition........................................................................................................... 169
Ground Element Attrition................................................................................... 169
Front Line Attrition............................................................................................ 170
Vehicle Movement Attrition................................................................................ 170
9.5.4.............................................................................................. Air Unit Attrition.
Aircraft and AFV/Combat Vehicle Reliability...................................................... 170
AFV Reliability Based Damage........................................................................... 171
FROZEN UNITS............................................................................................... 171
Frozen Unit Restrictions.................................................................................. 171
Soviet Frozen MD and MDZ HQ Units............................................................... 171
Axis Allied Frozen Garrisons............................................................................ 172
LEADERS........................................................................................................ 172
Leader Ranks, Designations and Restrictions.................................................. 172
Leader Designation.......................................................................................... 173
Leader Command Restrictions.......................................................................... 173
Leader Designation and Command Restrictions Summary................................... 173
Leader Ratings................................................................................................ 173
Political Rating................................................................................................. 173
Morale Rating.................................................................................................. 174
11.2.3.
11.2.4.
11.2.5.
11.2.6.
11.3.
11.3.1.
11.3.2.
11.4.
11.4.1.
11.4.2.
11.4.3.
11.5.
12.
12.1.
12.2.
12.2.1.
12.2.2.
12.2.3.
12.2.4.
12.2.5.
13.
13.1.
13.1.1.
13.2.
13.2.1.
13.2.2.
14.
14.1.
14.1.1.
14.1.2.
14.1.3.
14.1.4.
14.1.5.
14.2.
14.2.1.
14.2.2.
14.2.3.
15.
15.1.
15.2.
15.2.1.
15.2.2.
15.3.
15.3.1.
15.3.2.
Initiative Rating................................................................................................ 174
Administrative Rating........................................................................................ 174
Combat Ratings............................................................................................... 174
Leader Ratings Increase................................................................................... 175
Leader Rating Checks..................................................................................... 175
Leader Rating Check Procedure........................................................................ 175
Command Range Modifier................................................................................ 176
Leader Promotion and Dismissal..................................................................... 177
Battle Win and Loss Credit................................................................................ 177
Leader Promotion............................................................................................. 178
Leader Dismissal and Replacement................................................................... 178
Death of a Leader........................................................................................... 179
ADMINISTRATIVE POINTS............................................................................. 180
Gaining Admin Points...................................................................................... 180
Expending Admin Points.................................................................................. 180
On-Map Unit Attachment Change Cost Worksheet.............................................. 181
Leader Dismissal Cost Worksheet...................................................................... 182
Support Unit Attachment Change Cost............................................................... 183
Admin Costs for Creating Soviet Units or Forming Soviet Corps Combat Units...... 183
Other Admin Costs........................................................................................... 184
ENEMY UNIT DETECTION LEVEL (DL) AND FOG OF WAR (FOW) ................... 185
Detection Level (DL)........................................................................................ 185
Air Reconnaissance and Detection Level............................................................ 186
Fog of War (FoW)............................................................................................. 186
FoW and DL Information................................................................................... 187
Movement Fog of War (FoW)............................................................................. 188
GROUND UNIT MOVEMENT............................................................................ 188
Tactical Movement.......................................................................................... 189
Maximum and Minimum Movement Points......................................................... 189
Determining Movement Point Allowances........................................................... 189
Temporary Motorization of Non-motorized Units................................................. 191
June 22, 1941 and Early War Movement Costs.................................................. 191
Tactical Movement Point Cost Chart.................................................................. 192
Strategic movement........................................................................................ 194
Strategic Rail Transport..................................................................................... 195
Rail Line Repair................................................................................................ 195
Naval Transport and Amphibious Naval Transport ............................................... 198
GROUND COMBAT.......................................................................................... 200
Combat Sequence........................................................................................... 200
Types of Attacks.............................................................................................. 201
Hasty Attack..................................................................................................... 201
Deliberate Attack.............................................................................................. 202
Fortification Defensive Modifier....................................................................... 203
Terrain............................................................................................................. 203
Fortification Levels........................................................................................... 204
9
15.4.
Support Units in Combat................................................................................. 208
15.4.1. Support Unit Commitment................................................................................. 208
15.5.
Reserve Combat Units..................................................................................... 209
15.5.1. Reserve Unit Commitment................................................................................ 209
15.5.2. Reserve Commitment MP Requirement............................................................. 210
15.5.3. Defensive Reserve Unit Special Rules................................................................ 211
15.6.
General Ground Combat Rules........................................................................ 211
15.6.1. Description of Ground Combat.......................................................................... 211
15.6.2. Combat Value (CV) and Ground Combat............................................................. 212
15.6.3. Unready Combat Units Attack Restrictions.......................................................... 214
15.6.4. Cross River Attack............................................................................................ 214
15.7.
Combat Results and Battle Losses.................................................................. 214
15.7.1. Combat Result Effects...................................................................................... 214
15.7.2. Battle Losses................................................................................................... 215
15.8.
Determining the Winner in Ground Combat ..................................................... 216
15.8.1. Factors Influencing Modified Combat Value........................................................ 217
15.9.
Effect of Defender Retreat Result ................................................................... 217
15.9.1. Defender Retreat Path Priorities........................................................................ 218
15.9.2. Effects of Shattering......................................................................................... 219
15.9.3. Effects of Surrender......................................................................................... 219
15.9.4. Effect of Routing.............................................................................................. 220
15.10.
Displacement Moves....................................................................................... 220
15.10.1. Displacement Move Procedure.......................................................................... 220
15.10.2. Air Base Unit Displacement............................................................................... 221
15.10.3. Isolated Unit Displacement................................................................................ 221
15.11.
Retreat Attrition .............................................................................................. 221
15.12.
Isolated Units and Hexes................................................................................. 222
15.12.1. Isolated Unit Combat Value Penalties................................................................. 222
15.13.
Captured Equipment....................................................................................... 223
15.14.
Captured Supplies and Fuel............................................................................ 223
16.
AIR MISSIONS AND AIR DOCTRINE............................................................... 224
16.1.
General Air Mission Rules................................................................................ 224
16.1.1. Air Group Unit Miles Flown................................................................................ 224
16.1.2. Individual Aircraft Abort and Operational Losses................................................. 225
16.1.3. Air Mission Staging Bases................................................................................ 225
16.1.4. Graphical Depiction of Air Missions.................................................................... 226
16.1.5. Air Missions and Weather Impact...................................................................... 226
16.1.6. Day and Night Missions.................................................................................... 227
16.1.7. Fighter Bombers.............................................................................................. 228
16.1.8. Air Mission Geographical Restrictions................................................................ 228
16.2.
Air Mission Sequence...................................................................................... 228
16.2.1. Air to Air Combat.............................................................................................. 229
16.2.2. Anti-Aircraft Defense........................................................................................ 229
16.2.3. Air to Ground Combat....................................................................................... 230
16.3.
Air Missions.................................................................................................... 230
16.3.1. Limits on Conducting Air Missions..................................................................... 230
10
16.3.2.
16.3.3.
16.3.4.
16.3.5.
16.3.6.
16.3.7.
16.4.
16.5.
17.
17.1.
17.1.1.
17.1.2.
17.1.3.
17.1.4.
17.2.
17.2.1.
17.2.2.
18.
18.1.
18.1.1.
18.1.2.
18.1.3.
18.1.4.
18.1.5.
18.1.6.
18.2.
18.2.1.
18.2.2.
18.2.3.
18.2.4.
18.3.
18.4.
18.4.1.
18.5.
18.5.1.
18.5.2.
19.
19.1.
19.1.1.
19.1.2.
19.1.3.
19.1.4.
19.2.
19.3.
20.
Air Reconnaissance.......................................................................................... 231
Bombing Missions............................................................................................ 231
Air Transport of Supplies and Fuel..................................................................... 233
Air Transport of Units........................................................................................ 234
Air Dropping Units............................................................................................ 234
Air Group Unit Transfer..................................................................................... 235
Air Doctrine..................................................................................................... 235
Determining Win/Loss for Air Missions............................................................ 237
SOVIET PARTISANS AND AXIS GARRISONS.................................................. 237
Soviet Partisans.............................................................................................. 238
Partisan Night Air Supply.................................................................................. 238
Partisan Attacks............................................................................................... 239
Anti-Partisan Attacks and Axis Unit Interaction.................................................... 239
Partisan Unit Limitations................................................................................... 240
Axis Garrisons................................................................................................. 240
Axis Garrison Requirements.............................................................................. 240
Partisan Creation from Un-garrisoned Populations.............................................. 241
REINFORCEMENTS AND REPLACEMENTS..................................................... 241
Receiving Reinforcements and Creating New Units.......................................... 241
Reinforcement Placement................................................................................. 241
Creating New Soviet Combat and Headquarters Units......................................... 244
Creating New Soviet Support Units.................................................................... 245
Creating New Soviet Air Group Units.................................................................. 245
Creating New Soviet Air Base Units.................................................................... 245
Creating Fortified Region and Zone Units........................................................... 246
Replacements................................................................................................. 246
The Replacement Segment............................................................................... 247
Ground Element Replacements and TOE............................................................ 248
Ground Element Replacement Availability........................................................... 249
Air Group Unit Replacement Aircraft.................................................................. 250
Refit Mode...................................................................................................... 250
Axis Unit Withdrawal....................................................................................... 251
Withdrawing Units Requirements and Restrictions.............................................. 251
Disbanding Units............................................................................................. 251
Disband Requirements and Restrictions............................................................. 252
Automatic Disbanding of Soviet Corps HQ Units................................................. 252
AXIS AND SOVIET ALLIED COUNTRIES AND ARMIES.................................... 252
Axis Allies....................................................................................................... 252
Axis Southern Allies General Rules.................................................................... 252
Finland............................................................................................................ 253
Italian Withdrawal............................................................................................. 254
Surrender of Axis Allied Forces.......................................................................... 254
Bulgaria and Yugoslavia.................................................................................. 257
Soviet Allied Armies......................................................................................... 257
SUPPLY.......................................................................................................... 258
11
20.1.
The Supply Grid.............................................................................................. 258
20.1.1. Rail Network and Railheads............................................................................... 258
20.1.2. Permanent Supply Sources............................................................................... 259
20.1.3. Port Supply...................................................................................................... 260
20.1.4. Motor Pool....................................................................................................... 260
20.1.5. Headquarters Units and Supply......................................................................... 262
20.2.
Supply States.................................................................................................. 263
20.2.1. Beachhead Supply State................................................................................... 264
20.2.2. Isolated State................................................................................................... 265
20.3.
Types and Usage of Supply............................................................................. 265
20.3.1. General Supplies.............................................................................................. 265
20.3.2. Ammunition..................................................................................................... 265
20.3.3. Fuel................................................................................................................. 266
20.4.
Tracing and Receiving Supply.......................................................................... 266
20.4.1. Tracing Supply................................................................................................. 266
20.4.2. The Supply Segment........................................................................................ 268
20.4.3. Receiving Supply.............................................................................................. 269
20.4.4. Return of Excess Supply................................................................................... 270
20.5.
Supply Effects................................................................................................. 270
20.5.1. Manpower Starvation Damage.......................................................................... 270
20.6.
Headquarters Unit Supply Buildup................................................................... 271
20.6.1. Admin Point Cost ............................................................................................ 271
20.6.2. HQ Supply Accumulation................................................................................... 271
20.6.3. HQ Supply Buildup Penalties............................................................................. 272
20.6.4. Attached Unit Supply Accumulation................................................................... 272
20.6.5. Supply Segment Effects.................................................................................... 272
21.
PRODUCTION................................................................................................. 272
21.1.
The Production System................................................................................... 273
21.1.1. Resource Production........................................................................................ 274
21.1.2. Heavy Industry (Supplies) Production and Allocation............................................ 274
21.1.3. Armament Production....................................................................................... 274
21.1.4. Synthetic Fuel Production................................................................................. 275
21.1.5. Oil and Fuel Production..................................................................................... 275
21.1.6. Vehicle Production and Repair........................................................................... 276
21.1.7. Aircraft, AFV and Combat Vehicle Production...................................................... 277
21.1.8. Aircraft, AFV and Combat Vehicle Factory Expansion and Build Limit.................... 278
21.1.9. Factory Upgrades............................................................................................. 278
21.1.10. Manpower Production and Migration................................................................. 279
21.1.11. Port and Rail yard Capacity............................................................................... 281
21.2.
Factory Capture, Damage, Repair and Evacuation........................................... 281
21.2.1. Soviet Factory Evacuation................................................................................. 282
21.3.
Captured Equipment....................................................................................... 284
21.4.
Production to Other Fronts.............................................................................. 284
21.4.1. German Armament Points to Axis Allies.............................................................. 285
21.5.
Lend Lease..................................................................................................... 285
12
21.5.1.
21.5.2.
21.6.
22.
22.1.
22.1.1.
22.2.
22.2.1.
22.2.2.
22.3.
22.3.1.
22.3.2.
22.3.3.
22.3.4.
22.3.5.
22.3.6.
23.
23.1.
23.2.
23.3.
23.3.1.
23.3.2.
23.3.3.
23.3.4.
24.
24.1.
24.1.1.
24.1.2.
24.2.
25.
25.1.
25.1.1.
25.1.2.
25.1.3.
25.1.4.
25.2.
26.
26.1.
26.1.1.
26.1.2.
26.1.3.
26.2.
26.3.
26.3.1.
26.3.2.
Lend Lease Aircraft, AFV and Combat Vehicles................................................... 285
Lend Lease Supplies and Generic Vehicles......................................................... 285
Production Chart............................................................................................. 286
WEATHER....................................................................................................... 287
Weather and its Effects................................................................................... 287
Ice Levels and Frozen Lakes and Rivers............................................................. 287
Determining Weather Conditions..................................................................... 288
Non-Random Weather Table.............................................................................. 288
Random Weather Determination Table............................................................... 289
First Winter Rule.............................................................................................. 291
Combat Value Modifications.............................................................................. 291
Ground Element Damage and Disruption............................................................ 291
Unit Morale Reduction...................................................................................... 292
First Winter Supply Modifier.............................................................................. 292
Mitigation of First Winter Rules in Cities............................................................. 292
Soviet Leader Checks....................................................................................... 292
SCENARIOS.................................................................................................... 292
Scenario List................................................................................................... 293
Starting Movement Allowances and Unit Win/Loss Numbers............................ 293
Scenarios Commencing 22 June 1941............................................................ 293
Frozen Units, Geographical Movement Restrictions and HQ Conversion................ 293
Soviet Rail Capacity Reduction.......................................................................... 294
Soviet Generic Vehicle Mobilization.................................................................... 294
22 June 1941 Turn Surprise Rules.................................................................... 294
VICTORY CONDITIONS................................................................................... 296
Campaign Scenario Victory Conditions............................................................ 296
Victory Point Locations and Values.................................................................... 296
Automatic and Point Value Victory Conditions..................................................... 297
Non-Campaign Scenario Victory Conditions..................................................... 298
STRATEGY AND TACTICS AND DEVELOPER NOTES....................................... 299
Strategy and Tactics ....................................................................................... 299
Critical Factors................................................................................................. 299
Axis Strategy.................................................................................................... 300
Soviet Strategy................................................................................................. 301
Battle Tactics................................................................................................... 302
Developer Notes ............................................................................................. 304
APPENDICES.................................................................................................. 306
Appendix A: Unit Designations and Combat Value............................................ 306
Unit Sizes........................................................................................................ 306
Unit Types and Symbols.................................................................................... 307
Unit Colors....................................................................................................... 307
Appendix B: List of Creatable Soviet Units ...................................................... 311
Appendix C: Commander’s Report (CR)............................................................ 313
General CR Interface Mechanics....................................................................... 313
Units Tab......................................................................................................... 314
13
26.3.3. HQs (Headquarters Units) Tab............................................................................ 318
26.3.4. Air Groups (Air Group Units) Tab........................................................................ 321
26.3.5. Leaders Tab..................................................................................................... 326
26.3.6. Battles Tab....................................................................................................... 328
26.3.7. Locations Tab................................................................................................... 329
26.3.8. Equipment Tab................................................................................................. 331
26.4.
Appendix D: Black Cross/Red Star: The German and Soviet Armies in GARY
GRIGSBY’S WAR IN THE EAST.......................................................................................... 337
26.4.1. The German Army............................................................................................ 337
26.4.2. The Red Army.................................................................................................. 342
26.4.3. Conclusion....................................................................................................... 351
26.5.
Appendix E: Recommended Reading............................................................... 352
26.5.1. World War II..................................................................................................... 352
26.5.2. Eastern Front................................................................................................... 353
26.5.3. Barbarossa...................................................................................................... 353
26.5.4. Typhoon and Soviet Winter Offensives............................................................... 354
26.5.5. Leningrad........................................................................................................ 354
26.5.6. Blau, Stalingrad and Soviet Offensives .............................................................. 354
26.5.7. Zitadelle and Soviet Offensives ......................................................................... 355
26.5.8. Soviet Jan-Apr 1944 Offensives........................................................................ 355
26.5.9. Bagration and other Soviet May-Dec 1944 Offensives........................................ 356
26.5.10. Soviet Jan-Apr 1945 Offensives, Axis Hungarian Counter-attack......................... 356
26.5.11. End of the war, Fall of Berlin.............................................................................. 356
26.5.12. Soviet Army..................................................................................................... 357
26.5.13. Soviet Air Force................................................................................................ 359
26.5.14. Soviet Armoured Forces ................................................................................... 360
26.5.15. German Army................................................................................................... 362
26.5.16. German Air Force ............................................................................................ 363
26.5.17. German Armored Forces .................................................................................. 364
26.5.18. Axis Armed Forces........................................................................................... 364
26.5.19. Introductory/Light Reading................................................................................ 365
26.5.20. Memoirs.......................................................................................................... 365
27.
INDEX............................................................................................................. 367
28.
CREDITS......................................................................................................... 375
14
BROTHER AGAINST BROTHER
From the legendary team at 2 by 3 Games comes a new
grand strategy masterpiece: Gary Grigsby’s War Between the States.
Taking gamers back to the American Civil War, this innovative grand strategy
game allows players to experience the trials and tribulations of the role of commander-in-chief
for either side. Historically accurate, detailed and finely balanced for realistic gameplay, War
Between the States is also easy to play and does not take months to finish.
Promote and cultivate talented young colonels or brigadiers to build Corps and Army
commanders that will help you fight and manage the war effort from battles to training of
recruits with the utmost efficiency and success. An innovative multi-faceted rank promotion
system allows leaders to gain in abilities and power based on their successes, while also
simulating the historical progression of leaders during the war. Each decision you make must
be weighed carefully, as promoting and demoting leaders, entering neutral states, raising troops
and many other actions cost you the political capital that will determine your ability to achieve
victory.
Explore the historical tactics of the day to find the best way to win. Use cavalry to raid the
enemy supply depots and conduct reconnaissance to determine the best place to strike and
then engage the enemy head on and watch the epic push and pull of battle unfold in front of
you. In between battles, the mighty Union navy or brave Confederate raiders can strangle and
disrupt supply flow at critical times in your campaign. Build river gunboats and transports to
exploit the strategic value of the Mississippi and entrench and fortify key locations to deny
passage to the enemy.
1. GARY GRIGSBY’S WAR IN THE EAST
1.1. MINIMUM SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
OS: Windows XP/Vista/7
CPU: 1.5GHz+
RAM: 1GB
Video Card: 128MB DirectX 9+ Compatible
Sound Card: 16 bit DirectX 9+ Compatible
Hard Drive Space: 1.5 GB Free
DirectX 9.0c or higher
1.2. RECOMMENDED SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
OS: Windows XP/Vista/7
CPU: 2.0GHz+ (or multi-core equivalent)
RAM: 2GB
Video Card: 256MB DirectX 9+ Compatible
Sound Card: 16 bit DirectX 9+ Compatible
Hard Drive Space: 1.5 GB Free
DirectX 9.0c or higher
1.3. INSTALLATION PROCEDURE
Please ensure your system meets the minimum requirements listed above (1.1). To install the
game, either double click on the installation file you downloaded or insert the Gary Grigsby’s
War in the East™ DVD into your DVD drive. If you have disabled the autorun function on your
DVD drive or if you are installing from a digital download, double-click on the installation
archive file, then double click on the file that is shown inside the archive. Follow all on-screen
prompts to complete installation.
1.4. UNINSTALLING THE GAME
Please use the Add/Remove Programs option from the Windows Control Panel or the Uninstall
shortcut in the games Windows START menu folder to uninstall the game. Uninstalling through
any other method will not properly uninstall the game.
1.5. PRODUCT UPDATES
In order to maintain our product excellence, Matrix Games releases updates containing new
features, enhancements, and corrections to any known issues. All our updates are available
16
free on our website and can also be downloaded quickly and easily by using the ‘Update Game’
shortcut in your Windows START menu folder for the game.
We also periodically make beta (preview) updates and other content available to registered
owners. Keeping up with these special updates is made easy and is free by signing up for a
Matrix Games Member account. When you are signed up, you can then register your Matrix
Games products in order to receive access to these game-related materials. Doing so is a
simple two step process:
Sign Up for a Matrix Games Member account - THIS IS A ONE TIME PROCEDURE; once you
have signed up for a Matrix account, you are in the system and will not need to sign up again.
Go to www.matrixgames.com and click the Members hyperlink at the top. In the new window,
select Register NOW and follow the on-screen instructions. When you’re finished, click the
Please Create My New Account button, and a confirmation e-mail will be sent to your specified
e-mail account.
Register a New Game Purchase - Once you have signed up for a Matrix Games Member
account, you can then register any Matrix Games title you own in your new account. To do so,
log in to your account on the Matrix Games website (www.matrixgames.com). Click Register
Game near the top to register your new Matrix Games purchase.
We strongly recommend registering your game as it will give you a backup location for your
serial number should you lose it in the future. Once you’ve registered your game, when you log
in to the Members section you can view your list of registered titles by clicking My Games. Each
game title is a hyperlink that will take you to an information page on the game (including all the
latest news on that title). Also on this list is a Downloads hyperlink that takes you to a page that
has all the latest public and registered downloads, including patches, for that particular title.
You can also access patches and updates via our ‘Games Section’ (http://www.matrixgames.
com/games/), once there select the game you wish to check updates for, then check the
‘downloads’ link. Certain value content and additional downloads will be restricted to ‘Members
Area’ members, so it is always worthwhile to sign up there.
Remember, once you have signed up for a Matrix Games Member account, you do not have to
sign up again at that point you are free to register for any Matrix Games product you purchase.
Thank you and enjoy your game!
1.6. GAME FORUMS
Our forums are one of the best things about Matrix Games. Every game has its own forum with
our designers, developers and the gamers playing the game. If you are experiencing a problem,
have a question or just an idea on how to make the game better, post a message there. Go to
http://www.matrixgames.com and click on the Forums hyperlink.
17
1.7. NEED HELP?
The best way to contact us if you are having a problem with one of our games is through
our Help Desk. Our Help Desk has FAQs as well as a dedicated support staff that answer
questions within 24 hours, Monday through Friday. Support questions sent in on Saturday and
Sunday may wait 48 hours for a reply. You can get to our Help Desk by going to http://www.
matrixgames.com/helpdesk.
2. INTRODUCTION
2.1. BACKGROUND
On 22 June, 1941, Germany and its allies launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, commencing
a four year conflict of unprecedented scale. The largest clash of armies and armoured forces
in history, at its height close to four million Axis troops faced over six million Soviet forces, with
thousands of armoured fighting vehicles (AFV) on each side. The Axis onslaught penetrated to
the gates of Leningrad, Moscow, Stalingrad, and Grozny, but Soviet counter-offensives in the
winter of 1941, the winter of 1942, and the summer of 1943 first blunted and then drove back
the invaders. When the “Great Patriotic War” ended with the capture of Berlin in May 1945,
an estimated four million Axis and ten million Soviet soldiers had been killed in this titanic
struggle.
2.2. THE GAME
Gary Grigsby’s War in the East is a turn based simulation of the Eastern Front in World War
Two from June 1941 to September 1945. As the Axis or Soviet player, you take the role of
the military High Command to use the forces available to you to execute the conflict at the
strategic and operational levels of war. The game is an “Alternate History Creator” that focuses
on simulating the logistic and command and control problems that the historical commanders
on the Eastern Front had to deal with. It will allow players to explore many of the strategic and
operational “What ifs” that have been discussed by historians and armchair strategists for
many years. As such, economic and research based “what ifs” are not the focus. The game
scale is weekly turns, with a hexagonal map area representing ten miles per hex. Ground
units range from Soviet Corps and Axis Divisions down to battalion level support units and
air units at the squadron and air regiment level. Units are all controlled through a series of
Headquarters units, each with individual leaders, which represent the chain of command up
to the High Command (OKH and STAVKA) level. Combat is conducted through an automated
tactical system that models the action down to the individual aircraft, Armoured Fighting
Vehicle, and infantry squad.
18
2.3. THE MAIN MANUAL
This manual provides a detailed description of the game’s rules, functions and user interface.
Cross referencing of applicable sections has been included in the format (x.xx.x), for example,
(14.1.2) refers to section 14.1.2 in the manual. Where appropriate, the formulas underlying the
game functions are provided. In some cases, knowledge of specific formulas was deemed to
allow overly “gamey” behaviour, or is too complex to detail, so they are kept “under the hood”.
2.3.1. THE HARDCOPY MANUAL
Due to space constraints, the hardcopy manual in the game DVD box does not include the
entire document. What you will find are the first five sections of the manual, to include the
introduction, glossary, sequence of play, and a detailed description of the game controls
and interface. Also included are a selection of charts and tables that you may find useful as
references during play. The entire manual and the game editor documentation are included as
.pdf files on the game DVD.
3. GETTING STARTED
We recommend players start by playing the Velikie Luki ’42 scenario. After that, follow up with
some of the smaller scenarios. Players should focus at first on just moving and attacking with
their on-map units before exploring other parts of the game. There’s so much to learn in terms
of both the interface and rules that it could be overwhelming, though much of it is not needed
to play the game “out of the box,” but can be absorbed in stages as the player becomes more
experienced. Bottom line, players shouldn’t feel they need to learn everything in order to start
playing the game.
3.1. GLOSSARY
Armoured Fighting Vehicle (AFV): Various summary displays refer to AFV’s. For game
purposes, the AFV designation generally is given to tanks, tank destroyers, and self-propelled
guns. The following types are specifically designated as an AFV:
“Light Tank”, “Medium Tank”, “Heavy Tank”, “CS Tank”, “Flame Tank”, “Assault Gun”, “SP
Artillery”, “DD Tank”, “MSW Tank”, “Engineer Tank”, “SP Inf-Gun”, “Tank Destroyer”, “Hvy Tank
Destroyer”, “Infantry Tank”, “Cavalry Tank”, “Hvy Cavalry Tank”, “Hvy Assault Gun”, “Lt Tank
Destroyer”, “HT - CS Howitzer”
Type designation can be found in the Ground element detail window (5.4.20) or the City
Production List Window (5.4.4).
Attached Unit: A unit that has been assigned to a headquarters unit, or in the case of support
units, directly attached to an eligible combat unit. Unit attachments define the chain of
command of units from a High Command level headquarters unit through any intermediate
19
headquarters units down to combat and support units by which command and control (C2) is
exercised through the headquarters unit’s leaders.
Attrition: Damage and losses to men and equipment not directly caused by player initiated
combat. Attrition occurs during the phasing players logistics phase.
Axis: The group of nations, led by Germany, that participated in the invasion of the Soviet Union.
The Axis side includes forces from Germany, Finland, Hungary, Italy, Rumania, and Slovakia.
Chain of Command: The hierarchal organization that determines the subordination of one unit
to another to allow the flow of orders and support. The chain of command starts with a High
Command level headquarters unit and is defined by the attachment of other headquarters,
support, combat and air group units to form either a direct link or a series of linked headquarters
units by which the leaders in command of the headquarters units exert command and control.
The Order of Battle (hotkey o) displays the current chain of command for the phasing player’s
forces.
Combat Value (CV): Numerical value assigned to a ground unit that is used to determine the
results of a battle and represents its ability to take or hold territory, e.g. “boots on the ground.”
The unit CV is equal to the sum of the individual CV’s for each ground element in the combat
or support unit. CV is not a fixed value; it is a calculated value that can only provide players an
idea of the combat ability of the unit.
Command and Control (C2): The method by which forces are controlled to allow orders and
information to flow up and down the chain of command. In Gary Grigsby’s War in the East, C2
is exercised by the leaders in the headquarters units that other units are attached to through
the use of leader rating checks.
Command Capacity (CC): A numerical rating, expressed in command points, which delineates
the number of combat units that can be attached to a headquarters unit without affecting its
performance. If this normal capacity is exceeded, the leader of the headquarters unit will suffer
penalties when conducting leader checks.
Command Point (CP): A value assigned to each combat unit based on its size, e.g. regiment,
division, corps. Headquarters units have a command capacity expressed in command points
that determines the number of combat units that can be attached without affecting the
performance of that headquarters unit leader.
Commitment: The process that determines which eligible support units and reserve mode
combat units participate in a battle. Reserve mode combat units and support units attached
to headquarters units must pass a series of checks to be committed to battle, while support
units directly attached to combat units participating in a battle are automatically committed.
Device: A specific item of war fighting equipment that is either installed in an aircraft, AFV or
combat vehicle for operation by the crew, or that are used by the manpower in all other ground
elements. Most devices are weapons, to include bombs, rockets, rifles, machine guns, artillery,
AA and AT guns, but devices also include electronic warfare systems and aircraft drop tanks.
20
Die(x): The computer simulates the roll of a die, with an equal chance to roll a number from
one to x.
Equipment: General term for war fighting material that includes aircraft, AFV, combat vehicles
and their installed devices as well as all other devices that are part of ground elements.
Factories: Generic term for all items that either produce manpower and materiel for
production or supply or provide capacity for strategic movement. Factories are located in town,
city and urban hexes and Include manpower, ports, railyards, resource production, fuel and oil
production, armaments production, vehicle production, heavy industry and individual aircraft,
armoured fighting vehicle, and other combat vehicle production.
Fortification Defense Modifier: The total defense modifier to the combat value of defending
units, which is a combined value that takes into account both the terrain fortification level and
any man made fortification level in the hex (15.3).
Ground Element: Individual squads, guns, AFV’s, or other combat vehicles such as halftracks
and armoured cars and associated manpower that are the building blocks of ground units. The
type and number of ground elements comprising a ground unit are specified in the Table of
Organization and Equipment (TOE) for that unit.
Guns: Devices that are individual ground weapons of 20mm size or greater, with the exception
of most mortars. Usually any device that has the word ‘gun’ in its name, but howitzers, Heavy
Mortars (160mm or greater) and Multi-Barrel Rocket Weapons (Nebelwerfer and Katyusha) are
also designated as guns.
OB: Unit level Order of Battle: Equivalent to TOE (OB). OB’s are Tables of Equipment (TOE) that
list the notional number and specific type (i.e. Panzer IIIm) of ground elements contained in a
ground unit. OB is the term used in the game editor, while TOE (OB) is used for in-game screens
and windows.
OOB: Armed Forces level Order of Battle. The OOB screen displays the command and control
(C2) structure of each side’s forces, starting at the high command level and tracing ground and
air unit attachments down to the individual support and air group unit.
Permanent Supply Source: The ultimate sources of supply for each side’s sources. The
establishment of a rail network and connection to the supply grid requires the tracing of a
contiguous path of rail line hexes to a permanent supply source. See section 20.1.2 for a list
of permanent supply sources.
Railhead: Any friendly controlled undamaged rail line hex connected to a rail network. A
railhead is considered a supply source.
Rail Network: A contiguous path of friendly controlled undamaged rail line hexes connected
to a permanent supply source.
Random(x): The computer generates a random number from 0 to x-1.
21
Railroad Repair Value (RRV): A numerical value based on the number of construction support
units attached to a railroad repair unit (FBD or NKPS) that delineates the maximum number
of hexes a railroad repair unit can be from a railhead and still repair damaged rail line hexes.
Railroad Repair Cost (RRC): The cost in movement points for a railroad repair unit (FBD or
NKPS) to repair a damaged railroad hex.
Reserve Aircraft: An aircraft assigned to an air group unit that is categorized as ‘unready’
and will not participate in air missions. Reserve aircraft are not counted against the maximum
number of aircraft allowed in a particular air group unit.
Select: In interface terms, select means to left click with the mouse on a unit, button or link
Supplies: The type of supply used for food, maintenance and horse fodder. Ammunition,
though a separate type of supply, is not produced separately, but is broken out from supplies
based on unit need. Also referred to as general supplies.
Supply: The overall term for consumable logistical items required by units to function
effectively. There are three types of supply; general supplies, ammunition, and fuel.
Supply Grid: The physical infrastructure used to transport and store supply and production
resources. The main part of the supply grid consists of permanent supply sources connected
by a rail network of undamaged rail line hexes and includes stockpiles of supply in city and
urban hexes. Ports can also be connected to the supply grid, allowing tracing of supply over
water. Units must be able to trace to the supply grid to be in supply.
Supply Source: A rail line hex that is part of a rail network and thus connected to the supply
grid, to include railheads. The distance requirements for tracing supply (see section 20.4) do
not begin until after the supply source.
Support Unit: Single purpose independent battalions, brigades and regiments of various types.
With the exception of construction battalions, which can be automatically detached to repair
rail lines, support units will not appear on the map, but will be attached to headquarters and
certain combat units and will be listed in the detail window of the unit to which they are
attached.
Support Squad Ground Element: Ground elements that provide the administrative and
logistical backbone required for a unit to operate effectively. Note that, despite the similarity in
name, support squads and support units are different entities.
TOE: Tables of Equipment. Lists the number and type of ground elements contained in a
ground unit. TOE is used as a general term for all TOE’s in the game, whether they are notional
or actual, generic or specific. The TOE window displays a notional and actual unit TOE with
generic types of ground elements (i.e. medium tank)
TOE (OB): Table of Equipment that uses the OB from the game editor, displaying specific types
of ground elements (i.e. T-34 1942M).
22
Unit Box Type: Symbol inside the unit counter graphic displaying the type of unit, such as
infantry, armour or artillery. See section 27.1.2 (Appendix A).
3.2. CONTROLS
The game is controlled primarily by the mouse, with for the most part left click being used
to select and right click or shift-right click being used to conduct actions (exceptions include
use of the shift key to select multiple hexes and shift-left click for air transport missions). In
addition, many functions are accessible through the keyboard and some non-critical functions,
such as displaying Axis garrison requirements, are available only through the keyboard. A list
of all hotkeys can be displayed by pressing Shift-h while in the game. Details on the game
interface and associated controls are located in the rest of this section and in section 5.0.
3.2.1. HOTKEY LIST
Below is a list of the hotkeys in the game. Note that when an admin or info tab screen (5.1.2) is
displayed, all of the hot keys related to the main map area are disabled. This avoids inadvertent
selection of functions, such as ‘auto-assign unit to nearest headquarters’, while the player is
utilizing a full screen. The admin and info tab screen hot keys still work and can be used to go
from one to the other. For example, the player could display the losses screen (hotkey l) and
then switch to the preferences screen (Shift-P) using hot keys without having to go back to
the main map area.
a
Auto fly missions (air recon or bomb airfield modes)
a
Auto transport supplies/fuel (air transport mode)
b
Build-up/breakdown combat units
c
Show Commander’s Report screen
d
Show Air Doctrine screen
e
Toggle enemy hexes on/off
f
Toggle fort levels on/off
g
Auto assign unit(s) to nearest applicable HQ
h
Show help locate hex/city/unit/air group unit
i
Show Reinforcement/Withdrawal schedule
j
Selected units to reserve mode (if allowed)
k
Selected units to refit mode
l
Show Losses screen
m
Selected units to ready mode
23
n
Toggle day/night on/off (for air missions)
o
Show Order of Battle screen
p
Show Production screen
q
Quick save - (The quick save will save to a.psv file if PBEM is enabled and will save
to a .sav file if in a non-PBEM game).
r
Toggle rail damage info on/off - (In addition to rail damage, hexes further than 10
hexes or 25 MP from a railhead are shaded light gray, hexes further than 25 hexes
or 100 MP from a railhead are shaded dark grey, enemy hexes are shaded the
same color as if toggled, FBD and NKPS are bordered in yellow, and all permanent
supply source hexes are shaded in red).
s
Toggle soft factor on unit counters
t
Toggle counters on map on/off
u
Undo last move (if selected unit is eligible)
v
Show Victory screen
w
Show Weather Zone screen
y
Toggle unit values display type (graphic/numeral)
z
Toggle unit counter info (attack/defense/move values)
Shift-A
Toggle shading of allowed movement on/off
Shift-B
Build new unit (Soviet only, in or adjacent to urban hex)
Shift-C
Center map on selected hex
Shift-E
Show Logistics Phase Event Log
Shift-F
Create fortified unit in selected hex
Shift-G
Show Game Options screen
Shift-H
Show Hotkey list
Shift-I
Toggle identify army/front by color on/off
Shift-J
Toggle Jump map on/off
Shift-K
Show Axis garrison requirement (Red = No Garrison, Yellow = 1-99% Garrison,
Blue = 100%+ Garrison)
Shift-L
Toggle factory locations on/off
Shift-M
Toggle move path (in MPs) on map on/off
24
Shift-O
Toggle units isolated, far from railhead, receiving beachhead supply (Red =
Isolated units, Yellow = Units with Supply Path greater than 50 MP, and Orange =
Beachhead Supply status)
Shift-P
Show Preferences screen
Shift-Q
Quit and exit to main menu. Note that this hot key is disabled during AI vs AI
continuous play or during the computer AI turn of a human vs computer game.
Shift-R
Toggle unit modes on/off (Purple = Reserve Mode, Blue = Refit Mode, White =
Static Mode, Red = Withdraw Mode)
Shift-S
Show Save Game screen
Shift-T
Selected units to Static mode
Shift-V
Toggle Victory locations on/off - Displays flag that is either red (Soviet), black
(German) or 50/50, which indicates both sides consider the hex an objective.
Shift-W
Toggle weather zones on/off (Europe Zone = unchanged, South Soviet Zone =
yellow, Central Soviet Zone = green, North Soviet Zone = purple.
Shift-X
Exit from continuous play (for AI vs. AI games)
Shift-Y
Reactivate selected units in a hex from Static Mode
= and +
Zoom Map In
-
Zoom Map Out
.
Select next hex with friendly unit
,
Select previous hex with friendly unit
Note that the above select next/previous hex functions scans
from the current selected hex or X1,Y0 if no hex is currently
selected, going south and then one row east to the top of the
map to find the next hex containing a friendly unit (or north
and then west if previous). It then selects all units in the hex
as if the player had left-clicked on that hex. If a hex with units
off the viewable map area is selected the map will re-center on
that hex.
ESC
Exits current display/combat
F1
Move Mode
F2
Rail Mode
F3
Naval Transport Mode
F4
Amphibious Transport Mode
25
F5
Air Recon Mode
F6
Bomb Unit Mode
F7
Bomb Airfield Mode
F8
Bomb City Mode
F9
Air Transport Mode
F10
Air Transfer Mode
F11
Show Battle Sites
,
Previous Battle in Hex (when show battle sites (F11) selected)
.
Next Battle in Hex (when show battle sites (F11) selected)
F12
End this turn
0 ... 7
Combat resolution message levels (0=off or levels 1 to 7)
Ctrl-0
Highlight Partisan Units
Ctrl-1
Highlight HQ’s (Red = High Command (Type 1), Orange = Axis Army Group/Soviet
Front/Military District/Moscow Defense Zone (Type 2), Yellow = Army (Type 3), Blue
= Corps (Type 4).
Ctrl-2
Highlight Airbases (Air Base Units)
Ctrl-3
Highlight Armor/Motorized/Mechanized Combat Units
Ctrl-4
Highlight Cavalry Combat Units
Ctrl-5
Highlight Non-mechanized Infantry Combat Units
Ctrl-6
Highlight Security Combat Units
Ctrl-7
Highlight Soviet Artillery and Anti-tank Combat Units
Ctrl-8
Highlight Fortified Region and Zone Combat Units
Ctrl-9
Highlight Rail Repair Units
Note Ctrl-# are toggle on/off hotkeys that border applicable unit
types from both sides in red. When Fog of War is enabled, only
enemy units that have their type identified will be highlighted.
Pressing the key toggles the item on/off. Use of a Ctrl-# hotkey
or selecting an on-map unit will automatically toggle off any
other Ctrl-# hotkey. Ctrl-# hotkeys will only function if either a
hex with no units or no hex is selected. The unit type box for the
units being currently displayed will show in the top bar above
the Soft factors button.
26
Space bar Speed up move in progress or toggle message pause on/off
TAB
Hold down key to show weapons/aircraft icons if weapons pop-up is disabled
3.3. STARTING A GAME AND THE MAIN MENU
Load the game by selecting (left clicking on) the War in the East icon. The main menu screen
will appear which allows access to the game set up functions. The player can quickly choose
whether to play a human or computer opponent and set the game difficulty level, or use the
game options to change the default game settings. Both the user and map interfaces can be
customized before and during a game by accessing the preferences button. The main menu
is also used to access the game scenarios, Play by E-Mail (PBEM) set up and load save game
screens. In addition, the Main menu is where the game editor is accessed. All of the functions
can be accessed by selecting the appropriate button with the mouse.
3.3.1. HUMAN/COMPUTER OPPONENT SELECTION
There is a selection button for each side (Soviet and Axis). Selecting the button for either side
will toggle between a human and a computer (AI) opponent.
3.3.2. DIFFICULTY LEVEL
There are five general difficulty levels, Easy, Normal, Challenging, Hard and Impossible. The
difficulty level is set by varying the percentage of five different factors; morale, fortification
building speed, supply, transport, and administrative points (3.3.3). Using the format xxx/
xxx, where the first number is the human player and the second number is the computer
27
player, Easy difficulty level has all values set to 120/80, Normal has all values set to 100/100,
Challenging has all values set to 90/110, Hard has all values set to 80/125, and Impossible has
all values set to 70/150. Players can generate a custom difficulty level by manually setting any
of the factors for either side. The default setting is Normal.
Whenever the morale level is set to 110 or greater, then leader admin checks for movement
allowances are always successful (14.1.2) and the Soviet AI is able to build combat units so as
to maintain a force of 300 divisions and 100 brigades at no additional admin cost (see section
12.2.4). In addition, whenever the morale level is set to 125 or greater, all leader initiative
checks for movement allowances points are also automatically successful.
3.3.3. GAME OPTIONS
Below are listed the options available to the player to set up how the game is played. Note
that some game options will be locked and unchangeable after the set up of PBEM and head
to head (H2H) games. These options will be grayed out in the screen once that type of game is
started. Select (left click with mouse) inside the applicable box to change the setting.
Computer Controlled: On/Off for each player; on is AI control, off is human control. The default
setting is German Human and Soviet Computer Controlled.
Fog of War (FOW): On/Off for each player. If checked on, human players are limited by FOW
rules (see section 13.2) The default setting is FOW off.
28
Movement Fog of War: Only displays when FOW is enabled and can only be used in
conjunction with FOW. On/Off for each player. If checked on, the show movement path and
show movement allowed functions (3.3.5) will only display movement options to hexes if the
movement path could be traced via friendly/pending friendly hexes or to hexes adjacent to
friendly/pending friendly hexes. The default setting is Movement FoW off and not displayed.
Lock HQ Support: On/Off for each player, when on player’s HQ’s have their HQ Support Level
Locked at start. The default setting is lock HQ support off.
Non-Random Weather: On/Off; when on the non-random (fixed) weather rules apply. When
unchecked, the random weather rules apply (22.2). The default setting is non-random weather
on.
General Difficulty Level: Cycles through Easy, Normal, Challenging, Hard, and Impossible
play levels. These impact the various help levels listed. If a player modifies one of the levels
manually, then the General Difficulty play level changes to Custom. For the various help levels
that are impacted by the general difficulty levels, a value of 100 percent is the “historical”
setting. Values less than 100 make it harder on the player, while values greater than 100 give
the player an advantage. These values can range from 25 to 400. The default value for the
General Difficulty play level is Normal, with all help levels set to 100 for both players.
Morale Level: Impacts the starting morale of units, the amount they increase or decrease
during game play, and the likelihood of making various leader morale checks (9.1).
Fort Build Level: Impacts the speed at which fortification levels are built (15.3.2).
Logistics Level: Impacts the formulas that determine the amount of supply and replacements
a unit receives based on its supply trace, the amount of attrition a unit suffers due to
movement, the amount of fatigue added or removed from a unit during a turn, and the amount
of fuel expended by generic vehicles. This level also affects the ability of leaders to conduct
successful admin checks.
Transport Level: Impacts the amount of rail capacity a player receives each turn.
Admin Level: Provides a straight percentage modifier for the number of admin points that a
player gets at the start of a scenario, as well as at the start of their player turn (12.0).
Reset to Default: Selecting this button will return all Game Options to their default settings.v
29
3.3.4. USER PREFERENCES
The below settings can be used to customize aspects of the interface. Many of these settings
can be changed at any time during the player turn, but some require the player to exit the game
and reload prior to the change taking place. As a reminder, the use of the word “select” means
to left click with the mouse.
Graphic Quality: Select the appropriate box for low or high graphic quality. The down (left
choice) arrow is the low setting, while the up (right choice) arrow is the high setting. The
game must be exited and reloaded for the change to take effect. Note that a low setting is
recommended for older computers or those with low memory or older graphics cards. If map
scrolling and combat or move animations look sluggish, try the low setting. The default graphic
quality is the high setting.
Scroll Speed: Sets the time it takes to scroll across the map. Select the left arrow to decrease
the time and the right arrow to increase the time or select directly inside the box with the
current number and enter the desired time. Scroll speed can be set from 1 to 30 in .5
increments (if directly entered it can be set in .01 increments). The default scroll speed is 4.00.
Message Delay: This sets the amount of time (in seconds) a standard pop-up text message
will display on the game screen, to include reserve unit commitment messages. By selecting
the left (decrease) or right (increase) arrows or by selecting directly inside the box with the
current number and entering the desired time, the value can be set from 0 to 30 seconds
in .5 increments (if directly entered it can be set in .01 increments), with a 0 resulting in no
messages being displayed. The default setting is 2.00 seconds.
Hex Pop-up Delay: Sets the amount of delay in seconds before the hex pop-up triggered by
the mouse cursor will appear (5.2.1). The hex pop-up describes the hex on the map the mouse
cursor is currently over. This information includes the terrain, hex number, fort level, control
and rail information, and information on units in the hex. If ‘View Production Facilities’ has
been toggled on, production information will also be displayed in the hex pop-up. By selecting
the left (decrease) or right (increase) arrows, or by selecting directly inside the box with the
current number and entering the desired time, the value can be set from 0 to 30 seconds in
.5 increments (if directly entered it can be set in .01 increments). Setting this value to 0 will
prevent the hex pop-up from appearing. The weapon/aircraft icons box (see map preferences
30
below) will be triggered at the same time and with the same delay as the hex pop-up and will
also be prevented from appearing if that value is set to 0. The default setting is .33 seconds.
Mouse over Delay: Sets the amount of delay in seconds before a pop-up triggered by the
mouse cursor will appear, with the exception of the hex pop-up, which has a separate delay
setting (see above). By selecting the left (decrease) or right (increase) arrows, or by selecting
directly inside the box with the current number and entering the desired time, the value can be
set from 0 to 30 seconds in .5 increments (if directly entered it can be set in .01 increments).
The default setting is .33 seconds.
Combat Resolution Message Level: This determines the amount of information given about
a battle in the Combat Resolution window that appears at the top of the screen during combat
resolution. By selecting the left (decrease) or right (increase) arrows, or by selecting directly
inside the box with the current number and entering the desired number, the value can be set
from 0 to 7 in increments of 1. A level of 0 will keep this window from appearing at all. Level 1
will provide only a minimum level of information messages, resolving the battle as quickly as
possible. Level 1 will also prevent the window from appearing for Recon Air Missions. As the
level is increased from 2 to 7, the amount of information reported will increase, with level 7
describing each shot fired by the units in combat. Note that not all shots are displayed even at
level 7 message settings. There is no message for a shot that is considered to have too low a
probability of a hit, defined as much less than one percent. This level may be set during game
play, to include during combat resolution, by pressing the numbers 0-7. The default setting is
1. Note: Pressing the X (exit) button or the ‘Esc’ key will close the combat resolution window.
Selecting the pause button will freeze the combat resolution in place and keep the window
from closing down, but the combat resolution messages cannot be restarted for that combat,
requiring the user to left click on the X or press Esc to close the window.
Combat Resolution Message Delay: This delay sets the amount of delay in seconds before
the next combat resolution text message appears in the Combat Resolution window. By
selecting the left (decrease) or right (increase) arrows, or by selecting directly inside the box
with the current number and entering the desired time, the value can be set from 0 to 30
seconds in .5 increments (if directly entered it can be set in .01 increments). The default setting
is 1.00 seconds
Combat Resolution Close Delay: This delay sets the amount of time in seconds that the
combat resolution report window will remain displayed after the battle is resolved and the
last message is displayed. By selecting on the left (decrease) or right (increase) arrows, or
by selecting directly inside the box with the current number and entering the desired time,
the value can be set from 0 to 30 seconds in .5 increments (if directly entered it can be set in
.01 increments). The default setting is 5.00 seconds. Note: Pressing the X (exit) button or the
‘Esc’ key will close the combat resolution window. Selecting the pause button will freeze the
combat resolution in place and keep the window from closing down, but the combat resolution
messages cannot be restarted for that combat, requiring the user to left click on the X or press
Esc to close the window.
31
Auto-Save Game: When enabled by selecting the check box to the right of the “Auto-Save
Game” text, the current game will be automatically saved at the end of each player turn.
The default setting for Auto-Save game is off. Note that the auto-save game function is not
available for PBEM games.
Starting Zoom Level: Sets the default map zoom level that will be used whenever a new
scenario or save game is loaded. Select inside the box to the right of “Starting Zoom Level” to
toggle between the five zoom levels, Max-Out (level 5), Out (level 4), Medium (level 3), In (level
2), Max-In (level 1). The default setting is level 2 (In).
Show Move Animation: When enabled by selecting the check box to the right of the “Show
Move Animation” text, friendly units will be shown moving from hex to hex on the map,
accompanied by their respective sound effect if that preference is enabled. If not enabled,
units will move directly to their destination. While a unit is moving with the animation enabled,
the player may press the space bar to have the units immediately move to their destination.
This preference does not impact computer controlled units. The default setting has show move
animation enabled.
Animation Speed: This sets the amount of delay in seconds between each hex moved for a
unit using move animation. By selecting the left (decrease) or right (increase) arrows, or by
selecting directly inside the box with the current number and entering the desired time, the
value can be set from 0 to 30 seconds in .5 increments (if directly entered it can be set in .01
increments). The default setting is .33 seconds.
Music Volume: Sets the volume for music by selecting the left (decrease) or right (increase)
arrows, or by selecting directly inside the box with the current number and entering the desired
time. The value can be set from 0 to 10 in increments of 1, with a value of 0 resulting in no
music. The default setting is 10.
Sound Effects Volume: Sets the volume for sound effects by selecting the left (decrease) or
right (increase) arrows, or by selecting directly inside the box with the current number and
entering the desired time, The value can be set from 0 to 10 in increments of 1, with a value of
0 resulting in no sound effects and no mouse click noise (see below). The default setting is 10.
Mouse Click Volume: Set the volume for mouse clicks by selecting the left (decrease) or
right (increase) arrows, or by selecting directly inside the box with the current number and
entering the desired time. The value can be set from 0 to 10 in increments of 1, with a value of
0 resulting in no mouse clicks. If sound effects volume is set to 0, then mouse click volume is
overridden and no mouse clicks will be heard. The default setting is 10.
Reset to Default: Select the button to the right of the “Reset to Default” text to return all user
preferences to their default settings. Note that there is a separate default reset for both the
user and map preferences section of the preferences screen.
32
3.3.5. MAP PREFERENCES
The below settings can be used to customize aspects of the map area. Many of these settings
can be changed at any time during the player turn, but some require the player to exit the game
and reload prior to the change taking place. As a reminder, the use of the word “select” means
to left click with the mouse. If the appropriate box has a check mark displayed, that feature is
enabled; if blank, that feature is disabled.
Show Hex Grid: Select the check box to the right of the “Show Hex Grid” to have hexes printed
on the map, otherwise no hexes will be shown. The game must be exited and reloaded for the
change to take effect. The default setting has show hex grid enabled.
Show Jump Map: Select the check box to the right of the “Show Jump Map” to display a
small jump map in the bottom left corner of the screen that shows the entire map area. Units
will be displayed as dots, with black for Axis and Red for Soviet units. If Fog of War is enabled,
units with a zero detection level will not be shown (see section 13.0). When using a scenario
that uses only a portion of the map area, a blue box will display around the playable area. The
default setting has show jump map enabled.
Show Ground Element/Aircraft Icons: Select the check box to the right of the “Show Ground
Element/Aircraft Icons” text to display a pop-up window at the bottom of the screen when the
mouse cursor is placed over hexes with units in the map area. Icons will appear in this popup representing the ground elements and aircraft located in the hex along with the number
of each ground element/aircraft that is in the hex. Armoured Fighting Vehicles, other combat
vehicles, and aircraft are shown separately, while guns and squads are grouped according
to their type. Axis icons face to the right and Soviet icons face to the left. Icons representing
equipment captured since June 1941 and incorporated into units keeps its original facing.
Equipment captured from other countries in campaigns previous to June 1941 (mostly Axis
Allies equipment) will face the same direction as non-captured equipment. If this preference
is disabled, the information can be temporarily display by pressing and holding the ‘Tab’ key;
releasing the ‘Tab’ key will remove the additional information from the display. The default
setting has show ground element/aircraft icons enabled. Setting the hex pop-up delay (3.3.4)
to 0 will also disable the ground element/aircraft icons.
Show Army/Front Colors: Select the check box to the right of the “Show Army/Front Colors”
text, to enable each Axis Army, Soviet Front, and Soviet Military District to be represented by
a distinct color. This color will fill in the unit type box of all units that are part of the Axis Army
33
or Soviet Front/Military District instead of the standard white fill color. The default setting has
show Army/Front colors enabled.
Show Move Paths: Select the check box to the right of the “Show Move Paths” text, to display
compass symbols on the map indicating the path of hexes the currently selected unit(s) will
move through to reach the hex where the mouse cursor is presently located. Each hex on the
path will contain a compass symbol with the anticipated movement points remaining for the
unit if it were to move to the hex. If there are multiple selected units, the numbers displayed
will be equal to the anticipated MPs remaining for the unit that is expected to have the least
number of remaining MPs upon moving to the hex. Due to idiosyncrasies of the movement
routines and the impact of morale and unit motorized status on movement costs, it is possible
for the actual number of MPs remaining to be higher than what is anticipated by the number
on the compass. The default setting has show move paths enabled. If a unit is moved when the
map is at zoom level 5 (Max-Out) then the movement path will not be displayed.
Show Allowed Movement: Select the check box to the right of the “Show Allowed Movement”
text, to display those hexes that the currently selected unit(s) may move to by shading the
hexes the unit(s) cannot move into as well as shading hexes that can be moved into with an
additional movement cost. The different shadings are as follows:
»» No shading - Friendly hex that can be moved into.
»» Light gray - Pending friendly hex that can be moved into.
»» Light red - Enemy hex that can be moved into.
»» Very dark gray - Movement to that hex is not possible.
»» Very dark red - Enemy (or impassable) hex that the unit cannot move into.
The default setting has show allowed movement enabled.
Unit Values Display Type: This sets whether numerals, graphic bars, or neither will be
displayed on the unit counters reflecting the combat strength and/or movement points of the
unit. This can be set to Numeral, Graphic or None by selecting the box to the right of the “Unit
Values Display Type” text. Numerals will only be displayed at the Max-In and In (levels 1-2)
zoom levels, and graphic bars will only be displayed at the Max-In, In and Medium zoom levels
(levels 1-3). The default setting is Numeral.
Unit Counter Info: This sets the specific information displayed on the unit counters regarding
a unit’s combat strength and movement points. This preference works together with the
Unit Values Display Type preference. This preference can be set to CV-Move or COMBAT by
selecting the box to the right of the “Unit Counter Info” text. If CV-Move is selected while the
Unit Values Display is set to Numeral, then the counters will display the CV and Movement
Points remaining. If CV-Move is selected while the Unit Values Display is set to Graphic, then
the counters will display a graphic bar indicating the movement points remaining. If COMBAT
is selected while the Unit Values Display is set to Numeral, then the counters will display the CV
value followed by another CV value that accounts for the fortification defense modifier (15.3).
34
If COMBAT is selected while the Unit Values Display is set to Graphic, then the counters will
display a graphic bar indicating the CV value. In all cases the CV displayed is the total for all
units in the hex and the MPs displayed is the most MPs remaining by any unit in the hex. The
default setting is CV-Move. Note: Regardless of the Unit Counter Info setting, enemy units will
always be displayed on the map as if the setting is COMBAT; i.e. with the CV value followed by
the CV value with the fortification defense modifier.
Hex Pop-up Location: The default setting results in the hex pop-up appearing on the map
where the cursor is currently located. This can be changed so that the hex pop-up will appear
in one location based on inputting x and y map pixel coordinates. Select inside the black text
box to the right of the “Hex Pop-up Location” text. Enter an ‘X’ position and select the check;
then enter a ‘Y’ position and select the check. The map grid is set up with (0 X, 0 Y) in the top
left corner and the map size is approximately 720x550 pixels. The region pop-up location can
be reset to the cursor by entering ‘-1’ for the ‘X’ coordinate.
Show Weather Graphics: Select the check box to the right of the “Show Weather Graphics”,
to shade/mark hexes that are currently affected by mud, snow or blizzard weather as follows:
»» Mud: Hexes shaded tan with clear hexes marked with tan clumps.
»» Snow: Hexes shaded white with clear hexes marked with light speckles.
»» Blizzard: Hexes shaded white with all hexes marked with dark speckles.
The default setting has show weather graphics enabled.
Show River/Rail Info: Select the check box to the right of the “Show River/Rail Info,” to enable
additional hex pop-up information. When enabled, the hex pop-up text will include information
about any adjacent river hexsides, impassable lake hexsides, rail lines that enter the hex,
points for victory objectives in non-campaign scenarios, and unit numbers of any units in the
hex. Information about points for victory objectives will be in the format xx/xxx, where the first
number is the amount of points received by the applicable player every player-turn for control
of the hex and the second number is the amount of points the applicable player will receive for
control of the hex at the end of the scenario. For example, a hex that displays ‘Soviet Victory
Points 10/400’ will give the Soviet player 10 points every player-turn they control the hex and
a separate 400 VP’s if the Soviet player controls the hex at the end of the scenario. The default
setting has “Show River/Rail Info” enabled.
Reset to Default: Select the check box to the right of the “Reset to Default” text to return all
map preferences to their default settings. Note that there is a separate default reset for both
the user and map preferences section of the preferences screen.v
35
3.3.6. PICK SCENARIO
The left side of the screen displays the list of available scenarios and the date and time of the
latest updates to those scenarios. The list of scenarios can be sorted either alphabetically by
title or by date through selection of the applicable arrow at the top of the display. Selecting
a scenario title will bring up a description on the right side of the screen. To load a scenario,
select the title and, once the title font becomes green, select the load button located at the
bottom left of the screen.
3.3.7. PLAY BY E-MAIL (PBEM)
PBEM allows two human players to play Gary Grigsby’s War in the East by exchanging turn
files by e-mail in a manner that inhibits cheating. Selecting the PBEM button either here or in
the Load Saved Game screen toggles PBEM on or off. A check will appear in the PBEM box if
PBEM is enabled. The default setting for PBEM is disabled. To start a PBEM game, the second
player to move in the chosen scenario (e.g. the Soviet player in the 1941-45 Campaign or the
Axis player in the 1944-45 Campaign) enables PBEM, sets the agreed upon Game Options and
then selects the scenario.
The second player will then be prompted to create their password. Once a password has been
created, the second player will be taken to the PBEM Save Game screen, where they will create
a save game, which will be saved as a .psv file in the /data/save directory. The second player
will then be automatically taken back to the main menu. The second player will then e-mail the
save game file to the first player, who will transfer the file into their /data/save directory. They
will then enable PBEM, load the save and then will be prompted to create their own password.
The first player will then take their turn, saving whenever they want. Once the first player has
finished their turn and selected the end turn button (F12), the computer will conduct the next
Logistics phase and then prompt the first player to save the game so it can be e-mailed to the
second player to continue the PBEM cycle. Note that there are no auto saves during PBEM. In
36
addition, the Loss screen does not come up automatically when the end of turn save is loaded
by the next player. If the player views the Loss screen before doing anything else, however,
they will see the last turn’s losses, including their own attrition losses. At the conclusion of a
game, the player that sees the end game info can save the game and exit and the save created
becomes a PBEM save that the next player can load using his password in order to view the
same end game info.
3.3.8. LOAD SAVED GAME
The left side of the screen displays the list of available saved games and the date and time
when that game was saved. The list of saves can be sorted either alphabetically by title or by
date through selection of the applicable arrow at the top of the display. Selecting a save game
title will bring up a description on the right side of the screen that includes the title of the
scenario being played, the current turn of that scenario and whether the players are human or
computer. To load a saved game, select the title and, once the title font becomes green, select
the load button located at the bottom left of the screen. There is a separate PBEM Load Saved
Game screen with the same type of information that will appear if PBEM is enabled either by
toggling the PBEM button on the main screen or the PBEM button at the bottom of the load
saved game screen. A check will appear in the PBEM button if PBEM is enabled.
3.3.9. MULTIPLAYER
Multiplayer (MP) allows human players to play the game over the internet through a server
based system hosted by Slitherine Ltd. Players can log on to the server, post and accept game
challenges, and conduct their turn in any scenarios they are currently playing. An internet
connection and a Slitherine account will be required to utilize the multiplayer system.
37
3.3.9.1. LOGIN PROCEDURE
The first time the multiplayer system is used after the game has been installed, the player will
be taken to an initial login screen with fields for username, password and registry number,
which will already be automatically entered. A Slitherine account (www.slitherine.com) is
required. If the player already has a Slitherine account, they can enter that username and
password and select the login button. If the player does not have a Slitherine account, then
they will select the register button, which will bring up the account registration screen. Here
they will be prompted to enter a username, password and e-mail address to obtain a Slitherine
account. Upon completion of either initial login or account registration, and on any subsequent
selection of the multiplayer button, the standard login screen will appear. The standard login
screen will already display username, password and registry number. Select the connect
button to access the MP server and the MP screen.
38
3.3.9.2. MULTIPLAYER PROCEDURE
The main MP screen consists of three sections as follows:
My Challenges: This section is used by the player to post scenarios that they wish to play.
Selecting the ‘New’ button will bring up a ‘Select Scenario’ screen listing all the game scenarios
(23.1). Selecting a scenario will highlight it in green and bring up the scenario description.
Selecting the ‘Select’ button at the bottom of the screen will bring up the Game Options screen
(3.3.3), where the player can change settings as desired. Note that some options (red x in
check box) cannot be changed in MP? Once the player has completed any changes to the
Game Options, select the ‘Create’ button and the main MP screen will appear with the selected
scenario listed in the ‘My Challenges’ section. A scenario listed in the ‘My Challenges’ section
can be deleted by selecting it and then selecting the ‘Cancel’ button. Scenarios listed in the ‘My
Challenges’ section will appear on all other player’s ‘Open Challenges’ section.
Open Challenges: This section lists all the scenarios posted by other players in their ‘My
Challenges’ section. Selecting a scenario and then selecting the ‘View Options’ button will
bring up the Game Options screen with that scenario’s setting. Selecting a scenario and then
selecting the ‘Accept’ button will add that scenario to the player’s list of active games in the
‘My Games’ section.
My Games: This section lists all active games being played, with the Axis and Soviet sides
listed by login username for each scenario. The side/player whose turn it currently is will
be highlighted in green. Selecting the scenario when the proper side is highlighted and then
selecting play will allow the player to conduct their turn. Upon completion and selection of the
39
end turn button (F12), the scenario listing will be updated to reflect that it is the other side’s
turn. Note that the player can save their player turn in progress, but whenever a game is saved
when using the Multiplayer feature, the player is returned to the main menu.
3.3.9.3. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE CHALLENGES
There are two types of challenges; ‘private’ and ‘public.’ When a challenge is created a
password dialog box will appear on the Game Options screen. If the password is left blank,
a public challenge is created that anyone can accept. If a password is entered, a private
challenge is created that can only be accepted by players who have know the password. Note
that there is no in-game messaging, so passwords will need to be passed by other forms of
communication. A challenge is displayed as either ‘private’ or ‘public’ by the character just to
the left of the challenge name; a “-” for a public challenge, and a “*” for a private challenge.
3.3.10. CREDITS
This screen displays a list of the people involved in making Gary Grigsby’s War in the East
possible, as well as a list of official web sites related to the game.
3.3.11. EDITOR
Selecting this button brings up the main menu of the game editor. See the game editor manual
.pdf file for details.
4. SEQUENCE OF PLAY
Gary Grigsby’s War in the East is a turn based game, with each game turn composed of separate
Axis and Soviet Player turns. The term “phasing player” is used for the player who is currently
conducting their player turn. For example, during the Axis player turn, the Axis player is the
phasing player and the Soviet player is the non-phasing player. Each player turn consists of a
player specific logistics phase and a general logistics phase, which are comprised of a number
of segments and sub-segments and are both conducted automatically by the computer,
followed by an action phase where all movement, combat and other player manual actions are
conducted. The computer may conduct actions with the non-phasing player’s forces during the
action phase, to include commitment of support units and reserve combat units to battles and
air missions such as interception, interdiction and defensive ground support.
4.1. GAME TURN OVERVIEW
A. Axis Player Turn
1) Axis Logistics Phase
2) General Logistics Phase (for Axis units only)
40
3) Soviet Player PBEM Save Break Phase (PBEM only)
4) Axis Action Phase
B. Soviet Player Turn
5) Soviet Logistics Phase
6) General Logistics Phase (for Soviet units only)
7) Axis Player PBEM Save Break Phase (PBEM only)
8) Soviet Action Phase
There are no logistics phases for the first player on the first turn of any scenario. If the Axis
player is the first player, the scenario will start with the Axis action phase, if the Soviet player is
the first player, the scenario will start with the Soviet action phase. On turn two and following
turns the game will follow the normal sequence of play. Note that this means that in scenarios
with the Soviet as the first player, the first seven phases of the Game turn are skipped on the
first turn, so that the Axis player has no first turn and the Soviet player has no logistics phases.
4.2. LOGISTICS PHASE DETAILS
Each player turn normally includes a player specific logistics phase with distinct segments
followed by a general logistics phase that has the same segments and sub-segments for each
player.
Axis Logistics Phase (start of Axis turn only):
Set Weather segment (22.2)
Activate Axis Armies segment (10.3)
Upgrade/Convert Ground Element Pools segment (21.1)
»» Note that though this segment only occurs during the
Axis Logistics Phase, it happens for both players.
Set Unit Withdrawals segment (18.4)
Axis Ally Surrender Check segment (19.1.4)
Soviet Logistics Phase (start of Soviet turn only):
Rename Soviet Air Group Units segment (8.1.4.3)
Award Guards Status segment (9.2)
Rename Soviet Fronts segment (7.6.6)
Rename Soviet Air HQ Units segment (8.3.2)
Disband Soviet Corps HQ Units segment (18.5.2)
41
Lend Lease delivery segment (21.5)
Recruit Partisan Units segment (17.1)
Partisan Air Supply segment (17.1.1)
Partisan Attack segment (17.1.2)
General Logistics Phase (for both players):
Withdraw Air Group Units segment (8.4.2)
Recover Disabled Manpower segment (18.2)
Add Admin Points segment (12.1)
Take Control of Isolated Hexes segment (15.12)
Determine if Town, City and Urban hexes are linked to the Supply Grid segment (20.1)
Upgrade Unit Fortification Level Status segment (15.3.2)
Reinforcement segment (18.1.1)
»» Reduce Unit Delays sub-segment
»» Reinforcement Arrival sub-segment (18.1.1)
Upgrade Unit TOE (OB) segment (7.2.2.1)
Ground Element segment (7.2.2.1, 21.1.9)
»» Upgrade Ground Element Types sub-segment
»» Swap Ground Element Types sub- segment
Aircraft segment (8.1.5, 21.1.9)
»» Upgrade Aircraft Types segment
»» Swap Aircraft Types segment
Production segment (21.0)
»» Add New Production sub-segment (21.1)
»» Upgrade Factories sub-segment (21.1.9)
»» Expand Factories sub-segment (21.1.8)
»» Calculate Total Rail Capacity sub-segment (21.1.11)
»» Supply Town, City and Urban hex sub-segment (21.1)
Calculate Vehicle Fuel Requirements segment (20.3.3)
Ground Element Training segment (9.3.1)
42
Air Group Unit Training segment (9.3.2)
Replacement segment (18.2)
»» Return damaged Ground elements sub-segment (18.2.1)
»» Return excess support squad Ground elements sub-segment (18.2.1)
»» Refit sub-segment (18.2.1)
»» Normal replacement sub-segment (18.2.1)
»» Aircraft replacement sub-segment (18.2.4)
Supply segment (20.4.2)
»» Emergency vehicle reallocation sub- segment (20.1.4.2)
»» Set Unit Supply Requirements sub-segment (20.1)
»» First supply delivery sub-segment (from HQ units) (20.4.2)
»» Automatic Rail Repair Unit movement sub-segment (14.2.1.1)
»» Emergency Rail Repair sub-segment (14.2.1.1)
»» Second supply delivery sub-segment (from Railheads) (20.4.2)
Vehicle Attrition segment (20.1.4.3)
Adjust Vehicles in Units segment (20.1.4.2)
Add Unit Fatigue segment (9.4)
Ground element attrition segment (9.5)
Reduce Fatigue and Repair Ground Elements segment (9.4.1)
Ready and Repair Aircraft segment (8.1.1, 18.2)
Aircraft attrition segment (9.5.4)
Unit withdrawal segment (18.4)
Support Unit Transfer segment (7.6.3.2)
Fortification level build segment (15.3.2)
Damaged Rail line hex repair segment (14.2.1.1)
»» Recall Construction support units sub-segment
Ground Reconnaissance segment (13.1)
Rally Routed Units segment (15.9.4.1)
Leader segment (11.0)
43
»» Promote Leaders sub-segment (11.4)
»» Improve Leader Ratings sub-segment (11.2.6)
»» Change Leaders sub-segment (11.4.3)
Set Unit Move Allowance segment (14.1.2)
Freeze Inactive Units segment (18.1.1)
Check Isolated Unit Surrender segment (15.12)
Change Leader Status segment (11.0)
Remove Empty Units segment
»» Combat units without any ground elements are removed from the game
5. GAME INTERFACE
The interface consists of a top panel, map area, unit bar (when units are selected) and a myriad
of associated screens and windows for providing information and conducting various actions.
As previously discussed, with the exception of some actions in the map area (5.3), selecting is
done by left clicking with the mouse on buttons and selectable text links. Active selectable text
links are usually blue and become yellow when the mouse pointer is over them.
44
5.1. TOP PANEL
The top panel is a multi-purpose interface that provides information and allows interaction with
the map area and on-map units. It consists of a title bar, three menu tabs (Map Information,
Information Screens, and Administration), each with a separate associated toolbar, unit soft
factor selector, action mode selection toolbar, and a general information and city box. With the
exception of the title bar, the top panel color will be grey during the Axis player turn and brown
during the Soviet player turn. In addition a German or Soviet flag symbol will be displayed in
the far right of the top panel to indicate the current player turn.
5.1.1. TITLE BAR
This is a standard MS Windows title bar with minimize, maximize and close buttons. It will
display the game version number and the name of the scenario currently loaded. Note that the
player must use the title bar close button (X) in the upper right corner to exit the program during
the computer AI turn as the Admin menu tab ‘X’ button and associated hot key ‘Shift-Q’ are
disabled during that time. There is no way to return to the main menu once the AI commences
processing its turn.
5.1.2. MENU TABS AND ASSOCIATED TOOLBARS
There are three menu tabs, each with its associated tool bar that can be selected by left
clicking on the desired tab. The map information tab is the default when first loading the
game, but if the scenario is changed without exiting the program, the last selected tab will be
displayed after loading the new scenario. Only one menu tab can be active at one time and the
active tab will be in the foreground. All tool bar buttons have an associated hotkey.
5.1.2.1. MAP INFORMATION TAB
The tool bar buttons associated with this tab offer a mixture of different map area views and
unit action buttons as follows:
View Units on Map (hotkey t): Hides all on-map units when toggled to allow unfettered view
of the map area
Zoom Map in (hotkey ‘+’ or scroll): Five zoom levels available.
Zoom Map out (hotkey ‘-‘ or scroll): Five zoom levels available.
45
»» Note that at Zoom levels 1 and 2 ((Max-In and In)) the ‘Y’ key can be used to
display either numbers on counters or a graphic bar or blank info. At zoom
level 3 only the graphic bar or a blank is displayed, and at zoom levels 4 and
5 (Out and Max-Out) the information is blank. Soft factors and movement
status can be viewed in zoom levels 1 through 3 and unit type and size at
zoom levels 1 through 4. At zoom level 5, only unit nationality and whether the
unit is German SS or Soviet Guard will be displayed by the color of the unit.
View Enemy Hexes On/Off (hotkey e): Distinguishes between friendly, pending friendly and
enemy hexes (6.3). Friendly hexes will be clear. Enemy hexes will be shaded rose, and pending
friendly hexes will be shaded grey.
View Fort Levels On/Off (hotkey f): Displays a circular symbol with a number in hexes that
have a man made fortification level of one or greater (15.3.2). The inner ring of the symbol is
grey for Axis fort levels and yellow for Soviet fort levels and the number indicates the current
fort level. Note that the ability to view enemy fort levels is limited when Fog of War (FOW) is
enabled (13.2).View Rail Damage Info On/Off (hotkey r): Displays status of railroads in friendly
and pending friendly hexes. The symbol is green for undamaged rail, red for damaged rail and
orange for rail undergoing repair that turn. Rail hexes that have white dots within a green circle
are hexes that have been converted but are not connected to the rest of the rail network or
are rail hexes that cannot be used for strategic rail movement or supply purposes due to being
adjacent to enemy units. In addition to rail damage, hexes further than 10 hexes or 25 MP from
a railhead are shaded light gray, hexes further than 25 hexes or 100 MP from a railhead are
shaded dark grey, enemy hexes are shaded rose, FBD and NKPS rail repair units are bordered
in yellow, and all permanent supply source hexes are shaded in red.
View Unit Modes On/Off (hotkey Shift-R): Highlights on-map unit counters with a colour
border if they are in one of four different modes. Units in Refit (18.3) will be bordered in blue,
Withdrawing units (18.4) in red, Reserve units (15.5) in pink and Static units (7.5.4) in white.
Note that on-map highlighting will only display if no hex or a hex with no units is selected. If a
hex containing a unit in one of the above modes is selected, that unit will have that unit mode
border around its counter display in the unit bar.
View Supply Status (hotkey Shift-O): Highlights on-map unit counters with a colour border
if they are in one of three supply states. Units greater than 50 movement points (MPs) from
a railhead hex will be bordered in yellow, units receiving beachhead supply will be bordered
in orange and isolated units will be bordered in red (20.2). Note that on-map highlighting will
only display if no hex or a hex with no units is selected. If a hex containing a unit in one of the
above states is selected, that unit will have the appropriate colour border around its counter
display in the unit bar.
View Factory Locations On/Off (hotkey Shift-L): Town, City and Urban hexes with factories,
to include manpower, ports, rail yards and resource production have their hex shaded red.
Hex pop-up text rollover will now include detail on production facilities. Towns with manpower
production only will not be shaded, but hex pop-up rollover text will list manpower factory.
46
Combat Unit Buildup and Breakdown (hotkey b): Select this button after selecting the hex
containing combat unit(s) to buildup or breakdown (7.5.3). Selecting the button again will
reverse the action just taken.
Create Fortified Unit in Selected Hex (hotkey Shift-F): Creates the applicable combat unit
(7.5.1). Select this button after selecting an eligible hex on the map where the unit is to be built.
Build Combat or Headquarters Unit (hotkey Shift-B): Used to create new Soviet units
(18.1.2). Note that this button will only display for the Soviet player when a light/heavy urban
or adjacent hex is selected on the map. Selection of this button will bring up the ‘Pick Unit
Type’ window (5.4.31).
Auto Assign Unit(s) to Nearest Headquarters (hotkey g): Automatically attaches combat
and headquarters units to the nearest eligible headquarters unit while the units are selected
in Move mode (F1) (7.7).
View Weather Zones (Shift-W): Highlights each weather zone by shading all hexes in each
zone differently. The Europe Zone is unchanged (clear), the South Soviet Zone is shaded yellow,
the Central Soviet Zone is shaded green, and the North Soviet Zone is shaded purple.
View Victory Point Locations (Shift-V): Displays flag symbols at victory point locations for
non-campaign scenarios. Red flags indicate Soviet VP locations, black flags indicate Axis VP
locations, and red and black flags indicate a VP location for both sides.
5.1.2.2. INFO SCREENS TAB
The majority of the below screens accessed through the tool bar buttons on this tab are
informational only, but the player can influence air operations in the Air Doctrine screen and
the Commanders Report screen can be used to change various unit settings.
Display Order of Battle Screen (hotkey o): This screen provides the phasing player a
complete Order of Battle down to the individual unit level and also provides a summary of the
status of each country’s army and air force (5.4.1).
Display Loss Screen (hotkey l): This screen provides the phasing player a summary of each
side’s current casualties (damaged and destroyed) and permanent losses in terms of men,
guns, AFV’s, vehicles, supply and fuel dumps, and aircraft. A per turn listing of destroyed or
disbanded units is also provided (5.4.2).
Display Production Screen (hotkey p): This screen displays production information for
aircraft, ground elements, supply, manpower, and various other inputs to the production
process. The phasing player will only be able to see information for their side (5.4.3).
47
Display Victory Point Screen (hotkey v): There are two different types of victory screens, one
for campaign scenarios and one for all other scenarios. Both types of victory screens provide a
running tally of current victory points. The non-campaign scenario victory screen also displays
how victory points are earned for each side during a scenario (5.4.5).
Display Weather Zone Screen (hotkey w): The weather screen displays the four weather
zones graphically superimposed on the map area with the current weather for each of the
zones annotated on the map (5.4.6).
Display Air Doctrine Screen (hotkey d): The air doctrine screen displays the settings that
determine what, if any, priority will be given to the various types of air missions. The player
changes these settings in the air doctrine screen (5.4.7)
Display Unit Reinforcement and Withdrawal Screen (hotkey i): This screen lists
reinforcements and withdrawals for the phasing player (5.4.8).
Display Commanders Report Screen (hotkey c): This screen is a multi-tabbed list of
information on units, leaders, equipment and battles that can be sorted and filtered in
numerous ways. In addition, many unit settings can be changed for both individual units and
groups of units using this screen (5.4.9).
Display Logistics Phase Event Log Screen (hotkey Shift-E): Provides information on
numerous events that have occurred during the most recent logistics phase as well as
reporting on some actions that occurred during the previous action phases (5.4.12).
5.1.2.3. ADMINISTRATION TAB
The following screens are included in the Administration tab toolbar:
Quit and Exit to Main Menu (hotkey
Shift-Q): Exits the current scenario
and returns the player back to the
main menu screen (3.3). Note that
the computer will ignore a click on
this button or its associated hot key
when the computer AI is conducting
its turn. The player must use the title
bar close button (X) in the upper right
corner to exit the program during the
computer AI turn, or type Shift-X to
48
end continuous play (there may be a long delay as the AI may finish its move first before
returning control to the player). There is no way to return to the main menu once the AI is
processing its turn.
Show Preferences Screen (hotkey Shift-P): Allows the player to review and change the user
and map preferences (3.3.4, 3.3.5).
Show Game Options Screen (hotkey Shift-G): Displays the Game Options Screen and allows
the player to change options if not locked out due to PBEM mode (3.3.3).
Show Save Game Screen (hotkey Shift-S): Allows the player to save the current scenario
(5.4.10). Note that save game names are limited to 30 characters.
Show Hotkey List (Shift-H): Displays the complete list of hotkeys available (3.2.1).
5.1.3. SOFT FACTORS
This button, which is located on the far right in the same row as the menu tab toolbars,
determines one of five different factors to be displayed in the left corner of the unit counters.
Selecting the button or hotkey ‘s’ will toggle between viewing an indication of the current
Morale, Experience, Supply, Fuel, or number of support units attached to the units. The player
can also choose to view none of these items. A colour triangle will appear in the left hand
corner of each unit counter to indicate the status of the unit with regards to the selected factor
as follows:
Color Code
Symbol
Soft Factor
Bright
Green
Dark
Green
Yellow
Orange
Red
Experience
>85%
71-85%
56-70%
41-55%
<41%
Supplies
>85%
71-85%
56-70%
41-55%
<41%
Fuel
>85%
71-85%
56-70%
41-55%
<41%
Morale
>85%
71-85%
56-70%
41-55%
<41%
49
Color Code
Symbol
Soft Factor
Bright
Green
Dark
Green
Yellow
Orange
Red
Number of
Support Units
0
N/A
1
2
3
Number of
Support Units
attached to
a HQ Unit
0
1-6
7-12
13-18
19+
No Soft
Factor
Selected
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
attached to a
Combat Unit
5.1.4. MODE TOOLBAR
The majority of the buttons in this toolbar allow the player to select the different modes used to
conduct actions in the map area. Only one mode can be selected at a time, to include the Battle
Locator mode, which provides information only. The mode currently selected will be displayed
to the far right in the same row as the three menu tabs. Depending on the mode selected and
the circumstances, several other action buttons may become available to the player.
Move Mode (hotkey F1): Mode used to conduct tactical movement of ground units, and
ground battles (5.3.1).
Rail Mode (hotkey F2): Mode used for the strategic transport of ground units using the rail
network (5.3.2).
Naval Transport Mode (hotkey F3): Mode used to for the strategic transport of ground units
between friendly ports via water hexes (5.3.3).
Amphibious Transport Mode (hotkey F4): Mode used for the strategic transport of combat
units from a friendly port to a coastal hex, to include amphibious assaults against enemy units
(5.3.4).
Air Recon Mode (hotkey F5): Mode used to conduct air reconnaissance missions (5.3.5).
Bomb Unit Mode (hotkey F6): Mode used to conduct air missions against enemy ground
units (5.3.6).
50
Bomb Airfield Mode (hotkey F7): Mode used to conduct air missions against enemy air base
units (5.3.7).
Bomb City Mode (hotkey F8): Mode used to conduct air missions against factories in enemy
town, city and urban hexes (5.3.8).
Air Transport Mode (hotkey F9): Mode used to conduct air transport of supply and units
(5.3.9).
Air Transfer Mode (hotkey F10): Mode used to transfer air group units between on-map air
base units (5.3.10).
Battle Locator Mode (hotkey F11): Information only mode that will display symbols over
hexes where air missions and ground combat have taken place on the map. Selecting a
specific hex will display the combat report window for any battles that have taken place in
the location during that turn. The list of units that have been retreated, routed or shattered will
also include any fortification level reduction that occurred as a result of that battle (5.4.11).
End this Turn (hotkey F12): Selecting this button end the phasing side’s player turn (4.1).
Toggle Shift Key On: This button when toggled on acts as a Shift key lock, allowing the
player to conduct certain selections and actions that require the shift key (i.e selecting units in
multiple hexes) without having to keep the shift key depressed (5.3).
Undo Move (hotkey u): This button will appear on the mode toolbar when a ground unit in
move (F1) or rail mode (F2) is eligible to undo its previous move (14.0).
Toggle Night Air Mission On (hotkey n): This button will display when bomb unit, bomb
airfield, bomb city or air transport mode has been selected. The default is day missions (sun
symbol). When toggled to night (moon symbol), only air group units with night mission selected
in the air group unit detail window can conduct missions, to include any auto-interception by
the non-phasing player’s air group units (16.1.6).
Show Air Doctrine Screen (hotkey d): This button will display if any air mission mode
is selected and is a duplicate of the same screen accessed through the Info Screens Tab
(5.1.2.2).Activate Air AI (hotkey a): This button will display if air recon, bomb airfield, or air
transport mode is selected. If the AI button is selected, the computer will automatically conduct
a number of missions of the mode selected.
51
5.1.5. GENERAL INFORMATION AND CITY BOX
The right hand corner of the top panel
has a number of slots that provide game
information. In addition, if a town, city or
urban hex is selected, its name will appear
along with other information. The name can
be selected to access the applicable City
Detail window. The following information is
provided from top to bottom and left to right:
Turn Date and Number: Displays the
scenario turn number and the date of that
turn.
City Name: Displays the name of the town, city or urban hex currently selected. Though the
name is not in blue text, it can be selected to access the City Detail window (5.4.27). If the hex
requires an Axis garrison a number in parentheses next to the name will display indicating the
percentage of the garrison requirement being met (17.2). An anchor symbol will be displayed if
the town, city or urban hex is a port. For non-campaign scenarios, if a town, city or urban hex
is a victory point location, a star symbol will be displayed.
Motor Pool: Displays the status of the phasing player’s motor pool (20.1.4). The first number
is the total number of operational vehicles currently in the motor pool; the second number is
the “need” or total number of vehicles that would be required to bring the motor pool up to
100 percent capacity. If the number of operational vehicles is less than one third of need, then
this text will turn yellow. If the number of operational vehicles is less than one quarter of need,
then the text will turn red.
Admin Points: The current number of administrative points held by the phasing player (12.0).
This number will change with each action that expends or gains admin points.
Weather: The weather (22.1) for the zone the currently selected hex is located in is displayed
using the following graphics:
Clear
Mud
Snow
52
Blizzard
Ice Level: The ice level (22.1.1) for the weather zone the currently selected hex is located in is
indicated using both a graphic and a number to indicate the exact level.
Ice Level 0 (None)
Ice Level 1-2 (Loose Ice)
Ice Level 3-4 (Thin Ice)
Ice Level 5+ (Completely Frozen)
5.2. THE MAIN MAP AREA
The majority of game actions will take place through interaction with the main map area and
the displayed ground unit counters. As yet another reminder, generally, mouse left clicks will be
53
used to select/deselect something, while mouse right clicks will be used to conduct an action,
but there are exceptions that will be detailed below.
Even at maximum zoom out (zoom level 5), the entire map area will not appear on the screen.
A jump map (hotkey j) is provided to allow the player to quickly move to a different part of the
map area by selecting in the desired vicinity. Units will be displayed as dots, with black for
Axis and Red for Soviet units. If Fog of War (FOW) is enabled, units with a zero detection level
will not be shown. The Find Hex function (hotkey h) can also be used to navigate to a specific
hex on the map.
5.2.1. HEX POP-UP
Every hex in the map area will display a text box when
the mouse cursor is located over it. This feature can
be disabled by setting the hex pop-up delay to zero in
the user section of the preferences screen (3.3.4.). The
following information will be displayed (using default map
preferences per section 3.3.5 unless otherwise noted):
Name: Name of town, city, or urban hex and if it is a port
(if applicable)
»» If the town, city, or urban hex has antiaircraft support units attached, the number
of total AA guns in the attached units will be
displayed in parentheses next to the town or city name. This information
will not be displayed for the enemy side if FOW is enabled (13.2).
Terrain Type Features: See map area legend in top left corner (6.2).
Hex Coordinates: Given as X, Y.
Directional Locations:
»» River hex sides bordering selected hex.
»» Any impassable lake hex sides bordering selected hex.
»» Rail lines going through hex.
»» Note that directional locations will be expressed using compass
headings for each hexside clockwise from the hex vertex pointing at
the top of the map area as follows: NE, E, SE, SW, W, and NW.
Points for Victory Objectives:
»» Information about points for victory objectives will be in the format xx/
xxx, where the first number is the amount of points received by the
applicable player every player turn for control of the hex and the second
54
number is the amount of points the applicable player will receive for
control of the hex at the end of the scenario. For example, a hex that
displays ‘Soviet Victory Points 10/400’ will give the Soviet player 10
points every player turn they control the hex and a separate 400 VP’s
if the Soviet player controls the hex at the end of the scenario.
Fortification Level: Given as 0-5, with the percentage of completion towards the next level
in parentheses.
Hex Control and Rail Line Status:
»» Hexes that are pending friendly will reflect control by phasing player (6.3).
»» Operating rail line will just state ‘Rail.’ Inoperable rail lines
will reflect percentage of damage (from 1 to 100).
Off Rail Range: Number of hexes from the hex to a railhead linked through the supply grid to
a permanent supply source.
Off Rail MP: Number of movement points from the hex to a railhead linked through the supply
to a permanent supply source (20.1).
Port and Water Hex Information:
»» Sea Zone: The name of the associated sea or
lake zone for the port or water hex.
»» Shipping Available: Number of shipping points available in the associated
sea zone for the sea transport of ground units between friendly ports.
»» Amphibious Available: Number of amphibious points available
for the associated sea zone for the amphibious transport of
combat units from a friendly port to coastal hexes.
Factory Locations: If ‘View Factory Locations’ has been toggled on (5.1.2.1), than the
hex pop-up will include information about the specific factories in the hex, to include, port,
manpower, railyard, resources and other production factories. Any factories with damage will
have the percentage displayed in parentheses next to the number of factory points of that type
in that location.
Unit Number: Each unit in the hex will have a unit number listed just above the information
about the unit itself (game editor .pdf manual).
Combat Unit Information: Unit Name (CV/Fortification Defense Modifier CV, Percent of TOE),
MP = Current Movement Points, SP = Supply Path where number is distance to nearest
railhead. Isolated units will have ‘-1’ as their SP value in the text box. Units in Beachhead
Supply status will have 150 as their SP value.
55
Headquarters Unit Information: Unit Name, CU = Combat units attached, SU = Nonconstruction type Support units attached, MP = Current movement points, SP = Supply Path
where number is distance to nearest railhead.
Air Base Unit Information: Unit Name (Number of Ready Aircraft/Total Aircraft attached,
Percent of TOE) MP = Current Movement Points, SP = Supply Path where number is distance
to nearest railhead.
FBD/NKPS Rail Repair Unit Information: Unit Name (Zero CV unit/Zero CV unit, Percent of
TOE) MP = Current Movement Points, SP = Supply Path where number is distance to nearest
railhead.
Aircraft in Range: Displays when air mission modes (F5-F9) are selected and a staging base
has been manually selected (16.1.3). Lists the current number of fighter and bomber aircraft
that are capable of reaching a target hex using that staging base. Fighter bombers with their
Type Mission set to Fighter will be listed in the fighter row.
MP: Displayed at the bottom of the hex pop-up if units are selected in a hex. When the cursor
is on the selected hex, the number displayed will match the lowest value of remaining MPs of
any unit in the hex. If the cursor is then moved to another hex, without deselecting the current
hex, the ‘MP’ field will remain, but the number will change to match the number in the compass
if ‘show movement path’ (3.3.5) is enabled and serves the same purpose of showing the
anticipated MPs remaining for the unit that is expected to have the least number of remaining
MPs upon moving to the hex the cursor is currently over.
5.2.2. HEX SELECTION AND UNIT COUNTER BORDER COLOUR
Every hex on the map is selectable. The
selected hex will remain selected and the
player can move the mouse cursor over the
rest of the map until another hex is selected.
Empty selected hexes will be outlined and
shaded blue. Empty hexes with a town, city
or urban hex will also have the name appear
in the ‘General information and City Box’
in the right hand corner of the top panel.
Selecting the town, city or urban hex name
will access its city detail window (5.4.27).
Selecting a hex with units in it will not shade
the hex, but the fill color in the unit type box
will change to red.
5.2.2.1. MOVEMENT MODE HEX SELECTION
For the phasing player, selecting a hex in one of the movement modes (F1-F4) with a unit
present will also select that unit (5.3). If there is more than one unit in the hex, the entire
56
stack will be selected. Each selected unit in the stack will be bordered in purple. In addition,
other units in other hexes on the map and deselected units in the same hex (5.2.3) that have
certain relationships to the selected unit(s) current chain of command will have border colors
as follows:
Next Higher Headquarters Unit: Orange
Peers: Yellow
»» Those units that are also attached to that unit’s next higher headquarters.
Subordinates: Blue or Red
»» Those units directly attached to the selected unit.
»» Blue if within 5 hexes of the headquarters unit that the unit is attached.
»» Red if they are greater than 5 hexes from their HQ unit (no restrictions)
or cannot trace a path through friendly or pending friendly hexes
less than 20 MPs in length to the HQ unit. With the exception of
railroad repair and air base units, this red shading does not apply to
other HQ units, as they do not draw supply from other HQ units.
Exceptions to the above are regimental and brigade breakdown units from German Divisions
and Soviet Tank and Mechanized Corps, as well as divisions from broken down Soviet Cavalry
and Rifle Corps combat units. Breakdown units in other hexes belonging to the same original
unit, for example 1/292 and 2/292 regiments from the 292nd Infantry Division, will have a
border color of blue rather than the yellow normally associated with peer units.
If both a next higher headquarters and one of its subordinate units are selected in the same
hex, the border colors of units in other hexes will reflect the next higher headquarters rather
than the subordinate unit. If there are units from multiple organizations in the same hex, all
applicable units will be bordered.
57
5.2.2.2. OTHER MODES HEX SELECTION
Selecting a hex in one of the air modes (F5-F10) will border all friendly air base units in yellow,
with exception of air transport mode, which will only yellow border air base units with air group
units eligible to conduct the air transport mission. While an air mode is selected, the unit bar
will only display air base units.
In Battle Locator Mode (F11), only hexes where ground combat or air missions have taken
place may be selected to display combat results; the remainder of the map area, to include
normal hex pop-ups, will be inactive.
Gameplay Note: Units in multiple hexes can be selected in preparation
for a deliberate attack (section 15.2.2) by first selecting a hex, then holding
down the shift key and moving the mouse over the additional hex or hexes
the player desires to select (5.2.3).
5.2.3. UNIT BAR
Selecting a hex with units in it will display
the unit bar on the right hand part of the
game screen. The unit bar normally consists
of a separate unit box for each unit in that
hex. The exceptions, which will be described
below, are the display of units when multiple
hexes have been selected in Movement
Mode (F1) or the listing of air group units
after selection of an air base unit while in
Air Transfer Mode (F10). Note that stacking
in a hex is limited to three units, no matter
whether it is a combat or headquarters unit.
If a unit is currently selected, its unit box will
have a white outline and be indented. All
units in the unit bar will also display a border
58
colour per section 5.2.2 above. Selecting a blank part of the unit box will toggle unit selection.
The unit box provides the following information and buttons (Note differences between types
of units):
Unit Name: Selecting will display unit detail window (5.4). The unit detail window can also be
displayed by right clicking in a blank part of the unit box.
HHQ: Name of headquarters unit that unit is attached to and command range information in the
format (x/xx) where the first number is the range in hexes of the unit from its headquarters unit
and the second number is the range in hexes that the applicable headquarters unit can provide
that unit with support squad Ground element support (7.6.4).
»» Selecting will shift map view to center on the headquarters
unit and change selected unit to that headquarters unit.
Unit Graphic: Displays CV-MP mode with currently selected soft factor and movement status.
»» Movement status is in the small triangle located in the right corner of the
unit counter. If a unit has not moved, then it will be a white triangle with a
smaller black triangle inside. If the unit has moved and still has movement
points remaining, there will just be a white triangle. If the unit has expended
all of its movement points, there will be nothing in the right corner.
MOTORIZED NO ATTACK: If a non-motorized unit has been temporarily motorized (14.1.3),
then this will be displayed.
Supply Percentages: Lists supplies, fuel and ammo for Combat and air base units. Lists
supplies and fuel only for FBD and NKPS Rail Repair units.
Command Points: Lists current number of command points of attached units/command
capacity for the HQ (HQ units only).
Number of Supply and Fuel Dumps: List number of ground elements of each type for HQ
units only.
Current Strategic Movement Points (SMP) Available:
»» If unit is conducting strategic movement, static toggle button
will be replaced with ‘on train’ or ‘on ship’ toggle button.
Current Railroad Repair Value (RRV): FBD and NKPS rail repair units only.
Railroad Repair Cost (RRC): FBD and NKPS rail repair units only.
»» Displays when FBD or NKPS unit is in a hex with a damaged
railroad, with a number that is the MP cost to repair the railroad.
Selecting RRC button will repair the railroad (14.2.1.1).
Unit Mode: Combat units only
59
»» Toggle between ready, reserve and refit mode. Unit status may be
unready or depleted, in which case it can only toggle to refit mode.
Refit All On/Refit All Off: HQ units only.
Number of Ready Aircraft/Number of Total Aircraft: Air base units only
»» The difference between the two numbers is the total
number of damaged and reserve aircraft.
Static Toggle Button: If unit is in static mode, ‘STATIC’ will be displayed under unit graphic and
unit mode button will be greyed out. If an already static unit is eligible to be reactivated, then
the ‘REACTIVATE’ button will be displayed.
Men/Guns/AFV: Graphic summary of total number of men, guns, and armoured fighting
vehicles (AFV) currently in the unit.
»» Includes any attached support units.
»» Air base units will display total number of fighter, bomber, and utility
(transport and recon) aircraft in attached air group units.
5.2.3.1. MULTIPLE HEX AND AIR TRANSFER MODE UNIT BAR
If multiple hexes are selected in preparation for a battle, when the first additional hex is
selected the unit bar will display all units using a smaller rectangular unit box for each that
lists the unit name and its CV and remaining movement points. Only combat units will remain
selected, which will be annotated by the display of the unit counter icon in the far left side of
the rectangular unit box. Left clicking on the unit counter icon will remove it from the unit box
and deselect the unit. To re-select the unit, left click in the far left corner of the rectangular unit
box, which will select the unit and bring back the unit icon. Right clicking in the unit box will
display the applicable unit detail window.
If an air base unit is selected while in Air Transfer Mode (F10), the unit bar will display a list of
the air group units attached to the air base unit in smaller rectangular unit boxes. Inside the
unit box will be the name of the air group unit as well as the model and number of aircraft in
the air group unit, while the range of the air group unit will be displayed just below the unit box.
None of the air group unit’s displayed will initially be selected. To select an air group unit, left
click in the far left side of the applicable rectangular unit box (5.3.10). Verification of selection
will be the display of the unit icon from the air base unit to which the air group unit is attached.
Selecting the icon again will remove it and deselect the air group unit. Selecting the air group
unit name will display that particular air group unit’s detail window. Note that closing the air
group unit detail window will display the air base unit detail window, which will also need to be
closed to continue with the air transfer process.
60
5.3. USING THE INTERFACE TO CONDUCT ACTIONS
With one exception (some air missions can only be conducted as an air group unit’s first
mission of the phase, see section 16.3.1), the phasing player can conduct movement, combat,
air missions and other administrative functions in any order desired during the action phase.
Assuming enough movement points were available, for example, a combat unit could use
tactical movement to move adjacent to an enemy unit, attack, then use tactical movement to
move to a rail hex, and then use strategic movement along the rail network and finally detrain.
Many actions require the selection of a specific mode before they can be conducted. There are
four ground unit movement modes and six air mission modes. Some automated air missions,
such as interdiction, interception, and ground support, will be conducted by the computer
during ground unit movement and combat, but the phasing player will need to switch to an
air mode to conduct air missions. Similarly, while in an air mission mode, no ground units
can move and only air base units can be selected. The following lists the different modes and
discusses how to conduct actions using the interface.
5.3.1. MOVE MODE (F1)
5.3.1.1. TACTICAL GROUND MOVEMENT
Summary: Left click to select, right click to move.
Details: First select a hex with units and use the unit bar to deselect any units that will
not be moved. Selecting a blank part of the unit box will toggle unit selection. The current
movement allowance will always be displayed on the unit counter graphic in the unit bar. With
‘show movement allowed’ enabled (default) hexes the unit with the fewest movement points
remaining cannot reach will be shaded gray. Impassable hexes, to include hexes blocked due
61
to enemy units, will be shaded red. If ‘show movement path’ is enabled (default) then moving
the mouse curser over the hexes where movement is allowed will display a line of symbols,
each with a number showing how many movement points the unit with the fewest remaining
movement points would have left if it was moved to the hexes along that path. To move the
selected units to an allowed location, right click in the desired hex. If the unit(s) that was just
moved is eligible to undo the move, the ‘undo move’ button (hotkey ‘u’) will appear at the right
end of the mode tool bar. See section 14.1 for detailed tactical movement rules.
5.3.1.2. HASTY ATTACK
Summary: From single hex only. Left click to
select, right click to attack.
Details: First select a hex with at least one
combat unit that is adjacent to an enemy unit
and use the unit bar to deselect any units
that will not participate in the attack. Move
the mouse cursor over the hex with enemy
units that will be the target of the attack.
The hasty attack symbol will appear if the
selected units are eligible to attack. Right
click on the target hex to initiate a battle. See
section 15.2.1 for hasty attack rules.
5.3.1.3. DELIBERATE ATTACK
Summary: Multiple hexes allowed. Shift-left click and Shift-left mouse cursor over to select,
shift-right click to attack.
62
Details: Toggle on the shift button at the right end of the mode tool bar or hold the shift
button down and left click on a hex with friendly combat units that will be participating in the
deliberate attack. To add additional combat units from other hexes to the deliberate attack,
to include on-map artillery combat units firing from two hexes away, move the mouse cursor
(with Shift still on) over the applicable hexes, which will result in the selection of all additional
units in those hexes. The unit bar will then change to a list of all units currently selected, with
a unit counter graphic followed by the unit name. Any units in the hexes that the player does
not wish to attack can be deselected by left clicking the counter graphic in the unit bar. Deselection will be confirmed by the counter graphic being removed and units can be re-selected
by left clicking again. Only combat units will be selected during this process, but combat units
not eligible to participate (usually due to lack of movement points or non-artillery combat units
two hexes away) in the deliberate attack will need to be manually deselected in order for the
attack to be conducted by the computer. Once the phasing player has selected all the combat
units that will be participating in the attack, move the mouse cursor (with Shift still on) over the
hex with the enemy units that will be the target of the attack. The deliberate attack symbol will
appear if the selected units are all eligible to attack. Right click on the target hex to initiate a
battle. See section 15.2.2 for deliberate attack rules.
Gameplay Note: The phasing player does not initially need to have the
shift key/button toggled on in order to select the initial hex, but adding
additional units in other hexes, selecting a target for the deliberate attack
and conducting the deliberate attack will require the use of the shift key/
button.
5.3.1.4. FBD/NKPS RAIL REPAIR
Move the FBD/NKPS unit into a hex that
is suitable for rail repair using tactical
movement. Select the RRC (Rail Repair Cost)
text that will appear on the FBD/NKPS unit
in the unit bar if the unit has enough MPs to
perform the repair. Selecting the RRC will set
the damage of the hex to one percent, and
this last point of damage will automatically
be repaired during the Emergency Rail
Repair sub-segment of the player’s next
logistics phase. Designating a hex to be repaired expends movement points. The number next
to the RRC indicates the MP cost to the rail repair unit to repair the current hex. If the FBD/
NKPS unit is not in a location that it can conduct a rail repair operation, the RRC number will
display a ‘-‘ instead (14.2.1.1).
63
5.3.2. RAIL MODE (F2)
5.3.2.1. GROUND UNIT STRATEGIC RAIL MOVEMENT
Summary: Left click to select, right click
to entrain and move, left click in unit bar or
select movement mode (F1) to detrain.
Details: Units must start on or be moved
by other movement to a hex with a friendly
undamaged rail line not adjacent to enemy
units in order to conduct rail strategic
movement. First select a hex with units and
use the unit bar to deselect any units that will not be moved. The current strategic movement
point (SMP) allowance will always be displayed next to the SMP symbol just below the unit
counter graphic in the unit bar. With ‘show movement allowed’ enabled (default) hexes the unit
with the fewest movement points remaining cannot reach will be shaded gray. Impassable
hexes, to include hexes blocked due to enemy units, will be shaded red. If ‘show movement
path’ is enabled (default) then moving the mouse cursor over the hexes where movement is
allowed will display a line of symbols, each with a number showing how many movement
points the unit with the fewest remaining movement points would have left if it was moved
to the hexes along that path. To move the selected units to an allowed location, right click in
the desired hex. The on-map counter unit will display the entrained symbol and the ‘on train’
button will appear in the unit bar. The unit will remain entrained until either the ‘on train’ button
is selected or movement mode (F1) is selected, returning the unit to its previous status. If the
unit(s) that was just moved is eligible to undo the move, the ‘undo move’ button (hotkey ‘u’) will
appear at the right end of the mode tool bar. See section 14.2 for strategic rail movement rules.
64
5.3.2.2. STRATEGIC RAIL MOVEMENT SOVIET FACTORY EVACUATION
Summary: Left click to select hex, left click to select town, city or urban name in general
information and city box, left click ‘>>’ link to select the number of each factory type to be
moved, right click on eligible town, city or urban hex to transport selected factories using
railroads.
Detail: The Soviet player selects an eligible town, city or urban hex, and then selects the
name listed in the general information and city box in the right side of the top panel, which
will display a modified city detail window. Note that this modified city detail window will only
appear in Rail Mode (F2). The supply, fuel, oil and resource information is replaced by a ‘Rail
Cost:’ item and the list of factory types will include a rail capacity cost per factory point in
parentheses and a ‘Move’ column. Selecting the ‘>>’ button will increase the number of
factory point of that type to be transported and change the rail cost to display the number of
rail capacity points that will be used for moving the selected factory points. The ‘<<’ button
will appear when at least one factory point of that type has been selected to move and can be
used to decrease the number of factory points to be evacuated. When the Soviet player has
completed selecting the number of factory points of each factory type to be moved, selecting
the ‘Move’ link will bring up the map area with town, city or urban hexes eligible to receive the
factories being transported shaded in green. Right click on an eligible town, city or urban hex
to conduct the rail transport of selected factory points to the target hex. See section 21.2.1 for
details on Soviet factory evacuation.
65
5.3.3. NAVAL TRANSPORT MODE (F3)
Strategic movement of ground units between friendly ports is accomplished as follows:.
Summary: Left click to select, right click to load on ship and move, left click in unit bar or
select movement mode (F1) to off load from ship.
Details: Units must start on or be moved by other movement to a hex with a friendly port in
order to conduct naval transport strategic movement. First select a hex with eligible units and
use the unit bar to deselect any units that will not be moved. The current strategic movement
point (SMP) allowance will always be displayed next to the SMP symbol just below the unit
counter graphic in the unit bar. With ‘show movement allowed’ enabled (default) hexes the unit
with the fewest movement points remaining cannot reach will be shaded gray. Impassable
hexes, will be shaded red. If ‘show movement path’ is enabled (default) then moving the mouse
cursor over the hexes where movement is allowed will display a line of symbols, each with a
number showing how many movement points the unit with the fewest remaining movement
points would have left if it was moved to the hexes along that path. To move the selected units
to an allowed location, right click in the desired hex. The destination hex must be a friendly port.
The on-map counter unit will display the on ship symbol and the ‘on ship’ button will appear
in the unit bar. The unit will remain on the ship until either the ‘on ship’ button is selected or
movement mode (F1) is selected, returning the unit to its previous status. If the unit(s) that was
just moved is eligible to undo the move, the ‘undo move’ button (hotkey ‘u’) will appear at the
right end of the mode tool bar. See section 14.2.2 for strategic naval transport rules.
66
5.3.4. AMPHIBIOUS TRANSPORT MODE (F4)
Strategic movement using naval amphibious transport between a friendly port and a coastal
hex is accomplished as follows:
Summary: Left click to select, right click to load on ship and conduct amphibious movement
from ship to shore.
Details: Units must start on or be moved by other movement to a hex with a friendly port in order
to conduct amphibious transport strategic movement. First select a hex with eligible units and
use the unit bar to deselect any units that will not be moved. The current strategic movement
point (SMP) allowance will always be displayed next to the SMP symbol just below the unit
counter graphic in the unit bar. With ‘show movement allowed’ enabled (default) hexes the unit
with the fewest movement points remaining cannot reach will be shaded gray. Impassable
hexes will be shaded red. If ‘show movement path’ is enabled (default) then moving the mouse
cursor over the hexes where movement is allowed will display a line of symbols, each with a
number showing how many movement points the unit with the fewest remaining movement
points would have left if it was moved to the hexes along that path. To move the selected units
to an allowed location, right click in the desired hex. The on-map counter unit will display the
on ship symbol and the ‘on ship’ button will appear in the unit bar. The unit will remain on the
ship until the target hex is reached and the unit conducts an amphibious movement from ship
to a coastal hex. If the unit(s) that was just moved is eligible to undo the move, the ‘undo move’
button (hotkey ‘u’) will appear at the right end of the mode tool bar. See section 14.2.2 for
strategic amphibious transport rules.
Gameplay info: The player has an automatic option available
when conducting air recon, bomb airfield and air transport missions.
Selecting the ‘AI’ button or hotkey (a) in any of these modes will result
in the computer conducting a number of these missions. The player may
67
conduct additional individual missions both before and after using the
automatic option.
5.3.5. AIR RECON MODE (F5)
The purpose of this mode is to conduct
aerial reconnaissance missions to increase
detection of enemy units as follows:
Summary: Left click to select staging air
base unit (optional), right click to select
enemy hex and conduct air recon mission.
The player has the option to select the ‘AI’
button (hotkey ‘a’ to have the computer
conduct air recon missions automatically.
Details: To conduct air recon missions one
target hex at a time, the player first has the
option of selecting a specific staging base
for the mission by left clicking on a hex with an air base. If the player does not select a staging
base, the computer will automatically assign one for the mission. Right click on the desired
enemy target hex. The computer will automatically select air group units and conduct the air
recon mission.
5.3.6. BOMB UNIT MODE (F6)
The purpose of this mode is to conduct an air mission against a hex with enemy ground units
as follows:
68
Summary: Left click to select staging air base unit (optional), right click to select enemy hex
and conduct bomb unit mission or Shift-right click on enemy hex to manually select air group
units to conduct bomb unit mission.
Details: Only combat and headquarters units with a detection level greater than zero are
eligible to be attacked. To conduct an air mission against an air base unit, see section 5.3.7.
Selecting bomb unit mode will red-shade all hexes with eligible ground units. There are two
methods for the player to conduct a bomb unit mission against a target hex. In either case,
the player first has the option of selecting a specific staging base for the mission by left
clicking on a hex with an air base. If the player does not select a staging base, the computer
will automatically assign one for the mission. For semi-automatic missions, right click on the
desired enemy target hex. The computer will automatically select air group units and conduct
the bomb unit mission. For manual missions, Shift-right click on the desired enemy target hex.
The ‘Pick Air Units for Mission’ window will display (5.4.29). Use left click to select or deselect
air group units as desired and left click the ‘Launch’ button to conduct the bomb unit mission.
Note that a day or night bomb unit mission can only be conducted as an air group unit’s first
mission of the phase.
5.3.7. BOMB AIRFIELD MODE (F7)
The purpose of this mode is to conduct air missions against enemy air group units attached to
air base units as follows:
69
Summary: Left click to select staging air base unit (optional), right click to select enemy hex
with an air base unit and conduct bomb airfield mission or Shift-right click on enemy hex to
manually select air group units to conduct bomb airfield mission.
The player has the option to select the ‘AI’ button (hotkey ‘a’ to have the computer conduct
bomb airfield missions automatically.
Details: There are two methods for the player to conduct bomb air field missions’ one target
hex at a time. In either case, the player first has the option of selecting a specific staging
base for the mission by left clicking on a hex with an air base. If the player does not select a
staging base, the computer will automatically assign one for the mission. For semi-automatic
missions, right click on the desired enemy target hex that contains an air base unit. The
computer will automatically select air group units and conduct the bomb airfield mission. For
manual missions, Shift-right click on the desired enemy target hex with an air base unit. The
‘Pick Air Units for Mission’ window will display (5.4.29). Use left click to select or deselect air
group units as desired and left click the ‘Launch’ button to conduct the bomb airfield mission.
Note that a night bomb airfield mission can only be conducted as an air group unit’s first
mission of the phase.
5.3.8. BOMB CITY MODE (F8)
The purpose of this mode is to conduct an air mission against a town, city or urban hex
containing factories as follows:
Summary: Left click to select staging air base unit (optional), right click to select enemy hex,
pick target factory and then manually select air group units to conduct bomb city mission.
Details: Selecting bomb city mode will remove all units from the map area and red-shade all
hexes with eligible towns, cities or urban areas. There is only one method for the player to
conduct a bomb city mission against a target hex. The player first has the option of selecting
a specific staging base for the mission by selecting a hex with an air base unit. If the player
does not select a staging base, the computer will automatically assign one for the mission. For
70
all missions, right click on the desired enemy target hex. This will bring up the ‘Pick Target’
Window. Left click on the specific factory type to be bombed. The ‘Pick Air Units for Mission’
window will then display (5.4.29). Select or deselect air group units as desired and select the
‘Launch’ button to conduct the bomb city mission. Note that a day or night bomb city mission
can only be conducted as an air group unit’s first mission of the phase.
5.3.9. AIR TRANSPORT MODE (F9)
Air Transport mode can be used to conduct three types of air transport missions; airdrop of
supply, air transport of non-motorized combat units to or adjacent friendly air base units, and
airdrop of airborne type regimental/brigade size combat units (16.3). When air transport mode
is selected, only air base units with aircraft capable of performing air transport missions will
be bordered in yellow.
Gameplay Note: Night air transport mission can only be conducted as
any eligible air group unit’s first mission of the phase. In addition, nontransport air group units can only conduct a day or night air transport
mission as the first mission of the phase.
5.3.9.1. AIR DROP SUPPLY TO FRIENDLY UNITS:
Summary: Left click to select staging air base unit (optional), right click to select hex with
friendly unit and conduct air drop of supply mission or Shift-right click on hex with friendly
units to manually select air group units to conduct air drop supply mission. The player has
the option to select the ‘AI’ button (hotkey ‘a’ to have the computer conduct air drop supply
missions automatically.
Details: There are two methods for the player to conduct air drop supply missions’ one target
hex at a time. In either case, the player first has the option of selecting a specific staging
base for the mission by selecting a hex with an air base unit. If the player does not select a
staging base, the computer will automatically assign one for the mission. For semi-automatic
missions, right click on the desired friendly target hex with a friendly unit. The computer will
automatically select air group units and conduct the air drop supply mission. For manual
missions, Shift-right click on the desired target hex with a friendly unit. The ‘Pick Air Units for
Mission’ window will display (5.4.29). Select or deselect air group units as desired and select
the ‘Launch’ button to conduct the air drop supply mission.
71
5.3.9.2. AIR TRANSPORT NON-MOTORIZED UNITS
Conduct an air transport mission to transport a non-motorized combat unit from a friendly air
base unit to a hex with or adjacent to a friendly air base unit as follows:
Summary: Left click to select non-motorized unit on air base unit while in movement mode
(F1), switch to air transport mode (F9), Shift-left click on target friendly air base unit to
manually select air group units to conduct air transport of non-motorized unit.
Details: There is only one method to conduct the air transport of a non-motorized combat
unit. The combat unit must begin the process in a hex stacked with a friendly air base unit.
While in movement mode (F1), select the combat unit to be transported. Immediately select
air transport mode (F9). The air base unit stacked in the hex with the unit to be transported
becomes the staging base and will be bordered in blue. Air base units with air group units
capable of participating in the air transport mission will be bordered in yellow. Next Shift-left
click on the target hex, which must be a hex with or adjacent to a friendly air base unit. The
‘Pick Air Units for Mission’ window will display (5.4.29). Select or deselect air group units as
desired and select the ‘Launch’ button to conduct the air transport combat unit mission. Note
that the number of ‘Max Sorties’ must at least equal the number of ‘Required Sorties’ for the
air group units selected to conduct the mission as displayed in the ‘Pick Air Units for Mission’
window. The computer does not account for possible combat and operational losses when
figuring the number of sorties required.
72
5.3.9.3. AIR DROP AIRBORNE COMBAT UNITS
Conduct an air transport mission to airdrop a regimental or brigade size airborne combat unit
from an air base unit to a target hex as follows:
Summary: Left click to select airborne unit on air base unit while in movement mode (F1),
switch to air transport mode (F9), Shift-left click on target hex to manually select air group
units to conduct airdrop of airborne combat unit.
Details: There is only one method to conduct the airdrop of an airborne combat unit. The
combat unit must begin the process in a hex stacked with a friendly air base unit. While in
movement mode (F1), select the combat unit to be transported for airdrop. Immediately select
air transport mode (F9). The air base unit stacked in the hex with the unit to be transported for
airdrop becomes the staging base and will be bordered in blue. Air base units with air group
units capable of participating in the air transport mission will be bordered in yellow. Next,
Shift-left click on the target hex. The ‘Pick Air Units for Mission’ window will display (5.4.29).
Select or deselect air group units as desired and select the ‘Launch’ button to conduct the
airdrop airborne combat unit mission. Note that the number of ‘Max Sorties’ must at least
equal the number of ‘Required Sorties’ for the air group units selected to conduct the mission
as displayed in the ‘Pick Air Units for Mission’ window. The computer does not account for
possible combat and operational losses when figuring the number of sorties required.
73
5.3.10. AIR TRANSFER MODE (F10)
Conduct the transfer of air group units between friendly air base units within the air group
unit’s range as follows:
Summary: Left click to select air base unit, left click in unit bar to select air group units to
transfer, right click on in-range friendly air base unit to transfer selected air group units.
Game Interface Tip: Selecting air group units to be transferred can be
a little tricky since you are dealing with a blank space. First, move the
mouse into the left side of the unit box until the unit box illuminates (see
screenshot below). Make sure you are far enough over to the left, but still
in the box. If the air group unit name turns from white to yellow, you are
too far to the right. Left click in the empty space to the left of the unit
name and you should get the air base unit counter symbol that confirms
you have properly selected that air group unit for transfer. De-selecting is
much easier; just left click on the air base unit counter symbol.
Details: To transfer air group units between friendly air base units while in air transfer mode
(F10), the player first selects an air base unit, which will bring up the list of air group units
attached to the air base unit in the unit bar (5.2.3). Next select the air group units to be
transferred by left clicking on the far left side of the rectangular unit box that contains the
applicable air group unit’s name. This will display a small unit icon from the air base unit
the air group unit’s are attached to as verification that the air group unit has been selected.
The air group unit can be deselected by left clicking on the applicable air base unit icon in its
rectangular unit box, which will also remove the air base unit icon. Finally, right click on the
air base unit to transfer the selected air group units. The target air base unit must be in range
of the air group units and the transfer cannot violate the maximum of nine air group units
attached to an air base unit.
74
Gameplay Note: An air transfer mission can only be conducted as an
air group unit’s first mission of the phase and no air transfers can be
conducted as night missions.
5.3.10.1. SEMI-AUTOMATIC AIR GROUP UNIT TRANSFER
The air commitment system contained in the detail window of air base unit’s can be used to
semi-automatically transfer air group units. Note that air group unit commitment levels cannot
be set in air transfer mode (F10) due to an inability to access the air base unit detail window.
Air group unit commitment levels can be set in all other modes (F1-F9) that allow the air base
unit to be selected. While in the other modes, individual air base units can use the ‘Move’ link
to automatically transfer air group units in or out as required to meet that air base unit’s current
commitment level (8.4.1).
5.4. INTERFACE SCREENS AND WINDOWS
The following is a detailed description of the screens and windows associated with the
interface, to include how they are accessed.
5.4.1. ORDER OF BATTLE (OOB) SCREEN
This screen can be accessed from the info screens menu tab toolbar (5.1.2.2) or hotkey ‘o’ and
provides the phasing player a complete Order of Battle down to the individual unit level and
also provides a summary of the status of each country’s army and air force.
On the left side of the screen is the phasing players complete OOB. The initial display shows the
first two command levels; first level OKH/STAVKA/Axis Allied High Commands and the second
75
level higher headquarters, which are the Army Groups for the Axis, and Fronts and Military
Districts for the Soviets. By selecting the [+] links, the player can expand the OOB to display
the headquarters, combat, air base, air group and support units attached to each headquarters
unit, to include support units attached to combat units. Selecting the [-] link for headquarters
units that have been expanded out will contract them back.
On map units will be shaded blue and selecting the unit name will close the OOB screen and
take the player to the applicable unit’s detail window. Closing the detail window will take the
player back to the map area and the hex that the unit is located in will be selected. Off-map
Support and air group units will be shown in white and do not have a link to their detail window.
The right side of the OOB screen provides a graphic display of the status of each country’s
army and air force by showing the number of men, guns, AFV and aircraft in the format xxx
(xxx), where the first number is the total number and the second number in parentheses is
the number that are ready (undamaged). Note that the air force numbers displayed do include
aircraft that are attached to that country’s national reserve.
5.4.2. SHOW LOSSES SCREEN
This screen can be accessed from the info screens menu tab toolbar (5.1.2.2) or hotkey ‘l’
and provides the phasing player a summary of each side’s current casualties (damaged and
76
destroyed) and permanent losses in terms of men, guns, AFV’s, vehicles, supply and fuel
dumps, and aircraft. A per turn listing of destroyed or disbanded units is also provided. There
are a total of three screens (ground losses, air losses, and destroyed and disbanded units) that
can be accessed as part of the Show Losses Screen.
5.4.2.1. GROUND LOSSES
Accessing the Show Losses Screen brings the player to the Ground Losses screen. The left
side of the screen lists permanent losses by individual type of Ground element displayed in
the following columns:
»» Nationality
»» Ground Element type
»» Permanent Losses
»» Battle just conducted (any action taken after a
battle will reset this column to zero)
»» Losses during the current turn
»» Total losses during the game
The right side of the screen lists losses in numbers of individual men, guns and AFV’s for each
side displayed as follows:
»» Recent Battle and non-combat casualties. This includes men, guns
and AFV’s destroyed or damaged by combat in the most recent
combat or attrition losses determined during the preceding logistics
phase. This column is reset to zero by any action taken after the
battle or at the start of the phasing player’s action phase.
»» Permanent Losses
»» Losses during the current turn
»» Total losses during the game. There are three additional rows
under the total column that list the number of men killed, captured
or disabled. Note that some disabled men are returned to the
manpower pool, in effect, reducing the permanent losses.
The ‘Type of Losses’ section at the bottom of the right hand side of the ground losses screen
allows the player to select the air losses or destroyed unit screens.
5.4.2.2. AIR LOSSES
The left side of the screen lists permanent losses by individual aircraft make and model, for
example JU-88A, displayed in the following columns:
»» Individual Aircraft type
77
»» Permanent Losses
»» Battle just conducted (any action taken after a
battle will reset this column to zero)
»» Losses during the current turn
»» Total losses during the game
The right side of the screen lists losses by aircraft type, for example Fighter, and further breaks
down the reason for the aircraft loss as follows:
»» Recent Battle and non-combat casualties. This includes aircraft destroyed
by combat in the most recent battle (unlike ground losses, it does not count
damaged aircraft). This column is reset to zero by any action taken after the
most recent battle or at the start of the phasing player’s action phase.
»» Permanent Losses
»» Losses during the current turn
»» Total losses during the game. There are two additional rows under
the total column that list the overall number of aircraft lost due
to anti-aircraft (flak) fire or non-combat operational losses. These
totals are a subset of the total losses, not separate losses.
The ‘Type of Losses’ section at the bottom of the right hand side of the ground losses screen
allows the player to select the ground losses or destroyed unit screens.
5.4.2.3. DESTROYED AND DISBANDED UNITS
This screen provides a by turn list of each unit destroyed or disbanded as well as a running
total by type of unit. Disbanded enemy units will not be displayed or reflected in the totals.
The left side of the screen lists each turn with the number of friendly units destroyed and
disbanded as well as the number enemy units destroyed that turn. Select [+} or [-] to expand
or fold each turn. Under each turn are the following columns:
»» Turn number
»» Nationality
78
»» Name of unit
»» Unit type
»» Disband, where disbanded units are indicated by an ‘X’ in that column.
The right side of the screen lists the running totals of destroyed units for each side by type.
Friendly disbanded units are included in the total, but are not broken out as such. The three
totals presented are previous turn, current turn, and overall game totals.
5.4.3. PRODUCTION SCREEN
This screen can be accessed from the info screens menu tab toolbar (5.1.2.2) or hotkey ‘p’ and
displays production information for aircraft, ground element equipment, supply, manpower,
and various other inputs to the production process. The phasing player will only be able to see
information for their side.
The left side of the screen is broken down into four sections; aircraft, ground elements, special
(general category to cover other inputs into the production system) and captured equipment.
5.4.3.1. AIR AND GROUND SECTIONS
These sections consist of seven columns as follows:
Nationality: All units on the Soviet side, will be annotated SU.
79
Name: Aircraft, ground element and/or factory name
»» Each name links to the applicable city production list window (5.4.4)
»» All aircraft and ground element types are coded
in the production screen as follows:
»» Currently in production: no symbol
»» Obsolete (no longer in production): ‘#’
»» Future (not in production yet): ‘**’
Capacity: Number of factory points either producing the item (or that will produce the item
for future items).
»» ‘A’ indicates an item produced by Armament Production factories.
Aircraft, AFV’s, and combat vehicles are produced by specific
factories, but all other ground element devices are built using generic
armament points produced by Armament Production factories.
Damaged: Number of factory points that produce that particular item that have suffered fifty
percent or greater damage.
Pool: Number of that type of aircraft or ground element equipment available to be used as
replacements.
Built: Total number of that type of aircraft or ground element equipment produced since the
beginning of the current scenario. Note that these numbers are for what was actually built and
sent to Eastern Front instead of all items built by the production system (21.1).
Units: Number of units that contain that type of aircraft or ground element. Selecting the
number will take the player to the Commander’s report screen and display a list of the
applicable units.
5.4.3.2. SPECIAL SECTION:
This section consists of 6 columns as follows:
Factory name: Each name links to the applicable city production window (5.4.4).
Capacity: Total number of factory points, whether damaged or undamaged, that can produce
the item.
»» ‘A’ indicates an item produced by Armament Production factories.
In the case of the special section, it applies to Vehicle repair, and
indicates the use of armament points to repair damaged vehicles.
Damaged: Number of factory points that produce that particular item that have suffered fifty
percent or greater damage.
80
Pool: Number of that type of item available to be used as replacements. In the case of the
special section, this column is only applicable to Vehicle repair, Vehicle production, Manpower
production, and Armament point production.
Built: Total amount of that type of item produced since the beginning of the current scenario.
Units: This column is not applicable for the special section and will always display zeros.
5.4.3.3. CAPTURED EQUIPMENT SECTION
This section consists of 5 columns as follows:
Nationality: All units on the Soviet side, will be annotated SU.
Name: Aircraft or ground element equipment name.
»» Each name links to the applicable city production window (5.4.4)
Pool: Number of that type of aircraft or ground element equipment available.
Captured: Total number of that type of aircraft or ground element equipment captured since
the beginning of the current scenario.
Units: Number of units that contain that type of aircraft or ground element. Selecting the
number will take the player to the Commander’s report screen and display a list of the
applicable units.
5.4.3.4. PRODUCTION BY NATIONALITY AND AVAILABILITY
The top right side of the screen allows the player to view production by country or captured
areas. For the Axis player, the numbers in parentheses by each country is the percentage of
total production designated for the eastern front and thus available in the game (21.3). For all
nationalities in non-campaign scenarios, the number in parentheses reflects the percentage
of production that will be available for the scenario. For certain countries, such as Poland, a
second number will indicate the percentage of total manpower available. Selecting a country
will display only that countries production data. Selecting ‘Captured’ will display the data from
the ‘Special’ section pertaining to factories in enemy town, city and urban hexes captured by
that player.
5.4.3.5. MANPOWER, SUPPLY AND VEHICLE PRODUCTION INFORMATION
The center right side of the screen provides a summary of manpower, supply and vehicle
related information for all areas or individually selected country or captured areas as follows:
Manpower in Cities/Towns: Total number of manpower factory points.
Fuel Stores: Total amount of fuel in storage.
Oil Stores: Total amount of oil in storage and available to be refined into fuel.- Supply Stores:
Total amount of supply in storage.
81
Resource Stores: Total amount of resources in storage.
Supplies in Units: Total amount of supplies at the units. Number in parentheses is total
amount of supplies needed to bring all units up to 100 percent.
Ammo in Units: Total amount of ammo at the units. Number in parentheses is total amount of
ammo needed to bring all units up to 100 percent.
Fuel in Units: Total amount of fuel at the units. Number in parentheses is total amount of fuel
needed to bring all units up to 100 percent.
Supply and Fuel Depots in HQ’s: Total number of fuel and supply depots attached to
headquarter units.
Vehicles in Units: Total number of vehicles attached to units. Number in parentheses is total
number of vehicles that would be needed to bring all units up to 100 percent.
Vehicles in Pool: Total number of vehicles in that side’s motor pool. Number in parentheses
is total number of vehicles that would be needed to bring the motor pool up to 100 percent.
»» Note that vehicles in the motor pool are not assigned to units,
but are used exclusively to support the supply system.
Vehicles in Repair: Total number of vehicles being repaired.
Fuel Pool: This is a global pool used to fuel vehicles in the motor pool.
5.4.3.6. PRODUCTION FILTER AND SHOW TYPES
The bottom right side of the screen has a production filter that allows the player to toggle
between all aircraft and ground element production and aircraft and ground elements currently
in production only. The default setting is ‘Production Filter OFF.’
Underneath the production filter is a ‘Show types/Hide types’ toggle. When ‘Show types’ is
selected, headers are displayed that divide aircraft and ground elements into functional types
(i.e. fighter, bomber, light tank, rifle squad, AT gun). The default setting has the functional types
headers hidden.
82
5.4.4. CITY PRODUCTION LIST WINDOW
This window is accessed by selecting a particular factory name from the production screen
(5.4.3). The following information is displayed:
Name of Factory: Aircraft, ground element or generic factory name.
Factory Location: Listed by name of town, city or urban hex. For captured items and items
produced by using armament points, this section will be blank.
»» Name of town, city or urban hex with a link to the hex on the map.
Some factories are located off-map and will not have a link.
»» Capacity: Number of factory points that can produce the
item, to include obsolete and future production.
»» Damage: Percentage of damage suffered by that type of factory.
(Future production factories cannot be damaged).
Upgrade: Displays upgrade path for aircraft or ground elements that are either upgraded from
or upgraded to different items.
»» The applicable item or items are listed along with the total number of
factory points for each item, with any damaged factory points displayed in
parentheses. The upgrade path is described, using ‘From’ for items that will
be upgraded and ‘To’ for the upgraded item itself. If there is no upgrade,
83
this part of the window will just list the item with total number of factory
points. Other items listed are linked to their city production list window.
The right side of the window displays much of the same information displayed in the air
group unit or ground weapon element detail window (5.4.17, 5.4.20), with the addition of the
following:
Expansion Rate: The rate of growth in the number of factory points that produce the item. A
zero for any non-generic factory (those not in the special section) indicates that the number of
factories will increase, but at a much slower rate. Generic factories with a 0 expansion rate will
never grow in size, but may change their production multiplier over time (21.1).
Build Cost: Amount of supplies required to build an aircraft or ground element
Build Limit: Maximum number of items that can be built per factory location, so a specific
factory type will be limited to that number of factory points for each location. A zero indicates
that there is no limit.
Gameplay Note: For most factories from the special section of the
production screen, the right side of the window is a generic template that
is not applicable.
5.4.5. VICTORY SCREEN
This screen can be accessed from the info screens menu tab toolbar (5.1.2.2) or hotkey ‘v.’
There are two different types of victory screens, one for campaign scenarios and one for all
other scenarios (24.0). Both types of victory screens provide a running tally of current victory
points. The non-campaign scenario victory screen also displays how victory points are earned
for each side during a scenario.
84
5.4.5.1. CAMPAIGN SCENARIO VICTORY SCREEN
The campaign scenario victory screen is divided into three parts. The right side of the screen
lists the current number of Axis victory points, based on control of city and urban hexes,
followed by a listing of the number of victory points required for the different Axis victory levels,
to include a draw. The left side of the screen lists the total number of victory points on the map
(provided for information purposes), followed by a listing of the requirements for the various
Soviet levels of victory. The bottom of the screen displays the game turn that the scenario ends
85
5.4.5.2. NON-CAMPAIGN SCENARIO VICTORY SCREEN
The non-campaign scenario victory screen is also divided into three parts. Each sides section
is divided into a list of victory point town, city or urban hexes, an opposing side losses section,
and a total current victory points section. The game turn that the scenario ends and the current
victory level status is displayed at the bottom of the victory screen. See section 24.2 for the
definition of victory levels in non-campaign scenarios.
The list of towns, cities or urban hexes for each side has three columns for each VP hex, ET, EG,
and PTS. ET (end turn) is the number of VP’s that player will earn each player turn they hold that
town, city or urban hex. EG (end game) is the number of VP’s that player will gain if they hold
that town, city or urban hex at the end of the scenario. For example, in the Typhoon scenario,
the Moscow urban hex is worth 60 VP every player turn the Axis hold it and they get 600 points
for having it at the end of the scenario.
The opposing side losses section has three columns as follows:
SU (Soviet) or AX (Axis) LOST (xxx): This column provides information on the number of men,
guns, AFV or aircraft of the opposing side that must be for the side to gain one victory point. The
number in parentheses next to each type indicates how many of each need to be lost before
86
a VP is gained For example, ‘Men(1000)’ indicates that the player will earn 1 VP for each 1000
men the opposing side loses. However, this is further modified by the number in parentheses
located next to the “LOST” header, which is the percentage actual losses are multiplied by to
arrive at the VP loss rate. Thus in a scenario where AX LOST(100), all Axis losses are multiplied
by 100% (or 1.0). If in the same scenario SU LOST(20) then all Soviet losses are multiplied by
20% (or .2). In a scenario with an SU LOST(20) and Men(1000), it would take a loss of 5000
Soviet men to generate one victory point for the Axis player.
Number: Total number of that type of item lost.
Points: The number of victory points awarded for that type of item.
The bottom of each side’s section lists the current number of victory points, which is the total
of points for victory point hexes and the opposing side’s losses.
5.4.6. WEATHER SCREEN
The weather screen can be accessed from the info screens menu tab toolbar (5.1.2.2) or
hotkey ‘w’ and displays the four weather zones graphically superimposed over the map area
with the current weather for each of the zones also displayed. See section 22.0 for details on
weather.
87
5.4.7. AIR DOCTRINE SCREEN
The air doctrine screen can be accessed from the info screens menu tab toolbar (5.1.2.2),
hotkey ‘d’ and displays the settings that determine what, if any, priority will be given to the
various types of air missions. It also determines that percentage of ready aircraft an air group
unit needs in order to participate in any mission (16.4).
The screen consists of six columns. The first column lists the different air doctrine settings.
The second and third columns are buttons to reduce the current air doctrine setting by twenty
or five percent respectively. The fourth column lists the current air doctrine setting. The fifth
and sixth column are buttons to increase the current air doctrine setting by five and twenty
percent respectively.
88
5.4.8. REINFORCEMENT AND WITHDRAWAL SCHEDULE
This screen can be accessed from the info screens menu tab toolbar (5.1.2.2) or hotkey ‘i’
and consists of two parts, ground and air reinforcements and withdrawals. The initial screen
displays the ground reinforcements and withdrawals. Selecting the ‘SHOW AIR UNITS’ link in
the right top corner of the ground screen displays air reinforcements and withdrawals. Selecting
the ‘SHOW GROUND UNITS’ reverses the process. Both screens display reinforcements and
withdrawals basically in the same manner. Units scheduled to withdraw are annotated to
differentiate them from reinforcements. The turn number and corresponding date of the turn
are listed along with each unit that is arriving or scheduled to withdraw that turn. Ground
units include the number of men, guns and AFV that will arrive with the reinforcement or the
current number of men, guns and AFV in units scheduled to withdraw. Air group units will
include the model of the aircraft in that unit (i.e. Ju 88D-1). Hex coordinates will be listed for
reinforcements entering at a specific hex. If that hex is not eligible, then an alternate entry hex
will be annotated, for example at 76,3 -> 72,0. If no hex is listed, then the reinforcement will
use the standard west edge/east edge entry rules for arrival (18.1.1).
89
5.4.9. COMMANDER’S REPORT
The commander’s report can be accessed from the info screens menu tab toolbar (5.1.2.2)
or hotkey ‘c’ and is a multi-tabbed list of information on units, leaders, equipment and battles
that can be sorted and filtered in numerous ways. Various screens and windows have links to
or are linked from the commander’s report. In addition, many unit settings can be changed for
both individual units and groups of units using this screen Details on the commander’s report
can be found in Appendix C (section 28.3).
90
5.4.10. SAVE GAME SCREEN
This screen can be accessed from the administration menu tab toolbar (5.1.2.2) or hotkey
‘Shift-S.’ The left side of the screen displays the list of available saved games and the date and
time when that game was saved. The list of saves can be sorted either alphabetically by title
or by date through selection of the applicable arrow at the top of the display. Selecting a save
game title will bring up a description on the right side of the screen that includes the title of the
scenario being played, the current turn of that scenario and whether the players are human or
computer. There are three buttons at the bottom left side of the screen as follows:
Save a New Game: Prompts the player to type in a name to create a new save game.
Save over Current Marked Game: Overwrites the save game that is currently selected and
highlighted in green.
Delete this Saved Game: Deletes the save game that is currently selected and highlighted in
green. There is a separate PBEM Save Game screen with the same type of information that will
appear if PBEM is enabled.
91
5.4.11. COMBAT RESOLUTION REPORT AND BATTLE LOCATOR (F11)
This window displays the results of ground battles and air missions and will normally
automatically display at the top of the screen during the execution of ground combat and all
air missions except air group unit transfers. Setting the combat resolution message level to
zero will disable the display for all combat and air missions, while setting it to level one will
disable the display during air recon missions (3.3.4). Combat resolution reports for battles
and air missions that have occurred during the current or previous turn can also be accessed
using the Battle Locator toolbar mode (F11) and selecting the battle marker in the desired hex.
5.4.11.1. COMBAT RESOLUTION WINDOW
The combat resolution window displays the following information:
Axis Forces Attacking/Defending: The left side of the window lists the Axis combat units with
their combat value in parentheses, support units, aircraft and anti-aircraft guns participating
in the battle. Reserve combat units successfully committed to the battle will be annotated with
an ‘R’ next to their name (15.5). Note that only guns from anti-aircraft ground elements will
be listed, though other ground elements that possess devices such as anti-aircraft machine
guns (AAMG) may also be firing at aircraft. If the list is longer than the available space, the
‘[v]’ or ‘[^]’ symbol can be selected to scroll up or down to view the rest of the participants.
An Axis hasty attack is annotated by an ‘(H)’ in the header. In the case of a bomb airfield air
mission against an airbase unit, defending fighter interceptors will be listed at the top of the
window, followed by a list of all aircraft by model attached to the air base unit in the format
(xx:xx), where the first number is ready aircraft and the second number is total aircraft. This
list will be updated automatically to reflect damaged and destroyed aircraft during the course
of the battle.
92
The bottom section of the window consists of the following:
Combat Value: This is the total combat value of all the Axis units participating in the battle
prior to the commencement of combat, to include any fortification defensive modifiers for
defending units (15.3)
Command Mod: This is the command battle modifier (15.6.2), a percentage modifier for all
combat values due to units from different commands being involved in the battle.
Modified Combat Value: Displayed at the end of the battle and used to determine the winner,
this CV reflects losses incurred during combat as well as the results of random factors and
numerous leader checks that can significantly modify the final figure.
Eng Value/Fort Level: If the Axis is the attacker, this will display the relative value of the
number of engineer type ground elements participating in the attack. Note that Engineer values
are divided by the fort level when calculating their ability to reduce fort levels in combat. If
the Axis is the defender, this will display the man-made fortification level, which will change
if the fort level is reduced during the battle. The post-battle display will show any reduction in
fort level due to the battle in the format Fort: x->y, where x is the initial fort level and y is the
reduced fort level (15.3.2).
Soviet Forces Attacking/Defending: The right side of the window provides the same
information for the Soviet forces as described for the left side of the window for the Axis.
Forces Engaged: The top of this section displays the hex coordinates and the type of terrain
of the battle hex as well as the weather in the zone that the battle is taking place. Below that
will be shown a numerical summary of the forces participating in the battle and a running total
of losses suffered due to damaged, captured and destroyed ground elements and destroyed
aircraft during the current battle. Axis forces, whether attacking or defending, are listed on the
left and Soviet forces are listed on the right using the following abbreviations:
»» ATK: Attacking side
»» DEF: Defending side
»» LOST: Losses from damaged, captured or destroyed
ground elements and destroyed aircraft
»» Men: Manpower included in a unit’s weapon elements. Losses can
be from damaged, captured or destroyed combat results.
»» Art: Guns included in a unit’s ground elements
»» Afv: Armoured fighting vehicles included in a unit’s ground elements
»» Ftr: Fighter aircraft
»» Bmr: Bomber aircraft. Fighter Bombers assigned as
Bombers will be counted under Bmr (16.1.7).
93
»» Utl: Utility aircraft
5.4.11.2. BATTLE LOCATOR (F11)
When utilizing the battle locater (F11), the combat resolution window will display the number of
battles that have taken place in the selected hex (i.e. 1 of 2) and provide a link to access each
battle in turn. The combats will be listed by type rather than order of occurrence, with ground
battles first, followed by air missions.
Also when in battle locater (F11) mode, moving the mouse cursor over a hex marked as a battle
site will display a pop-up with the following information:
»» If multiple battles occurred in that hex, the pop-up will display the
number of battles that have taken place in the hex (i.e. 1 of 2),
which can be cycled through by using the ‘.’ and ‘,’ hotkeys.
»» Forces Attacking and Forces Defending displayed in number
of men, guns, AFV, as well as fighter, bomber (includes fighter
bombers assigned as bombers), and utility aircraft
»» Losses for each side displayed in number of men, guns, AFV, as well as fighter,
bomber (includes fighter bombers assigned as bombers), and utility aircraft
»» Result of combat or air mission
94
When units surrender during the logistics phase, a surrender flag battle site icon will display
when the battle locater (F11) is enabled. This will allow the player to obtain information on units
that surrendered during the previous turn.
5.4.11.3. COMBAT RESOLUTION MESSAGE SECTION
The middle of the combat resolution displays text messages describing the battle. The
amount of detail provided is determined by the combat resolution message level setting
(section 3.3.4). Air mission and combat messages can include aircraft damaged or destroyed
in air to air combat, anti-aircraft or crash-landing, air group units breaking off, number of
aircraft bombing a target, damaged or destroyed enemy aircraft on the ground, disrupted,
damaged, or destroyed enemy ground elements, and mission completion messages (i.e.
“JU-88D takes recon photos.”). Ground combat messages can include ground element fire
at an enemy ground element at a specific range, result of any hit from specific devices that
disrupts, damages or destroys an enemy ground element, and reduction of fortification levels
in a defending hex. At the conclusion of combat, the result of the battle in terms of whether
the defending units held or were forced to retreat, rout or shatter will be displayed as well as
the modified combat value odds ratio that determined the winner and the loser. This ratio is
in the format ‘Attacker:Defender,’ and is a simplified ratio with the larger term being rounded
down to one decimal place and the smaller term being rounded down to one (s15.8). . The
combat resolution message section also includes a pause and an exit button. Selecting the exit
button will close the combat resolution window and take the player back to the map area with
that battle ended. Selecting the pause button will freeze the combat resolution window at the
current place in the battle. The combat resolution window cannot be “restarted” from that point
and the exit button should be used to close the window. When utilizing the battle locater (F11),
the combat resolution window is a static display that will show the last message showing the
odds ratio, the final result of the battle and the exit button.
95
5.4.12. LOGISTICS PHASE EVENT LOG SCREEN
This screen can be accessed from the info screens menu tab toolbar (5.1.2.2) or hotkey ‘Shift-E’
and provides information on events that have occurred during the most recent logistics phase
and in some cases the previous turn, to include the following:
»» Manpower movements during the replacement phases (the number of
men added to units and the number of men returned to the pool, which
represents men from damaged ground elements going back to the pool).
»» Damaged AFV equipment destroyed as non-repairable
rather than being returned to the pool (18. 2.3.1).
»» Ammunition delivered as part of the supply phases.
»» Notification of arriving reinforcements and pending withdrawals
(approximately four turns before the withdrawal will happen,
when the unit is forced into Withdrawal mode).
»» Number of vehicles damaged and destroyed while transporting
supply as well as the number of vehicles repaired.
»» Total amount of manpower migrated to date, and the total
number of manpower factory points destroyed.
»» Number of aircraft flying training missions to gain experience, to
include aircraft damaged and destroyed during those missions.
»» Production information, to include export of
equipment from Germany to Axis Allies.
96
»» Production usage percentage for non-campaign scenarios (the
percentage of production that will be available during the scenario.
Gameplay Note: If you compare the production screen to the Logistics
Phase Event Log in non-campaign scenarios, the Production multiplier
may not be the same. For example, in Typhoon, the production screen
says 51% and the event log says 60%. This is because the lower number
in the production screen is a reflection of the production to other fronts
(85% for 1941), so that the production screen is the actual production
percentage, while the event log percentage would need to be multiplied by
the Eastern Front production percentage to arrive at the actual production
percentage; in the case of Typhoon, 65% times 85% to arrive at 51%.
»» Production statistics for each general type of factory, to include amount
produced, consumption of pre-requisite resources, oil, or supplies, and number
of factory locations that did not have sufficient pre-requisites to produce items.
»» Surrenders, disbanding and conversion of units
»» Leader automatic dismissals and executions, promotions and rating changes
»» Notification that units have been unfrozen
»» Notification of units being isolated, changes in the TOE of
a unit and the formation of new air group units.
The logistics phase event only shows healthy manpower returning to the pool and does
not display manpower on the disabled list. Every turn, the Supply Phase Event Log will be
automatically exported to the game save directory as a plain text file, for example EventLog(Turn
001 6-22-1941 So).txt.
Gameplay Info: Certain action links in Detail Windows (5.4.13, 5.4.14,
5.4.16, 5.4.17, 5.4.18) will only display if that particular unit is eligible to
conduct that action. Examples include units that do not meet the criteria
to disband, merge or go into static mode, units that have been motorized
and combat units no longer eligible to attach support units.
97
5.4.13. COMBAT UNIT DETAIL
This window can be accessed by selecting the unit name in the unit bar or right clicking in
a blank area of the unit box in the unit bar (5.2.3). It can also be accessed by selecting the
combat unit hex location in the commander’s report. This window displays detailed information
on the selected combat unit, to include number of ground elements and their status, Table of
Organization and Equipment (TOE), Headquarters and logistics information.
The left side of the screen provides the name of the combat unit. For Soviet Rifle and Cavalry
Corps units formed by the player (7.5.3), the names of the divisions making up the Corps
combat unit will also be listed. Below the unit name is a list of each type of ground element
making up the unit, with information on experience (EXP), number of ready (RDY) and damaged
(DAM) elements and the current fatigue (FAT) of that type of ground element. The ground
element name has a link to that particular ground element detail window (5.4.20).
The right side of the screen displays the following information:
Unit Counter: A graphic of the unit counter in combat value - movement mode.
TOE: An overall description of the unit’s current actual TOE represented by two numbers, with
the first number being the percentage of actual TOE compared to notional TOE of only ready
ground elements and the second number being the percentage of all (ready and damaged)
ground elements. The TOE detail window (5.4.23) can be accessed here.
MAX TOE: Number that indicates the maximum percentage of replacements the ground
elements of the unit can take. The maximum TOE can be set by the player in a range between
50 and 100 percent by selecting the link (18.2.2).
Morale: The combat unit’s current morale rating.
98
Motorized/Non-Motorized: Displays whether the unit is motorized or non-motorized.
Vehicles/Need: The number of vehicles actually internal to the combat unit compared to the
required number of vehicles. Units on the map can suffer a movement penalty if they do not
have the required number of vehicles (14.1.2).
HQ Unit: Lists the Headquarters unit that the combat unit is attached (HHQ) as well as the
operational headquarters (OHQ) that the HHQ is attached. (For example, the German 10th
motorized division is attached to the XXIV Panzer Corps (HHQ), which is attached to Army Group
Center (OHQ). From here, units can be reassigned to a different headquarters by accessing the
new HQ attachment window ( 5.4.25).
Nationality: All units on the Soviet side, will be annotated SU.
Unit Logistics Requirements: For supplies, fuel and ammo, the amounts are listed by type
of supply on hand compared to 100 percent of the amount of that type of supply required. For
support squad ground elements, the first number signifies the total support available to the
unit as of the previous supply phase compared to 100 percent of the support squad ground
elements required. Total support includes support squad ground elements directly attached to
the combat unit as listed on the left side of the screen as well as any support squad ground
elements automatically sent from headquarters units in the chain of command. Excess support
squad ground elements in HQ units are parcelled out to attached combat units in range based
on the need of the units. On the first player turn of each game, since the logistics phase is
skipped, the support units will not show benefits from HQ unit support squad ground elements
in range. After the first player turn, these values in the unit detail window will include support
squad ground elements from HQ units that were parcelled out during the logistics phase of
the turn.
Construction Value: Displays the current construction value that the combat unit would use
for increasing the fortification level in its hex.
Transportation Cost: Displays the transportation cost for the combat unit for strategic rail,
naval transport, and amphibious transport movement as well as air transport.
Supply Status: Displays the supply status of the unit, In Supply, Isolated or Beachhead Supply.
If the unit is in supply, the number in parentheses indicates the number of movement points
to the nearest railhead.
Supply Details: Link to Unit Supply Detail window (5.4.26)
Assign/Form: Displayed if the combat unit is eligible to attach support units. This links to the
Pick support Unit type window, which allows manual attachment of up to three support units
(5.4.15).
Units Attached: Displayed if any support units are attached to the combat unit. Lists each
support unit with a link to the applicable support unit detail window (5.4.14). Selection of the
[X] to the right of listed support unit will return that support unit to the headquarters to which
the combat unit is attached.
99
Disband Unit: Displays if combat unit is eligible to be disbanded. Allows the player to disband
the unit and send its ground elements back to the respective production pools (18.5).
Merge Unit: Displays if combat units in the hex meet the requirements of section 7.5.3 and
allows two units of the same type to be merged.
Motorize Unit: Displays if combat unit is eligible to be motorized. Selecting this link will double
the movement points of the unit for the turn, but at cost in damaged vehicles from the motor
pool (first number) and admin points (second number) ( 14.1.3).
5.4.14. SUPPORT UNIT DETAIL WINDOW
This window can be accessed from the attached support section of the combat unit,
headquarters unit or city detail window by selecting the desired attached support unit. It
can also be accessed by selecting the support unit hex location in the commander’s report.
The window displays detailed information on the selected support unit, to include number of
ground elements and their status, Table of Organization and Equipment (TOE), Headquarters
and logistics information.
The left side of the screen provides the name of the support unit and lists each type of ground
element making up the unit, with information on experience (EXP), number of ready (RDY) and
damaged (DAM) elements and the current fatigue (FAT) of that type of ground element. The
ground element name has a link to that particular ground element detail window (5.4.20).
The right side of the screen displays the following information:
Unit Counter: Displays a graphic of the unit counter in combat value - movement mode.
TOE: An overall description of the unit’s current actual TOE represented by two numbers, with
the first number being the percentage of actual TOE compared to notional TOE of only ready
100
ground elements and the second number being the percentage of all (ready and damaged)
ground elements (5.4.23).
MAX TOE: Number that indicates the maximum percentage of replacements the weapon
elements of the unit can take. The maximum TOE can be set by the player in a range between
50 and 100 percent by selecting the link (18.2.2).
Morale: The support unit’s current morale rating.
Motorized/Non-Motorized: Displays whether the support unit is motorized or non-motorized.
Vehicles/Need: The number of vehicles actually internal to the combat unit compared to the
required number of vehicles.
HQ Unit: Lists the Headquarters unit that the support unit is attached (HHQ) as well as the
operational headquarters (OHQ) that the HHQ is attached. (For example, the 607th Howitzer
Battalion is attached to the XIV Panzer Corps (HHQ), which is part of Army Group South (OHQ).
From here, units can be reassigned to a different headquarters by accessing the pick new HQ
attachment window (5.4.25).
Nationality: All units on the Soviet side, will be annotated SU.
Unit Logistics Requirements: For supplies, fuel and ammo, the amounts are listed by type
of supply on hand compared to 100 percent of the amount of that type of supply required. For
Support squad ground elements, the first number signifies the total support available to the
support unit as of the previous supply phase compared to 100 percent of the support squad
ground elements required. Total support includes support squad ground elements directly
attached to the support unit as listed on the left side of the screen as well as any support
squad ground elements automatically sent from headquarters. Excess support squad ground
elements in HQ units are parcelled out to attached support units in range based on the need
of the units. On the first player turn of each game, since the logistics phase is skipped, the
support units will not show benefits from HQ unit support squad ground elements in range.
After the first player turn, these values in the unit detail window will include support squad
ground elements from HQ units that were parcelled out during the logistics phase of the turn.
Construction Value: Displays the current construction value that the support unit would use
for increasing the fortification level in its hex.
Transportation Cost: Displays the transportation cost for the support unit for strategic rail,
naval transport, and amphibious transport movement as well as air transport. - Displays the
supply status of the unit, In Supply, Isolated or Beachhead Supply. Support units will have the
same supply status as the unit or town, city or urban hex to which they are attached. If the
unit is in supply, the number in parentheses indicates the number of movement points to the
nearest railhead supply source. All units will show In Supply (0 MPs) on the first player turn of
any scenario since the logistics phase is skipped on the first player turn of a game.
Supply Details: Link to Unit Supply Detail window (5.4.26)
101
Disband Unit: Allows the player to disband the unit and send its ground elements back to the
respective production pools (18.5).
5.4.15. PICK SUPPORT UNIT WINDOW
The Pick Support Unit Type window is
accessed by selecting the ASSIGN/FORM
link in the unit detail window of headquarters
units as well as combat units eligible to
attach support units and town, city and
urban hexes, which can attach Anti-aircraft
support units. This window allows the player
to view and manually transfer available
support units. The Soviet player can also create support units (7.5.2, 7.6.3, 18.1.3).
The window lists the number of each type of support unit available (AVL), the name of the
support unit type and a link to the TOE and TOE (OB) (7.2.2) of that type of support unit.
Selecting the name of the support unit will transfer attachment of existing support units to
the selected HQ or combat unit. Unready support units will not be included in the number
in the AVL column. For the Axis player, only existing available support units are listed. For
the Soviet player, if the unit was an eligible Corps sized combat unit or Corps headquarters
unit, only existing available support units are listed. For Army, Front, High Command (STAVKA)
headquarters units as well as town, city and urban hexes, all support units are listed, but if
there is a zero in the AVL column, selecting the unit name will cause a support unit of that type
to be created and a message displayed to that effect. The Soviet player also has the option of
creating new support units even if some of that type already exist through the use of the ‘BUILD
NEW’ function by checking the box next to ‘BUILD NEW’ at the top of the screen, which will
result in any support unit selected being created new rather than being transferred. In addition,
enabling ‘BUILD NEW’ will display the ‘BUILD NUM: X’ where ‘X’ is the number of the selected
support unit that will be built. Selecting the number will display a dialog box that allows the
Soviet player to set the number of the selected type of support unit to be built. For combat units
eligible to attach support units, the Pick Support Unit Type window will automatically close
once the maximum number of support units has been attached.
102
5.4.16. HQ UNIT DETAIL WINDOW
This window can be accessed by selecting the unit name in the unit bar or right clicking
in a blank area of the unit box in the unit bar (5.2.3). It can also be accessed by selecting
the headquarters unit hex location in the commander’s report. This window displays detailed
information on the selected headquarters unit, to include assigned leader, number of ground
elements and their status, attached units, Table of Organization and Equipment (TOE),
Headquarters and logistics information.
The left side of the screen displays the following information:
HQ Name: Designation of the headquarters unit
Leader Name: Assigned leader with rollover showing leader ratings and number of victories
and defeats as well as link to leader detail window (5.4.21).
Ground Elements: Lists number of ground elements, in this case support squad ground
elements, supply dumps and fuel dumps, included in the headquarters unit, with information
on experience (EXP), number of ready (RDY) and damaged (DAM) elements and the current
fatigue (FAT) of that type of ground element. The ground element name has a link to that
particular ground element detail window (5.4.20).
Assign/Form: Links to the Pick support Unit type window, which allows manual attachment of
support units to that headquarters. Also allows Army, Front and High Command (STAVKA) Soviet
headquarters units to create support units at a cost in admin points.
Support Level: Indicates the number of each type of support unit that the computer will
attempt to automatically assign to the headquarters. Below this are buttons to increase
(ADD) or decrease (SUB) the current support level. Selecting LOCK will turn off the automatic
movement of support units to and from the headquarters. Note that automatic assignment will
103
not function for that particular headquarters unit if any higher headquarters unit in that HQ
unit’s chain, to include the High Command, is set to LOCKED (7.6.3).
ATTACHED SUPPORT/ATTACHED UNITS: Toggles between listing the number and names
of either the support units or the combat, headquarters and airbase units attached to that
headquarters. Units listed with a ‘(u)’ are unready (7.3). Support units with an asterisk cannot
be assigned to another headquarters, combat unit, or a town, city or urban hex during the
current turn.
The right side of the screen displays the following information:
Unit Counter: Displays a graphic of the unit counter in combat value - movement mode.
TOE: An overall description of the unit’s current actual TOE represented by two numbers, with
the first number being the percentage of actual TOE compared to notional TOE of only ready
weapon elements and the second number being the percentage of all (ready and damaged)
ground elements (5.4.23).
MAX TOE: Number that indicates the maximum percentage of replacements the weapon
elements of the unit can take. The maximum TOE can be set by the player in a range between
50 and 100 percent by selecting the link (18.2.2).
Morale: The headquarters unit’s current morale rating.
Motorized/Non-Motorized: Displays whether the headquarters unit is motorized or nonmotorized.
Vehicles/Need: The number of vehicles actually internal to the headquarters unit compared to
the required number of vehicles. Units on the map can suffer a movement penalty if they do not
have the required number of vehicles. Headquarters unit’s vehicle need is equal to the number
of ready support squad ground elements currently in the unit.
HQ Unit: Lists the higher Headquarters unit that the headquarters unit is attached (HHQ). From
here, headquarters units can be reassigned to a different higher headquarters by accessing the
pick new HQ attachment window (5.4.25). Note that High Command headquarters units (OKH,
Axis Allied High Commands and STAVKA) are the highest headquarters for the applicable side
and cannot be attached to another headquarters.
Nationality: All units on the Soviet side, will be annotated SU.
Unit Logistics Requirements: For supplies, fuel and ammo, the amounts are listed by type
of supply on hand compared to 100 percent of the amount of that type of supply required. For
Support squad ground elements, the first number signifies the total support available to the
unit as of the previous supply phase compared to 100 percent of the support squad ground
elements required. Total support includes support squad ground elements directly attached to
the headquarters unit as listed on the left side of the screen. Excess support elements in HQ
units are parceled out to attached combat and headquarters units in range based on the need
of the units. These HQ unit support squad ground elements remain in the HQ units, but will
104
provide benefits to units that are attached and the amount parceled out to attached units will
be included in their total support listed for the unit.
Transportation Cost: Displays the transportation cost for the headquarters unit for strategic
rail, naval transport, and amphibious transport movement as well as air transport movement.Displays the supply status of the headquarters unit; In Supply, Isolated or Beachhead Supply.
If the unit is in supply, the number in parentheses indicates the number of movement points to
the nearest railhead. All units will show In Supply (0 MPs) on the first player turn of any scenario
since the logistics phase is skipped on the first player turn of a game.
Supply Details: Link to Unit Supply Detail window (5.4.26)
Disband Unit: Displays if headquarters unit meets the requirements to disband. Allows the
player to disband the unit and send its elements back to the respective production pools (18.5).
Relocate Unit: Allows the player to relocate a headquarters unit to a friendly town, city or
urban hex in supply (7.6.5). The headquarters unit and any attached support units will suffer
retreat attrition. For Soviet Military Districts and the Soviet Moscow Defense Zone HQ, the
relocate unit button will relocate the headquarters unit to a town, city or urban hex further to
the east. This may be done multiple times in a turn.
Show Subordinates (CR): Takes the player to the Unit List section of the Commander’s Report
and lists the headquarters and all attached combat and support units (Appendix C (28.3)).
5.4.17. AIR BASE UNIT DETAIL WINDOW
This window can be accessed by selecting the unit name in the unit bar or right clicking in a
blank area of the unit box in the unit bar (5.2.3). It can also be accessed by selecting the air
base unit hex location in the commander’s report. The window displays detailed information on
105
the selected air base unit, to include number of ground elements and their status, attached air
group units, Table of Organization and Equipment (TOE), Headquarters and logistics information.
Note that air base units are designated as type 5 headquarters units (7.6.1), however, they
have a separate unit detail window due to their unique attributes.
The left side of the screen displays the following information:
Name: Designation of the air base unit.
Ground Elements: Lists number of ground elements, usually anti-aircraft and support elements
included in the air base unit, with information on experience (EXP), number of ready (RDY) and
damaged (DAM) elements and the current fatigue (FAT) of that type of ground element. The
ground element name has a link to that particular ground element detail window (5.4.20).
ATTACHED UNITS: Displays the number of air group units attached to that air base unit. Below
that is a list of the air group units with the group name linked to the air group unit detail window
(5.4.18), the number and model of aircraft in that air group unit, and the number of miles and
percentage of miles flown in parentheses (16.1.1).
ASSIGN: Links to the Select Air Unit from National Reserve window (5.4.19), which allows
players to manually assign air group units from the national reserve to that air base unit.
Note that the air group units listed will correspond to the Aviation Range setting selected for
that air base unit. For example, if ‘Less than 20’ is selected, than only air group units in the
National Reserve with a range of less than 20 hexes (radius less than 200) will be displayed
for selection.
The right side of the screen displays the following information:
Unit Counter: Displays a graphic of the unit counter. Unlike other unit type graphics, air base
units do not display combat value or movement allowance information.
TOE: An overall description of the unit’s current actual TOE represented by two numbers, with
the first number being the percentage of actual TOE compared to notional TOE of only ready
ground elements and the second number being the percentage of all (ready and damaged)
ground elements (5.4.23).
MAX TOE: Number that indicates the maximum percentage of replacements the ground
elements of the unit can take. The maximum TOE can be set by the player in a range between
50 and 100 percent by selecting the link (5.4.23).
Morale: The air base unit’s current morale rating.
Motorized/Non-Motorized: Displays whether the air base unit is motorized or non-motorized.
Vehicles/Need: The number of vehicles actually internal to the air base unit compared to the
required number of vehicles. Units on the map can suffer a movement penalty if they do not
have the required number of vehicles.
106
HQ Unit: Lists the Headquarters unit that the support unit is attached (HHQ) as well as the
operational headquarters (OHQ) that the HHQ is attached. (For example, the Soviet 77 SAD
Air Base is attached to the Moscow Air Command (HHQ), which is part of Moscow Military
District (OHQ).From here, air base units can be reassigned to a different higher headquarters by
accessing the pick new HQ attachment window (5.4.25). Note that there are specific limitations
regarding which headquarters units can attach air bases (8.3).
Nationality: All units on the Soviet side, will be annotated SU.
Unit Logistics Requirements: For supplies, fuel and ammo, the amounts are listed by type
of supply on hand compared to 100 percent of the amount of that type of supply required. For
Support squad ground elements, the first number signifies the total support available to the
unit as of the previous supply phase compared to 100 percent of the support squad ground
elements required. Total support includes support squad ground elements directly attached to
the air base unit as listed on the left side of the screen as well as any support squad ground
elements automatically sent from headquarters. Excess support squad ground elements in
HQ units are parcelled out to attached air base units in range based on the need of the units.
Transportation Cost: Displays the transportation cost for the headquarters unit for strategic
rail, naval transport, and amphibious transport movement as well as air transport. - Displays
the supply status of the air base unit; In Supply, Isolated or Beachhead Supply. If the unit is in
supply, the number in parentheses indicates the number of movement points to the nearest
railhead. All units will show In Supply (0 MPs) on the first player turn of any scenario since the
logistics phase is skipped on the first player turn of a game.
Supply Details: Link to Unit Supply Detail window (5.4.26)
Aviation Ranges: Allows the player to toggle through four different ranges (all ranges, less
than 20, less than 40, 41 or more). This setting will determine what air group units in the
National Reserve will be displayed if the “ASSIGN” link is selected. In addition, the automated
aviation commitment system will use this setting to determine what types of air group units to
attach to the air base unit.
Commitment Level: Indicates the number of air group units that meet the aviation range
setting that the computer will attempt to automatically assign to the air base. Below this are
buttons to increase (ADD) or decrease (SUB) the current commitment level. Selecting the MOVE
button will result in the automatic transfer of air group units to meet commitment levels, but
only for that particular air base unit (8.4.1).
Disband Unit: Displays if the air base unit meets the requirements to disband. Allows the
player to disband the unit and send its ground elements back to the respective production
pools (18.5).
Relocate Unit: Allows the player to relocate an air base unit to a friendly town, city or urban
hex in supply. The air base unit will suffer retreat attrition. Any damaged aircraft in the attached
air group units will be destroyed (7.6.5).
107
5.4.18. AIR GROUP UNIT DETAIL WINDOW
This window can be accessed by selecting the air group unit name in the air base unit detail
window (5.4.17) to which it is attached. It can also be accessed by selecting the air group unit
name in the commander’s report air group tab.
The window displays detailed information about the selected air group unit, to include current
number and status as well as specific ratings for the aircraft type.
The left side of the window displays the following information:
Name: Air Group unit designation
Air Base Unit: Air base unit to which the air group unit is attached
Group: Group Type (8.1.2)
Nationality: of the air group unit
A/C Destroyed: Number of enemy aircraft destroyed
Ground Elements Destroyed: Number of enemy ground elements destroyed
Experience: Current Experience of the air group unit
Morale: Current Morale of the air group unit
Fatigue: Current Fatigue of the air group unit
Ready: Number of ready aircraft in the air group unit (capable of conducting missions)
Reserve: Number of reserve aircraft in the air group unit (can be moved to ready if number of
ready aircraft does not exceed maximum and air base has sufficient supply and support (8.1.1)
108
Damaged: Number of damaged aircraft in the air group unit (unable to conduct missions)
Maximum Aircraft: Maximum number of aircraft in the air group unit (reserve aircraft are not
counted against this number)
Trained as: Displayed for fighter bomber aircraft types to indicate the mission (fighter or
bomber) that the air group unit has been trained to conduct.
The right side of the window displays the following information:
Graphic: Picture/Silhouette of aircraft type
Model: Aircraft model
Type: Type of aircraft (8.1.3)
Aircraft Statistics: Maximum Speed, Cruise Speed, Climb Rate, Max Altitude, Max Load,
Radius, Armour, Durability, Manoeuvre, and Reliability. Radius is used to determine distance
unit can travel during a single mission. Cruise Speed and Morale are used to determine total
distance unit can travel in a turn. Reliability is based on aircraft engine type and is used to
determine if an aircraft becomes damaged after an air mission due to non-combat related
maintenance problems. All other stats are used to determine results of air to air combat and
anti-aircraft fire defense and evasion.
Night Missions: Toggle between YES and NO. Used to assign air group units to fly night
missions.
Type Missions: Displayed for fighter bomber aircraft types to toggle between assigning air unit
group to conduct either fighter of bomber missions.
The bottom of the window displays the following information:
Devices: Includes weapons, drop tanks, and electronic systems carried by the aircraft type, to
include number, name and facing (Fwd (Forward), Side, TR (Top Rear), BR (Bottom Rear), Rear,
Int (Internal), Ext (External).
RESERVE: Select this link to transfer the air group unit to the Strategic National Air Reserve
(8.4).
DISBAND: Allows the player to disband the air group unit and send its aircraft back to the
replacement pool.
REPLACEMENTS: Toggles between allowed and not allowed. The default is allowed, which
means the air group unit will be eligible to receive replacement aircraft of the current
model during the logistics phase. If set to not allowed, the air group unit will not receive any
replacement aircraft during the logistics phase.
AIRCRAFT CHANGE: Toggles between automatic and manual change out of aircraft model
assigned to the air group unit. The default setting is automatic upgrades.
109
Auto: Computer controls upgrades or downgrades of aircraft model assigned to the air group
unit.
Manual: Displays list of aircraft models and number of that model that to which the air group
unit could possibly upgrade or downgrade, with number of aircraft in the production pool in
parentheses. Aircraft models in blue text with link are currently available for change out, which
will occur if link is selected (8.1.5).
5.4.19. SELECT AIR GROUP UNIT FROM NATIONAL RESERVE WINDOW
This window is accessed from the air base unit detail window ASSIGN link (5.4.17) and
displays a list of air group units in the Strategic National Reserve as well as allowing the
player to transfer them to air base units. Information provided includes the air group unit
designation, current experience level (EXP), number of ready aircraft (RDY) in the air group unit,
total number (TOT) of aircraft in the air group unit, the model number of the aircraft in the unit
(i.e. HE-111), and the aircraft type (i.e. Level Bomber). Selecting the air group unit designation
will transfer it to the selected air base. The list can be sorted by EXP, RDY, and TOT. Selecting
TYPE brings up a aircraft type filter that allows the player to display all, none or specific types of
aircraft in the reserve. Note that the air group units listed will correspond to the Aviation Range
setting selected for that particular air base unit.
110
5.4.20. GROUND ELEMENT DETAIL WINDOW
This window can be accessed from all unit and city detail windows and provides detailed
information on ground elements as follows:
Name: Ground element name and unit type graphic
Nation: Nationality
Type: Unit type
Men: Number of men in the ground element
Speed: Relative ability of the ground element to manoeuvre. Used in combat computations.
Size: Relative size of the ground element. Used in combat computations.
Front, Side, Top Armour: Relative amount of armour possessed by the ground element. This is
one factor in determining the effectiveness of enemy fire during combat.
Load Cost: Used to determine strategic and air transport costs.
Fuel Use: Used to determine fuel usage for supply purposes.
Ammo Use: Used to determine ammo usage for supply purposes
Reliability: Used to determine if an AFV/Combat vehicle becomes damaged due to mechanical
problems.
Build Cost: Amount of supplies required to produce the item.
First Year: Year when the ground element entered or enters production.
First Month: Month when the ground element entered or enters production.
111
Last Year: Year when production of the ground element ended or will end.
Last Month: Month when production of the ground element ended or will end.
Graphic: Picture of the ground element.
Device information:
»» Device: Number and nomenclature of that type of device.
»» Face: Direction that the device faces when firing.
»» ROF and ACC: Modifier to a device’s base rate of fire (ROF) and accuracy
(ACC). ROF (Rate of Fire) and ACC (Accuracy) are modifiers. ROF is a
negative modifier that is applied to vehicle mounted devices to reflect the
restrictions of operating the device inside the vehicle. ACC is a positive
modifier that increases the accuracy of the device to reflect both a
more stable firing platform and superior optics. For example, from the
game editor, the F-34 76mm gun has a ROF of 10. When mounted on
a T-34, the modifier is set to -5, resulting in an effective ROF of 5.
»» AMMO: Amount of ammunition carried internally by that device.
5.4.21. LEADER DETAIL WINDOW
This window is accessed by selecting the
leader’s name in the applicable headquarters
unit detail window (5.4.16) and provides
information on a leader’s ratings, number of
victories and defeats, command restrictions
and the admin cost to replace the leader
(11.0).
The Leader Detail window provides a picture
of the leader and displays their rank, first
and last name, leader ratings, number of
victories and defeats, command restrictions
(None, Ground only, Air only, SS only),
maximum command allowed (Corps/Army,
Army Group/MD/Front, High Command), and
dismissal cost in admin points, which links
to Pick New Leader window (5.4.22).
112
5.4.22. PICK NEW LEADER WINDOW
This window is accessed from the leader detail window dismissal cost link (5.4.21) and allows
the player to dismiss the current leader of a headquarters unit and select a new leader.
The window lists all leaders eligible to take command of the selected headquarters units.
For each eligible leader, the window displays the admin cost to make the change, leadership
ratings, number of victories and defeats, and, if applicable, the headquarters unit that the
leader currently commands. The current leader’s leadership ratings and number of victories
and defeats is listed at the top of the window for comparison purposes. The sequence of letters
corresponds to the following ratings:
P- Political, M - Morale, I - Initiative, A- Admin, M - Mech, I - Infantry, A - Air, N - Naval, VVictories, D - Defeats.
Selecting a leader will place him in command of the headquarters unit and dismiss the current
leader, who will be returned to the leader pool as an unassigned leader. If the new leader
requires a promotion to assume command of the headquarters unit, there will be a ‘P’ next to
the admin cost (11.4).
113
5.4.23. UNIT TABLE OF EQUIPMENT (TOE) WINDOW
The TOE window can be
accessed from the unit detail
window of all ground units. The
left side of the window displays
the name of the notional unit
type (e.g. 43 Panzer Division)
and details the generic type (i.e.
“medium tank” ground element)
and number of ground elements
required for that type of unit
to be manned and equipped
at 100 percent, to include the
total number of men in a fully
manned unit. The right side of
the window displays the name of the actual unit (e.g. 17th Panzer Division), and details the
actual number of ground elements by generic type in the unit. An additional column compares
the actual number of each ground element to the TOE number as a percentage. For units that
will upgrade to a different TOE, there is a “Show next TOE (OB) upgrade” link at the bottom right
hand side of the window. Selecting that link will take the player to the “TOE Upgrade Window”
(see section 5.4.24). The notional TOE of support unit types can be viewed by using the TOE
link in the Pick Support Unit Type window (5.4.15).
5.4.24. TOE UPGRADE WINDOW
This window is accessed from
the TOE window (5.4.23) and
uses a series of links to display
all future TOE upgrades for that
particular type of unit. The left
side of the screen will show
the current TOE (OB) for that
unit, which includes the actual
type (i.e. Panzer IVf) as well as
number of ground elements
(section 7.2). The right side of
the screen will show the next
TOE (OB) upgrade as well as the
month and year the upgrade will
commence. Links at the bottom right of the window can be selected to cycle back and forth
through all future TOE upgrades in chronological order (Next TOE (OB) and Prev TOE (OB)), or
go back to the TOE window. For example, in 1941, the TOE window for the German 4th Panzer
Division, will show the 41 Panzer Div TOE. By selecting the “Show next TOE (OB) Upgrade link,
114
the current 41 Panzer Div TOE (OB) will be displayed in the left side of the screen and the 42
Panzer Div TOE (OB) will be shown in the right hand with a TOE upgrade commencement date
of April 1942. Selecting “Next TOE (OB)” consecutively will allow the player to view in sequence
the 1943, 1944 and 1945 TOE Upgrades.
5.4.25. PICK NEW HQ WINDOW
This window can be accessed from the HHQ/
OHQ links in the unit detail window of all
ground units to reassign ground units to a
different headquarters unit. The window lists
the eligible headquarters units that the unit
can be reassigned and has four columns as
follows:
RG: Range in hexes to the applicable
headquarters unit.
HQ Unit: Name of the headquarters unit.
Selecting the headquarters unit will immediately reassign the unit to that headquarters. There
is no confirmation text box.
UNITS: Displays the current number of
command points (CPs) of the units attached
to the headquarters unit.
ADMIN COST (MAX): Lists the maximum
cost in number of administrative points to
reassign the unit to the headquarters unit
(12.2.1).
5.4.26. UNIT SUPPLY
DETAIL WINDOW
This window can be accessed from the unit
detail window of all ground units as well as
from the commander’s report unit listings.
The information contained in the window
changes depending whether the unit is
a headquarters unit type (section 7.6.1)
that can deliver supplies to attached units
(section 20.1.5) a combat, air base or rail
repair unit or a support unit. The window
is divided into two parts, current status and
supply details for the turn.
115
5.4.26.1. CURRENT STATUS
With a couple of exceptions, this section is the same for all types of units.
The top part of the screen provides current supply and vehicle status by listing the amount
and percentage of supplies, fuel, ammo and vehicles that are in the unit as compared to the
amount required to reach 100 percent of required supply and vehicles. Below this is the range
in both hexes and movement points (MP) from the unit to the nearest railhead supply source.
For support units, no range information is included. For all other non-HQ units, the range in both
hexes and movement points (MP) to the HQ unit that they are directly attached is also included.
For HQ units that have used supply build up (section 20.7), text to that effect will be displayed
at the top of the current status section.
5.4.26.2. TURN SUPPLY DETAILS (HQ UNITS)
For HQ units that can deliver supply have the
following displays:
Global Supply Stock: Percentage of
supplies in the global stock pool against all
supplies requirements
Supply Received: Tons of supplies received
in each of the two supply delivery subsegments with the number in parentheses
being the total supplies requirement for all
attached units.
Supply Source: City or Urban hex on the
supply grid where the supplies were drawn
from in each of the two supply delivery subsegments.
Global Fuel Stock: Percentage of fuel
in the global stock pool against all fuel
requirements.
Fuel Received: Tons of fuel received in each
of the two supply delivery sub-segments
with the number in parentheses being the
total supplies requirement for all attached
units.
Fuel Source: City or Urban hex on the supply
grid where the fuel was drawn from in each of the two supply delivery sub-segments.
HQ Supply %: The percentage of required supplies for attached units that the HQ was able to
deliver in each of the two supply delivery sub-segments.
116
HQ Fuel %: The percentage of required fuel for attached units that the HQ was able to deliver
in each of the two supply delivery sub-segments.
Cost of Path (MP): The percentage is the supply delivery modifier based on the distance
in movement points (MP) from the applicable unit to the nearest railhead (20.4.3) while the
number is the number of MPs from the unit to the railhead.
Cost of Path (Range): The percentage is the supply delivery modifier based on the distance in
hexes from the applicable unit to the nearest railhead (20.4.3) while the number is the number
of hexes from the unit to the railhead.
Vehicle Pool: The vehicle shortage modifier (20.1.4.1) expressed as a percentage for each of
the two supply delivery sub-segments.
Logistics Level: Logistics help setting (3.3.3)
Axis Rail Supply (Axis units only): Axis supply modifier percentage based on date and
location (20.4.3).
Vehicles Received: Number of generic vehicles received during the logistics phase.
Supplies Consumed: Tons of supplies consumed during the logistics phase.
5.4.26.3. TURN SUPPLY DETAIL (NON-HQ UNITS)
For units that can receive supply from HQ units.
Supplies Received (x%): Tons of supplies received in each of the two supply delivery subsegments. The percentage is the total amount of supplies received against required supplies.
Ammo Received (x%): Tons of ammo received in each of the two supply delivery subsegments. The percentage is the total amount of ammo received against required ammo.
Supplies/Ammo Source: City or Urban hex on the supply grid where the supplies (and ammo
broken out from supplies) was drawn from in each of the two supply delivery sub-segments.
Fuel Received (x%): Tons of fuel received in each of the two supply delivery sub-segments.
The percentage is the total amount of fuel received against required fuel.
Fuel Source: City or Urban hex on the supply grid where the fuel was drawn from in each of
the two supply delivery sub-segments.
MP to HQ: Number of movement points to trace supply from the unit to the HQ unit it is
attached (Not included for support units).
Range to HQ: Number of movement points to trace supply from the unit to the HQ unit it is
attached (Not included for support units)
Cost of Path (MP): The percentage is the supply delivery modifier based on the distance
in movement points (MP) from the applicable unit to the nearest railhead (20.4.3) while the
number is the number of MPs from the unit to the railhead. (Not included for support units)
117
Cost of Path (Range): The percentage is the supply delivery modifier based on the distance in
hexes from the applicable unit to the nearest railhead (20.4.3) while the number is the number
of hexes from the unit to the railhead. (Not included for support units)
Vehicles in Unit: Percentage of organic vehicles assigned to the unit against required number.
Vehicles in Pool: The vehicle shortage modifier (20.1.4.1) expressed as a percentage for each
of the two supply delivery sub-segments.
Logistics Level: Logistics help setting (3.3.3).
Soviet Ammo (Soviet non-HQ units only): Percentage modifier due to Soviet ammo shortages
(20.3.2).
Axis Rail Supply (Axis units only): Axis supply modifier percentage based on date and
location (20.4.3).
Vehicles Received: Number of generic vehicles received during the logistics phase.
Supplies Consumed: Tons of supplies consumed during the logistics phase.
Note that for combat units that buildup, breakdown, or merge during the turn (section 7.5.3),
supply information will be divided out or summed up as appropriate and text to that effect will
be displayed in the turn supply detail section.
5.4.27. CITY DETAIL WINDOW
This window can be accessed from the General Information and City box. The window normally
displays the following information:
118
Name: Name of town, city or urban hex.
Nation: Nationality of town, city or urban hex
Axis/Soviet: Name of Player that currently controls the hex
Population: Population in points, with each point equal to 50,000 people.
Storage: Amount of Supply, Fuel, Oil and Resources currently stored in the town, city or urban
hex
Factories: List of factory types in the town, city or urban hex in three columns as follows:
»» NUM - Number of that type of factory in the hex (factory points)
»» DAM - Percentage of damage currently sustained by that type of factory
»» Name of factory type, with ‘**’ indicating a factory not yet in production
ASSIGN/FORM: links to the Pick Support Unit type window (5.4.15), which allows manual
attachment of anti-aircraft support units to that headquarters. Also allows Soviet town, city and
urban hexes to create anti-aircraft support units at a cost in admin points.
UNITS ATTACHED: Lists anti-aircraft support units attached to that town, city or urban hex.
In strategic rail transport mode (F2), for hexes with Soviet factories capable of evacuation
(14.2.1.2) the following information is displayed:
Name: Name of town, city or urban hex.
Nation: Nationality of town, city or urban hex
Axis/Soviet: Name of Player that currently controls the hex
Population: Population in points, with each point equal to 50000 people.
Rail Cost: Cost in rail capacity to evacuate currently selected Soviet factory points in strategic
rail transport mode (F2).
Factories: List of factory types in the town, city or urban hex eligible to be evacuated in four
columns as follows:
»» NUM - Number of that type of factory in the hex
»» DAM - Percentage of damage currently sustained by that type of factory
»» Name of factory type with number in parentheses the rail
capacity required to evacuate one factory point.
»» MOVE: link used to transfer Soviet factories to another eligible
town city or urban hex. Each eligible factory has >> and
<< buttons to increase the number of factories.
119
5.4.28. PICK TARGET TYPE WINDOW
This window is accessed in bomb city mode (F8) when the phasing player right clicks on a
shaded enemy town, city or urban hex to choose the specific factory target in that hex for a
bomb city air mission (5.3.8). The window displays the name of the town, city or urban hex and
lists the factory types available as targets in three columns as follows:
Name: Name of type of factory with link to pick air units for mission window (5.4.29).
SIZE: Number of that type of factory points in the hex.
DAM: Percentage of damage currently sustained by that type of factory.
5.4.29. PICK AIR UNITS FOR MISSION WINDOW
This window is accessed to manually select air group units by utilizing the appropriate
interface method for the air missions of bomb unit (F6), bomb airfield (F7), bomb city (F8)
and air transport (F9) (5.3). The main part of the window lists air group units eligible to fly the
mission in six columns as follows:
RG: Range in hexes from the air base unit that the air group unit is attached to the target hex
UNIT: Name of the air group unit. Selecting a name selects or de-selects an air group unit for
the mission. Air group unit names shaded yellow have been selected for the mission; units
shaded blue are not participating in the mission. The window may come up with some air
group units pre-selected for the mission by the computer.
TYPE: Model name for the specific aircraft contained in the air group unit, for example Do17Z-2
CLASS: Classification of the general type of aircraft in the air group unit, for example, Level
Bomber. Fighter bombers assigned as bombers will be listed as “Fighter Bomber-B” (see
section 16.1.7)
READY: Number of ready aircraft in the air group unit
USED: Percentage of miles already flown that turn by the air group unit (16.1.1)
For all air missions, the bottom of the window provides the following displays:
Aircraft Totals: Running total of the number of aircraft currently selected for the mission
broken down by fighter (FTR), bomber (BMR), and transport (TPT) aircraft. Fighter Bombers
assigned as bombers will be included in the BMR count.
LAUNCH: Selecting this button will result in the computer conducting the mission with the
currently selected air group units
ABORT: Selecting this button will close the pick air units for mission window without conducting
the mission
SELECT ALL: Selects all listed air group units to conduct the mission
120
DESELECT ALL: De-selects all currently selected air group units
Air transport missions have additional displays as follows:
Air Drop Supply Missions:
»» LIFT TYPE toggles between air drop of supplies/ammo or fuel
»» Lift Tonnage displays the maximum amount of supply
that the selected air group units may air drop
Air Transport or Air Drop of Units:
»» Name of the unit to be transported or air dropped
»» Load Cost - the cost to transport or air drop eligible
weapon elements contained in the unit
»» Required Sorties - the minimum number of sorties that the selected air
group units will need to conduct to transport or air drop the units.
»» Max Sorties - The maximum number of sorties the selected air group
units can conduct and still transport or air drop the unit. Note that the
number of ‘Max Sorties’ must at least equal the number of ‘Required
Sorties’ for the air group units selected to conduct the mission.
5.4.30. FIND HEX/CITY/UNIT/AIR GROUP UNIT WINDOW
This window can be accessed by using the
hotkey (h). It consists of four parts as follows:
Find Hex/City/Unit/Airgroup: Variable header
that changes based on selection made in the
“Find what” section
Search Term Input Box: Interactive input box
used to enter a hex coordinate to find a specific
hex or a search string to locate a town, city, urban
hex, ground unit, or air group unit. The search is
not case sensitive. Left clicking in that section
will bring up the appropriate input box.
Find What Section: Allows the player to select from four types of things to search for, which
are a hex, a city (town, city or urban hex), a unit (on-map or off-map support units), or an air
group unit.
Search Results and “Go to” Section: Displays the result of the search. A “Go to” button takes
the player to the appropriate detail window of the city, unit or air group unit or to the specific
hex location entered. If the search term entered resulted in more than one city, unit or air group
121
unit, the “Find Next” button will display, allowing the player to cycle through all the possible
choices.
5.4.31. PICK UNIT TYPE WINDOW (SOVIET PLAYER ONLY)
This window can be accessed by the Soviet
player selecting the ‘Build New Unit’ button
in the map information tab toolbar (5.1.2.1).
The window consists of a unit type column
that lists combat and headquarters units
available for the Soviet player to create
and an admin cost column that lists the
cost in administrative points to create the
applicable unit. Selecting a unit listed in the
unit type column will automatically expend
the listed number of admin points and
create a unit of that type (18.1.2). There is
no confirmation dialog box. The Pick Unit
Type window will automatically shift to the
unit detail window of the newly created unit
upon selection of that unit.
6. MAP AND TERRAIN
The map displays the physical and political features of the area where the War in the East
primarily took place, to include the major rail networks. A hex grid has been superimposed to
regulate movement, combat and supply. Weather effects (22.0) have also been integrated into
the map and terrain.
6.1. MAP AREA
Each hex on the map represents an area of 10 miles and is classified as one specific type
of terrain, though there may be additional features present in the hex or hex sides. Hexes
can contain towns, which can have factories. Towns do not normally have any terrain effect,
however Axis ground units located in hexes with towns may not be affected by the first winter
rule (22.3). Rivers and less than full hex lakes follow hex sides and can increase or block
movement across applicable hex sides. Hexes may also be defined as coastal, allowing for the
presence of ports in towns, city and urban hexes as well as naval movement. City and urban
hexes as well as hexes with towns have a permanent population represented by points where
one point is equivalent to 50,000 people. This represents the population that was in the city
and the surrounding area as of June 22, 1941. Population is used to determine the density of
the built up area in the hex, represented by the designations of Heavy Urban, Light Urban, City
122
or Town. The Manpower in a hex, is different from population, though equal to it as of June
22, 1941, and is represented by factory points that can change due to combat, starvation and
migration. Manpower thus represents the current recruiting potential of a town, city or urban
hex and its surroundings, and is what generates replacement soldiers during the game. City
and urban hexes are further sub-divided by population as cities or major cities and national
capitals are also marked as appropriate. Rail networks are represented by rail lines in hexes,
which are used for strategic movement and supply as well as to delineate mountain passes.
6.1.1. MAP BOUNDARY AREAS
The map is marked by various dashed and dotted lines that delineate different boundary areas
as follows:
National Borders
German No Move Line: Marks the area that German units are
prohibited from moving into in Finland (19.1.2)
Finnish No Move Line: Marks the area that Finnish units are
prohibited from moving south and east of in the Soviet Union
(19.1.2).
Finnish No Attack Line: Marks the area that Finnish units are
prohibited from attacking in unless Leningrad is Axis controlled
(19.1.2).
Baltic Rail Zone: Delineates the area in the former Baltic
Republics where compatibility of rail gauge makes repair of rail
lines easier for the Axis player in the first six months of the
war (14.2.2).
Axis Ally Limit Line: Marks the area that Hungarian,
Rumanian, Italian and Slovakian Axis allied units are prohibited
from moving North of on the map (19.1.1).
6.2. TERRAIN
The below terrain types and features are represented on the map area and can affect movement,
combat and supply. See section 14.0 for impact on tactical and strategic movement and 15.3.1
for impact on combat.
6.2.1. TYPES OF TERRAIN HEXES
Each hex on the map is classified as one of the below terrain types. All terrain except clear is
considered covered terrain for air reconnaissance purposes (13.1).
123
Clear
City
Light Urban
Heavy Urban
Light Woods
Heavy Woods
Rough
Mountain
Swamp
Ocean/Sea/Lake hexes (No tactical movement, but strategic naval/
amphibious movement and supply trace possible)
124
6.2.2. TERRAIN FEATURES
The following terrain features can be in addition to the terrain type in a hex. Some are purely
political features, but others can impact movement, combat and supply.
Coast: feature of any type of terrain bordering ocean and sea hexes.
Coastal hexes may be eligible for beachhead supply (20.2.1), as
well as use for strategic naval transport or strategic amphibious
movement (14.2.3).
Port: Feature and factory that may be located in town, city or urban
hexes in coastal hexes. May generate strategic naval and amphibious
movement capacity points and allow such movement, sea interdiction,
and serve as supply sources for other coastal hexes.
Railroad: Rail lines run through hexes, with undamaged and linked
rail lines forming a rail network that serves to link each sides supply
grid. Note that rail hexes that are adjacent to enemy units are
considered not connected to the rail network. These hexes may not
be used for strategic rail movement and are not considered rail lines
for supply purposes (20.1).
Mountain Pass: Mountain hexes with rail lines passing through
them. If a unit enters a mountain pass through a hex side with a rail
line and there is no enemy Zone of Control (EZOC) in that hex, the cost
to enter the hex is substantially reduced.
Town: Terrain feature that can contain factories and may assist Axis
units in offsetting the effect of the first winter rule (22.3). Towns have
a population of from 0 to 4. Towns with a population of 0 represent
areas that have a size smaller than the 50,000 people represented by
one population point.
City: Terrain feature that normally indicates a city terrain hex with
population between 5 and 24.
Major City: Terrain feature that indicates an urban hex with a
population greater than 25.
National Capital: Terrain feature that indicates the capital city of
most nations on the map area. The national capitals of Germany
(Berlin) and the Soviet Union (Moscow) are indicated by special
symbols, an Iron Cross and a Red Star, respectively.
125
Minor River hexside: Affects movement point costs and combat.
Major River hexside: Affects movement point costs and combat.
Impassable Lake or River: Blocks movement, combat and supply
trace.
6.3. HEXES AND ZONES OF CONTROL
6.3.1. CONTROL OF HEXES
Hexes are either friendly (controlled by the phasing player), enemy (controlled by the nonphasing player), or pending friendly, which are hexes that have been taken during the current
126
turn and will switch ownership at the end of the phasing players turn. Headquarters units are
not allowed to move into enemy hexes, but may move into pending friendly hexes, representing
the inability of headquarter units to move through areas that have not been cleared by combat
units during the current turn. There are additional costs for all units moving into enemy and
pending friendly hexes to account for both timing issues and the inherent difficulty involved
in movement through recently cleared areas (14.1.5). Enemy controlled hexes block tracing
of supply, commitment of support units from headquarters during combat, and provision of
support squad ground elements to units from headquarters units during the logistics phase.
6.3.2. ZONES OF CONTROL
Zones of Control (ZOC) represent the ability of ground combat units to exert control over the
map area in their vicinity and the area that they move through. In Gary Grigsby’s War in the
East, ZOC’s are used to change enemy hexes into pending friendly hexes as well as to increase
the cost of moving or tracing supply out of or between enemy units with ZOC’s. All combat
units have a ZOC that extends into the six adjacent hexes surrounding each unit for purposes
of increasing the cost of enemy units moving out of a ZOC as well as from ZOC to ZOC. Routed
or depleted combat units, headquarters units, rail repair units and air base units do not have
a ZOC.
6.3.3. CONVERSION OF ENEMY HEXES
For purposes of converting enemy hexes into pending friendly hexes, ZOCs are only effective
for larger combat units. All combat units convert the hex they enter as they move into a
pending friendly hex. Division and Corps sized combat units convert the hex they enter, and
any unoccupied adjacent hexes in their ZOC unless the unoccupied hex is also in the ZOC of
an enemy combat unit. Brigade and regimental size combat unit ZOC will not convert adjacent
enemy hexes into pending friendly hexes. Supply can be traced through an enemy ZOC as
long as the hex is friendly controlled or pending friendly, albeit at an increased distance due
to additional movement point costs (20.4.1). The trace and range that headquarter units can
provide support squad ground elements to other units are calculated in the same manner
(7.6.4).
HQ units must be able to trace a path of no more than five hexes through friendly or pending
friendly hexes to combat units in order to provide support units during combat (15.4).
6.3.4. CONVERSION OF ISOLATED HEXES
During the phasing players logistics phase, any friendly hexes that cannot trace a path of
friendly hexes to a friendly unit will automatically become enemy hexes. In addition, friendly
hexes that are not adjacent to a friendly combat unit that can only trace a path of friendly hexes
to isolated friendly units will also become enemy hexes. These cases represent the conversion
of an empty isolated enemy pocket and the contraction of an existing pocket containing
isolated enemy units respectively.
127
6.4. STACKING
A maximum of three on-map units, no matter what
the type, size or status, may be in a hex at one time.
Units can move through a hex with three units already
present, but will be unable to stop in that hex. Combat
unit breakdown can only take place if the broken down
units will not exceed stacking limits (7.5.3).
7. GROUND UNITS
Ground units consist of combat, headquarters, and support units. Air base and rail repair units
are unique types of headquarter units. Combat and headquarters, units are on-map units.
Support units are attached to headquarter and eligible combat units and are normally off-map.
The exceptions are some labor and construction battalions that are automatically detached
and appear on-map while conducting rail repair. All ground units consist of a certain type
and number of ground elements and have a Table of Equipment (TOE) that determines the
number and type of those ground elements that are required for the unit to be fully manned
and equipped. All ground units have a combat value (CV), which may be zero.
7.1. COMBAT VALUE (CV)
All ground units have a combat value (CV) that is used to determine the results of a battle. The
unit CV is equal to the sum of the individual CV’s for each ground element in the combat or
support unit. The CV is representative of the ability to take or hold territory, often referred to as
“boots on the ground.” Thus the CV ratings of ground elements are weighted toward infantry
and AFV ground elements, while artillery and other guns, though they have good firepower,
tend to have low CV’s (26.1.4). Unlike fixed combat factors that are found in other games,
the CV in Gary Grigsby’s War in the East is a calculated value that can only provide players
an idea of the combat ability of the unit. Displayed Unit CV’s are determined by a complex
128
formula that takes into account the different ground elements making up the unit as well as
unit morale, experience, fatigue, leadership and supply. CV values displayed for units are nonrandom approximations of what in combat is a series of die rolls and thus somewhat random
values, so no single CV can be more than a guide to how the unit will perform in any particular
combat. When Fog of War (FOW) is enabled the accuracy of the CV will be further degraded as
the detection level (DL) decreases (13.0).
7.1.1. INITIAL AND MODIFIED COMBAT VALUE IN BATTLES
At the beginning of combat the initial CV is displayed on the combat resolution report and
then, after combat is finished, the resulting modified CV is displayed as well. The resulting
ratio between attacker and defender modified combat values is used to determine whether
the defenders held their position or will be forced to retreat, rout or shatter (15.8). The combat
value displayed on the counters and as the initial CV in the combat resolution window can be
radically different from the modified CV shown at the end of the battle, not only due to combat
losses, but due to the many random factors and leader rating checks that occur to determine
the modified combat value. In addition, note that calculated CV’s are fairly large numbers, so
for ease of visualization the CV displayed on the unit counter on the map and in the unit bar
are divided by 100 and rounded down, while the unit CV’s displayed in the combat resolution
display have been reduced by a factor of 10 and rounded down. The CV displayed on a unit
counter will not be less than one unless it is a HQ, depleted or routed unit (7.1.3), but realize
that due to rounding, on-map units with a CV of one could have an actual CV that ranges
between 1000 and 1999, a substantial spread (15.8).
7.1.2. VEHICLE SHORTAGE CV MODIFIER
The CV modifier for units with a shortage of vehicles (15.6.2) is reflected in the CV values shown
on the unit counters. However, since it does not impact defending units unless committing from
reserve and since static units cannot attack, this modifier will not impact the CV values on the
counters for static units, and will not impact the defense CV value shown for all units (the value
shown after the equal sign). It continues to be reflected in the normal CV value of non-static
units.
7.1.3. ZERO CV UNITS
To reflect their inability to participate in ground combat, some ground units will have a combat
value (CV) of zero and will perform an automatic displacement move (15.10) if an enemy
combat unit moves adjacent unless they are stacked with a friendly combat unit with a CV of
at least one. A unit with a CV of zero will not participate in combat, but may take losses due
to being forced to retreat or displace. Headquarter units will always have a combat value (CV)
of zero. Units in a routed or depleted (Actual TOE of ten percent or less) state will also have a
CV of zero.
129
7.2. GROUND ELEMENTS AND TABLES OF EQUIPMENT (TOE)
7.2.1. GROUND ELEMENTS
All ground units are composed of multiple types and numbers of ground elements, which are
individual squads, guns, AFV’s, or other combat vehicles such as halftracks and armoured cars.
Ground elements consist of manpower and equipment. Each ground element has attributes of
speed, size and armour, which is zero for all ground elements except for AFV and other combat
vehicles. Ground elements are equipped with devices that represent the actual weapons
they would fire (or throw/emplace for devices such as grenades and satchel charges) during
combat. For AFV and combat vehicles, the equipped devices are considered part of the vehicle
and may have their rate of fire modified to reflect the restrictions of operating the device inside
the vehicle. The men that are part of the AFV or combat vehicle ground element are inside the
vehicle operating it and employing the equipped devices. For other types of ground elements,
the men employ the equipped devices directly, whether the device is a 150mm Howitzer or a
hand grenade. Large (20mm or greater) direct fire devices may have a positive modifier that
increases the accuracy of the device to reflect both a more stable firing platform and superior
130
optics. Each device in turn is rated for range, accuracy, rate of fire, ability to affect different
types of targets (air, personnel, vehicles), and ability to penetrate armour.
7.2.1.1. SUPPORT SQUAD GROUND ELEMENTS
A significant number of ground elements in all units are support squads, which provide the
administrative and logistical backbone required for a unit to operate effectively, to include
fatigue reduction. Note that, despite the similarity in name, support squads and support units
are different entities. Just like any other ground unit, support units are made up of a number
of ground elements, with a significant number of those ground elements being support squad
ground elements. While each unit has a TOE for support squad ground elements, the actual
requirement for support squads, listed by ‘NEED’ in the unit’s detail window, is based on the
current strength of the unit and is recalculated during each logistics phase. The support need
of an air base unit is based on both the number and type of aircraft and anti-aircraft ground
elements attached to that unit. If a HQ unit has fewer support squads than its ‘NEED’ its leader
will have their admin skill rating decreased when conducting admin checks. If losses to the
rest of the unit result in excess support squads, some may be converted to rifle squad ground
elements or returned to the production pool during the replacement phase (18.2).
131
7.2.2. TABLE OF EQUIPMENT (TOE)/UNIT LEVEL ORDER OF BATTLE (OB)
The number and type of ground elements in a unit is determined by its Table of Equipment
(TOE), which can be actual or prescribed as well as listed using either generic or specific types
of ground elements. The prescribed TOE lists the ground elements the unit would contain if
it was at 100 percent manpower and equipment. The actual TOE lists the ground elements
that are currently in the unit. The generic TOE, referred to as TOE, lists the type of ground
element, for example, medium tank ground element or heavy artillery ground element, while
the specific TOE, referred to as TOE (OB), lists the actual ground element, for example T-34
M1942 and 152mm Gun-Howitzer ground elements. Note that the term TOE (OB) is used to
differentiate between the generic and specific type of TOE because the term for the specific
TOE in the game program and the game editor is OB, which describes the unit level Order of
Battle. There is a prescribed TOE for every type of ground unit in the game and that unit’s detail
window displays the overall percentage of the actual TOE compared to the prescribed TOE as
well as a link to a detailed ground element by ground element TOE comparison (5.4.22), which
also links to the TOE upgrade window if applicable (5.4.23). The unit detail window is in TOE
(OB) format, the TOE window is in TOE format, and the TOE Upgrade window is in the TOE (OB)
format. The computer will use a unit’s actual TOE as compared to its notional TOE to determine
what ground elements will be provided as replacements during the logistics phase (18.2). The
actual TOE of a unit will often not match its current prescribed TOE. This can be for numerous
reasons, to include losses, unavailability of replacements, transition to an upgraded TOE and
even downgrade of specific ground element types due to a surplus of old equipment and a
lack of new equipment.
The number of men listed in the unit detail window showing the actual TOE (OB) does not
include the manpower in support units that are attached to the unit. However, the manpower
numbers displayed in the unit bar do include the support units that are attached to that unit.
7.2.2.1. TOE UPGRADES
Prescribed ground unit TOEs may change during the game, resulting in an upgrade in the
applicable unit’s actual TOE. Any resulting change in ground elements will generally take place
gradually over a number of turns rather than all at once. A unit will not change its TOE if it is
more than 30 MPs from a railhead.
132
TOEs are segregated by type of unit and time of the War. For example, there is a prescribed
panzer division TOE for every year of the War. Not only are there separate TOEs for unit types
(e.g. armor versus infantry) but separate TOEs even within types. For example, the elite SS
divisions at times will have three different TOEs running simultaneously. Players can view
future upgrades by accessing a particular units TOE window (5.4.22 and 5.4.23).
When a TOE upgrade occurs, ground elements will be sent back to the pool if there is none of
the same generic type of ground element (i.e. AT-gun, Heavy Tank) in the new TOE. Otherwise
they remain and thus can cause some types to exceed 100 percent of the new TOE. A specific
type of ground element is not eligible for additional replacements, however, until it falls below
100 percent of its prescribed allowance. In addition if a unit contains more than 125 percent of
the TOE need of a specific ground element, there is a chance each turn that the unit will return
some of the over-strength ground elements to the production pool.
7.2.2.2. GROUND ELEMENT UPGRADE/DOWNGRADE AND SWAPS
Ground elements may change to different ground elements of the same or a different type
during the ground element segment of the player’s logistics phase (4.2). In the upgrade subsegment, the ground element may upgrade in accordance with its upgrade path as listed in the
ground element detail window (5.4.20) and the city production list window (5.4.4). It may also
downgrade to older equipment (21.1.9.1). Many upgrades will remain within the same ground
element type (e.g. Rifle Squad, Medium Tank, Heavy Artillery, etc.), but some will result in a
change of type, including AFV in which the upgrade is based on the equipment chassis (i.e.
Panzer 38(t) Light Tank to Marder III Light Tank Destroyer).
In the swap sub-segment, the computer may change out existing ground elements with
ground elements of the same type, but not necessarily along the upgrade/downgrade path.
For example, a Panzer IVg is a medium tank ground element, which upgrades to the Panzer
IVh and downgrades to the Panzer IVf2. In the swap sub-segment, however, Panzer IVg ground
elements may be changed out to another medium tank, such as a Panzer IIIj L/60, or even
captured Soviet T-34 M1941 ground elements, depending on the availability of medium tank
equipment in the production pool.
7.3. DEPLETED AND UNREADY UNITS
Depleted Units: Units at 10% or less of TOE are in a depleted status, have no ZOC and will
automatically displace if they end up next to an enemy unit and not stacked with a combat unit
that is in a ready or unready status. These units are listed as “Depleted” and if set to Refit then
they will have two asterisks next to the word Refit (Refit**).
Unready Units: Units that have the sum of their current morale and actual TOE percentage
equalling less than 100 are in an unready status. Unready combat units do have a ZOC, but
may only conduct an attack if they have not expended any movement points during the turn
(15.6.3). These units are listed as “Unready” and if set to Refit then they will have one asterisk
next to the word Refit (Refit*).
133
7.4. SUPPORT UNITS
Support units are single purpose independent battalions, brigades and regiments of various
types, to include artillery, howitzer, mortar, rocket, anti-tank, anti-aircraft, ski, engineer, sapper,
tank, tank destroyer, construction, and labor groups. With the exception of construction
battalions, which can be automatically detached to repair rail lines, support units will not
appear on the map, but will be attached to headquarters and certain combat units and will
be listed in the detail window of the unit to which they are attached. Rules for attachment
and transfer of support units can be found in sections 7.5.2 and 7.6.3. Construction and labor
support units are used to assist in the building of hex fortification levels and the repair of
rail lines. All other support units are used to assist combat units in battle, either from an
eligible headquarters unit not more than five hexes away from the battle, or from being directly
attached to a combat unit participating in the battle (15.4).
Support units are always in refit status, with the exception of detached construction battalions.
Though they have no organic movement capability, support units will consume supplies and
fuel and gain fatigue when units to which they are attached are moved. They will also take
combat and non-combat losses and suffer retreat attrition along with the unit to which they
are attached.
7.4.1. ANTIAIRCRAFT SUPPORT UNITS IN CITIES
Antiaircraft (AA) type support units can be attached directly to a town, city or urban hex for
air defense. AA units are required to be in a High Command headquarters unit (7.6.1) prior
to transfer to a town, city or urban hex, though a Soviet town, city or urban hex can spend
admin points to create an AA unit in the hex itself (18.1.3). German and Soviet AA units can
be transferred from OKH/STAVKA to any friendly town, city or urban hex. Axis Allied AA units
may be transferred from the applicable High Command HQ unit, but only to town, city or urban
hexes of that particular nationality.
To reflect the political cost of decreasing urban air defense, Antiaircraft units cannot be
disbanded while attached to a town, city or urban hex. In addition AA units in town, city or
urban hexes can only be transferred back to their highest headquarters at a significant cost in
134
admin points (12.2.3). A maximum of nine AA units may be attached to a single town, city or
urban hex. AA units attached to town, city or urban hex are destroyed if the hex is captured or
destroyed/removed as applicable if in an Axis Allied country that surrenders (19.1.4).
7.5. COMBAT UNITS
Combat units are the on-map regimental, brigade,
divisional and Corps sized units that manoeuvre to take
control of enemy territory and engage enemy units in
battle. Combat units that are not in a routed or depleted
state have a positive, non-zero Combat Value (CV) and
exert a Zone of Control (ZOC) into their six adjacent
hexes (6.3.2). Combat units are the only ground units
that can convert enemy controlled hexes to pending
friendly hexes (6.3.3). Certain combat units can build
up into larger size units or break down into smaller
size units (7.5.3). There are several types of combat
units that have special characteristics or can perform
specific missions. Non-motorized combat units can be transported by air between friendly
air base units and airborne brigade/regimental sized units can be air dropped into a hex not
occupied by an enemy unit. Security combat units count double when meeting anti-partisan
garrison requirements. Fortified Zones and Regions are immobile combat units that are used
primarily to build fortification levels. Some combat units, to include fortified zones and regions,
German Division, and Soviet Corps, can directly attach support units, which are automatically
committed to any battle they participate in.
7.5.1. FORTIFIED REGIONS AND ZONES
Fortified regions (Soviet) and zones (Axis) are special
combat units designed to supplement regular combat
units by assisting in the construction of fortified hexes,
helping to avoid the decay of fortification levels and
add additional support units to the defense of the hex it
occupies. Fortified units have zero movement points and
can never move. Fortified units can be created through
the expenditure of admin points by either player by
selecting a hex and then selecting the “Create fortified
unit” button on the map information tab (5.1.2.1).
Fortified regions and zones can be placed in any friendly
controlled hex, with the exception that Players may not
build Fortified units in a hex next to an enemy combat unit unless that hex is also occupied by
a friendly combat unit. Though there will be exceptions, most fortified zones built in Finland will
be Finnish, most fortified zones built in Rumania will be Rumanian (until Rumania surrenders),
135
and most fortified zones built in Hungary will be Hungarian (until Hungary surrenders). Fortified
units can be disbanded like any other unit, with the exception that they do not need to be three
hexes away from enemy units (18.5). Fortified units can directly attach up to three support
units of any type.
7.5.2. ATTACHMENT OF SUPPORT UNITS TO COMBAT UNITS
The player can manually attach support units (SU) to some types of combat units (CU). Unlike
support units attached to headquarters units that require passing of a commitment check
before they can be committed to a battle, support units directly attached to combat units are
automatically committed, though only to a battle that combat unit is a participant (15.4). Direct
attachment thus provides certainty at the expense of flexibility. German Divisions and Soviet
Corps can directly attach up to three support units while numbered German regimental and
Soviet Tank and Mech Corps brigade break down units (i.e. 3/129 regiment) can attach one
support unit, but they cannot attach construction, labor, artillery, mortar, and rocket support
units, or support units with the designations LW or PVO. Fortified Region and Zone units can
attach up to three of any type support unit. Note that Soviet Corps combat units, such as Rifle
and Cavalry Corps, that were built up from divisions will have any attached support units reassigned and be unable to attach any support units while the unit is broken down into divisions.
7.5.2.1. SU TO CU ATTACHMENT PROCEDURE
Players can physically manage support unit attachments through the detail window of eligible
combat units (5.4.13). The “ASSIGN/FORM” button can be selected to access the “PICK
SUPPORT UNIT TYPE” window to select an available support unit to transfer to that combat
unit. To transfer the attachment of a support unit from a combat unit to another headquarters
unit, the player selects the support unit to bring up its detail window and then selects the HHQ
or OHQ link to bring up a list of eligible headquarters units to which it can be transferred. There
is no automatic transfer of support units to or from combat units.
136
7.5.2.2. SU TO CU ATTACHMENT RESTRICTIONS
There is no range limitation to the transfer of support unit attachments; however, combat units
must be in supply in order to transfer support units. Changing support unit attachments may
require the expenditure of admin points (12.2.3). A specific support unit attachment can only
be transferred once per turn and will be marked with an asterisk in the combat unit detail
window to denote that it cannot be transferred again that turn. Axis Allied support units cannot
be attached to combat units of a different nationality. For example, Finnish support units cannot
be attached to a German Panzer Division.
7.5.3. COMBAT UNIT BUILDUP, BREAKDOWN AND MERGING
Certain combat units can be built up into larger formations or broken down into smaller units. In
addition, an equivalent size or smaller combat unit can be merged into another combat unit of
the same type, eliminating the former and strengthening the latter. Units building up or merging
must be in the same hex in movement mode. Unit buildup or breakdown is accomplished by
selecting the unit(s) and then either left clicking the buildup/breakdown button on the map
information tool bar (5.1.2.1) or using the hotkey ‘b’. Soviet units with zero MPs may not
buildup into corps. Breakdowns cannot exceed stacking limitations, so combat units can only
breakdown if they are the only unit in the hex. For Soviet units that require the expenditure
of admin points to initially buildup (form), the expenditure will take place upon selecting the
button or hotkey without any confirmation text box.
7.5.3.1. SOVIET BUILDUP AND BREAKDOWN AVAILABILITY
The Soviet ability to buildup or breakdown units is determined by date and type of unit as
follows:
Rifle Division (22 June 41): Two or more rifle brigades can buildup into a rifle division. Note
that Soviet rifle divisions may not breakdown into brigades. Naval brigades cannot buildup into
divisions. See below for buildup of airborne brigades.
Cavalry Corps (December 41): Three cavalry divisions can buildup into a cavalry corps. A
cavalry corps can be broken down into three cavalry divisions.
Tank Corps (April 42): Three tank brigades can buildup into a tank corps. A tank corps may be
broken down into three tank brigades (designated 1/2/3), but may only be built up again if all
three are in the same hex (7.5.3.2).
Guards Rifle Division (March 1942): Three Airborne Brigades can buildup into a rifle division,
which will automatically be given Guards status. Airborne brigades may not buildup with any
other type of unit.
Rifle Corps (June 42): Three rifle divisions or two rifle divisions and one rifle brigade can
buildup into a rifle corps. A rifle corps may be broken down into three rifle divisions (7.5.3.3).
Mechanized Corps (September 42): Three mechanized or motorized brigades can buildup
into a mechanized corps. A mechanized corps may be broken down into three mechanized
137
brigades (designated 1/2/3), but may only be built up again if all three are in the same hex
(7.5.3.2).
Guards Airborne Division (January 1943): Three airborne brigades can buildup into an
airborne division, which will automatically be given Guards status. Airborne brigades may not
buildup with any other type of unit.
7.5.3.2. SOVIET TANK AND MECHANIZED CORPS
There will be a 20 point admin cost the first time
the Soviet player builds up (forms) a Soviet tank or
mechanized corps. It takes three tank brigades to create
a tank corps, and three mechanized and or motorized
brigades to create a mechanized corps. Once formed,
they can break down into three brigades numbered 1/2/3
and may only build back up together. There Soviet tank
and mechanized corps will suffer a 25 percent experience
loss from the existing units’ experience when they are first
formed. A broken down Soviet tank or mechanized corps
with brigades designated 1/2/3 may assign one support
unit to each brigade. When the parent corps is first broken
down, any attached support units will be divided up one
per brigade. If the parent corps is reformed, all support
units attached to the 1/2/3 brigades will once again be
attached to the parent corps.
7.5.3.3. SOVIET CAVALRY AND RIFLE CORPS
There will be an admin point cost the first time the Soviet
player builds up (forms) a particular rifle (10 admin points)
or cavalry (5 admin points) corps. There is no admin point
cost for any subsequent break down and build up of a
corps using the same divisions it was initially built from.
Divisions from broken down corps will be bordered in blue
on the map area when one or more of the broken down
units from the same larger unit has been selected. The
combat unit detail window for the rifle or cavalry corps
will list the names of the divisions making up that unit
directly under the corps combat unit name (5.4.13).
138
Though rifle and cavalry Corps are considered one combat unit, information on the divisions
that make up the corps, to include designations, guards status, and number of wins/losses,
will continue to be maintained until the corps or one of its component divisions is destroyed
or disbanded. For rifle corps formed by the player, guards conversion can occur after two of
its component divisions are converted to guards status if the rifle corps is otherwise eligible
(9.2.2)
Game Play Info: The major difference between tank and mechanized
corps versus rifle and cavalry corps is that that tank/mech corps have
unique TOEs they follow while rifle/cavalry corps combat units are
simply the sum of three divisions. Therefore while you can form a tank
corps from three tank brigades, the TOE of a tank corps is not the same
as the TOE of a tank brigade times three (i.e. tank corps contain ground
elements not found in tank brigades).
7.5.3.4. AXIS BREAKDOWN AND BUILDUP
Certain Axis divisions can breakdown into three regimental equivalent combat units numbered
1/2/3. The same three sub-units can be built back up into a division if they are in the same
hex. Broken down German or Finnish divisions with regiments designated 1/2/3 may assign
one support unit to each regiment. When the parent division is first broken down, any attached
support units will be divided up one per regiment. If the parent division is reformed, all support
units attached to the 1/2/3 regiments will once again be attached to the parent division.
7.5.3.5. SPECIAL RULES FOR REGIMENTAL AND BRIGADE SIZE UNITS
Combat units smaller than a division, to include broken down units, do not take control of hexes
in their ZOC, just hexes that they move through (6.3.3). These regimental/brigade size units pay
two additional MP’s when moving into an enemy hex. Numbered (1/2/3) regiments or brigades
broken down from German divisions or Soviet tank/mechanized corps will be bordered in blue
on the map area when one or more of the broken down units from the same larger unit has
been selected.
7.5.3.6. MERGING UNITS
Under certain circumstances, two combat units of the same type can merge together, resulting
in one stronger unit. In order to merge, there must be another unit of the same type (infantry,
armour, motorized, etc.) in the hex. The merging unit must be of smaller or equal size to the
gaining unit. For example, a brigade could merge into another brigade, division or corps, but
a division could not merge into a brigade. In order to merge, the sum of the ready ground
elements of the two units cannot exceed 100 percent of the TOE of the unit that will remain.
If the merging unit is a smaller size unit, than only one third of its TOE percentage counts. For
example, if a brigade with 90 percent of its TOE was merging into a Corps with 70 percent TOE,
the sum would still meet the requirement as 90 divided by 3 would be 30, which added to 70
is just 100. When the merge is completed, all elements of the merging unit will be placed in
139
the gaining unit, and the merging unit is considered destroyed and permanently removed from
the game. Merging is accomplished by selecting the ‘MERGE’ link in the detail window of the
combat unit (5.4.13) that will be merging with the other combat unit.
7.5.4. STATIC COMBAT UNITS
At the start of summer in 1942 the northern half of the Eastern Front included numerous ‘crazy’
salients. Most of these salients remained in place for nearly a year. The Germans successfully
reduced a salient on the Volkhov front and the Soviets made one failed attempt to reduce the
Rzhev salient through Operation Mars. The Demayansk salient remained unchallenged for a
year. The German army stripped many of the units in these areas of their vehicles and had
them dig in deep and reduce their fuel consumption in order to focus resources in areas where
offensives were planned. To simulate this practice, the player has the ability to place combat
units in static mode during the game, turning in their organic vehicles for use by other units or
the supply motor pool. The at-start forces in some scenarios may have units already in static
mode.
7.5.4.1. SETTING COMBAT UNITS TO STATIC MODE
Any non-isolated, non-frozen combat unit on the map may be placed in static mode if that unit
has not moved during the turn and is currently located in a hex with a man made fortification
level of two or greater (computer players are not held to the fort level requirement). Exception:
Finnish units may never be placed in static mode. Combat units are placed in static mode by
selecting the hex they are in and then selecting the “STATIC” button on the desired counter in
the unit bar. Note that the “STATIC” button will not be displayed if the combat unit is not eligible
to be placed in static mode. The unit will immediately be reduced to zero MPs for that turn and
all of that unit’s vehicles will be immediately returned to the motor pool (keep in mind that there
are many vehicles in HQ units and in the supply system that are still being used by the unit,
but it is assumed that the unit has given up all of its organic vehicles). The phasing player will
immediately receive an admin point bonus based on the number of organic vehicles returned
to the motor pool that is equal to one plus the number of organic vehicles returned divided by
one hundred, with any fractions rounded down. The number of vehicles and the admin point
gain will be shown to the player prior to confirmation of static mode. Static units have only
one Movement Point per turn until they are reactivated, but they may use Strategic Movement
(rail or sea transport). Static units fortify 10 percent faster than non-static units. A unit in static
mode will not be able to set to refit or reserve mode, nor will it be able to combine into larger
units (e.g. German regiments into a division or Soviet Rifle Divisions into a Rifle Corps). Static
units will not suffer a vehicle shortage penalty for when drawing supplies or fuel from the unit’s
HQ as long as the distance between the HQ and the unit is both less than 4 hexes and less
than 10 MPs. Static units cannot merge or combine with non-static units. Static units cannot
disband (18.5). Units in static mode will appear bordered in white when the Info screen tab
View Unit Modes button (Shift-R hotkey) has been toggled on (5.1.2.1).
140
7.5.4.2. REACTIVATING STATIC COMBAT UNITS
Non-isolated static units that have not moved yet may be
reactivated at any time during the movement phase by
spending admin points. Combat units are reactivated by
selecting the hex they are in and then either selecting the
“REACTIVATE” button on the desired counter in the unit
bar or using hotkey Shift-y to reactivate all static units
in the hex. Static units may not be reactivated the same
turn they are made static. Combat units may not attack
on the turn that they are reactivated from static mode.
Activated units will immediately receive 50 percent of
their vehicle requirement from the pool and 50 percent of their maximum movement points (25
for motorized, 11 for cavalry and 8 for infantry types). The admin cost for activations is equal to
two plus the number of organic vehicles required by that unit divided by fifty, with any fractions
rounded down. For example, a static 17th Panzer Division that requires 1318 vehicles would
cost 28 admin points to reactivate (2 + 1318/50 = 28.36, rounding down to 28).
Units that retreat as a result of combat are automatically reactivated at no additional admin
cost.
Units that begin their turn isolated will automatically be reactivated at no admin cost, although
they will not receive vehicles until a logistics phase when they are no longer isolated. Once
reactivated their movement points for each turn will be calculated in the standard way, with the
lack of vehicles most likely reducing their movement points.
7.5.5. SS DIVISION RE-DESIGNATION
Four German SS motorized divisions assigned to the Eastern Front in June 1941 were still
using their non-numeric names. These units will eventually change their names to numbered
SS Panzer Divisions as follows:
LAH to 1st SS Panzer Division
Das Reich to 2nd SS Panzer Division
Totenkopf to 3rd SS Panzer Division
Wiking to 5th SS Panzer Division
Note that some of these divisions become Panzergrenadier divisions before they change to
numbered Panzer divisions.
7.6. HEADQUARTER UNITS (HQ)
Headquarter units provide a chain of command for command and control of units in Gary
Grigsby’s War in the East. With the exception of High Command headquarters units, all units,
141
to include support and air group units, have a higher headquarters unit to which they are
attached. The current command and control arrangement for the phasing player can be viewed
either through the Order of Battle (OOB) screen in the info screens tab (5.1.2.2) or through
the Commanders Report (5.4.9). For on-map units, this immediate higher headquarters unit
can provide logistical and combat support if within the applicable range. There is no limit to
the number of combat units that can be attached to a Headquarters unit, however, ground
headquarter units that exceed their normal capacity, termed command capacity, will become
less effective. Most combat units will normally be attached to lower level headquarters units,
however, direct attachment of combat units to any ground headquarters unit is permitted. Note
that air headquarters units, air base units, and rail repair units cannot attach combat units and
each type has different attachment rules and restrictions (7.6.1). With the exception of air base
units, any headquarters unit can attach support units, though there are some restrictions based
on both the type of HQ units and the type of support units (7.6.3).
7.6.1. HEADQUARTER UNIT TYPES
There are six types of headquarter (HQ) units as follows:
High Command headquarters units (Type 1): Each
nation represented in the game has a High Command
headquarters unit, one of which all other units on that
side are ultimately attached. These headquarters units
do not have a higher headquarters and effectively
report to themselves. High Command headquarters
units cannot be disbanded. Unfrozen units can be
transferred from these headquarter units even if the HQ
unit is frozen. These are ground headquarter units with
large capacities. The following headquarter units are
designated High Command headquarters units:
OKH - Germany
STAVKA - Soviet Union
Finnish High Command - Finland
Hungarian High Command - Hungary
Italian Southeast Army Group - Italy
Rumanian High Command - Rumania
Slovakian High Command - Slovakia
142
Axis Army Group/Soviet Front/Military District/
Defense Zone Headquarters Units (Type 2): These are
ground headquarter units with large capacities that are
attached to a High Command (Type 1) headquarters unit
and normally serve as higher headquarters to the rest of
their nations units.
Army/German Panzer Group or Air Command/Soviet
Air Army headquarters units/German Luftflotte/Italian
Corpo Aereo Spedizione (Type 3): Army headquarter
units are ground headquarter units with medium
capacities that are attached to either type 1 or 2 HQ units.
Though they are ground units, Air headquarter units do not
have any capacity limitations and can only attach lower
level air headquarter units, to include air base units, as
well as anti-aircraft support units (8.3).
Corps/Air Corps/German Fliegerkorps (Type 4): Corps
are the lowest level ground headquarter units with fairly
small capacities. Soviet corps headquarter units were
phased out during the course of the war, with combat
unit attachment normally going directly to the Soviet army
level. Type 4 air headquarter units are the lowest level air
headquarters.
Air Base Units (Type 5): Air base units are different than
other headquarter units in that their purpose is to support
air group units. Air base units are the only on-map units
that air group units can be attached. All air base units are
limited to a maximum of nine attached air group units.
Air Base Units cannot attach any combat or support units.
143
FBD/NKPS Rail Repair headquarter units (Type 6):
FBD and NKPS are rail repair units that also function as
headquarters for construction and labor support units.
Only construction and labor support units can be attached
to FBD and NKPS headquarter units. The Axis player begins
the war with five FBD units, while the Soviets receive NKPS
units as reinforcements as the war progresses (14.2.2).
7.6.1.1. HEADQUARTERS UNITS AS SUPPLY SOURCES
Type 1 through 4 HQ units can serve as a supply source to all units that are directly attached
except for other type 1 through 4 HQ units. Type 5 (air base units) and type 6 (rail repair units)
are not considered HQ’s for supply purposes and cannot serve as supply sources for other
units. They use the type 1 through 4 HQ unit that they are attached to as a supply source
(section 20.1.5).
7.6.2. ATTACHMENT OF COMBAT UNITS TO
HEADQUARTER UNITS AND COMMAND CAPACITY
While there is no limit to the number of combat units that can be attached to an eligible
headquarters unit (combat units cannot attach to air headquarters, air base or rail repair units),
headquarter units do have a command capacity (CC) rating that is expressed in command
points (CP) and may change depending on the year. Command points are determined by the
size of the attached combat unit. Calculation of command capacity includes all combat units
attached to all units in the chain of command of the applicable HQ unit. For example, the
current command capacity of an Army Group HQ unit would include the command points from
all combat units directly attached, combat units attached to any attached Army HQ units and
combat units attached to any Corps HQ units that are attached to the Army HQ units. HQ
units whose total command points exceed their command capacity rating will become less
effective, which will be reflected by an increased difficulty in passing leader skill rating rolls
such as an admin or initiative check. Leaders of headquarters units where the number of
attached units exceeds the command capacity will have their chances of making the leader
rating check reduced with the more excess units, the less the chance of a successful check
(see section 11.3.1).
Changing combat unit attachments requires the expenditure of admin points (12.2.3). Combat
units can be attached to an eligible headquarters unit either manually through the combat
unit’s detail window HHQ link (5.4.13) or through use of auto-attachment (7.7).
Note that only Security type combat units can be attached to an Axis RHG HQ unit.
144
7.6.2.1. COMMAND POINTS
The following table displays the command points (CP) for each size of combat unit:
Combat Unit Size
Command Points
Brigade/Regiment
1
Fortified Zone/Region
1
Division
2
Soviet Corps
4
Soviet Partisan
0
7.6.2.2. COMMAND CAPACITY
The following table displays the command capacities for different types of headquarters units:
Date
HQ Unit Type
6/41-3/42
4/42-3/43
4/43-3/44
4/44-9/45
Corps (Type 4)
8 CP
9 CP
10 CP
11 CP
Army (Type 3)
24 CP
27 CP
30 CP
33 CP
Army Group (Type 2)
96 CP
108 CP
120 CP
132 CP
Front (Type 2)
72 CP
81 CP
90 CP
99 CP
Military District (Type 2)
36 CP
36 CP
36 CP
36 CP
High Command (Type 1)
900 CP
900 CP
900 CP
900 CP
7.6.3. ATTACHMENT OF SUPPORT UNITS TO HEADQUARTER UNITS
Support unit attachments can be transferred between headquarters units manually during the
action phase and automatically during the logistics phase. Support units attached to combat
units and town, city or urban hexes can be manually transferred back to headquarters units
during the action phase. There is no range limitation to the transfer of support unit attachments;
however, headquarters units must be in supply in order to transfer support units. Changing
support unit attachments may require the expenditure of admin points (12.2.3). A specific
support unit attachment can only be transferred once per turn and will be marked with an
asterisk in the headquarters unit detail window to denote that it cannot be transferred again
that turn. There is no limit to the number of support units that can be attached to a single
headquarters unit, though a large number of non-construction support units can impact the
commitment of support units during combat (15.4).
145
7.6.3.1. SUPPORT UNIT ATTACHMENT RESTRICTIONS
There are some attachment restrictions based on type of headquarters unit. Air headquarters
units are limited to attaching only anti-aircraft support units and air base units cannot attach
any support units. Rail repair units can only attach construction battalions and labor groups,
and while these support units can be manually transferred from the rail repair unit, there is no
ability to transfer additional support units to the rail repair unit. Axis allied support units cannot
be attached to headquarters or units of a different nationality. For example, Finnish support
units cannot be attached to a German Panzer division and Italian support units cannot be
attached to a Hungarian headquarters unit.
7.6.3.2. AUTOMATIC ATTACHMENT OF SUPPORT UNITS
Each eligible headquarters unit can have its support
unit level set by the player by using the ADD or SUB
buttons located in the headquarters unit detail window
(5.4.16). The level setting indicates the number of each
type of support unit that the computer will attempt to
provide to that particular headquarters unit, based on
availability. For example, if the player sets “Support
Level” to 3 the computer would attempt to provide 3
support units of each type, to include Armored, AntiTank, Artillery, Anti-aircraft, Rocket, etc.
This process occurs automatically during the phasing
player’s logistic phase and consists of two cycles
during which support units are moved first up the
chain of command (excess) and then down the chain of command (demand). Support units
in an unready status will be transferred to the applicable High Command headquarters unit
during the first cycle. Since there is no logistics phase prior to the first player-turn on turn
one, there is no auto move of support units in the first-player turn of each game. The entire
automated support unit transfer system can be disabled by checking the appropriate sides
‘Lock HQ Support’ buttons in the Game Options screen (3.3.3). In addition, the player can
disable the automated transfer function for a particular headquarters unit by selecting the
‘LOCKED’ button in its detail window. Note that all headquarters units subordinated to a
particular High Command headquarters unit will be locked out of the automatic attachment
transfer of support units if their High Command headquarters unit has its Support Level set to
“LOCKED.” In addition, if any of the higher headquarters units in a particular HQ unit’s chain
of command is set to “LOCKED,” that headquarters unit will not have the ability to utilize the
automatic transfer of support units. While the actual chain of higher headquarters units will be
dependent on current attachments, the notional German chain (from low to high) is Corps to
Army to Army Group to OKH, while the notional Soviet chain is initially Corps to Army to Military
District or Front to STAVKA, then Army to Front to STAVKA. Players can use the Order of Battle
(OOB) screen (5.4.1) to get a big picture view of their side’s chain of command and the filter
146
functions of the Commander’s Report (5.4.9) to view a specific higher headquarters unit and
its subordinate HQ units. For example, to view Army Group Center’s command chain, do the
following:
Open Commander’s Report (info screens tab or hotkey c)
Select HQ List tab
Select Army Group Center (This takes you back to Unit List tab with all units subordinated to
AGC selected)
Select “NONE” under ‘UNIT DISPLAY FILTERS’
Select Crps, Army, ArmyGr under ‘UNIT DISPLAY FILTERS’
Select HHQ column header twice to end up with sort with AGC at top of list and all other
subordinate HQ’s sorted by their next higher headquarters unit.
7.6.3.3. CONSTRUCTION AND ENGINEER PERMANENT SUPPORT LEVELS
Construction and engineer support units have permanently assigned support level settings
that override player support level settings, with the exception of “LOCKED,” which will stop the
automatic transfer of any support units from the “LOCKED” headquarters unit. The permanent
support level settings for construction and engineer values are as follows:
Headquarters Type
Construction
Engineer
High Command (Type 1)
0
0
Army Group/Front (Type 2)
16
4
Army (Type 3)
3
3
Corps (Type 4)
2
2
Game play tip: Want to minimize the number of support units in a HQ
unit, but still allow automatic transfer through that HQ unit? Use a setting
of ‘0’ so that the only support units the computer will send to the HQ will
be the permanent levels of construction and engineers.
7.6.3.4. MANUAL ATTACHMENT OF SUPPORT UNITS
Players can physically manage support unit attachments through the detail window of eligible
headquarters units (5.4.16). The “ASSIGN/FORM” button can be selected to access the
“PICK SUPPORT UNIT TYPE” window (5.4.15) to select an available support unit to transfer
to a headquarters unit (from up the chain of command of HQ units). Note that Soviet Army,
Front, High Command (STAVKA) headquarters units as well as town, city and urban hexes
can expend admin points to create a new support unit, even if support units of that type are
already available (18.1.3). To transfer the attachment of a support unit from a headquarters
147
unit to another headquarters unit, the player selects the support unit to bring up its detail
window and then selects the HHQ or OHQ link to bring up a list of eligible headquarters units
to which it can be transferred. To prevent the computer from transferring the support units that
have been moved manually, the player can either increase the applicable headquarters unit’s
Support Level to account for the newly attached support units or change the Support Level to
“LOCKED,” which will prevent that headquarters unit from automatically returning any support
units or receiving any additional support units during the logistics phase (The exception is
Construction and Engineer support units per 7.6.3.3)
7.6.4. PROVISION OF HQ SUPPORT AND COMMAND RANGE
Unit effectiveness is affected by the number of support squad ground elements (7.2.1.1). A
headquarters unit can provide assistance to its attached units’ support squad needs using
excess internal support squad ground elements, however, the headquarters unit must be
within a certain distance from the attached unit. This distance, termed “Command Range,” is
measured in hexes and is based on the type of headquarters unit providing the support squads
as follows:
Type of Headquarters Unit
Command Range
in Hexes
Command
Modifier (11.3.2)
High Command (Type 1)
90
Divide Range by 4
Army Group/Front/MD/MDZ (Type 2)
45
Divide Range by 3
Army (Type 3)
15
Divide Range by 2
Corps (Type 4)
5
Divide Range by 1
Any headquarters unit in a unit’s chain of command that is in command range can provide
support with its excess support squad ground elements. This provision of support occurs
automatically during the phasing players logistics phase. Range also has a contiguous effect
on leader rating checks, with the exception of morale and naval checks. The closer the higher
HQ is to the combat unit involved, the higher chance that the higher HQ leader’s rating checks
will be successful. Per the command modifiers above, the range effect depends on the level of
the HQ unit, so that higher level HQ units can be located further away (11.3.2).
Game Play Info: The above type of HQ support using support squad
ground elements should not be confused with headquarter units
providing support units during combat (15.4) or supply tracing and
receiving ( 20.4).
7.6.5. HEADQUARTERS UNIT RELOCATION
The player can relocate any type of headquarters unit, to include air base and rail repair units,
by selecting the “RELOCATE” button in the right lower corner of the HQ unit’s detail window
148
(5.4.16). Relocation is similar to a displacement move (15.10), but is a voluntary action and
results in the unit being moved to a friendly town, city or urban hex that is in supply. The
headquarters unit will have its movement points reduced to zero, but there is no relation
between the relocation and normal movement. The headquarters unit and any attached
support units will suffer retreat attrition (15.11) and any damaged aircraft in air group units
attached to an air base unit that is relocated will be destroyed. The town, city or urban hex that
the unit is relocated to will generally be to the east for the Soviet player and to the west for the
Axis player, but there is a random factor to the relocation so that the player cannot anticipate
where the unit will end up.
Game Play Tip: Though any headquarters unit can be relocated
multiple times in a turn, relocation is generally only advised for isolated
headquarters units you want to get out of a pocket immediately instead
of waiting for the unit to be involuntarily displaced by enemy units.
Regular movement is almost always preferable to relocation because
the relocation movement is hard to predict and does cause retreat
attrition to the headquarters units and any attached support units, as
well as destroying any damaged aircraft at an air base unit. Piling on the
penalties, whenever a headquarters unit relocates or is forced to perform
a displacement move, it will lose all of its fuel and supply dumps.
7.6.6. SOVIET MILITARY DISTRICT AND FRONT TRANSFORMATIONS
Throughout the war Soviet Military District headquarters were reformed as Front headquarters
and new Front headquarters were created or reformed from different Front headquarters.
Newly created Front headquarter units will appear as reinforcements, however, the reforming
and re-designation of Military Districts/Fronts to other Fronts occurs automatically during the
Soviet logistics phase. The following is a list of all Soviet headquarters unit creations and
transformations as well as the month and year they will occur:
Leningrad MD (at start) to Northern Front (6/41) to Leningrad Front (9/41)
Volkhov Front (12/41) to 3rd Baltic Front (4/44)
Baltic MD (at start) to Northwestern Front (6/41) to 2nd Baltic Front (10/43)
Reserve Front (at start) to Kalinin Front (10/41) to 1st Baltic Front (10/43)
Karkhov MD to Southern Ural MD (when Kiev is captured)
Western MD (at start) to Western Front (6/41) to 3rd Belorussian Front( 4/44)
Orel MD (at start) to Bryansk Front (8/41) then disbanded (10/43) then reformed as 2nd
Belorussian (2/44)
Kiev MD (at start) to Southwestern Front (6/41) to Stalingrad Front (7/42) to Don Front (10/42)
to Central Front (2/43) to Belorussian Front (10/43) to 1st Belorussian Front (2/44)
Southwestern Front (reformed 10/42) to 3rd Ukrainian Front (10/43)
149
Odessa MD (at start) to Southern Front (6/41) to Southeastern Front (8/42) to Stalingrad Front
(10/42) to Southern Front (1/43) to 4th Ukrainian Front(10/43)
North Caucasus MD (at start) to Caucasus Front (11/41) to Crimea Front (2/42) to North
Caucasus Front (1/43)
Transcaucasus MD (at start) to Transcaucasus Front (11/41)
Steppe Front (6/43) to 2nd Ukrainian Front (10/43)
Voronezh Front (6/42) to 1st Ukrainian Front(10/43)
7.6.7. GERMAN ARMY GROUP SOUTH RE-DESIGNATION
When certain conditions are met, German Army Group South HQ will be split into Army Groups
A and B. This will occur if the Soviet cities of Azov, Bataysk, and Manych are captured or
automatically in the first turn of March 1943 if the first condition has not been met. Upon
either occurrence, Army Group South headquarters will be replaced by the Army Group A
headquarters and the Army Group B headquarters will be placed on the map. All the forces
previously attached to AGS will be assigned to OKH and can be reassigned by the player
without any administrative cost. After Army Group A and Army Group B are formed per the
above, they will change designations as follows:
Army Group A to Army Group South Ukraine (4/44)
Army Group B to Army Group South (4/43) to Army Group North Ukraine (4/44)
7.7. COMBAT AND HEADQUARTERS UNIT AUTO-ATTACHMENT
The auto-attachment function allows players to automatically attach combat and headquarters
units to the nearest eligible headquarters unit by using the map information tab (5.1.2.1) Auto
Assign Units button (hotkey g) while the unit is selected in Move mode (F1). Auto-Attachment
requires the expenditure of admin points just as if manual attachment was being used (12.2.3).
The phasing player may use auto-attachment as many times as they wish during their turn,
subject to available admin points, provided the Move mode (F1) is selected. Using autoattachment in no way precludes the player from manually attaching units. When using auto
attachment the computer assumes the gaining leader’s admin rating is 1 in order to allow an
attachment attempt to be made. Since the higher the admin rating, the lower the attachment
admin cost, the actual admin cost, which is based on the leader’s actual admin rating and may
be further reduced if that leader passes an admin check, may be lower that the computers auto
calculation (12.2.3). This may result in the computer not allowing an auto attachment due to a
perceived lack of admin points. Players who find themselves in this position should attempt a
manual attachment (7.6.2).
7.7.1. AUTO-ATTACHMENT RULES
Auto-attachment occurs according to the following rules:
150
Division, brigade and regimental combat units will attach themselves to the nearest corps HQ
unit. If an army or higher HQ unit is nearer than the nearest corps HQ unit, then the combat
unit will attach to it instead. If a corps HQ unit and a higher HQ unit are equally distant, then
the combat unit will always attach to the corps HQ unit. If two corps HQ units are equally
distant from the combat unit, the computer will randomly determine to which corps HQ unit the
combat unit will be attached.
Corps HQ units and Soviet corps combat units will attach themselves to the nearest army HQ
unit. If an army group/front HQ unit or eligible High Command unit is nearer than the nearest
army HQ unit, then the corps HQ unit or corps combat unit will attach to it instead. If an army
HQ unit and army group/front HQ unit or High Command HQ unit are equally distant, then the
corps HQ unit or corps combat unit will always attach to the army HQ unit. If two army HQ units
are equally distant from the unit, the computer will randomly determine to which army HQ unit
the unit will be attached.
Army HQ units will attach themselves to the nearest army group, front or Military District (MD)
HQ unit. If an eligible High Command HQ unit is nearer than the nearest army group/front/MD
HQ unit, then the army HQ unit will attach to it instead. If an army group/front/MD HQ unit and
an eligible High Command HQ unit are equally distant, then the army HQ unit will always attach
to the army group/front/MD HQ unit. If two army group/front HQ units are equally distant from
the army HQ unit, the computer will randomly determine to which army group/front HQ unit the
combat unit will be attached.
Air base units and their respective higher air HQ units attach in the same manner as combat
units and their HQ units.
151
8. AIR UNITS
There are three types of units that comprise the air force organizational and command and
control structure; air group units, air base units and air headquarters units. In addition, each
nationality has an off-map National Air Reserve for training of new air group units and building
back up of depleted air group units. Section 5.3 describes how to use the interface to conduct
air missions and section 16.0 discusses the rules regarding the conduct of air missions.
8.1. AIR GROUP UNITS
Air group units are the tactical units that contain aircraft
and conduct the various air missions. Each air group
unit is designated by group type, which determines the
maximum number of aircraft in the unit, and functional
type, which determines the kinds of air missions the unit
can undertake. The name of the air group unit usually
indicates its function as well. Air group units consist of
a number of the same type and model of aircraft that
are categorized as ready, damaged or reserve. Aircraft
and associated air crew are considered a single item and
carry devices such as machine guns, cannons, rockets,
bombs, drop tanks and electronic warfare systems such
as radar.
8.1.1. AIR GROUP UNIT AIRCRAFT STATUS
Ready aircraft are available to fly in air missions that the air group unit is selected to conduct.
Damaged aircraft require repair and are unavailable to fly, but do count against the maximum
number of aircraft allowed by the group type. Reserve aircraft are categorized as unready and
do not fly in air missions, but are considered flyable if the air base unit their air group unit is
attached to undergoes a relocation (7.6.5) or displacement move (15.10). Reserve aircraft are
not counted against the maximum number of aircraft in the unit, but may be re-designated as
ready aircraft during the logistics phase if the number of ready and damaged aircraft is below
the maximum number of aircraft allowed in the unit. If the number of ready aircraft in an air
group unit exceeds the maximum number allowed, aircraft designated as reserve in the air
group detail window will automatically be sent back to the applicable production pool over
a number of logistics phases, while the excess ready aircraft will be moved to the reserve
designation over a number of logistics phases.
8.1.2. AIR GROUP UNIT GROUP TYPES
Air group unit type designations are based on the maximum number of aircraft allowed in the
unit and the unit’s nationality as detailed below.
152
8.1.2.1. AXIS AIR GROUP UNIT GROUP TYPES
Section = max of 4 aircraft (Finland)
Schwarm = max of 4 aircraft (Germany)
Air Battalion = max of 10 aircraft (Finland)
Staffel = max of 12 aircraft (Germany and Finland)
Flight = max of 16 aircraft (Finland)
Squadron = max of 24 aircraft (Rumania, Finland, Italy, Slovakia)
Gruppe = max of 40 aircraft (Germany)
Group = max of 48 aircraft (Hungary)
8.1.2.2. SOVIET AIR GROUP UNIT GROUP TYPES
Air Battalion (Eskadrilya) = max of 10 aircraft
Air Regiment (Polk) = max of 40 aircraft
8.1.2.3. SOVIET AIR REGIMENT MAXIMUM SIZE CHANGES
The maximum number of aircraft allowed in Soviet Air Regiment (Polk) air group units will
change over time as follows:
June 1941: All Air regiments maximum is 40 aircraft
July 1941: All Air regiments maximum is 20 aircraft
December 1942: All Air regiments maximum size is 32 aircraft
December 1943:
Fighter/Fighter bomber/Tactical bomber air regiments maximum size is 40 aircraft
All other Air regiments maximum size is 32 aircraft
8.1.3. AIR GROUP UNIT FUNCTIONAL TYPES
The air group unit functional type determines what air missions a particular air group unit can
conduct based on the type of aircraft the unit contains (16.0). Below are all the types that may
appear in the game along with the abbreviations found in the Commanders Report (9.5.4) Air
Units tab:
Fighter (F)
Fighter Bomber (FB) (can be assigned to fly either fighter or bomber missions)
Night Fighter (NF)
153
Tactical Bomber (TacB)
Level Bomber (LB)
Transport (TR)
Recon (Rec)
Jet Fighter (JF)
Patrol (PA)
Float Plane (FP)
Float Fighter (FF)
Electronic Warfare (EW)
Torpedo Bomber (TB)
8.1.4. AIR GROUP UNIT NAMES
Though some of the air group unit names in the game are self-explanatory, many use terms
and abbreviations that may not be familiar. The below lists are not comprehensive, but are
provided to assist in recognizing the type of air group unit from the name.
8.1.4.1. GERMAN AIR GROUP UNIT NAMES
Stab - Staff Flight (Schwarm air group unit type)
JG (Jagdgescwader) - Fighter wing
NJG (Nacht Jager Geschwader) - Night Fighter Wing
ZG (Zerstorer Geschwader) - Destroyer (Twin Engine Bf110) Wing
StG (Stuka Geschwader) - Stuka Wing
Sch. G (Schlacht Geschwader) - Battle (Fighter Bomber) Wing
KG (Kampfgeschwader) - Bomber wing
SKG (Scnell Kampf Geschwader) - Fast Bomber Wing
NAGr (Nah Aufklarungs Gruppe) - Short Range Reconnaissance Wing
FAGr (Fern Aufklarungs Gruppe) - Longe Range Reconaissance Wing
NSGr (Nacht Schlacht Gruppe) - Night Bomber Wing
SG (Schlacht Gruppe) - Fighter Bomber Wing
TG (Transport Geschwader) - Transport Wing
KGr ZbV (Kampfgruppe zum Bespeil) - Battle Group Special Purpose - Transport Wing
154
Lehr - School/Training
8.1.4.2. SOVIET AIR GROUP UNIT NAMES
Basic abbreviations:
AP - aviation regiment (avia polk)
AD - Aviation division (avia divizija)
AK - aviation corps (avia korpus)
AE - squadron (eskadrilya)
VVS - Military Air Force (Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily)
PVO - Provito Vozdushnaya Oborona Strany - “Air Defense Forces” - includes both Air and
Ground units, ie interceptors and AA units.
I - fighter (istrebitel’naya)
B - bomber (bombardirovacnaya)
Sh - attack plane (shturmovaya - IL-2)
DD - long range (dalnego dejstvija)
T - transport
DB - long range bomber (dal’ne-bombardirovochnaya)
S - mixed (smeshanaya)
R - recon (razvedovatel’naya)
NB - night bomber (nochnaya bombardirovochnaya)
G - guards designation: GIAP, GIAD, DBAD, etc
MT - mine-torpedo
O- separate (otdel’nyj)
Air Regiment Designations:
IAP - Fighter Aviation Regiment
IAP-KBF - Fighter Aviation Regiment of Red Banner Baltic Fleet (KBF - Krasnoznamennyi
Balijskij Flot)
BAP - Bomber Aviation Regiment
DBAP - Long-Range (LR) Bomber Regiment (Dal’nebombardirovochnyj Avia Polk)
LBAP - Light Bomber (Legkobombardirovochnyj AP) Regiment
155
NBAP - Night Bomber Air Regiment
LTAP - (Light) Transport Regiment.
TAP or TRAP - Transport Regiment
SBAP - High-Speed (Skorostnoj BAP) Bomber Regiment
TBAP - Heavy (Tyazhelyj BAP) Bomber Regiment
ShAP - Ground Attack (Shturmovoj AP) Bomber Regiment
RAP - Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment
OSAP - Independent Composite Regiment
ORAP - Independent Reconaissance Regiment
MTAP - Mine Torpedo Air Regiment
8.1.4.3. SOVIET AIR GROUP UNIT DESIGNATION CHANGES
Certain Soviet air group units may be re-designated as follows:
Air Group units with IL-2 model aircraft will be re-designated as ShAP
Air Group units with U-2/R-Z model aircraft will be re-designated as LBAP (10% probability) or
as NBAP (90% probability)
SBAP groups with no SB model aircraft can be re-designated to BAP (50% probability)
TBAP groups with no TB or Pe-8 model aircraft can be re-designated to DBAP (50% probability)
DBAP groups with no DB,IL-4,Pe-8,Yer,or TB aircraft models can be re-designated to BAP (50%
probability)
Soviet Air Battalion air group units (with “/” in the name) can be re-designated as air regiments
(10% probability)
SAP (composite Soviet air regiments) can be re-designated after March 1943 as a specific air
regiment depending on aircraft model (80% probability)
8.1.5. AIR GROUP UNIT AIRCRAFT MODEL
UPGRADE/DOWNGRADE AND SWAPS
Dependent on the availability of aircraft models in the production pool, air group units may
change to a different model aircraft during the aircraft segment of the player’s logistics phase
(4.2). In the upgrade sub-segment, the air group unit may upgrade in accordance with its
current aircraft upgrade path as listed in that aircraft model’s city production list window
(5.4.4). It may also downgrade to older aircraft (21.1.9.1). In the swap sub-segment, the air
group unit may change out the existing aircraft model with an aircraft model of the same
functional type (8.1.4), but not necessarily along the upgrade/downgrade path. For example,
156
a Yak 1 is a fighter aircraft that upgrades to the Yak 1B and downgrades to the I-16 Type 18
fighter. In the swap sub-segment, however, an air group unit with Yak 1B aircraft may be
changed out to another fighter functional type, such as a La-5, or a lend lease Hurricane IIB
aircraft, The computer will only swap out aircraft in air group units that have less than 50
percent of maximum aircraft allowed, with the lower the percentage below 50, the higher the
chance for an aircraft swap. Once again, these changes are dependent on the availability of
numbers of different models of fighter aircraft in the production pool.
8.1.5.1. MANUAL AIRCRAFT SWAPS
Players have the option to manually change (swap) the
aircraft model through an air group unit’s detail window
(see section 5.4.18), with possible aircraft models
listed when the “CHANGE” link has been toggled from
“Automatic” to “Manual” and models available for
change out highlighted in blue and selectable. Changing
the aircraft model in an air group unit will expend one
admin point, reduce the air group unit experience level
by two and may result in up to thirty percent of the new aircraft becoming damaged. Manual
aircraft swaps are not allowed on turn one of any scenario. The air base unit to which the air
group unit is attached must be located at least three hexes away from a supplied enemy unit.
The change out cannot occur unless the number of desired aircraft in the production pool is
at least fifty percent of the max number of aircraft allowed for the air group unit. The air group
unit cannot have flown any missions yet in the turn and will be unable to fly any missions after
the change out.
Normally, an air group unit swap will involve the same aircraft functional type, however, there
are some exceptions and restrictions (for manual changes only) as follows:
Soviet Fighter Bomber (FB) air group units trained as a Fighter can be changed to Fighter and
back to FB
Soviet FB air group units trained as a bomber can be changed to Tactical Bomber aircraft
German ZG air group units can be changed to Me 410 fighter bombers, but cannot be swapped
for single engine fighters such as the Bf109 or FW190.
German JG air group units can be changed to Me 262 jet fighters, but cannot be swapped for
twin-engine Bf110 fighters.
157
8.2. AIR BASE UNITS
Air Base units are special headquarters units (7.6.1) that represent the physical and logistical
infrastructure required to support air group units, to include airfields, repair facilities and
anti-aircraft defenses. Air base units consist of only two types of ground elements, support
squad ground elements and anti-aircraft guns. Air base units will have a better chance of
repairing damaged aircraft if they have more support squad ground elements assigned than
their support need (section 7.2.2.1).
8.2.5.2. AIR BASE UNIT ATTACHMENT RESTRICTIONS
The only units that can be attached to air base units are air group units. Air base units cannot
have more than nine attached air group units of any size. Note there is no limit to the number
of air group units that can be assigned to a country’s national air reserve (8.4). Air base units
can only attach air group units of their own nationality. With one exception, air base units can
only attach to air headquarters units. The Germans have Luftwaffe air base units and army
air base units, the latter whose air group units are used to conduct recon air missions. Each
German Army headquarters unit has an attached army air base unit that cannot be transferred
to any other headquarters unit. For on-map identification purposes, German Luftwaffe (LW) air
base units are displayed as blue/gray counters. All German army air (recon) air base units are
displayed as gray counters.
Game Play Tip: Air Base units must be located in a clear, city, urban or
light woods hex in order for their attached air group units to conduct any
air missions.
158
8.2.1. SOVIET AIR BASE UNIT NAMES
The following is a list of abbreviations used in Soviet air base units:
VVS - Air Force Air Base
VVS-ChF - base of Black Sea Fleet (Chernomoskij Flot)
PVO - Air Defense Force Air Base
IAB - Fighter Aviation Brigade Air Base
IAD - Fighter Aviation Division Air Base
BAB - Bomber Aviation Brigade Air Base
BAD - Bomber Aviation Division Air Base
SAD - Composite Aviation Division Air Base
DBAD - Long Range Aviation Division Air Base (also may see AD DD - Avia Divizija Dalnego
Deistvija)
TBAB - Heavy Bomber Brigade Air Base
OSNAZ - Special Use Air Group airbase (OSobogo NAZnachenija)
8.2.2. DISBANDMENT OF SAD AIR BASE UNITS
After 01 February 1942, there is a fifty percent chance that SAD (composite air division) air
base units will be disbanded at a rate of not more than three per turn. Attached air group units
in disbanded SAD air base units will be automatically transferred to the Soviet national air
reserve (8.4).
159
8.3. AIR HEADQUARTERS UNITS
Air headquarters units fulfil the same function as other headquarters units with the exception
that they cannot attach any combat units and the only support units that can be attached to air
headquarters units are anti-aircraft support units. In addition, there are no limits or penalties
related to the number of air base and other air headquarters units that can be attached to air
headquarters units.
8.3.1. AIR HEADQUARTERS UNITS ATTACHMENT RESTRICTIONS
There are attachment restrictions related to air headquarters units. With the exception of
German army air base units, all other air base units can only be attached to air headquarters
units (8.2.1). German Fliegerkorp air headquarters units can only attach to German Luftflotte
headquarters units or Army Group headquarters units. German Luftflotte air HQ units can only
attach to Army Group headquarters units. Axis Allied air HQ units can only attach to Army
Group headquarters units of the same nationality. There are two exceptions. The Slovakia
Air Command starts attached to Army Group South and cannot change, while Finnish Air
Command starts attached to Finnish 1st Army and also cannot change its attachment. Soviet
air headquarters units can attach only to Front and Military District headquarters units.
8.3.2. SOVIET AIR COMMAND HQ RE-DESIGNATION
Some Soviet Air Command HQ units will automatically convert to Air Army HQ units and take on
a new name. Each Air Command containing the name listed in the below table will convert to
the applicable Air Army upon the date listed.
160
Air Command Name
Air Army Re-designation
Date
Western
1st Air Army
May 1942
Bryansk
2nd Air Army
May 1942
Kalinin
3rd Air Army
May 1942
Southern
4th Air Army
May 1942
North Caucasus/Crimea
5th Air Army
June 1942
Northwest
6th Air Army
June 1942
Southwest
8th Air Army
June 1942
Volkhov
14th Air Army
August 1942
Leningrad
13th Air Army
November 1942
Stalingrad
16th Air Army
September 1942
Long Range
18th Air Army
December 1944
8.4. NATIONAL AIR RESERVE AND AIR GROUP UNIT TRANSFER
Each country’s national air reserve simulates the network of training and repair facilities well
behind the lines that prepare new air group units and build back up old air group units worn out
due to heavy losses. Since air group units can only be attached to air base units of their own
nationality, accessing the Axis national reserve will only bring up the list of air group units of
the same nationality as the currently selected air base unit. The air unit tab of the Commander’s
Report (5.4.9) lists the location of all of a particular side’s air group units, to include those in the
various Axis national air reserves.
8.4.1. NATIONAL AIR RESERVE TRANSFER RESTRICTIONS
There are restrictions on the transfer of air group units to and from the national air reserve. Air
group units transferred to the national air reserve will not be listed in the national air reserve
display until the following turn and thus cannot be transferred back to an air base unit in
that same turn. Air groups that have conducted any missions in the current turn may not be
transferred to the national reserve and must be attached to an air base unit that is not frozen
and has movement points remaining. Air groups transferred from the national reserve to an
air base unit will be unavailable to conduct any missions during the turn they are transferred.
161
8.4.2. TRANSFER OF AIR GROUP UNITS TO THE NATIONAL AIR RESERVE
The transfer of air group units to and from air base units to the national air reserve can be
conducted manually by the player or semi-automatically through the use of the air group unit
commitment system (8.4.3). In addition, air group units can also be sent automatically to the
national reserve during the logistics phase if the computer determines that it is too weak to
conduct air missions.
There are several methods available to manage the deployment of air group units between air
base units and to and from the applicable national air reserve. Air transfer mode (F10) (5.3.10)
is used to manually transfer air group units between air base units. Air group units can be
manually sent to the national air reserve by selection of the ‘RESERVE’ button in that particular
air group unit detail window (5.4.18). Air group units can be manually selected to go from the
national air reserve to an air base unit by selecting the ‘ASSIGN’ button in an air base unit
detail window. Note that the air group units listed will correspond to the Aviation Range setting
selected for that air base unit.
8.4.2.1. AIR GROUP UNIT COMMITMENT SYSTEM
The air group unit commitment system
allows players to semi-automatically
manage the deployment of air group
units to and from the national air
reserve and air base units at the air
base unit level. Rather than select
individual air group units, the player
can adjust the number of units and the type (based on range) for each individual air base
unit. The air group commitment settings are ignored if the player uses a different method to
manually transfer air group units.
There are two components to the system, aviation range and aviation commitment level. The
aviation range is computed by dividing the aircraft radius by 10 and can be ‘less than 20
hexes’, ‘less than 40 hexes’, more than 41 hexes’ or ‘all ranges’. Aviation commitment level
ranges from 0 to 9 and designates the number of air group units the player desires at that
particular air base unit. To use the air group unit commitment system, the player adjusts the
aviation range and commitment level for an air base unit in the air base unit detail window and
then selects the ‘MOVE’ button (5.4.18).
First, air group units that do not meet the aviation range profile of the selected air base unit are
transferred to the applicable national air reserve. Next, air group units in excess of that air base
unit’s commitment level are transferred back to the national air reserve, with the weakest units
moving first. If the air base unit then has fewer air group units than the commitment level,
the appropriate number of air group units that meet the aviation range profile move from the
national air reserve to that air base unit, with the strongest units moving first.
162
9. MORALE, ELITE UNITS, EXPERIENCE,
FATIGUE, ATTRITION, AND RELIABILITY
There are many interrelationships between morale, experience fatigue and attrition. Morale
figures into most of these and is the single most important unit attribute. Morale determines
experience level and fatigue gain. Attrition is based on morale and experience. Combat Value
(CV) is affected by morale and fatigue. Movement allowance is impacted by morale, fatigue
and experience. In all cases, high morale and experience is good, while high fatigue is bad.
Attrition from being adjacent to enemy units is less for higher experienced units. Fatigue itself
can damage units and can destroy already damaged units. This fatigue impact is much worse
when units are adjacent to enemy units, which means that when adjacent to enemy units, not
only do they take attrition losses, they also recover less fatigue and will suffer more losses due
to fatigue. Units with high experience levels will be less affected by fatigue.
9.1. UNIT MORALE
Morale is a critical factor for all units in Gary Grigsby’s War in the East. Morale is figured at the
unit level and the higher the morale the better the unit will perform and the less it will suffer
adverse affects. Each nationality in the game has a basic level of national morale. The actual
unit morale can be above or below the national morale, but unit morale will tend to gravitate
towards the national morale. Axis Elite and Soviet Guard and Shock Army units have their
morale set at a higher level.
The morale of a unit impacts its combat value and thus its ability to win in combat. It also
determines the amount of retreat attrition taken by its ground elements if the unit is forced to
retreat as well as whether the unit will rout, shatter or surrender as a result of being forced to
retreat (see section 15.9). The morale of a routed unit will be a determinant in its ability to rally.
Unit morale is used to determine the movement cost to enter enemy controlled hexes and
hexes under the influence of enemy zones of control (EZOC). For air group units, the morale of
a unit impacts the number of miles it can fly in a turn (see section 16.1.1).
Morale is also important in that it limits the ability of a unit’s ground elements to train to a
higher experience level, as they can only train up to the morale level of their parent unit. In the
same way, an air group unit can only train up its experience to match its morale level.
The Morale leader rating is used for determining unit combat value in battle, determining won/
loss credit, adding or recovering fatigue in the unit’s ground elements, and rallying routed units.
9.1.1. GROUND UNIT MORALE CHANGES
The morale of a unit will increase when it is successful in combat (holds on defense or retreats
the defender when attacking). The morale of a unit may also increase during the friendly
logistics phase due to any and all of the following circumstances:
163
The unit’s morale is below 50, and it is in refit mode.
The unit’s morale is below 50, and it is more than 10 hexes away from the nearest enemy unit.
The unit’s morale is below its national morale. In this case it can recover as much as 10% of
the national morale but not more than the country’s national morale (Example: German national
morale is 70 in 1942 so a unit could recover 7 per turn, not to exceed 70 for a non-elite unit).
The unit is in a very good supply and support situation and its morale is less than 75. If die(75)
is greater than the unit’s morale than a gain for this situation is possible.
Ground unit morale will decrease due to losing battles, suffering from air interdiction, being
in an isolated state, and Axis morale losses due to the first winter rules (section 22.3). There
is also a morale penalty for Finnish units that move south of specific hexes on the map area
(see section 19.1.1).
Retreated units lose one morale point, which is increased to a loss of two morale points if the
leader Morale check fails.
Routed units lose one additional morale point.
Isolated units may lose one or more morale depending on existing supply shortages.
Units attacked by an interdiction air mission that lose more than nine MPs may lose one morale
if random(100) is less than unit fatigue and the leader Morale rating check fails.
9.1.2. AIR GROUP UNIT MORALE CHANGES
For air group units, each group will recover morale points equal to 100 minus the current air
group morale divided by 10 each turn Also, when an air group is sent back to its national air
reserve it receives a morale bonus just for going into reserve, which can be up to 15 points,
with the lower the morale, the bigger the bonus.
Air group unit morale may increase due to destruction of enemy aircraft in air to air combat as
well as when the air group unit receives supplies. Air group unit morale will decrease due to
aircraft being damaged or destroyed in combat.
9.1.3. BASIC LEVELS OF NATIONAL MORALE
The below table summarises the basic national morale level for each nation. Note that national
morale can also be modified by the difficulty level Morale Level Modifier in the game option
screen. (3.3.3). For Germany and the Soviet Union, the national morale level will change over
time.
164
Country/Year
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
Germany
75
70
65
60
55
Finland
80
80
80
80
80
Italy
35
35
35
35
35
Rumania
35
35
35
35
35
Hungary
40
40
40
40
40
Slovakia
40
40
40
40
40
Soviet Union
40
50
50
50
50
MORALE OF NEW UNITS
Newly created units, have their initial morale based on a “build” morale level that may be
different from the basic national morale level (9.1.3) as summarized in the below table.
Country/Year
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
Germany
70
65
60
60
60
Soviet Union
40
45
50
50
50
The morale of newly created units is then calculated by taking the build unit morale and
multiplying by the morale help level divided by 100. This build morale value is then used in the
formula - ((build morale/4) +20) + (rnd((build morale/4) +20)) to derive the unit morale. This
value cannot be less than 20 or greater than 50. The experience for the unit’s initial ground
elements is calculated by taking the unit’s morale divided by two and adding five.
Newly created Soviet Ski units receive a morale bonus over the current national morale based
on the date as follows: +5 in Sept 42, +10 in Sept 43, and +15 in Sept 44.
9.2. ELITE UNITS
165
Elite units and Soviet units directly attached to a Shock Army headquarters unit receive a bonus
over the current national morale. Axis elite units are pre-designated, while Soviet units must
meet certain conditions to be designated Guard units and receive the national morale bonus.
9.2.1. MODIFIERS FOR ELITE UNIT TYPES
Axis elite units, to include German SS elite units, receive a fifteen point bonus to their national
morale. Soviet Guard units receive a ten point bonus to their national morale.
9.2.2. CREATION OF SOVIET GUARDS GROUND UNITS
Under certain conditions, Soviet combat, support, and corps and army HQ units may become
guards units. When a unit achieves guards status, it’s TOE will change to the appropriate
Guards TOE and it will change its name and be renumbered as a guards unit.
9.2.2.1. GUARDS NUMBER LIMITS
While not exact, there are limits to the number of each type of unit (infantry, armour, mountain,
artillery, etc.) that may become guards units. The size of the unit may impact the percentages,
with larger units having more impact than smaller ones. There is no limit on the number of
cavalry or airborne combat units that may become guards units.
The limit for motorized type units is approximately 35 percent. For non-motorized type units,
the approximate percentage limit varies by year as follows:
1941 - 5 percent
January - June 1942 -10 percent
July - December 1942 - 17 percent
1943 - 25 percent
1944 - 30 percent
9.2.2.2. GUARDS STATUS CONDITIONS
In order for a unit to become a guards unit, the three following conditions must be met:
Condition One:
For non-motorized units, the unit’s number of wins plus the year modifier must be greater or
equal to 8 plus random(8).(see glossary for definition of random(x))
For motorized units, the unit’s number of wins plus the year modifier must be greater or equal
to 12 plus random(12)
For Corps HQ units, the unit’s number of wins plus the year modifier must be greater or equal
to 15 plus random(15)
166
For Army HQ units, the unit’s number of wins plus the year modifier must be greater or equal
to 75 plus random(75)
Condition Two:
For all units, the unit’s number of wins plus the year modifier must be greater than 9
Condition Three:
For all units, the unit’s number of wins plus the year modifier must be greater than 2 plus the
unit’s number of losses
Year Modifier: The Year modifier is 3 in 1941, 2 in 1942 and 1 in 1943-45.
9.2.2.3. CORPS COMBAT UNIT BUILDUP AND GUARDS STATUS
When the Soviets combine combat units to form a corps combat unit, if two or three of the units
are already Guard units, then the Corps formed will be a Guard Corps. Otherwise the Corps
combat unit will not have a Guards designation or the morale bonus.
9.2.3. CREATION OF SOVIET GUARDS AIR UNITS
Soviet Air Base units (representing Soviet Air Divisions) can become Guard units if their
attached air group units collectively destroy a certain number of aircraft or ground elements.
The criterion is based on the year as follows:
1941 - 400 destroyed aircraft and/or ground elements
1942 - 600 destroyed aircraft and/or ground elements
1943-45 - 1200 destroyed aircraft and/or ground elements
Game Play Info: VVS and SAD type Soviet air base units are not eligible
to become Guard units.
9.2.4. SOVIET SHOCK ARMY ATTACHED UNIT MORALE BONUS
Soviet units that are directly attached to Shock Army headquarters units will receive a five point
bonus to their national morale. This morale bonus exists only as long as the unit is directly
attached to a Shock Army HQ unit.
9.3. EXPERIENCE
9.3.1. GROUND ELEMENT EXPERIENCE
Experience represents both how well a ground element is trained and its ability to maintain unit
cohesion in combat situations. In a unit each type of ground element (i.e. infantry squad, 50mm
Mortar, Panzer IIc) has an experience level that is an average of the individual experience of all
the same type of ground elements. As with morale, the higher the ground element experience
167
level, the better. Experience mainly impacts combat, affecting combat value, the amount of
retreat attrition, and the probability of firing and hitting enemy ground elements.
Ground elements increase their experience level automatically during the replacement part
of the logistics phase through training. Though this is the only time ground elements gain
experience, the amount of combat the ground element participated in during the previous
turn positively affects the ability of the ground element to increase the number of experience
points gained. Ground elements can train up to the morale level of their parent unit (9.1).
Ground elements that have an experience level lower than their unit’s morale will increase their
experience at least one point per turn, but have a chance to gain up to a total of five experience
points. The normal experience gain is two to three points per turn. Ground elements in units
in good supply, especially if they are located on a railhead (20.1.1) will be able to gain more
experience during training, as will ground elements that participated in combat the previous
turn. Ground elements with an experience level equal to their unit’s morale will not be eligible
to increase their experience until their unit’s morale increases. Ground elements will not lose
experience just because their unit’s morale dropped below their current experience level.
Replacement ground elements coming into units will tend to bring down average experience,
but not by a significant amount. Newly created units will appear on the map with a low
experience level to represent the need for many turns of initial training and the buildup of unit
cohesion.
Soviet Tank and Mechanized corps will suffer a 25 percent experience loss from the existing
units’ experience when they are first formed (7.5.3.2).
9.3.2. AIR GROUP UNIT EXPERIENCE
Air group unit experience has a significant impact on combat effectiveness during air missions.
Air group units gain experience based on the number of missions they fly. Air group units may
automatically fly training missions each turn during their player turn logistics phase in order
to gain additional experience. These missions will increase the chance of operational losses,
resulting in additional damaged or destroyed aircraft from the air group units conducting the
training.
Air group units will decrease in experience due to the addition of replacement aircraft and
integrated air crew. In addition, air group units that swap (change out) their aircraft model,
either automatically or manually, will lose two from their current experience level.
9.4. FATIGUE
9.4.1. GROUND ELEMENT FATIGUE
Fatigue impacts the Combat Value of a ground element and this is reflected in the CV value
shown for a unit in the game. The CV of a ground element is reduced by 1/3 of the fatigue level.
Thus, an element that has a fatigue of 60 will have its basic CV value reduced by 20 percent
when calculating the CV of the unit. Fatigue also impacts movement point allowance (14.1.2).
168
During the Add Unit Fatigue segment of the Logistics phase, ground elements in units gain
additional fatigue based on the unit’s morale. Following this the ground elements may take
damage based on the fatigue of the ground element. Successful leader morale rating checks
assist in this process by helping units recover morale faster when fatigued. Units adjacent
to an enemy unit during their logistics phase gain 4 times as much fatigue and there is 16
times more probability that damaged ground elements will get destroyed during this phase
compared to units not adjacent to an enemy unit. This represents the additional stress and
strain of being in the front line.
During the Reduce Fatigue portion of the Logistics Phase, ground elements in units reduce
their fatigue based on their supply situation and available support (number of support squads
available versus the unit’s need). Next, damaged elements attempt to repair themselves,
and the repair chance is impacted by the unit’s supply and support, and by the element’s
experience. The number of support squad ground elements in a unit (and in HQ units in the
unit’s chain of command) will influence fatigue recovery (7.6.4).
Disruption from combat is converted into fatigue before any new combat, and is also converted
at the very start of the logistics phase, so units will always begin a turn with zero disruption.
9.4.2. AIR GROUP UNIT FATIGUE
Air group unit fatigue impacts combat effectiveness, the number of aircraft operational losses
and the number of aircraft from that air group unit that will conduct a particular air mission. Air
group units gain fatigue as a result of the air combat and the amount gained is dependent on
the number of air attacks made and the total distance flown. Air group units can recover from
fatigue during the supply segment of the logistics phase. As with ground elements, the supply
situation and available support squad ground elements at the air base unit the air group unit is
attached will determine the amount of fatigue reduction.
9.5. ATTRITION
Attrition represents the effect of wear and tear on units, both non-combatant equipment and
manpower losses as well as the constant losses suffered by front line units due to low intensity
combat operations. Normal attrition occurs during the phasing players logistics phase. In
addition, units can suffer retreat attrition as a result of losing a battle (15.11). For manpower
losses due to attrition, approximately thirty percent will be killed and seventy percent disabled.
9.5.1. GROUND ELEMENT ATTRITION
In the attrition segment of the logistics phase ready ground elements may be damaged. This
is followed by reduce fatigue and repair ground elements segment, when damaged ground
elements may be repaired, destroyed or cannibalized, which means that two damaged ground
elements become one ready element and one destroyed element. One half of the damaged
ground elements are sent back to the production pool if the unit they are part of is in supply
(18.1.2). Damaged ground elements have a chance of repairing that is affected by their supply
169
status and the number of support squad ground elements in the unit (7.2.1.1). Note that if units
are advancing at the limit of their supply and/or beyond their support network (7.6.4), their
ground elements can be worn down from movement alone, without consideration of combat
losses.
9.5.2. FRONT LINE ATTRITION
Units that begin their turn adjacent to enemy units during their logistics phase will suffer
additional attrition losses representing low intensity combat, with approximately one-half to
one percent of ground elements in a unit being destroyed (one-half of the manpower is killed
and the other half is disabled). Combat attrition losses are dependent on unit morale, the
number of ground elements of a certain type in a unit, and the experience level of each type
of ground element. The higher unit morale and ground element experience level, the fewer
combat attrition losses. This attrition is in addition to the additional fatigue effects from being
adjacent to enemy units (9.4.1).
9.5.3. VEHICLE MOVEMENT ATTRITION
A certain percentage of a unit’s organic vehicles will be destroyed and damaged during its
side’s logistics phase based on the number of movement points the unit expended during
the previous turn. If a unit expended 100 percent of its allowed (not base) movement points,
2 percent of the unit’s vehicles will be destroyed, and 18 percent will be damaged. Reduced
expenditure will result in proportionally reduced destruction and damage. For example, if a unit
only expended thirty percent of its MPs, .6 percent of its vehicles would be destroyed and 5.4
percent would be damaged. Movement attrition for a support unit’s organic vehicles will be
based on the movement point expenditure of the unit to which it is attached.
9.5.4. 9.5.4
AIR UNIT ATTRITION
Air groups will have aircraft become damaged if the air base unit they are attached to has
insufficient supply and/or support squad ground elements. The airbase unit ground elements
will suffer normal attrition and fatigue losses.
Game play tip: Be careful about letting your unit’s fatigue get too high,
especially for units adjacent to the enemy. Rotate highly fatigued units
to the rear if possible. Units with experience that is far below the unit’s
morale can benefit from being in the rear far away from enemy units. Put
them in refit mode on a rail line hex connected to the rail network and
they should rapidly gain experience up to their morale level.
9.6. AIRCRAFT AND AFV/COMBAT VEHICLE RELIABILITY
All aircraft and AFV/Combat vehicles have a reliability rating which ranges from 5 (really
good) to 45 (really bad). An example of a 5 would be an armoured car and a 45 would be a
Panther D AFV. These reliability ratings are checked when aircraft conduct a mission or AFV/
170
Combat vehicles are moved, with those that fail the reliability check becoming damaged. To
reflect initial production “teething” problems, aircraft and AFV/Combat vehicle reliability will be
increased by five when they first come into production and then decrease by one each month
until they reach their standard reliability rating.
9.6.1. AFV RELIABILITY BASED DAMAGE
Reliability is a factor in several instances where AFV ground elements may become damaged
due to breakdowns.
Small chance an attacking or defending AFV will breakdown in combat and become damaged.
Increased probability that Axis AFV’s will breakdown during the first winter blizzard turns (22.3).
10. FROZEN UNITS
Some units begin a scenario frozen in place with zero
movement points for a set number of turns. The number
of turns is shown in the hex pop-up text but only for
the player that owns the unit (Fzn 2 indicates frozen for
two more turns). Other units may be frozen by scenario
specific rules. These units do not show the number of
turns remaining in the hex pop-up text and unfreeze
under special conditions as listed in the scenario rules.
During each friendly logistics phase, the unit’s frozen
turn counter is reduced by one, and when it reaches 0,
the unit is no longer frozen and it will be given MPs for
that turn. A unit frozen in this way may also be unfrozen
if it is attacked, or if it begins a friendly logistics phase
within 3 hexes of an unfrozen non-isolated enemy unit.
10.1. FROZEN UNIT RESTRICTIONS
Frozen units are unable to move using either tactical or strategic movement. Frozen units
cannot build forts, although construction units may build forts in hexes they occupy. Frozen
units cannot disband, merge or build-up with other units or breakdown into smaller units.
Frozen units may not change their maximum TOE setting. Air group units attached to frozen air
base units may conduct automated intercept missions.
10.2. SOVIET FROZEN MD AND MDZ HQ UNITS
All Soviet Military Districts and the Moscow Defense Zone (MDZ) Headquarters are frozen
permanently and may never move. They may be relocated, but may not be disbanded. If forced
171
to retreat after October 1941, they will disband. Units reporting to these units may be moved
normally, unless they show a Fzn number in their hex pop-up text. Support units attached to
Military Districts and the MDZ HQ may be moved out of these units.
10.3. AXIS ALLIED FROZEN GARRISONS
Most Italian and Hungarian units that begin scenarios in Hungary or Yugoslavia or further west
are permanently frozen garrison units. If the Soviets capture a Hungarian or Rumanian town
either West of hex column 60 or south of hex row 110 that is linked to the Soviet supply
network, then all of these Axis Allied units on the map are unfrozen.
11. LEADERS
Leaders play an important role in Gary Grigsby’s War in the East. Every headquarters unit
(with the exception of air base and rail repair units) has an assigned leader that commands
and influences all units attached to that HQ, to include attached HQ’s and their attached units.
Each leader has a rank and designations that together determine what level and type of HQ
unit they can command. They also have leadership ratings that affect a wide range of game
functions, from their ability to be promoted or avoid dismissal and a possible firing squad, to
their ability to influence the morale, fatigue, movement points, attachment costs, combat value
and combat performance of attached units under their command.
11.1. LEADER RANKS, DESIGNATIONS AND RESTRICTIONS
Each side has five ranks of leaders in descending order as follows:
Soviet
Leader
Rank
Abbreviation
Axis Leader Rank
Abbreviation
Equivalent
Rank
Marshal
FM
Generalfeldmarschall
FM
General Field
Marshal
GeneralArmii
GENA
Generaloberst
GENO
Colonel
General
GeneralPolkovnik
GENP
General
GEN
General
GeneralLeytenant
GENL
Generalleutnant
GENL
Lieutenant
General
GeneralMayor
GENM
Generalmajor
GENM
Major
General
172
11.1.1. LEADER DESIGNATION
Leaders are given a designation that determines the maximum level of headquarters they can
command (7.6.1). Some will only be able to command Corps/Air Corps and Army/Air Army
headquarters (Type 3 and 4 HQ units). Others can command Corps/Air Corps, Army/Air Army,
and Army Group/Front headquarters (Type 2, 3 and 4 HQ units). At the highest level, leaders can
command Corps/Air Corps, Army/Air Army, Army Group/Front and High Command headquarters
(Type 1, 2, 3 and 4 HQ units).
A leader may not be placed in command of a headquarters unit that is at a higher level than
his Max Command level. This maximum command level cannot be changed by promotion to
a higher rank.
11.1.2. LEADER COMMAND RESTRICTIONS
Leaders may be restricted as to what kind of headquarters unit they can command. The
restrictions include ground only, SS only, air and ground, and air only. German SS headquarter
units may only be commanded by a SS leader. In addition, a SS leader cannot command a
non-SS headquarters unit.
11.1.3. LEADER DESIGNATION AND COMMAND RESTRICTIONS SUMMARY
Max Command Level
Corps/Army
Army Group/Front
High Command
Command
Restrictions
Ground Only
Air and Ground
Air Only
SS
11.2. LEADER RATINGS
There are eight leadership ratings, Political, Morale, Initiative, Admin, Mech, Infantry, Air and
Naval, with the last four collectively referred to as combat ratings. Leadership ratings range
from one to nine.
11.2.1. POLITICAL RATING
The political rating affects the cost to replace the leader, as well as the probability that the
leader will be promoted for victories or dismissed for defeats. Though the actual admin cost is
based on the differential in political ratings between a leader and the leader in the next higher
headquarters, generally, the higher the political rating, the greater the cost in admin points to
replace a leader. For the Axis player, there may be an additional admin cost for transferring
combat units from one headquarters to another, dependent on the political rating differential
between the two leaders of the involved headquarters. A high political rating also decreases
the chance that the leader will be dismissed and possibly executed due to a poor win/loss
ratio. In addition, a leader with a high political rating will have a greater probability of being
173
promoted, all other things being equal. A low political rating will have the opposite effect on
cost of replacement and chance of dismissal or promotion.
11.2.2. MORALE RATING
The Morale leader rating is used for determining unit combat value in battle, determining win/
loss credit, adding or recovering fatigue in the unit’s ground elements, and rallying routed units.
11.2.3. INITIATIVE RATING
The Initiative leader rating is used for determining the actual number of movement points a
unit will have during the turn, the ability of ground elements to fire and to hit during combat,
the ability of support units and combat units in reserve status to commit to a battle, and the
ability to reduce casualties by turning a low odds hasty attack into a reconnaissance in force.
11.2.4. ADMINISTRATIVE RATING
The Admin leader rating is used for determining the actual number of movement points a
unit will have during its turn, checking for repair of damaged aircraft and ground elements,
determining the cost of attaching units to the leader’s headquarters unit and determining fuel
and supplies wastage as a result of air missions. When a motorized unit is performing an
admin leader check, leaders of Tank Army, Panzer Army, or Panzer Corps HQ units involved in
the admin leader check receive a +1 to their admin rating during the check. Admin checks are
specifically affected by the actual number of support squad ground elements in the leader’s HQ
unit as compared to the HQ unit TOE (section 11.3).
11.2.5. COMBAT RATINGS
Mechanized (Mech) and Infantry Ratings: These ratings for leaders assigned to a
headquarters unit with combat units attached are part of the ground combat system and are
used to determine the overall combat value as well as the ability of the ground elements in the
units under their command to be able to fire and to hit opposing ground elements. Successful
rating checks will increase combat value and improve the chance of ground elements to both
fire and to hit.
Air Rating: For air leaders, a successful air combat skill check will result in more ready aircraft
from an air group unit participating in a particular air mission (16.0).
Naval Rating: A Leader’s naval rating is only used during strategic amphibious transport
(14.2.3). A successful naval skill check will reduce the chance of air interdiction, reduce the
number of ground elements disrupted during an amphibious assault on an occupied coastal
hex, and reduce the amount of retreat attrition a unit takes if an amphibious assault fails and
the unit must retreat to its port of embarkation.
174
11.2.6. LEADER RATINGS INCREASE
Based on the number of wins compared to losses (11.4.1), leaders may see some of their
skill ratings increase. Administrative, initiative, mech, infantry, and air ratings can only be
increased if they are currently less than six. Only air leaders in command of air headquarter
units can increase their air rating. Mech and infantry ratings can only be increased for leaders
in command of non-air headquarter units. Political and morale ratings can only be increased
if they are currently less than eight. The naval skill rating cannot be increased. The chance of
increasing a skill rating becomes more difficult as the type number of headquarters unit the
leader commands decreases. For example, a leader in a High Command (Type 1) command
will have a much more difficult time increasing their skill rating than a leader in command of
a Corps (Type 4). Leaders check to see if any of their ratings increase once each turn during
their side’s logistics phase.
11.3. LEADER RATING CHECKS
Leader ratings can have an impact on virtually all actions taken by units; to include both the
logistics and action phases of the turn Leaders will literally conduct thousands of checks using
one or more of their ratings for everything from combat value (CV) determination to the number
of admin points expended to attach a unit. Initiative, admin and morale checks are the most
ubiquitous, but infantry or mech checks figure prominently in ground combat, air rating checks
are made for every air mission, and naval rating checks occur during amphibious strategic
transport. There are no political rating checks, though the political rating is used to determine
Leader promotion, dismissal and the admin costs for attaching units (11.4).
11.3.1. LEADER RATING CHECK PROCEDURE
Each leader rating check is essentially the computer generating a Random(x) value where if
the result is less than the leader rating then the check is passed, but if the result is greater
than the rating, the check fails. Leaders of headquarters units where the number of attached
units exceeds the command capacity (7.6.2) will have their chances of making the leader
rating check reduced with the more excess units, the less the chance of a successful check. In
addition, leader admin checks are modified by the amount of support squad ground elements
in the HQ unit of the leader conducting the check (7.6.1.1). Approximately one admin point is
subtracted from the leader’s admin rating for every ten percent the HQ unit is below its TOE
support squad strength, with a max reduction of five points.
11.3.1.1. CHAIN OF COMMAND RATING CHECKS
If a leader fails their rating check, the leader of the next higher headquarters unit in the chain
of command will then conduct the check, but with the base value of the check doubled. Each
failed check will in turn result in the leader of the next higher headquarters in the chain of
command conducting a check with the base value doubled each time until the leader of the
High Command headquarters unit in the chain of command succeeds or fails the check. In
175
addition to the doubling of the base value for higher headquarters units, a modifier based on
the level of the headquarters unit and the range from the combat unit to that headquarters unit
is also included in most checks (see section 11.3.2). Note that the number of possible checks
and the number of times the base value is doubled is dependent on where the unit is attached.
For example a German unit attached directly to OKH (High Command headquarters unit) will
have one leader check at the base value. The same unit attached to a Corps could have up to
four leaders conduct the check at the Corps (10), Army (20), Army Group (40) and OKH (80)
levels, though the base value would be doubled for each failed check as noted in parentheses
after each HQ unit.
11.3.2. COMMAND RANGE MODIFIER
A command range modifier is applied to leader rating checks conducted by leaders in
headquarters units to which the unit involved is not directly attached, i.e. HQ units higher up
the chain of command. Naval and morale leader rating checks are exempt from the command
range modifier. Each level of headquarters unit has a designated number that the range from
it to the unit is divided by to get the modifier as follows:
Headquarter Unit Level
Range Modifier Divisor
Corps (Type 4)
1
Army (Type 3)
2
AG/Front/MD (Type 2)
3
High Command (Type 1)
4
For example, if the leader of an Army Group HQ unit that was 15 hexes away from a unit was
conducting an initiative check, 5 (15/3) would be added to the random number value.
Game Play Info: Leader check example: Let’s say a German combat unit
is attached to a Corps HQ unit with a leader initiative rating of 6 and the
corps HQ unit has 11 command points (CP) worth of units attached to it
and as a Corps HQ unit it has a command capacity of 8 CP. So the first
test for the unit making an initiative rating check is to see if random (10+
(11-8))<6. If random (13)<6 the leader rating check for the combat unit
passes. If the leader fails the check, then the leader in the next HQ unit
up the chain of command conducts an initiative rating check. Let’s say
that it is an Army HQ unit that is 10 hexes from the combat unit, has 22
command points worth of units attached and as an Army HQ unit it has a
command capacity of 24 CP, and a leader with an initiative of 7. The check
would be to see if random (20 + 0 {due to command capacity not being
exceeded} + (11/2) {because army HQ units have a range modifier value
of 2}) < 7. Or random(25) <7. (Values are rounded down). As you go up
the chain of command, the base value of 10 doubles each time you go up
a HQ level. If the Army HQ unit leader rating check failed, then the Army
176
Group HQ unit leader would try and the base would be 40, although since
it is a higher level HQ, the range effect divisor will be 3 instead of 2. If the
Army Group check fails, then OKH makes a check. As you go up the chain,
the chance to make the check goes down a lot due to the doubling. Also,
note that if the unit reported to an Army instead of a corps, then the first
check would still be made using a base of 10 and no range modification. If
it failed, then the Army Group would check with a base of 20 (10 doubled).
Clearly with each HQ up the chain, the chance of the HQ passing the test
goes down. The advantage of having a unit attached at the lowest level
is that the unit has more HQ units in the chain, only one of which must
pass the check.
11.4. LEADER PROMOTION AND DISMISSAL
Leaders can be automatically promoted or dismissed depending on their performance as
measured in wins as compared to losses as well as their political rating. In some cases, the
dismissed leader may be executed and permanently removed from the game. Players can also
manually dismiss leaders and select another leader as a replacement. A leader may be limited
or restricted in the kind of headquarters they can command, to include level (Corp/Army, Army
Group/Front, High Command) and type (SS, air or ground) (11.1).
11.4.1. BATTLE WIN AND LOSS CREDIT
A leader may be credited with one win or one loss every time a combat unit in their chain of
command participates in a battle. For Air leaders, a win/loss situation occurs if an air group
attached to an air base unit in their chain of command participates in an air mission that results
in a set differential in losses (16.5). In each case, this includes all higher headquarters up to
the combat unit’s High Command headquarters. For example, if the German 292nd Infantry
Division participates in a battle won by the Axis, The 292nd and the leaders of its higher
headquarters units, in this case XX Corps, 3rd Panzer Army, Army Group Center, and OKH,
would all be credited with one win. Wins and losses are recorded in the individual leader detail
windows as well as in the unit list in the commander’s report (hotkey c). The terms wins and
losses are interchangeable with victories and defeats.
When a leader earns a win or a loss, there is a chance that it will not count for promotion or
skill rating increase purposes. Although the total wins and losses are displayed for the leader
as described above, the actual total used by the promotion system is tracked separately and
will in most cases be less than the total wins and losses shown on displays. Whenever a
leader wins or loses a battle, there is a chance that the win or loss will not be counted when
calculating whether the leader is promoted or increases a skill rating. This probability changes
over time for each side. Generally fewer Axis wins and more Axis losses will be counted in
1941, with the percentages slowly shifting to more Axis wins and fewer Axis losses over the
years. Counting of wins and losses for the Soviets is generally the reverse, with more Soviet
177
wins and fewer Soviet losses counting in 1941 and the percentages slowing shifting to fewer
Soviet wins and more Soviet losses being counted over the years.
11.4.2. LEADER PROMOTION
Leaders undergo a promotion check once each turn during their sides logistics phase. A leader
is promoted to the next rank if they pass the check, which is based on their political rating
and their number of combat wins and losses. Promotion will result in the zeroing out of that
leader’s number of wins and losses. In order for a leader to be promoted to Field Marshall, an
Axis leader must be in charge of an Army, Army Group, High Command, or OKH, while a Soviet
leader must be in charge of a Front, Military District, or STAVKA.
11.4.3. LEADER DISMISSAL AND REPLACEMENT
11.4.3.1. LEADER AUTOMATIC DISMISSAL
Leaders can be dismissed automatically by the computer (representing the national political
and military leadership) due to a poor win/loss ratio. In some cases the leader will be executed
and permanently removed from the game rather than being returned to the leader pool.
Leaders killed by execution will be noted in that side’s Logistics Phase Event Log (5.4.12)
at the beginning of the action phase. The computer will automatically select a replacement
and the event will be reflected in the logistics phase event log. There is no admin point cost
associated with automatic dismissals.
11.4.3.2. LEADER MANUAL DISMISSAL
The player can manually dismiss a leader and replace them by first selecting the leader in the
headquarters unit detail window (5.4.16) and then selecting the dismissal cost link in the leader
detail window. This will bring up the pick new leader window (5.4.22), which allows the player
to select from a list of all eligible candidates as replacement leaders. The list is ranked by the
computer based on skill ratings and the current rank of the candidate replacement leaders. To
be eligible, leaders must have the proper level and command restriction designations (11.1).
Leaders can serve one level up and one level down from the optimum rank for the HQ level,
with the exception that Soviet Marshals may be assigned as the leader of a Front or Military
District HQ unit.
178
11.4.3.3. COMMAND OPTIMUM RANK
The Optimum rank for each command is as follows:
HQ unit type
Soviet Optimum Rank
Axis Optimum Rank
Corps (Type 4)
GENM
GENL
Army (Type 3)
GENL
GEN
Army Group/Front/Military
District (Type 2)
GENP
GENO
High Command (Type 1)
GENA
FM
11.4.3.4. DISMISSAL ADMIN COSTS
There are admin costs associated with dismissing leaders. A leader with a rank one higher than
the optimum rank may fill an HQ position at no extra admin cost, but a leader with a rank one
lower than the optimum rank that fills an HQ position will normally require the expenditure of
extra admin points. The exception is that Soviet Major Generals (GENM) may fill an Army HQ
position at no extra admin cost (12.2.2). When a leader is dismissed, some leaders that are
available as replacements will have less than the optimum rank to take the new position. These
leaders have a P in the Pick New Leader window next to the number of admin points it will take
to appoint the leader, which will usually be significantly higher than the admin points required
for a leader with the optimum rank for the position. For Army Group/Front/Military District and
High Command headquarters units, leaders with a P can be selected, however, they will remain
at their current rank until they are promoted through the normal promotion process.
11.4.3.5. LEADER PROMOTION SKILL RATING REDUCTION CHECK
For Corps and Army headquarters units, the leader will be automatically promoted if selected.
If promoted this way, the leader must make a check for each skill rating to see if it drops one
point. There is less of a chance for a particular skill rating to drop if that skill rating has been
previously reduced. If a leader is killed and the computer replaces the dead leader with a
leader that requires a promotion, a similar check for a drop in skills occurs. Leaders who are
promoted through the normal promotion check process do not check for a decrease in skill
ratings.
11.5. DEATH OF A LEADER
Leaders can be killed and permanently removed from the game due to dismissal, headquarters
relocation, air attack and other enemy action. Leaders who are automatically dismissed due
to poor performance (losing battles) may be executed. A low political rating increases the
chances of a dismissed leader being executed. There is a 15 percent chance that when a
headquarters unit is relocated or forced to execute a displacement move, the assigned leader
179
may be killed or captured. In either case, if the HQ is isolated the chance of the leader being
killed increases to 50 percent. There is also a very small chance of a leader being killed if their
headquarters unit suffers casualties from enemy air attack, to include bomb ground unit, air
interdiction and ground support missions. Finally, there is a small chance that leaders may be
killed due to other enemy action. The probability of this occurring is impacted by the distance
the leader’s headquarters unit is located from enemy units, with headquarters units closer to
enemy units having an increased chance of having their leader killed.
12. ADMINISTRATIVE POINTS
Administrative (admin) points represent the ability of a side to modify their command and
control structure, to include units and leaders. In addition, administrative points can be used
to create new units, though this is largely a Soviet ability as the Axis is limited to creating new
fortified zone units.
12.1. GAINING ADMIN POINTS
Each player starts with a number of admin points that varies depending on the scenario.
Each player receives additional admin points during their respective logistics phase, also
depending on the scenario. Information on the number of admin points each side will receive
in a scenario can be found in the scenario description on the Load Scenario screen (3.3.6),
with the exception that Soviet admin points will increase from 50 to 60 the first turn in April
1942 during the 1941-45 Campaign Scenario. The arrival as a reinforcement or conversion of
certain headquarters units will include a onetime addition of admin points. When a Soviet Front
headquarters unit arrives as a reinforcement 125 admin points will be added to the Soviet
admin point pool. The Soviet player does not receive the 125 admin points for any Military
District headquarter units HQs that are converted into Front headquarter units in June 1941
(7.6.6). When a new German Army headquarters unit arrives, 45 admin points are added to the
German admin points. Placing a combat unit in static mode will result in the gain of a certain
number of admin points (7.5.4). Each player may have a maximum of 500 admin points. Any
additional admin points are lost during their logistics phase. The number of admin points will
never fall below zero, however, a player cannot expend admin points if it would take their
available points below zero, nor will the computer automatically transfer support units if no
admin points are available (7.6.3.1).
12.2. EXPENDING ADMIN POINTS
Administrative Points are expended for combat unit transfers between HQs and for transfer
of support units between HQ units, combat units and town, city and urban hexes. Admin
points are also expended to change the leader of an HQ unit, to temporarily motorize units,
and for HQ unit supply buildup. The Soviet player expends administrative points to create or
form combat units, HQ units, Fortified Zones and support units, while the Axis player expends
180
points for creating Fortified Zones. One admin point is required to disband a unit. It also costs
one admin point to change a fighter bomber air group unit mission setting from fighter to
bomber or vice versa. Placing a unit in static mode will generate additional admin points for
the player; however, reactivating a static unit will require the expenditure of admin points.
Static units that are withdrawn will automatically be reactivated in the same logistics phase,
resulting in an involuntary expenditure of admin points. In all cases, the admin points gained
or expended is based on the number of organic vehicles in or needed by the unit (7.5.4). The
actual admin points expended at the moment a change of attachment is executed is half of
the unit transfer cost shown in the tables below if the Admin leader rating check is successful
(11.3). A successful leader admin check that normally costs one point will reduce the admin
cost of transferring that unit to zero.
12.2.1. ON-MAP UNIT ATTACHMENT CHANGE COST WORKSHEET
The following table allows the player to calculate the maximum admin cost to change the
attachment of on-map units from one HQ unit to another.
Unit Type
Base
Plus
Minus
Admin
Losing
Leader
Gaining
Leader
Political
Rating (1)
Admin
Rating
(1)
Cost
Subtotal
Nationality
Modifier
(2)(3)
Axis Regiment/
Brigade
2
Soviet Brigade
2
Axis Division
6
Soviet Division
6
0
N/A
Soviet Combat
Corps
20
0
N/A
Axis Corps HQ
30
Soviet
Corps HQ
30
Axis Army HQ
100
Soviet
Army HQ
60
Final
Cost
x2
0
0
2
N/A
2
x2
x2
0
N/A
x2
0
N/A
181
12.2.2. LEADER DISMISSAL COST WORKSHEET
The following table allows the player to calculate the maximum admin cost to manually dismiss
and then replace a leader of an HQ unit. The final calculated cost will also be displayed in the
Pick New Leader window (5.4.22).
Leader
Repl
Base
Plus
Admin
Dismissed
Leader
Cost
(4)
Axis Corps
Leader
10
Soviet
Corps
Leader
10
Axis Army
Leader
20
Soviet
Army
Leader
15
Axis Army
Group
Leader
30
Soviet
Front
Leader
20
Axis High
Command
Leader
0
Soviet
STAVKA
Leader
0
Political
Rating (1)
Minus
Immed
Superior
Leader
Political
Rating
Plus
SubOptimum
Sub
Nation
Final
Total
Modifier
(2)(6)
Cost
Repl
(7)
Leader
Cost (5)
+20
x2
(GENM)
0
N/A
N/A
+30
x2
(GENL)
0
+0
N/A
(GENM)
+40
x2
(GEN)
0
+40
N/A
(GENL)
N/A
+50
N/A
(GENO)
N/A
+50
N/A
(GENP)
NOTES for tables 12.2.1 and 12.2.2:
Note 1: A zero in a cell indicates that the value for the Soviet player in this field is automatically
zero. For example, there are no leader modifications for changing the attachment of a Soviet
brigade from one headquarters unit to another.
182
Note 2: N/A means this modification does not apply in this situation. For example, there is no
Soviet nationality modifier.
Note 3: For Axis unit attachment changes, the nationality modifier doubles the cost of the
attachment change if the unit is being attached to a HQ of a different nationality. Note also that
Rumanian and Hungarian units are never allowed to attach to each other’s HQs.
Note 4: When changing the attachment of a HQ to another command, the number of units
attached to the HQ will impact the amount of admin points it costs to conduct the transfer. A
HQ with fewer units attached will cost fewer admin points to transfer than one with many units
attached. The current cost listed is the maximum amount that it would cost to transfer a HQ.
The cost could be lower for HQ’s with fewer attached units, with the minimum amount being
half the cost for headquarters units with no attached units.
Note 5: Leader rank in parentheses is sub-optimum due to being one rank lower than optimum
rank (11.4.3.4), but there is no additional admin cost for Soviet Major Generals (GENM) taking
command of Army HQ units.
Note 6: For leader dismissals, the nationality modifier doubles the cost of replacing any nonGerman leader.
Note 7: The cost for the new leader also includes 10 minus the political rating of the new leader
the player selects.
12.2.3. SUPPORT UNIT ATTACHMENT CHANGE COST
One admin point is expended when transferring a support unit between HQ’s, town, city or
urban hexes, or units. There is normally no admin cost to transfer a unit of any kind from a High
Command headquarters unit to another HQ, town, city or urban hex, or combat unit. The cost of
transferring antiaircraft units from a city to a High Command headquarters unit, however, is 3
for an AA battalion, 10 for an AA regiment, 15 for a German LW or Soviet PVO AA battalion, and
50 for a Soviet PVO AA regiment.
12.2.4. ADMIN COSTS FOR CREATING SOVIET UNITS
OR FORMING SOVIET CORPS COMBAT UNITS
Admin costs for creating units are the same for all support units and the same for all HQ units,
but is based on size (brigade or division) for combat units. See Appendix B for a comprehensive
list of all Soviet units that can be created (28.2). The cost for forming Corps size combat units
is based on unit type and is a onetime expenditure when that particular unit is formed (7.5.3).
183
Unit Type
Admin Cost
Remarks
Support Unit
1
Cost is for any size support unit
Brigade Size Combat Unit
5
Division Size Combat Unit
10
Cavalry Corps
5
Forming only (7.5.3)
Rifle Corps
10
Forming only (7.5.3)
Tank Corps
20
Forming only (7.5.3)
Mechanized Corps
20
Forming only (7.5.3)
Combined Arms Army HQ
25
Tank Army HQ
25
INCREASED SOVIET ADMIN COSTS IN 1941
From June 1941 until the end of October 1941, the admin cost for building new Soviet on map
units (to include fortified region units, see 12.2.5) is four times the normal build costs. For
Example, in August 1941 a Rifle Division would cost 40 admin points to create and a fortified
zone unit would cost 16 admin points. The cost to create a Soviet support unit is always one
admin point.
12.2.5. OTHER ADMIN COSTS
The following table summarized admin costs not specifically listed in previous tables.
Action
Admin Point Cost
Remarks
Disband Unit
1
Section 18.5
Change Fighter Bomber Mission Setting
1
Section 16.1.7
Manually Change Air Group Unit
1
Section 8.1.5
Reactivate Static Unit
Varies
Section 7.5.4.2
Temporary Motorization
Varies
Section 14.1.3
HQ Unit Supply Buildup
Varies
Section 20.7.1
Create Fortified Zone or Region Unit
4
18.1.5; Soviet cost
16 Jun-Oct 41
Aircraft Model
184
Transfer AA Battalion from
City to High Command HQ
3
12.2.3
Transfer AA Regiment from
City to High Command HQ
10
12.2.3
Transfer LW/PVO AA Battalion
from City to High Command HQ
15
12.2.3
Transfer PVO AA Regiment from
City to High Command HQ
50
12.2.3
Transfer Other Support Unit
between HQ units and City
Hexes (Not High Command)
1
12.2.3
Transfer Support Unit from
High Command
0
12.2.3
13. ENEMY UNIT DETECTION LEVEL
(DL) AND FOG OF WAR (FOW)
Detection level (DL) is the determination of how much information is known about on-map
enemy units. The higher the detection level, the more information is known and the more
effective attacks will be on that unit. The default game option displays all on-map enemy units
with full information listed in the hex pop-up, no matter their current detection level. Players
have the option to enable Fog of War (FoW), varying both the hex pop-up information available
and the ability to see on-map enemy units based on their detection level.
13.1. DETECTION LEVEL (DL)
Each unit on the map is automatically
assigned a detection level from one to ten,
based on factors to include distance from
enemy units, covering terrain (6.2.1) and
the results of air reconnaissance. A higher
detection level will increase the effectiveness
of ground and air combat against that unit.
Unit detection levels will change over time
and can be influenced by player actions.
During the logistics phase, an airbase unit
will have its DL decline by one, while nonairbase units will have their DL decline by
185
Die(5). The DL levels of enemy combat units that are adjacent may then increase. Adjacent
enemy combat units compare scouting values for the different units to determine changes in
DL levels.
In addition, every time a unit moves next to an enemy unit, the enemy’s DL will usually go up
due to automatic scouting and probing attacks. Losses from these scouting and skirmishing
actions are represented by higher attrition levels for adjacent enemy units (9.5.2). Combat
against enemy units will also increase their DL. The DL of units that move away from the
enemy will decrease over time.
13.1.1. AIR RECONNAISSANCE AND DETECTION LEVEL
For non-air base units, air reconnaissance can raise detection levels up to a maximum of four
as follows:
Maximum Detection level 1: Non-Air base units located in non-clear terrain further then 3
hexes from supplied enemy units.
Maximum Detection level 2: Non air base units located in non clear terrain and not adjacent
to enemy units.
Maximum Detection level 4: Non-air base units located in clear terrain
For air base units, there is no limit to the DL that can be gained by air reconnaissance.
13.2. FOG OF WAR (FOW)
The default game options setting has all enemy units visible on the map with accurate
information on type, name, size and combat value included in the hex pop-up information. The
DL of each unit is still computed and impacts the combat effectiveness of any attacks against
186
those units, but the location of all enemy units is known to the player, to include units with a
detection level of zero. Enabling the Fog of War (FoW) game option (3.3.3) does not change
how the DL is computed, however, all enemy units must now be sighted (have a detection level
greater than zero) to be seen on the map. Note that computer players are not affected by FoW,
however, the AI does have the same DL restrictions as human players. In addition, detection
level determines both the amount and the accuracy of the information known about a unit.
Accurate combat values (CV) may not be displayed even at the highest detection level, and the
potential size of the error increases as the DL number decreases.
13.2.1. FOW AND DL INFORMATION
As detection level increases, the on-map unit and its hex pop up will display the following
information:
Detection Level 1: If the unit is an air base, the type will be displayed; otherwise the unit
counter will be blank.
Detection Level 3: The Unit type will be displayed
Detection Level 5: The Unit name, unit size and CV will be displayed. Enemy units that start
adjacent to friendly units will have a minimum DL of 5.
Detection Level 7: Soft factors can be observed (5.1.3).
Stacked Units: When FoW is enabled, no CV/MP numbers will be printed on an enemy counter
if there is no unit with a detection level greater than 4 in the stack. If there are units with DLs
both greater than four and four or less in a stack, numbers will be printed, and a ‘?’ will be
printed instead of the - or = between the numbers to indicate that in addition to the estimated
CV strength in the hex, there are units of unknown strength in the hex. If the top unit in the
stack has a DL of 1 or 2, a blank unit type box will appear on the top unit counter to indicate
it is of an unknown type.
Air Mission Graphics: The graphic display (16.1.4) of any enemy air interdiction and
interception missions on the map area will only show the direction the enemy air group units
came from, not the entire line back to the air base unit they flew in from when FoW is enabled.
Enemy Fortification Levels: When FoW is enabled, information on enemy fortification levels
(15.3.2) will only be displayed for hexes that are adjacent to a friendly unit or for hexes that
contain a detected enemy unit with a DL of at least three.
187
13.2.2. MOVEMENT FOG OF WAR (FOW)
With just FoW enabled, unless there is an unbroken enemy front line, the map preferences
show movement allowed and show movement path (3.3.5) allows the player to see hexes
behind enemy lines that do not contain enemy units up to the limit of the selected units
allowed movement. To militate against this capability, when FoW is enabled, the additional
game option of movement FoW will become available and can only be used in conjunction with
FoW. If movement FoW is enabled, the show movement path and show movement allowed
preferences will only display movement options to hexes if the movement path could be traced
via friendly/pending friendly hexes or to hexes adjacent to friendly/pending friendly hexes.
Game play tip: Movement FOW takes away an “enhanced recon”
feature caused by the nature of the movement system, but at a cost in
play time. Basically, you will have to make an increased number of shorter
moves when using move FOW as you won’t be allowed to move far into
enemy territory. Ultimately your unit can cover the same ground, but with
more mouse clicks and more individual moves. Also, it won’t be as easy
to determine the fastest path to an enemy hex deep in enemy territory.
14. GROUND UNIT MOVEMENT
There are two general types of movement for ground units, tactical and strategic. In addition,
certain combat units can be transported by air (16.3.5, 16.3.6) Tactical movement is from
ground hex to ground hex using movement points (MP) and includes the cost of terrain, of
moving into enemy zones of control and enemy hexes, and the cost of attacking enemy units.
Strategic movement represents loading units on to trains or naval shipping for transport over
188
friendly rail lines or by sea using strategic movement points (SMP), but also depends on the
availability of rail capacity or naval shipping points. Units using strategic movement have their
tactical MP reduced proportionally to the expenditure of SMP.
Players can undo a move (‘undo’ button or hot key ‘u’) unless the move resulted in air
interdiction, turned an enemy hex into a pending friendly hex, attacked an enemy unit or
spotted an enemy unit that previously had a detection level of zero.
14.1. TACTICAL MOVEMENT
On-map units begin each turn with a certain number of movement points (MP) determined
by a number of factors, to include unit type, whether it is motorized or non-motorized, supply
status (fuel for motorized units, supplies for non-motorized units), vehicle shortages, fatigue
and leader admin and initiative checks. Units have a base MP allowance that they cannot
exceed and a minimum that they will always be able to move. Units that have not moved can
always move at least one hex, even if it costs more than their MPs. To make this minimum
move, the unit must be the only unit selected.
14.1.1. MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM MOVEMENT POINTS
Maximum MPs: The following are the base maximum MPs for on-map units:
Non-Motorized Combat units (except Cavalry) units - 16 MP
Cavalry Combat units - 22 MP
Headquarters units - 50 MP
Rail Repair units (FBD and NKPS) - 16 MP
Axis Motorized Combat units - 50 MP
All Soviet Motorized Combat units 1941 - 25 MP (18 for Divisions prior to October 1941)
Soviet Motorized Combat Brigades 1942-1943 - 30 MP
Soviet Motorized Combat Brigades 1944 - 35 MP
Soviet Motorized Combat Corps - 50 MP
Minimum MPs: Motorized units will always receive at least one MP, even when out of fuel.
Non-motorized units will always receive at least six MP, even when out of supplies. Players can
verify whether a unit is motorized or non-motorized on the right hand side of the applicable
unit detail window.
14.1.2. DETERMINING MOVEMENT POINT ALLOWANCES
The following steps are used by the computer to determine a unit’s MP allownance during the
logistics phase at the start of a turn:
189
1. Start with base MPs (14.1.1)
2. Calculate average fatigue of the unit based on the number and
fatigue of each type of ground element. Reduce the number of
MP’s by the average fatigue divided by ten, rounded down.
3. Check for leader initiative. If all leaders in the chain of command fail the
initiative check, then multiply MPs remaining by 80 percent, rounding down.
4. Check for leader admin. If all leaders in chain of command fail
the admin check, then multiply MPs remaining by 80 percent,
rounding down. Note that units that did not move in the previous
turn will automatically pass their next turn’s admin check.
5. Determine if fuel (motorized unit) or supplies (non-motorized unit) is
sufficient to enable the unit to use the remaining MPs it has. For example,
if a motorized unit has only 50 percent of its base MPs remaining after
steps 1 through 4, it will only require 50 percent of fuel needed. If fuel
on hand is 60 percent of what the unit needs to use its remaining MPs,
then it can only move 60 percent of those MPs, rounded down.
6. If a non-motorized unit, reset the unit’s MPs to six if determined to be lower
than six. If a motorized unit with zero MPs, reset the unit’s MPs to one.
7. If the movement point allowance is greater than 16 and the unit is
motorized, check to see if the vehicle shortage penalty applies. This penalty
creates a maximum number of MPs the unit may have during the turn.
For motorized units the maximum is equal to 16 + (34 * (vehicles in unit/
vehicles required by unit. The maximum will never be less than 16.
As an example of the above rules, a motorized Axis unit that has 80 percent of its required
vehicles will start with a base MP of 50. If average fatigue were 22, then the unit MP would be
reduced by 2 to 48. If all the leaders in its chain of command failed their initiative and admin
checks, the unit’s MPs would be reduced first to 38 and then to 30. As 30 is 60 percent of the
base MP of 50, the unit would need at least 60 percent of required supplies in order to move
30 MPs; if it had only 45 percent of its supply needs, its MPs would be lowered to 22. Since
the unit has 80 percent of its vehicles, it has a maximum of 16 + (34*.8) or 43 MPs. Since the
unit has only 22 MP, it is not affected further by the vehicle shortage. Had the unit had 100
percent of its fuel and had passed the leader and admin checks, instead of having 48 MPs the
unit would be reduced to 43 MPs.
190
14.1.3. TEMPORARY MOTORIZATION OF NON-MOTORIZED UNITS
Any non-motorized unit that is in supply may double
its movement points for the current turn by clicking
on ‘motorize unit’ from the combat unit detail screen
(5.4.13), but at a cost in damaged vehicles and
administrative points. Additional vehicles required to
fully mobilize the unit will be taken from the motor pool,
but will be damaged at the end of the turn. The admin
cost to motorize the unit is based on the number of
vehicles required from the motor pool and is equal to the
number of vehicles damaged divided by 50. The number
of vehicles damaged and the number of admin points
required for temporary motorization will be displayed
next to the Motorize Unit text in the unit detail screen. Only units that have not yet expended
any MPs during that turn may temporarily motorize. The unit will show as Motorized for the
rest of the player’s turn and will pay motorized unit costs. Units that have been temporarily
motorized may not attack, enter an enemy controlled hex, or move adjacent to an enemy
unit. This simulates the unit being in column formation. As a reminder, when a temporarily
motorized unit is selected, its unit bar will display “MOTORIZED NO ATTACK.”
14.1.4. JUNE 22, 1941 AND EARLY WAR MOVEMENT COSTS
June 22 1941 Surprise Rule: During the June 22, 1941 turn Axis unit receive the following
advantages to simulate the achievement of surprise.
Movement costs of attacking are halved (including costs of attacking across rivers), but will
cost at least one MP.
Entering an enemy hex costs only 1 MP.
Early war Soviet Movement penalties:
During the June 22, 1941 turn, Soviet motorized units have their final adjusted MPs divided
by 3, but never to less than one MP. Soviet non-motorized units have their final adjusted MPs
divided by 2, but never to less than one MP.
Prior to October 1941, all Soviet motorized units that are division size may never have a final
adjusted MP of greater than 18.
191
14.1.5. TACTICAL MOVEMENT POINT COST CHART
Terrain
Motorized MP
Non-Motorized MP
Clear
1
1
City
1
1
Light Urban
1
1
Heavy Urban
1
1
Light Woods
2
1
Heavy Woods
4
2
Rough
3
2
Swamp (Ice level 4 or less)
6
2
Swamp (Ice level greater than 4)
4
2
Mountain (Mountain Infantry
Divisions pay 3 MPs)
40
10
Mountain Pass (Enter and use
rail hexes not in enemy ZOC)
8
3
Minor River hexside (No EZOC)
+2
+1
Minor River hexside (EZOC)
+6
+2
Major River hexside (No EZOC)
+4
+2
Major River hexside (EZOC)
+18
+5
Impassable River/Lake
hex side(Note 1, 1a)
Impassable except
when frozen (Note 2)
Impassable except
when frozen (Note 2)
Lake hex (Note 3)
Impassable
Impassable
Costs for Attacking
Motorized MP
Non-Motorized MP
Hasty Attack
+3
+2
Deliberate Attack
+16
+6
Attack across a minor river (in
addition to applicable attack cost)
+3
+1
Attack across a major river(in
addition to applicable attack cost)
+12
+3
Impact of Weather
Motorized MP
Non-Motorized MP
192
Terrain
Motorized MP
Non-Motorized MP
Mud
+4
+2
Snow
+1
+1
Blizzard
+2
+2
Impact of Ice (Note 2)
Motorized MP
Non-Motorized MP
Minor River Ice Lvl 1
+1
+1
Minor River Ice Lvl 2
+1
+1
Minor River Ice Lvl 3
+2
+2
Minor River Ice Lvl 4
+2
+2
Major River Ice Lvl 1 (No EZOC)
+1
+1
Major River Ice Lvl 1 (EZOC)
+2
+2
Major River Ice Lvl 2 (No EZOC)
+2
+2
Major River Ice Lvl 2 (EZOC)
+4
+4
Major River Ice Lvl 3 (No EZOC)
+3
+3
Major River Ice Lvl 3 (EZOC)
+6
+6
Major River Ice Lvl 4 (No EZOC)
+4
+4
Major River Ice Lvl 4 (EZOC)
+8
+8
Costs for enemy hexes and EZOC
Motorized MP
Non-Motorized MP
Leave enemy ZOC
+1
+1
Enter enemy hex
+((115-unit morale)/15))
(round down)
+((115-unit morale)/15))
(round down, subtract
one from cost for
cavalry units)
Enter enemy ZOC (only
if already in enemy ZOC,
i.e. ZOC to ZOC) Note 4
+4 + same cost as
for entering an enemy
hex (This is in addition
to the entering enemy
hex charge that may
also apply if entering
a enemy hex)
+4 + same cost as
for entering an enemy
hex (This is in addition
to the entering enemy
hex charge that may
also apply if entering
a enemy hex)
Brigade/Regimental and Divisional
Breakdown units entering enemy
hex and when moving ZOC to ZOC
+2 in addition to
normal costs
+2 in addition to
normal costs
193
Note 1: Supply may be traced through hex side when frozen (Ice level 5).
Note 1a: Hex X76, Y3 is a rail bridge that exists over a lake. It can be moved over by strategic
rail movement, but not via normal movement.
Note 2: Major and Minor Rivers as well as impassable River/Lake hexsides have no effect on
movement or combat when they are frozen. These hexsides are frozen when the ice level is
5 or greater.
Note 3: Supply may be traced under some conditions (20.4.1)
Note 4: Example: A ZOC to ZOC move by a Morale 83 unit moving to clear terrain is 8 if not
entering an enemy hex (1 for clear + 1 for leaving a ZOC + 6 for moving ZOC to ZOC ) If the unit
was a cavalry unit it would be 7.
14.2. STRATEGIC MOVEMENT
Strategic movement can be conducted by non-routed, non-frozen ground units. There are three
types of strategic movement; by rail, by sea naval transport between friendly ports and by
sea amphibious transport from a friendly port to any eligible coastal hex. Soviet factories can
also be evacuated using strategic rail movement (21.2.1). Each unit has a strategic transport
cost listed in the unit detail window. For that unit to use strategic movement there must be
sufficient rail capacity, transport shipping, or amphibious shipping points available to conduct
the applicable type of movement. The transportation cost of a unit will be deducted from the
pool of available points every turn it uses strategic movement, even if it just moves one hex.
The cost to entrain or embark shipping is 30 strategic movement points (SMP) and the cost
to detrain or disembark is 15 SMP. Units without 15 remaining SMP at the desired destination
will be unable to detrain and naval or amphibious transport to that hex will not be allowed.
Each rail or sea hex moved through costs one SMP. Most units will start a turn with 100 SMP.
Tactical MP and SMP are expended proportionally so that use of one movement mode will
decrease the remaining allowance of the other. For example, a headquarters unit with a MP of
50 and a SMP of 100 expends 10 MP of tactical movement to move to a port hex, resulting in
a remaining allowance of 40 MP and 80 SMP. The HQ unit then uses naval transport to move to
another port 15 hexes away and disembarks, costing 60 SMP (30 to embark, 15 to move, and
15 to disembark), resulting in a remaining allowance of 10 MP and 20 SMP. Note that combat
units using amphibious transport movement will lose all remaining movement points upon
disembarkation on a coastal hex.
194
14.2.1. STRATEGIC RAIL TRANSPORT
Strategic rail transport can only be conducted through friendly controlled and undamaged rail
line hexes that are connected through the rail network to a permanent supply source. Rail line
hexes that are in an enemy ZOC are considered to be cut off from the rail network and cannot
be used for strategic rail transport, even if the hex is occupied by a friendly combat unit.
The player can view the status of the rail line hexes and the rail network by toggling the Rail
Damage Info button (hotkey r) in the map information tab. Friendly controlled and undamaged
rail line hexes that are not connected to the rail network will display a symbol of a green circle
with three white dots inside. Selecting a unit that is located on a rail line hex while in Rail Mode
(F2) will shade all hexes that that unit cannot move into using strategic rail transport. Note that
there is a movement point cost for both entraining (30 SMP) and detraining (15 SMP), so that
a unit that ends the turn entrained will need to at least expend the 15 SMP to detrain before
it can use its remaining MP for tactical movement. See section 5.3.2 for details on using the
interface to conduct strategic rail transport.
Combat units that are attacked while entrained will suffer a significant degradation in CV in
the subsequent battle.
14.2.2. RAIL LINE REPAIR
Friendly rail line hexes must be undamaged in order to be used for strategic rail transport and
the transport of supply. Rail line hex damage ranges from one to one hundred percent, but even
one percent damage will prevent the hex from being usable for strategic rail movement and
supply purposes. Since the Soviet Union used a different gauge rail than the rest of Europe, a
change in hex control results in an automatic one hundred percent damage to that rail line. Rail
line hexes can also be damaged by partisan attacks (17.1).
A player can view the status of the rail network by selecting the map information tab rail
damage info button (5.1.2.1). The actual percentage of rail damage can be viewed in the
particular hex pop-up rollover text.
195
Damaged rail line hexes can be repaired either automatically by special on-map construction
type support units or manually by the player through the use of FBD and NKPS rail repair units.
14.2.2.1. AUTOMATIC RAIL LINE REPAIR
Repairs will be made as headquarters units automatically detach construction and labor
support units and send them to damaged rail line hexes. Unlike other support units, these units
will appear on the map in the hexes they are repairing, and may not be moved by the player
other than to send them back to their attached headquarters unit by selecting the construction
or labor support battalion and then clicking the ‘RETURN TO HQ’ link in the unit bar. For human
players only, there is a limit to the distance that the automated rail repair units will operate from
the HQ unit that they are attached, which is based on command range (7.6.4). For example, if
a construction battalion is assigned to a Corps HQ unit, it can only repair rail line hexes up to 5
hexes from that HQ, but the same construction battalion attached to a High Command HQ unit
(e.g. OKH or STAVKA) could operate up to 90 hexes away.
Detached support units will generally only repair one damaged rail line hex per turn. Repair
during Mud and Blizzard weather will proceed much slower, while repair in the Baltic Rail Zone
prior to December 1941 will be quicker. The automatic movements of these support units and
the repairs they perform take place during the player’s logistics phase. These support units
will not move to hexes containing or adjacent to a friendly FBD or NKPS rail repair unit. They
will also not move adjacent to an enemy non-partisan unit, or in the same hex as a Soviet
partisan unit.
Game Play Tip: For the most efficient use of detached construction
and labor support units, they should only be manually returned to their
headquarters unit if the player believes they are in danger of being
attacked or isolated in their current position. The computer will return
them to their headquarters unit when their rail repair work is completed
on a particular section and then automatically send them back to another
section that requires repair.
196
14.2.2.2. MANUAL RAIL LINE REPAIR
Players may also repair several hexes of rail line per turn, usually in the same section of rail
line hexes, by manually using FBD/NKPS rail repair units. Players must manually move FBD/
NKPS units and designate which hexes they will be repairing during a turn. In order for an
FBD/NKPS unit to use its special ability to repair rail hexes, the player must manually move
the FBD/NKPS unit into a hex that is suitable for repair, and then selecting the RRC (Rail Repair
Cost) text that will appear on the FBD/NKPS unit in the unit bar if the unit has enough MPs to
perform the repair. Selecting the RRC will set the damage of the hex to one percent, and this
last point of damage will automatically be repaired during the Emergency/FBD and NKPS Rail
Repair portion of the player’s next logistics phase. Designating a hex to be repaired expends
movement points. The number next to the RRC indicates the MP cost to the rail repair unit to
repair the current hex. If the FBD/NKPS unit is not in a location that it can conduct a rail repair
operation, the RRC number will display a ‘-‘ instead.
14.2.2.3. MP COST TO REPAIR RAIL LINE HEXES
In Baltic Rail Zone (prior to December 1941): 1
All Other hexes: 3
14.2.2.4. REPAIR ELIGIBILITY AND RRV
Damaged rail hexes must be eligible to be designated for repair by an FBD/NKPS unit. This
is based on the distance from the damaged rail hex to a railhead (the “off rail range” in the
hex pop-up text), which is the closest friendly and undamaged rail line hex that is connected
through the rail network to a supply source. A hex is eligible for FBD/NKPS repair if 1) the hex
is in the Baltic zone (prior to Dec 1941) and within 6 hexes of a railhead, or if not in the Baltic
zone within 4 hexes of a railhead, and 2) the number of hexes to the railhead does not exceed
the RRV (Rail Repair Value) of the FBD/NKPS unit. Since both of these conditions must apply,
players will never be able to use an FBD/NKPS unit more than 6 hexes from a railhead in the
197
Baltic zone (prior to Dec 1941), or 4 hexes from a railhead outside the Baltic zone. If a rail hex
is not eligible for repair, the RRC will not display in the FBD/NKPS unit’s info area.
Note that RRV is based on the number of construction and labor support units attached to the
FBD/NKPS repair unit and will decrease if attached support units are removed. Players can
manually transfer support units from an FBD/NKPS to a higher headquarters, but there is no
mechanism, automatic or manual, to transfer additional support units into a FBD/NKPS.
If the Show Move preference (3.3.4) is toggled on, when an FBD/NKPS unit is selected, all
damaged rail hexes within the FBD/NKPS movement range will be red, and all hexes already
designated for repair within the FBD/NKPS movement range will be yellow.
14.2.2.5. RAIL REPAIR AND THE SUPPLY SEGMENT
During the Emergency/FBD&NKPS Rail Repair sub-segment of the Logistics Phase supply
segment, all rail hexes with one percent damage will be repaired automatically. At this time
hexes with less than eleven percent damage have a chance of being repaired by automatically
detached on-map construction and labor support units. Rail line hexes that are repaired in
this sub-segment will function as railheads if otherwise eligible during the second supply
delivery sub-segment in the logistics phase (20.4.2). In some cases repairs by automatically
detached on-map support units will not take place in the Emergency Repair sub-segment but
will happen during the normal rail repair segment. Emergency repairs will help reduce the
impact of partisan attacks on the flow of supplies.
14.2.3. NAVAL TRANSPORT AND AMPHIBIOUS NAVAL TRANSPORT
Eligible units may utilize naval or amphibious naval transport to move through water hexes. All
naval movement must begin and end in a coastal hex during the turn; units may not remain at
sea at the end of a turn.
Game Play Warning: If you embark a unit and don’t immediately undo
that action, you need to move it by sea that turn! Otherwise, there will
be no reminder and next turn you will have to spend at least 15 SMP to
disembark it and then 15 SMP more to re-embark if you still want to move
it by sea.
14.2.3.1. SEA ZONES AND SHIPPING/AMPHIBIOUS CAPACITY
Sea hexes and associated ports are designated on the map as part of one of four sea zones;
Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Sea of Azov and Caspian Sea. There is also a zone associated with
Lake Ladoga hexes and associated ports. Both sides can conduct naval transport between
friendly ports within certain sea zones. The Soviet player can conduct naval transport in all four
sea zones and the Lake Ladoga zone, however, the Axis player is limited to conducting naval
transport only in the Baltic and Black Sea zones. In addition, the Soviet player can conduct
amphibious landings from a friendly port to any coastal hex in the same sea zone in the Black
Sea and Sea of Azov sea zones, with the exception that Soviet amphibious movement is not
198
allowed into Rumanian or Bulgarian coastal hexes that are south of Constanta, Rumania (hexes
where y>124 and x<71). Players accumulate shipping points in each zone, and the number
of points a player has accumulated is shown in the hex pop-up text when moving the mouse
cursor over a water hex in these zones. The Soviet player will also accumulate amphibious
points in the Black Sea and Sea of Azov zones. Each turn, each friendly port will add shipping
points equal to 100*port level to the accumulated shipping points available, and 25*port level
to the amphibious points available. The port level is equal to the number of port factory points
listed in the city detail window (5.4.27) for that port. If a port is damaged, the number of points
accumulated for that turn will be reduced by the percentage of damage. Shipping points may
be accumulated up to a maximum of 2000*port level of all friendly ports in the particular zone.
Amphibious points may be accumulated up to a maximum of 500*port level of all friendly ports
in the sea zone. The port must be of the nationality of the player in order to provide shipping/
amphibious points, for example captured Soviet ports do not provide points for the Axis player.
Game Play Tip: A quick way to figure out how many shipping points you
have in a particular sea or lake zone is to move the mouse cursor over the
water. The hex pop-up will list any available shipping (naval transport)
and amphib (Soviet amphibious transport) points in that zone.
14.2.3.2. NAVAL TRANSPORT
Shipping points are expended whenever a unit moves from port to port by Naval Transport
(5.3.3). Naval transport to/from Kerch is unique in that a unit in either a Sea of Azov port or
a Black Sea port may use naval transport to move to Kerch. Also, a unit in Kerch can move
via naval transport to either a Black Sea port (using Black Sea shipping points), or to a Sea
of Azov port (using Sea of Azov shipping points). However, naval movement to/from Kerch is
not allowed if hex 109,116 is not owned by the moving player. Note that naval transport from
Leningrad to ports on Lake Ladoga is not permitted.
14.2.3.3. AMPHIBIOUS NAVAL TRANSPORT
Amphibious points are expended whenever a Soviet combat unit attempts to move from a
port to a coastal hex (whether enemy or friendly) while in Amphibious Transport mode (5.3.4).
Only non-motorized combat units may move by amphibious transport. Units that move by
amphibious transport will conduct a hasty attack whenever they attempt to land in a hex
with enemy units. If they win the battle, they will advance into the hex and will have 0 MP’s
remaining. If they lose the battle, they will retreat back to the port of embarkation and suffer
retreat attrition (15.11). Combat units that have successfully conducted amphibious transport
into a coastal hex without a port may be eligible for beachhead supply (20.2.1). Amphibious
transport from Kerch is unique in that a unit in Kerch can move via amphibious transport to
either a Black Sea coastal hex (using Black amphibious points), or to a Sea of Azov coastal
hex (using Sea of Azov amphibious points). However, amphibious transport from Kerch is not
allowed if hex 109,116 is not owned by the moving player.
199
14.2.3.4. INTERDICTION OF NAVAL MOVEMENT
Air and Naval interdiction of units moving by naval and amphibious transport may occur
automatically. Air units can interdict the movement just as they can interdict movement on
land (16.3.3). Every friendly port (Soviet Nationality for Soviet player, Axis nationality for Axis
player, i.e. not captured ports), exerts control over an area that extends out from the port the
number of hexes equal to the port level (number of port factory points). Enemy naval movement
cannot enter a hex within that area. However, if an enemy port’s control area overlaps the
friendly port’s control area, they will cancel each other out, allowing both sides to use naval
and amphibious (Soviet only) transport. It doesn’t matter how many ports exert control over a
hex; as long as one or more from each side exerts control in a hex, they will cancel each other
out in that hex.
The range of control in hexes is reduced by the percent of damage to the port. So a port with
a value of 10 that has 20 percent damage will have its control range reduced to 8. All damage
is rounded up, so even one percent of damage will result in the reduction of one hex of range.
15. GROUND COMBAT
Ground combat takes place in the action phase and is represented by combat units of the
phasing side expending movement points to attack enemy units. The resulting battle can include
air group units from both sides providing ground support or interception, the commitment of
attached support units, and the commitment of nearby combat units in reserve status. The
actual fighting takes place between the individual aircraft and ground elements attempting
to fire and hit each other to disrupt, damage, or destroy. Terrain and fortification level, leader
initiative and combat rating, unit morale, ground element experience and fatigue, ammo status,
and the type of attack all play a role in the determination of the initial and modified Combat
Value as well as how the battle is fought. At the conclusion of combat, the modified Combat
Value ratio determines whether the defender holds or is forced to retreat, which may lead to
rout, shattering or surrender, resulting in additional losses from retreat attrition.
15.1. COMBAT SEQUENCE
The following is a general outline of how a battle proceeds. Some steps, such as participation
by air group units or commitment of combat units in reserve status, may not take place.
1. Initiate battle (see section 5.3.1 regarding use of movement mode (F1) to attack)
2. Determine fortification defense modifier from terrain and fortification level (15.3)
3. Commit support units (15.4)
4. Calculate Combat Values (CV) and odds ratio for reserve commitment (15.5)
5. Commit reserve units (Defender first, then Attacker) (15.5)
6. Calculate initial CV’s and odds ratio (15.6.2)
200
7. Conduct battle
A. Air Mission sub-phase (16.0)
1. Phasing player Air Group units committed for ground support [mission]
2. Non-phasing player Air Group units committed for air intercept
3. Air to Air combat
4. (Ground to Air (AA) and Air to Ground combat
B. Ground Combat sub-phase (15.6.1)
5. Calculate final CV and odds ratio (15.8)
6. Determine Winner and Loser (15.8)
A. If Defender lost, determine retreat result (15.9)
»» Could be retreat, rout and displacement move (15.10), shatter, or surrender
»» retreat attrition (15.11)
15.2. TYPES OF ATTACKS
There are two types of attacks that are distinguished by the amount of time, represented by
movement points (14.1.5), spent in preparation and the ability of the attacks to mass forces
against the defender. Hasty attacks expend fewer movement points, but at a cost of reduced
combat power. Deliberate attacks expend far more movement points, but allow the fullest
application of force.
15.2.1. HASTY ATTACK
Defined as “…an attack in which preparation time is traded for speed in order to
exploit an opportunity,” hasty attacks will generally result in higher attacker and
lower defender losses than a deliberate attack. A hasty attack will require the
expenditure of three MP’s for a motorized combat unit and two MP’s for a nonmotorized combat unit. Only a single stack of combat units can participate in a hasty attack
and their Combat Value (CV) will be reduced by one half for all steps in which CV is calculated.
Support units can only be committed from eligible headquarters units that have not expended
any movement points during the current turn. Note that support units attached directly to
combat units will always be committed to battles to which the combat unit is a participant.
201
15.2.1.1. RECONNAISSANCE IN FORCE
Prior to a hasty attack, a special modified CV calculation is conducted and an odds ratio
generated. This calculation is not displayed in the combat resolution window and will most
likely result in modified CV’s and odds ratio that are different than the initial CV’s displayed
on the counters and in the combat resolution window (7.1). If this modified CV ratio is less or
equal to 2 to 1 (2.01 to one is greater than 2 to 1), than an initiative check is conducted for
each combat unit participating in the hasty attack. If all the units pass their leader initiative
checks, then the attack is turned into a reconnaissance in force. If any unit in the attack fails
the initiative check, then the attack remains a regular hasty attack. A reconnaissance in force
will result in reduced fighting and losses on both sides and the attacker will have no chance
to cause a retreat. This result will be reflected by the combat resolution message “Defending
forces were scouted.”
15.2.2. DELIBERATE ATTACK
Defined as “A type of offensive action characterized by pre-planned coordinated
employment of firepower and manoeuvre to close with and destroy or capture the
enemy,” deliberate attacks require the expenditure of sixteen MP’s by motorized
units and six MP’s by non-motorized units. Multiple stacks of combat units
can participate in a deliberate attack against an adjacent defending stack. Unlike a hasty
attack, support units can be committed from eligible headquarters units that have moved
during the current turn. In addition, Artillery combat units that have sufficient movement points
remaining may participate in a deliberate attack from two hexes away from the defending unit.
The artillery combat unit must be selected just as any unit would be selected to add into a
deliberate attack (5.3.1). If all units launching an attack are artillery combat units that are two
hexes from the target hex, then only artillery units from both sides can fire and no support,
reserve or air group units will be added into the battle for either side.
Game Play Note: The artillery combat units are not actually firing from
twenty miles away; the ability to add artillery combat units two hexes
from the battle is an abstraction representing the massing of artillery for
an intense pre-attack bombardment and the actual firing can take place at
ranges as low as 1000 yards.
202
15.3. FORTIFICATION DEFENSIVE MODIFIER
The combat value of defending units can be increased by the fortification defense modifier,
which is a combined value that takes into account both the intrinsic terrain and any man made
fortification level in the hex. Terrain ranges from clear hexes, with no benefit, to heavy urban
hexes, which provide a significant terrain benefit. In addition to the natural defensive value of
the terrain in the hex, all hexes have a man made fortification value, called a fort level, that
ranges from Fort Level 0 (no benefit) to Fort Level 5 (maximum benefit). While most hexes have
an initial Fort Level of 0 or 1 at best, some have a higher initial level indicating the presence
of existing fortifications. Sevastopol, for example, has an initial Fort Level of 5. The combat
value of each defending unit is modified by multiplying the CV by one plus the total fortification
defense modifier, which is the sum of the terrain modifier and the fort level. For example, a
defending unit in a Light Urban hex (terrain modifier of six) with a fortification level of three
would have its CV multiplied by ten (1+6+3) during combat. Combat units can increase the
Fort Level of a hex by occupying the hex for successive turns. Each turn the hex is occupied
there is a chance the Fort Level will increase, however; the higher the current fort level, the
lower the chance of it increasing.
15.3.1. TERRAIN
Terrain can be thought of as possessing an intrinsic fortification level that is summed with the
man made fortification level to provide the total fortification defense modifier for that hex. The
terrain type in a hex (6.2.1) also determines the average distance (range) for combat between
ground elements. This is important for things like AFV versus infantry combat, as the closer
ranges in urban hexes will allow infantry to do better versus AFVs.
The following table summarized terrain fortification modifiers:
Terrain Type
Defense Modifier
Clear
+0
Remarks
City
+2
Light Urban
+6
+3 if Isolated Hex
Heavy Urban
+8
+4 if Isolated Hex
Light Woods
+1
Heavy Woods
+2
Rough
+3
Mountain
+3
Swamp
+2
Note 1
203
Note 1: Mountain combat units are more effective during battles that take place in a mountain
hex.
15.3.2. FORTIFICATION LEVELS
Man made fortifications and entrenchments are represented by a fort level in each hex that can
range from zero to five. Forts cannot be increased in size to greater than 2 if the hex is more
than 25 hexes from an enemy unit. All defending units in a hex benefit from the fort level of the
hex when in combat. The fort level of a hex is set to zero whenever the control of a hex changes
sides. The fort level in a hex and any construction towards a higher fort level is displayed in the
hex pop-up for each hex. A level zero on the map means a fort is under construction.
15.3.2.1. COMBAT UNIT FORT LEVEL CONSTRUCTION
For construction on a fort level to begin in a hex, there must be a combat unit in the hex.
Depleted and/or frozen combat units cannot construct fort levels, security type units cannot
build a fort level greater than one and isolated units are limited to building fortification level no
greater than two. Once a fort level is constructed, it will start to decay if the hex is not occupied
by a combat unit. The chance that the fortification will decay increases as the fortification level
decreases.
Each combat unit has a construction value (displayed on the right hand side of the unit detail
window) that is the sum of the construction values for each of its ground elements. This value
204
is affected by the fatigue and experience of the unit’s ground elements. Any ground elements
in the unit that are not engineer or construction types have their construction value divided
by five when adjacent to an enemy unit. During the enemy player’s logistics phase, units will
use their construction value toward building a fort level. Units that moved during their turn
construct fort levels during the next logistics phase with whatever percentage of their MPs that
are left. For example, if a combat unit used 15 of its 45 MPs, it will only have two thirds of its
normal construction value available during the enemy logistics phase for building fort levels.
It requires fifty construction points to build each fort level, with one point represents two
percent of the needed construction. The construction value of a unit is modified based on the
current fort level of the hex, the terrain of the hex, and the weather to determine the number of
construction points it provides as follows (effects are cumulative):
Fort level 0 - x 3
Fort level 1 - x 1
Fort level 2 - x .33
Fort level 3 - x .10
Fort level 4 - x .02
Swamp hex - x .5 (Maximum fort level in a swamp hex is 3)
Snow - x .5
Mud - x .33
Blizzard - x .25
A unit in static mode has their construction value multiplied by 1.1.
A unit may never provide more than fifty construction points per turn (after modifications) to the
construction of a hex. In addition, a single hex can only gain fifty net construction points of fort
level per turn. For example a hex that currently is at fort level two with fifteen percent towards
fort level three constructed, would be limited to building up to no more than fort level three with
fifteen percent towards fort level four.
15.3.2.2. SUPPORT UNIT ASSIST TO FORT LEVEL CONSTRUCTION
Construction and engineer support units attached to headquarters units in the combat unit’s
chain of command can assist those combat units in constructing fort levels if the applicable
headquarters unit passes a leader admin check. The headquarters unit that the combat unit
is directly attached must be within five hexes of that combat unit. In addition, no more than
three levels of headquarters units in the combat units chain of command can assist, and each
higher headquarters unit that may provide support units must be within five hexes of the next
lower level headquarters unit. For example, in order for construction and engineer support
units to assist down the entire eligible chain of command, a German combat unit attached to
205
a Corps headquarters unit must be able to trace five hexes back to that Corps HQ unit. The
Corps HQ unit in turn must be able to trace five hexes back to the Army HQ unit to which it is
attached, and finally the Army HQ unit must be able to trace five hexes back to the Army Group
HQ. In the above example, if the unit was within 5 hexes of its Corps HQ but the Corps was not
within 5 HQ of its Army HQ, then only support units in the Corps HQ would be able to potentially
assist the unit. Each eligible support unit may assist the fort level building of no more than one
combat unit per turn.
15.3.2.3. CIVILIAN POPULATION LABOR ASSIST TO FORT LEVEL CONSTRUCTION
Town, city and urban hexes can use their population as civilian labor to help construct fort
levels within up to 8 hexes if a supplied enemy unit is within 25 hexes. The town hex must have
a population of at least two. Civilian labor can only assist the construction of fort levels in hexes
with combat units where the construction of fort levels has already begun. For Axis town, city,
or urban hexes, a combat unit must be present in the town, city or urban hex as well as any
other hexes where fort levels are being constructed. Each eligible town, city or urban hex will
calculate a City Labor Value (CLV) based on the population of the hex divided by six for Soviets
and twelve for Axis, rounded down. In either case, the CLV can never exceed eight. The town,
city or urban hex will form labor teams with a construction value equal to the CLV times twenty,
with a minimum construction value of twenty. The maximum number of labor teams that may
be formed is equal to the CLV of the city, with a minimum of at least one team, and only 1 team
may be sent to any given hex. These teams may help in fort level construction in hexes that
are within the CLV number of hexes from the town, city or urban hex. The hexes nearest to
enemy units will tend to get the help first. The construction value of the labor team is modified
in the same way as combat and support units are modified by fort level, terrain and weather
to determine the net construction points provided to a hex they are assisting. In addition, if
there are no enemy units within twelve hexes of the city, the construction value of each team
is divided by four. A hex may receive labor teams from more than one town, city or urban hex
per turn. The population may become damaged from participating in fort level construction.
For example, Leningrad with a population of 40 has a CLV of 6 for the Soviet Player (40/6
rounded down). This means Leningrad will send out labor teams to hexes up to 6 hexes away
from the city hex as soon as there is an enemy unit within 25 hexes. Each team will have a
basic construction value of 120 (6x20). Up to 6 different hexes may receive help per turn from
a Leningrad labor team. If no enemy unit was within 12 hexes of Leningrad (but there was
an enemy unit within 25 hexes), each labor team would have a construction value of only 30
(120/4). If the hex being fortified was also a swamp, and the weather in the hex was snow, the
CV would be further reduced to 7 (30x.5x.5).
City labor may also continue to build up the fort level of an unoccupied hex as long as the hex
has some construction already underway, however, fort level decay may more than offset any
additional fort construction done by the city labor.
206
15.3.2.4. FORT LEVEL REDUCTION IN COMBAT
Fort levels can be reduced during combat if the attacking force contains engineer ground
elements (e.g. German Pioneer, Soviet Sapper; any type Engineer or Mech-Engineer ground
elements) participating in the battle. This reduction can be fractional, i.e. it doesn’t have to
reduce a fort by one entire level, and it can just reduce a part of one level. Fractional reductions
in fort levels take place in two percent increments. The more engineer ground elements
participating, the better the chance for fort level reduction. Engineer values are divided by
the fort level when calculating their ability to reduce fort levels in combat. Fort level reduction
caused by engineers can result in the reduction of the final defending modified combat value
(15.8). In addition, if the Axis attacking force is unable to force a retreat on the Soviet defender,
but has at least a one to one combat value ratio, there is a chance that the Soviet fort level
will be reduced up to one additional level, with fractional reductions once again possible. This
additional one fort level reduction does not require engineer ground elements to occur, but the
presence of engineers will increase the chances. If all defending units are forced to retreat,
then any fort levels in the hex are reduced to zero.
207
15.3.2.5. FORT LEVEL AND AFV DAMAGE
There is a small chance that attacking AFV ground elements may become damaged during
combat by mines. The probability of damage increases with the fort level, representing the
higher density of minefields.
15.3.2.6. ARTILLERY AND FORT LEVELS
To better simulate the ability to pre-register fire locations, he effectiveness of artillery fire
is related to the fort level of the hex containing the firing artillery. The higher the fort level,
the more effective artillery in that hex will be in combat. Due to their ability to participate
in multiple battles, artillery support units attached to headquarters units do not receive any
benefit from fort levels when committed to combat, so this benefit is limited to artillery combat
units as well as artillery support units directly attached to fortified units (7.5.2).
15.4. SUPPORT UNITS IN COMBAT
Support units can participate in combat as part of the attacking or defending side. Support units
that are directly attached to combat units will automatically be added to the battle. Support
units attached to headquarters units must pass a series of checks in order to be committed to
a battle. Headquarters units can only commit support units to attached combat units. The HQ
unit must be within five hexes of attached combat units and be able to trace an indeterminate
path of friendly hexes, which can be in EZOC, to those same combat units in order to commit
support units during combat. Note that the actual distance through friendly hexes from a HQ
unit to an attached combat unit does not impact the ability to commit support units, as long as
the HQ unit is within five hexes “as the crow flies”.
15.4.1. SUPPORT UNIT COMMITMENT
The maximum number of attached support units that can be commitment by headquarters
units to a single battle is 6, with the exception where the defending combat units are in a
light urban or heavy urban hex, where the maximum is 18. Support unit commitment from
headquarters units is not automatic. For each support unit attempting to be committed, the
leader of that headquarters must pass an initiative check. The support unit must then pass
several checks, with the checks becoming more difficult based both on the number of support
units already committed and the total number of non-construction support units attached
208
to the headquarters unit. This means that Headquarters units with large numbers of nonconstruction support units will have more opportunities to commit support units; however the
overall probability of each support unit being committed will be less than if the headquarters
units had fewer non-construction support units. Support units directly attached to eligible
combat units will be automatically committed to a battle involving that combat unit and do not
count against the HQ unit maximums discussed above. Note that the only combat units that
artillery support units can be directly attached to are fortified region and zone units (7.5.2).
15.5. RESERVE COMBAT UNITS
Combat units in reserve mode may be committed to a nearby battle, both offensively and
defensively. The type of attack itself, whether hasty or deliberate, has no affect on the
commitment of units in reserve mode. Any Ready combat unit with at least 3 MPs may be
placed into Reserve mode by selecting the Ready/Refit/Reserve toggle on the combat unit
detail window (5.4.13) until Reserve is displayed. Units that move, retreat or rout are taken
out of reserve mode.
Reserve units that are committed to combat do not move, but they must have the MPs required
to be expended in order to commit to the battle. The MPs a unit has when it ends its player turn
are the MPs available for it to use for commitment as a defensive reserve during the enemy
player’s turn. During a battle all defensive reserve commitments are made first, and then
followed by offensive reserve commitments.
15.5.1. RESERVE UNIT COMMITMENT
To be committed in defense, a unit in reserve mode must be within 6 hexes of the battle hex.
To be committed to an attack, a reserve unit must be within 3 hexes of the battle hex. A unit in
reserve mode may never commit to a battle if it is adjacent to an enemy unit. A unit in reserve
mode will never commit into a battle if the initial combat value (CV) odds ratio at the time the
unit checks are over 10 to 1. A defending reserve unit will also never commit into a battle if
the odds are less than 1 to 2. If the above commitment pre-requisites are met, the unit must
then check to see if it has enough MPs to commit to the battle (15.5.2). If it does, then the unit
must pass a leader initiative roll to be committed to the battle. The unit must also pass a check
based on the MPs to be expended such that Die (MPs to be expended if committed) must be
less than or equal to Die(Units MPs).
209
A unit may participate in multiple battles in the same turn as long as it meets all of the
requirements and has the MPs to expend. Units in reserve mode that participate in a battle that
is lost have their MPs reduced to zero, so will be unable to participate in any other battles that
turn. All reserve combat units committed will suffer a reduction in their combat value if they
have a vehicle shortage.
Soviet units in reserve in the first turn of Barbarossa, have their MPs limited and will not have
their normal MP allowance (14.1.4).
15.5.1.1. RESERVE COMMITMENT LIMITATIONS DUE TO UNIT SIZE
Corps sized combat units are less likely to be committed offensively as they add one to the
leader initiative roll. Brigades and Regiments are more likely to be committed as they subtract
one from the leader initiative roll. In addition, as units in reserve mode from one side are
committed to a battle, the chance of further commitments to the battle decline, based on the
size of the combat units that have already been committed as follows:
Corps =15
Division = 9
Brigade = 5
Regiment = 3
Using the above values, as additional units attempt to be committed, they check to see if
Die(18) is greater than the value of units already committed. If not, the unit is not committed.
15.5.2. RESERVE COMMITMENT MP REQUIREMENT
To determine the MPs required for commitment, a unit in reserve mode traces a movement
path to the battle hex if defending, or to the closest hex containing an attacking unit if attacking.
The MPs to this hex are modified based on the units involved in the combat. If the combat unit
in the battle that is attached to the same HQ unit as the unit in reserve mode, the MP costs
to the battle are multiplied by three. Failing that, if there is a combat unit attached to an HQ
unit that is one level removed from the reserve mode unit’s HQ unit (reports to same army HQ
unit but not same corps HQ unit or attached to an Army HQ unit while unit in reserve mode
is attached to a corps HQ unit that is in turn attached to the same army HQ unit) than the MP
cost is multiplied by 4. Combat units attached to an HQ unit that is two or more levels removed
from the reserve mode unit’s HQ unit cannot be committed to that particular battle. In addition
to the cost to reach the hex, the unit must pay an additional 8 MPs if it is a motorized unit or 2
MPs if it is a non-motorized unit. For example, a motorized unit in reserve mode that is located
4 movement points from a defending combat unit, with both units being attached to the same
corps HQ unit, will require and expend 20 MP if it is committed to the battle as (4MPx3)+8=20.
210
15.5.3. DEFENSIVE RESERVE UNIT SPECIAL RULES
Defending units committed from reserve may rout if the battle result forces the defender to
retreat from the combat. Defending units committed from reserve will not be eligible to rout if
they pass a check where their Morale is greater than or equal to 40+die(15). This means that if
their morale is 55 or greater they will never rout from a reserve commitment, but if their morale
is 40 or lower they always will always be eligible to rout. The computer will never put a unit
with morale less than 50 in reserve mode.
Defending reserves are considered counter-attacking forces and normally do not get the
benefit of fortification levels in combat, though they do benefit from all terrain modifiers that
are valid for the hex being attacked. The exception is that reserves committed in defense to
fighting in Urban hexes will receive the full defensive fortification modifier of both the terrain
and fortification levels in the hex.
15.5.3.1. DEFENSIVE RESERVE UNITS COMMITMENT TO CITY AND URBAN HEXES
There are special rules regarding defending unit’s ability to react from reserve into a battle in
a city, light urban or heavy urban hex. Any reserve unit within 2 hexes of a battle in a city or
urban hex that can trace it’s way to the hex and has at least one movement point remaining
may be committed from reserve even if the number of MPs to reach the battle exceed the
number the unit has remaining. The unit is also exempt from the normal distance check. If the
unit commits to the battle, it will expend the normal cost to commit from reserve, but if it is
more than the remaining MPs of the unit, the unit will be reduced to zero MPs. Units can never
be adjacent to an enemy unit to react in from reserve and must still pass a leader initiative
roll to be committed. In addition, the normal Die(18) die roll used to compare against number
of units committed is changed to Die(36) for light-urban and Die(72) for heavy-urban (instead
of Die(18)).
15.6. GENERAL GROUND COMBAT RULES
15.6.1. DESCRIPTION OF GROUND COMBAT
Ground combat is conducted by an automated tactical combat system that consists of
a variable number of rounds where ground elements engage each other. In general, the
computer first determines the opening range at which combat will take place. This is largely
based on defending terrain, with battles in city and urban hexes commencing at shorter initial
ranges. The attacker fires first at ranges of 3000 yards or greater, while the defender fires first
at ranges less than 3000 yards.
The next step is to determine which ground elements will be able to fire. There are multiple
factors involved, to include the type of attack (hasty or deliberate), enemy unit detection level
(DL), defending fortification modifier, attacking unit morale and supply status (especially
ammo), individual ground element experience, fatigue, ammo usage and range of their
equipped devices, and leader initiative and ground combat rating (mech or infantry) checks
211
(11.3). Due to Soviet attack doctrine, defending Axis ground elements will have a better chance
to fire at attacking Soviet ground elements.
Ground elements that have successfully passed their checks will then fire their equipped
devices that are within range at an opposing ground element. The number of shots taken, the
ability to hit the target, and for AFV and combat vehicles where the target is hit, are dependent
on the same factors listed above as well as ground element speed, size, and the firing devices
accuracy, rate of fire, and blast radius against soft targets.
The amount of ammo on hand impacts the number of shots taken in combat. If over 100%, the
combat unit may get an extra shot. If less than 50%, the combat unit will likely get fewer shots,
Longer range artillery units will fire less often if ammo is under 75%. Soviet Artillery Divisions
firing from 2 hex range and artillery in support units will tend to fire more often, depending
somewhat on ammo on hand. Artillery ground elements in support units and on-map artillery
combat units will be more willing to use up ammo when they are in a battle than artillery
ground elements in other combat units, because the support units and on-map units are less
likely to be in additional battles while a non-artillery combat unit must retain ammo for other
possible battles in the turn.
If the targeted ground element is hit, then the result is determined based on the defending
fortification modifier, the defending ground elements speed and armour, and the attacking
ground element’s device lethality and penetration capability. The result could be no effect,
disrupted, damaged or destroyed. AFV ground elements may become damaged during combat
due to breakdowns or mines (9.6.1, 15.3.2.5). Any result other than no effect removes the
targeted ground element from further participation, to include contributing to the overall
combat value, in the current battle; however, disrupted and damaged ground elements may
suffer additional effects depending on which side wins the battle.
Generally, the range at which firing takes place will decrease for the ground elements such
as infantry squads as they manoeuvre to come to grips with the defending ground elements,
though indirect fire and longer range direct fire ground elements may continue to fire at longer
range. After all engagements between ground elements are complete, the computer will move
on to the next step of determining the winner of the battle.
15.6.2. COMBAT VALUE (CV) AND GROUND COMBAT
15.6.2.1. VEHICLE SHORTAGE CV MODIFIER
All attacking units and units committed from reserve for the defense suffer a reduction in CV
if they have a vehicle shortage. This penalty is a percentage reduction equal to((1-(vehicles/
vehicle need))x10). The reduction is multiplied by 2 if the unit is motorized. For example, a
motorized unit with no vehicles would suffer a 20 percent reduction in CV, while a 50 percent
shortage in vehicles would cause a 10 percent reduction in CV.
212
15.6.2.2. COMMAND BATTLE CV MODIFIER
In order to simulate both the difficulty of coordinating attacks with units from different
organizations and the ability of an attacking force to exploit the boundaries between different
defending commands, the command and control organization, i.e. attachment, of the combat
units participating in a battle can negatively affect the overall CV of both the attacker and the
defender. If all participating combat units are attached to the same headquarters unit, then
there is no CV penalty. If at least one combat unit is attached to a different Corps headquarters
unit, there will be a ten percent reduction in overall CV. If at least one combat unit is attached
to a different Army Headquarters unit, there will be a twenty percent reduction in overall CV.
Finally, if at least one combat unit is attached to a different Army Group/Front headquarters
unit, there will be a thirty percent reduction in overall CV.
15.6.2.3. TERRAIN CV MODIFIER
AFV and combat vehicle type ground elements will have their CV (26.1.4) reduced by half when
attacking or defending in urban, heavy woods, swamp, broken and mountain hexes. Infantry
type ground elements will have their CV doubled when in urban, heavy woods, swamp, broken
and mountain hexes.
Mountain units have their CV doubled in mountain hexes, no matter what the weather. Ski units
will have their combat value (CV) doubled in snow and tripled in blizzard (22.1).
15.6.2.4. INITIAL CV VALUES
At the start of the battle, the combat resolution window will display each participating combat
and support unit along with its CV in parentheses as well as an overall combat value at the
bottom of each side’s section. These initial CV’s are essentially the CV displayed on the on-map
213
combat unit counters multiplied by ten. The only modifiers applied to the initial CV’s are the
fortification defensive modifier and the halving of attacking unit CV’s if the attack is hasty. The
combat values of the individual units may not add up to the total CV because the total accounts
for any loss of CV due to the command battle modifier, while the individual unit value does not.
Note that the displayed CV’s, both on the counters and in the combat resolution window, reflect
disruption caused by any cross river attack (15.6.4).
The final overall combat values displayed at the bottom of the screen at the end of the battle
may not bear any resemblance to the CV’s on the counters as they not only reflect losses
suffered during the battle, but have been heavily modified due to numerous random factors
(15.8).
15.6.3. UNREADY COMBAT UNITS ATTACK RESTRICTIONS
Combat units that have the sum of their current morale and actual TOE percentage equalling
less than 100 are in an unready status, which is reflected in the unit bar when the unit is
selected. Unready combat units may only attack if they have not expended any movement
points during the turn. With the exception of unready artillery combat units firing at a distance
of two hexes, this means unready combat units must start their turn adjacent to an enemy unit
in order to be eligible to attack.
15.6.4. CROSS RIVER ATTACK
Combat units attacking into a hex through a non-frozen (ice level four or less) minor or major
river hex sides are required to expend additional movement points above the normal attack
MP cost. All ground elements that cross the river to attack are subject to a disruption check
prior to the initial computation of combat value. Ground elements with longer range indirect fire
devices will normally not check for disruption while infantry and combat engineers most likely
will check. Infantry type ground elements will tend to suffer approximately the same amount
of disruption for both minor and major rivers, but AFV and combat vehicle ground elements
will suffer more disruption in crossing a major river than a minor river. Since disrupted combat
units do not contribute to overall CV, players can anticipate a reduction in overall CV of up to
half for minor rivers and up to two-thirds for major rivers prior to any other modifications.
15.7. COMBAT RESULTS AND BATTLE LOSSES
15.7.1. COMBAT RESULT EFFECTS
Disruption: Disrupted ground elements can no longer fire and they will not contribute their
combat value to any future overall CV computations.
Damage: Damaged ground elements are out of action and can no longer fire or be fired at.
They no longer contribute to a unit’s CV, but can be destroyed or lose their devices as a result
of the determination of which side won or lost the battle.
214
Destruction: Destroyed ground elements are eliminated immediately, though men and devices
may be captured and there is a ten percent chance that the manpower associated with that
ground element will be disabled instead of being killed in action. Approximately 1 in every 25
men from destroyed elements will be captured as a result of combat.
Generic Vehicles: Generic organic unit vehicles can be damaged or destroyed as a result of
combat.
15.7.2. BATTLE LOSSES
Battle losses are reflected in the Combat Resolution Display (5.4.11) and the Show Losses
Screen (5.4.2). Note that in the show losses screen there is a difference between the “Recent
Battle and Non-Combat Casualties” column and the other columns. The former includes all
casualties (wounded/sick/damaged weapons and vehicles) and takes into account ready
ground elements that have become damaged as well as damaged ground elements that have
been destroyed by listing half of their manpower, guns and AFVs. The two Permanent Losses
columns (current turn and total) only include ground elements that have been destroyed,
including previously damaged elements that were destroyed, and does not account for any
ground elements that have been damaged. This Total column for men lost should always
match the killed/captured/disabled totals. So think of the first column as casualties including
those wounded that returned to duty and those sick that will return to duty and damaged
AFV and combat vehicles that are not written off and are expected to be repaired. The losses
due to retreat attrition from displacement moves do show up in the losses screen. Note that
the “Recent Battle and Non-Combat Casualties” column is only zeroed out when the phasing
player first goes to the map area at the start of a turn, and just before each battle. As the
phasing player moves combat units and causes units with zero CV to conduct displacement
moves, the “Recent Battle and Non-Combat Casualties” will continue to increase until the
next battle zeroes that column out and the values start again. Losses due to damage during
movement also appear in this way.
For example. a battle is fought where 14 AFV ground elements, with crews of 4 men, and 8
10 man infantry squad ground elements with 10 men are damaged while one infantry squad
ground element with 10 men was destroyed. That counts as 7 (14x1/2) AFV and (4x14x1/2)
+ (8x10x1/2) + 10 or78 men in the “Recent Battle and Non-Combat Casualties” column. If
this was the first battle of the turn, all that would be listed in the right hand side permanent
losses for the current turn would be ten men lost for the infantry squad ground element that
was destroyed.
Disabled Men: Permanent losses are not 100 percent permanent, because one percent of the
men listed as disabled are returned to the manpower pool per turn. Note that although some
disabled troops return to duty, since their devices were destroyed and they only slowly return
to duty, as long as they have not returned to duty they still count for victory purposes and are
considered “permanent” losses.
215
Soviet Partisans: Ground elements that form partisan units are not counted in the permanent
losses for the Soviets, although they will be displayed in the “Recent Battle and Non-Combat
Casualties” column for that particular battle.
15.8. DETERMINING THE WINNER IN GROUND COMBAT
At the end of all combat, the modified combat values for both sides are calculated and
compared as a ratio (attacker/defender) to determine the winner and loser of the battle (7.1). If
the displayed modified CV ratio is 2:1 or greater, the defender will be forced to retreat. Note that
for the Soviet player as attacker, if the actual modified CV ratio is greater than 1:1, due to Soviet
attack doctrine, one level will automatically be added to their side of the ratio. For example,
a 1.5:1 ratio will become 2.5:1 for determining the winner. This means that the modified CV
ratio displayed for Soviet attacks will either be less than 1:1, in which case they lose the battle,
or 2:1 or greater and they win the battle. Note that due to rounding in the combat displays,
odds of less than 1:1, for example 1:1.001, will be shown as 1:1.0. All of the defending units
in a hex will be forced to retreat if the battle is lost. The attacking force will win the battle if
the defenders are forced to retreat. The defenders will win the battle if they hold their ground.
Game Play Info: Displayed Modified combat values are rounded down
to a whole number, but the odds ratio uses the actual numbers, which
are in the 1000’s. As an example, a zero could be anywhere between an
actual 0.0 and 999. Same for 1, which could be between 1000 and 1999.
216
To get a better feel for the actual numbers, divide the attackers modified
combat value by the attacker’s side of the odds ratio. So if final modified
combat values of 250 and 1 resulted in an odds ratio of 167.0:1, which left
you scratching your head, divide 250 by 167 and you get 1.497, meaning
that the defenders’ actual modified combat value was approximately
1500, which was then rounded down to 1. Of course this is only a rough
approximation, since the attacker’s combat value was actually somewhere
between 25000 and 25999. You may also see a zero in the odds ratio,
meaning that the unit was so weakened during the battle that its real (not
rounded down) modified CV was zero.
15.8.1. FACTORS INFLUENCING MODIFIED COMBAT VALUE
There are many factors that go into determining the modified combat values used in deciding
the winner and loser in a ground battle. One of the most critical is the leader combat (mech
or infantry) rating check. A successful check can result in the CV of the combat unit being
doubled. Several failed checks can result in the CV being halved. As with other leader checks,
a failed check by one leader will allow the next leader in the chain of command to attempt
a combat rating check, albeit at a reduced chance of success. Other factors that impact
the modified combat value include battle losses, the fortification defense modifier (possibly
reduced due to attacking engineers), type of attack (hasty attacks halve the overall CV),
command battle modifier, leader and unit morale, leader initiative and admin ratings, ground
element experience and fatigue, supply status (severe penalty possible if units are isolated),
vehicle shortages for attackers and defending reserve units, and effect on fighting in an urban
hex for AFV/combat vehicles (halved) and infantry (doubled).
Game Play Info: The Soviet ability to force a retreat at a 1:1 modified
combat ratio may seem a huge advantage, but remember that the attack
doctrine that allows this also normally results in lower final CV due to
more exposure to defensive fire causing additional casualties. Also recall
the multiplying impact of fort levels on defensive CV and the fact that
engineer ground elements can reduce man made fort levels during the
battle. For the Soviets, getting those sappers in action is the only way to
reduce fort levels if the defender is not forced to retreat and can make
the difference in reaching the elusive 1:1 ratio. An Axis attack that, gets
close, but no cigar, to that 2:1 CV ratio required to win still has chance
of reducing fort levels, which will be further enhanced if engineers are
participating. Bottom line - make sure you have some engineers in the
attack force if you are going up against hexes with high man made fort
levels!
15.9. EFFECT OF DEFENDER RETREAT RESULT
When Defending combat units are forced to retreat, each unit first suffers retreat attrition
(15.11). Ground elements in the unit have a chance of being damaged or destroyed, and some
217
ground elements may be captured, with damaged ground elements being much more likely
to be captured.
Next, each unit must check to see if it shatters or routs. A unit that is in Supply and forced
to retreat may shatter at the conclusion of the combat instead of retreating if it is extremely
weak due to a combination of low morale, experience and TOE percentage and is no longer
considered a viable combat unit. A unit that is already routed may shatter if in a hex that is
attacked and forced to retreat (15.9.2). A combat unit that is in Supply and forced to retreat
will rout at the conclusion of combat if the final combat value odds ratio is greater than the
morale of the unit. For example, at the conclusion of a battle, a unit with morale of forty will
rout if the attacker’s adjusted CV is greater than forty times the defender’s adjusted CV. The
exception is that if a unit has a valid hex to retreat to, then it will not be susceptible to a rout
as long as it passes a check where the unit Morale is greater than or equal to 40+die(15).
This means that units with morale that is 55 or greater will never rout. Units that rout will
perform a displacement move instead of a normal retreat (15.9.4, 15.10). Support units suffer
the same fate as that suffered by the unit they are attached to, although support units never
remain routed.
Ground elements from units that shatter or surrender may be captured, may escape or, if Soviet
infantry or cavalry squads, may form a partisan unit. Ground elements that escape are returned
to the production pool and will be listed as escaped in the battle tab of the commander’s report.
Axis units that shatter or surrender will attempt to reform (18.1.1.2). Soviet units that shatter
or surrender are permanently destroyed, with the exception of some types of Soviet combat
units destroyed before November 1941 (18.1.1.1). Isolated combat units that shatter suffer the
effects of surrendering instead of the effects of shattering.
Units that retreat or rout are automatically taken out of reserve mode.
15.9.1. DEFENDER RETREAT PATH PRIORITIES
Defending units that have not shattered or routed will then attempt to retreat to a friendly
controlled hex using the following priorities. Retreating units will tend to retreat to hexes not
adjacent to enemy units. They will try to avoid retreating into an over stack condition (i.e. a
hex that already has three friendly units), but if they do, they must continue to retreat and take
additional retreat attrition losses for each additional hex that they retreat through. Retreating
units tend to retreat to hexes that cost fewer MPs to reach, have rail lines, have fort levels
and contain fewer friendly combat units. Retreating over unfrozen minor river hexside causes
double retreat attrition, while retreating over an unfrozen Major river hexside causes triple
retreat attrition. At the conclusion of the retreat, the retreating unit suffers retreat attrition once
for each adjacent hex that contains an enemy combat unit.
15.9.1.1. ISOLATED UNITS RETREAT RESULTS
An isolated unit (15.12) that ends its retreat adjacent to an enemy unit will surrender if Die(50)
is greater than the morale of the unit. Units that are isolated or in beachhead supply status will
218
surrender if they have no permissible hex to which to retreat. Fortified Regions and Zones that
are forced to retreat will always surrender. Combat units that are in supply will rout if they have
no permissible hex to retreat to.
Note that units cut off in the opposing players turn don’t gain isolated status until the next
player’s turn in the logistics phase.
15.9.2. EFFECTS OF SHATTERING
When a unit shatters, it is considered destroyed and removed from the map. Ground elements
in the unit are affected as follows:
»» Damaged ground elements are captured
»» Undamaged ground elements may be captured depending on their
experience, the distance from their unit to an in supply friendly unit, and
whether their unit is completely surrounded by enemy controlled hexes
(If Rnd(60 + range in Hexes to an in supply friendly unit) > experience of
ground element + Rnd(200*), the ground element is captured. *this value
is 100 if the unit is completely surrounded by enemy controlled hexes).
»» If a ground element is not captured, and it is a Soviet infantry
or cavalry squad, then there is a chance the unit will become
a partisan squad in a newly created partisan unit.
»» If the ground element is not captured and does not become a partisan
squad, then the ground element’s AFV/Combat vehicles, devices and
manpower are returned to the appropriate production pools.
15.9.3. EFFECTS OF SURRENDER
When a unit surrenders (whether due to combat or in the logistics phase due to isolation) it is
considered destroyed and removed from the map. Ground elements in the unit are affected
as follows:
Damaged ground elements are captured.- Undamaged ground elements may be captured
depending on their experience and the distance from their unit to an in supply friendly unit (If
Rnd(120+range in Hexes to an in supply friendly unit) > experience of ground element, the
ground element is captured).
If a ground element is not captured, and it is a Soviet infantry or cavalry squad, then there is a
chance the unit will become a partisan squad in a newly created partisan unit.
If the ground element is not captured and does not become a partisan squad, then the ground
element’s AFV/Combat vehicles, devices and manpower are returned to the appropriate
production pools
219
15.9.4. EFFECT OF ROUTING
When a combat unit routs, it has its CV set to zero and then the unit performs a displacement
move (15.10). Routed units may move but may not move adjacent to an enemy unit unless
stacked with a friendly combat unit. Routed units do not participate in combat, but if part of a
stack that is attacked and is forced to retreat, the routed unit will be shattered. Routed units
do not have a ZOC and will not gain control of adjacent unoccupied enemy hexes. Routed units
are forced to make a displacement move if they are alone in a hex and are next to an enemy
unit (if the routed unit is isolated, it will shatter). Routed units do not receive replacements.
Support units don’t remain routed, but do take retreat attrition and displace if the unit they are
attached to routs.
15.9.4.1. RALLYING ROUTED UNITS
Each turn during the friendly logistics phase a routed unit will attempt to pass a range test to
its HQ in which Rnd(range to the unit’s HQ) must be less than two. If this test is passed than
the leader of the HQ unit attempts to rally the unit with a morale rating check. There is a twenty
percent chance that when an NKVD regiment (not division) rallies, it will be automatically
disbanded. There is also a twenty percent chance that Soviet tank divisions that rally will either
be disbanded and returned as a reinforcement Soviet tank brigade per section 18.1.1.1 (if prior
to September 41) or immediately converted to a tank brigade (starting from September 1941
until the end of 1941).
15.10. DISPLACEMENT MOVES
A displacement move is a special type of movement by non-phasing combat units that have
been routed or zero CV units that find themselves adjacent to an enemy combat unit.
There are several conditions that cause a unit to make a displacement move:
A combat unit routs following a retreat result after combat
A unit with zero CV finds itself adjacent to an enemy unit while not stacked with a friendly,
non-depleted combat unit. This would include HQ units, on-map construction support unit, or
a depleted or routed combat unit
In some cases when a unit with a zero CV is part of a stack forced to retreat due to combat.
15.10.1. DISPLACEMENT MOVE PROCEDURE
A unit performing a displacement move takes retreat attrition, and then will displace to the hex
containing the HQ unit to which it is attached, or to a hex adjacent to its HQ unit. The displacing
unit cannot move next to an enemy unit if there is no friendly combat unit in the hex. If it is not
possible to displace to or adjacent to its HQ unit, or the HQ unit is greater than 10 hexes away,
then the unit will displace to a nearby town, city or urban hex, generally to the east for Soviet
units and to the west for German units. A unit will not displace to a hex that has a non-isolated
220
enemy unit within two hexes. Units will not displace to an isolated town, city or urban hex or
HQ unit unless the unit is already adjacent to the HQ unit. On the first turn of any scenario,
units will not displace to their HQ units, but instead only displace to nearby town, city or urban
hexes. Support units that are attached to a displacing unit will suffer retreat attrition and move
with the displacing unit.
Note that voluntary relocation of a headquarters unit (section 7.6.5) has the same deleterious
effects as a displacement move, and the HQ unit will not relocate to its HQ, but always to a
nearby town, city or urban hex.
15.10.2. AIR BASE UNIT DISPLACEMENT
If an Air Base unit is required to displace, all the damaged aircraft in their attached air group
units are automatically destroyed. Ready and reserve aircraft are considered to have been able
to fly out prior to the displacement. Note that reserve aircraft are categorized as ‘unready’ in
the hex pop-up text, so unless all ‘unready’ aircraft are damaged, some unready aircraft (those
in reserve) will not be destroyed by displacement, but will still appear as ‘unready’ in the hex to
which the air base unit is relocated. The ground elements contained in the air base unit suffer
normal retreat attrition.
15.10.3. ISOLATED UNIT DISPLACEMENT
Isolated combat units will shatter if forced to displace. Isolated non-combat units performing a
displacement move will suffer double retreat attrition but they can displace to a location where
they are no longer isolated. This represents the fact that the assets of a non-combat unit, such
as headquarters units, can be spread over a very large area and many of them would not
actually be trapped when a pocket is formed.
15.11. RETREAT ATTRITION
When a unit retreats or displaces, it suffers retreat attrition, which can result in some of its
ground elements becoming damaged, destroyed or captured. The extent of retreat attrition
is based on the unit’s current morale and the experience and fatigue of the unit’s ground
elements. Units with higher morale and ground elements with higher experience and lower
fatigue will suffer less from retreat attrition. Damaged ground elements are even more likely to
be captured, dependent on their experience and whether the unit has a support squad ground
element shortage. Damaged ground elements can also have their equipment destroyed while
the manpower in the ground element is classified as disabled. Generic organic vehicles can
be damaged or destroyed as a result of unit retreat attrition. Units that are forced to retreat
across a river hexside will suffer double the normal retreat attrition for a minor river and triple
the retreat attrition for a major river.
221
15.12. ISOLATED UNITS AND HEXES
Units and unoccupied friendly
hexes are isolated if they
cannot trace a path of 100 MP
to a supply source (20.2). Units
cut off in the opposing players
turn don’t gain isolated status
until the next player’s turn in
the logistics phase. Isolated
hexes that are not adjacent to a
friendly unit will switch control
to the other side automatically
during the next logistics phase
(6.3.4).
Isolated combat units will not
rout, but will surrender instead.
Isolated headquarters units will
undergo a displacement move
(15.10). Players who desire to
remove headquarters units from a pocket of isolated units rather than wait for the enemy to
displace them can voluntarily relocate the HQ unit during their action phase (7.6.5). Isolated
units are limited to building fortification levels to no more than fort level two.
15.12.1. ISOLATED UNIT COMBAT VALUE PENALTIES
Isolated units suffer a supply related CV penalty that is equal to the percentage of needed
supplies (or fuel for motorized units) times the percentage of needed ammo.
In addition, when calculating the modified CV ratio to determine whether a defender will be
required to retreat, isolated defending units may have their CV divided by ten if they fail certain
checks based on their morale, and the distance to the nearest supplied friendly units. However,
when defending units are in a hex with a defensive fortification modifier of five or greater
(terrain plus fort level), then the above CV penalty does not apply. Instead, they undergo a check
based on the defensive fortification modifier and their morale that may result in their CV being
halved (CV halved if (random(25))/fort level is greater than random (unit morale)).
222
15.13. CAPTURED EQUIPMENT
AFV, combat vehicles and guns (devices that are named gun, usually individual ground
weapons of 20mm size or greater) from other types of ground elements (e.g. artillery) can be
captured as a result of a unit being forced to retreat or conduct a displacement move. Units
that shatter or surrender have a greater chance of having equipment captured along with the
manpower in the ground element. Captured equipment is placed in the “captured” production
pool (21.3) and may be used to equip applicable ground elements when a sufficient quantity
has been captured. In some cases during retreats and attacks that fail to force the defender
to retreat, equipment may be considered abandoned without the manpower associated with
the equipment being disabled. In those cases, the manpower is returned to the pool while the
equipment is either captured or destroyed.
Captured equipment will not be used by any country until October 1941.
15.14. CAPTURED SUPPLIES AND FUEL
The retreat or displacement move of any unit may result in the capture of supplies and/or fuel.
The captured material will be added as damaged supply or fuel depots to the HQ unit to which
223
the combat unit that caused the retreat or displacement move is attached. A text message will
display in the map area whenever enemy material is captured.
16. AIR MISSIONS AND AIR DOCTRINE
Air group units can conduct a variety of air missions depending on their type. Generally
reconnaissance aircraft fly recon missions, bombers fly bombing missions, ground support
and air interdiction, and transports fly transport missions. Fighters fly interception and can
provide escorts for other air missions. Fighter bombers can fly either as fighters or bombers. All
air missions can be flown in daytime mode and some can be flown in night mode by air group
units that have night missions enabled. Air group units may be able to fly multiple air missions
during a turn and keep track of mileage flown and total mileage allowed per turn, which is
based on the air group unit’s morale and aircraft cruising speed. Some air missions can only
be conducted as the first mission in the turn by a particular air group unit. Weather, air base
unit supply status and mileage flown can impact the ability of both individual aircraft and entire
air group units to participate in air missions. The air doctrine screen settings determine what,
if any, priority the computer will give to the various types of air missions. It also determines
that percentage of ready aircraft an air group unit needs in order to participate in any mission.
16.1. GENERAL AIR MISSION RULES
Air group units cannot conduct air missions unless the Air base unit they are attached to is
located in a clear, city, urban or light woods hex.
16.1.1. AIR GROUP UNIT MILES FLOWN
There are several factors that determine how many missions and what type a particular air
group unit can conduct during a turn. An air group unit can only fly a certain number of miles
per turn based on its cruise speed (5.4.18) and current unit morale. The miles flown is tracked
and displayed in the air base unit detail window (5.4.17) in parenthesis next to the air group
unit name as both actual miles flown and percentage of available miles flown. An air group
224
unit can continue to fly missions if miles travelled are less then cruise speed times (10 + (1/2
* group’s morale)). For example, a JU-52 air group unit with morale of 20 and a cruise speed of
160 could fly 3200 miles in a turn. The actual mileage flown is based on the type of air mission.
Air transfer missions pay the range in miles, transport missions cost three times the range in
miles, and all other air missions, which are considered combat missions and include fighter
escort of air transport missions, pay four times the range in miles. For example, an air transport
mission to a target hex 12 hexes away would expend 360 miles, or 12 times 3 times 10 miles
per hex, for the transport air group unit, but an escorting fighter unit would expend 480 miles.
16.1.1.1. AIR BASE UNIT MP AND AIR GROUP UNIT MILES FLOWN
There is a relationship between air group unit miles flown and air base unit on-map movement.
As air group units fly missions and their miles flown increase, this can cause the air base unit to
expend movement points. Likewise, as an air base unit moves and expends movement points,
this can also result in air group units attached to the air base unit expending miles flown. An
air base unit will never have more than 75 percent of its MPs expended due to the activities
of the air group units attached to the air base unit. An air group unit will never have more than
75 percent of its potential flyable miles expended due to the movement of the air base unit.
16.1.2. INDIVIDUAL AIRCRAFT ABORT AND OPERATIONAL LOSSES
There are many factors that impact how many aircraft from an air group unit will actually
fly on a particular mission. Missions where fewer than 100 percent of an air group unit’s
ready aircraft participate will be common occurrences. The probability of mission aborts by
individual ready aircraft will increase as the miles flown by their air group unit’s increase. Air
group units conducting their first mission of the turn will have a higher probability of having all
ready aircraft participate. The mileage flown by an air group unit will be modified based on the
number of ready aircraft in the air group unit that actually flew the air mission. For example, if
80 percent of an air group unit’s ready aircraft flew a 360 mile mission, then the actual mileage
cost would be 288 miles.
Individual aircraft may also become damaged or destroyed (operational loss) during the course
of a turn based on factors to include aircraft reliability (9.6).
16.1.3. AIR MISSION STAGING BASES
With the exception of air transfer and automatic air interception missions, all air missions, to
include automatic interdiction and ground support, will have a player or computer selected
staging base. This is an air base unit that all air group units participating in the air mission will
first fly to before heading to the target hex of the air mission. The miles flown by an air group
unit will be calculated from its original air base unit to the chosen staging base and then to the
target hex, with the return from the target hex being determined in the same manner. Thus the
use of a particular staging base to “extend” the range of an air group unit is likely to have a cost
in increasing the total miles flown by that air group unit for that mission.
225
16.1.4. GRAPHICAL DEPICTION OF AIR MISSIONS
The execution of air missions is
graphically depicted on the map
using lines with the following
colors:
Black - Air group units flying to
staging base
Red - Air Strike flying from
staging base to target
Green - Enemy air group units
flying to target for interception
16.1.5. AIR MISSIONS
AND WEATHER IMPACT
Whenever an air mission is
attempted in bad weather,
defined as mud, snow and blizzard, there is a chance it will be scrubbed and not take place.
If the air mission is scrubbed, the air group unit’s miles flown will be increased by one, which
will prevent the unit from flying the air missions that require that no missions were flown
earlier in the turn (16.3.1). With the exception of Finland, all Axis air group units will suffer the
full effects of weather. Soviet and Finnish air group units will have less chance of suffering
weather effects.
Air missions attempted in snow and mud have a forty percent chance of being scrubbed. The
probability of a scrubbed mission increases to eighty percent during blizzard weather. If the air
group unit does conduct the air mission, the distance flown will be multiplied by four in blizzard
conditions and by two in mud or snow conditions. The number of individual aircraft aborting
will also increase in bad weather, with blizzard conditions making it twice as difficult to fly as
snow or mud. As with all air missions, the mileage flown will be modified based on the number
of ready aircraft in the air group unit that actually flew, but the weather mileage penalty will
apply, so the result will be fewer aircraft flying, but more miles expended per aircraft.
226
16.1.6. DAY AND NIGHT MISSIONS
Most air missions are conducted during daylight; however, bomb unit, bomb airfield, bomb city,
air transport, and interception air missions can be flown at night by air group units that have
night missions enabled in their detail window (5.4.18). Air group units set to perform night
missions will only fly night missions if the player toggles the day/night button (default is day) on
the mode toolbar to night (5.1.4). Air group units default to daytime missions unless they are
specifically designated as night air group units. For example, all night fighter units have been
defaulted to fly night missions when they enter the game. Players need to ensure that night
missions are set up properly as there is no message text that warns that a night mission cannot
be conducted because the night mode button has not been toggled properly. An exception is
night air drops to partisans (17.1), which is handled automatically by the computer, though
the air group units that the Soviet player desires to conduct this mission must still be set to
perform night missions.
227
16.1.7. FIGHTER BOMBERS
Fighter Bombers (FB) can be assigned to fly either Fighter Missions or Bomber Missions in the
air group unit detail window by selecting the “Type Missions:” link (5.4.18). It costs one admin
point to change a FB air group unit’s mission setting. The setting determines whether they
are available for escort duty or to bomb targets. If set to bomber missions, they will show up
with a Fighter Bomber -B in the pick air units window (5.4.29) to indicate they are going to be
bombing (otherwise they are fighter escorts). The air group unit detail window lists whether the
unit is trained as a Fighter or Bomber unit. If they are performing a mission they are not trained
for, they will be less effective (considered to be at half experience). Air group units will begin a
scenario with their Mission set to match their training (i.e. a FB group trained as a bomber will
default to Bombing Missions). Soviet ShAP (Ground Attack Bomber) air regiments with fighter
bombers will be automatically set to bomber missions at the start of a scenario.
16.1.8. AIR MISSION GEOGRAPHICAL RESTRICTIONS
Air group units from nations that have movement restrictions cannot conduct air missions that
target hexes their ground units are prohibited from moving into (6.1, 19.1).
16.2. AIR MISSION SEQUENCE
The following illustrates the general flow of events during the conduct of an air mission:
A. Air Mission sub-phase
1. (Phasing player Air Group units committed for [mission]
2. Phasing player Air Group units rendezvous at
staging base and then fly to target hex
228
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Non-phasing player Air Group units committed for air intercept
Air to Air combat
Anti-Aircraft Defense
Air to Ground combat
Transports deliver cargo (if applicable)
Phasing player Air Group units return to staging base and
then fly independently back to air base unit
16.2.1. AIR TO AIR COMBAT
In general, escorting fighter air group units will attempt to engage intercepting fighter air group
units and keep them away from the recon, bomber or transport conducting the air mission.
The goal of intercepting fighter air group units will normally be to engage the mission air group
units, though they may have to fight their way through the escorting fighter air group units to
do so. Air group units from both sides that suffer losses may break off and return to their air
base unit during air to air combat.
The aircraft in air group units will engage in combat with each other using their equipped
devices such as machine guns, cannon, and air to air rockets. The ability to hit will depend on
the aircraft devices and characteristics such as maximum speed, climb rate, and manoeuvre.
Aircraft that are hit may be damaged or destroyed, depending on the lethality of the attacker’s
fire and the defending aircraft’s armour and durability rating. Fighter versus bomber combat
will be more lethal to the bombers.
A Fighter air group unit’s ability to engage other air group units will decrease based on the
distance flown (in hexes) relative to their range, which is calculated as aircraft radius divided
by ten, resulting in fewer enemy aircraft being damaged or destroyed during a lengthy mission.
16.2.2. ANTI-AIRCRAFT DEFENSE
During the resolution of an air attack, anti-aircraft support units attached to headquarters
units can in some cases provide anti-aircraft support for the headquarters unit as well as any
on-map unit that is attached directly to that headquarters unit. This support will happen if the
HQ is within 5 hexes of the on-map unit being supported, and the leader successfully makes
an initiative roll. An anti-aircraft support unit is limited to assisting only one unit during the
resolution of any particular air mission, but could be involved in multiple separate air missions
in a turn. All enemy units that are flown over during an air mission will attempt to engage the
air group units with their anti-aircraft ground elements and any anti-aircraft support units. For
229
all air missions except bomb city, anti-aircraft fire from the target hex will fire at three times
the normal rate. Anti-aircraft units attached to town, city or urban hexes (7.4.1) will fire at any
air missions that fly into or through that hex. AA units in town, city or urban hexes are more
effective firing in defense of factories, and will fire at four times their normal rate at any bomb
city air missions targeting their hex.
16.2.3. AIR TO GROUND COMBAT
Bombers and fighter bombers that survive air to air and anti-aircraft fire will attempt to use
their equipped bombs and rockets to hit targets in the hex they are attacking. The target and
the affect of a hit is dependent on the type of air mission being conducted (16.3).
16.3. AIR MISSIONS
The phasing player conducts recon, bomb unit, bomb airfield, bomb city, air transport, air
transfer, and fighter escort air missions as desired during their turn. Ground support missions,
to include fighter escorts, are automatically conducted by the computer based on air doctrine
settings. Fighter interception and interdiction air missions flown by non-phasing air group units
are also automatically conducted by the computer based on air doctrine settings. The computer
also conducts air transport missions to air drop supply and ground elements to Soviet partisan
units during the Soviet logistics phase. See the applicable sections of 5.4 for a description of
the mechanics of using the game interface to conduct each type of mission.
16.3.1. LIMITS ON CONDUCTING AIR MISSIONS
Certain missions may not be flown once an air group unit has flown any missions, to include
air transfer missions, or had its air base move. In these cases, the mileage display next to
that air group unit in the air base unit detail window will be greater than zero. Whenever the
mileage flown is greater than zero, an air group unit may not participate in a daytime Bomb
Ground Unit, Bomb City, or Air Transfer missions, and may not participate in a night-time Bomb
Ground Unit, Bomb City, Bomb Airfield, or air transport mission. Note that air transfer night
missions cannot be conducted. In addition; non-transport air group units can only conduct
one transport mission per turn under the same restrictions (no previous mission, transfers or
air base unit movement). Players are advised to execute these missions at the beginning of
the turn before their air group units have begun to fly in automatic missions or their air group
units are transferred or air base units are moved. In effect, air group units may only perform
one of these missions per turn, and only if done before they have done anything else. All other
missions can be flown multiple times in any order as long as the air group unit conducting the
mission has enough mileage remaining.
Warning! Frustration awaits you if you do not keep Air Mission
limits in mind as you carry out your air campaign. If the proper
sequence is not followed, air group units will not be available
to fly the missions you desire. To recap, some missions can only
be flown as the first mission of the turn. The Missions where air
230
group units are limited to flying them only as the first mission
of the turn (no miles yet flown):
Bomb Ground Unit (day or night)
Bomb City (day or night)
Bomb Airfield (night)
Air Transport (night)
Air Transport (day) - for non-transport aircraft, i.e. level
bombers
• Air Transfer
•
•
•
•
•
And don’t forget that moving an air base unit adds miles flown
to the air group units, also triggering the above restrictions.
16.3.2. AIR RECONNAISSANCE
Air recon missions are conducted to raise the detection level of on-map enemy
units within three to four hexes of the air recon target hex, to include spotting
enemy units that were previously undetected when Fog of War (FOW) is enabled.
For non-air base units, air reconnaissance can raise detection levels up to a
maximum of four, depending on whether the unit is in clear or covered terrain. For air base
units, there is no limit to the DL that can be gained by air reconnaissance (13.0).
Air recon missions can only be conducted by recon type air group units, and can be escorted
by fighter air group units. The phasing player cannot conduct air recon missions in friendly or
pending friendly hexes.
16.3.3. BOMBING MISSIONS
Bombing missions are conducted to attack on-map units and factories. There
are five bombing missions; bomb unit, bomb airfield, bomb city, ground support
and interdiction. Bomb unit and ground support missions target combat and
headquarters units, interdiction missions target units conducting movement,
bomb airfield missions target air base units and their attached air group units, and bomb
city missions target factories in town, city and urban hexes. Bombing missions can only be
conducted by fighter bomber, tactical bomber, and level bomber air group units, and can
be escorted by fighter air group units. Bomb unit, bomb airfield and bomb city missions are
conducted by the phasing player. Ground support missions to bomb units being attacked in
ground combat are computer controlled based on applicable air doctrine settings.
16.3.3.1. BOMBING MISSIONS AGAINST ON-MAP UNITS
Bombing attacks against on-map units can disrupt, damage, or destroy ground elements and
reduce unit morale and ground element experience. Attacks on air base units can also damage
or destroy individual aircraft in attached air group units. During bomb unit missions, each
attacking air group unit will pick one unit, which must have a detection level (DL) greater than
231
zero, as a target. Each unit in the hex has an equal chance of being targeted, so if multiple air
group units bomb a target hex, multiple units are likely to get bombed.
16.3.3.2. BOMB CITY MISSION TARGET SELECTION
Whenever a bomb city bombing mission is executed the player must select a factory target
type in the town, city or urban hex for the attack from the list provided. Only operational
factories will be displayed on the ‘Pick Target Type’ list when bombing a city (5.4.28). Factories
for AFV’s, combat vehicles and aircraft not yet in production will not be listed.
16.3.3.3. AIR INTERDICTION MISSIONS AND RESTRICTIONS
Air interdiction is conducted automatically by the computer against some moving units by the
non-phasing player’s air group units. Interdiction can result in destruction and damage to a
unit’s elements and a reduction in morale and experience, which will impact the unit’s available
movement point allowance. Interdiction missions are much less likely against low detection
level targets (13.1). A unit must have a DL greater than zero to be attacked by interdiction. The
chance of a unit being interdicted is based on the DL level multiplied by .1. For example, a unit
with a DL2 will have a 20 percent chance of being interdicted, all other things being equal.
16.3.3.4. GROUND SUPPORT MISSIONS AND RESTRICTIONS
Ground Support is conducted automatically by the computer using air group units from both
sides. Both attacking and defending air group units may be escorted, resulting in air to air
combat as well as AA fire and air to ground combat. Axis Allied air group units are limited
to providing ground support to battles that involve at least one ground unit of their same
nationality. Soviet air group units are limited to providing ground support to battles involving
combat units that are attached to a headquarters unit that is in a chain of command that
ultimately reports to the same Front headquarters unit as the air group unit’s air base unit
chain of command. For example, the 5th Guards Rifle Corps combat unit is attached to the 39th
Army HQ unit, which is in turn attached to the Kalinin Front HQ unit. Air group units conducting
ground support mission in a battle involving the 5th Guards Rifle Corps must be attached to
one of the air base units that is attached to the 3rd Air Army HQ unit, as it is the only Air Army
HQ unit attached to the Kalinin Front.
232
16.3.3.5. AIR SUPERIORITY MISSIONS
There is no separate mode for conducting a mission consisting of fighter air group units
attempting to engage enemy air group units in air to air combat. Players can approximate this
type of historical operation by setting up a manual bombing mission and deselecting bomber
air group units so that only fighter air group units conduct the mission. Bomb airfield missions
against air base units will usually be the most effective application of air superiority missions.
Note that in a situation where fighters are available and in range, but no bombers are available,
players will be unable to set up a bombing mission since the computer won’t allow a mission
if there are no bomber air group units to initially include.
16.3.4. AIR TRANSPORT OF SUPPLIES AND FUEL
Supplies and fuel can be airdropped to units by transport and level bomber air
group units and this mission can be escorted by fighter air group units. Level
bomber air group units can only conduct air transport as their first mission during
the phase and must be manually selected by the player to participate in such
missions. Level bombers pay four times the normal miles flown when they fly air transport
missions. The player can choose to airdrop either supplies or fuel. If a unit being resupplied by
air reaches 125 percent of a type of supply, the remaining supply delivered will be of another
type. German air transport missions cannot take place north of Leningrad.
16.3.4.1. PARTISAN AIR RESUPPLY
The computer will automatically conduct night air transport missions to drop supply to Soviet
partisan units during the Soviet logistics phase at the start of the Soviet turn. These missions
233
are conducted by Soviet transport air group units (17.1). Note that Air group units conducting
partisan resupply are required to have night mission mode enabled (section 16.1.6).
16.3.5. AIR TRANSPORT OF UNITS
The air transport of units from a hex with a friendly air base unit to a hex with or adjacent to
another friendly air base unit can be conducted only by transport air group units with aircraft
that have a maximum load rating (5.4.18) of at least 2000. The mission can be escorted
by fighter air group units. Any non-motorized unit may be transported, but only non-vehicle
ground elements and smaller guns can be lifted. Any unit lifted will expend all of its MP’s. The
eligible unit must have at least one movement point remaining and be located in the same hex
as an air base unit, which will be used as the staging base. Any air base unit can be used as a
staging base. When an non-motorized unit is air transported, those ground elements that are
not allowed to be air transported will be transferred into combat units in or adjacent to the
hex with the air base unit that the unit flew from. If there are no eligible combat units, then
the ground elements will be transferred back to the production pool. Any vehicles and excess
supply will be transferred to the airbase unit that the unit was stacked with prior to being air
transported.
Enemy interception of air transport missions can result in the damage or elimination of the
non-motorized unit’s ground elements. Aircraft conducting the air transport mission that are
aborted will return the ground elements they are carrying to the staging air base unit where
they will be transferred per the above procedure.
16.3.6. AIR DROPPING UNITS
The air drop mission will be conducted only by transport air group units with aircraft that have
a maximum load rating (5.4.18) of at least 2000. The mission can be escorted by fighter air
group units.
Regimental or brigade sized Airborne type combat units with an average experience level
of at least forty can be air dropped into any hex vacant of enemy units within range of the
transporting aircraft. The eligible airborne combat unit must have at least one movement point
remaining and be located in the same hex as an air base unit, which will be used as the staging
base. Any air base unit can be used as a staging base. Note that since only regimental or
brigade sized airborne combat units can be air dropped, air dropped units will only convert the
hex they drop in from enemy controlled to a pending friendly hex (6.3).
When an airborne unit is airdropped, those ground elements that are not allowed to be air
dropped will be transferred into units in or adjacent to the hex with the air base unit that the
unit flew from. These ground elements will first be given to other airborne units, then to any
other combat unit. If there are no eligible combat units, then the ground elements will be
transferred back to the production pool. Any vehicles and excess supply will be transferred to
the airbase unit that the airborne unit was stacked with prior to being air dropped.
234
Enemy interception of air drop missions can result in the damage or elimination of the airborne
unit’s ground elements. Aircraft conducting the air drop mission that are aborted will return the
ground elements they are carrying to the staging air base unit where they will be transferred
per the above procedure.
16.3.7. AIR GROUP UNIT TRANSFER
Air group units can be transferred between air base units, if within range. They can also be
transferred to and from the off-map national air reserve (8.4). Air group units cannot use air
transfer if their airbase has moved at all (or is frozen), or if the air group unit has flown any
missions. Air Transfers should be done at the beginning of the turn.
16.4. AIR DOCTRINE
The air doctrine screen settings determine
what, if any, priority will be given to
the various types of air missions by
the computer. It also determines that
percentage of ready aircraft an air group
unit needs in order to participate in any
mission. These settings can for the most
part be overridden by the player by manually
selecting air group units to participate in a
mission, however, the settings are critical for
missions, such as interception, interdiction,
and Partisan resupply, where the computer
always determines the air group units that
will participate. The percent required to fly
setting is important, as air group units that
do not meet the criteria will not be available
even for manual selection by the player.
Air Doctrine settings over 100 are allowed,
although for percent required to fly, anything
235
over 100 would mean no air group units would be available, resulting in no air missions of any
kind being conducted. There are four types of air doctrine settings as follows:
Percent Required to Fly: Indicates the percentage of an air group unit’s aircraft that must be
ready for the air group unit to be able to participate in any mission. This percentage is based
on the air group unit’s TOE, not the current number of aircraft present with the air group unit.
Any setting over 100 will result in no air missions being conducted.
Ground Support, Interdiction Attack, Ground Attack, Airfield Attack and City Attack:
Determines the number of bombers that the computer will attempt to have participate in
a ground support or strike mission as a percentage of what the computer would normally
attempt to send. For example, a setting of 50 results in the computer selecting air group units
in an attempt to equal half the number of bombers it would select in a notional strike. For
ground support, interdiction attack, and interception air missions a setting of zero will result in
these air missions not being conducted. Note that If one side has ground support set to zero,
but interception set to greater than zero, that side’s fighters may fly interception missions
against the other side’s ground support.
Ground Support, Interdiction Attack, Ground Attack, Airfield Attack and City Attack
Escort: Determines the number of escorts for a strike mission based on a percentage of the
number of bombers in the mission. For example, at a setting of 50, the computer will select
air group units in an attempt to have the number of escorts equal half the number of bombers.
Fighter and Night Fighter Intercept: Determines the number of intercepting fighters based
on a percentage of the number of enemy aircraft attacking. For example, at a setting of 50,
the computer will select air group units in an attempt to have the number of fighter aircraft
intercepting equal half the number of attacking aircraft.
Game Play Note: Between the number of aircraft in an air group unit
and aborts due to reliability and other factors, the actual number of
aircraft participating in a mission will seldom result in the exact ratios as
set forth in the Air Doctrine settings.
236
16.5. DETERMINING WIN/LOSS FOR AIR MISSIONS
A win/loss (victory/defeat) situation occurs for air leaders when there is a point differential
greater than 250 during an air mission. Points are scored for air and ground elements
destroyed as follows:
Item Destroyed
Points Awarded
Per Man
1
Per Gun
5
Per AFV/Combat Vehicle
10
Per Bomber Aircraft
20
Per other Aircraft Type
10
Points are also awarded for damaging factories by multiplying the percentage of damage
inflicted times the number of factory points of that type of factory in the target hex.
17. SOVIET PARTISANS AND AXIS GARRISONS
The extensive resistance to Axis forces and supply lines that occurred in Axis occupied Soviet
territory is simulated in the game by the automatic creation and air supply of Soviet partisan
units. Soviet partisan units can be formed and built up from destroyed Soviet units and Soviet
population in captured city and urban hexes. The Axis player can mitigate the ability of the
Soviet population to assist partisan units by garrisoning city and urban hexes.
237
17.1. SOVIET PARTISANS
Partisans may either be inactive or active. Partisans are first created as an inactive cadre unit.
Cadre partisan units have a chance of being created whenever a Soviet unit is shattered or if
minimum garrison requirements are not met in captured city or urban hexes. Combat ready
partisan units have a chance of breaking off a part of their unit to create another inactive
cadre partisan unit, however, partisan inactive cadres and active partisan units may also be
combined automatically in order to keep the number of these units to a reasonable level. Cadre
partisan units are shown to the Soviets but not to the German player (no matter what FOW
setting is being used). Inactive cadre partisan units are indicated by ‘#’ next to the unit name
on the right side unit bar.
17.1.1. PARTISAN NIGHT AIR SUPPLY
Soviet partisan units are supplied through night air transport missions conducted automatically
by the computer during the Soviet logistics phase. The computer will first utilize transport and
238
level bomber air group units set to night missions and attached to VVS type air base units
(8.2.1). If those night mission enabled air group units attached to VVS air base units are not
sufficient to meet the partisan needs, then transport and level bomber air group units set to
night missions and attached to DBAD, AD DD, GAD DD, and GDBAD air base units may be
selected by the computer to also transport supplies to partisan units. In addition to supplies,
these missions will also air drop light weapons and NKVD squads to partisan units. NKVD
squads are important for raising the morale of the partisan unit and for helping the partisan
unit recruit additional partisan squads (recruits may come from the partisan unit’s hex and any
adjacent hex that is not adjacent to an Axis combat unit).
Game Play Tip: Air supply to partisans may be automatic, but the Soviet
player still needs to ensure that the right aircraft are in the right place to
get those supplies delivered behind enemy lines. Make sure you place long
range transports and level bombers in VVS air base units that are placed
near the front lines so they have the range to resupply partisan locations.
You may need to do this periodically so as not to become a target for Axis
bomb airfield missions. Shorter range transport air group units such as
U-2s can also do this if placed close enough to the front, but won’t be able
to reach deep behind enemy lines. Don’t forget to set the desired air group
units to conduct night missions!
17.1.2. PARTISAN ATTACKS
Once a partisan unit is considered combat ready (based on morale, number of
partisans and supplies), the partisan unit has a chance to attack unoccupied
hexes containing rail lines both before the Axis supply segment as well as after
the damaged rail line hex repair segment (4.2). The latter attacks cannot be
repaired prior to the Axis action phase. A rail hex attacked by a partisan unit will suffer die(10)
percent damage. The higher the morale of the partisan unit, the further the attack can be from
the unit’s location, to a maximum of 5 hexes. Partisans perform better in swamps, mountains,
rough and forest terrain and when supplied. The act of attacking makes the partisan unit
active, and it will remain active until it is considered no longer combat ready, usually after being
attacked by an Axis combat. Partisan attacks will display as battle sites when battle locator
(5.4.11) mode is enabled.
17.1.3. ANTI-PARTISAN ATTACKS AND AXIS UNIT INTERACTION
A partisan unit is automatically attacked when an Axis combat unit moves adjacent to it. At the
conclusion of the battle, the partisan unit will always automatically displace to another location
and will usually revert to an inactive partisan cadre unit. During this displacement, the partisan
may move up to about 12 hexes to find a location that is neither adjacent to a German combat
unit nor adjacent to another partisan unit. When partisan units are first created, they follow the
same rules as displacing in order to find a starting hex. If there is no valid hex to be displaced
to (or created in), the partisan unit is eliminated. If a partisan unit finds itself no longer in an
239
Axis controlled hex, it will attempt to displace to another hex that is Axis controlled. If there is
no valid Axis controlled hex to displace to, it will be removed from the map.
Inactive cadre partisan units have no impact on Axis units. Axis HQ units (including airbase
and FBD units) cannot attack partisans when they move adjacent and can’t move into a hex
containing an active ready partisan unit.
17.1.4. PARTISAN UNIT LIMITATIONS
Partisan units have no zones of control. Partisans may not attack in the Baltic States rail area
until after December 1, 1941 (6.1).Partisans may not be created or recruit in the following
areas (by x, y map coordinates): X <50, Y >94 and X <70, Y >115 and X <75, and Y >15 and
X <100. In addition, Partisans are much less likely to be formed in the area x<70 and y<45.
17.2. AXIS GARRISONS
Soviet city and urban hexes captured by the Axis require a minimum garrison of combat units
to avoid the generation of partisan units from the population. Note that there are no Axis
partisans, so there is no requirement for the Soviet player to garrison captured Axis city and
urban hexes.
17.2.1. AXIS GARRISON REQUIREMENTS
The
minimum
garrison
requirement is combat units
with at least 4000 men for
city hexes, 8000 men for light
urban hexes, and 12000 men
for heavy urban hexes. The
number of men in Security (SEC)
combat units counts double
when determining garrisons.
For example, the German
285th Security Division, with
4842 men, would be counted
as having 9684 men toward
a city or urban hex’s garrison
requirement. Combat units
entrained or on naval transport
do not count towards garrison
requirements. Hotkey Shift-K will display color coded shading on all captured cities or urban
hexes requiring a garrison where blue equals 100 percent or more, yellow equals 1 to 99
percent, and red equals no garrison present. With the city or urban hex selected, the name in
the General Information and City box (5.1.5) will include the current percentage of any garrison
requirement currently being met.
240
17.2.2. PARTISAN CREATION FROM UN-GARRISONED POPULATIONS
A number of Partisan squad ground elements are created each turn based on unmet garrison
requirements, by taking the city or urban hex undamaged manpower production and
multiplying it by the percentage of the unmet garrison requirement, then rounding down. The
newly created partisan squad ground elements are either added to a nearby existing partisan
unit or used to create a new partisan unit near the city or urban hex. For example, in June
1942, the garrison in the city of Brest Litovsk is the 1st regiment of the 403rd Security Division,
with 1395 men. Since security combat units count double towards garrison requirements, 69
percent of the garrison requirement (2790/4000) has been met leaving 31 percent unmet. As
Brest Litovsk manpower production is eight, two partisan squad ground elements (8 x .31 =
2.48, rounded down to 2) will be created during the next logistics phase if the Axis player takes
no action to increase the garrison during their turn.
Game Play Info: The Axis AI player is exempt from any garrison
requirement and all Axis AI controlled Soviet city and urban hexes are
considered to be 100 percent garrisoned at all times.
18. REINFORCEMENTS AND REPLACEMENTS
18.1. RECEIVING REINFORCEMENTS AND CREATING NEW UNITS
Both sides receive complete new units as reinforcements during the game. Destroyed German
units are returned to play as empty or nearly empty units, requiring replacements and supply
before they are usable again. Destroyed Axis Allied units are permanently eliminated and
cannot be rebuilt. With the exception of some Soviet combat units rebuilt after being eliminated
in the beginning of the war, destroyed Soviet units will not return, but the Soviet player can
create new units through the expenditure of administrative points (12.2.4). A complete list
of new units that can be created by the Soviet player can be found in Appendix B (section
25.2). New or rebuilt Soviet units also appear as empty or nearly empty units and will require
replacements and supply before they achieve a ready status. Both sides can create fortified
region (Soviet) or fortified zone (Axis) units
18.1.1. REINFORCEMENT PLACEMENT
Reinforcements appear per the unit reinforcement and withdrawal info screen (5.4.8). There
are two methods of reinforcement placement for on-map units. In the first method, Axis combat
and headquarters units will appear in the westernmost controlled city or urban hex of their
nationality that does not violate stacking limits. Soviet combat and headquarters units will
appear in the easternmost controlled city or urban hex under Soviet control, with the exception
of the Moscow Defense Zone headquarters unit, which will appear in the vicinity of Moscow.
Combat and headquarters units reinforcements that do not have an open spot in a valid city or
241
urban hex will appear in a hex adjacent to a valid city or urban hex. If the situation should exist
where there are no valid hexes available for the placement of a reinforcement unit, the unit will
never appear. Destroyed combat and headquarters units that are reformed as nearly empty
units to be rebuilt with replacements follow the same placement rules as above. In both these
cases the units are placed on the map only in a city with the nationality matching the unit, with
the westernmost (for Axis units) or easternmost (for Soviet units) valid city or urban hex being
selected first.
In the second method, reinforcements will be scheduled to arrive at a designated hex on the
map area. In order for the unit to be placed, it must meet three conditions. The designated hex
must be friendly controlled, it must be at least three hexes away from an enemy unit, and the
reinforcement cannot violate the stacking limit upon entry. If the above conditions cannot be
met, the six adjacent hexes to the originally designated hex will be checked and the unit placed
in one of those if conditions can be met. If none of the six adjacent hexes meets the conditions,
then the unit will be placed in a town, city or urban hex somewhere to the east (Soviet) or west
(Axis) that does meet the conditions. The designated or anticipated alternate arrival hex for the
unit will be shown in the reinforcement and withdrawal screen.
Reinforcements and reforming units must follow the stacking limit of three units per hex when
being placed. Those units being placed as reinforcements that have manpower of less than
200 men will appear with morale of 40 and experience of near 30.
All ground units that appear as reinforcements are initially attached to their national high
command headquarters (7.6.1) unit, for example, all German reinforcements will initially
attached to OKH. Reassignment of reinforcements from their national high command
headquarters unit to another headquarters unit does not cost any administrative points.
242
Air group units that appear as reinforcements will initially be attached to their National Air
Reserve (18.4).
18.1.1.1. REBUILDING DESTROYED SOVIET COMBAT UNITS
Soviet Rifle, Motorized and Tank divisions that are destroyed prior to November 1941 will be
added to the reinforcement schedule to re-enter as empty or nearly empty units after a certain
number of turns with placement on the eastern part of the map per section 18.1.1 regarding
previously destroyed units.
Soviet Rifle and Motorized divisions will return as Rifle divisions from 4 to 27 turns after being
destroyed. Soviet Tank divisions will return as Soviet Tank brigades eleven turns after being
destroyed. In addition, routed Soviet Tank Divisions that rally prior to September 1941 have a
twenty percent chance of being automatically disbanded and returned as reinforcement Tank
brigades eleven turns later.
18.1.1.2. REBUILDING DESTROYED GERMAN COMBAT UNITS
German combat units that are destroyed
will automatically be rebuilt. These German
units will be brought back on the map as
empty or nearly empty units the following
turn with placement on the western part
of the map per section 18.1.1 regarding
previously destroyed units. The unit placed
back on the map will usually have just one
ground element and will rebuild over time
by drawing replacements. Reforming units
are frozen for 6 turns and initially set to refit
mode. Rebuilding German units will have
their morale set to 20+ (national morale/4)+
random(national morale/4). This will never
be lower than 20 or higher than 60. The
initial experience for the ground elements in the unit will be set to 15+ (morale/2). This initial
experience will impact the experience of the first batch of replacements that are received by
the unit. Support units that were attached to a German combat unit that is brought back to the
map to be rebuilt, will appear as empty support units with that unit.
For German Infantry Divisions destroyed on or after August 1, 1944, there is a twenty percent
probability that they will return to the map a VolksGrenadier Division.
In non-campaign scenarios, destroyed German units will not return to the game to be rebuilt.
243
18.1.2. CREATING NEW SOVIET COMBAT AND HEADQUARTERS UNITS
With the exception of certain Soviet combat units prior to November 1941 (18.1.1), destroyed
Soviet units are permanently eliminated. However, the Soviet player can build a new unit by
selecting a hex on or adjacent to a Soviet urban area, then selecting the create combat/HQ
unit (hotkey Shift-b) button on the Map Information tool bar (5.1.2.1). If the player selects a
hex with an HQ unit, then the new unit will be attached to that HQ unit, otherwise the new
unit will be attached to STAVKA. The creation of new Soviet units requires the expenditure of
administrative points (12.2.4).
New Soviet combat and headquarters units appear on the map as nearly empty units and will
require replacements and supply to become a ready unit. This process will normally take three
turns, dependent on the overall availability of supply and replacements. The unit will be in
frozen status for the first two turns after it is created.
Gameplay info: Unlike dragon’s teeth from Greek mythology, new units
do not spring out of the ground fully armed and ready. While the ability
to use their admin points to create units of their choice provides Soviet
players a flexibility that the Axis lacks, it comes at a price. The three to
four turns it takes for a unit to get to ready status is normally sequenced
as follows:
1) Player creates the unit using admin points. Unit is placed
on the map in refit mode with only one ground element, zero
combat value and no movement points due to being in frozen
status. This turn represents the time it takes to set up a new
unit administratively.
2) During the player’s next logistics phase, the unit receives
additional ground elements through the replacement process
as well as supplies, fuel and ammo. It still has zero movement
points due to being frozen. The experience level of the ground
elements will still be low. This turn represents the time it takes
to start getting men into the formation and the time it takes
for the formation to set up its logistics system. It’s really not a
functioning combat unit at this time.
244
3) On the third turn, it will continue to receive supply and
possibly additional ground elements, depending on whether it
has filled its TOE. The unit will be unfrozen, have movement
points and thus be able to move and fight. But take a look at the
experience of the ground elements - pretty low, huh? Depending
on the situation, you might want to consider keeping that unit
in refit mode well behind the lines on a rail line hex for a while
in order to maximize the chance to increase its experience
through training.
18.1.3. CREATING NEW SOVIET SUPPORT UNITS
Soviet headquarter and eligible combat units that are in supply can create new support units
utilizing the ASSIGN/FORM link in the applicable unit detail window to access the Pick Support
Unit window (5.4.15). If there is a zero in the AVL column, selecting the unit name will cause a
support unit of that type to be created and a message displayed to that effect. For Soviet Army,
Front and High Command (STAVKA) headquarters units, as well as town, city and urban hexes,
the ‘BUILD NEW’ and associated ‘BUILD NUM’ functions can be enabled in the Pick Support
Unit window (5.4.15). Using those functions allows the Soviet player to create new support
units even if that type of support unit is available for transfer and also allows the creation
of multiple numbers of any of the same type of support unit. The new support unit will be
attached to the applicable headquarters or eligible combat unit, but will appear as an empty
unit that will require replacements to fill out its TOE. The creation of a new support unit costs
one administrative point.
18.1.4. CREATING NEW SOVIET AIR GROUP UNITS
New Soviet air group units (aviation regimental sized) are automatically created by the
computer based on the size of the production pool. The computer compares the production
pool of a particular aircraft versus the number of air group units using the aircraft type. If it
determines that there are more than sufficient aircraft to meet the needs of the current air
group units, than additional air group units will be formed. Up to five new air group units may
be formed per turn. The new air group units are initially attached to the Soviet National Air
Reserve.
U-2 bomber air regiments will automatically be designated NBAP (night bomber air regiments)
and will be set to conduct night missions.
There is a ten percent probability that when a Soviet recon air group unit is created, it will be
an air battalion rather than an air regiment (8.2.2.2).
18.1.5. CREATING NEW SOVIET AIR BASE UNITS
Whenever the number of Soviet air group units exceeds the number of Soviet air base units by a
ratio of more than six to one, up to one new air base unit will be automatically created per turn.
The new air base unit will be randomly assigned a IAD, BAD, NBAD, SHAD, or VVS designation
245
and will be placed in an open town near Magnitogorsk (X183 Y54). As with other newly created
Soviet units, the air base unit will have no movement points on the turn it appears and will be
a nearly empty shell requiring replacements and supply to become a ready unit.
18.1.6. CREATING FORTIFIED REGION AND ZONE UNITS
Fortified regions (Soviet) and zones (Axis)
(7.5.1) can be created by either player at a
normal cost of four admin points by selecting
a hex and then selecting the “Create fortified
unit” button in the map info tab toolbar
(5.1.2.1). Fortified regions and zones can
be placed in any friendly controlled hex,
with the exception that Players may not
build Fortified Region and Fortified Zone
units in hexes next to an enemy combat
unit unless that hex is also occupied by a
friendly combat unit. Fortified units initially
appear with no ground elements or supplies
and will have to receive replacements and
supplies to become active. Any Axis fortified
zones created within map area coordinates
where Y<15 and X<111 will be of Finnish nationality. Though there will be exceptions, most
fortified zones built in Rumania will be Rumanian (until Rumania surrenders), and most built in
Hungary will be Hungarian (until Hungary surrenders).
18.2. REPLACEMENTS
Much of the logistics phase, particularly the replacement segment, simulates the constant
flow of men and equipment back and forth from the “home front” and the various production
factories, through intermediate locations such as repair depots and hospitals, to the combat
zone and the front lines. Ground unit losses, whether combat or non-combat related, while
expressed in terms of men, guns and AFV’s, are based on destroyed and damaged ground
elements. Ground elements consist of manpower combined with AFVs, combat vehicles or
Armament points, which represent all other weapons. The production system builds the
individual AFV, combat vehicle or devices from armament point production and places them
in the pools, which is what is reflected on the production screen. During the replacement
segment, available manpower is matched with the equipment in the pools to form complete
ground elements. Men and equipment from damaged ground elements are included in this
process, but are treated somewhat differently. Approximately (Exception: AFV ground elements
(18.2.3.1)) half of the manpower and equipment from damaged ground elements become
available as replacements in the next logistics phase, representing wounded troops that are
lost for short periods of time before being sent back to units, equipment that has to be repaired
246
at non-divisional repair facilities that are then sent back to different units, and men transferred
from one unit to another.
Excess Support Squad Ground Elements: In addition, each turn during the replacement
segment there is a chance that some excess support squad ground elements will be returned
to the pool or converted to rifle squad ground elements. The computer checks the current
number of support squads in the unit against the number of support squads that are needed.
If there are currently more support squads in the unit itself than needed, then 33 percent of
the excess support squads will be returned to the pool. Damaged excess support squads will
be returned prior to ready excess support squads. Just before excess support squads are
returned to the pool, some of the excess may be converted to rifle squad type elements if that
type of element is below 50 percent of its TOE. Up to 20 support squads may be converted in
a unit. Armaments points are expended to conduct the conversion, and any excess manpower
remaining is sent back to the pool. Because support squads are 20 men per squad there will
almost always be excess. Each conversion may lead to the reduction in experience of the rifle
squad ground element, although it will not be reduced below 40.
Aircraft Replacements: Aircraft replacements are handled in much the same manner as
above, however, there is no manpower involved, as for player purposes aircrew are an integral
part of the aircraft. In addition, damaged aircraft are not returned to the production pool, but
can only be repaired at the air base unit to which their air group unit is attached.
18.2.1. THE REPLACEMENT SEGMENT
The replacement segment consists of four subsegments; return of damaged ground elements,
return of excess support squads, refit, and normal
replacement (4.2). Units must be in supply to
participate in any part of the replacement segment.
First, half of all damaged ground elements from
units are returned to the production and manpower
pools and made available to return as replacements,
however, only eighty percent of the manpower from
the damaged ground elements goes to the pool; the
other twenty percent being placed on the disabled
list. All other things being equal, returning ground
elements have a better chance of going back to
their original units. Next, excess support squads will
be returned to the pool and their manpower made
available to build up other ground elements. During
the refit and normal replacement sub-segments,
ground units may receive ground elements from
the production pool as replacements to fill out
their TOE. In the refit sub-segment, units set to
247
refit status have the first opportunity to receive replacements. This is followed by the normal
replacement sub-segment, during which all eligible units that are not in refit status may
receive replacements.
Replacements coming into units will bring down the average experience for that type of ground
element by a small amount. Experience levels in destroyed units being rebuilt or newly created
Soviet units will tend to be lower than high experience units receiving a steady stream of
replacement ground elements.
The closer a unit is to a railhead, the more replacements the unit is likely to receive. Since
the rally segment takes place after the replacement segment, routed units will not receive
replacements.
18.2.2. GROUND ELEMENT REPLACEMENTS AND TOE
Infantry units that are not set to refit are limited by default in the replacements they can
receive. Soviet Infantry units will not normally receive replacements for a type of ground
element that has more than 60% of that types TOE. After 1941, Axis Infantry units will not
normally receive replacements for a type of ground element that has more than 80% of that
types TOE. This is intended to allow units to operate below TOE as they did historically. The
player must set the unit to refit status to get specific units up to full strength. The player can
manually set the maximum percentage of TOE for which a unit’s ground elements can receive
replacements within a range between 50 and 100. This setting can be accessed either through
the MAX ‘xxx’ link in the individual unit’s detail window or the links under the TOEM column
in the Commander’s Report (hotkey c). The default maximum TOE setting is 100 for all units.
No matter the current maximum TOE setting, the above rules for Soviet and German Infantry
unit maximum replacement percentages will take priority for Infantry units not in refit status.
Withdrawing and/or frozen units may not change their maximum TOE setting. Withdrawing
units that require rebuilding automatically have their maximum TOE set to 100 percent.
248
18.2.3. GROUND ELEMENT REPLACEMENT AVAILABILITY
In order for units to receive replacement ground elements, there must be either in the pool,
or alternatively for ground elements built from armaments points, there must be sufficient
armament points in the pool to build the devices associated with that type of ground element.
In the case of damaged ground elements being returned to the pool, if there is already
appropriate equipment in the pool to outfit the particular ground element, then no additional
armaments points are used and instead the pool of that type of equipment is reduced by one
for each element sent as a replacement. Also, there must be manpower in the pool to match
with the equipment and build out the ground element.
However, simply having the ground element equipment and manpower available doesn’t mean
they will get to the unit that requires replacements. The unit must pass several checks to
see that they actually get replacements, and how many they get. As a special case, it will
generally be harder for Axis units to receive replacements during the first winter (22.3). This
results in ground element equipment and manpower remaining in the pool even though there
are units that need them as replacements. In addition, while some ground element equipment
requiring armament points are built and sent out during the replacement segment based on
unit demand, other equipment is automatically built during the production phase that is not
immediately used and eventually may end up being scrapped if the ground element becomes
obsolete and too much equipment stacks up in the pool relative to the number of units still
using that type of ground element equipment. This system allows for the realistic production
of armaments ahead of time, that often end up never being used, instead of having a perfect
just in time production system.
18.2.3.1. AFV GROUND ELEMENT REPLACEMENT LIMITATIONS AND EQUIPMENT LOSSES
Due to their unique nature, there are several
special rules for AFV ground element
(3.1) replacements. The percentage of
damaged AFV ground elements returned to
the production pools varies based on the
weather as follows:
Clear - 40%,
Mud - 20%,
Snow - 30%,
Blizzard - 20%.
In addition, there is a chance that the
equipment from an AFV ground element (i.e.
the ‘tank’, but not the manpower) will be destroyed rather than being returned to the pool. The
chance that AFV equipment will be lost increases both the further the unit is from a railhead
and the further into the Soviet Union the unit is located (20.4.3.2). Finally units that are not
249
on or adjacent to a railhead will have a more difficult time receiving AFV ground element
replacements.
18.2.4. AIR GROUP UNIT REPLACEMENT AIRCRAFT
Air group units may receive replacement aircraft during the replacement segment. The air
base unit that the air group unit is attached must be in supply in order for the air group
unit to receive replacements. The National Reserve is always considered to be in supply. The
number of aircraft received is based on the amount of that model aircraft available in the
production pool and the need of the air group unit, which is defined as the difference between
the maximum number allowed and the actual number of ready and damaged aircraft in the
air group unit. Reserve aircraft will also be reallocated during the replacement phase (8.1.1).
Note that if the air group unit has replacements toggled to not allowed, it will not receive any
replacement aircraft (5.4.18).
18.3. REFIT MODE
All ground units in refit mode will have the first opportunity to receive replacements during the
refit sub-segment. Refit mode allows the player to set up two groups of units, those that will
receive replacements first, and those that will receive replacements only after those in the refit
group have received as much as they can get given their distance from the nearest railhead.
Units in refit mode are normally the only units to receive upgraded equipment, unless the pool
of older equipment runs out, at which point units without refit enabled would upgrade if there
is newer equipment available.
All newly created and previously destroyed rebuilding units will appear on the map in refit
mode. Units arriving as reinforcements will not be in refit mode.
The mode button in the unit bar (5.2.3) can be used to toggle individual units to refit mode.
There are also buttons in the unit bar on HQ units that set all directly attached combat units
250
to the HQ to refit mode, or takes them all out of refit mode. The units tab of the commander’s
report (hotkey c) also has a refit column that can be used to set units to refit mode. Note that
for replacement purposes, all headquarters units and support units are treated as if they are
always in refit mode.
Game Play Tip: If you have a unit on a railhead and turn refit on just
for that unit, you can get a depleted unit rebuilt to full strength in one
turn (assuming you have the equipment and manpower in the pool). If the
unit is far from the railhead, it’s not likely to have much impact since the
replacements can’t get to the unit.
18.4. AXIS UNIT WITHDRAWAL
Certain Axis units will be withdrawn from the game as specified in the Reinforcements and
Withdrawals screen (5.4.8). A unit will shift into Withdrawing Mode between 4-6 turns prior to
the date listed on the Reinforcements and Withdrawals screen. The unit will be withdrawn from
the map during the logistics phase of the turn listed. When an on-map Axis unit is withdrawn
from the map, any support units attached to the unit will remain in the game by automatically
transferring to the withdrawing units’ higher headquarters unit.
18.4.1. WITHDRAWING UNITS REQUIREMENTS AND RESTRICTIONS
Units scheduled to be withdrawn cannot be disbanded or merged. Units in static mode
scheduled to withdraw will automatically reactivate in the same logistics phase as they are
withdrawn, expending admin points as for a normal reactivation. This reactivation may cause
the number of available admin points to go to zero, though they will never fall below zero.
When an on-map Axis unit is withdrawn, if it does not have at least 75 percent of its TOE, it
is placed on the westernmost city that has space for it with a maximum TOE setting of 100
percent, and then set to frozen status for 250 turns. Once the unit reaches 75 percent TOE,
it will be removed from the map. When a unit is in Withdrawal mode in the turns just before
it withdraws, it is treated as if it is in refit mode. Support units scheduled to withdraw are
removed immediately on their withdrawal date, regardless of their current TOE. If an on-map
unit slated for withdrawal is completely destroyed before its withdrawal date it will be returned
to the map as a nearly empty unit and sit at frozen 250 until it rebuilds to at least 75 percent
TOE.
As an exception to the above, in small scenarios that only include a portion of the total map
area, units will be withdrawn off the map even if their TOE is less than 75 percent.
18.5. DISBANDING UNITS
All ground and air group units may be permanently disbanded and removed from the game,
with the exception of units that are scheduled to be withdrawn. To disband a unit, select
DISBAND from the unit detail window. This will send the aircraft from air group units or the
251
manpower and equipment from all of the ground elements in ground units back to their
respective production pools. Any support units that are assigned to a unit that is disbanded are
automatically reassigned to the next higher HQ unit of the disbanded unit.
18.5.1. DISBAND REQUIREMENTS AND RESTRICTIONS
Units can only disband if they have enough movement points remaining to move to a rail hex
that is connected to the supply grid, and if they are not within three hexes of an enemy unit.
Frozen or static units cannot be disbanded. A unit is required to have at least one movement
point remaining to disband. Fortified regions and zones are an exception as they may disband
even though they have zero movement points and they are not required to be three hexes from
an enemy unit; the only requirement is that they not be frozen. The Disband Unit option will not
appear in the unit detail window if the above conditions are not met. Disbanding requires and
expends one Admin point.
18.5.2. AUTOMATIC DISBANDING OF SOVIET CORPS HQ UNITS
Soviet Corps HQ units will automatically disband as follows:
Soviet Mechanized Corps HQs will be phased out (disbanded) by August 1941.
Soviet Rifle and Cavalry Corps HQs will be phased out (disbanded) by November 1941.
19. AXIS AND SOVIET ALLIED
COUNTRIES AND ARMIES
While the Germans were the predominant part of the Axis invasion force attacking the Soviet
Union, allied units from Finland, Slovakia, Italy, Rumania, and Hungary participated in the
conflict. The Axis also made use of Yugoslavian and Bulgarian territory for transportation of
troops and supplies. As the Soviet and Western Allied offensives reached the borders of the
Axis nations, Germany’s allies one by one surrendered and withdrew from the war or were
overrun. The surrender of Rumania and the Soviet occupation of Poland led to the formation of
Rumanian and Polish Armies that fought alongside the Soviet Union.
19.1. AXIS ALLIES
Italy, Rumania, Hungary, Slovakia and Finland are considered Axis allied nations. Forces from
these countries are limited in several ways.
19.1.1. AXIS SOUTHERN ALLIES GENERAL RULES
Rumanian and Hungarian units are not allowed to move into or be stacked together in the
same hex.
252
Italian, Rumanian, Hungarian and Slovakian units may never voluntarily move north of hex row
X 66 (units can move into row 66, but not to row 65 or any other row to the north). This line is
displayed on the map and labelled the ‘Axis Ally Limit Line’ (6.1).
Many Italian and Hungarian units that begin scenarios in Hungary or Yugoslavia or further west
are permanently frozen garrison units while others are frozen for a substantial number of turns.
If the Soviets capture a Hungarian or Rumanian town either West of hex column 60 or south of
hex row 110, then all of these Axis Allied units on the map are unfrozen.
19.1.2. FINLAND
19.1.2.1. FINNISH LIMITATIONS
Finnish units may never voluntarily move south of hex row 22, nor may they move east of hex
column 110. This line is displayed on the map and labelled the ‘Finnish No Move Line’ (6.1).
In addition, unless Leningrad (Hexes X81, Y16 and X80, Y15) is German controlled, Finnish
ground units may not attack enemy units that are in hexes south of the Svir River, nor may they
attack enemy units in hexes X80,Y14, X81,Y14, X81,Y13 or X82,Y13 or any hexes south of this
line. This line is displayed on the map and labelled the ‘Finnish No Attack Line’ (6.1). Though
there is no prohibition from Finnish units moving into hexes south of this line, even if enemy
controlled, Finnish units suffer a morale penalty if they are south of the Finnish no attack line.
Finnish morale will drop by one each turn they are south of the no attack line if their morale is
above the Finnish Morale Threshold. The threshold is 65 if one hex over the line, and is reduced
by one for each additional hex south of the line. There is also an additional cumulative morale
reduction of one point for each hex row east of hex row X100 for Finnish units.
253
Finally, with the exception of ground support, Finnish air missions cannot be conducted on or
south of the row Y15 until both Leningrad hexes are captured by the Axis player.
19.1.2.2. GERMAN UNITS IN FINLAND
German units are permitted in most of Finland, however they are restricted in their ability to
move into a small portion of Finland and areas north of Leningrad until certain prerequisites
have been met. German units cannot move east from Finland into the zone delineated on the
map by the two German No Move Lines and the Finnish No Attack Line unless the Axis control
Sviritsa (X90, Y12) or Lodeynoe Pole (X92, Y12) or both Leningrad and NW Leningrad. German
units that begin their turn in this zone may move normally even if the Axis no longer meets the
prerequisites to relax the restriction, but no other German units will be able to enter the zone
until the prerequisites have been met again.
19.1.3. ITALIAN WITHDRAWAL
All Italian units will check
for withdrawal from the
game starting in May 1943.
If an Italian unit is picked to
withdraw, it will have its status
changed to Withdrawing, be
listed on the Reinforcement/
Withdrawal screen and will
be withdrawn four turns later.
Italian units will continue to
check for withdrawal each
turn, resulting in all Italian units
withdrawing within a period of
several months.
19.1.4. SURRENDER
OF AXIS ALLIED FORCES
With the exception of Rumania (section 19.1.4.1), units belonging to Axis allied armies are
immediately removed from the game if their country surrenders, to include any anti-aircraft
support units attached to towns, cities or urban hexes. Axis allied countries check during each
Axis Logistics Phase to see if they surrender. Note that when determining Axis allied country
surrender, any Soviet occupied town, city or urban hex must be linked to the Soviet supply
grid in order to trigger a surrender condition. This means that a Soviet airborne combat unit
dropping behind enemy lines and capturing a town that could cause the surrender of an Axis
allied country will have no impact on surrender until that town is linked to the Soviet supply
grid.
254
19.1.4.1. RUMANIAN SURRENDER
Rumania automatically surrenders if Bucharest is Soviet controlled. There is a chance that
Rumania will surrender if, after January 1, 1942, a Rumanian city or town that is located in the
area where the Y coordinate of the hex is equal to or greater than 105 is Soviet controlled. With
the exception of much of the Northeastern “bulge” to the east of Hungary, this area includes
most of Rumania. If this condition is met, then a Surrender Threshold (ST) value is calculated
equal to 2 plus 1 for each German Division in Bucharest plus 2 additional points for each
Division that is an Elite SS unit. The ST can never be greater than 9. Once the ST is determined,
if Die (10)>ST, then Rumania surrenders.
Game Play Example: 2 Infantry Divisions and 1 Elite SS Division
in Bucharest would yield an ST of 7 (2 basic + 3 divisions +2 one of
the Divisions is Elite SS). Each turn that the conditions were met for a
possible surrender, then there would be a 30% chance that Rumania
would capitulate.
Upon Rumanian surrender, all Rumanian air base units, air headquarter units and Army Group
and High Command headquarter units will be automatically disbanded. For other Rumanian
ground units, if Rumanian and non-Rumanian units are stacked in a hex, then the side whose
units have a smaller combat value will have its units automatically disbanded. Rumanian
headquarter units will automatically disband if adjacent to an Axis unit and not stacked with a
friendly combat unit. All Rumanian units not disbanded (due to automatic disbanding or being
stacked with Axis units) will automatically convert to Soviet Rumanian units. When Rumanian
units are converted to Soviet Rumanian units, on-map units take Soviet control over all eligible
hexes as if they had just moved into that hex. Soviet control of hexes will also occur due to
the placement of units created as part of Soviet Rumanian army units (section 19.3 below).
All Rumanian nationality town, city or urban hexes not occupied by a non-Rumanian Axis unit
255
will also change to Soviet control. Any town, city or urban hex that changes to Soviet control
will also have adjacent hexes change to Soviet control as long as no non-Rumanian Axis units
are in the adjacent hex.
19.1.4.2. HUNGARIAN SURRENDER
Hungary surrenders if Budapest is Soviet controlled. There
is a chance that Hungary will surrender if, after January 1,
1942, either Nyiregyhasa (X39, Y93) or Arad (X36, Y106) are
Soviet controlled. If this condition is met, then a Surrender
Threshold (ST) value is calculated equal to 7 plus 1 for each
German Division in Budapest plus 2 additional points for each
Division that is an Elite SS unit. Once the ST is determined, if
Die (10)>ST, then Hungary surrenders.
19.1.4.3. SLOVAKIAN SURRENDER
Slovakia surrenders if Bratislava is Soviet controlled. There
is a chance that Slovakia will surrender if, after January 1,
1942, Lvov or any Slovakian city or town is Soviet controlled.
If this condition is met, then a Surrender Threshold (ST) value
is calculated equal to 2 plus 1 for each German Division in
Bratislava plus 2 additional points for each Division that is an
Elite SS unit. The ST can never be greater than 9. Once the ST
is determined, if Die (10)>ST, then Slovakia surrenders.
19.1.4.4. FINNISH SURRENDER
Finland surrenders if Helsinki is Soviet
controlled. There is a chance that Finland
will surrender if, after January 1, 1942, any
Finnish city or town is Soviet controlled
or Vyborg, Narva and Pskov are all Soviet
controlled. If one of these conditions is
met, then a Surrender Threshold (ST)
value is calculated equal to 2 plus 1 for
each German Division in Helsinki plus 2
additional points for each Division that is an
Elite SS unit. The ST can never be greater
than 9. Once the ST is determined, if Die
(10)>ST, then Finland surrenders.
When Finland surrenders, all Axis controlled
hexes in Finland will become neutral,
and German units there are removed and
256
returned as normal reinforcements. Axis and Soviet units are then prohibited from entering or
taking control of any Finnish neutral hexes, to include any type of movement or air drop. All
Soviet controlled hexes in Finland will remain Soviet controlled and Soviet units in those hexes
will remain on the map.
19.2. BULGARIA AND YUGOSLAVIA
At the beginning of the game Axis units may move through Yugoslavia and Bulgaria and trace
supply from Yugoslav and Bulgarian rail lines. Soviet units may never enter these countries.
When the first in supply Soviet unit moves adjacent to the Bulgarian or Yugoslavian border,
that country automatically surrenders and becomes a “total exclusion zone” for both players.
No movement of any type may be made into a total exclusion zone and supply may not be
traced through a total exclusion zone. Any Axis unit in the applicable country at the moment of
surrender (or any unit of either side subsequently forced to retreat into the country) may move
out of that country, but may not move back in once it has moved out. In most cases Bulgarian
and Yugoslavian surrenders will be separate events, but a Soviet unit that enters the hex that
includes the external borders of both countries (X42, Y120) will trigger the surrender of both
countries simultaneously.
19.3. SOVIET ALLIED ARMIES
The surrender of Romania and the capture
of sufficient Polish territory will result
in the creation of Soviet Romanian and
Polish armies. When Rumania surrenders,
in addition to the conversion of on-map
Rumanian ground units described in
section 19.1.4.1 above, the Soviet 1st
Romanian Army will appear in random hexes
throughout central Romania. The Soviet
capture of Warsaw or Lublin will result in
the creation of the Soviet 2nd Polish Army
headquarters unit and attached units that
will appear east of Brest Litovsk in the
vicinity of hex X56, Y68. The 2nd Polish Army
will be frozen for 22 turns after arrival. In
addition the Soviet Polish 1st Army will arrive
through the normal reinforcement process.
Since there is no separate Rumanian and Polish production and manpower for the Soviet
side, all Soviet Rumanian and Polish units will utilize Soviet production and manpower for
replacements. When Rumania surrenders all Rumanian equipment and TOE will automatically
convert to Soviet (SU) nationality.
257
20. SUPPLY
“Amateurs study tactics; professionals study logistics.”
All units must have access to an adequate amount of supply to function effectively. There are
three types of supply in Gary Grigsby’s War in the East; general supplies, ammunition and fuel.
General supplies, to include ammo, and fuel are generated by each side’s production system. In
order for units to receive supplies during the supply segment of the logistics phase, they must
be within range of the supply grid, the main part which consists of permanent supply sources
connected by a rail network of undamaged rail line hexes and including stockpiles of supply in
city and urban hexes. Ports can also be connected to the supply grid, allowing tracing of supply
over water. The generic vehicles of the motor pool are used to bridge the gap between the last
connected, undamaged rail line hex, called a railhead and considered a supply source, and
the unit requiring supply. Supply is most effectively delivered through the headquarters unit to
which the combat units are attached, but can also be delivered directly from the railhead to
the combat unit if they cannot trace to their higher headquarters unit. The amount of supply
delivered is dependent on many factors, to include the distance from the railhead to the unit,
whether the unit moved during the last turn, and vehicle shortages in both the motor pool and
the unit. Supply can be stockpiled in supplies and fuel dumps at headquarters units and players
can target specific Axis Corps or Soviet Armies for a buildup of supplies. Units can be in one of
three supply states; in supply, beachhead supply, and isolated. Isolation can be either due to an
inability to trace supply or the distance from the unit to a supply source being too long. Isolated
units can only be supplied by air. Town, city and urban hexes that are isolated or lack a nearby
supply source will suffer starvation damage to its manpower.
20.1. THE SUPPLY GRID
The supply grid consists of five parts; permanent supply sources, the rail network, to include
city and urban hexes on the network, ports, headquarters units and their supply dumps, and
the motor pool. The supply grid serves multiple functions in addition to storing and delivering
supplies and fuel. Supplies and fuel generated by the production system are stored in city and
urban hexes on the rail network to be drawn upon for their factories or directly by nearby units.
The ability of a unit to receive replacements and repair damaged aircraft and ground elements
is dependent on its location in relation to the supply grid. All these functions are conducted
automatically during the logistics phase.
20.1.1. RAIL NETWORK AND RAILHEADS
A rail network consists of a contiguous path of friendly controlled undamaged rail line hexes
connected to a permanent supply source. The last friendly controlled undamaged rail line
hexes at the end of these paths is considered a supply source and designated a rail head. The
distance requirements for tracing supply (20.4.1) do not begin until after the rail head. Note that
rail hexes that are adjacent to enemy units are considered not connected to the rail network.
258
These hexes may not be used for strategic rail movement and are not considered railheads
for supply purposes, however, when tracing from a rail hex on the grid to an undamaged rail
hex adjacent to an enemy unit, as long as the supply trace is not leaving an enemy ZOC, the
supply trace will only cost one MP to trace into that hex (instead of having to pay the full MPs
of the terrain in the hex). This makes the over water and normal supply paths the same in terms
of going into those hexes adjacent to enemy units that have undamaged rail lines. This rule
represents that although the rail may not be getting used all the way to within ten miles of the
front line, the fact that there is an undamaged rail in the hex means communication lines into
that hex are better than if there was no rail line hex or if it was damaged.
Game play tip: If you are the Axis player, watch out for Soviet partisan
attacks on your rail line hexes. Unchecked, partisans can damage enough
rail line hexes to cut off some of your forces from the rail network and the
supply grid.
20.1.2. PERMANENT SUPPLY SOURCES
The establishment of a rail network and connection to the supply grid requires the tracing of a
contiguous path of rail line hexes to a permanent supply source.
Axis permanent supply sources:
Magdeburg
Linz
Konigsberg
Helsinki
Soviet permanent supply sources:
Chelyabinsk
Baku
259
Non-campaign scenarios that do not use the entire map area may have an additional
permanent supply source for each side.
All permanent supply source hexes will be shaded in red when the rail damage information
button (hotkey r) is toggled on (5.1.2.1).
20.1.3. PORT SUPPLY
Except for tracing supplies over the Lake
Ladoga zone, a port hex that borders a sea
zone that allows strategic naval transport (i.e
Baltic/Black Sea/See of Azov/Caspian Sea)
that has at least one friendly port connected
to the supply grid via rail will be considered
connected to the supply grid. However, only
the port hex is connected. Tracing from this
port hex for supply purposes to a hex or
unit can be done along friendly controlled,
undamaged rail hexes (even though these
rail hexes are considered not on the grid),
if not leaving an enemy ZOC, without
increasing the hexes from the rail. The MP
cost will be increased by 1 for each such
hex traced. If the hex traced to is next to an
enemy unit 1 will be added to both the hex count and the MP count. This represents limited
use of rails in these circumstances and better communications lines/roads along rails, thus
allowing supply (although somewhat less than normal) via ports connected via these major
waterways.
When tracing over Lake Ladoga ports, the MP costs of going over the water hexes in the Lake
are as described in section 20.4.1 for tracing over water (cost of going from water to port or
port to water, and costs of going over ice as listed). However, the costs listed above in MPs and
off rail hexes will apply from the port on Lake Ladoga down rail lines hexes. Once traced over
Lake Ladoga, any other tracing over waterways (from Leningrad to Oranienbaum in 1942 for
example), will also have to pay the extra costs of passing over water for tracing through the
Baltic as well as having to pay a hex cost for going over water For example, in 1942 Leningrad
is 13 MPs and 1 hex from the grid for supply purposes, and Oranienbaum is 20 MPs and 4
hexes from the grid.
20.1.4. MOTOR POOL
The motor pool represents the generic vehicles dedicated to the non-rail network portion of
the supply grid. During the Unit Supply Requirements sub-segment of the Logistics phase, the
computer determines the required number of vehicles that should be in the motor pool to meet
supply requirements. This vehicle requirement for the supply system is based on supply and
260
fuel usage, distance from the rail heads and the current number of organic vehicles in combat
units, which increases the required number of vehicles in the motor pool by one for every two
vehicles in a unit.
20.1.4.1. VEHICLE SHORTAGE MODIFIER
If the actual number of vehicles in the motor pool is less than the required number, then
a vehicle shortage modifier will reduce the amount of supplies delivered to units during
the supply segment. This modifier is a straight percentage multiplier used to multiply what
otherwise would be delivered to the units after the other modifiers have been calculated. The
modifier is calculated for each unit by using the formula A * Vehicles in Motor Pool / Need for
Vehicles in Motor Pool, where A equals the Player Logistics Level (help level from game options
screen). If the unit or HQ is <10 MPs from the railhead (or from its HQ if a unit is tracing to
its HQ) then 5*(10-MPs from railhead or HQ) is added to A, but the vehicle Modifier can never
exceed 100 percent. For example, in a game with the logistics level set to 100, a particular unit
that is three movement points from its headquarters unit requires 150 fuel points, but will only
receive 120 due to the other supply modifiers. The vehicle shortage modifier will impact the
120 fuel set to be delivered. If the current number of vehicles in the motor pool is 80k against
a requirement for 200k, then the vehicle shortage modifier will be (100 + 5*(10-3))*80k/200k
or 54 percent. The amount of fuel received by the unit will not be 120, but instead will be 64
(54 percent of 120). Note that by viewing the motor pool numbers, either in the information box
in the top right hand of the top panel (5.1.5) or on the right hand side of the production screen
(5.4.3), the phasing player can obtain a general feel for the impact of the vehicle shortage
modifier. Using the example above, the modifier will range from 40 percent (80k/200k) for
units more than 10 MP’s from a railhead, to 60 percent for units that are in the same hex as the
rail head. The desired situation is to have headquarters units on the railhead and close to their
attached units to minimize any vehicle shortage modifier.
One exception to the above is that Static units will not suffer a vehicle shortage penalty when
drawing supplies or fuel from the unit’s HQ as long as the distance between the HQ and the
unit is both less than 4 hexes and less than 10 MPs.
20.1.4.2. EMERGENCY VEHICLE REALLOCATION
During the Emergency vehicle reallocation sub-segment just prior to the computer setting unit
supply requirements, if the number of vehicles in the motor pool are less than one quarter of
the needed vehicles, then the computer will automatically transfer organic vehicles from units
back to the motor pool to bring the motor pool back above one quarter of needed vehicles.
Once this readjustment is complete, ten percent of the vehicles in the motor pool will be
damaged. After the supply segment, a normal vehicle adjustment will take place. Players
should be careful not to let their vehicles get below one quarter of needed vehicles in the
motor pool during their turn. This can happen if a player with vehicles shortages to begin with
moves a lot of headquarters units with fuel and supply dumps and thus causes vehicles to
261
move from the motor pool to the HQ unit (20.1.5). Note that Motorized on-map units can suffer
a movement penalty if they do not have the number of vehicles required by the unit (14.1.2).
20.1.4.3. GENERIC VEHICLE ATTRITION
Vehicles in the motor pool suffer attrition based on their activity during the supply segment
moving supplies from the railhead. Vehicles in units on the map suffer attrition during the
supply phase based on the amount of MPs expended by the unit during the previous movement
phase. The above is specific to generic vehicles; AFV and combat vehicle breakdowns are
calculated using reliability ratings (9.6).
20.1.5. HEADQUARTERS UNITS AND SUPPLY
Headquarters units that are in range (20.4.1) will serve as supply sources to their attached
combat units. The higher headquarters units of these HQ units do not have an impact on
supplying attached HQ units, only combat units that are directly attached. For example, in the
case where the Soviet 3rd Army HQ unit is attached to the Kalinin Front HQ unit, the 3rd Army
will provide supply to its attached combat units, but the Kalinin Front will only provide supply to
combat units that are directly attached to the Front HQ unit. An exception is that Air base and
Rail repair units are not considered HQ units for supply purposes and can draw supply from the
HQ unit to which they are attached.
20.1.5.1. HQ UNIT SUPPLY AND FUEL DUMPS
Vehicles in the motor pool are used to move supply from the railhead to the HQ unit. If there
are extra vehicles available in the motor pool, then the HQ units will start to stockpile excess
supplies and fuel in dumps so as to minimize future needs from the railhead. Each dump
contains one ton of supplies or fuel. Headquarters units serving as the supply source for their
attached units will first use their dumps and then attempt to draw the remaining needed supply
from the nearest rail head. When an HQ unit moves, it instantaneously takes vehicles out of the
motor pool in order to move its dumps. The amount taken depends on the percent of the HQ
units MPs that are used. If it uses 100 percent of its MPs for the turn, it will take one vehicle for
each dump in the HQ unit. If there are not enough vehicles in the motor pool, then the excess
dumps will be destroyed. During the Logistics Phase, after the supply segment, the vehicles
in units and the pool are adjusted as required. So after supplies are delivered, most of the
“borrowed” vehicles will be sent back to the motor pool from HQ units that had used them to
move their dumps. However, if the number of vehicles in the motor pool falls below one third
262
of the need (the motor pool number will turn yellow in the City and info box), any headquarters
unit that moves will leave behind all supply and fuel dumps in the nearest friendly town, city
or urban hex. Whenever a headquarters unit relocates or is forced to perform a displacement
move, it will lose all of its fuel and supply dumps.
Game Pay Tip: You should pay close attention to the motor pool value
you have at the end of your turn, because the lower it is against the
needed number of vehicles, the bigger the penalty during the next supply
segment. The idea is if you are moving your HQ units forward with a lot of
dumps, you will be paying a cost in the upcoming supply segment as fewer
motor pool vehicles are available to move supply to the HQ units from the
railhead and to the units from the HQ units.
20.2. SUPPLY STATES
During the supply portion of the logistics phase, units of the phasing player are determined to
be in one of three possible supply states; In Supply, Beachhead Supply, or Isolated. A unit is
in supply if it can trace a path of 100 MPs or less to a railhead. A unit that is not in supply can
be in beachhead supply if it is in a coastal hex in a sea area where its side has the capability
to conduct strategic naval transportation. If the unit does not qualify as either in supply or
beachhead supply then it is isolated (15.12). During the action phase, units of the phasing
player (not non-phasing player units) may have their supply state altered based upon the
existing situation. Whenever a unit moves, or a battle is resolved, phasing player units recheck
their supply state. If some action during the turn has reconnected the unit with a railhead with
a path of 100 MPs or less, then the unit will no longer be isolated. A unit may also move in such
263
a way as to become isolated if it moves beyond 100 MPs from its railhead. Units conducting
strategic amphibious transportation may change their state to beachhead supply if they are
not considered in supply. The exceptions to these action phase adjustments of supply state is
that a unit in beachhead supply that moves away from the coastal hex it was occupying will not
immediately switch to an isolated state, and a unit that is isolated that moves to a coastal hex
that might provide beachhead supply will not immediately be considered in beachhead supply.
The current supply state of each unit is displayed in its detail window. If the unit is listed as iIn
supply it will have the current MPs to the railhead displayed in parenthesis (In Supply 54 MP).
The toggle supply state button in the map information tab (5.1.2.1) will highlight map counters
so that isolated units will be highlighted in red, units 50 MP or greater from the railhead, but
still in supply will be in yellow, and units in beachhead supply will be in orange. The counter in
the unit bar will always be bordered in the appropriate color if the unit is not in supply. These
border colors will change if units change their supply state during the Action Phase. Supply
states are also displayed in the commander’s report (25.4, Appendix D)
20.2.1. BEACHHEAD SUPPLY STATE
Units in a beachhead supply
state will only receive limited
supply; similar to if they
were a long distance from a
railhead. They will not receive
replacements nor will they
send damaged units back to
the production pool during the
logistics phase. If forced to
retreat in combat, they retreat
as if they were an isolated unit
(15.12). For all other purposes
they are treated as if they are
in supply.
Note the difference between
units receiving beachhead supply and those located in coastal hexes receiving supply through
friendly controlled ports as the latter can rout due to losing a battle.
264
20.2.2. ISOLATED STATE
Isolated units can only receive supply through
air transport drops and will not receive any
replacements or be able to return damaged
ground elements to the production pool. See
section 15.12 for combat related affects on
isolated units.
20.3. TYPES AND
USAGE OF SUPPLY
As mentioned above, supply is composed
of three types; General Supplies (supplies),
Ammo, and Fuel. Each type of supply is used
for different purposes. In general, supplies are more important to non-motorized units and
fuel is more important to motorized units, but all units require ammo, which is generated from
supplies.
20.3.1. GENERAL SUPPLIES
All units require supplies for food and general maintenance. Ammo is also broken out from
supplies based on need (20.3.2). Supplies also represent fodder for horses and thus are
required by non-motorized units for movement (14.1.2). Note that the consumption of supplies
for food and general maintenance occurs during the logistics phase prior to the turn, which can
result in lower than anticipated percentage of supplies, especially for motorized units. Since
motorized units don’t need supplies for horses, they require much less supplies, but a higher
percentage of their supplies are used up each turn in the logistics phase. Non-motorized units
require more supplies for fodder that is expended during movement.
Supplies are also used as a part of the process to reduce fatigue in ground elements during
the logistics phase.
20.3.2. AMMUNITION
All units require ammunition for combat. Combat units with a low ammunition percentage will
suffer a significant decline in combat effectiveness, especially when attacking. In addition,
Units that are adjacent to enemy units during the logistics phase will use up approximately
one percent of their ammo to reflect scouting, patrols and low level combat. Ammunition is not
produced separately, but is initially considered integral to general supplies. General supplies
are converted to ammunition at the individual combat or support unit based on that unit’s
current demand for both general supplies and ammunition. For example, 10 tons of supplies
delivered to a combat unit would be converted to X tons of supplies and Y tons of ammo, where
X+Y=10. The exact breakdown depends on what the unit needs of each type of supply.
265
20.3.2.1. SOVIET AMMO SHORTAGES
To simulate Soviet ammo shortages in the early part of the war, Soviet units in 1941 and 1942
must conduct a leader admin check when resupplying their units with ammo. In 1941 they
must take two successive checks, in 42 one check. As ammo is distributed, if the check fails,
then 50 percent of the ammo is lost during conversion from supplies. If both checks fail, 75
percent is lost.
20.3.3. FUEL
Motorized units require fuel for movement (14.1.2). Vehicles in the motor pool and organic to
units will consume fuel from the global fuel pool during the logistics phase.
20.4. TRACING AND RECEIVING SUPPLY
Units must be able to trace a
path a certain number of hexes
and movement points to either
the headquarters unit to which
they are attached or directly to
a railhead. Both the hex and the
movement point requirement
must be met, not one or the
other. When supply is traced to
an HQ unit, the HQ unit in turn
must be able to trace a path
to a railhead. Units that can
trace to a HQ unit will have
more chances to receive supply
during the supply segment of
the logistics phase. Supply can
be traced through water hexes
and enemy Zones of Control
(EZOC), but in all cases all movement costs are counted against the MP requirement. If a nonHQ unit has excessive supply, some may be returned to its attached HQ unit.
20.4.1. TRACING SUPPLY
In order to receive supply, a combat unit first attempts to trace a path to the headquarters
unit to which it is attached. The combat unit must be within both five hexes and twenty MPs
of the applicable headquarters unit. In order for a headquarters unit to provide supply to its
attached combat and support units, it in turn must be within both 25 hexes and 100 MPs of
a railhead. If a combat unit cannot trace an eligible path to its headquarters unit, it will then
attempt to trace a path to a railhead as if it was a headquarters unit, i.e. within both 25 hexes
and 100 MPs of the railhead. Note that Air base and Rail repair units, though HQ units, are
266
treated as combat units for supply purposes per the above. Also note the distinction between
supply state and tracing supply, in that a unit that is within 100 MPs, but not within 25 hexes,
is considered in supply, but nonetheless, will not be able to receive supply due to exceeding
the 25 hex requirement.
20.4.1.1. SUPPLY PATH TRACE MP COST
The movement point cost for all supply path traces are calculated as if the path was being
travelled by a motorized unit with a morale of 99 (14.1.2). All motorized movement point costs
are taken into account, to include EZOC, weather, terrain, and river hexsides. When tracing
from a rail hex on the grid to an undamaged rail hex adjacent to an enemy unit, as long as the
supply trace is not leaving an enemy ZOC, the supply trace will only cost one MP to trace into
that hex, representing limited use of rail lines in hexes adjacent to enemy units. Supply can
be traced through an enemy ZOC as long as the hex is friendly controlled or pending friendly,
though tracing supply this way will result in increased MP costs. Supply paths cannot be traced
through enemy controlled hexes or across unfrozen impassable lake or river hexsides. For
purposes of meeting the five hex and twenty MP limits on tracing from a HQ unit to a combat
unit, the five hexes are “as the crow flies”, while the MP path can be traced separately through
more than five hexes as long as it is less than twenty MPs long. Both limits must be met
however or the combat unit must trace directly to the railhead.
20.4.1.2. SUPPLY TRACE OVER WATER HEXES
Supply trace over all water hexes requires a port to port connection, with at least one of the
ports being on the supply grid. This over water trace is normally free of cost in the same
manner as rail hexes are part of the supply grid. The exception to this is the Lake Ladoga Zone.
In the Lake Ladoga Zone, port to port supply trace over all water hexes does incur movement
point costs based on the current ice level as follows for movement from a water hex to a water
hex:
No ice (level 0) = 1 MP
Loose ice (level 1-2) = 2 MPs
Thin ice (level 3-4) = 6 MPs
Frozen ice (level 5+) = 4 MPs
When tracing from a port hex to a water hex or a water hex to a port, the cost is equal to (24port level)/4 rounded down (so a port 2 would cost 5 MPs). Once the supply path crosses Lake
Ladoga, any additional over water tracing will incur these same costs (so a trace across Lake
Ladoga to Leningrad and then to Oranienbaum will incur these additional costs in the hexes
from Leningrad to Oranienbaum).
267
20.4.1.3. SUPPLY TRACE VISUALIZATION
There are several map area aids to help in the visualization of supply traces. The hex pop-up
(5.2.1) will display both the number of MPs (Off Rail MP) and the number of hexes (Off Rail
Range) from that hex to the closest railhead. The toggle rail damage info button in the top panel
map info tab (5.1.2.1) also shows additional info about ranges to a railhead. If a hex is greater
than 10 hexes or 25 MPs from a railhead, it is shaded light grey. If it is greater than 25 hexes or
100 MPs from a railhead it is shaded dark grey. Enemy hexes will be shaded rose.
20.4.2. THE SUPPLY SEGMENT
During the supply segment of the general
logistics phase there are two supply subsegments during which units will attempt
to receive supply. In the first supply subsegment eligible HQ units receive supply and
eligible attached combat units in turn receive
supply from their HQ units. If the following
circumstances for a HQ unit are true, the
HQ unit will receive additional supplies and
fuel, and has the potential of receiving more
than its requirement (each condition met
increases the amount received):
The HQ has over 50 percent of its vehicle
requirement.
The HQ must be within 10 MPs of the
railhead.
There is a vehicle surplus in the motor pool.
In the second supply sub-segment, combat, air base and rail repair units that could not get
supplies from the HQ unit to which they are attached will attempt to trace directly to the
railhead as if they were an HQ unit. These units also have the potential for exceeding their
needs in the second supply sub-segment if there is a surplus of vehicles in the motor pool.
For scenarios with a difficulty level of normal or greater (3.3.2), combat units will receive
significantly fewer supplies and fuel than they would have if they were able to draw supply
through their HQ unit in the first supply sub-segment.
268
20.4.2.1. RECEIVING SUPPLY FROM CITY AND URBAN HEXES
Units can draw supplies or fuel directly from a city or urban hex if they are in or adjacent to the
hex. Units other than headquarter units may only do this in the second supply sub-segment,
while headquarter units may do this in both supply sub-segments.
20.4.3. RECEIVING SUPPLY
There are many factors and modifiers that determine how much supply a unit will receive. The
actual amount of supply available in the supply grid and the number of vehicles in the motor
pool will impact the overall supply situation. Leader admin checks and location and movement
status will impact individual units. Overall supply delivery can be affected by the supplies and
fuel stock percentage modifier. This is a ratio between the total need and the sum of fuel and
supplies in storage, which is used in case a shortage exists in the player’s fuel or supplies
storage so that all units will get some fuel and supplies but at a reduced rate.
20.4.3.1. RAILHEAD DISTANCE AND MOVEMENT SUPPLY MODIFIER
When tracing supply to a railhead, the distance from the applicable unit to the railhead will
modify the amount of supply delivered. Anything under 25 MP’s gives full supply, while anything
over 25 MP’s gives a percent of supplies equal to 25/MP’s to the unit. Supply is also reduced
by the distance in hexes from the railhead to the unit. Anything 10 hexes and under gives full
supply, while anything over 10 hexes gives a percent of supplies equal to 10/Hexes to the unit.
The MP and hex distance reductions are cumulative.
Units that have moved in the previous turn will only draw a percentage of what they require
that is equal to 100 - (length in MPs to supply source - 5). This percentage modifier will never
to be less than 25 percent nor more than 100 percent, but will be in effect for both supply
sub-segments.
20.4.3.2. AXIS RAIL SUPPLY MODIFIER
There is a modifier that is applied to the delivery of supply to Axis HQ units and combat
units based on the date and the location of the unit that is tracing supply. The modifier, once
calculated, is multiplied times the supplies and fuel being delivered to the unit. The modifier is
equal to ((168 + (5 times the number of months from December 1941, but not to be a negative
number)/weather adjustment) - x coordinate of unit)) + ((y coordinate of unit -69)/2))/100. This
modifier can never be less than .33 or greater than 1.0. The weather adjustment is equal to
1 in clear weather, 2 in mud or snow, and 3 in blizzard. So as an example, A unit in Smolensk
(X86, Y51)) in August 1941 in clear weather will have its fuel/supplies deliveries multiplied
by ((168+((0)/1)-86)) + ((51-69/2))/100 or 73/100 or .73. So due to this rule, the delivery
of supplies and fuel to the unit in Smolensk would be reduced to only 73 percent of what
they otherwise would have been. In March 1942 in snow weather, the same unit would be
reduced by ((168+ (3x5)/2)-86)) + ((51-69/2))/100 or .80. This modifier is in addition to other
reductions. This modifier never applies to any unit in a hex with a Y coordinate less than 12.
269
20.4.4. RETURN OF EXCESS SUPPLY
If a non-HQ unit, to include air base and rail repair units, has 200 percent or more of a type of
supply on hand, it will return them to the HQ unit to which it is attached. Air base units must
be within 15 hexes of its HQ unit to return excess supply, while all other units must be within
10 hexes. This return of excess supply cannot occur if either the unit or its HQ unit is currently
isolated.
Game Play Tip: Careless placement of combat units in relation to
railheads and HQ units will cause your motorized units to lose lots of MPs
in those turns when you are burning tons of fuel and running far from
your railhead. It is easy to see motorized combat units with 20-35 MPs
after the first turn as they move away from the railhead. Therefore it is
critical they stay within 5 hexes of a unit’s corps HQ if more than 6 hexes
from a railhead. Having your units 25 hexes from the railhead and outside
of 5 hexes from their HQ is a sure way to end up with few MPs. Don’t
forget you can conduct air transport missions to drop supply to combat
units. On the first few turns it is very useful to fly these types of resupply
missions to your armour spearheads.
20.5. SUPPLY EFFECTS
The further a unit is from a supply source, the less supply, replacement and repair will be
received. The main impact of low levels of supply is the reduction of movement points through
lack of supplies (non-motorized units) or fuel (motorized units). Regardless of their supply
levels, however, non-motorized units have a minimum MP allowance of six and motorized units
have a minimum MP allowance of one.
There are no direct combat penalties for units with low supplies or fuel levels, unless they
are completely out of supply. The amount of ammo on hand impacts both the overall combat
effectiveness, especially of attacking units, as well as the number of shots in combat (15.6.1).
Low levels of supplies will impact the ability of a unit’s ground elements to recover from fatigue
20.5.1. MANPOWER STARVATION DAMAGE
Every turn town, city and urban hexes must trace supply and will suffer a starvation damage
percentage equal to the supply path MP cost minus 5. For example, for the supply trace path
to Leningrad over Lake Ladoga in the summer the move path MP cost would be 13 (20.1.3),
resulting in Leningrad adding 8 percent each week to its manpower damage percentage.
Manpower factories recover 3 percent per turn (21.2), so the net increase in damage would
be 5 percent per turn. If a town, city or urban hex cannot trace a supply path and is isolated it
takes 25 percent starvation damage every turn. Manpower works just like factories in terms of
producing manpower points based on the damage (some up to 50 percent, none once over 50
percent damaged). When a town, city or urban hex’s manpower reaches 100 percent damage,
additional damage may cause the permanent loss of manpower factory points from the hex.
270
Town, city and urban hexes will only take starvation damage if a supplied enemy unit is within
four hexes of the hex. Also, town, city and urban hexes won’t take starvation damage if they
can trace a path of friendly ground hexes to a railhead of four hexes or less, regardless of
enemy ZOC or the number of MPs to the railhead.
20.6. HEADQUARTERS UNIT SUPPLY BUILDUP
The player has the ability to accumulate supplies and fuel in an HQ unit and fully resupply an
HQ unit’s attached units in order to maximize their mobility on the following turn.
Only Soviet Army and Axis Corps
HQ units that have not moved
during the current turn may use
the Supply Buildup function.
Eligible HQ units will have a
BUILDUP button on their unit
detail screen (5.4.16). Pressing
the BUILDUP button will trigger
an immediate resupply of the
HQ unit and its eligible attached
units.
20.6.1. ADMIN
POINT COST
To use the Supply Buildup
function, a player must spend
admin points equal to five plus an additional cost for each eligible attached unit. An eligible
attached unit must be an on-map combat unit within five hexes of the HQ unit. The additional
costs for attached combat units are four for a corps, two for a division, and one for a Brigade/
Regiment.
For example, a Soviet Army HQ unit with 1 Rifle Corps, 2 Rifle Divisions and a Tank Brigade
attached would need 14 (5+4+2+2+1) admin points to perform a supply build up. There is no
admin point cost for any attached unit that is more than five hexes away from the HQ unit. Also,
there is no admin point cost for any support units attached to the HQ unit.
20.6.2. HQ SUPPLY ACCUMULATION
Pressing the BUILDUP button will bring up a confirmation text box stating the number of admin
points that will be expended. Selecting ‘Yes’ will trigger an immediate resupply of the HQ unit.
The HQ will receive Supply and Fuel dumps equal to the admin point cost times 100. These
supply and fuel dumps will be taken from town, city and urban hexes connected to the supply
grid. The HQ unit will also receive vehicles from the motor pool equal to the admin point cost
271
times 100. To continue the example, the Soviet Army HQ unit would receive 1400 Supplies and
1400 Fuel Depots and 1400 vehicles from the motor pool.
20.6.3. HQ SUPPLY BUILDUP PENALTIES
A number of vehicles will be damaged equal to the admin point cost times 100. These vehicles
will be moved from the motor pool to the damaged vehicle pool. A number of vehicles will be
destroyed equal to the admin point cost times ten plus the number of movement points the HQ
unit is from a railhead ((AP*10)+ MPs from rail). These destroyed vehicles will be permanently
removed from the motor pool. A number of fuel dumps will be expended equal to (10+ the
number of movement points the HQ unit is from a railhead) times the admin point cost. These
fuel dumps will be taken from town, city and urban hexes connected to the supply grid. To
further continue the example, if the Soviet Army HQ unit was 10 MPs from a railhead, the
unit supply buildup will result in 1400 vehicles from the motor pool being damaged and 150
vehicles being permanently destroyed. In addition 280 ((10+10)*14) fuel dumps (280 tons of
fuel) will be expended from stores in town, city or urban hexes.
20.6.4. ATTACHED UNIT SUPPLY ACCUMULATION
Following the HQ unit supply accumulation, all eligible attached combat units will recalculate
their supply and vehicle requirements. These units will then draw supply from the HQ unit to
meet 100 percent of their requirements. Also, vehicles will be drawn from the motor pool to
reach 100 percent of the unit’s organic vehicle requirement. This process will consume all of
the combat unit’s remaining movement points for the current turn.
20.6.5. SUPPLY SEGMENT EFFECTS
During the supply segment on the following turn the HQ unit and its eligible attached combat
units will not adjust their vehicle totals or receive any supplies, fuel or replacements. When
calculating movement points, the units will not be subject to reductions for failing leader admin
or initiative checks (14.1.2). Since these combat units will have 100 percent of the fuel and
vehicle requirements they should be close to their maximum possible movement allowance
for the following turn.
21. PRODUCTION
The production system in Gary Grigsby’s War in the East simulates the generation of war
material, manpower, fuel and supplies that flows into each sides supply grid as replacements
and supply for the Eastern front. All production is based on various factories located in town,
city and urban hexes. Resource, heavy industry, oil and fuel, factories produce the basic
materials used to run the production system and supply the forces. There are three types of
equipment production in the game: historical production for aircraft and AFV/Combat vehicles
based on a fixed amount each turn, demand based production for non-AFV/Combat vehicle
ground elements and generic vehicles based on the difference between the non-AFV/Combat
272
vehicle TOE strength of a unit and its actual strength, and non-demand based production
of non-AFV/Combat vehicle equipment to allow for the realistic production of armaments
ahead of time, that often end up never being used, instead of having a perfect just in time
production system. Every aircraft, AFV and named combat vehicle has a build limit which
caps the size its factory can grow to through expansion. The manpower required is generated
through manpower factories that represent the availability of able-bodied men for the armed
forces. Factories can be damaged and repaired and Soviet factories can be evacuated. The
Soviet player will be the beneficiary of a fixed amount of lend lease from the Western Allies.
Though not part of the production system per se, ports and railyards are treated as factories
that generate a certain amount of strategic transportation capacity. Once produced, supplies,
fuel, oil and resources are transported through the supply grid to town, city and urban hexes
where they are stored and can be drawn upon as necessary by the factories located in those
particular hexes. Other produced items are held in virtual pools until they are drawn upon to
build air group units (aircraft) or ground elements. Each nation in the game has a set of pools
used for building aircraft and ground elements. Polish and Czech factories are considered an
integral part of the German pools.
Production takes place for each side during their respective logistics phase. There is no
production of any kind on turn one of any scenario. Note that in scenarios where the Soviets
are the first player, there is no Axis turn one, so the first Axis turn is turn two and they will see
production. Production in non-campaign scenarios that do not use the entire map and OOB is
reduced for both sides by a certain percentage to account for production going to the off-map
forces not involved in the scenario. This percentage reduction will also apply to any Soviet Lend
Lease production and rail capacity point production. Information on the production system can
be located in the production screen (5.4.3) and the logistics phase event log (5.4.12).
21.1. THE PRODUCTION SYSTEM
Production is conducted by various factories located in town, city and urban hexes. The
exception is Lend Lease supplies and vehicles, which are automatically added to the applicable
pool during the logistics phase. Some factories, including all Lend Lease factories, are located
off-map. Each factory point will produce a certain amount of an item each turn if the town, city
or urban hex it is located in is connected to the supply grid (20.1) and sufficient basic items
are stored at the factory location for local use. There are three basic items required to allow
the production system to run; resources, oil and manpower. Resources are required by Heavy
Industry factories to produce supplies and by synthetic fuel factories to produce synthetic fuel.
Supplies are required by armament, aircraft, AFV and combat vehicle factories to build the
equipment for air group units and ground elements. Oil is required by fuel factories to produce
fuel to allow motorized units to move and generic vehicles to operate. Manpower factories
provide the men that are matched with equipment during the replacement phase to build
complete ground elements that flow to the units. There are two types of production rates used
for factories. Some factories (Heavy Industry, Fuel, Synthetic Fuel, Vehicle and Armaments)
have a static multiplier for each year (1941-45) that is used to determine the amount of
273
production for each factory point. The ratio of basic items required to produce the end product
remains the same. For example, if a notional amount of 1000 resources is required to produce
1000 supplies, a one to one ratio of resources to supplies will be required no matter what the
multiplier may be. Each other factory type has a fixed production rate that will not change.
However, for aircraft, AFV, and combat vehicle factories the number of factory points of each
type of factory in each town, city or urban hex will increase over time based on its expansion
rate until its build limit is reached.
21.1.1. RESOURCE PRODUCTION
Resources represent the raw materials used by heavy industry factories to produce supplies
and by synthetic fuel factories to produce synthetic fuel. Each resource factory point will
produce 1000 tons of resources per turn.
21.1.2. HEAVY INDUSTRY (SUPPLIES) PRODUCTION AND ALLOCATION
Heavy industry (HI) factories take resources and use them to produce supplies, which represent
not only all the materials used to build equipment, either directly in individual factories or
through the production of armament points, but also the general supplies and ammunition
used to supply units. After the production phase, supplies are first allocated to meet at least
ninety percent of the production system requirements, with the remaining being available to
be drawn on for general supplies during the supply phase. Each HI factory point will produce
a notional amount of 1000 tons of supplies per turn at a cost of 1000 tons of resources. HI
production is modified by the following percentages:
Heavy Industry Production Percentage Modifier
Year/Nationality
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
German/Czech/Polish
100
130
220
270
220
Axis Allies
100
100
100
100
100
Soviet
100
130
155
170
180
For example, in 1941, 1000 tons of resources will be required to produce the maximum of
1000 tons of supplies per factory point for the Soviets. In 1943, 1550 tons of resources will be
required to produce the maximum of 1550 supplies per factory point.
21.1.3. ARMAMENT PRODUCTION
Armament factories take supplies and use them to produce armament points, which are
maintained in a virtual pool. Armament points are drawn upon to build devices to equip ground
elements at a fixed number of armament points for the devices in each ground element. For
example, the build cost of the devices for an 88mm Anti-Aircraft Gun ground element is 55
armament points, which includes one 88mm AA Gun and eight 7.92mm Kar 98 Rifles for the
ground element’s eight men, which will be matched with the devices during a replacement
274
segment to complete the ground element. Note that armament points are not used to produce
aircraft, AFV or combat vehicles built at individual factories. Ground elements that use devices
built using armament points have an ‘A’ listed in the “CAPACITY” column of the production
screen (5.4.3) and armament factories and production information is listed under the “SPECIAL”
section. In addition to building devices for ground elements, armament points are also used for
ammunition production. For each ton of supplies used for ammunition (20.3.2) one armament
point is expended.
Each Armament factory point will produce a notional 500 armament points at the cost of 100
tons of supplies. Armament point production will be modified by the following percentages:
Armament Production Percentage Modifier
Year/Nationality
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
German/Czech/Polish
100
130
220
380
280
Axis Allies
100
100
100
100
100
Soviet
100
200
200
200
200
To continue the example from above, in 1941 100 tons of supplies will be required to produce
the maximum of 500 tons of armament points per factory point for the Soviets. In 1943, 200
tons of supplies will be required to produce the maximum of 1000 tons of armament points
per factory point.
21.1.4. SYNTHETIC FUEL PRODUCTION
Synthetic Fuel factories take resources and produce synthetic fuel, which is added to the
overall fuel stores pool. There are no Soviet synthetic fuel factories. Each synthetic fuel factory
point will produce a notional amount of 500 tons of fuel per turn at a cost of 500 tons of
resources. Synthetic fuel production will be modified by the following percentages:
Synthetic Fuel Production Percentage Modifier
Year/Nationality
1941
1942
1943
1944(1)
1945(2)
German/Czech/Polish
100
115
135
135
100
Axis Allies
100
100
100
100
100
Note 1: German synthetic fuel production is halved from June to Dec 1944
Note 2: German synthetic fuel production is divided by four during 1945
21.1.5. OIL AND FUEL PRODUCTION
Oil factories (oil fields) produce oil that is then either stored or used by Fuel factories (refineries)
to produce fuel, which is also stored in town, city and urban hexes on the supply grid until
275
drawn upon. The normal production rate for oil factories is 500 tons of oil per factory point
per turn, however, Rumanian and German oil factories will produce at only sixty percent of
capacity. In addition, from August 1943, Rumanian oil production will be further reduced to
thirty percent of capacity.
Each fuel factory point will produce 500 tons of fuel per turn at the cost of 500 tons of oil.
Rumanian fuel factories will have their production halved starting from August 1943.
Oil/Fuel Production per Factory Point per Turn (in Tons)
Year/
Nationality
1941
1942
Jan-Jul
1943
Aug-Dec
1943
1944
1945
Axis
300/500
300/500
300/500
300/500
300/500
300/500
Rumanian
300/500
300/500
300/500
150/250
150/250
150/250
Soviet
500/500
500/500
500/500
500/500
500/500
500/500
21.1.6. VEHICLE PRODUCTION AND REPAIR
Vehicle factories use supplies to produce generic vehicles, which are placed in the vehicle
pool. From there they are drawn to meet the needs of either the motor pool or individual units.
The Soviet player will receive additional vehicles either through mobilization of private vehicles
(23.1) or Lend Lease (21.5). Each vehicle factory point will produce 10 vehicles per turn at the
cost of 50 tons of supplies. Vehicle production will be modified by the following percentages:
Vehicle Production Percentage Modifier
Year/Nationality
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
German/Czech/Polish
100
120
140
80
60
Axis Allies
100
100
100
100
100
Soviet
100
55
55
55
55
Individual vehicles that are damaged are returned to a virtual pool for repair. Once repaired,
they are added back into the vehicle pool. Repair takes place during the logistics phase. The
Soviet vehicle repair rate is twenty percent per turn. Due to a lack of standardized equipment,
the Axis vehicle repair rate is ten percent per turn.
276
21.1.7. AIRCRAFT, AFV AND COMBAT VEHICLE PRODUCTION
Aircraft, AFV and combat vehicles are built at individual factories by using supplies, with one
item being built for each factory point. For example, assuming sufficient supplies are available,
the JU88A factory in Rostock, with a capacity of ten factory points, will build ten JU88A’s every
turn. Each aircraft is built as an integral unit, including installed devices and aircrew. AFV and
combat vehicles include installed devices, but will not become complete ground elements
until they are matched with manpower for the crew during the replacement segment. Each
item has a build cost that determines how many supplies it takes for production. The cost to
build an aircraft is its build cost divided by 20. The cost to build an AFV or combat vehicle is its
build cost divided by 10. For example a FW 190A has a build cost of 484, so it would require
24.2 tons of supplies to produce one such aircraft, to include four 20mm cannon, one 250 KG
Bomb and two 300 litre drop tanks as installed devices as well as integral aircrew. A Tiger AFV
ground element has a build cost of 673, so it would require 67.3 tons of supplies to produce
one such AFV, to include one 88mm gun and two 7.92 machine guns as installed devices. Once
produced, each aircraft of a specific type is placed in a separate pool until it is drawn upon
as a replacement or, for Soviet and captured aircraft, enough aircraft are in that pool to allow
the creation of a new air group unit. AFV and combat vehicles go to their specific AFV/Combat
Vehicle pool until the system determines that both the need exists to build that type of ground
element and sufficient manpower is available.
277
21.1.8. AIRCRAFT, AFV AND COMBAT VEHICLE
FACTORY EXPANSION AND BUILD LIMIT
Aircraft, AFV and combat vehicle factories may be able to increase their capacity by adding
additional factory points over time. Each type of factory has an expansion rate listed in that
item type’s city production list that determines how many factory points will be added. An
expansion rate of one or greater will increase that capacity of each factory of that type by that
number every turn during the logistics phase for that side. An expansion rate of zero indicates
that expansion will be slower than one factory point per turn; the exact number of turns it will
take to increase capacity is variable and dependent on the amount of manpower, railyard and
port points in the town, city or urban hex, with the more of each, the higher chance that the
factory capacity will increase. Factories will only expand if they are completely undamaged.
21.1.8.1. BUILD LIMIT
Each type of Aircraft or AFV/combat vehicle ground element equipment has a build limit that
will cap expansion at a fixed number of items per factory location per turn. For example, in
June 1941, there are three factories that produce the T-34 M1941, which has a build limit of 75
and an expansion rate of one. The current capacities of the factories are 51, 6 and 6. Assuming
no damage, the first factory will reach its build limit in 24 turns, while the other two will take 69
turns to reach full capacity. Once all three factories reach their build limit of 75, the maximum
number of T-34 M1941 ground elements that can be produced each turn will be 225.
21.1.9. FACTORY UPGRADES
Each type of aircraft or ground element equipment factory has a start production date (first
year/first month) and may have a stop production date (last year/last month) Factories with a
stop production date will disband when the end of the last month in the last year is reached.
Production of new types of aircraft or ground element equipment can occur in two ways.
Some new types will appear as new factories when their start production date is reached.
For example, the Soviet SU-122 will commence production in December 1942 with a newly
built factory in Sverdlovsk. Other new types will start production as a result of an existing
type of factory being upgraded. Multiple upgrades of a factory to a new type are possible
over time, with the old type ceasing production when the new type starts. Continuing the
example, the SU-122 factory in Sverdlovsk, with a build limit of 20 and an expansion rate of 1,
will be upgraded to produce the SU-85, with a build limit of 39 and an expansion rate of 3, in
December 1943. The SU-85 factory will be upgraded once more in December 1944, this time
to a SU-100 factory, with a build limit of 64 and an expansion rate of 5.
The list of equipment pools in the production screen (5.4.3) is annotated to reflect their current
status as follows:
No longer in production (‘#’)
Currently in production (no symbol)
278
Not in production yet (**)
The only factories that will be considered physically present in town, city and urban hexes
are those currently in production. Selecting an aircraft or ground element equipment listed
in the production screen will bring up the city production window (5.4.4), which will include
information on any upgrades planned for that type of factory.
21.1.9.1. EQUIPMENT DOWNGRADES
A ground element or air group unit can downgrade to a specific type of equipment if the
production system determines that there is a shortage of current equipment that is unable to
keep up with the demands of all of the units using that equipment and there is an excess of
older equipment in the pool. In this case a unit may downgrade its aircraft or equipment to the
item that is back along the upgrade path. For example, a German fighter air group unit that had
upgraded from the Bf 109F-2 to the Bf 109F-4, but then took heavy losses, might downgrade
back to the Bf 109F-2 if the Bf 109F-4 pool was low and there were sufficient Bf 109F-2’s
available. Under similar circumstances, Anti-Tank ground elements equipped with 75mm AT
gun devices might downgrade back to the 47mm AT gun device.
21.1.10. MANPOWER PRODUCTION AND MIGRATION
Population is a permanent characteristic of a town, city or urban hex and is provided for
reference. A population point represents 50,000 people (in the town, city, urban hexes or
surrounding area).
Manpower, represented by factories in town, city or urban hexes, is produced at a variable rate
dependent on nationality and the year. Manpower factories can be damaged, destroyed, or can
migrate to other town, city and urban hexes.
21.1.10.1. MANPOWER PRODUCTION
Each nation has a separate manpower pool, with a small percentage of the Czech and Polish
manpower going to the German pool. The number of men added to each nation’s manpower
pool is determined each turn by taking the number of available manpower factory points times
a manpower production multiplier. Manpower is maintained in the pool until the system draws
men from it to match with equipment to build ground elements. Manpower multipliers are as
follows:
Year/Nationality
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
Germany
9
8
8
7
6
Axis Allies
9
8
8
7
6
Soviet Union
55
50
40
35
20
279
In addition, each turn one percent of the manpower listed as disabled will return to the
manpower pool. A percentage of returning disabled Axis manpower goes back to Axis allied
countries as follows:
Rumania - 10 percent
Hungary - 9 percent
Finland - 4 percent
Italy - 1.5 percent
Slovakia - .75 percent
The remainder of the returning disabled men will go to Germany.
21.1.10.2. MANPOWER EVACUATION AND MIGRATION
Manpower factory points in German and Soviet nationality town, city and urban hexes may
evacuate/migrate when the hex is captured by enemy units. For purposes of migration, each
manpower factory point represents 50,000 people. In any one turn, up to five manpower
factory points can migrate from one town, city or urban hex to another. The more manpower
factory points in a hex, the better the chance some will migrate. When manpower factory
points migrate, they will try to move to another town, city or urban hex (including off map cities)
at least 14 hexes away from an enemy unit. Evacuations/migrations will not occur in June
1941 or in Soviet town, city or urban hexes after 1942. Town, city or urban hexes re-captured
by friendly units will not undergo migration. Only German and Soviet manpower can migrate,
but all manpower can be damaged or destroyed.
21.1.10.3. MANPOWER FACTORY DAMAGE AND DESTRUCTION
Manpower factory points can be destroyed when the town, city or urban hex is first captured.
In addition, one manpower factory point in town, city or urban hexes may be destroyed every
turn that the hex is enemy controlled; hexes with larger amounts of manpower have a greater
chance of having one manpower factory destroyed (one manpower point is destroyed if
Rnd(600)< (Manpower in town). Manpower factories can also be damaged or lose factory
points through lack of supply (20.5.1).
21.1.10.4. LOCAL MANPOWER RECRUITMENT IN ISOLATED AREAS
Manpower production from a town, city or urban hex that is in an isolated state will continue
at a reduced rate, but will not be added to the global manpower production pool. Termed local
recruitment, manpower production will be halved and stored in a separate pool. This separate
manpower pool is retained even if the hex is captured. If the owning nation regains control of
the hex and it is in supply, the stored manpower will be added to the global production pool to
represent the drafting of recruits from a newly liberated region.
280
21.1.11. PORT AND RAIL YARD CAPACITY
Ports and railyards are treated as factories
in terms of capture, damage and repair,
but they play only a peripheral part in the
production system. The presence of a port
or railyard in the same hex as a factory with
a zero expansion rate increases the chance
that factory will expand (21.1.8). In addition,
hexes with ports will attempt to accumulate
an additional 1000 tons of supplies and fuel
in storage every turn.
Each railyard factory point will produce a
notional amount of strategic rail capacity
every turn equal to 100 minus the percentage
of damage. This amount can be modified
due to the difficulty level transportation level
modifier in the game option menu (3.3.3) and off map production modifier in non-campaign
scenarios. In addition, Soviet rail capacity is multiplied times five, with the exception of June
1941, when it is multiplied by 2.5. See section 14.2.3 for details on the production of shipping
points by port factories. Only Soviet nationality rail yards and ports can produce strategic
transportation capacity for the Soviet player, and only Axis and Axis allied nationality railyards
and ports can produce strategic transportation capacity for the Axis.
21.2. FACTORY CAPTURE, DAMAGE, REPAIR AND EVACUATION
Factories in captured town, city and urban
hexes can be damaged or destroyed. With
the exception of manpower, port, railyard,
resource and oil factories, all other factories
in captured hexes are destroyed and
permanently removed. With the exception
of manpower factories (21.1.10.3), factories
that remain will receive a variable amount
of damage (damage will be added to the
factories equal to 25+random(75) percent
(not to exceed 100 percent). Captured oil
and resource factories will commence
producing once damage has been repaired
to be less than 50 percent, assuming the
hex is linked to the applicable supply grid. Captured factories will produce at the rate of their
actual nationality, so captured Soviet oil factories will not be limited to 60 percent output
281
(21.1.5). Captured railyards and ports will not provide any strategic transportation capacity to
the capturing side (21.1.11).
All factories can be damaged by the bomb city air mission. Only one type of factory can be
attacked by a particular bomb city air mission (5.3.8). Soviet factories that are evacuated
(21.2.1) will suffer at least fifty percent damage, with additional damage occurring if they are
of the type that automatically destroys any factory points not evacuated.
Factories will stop producing if they receive damage greater than fifty percent. Factories will
automatically repair themselves during the logistics phase at a rate determined by the type of
factory as follows:
Type of Factory
Repair Rate
per Turn
Oil
1%
Resource
Heavy Industry
2%
Synthetic Fuel
Fuel
Armament
3%
Vehicle
Manpower
Aircraft and AFV/Combat Vehicle
Port
Railyard
Note that Factories located in isolated hexes cannot be repaired.
21.2.1. SOVIET FACTORY EVACUATION
Certain Soviet factories can be evacuated through the use of strategic rail movement (14.2,
5.3.2) at a specific cost of rail capacity for each factory point moved as follows:
Type of Factory
Rail Capacity Cost per Factory Point
Heavy Industry (HI)
5000
Armaments
3000
Generic Vehicles
3000
Aircraft/AFV/Combat Vehicles
Build Cost x2 (section 21.1.7)
282
Note that the rail capacity cost per factory point is displayed in parenthesis next to the factory
name in parenthesis in the city display window (section 5.4.26) when in rail mode (F2).
21.2.1.1. DISPOSITION AND DAMAGE TO EVACUATING FACTORY POINTS
For aircraft, AFV and combat vehicles, any factory points of a particular type not moved from a
particular city (when some are moved) are destroyed for that particular city. For Heavy Industry,
Generic Vehicle, and Armament factories, any factory points of that type not moved will remain
undamaged in their original location and are still available to be evacuated at another time.
Evacuating factories of a particular type from one city will not impact production of that same
type of factory in a different city. For example, Kharkov has 51 T-34 M1941 factory points. If
the player moved 10 of those points east to Chkalov, it would expend 7140 rail capacity and
41 T34 M1941 factory points would be destroyed. If there had been 51 Armament factory
points, however, moving 10 would still expend 30000 rail capacity, but the other 41 Armament
factory points would remain in an undamaged state. All evacuated factory points will be heavily
damaged and will require repair before they become operational and recommence expansion.
Game Play Tips on evacuating factories:
1. There are two types of factories you have to consider when
deciding how to evacuate. The ones that don’t rebuild (HI,
generic vehicle, armaments) can be moved piecemeal. The ones
that build up to a build limit (aircraft, AFV, Combat vehicles)
must be moved all at once, with any part left behind destroyed.
The key is, for aircraft and AFV/Combat vehicle factories,
you have to get at least one point evacuated or you’ll lose the
potential to build that factory back to the build limit. But you
have to move that particular factory all at once, so there are
two decisions to make; when to move it and how much to move
when you do. Bottom line for aircraft and AFV/Combat vehicle
factories is that if you know you are going to lose the city, if
you can get at least one factory point out before it’s too late,
you’ll eventually be able to rebuild. Note that some factories do
not need to be moved due to ending production. For example,
the MiG-3 factories in Moscow will be automatically removed
in December 1941.
2. To maintain historical production figures the Soviet player
needs to move at least half of the capacity of the factories being
relocated. For example, in Leningrad there is a KV-1 factory
that begins the 1941-45 campaign scenario with a size of 29.
KV-1 factories have an expansion rate of one. The factory in
Leningrad was historically moved in mid-August 1941, which
at an expansion rate of one, should be up to a size of about 32.
The only other KV-1 factory is in Chelyabinsk, which initially
283
has a size of zero. Relocating the Leningrad KV-1 factory in
mid-August 1941 will result in a sharp drop in KV-1 production
as the evacuated factory cannot produce or expand until it has
been repaired. In order to maintain historical output, at least
half of the initial factory’s capacity (16 or greater) will need to
be moved from Leningrad.
21.3. CAPTURED EQUIPMENT
AFV/Combat vehicles, generic vehicles, and gun type devices can be captured during combat
(15.13). Captured generic vehicles are placed directly into the capturing side’s vehicle pool.
Other captured equipment is placed in its own pool in the “captured” section of the production
screen (5.4.3). If the production system determines that there is a sufficient number of
captured equipment, then they will be matched with manpower to build ground elements
that will be sent as replacements to a unit that has a TOE that includes the same general
type of equipment. For example, captured T-34 AFV’s could be used in a unit that has the TOE
for medium tank type ground elements. On the other hand, captured German Elefant tank
destroyers cannot be utilized by the Soviets as it is a Heavy Tank Destroyer, a type of equipment
that is not in any Soviet TOE.
21.4. PRODUCTION TO OTHER FRONTS
Since they were fighting on multiple fronts, not all German and Italian production is available
for deployment on map to the Eastern Front. Thus a certain amount of German and Italian
production will be automatically unavailable. The affected factory types are heavy industry
(supplies), fuel, synthetic fuel, manpower, armaments, vehicles and individual aircraft and AFV/
combat vehicles. Resources and oil are not affected. For Germany, this includes production
from Czech and Polish factories. The production screen (5.4.3) will list the percentage of
production that will be available to the Eastern Front. Total capacity will be listed, both on the
production screen and in the individual City Production windows (5.4.4.), but only production
that actually is available for the Eastern Front will be displayed in the “Built” column and in
the totals on the right hand side of the production screen. The Logistics Phase Event Log
(5.4.12) will also only list production available to the Eastern Front. The following table is used
to calculate the percentage of production placed in the pool per turn by nationality and year:
Nationality
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
German(1)/Czech/Polish
85%
80%
70%
60%
50%
Italian
10%
20%
30%
N/A
N/A
Note 1: German aircraft have an additional modifier that reduces their production delivered
to the Eastern Front by 50%. This represents that the proportion of air forces sent east was
always much lower than the proportion of ground forces sent east.
284
21.4.1. GERMAN ARMAMENT POINTS TO AXIS ALLIES
If Germany has greater than 100,000 armament points at the start of the production segment
of the logistics phase, any Axis allied nation with less than 10,000 armament points will be
provided 10,000 armament points from the German armament pool.
21.5. LEND LEASE
Though the Murmansk convoys are the most well known and hard fought examples of the
Western Allies sending equipment and supplies to the Soviet Union during World War II,
material was also delivered through Iran and across the Pacific to Vladivostok. Lend Lease
in Gary Grigsby’s War in the East is represented by a fixed amount of Aircraft, AFV/Combat
vehicles, generic vehicles and supplies generated through the production system. For noncampaign scenarios that do not use the entire map area and OOB, lend lease will be reduced
by a percentage modifier just like all other production.
21.5.1. LEND LEASE AIRCRAFT, AFV AND COMBAT VEHICLES
Lend lease aircraft and AFV/Combat vehicles are produced by off-map factories that do not
consume any supplies due to the build cost of the item being set to zero. The off-map location
of the factories will be Lend Lease North, Lend Lease South, and Lend Lease Pacific. The type,
number, expansion rate, build limits and start/stop production dates simulates the historical
flow of American and British aircraft and AFV to the Soviet Union.
21.5.2. LEND LEASE SUPPLIES AND GENERIC VEHICLES
Commencing in August 1941, the Soviet player will receive a fixed amount of supplies and
generic vehicles every turn that varies by year as follows:
285
Year
Supplies/Turn
Vehicles/Turn
1941
1000
500
1942
3000
1000
1943
5000
3000
1944
7000
4000
1945
6000
1000
21.6. PRODUCTION CHART
The production chart shows a simplified representation of the production system, to include
Manpower Multipliers (21.1.10.1), Local Recruits (21.1.10.4), Production to Other Fronts (21.4),
and the Oil Production Modifier (21.1.5).
286
22. WEATHER
There are four types of weather (clear, mud, snow, and blizzard) and three types of ice (Loose,
Thin and Frozen) (5.1.5). Weather can have a powerful impact on the game and is mainly
represented by its effect on movement costs, which also affects the tracing of supply (14.1.5).
In addition, bad weather (mud, snow and blizzard) can reduce or cancel air missions (16.1.15).
Special First Winter rules simulate the ill-preparedness of the non-Finnish Axis forces for the
Russian winter (22.3). The map area is divided into four weather zones (Europe, South Soviet,
Central Soviet, and North Soviet), with the chance for more adverse weather increasing as the
zones move from west to east (5.4.6). The players have the option of choosing between nonrandom weather and random weather (22.2). Non-random weather uses a fixed, and thus 100
percent predictable, weather table that depends only on the date to determine the weather in
each weather zone each turn (i.e. all April 10th turns will have the same weather). Random
weather adds a random factor, which provides some variation to the weather.
22.1. WEATHER AND ITS EFFECTS
Clear weather is considered good weather and has no effect. Mud represents wet conditions
that restrict movement, most notably during the biannual Russian Rasputitsa when melting
snow in the spring or heavy rains in the fall turned unpaved roads into quagmires. Mud has the
most impact on motorized units, with a +4 MP cost for every hex entered compared to +2 for
non-motorized units (14.1.5). Note that supply will also be significantly impacted as it is traced
using motorized MP costs. Mud weather also increases the chances that individual aircraft or
complete air group units will not participate in missions or that the entire mission might be
cancelled due to inclement conditions (16.1.5). Snow represents mild winter conditions with
freezing temperatures and snowfall. Movement and supply tracing costs are increased by +1
MP for all units. The impact on air missions is the same as in mud, with an increased chance of
aborted aircraft, air group units and entire air missions. Blizzard weather represents extreme
winter weather, with temperatures well below freezing accompanied by high winds and heavy
snowfall. Movement and supply tracing costs are increased by +2 MP for all units. The adverse
impact on air missions is approximately double that of snow or mud, with greatly increased
chances of aborted aircraft, air group units and even the cancellation of entire air missions.
Some units perform better in adverse weather. Ski units will have their combat value (CV)
doubled in snow and tripled in blizzard. The doubling of a Mountain unit’s CV in a mountain hex
is not affected by weather conditions (15.6.2.3).
22.1.1. ICE LEVELS AND FROZEN LAKES AND RIVERS
Each weather zone has an ice level that is shown next to weather if the ice level is greater than
zero. Ice levels range from zero (none) to ten (frozen solid). Ice levels one and two are defined
as loose ice, levels three and four are thin ice, and levels five and higher are defined as frozen.
The ice level will rise and fall in each zone based on the weather and time of year as follows:
287
Clear: -3 levels/turn
Mud: -1 level/turn
Snow: +1 level/turn
Blizzard: +4 levels/turn
May 1 to September 30: -1 level/turn
Ice levels will never exceed ten or go below zero.
22.1.1.1. ICE LEVELS AND MOVEMENT COSTS
As with ice free movement across rivers, MP costs are different depending on whether the unit
is moving into an EZOC or not (14.1.5). Note that ice level costs are cumulative with the regular
cost to move or attack over river hexsides. For example a motorized unit crossing a major river
hexside with loose ice (ice level 2) into an EZOC would expend at an additional 22 MPs; 18 for
regular crossing plus 4 more for the loose ice. Frozen ice levels (5+) causes all river hexsides
(including impassable) to have no impact on movement or combat. In addition the movement
cost for swamp terrain is reduced in frozen conditions. With the exception of the Lake Ladoga
Zone, movement and supply trace over full water hexes is not affected by ice levels.
Tactical movement over full water hexes (small lakes, large lakes, Baltic, Caspian, etc) is not
allowed, regardless of ice level. In addition, strategic naval transport or amphibious transport
is not affected by ice levels.
22.1.1.2. SUPPLY TRACE OVER WATER HEXES AND LAKE LADOGA
Per sections 20.1.3 and 20.4.1, supply trace over all water hexes requires a port to port
connection, with at least one of the ports being on the supply grid. This over water trace
is normally free of cost in the same manner as rail hexes are part of the supply grid. The
exception to this is the Lake Ladoga Zone. Port to port supply trace over all water hexes does
incur movement point costs based on the current ice level as follows: No ice (level 0) = 1 MP,
Loose ice (level 1-2) = 2 MPs, Thin ice (level 3-4) = 6 MPs, and Frozen ice (level 5+) = 4 MPs.
22.2. DETERMINING WEATHER CONDITIONS
Weather for each zone is determined once a turn during the Axis logistics phase. Non-random
weather is pre-determined and fixed for each turn. Random weather is determined using a
table that has up to fifteen possible results for each month. The table is based on the Europe
weather zone so a modifier is used to represent the different weather conditions in the other
zones.
22.2.1. NON-RANDOM WEATHER TABLE
The below table displays non-random weather by date. All three Soviet zones will have the
same weather, but the Europe zone weather may be different.
288
Date
Europe Weather Zone
Soviet Weather Zones
Jan
B
B
Feb
S
B
Mar
S
S
Apr
M
M
01 May - 19 Jun
C
C/M*
20-30 Jun
C
C
Jul
C
C
Aug
C
C
01 Sep - 09 Oct
C
C
10 Oct - 07 Nov
M
M
08 - 30 Nov
S
S
Dec
S
B
* On odd day turns from May 1 to June 19, the weather in the Soviet Zones is Clear, on even
day turns the weather is Mud.
Key:
C = Clear
M = Mud
S = Snow
B = Blizzard
22.2.2. RANDOM WEATHER DETERMINATION TABLE
For random weather, a die(11) is rolled by the computer and the modifier for each weather zone
is added to determine the weather for the turn per the below table. The following exceptions
will occur when using random weather:
»» There will be at most one snow turn per weather
zone in December and January.
»» There will be at most one mud turn per weather zone
during turns from 19 June to 30 September.
»» There will be at most one mud turn per weather zone
during turns from 01 December to 31 March.
289
»» There will be no mud during turns in June 1941.
Month
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun*
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct*
Nov*
Dec
1
M
M
M
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
M
M
2
M
M
M
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
M
M
3
S
S
M
M
C
C
C
C
C
M
S
S
4
S
S
S
M
C
C
C
C
C
M
S
S
5
B
S
S
M
C
C
C
C
C
M
S
S
6
B
B
S
M
M
C
C
C
C
M
S
B
7
B
B
S
M
M
C
C
C
C
M
S
B
8
B
B
S
M
M
C
C
C
C
M
S
B
9
B
B
S
M
M
C
C
C
C
M
S
B
10
B
B
B
M
M
M
M
M
C
M
S
B
11
B
B
B
M
M
C
C
C
C
M
M
B
12
B
B
B
S
M
C
C
C
C
S
B
B
13
B
B
B
S
M
C
C
C
C
S
B
B
14
B
B
B
B
S
M
C
C
M
B
B
B
15
B
B
B
B
S
M
C
C
M
B
B
B
Die Roll
Also 11/1-11/7
Also 10/1-10/9
Also 6/1-6/19
Rmks
*Some turns in these months use another month’s chart. See the remarks column for details
Key:
C = Clear
M = Mud
S = Snow
B = Blizzard
290
Weather Zone Die Modifiers:
South Soviet - +1
Central Soviet - +2
North Soviet - +4
22.3. FIRST WINTER RULE
The following rules impact the Axis player in the section of the map area delineated by
coordinates X>72 or X>54 AND Y<95 during Blizzard turns in any scenario that includes the
months of December 1941 through February 1942. With the exception of the supply modifier
(22.3.4) Finnish units as well as all Axis Ski and Mountain units of any nationality are not
affected by any first winter rules.
22.3.1. COMBAT VALUE MODIFICATIONS
Non-Finnish, non-mountain and non-ski Axis attacking units have their modified combat value
(CV) divided by 3 and possibly more if they fail certain leader rating checks (divided by 4 if
admin check fails, and divided by 4 if Infantry or Mech Combat rating check fails). Non-Finnish,
non-mountain and non-ski Axis defending units CV are divided by 2 and possibly by more if
they fail leader infantry or Mech combat or admin checks (Once again, divided by 4 for each
failed check). Because of these modifiers and to better reflect the unit’s current status, Axis
units will have their normal printed CV divided by three, and their defense CV divided by two,
with values rounded down. The leader checks that can reduce CV’s further will still occur, but
the printed CV values only account for the definite reduction in CV. To better reflect their impact,
the displayed CV values for Finns, Soviets, and Axis mountain and ski units are doubled during
first winter blizzard turns to account for the first winter surprise effects on other units. This is a
display item only, as the actual CV values themselves don’t change in combat.
22.3.2. GROUND ELEMENT DAMAGE AND DISRUPTION
Axis units will have 5-20 percent of their ground elements become damaged at the start of
the logistics phase, which allows repair attempts during that same logistics phase. Units with
low experience and morale will suffer the most. The probability that a ground element will be
damaged is halved in the months of January and February 1942. Axis AFV ground elements
also have an increased chance to be damaged that is based on their reliability, representing
AFV breakdowns (9.6.1).
Ground elements will also suffer additional disruption prior to the ground combat sub-phase
(15.1) whenever they attack or are attacked. The amount of disruption suffered by defending
ground elements will be half that of attacking ground elements. As with damage, units with
low experience and/or low morale will suffer additional disruption. The amount of disruption
suffered will decrease progressively in January and February 1942.
291
22.3.3. UNIT MORALE REDUCTION
Non-Finnish Axis units with morale greater than 55 will lose 2 morale points per turn during the
logistics phase. Non-Finnish Axis units with morale greater than 60 will lose 2 morale points
just prior to each ground combat they are involved in, whether attack or defense.
22.3.4. FIRST WINTER SUPPLY MODIFIER
Axis units tracing supply to a railhead in the affected area (22.3) will have the amount of supply
they receive halved after all other modifications.
22.3.5. MITIGATION OF FIRST WINTER RULES IN CITIES
Axis units located in town, city and urban hexes can mitigate the first winter rules regarding
damaged ground elements and morale losses to some extent. Any units in an urban hex will
not suffer damage to their ground elements or morale losses during the logistics phase. In a
city hex, the two units with the highest CV’s will not be impacted. In a town hex, one unit with
the highest CV is eligible to avoid the penalty, but only if die(4) is less than or equal to the
population value of the town.
Game Play Tip: Axis Allies will suffer greatly from first winter effects
due to their normally low experience and morale. Place them on garrison
duty in town, city and urban hexes if possible to mitigate the effects of
“General Winter.”
22.3.6. SOVIET LEADER CHECKS
During the turns when the first winter rules are in effect, the Soviet computer player will not
automatically pass leader checks no matter what the help level setting (3.3.3).
23. SCENARIOS
There are two types of scenarios included in the game. Campaign scenarios cover the entire
Eastern Front from a specific start date, use the full map area and have victory conditions
based on the possession of cities and urban hexes (24.1). Non-campaign scenarios are
normally shorter length, do not necessarily use the full map area and have victory conditions
based on specific objective hexes and losses (24.2). All scenarios commencing 22 June 1941
have special rules to address Soviet unpreparedness.
292
23.1. SCENARIO LIST
Scenario Name
Number of Turns
Campaign?
Map Area
1941-45 Campaign
224
Yes
Full
1942-45 Campaign
171
Yes
Full
1943-45 Campaign
118
Yes
Full
1944-45 Campaign
67
Yes
Full
Operation Barbarossa
24
No
Full
Operation Blue
20
No
Partial
Operation Typhoon
15
No
Partial
Road to Dnepropetrovsk
17
No
Partial
Road to Kiev
10
No
Partial
Road to Leningrad
17
No
Partial
Road to Minsk
3
No
Partial
Road to Moscow
17
No
Partial
Road to Smolensk
10
No
Partial
Velikie Luki ’42 Tutorial
10
No
Partial
23.2. STARTING MOVEMENT ALLOWANCES
AND UNIT WIN/LOSS NUMBERS
Axis units in scenarios starting on June 22, 1941 will have their full movement allowance
(14.1.1). In all other scenarios the first player’s units MPs are pre-determined and may be less
than the maximum. In scenarios that begin after June 22, 1941, the number of wins/losses for
units at the start of a scenario will be determined randomly.
23.3. SCENARIOS COMMENCING 22 JUNE 1941
The following rules are in effect for scenarios that start on the June 22, 1941 turn.
23.3.1. FROZEN UNITS, GEOGRAPHICAL MOVEMENT
RESTRICTIONS AND HQ CONVERSION
The Rumanian Front (both Axis and Soviet units in this area) is frozen on turns 1 and 2. Axis
and Soviet ground units in this area can’t move, air units may move and fly missions. During a
293
Soviet Logistics phase, if Axis forces control any hex that is both east of hex column 51 and in
a hex row between 89 and 94 (all inclusive), then these forces will unfreeze.
Several Axis units are frozen at the start. The Finnish Front is initially frozen for both sides.
Many Soviet units in the Caucasus are frozen at start with the number of turns frozen shown
in their rollover text.
Axis units may not move through Hungary on turn 1.
If an Axis unit begins the Soviet turn 1 Logistics Phase closer than 10 hexes from a Soviet
Military District, that Military District HQ unit will immediately convert to a Front HQ unit.
23.3.2. SOVIET RAIL CAPACITY REDUCTION
Soviet rail capacity is reduced to fifty percent of normal for turns that take place in June 1941.
This represents confusion, the shock of war and conversion of the rail road network to a war
setting, as well as trains being utilized to move mobilizing reserve manpower and equipment
to their units.
23.3.3. SOVIET GENERIC VEHICLE MOBILIZATION
The Soviet motor pool starts the war at 60,000 vehicles. In addition to normal production,
to represent vehicles mobilized from civilian use, the Soviet player will receive an additional
number of vehicles during the logistics phase of the first ten turns of the scenario as follows:
Turn 1: +50,000
Turn 2: +40,000
Turn 3: +30,000
Turns 4-10: +20,000
23.3.4. 22 JUNE 1941 TURN SURPRISE RULES
To simulate the general Soviet lack of preparedness for the Axis attack, the following rules
impacts the Soviet player’s units on turn one of any scenario starting on June 22, 1941. Each
Soviet unit’s starting morale, experience and number of damaged ground elements will be
variably determined based on unit type and location. All Soviet on-map and support units are
affected, with the location of support units determined by the location of the on-map units to
which they are attached. Soviet units attacked during the first turn will also suffer pre-battle
damage and disruption. The exception to the above is that Soviet units located in the occupied
Finnish port of Hanko (hex X57, Y14) on turn 1 are not affected by the first turn surprise rule,
to include both the random setting of morale/experience and damage to ground elements.
294
23.3.4.1. DESIGNATED MAP AREAS
The map area is divided into four areas consisting of Moscow, North, Southwest and the rest
of the map area as follows:
The Moscow area is defined as those hexes that have map coordinates where x is greater than
99 and y is less than 55.
The North area is defined as those hexes that have map coordinates where x is less than 99
and y is less than 39.
The Southwest area is defined as those hexes that have map coordinates where x is less than
73 and y less than 98 but greater than 72.
23.3.4.2. SETTING INITIAL SOVIET MORALE AND EXPERIENCE
The morale and experience of all Soviet units at the start is set as follows (in the order listed):
Determine initial morale by taking a base of 30 and adding Rnd(24).
Add 5 to the morale of all NKVD units.
Further modify the morale of all motorized units, by multiplying their morale by .9.
Modify the morale of all units based on the difficulty level by taking the morale level modifier
divided by 100 and multiplying the unit morale. For example, if the difficulty level is challenging
against a Soviet computer player, the morale level modifier of 110 would be divided by 100 and
all Soviet units would have their morale multiplied by 1.1.
Modify the morale of units in the Southwest area by adding 10 and the morale of units in the
Moscow area by adding 5.
The final morale of Soviet units cannot exceed 99 or be less than 30 after all adjustments, to
include any difficulty level settings.
Set the experience level of each type of ground element in all Soviet units using the formula
‘2/3*Morale of unit + ½*rnd(morale of unit)’, not to exceed 99 or be less than 20 after all
adjustments, to include any difficulty level settings.
23.3.4.3. INITIAL DAMAGE TO SOVIET GROUND ELEMENTS
As part of the normal automatic game start process, some ground elements in Soviet units will
become damaged. Soviet units in hexes where Y<32 or x>79, which is considered outside of
the initial Axis invasion zone, will maintain this automatic damage. All other ground elements
that were damaged as part of the automatic game start process will become ready and then
may suffer damage from a special first turn effect. Units in the Southwest, North and Moscow
areas will suffer roughly half as much as Soviet units in the rest of the affected map area.
295
23.3.4.4. PRE-BATTLE DAMAGE
When Soviet units are attacked on turn one, they will suffer additional damage and disruption
to their ground elements before the battle takes place. Again, units in the Southwest, North and
Moscow areas will suffer less damage and disruption than units in the rest of the map area.
23.3.4.5. MOVEMENT COSTS AND ALLOWANCES
German Movement Costs: The Germans get the following movement cost advantages on
turn 1:
Movement costs of attacking are halved (including costs of attacking across rivers), but will
cost at least one MP.
Entering an enemy hex costs only 1 MP.
Soviet Movement penalties: Soviet motorized units have their final adjusted MPs divided
by 3, but never to less than one MP. Soviet non-motorized units have their final adjusted MPs
divided by 2, but never to less than one MP.
24. VICTORY CONDITIONS
There are two systems for determining victory in Gary Grigsby’s War in the East, one for
campaign scenarios and another for all other scenarios, which usually cover a short time
period and a smaller area than the entire map (23.1).
24.1. CAMPAIGN SCENARIO VICTORY CONDITIONS
Campaign Scenarios start at different points during the war, but all can go to the first turn in
October 1945. Victory is determined based on the number of cities and urban hexes that are
controlled by the Axis player. The Soviet player wins by forcing German surrender through the
capture of Berlin along with the majority of the map area, with the victory level determined
by the date this occurs. The Axis player wins either by capturing most of the cities and urban
hexes in the part of the map area that corresponds to the historical German objective to
advance to the north-south line from Archangel to Astrakhan or by holding on to a minimum
number of cities and urban hexes, with the amount determining the level of victory. The actual
number of victory points required for the various victory levels is dependent on the particular
campaign scenario.
24.1.1. VICTORY POINT LOCATIONS AND VALUES
Cities and urban hexes have the following point values:
Heavy Urban - 5
Light Urban - 3
296
City - 1
National Capital - +5 (Moscow, Berlin, Bucharest, Budapest, Bratislava, Helsinki)
24.1.2. AUTOMATIC AND POINT VALUE VICTORY CONDITIONS
The game will end in an automatic victory either when Germany surrenders (Soviet victory)
or when the Axis controls sufficient points to meet the particular campaign scenario decisive
Axis victory condition.
Germany will surrender at any time that Berlin has been captured and the Axis player controls
less than 40 points of cities and urban hexes.
If neither player wins an automatic victory (Decisive, Major or Minor for the Soviet player;
Decisive for the Axis player) by the first turn in October 1945, the winner is determined by the
number of points controlled by the Axis player.
Victory levels for the 1941-45 and 1942-45 campaign scenarios:
Decisive Soviet Victory - If Germany surrenders in 1944 or earlier.
Major Soviet Victory - If Germany surrenders between 1/1/45 and 5/31/45.
Minor Soviet Victory - If Germany surrenders between 6/30/45 and 9/30/45.
Draw - Germany does not surrender by 10/01/45 and the Axis player has less than 142 points.
Minor Axis Victory - The Axis controls 142-199 points at the end of the game.
Major Axis Victory - The Axis controls 200-289 points at the end of the game.
Decisive Axis Victory - At any time the Axis controls 290 points.
Victory levels for the 1943-45 campaign scenario:
Decisive Soviet Victory - If Germany surrenders in 1944 or earlier.
Major Soviet Victory - If Germany surrenders between 1/1/45 and 5/31/45.
Minor Soviet Victory - If Germany surrenders between 6/30/45 and 9/30/45.
Draw - Germany does not surrender by 10/01/45 and the Axis player has less than 75 points.
Minor Axis Victory - The Axis controls 75-149 points at the end of the game.
Major Axis Victory - The Axis controls 150-249 points at the end of the game.
Decisive Axis Victory - At any time the Axis controls 250 points.
Victory levels for the 1944-45 campaign scenario:
Decisive Soviet Victory - If Germany surrenders in 1944 or earlier.
Major Soviet Victory - If Germany surrenders between 1/1/45 and 5/31/45.
297
Minor Soviet Victory - If Germany surrenders between 6/30/45 and 9/30/45.
Draw - Germany does not surrender by 10/01/45 and the Axis player has less than 40 points.
Minor Axis Victory - The Axis controls 40-99 points at the end of the game.
Major Axis Victory - The Axis controls 100-199 points at the end of the game.
Decisive Axis Victory - At any time the Axis controls 200 points.
24.2. NON-CAMPAIGN SCENARIO VICTORY CONDITIONS
Victory conditions for non-campaign scenarios are based on control of victory locations,
usually specific town, city or urban hexes for each side, and cumulative losses in men, guns,
AFVs and aircraft. Victory points for control of victory locations are awarded each player-turn
and there is also a separate victory point award for controlling victory locations at the end of
the scenario. Victory locations can be applicable to both sides or be specific to one side only.
Victory point locations can be displayed by selecting the Toggle Victory Locations button in
the map information menu tab (5.1.2.1). Red flags are Soviet VP locations, black flags are
Axis VP locations, and black and red flags are VP locations for both sides. Losses are based
on the number of men, guns, AFV or aircraft that must be destroyed for the opposing side to
gain one victory point. This base number for losses can be further modified for each side by
a certain percentage. For example, the scenario may be set up so that each player will “earn”
1 VP for each 1000 men lost by the other player, but if the Soviet player has a twenty percent
modifier, the Axis will not gain a victory point until 5000 men have been lost. Victory levels for
non-campaign scenarios are based on the ratio of the side with the most points to the side
with the least points. This ratio is shown on the screen along with either an Axis or Soviet VP
Advantage and the number (to one decimal place) or “No significant VP advantage””if the ratio
is under 1.1.
Victory levels are as follows:
Decisive Victory - ratio greater than or equal to 5.0
Major Victory - ratio less than 5.0 but greater than or equal to 2.0
Minor Victory - ratio less than 2.0 but greater than or equal to 1.1
Draw - ratio less than 1.1
Note: Each side will start a non-campaign scenario with a minimum VP point score of one.
298
25. STRATEGY AND TACTICS
AND DEVELOPER NOTES
25.1. STRATEGY AND TACTICS
Our thanks to Jon Pyle, Andy Johnson, and Bob Malin for providing the below strategy and
tactics recommendations based on their extensive knowledge and play testing experience of
Gary Grigsby’s War in the East.
25.1.1. CRITICAL FACTORS
Command and Control: Proper organization of armies/fronts is a must in this great conflict.
With the size and scale of this recreation, it can be overlooked. The distance between HQ units
in the chain of command, such as OKH > Army > Corps > Division, must be properly kept to
ensure supply and troop commitment in battles, and needs to be watched closely each turn. It
is important to remember the command range for Corps HQs is 5 hexes or 20MPs, so terrain,
weather and ZOC’s could put units out of command even if they are within 5 Hexes.
Supply: FBD (Axis) and NKPS (Soviet) rail repair units are the key to any prolonged offense.
Their placement and advancement needs to follow spearheads to ensure supply lines are as
short as possible. A careful eye must be kept on supply for lack of it can unravel any well laid
plan, and bring your advance to a standstill.
In the 1941 campaign, the Axis will find that Army Groups Center and South will be at maximum
supply range from about turn 8 onwards, then even worse on Turn 18 when the mud arrives.
Units can find that they are totally isolated if they have advanced too far.
The Axis has the ability to Airdrop fuel and ammunition to the armoured spearheads and you
must decide whether to concentrate the limited resources to one Army/Army group or spread
it out to everyone. If players wonder why their attacks are failing, many times it is because the
ammunition ran out, so it is just as important to fly in ammunition as it is fuel.
Another tough decision is whether to use the HQ Buildup function. This guarantees that your
assault troops attached to a corps HQ will get maximum MPs, but the overall supply to your
whole army is reduced by about 1-2% for about 2 months for every time you use it. If it
makes the difference between capturing large population and industry centres or not, then it
is probably worth doing.
Administration Points: How, when, and why you spend your AP’s, needs to be well thought
out. You only receive a limited amount and how they are spent can make the difference between
victory and defeat. You will need to plan turns ahead as to when and why they are spent. There
are so many things to look at, to include transferring divisions, attaching support units, and
changing leaders. It may feel overwhelming, but through experience you’ll understand the
299
timing for their best use. Try to keep a reserve of AP’s, as you way need to respond to surprise
breakthroughs and transfer corps from one Army to another, which will require 30 -60 APs.
Leaders: Good commanders will make a difference in a battle. They can be costly to replace if
they have high political ratings, but relieving poor commanders will pay off in the long run. Try
not to replace leaders to gain 1 extra point in their combat rating early. Find your weak leaders
(5 rating) and look to get a better leader (7 rating) and replace them. Later after your weaker
leaders are replaced you can look to gain an extra point in leadership ratings for your better
leaders. While combat ratings are important, don’t forget the ubiquitous impact of initiative,
admin and morale ratings.
Support Units: Attaching support units to Axis Corps/Soviet Army HQ units and combat
units to meet your goals has great advantages. Balance your artillery support units so each
Axis Corps/Soviet Army HQ unit has some, and you will want to load your spearhead Axis
Corps/Soviet Army HQ units with them - rocket units and high calibre artillery are particularly
helpful. Armour support units are useful in areas where larger armoured units are not present.
Engineers (Pioneer and Sapper) are very helpful in either attacking or defending areas with a
good fortification defense modifier.
Figuring out how to manage the transfer of support units can be frustrating at first. HQs can
be set to locked (manual transfer) or unlocked (AI transfer) status and by adjusting the support
levels of HQs up and down the command chain, you can save a lot of APs but it is complicated
and it does take time to figure out the system.
25.1.2. AXIS STRATEGY
Destruction of the Red Army: First and foremost the Soviets must be crippled. The Germans
need to use their armour thrusts to move into the rear cutting supply, and creating pockets
of isolated units. Use every opportunity to trap units to avoid their retreat to the east. Huge
numbers of men and equipment must be destroyed or captured to weaken the Soviet winter
counter offensive in late 1941.
Leningrad: This is a must take city in 1941, as it may be the only time it can be captured. Its
seizure has key strategic consequences as it links the Germans with the Finns, and hands over
total control of the Baltic Sea to the Axis. It also will deny the Soviets a much needed population
source. This may turn out to be a costly task, so move as much of your heavy artillery, reserves
and replacements (using refit mode) north to aid in this assault. There are ports on either
side of Lake Ladoga, if you capture the one on the west bank or the three on the east bank,
Leningrad will be isolated and vulnerable to a head on assault.
The Dnepr River: Crossing this major river before defenses are formed is a must, both above
and below the Pripyat marshes in order to join Army Group Center with Army Group South’s
forces. This will close off any Soviet activity that may spring from the marsh region.
The Ukraine: The Ukraine with its resources, industry, and manpower cannot be overlooked.
The capture of Kiev and crossing of the Dnepr has to be a focus of your advance in the south.
300
The final goal is to capture Kharkov, as it has the largest T-34 AFV factory and a large population
base. During all this a push to cross the land bridges into the Crimea is needed; otherwise the
Soviets will have time to build up fortification levels in that area.
Moscow: Most players will want to go after the capital in 1941. There are just not enough
troops to hold it against the Soviet-Counter offensive in the winter of 1941, as you will over
extend your flanks in doing so. It would be wiser to plan for a 1942 attack, while moving as
close as you can to the city as well as keeping your flanks in order.
Garrisons: Proper garrisons are needed in the rear. If properly maintained, very few partisan
attacks will occur. However, if they are overlooked you may find your rail network being cut and
your supply at the front in danger.
Winter of 1941-42: The brutal blizzards come with a torrent of Axis losses. To minimize the
effects a player should use the first two weeks in October to shorten the lines, start to dig in,
then form reserves. Any autumn offensive will lead to over exposed positions that later can be
cut off and destroyed by the Soviets. Plan a fallback position to keep your armies intact in order
to preserve your forces for the upcoming spring.
25.1.3. SOVIET STRATEGY
Initial Strategic Options: There are generally two overall strategies that Soviet players tend
to use in the 1941 Campaign. The first is to fall back with the bulk of the army to strong
defensive positions leaving only a few skirmishers behind to slow the Axis advance. This has
the advantages of preserving the Soviet army strength and stretching out Axis supply lines. The
downside is that Axis forces are able to advance quickly into Soviet territory and may get to
your main defenses before you are fully prepared.
The second option is to conduct an active defense. In the early months of the war, the Soviets
are being pushed back, but this doesn’t mean they have to give up terrain too easily. Wisely
placing units in advance of the invading forces spaced apart in such a manner as to have most
unoccupied hexes covered by a zone of control will force your opponent to expend additional
movement points. This has been referred to as a “checkerboard defense” but in reality is an
economy of force strategy. Since out-right attacking is nearly suicidal in the early months,
look for any openings your opponent may give you to cut supply to the advancing panzer
units. Tanks without fuel don’t go far! While this strategy will be more costly in manpower and
equipment, the advantages will be that the Axis advance can be dramatically slowed, if not
brought to a halt.
Forming In-depth Defenses: Regardless of the overall strategy you choose, the early
formation of multiple defensive lines and the building up of fortification levels are essential
tasks. Use natural barriers such as rivers, swamps and rough terrain to your advantage. This
must be well thought out so as to protect your flanks and key areas.
Maintaining Reserves: Placing units behind the lines in Reserve mode will have a great effect
on blunting attacks. Armour in reserve is well suited for this task as they may be able to react
301
numerous times to enemy attacks. Newly formed armies must be looked at closely as many
of them will be under manned and lacking experience when they arrive. These units should be
held off the front as long as possible to give them a chance to train and gain strength.
Building Units: The plan as to when and how many units are formed must be well thought out.
In 1941 so many new armies arrive as reinforcements that building too many new units can
lead to a shortage of manpower and/or equipment. Typically construction and artillery support
units are a good bet early on followed by sapper, anti-tank, air defense and more artillery. As
the war progresses past 1941, creating larger units will become easier. Spend your admin
points wisely though, there are only so many. In 1942, the Soviets must combine divisions
to form Corps. This will prove to be costly in AP’s, but it is needed. The forming of Tank and
Mechanized Corps should be handled with care as they will lose experience in the process of
being formed and should be held in the rear until they can be trained back up.
Evacuating Factories: Balancing troops moving west and factories moving east is a must.
This operation requires delay tactics and timing as you only have so much rail capacity, but
losing a complete factory can be devastating to future production. It seems like a tricky task,
which it is, but come 1943 the effect of that production building back up will come into play
with a vengeance.
First Winter (1941): Most Axis forces are ill prepared for the harsh blizzard that begins in
December 1941. This is the Soviets chance to hurt the Axis war machine and send it reeling.
Keeping fresh and well trained armies in reserve is the key but requires early planning in order
to execute an effective counter-offensive. Place a few of the better divisions each turn far from
the front so they can train up properly when possible. Assign them to one or more of the new
armies that are led by a quality commander and provide them with plenty of sapper, artillery,
and other essential support units. Use several of these new armies together to push back the
invading forces during blizzard turns where they are the weakest and then follow through with
plenty of cavalry and armour to exploit any breaches in their defenses.
25.1.4. BATTLE TACTICS
The combat mechanics in Gary Grigsby’s War in the East are probably the most complex and
detailed of any computer war game produced to date. Every weapon system is accounted for
and has different effectiveness at different ranges and in different terrain. To this is added
the impact of recon, leadership, morale, fatigue, supply, air support, reserves etc. etc. It is
therefore impossible to provide a specific guide to give guaranteed results in every battle. It
is also impossible to say what is the single most important factor in determining the outcome
of a battle. All a player can do is give his virtual troops the best chance of achieving success
before he presses the attack button, so below are some basic principles that apply to combat
in Gary Grigsby’s War in the East.
Maximize MPs: By following the Command and Control and supply and leader guidelines
above, you will give your forces the best chance to get the MPs they will need to attack,
advance and attack again. This is especially important for infantry - players often focus on
302
the panzer divisions and Tank Armies and forget that the infantry are doing the vast majority
of the fighting.
Recon, Recon, Recon: Make sure the unit you are about to attack has been thoroughly
scouted to obtain a high detection level and ensure that the combat value displayed on the
counter is as accurate as possible.
Pass the Ammo! There is no point in getting the mobility if your troops can only throw rocks at
the enemy. Ammunition levels are often overlooked. Air drop supplies to make up any shortfalls.
Hasty or Deliberate Attacks? Hasty attacks produce the biggest negative variance for a low
MP cost. Deliberate attacks have more positive and less negative variance but carry a high MP
cost, particularly for motorized units. Some players say two hasty attacks are better than one
deliberate attack. Players eventually find the balance of attacks that suits their play style. If you
use hasty attacks all the time, expect to get a bloody nose every now and then.
Use the Right Men for the Job: In the heat of battle it is easy to miss the overall fortification
defense modifier, which includes the sum of the terrain and fortification level of the defending
troops. Tanks do not perform well in anything other than clear and light woods. Having
engineers (Pioneers or sappers) attached to units that have to cross rivers or attack high
fortification levels will often swing the battle in your favour.
The Numbers on the Counters are Only Guidelines! If the defensive Combat Value (CV)
on a counter is “4”; what attacking CV do you need to guarantee a retreat? Because of all
the variables, you cannot use the word “guarantee” in Gary Grigsby’s War in the East. If that
counter with a face value of 4 gets air support or a unit is added to it from reserve, your
attacking combat value is reduced by the air support and the defender’s CV is increased by
the supporting units. So the answer to the question for an Axis player who needs to achieve
net odds of 2:1 after all variables are applied is: an attack CV of 12 allows for some variance,
but you are taking a chance if you don’t get air support, 16 gives a better chance of dealing
with variables and is less reliant on getting air support and 20 might be overkill and might be a
waste of aircraft sorties, but should get the job done. These figures have to be multiplied by 1.5
when attacking across minor rivers and 2.0 when attacking across major rivers. Again, players
will develop a feel for what odds will be needed so they can allow for the enemy’s level of air
support and potential for reserves to arrive and ruin your day.
Reserves can Make You or Break You: On defense, the timely arrival of reserves can swing
the battle in your favour, but for the Soviets, care should be taken when assigning units to
reserve status with a morale lower than 55 as they are more susceptible to routing if the unit
they support retreats. When attacking you need to be sure you can afford the MPs if the unit
set to reserve does join the attack.
303
25.2. DEVELOPER NOTES
By Joel Billings (2by3 Games)
Gary Grigsby’s War in the East (WitE) development began as soon as 2by3 Games was formed
in the fall of 2000, making this the longest development project that any of us have been a
part of. Although Gary and I had previously worked together on several Russian Front games,
War in Russia (1984 and 1993) and Second Front (1991), we wanted to make both a bigger,
and a simpler game. WitE would be bigger by using 10-mile hexes and divisions as the basic
unit of manoeuvre, and simpler by using an IGOUGO system that would provide players with
immediate feedback on their moves and attacks. I wanted to achieve the relative simplicity of
the SPI board game War in the East, and Gary wanted to appeal to the grognards that have
come to love his attention to detail and realistic combat models. This was going to be no easy
task.
The basic map and interface was created by 2001, along with some of the basic supply and
combat algorithms. The air combat model and data was taken from Gary’s earlier “Bombing
the Reich” system and also ultimately modified portions of the “Uncommon Valor” system
(which was being developed in 2000-2002). The combat model started with weapons data
from the “Steel Panthers” series. Unlike Gary’s previous Russian Front games, Gary wanted
to have combat be resolved at the individual tank, gun tube and squad level. Due to other
projects, including “War in the Pacific” and “World at War”, we had to stop WitE development
several times, often for months or years at a time. We knew the allure of doing an east front
game at this level of detail would keep bringing us back until it was done. It was only in the
summer of 2008 when “War Between the States” was completed, that we were able to turn
our full attention to WitE.
While we had been busy working on other games, Jim Wirth had been busy coming up with the
system of unit OBs that became the heart of the game system. Gary had decided early on that
he wanted the computer to handle all of the organization changes that the armies went through
during the war, and the OB [TOE] system was the answer for this. Some other early decisions
were made like not allowing the players to make changes to their production. We also didn’t
want to include other fronts in the game, wanting to focus the player on just the Eastern Front.
Adding the ability to change production and/or deal with the other fronts would have added
additional design difficulties, extended development time, and possibly set up situations where
very unrealistic strategies might be devised that could seriously impact the Eastern Front.
We wanted this to be a grand operational game of the war in Russia, and decided it was not
worth the time needed to add these elements and work on them sufficiently to make sure they
didn’t unbalance the game. Since we saw this as an Eastern Front game first and foremost,
we felt we could do without these extraneous elements. When the issue of the fighting in the
Murmansk area came up, we decided it wasn’t worth adding the large number of additional
hex rows to the map to cover the operations in the far north. Although many German players
304
have dreamed of severing the Murmansk connection, in our opinion since historically it was a
stalemated front, it would have added much time and overhead for little gain.
We had a functioning game working by the late summer of 2008. We thought things were
looking good then. Little did we know just how much further we had to go. Jon Pyle started
testing the game in the late summer of 2008, but it was hardly the game you see today. In
late 2008 we were very lucky to have Pavel Zagzin join as an early alpha tester. Pavel turned
out to be an amazing resource, with endless energy, command of English and Russian, able
to find incredible information on the Internet, and also the ability to read and modify Gary’s
code. I don’t like to think about what the game would have looked like without Pavel’s efforts.
He first turned his attention to our map. He struggled to get the most realistic map possible
given that some basic items were already too far along to be changed. This alone was a 3-5
month process, and aside from the curvature of the map issues that one always faces, he did
an excellent job. If you compare this map to any of our earlier efforts you’d think you were
looking at a different country. Once the map data was set, it was time for Jason Barish, under
the direction of Marc von Martial, (have you ever seen a better wargamer name that that?) to
provide us with a beautiful map, and did they ever.
Once the map was set, some attention went into adding functionality to the editor, which had
first been set up by Gary, but has since been greatly enhanced by Pavel. Our goal all along had
been to provide an editor that would allow both modifying the campaigns and creating smaller
scenarios. We felt that if we had done our job right with the basic game system, then smaller
scenarios would be perfect for those not having the time to play out the full map campaigns.
Once the editor was ready, there came many reviews of the scenarios and data. Somewhere
along the way Trey Marshall joined as a tester and was conscripted into spending endless
hours on the data. Working with Pavel and with the assistance of several of our testers, the
accuracy of our campaign data files was continually improved. These became the basis of the
smaller scenarios. Walt Kunz volunteered to work on a batch of smaller scenarios that allowed
us to make sure the game functioned properly in limited map settings. This scenario and data
work continued right up to release, and we hope that the user community will be able to use
the editor to continue creating additional scenarios.
A mention of the Admin point system is in order as in many ways it is the way Gary solved
the issue of simplicity versus detail. Providing players with an endless number of items they
could micromanage was easy, but trying to keep the more casual player from feeling he had
to micromanage in order to be successful was more difficult. As testing continued it became
clear that limits needed to be put on just what the player could do. Gary had always envisioned
that the admin point system would be the limiting factor. Through development more items
were tied to the admin system such as forming Soviet corps sized combat units and manually
upgrading aircraft in air group units. By tying these to the admin system, players can decide
how best to spend their limited command focus. For those players that wish to play with more
micromanagement, we encourage them to increase the Admin Level Game Option. It’s simple
to do and if you and your opponent want the additional control, it’s there for you.
305
In mid to late 2009 the game was in decent shape and there were many testers testing away. It
was time for me to get some help managing the testers. One of the testers, Andy Johnson, had
shown an excellent grasp of the strategy and tactics of the game system and was continually
beating the AI to a pulp. Andy devised the checkerboard tactic for the Soviet 41 defense. Much
to my relief he agreed to be the project’s Test Coordinator, and became invaluable during
the last year of development. A brain trust formed with Pavel, Trey, Andy and Jim. As with all
successful projects it was the interaction of these people, and the constant discussion of game
data and ideas from these people and the testers, that led to many of the rules in the game,
and many of the modifications that have made it a more accurate simulation of the war. It’s
still Gary’s game and basic design, and he always had the last word (although soft-spoken
as always he rarely used it), but WitE truly was a team effort. I’ve mentioned only a few of
the scores of individuals who have contributed to this project, and we wish to thank them all
(especially Allan Berke for his efforts documenting this beast). All of us hope you enjoy playing
Gary’s Grigsby’s War in the East, and we hope that a user community will develop that will help
keep the game alive for many years to come.
26. APPENDICES
26.1. APPENDIX A: UNIT DESIGNATIONS AND COMBAT VALUE
Below are listed the size, type and associated unit counter symbols, national and elite unit
colors, and ground element type and combat values that can be found in the game.
26.1.1. UNIT SIZES
II = Battalion
III = Regiment
X = Brigade
XX = Division
XXX = Corps
XXXX = Army
XXXXX = Army Group, Front, Military District, Moscow Defense Zone, High Command
306
26.1.2. UNIT TYPES AND SYMBOLS
Symbol
Unit Type
Symbol
Unit Type
Armour
Infantry
Mechanized
Mountain
Infantry
Motorized Infantry
Parachute
(Airborne)
Self-Propelled
Artillery
Air Landing
Artillery, Mortar,
Rocket
Cavalry
Anti-Aircraft
Security
Anti-Tank
Engineer
Headquarters
Fortified Zone/
Region
Aviation (Air
Base Unit)
Machinegun
Partisan Cadre
Partisan
26.1.3. UNIT COLORS
Brown = Soviet Regular Unit
Red = Soviet Guards Unit
Grey = German Army Unit
307
Light Blue/Grey = German Air Force Unit
Black = Elite German SS Unit
Black/Grey = Non-Elite German SS Unit
Dark Blue = Finnish Unit
Dark Yellow = Italian Unit
Green = Hungarian Unit
Pale Blue = Rumanian Unit
Tan = Slovakian Unit
308
GROUND ELEMENT TYPE AND COMBAT VALUES
Individual ground element Combat Value weighting factors:
Ground Element Type
CV Weight Factor
AFV Type
Self Propelled Artillery
3
Yes
Self-Propelled Infantry Gun
5
Yes
Half Track Close Support Howitzer
5
Yes
Light Tank Destroyer
5
Yes
Tank Destroyer
5
Yes
Heavy Tank Destroyer
5
Yes
Assault Gun
5
Yes
Heavy Assault Gun
6
Yes
Light Tank
7
Yes
Medium Tank
9
Yes
Heavy Tank
9
Yes
Close Support Tank
9
Yes
Flame Tank
9
Yes
Cavalry Tank
9
Yes
Heavy Cavalry Tank
9
Yes
Infantry Tank
9
Yes
Duplex Drive (DD) Tank
9
Yes
MSW Tank
9
Yes
Engineering Tank
9
Yes
Armoured Personnel Carrier
2
No
Self Propelled Flak
3
No
Self-Propelled AAMG
3
No
Half Track AT Gun
3
No
Half Track MG/Mortar
3
No
Armoured Car
4
No
309
Ground Element Type
CV Weight Factor
AFV Type
Support Squad
1
No
Labor Squad
1
No
Machine Gun
1
No
Security Squad
2
No
Rifle Squad
3
No
SMG Squad
3
No
Ski Squad
3
No
Naval Squad
3
No
Cavalry Squad
3
No
Motorcycle Squad
3
No
Motorized Infantry Squad
3
No
Airborne Squad
3
No
Engineer Squad
3
No
Mechanized Engineering Squad
4
No
Mechanized Infantry Squad
4
No
Infantry-AT
0
No
Mortar
0
No
Light AT Gun
0
No
AT Gun
0
No
AA Machine Gun
0
No
Light Flak
0
No
Medium Flak
0
No
Heavy Flak
0
No
Artillery
0
No
Heavy Artillery
0
No
Naval Gun
0
No
Rocket
0
No
310
Ground Element Type
CV Weight Factor
AFV Type
Infantry Gun
0
No
Heavy Infantry Gun
0
No
26.2. APPENDIX B: LIST OF CREATABLE SOVIET UNITS
Here are all the Soviet units that can be built during the game (18.1.2), listed by type of TOE.
Note that many units are not available until a certain date.
41 Fortified Region
42 Fortified Region
43 Fortified Region
41 AT Artillery Brigade
42 TD AT Artillery Brigade
43 AT Artillery Brigade
44a AT Artillery Brigade
44b AT Artillery Brigade
41 PVO AA Brigade
42 Light Gun Brigade
42 Light Howitzer Brigade
42 Gun Brigade
43 Heavy Howitzer Brigade
43a Mortar Brigade
43b Mortar Brigade
44 Heavy Mortar Brigade
42 Heavy Rocket Brigade
44 Heavy Rocket Brigade
42 Rocket Launcher Division
43 Rocket Launcher Division
44 Rocket Launcher Division
44 Army Gun Artillery Brigade
311
42 Artillery Division
43 Breakthrough Artillery Division
43 Heavy Gun Artillery Division
43 Gun Artillery Division
44 Breakthrough Artillery Division
41 Rifle Brigade
42a Rifle Brigade
42b Rifle Brigade
42 Ski Brigade
45 Mountain Brigade
42 Motorized Brigade
41a Tank Brigade
41b Tank Brigade
42a Tank Brigade
42b Tank Brigade
43a Tank Brigade
43b Tank Brigade
45 Heavy Tank Brigade
42 Mechanized Brigade
43 Mechanized Brigade
44 Light SU Brigade
45 Medium SU Brigade
45 Heavy SU Brigade
41a Cavalry Division
41b Cavalry Division
42 Cavalry Division
43 Cavalry Division
41a Rifle Division
41b Rifle Division
312
41c Rifle Division
42a Rifle Division
42b Rifle Division
42c Rifle Division
44 Rifle Division
45 Rifle Division
43 Assault Engineer-Sapper Brigade
HQ Combined Arms Army
HQ Tank Army
26.3. APPENDIX C: COMMANDER’S REPORT (CR)
The commander’s report can be accessed from the info screens menu tab toolbar (5.1.2.2)
or hotkey ‘c’ and is a multi-tabbed list of information on units, headquarters units, air group
units, leaders, battles, equipment and battles that can be sorted and filtered in numerous
ways. Various screens and windows have links to or are linked from the commander’s report.
In addition, some unit settings can be changed for both individual units and groups of units
using this screen.
26.3.1. GENERAL CR INTERFACE MECHANICS
When initially selected (5.1.2.1), the Commander’s Report (CR) default view will be the unit tab
main view. Subsequent selection of the CR will bring up the screen with the last view selected
by the player (i.e. the player won’t have to start over every time they bring up the CR). The
currently selected tab will be in white text. Currently selected items within the tab will be in red
text, to include an active sorted column. Selectable items will be in blue text, with the exception
of unit names in the units tab, which are color coded by type of unit, but are all selectable. Each
column header has a pop-up text box with more detail on the purpose of the column. Selecting
a column header will sort the column. When sorting by column headers, selecting the first
time will sort in ascending order, selecting the second time will sort in descending order and
selecting the third time will deselect the sort. For tabs with multiple views, a view annotated
with an asterisk indicates an active sort. In some cases, selecting an item within a column will
bring up a filtered list of just those types of units in red text. Selecting a red text item within the
filtered column will clear the filter. Selecting <Clear All Filters> in the display filters section will
not only clear any selected filters, but also any active sorting.
Some tabs have functions that allow the player to change unit modes or settings by bringing up
a dialog box. Note that leaving the dialog box blank selecting the check box or using the ‘Enter’
key will result in a setting of zero. Changes can be made for individual units by selecting the
current setting for that unit under the appropriate column header. In addition, by selecting the
313
applicable item in the ‘Functions’ section, all currently listed units can be changed at one time.
For example, a player could use the display filter to list all units that are in a depleted state and
then place them all in refit mode.
There will be some differences between the Soviet and the Axis Commander’s Report, mostly
in the display filters and column headers. For example, the Soviet display filters will not have a
Nation or a Withdraw filter option, since these are not applicable to the Soviet Union.
26.3.2. UNITS TAB
This is the busiest tab, capable of displaying all of the phasing player’s ground units
(headquarters, combat, and support) and consisting of four views (main and three supply detail
views) as well as three functions and a large display filter section. Selecting a number in the
‘units’ column of the ground element section of the production screen (5.4.3) will bring up the
units tab filtered to list just those units that have that particular ground element. Selecting the
show subordinates link in the HQ unit detail window (5.4.16) will bring up the units tab filtered
to list just those units attached to that HQ unit with red text just below the number of units
selected stating “Units Subordinated to [HQ Unit]”. Selecting this text will clear the subordinate
list and bring the player back to the default unit tab view of all ground units.
26.3.2.1. UNITS TAB MAIN VIEW
Directly underneath the Units tab will list the number of units currently selected and then
number of men, guns, AFV and aircraft assigned to the selected units. These numbers will
314
change as units are filtered or sorted out of the view. The following information is provided by
column headers, all of which can be selected to sort their columns:
Unit Name: Units names are color coded, with ground Headquarters units purple, combat units
light blue, support units green, and air headquarters units, to include air base units, turquoise.
Selecting the name brings up a dialog box with three selections. Supply Details brings up that
unit’s supply detail window (5.4.26). Set OB Filter selects and lists just the units with that unit’s
current Table of Equipment (TOE(OB) and lists the number of the OB from the Game Editor
(7.2.2). Selecting Exit will close the dialog box.
Nat (Nationality): Lists the nationality of the unit.
Loc (Location): Lists the current hex location of the unit in X, Y coordinates. Support unit
locations will be the same as the HQ or combat unit to which they are attached. Selecting the
location will select the hex the unit is in and bring up the applicable unit detail window. For
support units, closing their detail window will bring up the detail window of the unit to which
they are attached.
Type: Unit type, which corresponds directly with the unit formation type unit display filters
(26.3.2.4). HQ units are listed by specific type (i.e. Corps, Army, Army Group, Front, High
Command, etc.).
HHQ (Higher Headquarters Unit): Name of HQ unit to which the unit is directly attached. For
Anti-aircraft support units attached to a town, city or urban hex, the naming convention is
‘C:Name’. Selecting the name of the HQ unit or town, city or urban hex selects and lists just
the units that are attached.
DtHQ (Distance to HQ in Hexes): Distance to HQ is the difference between the command
range of the HQ unit to which the unit is attached and the distance in hexes from the HQ unit to
the attached unit. For example, if a unit is attached to an Army HQ unit with a command range
of 15 and is 11 hexes distance, DtHQ will be 4. A negative number indicates that the unit is
beyond the command range of the HQ to which it is attached and thus not eligible for support
squad ground element support (7.6.4).
Men, Guns, AFV in Unit: These 3 columns display the number of each item internal to that unit
(attached units not counted).
AC (Aircraft in Airbases): The number of aircraft in air group units attached to the air base
unit.
Mrl (Morale): The current morale of the unit.
Average Experience (Exp) and Fatigue (Fat): These 2 columns provide a calculation of the
average of these factors for the unit. Note that this average is for the player’s information only,
as the game system only uses experience and fatigue by type of ground element.
CV (Combat Value): The current combat value of the unit as displayed on the unit counter.
315
TOE% (Unit Table of Equipment (TOE) Percentage): The percentage of the unit’s TOE
currently in the unit.
TOEM% (Maximum TOE Percentage Setting): The maximum percentage of a unit’s TOE to
which it can take replacements (18.2.2). Selecting the current percentage will bring up a dialog
box allowing the player to set the TOEM% for that unit.
MP (Movement Points): Current MP allowance remaining for that unit.
TtOB (Number of Turns until next TOE(OB) Upgrade): The number will be 0 if the upgrade is
commencing that turn. Selecting the number will bring up the TOE Upgrade window (5.4.24)
for that unit.
Rf/Rs (Unit Mode/Status): Lists the current status of the unit, to include Ready, Reserve, Refit,
Unready and Static. Selecting the current status allows units to toggle between ready, reserve
and refit. Unready units can only toggle to refit. Static units cannot change status.
SupL (Support Level (HQ only)): Lists the current support unit level for HQ units (7.6.3.2).
Selecting the current number or Lck (Locked) brings up a dialog box that allows the player
to reset the support level for that HQ unit between -1 and 9, with -1 changing the setting to
Locked.
E/G (Elite/Guard Status): Lists Axis elite, Soviet guard, and other special types of Axis units
using the following abbreviations: G= Guard, E=Axis Elite, SSE=SS Elite, SS=Non-elite SS,
LW=Luftwaffe units. Selecting one of the abbreviations will select and list just those units with
that particular status.
Won and Lost: These columns list the number of wins and losses that the unit, or its attached
units if a HQ unit, has accrued. For Axis combat and support units, this is for information only,
since they cannot gain elite status as Soviet units can gain Guard status (9.2).
26.3.2.2. UNIT TAB SUPPLY VIEWS
There are three supply views that provide essentially the same information found in the unit
supply detail window (5.4.26). Each view has the unit name, nationality, location, and HHQ
columns found in the main view (23.3.2.1). The Current Status view has a toggle labelled
‘abs’ that allows the player to show the supply information either in absolute (number of tons)
or relative (percentage of requirement). The Phase 1 and Phase 2 views correspond to the
316
separate columns in the unit supply detail window corresponding to the 1st and 2nd supply
delivery sub-segments (20.4.2). Note that negative numbers indicate supply or vehicles being
returned from the unit.
26.3.2.3. UNITS TAB FUNCTIONS
The main view of the units tab has a functions section with three selectable functions that
allows the player to change the status of all eligible units that are currently listed as follows:
Refit/Reserve: Selecting brings up a dialog box that allows the player to change the status of
combat units to Refit or Reserve (if eligible) status. Selecting ‘0’ will return the units to Ready
or Unready status. The status of Static units cannot be changed.
Max TOE%: Selecting brings up a dialog box that allows the player to change the maximum
TOE percentage setting (18.2.2) of all listed units in the range of 50-100%. Entering a number
below 50 or above 100 will revert to 50 or 100.
Support Level: Selecting brings up a dialog box that allows the player to change the support
level of all listed HQ units to a setting from -1 to 9, with -1 resulting in a Locked setting
(7.6.3.2).
26.3.2.4. UNITS TAB DISPLAY FILTERS
The unit tab has two distinct types of unit display filters. The Unit Formation Type filters are on/
off toggles that allow the player to determine the type of units to be listed. They can be toggled
individually or globally using the ‘ALL’ or ‘None’ filters. The other display filters will not affect
317
the unit formation type filters and most of them show a particular status, with a toggle between
all units, units with that status and units without that status (non). For example, the default for
the Isolated filter is all units and it can be further toggled between all isolated units and all nonisolated units. There are several exceptions. For example the size filter toggles between Army
Group/Front size HQ units down to Company size support units and the Axis unit tab Nation
filter toggles between all the different Axis countries. As mentioned above, selecting ‘Clear All
Filters’ will clear any filters as well as any active column header sorting.
26.3.3. HQS (HEADQUARTERS UNITS) TAB
This tab lists all the phasing player’s headquarters units, to include type 6 rail repair units,
but not type 5 air base units (7.6.1). It consists of only one view, but it does have a functions
section.
26.3.3.1. HQS TAB VIEW
Directly underneath the HQs tab will show the total number of HQ units currently selected
and then a break down by type of HQ unit, with the type corresponding to the designations in
the ‘Type’ column and the HQ display filters, which will differ between the Soviet and the Axis
views. These numbers will change as units are filtered or sorted out of the view. The following
information is provided by column headers, all of which can be selected to sort their columns:
318
Unit Name: Selecting the HQ unit name brings up the units tab (26.3.2) listing that HQ unit
and all attached units.
Nat (Nationality): Lists the nationality of the unit.
Loc (Location): Lists the current hex location of the unit in X, Y coordinates. Selecting the
location will select the hex the unit is in and bring up the applicable unit detail window.
Type: Unit type, which corresponds directly with the unit formation type unit display filters
(26.3.3.3).
HHQ (Higher Headquarters Unit): Name of HQ unit to which the HQ unit is directly attached.
Selecting the name of the HQ unit selects and lists just the HQ units that are attached.
Men, Guns, AFV, Aircraft in Unit: These four columns list the total number of each item in
the HQ unit and all of its attached units. Selecting one of the numbers brings up the applicable
Formation Inventory Window, which breaks down each item by number and type of ground
element or aircraft (26.3.3.2).
Leader: Lists the leader in command of the HQ unit. Selecting the leader’s name brings up
the Leader Detail Window (5.4.21). Closing the detail window selects the HQ unit location and
brings up the HQ unit detail window.
SupL (Support Level): Lists the current support unit level for that HQ unit (7.6.3.2). Selecting
the current number or Lck (Locked) brings up a dialog box that allows the player to reset the
support level for that HQ unit between -1 and 9, with -1 changing the setting to Locked.
CU (Combat Units) and SU (Support Units): These two columns display the number of each
type of unit attached to the HQ unit. Note that Support Unit numbers do not include construction
type units.
CP (Command Points): This number is the difference between the number of command points
of combat units attached to the HQ unit and the HQ unit’s Command Capacity (CC) (7.6.2). A
negative number indicates that the number of command points of the units attached exceeds
the HQ units CC.
BldUp (Supply Buildup): Displays ‘Yes’ if an HQ unit has used supply buildup (20.7), otherwise
displays ‘No.’
Frzn (Frozen): A non-zero number indicates that the HQ unit is frozen for that number of turns
(10.0).
319
26.3.3.2. FORMATION INVENTORY WINDOW
These windows can be accessed by selecting
the number of men, guns, AFV or aircraft in
the applicable column of the HQs tab. Each
formation inventory window provides the
following information:
Name: Displays the name of the headquarters
unit that has command and control of the
listed forces.
Men, Guns, AFV, Aircraft: Displays an icon
followed by the number for each of the four
categories. The selected category (i.e. AFV) is
in red text; the other three categories are in
blue text and can be selected to change the
formation inventory to that category.
Type of Ground Element/Aircraft: This
column lists either the ground element (men,
guns, AFV) type or aircraft type with expand
and collapse ([+]/[-]) capability by each type
or for all at once. Expanding a type (e.g. medium tank or fighter) will display a list of the specific
ground element (Panzer IVf2) or aircraft model (MC.202 Folgore) along with the applicable
silhouette. Selecting a specific ground element will take the player back to the main units tab
filtered to display just the units that are subordinated to the HQ unit that contain that ground
element (28.3.2). Selecting a specific aircraft model will take the player to the Air Groups tab
filtered to display just the air group units that that contain that aircraft model. Expanding or
collapsing the display will change the presentation in the other three columns.
NAT (Nationality): This column is blank until a ground element or aircraft type is expanded.
Then for each specific ground element or aircraft model, their applicable nationality will be
displayed.
READY: This column displays the total number of ready ground elements or ready and reserve
aircraft of each type. If a type is expanded, a sub-total for each specific ground element or
aircraft model will also be displayed.
DAMAGED: This column displays the total number of damaged ground elements or aircraft of
each type. If a type is expanded, a sub-total for each specific ground element or aircraft model
will also be displayed.
TOTAL: At the bottom of the window the total overall number, as well as the total number of
ready (ready/reserve for aircraft) and the total number of damaged ground elements or aircraft
will be displayed.
320
26.3.3.3. FUNCTIONS
The main view of the HQs tab has a functions section with one selectable function that allows
the player to change the status of all eligible units that are currently listed as follows:
Support Level: Selecting brings up a dialog box that allows the player to change the support
level of all listed HQ units to a setting from -1 to 9, with -1 resulting in a Locked setting
(7.6.3.2).
26.3.3.4. HQ DISPLAY FILTERS
Most of the HQ display filters are type filters, with on/off toggles that allow the player to
determine the type of HQ units to be listed. They can be toggled individually or globally using
the ‘All’ or ‘None’ filters. All air headquarter units, regardless of actual type (e.g. Fliegerkorps
or Luftlotte), are filtered under ‘AirCom.’ The Axis HQs tab display filter also has a ‘Nation’ filter
that toggles between all the different Axis countries. Selecting ‘Clear all Filters’ will not only
clear all current filters, but also any active column header sorting.
26.3.4. AIR GROUPS (AIR GROUP UNITS) TAB
This tab lists all the phasing players’ air group units. It consists of only one view, but it does
have a functions section. Selecting a number in the units column of the air group unit section
of the production screen (5.4.3) will bring up the air group units tab filtered to list just those air
group units that have that particular aircraft model.
321
26.3.4.1. AIR GROUPS TAB VIEW
Directly underneath the Air Groups tab will show the total number of aircraft in air group units
currently selected and then a break down by the number of ready, reserve, and damaged
aircraft. Also listed will be aircraft kills, which is the number of enemy aircraft destroyed in
air to air combat. These numbers will change as units are filtered or sorted out of the view.
The following information is provided by column headers, all of which can be selected to sort
their columns:
Name: Air group unit name (8.1.4). Selecting the name will bring up that air group unit’s detail
window (5.4.18).
Nat (Nationality): Air group unit nationality.
Size: The air group unit group type (e.g. Rgmt for Air Regiment), which prescribes its maximum
size (8.1.2). Selecting a particular group type within this column will bring up a filtered list of
just the air group units of that group type.
Aircraft: Specific model of aircraft assigned to that air group unit (e.g. FW-190F). Selecting a
particular aircraft model within this column will bring up a filtered list of just the air group units
with that aircraft model.
Loc (Location): Lists the current hex location of the air base unit that the air group unit is
attached in X, Y coordinates, with the exception of units attached to the national reserve (8.4),
322
which will have their location annotated as ‘reserve’. With the exception of units in the national
reserve (no link), selecting the location will select the hex the air base unit is in and bring up
its air base unit detail window (5.4.17).
Air Base: Lists the air base unit to which the air group unit is attached. Selecting a particular
air base unit within this column will bring up a filtered list of just the air group units attached
to that air base unit. This column will be annotated with ‘-‘ for units in the national reserve.
Air Command: Lists the headquarters unit to which the air group unit’s air base unit is
attached, with units attached to the off-map national reserve annotated as such. Selecting a
particular headquarters unit within this column will bring up a filtered list of just the air group
units attached to air base unit that are attached to that HQ unit.
NM (Night Missions): Displays whether the air group unit has night missions (Y) or day
missions (N) enabled (16.1.6). Selecting the current setting within the column will toggle it to
the other setting.
Upg (Swap): Displays whether the air group unit has automatic (A) or manual (M) aircraft
change out (swap) enabled (8.1.5). Selecting the current setting within the column will toggle
it to the other setting.
Rpl (Replacements): Displays whether the air group unit will be allowed (A) or not allowed
(NA) to receive replacement aircraft during the logistics phase (18.2.4). Selecting the current
setting within the column will toggle it to the other setting.
Exp, Mrl, Fat: These three columns list the current experience, morale or fatigue for that air
group unit.
Max (Maximum): Lists the maximum number of ready and damaged aircraft prescribed for
that air group unit, which is based on group type (size). Reserve aircraft are not counted against
the maximum number of aircraft in the unit (8.1.1).
Tot (Total): List the total number of aircraft, to include ready, damaged, and reserve, assigned
to the air group unit.
Rdy, Res, Dmg: These three columns list the current number of ready, reserve or damaged
aircraft assigned to the air group unit. The totals of the three columns will equal the number
in the ‘Tot’ column.
Kill: Displays the number of enemy aircraft destroyed in air to air combat by that air group unit.
Trvl (Travel): Displays the percentage of that air group unit’s “miles flown” allowance that has
been expended (16.1.1).
323
26.3.4.2. FUNCTIONS
The main view of the Air Groups tab has a functions section with four selectable functions that
allows the player to change the status of all eligible units that are currently listed as follows:
Night Missions: Selecting brings up a dialog box that allows the player to change whether
night missions are enabled (16.1.6). Entering a ‘1’ will enable night missions, while entering
‘0’ will enable daylight missions.
AC Change Mode: Selecting brings up a dialog box that allows the player to change whether
the selected air group units will change out (swap) aircraft manually (0) or automatically (1)
(8.1.5).
Replacements: Selecting brings up a dialog box that allows the player to change whether the
selected air group units are allowed (0) or not allowed (1) to receive replacement aircraft during
the replacement segment (18.2.4).
Reserve: Selecting brings up a confirmation box that allows the player to send the selected
air group units to their nation’s national reserve if they are eligible (8.4.1). Note that, since air
group units transferred to the national reserve will not appear there until the following turn,
eligible air group units transferred using this function will effectively disappear from the air
group unit tab and the air base unit detail window. There will be no text message regarding
non-eligible air group units; they will simply remain on the screen if the player attempts to
transfer them to the national reserve.
26.3.4.3. AIR GROUP DISPLAY FILTERS
The Air Groups tab has multiple types of unit display filters. The Aircraft Type filters are on/off
toggles that allow the player to determine the functional type (8.1.3) of air group units to be
324
listed. They can be toggled individually or globally using the ‘ALL’ or ‘None’ filters. There are
five other display filters that will not affect the air group functional type filters. The Axis only
‘Nation’ filter toggles between all the different Axis countries. The Soviet only ‘Guards’ filter
toggles between all air group units, only guards units and only non-guards units. The ‘Base
Frozen Filter’ toggles between Frozen, Non-Frozen, and All. There are two ‘Percent’ filters that
allow the player to set a percentage range between 0 and 100+. The default setting for these
filters is ‘All.’ Selecting one of these filters will bring up a ‘from’ dialog box to set the beginning
boundary percentage. Selecting the check box will then bring up a ‘to’ dialog box to set the
ending boundary percentage. The current range selected will then be displayed under that
filter. To return just that filter to the default, select the range and then enter ‘-1’ into the ‘from’
dialog box. The two ‘Percent’ filters are the ‘Percent Ready Filter,’ which displays the percent
of ready aircraft compared to the prescribed maximum number of aircraft in the air group unit
and the ‘Percent Total Filter,’ which displays the percent of total aircraft (ready, damaged and
reserve) compared to the prescribed maximum number of aircraft allowed in the air group unit.
Only one of these filters can be active at a time; setting one will automatically disable the other.
Selecting ‘Clear All Filters’ will clear any filters as well as any active column header sorting.
325
26.3.5. LEADERS TAB
This tab lists all the phasing player’s leaders that can be assigned (command) headquarters
units (11.0). It consists of only one view, with no functions section.
26.3.5.1. LEADERS TAB MAIN VIEW
Underneath the Leaders tab will display the total number of leaders currently selected. This
number will change as leaders are filtered or sorted out of the view. The following information
is provided by column headers, all of which can be selected to sort their columns:
Name: Leader’s name in last name, first name format. Selecting a leader’s name will bring up
the Leader Detail window (5.4.21).
Nat (Nationality): Leader’s nation, with all Soviet leaders being designated as ‘SU.’
Rank: The leader’s current rank (11.1). Selecting a leader’s rank will bring up a filtered list of
just those leaders with that rank.
Unit: If the leader is currently in command of a headquarters unit, the HQ unit’s name will be
listed. Otherwise this column will have a hyphen (-).
326
Leader Ratings: These eight columns display the current leader ratings (11.2) in the order of
Political (Pol), Morale (Mrl), Initiative (Ini), Administration (Admin), Mechanized (Mech), Infantry
(Inf), Air, and Naval (Nav).
Restr (Restrictions): Displays any restrictions regarding the type of headquarters units that
the leader can be assigned. Restrictions are Ground Only (GO), Air Only (AO), Ground and Air
(None) and SS Only (SS).
MaxC (Maximum Command Level): Displays the maximum level of headquarters unit a
leader can command. Maximum Command levels are Corps/Army (C/A), Army Group/Front
(AG/FR), and High Command (HC).
DC (Dismissal Cost): Displays the cost in administrative points to dismiss the leader.
Vic (Victories): Displays the current number of victories (wins) that the leader has earned.
Def (Defeats): Displays the current number of defeats (losses) that the leader has earned.
Fate: Displays whether a leader is active (alive) or dead. Active leaders are marked with a
hyphen (-). Dead leaders are marked as either killed in action (KIA) or executed (EXC) upon
dismissal.
26.3.5.2. LEADERS TAB DISPLAY FILTERS
The Leaders tab has multiple types of unit display filters. The Leader HQ Type filters are on/
off toggles that allow the player to determine the type of headquarters units to be listed.
They can be toggled individually or globally using the ‘ALL’ or ‘None’ filters. In addition, there
are separate filters for the different categories of command restrictions and the maximum
command level. There is also a ‘Fate’ filter that toggles between all leaders, active leaders, and
dead leaders (KIA/EXC). The Axis Leaders tab also has a filter that toggles between each Axis
country, which is defaulted to all countries. Selecting ‘Clear All Filters’ will clear any filters as
well as any active column header sorting.
327
26.3.6. BATTLES TAB
This tab lists all ground battles and air missions that have taken place during both the phasing
player’s current turn and the proceeding non-phasing player’s turn. The default listing is in
the exact order they were conducted. There is a Ground view and an Air view, the difference
being in the type of losses displayed. Underneath the Battles tab will display the total number
of battles currently selected. This number will change as battles are filtered or sorted out of
the view. This tab does not have a functions section and there are no specific display filters,
only the ‘Clear All Filters’ link, which will clear any active column header sorting. The following
information is provided by column headers, all of which can be selected to sort their columns:
Near: Displays the name of the closest town, city or urban hex to the battle.
Loc (Location): Lists the hex location where the battle took place in X, Y coordinates. Selecting
the location will bring up the map area in Battle Locater mode (5.4.11), with the battle hex
selected and the combat resolution report for that battle displayed.
Attk (Attacker): Displays the side, Axis (Ax) or Soviet (Sov) that initiated the attack or air
mission. If a hyphen (-) is displayed, this indicates an isolated unit that surrendered during the
previous logistics phase.
Result: Displays the result of the attack or air mission. Partisan attacks are all listed as
‘partisan.’
Type: Displays whether ground attacks were deliberate or hasty (15.2). Partisan attacks and
air missions will be marked with a hyphen (-).
Attacker and Defender: These two headers each have three column headers underneath
them that display the composition of the forces involved on each side. The three columns in
the ground view list the number of men, guns, and armoured fighting vehicles (AFV), while the
328
three columns in the air view list the number of fighter aircraft (Ftr), bomber aircraft (Bmr) and
utility aircraft (Utl) involved in the battle or air mission.
Attacker and Defender Losses: These two headers each have three column headers
underneath them that display the losses for each side. The three columns in the ground view
list the number of men, guns, and armoured fighting vehicles (AFV) lost, while the three
columns in the air view list the number of fighter aircraft (Ftr), bomber aircraft (Bmr) and utility
aircraft (Utl) lost in the battle or air mission.
Defender Escaped: This header is only displayed in the ground view and has three column
headers underneath them that display the number of the defenders men, guns, and armoured
fighting vehicles (AFV) that were not destroyed or captured as a result of a unit shattering or
surrendering and will thus be returned to the applicable production pools (15.9).
26.3.7. LOCATIONS TAB
This tab lists all of the town, city and urban hexes controlled by the phasing player, both on
and off map. Underneath the Locations tab will display the total number of locations currently
selected. This number will change as locations are filtered or sorted out of the views. There are
two views available in the Locations tab. The Storage view (default) displays supply, resources
and oil stored at the location compared to the requirement for those items as well as the
number of anti-aircraft support units, while the Industry view displays the number of factory
points of each general type of factory and any damage to those factories. This tab does not
have a functions section.
Both views have the following column headers:
Name: Town, city or urban hex name.
329
Nat (Nationality): Nationality of the town, city or urban hex. Control of a hex by the opposing
side does not change nationality. Selecting a particular nationality within this column will bring
up a filtered list of just the town, city or urban hexes of that nation.
Loc (Location): Lists the current hex location of the town, city or urban hex in X, Y coordinates.
Off-map locations are marked with an asterick (*). Selecting a location will bring up the
applicable city detail window (5.4.27) and for on-map locations will select the hex. For off-map
locations, the previously selected on-map hex will remain selected.
Pop (Population): Displays the permanent population of the town, city or urban hex (6.1, 6.2).
26.3.7.1. LOCATION TAB STORAGE VIEW
The storage view consists of the following additional column headers:
AA: Number of anti-aircraft (AA) support units attached to the town, city or urban hex (7.4.1).
Current Storage and Storage Requirements: These eight columns display the amount of
supplies (Sup), fuel (Fuel), resources (Res), and oil (Oil) currently stored in the hex as well as the
required amount of supplies (SupR), fuel (FuelR), resources (ResR), and oil (OilR) needed by the
town, city or urban hexes, which is based on the number and type of factories located there.
330
26.3.7.2. LOCATION TAB INDUSTRY VIEW
The industry view consists of twelve additional column headers that display the number
of factory points for the following types of factories: Manpower (Man), Heavy Industry (HI),
Synthetic Fuel (SFuel), Resources (Res), Fuel (Fuel), Oil (Oil), Generic Vehicles (Veh), Armament
(Arm), Armoured Fighting Vehicles/Combat vehicles (Afv), Aircraft (Air), Railyard (Rail), and
Ports (Port). For aircraft and AFV/Combat vehicle factories, the number of factory points is the
sum of all those types of factories. For example, Hannover has seven different AFV/Combat
vehicle factories, for the total of 18 factory points listed in the industry view. If a factory type
has suffered damage, the percentage will be displayed in parentheses next to the number of
factory points of that type of factory.
26.3.7.3. LOCATION TAB DISPLAY FILTERS
The Location tab has three different filters (Captured, OnMap, and Damaged Factories) that
show a particular status, with a toggle between all locations, locations with that status and
locations without that status (non). Selecting ‘Clear All Filters’ will clear any filters as well as
any active column header sorting.
26.3.8. EQUIPMENT TAB
This tab is a reference database that provides information on all equipment and devices
included in the game for both sides. There are three views; ground elements (default), aircraft,
331
and weapons (devices). Depending on the view selected, underneath the Equipment tab will
display the total number of ground elements, aircraft, or weapons (devices) currently selected.
This number will change as equipment is filtered or sorted out of the views. For the ground
element and aircraft views, the player can compare two different ground elements or aircraft
by using the ground element or aircraft ‘Compare’ windows (26.3.8.5).
26.3.8.1. EQUIPMENT TAB GROUND ELEMENTS VIEW
This view has the following column headers:
Name: Lists the name of each ground element, which is segregated under a class header (e.g.
Infantry, AFV, Armoured cars, etc.). Selecting a ground element will bring up the ground element
compare selection window.
Nat (Nationality): Lists the nationality of each ground element.
Type: Lists the specific type (26.1.4) for the ground element.
SDate (Start Date): Lists the month and year that the ground element equipment went or will
go into production.
EDate (End Date): Lists the month and year that the ground element equipment stopped or
will stop production.
332
Upg (Upgrade): Displays whether the ground element will be upgraded by listing the
identification number (ID) of the upgrade ground element from the game editor ground element
editor section (game editor .pdf). If a ground element does not have an upgrade, this column
will be marked by a hyphen (-). Selecting the upgrade ID number will bring up the ground
element compare window with the ground element compared to the upgrade ground element.
Ground Element Characteristics: These five columns provide the number of men (Men), the
tactical speed (Spd), fuel usage (Fuel), ammunition usage (Ammo), and reliability rating (Rel)
for the ground element.
Production Information: These two columns provide the cost in supplies to build the
equipment in the ground element and the maximum number of the equipment that can be built
(BldLim) at a single location.
Armor: The armor rating of an AFV/Combat vehicle expressed in terms of front (FArm), side
(SArm), and top (TArm) armor.
Load: Lists the load cost for strategic and air transport (if applicable) of the ground element.
26.3.8.2. EQUIPMENT TAB AIRCRAFT VIEW
This view has the following column headers:
Name: Lists the name of each aircraft model. Selecting an aircraft will bring up the aircraft
compare selection window.
Nat (Nationality): Lists the nationality of each aircraft.
333
Type: Lists the functional type (8.1.3) for the aircraft.
SDate (Start Date): Lists the month and year that the aircraft went or will go into production.
EDate (End Date): Lists the month and year that the aircraft went or will stop production.
Upg (Upgrade): Displays whether the aircraft will be upgraded by listing the identification
number (ID) of the upgrade aircraft from the game editor ground element editor section (game
editor .pdf). If a aircraft does not have an upgrade, this column will be marked by a hyphen (-).
Selecting the upgrade ID number will bring up the aircraft compare window with the aircraft
compared to the upgrade model.
Aircraft Characteristics: These nine columns provide the number of aircrew in the aircraft,
the maximum speed, cruising speed, climb rate, maximum altitude, transportation load, range,
ammunition load and fuel load.
Production Information: These two columns provide the cost in supplies to build the aircraft
and the maximum number of aircraft that can be built (BldL) at a single location.
Arm (Armor): Lists the armor rating for the aircraft.
Dur (Durability): Lists the durability rating for the aircraft.
Mnvr (Manuever): Lists the maneuver rating for the aircraft.
Rel (Reliability): Lists the reliability rating for the aircraft.
26.3.8.3. WEAPONS (DEVICES)
334
This view has the following column headers:
Name: Lists the name of the weapon (device).
Type: Lists the type of weapon/device (e.g. heavy gun, general purpose (GP) bomb, radar
detector, drop tank, etc.). Selecting a particular type within this column will bring up a filtered
list of just that type of weapon (device).
Weapon (Device) Characteristics: These twelve columns provide information on the weapon
(device) load cost, effect (Eff), range (Rng), accuracy (Acc), range ceiling for AA guns (Ceil),
rate of fire (RoF), blast radius (Blast), anti-air target (AAir) efficiency, anti-soft (ASoft) target
efficiency, anti-armor (AArm) target efficiency, target penetration (Pen) efficiency, High
Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT) efficiency, and High-Velocity Armor-Piercing (HVAP) efficiency.
26.3.8.4. EQUIPMENT DISPLAY FILTERS
The Equipment tab has three different filters; Nation, Axis and Soviet, that are not applicable to
the weapons (device) view. The nation filter toggles between individual countries and has all
countries as a default. The axis and soviet filters toggle between ‘yes’ and ‘no,’ with ‘yes’ as
a default. Selecting ‘Clear All Filters’ will clear any filters as well as any active column header
sorting, which is applicable for all views.
26.3.8.5. COMPARE WINDOW
The compare window allows the player to look at the information contained in the applicable
equipment view of two different ground elements or two different aircraft. This window can be
335
accessed either through the name or the upgrade column. If using the name column, the
compare window brings up the selected ground element or aircraft on one side and a list of all
other ground elements or aircraft on the other side. Selecting a ground element or aircraft will
bring it up to complete the compare window. For the ground element view, there is a ‘Same
Class’ check box that lists just the ground elements listed under the class header (28.3.8.1).
Un-checking the box will allow the player to select from all ground elements currently selected.
If the upgrade column is used to access the compare window, it will automatically bring up the
upgrade ground element or aircraft model on the other side of the compare window.
Each side of the compare window has four sections as follows:
Name, type silhouette, country flag and picture.
Weapon (Device) detail section containing the same information as in that view of the
equipment tab for the currently selected weapon (device).
Ground element or aircraft detail section containing the same information as in that view of
the equipment tab for that ground element or aircraft. The one exception is the upgrade field,
which will list the name of the upgrade rather than the ID number. In addition, selecting the
upgrade name will bring up that ground element or aircraft as the other side of the compare
window.
List of Weapons (Devices) in the ground element or aircraft in the same format as the ground
element or air group detail window (5.4.20, 5.4.18). The currently selected weapon (device)
336
will be in red text and its details will be shown as described above. Selecting the name of a
weapon (device) will change the detail section to display its details.
26.4. APPENDIX D: BLACK CROSS/RED STAR: THE GERMAN
AND SOVIET ARMIES IN GARY GRIGSBY’S WAR IN THE EAST
By Jim Wirth
The long and bloody struggle waged by Germany against the Soviet Union between 1941
and 1945 had a profound impact on the military organizations of the belligerents. Soviet
divisional structures that seemed to make sense in peacetime were swept away in a few
weeks of real combat and replaced by new organizations forged in the heat of battle. Even the
battle-proven German divisions were forced to continually modify their organizations under the
strain of a war of attrition that bled them white. By 1945 there had been an almost complete
reversal of fortune with the Red Army fielding well-organized and equipped formations while
the Wehrmacht’s once magnificent divisions looked increasingly ad hoc and improvised. The
following is a short history of the organizational convulsions these armies underwent during
the brutal conflict we call the War in the East.
26.4.1. THE GERMAN ARMY
On June 22, 1941 the German Wehrmacht was at its pinnacle of power and prowess. Two
successful major campaigns, including the stunning victory over France, had hewed the
German Army into the most effective fighting force in the world. The organizational missteps
like the Light divisions of 1939 had been corrected and operational theory had been tested and
refined. Although persistent equipment shortages created by the rapid expansion of the Army,
in particular the panzer divisions, kept the actual divisions at variance with their ideal Tables
of Organization & Equipment (TOE), the combination of combat experience and outstanding
tactical leadership compensated for the shortcomings in weaponry holdings.
26.4.1.1. THE PANZER DIVISION
The heart of this awesome fighting force was the panzer division. The panzer division of 1941
consisted of a panzer regiment, two motorized infantry regiments, and an artillery regiment
plus supporting battalions of anti-tank guns, engineers, motorcyclists, etc. Reflective of the
haste the Wehrmacht had been expanded in general, the panzer divisions going into Russia
in June, 1941 were an odd mix of new and old. Obsolete tanks like the Panzer Ib served
alongside top of the line tanks like the Panzer IVf and practically no two panzer divisions had
the same number or mix of tanks. Despite this lack of standardization the panzer divisions
performed magnificently driving to the suburbs of Leningrad, across the great Dnepr and deep
into the Ukraine in a matter of weeks. The ultimate failure of Operation Barbarossa was due
less to the lack of quantity or quality of German armour than to operational mismanagement
and internecine squabbling among the senior German leadership, logistical inadequacy and the
tenacious resistance of a determined enemy.
337
The spring of 1942 found the panzer divisions depleted and increasingly technically outmatched
by the ever growing numbers of T-34s and KV-1s. To respond the Germans came up with some
brilliant improvisations and upgrades. Captured Russian 76.2mm field guns were mounted on
the chassis of now obsolete Panzer IIs and Panzer 38s to produce tank destroyers capable of
knocking out these previously near impregnable Russian tanks. The Panzer IV was upgraded
with a high velocity 75mm gun turning the former close support tank into a formidable battle
tank. These improvisations and upgrades were integrated into the panzer division TOE along
with an increase in mechanized (halftrack mounted) infantry and organic flak (anti-aircraft)
guns. Reflecting the rigors of the Eastern Front both light tank and motorcycle complements
were reduced in this re-organization.
In the aftermath of the costly victories of the summer and the disastrous defeats of the fall,
the end of 1942 again found the panzer divisions in tatters. Only the brilliant operational
leadership of Erich von Manstein and the superb combat performance of fresh armoured
units rushed to the Eastern Front saved the German southern wing from complete defeat.
Belatedly reacting to the catastrophic condition his decisions had left the panzer force in, Hitler
appointed the previously disgraced Heinz Guderian, Inspector General of Armoured Troops.
Under Guderian’s direction the panzer divisions were re-built to a new Table of Organization
& Equipment (TOE) that emphasized better anti-aircraft defense as well as increased armour
strength. To Guderian’s dismay many of the revitalized panzer divisions were decimated in
the Battle of Kursk and its aftermath. With the inability of German industry to maintain the
panzer divisions at anything close to their authorized strength the Germans had no choice
but to officially acknowledge the situation in a new TOE. The “44” panzer division was a tacit
admission of the changing fortunes of war with a reduced tank complement and a further
increased flak component.
Despite the organizational changes, the ferocity of combat continued to hollow out the panzer
divisions through late 1943 and early 1944. By the climatic summer of 1944 any panzer
division with more than fifty tanks was considered a strong division. The catastrophic losses
of the summer battles of 1944 exacerbated by the increasingly effective Allied Combined
Bomber Offensive forced the Germans to adopt some radical organizational solutions. First to
be introduced was the Panzer brigade. A formation favoured by Adolf Hitler, the “brigade” was
little more than a strong battalion manned by green tank crews. After an inauspicious combat
début the brigades were disbanded from late 1944 through early 1945 and their components
used to rebuild destroyed or burned out divisions. Also in early 1945 the final TOE for the once
mighty panzer division was introduced. This so-called “45” panzer division had less than
a battalion’s worth of tanks and would have been more appropriately called a mechanized
division. It is unclear whether any division actually adopted the 1945 organization before the
War ended but it remains a sad denouement to what was once the finest armoured division
in the world.
338
26.4.1.2. THE MOTORIZED DIVISION
Augmenting the panzer divisions were the motorized infantry divisions of the Regular Army
and the Waffen SS. Built around six infantry battalions in two regiments, the theoretical role of
the Regular Army motorized infantry division was to cover the inevitable gaps that would open
up between the fast-moving panzer divisions and the much slower non-motorized infantry. In
reality the motorized infantry division often fought as an assault division in its own right and
an independent armoured unit was sometimes attached to it to assist in this role. By 1942 an
armoured complement was part of the motorized infantry division’s standard organization. The
“armoring” of the motorized infantry division was officially recognized in the renaming of the
division to Panzergrenadier in 1943.
The terrible losses in motor vehicles in 1941 and 1942 brought a halt to the expansion of the
Regular Army motorized infantry divisions and two divisions were even converted back to nonmotorized infantry divisions while another was converted into a panzer division, a somewhat
more effective use of the available trucks. By contrast SS motorized divisions continued to
proliferate through the expansion of the Waffen SS. From a modest force of four motorized
infantry divisions one of which, Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler, was not even fully formed at the
beginning of Barbarossa, the Waffen SS eventually would muster seven panzer divisions and
five panzergrenadier divisions. Not only were these divisions among the best equipped in
the entire Wehrmacht, they were also manned by the most fanatical of Nazis. The result was
divisions that earned a fearsome reputation for both combat effectiveness and brutality.
The SS motorized infantry divisions of 1941 all differed somewhat in organization with the
embryonic Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler in particular being little more than a strong brigade.
In the latter half of 1942 the SS motorized divisions were re-organized as panzergrenadier
divisions but with an armour complement more befitting a panzer division including an organic
company of Tiger tanks (except Wiking which received an assault gun battalion instead of
tanks). In the final quarter of 1943 the four original SS motorized divisions were converted
from panzergrenadier divisions to exceptionally strong panzer divisions as part of a large
expansion of the Waffen SS. Soon after new SS panzergrenadier divisions were formed
although they lacked the strength of the originals and consequently never achieved similar
battlefield reputations. Unlike their Regular Army brethren, the SS panzer divisions were only
slightly “downsized” in their 1945 TOE and first pick of replacements and equipment meant
they were far more likely to approximate their theoretical strength. It was this fact more than
almost anything else that accounted for their elite status.
A note should be made of two other elite mobile divisions to fight on the Eastern Front:
Grossdeutschland and Hermann Goring. Grossdeutschland entered Russia as an independent
motorized infantry regiment. Fully outfitted with support units, GD was more a mini division
than a regiment. In 1942 it was upgraded to a motorized infantry division but with a TOE even
stronger than an SS motorized division. In 1943 Grossdeutschland became a panzergrenadier
division and was arguably the most powerful division in the entire Wehrmacht until its ultimate
dissolution in the last weeks of the War. Contrary to popular belief Grossdeutschland was
never converted to a panzer division.
339
With almost as illustrious a reputation as Grossdeutschland, the Hermann Goring Panzer
division was a Luftwaffe unit operationally under control of the Army. Expanded from a flak
regiment to a panzer division in 1942 the division served with distinction in the Mediterranean
theatre before being transferred to the Eastern Front in August, 1944 as the panzer division
element of the newly formed Hermann Goring Parachute Panzer Corps. The new panzer corps
fought impressively from its arrival to the final battles of the War, achieving tactical successes
even as late as April, 1945.
26.4.1.3. THE INFANTRY DIVISION
If the panzer division was the heart of the German Army, then the infantry division was its
backbone. During the first six months of the invasion of Russia over a hundred infantry,
mountain, jager and security divisions were committed to action. The basic “1939” infantry
division was the most numerous type of division. Built around nine infantry battalions organized
into three regiments it was a strong and incredibly resilient formation. Like most infantry
divisions of World War II, the German infantry division was “non-motorized” with only enough
trucks attached to move some of its heavy equipment. Much of the division’s equipment was
brought forward by horse drawn vehicles and the infantrymen themselves marched on foot.
What the infantry division lacked in mobility it made up for in staying power. It is no coincidence
that Germany’s military fortunes waxed and waned on the strength of its infantry. Germany
entered Russia with what were among the best infantry divisions in the world. Beginning
at near full strength, these divisions were fought down to regimental-size kampfgruppen in
the summer and fall battles of 1941 followed by a horrific winter campaign. Officially the
’39 division was the standard organization until late 1943 but in the field German infantry
divisions were chronically under strength from 1942 till the end of the War. To ameliorate
this strength deficiency, in the fall of 1943 the ’44 division organization was introduced which
scaled back the infantry to six battalions. By retaining the three regiment structure the ’44
division mustered the same artillery support of its nine battalion predecessor while having
considerably fewer troops to maintain in the field.
The catastrophic losses in the summer of 1944 resulted in the creation of the Volksgrenadier
division in a desperate effort to shore up the crumbling fronts in both East and West. The
Volksgrenadier division tried to substitute firepower for manpower with two thirds of its
infantry armed with automatic weapons but the raw recruits fleshing out these divisions lacked
the training to properly utilize the weapons. The indifferent performance of the Volksgrenadier
divisions in the fall of 1944 may have been what led the Germans to drop the “Volks” prefix but
the ’45 Grenadier division was essentially the same formation beefed up a bit to compensate
for the training deficiencies.
The mountain division was a de facto elite formation by nature of its special training in
mountain warfare. The mountain division was a six infantry battalion division that was usually
employed on the Eastern Front as an ordinary infantry division despite its mountain training.
Although the mountain division’s organization remained fairly constant throughout the War, in
1944 it was augmented with organic armour like the ’44 infantry division. The Jager division
340
was another six battalion division designed to operate in terrain that was more rugged than
open country but not as impenetrable as mountains. Like the mountain division it was in fact
mostly employed as a conventional infantry division and received the same organic armour
upgrade in 1944. At the beginning of Barbarossa the security division was a regimentalsize formation of about 5,000 second line troops. Intended for rear area security operations
against stragglers and partisans it was too often thrown into frontline combat. This operational
reality combined with continued intensification of partisan warfare resulted in the security
division being nearly doubled in size in late 1942. As Axis forces were pushed out of the Soviet
Union the need for security divisions declined and in early 1945 the remaining divisions were
converted into regular infantry divisions.
26.4.1.4. MISCELLANEOUS FORMATIONS
The German Army was if nothing else diverse in the number of organizational structures
it fielded in World War II. Beyond the types already mentioned were the cavalry, ski jager,
parachute infantry, Luftwaffe field, air landing and Waffen SS cavalry and infantry divisions.
The cavalry division proved not nearly as useful as originally thought. Weaker than a
conventional infantry division but thanks to its horses with a proportionally greater logistical
burden the somewhat disappointing 1st Cavalry was withdrawn in the fall of 1941 for
conversion into a panzer division. It was not until 1944 that the German Army again fielded
a large cavalry formation with the introduction of the cavalry brigade. The TOE of this brigade
was notable for its inclusion of an entire assault gun battalion. In late 1944 the cavalry brigade
was upgraded to a division but lost its assault guns. This new cavalry division was smaller
than its 1941 predecessor but proportionally better armed. Operational realities aside the
romance of the horse cavalry did not escaped the Waffen SS and in 1941 a Waffen SS cavalry
brigade was fielded which was upgraded to a division in 1942. Like the Regular Army cavalry
brigade of 1944, the 1944 SS cavalry division also received an assault gun battalion which
was reduced to only a detachment in 1945. Smaller but somewhat better equipped than their
Regular Army counterparts, the Waffen SS cavalry divisions appear to have fought credibly
when not busy massacring civilians.
Introduced in the fall of 1943 as a brigade then upgrade to a division in the summer of 1944,
ski jager units were notable not only for their special winter fighting capabilities but also for
being among the first units to employ the MP43, later MP44, assault rifle on a large scale.
Supposedly dubbed “Sturmgewehr” (assault rifle) by Hitler himself, the MP43/44 was the most
revolutionary small-arm of the Second World War and destined to forever change infantry
combat.
Decimated in the air assault on Crete the 7th Flieger (airborne) division was in the process of
being re-built when the demands of faltering Barbarossa forced its commitment to the Eastern
Front in the fall of 1941. Under-equipped for ground combat and a luxurious waste of superbly
trained paratroopers, the 7th Flieger nevertheless fought tenaciously before being withdrawn
after only a few weeks on the Eastern Front. Although nominally an airborne unit (most of
the divisions had no parachute training) the Fallschirmjager division was much more heavily
341
equipped than the Flieger division and was used as elite combat infantry. At the other extreme
of quality were the Luftwaffe Field divisions. The brain child of Hermann Goring these divisions,
raised from excess Luftwaffe ground personnel, were poorly trained and inadequately equipped
for the ground combat role they were thrown into in late 1942. Most of the Field divisions
disintegrated on first contact with the Red Army but some survived into 1944.
In curious contrast to the Flieger, Fallschirmjager and Field divisions which were all Luftwaffe
ground units, the Air Landing division was a Regular Army formation. The original “air mobile”
division, the Air Landing division was intended to be airlifted into airfields captured in air assault
by the paratroopers and glider troops. Despite its intended role the 22nd Air Landing division
was used as an ordinary infantry division in Barbarossa. In the summer of 1942 following the
fall of Sevastopol it was withdrawn from the Eastern Front and spent the remainder of World
War II in the Balkans.
In addition to the motorized divisions rolling into Russia in June, 1941 the Waffen SS fielded
one non-motorized infantry division, the SS Polizei division. Organized along lines similar to
a standard Regular Army infantry division the SS Polizei division fought bravely if not always
competently. It was withdrawn from the Eastern Front in late 1943 for conversion into the first
of the new, smaller SS panzergrenadier divisions. About the same time the SS Polizei division
was withdrawing from the Eastern Front new SS infantry divisions, the SS Grenadier divisions,
began arriving. The SS Grenadier division retained the nine infantry battalion structure making
it theoretically stronger than the Regular Army infantry division of six battalions (’44 infantry
division TOE adopted in late 1943). Unlike the original Waffen SS divisions however these new
divisions were composed of recruits drawn from all over occupied Europe and the quality of the
SS Grenadier divisions varied as widely as their actual manpower.
26.4.2. THE RED ARMY
If the Germany Army was at its apex on June 22, 1941, then the Red Army was close to its
nadir. Stalin’s murderous purge of the officer corps combined with a hasty re-organization of
armoured units placed the Red Army in a convulsive state ripe for destruction. Within days of
the invasion the Soviet frontier armies were disintegrating while German mobile forces swept
eastward against negligible resistance. The Red Army managed to survive its near-death
experience in the frontier battles and re-group to fight the over-extended panzer spearheads
to a temporary standstill. Four unimaginably bloody years still lay ahead before final victory
but the organizational transformation forced on the Red Army by the German blitzkrieg that
summer was the foundation of that victory.
26.4.2.1. THE TANK DIVISION
The pre-Barbarossa Soviet tank division was on paper the strongest armoured division in the
world with an authorized strength of 362 tanks including 208 T-34 medium tanks and 63
KV-1 heavy tanks. Unfortunately for the Soviets this powerful division existed only on paper;
none of the 61 tank divisions in existence on June 22, 1941 conformed to the prescribed TOE.
Conceived in the aftermath of the German victories in Poland and France, the tank division
342
was intended to be a panzer division on steroids. In reality it was a hodgepodge of dissimilar
tanks, newly motorized rifle regiments and other supporting combat arms wedded together
with inadequate training, inexperienced officers, and chronic equipment shortages of all types.
While a few of the tank divisions actually exceeded their authorized tank strength (usually
due to a surplus of obsolete tank types), most divisions were under-strength with some being
no more than mere cadres. The dissipation of strength over so many incomplete and illtrained divisions only hastened their destruction. Two months into the War, the Soviets began
converting most of the surviving divisions into tank brigades.
Not all of the tank divisions were immediately converted into brigades. About a dozen divisions
were organized to a new, smaller (190 tanks) TOE but they only faired marginally better than
their larger brethren due to the continued inability of Soviet commanders to employ them
properly. As a consequence in December, 1941 the newer tank divisions were also converted
to tank brigades.
26.4.2.2. THE TANK BRIGADE
The tank brigade first fielded in the late summer of 1941 was the Soviets’ answer to the
problem of the unwieldy tank divisions. Its tank strength was less than a third that of the prewar tank division with 64 T-60 light tanks, 22 T-34s, 7 KV-1s, plus a motorized rifle battalion,
and supporting arms but little in the way of non-combat support personnel. Due to its small
size and lack of organic support, the tank brigade was not capable of independent operations.
From its inception until mid-1942 the tank brigade was continually reduced in size as Soviet
armour experts groped for the right mix of tank types. At its smallest the brigade mustered
only 46 tanks and less than a thousand men total. In mid-1942 the tank brigade shed its KV
heavy tanks and increased its total tank strength to 54 including 32 T-34s. With this TOE
virtually unaltered until late 1943, the brigade fought the decisive battles of 1942 & 1943. In
November of 1943, the brigade’s TOE was finalized with an increase in tank strength to 65, all
of which were T-34s.
26.4.2.3. THE TANK CORPS
Although the tank brigade gave the Soviets a manageable tank unit, the winter counteroffensive
of 1941 -1942 demonstrated that it was inadequate for an armoured exploitation role. The
failure of Soviet forces to capitalize more fully on the yawning gaps in German lines rested
heavily on the lack of a divisional-size armoured unit to exploit such opportunities. To correct
this deficiency in the spring of 1942 the Soviets began forming their first tank corps.
The initial tank corps had a strength of only a 100 tanks plus a motorized rifle brigade with
few heavy weapons and virtually no artillery. It was acutely lacking in support personnel and
mustered a total strength of less than 6,000 men. By German standards the first tank corps
was little more than a regimental kampfgruppe. This new tank corps had its baptism of fire
in the spring offensive at Kharkov where it proved disappointing to say the least. Unfamiliar
with operating as a combined unit, the tank corps tended to be broken up and employed as
343
individual brigades. Without cohesion the rather feeble tank corps could not bring decisive
armoured strength to bear at critical moments in the battle; their defeat in detail by the more
experienced panzer truppen was practically inevitable.
Like the tank brigade, the tank corps was re-organized and strengthened in the summer
of 1942. The heavy tanks were removed from the TOE; tank strength was increased to
162; and overall manpower rose to nearly 8,000. Only artillery remained a sore spot with
a single battalion of light howitzers being augmented by mortars and 8 BM-13 (Katyusha)
rocket launchers when available. The upgraded tank corps clashed again and again with the
panzer divisions fighting their way across southern Russia in Operation Blau (Blue). Despite
staggering losses, a steady stream of new or re-built tank corps resisted the German advance
with countless rearguard actions and counterattacks.
By the time Blau ground to a standstill in the ruins of Stalingrad and foothills of the Caucasus
the Soviet tank soldiers and their commanders had gained invaluable experience which they
put to good use in the decisive counterattack at Stalingrad.
The battle lessons of 1942 led to more changes in the tank corps in early 1943. The seldom
seen Katyushas were removed from the TOE and SU-76s & SU-122s added; motorcyclists
were replaced by more mobile armoured cars; and the sapper company was expanded to a
full battalion. Finally there was a significant increase in anti-aircraft weapons indicative of the
realization that the Luftwaffe had been discounted a bit too prematurely. Artillery and support
were still weak and the total strength of the corps only rose to about 8,400 men. The tank
corps’ most critical element, its tank strength, remained unchanged but the more effective
T-70 light tank increasingly replaced the almost useless T-60. With this TOE, the tank corps
fought the decisive Battle of Kursk which permanently shifted the strategic initiative to the
Soviets.
Late 1943 saw a large increase in the size of the tank corps. The rocket launchers were
restored and the number of heavy mortars increased seven fold. The SU complement was
strengthened with SU-152s replacing SU-122s and SU-85s added to the TOE. The number
of armoured cars was more than doubled and support personnel increased by more than
50%. Although the infantry strength was unchanged, it was now nearly half equipped with
submachine guns. Most significant, tank strength increased to 195 tanks, all of which were
T-34 mediums. Total manpower was approximately 12,000 men. This heavier tank corps
figured prominently in the battles in the Ukraine in first half of 1944.
August of 1944 saw the last major iteration of the tank corps. Motorcycle and halftrack
mounted reconnaissance companies were added; the light artillery battalion was expanded
to a full regiment; and the SUs were brought up to three full battalions. Tank strength did
not change but the 85mm-gunned T-34/85 was rapidly replacing the venerable 76mm gun
version. Despite these changes overall manpower actually fell somewhat to about 11,500
men.
While never quite a match for the panzer division on paper, thanks to prodigious Soviet tank
production the tank corps was far more likely to be the stronger formation on the battlefield.
344
Always a bit too lean in support and lacking the panzer division’s flexibility and diversity in
artillery and heavy weapons, the tank corps nevertheless got the job done for the Soviets when
employed with skill and resoluteness.
26.4.2.4. THE MOTORIZED DIVISION
The pre-war motorized division was designed to complement the tank division in the same way
that the German motorized division complemented the panzer division but with a significant
difference. While the German motorized division of 1941 was organically devoid of armour,
the Soviet motorized division’s TOE called for a tank component of nearly 300 vehicles. These
tanks were to be the fast, BT models plus a company of T-40 amphibious light tanks. Had
the Soviet motorized divisions been actually equipped to this standard they would have
been more accurately described as mechanized divisions and very strong ones at that. In
fact however most motorized divisions were tankless and short of everything else, trucks in
particular. Due to this general lack of organic tank support and motorization deficiencies most
motorized divisions were soon employed as conventional infantry. As early as August, 1941 the
continuing chronic transport shortages forced the conversion of surviving motorized divisions
into rifle divisions.
26.4.2.5. THE MECHANIZED CORPS
The original mechanized corps of 1941 was a multi-division corps composed of two tank
divisions and one motorized division. Corps of this type were either disbanded or converted
to combined arms armies during the summer of 1941. In the late summer of 1942 a divisionsized formation was introduced again called a mechanized corps. This new mechanized corps
was designed to play the same role as the old motorized division of providing the infantry
component of an armoured exploitation force. Composed of three mechanized brigades and
a tank brigade it was nearly 16,000 men strong with more tanks (170) than a panzer division
and more infantry than even an SS motorized division. Unlike its contemporary tank corps,
the mechanized corps had a decent amount of artillery and a wealth of medium and heavy
mortars.
In early 1943 the mechanized corps was re-organized into a somewhat administratively leaner
formation of just over 15,000 men but with tank strength increased to over 200 (mostly T-34
mediums) and a battalion of SUs added. The infantry was better armed and the anti-tank
component was beefed up a bit. This leaner corps was replaced with a much heftier version in
the latter half of 1943 which halved the number of T-70 light tanks in favour of more T-34s and
doubled the number of SUs. Corps support was also restored to 1942 level. The manpower
of the corps now exceeded 16,000 men and nearly 250 tanks and SUs. The final version of
the mechanized corps was introduced in late 1943. It replaced the T-70s entirely with T-34s,
standardized the SUs at a full regiment, and trimmed corps support slightly to yield a personnel
strength of just over 16,300 men.
345
26.4.2.6. THE CAVALRY DIVISION
Unlike the almost “pure” German cavalry division of 1941, the pre-war Soviet cavalry division’s
TOE included over 80 tanks and armoured cars. The division was reasonably well balanced
though somewhat weak with a total authorized strength of just over 9,300 men. Unfortunately
for the Russians, most of the thirteen existing cavalry divisions were below strength with
little armour. Like the rest of the Red Army, the pre-war TOE didn’t last long. With tank
and motorized divisions being reduced to scrap metal at an alarming rate the Soviets were
desperate for tactical and operational mobility in whatever form they could get it. In summer
of 1941 a new cavalry division TOE was introduced which reduced the division to barely
regimental strength with no tanks and less than half the manpower. Although this new cavalry
division provided the Soviets with some badly needed mobility it was too weak to operate
independently in an exploitation role. The solution was the cavalry corps which combined two
or three divisions under a unified command. Cavalry corps played an important role in the
Soviet winter counteroffensive of 1941 -1942 conducting operations for weeks at a time deep
behind German lines.
Throughout 1942 the cavalry division continued to evolve with some weapons being reduced
while others were added. By mid-year these changes had brought the division up to just
over 4,600 men and nearly 4,800 horses. In February of 1943 the cavalry division received
its last major re-organization with a strengthening of its artillery component and the addition
of a mixed tank regiment of T-34 medium and T-70 light tanks. The division now mustered
6,000 men. The cavalry corps with attached supporting elements could total over 20,000 men
and when paired with a mechanized corps into a “cavalry-mechanized group” the combined
formation amounted to a small army nearly 40,000 strong.
26.4.2.7. THE AIRBORNE BRIGADE
The Red Army had pioneered the creation of airborne forces and by June, 1941 fielded the
largest airborne force in the world with 15 brigades organized into 5 airborne “corps”. A prewar airborne brigade contained about 2,700 men and nominally included in its organization a
company of T-40 amphibious tanks. Instead of concentrating the airborne corps in a strategic
reserve at the sole disposal of the Soviet high command (STAVKA) they were allocated to the
border military districts. As a result the airborne corps’ were swallowed up in ground combat
as Barbarossa swept over the frontier.
With the pre-war airborne corps decimated the Soviets began raising a second crop of airborne
corps in the fall of 1941 based on a new TOE for the airborne brigade that eliminated the
tanks and infantry guns of the original brigade in favour of a substantial increase in manportable light and medium mortars. To better fulfil its independent operations role this new
TOE substantially increased support personnel. These changes brought the new brigade up
to about 3,300 men.
The Moscow counteroffensive of December, 1941 finally saw the airborne forces used in their
intended role with battalion and brigade size drops in December and January and even an
346
entire corps (less part of one brigade) dropped in February. Although dramatic and disruptive,
these airborne operations generally failed to accomplish their objectives and no further air
drops were conducted until the latter half of 1943. In the interim the airborne forces were
drawn on to provide men for the desperate battles raging in southern half of the Eastern Front.
June of 1942 saw the existing ten airborne corps converted into ten guards rifle divisions.
To replace these units eight new airborne corps were formed in the fall of 1942 but they
were likewise quickly re-formed into guards airborne divisions. Although comprised of trained
parachutists, the guards airborne division was used as regular infantry like its Fallschirmjager
counterpart.
In the spring of 1943 the Soviets once more rebuilt their airborne force by raising twenty new
brigades but soon all but three had again been organized into divisions for ground combat.
On September 24, 1943 two of the surviving brigades were used in the disastrous Kanev
operation. Despite a re-organization of the brigade TOE in late October, 1943 to increase its
staying power, Kanev marked the Red Army’s last significant airborne operation of the War.
In general Soviet airborne operations had been a failure due to criminally poor planning and
unrealistic objectives while the use of paratroopers in conventional ground combat squandered
the specialized training devoted to these elite soldiers. It was probably small consolation to
these brave men that their counterparts in the Allied and Axis airborne forces also sometimes
suffered a similar fate.
26.4.2.8. THE RIFLE DIVISION
Of the 303 divisions in the Soviet order of battle on June 22, 1941, 198 of them were rifle
divisions. As with the infantry divisions of the Wehrmacht, the rifle divisions were the backbone
of the Red Army and their ordeal and ultimate triumph in what the Russians call the Great
Patriotic War provides the narrative of this immense conflict.
The pre-war TOE of the rifle division was that of a strong and well-balanced formation with
an organic armour component and a powerful artillery suite. At about 14,500 men the TOE
theoretically called for a rifle division nearly as large as a German infantry division and actually
better equipped. Unfortunately as with the rest of the Red Army reality was quite different from
the theoretical. Almost all the rifle divisions were under-strength with an average manpower
of around 9,000. Shortages of equipment and specialists were even worse to say nothing
of the fact that the infantry leaders were the bottom of the barrel of an officer corps already
crippled by Stalin’s purges. When all these factors are considered it is not an exaggeration to
say that the fate of the pre-war rifle divisions was sealed before the first shots of Barbarossa
were even fired.
As the opening weeks of the German blitzkrieg swept up the pre-war rifle divisions in one
pocket after the next, the Soviet command scrambled to create a smaller, more manageable
rifle division TOE. This new TOE reduced manpower to just under 11,000, reduced artillery
by nearly two thirds, and eliminated the armour component entirely. Most importantly by
simplifying the divisional structure the new TOE reduced the demand for scarce staff officers
347
and other specialists. This shrunken rifle division struggled to hold the line through the critical
battles of late summer and fall.
With the shift of the Red Army over to offensive operations in December, 1941 a new TOE
was introduced which substantially strengthened the rifle division. While total manpower was
increased by less than a 1,000, the number of mortars was doubled and a submachine gun
battalion was added. Only the division’s anti-aircraft capability was significantly reduced. This
latest TOE barely survived the winter when it was modified again in March of 1942. Divisional
strength rose again to nearly 13,000 men; divisional artillery increased by over 30% while antitank rifles more than tripled to 279 but anti-aircraft was again trimmed slightly. The March,
1942 TOE was the strongest rifle division fielded since the demise of the pre-war division
and the strongest that would be fielded for the remainder of the War. As combat operations
resumed in the spring of 1942 and Soviet losses skyrocketed, the March TOE looked decidedly
overoptimistic. By mid-summer it was time to go back to the drawing board again for a leaner
division.
The rifle division TOE introduced in August, 1942 cut nearly 3,000 men out of the division by
reducing rifle and sapper strength as well as divisional support. The number of anti-tank rifles
was cut by 18% but mortars increased by 10%. Other division elements were unchanged. The
August TOE lasted until December when a new TOE cut another 1,000 men out of the division,
mostly by reducing divisional support. Despite the manpower reduction divisional firepower
actually rose with the rifle squads being better equipped and heavy mortars and anti-tank guns
increased while the number of light mortars was reduced by 34%. The December of 1942 TOE
lasted until the spring of 1944, the longest of any in the War.
The June, 1944 TOE standardized the rifle squad armament, eliminated the 37mm anti-aircraft
guns in favour of more 12.7mm anti-aircraft machine guns and halved the number of anti-tank
rifles (a reflection of the increasingly limited value of these weapons). Medium and heavy
mortars were increased by 22% and total personnel strength rose by roughly 1,100 men. In
October, 1944 the last significant changes were made to the rifle division TOE by the addition
of a second submachine gun battalion, plus more sappers, 122mm howitzers, and divisional
support. A full strength rifle division now stood at almost 11,700 men. A quick comparison
of the pre-war rifle division with the end-of-the-war rifle division shows a divisional TOE that
had shrunk by about 3,000 men but infantry, what the Russians would called “bayonet”,
strength was actually somewhat greater in the late-war division. Even without considering the
deficiencies in personnel and equipment which hamstrung most of the pre-war rifle divisions,
the smaller late-war division was easier to man, easier to maintain, and easier to command
than its pre-war predecessor. It had been a long and costly evolution but the rifle division that
emerged from this process in late 1944 was well tailored to the strengths and weaknesses of
the Red Army.
26.4.2.9. MISCELLANEOUS FORMATIONS
Although not as diverse as the Wehrmacht the Red Army had its own share of unique
formations. Most important among these formations was the rifle brigade. The few rifle
348
brigades that existed pre-war were intended for economy-of-force missions where an entire
rifle division would have been wasteful. With the destruction of so many rifle divisions by the
initial German onslaught, STAVKA was desperate to get bodies into the line as fast as possible;
the rifle brigade was the stop-gap solution to this problem. The rifle brigade of 1941 was
40% of the size of its rifle division contemporary and proportionally weaker in every area with
the notable exception of mortars and anti-tank guns. With almost no conventional artillery
and little support, the rifle brigade was even easier to field than the already “downsized” rifle
division. Rifle brigades proliferated in 1941 and 1942 reaching a peak of about 200 at the
beginning of 1943. Starting in 1943 most of the rifle brigades were disbanded or used to
create new rifle divisions. An interesting complement to the rifle brigade was the naval infantry
brigade. Slightly larger and better equipped than a rifle brigade, the naval infantry brigades
were comprised of naval personnel who, though not marines in the traditional sense, earned a
reputation as elite troops through their élan in combat. While seldom mentioned in the history
books, the rifle and naval infantry brigades filled a critical void in the Soviet order of battle
from the fall of 1941 to the fall of 1942 when the fate of the motherland hung in the balance.
Just as the rifle and naval infantry brigades were instrumental in preventing the defeat of the
Soviet Union, the artillery divisions were essential in assuring its victory. At the beginning of
the War Soviet non-divisional artillery was organized along lines similar to the German Army
with independent regiments attach to corps and army headquarters. The tremendous losses
in artillery specialists in the opening weeks of the War forced the Red Army to concentrate its
surviving artillery assets at army and even front level. As the Soviet artillery suite began to be
re-built larger artillery formations were created to take advantage of the prodigious production
without over extending the still scarce artillery experts. Artillery brigades were introduced
in early 1942 and then the artillery division in October, 1942. With 248 howitzers, guns and
heavy mortars, the equivalent of the artillery of nearly five rifle divisions, the artillery division
represented an impressive concentration of firepower. Its purpose was to blast through the
intricate German defenses that had stymied so many Russian attacks in the past.
In early 1943 the artillery division was expanded to 392 weapons, including now 203mm
howitzers and 160mm mortars, and renamed Breakthrough Artillery division. A final expansion
of the breakthrough artillery division in early 1944 added a rocket launcher regiment at the
expense of a few battalions of 76mm field guns to give the division a total of 400 weapons and
just over 10,000 men.
Complementing the artillery division was the rocket launcher division. First formed at the
end of 1942 with a mind-boggling strength of 1,068 launchers and nearly 30,000 men, the
rocket launcher division was almost immediately downsized to a slightly more manageable
864 launchers in February, 1943. The introduction of the BM-31-12 rocket launcher with three
times the firepower of its predecessor allowed the rocket launcher division to be dramatically
reduced in size at the beginning of 1944 to 288 launchers and only 8,000 men. One can
only imagine that the spectacle of these divisions lighting the sky with thousands of rockets
was as breathtaking to witness as it was terrifying to endure. The breakthrough artillery and
349
rocket launcher divisions were the core of the “artillery offensives” that characterized Soviet
operations in the last two years of the War.
Among the other notable Russian formations were mountain and mountain cavalry divisions,
ski brigades, assault engineer-sapper brigades, and fortified regions. The mountain and
mountain cavalry divisions were smaller and more lightly armed than their regular rifle and
cavalry division counterparts to allow them to manoeuvre more freely in mountainous terrain.
Despite their organization they don’t appear to have possessed the specialized training that
characterized German mountain units and their service was in general undistinguished.
Beginning the War with nineteen divisions, the Soviet mountain infantry forced declined to
only a single corps of three divisions by War’s end while the mountain cavalry divisions were
phased out entirely through conversion to regular cavalry after 1941.
Inspired by the success of Finnish ski troops in the Winter War of 1939-40, the Soviets
began fielding ski battalions as early as November, 1941. Over the course of the winter
counteroffensive the Soviets occasionally combined varying numbers of these battalions into
ad hoc ski brigades. In the fall of 1942 the Soviets standardized the ski brigade TOE at three
ski battalions plus combat support elements. As was the practice, in the spring of 1943 all but
four of the ski brigades were disbanded. By the end of 1944 the War had largely moved beyond
terrain suitable for employment of ski troops and two of the ski brigades were disbanded while
the other two were converted to mountain brigades.
The street fighting of Stalingrad demonstrated the value of having lots of combat engineers in
urban warfare and in response the Soviets formed the Assault Engineer-Sapper Brigade. The
brigade concentrated sapper battalions under a single headquarters to provide army and front
commands the ability to employ large numbers of sappers against critical points of resistance.
Considering the tendency of Hitler in the last months of the War to declare anything that even
vaguely resembled a city to be a “fortress” to be defended to the last, the creation of the
assault engineer-sapper brigades was indeed prescient.
The fortified region was both a physical place and a combat formation. The place was
any terrain that could be fortified with a variety of pillboxes, weapons pits and engineering
obstacles. The combat formation was a variable number of machine gun-artillery battalions
under the control of a small headquarters. The machine gun-artillery battalion (also called
artillery-machine gun battalion) initially consisted primarily of machine guns and anti-tank
guns plus some artillery (76mm field guns & 122mm howitzers). The fortified regions that
lined the frontiers at the beginning of the War were mini-fortresses with concrete pillboxes and
gun emplacements. With most of the original fortified regions overrun by the German assault,
new TOEs were issued in March, 1942 which re-oriented fortified regions to operate in closer
co-operation with field formations. The role of the fortified region changed from being that of
fortified strong point to more an economy-of-force mission allowing them to remain useful
even when the Red Army shifted from a strategic defensive to a strategic offensive posture.
350
26.4.2.10. THE GUARDS
A common misconception of those not students of the Eastern Front is that the guards units
were the Soviet equivalent of the Waffen SS. Rather than being a separate branch of the
military specially trained, equipped and organized as was the case with the SS, “Guards” was
an honorific awarded ordinary units that had distinguished themselves in combat. With the
exception of the guards rifle division which for much of the War had an extra submachine gun
battalion and a couple extra batteries of artillery, guards units only differed from non-guards
units by a higher priority for new equipment (sometimes) and the assignment of the most
dangerous missions (almost always). Winning the guards honorific did enhance a unit’s esprit
de corps which translated into a higher level of performance but the guards were not “elite” in
the same sense that German units like Liebstandarte Adolf Hitler were elite.
26.4.3. CONCLUSION
On June 22, 1941 the armies of Germany and the Soviet Union looked remarkably similar.
Both had higher headquarters (army group or military district, later front) commanding field
armies who commanded corps of divisions. The divisions themselves corresponded closely
in structure and equipment. However as the Red Army struggled to recover from the shock
of blitzkrieg, the two nations’ armies began to diverge in organization and doctrine. Over the
course of the summer of 1941 Soviet corps headquarters were abolished and divisions were
subordinated directly to armies. Surviving tank and motorized divisions were converted into
tank brigades and rifle divisions respectively, while “downsized” rifle and cavalry divisions were
raised at an astounding rate. By the start of the Soviet winter counteroffensive in December,
1941 the Germans were facing essentially a completely new Red Army. This army continued
to adapt and change over the ensuing months of combat so that by June, 1944 when the
Soviets unleashed their summer offensive (Operation Bagration) that Red Army was almost unrecognizable from the Red Army of three years previous in both structure and battle doctrine.
By contrast the Wehrmacht, with the exception of the evolving Waffen SS, changed only
incrementally prior to late 1943. Despite casualties that emaciated the German divisions in
the first year of the war in the east, few major TOE changes were made. The panzer divisions
had flak battalions integrated into them and the motorized divisions received organic armor
but little else changed. True, some infantry divisions were reduced to two regiments but these
changes were on a division-by-division basis and not a wholesale re-organization. Armywide, no major re-organization occurred until late 1943 when the so-called ’44 division TOEs
were introduced. The German Army could pursue this incremental approach because of the
enormous advantages it possessed over the Red Army at the beginning of the War; it had
superior training, superior communications, superior close air support and, most important
of all, superior tactical and operational leadership. Although the German Army became
increasingly pro-Nazis as the War worn on, its leadership never suffered the institutional
lobotomy inflicted on the Red Army by Stalin’s purge. It was the superb quality of German
leadership, particularly at the small unit level, that enabled the Wehrmacht to fight on when
all seemed lost.
351
The question then of which of these two armies was the better one can never be conclusively
answered. The Red Army adapted its unit organizations and tactics to match the limitations
of its personnel and the exploit the wealth of resources of men and material the Soviet state
could provide. The German Army relied on superior combat skill to compensate for shortages
of material and manpower. While the Red Army ultimately prevailed in the struggle it is not
impossible to imagine a different outcome had German resources not been inadequate for the
task. With the failure of Barbarossa to deliver a deathblow to the Red Army, Soviet industry and
population guaranteed an inevitable shift in the strategic balance. In the final analysis what the
German Army did organizationally mattered far less than the changes which transformed the
Red Army from what David Glantz has called a “stumbling colossus” into the most powerful
army in history.
26.5. APPENDIX E: RECOMMENDED READING
Here are some books that the development team, to include play testers and scenario
designers, thought players might be interested in perusing. They are listed by category, but
are not ranked in any order.
26.5.1. WORLD WAR II
Title: A World at Arms
Author: Gerhard L. Weinberg
ISBN: 0521558794
Title: Why the Allies Won
Author: Richard Overy
ISBN: 039331619X
Title: The Oxford Companion to the Second World War
Author: I.C.B. Dear
ISBN: 0-19-214168-6
Title: World War II in Photographs
Author: Paul Whittle (Editor)
ISBN: 1841931934
Title: Posters of World War II
Author: Peter Darman
ISBN: 1435104382
352
26.5.2. EASTERN FRONT
Title: When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler
Author: David M. Glantz, Jonathan House
ISBN: 070060717X
Title: War without Garlands
Author: Robert Kershaw
ISBN:
Title: Russo German War, 1941-45
Author: Albert Seaton
ISBN: 0891414916
Title: Moscow to Stalingrad, Decision in the East
Author: Earl F. Ziemke
ASIN: B002Y5VXG4
Title: The Russo-German War (Situation Maps)
Author: W. Victor Madej
ISBN: Numerous
Title: Barbarossa, The Russian-German Conflict, 1941-45
Author: Alan Clark
ISBN: 0-688-04268-6
Title: Germany at War
Author: Lt. Col (retired) George Forty
ISBN: 1844426831
26.5.3. BARBAROSSA
Title:Operación Barbarroja (Spanish)
Author:Álvaro Lozano
ISBN: 978-84-473-5178-7
Title: Atlas and Operational Summary of the Border Battles, 22 June-1 July 1941
Author: David M. Glantz
ISBN: Self-Published by author. Only available through www.articlesofwar.com
353
Title: Images of Barbarossa
Author: Christopher Ailsby
ISBN: 1574885022
Title: Barbarossa: The Air Battle July-December 1941
Author: Christer Bergstrom
ISBN: 1857802705
26.5.4. TYPHOON AND SOVIET WINTER OFFENSIVES
Title: The Retreat: Hitler’s First Defeat
Author: Michael Jones
ISBN: 0312628196
Title: Zhukov’s Greatest Defeat: The Red Army’s Epic Disaster in Operation Mars, 1942
Author: David M. Glantz
ISBN: 0700614176
26.5.5. LENINGRAD
Title: The Battle for Leningrad, 1941-1944
Author: David M. Glantz
ISBN: 0-7006-1208-4
26.5.6. BLAU, STALINGRAD AND SOVIET OFFENSIVES
Title: The Caucasus and The Oil, The German-Soviet War in the Caucasus 1942/1943
Author: Wilhem Tieke
ISBN: 0-921991-23-1
Title: To the Gates of Stalingrad, Soviet-German Combat Operations April-August 1942
Author: David M. Glantz
ISBN: 978-0-7006-1630-5
Title: Stalingrad: A Pictorial History
Author: Peter Schwartz
ISBN: 1840671521
Title: Stalingrad: The Air Battle: 1942-January 1943
Author: Christer Bergstrom
ISBN: 1857802764
354
26.5.7. ZITADELLE AND SOVIET OFFENSIVES
Title: Kursk: The German View
Author: Steven H. Newton
ISBN: 0306811502
Title: The Battle of Kursk
Author: David M. Glantz
ISBN: 0700613358
Title: Kursk, 1943. La battalla decisiva (Spanish)
Author:Álvaro Lozano
ISBN: 978-84-96829-60-2
Title: Kursk 1943: A Statistical Analysis (Soviet (Russian) Study of War)
Author: Niklas Zetterling, Anders Frankson
ISBN: 0714650528
Title: Demolishing the Myth: The Tank Battle at Prokhorovka, Kursk, July 1943: An Operational
Narrative
Author: Valeriy Zamulin
ISBN: 1906033897
Title: Kursk: The Air Battle, July 1943
Author: Christer Bergstrom
ISBN: 1903223881
26.5.8. SOVIET JAN-APR 1944 OFFENSIVES
Title: Crucible of Combat, Germany’s defensive battles in the Ukraine 1943-44
Author: Rolf Hinze
ISBN:978-1-906033-39-2
Title: Tjerkassy 44 - Inringningen på östfronten (Swedish)
Author: Niklas Zetterling, Anders Frankson
ISBN: 9113013890
Title: The Korsun Pocket: The Encirclement and Breakout of a German Army in the East, 1944
Author: Niklas Zetterling, Anders Frankson
ISBN: 1932033882
355
26.5.9. BAGRATION AND OTHER SOVIET MAY-DEC 1944 OFFENSIVES
Title: East Front Drama - 1944
Author: Rolf Hinze
ISBN: 0-921991-35-5
Title: Hitler’s Greatest Defeat, The Collapse of Army Group Centre, June 1944
Autho: Paul Adair
ISBN: 1-85409-232-4
Title: To the Bitter End, The Final Battles of Army Groups North Ukraine, A, and Center - Eastern
Front, 1944-45
Author: Rolf Hinze
ISBN: 978-935149-31-6
Title: Bridgehead Kurland, The Six Epic Battles of Heeresgruppe Kurland
Author: Franz Kurowski
ISBN: 0-921991-66-5
Title: Crumbling Empire, The German Defeat in the East, 1944
Author: Samuel W. Mitcham, Jr.
ISBN: 0-275-96856-1
Title: Retreat from Leningrad, Army Group North 1944/45
Author: Steven H. Newton
ISBN: 0-88740-806-0
26.5.10. SOVIET JAN-APR 1945 OFFENSIVES,
AXIS HUNGARIAN COUNTER-ATTACK
Title: Hungary 1944-1945, The Forgotten Tragedy
Author: Perry Pierik
ISBN: 90-75323-10-7
26.5.11. END OF THE WAR, FALL OF BERLIN
Title: Red Storm on the Reich, The Soviet March on Germany, 1945
Author: Christopher Duffy
ISBN: 0-306-80505-7
Title: Gotterdammerung 1945, Germany’s Last Stand in the East
Author: Russ Schneider
ISBN: 0-9655683-1-8
356
Title: Armageddon, the Battle for Germany 1944-1945
Author: Sir Max Hastings
ISBN: 0375714227
Title: Berlin Then and Now
Author: Tony Le Tissier, Winston G. Ramsey (Editor)
ISBN: 090091372X
Title: Bagration to Berlin: The Final Air Battles in the East 1944-1945
Author: Christer Bergstrom
ISBN: 1903223911
26.5.12. SOVIET ARMY
Title: Soviet Order of Battle, World War II
Author: Charles C. Sharp
ISBN: Numerous
Title: Soviet tactical doctrine in WWII: As found in: handbook on U.S.S.R. military forces TM30-340
Author: George F Nafziger
ASIN: B0006ROA4O
Title: Неизвестный 1941. Остановленный блицкриг
Author: Алексей Исаев
ISBN: 978-5-699-41198-6
Title: От Дубно до Ростовa
Author: Алексей Исаев
ISBN: 5-17-031903-7, 5-9578-2174-8
Title: Вяземская катастрофа 41-го года
Author: Лев Лопуховский
ISBN: 5-699-18689-1
Title: Сталинград. За Волгой для нас земли нет
Author: Алексей Исаев
ISBN: 978-5-699-26236-6
357
Title: Краткий курс истории Великой Отечественной войны. Наступление маршала
Шапошникова
Author: Алексей Исаев
ISBN: 978-5-699-14384-9
Title: 1941-й. От трагедии Вязьмы до победы под Москвой
Author: Илья Мощанский
ISBN: 978-5-9533-2305-5
Title: 1942-й. От трагедии Крыма до победы под Сталинградом
Author: Илья Мощанский
ISBN: 978-5-9533-3134-0
Title: 1943-й От трагедии Харькова до Курского прорыва
Author: Алексей Исаев
ISBN: 978-5-9533-3135-7,978-5-9533-3834-9
Title: 1944-й. От Корсуни до Белграда
Author: Илья Мощанский
ISBN: 978-5-9533-3845-5
Title: 1945-й... Триумф в наступлении и в обороне. От Висло-Одерской до Балатона
Author: Алексей Исаев
ISBN: 978-5-9533-3474-7,978-5-9533-3846-2
Title: Курский излом. Решающая битва Великой Отечественной
Author: Валерий Замулин
ISBN: 978-5-699-27682-0
Title: Засекреченная Курская битва. Неизвестные документы свидетельствуют
Author: Валерий Замулин
ISBN: 978-5-699-28288-3
Title: Забытое сражение Огненной Дуги
Author: Валерий Замулин
ISBN: 978-5-699-29830-3
Title: Прохоровка. Без грифа секретности
Author: Лев Лопуховский
ISBN: 978-5-699-36795-5
358
Title: Разгром 6-й танковой армии СС. Могила Панцерваффе
Author: Алексей Исаев, Максим Коломиец
ISBN: 978-5-699-34808-4
Title: Берлин 45-го. Сражения в логове зверя
Author: Алексей Исаев
ISBN: 978-5-699-20927-9
Title: Мы дрались с “Тиграми
Author: Артем Драбкин, Петр Михин
ISBN: 978-5-699-396
26.5.13. SOVIET AIR FORCE
Title: Soviet Air Power in World War 2
Author: Yefim Gordon
ISBN: 1857803043
Title: Black Cross/Red Star : Vol. 1, Operation Barbarossa 1941
Author: Christer Bergstrom, Andrey Mikhailov
ISBN: 0935553487
Title: Black Cross/Red Star: The Air War over the Eastern Front : Resurgence, January-June
1942
Author: Christer Bergstrom
ISBN: 0935553517
Title: Black Cross Red Star: The Air War Over the Eastern Front Volume 3
Author: Christer Bergstrom
ISBN: 0976103443
Title: Битва за небо. 1941. От Днепра до Финского залива - (Великая Отечественная:
Неизвестная война)
Author: Хазанов Д.Б.
ISBN: 978-5-699-19616-6
Title: Пикирующий бомбардировщик Пе-2. ‘Пешка’, ставшая ферзем - (Война и мы.
Авиаколлекция)
Author: Медведь А.Н., Хазанов Д.Б.
ISBN: 978-5-699-24361-7
359
Title: 1941. Борьба за господство в воздухе
Author: Хазанов Д.Б.
ISBN: 5-699-28284-Х, 978-5-699-28284-5
Title: Истребитель МиГ-3
Author: А. Н. Медведь, Д. Б. Хазанов
ISBN: 978-5-900078-52-6
Title: Над Огненной Дугой. Советская авиация в Курской битве
Author: Виталий Горбач
ISBN: 978-5-699-20867-8
Title: Я дрался на бомбардировщике
Author: Артем Драбкин
ISBN: 978-5-699-40375-2
Title: Я - истребитель! Самое полное издание
Author: Артем Драбкин
ISBN: 978-5-699-42351-4
Title: Мы дрались на Ил-2. Главная ударная сила
Author: Артем Драбкин, Василий Емельяненко
ISBN: 978-5-699-41872-5
Title: Concise Guide to British Aircraft of World War II
Author: David Mondey
ISBN: 0785801464
26.5.14. SOVIET ARMOURED FORCES
Title: T-34 in Action
Author: Artem Drabkin and Oleg Sheremet
ISBN: 184415243X
Title: Soviet armor tactics in World War II: The tactics of the armored units of the Red Army from
individual vehicles to company according to the combat regulations of February 1944
Author: Charles C Sharp
ASIN: B0006ROKP8
360
Title: Механизированные корпуса РККА в бою. История автобронетанковых войск Красной
Армии в 1940-1941 годах
Author: Евгений Дриг
ISBN: 5-17-024760-5, 5-9713-0447-Х, 5-9578-1027-4
Title: Танковая мощь СССР
Author: Михаил Свирин
ISBN: 978-5-699-31700-4
Title: Броневой щит Сталина. История советского танка 1937-1943
Author: Михаил Свирин
ISBN: 5-699-16243-7
Title: Стальной кулак Сталина. История советского танка 1943-1955
Author: Михаил Свирин
ISBN: 978-5-699-14628-4
Title: Я дрался на Т-34
Author: Артем Драбкин
ISBN: 978-5-699-40051-5
Title: Т-34 в бою
Author: Михаил Барятинский
ISBN: 978-5-699-26709-5
Title: Танки ленд-лиза в бою
Author: Михаил Барятинский
ISBN: 978-5-699-36244-8
Title: Тяжелый танк ИС-2. Наш ответ “Тиграм”
Author: Михаил Барятинский
ISBN: 978-5-699-17430-0, 5-699-17430-3
Title: Самоходки. В одном строю с танкам
Author: Михаил Барятинский
ISBN: 978-5-699-23790-6
Title: Бронемашины Сталина 1925-1945
Author: Максим Коломиец
ISBN: 978-5-699-42517-4
361
Title: Танк прорыва. КВ. “Клим Ворошилов
Author: Максим Коломиец
ISBN: 5-699-18754-5
Title: Танки ведет Рыбалко. Боевой путь 3-й Гвардейской танковой армии
Author: Дмитрий Шеин
ISBN: 978-5-699-20010-8
Title: British and American Tanks of World War Two: The Complete Illustrated History of British,
American and Commonwealth Tanks, 1939-45
Author: Peter Chamberlain
ISBN: 0304355291
26.5.15. GERMAN ARMY
Title: Fortress Third Reich
Author: J. E. Kaufmann and H. W. Kaufmann
ISBN: 0306812398
Title: The German Order of Battle, Panzers and Artillery in World War Two
Author: George F. Nafziger
ISBN: 1-85367-359-5
Title: The German Order of Battle, Infantry in World War Two
Author: George F. Nafziger
ISBN: 1-85367-393-5
Title: The German Order of Battle, Waffen SS and Other Units
Author: George F. Nafziger
ISBN: 1-58097-058-3
Title: US War Department Handbook on German Military Forces
Author: US Government
ISBN: 0-8071-1629-7
Title: Verbande and Truppen der deutschen Wehrmacht und Waffen SS 1939-1945 (German)
Author: Georg Tessin
ISBN: Numerous
362
Title: Die Truppenkennzeichen der Verbande und Einheiten der deutschen Wehrmacht und
Waffen-SS und ihre Einsatze im Zweiten Weltkrieg 1939-1945 (German)
Author: Peter N Schmitz
ISBN: 3764814985
Title: Army Group North, The Wehrmacht in Russia 1941-1945
Author: Werner Haupt
ISBN: 0-7643-0182-9
Title: Army Group Center, The Wehrmacht in Russia 1941-1945
Author: Werner Haupt
ISBN: 0-7643-0266-3
Title: Army Group South, The Wehrmacht in Russia 1941-1945
Author: Werner Haupt
ISBN: 0-7643-0385-6
Title: Das Heer 1933-1945: Entwicklung des organisatorischen Aufbaues (German)
Author: Burkhart Mueller-Hillebrand
ASIN: B0006DMQR6
Title: Taktik im Russlandfeldzug: Erfahrungen und Folgerungen (German)
Author: Eike Middeldorf
ASIN: B0000BLM22
Title: Die Eisenbahnen im zweitem weltkrieg (German)
Author: Eugen Kreidler
ISBN: 393320352X
26.5.16. GERMAN AIR FORCE
Title: Warplanes of the Third Reich
Author: William Green
ISBN: 0883656663
Title: Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II
Author: David Mondey
ISBN: 0785813632
363
Title: The German Air War in Russia
Author: Richard Muller
ISBN: 0-933852-94-0
Title: Luftwaffe Codes, Markings, & Units, 1939-1945
Author: Barry C. Rosch
ISBN: 0-88740-796-X
Title: The Luftwaffe Data Book
Author: Dr. Alfred Price
ISBN: 1-85367-293-9
Title: The Luftwaffe 1933-1945: Strategy for Defeat
Author: Williamson Murray
ISBN:
Title: Der Luftkrieg in Europa Part I and II (German)
Author: Ulf Blake
ISBN: Unknown
26.5.17. GERMAN ARMORED FORCES
Title: Panzer Truppen, Volume 1 & 2
Author: Thomas L. Jentz
ISBN: 0-88740-915-6 & 0-7643-0080-6
Title: Encyclopedia Of German Tanks Of World War Two: The Complete Illustrated Dictionary of
German Battle Tanks, Armoured Cars, Self-Propelled Guns and Semi-Track
Author: Peter Chamberlain
ISBN: 0700613358
Title: German Armoured Warfare of WWII: The Unpublished Photographs
Author: Ian Baxter
ISBN: 1853675490
26.5.18. AXIS ARMED FORCES
Title: Third Axis - Fourth Ally - Rumanian Armed Forces in the European War 1941-1945
Author: Mark Axworthy
ISBN: 0-9976155-3-7
364
Title: The Royal Hungarian Army, 1920-1945
Author: Leo W.G. Niehorster
ISBN: 1-891227-19-X
Title: Axis Slovakia, Hitler’s Slavic Wedge, 1938-1945
Author: Mark W.A. Axworthy
ISBN: 1-891227-41-6
26.5.19. INTRODUCTORY/LIGHT READING
Title: Slaughterhouse: The Handbook of the Eastern Front
Author: Keith E. Bonn (Editor)
ISBN: 097176509X
Title: A Writer at War: Vasily Grossman with the Red Army (English Translation)
Author: Vasily Grossman; Antony Beevor (Ed)
ISBN: 0676978118
Title: Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege: 1942-1943
Author: Antony Beevor
ISBN: 0140284583
26.5.20. MEMOIRS
Title: Lost Victories: The War Memoirs of Hitler’s Most Brilliant General
Author: Field Marshal Erich von Manstein
ISBN: 076032054
Title: The Rommel Papers
Author: Erwin Rommel, Basil Henry Liddell Hart (Editor)
ISBN: 0306801574
Title: Panzer Leader
Author: Heinz Guderian
ISBN: 0306811014
Title: Panzer Operations: The Eastern Front Memoir of General Raus, 1941-1945
Author: Erhard Raus, Steven H. Newton
ISBN: 0306814099
365
Title: The Battle for Stalingrad
Author: Vasili Ivanovich Chuikov
ASIN: B0007FOI56
Title: Red Star Against the Swastika: The Story of a Soviet Pilot over the Eastern Front
Author: Vasily B Emelianenko
ISBN: 853676497
Web Site Title: I Remember: Soviet WWII Veterans Memoirs
Web Site URL: http://english.iremember.ru/
366
27. INDEX
Symbols
Commander’s Report (CR)
Units Tab 314
Unit Designations
Unit Types and Symbols 307
Unit Designations and Combat Value
Ground Element Type and
Combat Values 309
A
Admin Points
Creating Soviet Units 183
Expending 180
Forming Soviet Corps Combat Units 183
Gaining 180
General 180
Increased Soviet Costs in 1941 184
Leader Dismissal Cost 182
On-Map Unit Attachment
Change Cost 181
Other Admin Costs 184
Support Unit Attachment
Change Cost 183
Air Army. See Unit, Headquarters (HQ)
Air Base Unit. See Unit, Air Base
Air Command. See Unit, Headquarters (HQ)
Air Corps. See Unit, Headquarters (HQ)
Aircraft
Damaged 152
Ready 152
Reserve 152
Air Doctrine 235
Air Group Unit. See Unit, Air Group
Air Missions
Air Base Unit MP and Air Group
Unit Miles Flown 225
Air Dropping Units 234
Air Group Unit Miles Flown 224
Air Group Unit Transfer 235
Air Interdiction 232
Air Reconnaissance 231
Air Superiority 233
Air to Air Combat 229
Air to Ground Combat 230
Air Transport of Supplies and Fuel 233
Air Transport of Units 234
Anti-Aircraft Defense 229
Bomb City Mission Target Selection 232
Bombing Missions 231
Bombing Missions against Onmap Units 231
Day and Night Missions 227
Determining Win/Loss 237
Fighter Bombers 228
General 224
Geographical Restrictions 228
Graphical Depiction 226
Ground Support 232
Individual Aircraft Abort and
Operational Losses 225
Limits on Conducting 230
Partisan Air Resupply 233
Sequence 228
Staging Bases 225
Weather Impact 226
Air National Reserve
General 161
Transfer of Air Group Units 162
Allies, Axis. See Axis Allies
Amphibious Assault. See
Movement, Strategic
Appendices 306
Appendix A, Unit Designations and
Combat Value 306
Appendix B, List of Creatable
Soviet Units 311
Appendix C, Commander’s Report (CR) 313
Appendix D, Black Cross, Red Star
The German and Soviet Armies in GARY
GRIGSBY’S WAR IN THE EAST 337
Appendix E, Recommended Reading 352
Army Group. See Unit, Headquarters (HQ)
Army HQ. See Unit, Headquarters (HQ)
Attack
Deliberate 202
367
Hasty 201
Reconnaissance in Force 202
Attrition
Air Unit 170
Front Line 170
General 169
Generic Vehicle Attrition 262
Ground Element 169
Vehicle Movement 170
Attrition, Retreat. See Combat, Ground
Axis Allies
Axis Southern Allies General Rules 252
Bulgaria and Yugoslavia 257
Finnish Limitations 253
Finnish Surrender 256
General 252
German Units in Finland 254
Hungarian Surrender 256
Italian Withdrawal 254
Rumanian Surrender 255
Slovakian Surrender 256
Surrender of Axis Allied Forces,
General 254
Axis Garrisons. See Garrisons, Axis
B
Black Cross/Red Star
German and Soviet Armies
in GGWITE 337
Brigade. See Unit, Combat
Buildup and Breakdown. See Unit, Combat
C
Captured Equipment. See Production
Captured Supplies and Fuel. See
Combat, Ground
City. See Town, City and Urban Hexes
Combat, Ground
Battle Losses 215
Captured Supplies and Fuel 223
Combat Result Effects 214
Command Battle CV Modifier 213
Cross River Attack 214
368
Defender Retreat Path Priorities 218
Defensive Reserve Unit Special
Rules 211
Description of Ground Combat 211
Determining the Winner 216
Effect of Defender Retreat Result 217
Effect of Routing 220
Effects of Shattering 219
Effects of Surrender 219
General 200
Ground Combat Sequence 200
Initial CV Values 213
Isolated Units Retreat Results 218
Reserve Combat Units 209
Reserve Commitment MP
Requirement 210
Reserve Unit Commitment 209
Retreat Attrition 221
Support Unit Commitment 208
Support Units in Combat 208
Terrain CV Modifier 213
Unready Combat Units Attack
Restrictions 214
Vehicle Shortage CV Modifier 212
Combat Resolution
Battle Losses 215
Combat Value (CV)
General 128
Ground Combat. See Combat, Ground
Initial and Modified 129
Initial CV Values 213
Vehicle Shortage Modifier 129
Zero CV Units 129
Command Capacity (CC). See Unit,
Headquarters (HQ)
Commander’s Report (CR) 313
Air Groups (Air Group Units) Tab 321
Battles Tab 328
Compare Window 335
Equipment Tab 331
General CR Interface Mechanics 313
HQs (Headquarters Units) Tab 318
HQ Tab Formation Inventory Window 320
Leaders Tab 326
Locations Tab 329
Command Point. See Unit,
Headquarters (HQ)
Command Range. See Unit,
Headquaters (HQ)
Corpo Aereo Spedizione. See Unit,
Headquarters (HQ)
Corps. See Unit, Headquarters (HQ)
Creating New Units
Creatable Soviet Units, List of 311
Fortified Region and Zone Units 246
General 241
New Soviet Combat and
Headquarters Units 244
Soviet Air Base Units 245
Soviet Air Group Units 245
Soviet Support Units 245
D
Detection Level (DL)
Air Reconnaissance DL 186
General 185
Developer Notes 304
Displacement Move. See Movement,
Displacement
E
Equipment Downgrades. See Production
Experience
Air Group Unit 168
Ground Elements 167
F
Factories
Build Limit 278
Capture, Damage, Repair 281
Disposition and Damage to Evacuating
Factory Points 283
Manpower Factory Damage and
Destruction 280
Manpower Starvation Damage 270
Soviet Evacuation 282
Upgrades 278
Fatigue
Air Group Units 169
Ground Elements 168
Find Hex/City/Unit/Air Group Unit.
See Map Area
First Winter Rule. See Weather,
First Winter Rule
Fliegerkorps. See Unit, Headquarters (HQ)
Fog of War (FoW)
FoW and DL Information 187
General 186
Movement Fog of War (FoW) 188
Fortification Defense Modifier
Artillery and Fort Levels 208
Civilian Population Labor Assist to
Fort Level Construction 206
Combat Unit Fort Level Construction 204
Fortification Levels 204
Fort Level and AFV Damage 208
Fort Level Reduction in Combat 207
Support Unit Assist to Fort Level
Construction 205
Terrain 203
Fortification Defensive Modifier
General 203
Fortified Regions and Zones.
See Unit, Combat
Front. See Unit, Headquarters (HQ)
G
Game Scenarios
General 292
List of 293
Starting Movement Allowances 293
Unit Win/Loss Numbers 293
Game Scenarios, 22 June 1941 Turn
Frozen Units 293
Geographical HQ Conversion 293
Geographical Movement Restrictions 293
Soviet Rail Capacity Reduction 294
Suprise Rules 294
Garrison, Axis
Requirements 240
Garrisons, Axis
369
General 240
Partisan Creation from Un-garrisoned
Populations 241
Ground Combat. See Combat, Ground
Ground Elements
Downgrade 133
General 130
Support Squad 131
Swap 133
Upgrade 133
Guards Unit. See Unit, Elite
H
Headquarters (HQ) Unit. See Unit,
Headquarters
Hexes
Control 126
Conversion of Enemy Hexes 127
Conversion of Isolated Hexes 127
Isolated 222
High Command. See Unit,
Headquarters (HQ)
I
Interdiction. See Air Missions
Isolated Hexes. See Hexes, Isolated
Isolated Unit. See Unit, Isolated
L
Leaders
Battle Win and Loss Credit 177
Chain of Command Rating Checks 175
Command Optimum Rank 179
Command Restrictions 173
Death of a Leader 179
Designation 173
Determining Air Mission Win/Loss 237
Dismissal 178
Dismissal Admin Costs 179
General 172
Leader Promotion Skill Rating
Reduction Check 179
370
Promotion 178
Promotion and Dismissal 177
Rallying Routed Units 220
Ranks 172
Rating, Administrative 174
Rating, Air 174
Rating Check Command Range
Modifier 176
Rating Checks 175
Rating Increase 175
Rating, Initiative 174
Rating, Mechanized (Mech) 174
Rating, Morale 174
Rating, Naval 174
Rating, Political 173
Ratings, Combat 174
Replacement 178
Luftflotte. See Unit, Headquarters (HQ)
M
Manpower Evacuation and Migration 280
Manpower Production. See Production
Map Area
Boundary Lines 123
General 122
Merging Units. See Unit, Combat
Military District. See Unit,
Headquarters (HQ)
Morale
Air Group Unit 164
Basic Levels of National Morale 164
Ground Unit 163
New Units 165
Soviet Shock Army Morale Bonus 167
Unit 163
Moscow Defense Zone HQ. See Unit,
Headquarters (HQ)
Motorization. See Movement, Tactical
Motor Pool. See Supply
Soviet Generic Vehicle Mobilization 294
Mountain Pass 125
Movement, Displacement
Air Base Unit Displacement 221
Conditions 220
Displacement Move Procedure 220
Isolated Unit Displacement 221
Movement Fog of War (FoW). See
Fog of War (FoW)
Movement, Ground Unit 188
Movement, Strategic
Amphibious Naval Transport 198
General 194
Interdiction of Naval Movement 200
Naval Transport 198
Sea Zones 198
Shipping/Amphibious Capacity 198
Strategic Movement Points (SMP) 194
Strategic Rail Transport 195
Movement, Tactical
Determining MP Allowances 189
General 189
June 22, 1941 and Early War
Movement Costs 191
Maximum and Minimum MP 189
Tactical MP Cost Chart 192
Temporary Motorization of Nonmotorized Units 191
N
National Air Reserve. See Air
National Reserve
Naval Transport. See Movement, Strategic
O
OB. See Table of Equipment (TOE)
OKH. See Unit, Headquarters (HQ)
P
Panzer Group. See Unit, Headquarters (HQ)
Partisans, Soviet
Anti-Partisan Attacks and Axis
Unit Interaction 239
General 238
Partisan Attacks 239
Partisan Creation from Un-garrisoned
Populations 241
Partisan Night Air Supply 238
Partisan Unit Limitations 240
Production
AFV/Combat Vehicle Production 277
Aircraft, AFV/Combat Vehicle Factory
Expansion and Build Limit 278
Aircraft Production 277
Armament Production 274
Captured Equipment 223, 284
Equipment Downgrades 279
Fuel Production 275
General 272
German Armament Points to
Axis Allies 285
Heavy Industry (Supplies) Production
and Allocation 274
Lend Lease 285
Manpower Production 279
Oil Production 275
Port and Rail yard Capacity 281
Production Chart 286
Production to Other Fronts 284
Resource Production 274
Soviet Generic Vehicle Mobilization 294
Synthetic Fuel Production 275
The Production System 273
Vehicle Production 276
Vehicle Repair 276
R
Rail Network and Railheads. See Supply
Railroad Repair
Automatic Rail Line Repair 196
Manual Rail Line Repair 197
MP Cost to Repair 197
Rail Line Repair 195
Rail Repair and the Supply Segment 198
Railroad Repair Value (RRV) 197
Repair Eligibility 197
Recommended Reading 352
Reconnaissance in Force. See Attack
Refit Mode. See Replacements
Regimental Unit. See Unit, Combat
Reinforcements
371
General 241
Placement 241
Rebuilding Destroyed German
Combat Units 243
Rebuilding Destroyed Soviet
Combat Units 243
Reliability
AFV/Combat Vehicle 170
AFV Reliability Based Damage 171
Aircraft 170
Relocation. See Unit, Headquarters (HQ)
Replacements
AFV Ground Element Replacement
Limitations and Equipment
Losses 249
Air Group Unit Replacement Aircraft 250
General 246
Ground Element Replacement
Availability 249
Ground Element Replacements
and TOE 248
Refit Mode 250
The Replacement Segment 247
Retreat Attrition. See Combat, Ground
Retreats. See Combat, Ground
S
Scenarios. See Game Scenarios
Soviet Allied Armies 257
Soviet Guards. See Unit, Elite
Soviet Partisans. See Partisans, Soviet
SS Division Re-designation 141
Stacking 128
Static. See Unit, Combat
STAVKA. See Unit, Headquarters (HQ)
Strategic Movement. See
Movement, Strategic
Strategy and Tactics 299
Supply
Ammunition 265
Axis Rail Supply Modifier 269
Beachhead Supply State 264
Effects 270
Emergency Vehicle Reallocation 261
372
First Winter Axis Supply Modifier 292
Fuel 266
General 258
General Supplies 265
Generic Vehicle Attrition 262
HQ Supply Buildup 271
HQ Units and Supply 262
HQ Units as Supply Sources 144
HQ Unit Supply and Fuel Dumps 262
In Supply State 263
Isolated Supply State 265
Manpower Starvation Damage 270
Motor Pool 260
Permanent Supply Sources 259
Port Supply 260
Railhead Distance and Movement
Supply Modifier 269
Rail Network and Railheads 258
Rail Repair and the Supply Segment 198
Receiving Supply from City and
Urban Hexes 269
Receiving Supply, General 269
Return of Excess Supply 270
Soviet Ammo Shortages 266
States of Supply 263
Supply Path Trace MP Cost 267
Supply Trace over Water Hexes 267
Supply Trace over Water Hexes
and Lake Ladoga 288
Supply Trace Visualization 268
The Supply Grid 258
The Supply Segment 268
Tracing and Receiving Supply,
General 266
Tracing Supply 266
Vehicle Shortage Modifier 261
Support Unit. See Unit, Support
Support Unit Level. See Unit,
Headquarters (HQ)
T
Table of Equipment (TOE)
General 132
Upgrades 132
Tactical Ground Movement. See Movement
Tactical MP Cost Chart. See
Movement, Tactical
Temporary Motorization. See Movement,
Tactical; See Movement, Tactical;
See Movement, Tactical
Terrain
Defense Modifier 203
Features 125
Type 123
TOE. See Table of Equipment (TOE)
TOE (OB). See Table of Equipment (TOE)
U
Unit
Depleted 133
Ground 128
Unready 133
Unit, Air
General 152
Unit, Air Base
Attachment Restrictions 158
Disbandment of SAD Air Base Units 159
General 158
Type 5 HQ 143
Unit, AIr Base
Soviet Air Base Unit Names 159
Unit, Air Group
Air Commitment System 162
Aircraft Status 152
Air Group Unit Transfer 235
Downgrade 156
Functional Types 153
General 152
Group Types 152
Names 154
Soviet Air Group Unit Designation
Changes 156
Soviet Air Regiment Maximum
Size Changes 153
Swap 156
Upgrade 156
Unit, Air Headquarters
Air HQ Units Attachment Restrictions 160
General 160
Soviet Air Command HQ Redesignation 160
Unit, Auto-Attachment 150
Unit, Combat
Attachment to HQ Units 144
Buildup and Breakdown 137
Fortified Regions and Zones 135
General 135
Merging 139
Regimental and Brigade Size 139
Reserve Combat Units. See
Combat, Ground
Static Unit Reactivation 141
Static Unit Setting 140
Unit,Combat
Attachment of Support Units 136
Unit, Creating. See Creating New Units
Unit Designations
Unit Colors 307
UnitDesignations
UnitSizes 306
Unit, Disbanding
Automatic Disbanding of Soviet
Corps HQ Units 252
General 251
Requirements and Restrictions 252
Unit, Elite
Creation of Soviet Guards Air Units 167
General 165
Soviet Corps Combat Unit Buildup
and Guards Status 167
Soviet Guards Ground Unit Creation 166
Unit, Frozen
Axis Allied Frozen Garrisons 172
Frozen Unit Restrictions 171
General 171
Soviet Frozen MD and MDZ HQ Units 171
Unit, Headquarter (HQ)
HQ Unit Types 142
Unit, Headquarters (HQ)
Attachment of Support Units
to HQ Units 145
Auto Attachment of Support Units 146
Combat Unit Attachment to HQ Units 144
373
Command Capacity (CC) 145
Command Points (CP) 145
Construction and Engineer Permanent
Support Levels 147
General 141
German Army Group South Redesignation 150
HQ Support 148
HQ Units as Supply Sources 144
Manual Attachment of Support Units 147
Relocation 148
Soviet Military District and Front
Transformations 149
Support Level 146
Unit, Headquaters (HQ)
Command Range 148
Leader Rating Check Command
Range Modifier 176
Unit, Isolated
General 222
Isolated Supply State 265
Isolated Unit Combat Value Penalties 222
Unit Level Order of Battle (OB). See
Table of Equipment (TOE)
Unit, Rail Repair
Type 6 HQ 144
Unit, Support
AA Support Units in Cities 134
Attachment to HQ Units 145
General 134
Support Units in Combat. See
Combat, Ground
Unit, Withdrawal
General 251
Requirements and Restrictions 251
V
Victory, Campaign Scenario
Automatic and Point Value Victory
Conditions 297
Victory, Campaign Scenarios
Victory Conditions 296
VP Locations and Values 296
Victory, Non-Campaign Scenarios
374
Victory Conditions 298
W
Weather
Effects of Weather 287
General 287
Ice Levels and Frozen Lakes
and Rivers 287
Ice Levels and Movement Costs 288
Non-Random Weather 288
Random Weather 289
Supply Trace over Water Hexes
and Lake Ladoga 288
Weather, First Winter Rule
Combat Value Modifications 291
General 291
Ground Element Damage and
Disruption 291
Mitigation in Cities 292
Section of Map Area Affected 291
Supply Modifier 292
Unit Morale Reduction 292
Withdrawal. See Unit, Withdrawal
Z
Zones of Control
ZOC Definition 127
28. CREDITS
EXECUTIVE PRODUCERS
Joel Billings, David Heath
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
Gary Grigsby, Joel Billings, Keith Brors, Erik Rutins, Jim Wirth, and Pavel Zagzin
PROGRAMMING
Gary Grigsby, Keith Brors, Pavel Zagzin
ADDITIONAL PROGRAMMING
Jim Bello, Karl Lean
SCENARIO DESIGN AND HISTORICAL RESEARCH
Gary Grigsby, Walt Kunz, Trey Marshall, Jim Wirth, and Pavel Zagzin
ART DIRECTOR
Marc von Martial
ART AND GRAPHICS
Marc von Martial, Jason Barish, Jim Martin
BOX AND LOGO DESIGN
Marc von Martial
SOUND AND MUSIC AND VIDEO SEQUENCES
Barry Munden
PRODUCTION ASSISTANT
Andrew Loveridge
MANUAL EDITING AND CONTENT
Allan Berke, Joel Billings, Sean Drummy
MANUAL DESIGN AND LAYOUT
Marc von Martial
TEST COORDINATOR
Andy Johnson
PLAYTESTERS
Flavio Carillo, Matthew Coady, Lee Elmendorf, David Faustmann, Stuart Hunt, Brad
Hunter, Pieter de Jong, Rafael Junguito, Jyri Kettunen, Don Lazov, Ron Lorence, Bob
Malin, Brady Mulhausen, Jon Pyle, Ester Panagia, Daniel Patocka, Vito Pentassuglia,
Rick Porter, Leonardo Rogic, Jose Antonio, Collell Urbano, and Goran Wickstrom
PUBLIC RELATIONS & MARKETING
Sean Drummy
DIRECTOR OF OPERATIONS AND ACQUISITIONS
David Heath
LEAD ADMINISTRATION
Liz Stoltz
MANAGER OF DEALER RELATIONS & BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT
Karlis Rutins
375
CUSTOMER SUPPORT STAFF
Daniel Heath, Alex Fiedler
FORUM ADMINISTRATION
Erik Rutins, Alex Fiedler, Marc von Martial, David Heath
Web-Database Design & Development
Alex Fiedler
NETWORK AND SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR
Alex Fiedler, David Heath
SOCIAL MEDIA MANAGER
Steve Stafford
PC SUPPORT AND NETWORK ADMINISTRATOR
Lance Stoltz
SPECIAL THANKS
To our new colleagues at Slitherine Ltd.: JD McNeil, Iain McNeil, Marco
Minoli, Philip Veale, Andrea Nicola, Richard Evans, Christian Bassani.
MATRIX NEXGEN
Alexander Rutins, Andrew Heath, Nicholas Heath, Shane Heath, Austin Stoltz,
Noah Stoltz, Jesse Stoltz, Heidi Fiedler, Blake Fiedler, Harold Dupree
OUR STRENGTH
We thank God for giving us the ability and strength to complete this project
and follow our dream.
We would also like to thank our families and friends for giving us
their non-stop love and support during this project.
376
END -U SE R L IC E N S E AG RE E M E N T
YOU SHOULD CAREFULLY READ THE FOLLOWING LICENSE AGREEMENT BEFORE INSTALLING THIS
SOFTWARE PROGRAM.
With the use/installation of the CD(s),DVD(s) and/or software program(s) you agree to the following license
agreement:
This License Agreement is a legal binding contract between you and Matrix Games Ltd. and/or its
subsidiaries for the above mentioned software prod uct, consisting of the computer software and possible
relevant media, printing material and electronic operating instructions (the “software product”). By installing
the software product, copying it or using it in any other way, you are agreeing to accept the conditions of
this License Agreement without change. Should you not agree to the conditions of this License Agreement,
do not install this software product, but return it to where you purchased it according to their return policy.
Software product license
This software product is copyrighted (by national law and international contracts.) This software product has
not been sold to you, but is only licensed to you.
License warranty
This License Agreement warrants you a license with the following rights: Use of the delivered software. This
software product may only be used by you. You are allowed to install this software product and use it on
any computer in your home only.
Description of further rights and restrictions
Restrictions concerning Reverse Engineering, Decompilation and Disassembling
You are not allowed to change the software product, subject it to a reverse engineering, decompilize, or
disassemble it. The software product is licensed in whole. Its parts may not be separated, a may not be
used on more than one computer.
Hiring out
You may not lease, rent or lend the software product to anyone.
Software negotiation
You are permitted to relinquish all rights you are entitled to under this License Agreement completely and
durably to another party, as long as you
(a) do not retain any copies (of the whole software product or single parts of it),
(b) relinquish the whole software product (including all covering material (in media- or form),
upgrades, and the License Agreement durable and completely to the consignee.
Responsibilities/ Restrictions.
The software product may contain an Editor that allows you to create custom levels, scenarios or other
materials for your personal use in connection with the software product (“new materials”). You will not
be entitled to use or allow third parties to use the Editor and/or the new materials created thereby for
commercial purposes including, but not limited to, distribution of new materials on a stand alone basis
or packaged with other software or hardware through any and all distribution channels, including, but
not limited to, retail sales and on-line electronic distribution without the express prior written consent of
Matrix Games Ltd. and its subsidiaries. You are expressly prohibited from selling and/or otherwise profiting
from any Editor, add-on packs, sequels or other items based upon or related to the software product and/
or the new materials without the express written consent of Matrix Games Ltd. and/or its subsidiaries. You
may freely distributed by email or on-line electronic distribution, however Matrix Games Ltd. specifically
withholds any license to the author of any such created custom levels, scenarios or other materials to
distribute copies thereof in any fixed media format. Any persons doing so shall be guilty of copyright
violation and will be subject to appropriate civil or criminal action at the discretion of the copyright holder.
Copyright and trademark rights
(1) The software product (inclusive all illustrations, photos, animation sequences, video, audio, music and
text parts, which were embedded in the software product), as well as all the connected trade-mark and
rights of usage, the packaging, printed materials and all copies of the software products are property of
Matrix Games Ltd. and/or its licensees and/or licensor’s.
(2) The software product is protected by copyright and trademark by national law, international law and
international contract stipulations.
(3) With regard to archive purposes, you may handle the software product like any other by copyright
protected work, and you may not make copies of the printed materials, which are included with the software
product, including the packaging.
(4) You may not remove, modify or change the statements about copyrights and trademarks from the
software product. This particularly refers to statements and marks on the packing and the data media, at
statements which are published on the web site or which are accessible by Internet, or others which are
included in the software product or are created from this.
Limited Warranty
Matrix Games Ltd. and/or its subsidiaries warrant that the software product essentially works in agreement
with the written statements being supplied with the software product from Matrix Games Ltd. and/or its
subsidiaries. This warranty covers 30 days, beginning with the date stated on the receipt.
Legal remedy of the consumer:
The responsibility of Matrix Games Ltd. and/or its subsidiaries and its suppliers is limited to - one of the
following, by choice of Matrix Games Ltd. and/or its subsidiaries (a) the payback of the license fee you paid, not to exceed the purchased price, or
(b) repair or replacement of the part, or the parts of the software
product if returned directly to Matrix Games Ltd. and/or its subsidiaries including a copy of your receipt. This
limited warranty is not valid, if the defect is based on an accident or misused or faulty handling. For each
replaced software product, the guarantee will be for a period of an additional 30 days from the expiration
of the original warranty, as long as Matrix Games Ltd. and/or its subsidiaries determines that the software
product was obtained legally.
No further warranties
Matrix Games Ltd. and/or its subsidiaries and its suppliers do make, as far as this is permitted by practicable
law, any further warranty, as well as the liability for occurring or failure of an explicit or tacitly agreed
condition. This includes especially the legal warranty for marketable quality, for the suitability for a special
aim, for property, for the non-violation, concerning the software product and the stipulation, which assigns
service activities, respective for shortcomings in the field of service activities.
Limited Liability
(1) As far as this is permitted by practicable law, Matrix Games Ltd. and/or its subsidiaries and its suppliers
are not liable for special damages being based on accident, or mediate damages, for any following
damages, including compensation for the loss of business, for the interruption of business operation, for the
loss of business information or any other financial damages, arising from the use or an impossibility of the
use of the software product, or from the guarantee or abstained guarantee of service activities. This even
applies, if Matrix Games Ltd. and/or its subsidiaries product were directly responsible for such damages.
(2) In any case, Matrix Games Ltd. and/or its subsidiaries´ entire liability will be, by instruction of this
License Agreement, limited to the amount the purchaser actually paid for the software product. All of these
restrictions are not valid, if Matrix Games Ltd. and/or its subsidiaries caused the damage willfully.
Final Restrictions.
(1) Should restrictions of this contract be not legally binding in whole or in part, and/or not practicable, and/
or lose their legal force later, the validity of the remaining restrictions of the contracts shall remain in force.
This also applies, if it should be proved, that the contract includes an unenforceable clause.
(2) Instead of the ineffective and/or impracticable restriction because of that clause, an adequate agreement
shall be valid, which, as far as legally possible, approaches best to the intended clause.
USE OF THIS PRODUCT IS SUBJECT TO THE ACCEPTANCE OF THE LICENSE AGREEMENT.
© 2010 MATRIX GAMES, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. MATRIX GAMES, Ltd. and the MATRIX GAMES, Ltd. logo are trademarks of MATRIX GAMES, Ltd. All other trademarks
and trade names are the properties of their respective owners and MATRIX GAMES, Ltd. make no claim thereto.
The Wargamer is the Internet’s premier source of information for wargamers worldwide, providing
coverage for new war and strategy games as well as other relevant games, books,
and movies and the conventions where you can find them.
In addition to games we offer a variety of other articles
and features:
News. The Wargamer keeps readers
informed as the industry evolves.
News about upcoming games,
patches to existing games,
features, and financial information
are continuously posted to keep
readers up to date with the latest
information.
Forums. Our forums cover all
aspects in the world of gaming,
whether it be PC, board, or
other types of games. In
addition we have a robust
gaming community where
we discuss not only
games, but have a place
to hang out with other
gamers and chat with
them.
The Gamers Network. The
Wargamer offers multiple gaming
resources including a tool to find
opponents for PBEM games, patches
for games, and user-created scenarios for
games. We also provide links to patches to fix
and improve games.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement