team collaboration

team collaboration
spine = .65”
About the Author
• Review core concepts for team effectiveness—from brainstorming
and conlict resolution to empowering great ideas
• Set up a Microsoft SharePoint
site to manage team content,
communications, and worklows
• Work better together using the collaboration features in
Microsoft Word, Excel , PowerPoint , Outlook , and OneNote
• Create templates and processes for repeatable results
• Manage team deliverables and day-to-day work with Microsoft
Outlook and Lync
• Use cloud-based services to make working remotely, on the run,
or in the ofice even more lexible
, a former managing
editor and writer at Microsoft, is
an expert on the business productivity features in Microsoft Ofice.
He has written numerous books,
including the oficial
for the Microsoft Ofice 365,
Word 2010 Expert, Excel 2010
Expert, and OneNote 2010
certiication exams.
team collaboration
Whether leading a workgroup, special project, or your own business—
set the stage for more effective collaboration using Microsoft Ofice.
This pragmatic guide shares best practices for enabling your team’s
best work—while exploiting the built-in collaboration features in your
favorite Ofice programs.
Microsoft Ofice
for more
Business/Microsoft Ofice
Team Collaboration
Using Microsoft Oficefor
Microsoft Press
A Division of Microsoft Corporation
One Microsoft Way
Redmond, Washington 98052-6399
Copyright © 2012 by John Pierce
All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
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Library of Congress Control Number: 2012950443
ISBN: 978-0-7356-6962-8
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Cover: Twist Creative ∙ Seattle
Part 1
Concepts and basic tools
Chapter 1
Collaboration basics
Chapter 2
Team dynamics and leadership
The importance of dissent
Generating and evaluating ideas
The needs of virtual teams
Working alone and together
Collaborative tools in Microsoft Ofice
Managing content and history
Using templates
Communication and sharing
Keeping records
Document collaboration
Mobility and lexibility
A real example
Building a SharePoint team site
Getting started on the home page
Working with groups and permissions
Adding users to the site or a group
Managing permissions for users and groups
Deining a permission level
Creating a group
Working on the team site
Adding a slide library
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Chapter 3
Creating and modifying views
Developing the team site
Managing document approval with a worklow
Breaking permission inheritance
Creating pages
Using a wiki page library
Classifying and searching for content
Using advanced search
Working with search results
Managing access and preserving history
Protecting Ofice documents
Using rights management
Using a password
Protecting workbooks and worksheets
Managing versions
Working with document properties
Setting properties in an Ofice program
Deining properties for a list or library
Chapter 4
Adding list apps
Tracking tasks
Holding a team discussion
Scheduling and managing events
Working with documents
Setting up alerts
Connecting with Ofice and exporting items
Building team templates
Using Excel templates
Looking at the inventory list template
Creating a simple tracking template
with data validation
Developing a PowerPoint template
Elements of a PowerPoint template
Creating your own PowerPoint template
Designing a Word template
Creating building blocks and Quick Parts
Adding content controls
Protecting a template
Adding custom templates to your team site
Part 2
Working day to day as a team
Chapter 5
An integrated Outlook
Chapter 6
Working with the team site from Outlook
Connecting to a document library
Managing team discussions from Outlook
Using Outlook to add and update the
team site task list
Linking Outlook items to OneNote
Adding e-mail to OneNote
Using meeting notes
Working with Outlook tasks in OneNote
Sharing and publishing calendars
Sending a calendar by e-mail
Sharing a calendar
Publishing a calendar online
Avoiding scheduling conlicts
Working together in Lync
Contacts and presence
Sharing status information with your team
Getting in touch
Viewing and managing your status
Instant messages, video calls, and online meetings
Exchanging instant messages
Holding a video conference
Using your conversation history
Holding meetings online
Collaboration tools
Sharing your desktop
Sharing a PowerPoint presentation
Chapter 7
Sharing a program
Conducting an online poll
Working together on a whiteboard
Recordings and meeting notes
Making and managing recordings
Taking notes in OneNote
Keeping track of discussions and ideas
Sharing OneNote notebooks
Synchronizing notebooks
Adding content to a notebook
Inserting iles and printouts
Inserting a spreadsheet
Adding images and drawings
Working with pen input
Adding audio and video recordings
Working with tables
Editing and formatting text in OneNote
Adding links and linked notes
Linking pages to other OneNote pages
Linking notes to pages, sections, and notebooks
Working with linked notes
Linking notes to other applications
Managing changes and additions to shared notebooks
Marking coauthor edits as read or unread
Viewing recent edits
Finding notes by author
Hiding author initials
Working with page versions
Searching notebooks
Searching notebooks, sections, and pages
Displaying the Search Results pane
Tagging notes
Setting up a group of common tags
Finding tagged notes
Creating a tag summary page
Doing more with OneNote
Saving the current page as a template
Research and references
Sending pages in shareable formats
Using the notebook Recycle Bin
Opening backup notebooks
Working on shared documents in Word
Controlling the editing of a document
Basic collaboration tools: comments and
revision marks
Annotating a document
Tracking changes
Comparing and combining documents
Comparing documents
Combining documents
Coauthoring documents in Word
Word coauthoring basics
Blocking authors
Resolving conlicts
Comparing versions
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Collaborating in Excel
Making use of ile formats and annotations
Distributing Excel iles in other formats
Annotating and reviewing worksheets
by using comments
Distributing and merging multiple workbooks
Sharing workbooks on a network
Protecting a shared workbook
Tracking changes in a workbook
Resolving conlicts
Viewing change history
Clearing the sharing option
Sharing Excel iles on SkyDrive or SharePoint
Setting browser view options
C hapter 10
Preparing a presentation as a group
Working with a slide library
Building the library
Reusing library slides
Inserting slides from SharePoint
Updating slides
Coauthoring a presentation
Adding annotations and comments
Comparing presentations
A few inal steps
Chapter 11
Working with Ofice Web Apps on SkyDrive
The SkyDrive landscape
SkyDrive commands
Sharing documents
Sharing SkyDrive folders
Using the SkyDrive Application
Using Mail, People, and Calendar apps
Creating and editing documents in Ofice Web Apps
Using Word Web App
Taking notes in OneNote Web App
Working together in Excel Web App
Building and editing presentations in
PowerPoint Web App
About the Author
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THE E XPERIENCE OF working on a team can be deeply rewarding and
deeply frustrating—and sometimes both at the same time. Team members
can leave a meeting feeling good about themselves when they’ve solved a
particularly dificult issue or seen the results of a new process that alleviated
redundant work or reduced the number of errors. On the other hand, the
imperative of getting work done on schedule can lead to miscommunications
and misunderstandings, undocumented shortcuts, abbreviated reviews, or
just sloppy preparation—experiences that can damage a team’s spirit and its
reputation. In these cases, team members need to have a system in place that
allows them to do more than promise to avoid similar mistakes in the future.
On its own, Microsoft Ofice can’t ensure that a team works together effectively. Team dynamics, leadership, clarity of goals, and other mostly intangible factors play a large role in that. But having a tool such as Ofice at the
center of how a team produces its work does provide support for important
needs, including access to information, ease of communication, and content
management (such as document versions, reviews, worklows, and approved
In Team Collaboration: Using Microsoft Ofice for More Effective Teamwork,
you’ll learn about these and other capabilities in Ofice—and also receive
some advice about the nature and goals of teamwork.
The nature of work in general has changed as the result of worker mobility,
the use of mobile computing devices, cloud computing and services, and the
predominance of teamwork of all sorts. To meet these needs, the programs
in Ofice have steadily evolved to facilitate collaboration. As you’ll see as you
read this book, Ofice is no longer designed with the assumption that you’ll
use it all on your own—at least for very long. At times, of course, you’ll be at
your PC, typing a document, preparing a presentation, or crunching numbers.
But in most cases, the results of these activities will soon be shared with your
coworkers, not to mention with managers, partners, vendors, and others.
And sharing work is often just the beginning of effective collaboration. What
I hope you gain from this book is an understanding of how the capabilities
in Ofice let teams share work in context—to help gather opinions, set goals,
manage time, and facilitate decisions.
Who this book is for
Team Collaboration: Using Microsoft Ofice for More Effective Teamwork is
intended for individuals and groups who want to know how to use Ofice to
facilitate the work they do as a team. In this context, “team” could mean a
small business (say, 5 to 12 people), a department within a larger organization,
a project team made up of individuals from several different departments,
or a group of independent contractors working together on one or more
I use the term “project” frequently in this book to refer to the work teams
do together. In many cases, this might be a true project (an activity with a
deined set of goals and with speciic start and end dates), but I also intend
“project” to refer to the ongoing work of a team—work that is structured by
tasks and the creation, review, and approval of documents and information.
And, of course, this book is intended for teams that create content in Ofice as
one of their principal activities. This covers a broad spectrum of job roles and
industries, including (but not limited to) sales, marketing, legal work, insurance,
publishing, retail, engineering, government and public policy, nonproits, and
This book contains both descriptive information that highlights capabilities in
Ofice and some step-by-step procedures that lead you through a series of
commands to execute a particular task. I’ve written this book assuming that
readers are familiar with the general Ofice user interface or are learning it by
consulting another source. You should at a minimum understand the structure
of the Ofice ribbon and how it is organized in tabs and groups of commands.
Advanced users of Ofice will likely already work with many of the features
described in the book. This book also does not cover any Ofice administration tasks. It does not describe how to centrally administer a SharePoint site
collection, for example, or how to conigure Lync Server or Exchange Server.
Readers who need this information should turn to Microsoft TechNet
( or other books from Microsoft Press.
How this book is organized
This book is organized in two parts. Part 1, “Concepts and basic tools,”
includes the book’s irst four chapters. It provides background information
about how people work as a team and describes steps teams can take in
Ofice to set up the tools they use to manage their work over time.
Chapter 1, “Collaboration basics,” describes factors that inluence team
dynamics, how teams can avoid groupthink, the use of brainstorming
techniques, and other aspects of working as a group. This chapter also
introduces some of the collaboration capabilities in Ofice.
Chapter 2, “Building a SharePoint team site,” covers details of how a
team site can facilitate collaborative work, including how to work with a
document library, how to track and manage tasks, and how to conduct
a team discussion in SharePoint. This chapter also covers how to set up
a worklow to manage document approval as well as other capabilities
in SharePoint.
Chapter 3, “Managing access and preserving history,” details why and
how teams need to control access to at least some of the information
and content that they produce. You’ll learn about the digital rights
service in Ofice, document passwords, and how you can inspect a
document to detect information that is best not to share. Chapter 3
also returns to the discussion of SharePoint to cover how to implement
versions and approved publishing on a team site.
Chapter 4, “Building team templates,” explains why templates are useful in coordinating the work a team does. It covers how to ind and
work with the templates that come with Ofice; describes elements and
features that make up templates in Excel, PowerPoint, and Word; and
offers examples of how to build templates from scratch.
Part 2, “Working day to day as a team,” includes Chapters 5 through 11. The
majority of these chapters examine how teams can use speciic programs in
Ofice to collaborate. They also describe how the programs work together—
for example, how you can manage a SharePoint task list from Outlook (Chapter 5, “An integrated Outlook”), make a PowerPoint presentation in Microsoft
Lync (Chapter 6, “Working together in Lync”), or link notes in a OneNote
notebook to a document in Word (Chapter 7, “Keeping track of discussions
and ideas”). Chapters 8 through 10, respectively, cover collaborative features
in Word, Excel, and PowerPoint. In these chapters you’ll learn about coauthoring, a feature that enables more than one person to work on a ile at the same
time, in addition to more conventional collaborative features such as comments, revision marks, and combining and comparing iles.
Chapter 11, “Working with Ofice Web Apps on SkyDrive,” provides an overview of the capabilities available on SkyDrive, Microsoft’s cloud service that
provides storage, versioning, e-mail (under most circumstances), a calendar,
and a contact list. You’ll also learn more about Ofice Web Apps, which are
web-based versions of the desktop programs that let you work with documents in a web browser.
Reading this book in chapter order is not necessary, but the book is designed
(especially in Part 1) to add layers to the descriptions of features and capabilities as chapters progress. Readers just starting out working on a team will
beneit from reading and working through the examples in the chapters in
Part 1 before moving on to the speciic program features covered in Part 2.
Ofice versions and requirements
The screen shots and procedures in this book are based on the Ofice 2013
Preview available during the summer and early fall of 2012. Keep in mind that
the appearance of Ofice and the steps you follow to complete a task might
be different in the inal version that is released.
Some of the programs discussed in this book require server systems to run.
These include SharePoint and Lync. In addition, some of the features described for Outlook are tied to using Outlook on Exchange Server. You can
ind information about online hosting services for SharePoint and Lync on
Microsoft’s website. You can also ind information about third-party hosting
solutions on the web.
Thanks to Rosemary Caperton, Valerie Woolley, Megan Smith-Creed, and
Jorge Diaz for their help organizing, editing, and producing this book. Thanks
also to Charles Schwenk for his conversations over the years, especially regarding the nature of groups and organizations, and to Lucinda Rowley, who
exempliies a collaborative spirit. On the home front, gratitude to MC, Fox,
and Holly.
How to get support & provide feedback
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Concepts and
basic tools
Collaboration basics
WHAT DOE S IT ME AN to work in collaboration as a team? Some-
Team dynamics and
The importance of dissent 6
Generating and evaluating
ideas 8
times, it’s as simple as sharing resources and information, but complex
concepts are also involved. For example, collaboration depends on relationships that team members build and maintain, and at the foundation
of these relationships lies the need for each team member to act account-
The needs of virtual teams 11
ably toward his or her own responsibilities. The pursuit of group goals
Working alone and
and objectives that depend on individual responsibilities is a dynamic
Collaborative tools in
Microsoft Ofice 14
context is part of how they remain effective.
A real example
that’s always active, and how teams understand and remain aware of this
In this chapter, I’ll describe aspects of how teams work together.
Many books are written on this topic, and you can ind lots of
information and a range of opinions by searching the web. This
chapter won’t cover the topic in full depth, of course. As a way of
introducing ideas about the nature of collaboration, I’ve selected
areas that in my experience are most relevant to the teams I’ve
worked on. I’ll briely describe team dynamics, the perils of groupthink, types of group tasks, and a few other topics. In the last major
section of this chapter, I’ll relate some of these concepts to speciic
programs and features in Microsoft Ofice. The aims are to provide
some ideas you can consider as you work as a team and to introduce how you can apply these ideas when you work together and
on your own in Ofice.
Chapter 1
Collaboration basics
In preparing this chapter, I’ve relied on information from the following sources: “Virtual teamwork— nature’s four collaboration methods”
( and “Ten
rules that govern groups” (
Team dynamics and leadership
The groups and teams we’re a part of can provide an important measure of our social
and professional identity. We want to be identiied with success and not with dysfunction, and we derive satisfaction from being a member of a team that projects values
we agree with—an openness to new ideas, for example—and follows cohesive, welldesigned processes and plans.
Who leads your team and your role on a team make a signiicant difference as to how
your team operates. Are you in a role that is accountable for budgets and schedules? If
something goes wrong, are you one of the team members who share the blame, or is
your role more functional and operational—a role involved less with strategy and more
with implementation?
Team dynamics—which involves how teams exchange ideas, make decisions, and resolve
conlicts—are inluenced by the composition and hierarchy of a team. Some teams have
no speciic reporting structure—no shared manager and no one member with overall
responsibility for the success of the team. These might be teams of peers from different
departments or groups. Each team member might report to a different group manager,
who in turn reports to a division manager, which provides some common leadership. But
lines of authority might be more diffuse than this. A team might consist of coworkers
from different divisions, for example, or a team can be “virtual” and made up of people
who work together as independent contractors on discreet projects.
Some teams aren’t at all democratic. These teams have speciic leaders as a result of a
member’s role (a designated project manager, for example) or organizational hierarchy.
Team members can also assume positions of leadership through their experience and
by example. On teams like this, collaboration still involves building consensus by adapting and expanding a point of view or a plan of action so that a team works collectively
toward speciic goals.
Whether a team is led by example, by committee, or by appointment, effective teams
and those who lead them should strive to do the following:
Team dynamics and leadership
Encourage participation in discussions and the expression of ideas. How much fun
is it to attend a team meeting every week where only the manager speaks or you
hear from just the same few talkative individuals? Effective teams especially need
good processes to orient new members. Documentation helps in this regard, but
you can also use mentors and peers to introduce and coach new team members
about common processes and practices.
Find ways to let team members learn and apply new skills, which can be a tricky
goal to implement. People have experience and expertise that make it imperative
that they be the ones assigned to do certain tasks. You might work in an organizational environment that provides training and professional development, which
can offer formal paths to gaining new skills. If not, more initiative is needed to
acquire, enhance, and adapt skills that give you the versatility to take on different,
more challenging opportunities within a team.
Point to accomplishments. Most everyone likes to be praised and to receive recognition. You can do this in lots of different ways, both formal and informal.
Share information. This sounds simple and straightforward, and it often is, especially for information that's related solely to the activities of the team. Teams need
to set up mechanisms for regular feedback on the status of group work, which
ensures that team members are all working with the latest information. But teams
(especially those within larger organizations) don't work in vacuums. Sometimes
rumors in the mill have a direct bearing on the composition of a team, its longterm plans, and its immediate work. Some team members might have information
that others don't and might not be at liberty to reveal it. That can cause tension or
ill will from time to time. Teamwork isn't a conlict-free zone, so . . .
Discuss issues and conlicts and seek timely resolutions. Team members (and
team leaders) need to be sensitive to the scope and effect of issues that cause
controversy. Conversations that focus on gathering facts and opinions and on
understanding whatever's been misunderstood might involve only one or two
team members. If possible, a resolution that affects the entire team should be
presented impartially (without pointing ingers, that is) and the reasons behind the
decision explained. Some issues affect the whole team from the start (scheduling
or resource conlicts are often among these topics), so taking on these issues in a
full team meeting can help identify speciic points that need attention and—with
good luck—lead to a resolution the full team accepts. Keep in mind that impulsive
actions aren't the same as timely actions. A desire to act quickly can sometimes
make a situation worse, especially if the action isn't informed by all the facts and is
taken without consulting everyone with a stake in the outcome.
Chapter 1
Chapter 1
Collaboration basics
Collecting information and reviewing it regularly keeps team leaders
informed and aware of issues that might be causing problems. The information you collect and share can also offer perspectives on how to avoid
facing the same or similar problems in the future. Later in this chapter,
and in several chapters in this book, you'll learn of ways to collect and
maintain information that can help provide these insights.
That’s some of what you want from a team leader. Team members play their part as well
in creating a team dynamic that’s effective:
Do what you say you’re going to do. Fulilling the responsibilities you’ve been assigned generates conidence in other team members. Of course, forces are always
at play that can hinder the performance of your work, so you can add “to the best
of your abilities” here. It’s a simple case of team members being able to depend on
each other. Conscientious effort also builds a sense that you’ve made a contribution.
In discussions with other team members, try not to personalize issues. Describe
how an issue affects the completion of a task or delays the schedule or adds to the
budget—in other words, try to focus your discussion on the situation and not on
the team members involved, even when you believe a team member's performance
is at the root of the issue. This approach is intended to maintain healthy lines of
communication and respect. It's possible you don't have all the facts, and you want
to avoid accusations that aren't grounded in the true nature of a situation.
Do your work with the attitude you want other team members to display. Volunteer and show initiative, but be mindful of the role each team member has. In
other words, initiative is great, but don't usurp responsibilities. Show respect for
the experience and expertise of other team members, and offer suggestions for
improvement openly.
The importance of dissent
Day to day, team members perform their work in the context of many different decisions.
Some decisions are routine and straightforward and are made by team leaders, team
members with speciic expertise, or team members responsible for speciic aspects of a
team’s work. But even with decisions that affect routine work, teams can sometimes turn
a blind eye toward alternatives. A new team member, for example, with experience in another organization or with different tools, suggests a change to a process and is met only
with a chorus of “That’s not how we do it” or “That won’t work because.” Those types of
answers are one way teams can become stale and gloomy places.
The importance of dissent
Teams should collect and welcome a wide range of opinions to remain effective in their
decision making. Essentially, teams need to avoid groupthink, the phenomenon where
everyone on a team agrees for the sake of agreeing and simply goes along. Structured
work environments can provide plenty of incentives to agree for the sake of agreeing.
Team members operate within a context of performance reviews, the prospect of promotions, and the desire to maintain positive relationships with team members and others
within a larger group. Teams are often assembled with common values in mind. Team
leaders and managers look for people who “it,” who will be good team players. And
cohesiveness has an important role in making a team productive. If every action a team
undertakes is subject to second guessing, little actual work can take place, or at least
that’s often the perception.
Sometimes, speaking up isn’t easy, especially on teams where you might be new or on
teams with a couple of members who tend to control and dominate conversations. If you
disagree with the majority of your team members, even for reasons you ind important
and can document, your disagreement can be taken as a sign of disrespect. You don’t
want to be considered a troublemaker. Team members who do offer contrary opinions
should offer them without attacking anyone else personally and generally focus only on
issues that are truly important. Just as you don’t want to agree only to agree, there’s little
value in a team member who always says the team is doing the wrong thing. That starts
to sound more like whining than constructive dissent.
But team members should not simply dismiss opinions that aren’t aligned with how the
majority views an issue. It might seem like you are saving time by making a decision
without pausing to take account of alternative views, but a team that doesn’t cultivate
the ability to consider and investigate alternatives runs the risk of missing opportunities for productive change and can perpetuate ineficiencies by clinging to processes
and procedures only because that’s the way things have always been done. And there’s
another advantage to listening to all points of view: having listened openly to contrary
views, if a team sticks with a time-honored process or decides to follow what the majority of team members think is the best approach, it’s more likely that the decision will be
carried out with a high degree of motivation.
Teams can put in place some practices to help lessen the ill effects of groupthink. Have a
team member play devil’s advocate (the team member asked to be the devil’s advocate is
generally not the team’s leader). To do this, someone in the group has to be critical—to
bring up weaknesses and poke holes in the viewpoints that currently prevail. The aim of
devil’s advocacy is to come up with a number of solutions and to lessen the bias that the
team as a whole might have toward the current point of view. Remember that having
someone on the team play the devil’s advocate might not be enough. If someone is only
playing a role, that person might not be taken seriously. Make room on your team for
Chapter 1
Chapter 1
Collaboration basics
truly contrary opinions. This keeps the environment open to a broader range of possible
solutions to the problem being discussed.
Team leaders play a crucial role in how well dissent is tolerated and used. It’s nice to work
on a team on which leaders facilitate conversation and encourage participation without
pushing the conversation in one direction. Of course, when someone needs to make a
decision, you want that aspect of leadership to be evident too.
Generating and evaluating ideas
Collaborative work is often facilitated through approaches that don’t enforce rigorous
structures. Brainstorming sessions can serve this purpose, where some or all of a team’s
members gather to generate ideas about future work, exchange ideas about what processes can be improved, or outline solutions to particularly dificult problems that keep
coming up.
Brainstorming has been used for many years as a way for teams and groups to generate
ideas. Brainstorming can be creative and help offset groupthink, for example, by letting
team members offer ideas, share information, and outline suggestions in an environment
that postpones evaluation and encourages a relaxed exchange. The idea is to generate idea after idea for further consideration, not to mull over the pros and cons of any
particular idea on the spot.
Team brainstorming sessions can produce good results, but for a variety of reasons
(listed next), these meetings can end up not being that effective:
It can be hard to get everyone to participate in a group meeting. Because the environment is intended to be relaxed, some team members might decide they only
need to show up; they don’t need to come with ideas.
Even though the goal of a brainstorming meeting is to generate ideas without
evaluating them, team members will often be hesitant to speak up for fear that
their ideas are being judged.
The conversation becomes too detailed. Someone announces an idea that sparks
further conversation, which is great, but the conversation can become bogged
down. Team members waiting their turn to offer ideas might not get the chance
if the meeting runs too long or won't speak up when it's time because they think
their idea won't receive the same level of reception.
Generating and evaluating ideas
If your team does hold a brainstorming meeting, apply some or all of the ideas in the following list to run the meeting more effectively:
Let people know the topic of the brainstorming session ahead of time, and ask
team members to prepare their ideas in advance.
Keep track of how many ideas each team member offers. Sounds sort of silly, but
don't let one or two team members offer a dozen ideas, while other team members offer only a few.
Keep the scope of the issue you're brainstorming about manageable. If you are
looking for feedback on large-scale concepts, break down the concept into questions that address speciic aspects of the issue. You could even have the team meet
in smaller groups and have each group brainstorm about one of the related questions.
Come away with as many ideas as possible. Tell the team at the outset that you
want to list twenty or thirty or whatever number of good-quality ideas that the
team can then consider and evaluate later in more detail.
Teams should not restrict themselves to brainstorming meetings as a way to generate ideas. You might get better results following a couple of different approaches. For
example, some research has concluded that people working by themselves often come
up with more and better ideas, and conducting brainstorming sessions online has been
shown to produce good results. Teams might use e-mail to brainstorm, asking everyone
to send ideas to a team member who collects the ideas in a single document. The team
can then meet to review and discuss the ideas. At the meeting, team members might be
inspired to come forward with additional ideas.
As you’ll see in Chapter 2, “Building a SharePoint team site,” you can set
up a discussion board in Microsoft SharePoint. A discussion board lets
people offer new ideas and also see ideas others have offered, which
they can then start to build on.
Without diminishing the beneits of holding a brainstorming meeting, a team might be
better off letting its members generate ideas on their own and come together later for
discussion and evaluation. Evaluating ideas as a group has the added advantage that
the team can begin to come to a consensus about the ideas they want to develop. Each
member of the team participates in the evaluation process, and when agreement is
reached on the course to take, the team should have a broad level of participation.
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Does being part of a team inspire an individual to do better work? When you
read about teams and the nature of teamwork, sports and animals inevitably
come up as examples that point to the advantages of teamwork. For example,
one ant building a nest works slowly, but when that ant is joined by others, work
quickens signiicantly. Here, maybe the ants working together is the point, or
maybe it’s at least partly the competition.
Researchers have noted this trend in sports and in simple social situations. One
experiment concluded that bicyclists ride faster when they’re competing as part
of a team. And, long ago (1898), a researcher interested in this topic had children
wind thread onto a reel both on their own and in competition with others. The
children wound more thread in the competitive context.
Like ants, do human beings achieve more simply because others are around?
Over the years, research suggests that being engaged in an activity with other
people does improve performance, and this concept seems particularly true
when individuals in a group are working on tasks that are generally distinct, so
that an individual performance can be recognized and not just the effort of the
group. In situations when the contribution of a particular individual in the group
is hard to determine, people have a tendency to make less effort. Researchers
use a tug of war as an example of this kind of work.
Researchers have taken this one step further to study whether the element of
competition is necessary to improve an individual’s performance in a group or
whether the simple presence of the group is enough. In one of the experiments
designed to test this concept, people were asked to write down as many words as
they could that were related to a given target word. They were given three oneminute periods and told they were not in competition with each other. More often than not, participants produced more words when others were present than
when they were alone. Later research showed that for tasks that are harder than
writing down words, performance of individuals didn’t improve but got worse.
In the 1960s, some research on individual performance in groups focused on an
approach called “drive theory.” The idea here is that in front of other people, individuals are more alert and excited. In a state of greater awareness, we respond
well if our habits and skills it the situation but not if our habits and skills don’t
The needs of virtual teams
Later research developed a theory that centered on distraction and conlict. This
theory asserted that a group can serve essentially as a distraction. In this context, a conlict arises between an individual’s attention to a task at hand and the
presence of the group. This conlict doesn’t impede progress on generally simply
tasks, but it can cause work on complex tasks to suffer.
Put into practice, the history of this and other research suggests that when
teams are involved in work in which the effort of individual members is clear,
the individuals perform better, which should carry over to the team as a whole.
In situations where it’s hard for individuals to distinguish themselves—in other
words, where it’s easy for team members to hide—being in a group makes an
individual’s performance worse.
The needs of virtual teams
I hope this book will appeal to teams of all sorts—small businesses, departments in larger
organizations, as well as virtual teams made up of freelance workers or workers from
several different companies. I’m not alone in the experience of having worked regularly
with someone for years without ever meeting him face to face. I work in a home ofice
most days, but when I need to, I work in coffee shops. People with full-time jobs in organizations large and small have similar experiences—working with partners and vendors
across the globe, working on the road, catching up at home in the evening.
Given the nature of work these days—a highly mobile workforce, lexible work hours,
lots of people working independently, companies with ofices in different locations—I
wanted to devote this section to some of the characteristics of virtual teams. Technology
(including Microsoft Ofice, and especially the collaboration features Ofice provides)
enables virtual teams to a large degree. Instant communications, social networks, shared
storage, mobile computing—these and other features provide the kind of support virtual
teams need. Virtual teams might also have technological challenges because they don’t
have a single platform they use and don’t always have access to shared storage. It would
be great if a virtual team could spend time to make sure all their tools are in sync, but
time is often of the essence, so this isn’t always a reality.
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Some teams have a fairly long history and remain relatively stable in membership (in
today’s terms, at least). Virtual teams (collections of freelancers or a group of employees
from different companies) are more likely to change their composition frequently. Being
a member of a team like this—or being someone who depends on work a virtual team
is producing—creates speciic challenges. Because there’s little cohesion, there’s little
history on which to base trust or reliance. And because members of teams might not be
working for the same organization, there is no or little line of authority, which means
decision making might be harder to facilitate.
This lack of common structure can make being part of a virtual team more dificult. It
also makes it more dificult to manage them. If you are part of a virtual team, or are
given the task of managing one, here are three qualities to cultivate to make the team’s
work more effective:
Self-management Even if you are the manager of a virtual team, keep in mind
that in many cases, you won’t need to do much managing of the team’s personnel.
You should expect team members to more or less manage themselves. Keep your
eye on overarching issues such as schedule, budget, specs, and so on. Independent
contractors won’t succeed without a healthy measure of initiative and discipline, so
you probably don’t need to spend a lot of time developing your skills as a motivational speaker.
Frequent communication in various forms Virtual teams don’t—and in many
cases can’t—meet face to face. Most of a virtual team’s communication takes place
outside scheduled events such as meetings. Communication is often frequent and
outside regular business hours as well. A virtual team’s manager might want to set
up some standards for reporting status, especially if the manager needs to report
to a client on a regular basis in turn.
Shoot irst Because virtual teams don’t always have a rigorous structure and
aren’t subject to organizational needs for common processes and procedures, you
can expect lots of experimentation and change. Members can pursue approaches
that simply “work,” without having to fully document an idea and have others
review it before it is implemented. If an approach doesn’t work, work quickly to
pursue another path that might. This level of lexibility is an advantage of virtual
teams, and anyone managing one should strive to nurture it.
Working alone and together
Working alone and together
As you’ll see, one of the refrains in this book is how the collaborative features of Ofice
support the effort that team members need to make when they work on their own and
when they work on tasks as a group. As part of a team, you’ll ind yourself engaged in
work that involves or doesn’t involve other team members to a varying degree:
Individual tasks are those that can be inished by a single team member without
help from others. Sometimes this is the best way to get work done, even in an
environment that’s set up for collaboration. Writing the irst draft of a report or
a schedule might fall in this category. That doesn’t mean the document won’t be
reviewed later.
Group tasks require more than one team member to do the same activity concurrently. Review meetings and brainstorming sessions are group tasks. Teams
should be sure that group tasks don't waste resources. Does everyone who wants
to participate truly need to, for example? Do you need two designers present or
three engineers? If each team member is needed to represent a different point of
view, probably so, but if they speak in unison from a shared role, you might not be
gaining an advantage.
Team tasks require more than one team member to perform different tasks concurrently. Different individuals must do different things at the same time. There is
both division of labor and concurrent execution. These types of tasks require the
highest degree of coordination between team members.
An important step in managing team resources and skills is to understand how these
different types of tasks are implemented in a team's work. When your team is creating a
report or developing a presentation (or any type of collaborative document), you often
gain the best use of resources by assigning one team member to write at least the irst
draft and then make that draft available to other team members to review. This involves
an individual task and a group task.
Another step you might take is to divide the report or presentation into sections that
individual team members develop on their own. One team member then takes the
individual sections and pulls them together into a cohesive document. Here again, this
approach involves individual tasks and group tasks.
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You can take this example one more step into the realm of team tasks by coauthoring
the document, whereby more than one team member can author and develop a document at the same time. You’ll learn how Ofice enables this approach in several chapters
in Part 2 of this book. In a coauthoring approach such as this, one team member might
work on several different sections, be solely responsible for another section, and also be
involved in reviews.
Collaborative tools in Microsoft Ofice
In this section, I’ll introduce how the remaining chapters in this book talk about collaboration, teamwork, and Microsoft Ofice together.
One point to make at the outset is that the difference between using Ofice and using
Ofice collaboratively as part of a team becomes less distinct with each release of the programs. Ofice 2013 Preview makes that fact pretty clear. Figure 1-1 shows the Open page
in Backstage view in Microsoft PowerPoint. When you click Open, you no longer see the
Open dialog box, set by default to display your Documents library on your C drive. In fact,
your local computer appears next to last in the list of places you go to open iles. Ahead
of it are locations such as your SharePoint team site (Flyingspress in Figure 1-1), SkyDrive,
and the general entry Other Web Locations.
FIGURE 1-1 Opening (and saving) files leads you first to shared locations like SharePoint and SkyDrive.
Providing such prominent access to a SharePoint site and SkyDrive will make team collaboration a step or two easier, but it also recognizes the degree to which mobility goes
hand in hand with personal computing these days. Mobility and sharing aren’t the same
as collaboration, but they are important aspects of it.
Many users work with Ofice iles from different devices—a desktop PC at the ofice, a
tablet or laptop when they aren’t at the ofice, and (perhaps) a smartphone as well. People whose work requires them to be connected most of the time will ind that they can
access iles and information with far less trouble with the way Ofice is now conigured.
The prominence of SharePoint and SkyDrive is also about sharing iles. Sharing a ile—saving the ile where it’s accessible to everyone who needs it—is one of the irst steps for any
team involved in developing content collaboratively. Figure 1-2 shows the Save As page in
Backstage view. Notice the similarity with the Open page shown earlier in Figure 1-2.
FIGURE 1-2 You can save files in locations where it’s easy to share them.
After you save a ile to SkyDrive, for example, switch to the Share page in Backstage view
to see a variety of options for sharing the ile. Figure 1-3 shows the options related to the
Invite People command. Fill in ields provided to invite other people to work on the ile
with you.
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FIGURE 1-3 Office provides an array of options for sharing a file.
The options you see on the Share page will vary from program to program. Figure 1-3
again uses PowerPoint as an example, but Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft OneNote have similar options. You’ll see examples of other sharing scenarios in later
chapters in this book.
The ease with which you can work with iles in shared locations is an important aspect of
how Ofice facilitates the work of a team. Other features build on the capabilities Ofice
provides. The following sections offer a brief preview of these features. You’ll learn how
to work with them in detail as you progress through the book.
Managing content and history
Teams working in Ofice need procedures and controls to manage content. Some of this
control can be gained by using a SharePoint site, where teams can track versions, for example, or set up a publishing mechanism through which only approved users can make
content available to every member of the team. Teams can also set up a permissions
scheme in SharePoint that allows read access to some team members and full control
access to others. The idea of applying “controls” isn’t intended to exclude team members
but to ensure that errors and omissions don’t occur. You don’t want to send a proposal to
a client before it’s complete. Teams can take simple steps like controlling access to documents via passwords. For the most sensitive information, teams can apply Information
Rights Management in programs such as Word and Excel. This step lets you match users
with speciic levels of access and also lets you set expiration dates for speciic documents.
These types of restrictions help protect not only sensitive information, but information
that’s potentially valuable.
Using templates
Work of any type often involves repetition. The hope is to set up processes through
which some of the repetitious work can take care of itself—formatting, for example, or
having in place the headings for the major sections of a PowerPoint presentation. By using and creating templates in Ofice, your goal is to emphasize and structure what needs
to be repeated, and therefore avoid the effort (often redundant) of having to do that
work each time yourself.
Ofice 2013 Preview is full of templates of all sorts, and teams will likely ind many useful
templates they can use as starting points for the documents they need to create in their
Communication and sharing
As described in earlier sections of this chapter, teams need both formal and informal
communication tools. They also need capabilities to access shared content when they are
involved in group tasks. In addition, virtual teams need software tools that enable them
to work effectively without the beneit of working in a shared space. In Ofice, Microsoft Lync can ill many of these roles. In many respects, Lync should become the Ofice
program teams use most often. You can use it to make a call, send an instant message
or e-mail, or to set up a whiteboard for a brainstorming session. (That’s just some of
what you can do in Lync.) One of the most interesting new developments in Ofice 2013
Preview is how deeply Lync is now integrated with the rest of the Ofice programs. It’s
not an overstatement to say that Ofice now assumes that most users will turn to Lync
frequently as a mechanism for sharing iles, making online presentations, and staying in
touch with colleagues.
Keeping records
In teamwork, there’s a ine balance between collecting information, formalizing it, culling
it for insights, and archiving it for future reference. Teams need a record of their activities, but gathering information can begin to show a diminishing return when you don’t
know what information you have, what project or event it’s related to, or what someone
said when discussing it. OneNote is a multifaceted program that teams can use to keep
records straight. The notebook structure in OneNote is widely familiar as an organizational device, and the program’s capacity to store an array of data types (text, images,
tables, printouts, and so on), link the information together, and locate information via
searching facilitates how teams can capture, maintain, and ind information.
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Document collaboration
As mentioned earlier in this chapter in the section “Working alone and together,” teams
can take a number of different approaches to developing documents collaboratively.
Ofice supports all the approaches described earlier—single authorship and team
review, multiple authors whose work is merged or combined into a master document,
and coauthoring sessions in which more than one team member works on a document
Mobility and lexibility
Ofice Web Apps are web-based versions of the Ofice programs (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and OneNote) that render documents in your browser, where you can view and
edit the documents using many of the same commands and features you use in the
desktop version of Ofice. The Ofice Web Apps are available on SkyDrive, so team members with urgent work to do can gain access to a ile and make changes to it from almost
any computer that’s connected to the web. In addition, SkyDrive itself provides a number
of features that are helpful to teams, including storing iles in a shared repository, sharing
calendars, applying permissions, and restoring a previous version.
A real example
It’s always fun to experience irsthand what you write about. For several months earlier
this year (2012), I managed a series of content projects for a group at Microsoft. A new
version of a software product related to the work was about a day from being released.
I was working at home, some 50 miles from Microsoft’s campus. In an Excel workbook
stored on a SharePoint site, I was tracking the status of web articles that described how
to use the new version, noting which had been updated and were ready to be published.
In Word, I was opening older versions of the articles to grab images that needed to be
copied to the updated ones. I began to notice some distortion in the images and sent
an e-mail message to my contact at Microsoft. A minute later Lync rang, and my contact
was on the line, sharing her desktop so that we could confer about settings that affected
the sizes of the images. After a brief conversation, we’d agreed about what adjustments
we needed to make, and then carried on with our work.
This scene is like a thousand others that team members using Ofice go through
everyday—with hardly ever a wrinkle. Technology doesn’t ensure that teams operate
effectively—there’s lots of personality and psychology involved. By using a tool like
Ofice, teams can worry less about the technical side and just concentrate on getting
Building a SharePoint
team site
TE AMS C AN CRE ATE and develop many different types of sites in
Getting started on the home
page 20
Microsoft SharePoint—sites designed for organizing and documenting
Working with groups and
cuses on the SharePoint team site, which is designed to facilitate col-
meetings, for managing contacts, or for hosting blogs. This chapter fo-
Working on the team site 28
laboration. Teams and workgroups that rely on Microsoft Ofice to create
Creating and modifying
views 44
content can make a team site the focal point of the team’s activities,
Developing the team site
Classifying and searching
for content
using the site to store and manage documents, maintain task and event
lists, follow worklows, and more. As you’ll see later in this chapter and
in other chapters in this book, SharePoint is well integrated with other
Ofice programs. This integration provides a platform from which team
members can manage most every aspect of their work together.
The operations that team members can do on a team site are managed by site permissions. It’s likely that only a few team members
need to manage site users and the permissions they have, and it’s
possible, depending on the type of SharePoint deployment you are
using, that permissions will be handled entirely by network administrators who aren’t members of the immediate team.
In this chapter, after reviewing how to get started with a team site,
I’ll describe the use of site groups and permissions in more detail.
You’ll then learn how to work with some of the features of a team
site and how to develop a team site beyond its basic elements. You’ll
also learn how to manage speciic aspects of a site’s operations.
Chapter 2
Building a SharePoint team site
Virtual teams, such as a group of independent contractors working
together on a project, might use a SharePoint site that’s provided by a
third-party hosting company. Microsoft also offers access to SharePoint
sites through a subscription to Microsoft Ofice 365 or the SharePoint
Online service. The site I used for writing this chapter is part of an Ofice
365 subscription through the Ofice 2013 Preview program available in
the summer and fall of 2012.
Getting started on the home page
When you irst view a basic team site, you’ll see a page something like the one shown in
Figure 2-1. This igure shows the home page for a team site that’s part of an Ofice 365
subscription to Ofice 2013 Preview. A couple of features I added to the site—the document libraries named Proposals and Department Budgets—are listed in the navigation
pane at the left under the heading Recent.
FIGURE 2-1 A basic team site.
Getting started on the home page
The home page displays several tiles (not all of them are shown in the igure) that you can
use to start adding features and apps to your site and to change your site’s appearance.
You can also click Remove This to remove the Getting Started tiles and start building your
site from options available on the Settings menu. To display this menu, click the Settings
button (just to the right of your name). If at some point you want to work with the Getting Started tiles after removing them, choose Getting Started from the Settings menu to
display them again.
The following list describes what you can do with the Getting Started tiles. You can also
access many of the settings and options the tiles provide from the Settings menu, using
commands such as Add An App and Site Settings.
Share Your Site Use this tile to send an invitation to others to join your site.
Figure 2-2 shows the dialog box you use to address the invitation. If you are a site
owner, you can specify the level of permission the people you invite will have by
using the list at the bottom of the dialog box. You’ll learn more about the permission levels in the next section.
FIGURE 2-2 As one step in setting up your site, invite other team members by using the Share
Your Site tile. You can also specify a permission level in the invitation.
Working On A Deadline Use this tile to turn your site’s home page into a site
for tracking a project. When you click this tile, SharePoint prompts you to add a
project summary, a task list, and a calendar to your site. You can use the project
summary to add tasks to a project timeline. The calendar and the task list are
added to the navigation pane at the left. You’ll see more details about working
with a calendar and tasks later in the chapter.
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Add Lists, Libraries, And Other Apps From this tile, you can choose from an
assortment of lists and libraries (called apps in the latest version of SharePoint)
to add features to your site. The types of apps you can add include a document
library, a slide library, a discussion board, and many others. You’ll see examples of
these apps, including a slide library, later in this chapter.
What’s Your Style Use this tile to select one of several themes to change the
look of your site. Themes in SharePoint (as in other Ofice programs) deine color
and font schemes among other attributes.
Your Site. Your Brand You can use this tile to add a logo to your site and to
change the site’s title. The logo appears above the navigation pane in the upperleft corner of the site. It also works as a link to the site’s home page.
Keep Email In Context From this tile, you can add a Site Mailbox app to your
site. A Site Mailbox connects your site to a mailbox hosted on Microsoft Exchange
(such as many Microsoft Outlook mailboxes). The Site Mailbox app lets you read email on your site and view site documents in Outlook. (You can ind other examples
of how to integrate Outlook and SharePoint in Chapter 5, “An integrated Outlook.”)
Working with the pages, settings, and options you access through these tiles, you can
modify the site to give it a look and feel that identiies your team and provides access to
the information and apps your team uses to conduct its work.
The building blocks of SharePoint pages are web parts and app parts. An
example of a web part is the project summary you can add from the Getting
Started tiles. App parts include document libraries and lists. In addition to using
the Getting Started tiles to add features and change the appearance of your site,
you can edit the home page (and other site pages) directly and add and format
apps and web parts.
Start by clicking Edit in the group of commands at the right side of the home
page. (You can also click Edit Page on the Settings menu.) Once a page is in editing mode, click the Page tab on the ribbon to display two contextual tabs with
commands you use to customize the page. Use the Insert tab to add web parts,
tables, pictures, video and audio, and other types of content to the page. To add
text to your site, click on the page in an area outside a web part, and then type
the text you want—which might describe the use of a web part or an app you’ve
added. Then use the Format Text tab to apply formatting and styles to the text.
Click Save & Close at the top right of the page when you inish editing.
Working with groups and permissions
Working with groups and permissions
As I mentioned earlier, SharePoint uses groups to manage access to a site and to control
the scope of operations that members of a particular group (or an individual) can perform. Team members with responsibility for managing site access work with three main
groups: Owners, Members, and Visitors.
By default, site owners have full control over a site. Members can contribute to the site,
meaning they can upload and edit documents and add and edit list items, among other
tasks. Users in the Visitors group have read access to the site. (You can also assign users
of your site to the Viewers group, which grants them only the ability to view the site but
not work with any of the site’s content.)
■ IMPORTANT The procedures in this section are most relevant to team members who administer the
team site—for example, a team member who signed up for Ofice 365. Readers who know they are not
responsible for site administration may ind the information useful but might not be able to perform all the
steps described.
Adding users to the site or a group
In the section “Getting started on the home page,” you saw how you can use the Share
Your Site tile (part of the Getting Started tiles) to invite users to share your site. If you
are a site owner, you can select a permission level in the invitation to assign users to the
Owners, Members, Visitors, or Viewers group.
After you remove the Getting Started tiles from you site, you can use the Share button
(located in the group of commands at the top right of the site) to invite more users, or
you can manage users and permissions directly from the People And Groups page.
Follow these steps:
Click the Settings button, and then click Site Settings.
Under Users And Permissions, click People And Groups.
By default, the People And Groups page opens to display the list of users in the
Members group.
On the People And Groups page, click New, and then click Add Users.
In the Share dialog box (see Figure 2-2 earlier), add names or e-mail addresses and
type a welcoming message.
By default, the users you add in this step receive an e-mail message notifying
them that they’ve been added to the site. To not send a message, click Show
Options and then clear the check box for Send An Email Invitation.
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Building a SharePoint team site
To add a user to a different group—for example, to add a team member to the Owners
group—select the group in the pane at the left of the window, choose Add Users from
the New menu, and then ill in the Share dialog box. If you need to remove a user from a
group, select the user in the group list, click Actions, and then click Remove Users From
You can also use the Actions menu to send an e-mail message to selected
users or to contact selected users via Microsoft Lync. For more information about Lync, see Chapter 6, “Working together in Lync.”
Managing permissions for users and groups
Placing users in groups and assigning permissions to the group (rather than to the individual users) saves time because you can change the permissions assigned to the group
when necessary instead of changing permissions for each individual. You can, however,
assign speciic permissions to one or more individual users of the site. To manage permissions for an individual, follow these steps:
On the Settings menu, click Site Settings.
On the Site Settings page, under Users And Permissions, click Site Permissions.
The groups deined for the site are listed along with the permission level each
group has, as shown in the following screen shot. You can click a group name to
see a list of the current members of that group.
Working with groups and permissions
Click Grant Permissions.
Once again, you’ll see the Share dialog box.
In the Share dialog box, enter the names of users whose permission you want to
Click Show Options, and then use the Select A Group Or Permission Level list
to specify the permission level you want to apply. In addition to the permission
groups set up for the site, you’ll see the following speciic levels of permission:
Full Control The user has full control of the site. This is the default level
granted to site owners.
Design The user can view, add, update, delete, approve, and customize items
in the site.
Edit In addition to the permissions granted to users with the Contribute and
Read levels, users with the Edit level can manage lists on the site. This is the
default level granted to the Members group.
Read The user can view pages and list items and download documents. This is
the default level granted to the Visitors group.
View Only The user can view pages, list items, and documents. Document
types that can be rendered in a browser can be viewed but not downloaded.
The user can view, add, update, and delete list items and
Type a message that accompanies the e-mail that SharePoint sends to users you've
added. (You can forego the message by clearing the check box for Send An Email
To change the permission level assigned to a speciic group, select the group and then
click Edit User Permissions. In the page SharePoint displays, select the new permission
level you want to assign to this group. The options are the same as the speciic permissions described in the preceding procedure.
To see the permission level granted to a speciic user or group, click
Check Permissions, type the name of the user or group, and then click
Check Now. The Check Permissions dialog box lists the group the user is
a member of and the user’s permission level.
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Building a SharePoint team site
Deining a permission level
The built-in permission levels and SharePoint groups will cover the needs for most team
sites. You can deine your own group (see the next section, “Creating a group”) and,
if necessary, deine your own permission level. SharePoint provides a long list of speciic permissions, organized under the headings List Permissions, Site Permissions, and
Personal Permissions. Figure 2-3 shows some of the speciic list permissions. By deining
a permission level, you can ine-tune the tasks that a site member who’s granted the
permission level can perform.
FIGURE 2-3 When you define a new permission level, you can select from a list of detailed options.
To create a permission level, follow these steps:
Open the Settings menu, and then click Site Settings.
Under Users And Permissions, click Site Permissions.
On the Permissions tab, click Permission Levels, and then select Add A Permission Level.
Type a name and description, and then work through the list of permissions and
select those you want to apply to this level.
Working with groups and permissions
Creating a group
As you develop your team site, you might ind that access to some lists and libraries will
be better managed if you create a custom group. You can follow the steps in the previous section to deine a custom permission level, for example, and then create a custom
group you assign that level to. This gives you a better degree of control over the operations that members of the group can perform in that list or library, and you also preserve
the default settings for the built-in groups.
If you want to create your own group for managing user permissions, click the Create
Group button on the Permissions tab. On the Create Group page, you work with the following ields and options:
Name And About Me Description Enter a name for the group and describe the
purpose of the group.
Owner By default, the person who creates the group is designated a group
owner, but you can add other owners as need be.
Group Settings The options in this area control who can view group members
and who can edit group membership. By default, only group members can see
who is in the group, but you can choose Everyone for wider visibility. For editing
group membership, the default setting is Group Owner, but you can choose to let
group members manage membership as well.
Membership Requests In this area, choose options for managing requests to
join or leave the group. By default, requests to join or leave are not allowed. To
ease administration when conditions permit it, you can select Yes to allow requests
and also select Yes to automatically accept requests. If you allow requests, provide
the e-mail address where requests should be sent.
Give Group Permission To This Site The settings in this area grant the level of
permission the new group will have. See the earlier section, “Managing permissions for users and groups” for a description of these options.
When you click Create on the Create Group page, SharePoint displays a page you use to
add members to the group. See "Adding users to the site or a group" for more information.
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By default, lists and libraries that are part of the team site inherit permissions
from the site (the parent). This means that, by default, users in the Members
group have the same level of permission for each list or library included in the
site. You can tailor the permissions certain groups or users have for speciic
lists and libraries by breaking inheritance. For additional details, see the section
“Breaking permission inheritance” later in this chapter.
Working on the team site
In this section, I’ll describe details of how you work with a few of the lists and libraries
that are part of many team sites. As you’ll see, even a few features and apps on your site
provide a range of capabilities that facilitate how teams manage their content, communicate, and plan.
Adding a slide library
In Chapter 10, “Preparing a presentation as a group,” you’ll see how to work with a slide
library, a SharePoint app designed for storing and managing Microsoft PowerPoint slides
that are used in more than one presentation. The following steps show you how to add
a slide library to your team site, but you can adapt this procedure to add a different type
of library (a picture library, for example) depending on the type of content you manage
on your site.
You need Full Control permissions to add a library to the team site.
On the Settings menu, click Add An App.
In the search box, type Slide Library, and then press Enter. (You can also scroll
through the page or pages of apps to ind the Slide Library app—you might need
to navigate to the next page to ind it.)
Click Slide Library. (You can click App Details to see a page with a brief description that also lets you add the app).
In the Adding Slide Library dialog box, type a name.
If you want to add a description of the library and enable versioning, click Advanced Options. On the Advanced Options page, ill in the description, and select
Working on the team site
Yes to enable versioning. (You’ll learn more about the versioning feature in SharePoint in Chapter 3, “Managing access and preserving history.”)
Click Create.
You’ll learn more about working with a slide library in Chapter 10.
Libraries are deined in part by the columns used to identify and manage content. For example, a report library includes the columns Report Status and Report
Category. In a picture library, you can see information such as the ile size and
the dimensions of the picture. Libraries are also associated with speciic content
types. A forms library is set up to create a Microsoft InfoPath form, for example.
A report library provides commands to create a Microsoft Excel workbook or a
webpage on which you can display summarized information.
In addition to a document library and a slide library, the following list describes
other types of libraries you can add to your team site:
Form Library To store business forms that you create with a program such as
InfoPath, add a form library to your team site. The New Document menu item
in a form library is set up to create an InfoPath form.
Picture Library This library is designed for storing and sharing pictures. You
can view thumbnail images in the library. Double-click a thumbnail and then
click Edit Item on the ribbon to add information about the picture.
Wiki Page Library This library provides pages that are designed for quick
collaboration. The welcome page that SharePoint displays when you create a
wiki describes how you might use the library—for brainstorming or gathering research notes, for example. Click the Page tab, click Edit, and then use the
commands on the Editing Tools tabs to add content and objects to the wiki
pages. You can ind more details about setting up a wiki library later in this
Asset Library Use an asset library to store large media iles, including image, video, and audio iles. When you add an item to an asset library, you can
choose the type of item from the New Document menu. SharePoint provides a
dialog box in which you can provide a name and title, enter keywords for the
item (which are used in searches), provide comments, identify the author, add a
date and time stamp, and specify a copyright date.
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Data Connection Library A data connection library is used to store connection iles that let you connect to applications outside the team site and
SharePoint. In this library, you can store an Ofice Data Connection (ODC) ile or
a Universal Data Connection (UDC) ile. InfoPath can use a UDC ile for connections. An ODC ile can be used with a server application such as Microsoft SQL
Server to help generate reports.
Report Library A report library is designed for documents related to goals,
business intelligence, and organizational metrics. In a report library, you can
assign a report to a category, for example, and specify the status of a report.
Adding list apps
Like libraries, SharePoint lists are designed for speciic purposes—posting announcements, tracking appointments and events, holding discussions, assigning and monitoring
group tasks, conducting surveys, and many others.
To add a list, follow these steps:
On the Settings menu, choose Add An App.
On the Your Apps page, scroll to ind the list app you want to add (or use the
search box), and then click the tile to add it to your site.
In the Adding dialog box, type a name for the list. (Use the Advance Options link
to provide a description and choose other options.)
Click Create.
Among the types of list apps you might add to your team site are these:
Announcements Use an announcements list for short status reports, event
news, reminders, and similar information.
Contacts Track information about customers, suppliers, vendors, and other
people your team works with. Information in a SharePoint contact list can be synchronized with Outlook.
Custom List Start with a blank custom list and then add columns and views of
your own. You’ll learn more about views later in this chapter.
Custom List In Datasheet View Adds a blank list that’s displayed as a datasheet
(like a table in Microsoft Access or an Excel worksheet), to which you add your own
columns and views.
Import Spreadsheet Use this list to include information from an Excel worksheet or another type of spreadsheet.
Working on the team site
Issue Tracking An issue tracking list is handy for managing projects. You can
collect information about items that need resolution or require new resources.
Items in an issue tracking list can be assigned to individuals and given a priority
and a status.
Links Add this list to compile a list of webpages or other resources.
Use a survey to collect data and responses about issues and processes.
If you are working with a team site as you read this chapter, take a few minutes to add a
task list, a discussion board, and a calendar app to your team site. (Follow the steps described earlier to add the apps.) In the next sections, you'll learn more details about how
to track tasks on your team site and how you can use the calendar to schedule meetings,
deadlines, and other events.
Tracking tasks
Teams can use a task list to set up a schedule for speciic work items (or a group of related work items), track the status of each item, and adjust an item’s priority. Task items
can be assigned to team members and can also be linked to predecessor tasks to help
establish a worklow.
As the task list demonstrates, each type of list in SharePoint is deined by a speciic set of
columns (which you can also think of as ields). When you add an item to a list, you assign a value to each column to characterize that particular item. As the number of items
in a list grows, you can sort and search for items by using the values in a column.
A task is deined by ields such as the following:
Task Name The name of a task, such as Draft Due or Review Design Spec. Task
Name is the only column you are required to ill in when you create a task.
Assigned To The name of the team member responsible for the task.
Task Status The ive built-in status categories are Not Started, In Progress, Completed, Deferred, and Waiting On Someone Else.
Priority High, Normal (the default), or Low.
Start Date and Due Date The schedule for the task.
% Complete How much of the task is complete.
Description A ield you can use to provide additional details about the work this
task entails.
Predecessors Tasks that the current task depend on (for example, Review Design
Spec might depend on Create Design Spec).
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Teams might choose not to track all task items at the level of detail provided by this list.
For example, you might use only the ields Task Name, Assigned To, and Due Date.
To add a task item to the list, open the list, and then click New Task. (You can also display
the Tasks tab on the ribbon, and then click New Item.)
On the new task page, shown in Figure 2-4, ill in the ields with the information you
have to date. Again, the only required ield for a new task item is the task’s title, but you
might also know about a task’s assignment, priority, due date, and predecessors when
you create it. The default status for a task is set to Not Started. On the Edit tab at the top
of the page, click Attach File to add a ile attachment to the task item. You might attach a
budget, draft speciications, or a report that’s related to the task.
FIGURE 2-4 Define a task by adding a name and other details. You can update the task later to change its
status and percent complete.
To update or view a task item, just click the item’s name in the list. (You can also select
the item in the list—a check box appears when you point to the item—and then click
View Item in the Manage group on the Tasks tab.) Click Edit Item when you need to
change an item’s status or priority, specify the percent complete, add a predecessor task,
or change who the task is assigned to.
Working on the team site
As you can for other lists and libraries, you can set up an alert for the task
list so that you receive a notiication when items in the list change. For
details, see the section “Setting up alerts” later in this chapter.
On the List tab, you can use commands in the Connect & Export group to work with the
task list in other Ofice applications. Use the Export To Excel command to create a worksheet from the task list. This step might be helpful for analysis and for creating summaries. Use the Connect To Outlook command to create a copy of this task list in Outlook.
See Also For a detailed discussion of working with a task list in Outlook, see Chapter 5,
“An integrated Outlook.”
You can use column headings to sort the items in a list or library. In the task
list, for example, you can use the Task Name column to sort in ascending or
descending order. You can also create a ilter by using a column. For example,
use the Due Date column to apply a ilter that shows the tasks due on a
particular day. Point to the right of the column name, and then click the arrow
to display the sorting and iltering options for that column. SharePoint displays
an arrow (pointing up or down) to indicate the sorting column and sort order
for the library. If you apply a ilter, you’ll see the ilter icon beside the column
name. You can also specify settings for how a library is sorted and iltered
by creating or modifying a view. For more information, see “Creating and
modifying views” later in this chapter.
Holding a team discussion
Teams have many options for gathering opinions about the issues they’re working on,
everything from staff meetings to hallway conversations to an exchange of instant messages. Using a discussion board on the team site is another approach.
You can add more than one discussion board to your site. You might
include one for general discussions and others to cover speciic projects
or activities your team is engaged in.
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To post an item to a discussion board, follow these steps:
Click the link for the discussion board on the navigation pane to open the list.
Click New Discussion.
On the page SharePoint displays, ill in the subject and body for the item, as shown
here. Use the check box provided to pose the discussion item as a question.
You can attach iles to a discussion item, and in the Body section of the discussion item, you can use the ribbon to format the text, add hyperlinks or pictures, or
insert a table.
To read a discussion thread, click the entry in the list. (To ind a particular post, you can
sort the thread by who posted items.) While reviewing the posts for a speciic discussion,
use the Create A Reply box to respond. Click Reply to post the item.
Scheduling and managing events
The team site’s calendar provides a basic approach to scheduling events such as meetings,
planning retreats, and other team activities. You can use the calendar to set up all-day
events, meetings with deined start and end times, as well as recurring appointments.
Working on the team site
Adding an event
You work with a calendar by using commands on two tabs, Events and Calendar. Use the
Events tab to add and manage events. On the Calendar tab, you can change from Month
view to Day or Week view, expand and collapse the display of items, manage views, set
up alerts, and perform other tasks.
Follow these steps to add an event to the calendar:
On the Events tab, click New Event. (You can also just point to the date and then
click the Add button.)
In the New Item dialog box, type a title for the event, and then specify the start
time and end time.
Title, Start Time, and End Time are the only required ields for an event, but you
can provide additional information by using the following ields:
Description Provide information about the event. Use the toolbar above
the Description box to format the text you type. You can, for example, create
numbered and bulleted lists, align text, and highlight text to create and format
a meeting agenda.
Category Use one of the values SharePoint provides (such as Meeting) or
provide one of your own.
All Day Event Select this check box to schedule the event for the entire day
(an event without a speciic start time and end time).
Recurrence Use this option to set up a regular team meeting or another
event that is scheduled at set intervals. When you select this option, the New
Item dialog box refreshes, and you’ll see the controls shown below:
Type a conference room, an offsite address, or other location.
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Click Save.
Using a meeting workspace
A meeting workspace is a separate site (a subsite of your team site) that’s designed for
organizing and documenting meetings. You might set up a meeting workspace to manage key meetings during a project, for example, or as a tool for keeping your standing
team meetings on track. When you create a meeting workspace as a subsite (the detailed
steps are provided later in this section), SharePoint displays a page you use to describe
and set properties for the workspace. You need to name the meeting workspace, specify
the site’s URL (which is added to the URL for your team site), and select a meeting workspace template. A meeting workspace inherits permissions from the team site unless you
select the option Use Unique Permissions. You can also select options to include a link to
the meeting workspace on the navigation pane.
See Also For details about site permissions, see “Managing groups and permissions”
earlier in this chapter.
You can choose from the following templates when you set up a meeting workspace:
Working on the team site
Basic Meeting Workspace Creates a site with lists for tracking attendees, managing the agenda, and storing related documents.
Blank Meeting Workspace
Decision Meeting Workspace Creates a site with a task list, a document library,
and a list for recording decisions.
Social Meeting Workspace
Multipage Meeting Workspace Creates a site with lists for managing attendees and the agenda and also two blank pages that you can customize.
Creates a blank site you can customize.
Creates a site designed for social occasions.
Figure 2-5 shows the basic layout for a decision meeting workspace when SharePoint irst
displays it. The workspace includes ive lists (Objectives, Attendees, Agenda, Tasks, and
Decisions) and a document library. Use the Add New Item and related links to populate
the lists as follows:
Use the single text box provided to deine a meeting objective.
Attendees Click Manage Attendees to open the list, and then use the New
Item command on the Items tab to add a meeting attendee. Click the icon in the
Edit column to open a page where you can type a comment about the attendee,
specify whether the attendee is coming to the meeting, and specify whether the
attendee is one of the meeting’s organizers, a required attendee, or an optional
Document Library Click Add Document to upload a document related to the
meeting workspace.
Tasks The task list works the same as the standard task list described in the section “Tracking tasks” earlier in the chapter. Of course, the tasks you deine in this
list should pertain to the meeting or event that the workspace is set up to manage.
Decisions For decisions, you can specify the decision (for example, “Section 1 of
the design spec needs input from Engineering”), a contact, and the status of the
For agenda items, you can specify the subject, owner, time allotted, and
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FIGURE 2-5 The decision meeting workspace is designed for tracking objectives, attendees, the agenda,
and other information.
To create a meeting workspace subsite, follow these steps:
On the Settings menu, click View Site Contents.
At the bottom of the Site Contents page, click New Subsite.
On the New SharePoint Site page, add a name, description, and path for the subsite (for use in the URL).
Under Select A Template, click Meetings, and then select the meeting workspace
template you want to use.
Complete the other options, and then click Create.
Working with documents
In this section, I’ll describe some of the basic operations of a document library (such as
the default Documents library that’s provided with a team site). You initiate these operations by using commands on the library’s Files tab.
Working on the team site
Creating and uploading documents
Document libraries can be associated with a type of document. For example, you can
associate an Excel template with a document library used for storing and editing budgets
or other inancial documents. The default Documents library is associated with Microsoft
Word, which means that when you click New Document on the Files tab, Word starts or,
if Word is already running, Word opens a new document window.
You gain more lexibility by clicking the New Document link that appears above the list
of documents in a library. This link opens a menu that lets you create a new ile by using
the Word, Excel, PowerPoint, or OneNote web apps. It also lets you create a new folder
or upload a ile.
Use folders to organize the iles you store in a library. On the Files tab,
click New Folder. In the New Folder dialog box, type a name for the
folder, and then click Save.
The Upload Document command opens a dialog box you use to browse to the location where the ile you want to add to the library is stored. You can specify a destination
folder within the library (if folders are deined) and add a note about the version of a ile
you are uploading (if versioning is enabled for the library—for more information, see
“Managing versions” in Chapter 3, “Managing access and preserving history.”)
You can also drag iles from a folder on your computer to a library on
your team site.
Checking documents out and in
Because the documents you store on SharePoint can be opened by anyone who has the
required level of permission, you need controls in place to manage who can update a
ile. To address this need, you can instruct or require users of a library to check out a ile
before the ile can be edited. When a user checks out a ile, that user has exclusive access to edit the ile, but other users can still view the ile. When a different user opens a
checked-out ile for editing, a notiication appears informing the user of the ile’s status,
as shown in Figure 2-6.
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FIGURE 2-6 When a team member has a file checked out, you’ll see a notification like this.
In the list of documents in a library, checked-out iles are indicated with a
small, downward pointing arrow.
When a checked-out ile is open in Word or Excel, for example, you can click the File tab
and choose Check In to save changes to the library and make the ile available for others.
You can also save the ile and then use the Check In command on the Files tab in SharePoint. When you check in the document, type a comment about the changes you made,
as shown in Figure 2-7, which helps other team members understand the status of the ile.
FIGURE 2-7 Add a comment like the one shown in this image to provide information about the work
you’ve done on a document.
The Check In dialog box provides an option for you to keep the ile checked out. You
might select this option when you want other users to see the changes you’ve made up
to the point you check in the ile but still retain editorial control over the document.
Working on the team site
If you check out a ile, make changes to the ile, save those changes, but
don’t check in the ile, you can restore the ile to the state it was before
you checked it out by choosing Discard Check Out.
A document workspace is similar to a meeting workspace (see “Working with
a meeting workspace” earlier in the chapter) and includes a document library
and an announcements list by default. You can set up a document workspace
(which becomes a subsite of the team site) when you want to work with a
particular document and supporting iles on a separate site.
Setting up alerts
To expedite the work that’s managed on a team site, team members should set up alerts
for lists and libraries and for particular items (a speciic document or task, for example).
With alerts set, SharePoint notiies team members when documents are uploaded or
modiied or when items in a list change. You can be notiied by e-mail or via text message (if your site is conigured for text messaging).
You use the Alert Me command in the Share & Track group to set up notiications for
particular items. The Alert Me command appears on the Files tab in a document library,
on the Events tab for the calendar, and on the Tasks tab in the task list.
To set up an alert, follow these steps:
Open the list or library, and then select the document or list item you want to
In the Share & Track group on the Files tab (or the equivalent), click Alert Me, and
then click Set Alert On This Document. (The text of this command will vary if you
are setting an alert on a list item.)
You’ll see the New Alert dialog box, shown below.
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Type a title for the alert. (You’ll see this title in the subject line of the notiication.)
Select the delivery method. The E-Mail option is selected by default.
Under Send Alerts For These Changes, select one of the following options:
Anything Changes
Someone Else Changes A Document
Someone Else Changes A Document Created By Me
Someone Else Changes A Document Last Modiied By Me
In the When To Send Alerts area, specify whether you want to receive notiications
immediately, in a daily summary, or in a weekly summary. If you choose the daily
summary option, you can specify the time you’ll receive the notiication. For a
weekly summary, you can specify both the day and time.
The options you can select for receiving an alert are different for different types of items.
For example, for an item in the task list, in addition to options such as Anything Changes,
Working on the team site
you can be notiied when a task becomes complete, when a task is assigned to you, or
when a high-priority task changes, among other options.
Alerts can also be set up for entire lists and libraries. Here are the steps you can follow to
set up an alert for the task list, calendar, team discussion board, a document library, or
other lists or libraries:
On the team site home page, click the Page tab.
In the Share & Track group, click Alert Me, and then click Manage My Alerts.
On the My Alerts On This Site page, click Add Alert.
On the New Alert page, select the list or library you want to track, and then click
Use the ields on the New Alert page to specify an alert title (the name of the list
or library is used by default), the delivery method, the type of changes you want to
be notiied about, and the schedule for receiving alerts.
If you set up one or more alerts, choose Manage My Alerts from the Alert
Me menu to open a page on which you can edit the settings for an alert,
add other alerts, or delete an alert.
Connecting with Ofice and exporting items
As I mentioned at the start of this chapter, one of the main advantages of using a team
site to organize and manage content is the level of integration between SharePoint and
other Ofice programs. As one example, the Word and PowerPoint iles you store on your
team site can be edited by more than one team member at the same time (a feature
known as coauthoring). In addition, you can compare and restore a previous version of a
ile that’s stored on SharePoint.
See Also For details about coauthoring documents in Word and PowerPoint, see Chapter 8, “Working on shared documents in Word,” and Chapter 10, “Preparing a presentation as a group.”
You can set up other connections between the content you store in SharePoint and Ofice programs by using commands in the Connect & Export group, which appears on the
Library tab for document libraries, on the List tab for the task list, and on the Calendar
tab for the calendar.
For example, you can use the Connect To Outlook button to add an entry for the document library to the navigation pane in Outlook. When you display the library in Outlook,
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you’ll see a list of the documents. If the Outlook reading pane is open, you see a preview
of the document. You can open the document from Outlook to edit it. You can also link
the team site’s task list and calendar to Outlook. I’ll cover the details of how you can connect SharePoint and Outlook in Chapter 5, “An integrated Outlook.”
To set up easy access to the Documents library, open the library, click Connect To Ofice,
and then click Add To SharePoint Sites. This command adds a shortcut to the library to
your Favorites list in the Save As and Open dialog boxes in Word, Excel, and other Ofice
applications. You can also use this menu to remove a shortcut, or click Manage SharePoint Sites to display a page on which you can modify the shortcuts you’ve created.
Click Export To Excel to create a list of the library’s items (with column headings) in an
Excel workbook. You might do this to create a tracking sheet or to cross-check an inventory of iles.
The Sync Library To Computer command lets you work with a list or library ofline in
SharePoint Workspace.
Creating and modifying views
Lists and libraries come with built-in views. Views are deined by the columns they
include and can also be set up to relect speciied sort orders and ilters. In the task list,
for example, the default view is All Tasks. The task list also includes the views Calendar,
Completed, Gantt Chart, Late Tasks, My Tasks, and Upcoming, as shown in Figure 2-8. To
change the view of a list or library, select the view you want from the menu under Current View. (You’ll see this menu on the Library tab for a document library.)
You can create other views for a library or modify the views that SharePoint provides.
All built-in views are public views. Users with adequate permission can create additional
public views, but most all members of the site can create personal views. You might
create a view to apply a speciic ilter or sort order to a library or to create a view that’s
designed for data entry (a datasheet view). When you create a view, you choose a format
as the basis of the view (you’ll often use the format Standard View) or select one of the
library’s existing views as your starting point.
Creating and modifying views
FIGURE 2-8 The task list comes with a number of built-in public views. Team members can create personal views as well.
To create a personal view, follow these steps:
In the Manage Views group on the Library or List tab, click Create View.
Select the format you want to use, or select an existing view for the basis of the
new view.
On the Create View page, shown below, type a name for the view, and then select
Create A Personal View.
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In the Columns area, select the columns you want to include in the view. Use the
Position From Left list to specify the column order.
The Create View page provides a number of ields you use to deine a view, and
you might not need to change the default settings for many of these ields. The
following list summarizes some of the ields you work with on the Create View
page when you choose the Standard View template (not all these ields are available when you choose a view template such as Datasheet View):
Sort You can specify two columns to sort by. Choose the columns, and then
select the option to sort in ascending or descending order. In a library, users can
sort library items by using column headings. If you want to maintain the sort
order speciied for the view, select the option Sort Only By Speciied Criteria.
Filter You can keep the default setting to show all items in a view or deine
a ilter to view a selection of the items. To ilter a column based on the current
date or the current user of the site, type [Today] or [Me] as the column value.
You can also specify a date to see only iles modiied after that date. Filters are
especially useful in large lists because they let users work with the list more eficiently.
Creating and modifying views
Tabular View The Allow Individual Item Checkboxes option in this area is selected by default. These check boxes let users select multiple items to perform
bulk operations such as deleting more than one ile.
Group By Specify one or two columns by which to group items. For example,
you could group items under the Modiied By ield in a document library or the
Report Status ield in a report library.
Totals You can use this area to calculate summary information about items in
a library. The functions available depend on the type of column. They include
Count, Average, Maximum, and Minimum.
Style In a document library, the following styles are available: Basic Table;
Document Details; Newsletter; Newsletter, No Lines; Shaded; Preview Pane;
and Default. The Shaded style, for example, displays a colored background in
alternating rows. The Preview Pane style groups items along the left side of the
library, where you can highlight an item to view its details.
Folders Specify whether to navigate through folders to view items or to view
all items at once. If the list or library is organized by items or iles within folders,
you can provide a view in which the items or iles are displayed without the
Item Limit Use an item limit to restrict the number of items shown in a view.
You can set an absolute limit or allow users to view items in batches of the size
you specify. By default, the number of items available for display in a document
library is 30 per batch.
Mobile Adjust mobile settings for this view by enabling it for mobile access,
making this view the default view for mobile access, and adjusting the number
of items to display in the List View web part for this view. You can additionally
set the ield to be displayed in a mobile list simple view.
Click OK.
If you want to make changes to a view (such as a personal view you created), select that
view in the Current View list, and then click Modify View in the Manage Views group. The
Edit View page is similar to the Create View page shown in the preceding procedure. You
work with the same ields, which are populated with values that deine the view in its current state. When you modify a view, you can change the view’s name, change the order
in which columns appear in the view, add or remove columns from the view, deine a
ilter or a sort order, or specify settings for other view ields. The Edit View page does not
let you make a public view a personal view. Base a new view on one of the built-in views
if you want to create a personal view that resembles a built-in view.
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Site owners or users with Full Control permissions can create a custom column
and add it to one or more views. In the Create Column dialog box, you provide
a name for the column and specify the column type. The options for the type
of column include Single Line Of Text, Multiple Lines of Text, Number, Currency,
Date And Time, Lookup (which you can tie to another ield on your site), and others. You’ll see an example of creating a Choice column later in this chapter in the
section “Managing document approval with a worklow.”
Options in the Additional Column Settings area of the dialog box change depending on the type of column. These options give you a high degree of control
over the properties of a column you create. For the Number type, for example,
you use the following column settings:
Add a description
Specify whether the column requires data
Enforce unique values for the column
Set a minimum and maximum value
Set the number of decimal places
Specify a default value
Choose an option to show the value as a percentage
Specify whether to add this column to all content types in the library
Specify whether to add this column to the default view
You can also create a formula that is used to validate the data a user enters in the
column. In a Date And Time column, for example, you could create a formula so
that only dates later than today are valid in the column.
Custom columns are added to the library’s default view if you keep that option
selected in the Create Columns dialog box. They are not added automatically to
other views deined for the library, but you can add them by modifying a view.
Developing the team site
Developing the team site
The support a team gains from a team site can be extended by adding libraries and lists
of other types. For example, teams that manage multiple projects that involve a variety
of content (images, spreadsheets, audio iles, reports, and so on) should create libraries of speciic types to help manage this content. Teams can also add lists designed for
managing projects or contact information.
See Also For details about the library and list apps you can add to a site, see “Working
on the team site” earlier in this chapter.”
In this section, I’ll describe some additional features that support collaborative work as
you develop your team site in SharePoint. You’ll learn about worklows, how to add a
page to your site, and how to work with a wiki in SharePoint.
Managing document approval with a worklow
Team members who are site owners or have full control can associate a worklow with
a list or library to facilitate a business process such as approving a request for proposal
(RFP), a contract, a inancial report, or a similar kind of document. Two worklow templates come with a basic team site. The Disposition Approval worklow is designed to
manage document expiration and retention. The Three-State worklow is designed to
track items in a list—such as a document being routed for approval.
As an example, to create a Three-State worklow in a document library set up to store
and track proposals, follow these steps:
Open the document library, and then click the Library tab.
In the Manage Views group, click Create Column.
In the Create Column dialog box, type a name (such as Status) for the custom column, and then select Choice as the column type.
In the Additional Column Settings area, type a description for the column, and
then replace the generic choice options (labeled Enter Choice #1, and so on) with
names such as Initiated, Under Review, and Approved.
Keep the options Drop-Down Menu and Add To Default View selected, and then
click OK.
The new column should appear in the default view of the library.
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In the Settings group on the Library tab, click Worklow Settings, and then click
Add A Worklow.
On the Add A Worklow page, select Three-State as the worklow template, and
then type a name for the worklow (such as Contract Routing or Proposal Approval).
You associate the Three-State worklow with two lists: a task list and a worklow
history list. As the worklow moves from step to step, a task is created to track
its progress. Select New Task List to create a task list to use (or select a task list
you’ve already deined), and keep the Worklow History (New) option selected for
the history list.
Under Start Options, keep the default option, which is to allow an authorized user
to start the worklow manually. (You can also choose an option to start the worklow when an item is added to the library.)
Click Next.
In the Worklow States area, select the choice column you deined at the start
of this procedure. As needed, select the choices you deined for the initial state,
middle state, and inal state.
In the two Task Details sections, you deine actions that occur when a worklow is
initiated and when it reaches its middle state. You can set up an e-mail message to
include information such as a task description and due date, who a task is assigned
to, who the message goes to, and the subject line. SharePoint adds the task-related
information you deine to the task list you speciied in step 8.
Click OK.
To initiate a worklow (if the manual start option is selected), select the item in the
library, and then click Worklows on the Files tab. On the page SharePoint displays, under
Start A New Worklow, click the worklow you want to apply to this item.
To move an item from one stage to the next, select the item, click Edit Properties on the
Files tab, and then select the stage from the list for the choice column. To track a worklow task on the related task list, open the list, and then update the task item as you do
with other tasks. The task item will include a list at the top indicating that you are working with a worklow task.
On the Worklow Settings page, you can see which worklows are in
progress, add other worklows to the library, remove a worklow, and
view worklow reports.
Developing the team site
One of the ways in which you can develop the capabilities of your team site is
to design advanced worklows in Microsoft SharePoint Designer. (If SharePoint
Designer is not installed on your computer, SharePoint prompts you to install it
the irst time you work with it on your team site.)
You can start this process by choosing Create A Worklow In SharePoint Designer
from the Worklow Settings menu in the Settings group (on the Library or the
List tab). After SharePoint Designer opens and sets up a connection to your team
site, it displays a dialog box in which you name and describe the worklow.
You can then start deining the steps in the worklow by choosing from lists of
actions and conditions. Some of the actions you can choose from are Send An
Email, Log To History List, and Check Out Item. With conditions, you can deine
the worklow so that speciic steps occur only if an item was created by a speciic
person, for example, or only between two dates you specify. When you inish
deining the worklow, click the Publish button to make it available on your team
Developing worklows in SharePoint Designer involves a number of complex
steps, and you can use SharePoint Designer for much more than creating worklows as well. If you are interested in learning more about SharePoint Designer, a
number of books are available from Microsoft Press and other publishers.
Breaking permission inheritance
As I mentioned earlier in the chapter, lists and libraries by default inherit the permissions
set up for the team site (the parent). In some cases, you might want to break this relationship and apply different permissions.
To set up permissions for a library, follow these steps. (The steps are the same for a list,
except you use the List tab and the List Settings button.)
Open the library, and then, on the Library tab, click Library Settings.
On the Library Settings page, under Permissions And Management, click Permissions For This Document Library.
On the page SharePoint displays, the notiication indicates that the library inherits
its permissions.
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On the Permissions tab, click Stop Inheriting Permissions, and then click OK in
the message box.
Select a group, and then click Edit User Permissions to specify the permissions
for that group. To specify permissions for an individual user, click Grant Permissions. In the Share dialog box, type the user’s name or e-mail address, click Show
Options, and specify the permission level. (See “Managing permissions for users
and groups” earlier in this chapter for more details.)
If you want to reverse your decision and inherit permissions again, click Delete Unique
Permissions on the Permissions tab, and then click OK in the message warning that you
will lose any custom permissions.
Keep in mind that when you break inheritance, any adjustments you make to the permissions for the team site won’t affect lists or libraries with unique permissions. Similarly,
changes you make to permissions for a library or a list won’t affect a document or list
item with unique permissions applied.
See Also For more information about managing and granting permissions, see the
“Working with groups and permissions” section earlier in the chapter.
Some teams, especially those that manage multiple projects of the same kind,
can develop their team site with a particular coniguration of lists and libraries
and then save the site as a template they can use again. When you have developed the site as you want it, use the Settings menu to display the Site Settings
page, and then click Save Site As Template in the Site Actions group. Enter a
name for the template ile (do not include an extension), a name and description
for the template, and specify whether to include the content from the base site.
You must select this option if you want to include custom worklows, but you
should also include it if you have uploaded model documents to the site—for
example, a budget or a presentation template.
You can apply this site template when you create a subsite (click New Subsite on
the Site Contents page to start the process). Choose the template you created
from the Custom category in the Template Selection area of the New SharePoint
Site page. To manage custom templates, open the Site Settings page from the
Site Actions menu, and click Solutions in the Galleries area.
Developing the team site
You can also set up a list with custom views and standard items (for example, a
set of tasks you perform for each product your team develops) and then save
the list as a template. You can then base new lists on the template you create.
Use the List Settings button on the List tab to open the List Settings page. Under
Permissions And Management, click Save List As Template. Type the ile name for
the list template (here, too, you should not include an extension) and the name
and description for the template itself. If you want to include the content of a list
in the template, select that option.
If you need to edit the properties for a list template (to change its name, for
example), open the Settings menu and choose Site Settings. Under Galleries, click
List Templates. Select the list template, and then click Edit Properties in the Manage group.
Creating pages
In addition to libraries and lists, you can add pages to your team site. You develop a new
page following steps similar to those described earlier in the chapter in the sidebar “Editing the home page.” You can add text to a page and then format it, and you can also
add a variety of media (pictures, for example), as well as apps and web parts. You might
create a page to combine information from several lists—the calendar and task list, for
example. Pages you add to your team site are stored in the Site Pages library, which you
can open from the Site Contents page.
To add a page, follow these steps:
On the Settings menu, click New Page.
In the Add A Page dialog box, type a name for the page, and then click Create.
When the new page is displayed, use the Insert tab and the Format Text tab on the ribbon to add content to and design your page. When you click App Part on the Insert tab,
you’ll see a list of the apps (the lists and libraries) already conigured for your site. Choose
Calendar or Tasks, for example, to add those lists to this page, where you can examine
this information and compare it in a single view. Figure 2-9 shows a new page under
construction, with a calendar added to the page and the list of other available apps at
the top.
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FIGURE 2-9 Use apps, tables, media types, and links to create a page. The Format Text tab provides standard tools for applying styles and formats.
Using a wiki page library
Teams that want to use SharePoint as a location for collecting notes and other research
should consider adding a wiki page library to their team site. A wiki page is set up for
more free-form entry than a page designed with speciic web parts. On the pages in a
wiki library, team members can quickly add text (and use the ribbon to format it) as well
as upload iles and insert tables, web parts, images, and links.
To add a wiki page library, select Add An App from the Settings menu, and select Wiki
Page Library on the Your Apps page. Click the tile, type a name for the wiki, and then
click Create.
A wiki page library comes with two pages by default (Home and How To Use This Library), which serve to introduce you to the purpose of a wiki and describe how to use it.
Both pages appear on the navigation pane (under Updated Pages ) when you display the
Before you can add content to a wiki page, you need to place the page in edit mode.
Click the Edit button in the group of commands at the top right of the page. (You can
also click the Page tab on the ribbon and click Edit.) Team members can then work with
Developing the team site
the Format Text and Insert tabs to format text, apply styles, change layouts, and insert
objects. When you inish editing, click Save & Close in the Edit group (or click Save &
Close at the top right).
To work on a wiki page exclusively, check out the page before you edit it.
Part of the way to make a wiki useful is to link the wiki’s pages. The links create relationships within the wiki (for example, by linking a page named Product Ideas to a page
named Market Research). To create a link to another page in a wiki library, you only need
to enclose the name of the page in double brackets—for example, [[Market Research]].
After you type the irst pair of brackets ([[), the library suggests pages already in the
library (on the basis of the characters you type). Select a page, and then inish the link by
typing ]]. Links do not become active until you save and stop editing the page.
The page How To Use This Library contains examples of the types of links
you can include.
You can also use the bracket syntax to create a new page. Follow these steps:
Click Edit to put the wiki page in edit mode.
Click on the page, and then type the opening double brackets ( [[ ).
Type the name of the page you want to create, and then type the closing brackets
( ]] ).
Click Save & Close.
Click the link (links to pages that do not yet exist have a dashed underline), and
SharePoint displays the Add A Page dialog box, shown here:
Click Create.
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Figure 2-10 shows a new wiki with four pages and a link to background reading on the
library’s home page.
FIGURE 2-10 Set up a wiki page library to assemble information and research your team needs.
Click View All Pages in the Page Library group on the Page tab to see a list of the pages
in the library. In the list of pages, you can view a number of page properties, delete
pages from the library, view the version history of a page, and see who last modiied the
Use the Page History command (in the Page tab’s Manage group) to open a page that
shows a list of previous versions of a page. Recent changes are highlighted in the preview
of the page. Click a link for a previous version (listed with version numbers under Versions in the navigation pane) to view it, and use the links at the top of that page to delete
a version, restore a version, or view more information about the page’s version history.
Classifying and searching for content
Your team site will eventually contain many documents, list items, announcements, and
other information that pertains to a project, your department, or another aspect of your
team’s activities and responsibilities. The search capabilities that are built in to SharePoint
Classifying and searching for content
help you locate a document, for example, when you aren’t sure which library the document is stored in. You can also use the search feature to ind related content, such as all
the iles that a speciic team member created.
To help annotate the content on your team site, you can use tags and notes. By adding a
note or a tag to an item such as a site page or a document, a team member classiies the
content, which increases the ability of other team members to ind speciic content. Users
can add notes and tags to documents, list items, libraries, pages, and webpages outside
the site.
Adding a note
The note board lets users record comments about an item in the context of a list or
library. For example, a user can add a note about a webpage while they view the page.
Other users can see the note and a link to the webpage. Notes can be used on items
such as a page, a document, or an external site. When notes are created, they appear in
the note board that’s associated with the list, library, or content item. You can also edit or
update a note, and you can review notes made by colleagues.
To add a note to a document, follow these steps:
Open the library or list to which you want to add a note.
Select a list item or document that you want to add a note to.
On the ribbon, on the Files tab, in the Tag And Notes area, click the Tags & Notes
button to display the Tags And Notes dialog box.
Click the Note Board tab.
In the text box, type the note you want to make about the item, list, or library, and
then click Post.
Adding a tag
A tag is a term that you want to assign to content. For example, you might create three
tags for a document titled “Landscape Proposal for Contoso”: “proposal,” “landscape,”
and “Contoso.” You might also use tags that identify who created the proposal and your
contact at Contoso. Assigning a tag lets people locate documents more easily and improves searches when you use common terms. (Terms are stored in a central location so
that they can be reused.) As you type a tag, SharePoint might suggest a term, and when
you save tags, a list of suggested tags appears at the bottom of the Tags tab, as shown
in Figure 2-11. Click one of these suggested tags to display a page showing links to the
content tagged using that term.
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FIGURE 2-11 Add tags to a document to classify it, which makes finding the document easier.
To add a tag, follow these steps:
Open the library or list where you want to add a tag.
Select an item that you want to tag.
On the ribbon, click the Tags & Notes button on the Files (or Items) tab.
Click the Tags tab, and then use the Tags text box to add tags you want to assign.
Separate multiple terms by using a semicolon (;).
Click Save.
The team site’s search box appears at the top of the home page and on list and library
pages. You can search for content using keywords, a value such as a document author’s
name or a ile name, or a particular phrase that you enclose in quotation marks.
By default, SharePoint uses context to set the search scope. As the prompt in the search
box on the home page indicates, when you run a search from that page, SharePoint looks
for content across the site. If you run a search from a list or library, the scope is set to that
list or library, and the search results include only matching items in that list or library.
In addition to search scopes such as This Site, you can use a menu in the search box to
select a different search scope: Everything, People, or Conversations.
Everything Use Everything if you want to search iles in libraries as well as
list items and conversations, which includes items from discussion boards and
Classifying and searching for content
People If you choose People, the results page includes links with which you can
open a person’s My Site (a personal SharePoint site that individuals can use to
share information and documents), send an e-mail message, view the person on
the organizational chart, and so on. Setting the search scope to People doesn’t
always apply. You would not use this option when you are searching for a speciic
word or phrase in the site’s content.
Conversations Includes items from discussion boards, announcements, and similar items.
Using advanced search
When you need to deine criteria for more complex searches, use the Advanced Search
page. (A link to this page appears at the bottom of the search results page.) In an advanced search, you can work with ields that are set up to combine terms using operators
such as AND and OR. You can also specify that the search results should include only a
speciic type of document. By combining advanced search criteria, you can, for example,
search for Excel documents in English that contain the phrase “Overhead projections”
whose author is Sam Smith and were modiied later than last week. Figure 2-12 shows
the Advanced Search page.
FIGURE 2-12 Use a combination of the advanced search fields to combine criteria.
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Keep in mind that combining many criteria in an advanced search can
affect the speed at which SharePoint returns results.
Set up an advanced search by using the following options and ields:
All Of These Words The search results will contain items that include each word
you specify. For example, to ind documents written by Samantha Smith about the
companies Contoso and Adventures Works, type Smith Contoso Adventure Works.
The logic of this search parameter assumes that you included the AND operator, so
the search phrase becomes Smith AND Contoso AND Adventure Works.
The Exact Phrase
you enter.
Any Of These Words The search results will contain items that contain any of
the words you enter. In other words, the terms are combined with OR—for example, Budget OR Proposal.
None Of These Words The search results will contain items that do not contain
the word or words you enter.
Use the Language area to search for items in the language you specify. The options are English, French, German, Japanese, Simpliied Chinese, and Traditional
In the Result Type area, select the type of document to include in your results.
The options are All Results, Documents, Word Documents, Excel Documents, and
PowerPoint Presentations.
In the Property Restrictions section, specify a property you want to use as the
basis of a search. For example, Author, Description, Name, Size, URL, Last Modiied
Date, Created By, and Last Modiied By. Use the second list in this area to specify
a condition. For the Author property, for example, you can choose Contains, Does
Not Contain, Equals, or Does Not Equal. For Last Modiied Date, choose either
Equals, Later Than, or Earlier Than. Add additional properties to the search by
clicking the plus sign.
The search results will contain items that include the phrase
Classifying and searching for content
Working with search results
Along the left side of the search results page SharePoint displays the reinement panel. By
using this panel, you can tailor the search results to see items by a particular author, for
example, or to see only Excel iles. SharePoint provides categories such as the following:
Result Type
Modiied Date
Within each category, you can click one of the links listed to apply a ilter to the results.
For example, under Result Type, click Word to show only Word documents. Under Modiied Date, use the slider to see results related to the time period you select.
Chapter 2
Managing access and
preserving history
COLL ABOR ATIVE WORK IS often facilitated through approaches
Protecting Ofice
Managing versions
Working with document
that don’t enforce rigorous structures. Brainstorming sessions serve this
purpose, of course, where some or all of a team’s members gather to
generate ideas about future work, exchange ideas about what processes
can be improved, or outline solutions to particularly dificult problems
that keep coming up. In Part 2 of this book, you’ll learn how Microsoft
Lync supports various types of informal (and formal) communication
that let teams exchange ideas in these ways and how teams can use a
Microsoft OneNote notebook as a kind of ad hoc repository for recording
all types of content and ideas.
See Also For more details, see Chapter 6, “Working together in
Lync,” and Chapter 7, “Keeping track of discussions and ideas.”
In this chapter, you’ll learn more about procedures and controls
that teams can put in place to manage content they produce. Procedures such as these ensure that the formal processes, decisions,
and inalized content that are born from practices such as brainstorming are applied and retained. Although the idea of applying
“controls” can sometimes sound exclusionary (even punitive), that
isn’t the intent. The types of restrictions and controls described in
this chapter help protect sensitive and potentially valuable information, set up processes to ensure that team members work with
content that’s complete, and help teams track and classify the iles
they use. In addition, restricting access to iles and allowing only
Chapter 3
Managing access and preserving history
some team members to view documents that are still in draft form helps team members with expertise in certain areas (legal, inancial, sales, engineering, and others) work
without concern that the information they are preparing will be mistakenly distributed or
modiied before inal versions are reviewed and approved.
This chapter also builds on some of the concepts you learned about in Chapter 2, “Building a SharePoint team site.” In the last two major sections of this chapter, I’ll expand
on how you can use a document library to keep track of and manage content. To start
the chapter, I’ll describe some of the basic ways in which you can control access to and
protect Ofice documents. You saw in Chapter 2 how to use groups and permission levels
to manage a team site in SharePoint. Those permissions go a long way toward managing which team members can work on documents and what they can do, but some of
a team’s work will inevitably take place on documents that don’t take advantage of the
structure of the team site. In these cases, you can use tools like passwords and rights
management to control access to documents.
Protecting Ofice documents
When teams work with sensitive and conidential information, they can use rights management to manage access to iles and e-mail messages and to control what users can
do with a ile.
Rights management restricts permissions to a ile to prevent unauthorized access and
distribution. For example, you can apply rights management to documents that you
don’t want everyone on your team to forward, copy, or print. Permissions you set up by
using rights management are stored with the ile, which means that the restrictions you
apply are in effect whether the ile is stored in a SharePoint document library, in an Outlook message store, or on a network drive, for example.
A simpler approach to protecting documents—but one without the degree of control
offered by rights management—is to protect iles with a password. In Microsoft Word,
Excel, and PowerPoint, you can deine a password that’s required to open a ile and a different password that’s needed to modify it.
Speciic applications also include capabilities for protecting the data and formatting
in iles. In Chapter 8, “Working on shared documents in Word,” you’ll learn the steps
involved when you want to restrict the formatting and editing of a document. Later in
this section, I’ll describe similar steps you can take to protect workbooks and worksheets
in Excel.
First, I’ll describe the protections offered by rights management.
Using rights management
Rights management helps teams and organizations enforce policies that control the
copying and distribution of conidential or proprietary information. Rights are assigned
to content when it is published, and the content is distributed in an encrypted form that
provides protection wherever the content resides. In other words, a document that’s
protected with rights management carries that protection whether it is opened from
SharePoint, SkyDrive, a network share, or as an e-mail attachment.
Rights management isn’t a complete solution for protecting information.
Rights management can’t prevent the theft, accidental deletion, or
corruption of data, and rights management is not the same as an
antimalware program. People with keen intent to hand over restricted
content can still type it in a new document or copy important information by hand.
Some of the restrictions you can impose by applying rights management are the
Prevent an authorized recipient of restricted content from forwarding, copying,
modifying, printing, faxing, or pasting the content
Prevent restricted content from being copied by using the Print Screen key
Deine a ile expiration date so that content in documents, workbooks, or presentations can no longer be viewed after the speciied period of time
You can apply rights management by using a template or through user-deined rights.
For the Ofice 2013 Preview, Microsoft provided templates such as the Company Conidential template and the Company Conidential Read Only template. With the Company
Conidential template, users of the content are allowed all rights needed to work with
and modify the content but are not permitted to copy and print the content. With the
Company Conidential Read Only template, users can only read or view the content but
are not permitted to modify the content from its original published form. If you need a
higher degree of control, you can apply permissions manually by deining user-deined
To apply rights management to a ile you are working with in PowerPoint, Excel, or Word,
you work on the Info page in Backstage view. Use the Protect Presentation, Protect
Workbook, or Protect Document command, depending on which program you’re working with. In a message item in Outlook, click Set Permissions on the Info page.
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Managing access and preserving history
You can also enable rights management for a list or library on your SharePoint team site.
You might take this step to protect the content in a document library that’s set up to
store the speciications for new products or other valuable intellectual property. When
rights management is applied to a library, it applies to all the iles in that library. For a
list, rights management applies only to iles that are attached to list items, not to the list
items themselves.
When a team member downloads a ile from a list or library protected with rights
management, the ile is encrypted so that only authorized people can view it. Additional
restrictions can be applied to users who can view the ile. For documents in lists and
libraries (as for documents you apply rights management to directly), these restrictions
include making a ile read-only, disabling the copying of text, preventing people from
saving a local copy, and preventing people from printing the ile.
The restrictions that are applied to a ile when it is downloaded are based on the individual user’s permissions on the site that contains the ile. For example, a site owner can
generally work with a ile to edit it, copy it, or modify how rights management is applied.
A team member with Edit Items permission for a library can edit, save, and copy the ile,
but these users cannot print the ile unless speciically granted that permission.
Before you apply rights management to a list or library it must be
enabled by an administrator for your site. Additionally, a server administrator must install protectors on all front-end web servers for every ile
type that the people in your organization want to protect by using rights
To apply rights management to a list or library, you must have at least the Design permission level for that list or library. If you have that level of permission, follow these steps:
Open the list or library.
On the Library tab (or List tab for a list), click Library Settings ( or List Settings).
Under Permissions and Management, click Information Rights Management.
If the Information Rights Management link does not appear, rights management might not be enabled for your site. Contact your server administrator to see if it is possible to enable rights management for your site.
On the Information Rights Management Settings page, select the Restrict Permission To Documents In This Library On Download option.
In the Create A Permission Policy Title box, type a descriptive name. For example,
you might use the name Team Conidential for a policy that applies to a list or
library that will contain documents that are conidential within your team.
In the Add A Permission Policy Description box, type a description that explains
to team members who use this list or library how they should handle protected
content. For example, use a description such as “Only discuss with members of the
To apply additional restrictions to the documents in this list or library, click Show
Options. You can then select exceptions such as allowing some team members to
print a document. You can also set an option that prevents team members from
uploading documents that don’t support rights management to the list or library.
Using a password
When you save a ile in Word, Excel, or PowerPoint, you can assign a password that other
users need to enter to open or modify the document. In all three programs, open the
Tools menu in the Save As dialog box and then click General Options to open the dialog
box where you deine the passwords.
Some additional options are included for each program:
In Excel, you can select an option to always create a backup of the workbook or an
option to prompt users to open the ile as read-only.
In Word, you also have the Read-Only Recommended option. The Protect Document button opens the Restrict Formatting And Editing pane, which you'll learn
about in detail in Chapter 8.
In PowerPoint, the General Options dialog box includes the Privacy Options area.
The option Remove Automatically Created Personal Information From This File On
Save controls whether PowerPoint removes or retains information such as the presentation author and other properties. You'll learn more about document properties later in this chapter.
The Info page also provides an option for applying a password that encrypts the contents of the current ile. To encrypt an Excel workbook with a password, follow these
steps (the steps in Word and PowerPoint are similar):
Click File, Info.
On the Info page, click Protect Workbook and then click Encrypt With
In the Encrypt Document dialog box, type the password you want to use and
then click OK.
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Reenter the password.
Be sure to take note of the warning in the dialog box about lost passwords: you
can’t recover them. Be sure to record the password in a safe place so that you can
provide it to other users or refer to it yourself in the event you forget the password.
Click OK, and then save the workbook.
Not all ile formats are compatible with passwords. For example, Excel
iles stored in the .csv format do not accept a password.
The Inspect Workbook area on the Info page provides three commands on the
Check For Issues menu. The Check For Accessibility and Check For Compatibility
commands apply in speciic situations—when you want to know which elements
of a document, workbook, or presentation could pose issues for people with
disabilities, and when you want to know whether any features in a ile aren’t supported in earlier versions of a program.
You should make regular use of the third command—Inspect Document—before
you distribute iles to customers or partners, for example, or share a ile with
colleagues who aren’t regular members of your team. You’ll see an example of
how you use the Document Inspector in PowerPoint in Chapter 10, “Preparing a
presentation as a group.” Figure 3-1 shows the Document Inspector for Excel.
In general, you can use the Document Inspector to detect elements in a ile that
you might want to remove or revise before you share the ile. As you can see,
one category for Excel is Hidden Rows And Columns. Imagine that you enter
worksheet formulas that calculate the markup on a set of products or services or
formulas related to performance bonuses or new salary ranges. If you hide these
cells to focus on the results of the formulas—which users of Excel often do—it’s
easy to overlook the fact that you hid them later, or someone else getting ready
to post the ile might not realize that the formulas are contained in a hidden column or row. Inspecting a document will indicate that the workbook has hidden
rows or columns. If you don’t want to share the formulas with other users, you
can return to the worksheet and convert the calculated values to static values, for
example, or you might decide to keep the rows or columns hidden and save the
workbook as a PDF ile. For more details about saving a workbook as a PDF ile,
see “Creating a PDF/XPS document” in Chapter 9, “Collaborating in Excel.”
FIGURE 3-1 The Document Inspector can find content and properties
you don’t necessarily want to share.
Protecting workbooks and worksheets
In this section, I’ll cover some speciic steps you can take to protect the data and structure of Excel workbooks and worksheets. Because teams use Excel to compile and analyze inancial data, these procedures are often applicable. These protections serve several
purposes: they can retain the structure of a workbook, for example, or restrict which
operations some users can perform. You can also specify editable cell ranges and protect
the rest of a worksheet so that it is read-only. The intent of applying these restrictions
has as much to do with preserving the work that team members did to construct speciic
inancial scenarios or complex formulas as it does with limiting what other team members can do.
To apply permissions and protection to a workbook or a speciic worksheet, you can use
a menu of commands on the Info page in Backstage view, as shown in Figure 3-2.
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FIGURE 3-2 Select Protect Current Sheet or Protect Workbook Structure to manage how other users can
interact with an Excel file.
To protect the structure of a workbook, follow these steps:
On the Info page, click Protect Workbook, and then click Protect Workbook
Structure. (Or click Protect Workbook in the Changes group on the Review tab.)
In the Protect Structure And Windows dialog box, shown below, select the options
you want and then enter an optional password.
When you protect a workbook’s structure, users cannot insert, delete, or rename
worksheets or display worksheets that are hidden. When you protect a workbook’s
window, users can’t change the size or position of windows.
You can also restrict the operations users can perform on speciic worksheets—for example, you might restrict what users can do to worksheets that contain summary formulas
that are referenced in other worksheets designed for entering data.
To protect the current worksheet, follow these steps:
On the Info page in Backstage view, click Protect Workbook, and then click
Protect Current Sheet. Or, on the Review tab, click Protect Sheet in the Changes
You’ll see the Protect Sheet dialog box, shown here:
You protect worksheets by selecting the speciic operations users are allowed to
perform. By keeping a check box clear, you prevent users from performing that
task. The operations you can control include formatting cells, columns, and rows;
inserting columns, rows, and hyperlinks; deleting columns and rows; sorting data;
making use of automatic ilters; using PivotTable reports; editing objects such as
charts or illustrations; and editing scenarios, a feature related to the Excel Scenario
Manager. The options Select Locked Cells and Select Unlocked Cells are selected
by default.
Enter a password that allows you to remove sheet protection.
The next step in protecting a worksheet is to deine cell ranges that speciic users can
edit after providing a password that you deine. You can also grant speciic users permission to edit ranges without a password.
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Follow these steps to deine editable cell ranges:
In the Changes group on the Review tab, click Allow Users To Edit Ranges.
In the Allow Users To Edit Ranges dialog box, click New.
In the New Range dialog box, shown in the following screen shot, enter a name for
the cell range. (You can also accept the name Excel provides.) In the Refers To Cells
box, enter the cell range you want to protect. You can also click in the Refers To
Cells box and then drag through the range to deine it.
In the Range Password box, type a password that a user must provide to edit data
in this range.
To grant permission to speciic users to edit a range without a password, click
In the Permission dialog box, click Add.
In the Select Users Or Groups dialog box, type the names of the persons or group
you want to give permission to, and then click OK.
In the Permission dialog box, keep the Allow option selected in the Permissions
Click OK to close the Permission dialog box, and then click OK in the New Range
dialog box.
When prompted, type the password again to conirm it, and then click OK in the
Allow Users To Edit Ranges dialog box.
You can open the Allow Users To Edit Ranges dialog box again to modify or delete a
range, add another range, set permissions for other users, and to set or change options
for how the worksheet is protected. Select the option Paste Permissions Information Into
A New Workbook to keep a record of the permissions you granted to the editable ranges
that were deined.
Managing versions
Managing versions
Teams often need to be very deliberate about the information they produce and distribute. In addition to controlling access to iles and placing restrictions on sensitive content,
teams can use features on their team site to maintain a history of their work and to manage when content is approved and made generally available.
See Also As you’ll see in Chapter 4, “Building team templates,” you can also use a template to help control the formatting and content of a document.
When you set up a document library, a slide library, or another type of library or list on
your team site, you can select an option to track versions of the items the library or list
will contain. Versioning settings let you manage how content is added to and edited
in a list or library, and versioning also helps teams track the history of a document. For
example, you can specify the number of versions you want to retain and choose to create
and track both major and minor versions of a document. By maintaining this history, you
can see how the team developed important documents and view previous versions if
questions arise about why the inal content ended up as it did.
For tight control, you can select an option that requires an authorized user (a user with
at least Edit Item permission) to approve content that is submitted to a list or library and
also specify a permission level at which users can view draft items. Users without the
permissions you specify won’t see draft items in the library until a team member with
permissions publishes a draft. The set of versioning options also includes an option by
which you can require that users check out a document before the document is edited.
■ IMPORTANT Only team members who are site owners or have full control of the site can set up versioning. For more information about site permissions, see “Working with groups and permissions” in Chapter 2.
To set up versioning and specify versioning options for a document library, follow these
Open the library, and click the Library tab on the ribbon.
In the Settings group, click Library Settings.
In the General Settings area of the Library Settings page, click Versioning
On the Versioning Settings page, set the following options:
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In the Content Approval area, select Yes if you want items to be approved
before they can be submitted to this library. (Items uploaded to the library are
listed with a status of Draft until they are published and a status of Pending
until an authorized user approves them.) If you select this option, you can then
select options in the Draft Item Security area to specify who can view items that
are pending approval in the library.)
In the Document Version History area, specify how to manage versioning. You
can choose not to use versioning, to create major versions, or to create major
and minor versions. You can also indicate how many major versions and drafts
of major versions to retain.
If you select Yes under Content Approval, under Draft Item Security, you
indicate who can see draft items. The default option is Only Users Who Can
Approve Items. You can broaden the scope for who has access to draft items by
choosing Any User Who Can Read Items or Only Users Who Can Edit Items.
In the Require Check Out section, change the setting to Yes if you want to make
it mandatory that users of the library check out a document before it can be
When versioning and content approval are enabled for a library and you require that
users check out and check in a document, the steps required to publish and approve a
major version will go something like this:
A team member who is part of the team site’s Members group uploads a document to the library. SharePoint recognizes that users are required to check in iles
and lags the ile as checked out. Even authorized users will not see this item in the
library until the user who uploads it checks it in.
When the team member checks in a ile, SharePoint displays the Check In dialog
box. As shown in the following screen shot, you can specify whether to check in
a major or a minor version, keep the ile checked out, and add a comment about
the ile and version. Checking in a minor version creates a draft item in the library.
Checking in a major version sets the item’s status to Pending (assuming that content approval is enabled). An authorized user needs to approve the item before it
becomes accessible to all users of the library.
Managing versions
At this point, a draft item has been added to the library. To publish a draft item,
a user with at least Edit Item permission (a site owner, a team member with full
control, or a member of the Members group) selects the document and then clicks
the Publish button on the Documents tab (in the Worklows group). In the Publish
Major Version dialog box, shown here, add a comment about the version you are
publishing before you click OK.
Because content approval is enabled for this library, publishing a draft document
sets its status to Pending. A user with approval authority now needs to approve
the document to change its status.
In the library, select the document that’s pending approval.
In the Worklows group on the Documents tab, click Approve/Reject.
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In the Approve/Reject dialog box, shown below, select the Approved option (or
select Rejected, if necessary), add a comment about the action, and then click OK.
The Worklows group on the Documents tab provides the following additional commands:
Unpublish Click this command to unpublish the current version, which returns
an approved item to Draft status.
Cancel Approval Click this command to cancel the submission of an item for
approval. Cancel Approval returns a pending item to Draft status.
You can manage versions in the Version History dialog box, shown in Figure 3-3. To open
the Version History dialog box, select the document you want to work with, and then
click Version History in the Manage group.
FIGURE 3-3 Select a version in the Version History dialog box to view it. You can also unpublish major
versions if you have permission.
Working with document properties
The Version History dialog box shows major versions of a document (and minor versions
if you have permission to view draft items and you are tracking minor versions) and a
version’s status. In the Version History dialog box, point to a version you want to examine, and then click the arrow to open a menu you can use to view, restore, or unpublish
the current version or to view, restore, or delete a previous version. If you retained draft
versions of the document, use the link at the top of the dialog box to delete these versions. (They are moved to the site’s Recycle Bin.) Use the Delete All Versions link to send
previous versions of the document to the site’s Recycle Bin.
Working with document properties
In the inal section of this chapter, I’ll describe how to work with document properties.
Properties provide facts about a document. For example, when you create, ill in, and
later edit a workbook in Excel, Excel sets and tracks properties such as the ile’s size, the
dates on which the workbook was created and last modiied, and the name of the workbook’s author. Properties such as these are read-only. Other properties, including many
advanced properties and custom properties you deine, can be set in the program and
updated by team members as needed.
Document properties aren’t in themselves an aspect of collaboration. People who work
all on their own might ind properties a helpful device for categorizing and identifying
content, and while teams gain the same organizational beneits from using properties,
they can also use properties to require speciic information—the due date for a proposal,
for example, or the prospective revenue associated with a contract or service agreement,
or who the lead attorney is on a pending case.
You can set some document properties when you work in Word or Excel, for example,
and these programs (as well as PowerPoint) let you deine custom properties. You can
also set up a list or library on your team site to track properties in addition to those that
the list or library contains by default. You do this by adding columns to a view or by deining a custom column, which you’ll learn how to do in this section.
See Also For details about list and library views, see “Creating and modifying views” in
Chapter 2.
Setting properties in an Ofice program
Many of the basic document properties are listed on the Info page in Backstage view.
In PowerPoint, for example, the list shows the number of slides, the title, the date the
presentation was created, and the date it was last modiied. You’ll see similar information
for workbooks in Excel and for Word documents.
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You can ill in or update some properties on the Info page. In PowerPoint, click Add
A Category and then type a term you want to use—a project or customer name, for
example. You can also specify properties such as an additional author. To see the full list
of properties available on the Info page, click Show All Properties at the bottom of the
list. In Excel, the list expands to display the properties shown in Figure 3-4. Several of the
properties that are not illed in automatically, such as Title, Tags, Status, and Categories,
have been illed in here.
FIGURE 3-4 This screen shot shows the expanded list of properties on the Info page in Excel. You can add
information for properties such as Tags and Title on this page.
To work with additional properties, click Properties at the top of the list, and then click
Advanced Properties. You’ll see the Properties dialog box. Figure 3-5 shows the Summary
tab and the Custom tab.
The General and Statistics tabs display information about the ile, including the creation
and modiication dates and when the ile was printed. The Contents tab shows information such as the name of a document template, named ranges in a worksheet, or slide
titles and themes. On the Summary tab, you can type values for properties such as Title
and Subject. (Many of the properties listed on the Summary tab also appear in the list on
the Info page.)
Working with document properties
FIGURE 3-5 You can also view properties and document statistics in the Properties dialog box. Use the
Custom tab to define properties of your own.
The Custom tab shows a list of properties designed for more speciic purposes—Checked
By, Client, Project, and Typist among them. These properties let you identify additional
attributes about a workbook, document, or presentation. You can use the properties
listed as a starting point for a custom property or deine a custom property that relects
speciic information your team wants to collect—a property that records who approved
an estimate for a new project, for example.
To set the value for a property listed on the Custom tab, select the property in the list,
type the value for the property, and then click Add. To deine a custom property, follow
these steps:
On the Custom tab, type the name of the property in the Name box.
From the Type list, select the data type for this property. You can choose from
Text, Date, Number, and Yes/No.
In the Value box, type the value for the property.
Click Add.
The name, value, or type of an advanced or custom property can be modiied by selecting the property in the Properties list at the bottom of the Custom tab, and then updating the property by using the Name, Type, and Value boxes. Click Modify, and then click
OK to complete the steps.
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Deining properties for a list or library
To provide additional information about the items in a list or library on your team site,
you can create your own column and add it to one or more views. Custom columns then
serve as additional properties for the items stored in the list or library. By specifying that
a column is required to contain a value, you can collect information about a document
or a list item when it is added to your team site. For example, you might create a column
named Due Date to use in a library where you store sales proposals. When a team member uploads a document, he or she has to ill in the due date, which helps you track when
each proposal must be complete.
To create a column, a team member must be a team site owner or have Full Control permission. Follow these steps to deine a column:
In the Manage Views group on the Library tab, click Create Column.
In the Create Column dialog box, shown below, type a name for the column and
then select the column type.
The options for the type of column include Single Line Of Text, Multiple Lines of
Text, Number, Currency, Date And Time, Lookup (which you can tie to another
ield on your site), and others.
In the Additional Column Settings area, type a description for the column and then
specify other settings as required for the column.
Working with document properties
Options in the Additional Column Settings area of the dialog box change depending on the type of column. These options give you a high degree of control over
the properties of a column you create. In the preceding screen shot, you can see
some of the options for a Choice column. For the Number type, you use this area
to specify the following:
Whether the column is required (so that it must contain data)
Whether the column must contain unique values
A minimum and maximum value
The number of decimal places
A default value
Whether to show the value as a percentage
Whether to add this column to all content types in the library
Whether to add this column to the default view
Set up a validation formula if necessary.
In a Date And Time column, for example, you could create a formula so that only
dates later than today are valid in the column.
Click OK.
Custom columns are added to the library’s default view if you keep that
option selected in the Create Column dialog box. They are not added automatically to other views deined for the library, but you can add them
by modifying a view.
When a document is uploaded to a list or library with required columns, SharePoint displays a dialog box such as the one shown in Figure 3-6. Notice that, even though checkout and check-in are not required for this library, SharePoint uploads the document and
checks it out to the person uploading the ile. That person needs to ill in the required
ields and then check in the document to make it accessible to other members using the
team site.
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FIGURE 3-6 In a list or library with required columns, you can’t add an item or check in a document until
you fill in those properties. This screen shot also shows notifications you see for a library in which content approval is required.
For documents stored in the library—or for documents you create by using the New
Document command in the library (or the New Item command for a list)—mandatory
properties you deine for a list or library are also accessible on the Document Panel in the
related Ofice program. For a new document, the team member creating the document
can ill in values for required properties before saving the ile to the team site.
To view the Document Panel, irst display the Info page in Backstage view. Click Properties at the top of the list of properties, and then click Show Document Panel. (If the
Developer tab is displayed on the ribbon, you can also click Document Panel in the
Templates group.) Figure 3-7 shows a blank Document Panel in a new Word document
created from a document library. Filling in required properties at this point saves a step
when the ile is saved to the team site.
Working with document properties
FIGURE 3-7 An asterisk indicates required fields in the document panel.
Another advantage of using properties is that SharePoint includes some properties in
its search results. For example, SharePoint searches the text included in the Comments
property in Word, Excel, or PowerPoint, and also searches the Title property. As you
can with other columns in a list or library, you can sort and ilter by a custom column to
locate speciic items of interest.
Chapter 3
Building team
Using Excel templates
Developing a PowerPoint
Designing a Word
ONE OF THE goals of effective team work is to ensure that processes
Adding custom templates to
your team site 119
used to successfully manage ongoing work are repeatable. The detailed
circumstances of each project or event will often require some lexibility,
but in general you want to avoid reinventing the wheel. As teams gain
experience working together, they need to determine what’s worked and
solidify those actions, improve on the steps that weren’t successful, and
then organize their evaluations and decisions into processes they can
rely on to move work forward.
But it’s not just the processes themselves that you want to streamline, it’s also the results—the records, budgets, presentations, and
other content that teams create to document the work that took
place. For example, if your team manages a group of similar projects, you want to collect and report the same information about
those projects so that you have an accurate basis for comparison.
In cases like these, you want to set up Microsoft Excel workbooks
that you can use to track standard inancial information and maybe
schedules and resource assignments. In Microsoft Word, you want
documents such as proposals or status reports to not only look
the same but have the same organization and a set of common
elements—such as tables, lists, and descriptions—so that those
reviewing the documents and making decisions based on them
can ind the information they need. For presentations in Microsoft
PowerPoint, a common look and feel can accentuate the professionalism your team wants to convey and can also ensure that you
Chapter 4
Building team templates
provide a regular baseline of information when you need to compare one product with
another, for example, or want to communicate the qualities you hope will make next
month’s marketing launch a winning one.
In this chapter, you’ll learn how you can use and build templates to help facilitate these
goals. Templates are only starting points, of course. Teams still need to collect raw data,
write proposals, and develop and rehearse presentations. But as starting points, templates provide an array of tools, placeholders, prompts, and styles that lessen the work
that team members need to do to identify what information is required, as well as the
effort involved in inalizing the appearance of a work product they will share.
You can begin to understand the usefulness of templates simply by recognizing how
much time Microsoft has spent deining and producing Ofice templates of all sorts. For
the three applications covered in this chapter—Excel, PowerPoint, and Word—you can
ind hundreds of templates by searching on the New page. Figure 4-1, for example, shows
just a couple of the templates that show up in Word when I searched for “status reports.”
As the list on the right suggests, 32 templates related to status reports are available.
FIGURE 4-1 Search for templates on the New page in an Office program, such as this one in Word. Click
an item in the Category list to display templates of a particular type.
After you ind a template that looks promising, click the template preview on the New
page. In the window the Ofice program displays, you’ll see a description of the template,
Using Excel templates
a rating, and who provided the template (Microsoft or one of its partners, usually). Click
Create to open a document based on the template.
The templates shown and illustrated in this chapter were available in the
Ofice 2013 Preview available during the summer of 2012.
Use the built-in templates in Ofice to become familiar with the elements a template can
contain. You can also start with a built-in template and modify it. I’ll illustrate a couple
of the built-in templates in this chapter as a way to introduce template elements. I’ll also
provide some details about how you can create your own templates. Many of those details also apply if you want to start with a built-in template and modify it.
Using Excel templates
There are clear advantages to using templates for documents such as invoices, expense
reports, and budgets. The information that’s needed for approval, compliance, and
analysis remains consistent. It can be easily compared and can also be summarized and
totaled when teams or departments need to look at data over months, quarters, and
Excel templates often include a mix of data, formatting, and formulas. They can include
graphical elements such as charts and PivotTables and also implement features such as
conditional formatting to highlight information and data validation to ensure that the
information provided meets speciic requirements (that the dates of invoices fall within a
speciic time period, for example).
In this section, I’ll cover two Excel templates. The irst is a template for an inventory list,
and the second is a simple event-tracking template. Through these illustrations, you’ll see
some of the components of an Excel template and learn how to add similar features to
the templates you design.
Looking at the inventory list template
The inventory list template described in this section (see Figure 4-2) is deined as a table
in Excel. (In Excel, tables are also referred to as lists). The template is set up with the following columns (not all of these appear in the igure):
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Building team templates
Unit Price
Quantity in Stock
Inventory Value
Reorder Level
Reorder Time
Quantity Reordered
FIGURE 4-2 This template, designed for tracking inventory, uses a table for its basic format. It also implements conditional formatting to highlight important information.
I selected this template because it illustrates why setting up data in a table can be beneicial in any template that’s designed for tracking lists of items. A team might use a table
to track events, projects, media purchases, ofice space, resource assignments, and so on.
As you read about the details of this template, keep in mind how you might implement
them in a template that’s relevant to the work your team does—whether that involves
managing inventory or something else.
Using Excel templates
Creating a table to manage data provides at least a couple of advantages. First, in a
table, Excel conigures each column so that you can ilter and sort based on the values
in the column. Figure 4-3 shows the menu that appears when you click the down arrow beside a column name. In the igure, the menu for the Unit Price column is open
and displays the options for number ilters. To see only unit prices greater than a certain
amount, select Greater Than and then specify the value you want to use. Filtering options
such as these also appear in columns that use text, where you can ilter by using options such as Begins With (to view all product names that begin with S, for example) or
Contains (to see only products that include the word “pasta” or descriptions that contain
the words “on sale”). Date columns have iltering options such as Before, After, Between,
Next Week, Next Month, and so on.
FIGURE 4-3 Columns in a table are set up automatically with sorting and filtering options.
You don’t need to take any additional steps to set up columns in this fashion. The act of
deining a table in Excel conigures the columns in this way. To create a table, select the
cell range (including column headings) that will contain the data, and then click Table on
the Insert tab. (You can also simply press Ctrl+T or Ctrl+L.) Excel displays the Create Table
dialog box, in which you can adjust the cell range (if needed) and select the option that
tells Excel that the table has headings.
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Another aspect of tables demonstrated in this template is the use of what Excel refers
to as structured references. A structured reference is a formula that uses the names of
column headings instead of cell references. In the formula bar in Figure 4-3, you can
see the formula =[@[Unit Price]]*[@[Quantity in Stock]], which multiplies the value in the
Unit Price column by the value in Quantity in Stock. The advantage of using a structured
reference such as this (which Excel deines when you create a formula in a table) is that
the names adjust whenever you add or remove data from the table. A formula like this
can also be easier to understand. A formula such as =$C$3*$D$3 doesn’t tell you immediately what value the formula is designed to calculate—you need to look back at
the worksheet to see what data is contained in columns C and D. Structured references
are also used when you create a formula in a cell that’s outside an Excel table but makes
reference to the table’s data. The column heading names in the formula let you ind
relevant data more easily.
If you want to see a simple example of how Excel creates a structured reference, follow
these steps:
Open a blank worksheet from the New page on the File tab. (If you have the inventory list template open, you can add a blank worksheet to that ile.)
In row 1, in columns A through D, enter the headings January, February, March,
and Total.
In rows 2 and 3, enter numeric values for each of the months. Don’t enter values in
the Total column.
Select the cell range A1:D3, and then press Ctrl+T. In the Create Table dialog box,
click OK.
Click in the Total column in row 2, type an equal sign (=), and then click in row 2
for January. Notice that Excel enters the column name instead of the cell reference
in the formula.
Type a plus sign (+), click in the February column, and then repeat this step for
Press Enter to inish the formula and perform the calculation. Notice that Excel
copies the formula to row 3—you don’t need to copy the formula to the other
rows in the table yourself.
Click in the column heading for March. In the formula bar, change March to April.
Now check the formula in the Total column, and you’ll see that Excel updated the
column name in the formula.
The inventory list template also uses conditional formatting to highlight the status of information. With conditional formatting, you deine rules for conditions that Excel evaluates.
Using Excel templates
When those conditions are true—for example, when a value in a cell is less than an amount
you specify or greater than the amount in another cell—Excel applies formatting you deine to highlight information. In the inventory list template, conditional formatting is used
to emphasize rows for items that need to be reordered and also to strike through the data
in rows for items that have been discontinued.
To see the conditional formatting rules applied to a workbook, click Conditional Formatting in the Styles group on the Home tab, and then click Manage Rules, which opens the
Conditional Formatting Rules Manager, shown in Figure 4-4. Here, the Show Formatting
Rules For list at the top of the dialog box is set to This Table. The list will show Current Selection if you have a cell range selected. Choose a setting from the Show Formatting Rules
For list to see the conditional formatting rules that affect different areas of a worksheet.
FIGURE 4-4 You can create and edit conditional formatting rules using the Conditional Formatting Rules
Manager dialog box.
The inventory list template includes three rules. Using the irst rule (Formula: = $B5=1),
Excel adds a background color to rows when the value in column B equals 1. The background color indicates that the quantity in stock for items in the highlighted rows has
reached the reorder point. The rule depends on a formula in column B that essentially
compares the value in the Quantity in Stock column with the value in the Reorder Level
column. If Quantity in Stock is less than Reorder Level and an item isn’t discontinued,
the background color is applied. Whether the formatting is applied is also managed by
a check box control that appears in the template above columns K and L. Selecting the
check box turns on the formatting, clearing the check box removes it.
The second rule (Formula: $L5=”yes”) applies to the Discontinued column. If the value
in that column equals “yes,” the strikethrough formatting is applied. In the third rule, a
lag icon is added to column B when the formula in that column equals 1. This rule also
demonstrates some of the lexibility of conditional formatting. In addition to formatting
such as background colors and strikethrough, you can use icon sets such as these lags to
mark cells that meet the conditions you deine.
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To set up your own conditional formatting rules, you can take a number of approaches.
Figure 4-5 shows options available on the Conditional Formatting menu.
FIGURE 4-5 You can create conditional formatting rules by using built-in options that show the top 10
percent of items, those above or below average, and many others.
For example, let’s say you are designing a budget template. In the Actual column, you
could deine a conditional formatting rule that highlights the top 5 or 10 budget categories so that you know where most of your expenses occur. You could use data bars
(another option on the Conditional Formatting menu) to display colored bars that appear
in various lengths to show the relative values among a group of cells.
You can also use a formula to deine a conditional formatting rule. Click New Rule on the
Conditional Formatting menu to display the New Formatting Rule dialog box. In this dialog box, select the option Use A Formula To Determine Which Cells To Format. You then
need to deine the formula that Excel applies to the selected cell range to determine
whether the formatting you deine is shown. In a template in which you track a series of
dates, you could write a formula that compares two dates (whether an expiration date is
within 30 days of today, for example) to highlight rows that need your closer attention.
Creating a simple tracking template with data validation
In this section, I’ll walk through how to create a simple template for tracking information
about a series of events your team has planned. You wouldn’t want to use this template
in real life—it’s only an illustration—but it reinforces some of the beneits of using tables
and conditional formatting and also introduces you to data validation, a feature that lets
you specify what values can be entered in speciic cells.
Using Excel templates
Setting up the template
To start, open a blank workbook from the New page, and then follow these steps:
In cell A1, type the heading Event Tracker.
Select cell A1. In the Styles group on the Home tab, click Cell Styles and then
choose Heading 1.
In row 2, in columns A through E, enter the column headings Location, Coordinator, Invitations Due By, Start Date, and Budget.
Select the column headings, and then choose a Themed Cell Styles option from
the Cell Styles menu to format the column headings.
Select the cell range A2:E7, and then press Ctrl+T.
In the Create Table dialog box, select the option My Table Has Headers, and then
click OK.
That’s it, but of course you could add much more to enhance this template. At this
point, the template should look something like the following screen shot:
Click the File tab, click Save As, and then click Computer.
Click Browse, and then choose Excel Template (*.xltx) from the Save As Type dropdown list. Choose a location, and then click Save.
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Adding data validation
Some cells or cell ranges require a speciic type of data or speciic values to be valid. You
can set up data validation rules in Excel templates to restrict the type of data—to allow
only dates or whole numbers, for example—or to deine a range of valid values—for example, dates between July 1 and September 30 or the locations Brussels, London, Paris,
and Rome. Setting up data validation rules helps maintain the integrity of the data that a
template is designed to capture, and it can also make the process of entering data in the
template more accurate and convenient.
You deine validation rules in the Data Validation dialog box, shown in Figure 4-6, which
you open by clicking Data Validation in the Data Tools group on the Data tab. In the
dialog box, you can also deine notiications that appear on the screen to tell users of the
template what data is valid and to alert users when they enter data that’s not.
FIGURE 4-6 Define rules for valid data input, along with messages to assist users, in the Data Validation
dialog box.
In the Data Validation dialog box, the Allow list gives you several choices for the type of
data that will be deined as valid:
Any Value
Whole Number
Text Length
Using Excel templates
Based on the data type you select, the dialog box displays text boxes in which you specify other details. For example, if you select Text Length, you need to specify the minimum
and maximum length (which might be the same). You could use the Text Length option
in a template in which you record product IDs that all have a speciic number of characters. If you select List, you need to identify the valid items. You can do this by entering
the items in the Source text box in the Data Validation dialog box, separating each item
with a comma, or you can add the list to a worksheet and refer to the cell range where
the list items appear. (You'll see how to do this in detail shortly.) If you keep the In-Cell
Dropdown check box selected when you create a list of valid values, Excel displays the
items in a drop-down menu in the cell.
The Custom option in the Data Validation dialog box lets you deine a formula that Excel
calculates to determine whether data is valid. For example, you might prevent someone
from entering an expense item in the Travel category unless the travel budget (deined in
a different cell) still has available funds.
You use the Input Message tab of the Data Validation dialog box to deine the text for
a ScreenTip that indicates what kind of data should be entered. You could, for example,
deine a message that tells users of a template that a valid date must be later than today.
On the Error Message tab, you can create a custom message box that Excel displays
when invalid data is entered.
Keep in mind that validation rules let you control the data that is entered directly in a
cell. If a user enters invalid data, Excel displays a generic message or the message you
deine, and the user must cancel the entry or try again. Excel does not display these messages when data is copied to a cell, when a value is entered by illing a cell range, when
a formula calculates an invalid value, or when the data is entered by the operations of a
macro. You can check whether a worksheet contains any invalid data by clicking Circle
Invalid Data (in the Data Tools group on the Data tab). Excel marks the cells and ranges
in which faulty data resides. With this information at hand, you can correct the data or
(as necessary) relax the validation rules.
In addition to the messages you create to tell users about the data validation rules active in a template, users can check whether a worksheet
contains data validation rules by pressing Alt+E+G to open the Go To
dialog box, and then clicking Special. In the Go To Special dialog box,
select Data Validation and use the All option. Click OK, and Excel highlights the cell ranges subject to validation rules. A user can then open the
Data Validation dialog box to examine the rules that apply. You can also
identify cells with data validation rules applied by clicking Find & Select
on the Home tab, and then clicking Data Validation.
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To set up some validation rules for the event tracker template, follow these steps:
In the template, select cells B3:B7 (the blank rows under Coordinator).
On the Data tab, click Data Validation.
In the Data Validation dialog box, in the Allow list, select List.
In the Source box, type the names of several of your team members, separating
each name with a comma.
Click OK.
In the Coordinator column, you should now see an arrow next to the border with cell
B3. Click the arrow to display the list you just created. A user of this template can choose
an entry from this list—which presumably contains only the team members who act as
coordinators. You can type a name not in the list in one of the cells under Coordinator.
When you press Enter, Excel display its generic error message indicating that the data
you entered is invalid.
You could also set up a rule for valid dates in the Invitations Due By column. Let’s say that
for logistical reasons, invitations can’t be sent later than 30 days before the start date. Select the cells in the Invitations Due By column, open the Data Validation dialog box, and
then choose Custom in the Allow list. In the Formula box, you could use a formula such
as <=[Start Date]+30 to deine the valid data.
To inish a template like this, you could deine additional data validation rules (a list of
valid locations, for example, or a maximum amount for a budget). You could also apply
conditional formatting rules, as you saw in the inventory list example earlier. For example, you could create a rule for the Start Date column as follows:
Select the cells in the Start Date column.
On the Home tab, click Conditional Formatting and then click A Date Occurring.
In the Date Occurring dialog box, select Next Week (or Next Month), and then
deine the formatting you want to apply.
With this rule in place, Excel displays upcoming events using the formatting you
With data validation and conditional formatting in place, you can manage the information collected in the template and see important data when it needs your attention. And
with custom error messages in place, users of the template receive instructive warnings if
they inadvertently enter data that’s not correct, as you can see in Figure 4-7.
Developing a PowerPoint template
FIGURE 4-7 With data validation rules in place in this template, data that doesn’t meet defined criteria
can’t be entered directly by users.
Developing a PowerPoint template
PowerPoint templates generally include examples of slides designed for speciic purposes. Some slides feature bulleted lists or other short text descriptions that outline goals,
milestones, resources, and processes. Other slides in a template are built to emphasize
visual elements using SmartArt shapes, charts, tables, or images.
In this section, to introduce PowerPoint templates, I’ll walk through a template designed
for project overviews and highlight some of the elements it contains. After that introduction, I’ll go through the steps you can follow to develop a template of your own, where
you’ll work with a template’s slide master, learn how to customize design elements and
placeholders, and create a custom layout.
A slide master deines settings for presentation elements such as a background, colors,
fonts, text effects, and the size and position of placeholders. When you apply or change
these settings on the slide master, the settings are applied to every slide in the presentation. For example, you might place an image or a logo on a slide master so that it
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appears in the same location on each slide. You can overwrite the settings deined in a
template when you develop and format a presentation in Normal view.
■ IMPORTANT Don’t mistake a template’s theme for the template itself. Themes contain a set of coordinated colors, fonts, and text effects. Templates can have a theme, but templates also contain a set of slide
layouts with content placeholders that are customized for each presentation based on the template. Placeholders can be used for text prompts as well as SmartArt, images, and other graphical elements.
Elements of a PowerPoint template
Because the focus of many teams is to plan and manage projects, I picked a template designed for presentations that describe the goals and details of a project to illustrate some
of a PowerPoint template’s basic elements. The sample template (named Project Overview) contains 11 slides, which each contain prompts and placeholder objects that are
customized by teams when they report to others about the current details of the projects
they manage. Figure 4-8 shows the title slide with several placeholders that you replace
with information speciic to your project. The template shown here uses the Trek theme.
FIGURE 4-8 PowerPoint templates rely on placeholders that prompt you to enter information for a
specific presentation.
Other slides in this template are designed to present information about project goals, a
project description and schedule, analysis of competitive information, technologies that
might be involved, resources, procedures and processes required, current status, and a
Developing a PowerPoint template
slide that points to additional resources. One step teams can take when they start developing PowerPoint templates is to create a list of the slides the template should contain
and deine what information should be presented on each slide. Tie the list of slides to
the standard slide layouts in PowerPoint. Does your template need a simple blank slide?
If the template is designed for presentations that compare information, which of the
two-column layouts will you need? To see a gallery of standard layouts, click Layout in
the Slides group on the Home tab.
In addition to prompts and placeholders for information related to the purpose of the
slide, this template uses various SmartArt elements—a bold arrow that arcs upward
toward the project’s ultimate goal and a series of circles designed to present information
about team resources. As you can see in Figure 4-9, to change the text displayed in the
SmartArt graphic, you can click the small handle at the left side of the selection box to
display a pane where you can update the text.
FIGURE 4-9 To update the text in a SmartArt graphic, select the object, click the arrow on the left border,
and then use the pane that PowerPoint displays to change and edit the text.
The project overview template doesn’t include slide transitions or animations, but you
could add them for a particular presentation by selecting a slide or an object and then
using the options on the Transitions and Animations tabs. For the purposes of a speciic
presentation, you could also apply a different theme or otherwise modify the appearance of slides by changing the formatting of fonts, text effects such as shadows, the ill
colors for the SmartArt elements, and so on. You could make these changes without
altering the basic template, which would remain intact for when you need it again for
similar presentations.
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Creating your own PowerPoint template
Your team might ind that one or more of the PowerPoint templates that come with
Ofice serve most of your needs. You could modify a built-in template to better capture
the work and personality of your team and organization, but you might ind that the
effort required is better spent designing and saving your own template. I’ll outline the
steps you follow to do that in this section.
To start, open a blank presentation by clicking the File tab, clicking New, and then clicking Blank Presentation. On the View tab, click Slide Master to open the presentation in
Slide Master view. As shown in Figure 4-10, in the pane at the left you’ll see the slide
master (the larger thumbnail at the top of the pane) and various side layouts.
FIGURE 4-10 To start building your own template, open a blank presentation and switch to
Slide Master view.
You can point to a thumbnail to see the name of the layout—for example, the Title
Slide layout, the Title And Content layout, the Title And Two Content layout, and others.
Changes you make to the slide master (to font formatting, for example) apply to all the
individual layouts. Changes you make to a speciic layout affect only slides that use that
Developing a PowerPoint template
Customizing template design elements
Because you’re working with a blank presentation, the generic Ofice theme is currently
applied. To apply a different theme to the template, be sure the slide master is selected
and then open the Themes gallery in the Edit Theme group on the Slide Master tab. Select a theme or click Browse For Themes to see other choices. The theme you choose—
with its collection of fonts, backgrounds, and colors—is applied to the slide master and
the available layouts.
You can use the theme as is at this point or start adjusting elements such as the color
scheme, fonts, and text effects. Use the command groups on the Slide Master tab to
make the following changes:
In the Background group, click Colors and then select a color scheme for the
template. Rest your pointer on an option to see a preview. To ine-tune the color
scheme for your template, click Customize Colors at the bottom of the Colors gallery to open the Create New Theme Colors dialog box, shown here.
Open the palette for each color element (Text/Background - Dark 1 and so on)
you want to change, and then select the color you want. The image in the Sample
area is updated to relect your choice. You can select More Colors at the bottom of
the palette you’re working with to mix colors of your own. When you inish making changes, type a name for the custom color scheme and click Save. Your new
scheme is now available in the gallery.
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Open the Fonts gallery to select a different base font for the template. (This
changes the font scheme that’s built into the theme you selected.) The choices in
the gallery show the heading font and the body font. If you want to use a combination not available in the gallery, click Customize Fonts to display the Create New
Theme Fonts dialog box, shown here.
Select a heading font and a body font, type a name for the new scheme, and then
click Save. This font scheme is now added to the gallery, and you can use it for
other templates you develop (or apply it to a presentation that you’re creating).
Use the Effects gallery to choose a set of shadows, edges, and other text effects.
To modify the background, click Background Styles, select one of the options
available, or choose Format Background to display the Format Background pane,
shown in the following screen shot. In the Format Background pane, you can make
detailed changes to ill formatting, effects, and the background image.
Developing a PowerPoint template
To change the size of slides, click Slide Size, and then select Standard, Widescreen,
or Custom Slide Size. To set up a custom slide size, you need to ill in the Slide Size
dialog box with information about what the slides are being sized for (a paper size,
a screen display, and so on), slide dimensions, and orientation (portrait or landscape).
Working with placeholders
Updating the design of your template with color and font schemes addresses how slides
look. You also should consider the content you want to include on the slides in your template. To do this, you work with placeholders.
Figure 4-11 shows the Insert Placeholder menu, which lists the types of placeholders you
can add to a slide. In the igure, the slide layout named Picture With Caption is selected.
Initially, this layout included a single placeholder for an image, together with a text
placeholder for the caption. I resized the default placeholder and then inserted a second
one to provide a layout that’s designed for a side-by-side comparison of pictures. Notice
that the default placeholder contains the helpful prompt “Click icon to add picture.” The
placeholder I added doesn’t yet include a prompt. It’s simply labeled “Picture” in the topleft corner.
FIGURE 4-11 You develop a PowerPoint template in two stages—refining the design with colors, fonts,
and text effects, and then adding content placeholders to build the slide layouts you need.
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Because you’re designing this template for use in a collaborative environment, adding
prompts such as the one shown in Figure 4-11 can be very helpful. These prompts can
describe actions a user needs to take or can point to the type of information you want
the users of your template to enter. (For example, look back at Figure 4-8, which shows
placeholders for company name, project name, and presenter name.)
Here are the steps you follow to add a text placeholder in Slide Master view:
Select the layout.
In the Master Layout group, click Insert Placeholder, and then click Text.
Click a location on the layout, and then drag to draw the placeholder.
To resize a placeholder, drag the corner of one of its borders.
Type descriptive text that prompts the users of your template to enter speciic
In some PowerPoint templates, using a single slide master provides the consistency in appearance that you need. However, you aren’t restricted to using only
one slide master when you build a template. You might consider adding a slide
master to a template you know will be used for presentations that cover multiple
topics. You can distinguish topics by using the variations in look and feel provided by more than one slide master.
In Slide Master view, click Insert Slide Master in the Edit Master group. A new
slide master is added to the thumbnail pane along with the standard slide layouts. You can then apply or deine a different theme to this slide master. When
you are building a speciic presentation in PowerPoint’s Normal view, you’ll see
the additional layouts available under New Slide and Layout on the Home tab.
Creating a custom layout
As you saw earlier in this section, a template—even a blank presentation—comes with
a set of slide layouts. The layouts are designed for slides in which you want to present
graphical elements, those in which you want to compare information side by side, and
so on. You can make adjustments to built-in layouts, but you can also create your own.
Custom layouts will include placeholders (and possibly distinctive design elements) in an
arrangement that its the purpose of the slide.
Developing a PowerPoint template
To create a slide layout, display your template (or the current presentation) in Slide Master view, and then click Insert Layout. You’ll see a basic layout with a title placeholder. To
build the layout, add placeholders following the steps described earlier in this section.
Select the kind of placeholder you want, and then drag to place it where you want it to
appear. Then use the options in the Background group on the Slide Master tab to update
the look and feel of the new layout.
PowerPoint names custom layouts as Custom Layout or Custom Layout_1 by default. To
provide a more descriptive name, select the layout’s thumbnail and then click Rename in
the Edit Master group on the Slide Master tab. (The Rename command is also available
on a shortcut menu if you right-click a thumbnail.)
Working with notes and handout masters
When you develop a PowerPoint template, most of your attention will be focused on
altering the slide master or updating speciic slide layouts. As part of your template,
you can also work with handout masters and notes masters. Notes and handouts apply
mainly to presentations you plan to print, but a few customizations to bring notes and
handouts up to date with the appearance of the template’s slides is a good inishing
touch. For example, apply the same theme or color scheme to handouts and notes. For
handouts, you can also specify the slide size and how many slides will be printed on a
single page. In addition, you can include or remove header and footer information in
handouts, and add the date and page number. You have the options for a header, footer,
the date, and page numbers in notes as well. In notes, you also have the options to include a slide image and to change the page orientation, among other things.
To work with notes or handout masters, switch to the View tab, and then click the command you want in the Master Views group.
Saving the PowerPoint template ile
PowerPoint templates use the .potx ile name extension. To save your template, click Save
As on the File tab. Select a location (such as Computer), and then click Browse. Type a ile
name, and then select PowerPoint Template (.potx) in the Save As Type list.
To create a presentation based on the template, open the template and then save the
presentation using the .pptx ile name extension. Unfortunately, custom templates you
create in PowerPoint don’t show up on the New page—at least not in the Ofice 2013
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Designing a Word template
If you want to design your own template in Word, you have a few choices as your starting point. You can use a document you’ve created as the basis of the template, you can
use another template ile as your foundation, or you can create a template from the
ground up.
Some of the elements you should consider using in a Word template include the following:
Styles What styles do you need? Can you work with only the built-in styles, or
do you need to deine each style from scratch? Depending on the purpose of the
template, you need to consider styles for headings, normal paragraphs (indented
or unindented), lists, tables, illustrations and images, and other elements. For more
information, see “Working with paragraph styles” and “Deining character styles”
later in this section.
Headers and footers Add page numbering, the date, a document title (for example, “Request for Proposal”), and other information (the label “Conidential” or
your department name) that you want each document based on this template to
contain in these areas. To deine a header and a footer, click Header or Footer on
the Insert tab and then select the format you want to use. For more information,
see “Creating headers and footers” later in this section.
Images Add a company logo or other graphic that should be part of each document. Click Picture on the Insert tab to add a picture to a document.
Page layout Use the commands and tools on the Page Layout tab to set margins, the page orientation, page size, the number of columns, and other layoutrelated settings.
Document references Add a placeholder table of contents, if applicable. If the
template is for documents that include a number of illustrations, indicate whether
captions are required and deine a default style for captions.
Placeholder text Add placeholder text for elements such as an address block,
product references, agenda items, meeting notes, and other content that should
be included in documents based on the template.
Tables What type of table formats do you need? Can you use one of the built-in
table styles provided by Word, or do you want to deine your own?
Building blocks Building blocks are content elements (such as cover pages,
headers and footers, and watermarks) that are stored in galleries. You can save
your own building blocks and distribute them with templates. When you send or
Designing a Word template
make the template available to others, the building blocks saved with the template
are available in the galleries. For more information on creating building blocks, see
“Creating building blocks and Quick Parts ” later in this section.
Content controls You can add certain types of content controls to a template
to help you and other users manage information. For example, you can add a
drop-down list control to a template, deine the items in that list, and then select
the items you need as you build a document. By setting properties for a content
control, you can restrict the content the control allows (only certain items in a list)
or provide more lexibility. You can ind more information about speciic content
controls later in this section.
To start building a Word template, click the File tab, display the New page, and then click
Blank Document. Click File, and then click Save As. For now, save the template on your
local drive by clicking Computer and then clicking Browse.
In the Save As dialog box, in the Save As Type list, choose Word Template (*.dotx). Notice
that the dialog box opens the folder Custom Word Templates, which is a subfolder in the
Templates folder in your user proile. Type a name for the template, and then click Save.
Click OK if you see a message about ile formats. You’re now ready to start making the
customizations and additions that will deine the template.
If you are creating a template in which you want to create and save macros, select Word Macro-Enabled Template (*.dotm) in the Save As dialog
Working with paragraph styles
Start by considering the various elements that documents based on this template will
contain. It’s likely that you’ll want styles for at least two or three levels of headings, for
regular (normal) paragraphs, for lists of various types (numbered and bulleted), and perhaps tables, image captions, and so on.
Remember that every paragraph in a Word document is assigned a particular style, and
although you can create an entire document that uses only the default Normal style and
then format the text by adding bold or italic, increasing or decreasing font size, applying different fonts, and adding text effects, even in a document that contains only one
or two levels of headings and regular paragraphs of text, you need to do a lot of work
to make elements of the same type consistent. Styles provide much more control and
consistency, and after you apply styles, you can change style properties once and apply
them throughout the current document and every document based on the template.
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The Styles gallery on the Home tab displays several of Word’s default styles, including
the paragraph styles Normal, Heading 1, and Title and character styles such as Emphasis,
Strong, and Subtle Reference. (You’ll learn more details about character styles later in this
Let’s say you want to modify the default Heading 1 style. To modify a built-in style, rightclick the style in the Style gallery and then choose Modify. This opens the Modify Style
dialog box. In the dialog box, shown in Figure 4-12, the style’s properties are described
below the preview box. Here you can see font properties such as size, color, and space
FIGURE 4-12 The Modify Style dialog box.
In the Modify Style dialog box, make changes to the style’s properties by choosing a different typeface or font size, for example, or by setting a heading to a different font color,
adjusting line spacing, setting indentation, and so on. To specify more detailed settings
for a style, click Format at the bottom of the dialog box, and then choose Font, Paragraph, Numbering, Text Effects, or another item to open a dialog box with options you
can set for that element of the style.
Designing a Word template
Be sure to review the settings in the check boxes and option buttons at the bottom of
the Modify Style dialog box. Keep the Add To Styles Gallery option selected if you want
to add this style to the gallery on the Home tab. Select New Documents Based On This
Template so that the changes you make carry over to all documents that are based on
the template you’re creating. When you inish deining the style, click OK.
To create a style, irst click the Styles dialog box launcher on the Home tab. In the Styles
pane, select the style you want to use as the basis of the new style. For example, select
Heading 1 or Heading 2 to create a new heading style, or select Normal to create a new
style for running text. The style you select in the Styles pane provides the basic formatting attributes for the new style.
At the bottom of the Styles pane, click New Style (the icon at the far left in the row of
icons at the bottom of the pane) to open the Create New Style From Formatting dialog
box, which provides the same set of options as the Modify Style dialog box shown earlier
in Figure 4-12. Type a name for your style, and then select the type of style. In many
cases, just leave Paragraph selected in the Style Type list, but you might also choose
Character, Table, or List if you’re creating a style speciically for character emphasis (italics or bold, for example) or a style you’ll use in tables and lists. The style you selected as
the base style should be displayed in the Style Based On list. If you want to change your
selection, choose a different style here. If you want to apply a speciic style to paragraphs
that follow the style you’re deining, select that style in the Style For Following Paragraph
list. For example, you might choose Normal in this list to follow a heading style you’re
You can also create a style based on text you format in the body of a document. Type
a heading, for example, apply the font formatting and text effects you want, and then
select the text. Click the More button in the bottom-right corner of the Style gallery and
then click Create A Style. You’ll see an abbreviated version of the Create New Style From
Formatting dialog box, shown in Figure 4-13. Type a name for the style, click Modify if
you want to change any of the style’s attributes, and then save the new style.
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FIGURE 4-13 Format text with the attributes you want for a style, select the text, and then name a style
based on it.
You can import (and export) styles to get a headstart on deining the
styles you want to use in a template. To manage styles in this way, you
use the Organizer. At the bottom of the Styles panes, click Manage Styles,
and then click Import/Export in the Manage Styles dialog box to open
the Organizer. You should see the currently active document or template
in the Styles Available In list on the left. Use the Styles Available In list on
the right to open the document or template that includes the styles you
want to import. Select the styles in the list on the right, and then click
Copy to include them in the document or template listed on the left—
the template you are building. (You can copy styles in either direction.)
You can also delete styles or rename styles—for example, you might use
names such as RFP_Heading 1 for your Request For Proposal template
and Fax_Heading 1 for the style for your fax cover sheet.
Designing a Word template
Deining character styles
In many cases, you can capture all the formatting details you need in a paragraph style—
indentation, font size, line spacing, and other such details. Within a paragraph, you can
apply local formatting to characters by using the controls in the Font group on the Home
tab or by choosing options in the Font dialog box. But you can also create styles speciically for groups of characters and then apply those styles as you format the document.
Here again, the advantage of applying a character style (for example, to hyperlinks or to
company names) is that you can update the style and have those updates relected everywhere the style is applied. If you use only local formatting, you have to reformat each
and every instance to remain consistent.
To deine a character style, click the Styles dialog box launcher to display the Styles pane.
At the bottom of the pane, click New Style. In the Create New Style From Formatting
dialog box, name the style (for example, Product Name) and then select Character from
the Style Type list. When you make this selection, the options in the dialog box change so
that they apply only to character styles.
In the Style Based On list, you’ll see Default Paragraph Font listed. Open the Style Based
On list, and choose from among the built-in character styles if you want to use one of
them as a starting point. Use the buttons and lists in the Formatting area of the Create
New Style From Formatting dialog box to specify the properties you want to include in
this style’s deinition, or click the Format button at the bottom of the dialog box to gain
access to more options for formatting the font, border, and text effects.
Creating headers and footers
The information you deine for a header or a footer is repeated on each page (or alternating pages) of a document or a document section. Page numbers are the simplest
example of the type of information that a header or a footer presents (and whether you
place page numbers in a header or a footer depends on factors such as page margins
and page size, organizational preferences, or style conventions). Headers and footers can
contain other information as well, including a document’s title, an author’s name, a project or department name, the time and date, or labels such as “Draft” or “Conidential.”
Word comes with a gallery of headers and footers that you can add as is to a template
you’re designing or customize to provide more or less information. You can also deine
your own headers and footers as part of a template.
Headers and footers have their own group on the Insert tab. This group also includes the
Page Number command, which lets you insert a page number in one of several locations
and in a choice of formats. More options for formatting page numbers are provided in
the dialog box that appears when you click Format Page Numbers. Use the Page Number
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Format dialog box to change from the default format, which uses Arabic numerals (1, 2,
3…), to one that uses uppercase or lowercase roman numerals, letters (A, B, C…), or negative numbers (–1, –2, –3…).
Another option in the Page Number Format dialog box gives you control over whether a
chapter number appears with a page number (a convention such as 3-1 or 3:1, meaning
“page 1 of Chapter 3”). To use a chapter and page numbering scheme, select the Include
Chapter Number check box and then select the style that marks the start of each chapter.
(Only the built-in heading styles appear in this list.) In the Use Separator list, select the
character that should separate the chapter number from the page number.
If you expect to deine sections in documents based on this template, indicate whether
you want pagination to continue from the previous section or whether the next section
of a document should start at a particular page number. Use this option if you set up
a template for documents that will use roman numerals for page numbers in elements
such as the table of contents, foreword, preface, and other front matter and Arabic numerals for page numbers in the body of the document.
Headers and footers appear in galleries that Word displays when you click Header or
Footer on the Insert tab. Choose one of the built-in headers or footers, click the option
to ind other styles on, or click Edit Header (or Edit Footer) to create your
own header or footer. If you select one of the preset headers or footers, Word opens the
header or footer area and displays placeholder text that you replace.
To work with custom headers and footers (and to modify those that come with Word)
you use the Header & Footer Tools Design tab, which makes an array of possibilities available. This tab includes the Header, Footer, and Page Number commands again, as well as
various controls that let you deine the header or footer you need:
Insert Use the Insert group’s commands to add the date and time (you can
choose from a variety of formats), a Quick Part, a picture such as a company or
department logo, or a piece of clip art. For Quick Parts, you might insert a custom
AutoText entry you saved, such as “Conidential, For Internal Review Only,” a document property (for example, the document’s author or keywords that describe the
document), or a ield. The Quick Parts menu also gives you access to the Building
Blocks Organizer, where you can select AutoText entries again or a building block
from another category.
See Also For more information about saving AutoText entries and working with Quick
Parts and building blocks, see “Creating building blocks and Quick Parts” later in this
Designing a Word template
Navigation Use the controls in this group to switch between the header and
the footer or to move between the header or footer on the next or previous page.
Click Link To Previous to tie the current page’s header or footer to the previous
Options In some types of documents (generally long documents such as books),
tradition calls for excluding a header or footer on the irst page of a document
section (or having only the page number) and varying the information that appears on odd and even pages. For example, you might display the document title
on even-numbered pages and section titles on odd-numbered pages. Options
for both circumstances are included in the Options group. Also, clear the check
box for the Show Document Text option if you want Word to hide the document’s
content so that you see only the information in the header or footer for the time
Position Use the Header From Top and Footer From Bottom controls to set the
position of a header or a footer. The Insert Alignment Tab command helps you
gracefully arrange the elements of a header or a footer.
Creating building blocks and Quick Parts
Very often, documents of the same type should use the same language in the same situation—for example, disclaimers and boilerplate language in a contract. Even in documents of different types, certain elements need to remain consistent in the information
they present. An address block is one example. Being able to insert a ready-made piece
of content when you are building a document from a template saves time and works as
an effective control to ensure that the document’s elements are up to date and valid.
Using building blocks
The galleries you work with in Word are illed with what are known as building blocks.
Building blocks are available for document elements ranging from headers and footers
to cover pages and tables. To add a building block to a document, you often use commands on the Insert tab—for headers and footers, for example—although the Watermarks gallery appears on the Design tab.
You can see the assortment of building blocks that come with Word by viewing the
Building Blocks Organizer, a dialog box you open by clicking Quick Parts on the Insert
tab and then clicking Building Blocks Organizer. Sort the list of building blocks by clicking
a column heading. (The list is initially sorted by gallery.) Select a building block in the list
to see a preview and a description. If you want to insert a building block in your template
or document—for example, the Stacks footer—select that building block and click Insert.
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To make changes to a built-in building block—to modify a cover page, for example—add
the building block to your template, revise it (by changing the font styles, background
image, and other properties), and then click Save Selection To Gallery (in this example,
the Cover Page gallery, which you open under Pages on the Insert tab). Word displays
the Create New Building Block dialog box, shown in Figure 4-14. (You can also click Quick
Parts, Save Selection To Gallery on the Insert tab or press F3 to open this dialog box.)
FIGURE 4-14 In creating a building block, you define properties such as what gallery the building block
belongs in.
Type a name for the building block, and then ill in the following ields:
Gallery The Gallery list provides a long set of options for adding the entry to a
built-in gallery (Headers, for example) if you don’t want to stick with the default.
Use these galleries to maintain building blocks in an orderly fashion.
Category Each building block is assigned to a category. Many are assigned to
the Built-In category, and others to categories that describe the building block.
You can ind built-in watermark building blocks assigned to the Conidential category, for example. In deining your own building blocks, you can use a category
Word provides or create one or more categories of your own. You might categorize building blocks by department or by team role, for example. In the Building
Block Organizer, you can group building blocks by category, which might let you
ind the building block you need more easily.
Description Use this ield to enter a description that appears in a ScreenTip
when you point the mouse to the item in a gallery and when you select the item in
the Building Blocks Organizer.
Save In Select the template in which you want to save the building block.
Choose Normal.dotm to save it in Word’s general template so that you can insert
it in any document. Select the name of the template you are creating to store the
building block there. This choice makes the building block available to new docu-
Designing a Word template
ments based on this template. Select Building Blocks.dotx to save it in the Building Blocks template. This choice also makes the building block available for all the
documents you create.
Options Specify how you want to insert the building block. The choices are
Insert Content Only, Insert Content In Its Own Paragraph, and Insert Content In Its
Own Page. The irst of these choices places the building block at the cursor without adding a paragraph or page break.
The Edit Properties button in the Building Blocks Organizer opens the
Modify Building Block dialog box, which provides the same ields as the
Create New Building Block dialog box. Although you won’t often need to
change the properties of built-in building blocks, you might do so for a
building block you create.
Saving and inserting Quick Parts
Quick Parts come in several varieties—AutoText entries (a type of building block), document properties, and ields. You gain access to Quick Parts by clicking the Quick Parts
command in the Text group on the Insert tab.
AutoText entries can play a particularly effective role in templates. For example, you could
deine a standard disclaimer or other boilerplate language as an AutoText entry. To deine
an AutoText entry, type the text you want it to include, and then select the text. Open the
Quick Parts menu, click AutoText, and then click Save Selection To AutoText Gallery. You’ll
see the Create New Building Block dialog box (shown earlier in Figure 4-14), with the gallery you selected shown by default. In the dialog box, set the Save In list to the template
you are building if you want this AutoText entry available only in this template.
To insert an AutoText entry, click Quick Parts, AutoText on the Insert tab, and then select
the entry you want to insert. A faster way to insert an AutoText entry is to type its name
(or just the irst few characters). Word can recognize the AutoText and display a preview.
Press Enter at this point to add the AutoText entry to your document.
Document properties and ields are useful but might not be applicable in many templates. However, as you learned in the section “Working with document properties” in
Chapter 3, “Managing access and preserving history,” you can tie document properties to
column names in a SharePoint list or library. If you are creating a template for documents
in which you want to capture information such as Author, Manager, Subject, and so on,
add document properties to the cover page of your template, for example.
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On the Quick Parts menu, point to Document Properties, and then choose from the list
that includes Abstract, Company, Keywords, Manager, Title, and others. Values for some
properties (Author, for example) are illed in automatically by Word. You can specify values for other properties on the Info page in Backstage view, in the document’s Properties dialog box, or in the Document Panel that you can open from the Info tab. If a value
hasn’t been set for the property you choose, you can enter the value when you insert the
property as a Quick Part.
See Also For more information, see “Working with document properties” in Chapter 3.
Fields, the third Quick Part type, are placeholders for speciic types of content and data.
The information a ield contains can be updated automatically. Word uses ields for many
different features that you might use regularly, including tables of contents, index entries,
and the date and time. Use the Field dialog box to insert a ield and specify formatting or
other related information. You can view all ields or select a category from the list box at
the top.
For example, to insert a ield that shows who last saved a document, select LastSavedBy
in the list of ields, specify the format you want to use (uppercase, lowercase, and so on),
and then click OK. This bit of information might be helpfully placed on the irst page of a
document that a group is collaborating on or in the header or footer for that document.
To see the inner workings of a ield, right-click the ield and then click Toggle Field
Codes. You’ll see that the ield’s name appears along with a formatting reference and
other information, depending on the ield you are using. Fields are enclosed by curly
braces—{author}, for example. You can enter ield codes on your own by pressing
Ctrl+F9, but using the Field dialog box is much easier. There, you see the required information as well as a description of the ield.
Adding content controls
Like some types of Quick Parts, content controls aren’t a key element in many Word templates, but in some situations (in forms, for example), content controls help teams collect
and manage information in speciic ways. This section provides an overview of the types
of content controls you can add to a template (or to a document).
Content controls let you deine elements such as a list, a date picker, or a rich-text control
for a template. You add a content control by using the Controls group on the Developer
Designing a Word template
If the Developer tab isn’t displayed on the ribbon, click the File tab, click
Options, and then click Customize Ribbon. Under Customize The Ribbon,
click Main Tabs, select the Developer check box, and then click OK.
Here’s a brief description of the content controls you might use. In the Controls group,
point to an icon to see a ScreenTip that identiies each control:
Rich text Used to hold text. You can format text as bold or italic, include multiple paragraphs, and add other formatting.
Plain text Used to hold text. Use the plain text control if you want to limit what
users can do with respect to formatting the text.
Combo box Users can select from a list of deined choices or type their own
information. If you select the Contents Cannot Be Edited check box in the properties for this control, users won’t be able to add their own items to the list.
Drop-down list In this control, users can select only from the list of deined
Building block Use a building block control when you want people to choose
a speciic block of text. In a proposal, for example, you might include a building
block control that indicates the length of time for which the proposal is valid or
other types of boilerplate text. For more information about building blocks, see
“Creating building blocks and Quick Parts” earlier in this chapter.
Date picker
Check box
Use this control to embed an image ile.
This control inserts a calendar control that lets you select a date.
Use the check box control to provide a set of options in the template.
To group content controls, select the controls and then click Group in
the Controls group. For example, if you want to keep three check boxes
together as a unit so that they cannot be edited or deleted individually,
select those controls and then click Group.
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Working with content control properties
Protecting the content controls you add to a template can prevent users from deleting or
editing a content control or a group of controls. For example, you can set an option that
lets a user edit the content in a control but not delete the control from the template or
from a document that uses that template. Word also gives you an option with which users can delete the control but not edit its content. You might use the second option (delete but not edit) in documents that require speciic wording but not in every instance.
Changing the text in a content control
Content controls often include a simple text statement that tells users what the control
is for. Changing this text so that it provides precise instructions helps users work with a
template eficiently.
Changing the text is a simple operation. Open the template that contains the content
control, and then click Design Mode in the Controls group on the Developer tab. Select
the control whose text you want to change, select the text it contains, and then type the
new text.
Protecting a template
You can use the Restrict Editing command (on the Review tab or under Protect Document on the Info page in Backstage view) to assign a password to a template and also
to control formatting. If you don’t use a password, the work you’ve done designing the
template is subject to anyone’s changes, and if you don’t control formatting to some
degree, a document based on the template might come back looking nothing like what
the template was intended to provide.
As you’ll see in more detail in Chapter 8, “Working on shared documents in Word,” the
Restrict Formatting And Editing pane provides an option named Limit Formatting To A
Selection of Styles. Select this option, and then click the Settings link to open the Formatting Restrictions dialog box. You can then select the set of styles you want users to work
with when they base a document on this template. The options in the Formatting area of
the dialog box let you control whether autoformatting settings can override formatting
restrictions, whether users can switch themes and schemes such as for fonts and colors,
and whether users can modify styles listed on the Styles gallery.
In the Restrict Formatting And Editing pane, click Yes, Start Enforcing Restrictions to
deine a password. (You don’t need to set any restrictions unless you need them.) In the
dialog box that appears, deine the password you want to use to protect the template.
Adding custom templates to your team site
Adding custom templates to your team site
Having spent time creating templates your team will use—or modifying some of the
templates that come with Ofice—how do you put these templates into use? You might
assign one or more team members to be in charge of each template. This team member or group could help other team members apply the template when questions come
up and would update the template when changes are needed. The “master” template
ile could be stored in a Templates library in SharePoint, and then you could manage
permissions on this library so that only team members with responsibilities for maintaining templates could access iles with permission to change them. Through notiications in
SharePoint and communication through e-mail, the team members responsible could let
the whole team know when a new version of the template became available. And, with
centralized storage of your team’s templates in SharePoint, each team member should
know where to go when they need one.
A document library on your team site can also be associated with a template you create.
When you set up a document library, the default setting is that new documents created
from the library are based on a generic Word template named template.dotx. As part of
deining the document library, you can specify a different Ofice program that new documents will be based on. This gives you the ability to associate a library named Budgets
with Excel, for example, but you still get only a generic template.
Through a few steps, you can replace the generic template with a custom template
you’ve created.
On your team site, open the library.
On the Library tab, in the Connect And Export group, click Open With Explorer.
You’ll now see the library as you would other folders in Explorer.
Open the library’s Forms folder, and then copy your custom template into the
Switch back to the document library (you can close the Explorer window at this
On the Library tab, in the Settings group, click Library Settings.
On the Settings page, click Advanced Settings.
In the Template URL box, update the path so that the library’s document template
points to your custom template (instead of to template.dotx), as shown here.
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When you choose the New Document command on the Files tab, the document is based
on the custom template you deined.
Working day to
day as a team
An integrated
Working with the team site
from Outlook
Linking Outlook items to
Sharing and publishing
T H I S C H A P T E R demonstrates practical examples of two timemanagement concepts—inding shortcuts and taking time to plan. First,
you’ll see how to connect libraries and lists on your team site to Microsoft
Outlook. This connection creates a folder in Outlook (accessible from the
navigation pane) where you can, for example, open and edit documents,
add discussion items to a discussion board, and create and update tasks
on your team site’s task list. Those are the speciic examples you’ll see in
this chapter. The process I describe works with other types of lists and
libraries as well, including a team site calendar or contact list.
As you’ll see, this shortcut to your team site cuts down on the need
to open and sign-in to your team site, navigate to the library or
list you need, and then open a document or update a list. Many
users of Microsoft Ofice spend a lot of time working in Outlook
anyway—especially writing and answering e-mail—and the ability
to access and update items on your team site from Outlook saves
time for certain tasks. Another shortcut you’ll learn about is linking
Outlook items to notebooks in Microsoft OneNote. This relationship isn’t as dynamic as the one between Outlook and SharePoint,
but it does provide team members a way to associate notebook
sections and pages with speciic meetings, contacts, and tasks that
are deined in Outlook.
The third major section of this chapter is about sharing calendars,
a tool teams can use to help schedule time for individual projects,
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An integrated Outlook
keep team members advised of each other’s free and busy times, and make scheduling
information available to people outside the team.
Here are two basic steps you can take to organize your work (as an individual
and as a member of a team) in Outlook:
Be sure to create folders to store messages. Use a different folder for each of
your major projects or for each person you correspond with regularly. To create
a folder at the same level as Inbox and other default folders, right-click your account name in the navigation bar and select New Folder. To create a subfolder,
right-click the parent folder, choose New Folder, and then type the name.
Archive messages when projects are complete. This step helps keep your inbox
and mail folders from overlowing and also collects the messages related to a
project in a single ile. Ask each team member involved in the project to archive
his or her messages as part of wrapping up a project.
Outlook is a program with many organizational tools. Others to consider are
custom views and conversation settings. In addition, be sure to create a contact
group that includes all the members of your team. Use the contact group to address e-mail messages and meeting requests to the team at large.
Working with the team site from Outlook
At least some team members might resist the idea of using a SharePoint team site. They
could say that the beneits a team gains from managing access to iles or by exchanging
ideas in a discussion board don’t offset the time that’s required to upload a document
and then check out the document to edit it, or the time it takes to initiate discussion
items, read through them, and reply.
These team members have a point—there are numerous ways to store iles that more
than one person needs to use (a network share, for example) and to collect opinions and
Working with the team site from Outlook
engage team members (a team can just use e-mail, for example). Alternatives like these
might not require as much administration and don’t require team members to sign in to
the team site and open a list when they have an idea or a ile they want to share.
The perspective of these team members probably overstates the ease with which teams
can implement less structured approaches and then manage and use them day to day.
It also understates the beneits teams get from making the effort to set up a team site
from the start. Once the team site is in place, the need to add content and update list
items will be rewarded by access to previous versions, for example, or to worklows that
help automate approval processes, or to a record of the status of speciic tasks.
See Also For detailed information about setting up a team site, see Chapter 2, “Building a SharePoint team site.”
Still, it’s always nice to ind a shorter path to the work you need to do, and by connecting
Outlook with lists and libraries, you can accomplish a lot of work that’s centered on the
team site while you manage your day in Outlook. I’ll show three examples in this section:
how to work with a document library, how to add to a discussion list, and how to manage tasks.
Connecting to a document library
To set up a connection between Outlook and a document library in SharePoint, sign in to
the team site, open the library you want to work with, and then follow these steps:
In the library, click the Library tab
In the Connect & Export group, click Connect To Outlook.
You will probably see one or more dialog boxes prompting you to allow a website
(the team site) to open a program (in this case, Outlook). Click Allow in these dialog boxes to proceed. (The prompts vary with different web browsers. The information described here relates to Internet Explorer.)
After Outlook starts, it displays a dialog box you use to conirm that you want to
connect the library to Outlook. Before you click Yes, click Advanced to open the
SharePoint List Options dialog box, which is shown in the following screen shot.
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When you connect the library to Outlook, Outlook creates a folder in which you
can access items in the library. You can change the name of the folder (as you’ll
see it in Outlook; this doesn’t rename the library in SharePoint). You can also add
a description. By default, the folder for the library (referred to generally as a list) is
included on other computers where you use your account. Clear this option if you
want the list only on the computer you’re working on. The Update Limit option
is related to how often Outlook and SharePoint synchronize the items in the list.
Keep this option selected.
Click OK in the SharePoint List Options dialog box, and then click Yes to conirm
you want to connect the list.
Outlook adds an entry for the library to the navigation pane under the group heading
SharePoint Lists. Outlook also downloads the items into the list (the time required will
vary depending on the number and size of the documents in the library). When you
select an item in the list, Outlook displays a preview of the ile in the reading pane (when
the reading pane is displayed). Figure 5-1 shows how the list of iles in a SharePoint
library appears in Outlook.
To move beyond the preview and open a ile to read or edit it, double-click the item
in the list in Outlook. When the ile opens (in Excel or Word, for example), you’ll probably see a notiication that you are working with an Ofline Server Workbook or Ofline
Server Document (even if you are online at the time). Also, notice that the title bar in the
program’s application window indicates that the document is read-only. You can review
the document in this state by using the arrows on each side to move from page to page.
To make changes to the document, click Edit Ofline in the notiication bar.
Working with the team site from Outlook
FIGURE 5-1 You can work with items in libraries and lists on your team site by connecting them to Out-
look. The reading pane previews a file. Folders for the lists and libraries appear on the navigation pane.
At this point, Outlook displays the Edit Ofline dialog box. The text in the dialog box informs you that to edit the ile, an ofline copy will be stored in a folder named SharePoint
Drafts. (You can change this location by clicking Ofline Editing Options, which takes you
to the Ofice program’s Options dialog box.) Click OK in the Edit Ofline dialog box to
make the ile editable.
If you are online when you save your changes and close the ile, Outlook displays a notiication in the reading pane that indicates that the updated ile is available only on your
computer. If you are ofline when you save and close the ile, you’ll see information in the
reading pane about the most recent version on SharePoint. When you connect to your
network again and open Outlook, the notiication in the reading pane points to the copy
you edited locally.
The reading pane notiication prompts you to open the ile again to check in your changes. Follow that step, and you see the Edit Ofline dialog box, shown in Figure 5-2. Click
Update to add the updated copy to the team site.
FIGURE 5-2 Click Update in the Edit Offline dialog box to add the file you edited locally to the team site.
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After the updated ile is uploaded to the library, a read-only copy of the ile is opened in
the program you’re working with. Close the ile if you are inished editing it, or click Edit
Document in the notiication bar to work with the updated ile that’s now on the team site.
Managing team discussions from Outlook
One way to encourage team members to make use of a discussion board on your team
site is to have team members connect the discussion board to Outlook. Most people who
use Ofice spend a lot of time working in Outlook, so managing your team discussions
from there is usually convenient. Team members can post, read, and reply to discussion
items while they manage their daily e-mail, and the team gains the beneit of having a
record of the discussion on the team site.
Follow the same steps described in the previous section to connect the discussion board
to Outlook:
Open the list on the team site.
Click the List tab, and then click Connect To Outlook in the Connect & Export
Work through the dialog boxes to allow the connection to occur.
After the list is connected, open it from the navigation pane in Outlook. The folder
appears on the navigation pane (under SharePoint Lists) when you are working in
Mail view in Outlook.
To add a discussion item to the list, use the New Post command in the New group. The
window Outlook displays shows that the post will be added to the team discussion list (or
to a discussion board with a different name if you connected to one). Type a subject and
then the body of the post in the window. You can insert attachments or Outlook items,
format the text of the post, add a signature, categorize the item, and so on. Use the
Insert tab to add various types of illustrations. A variety of other commands—including
commands that open the Research pane or the thesaurus—are available on the window’s
If you want to respond to a discussion thread, select the item in the list in Outlook and
then click Post Reply in the Respond group. You can also reply to the item via e-mail or
by forwarding the post.
If you are working ofline when you create a discussion post or reply to a current thread,
the discussion board on the team site is updated when you go online again and Outlook
completes its Send/Receive operation.
Working with the team site from Outlook
Using Outlook to add and update the team site task list
The task lists you set up on the team site are also good candidates for lists you work
with in Outlook. Follow the steps outlined in the previous sections to connect to the list.
When the list is connected, it appears on the navigation pane (in a group named Other
Tasks) when you display the Tasks view in Outlook.
To add a task, open the list from the navigation pane, and then click New Task on the
Home tab (or simply click and type the subject for a new task in the text box below the
Subject column heading in the list in Outlook). To add details to a task or update its status, priority, or other ields, double-click the task’s entry in the list.
To create a task or update a task that’s already deined, you work in an Outlook task
item. You can use the task form to change or make assignments and to update ields
such as subject, start date, due date, status, priority, and percentage complete. Figure 5-3
shows an example. In the Show group on the item’s Task tab, click Details to see additional ields, such as Date Completed, Total Work, Actual Work, and others.
FIGURE 5-3 You work in a regular Outlook task item when you use Outlook to add or update a task that’s
defined in SharePoint.
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In the Actions group, click Open In Browser to display the task item in the browser-based
form you work with in SharePoint. You can click Edit Item in this view to make additional
changes, or click Version History to see earlier instances of this task. (You can also click
the Team Site - Tasks link at the bottom of the task item in Outlook to open the task list
in SharePoint.)
You can link Outlook tasks to a OneNote notebook, but you cannot link
tasks that are stored in a task list on your team site. You’ll learn about
working with tasks in Outlook and OneNote in the next section.
As with items in a discussion board or another type of list, you can add and update tasks
when you work ofline in Outlook, and Outlook synchronizes changes to the team site
task list during its Send/Receive operation the next time you connect to the network.
Linking Outlook items to OneNote
As you’ll learn in Chapter 7, “Keeping track of discussions and ideas,” teams can use
OneNote as a way to collect information of all kinds (images, iles, links, and so on) and
to keep track of ideas that the team wants to develop and reine over time. To support
that work, you can add Outlook items to a notebook and also link related tasks, contacts, and calendar items. By adding items such as an e-mail message to a notebook, you
create context and establish relationships between projects and activities and routine
(or more consequential) communications. For example, the team member managing a
product development project might send an e-mail message to colleagues outlining the
goals of the project, the status of prototypes, and other related information. If this team
is using OneNote to document the product’s development—background research, notes
from review meetings, and so on—the project manager can add this e-mail message to a
page in the project notebook. No one has to retype the goals, and the message serves as
a reference and touch point as development proceeds.
E-mail messages you send to OneNote are more or less static entries in a notebook. The
note displays the subject line, the To and From ields, the date the message was sent,
and the message’s body. If the message body contains links, the links remain active. If a
message contains attachments, the attachments are included and can be opened from
Contact items you send to OneNote from Outlook are linked, meaning you can open
a contact in Outlook from OneNote. But don’t mistake “linked” for “synchronized.” For
example, when you add a contact item to a page in a notebook, the entry lists the con-
Linking Outlook items to OneNote
tact’s name, business phone, e-mail address, and other information stored in the contact
item in Outlook. It also includes a link that lets you view the contact item in Outlook. You
can’t, however, update details in OneNote (for example, change a business address) and
have those changes travel back to Outlook. If you want to make changes to a contact’s
information, you need to use the original item in Outlook.
Working with Outlook tasks and meetings in OneNote offers more of a relationship. For
example, you can mark a task complete in OneNote, and that action also marks the task
complete in Outlook. For meetings, you can set up a meeting so that the notes you take
in OneNote are shared with people invited to the meeting. Attendees can click a link in
the meeting request to review the notes you take.
Adding e-mail to OneNote
Adding an e-mail message (or messages) to OneNote is simple. In Outlook, select the
item or items (in the inbox or another mail folder), and then click OneNote in the Move
group on the Home tab. You’ll then see the Select Location In OneNote dialog box (a
dialog box you’ll become very familiar with as you spend more time working in OneNote), which is shown in Figure 5-4. Specify the notebook, section, or page you want to
add the message to, and then click OK.
FIGURE 5-4 In the Select Location In OneNote dialog box, select the section or page where you want to
place the Outlook item.
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Using meeting notes
The links you can set up between meeting items in Outlook and OneNote notebooks
can help establish and maintain a record of important and routine team gatherings. The
team member taking the notes can share them at the start or keep notes locally and
then share them with the team later after editing the notes and adding related content.
To link a meeting set up on an Outlook calendar, select the meeting (or open the meeting item), and then follow these steps:
On the Appointment tab, click Meeting Notes.
Outlook opens the item (if it isn’t open already) and displays the Meeting Notes
dialog box, shown below:
If you click Share Notes With The Meeting, you’ll see the Choose Notes To Share
With Meeting dialog box. Select the section or page in OneNote where you want
to include the notes. You can also use the New Notebook button at the bottom
of the dialog box to create a notebook for this meeting (which you can, of course,
use for related purposes as well). When you click OK in the Choose Notes To Share
With Meeting dialog box, OneNote sets up the notebook for sharing, and a link to
the meeting notes is added to the meeting request. Attendees can follow this link
to view the notebook being used to document the meeting.
Sharing and publishing calendars
If you choose to share meeting notes after a meeting request has been
sent, be sure to send an update to attendees so that they have the link.
You can also set up shared notes when you irst send the meeting request.
If you click Take Notes On Your Own, you’ll see the Select Location In OneNote
dialog box, where you specify the notebook, section, and page where you want to
record the notes. A summary of meeting details is added to the notebook (meeting date and time, location, and participants, for example). The note container also
provides a heading (Notes) where you can start recording your notes.
Working with Outlook tasks in OneNote
To add an Outlook task to OneNote, select the task in Outlook and then click OneNote
in the Actions group. (This group appears on the Task tab in the task form and on the
Home tab in Tasks view.)
When you link a task item you create in Outlook to a new page in a notebook, the page
is named using the task’s subject. (You can also add a task to a page that’s already deined.) You don’t see many details about a task (as you do for contact items and calendar
items, for example). The task’s title is provided, and any attachments added to the task
item are included as well. Point to the lag icon beside the task’s title to see details such
as the start date and due date. Right-click the lag icon to open a menu that lets you
work with the task. You can assign a follow-up lag, mark the task complete, and delete
the Outlook task. These actions update the task item in Outlook.
Sharing and publishing calendars
Too often, the effort required to coordinate team members’ time and schedules takes
away from more important work. To make this process more manageable, Ofice provides a number of tools. You can, for example, add a calendar to your team site and
use it to record meetings, events, and project milestones. (For details, see Chapter 2.)
Microsoft Lync, as you’ll learn in the next chapter, provides status and presence information so that you know when another team member is available or busy. In Lync, being
able to see someone’s status has more to do with the near term—knowing that someone’s status is Available means the chances are good that the person will answer a Lync
call or an instant message.
Sharing calendars in Outlook is another way to make the scheduling information a
team needs available. The Share group on the Calendar view Home tab provides three
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commands for sharing a calendar: E-Mail Calendar, Share Calendar, and Publish Online.
You’ll learn more about each command in the following sections.
First, it’s important to keep in mind that many people use their calendars not only for
work-related appointments and meetings but for personal appointments—visits to the
doctor, family activities, and so on. Team members who use their calendars in this way
might not want every detail of an appointment (subject, location, and so on) available in
a calendar they share. Similarly, details about some work-related appointments might be
best known only by a small group.
When you share or otherwise make an Outlook calendar public, you can choose one of
three options for the level of detail you want to provide:
Availability Only People viewing the calendar see only time indicators—when
you are free, busy, out of the ofice, and so on.
Limited Details This option allows people to see the subjects of calendar items
in addition to your availability.
Full Details
dar item.
This option shows your availability and all the details of each calen-
These options are clearly identiied and described in the Outlook user interface, and you
can select additional options to keep speciic appointments and meetings private.
Sending a calendar by e-mail
Imagine circumstances in which you want other people to know what your schedule is
over a set period of time. For example, you might be one of the team members about to
depart on a series of sales calls, but you’re also one of the team members responsible for
approving a set of new advertisements being prepared by your outside design irm and
scheduled for release in the next few weeks. You don’t need to share your whole calendar (see the next section) with the design irm, but you can select the upcoming week’s
appointments, choose the Availability Only option, and send that information via e-mail.
That way, the design irm knows when you’re free and when you’re busy so that they can
schedule your time when they need you.
When you click E-Mail Calendar, Outlook opens a blank message and displays the Send A
Calendar Via E-Mail dialog box, shown in Figure 5-5.
Sharing and publishing calendars
FIGURE 5-5 In the Send A Calendar Via E-Mail dialog box, review the options under Detail so that you
know what information the recipient of your calendar will see.
Choose a calendar (if you have more than one set up) or keep the default calendar
(named Calendar) selected. Under Date Range, make a selection from the group of
preset choices (Today, Tomorrow, or Whole Calendar are a few of the options), or click
Specify Dates, which adds Start and End date lists to the dialog box. Type the date range
you want to provide or choose from the calendar that appears when you click the arrow
to the right of each list box.
In the Detail section, the default choice is Availability Only. As the description indicates,
the message’s recipients will see only time indicators—when you are free, busy, and so
on. The other options available are Limited Details and Full Details.
If you choose Limited Details or Full Details, click Show to work with two other options.
For Limited Details, you can select the option Include Details Of Items Marked Private.
In this case, recipients will see the subjects for appointments you’ve marked as private.
For Full Details, you can select Include Details Of Items Marked Private and also Include
Attachments Within Calendar Items. (You can also use the Advanced area to choose an
e-mail layout—Daily Schedule or List Of Events.)
When you click OK, Outlook adds the calendar information to the message, including the
date range that you’ve shared, time zone information, thumbnail calendars and summaries of free and busy times, and other details if you selected one of those options. An
example is shown in Figure 5-6, where the Availability Only option was selected.
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FIGURE 5-6 This calendar shows only availability (free and busy times).
By default, Outlook provides a single calendar (called Calendar). You aren’t
limited to using a single calendar, however, and creating calendars for speciic
uses can aid the work of a team. For example, you might create a calendar for a
speciic project or other extended activities, share the calendar with team members working on the project, and use that calendar when you schedule project
You can use the Create New Blank Calendar command (under Open Calendar
in the Manage Calendars group) to create a calendar. Then follow the steps
described in the next section to share the calendar. You can also use the Open
Calendar menu to open shared calendars or open calendars published to the
Internet (which you’ll learn about later in the chapter.)
Sharing and publishing calendars
When you share a calendar you create, you send an invitation to other users via
e-mail. In the invitation Outlook sends, you can select an option (under the subject line) that grants the recipients permission to add, edit, and delete items in
the shared calendar. This option is not selected by default, so if you don’t select
it, recipients have only read access to the shared calendar.
You can also manage permissions for a shared calendar by clicking the Calendar
Permissions command in the Share group, which opens the Calendar Properties
dialog box with the Permissions tab displayed. You can add other people and
grant them permission to view the calendar or reine the level of permission
granted. Figure 5-7 shows the Permissions tab with the options available. Use the
Permission Level list to select a permission level such as Owner, Editor, Publishing
Editor, Author, and others. The selection you make in this list determines which
options are selected under the Read, Write, Delete Items, and Other areas. You
can also conigure these options on your own to create a custom level. Select
Default in the list at the top of the dialog box and change the permission level if
you want to grant people a speciic level of permission by default.
FIGURE 5-7 Use the Calendar Properties dialog box to control permissions for a shared calendar.
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Sharing a calendar
Sharing a slice of your calendar to inform people about your free and busy times is
helpful when you’re just beginning a business trip or need to coordinate your time with
people who can’t otherwise see when you’re free or busy. You can also make your full
calendar available to team members, and with the same degree of control over the level
of detail you show.
To share a calendar, irst select the calendar in the navigation pane. (If more than one
calendar is displayed, the calendar that appears irst in the list is the one you’ll share. For
best results, select only the calendar you want to share.) To complete the process, follow
these steps (which document how to share your default calendar with others):
In the Share group, click Share Calendar.
Outlook creates an e-mail message item with a preset subject line (“Sharing Invitation: Cassie Hicks - Project Calendar,” for example) and embeds sharing options in
the message, as shown in the following screen shot. When you share your own calendar with other people, you can request permission to view their calendars as well.
Sharing and publishing calendars
Address the message, select the option for the level of detail you want to provide,
and then click Send.
When the recipient receives the shared calendar invitation—and assuming you
selected the option to ask the recipient to share his or her calendar, the recipient
needs to allow or deny this request, as shown below:
Assuming the recipient allows the request to share his or her calendar, Outlook
creates a similar message that goes back to the sender. Each person sharing a
calendar then needs to click the Open This Calendar button in the message that
conirms the calendar is shared. This step adds a Shared Calendar group to the
Outlook navigation bar (or adds the new shared calendar to this group if more
than one shared calendar is available) and displays the shared calendar side by
side with your own. Clear the check box for the calendar in the navigation bar to
show or hide the calendar.
Publishing a calendar online
The third way that information about a schedule can be shared is over the Internet. You
might take this step if you are a member of a virtual team, for example. In this approach,
too, you can control the degree to which the details of appointments and meetings are
Under Publish Online in the Share group, click Publish This Calendar to open a page in
your browser. The title of the page, shown in Figure 5-8, is Calendar Publishing. If you
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aren’t already signed in to a Microsoft account, you are prompted to sign in before the
page is displayed.
FIGURE 5-8 Use the Calendar Publishing page to publish a calendar to the Internet.
Use the Publishing Detail list to specify the level of detail to provide—Availability Only,
Limited Details, or Full Details. (When you open the list, a ScreenTip is displayed that
describes each of these options.) Under Publish My Calendar, select the time period you
want to publish, starting from the current day. Three months is selected by default. Other
choices include 1 day, 30 days, and 1 year. You cannot select a speciic range of dates
(as you can when you send calendar information in an e-mail), and you can’t type in a
custom value (say, 60 days).
The options under Access Level control who can see the calendar online. Restricted, the
default choice, lets you manage access by sending a link to the calendar to the people
you want to grant access to. If you choose the Public option, anyone who inds the calendar on the Internet—through a search engine, for example—can view it.
When you click Start Publishing at the bottom of the page, links to the calendar are created. The irst link is for subscribers, who are people who will automatically see updates
to the calendar. The second link is for people viewing the calendar. Click Copy Links To
Clipboard and then paste them into an e-mail message that you send to others to alert
them about the calendar’s availability.
For a calendar published on the Internet, you can return to the Calendar Publishing
page by selecting the calendar in the navigation pane and then clicking Publish Online,
Sharing and publishing calendars
Conigure This Published Calendar. You can modify the level of detail shown, the time
period, and other ields.
Avoiding scheduling conlicts
Keeping track of appointments and meetings on more than one calendar—your default
calendar, calendars that your team uses to track projects and events, and any personal
calendar you add in Outlook—is simpliied by seeing the calendars in an integrated view.
By using the Overlay command in the Arrangement group on the View tab, you can see
your time commitments from each calendar together. If you are juggling a lot of meetings and other events, keeping the Overlay view selected can save time because you
don’t need to check all your calendars individually before you add an entry to one. Click
the tab for a particular calendar to make it active so that you can add and modify appointments and meetings.
Calendars that other team members have shared with you aren’t included in Overlay
view, but you can see a composite arrangement of your schedule by clicking Schedule
View on the View tab, as shown in Figure 5-9.
FIGURE 5-9 Use options in the View tab’s Arrangement group to check for scheduling conflicts across a
group of calendars.
In this view, the entries on each calendar, including shared calendars, are displayed in
rows. Anywhere you see entries overlap across the rows is likely to be a time when you’re
Chapter 5
Working together
in Lync
Contacts and presence
teams need both formal and informal communication tools, capabilities
Instant messages, video
calls, and online meetings 149
to access shared content when team members are working together and
Collaboration tools
Recordings and meeting
when they’re working on their own, and record-keeping tools to document their deliberations and decisions. In their everyday conversations,
in meetings, and in sharing content of all kinds, teams can ind support
for these needs in Microsoft Lync.
Keep in mind that Lync isn’t a program that you
can run on its own. The Lync client must be associated with an instance of Lync Server. Your organization might have this coniguration in place, or
you might be using a hosted version of Lync from
You’ll see in this chapter that the capabilities in Lync make it
especially well suited for teams that don’t share the same physical
location and for circumstances when colleagues who are usually
housed together aren’t—when one or more members are traveling
or working offsite, for example. For ease of communication, you
start from a contact list in Lync. From there, you can send instant
messages or call one or more of your contacts. Through a status
indicator, Lync tells you when a colleague is available, busy, away,
or doesn’t want to be disturbed. Lync is also well integrated with
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Working together in Lync
Microsoft Outlook for scheduling meetings and with Microsoft OneNote, which a team
member can use to take notes during a conference call or a meeting. In programs such
as Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint, you can share content in
Lync from the ribbon.
Lync also offers a range of content sharing options that simplify collaboration at almost
any stage of content development—from brainstorming sessions to meetings in which
members agree on the inal wording of a document, the analysis behind a sales forecast,
or the images and text in a presentation.
If you aren’t familiar with Lync, look at Figure 6-1, which shows the windows you work in
most often and identiies elements of the Lync user interface.
Double-click a
contact to open
the conversation
Choose an option to
share your desktop, a
program, or a
Type here to send
an instant message.
Click here to present and
share content.
FIGURE 6-1 The contact list appears in the main Lync window. Double-click a contact to open the conversation window. Use the conversation window to send an instant message or access other options for
team communication. Click the monitor icon in the conversation window to collaborate on files, brainstorm on a whiteboard, or conduct a poll.
To keep the main Lync window visible when you are working in other
programs, click Always On Top on the Tools menu. The Lync window is
small enough that you can position it in a corner of the screen and continue working in other programs.
Contacts and presence
Contacts and presence
The irst step you take to make effective use of Lync is to create a contact group that
includes the members of your team. Organizing contacts into groups helps you ind a
contact and, more importantly, lets you communicate with the members of the group in
a single step.
To create a contact group, do the following:
Above the contacts list, click Groups.
In the list, right-click a group name (for example, Other Contacts), and then click
Create New Group.
Type a name for the group, and then press Enter.
Now use the Search box above the contact list to locate a contact you want to add to
the group. You can search by name, e-mail address, or phone number. In the list Lync
displays, right-click the contact you want to add, click Add To Contacts List, and then
choose the contact group from the menu that’s displayed. (Other options on the shortcut
menu let you add a contact to the Favorites group, tag a contact so that you see status
change alerts, communicate with a contact, and more.)
As an alternative, click the small contact icon below the Search box (at the right side of
the window) and then click Add A Contact That’s In My Organization or Add A Contact
That’s Not In My Organization. Fill in the information required, and specify the group you
want to add the contact to.
Sharing status information with your team
When you add a contact to your list, that person is notiied of the action and can choose
to add you to a speciic contact group as well. The new contact can also select a privacy
relationship to apply. Privacy relationships determine the level of detail a contact can see
about your contact information, status, and activities. For the most part, making more
information available rather than less aids team communication.
For contacts in your organization, Lync sets the privacy relationship to Colleagues by
default. Colleagues can see basic information such as your display name and e-mail
address and can also see your work phone number, your free and busy times, and your
designated working hours. Some teams may decide that the level of information for the
Colleagues relationship is enough for their purposes. An alternative is to set the privacy
relationship for team members to Workgroup, a relationship that allows those contacts
to also see your mobile phone number, meeting locations, and meeting subjects and
to interrupt you when your status in Lync indicates that you don’t want to be disturbed.
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(You’ll read more about status later in this chapter.) That might be more information than
your team members want to share, but it does enable teams that work on fast-paced
projects—teams facing daily deadlines, for example—to ind each other when the need
is critical.
To view the list of privacy relationships or to change the relationship for a contact, rightclick the contact entry and point to Change Privacy Relationship. On the menu Lync
displays, you can read a brief description of each privacy relationship. For a full list of the
information that’s available for each category, look for the Lync Help article “Control Access to Your Presence Information.”
Another category you might use in the set of privacy relationships is
External Contacts. Contacts in this category can’t see phone numbers or
meeting details, for example. Contacts outside your organization—contacts who don’t share your company’s domain name—don’t have to be
designated as External Contacts. You can set their relationship to Colleagues or to Workgroup if they are integrated into your team and you
want to share more information with them.
Getting in touch
After you add contacts to the team contact group, group communication is easily facilitated. To start a conference call with the group’s members—or at least those members
who are currently available—right-click the group’s name in the contact list, and then
click Start A Conference Call. This shortcut menu, shown in Figure 6-2, has options for
managing contacts and additional options for communicating with your team, such as
the following:
Send an instant message to the group
Start a video call
Send an e-mail message to group members
Schedule a meeting with group members (if your account is set up to use Outlook)
You’ll learn more details about several of these options later in this chapter in the section
“Instant messages, video calls, and online meetings.”
Contacts and presence
FIGURE 6-2 Use this menu to contact team members who are available or to rename, delete, or change
the order of contact groups.
Viewing and managing your status
Using the options on the shortcut menu that appears when you right-click a contact
group is great for informal communication. But as Figure 6-2 illustrates, not every
member of your team will be around when you call (Chris Green, for example, is ofline)
or send an instant message. Scheduled meetings, of course, are when team members
are expected to be present. At other times, you can rely on the status indicator in Lync
to know when a colleague is available, ofline, or away momentarily. Your current status
appears under your name in the Lync window. The status of your contacts appears just to
the right of their names.
By default, Lync uses entries in your Outlook calendar to set your status. For example,
during a time period you have blocked off for an appointment, Lync sets your status to
show that you are busy. When you are engaged in a call, Lync changes your status to In A
Call. Likewise, Lync uses the status settings In A Meeting and In A Conference Call when
you are involved in those activities.
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You can change your status on your own to alert colleagues that you are away or don’t
want to be disturbed. To see the choice of status indicators, click the arrow beside the
indicator. The choices include the following:
Available Your status is set to Available when Lync detects you’re using your computer. You can manually set your status to Available as well.
Busy Lync sets your status to Busy when you have an appointment on your calendar in Outlook. You can also set your status to Busy manually.
Do Not Disturb When you set your status to Do Not Disturb, you’ll see conversation notiications only from contacts you assigned the Workgroup privacy relationship. When one of your Workgroup contacts chooses the Do Not Disturb status,
you see Urgent Interruptions Only next to that contact in your instance of Lync.
Be Right Back This is another status setting that you can set yourself.
Off Work You select this status when you are away from your ofice and from
Appear Away Set your status to Appear Away when you don’t want other contacts to know you’re online but still want the ability to get in touch with other
team members.
To revert from the status you set and have Lync resume automatically
updating your status, click Reset Status.
You will also see status settings such as Ofline or Unknown for your contacts. Lync sets
your status to Ofline when you log off your computer. The Unknown status setting is
shown when Lync can’t detect the status of a contact.
Lync sets your status to Inactive and then to Away after your computer is idle for the
period of time that’s speciied in the Lync Options dialog box. The default interval is ive
minutes for each change in status. If you want to change this setting, click the Options
button at the top-right of the Lync window, and then display the Status page in the Lync
Options dialog box. The settings you need to change are at the top of the page.
The presence states deined in Lync can’t be customized, and you can’t create presence
states of your own. If you want to give team members more details about what you’re
doing or where you are, add a note in the text box above your name (which displays
the prompt “What’s happening today?”) The note you add appears with your contact
information. You can also add a place to the Set Your Location box to associate a location
with the network you are connected to.
Instant messages, video calls, and online meetings
Instant messages, video calls, and online
As I mentioned at the start of this chapter, Lync supports both formal (scheduled meetings) and informal (instant messaging) modes of communication. Coupled with the information Lync shows about a contact’s availability, absence, or current activity, the various
options for communicating let team members ind each other whenever an issue needs
Communicating through an instant messaging program is familiar to many people. Lync’s
basic implementation of instant messaging is similar to other programs, and Lync lets
you build on the messages you type by providing Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
calls, video feeds, and collaboration tools. We’ll explore some of the regular instant
messaging features in this section, look at the video capabilities in Lync, and then inish
with information about how the integration of Lync and Outlook lets teams schedule and
conduct meetings online rather than in a conference room.
See Also The tools you use to share content and collaborate in Lync are covered in
detail later in the chapter.
Exchanging instant messages
To send an instant message, double-click a contact’s entry in the Lync window to open
the conversation window. Type your message in the window’s bottom pane, and then
press Enter. The contact then receives a notiication of the message from Lync and can
accept to read the message and reply, ignore the message, or indicate that he or she
doesn’t want to be disturbed.
You can add multiple contacts to a single instant message session by selecting the irst
contact, pressing the Ctrl key, and then selecting the other contacts you want to include.
To send an instant message to a group of contacts, right-click the group name in the
contact list, and then click Send An Instant Message. (You can also drag a contact’s entry
into the conversation window to add that contact to the conversation.)
In the conversation window, shown in Figure 6-3, you can move beyond a simple exchange of typed messages to do the following:
Click the phone icon to reach the contact via a Lync call or at a phone number.
(Not all conigurations of Lync will support calls of both types.)
Click the camera icon to initiate a video conference with participants.
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Click the monitor icon to share your desktop, a program, or a presentation, for
example, or to set up a poll or a whiteboard. These commands are useful even
when just two members of a team are talking or exchanging instant messages.
For example, a team member responsible for updating a presentation who wants
feedback from the team's PowerPoint expert can send an instant message to the
expert and then, once she’s engaged, share the presentation. (For details, see
“Sharing a PowerPoint presentation” later in this chapter.)
The monitor icon also lets you start OneNote to take notes during a conversation
and to add attachments that participants in a conversation can review. When an
attachment is added, the participants can then choose to accept the ile, save it, or
decline its delivery. The recipient can open the ile once the attachment is accepted. (By default, iles that are accepted, saved, or transferred are stored in the My
Received Files folder in the user’s Documents library. You can change this setting
on the File Saving page of the Lync Options dialog box.) The sender of the instant
message sees a message indicating the action taken by the recipient.
You can copy and paste text and links to websites or documents into the
instant message window.
FIGURE 6-3 Click the icons at the bottom of the conversation window to start a call, a video conference,
or an online presentation.
Instant messages, video calls, and online meetings
When a contact calls you in Lync, you can respond with an instant message.
Click Options on the notiication Lync displays when you receive the call, and
then click Reply By IM. When you click this command, the instant message
window opens, and the person who called is informed that you chose to reply
with an instant message. Type your reply in the instant message window, and
then click Enter to continue.
Holding a video conference
With a webcam connected to your computer, you can include a video feed in a conversation in Lync. Right-click a contact or your team contact group, and then click Start A Video Call. If you are already engaged in a group conversation or instant message session,
click the camera icon in the conversation window and then click Turn My Camera On.
Open the Video Device page in the Lync Options dialog box to check the
settings for focus, brightness, and other properties of the webcam.
The video feed from your computer appears in a preview window inset at the bottomright corner of the conversation window. Point to the window and then click the down
arrow in the top-right corner of the preview to hide it. Click the up arrow to show the
preview again.
To change views, click Pick A Layout, and then choose Speaker View, Compact View, or
Presentation View. Choosing Compact View hides the video feed, but you still have audio
communication. Click the camera icon to temporarily turn off the video feed. Click the
icon again to resume. You can also pause the video by pointing to the camera icon and
clicking Turn My Camera Off.
As in other conversations and meetings, point to the monitor icon at the bottom of the
conversation window to share your desktop, a speciic program, a whiteboard, or an
online poll with the participants in the video call. To end the video feed, point to the
camera icon and click End Video. Note that the conversation itself is not ended. Participants can carry on via voice or instant messaging.
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Using your conversation history
Lync maintains a history of the calls and conversations you have with contacts. A typical
list is shown in Figure 6-4. You can review this information to see calls you missed or to
pick up a conversation you want to continue. You can also view recent conversations you
had with particular contacts.
FIGURE 6-4 The conversation history in Lync includes calls you missed. Double-click an entry to resume
the conversation.
Above the Search box in the main Lync window, click the conversations icon (at the right
of the contacts icon). Lync displays a list of phone calls, missed calls (if any), meetings,
instant message sessions, and group conversations. Use the ilters at the top of the list to
see all conversations, missed calls only, or all calls (including group conversations, missed
calls, and online meetings). Here is an explanation of the options you see:
All shows your 100 most-recent conversations.
Instant messages, video calls, and online meetings
Missed shows any missed conversation during a certain timeframe (up to the 100
most recent).
Calls shows any calls during a certain timeframe (up to the 100 most recent).
To continue a call or an instant message session from the conversation history list,
right-click an entry in the list and then click Continue Conversation. You can also simply
double-click the entry to open the conversation window.
If you are using Outlook with Lync, you can also work with a list of your previous conversations in Outlook. To ind these entries, look in the Outlook folder Conversation History.
(You can also click View More In Outlook at the bottom of the conversation history in
Lync.) In Outlook, point to a contact’s name in the message item to reveal a small contact
card that you can use to send that contact an instant message, call the contact, start a
video call, or send the contact an e-mail message.
Holding meetings online
One quick way to get a group together is to click the arrow next to the Options button,
click Meet Now, and then click Invite More People to ask people to join the discussion.
On the Add People page, search for contacts you want to include.
By default, each person who accepts your invitation to this impromptu meeting joins
the meeting as a presenter, which is an important point to keep in mind if you plan to
share content in the meeting. Presenters can share content and perform other operations
during a conversation that participants designated as attendees cannot. For informal
meetings among peers, having everyone enjoy the same status is often ine. On occasions when you need or want more control, you might want to be the only participant
designated as a presenter. To address situations like these, when you invite people to the
meeting, point to the people icon in the conversation window and then choose Everyone
An Attendee, as shown in Figure 6-5. As you can see, you can also choose options to
mute the audience, hide names, or invite others by e-mail.
For additional control over the meeting, click the More Options ellipsis at
the bottom right of the conversation window and choose Online Meeting Options. You’ll learn more about online meeting options later in this
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FIGURE 6-5 Use the Actions window to manage meeting options.
Using the Meet Now command or sending an instant message to teammates to get
a quick opinion, to prompt them for information you need, or to invite them to coffee or lunch is part of the way Lync lets you communicate informally. For example, if a
colleague’s status is Available and you need to talk to him, there’s probably no need to
schedule an appointment. But teams can also make use of Lync for occasions that are
formally on their calendars. These online meetings can be scheduled from Lync and can
be managed from the desktop version of Outlook.
To start, display the calendar in Outlook, and then click New Lync Meeting on the Calendar view’s Home tab. Outlook opens a new meeting request form and adds a link to the
meeting (which reads “Join Lync Meeting”). The meeting organizer can then use the standard scheduling tools in Outlook to specify the time and the attendees. At the scheduled
time, meeting attendees use this link to join the meeting, which is held online in Lync.
Before you send the meeting request, it’s a good idea to click Meeting Options in the
Lync Meeting group, which appears on the Meeting tab at the top of the meeting request. Use the Lync Meeting Options dialog box (see Figure 6-6) to change access and
presenter options. By default, everyone you invite to an online meeting, including external contacts, can join the meeting without having to be admitted. Instead of admitting
everyone automatically, you can set up a meeting so that only the organizer is admitted
immediately, only people from your organization, or only those people in your organization whom you invite directly. If an online meeting includes people from outside your
company, for example, you might want to select an option that lets you manage when
Instant messages, video calls, and online meetings
to admit these participants. That way, team members from your company can talk briely
among themselves at the start of the meeting to be sure you agree about the goals and
organization of the meeting.
FIGURE 6-6 Review meeting access and presenter options in the Link Meeting Options dialog box.
Presenters have more control of meetings, which might be what you need.
By clicking Online Meeting Options from the More Options button in the
conversation window, you can open the Link Meeting Options dialog box
to manage presenter and access options for a meeting you initiate with
the Meet Now command.
For presenters, the default setting is that everyone from your organization who attends
the meeting is a presenter. You can instead choose Only Me, The Meeting Organizer, select the option that imposes no restrictions, or designate presenters. If you select People
I Choose, click Choose Presenters to identify the individuals who can serve in that role.
(You must have already added recipients to the meeting request to designate presenters.
If you haven’t done this, the list you see when you click Choose Presenters is blank.)
If you want to use these settings for other online meetings, select
Remember Settings in the Lync Meeting Options dialog box.
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To join an online meeting, recipients open the meeting request in Outlook and click
Join Meeting on the Meeting tab or click the link in the meeting request. That action
opens the conversation window in Lync, with the meeting’s subject line in the title bar. (A
meeting participant who doesn’t have Lync installed can join the meeting by using Lync
Attendee, which runs in the browser. When the participant clicks the Join Meeting link,
the option to download Lync Attendee is provided, which lets the participant join the
meeting without having the full Lync client.)
If meeting options were set up so that not all participants are admitted to the meeting
automatically, the organizer needs to admit attendees who are waiting, and while they
wait, these attendees see a notiication that they are in the lobby, as shown in Figure 6-7.
FIGURE 6-7 If meeting participants aren’t admitted to a meeting automatically, they wait in the lobby for
the organizer to admit them.
Collaboration tools
Collaboration tools
One practical issue when teams develop content together is how to get the content in
front of everyone’s eyes. This issue is magniied when members of a team can’t sit down
together in the same room. Teams can, of course, make use of features like coauthoring,
tracking changes, or inserting comments, but these features, as useful as they are, might
not be available to everyone whose input is required.
See Also Coauthoring, revision marks, and comments are important features for
capturing the collective efforts of a team when its members put together a substantial
document. You’ll learn the details of how you can use coauthoring, track changes, and
compare documents in Word, Excel, and PowerPoint in Chapters 8, 9, and 10.
Lync offers an alternative. During an online meeting, a conference call, or an instant message session, teams can supplement and focus the conversation by using Lync to share
content and collaborate in developing it. You can, for example, open a PowerPoint presentation and discuss and annotate the presentation’s slides, share your entire desktop or
a document in a speciic program, use an online whiteboard to brainstorm, or conduct a
poll to collect opinions. The next few sections describe the mechanics of these options.
As your team adopts Lync to help coordinate its efforts, you’ll likely ind numerous opportunities to make use of these capabilities.
Sharing your desktop
To work as a group on a document, to view a website your team is designing, or to review other content, you can share your desktop as part of a meeting or a group conversation. During the conversation or meeting, you can turn over control of your desktop to
another participant (either a presenter or an attendee) and let that participant work with
the programs or iles on your computer. Participants can also request control, which you
can approve or reject.
In the conversation window, point to the monitor icon, and then click Desktop to start
this process. If you’re the one who initiates this action, you see a notiication that indicates you are currently presenting. Lync notiies participants that you have shared
content, and they can then accept (or decline) to view the shared content. Lync loads and
displays your desktop to participants in a portion of the Lync window referred to as the
Click the monitor icon to temporarily hide the stage. Click the icon again
to display the stage.
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Participants see activity on your desktop in real time. The numerical data or text you type
in an Excel worksheet, for example, appears on their screens as you type it. To let another
participant work on your desktop, click Give Control at the top of your screen, and then
select the participant from the list. If a participant clicks Request Control at the top of his
or her screen, you see a notiication that lets you accept or decline the request. Switching control like this might apply in a meeting that you, as a project’s manager, have set
up with a group from your team plus managers or outside vendors. At the meeting, you
want to look over a proposal from one of your partners—maybe a design irm that’s
providing advice on speciic components. The senior partner of the design irm is part
of the meeting, and having her handle the discussion while she points out aspects of
the proposal makes great sense. Turn over your desktop to her at that point—or she can
share her desktop directly—and let her carry on.
You regain control by clicking Give Control and choosing Take Back Control or by pressing Ctrl+Alt+Spacebar. Click Stop Presenting when you no longer need to share your
To avoid having to accept control requests from people you know, you
can click Give Control Automatically, an option on the menu that appears
when you click Give Control.
Sharing a PowerPoint presentation
Lync offers a speciic option for sharing and reviewing PowerPoint presentations. Click
the monitor icon, click PowerPoint, and then Lync displays the Share PowerPoint dialog
box, where you select the presentation you want to describe or talk through with the
team. You can’t add slides to a presentation you are sharing, but the presentation isn’t
just static content. Team members can add annotations, images, and other objects while
the presentation is open in Lync to emphasize elements on a slide or to provide directions for modiications. Click the Annotations icon in the top-right corner of the stage to
reveal a set of tools that let you do the following (described as the tools appear from top
to bottom):
Telepointer Use the pointer if you are leading the conversation and want to point
to a speciic area or item on the current slide. A small ScreenTip appears in Lync to
identify the participant who is pointing.
Select and type Use this tool to type an annotation on the current slide. Click
where you want the annotation to appear and then type. The text appears in a
container you can drag to a different position if necessary. (This container resem-
Collaboration tools
bles the note container that appears in OneNote.) You can change the font, font
color, and font size by clicking the arrow to the right of this tool and then making
selections from the lists Lync displays.
Pen Use the pen to write or draw freehand on the slide. Use the down arrow
beside the icon to select a different color or line weight. Participants can choose
speciic colors to identify their additions to the slide.
Highlighter Select a highlighter from the options presented, and then highlight
content that needs changes, further review, or different formatting, for example.
You can choose from 10 colors for highlighters (or pens) and can also change the
line thickness.
Eraser Use the eraser to remove an annotation made with the pen or highlighter.
Stamp Another way to annotate a slide is by using one of the stamp shapes available. You can add an arrow, an X, or a check mark. Use the arrow at the right of
this tool to choose the stamp you want to add.
More shape tools Click this button to add a line, an arrow, a rectangle, or a circle
to the slide. Use these shapes to draw attention to speciic elements that need
more attention. You can choose from 10 colors here as well.
Insert picture Choose an image ile to add to the slide. Use the handles to resize
and position the image.
Delete selected annotations Select annotations and then click this button to
remove them.
The More Options ellipsis at the bottom of the annotation tools opens a menu with commands that let you manage annotations (select all of them, undo an annotation, copy,
cut, paste, and so on). You can also use this menu to save the annotated presentation as
an XPS ile or to send the annotated ile to OneNote.
You can view an XPS ile in most web browsers or in a viewer application
available from Microsoft.
Attendees as well as presenters can annotate slides, but only presenters can save an
annotated presentation. As the group reviews the presentation, a presenter can use the
navigation arrows at the lower right of the stage to navigate between slides. Presenters
can also click the Thumbnails button to display thumbnail images of the slides along the
bottom of the stage. To see the notes related to a slide in PowerPoint, click Notes. To
turn off either of these features, click the feature’s button again.
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During a presentation session in Lync, when you have a PowerPoint ile open and
have also set up a whiteboard, for example, you have several options for how you
and other participants can work with the content. Point to the monitor icon and
then click Manage Presentable Content. You’ll see a window like the one shown
in Figure 6-8. Click Present Now to switch back to a ile you shared earlier. Click
Stop Presenting to remove the ile, program, poll, or whiteboard from the stage.
Use the Permissions list to specify who can download a shared ile. Click More
to see details about the shared content and to gain access to commands such as
Save As, Send To OneNote, Save With Annotations, and others. Click Remove to
stop sharing that content during the current conversation.
FIGURE 6-8 Use the Manage Presentable Content button to open this window, where you can
adjust permissions, save shared content, and remove content from the stage.
You can also add attachments to the conversation window during a meeting. Point
to the monitor icon, click Attachments, and then click Add Attachment. Select the
ile or iles you want to provide to participants. Participants then click in the notiication area of their conversation window to view or save the attachments.
Collaboration tools
You can also drag a ile into the conversation window to attach it to a
conversation. If you want to cancel the transfer of an attachment, press
Sharing a program
Sharing a computer’s desktop lets participants in a group conversation see everything
that’s currently running on that computer. If instead of sharing the desktop, you want to
share a document in a particular program or two, start the program or programs, click
the monitor icon in the conversation window, and then click Program. In the Present
Programs dialog box, shown in Figure 6-9, select which programs you want to share and
then click the Present button.
FIGURE 6-9 Lync doesn’t give you the option to start a program when you choose the Program option.
The program you want to share must be running on your computer before you share it.
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A shared program comes to the foreground on the computer from which it’s shared and
is displayed in the stage on participants’ computers. Whoever shares the program can
give control of the program to a different participant, who can then interact with the
program. Use the Give Control button to select a participant, to choose the option to
automatically accept control requests, and to take back control. A participant can also
request control.
If a presenter switches to a program that’s running but that hasn’t been shared, other
participants see a message in the stage indicating that the presenter’s programs are currently minimized or participants will simply not see the program (if its window overlaps a
shared program’s window, for example).
■ IMPORTANT You can’t share some programs. Use the link at the bottom of the Present Program dialog
box to open a Help topic that lists the reasons why. For example, you cannot share Lync, File Explorer (in
Windows 8), Sticky Notes, Windows Sidebar, and so on. You can share these programs when you share your
full desktop, however.
Conducting an online poll
Your team is together and talking about development plans for your new product. The
team needs to make a decision about some issue or another—maybe which cities you
should travel to in Europe to conduct focus groups. You could ask for a show of hands as
each city’s name is announced, but the team is online, so that won’t work especially well.
Instead, use Lync to conduct a simple opinion poll.
The Poll option opens the Create A Poll dialog box. Provide a name for the poll, type
a question, and then enter the set of choices. You can provide up to seven options for
users to choose from. When you click OK in this dialog box, the poll question appears in
the stage area, as shown in Figure 6-10.
When you irst post a poll, the poll is open but responses are hidden from attendees.
Presenters can use the menu at the bottom of the stage to close the poll, show results
to all participants, edit the poll question and choices, and clear votes. When you edit
the poll question and answers, the current answers are cleared. Once the results are in,
you can save the poll as a PNG ile or as a comma-separated value ile (.csv) that you can
open in Excel.
To conduct a poll with multiple questions, deine the irst question,
collect answers, and then save that poll. Then edit the current poll and
deine a new question and set of answers.
Collaboration tools
FIGURE 6-10 Gather opinions from your team by using a poll.
Working together on a whiteboard
For a group brainstorming session, share a new whiteboard. Lync displays a blank page in
the stage area and provides a set of tools along the right side of the window that let you
sketch and outline your ideas. The tools available are essentially the same as those you
can use to annotate a shared PowerPoint presentation. For a description of these tools,
see “Sharing a PowerPoint presentation” earlier in this chapter.
Everyone in the group conversation can contribute to the whiteboard. With a whiteboard
displayed, you won’t see the Give Control or Request Control buttons. To preserve the
working session you conduct with a whiteboard, make sure someone saves it. You can
save a whiteboard as an XPS ile or a PNG ile. You can also send a whiteboard to OneNote to preserve it in a related notebook.
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Recordings and meeting notes
Almost always, document your activities as a team, but do so in a manner that doesn’t
simply create clutter. You can follow this golden rule in Lync as well as in other applications, and for group conversations and online meetings, Lync is often the best tool to
start with.
As you learned in the previous sections, during meetings and calls that teams hold using
Lync, presenters can share content. They can also record conversations, capturing audio
and video presentations and the discussions of content that was shared. You won’t always
need to make a recording, but when you want a record of what was said and decided or
if you need to share a meeting’s proceedings with an absent team member, a manager,
or anyone else, it’s simple to do.
An alternative to making a recording is to use the option in Lync to take meeting notes in
OneNote. You can start OneNote from Lync; compile text, images, and other iles related
to the discussion; and then revise and organize the OneNote pages as a more permanent
record. I’ll touch on how you get to OneNote from Lync in this section. Chapter 7, “Keeping track of discussions and ideas,” provides details about working with OneNote and
sharing notebooks.
Making and managing recordings
It’s good business practice (and in some locations might be legally required) to advise
people who are gathered for a meeting if you are going to record the meeting. It’s fair
to say that some people might be less willing to contribute or agree with controversial or
dissenting opinions if a meeting is being recorded. This doesn’t apply in all cases—you
may just want to record the rehearsal of a presentation—but you need to balance the
importance of creating an environment that’s conducive to gathering a range of perspectives with your need to create a full recording. Also, recordings can consume a lot
of disk space, so if space is limited, you probably need to develop a process for retaining
and archiving the recording iles.
To begin recording a meeting, click the More Options ellipsis at the right side of the
conversation window, and then click Start Recording. You can use the same menu to
pause or stop recording. When you stop a recording, Lync Recording Manager displays a
notiication. You can click this notiication to see the progress in processing the recording. When the recording is available, you’ll see a second notiication. If you open the Lync
Recording Manager (click the icon in the system tray on the Windows taskbar), you’ll see
a list of recordings, as shown in Figure 6-11.
Recordings and meeting notes
FIGURE 6-11 Use the Lync Recording Manager to play back recordings or publish them so that other
team members can view them.
When you want to replay a recording, click Play, and the recording is shown in Windows
Media Player. By default, recordings are stored in the Lync Recordings folder within an
individual’s My Videos library. The team member making the recording can use the
Browse button to open this folder and move or copy the ile or use the Publish button
to open the Save And Publish dialog box and save the ile to a location with greater access—including the team’s SharePoint site. In the Save And Publish dialog box, use the
Browse button to navigate to the location where you want to publish the recording. The
Options button opens a dialog box in which you can specify which types of content to
include in the published version. For example, if you want to reduce the size of the ile
you are publishing, clear the Participant Video option in the Save And Publish Options
dialog box (see Figure 6-12).
On the File Saving page in the Lync Options dialog box, you can change
the default location Lync uses to store recordings made on a particular
computer. Lync prompts you to conirm the change with a warning that
using a public location can make the recordings more accessible. This
points out again that recordings should be made with some sensitivity,
and they should be stored and managed with that consideration in mind.
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FIGURE 6-12 Use the options in the Save And Publish Options dialog box to remove some content from
a recording.
Taking notes in OneNote
Remember that notes that document a meeting’s agenda—a formal one or just the
topics that come up as a conversation evolves—can be culled for insights. A record of
opinions, considerations, and decision-making criteria provides valuable information that
teams can apply in the future or pass on to new members when members of the current
team go on to other pursuits.
Instead of making a recording, someone can take notes on behalf of the team in OneNote during the conversation and then compile and distribute notes to participants later.
In fact, it’s wise to apply this practice to almost any group conversation or meeting—
even ones you record—because the written notes augment what was said and can point
to moments in the meeting that you want to review in detail by replaying a recording.
At the start of a conversation or an online meeting in Lync, click the monitor icon, and
then click OneNote at the top of the window. This option displays a small window where
you can select MyNotes. In the Select Location In OneNote dialog box, select a notebook
or notebook section where you want to keep the notes. If you select a section, a new
page is created, tentatively titled “My Meeting Notes.” The page includes the date and a
time stamp of when the conversation began, and also lists the participants. To take notes,
just start typing or writing on the page. You can add notes to a different area of the page
by clicking there and then typing the text.
Taking notes in OneNote is not the same as sharing a program through
Lync. If you start OneNote, you are the only conversation participant
working in that instance of the program.
Recordings and meeting notes
Ending the conversation in Lync doesn’t close OneNote. You can keep OneNote open to
edit and organize the raw notes, insert images or iles to complement the notes you’ve
taken, and so on. Also, you don’t need to save your work in OneNote—the program
saves new content automatically. You might also move the page to a different notebook
(a notebook for the project you’re meeting about, for example). As you will learn in the
next chapter, which describes the collaboration features in OneNote in detail, you can
distribute the notes by circulating a notebook via e-mail or by sharing the notebook on
your team’s SharePoint site.
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discussions and ideas
TE AMS C AN SPEND a lot of time planning—evaluating the current
Sharing OneNote
Synchronizing notebooks
Adding content to a
Adding links and linked
notes 185
state of their work and identifying the steps they need to take to ensure
that they’re prepared for what’s ahead. All or part of the team plans to-
gether in meetings, and team members also work on their own in advance
of group sessions and again afterward to follow up on decisions, tasks,
and issues the team deines.
Managing changes and additions
to shared notebooks
Searching notebooks
Tagging notes
Doing more with OneNote 199
As part of planning, teams record their ideas and processes and
often gather information from other sources—market research,
economic trends, customer feedback, product reviews, media
opinions, past projects, and so on. Much of the information that’s
compiled needs to be documented, designed, formatted, and
edited before it’s in inal shape. In Chapters 8, 9, and 10, you’ll learn
more about how teams can review and update shared documents.
This chapter describes how teams can use Microsoft OneNote to
help plan their work and gather data they need. By using OneNote,
teams can do the following:
Share and synchronize notebooks.
Store and access information in a variety of formats, including notes, iles, printouts, images, drawings, video and audio,
and tables.
Build links between pages, notebooks, and other applications to facilitate navigation between related information.
Track and manage changes made by multiple users.
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Search the current notebook or specify a different search scope to broaden or
narrow the search.
Identify and tag content to help group and locate related notes.
See Also In Chapter 5, “An integrated Outlook,” you’ll ind information about how to
add Microsoft Outlook items to a OneNote notebook. Chapter 6, “Working together in
Lync,” touches on how to take notes in OneNote during an online meeting or a conference call. In Chapter 11, “Working with Ofice Web Apps on SkyDrive,” you’ll learn more
about using the OneNote Web App.
Before exploring these and other features in OneNote, familiarize yourself with the main
OneNote window (if you aren’t already a regular user of the application), as shown in
Figure 7-1.
Navigation bar
Page title and
time stamp
New Section
Search box
Page tabs bar
FIGURE 7-1 Use the Navigation bar to switch between notebooks and to open sections. Use the page
tabs bar to create and display pages.
Here’s a quick description about how notebooks are organized and how to navigate in
the OneNote window.
A notebook contains at least one section, which OneNote includes by default
when you create a notebook. You can create additional sections as you need them
and organize them into section groups in a notebook with many sections.
Sharing OneNote notebooks
Sections contain pages where you add notes, pictures, and other types of content.
You can also create subpages to deine a more detailed level of organization.
Open notebooks are listed on the Navigation bar, which appears along the left
side of the OneNote window by default. The sections in a notebook are listed under the entry for a notebook in the Navigation bar. Click a section name to display
that section. You can also display a section by clicking the section tab that appears
across the top of the current page.
The pages in a section are listed in the page tabs bar, which is displayed along the
right side of the window. Click a page name to display its content. Click Add Page
at the top of the page tabs bar to insert another page in the section.
OneNote automatically saves changes you make to a notebook. You
don’t need to click a Save button or a Save command before you close a
Sharing OneNote notebooks
When you share a notebook in OneNote, you can add it to a SharePoint site, to SkyDrive,
or to a folder on your network. Locations associated with your Ofice 365/Microsoft account will be listed on the New page and on the Share page. You can select a SkyDrive
folder or a SharePoint library on the New page when you create a notebook, or you can
share a notebook you’re already working with—a notebook that’s stored on your local
computer, for example—to make the notebook available to other team members.
For a notebook already in use, irst display the Share page on the File tab. The current
notebook is shown at the top of the page. Select a location in the Places list, and then
select the folder or a library. (Use the Browse button to select a location that’s not in
the list of recent locations.) When you share a notebook that’s currently stored on your
computer, you move the notebook to the shared location.
Yet another way to share a notebook is via the Info page. In the list of
notebooks, click Settings for the notebook you want to work with as a
team, and then click Share Or Move. Click the Invite People To This Notebook link to let other people know about a notebook you’ve saved to a
shared location.
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Many teams will favor the option to post a OneNote notebook to a team site.
This step helps consolidate where information is stored and lets teams manage
notebooks like they manage other iles stored on the site—by applying
permissions, for example, or by creating an alert to signal when a notebook has
been changed.
See Also For more information about managing a team site, see Chapter 2, “Building a
SharePoint team site.”
When you create a new notebook on SkyDrive, for example, OneNote prompts you to
invite people after it saves the ile. Click Invite People in the message box to display the
Share Notebook page, shown in Figure 7-2, which you use to set up an e-mail message
that you send to team members and other people you are sharing the notebook with.
FIGURE 7-2 To share a notebook on SkyDrive, use the Share Notebook page to notify team members.
Sharing a notebook on the web by using SkyDrive makes the notebook accessible from
any computer that can connect to the Internet—you don’t need access to your organization’s network to access the notebook. (You can restrict who has access to the notebook,
Synchronizing notebooks
however.) This option is useful for virtual teams of independent contractors, for example,
who don’t work on a shared domain.
As mentioned in Chapter 6, Lync and OneNote are integrated so that you can share a OneNote notebook during a Lync meeting. Click Share With Meeting on the Share Notebook
page to select or set up a meeting in which you want to share a speciic notebook.
Synchronizing notebooks
In OneNote, more than one person can work in a shared notebook at the same time.
When a notebook is updated, OneNote synchronizes the changes so that the notebook
is current for each person using it. OneNote keeps a local copy of a shared notebook
on each person’s computer. This lets team members work with the notebook when they
are ofline. When they connect to the network again, OneNote synchronizes changes
Shared notebooks are identiied in the OneNote Navigation bar by a Sync Status icon,
which displays a symbol to indicate the status of synchronization. Figure 7-3 shows some
examples. You’ll see a warning exclamation mark when OneNote has encountered problems with the synchronization process (for example, if some sections are unavailable or
in an inaccessible location). Spinning arrows indicate that the notebook is being synchronized, and an X indicates a synchronization error. OneNote also notiies you when a password is required to sync the notebook.
FIGURE 7-3 Check the Sync Status icon beside a shared notebook to know whether a notebook is up to
date or being synchronized.
You can let OneNote take care of synchronizing notebooks, but you can take this step
yourself when you want to be sure a shared notebook is up to date. For example, you
might manually synchronize notebooks just before you leave the ofice for a trip if you
plan to work on them while you’re away. OneNote provides several ways to manually
synchronize notebooks:
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Right-click a notebook in the Navigation bar and click Sync This Notebook Now.
You can also press Shift+F9 to synchronize the current notebook.
Display the Info page in Backstage view, click Settings for the notebook you want
to synchronize, and then click Sync.
Right-click a notebook, click Notebook Sync Status, select the notebook in the
Shared Notebook Synchronization dialog box, and then click Sync Now, as shown
in Figure 7-4.
FIGURE 7-4 Select a notebook in the Shared Notebook Synchronization dialog
box, and then click Sync Now.
Adding content to a notebook
As you can see, making a notebook accessible to a team of people and keeping the
notebook up to date are pretty straightforward tasks. When team members need to add
notes or other content to a notebook shared on a SharePoint site, they just open the
notebook in OneNote. You don’t need to open the team site irst. OneNote synchronizes
changes with any copy of the notebook that’s stored locally.
In the remaining sections in this chapter, you’ll see how teams can add depth of content
and relationships to the information stored in a notebook. In addition, you’ll learn how to
Adding content to a notebook
see who’s contributing to the notebook and how to search in OneNote to bring information to the surface when you need it.
To start, I’ll cover the second capability mentioned at the beginning of the chapter—using OneNote to store and access information in a variety of formats, including iles, printouts, images, drawings, audio and video, and tables. A quick glance at the commands on
the OneNote ribbon’s Insert and Draw tabs reveals this range of operations, which are, of
course, in addition to typing or writing your own notes. To add a note, just click the page
and start typing (or writing, if your computer has a pen). OneNote encloses the note in a
container with handles you can then use to move or resize the note.
The fact that a notebook can contain a variety of information isn’t a collaborative feature in
itself, but it does support the work of a team, especially one whose members are in charge
of different phases or aspects of a project. For example, marketers can compile useful
statistics in a table, designers can sketch ideas and insert illustrations, and team members
doing research on competitors’ products can add related iles, links, and printouts.
Inserting iles and printouts
Teams can extend the information that’s collected in and accessible through a OneNote notebook by linking to an external ile or a website or by embedding a ile in a
notebook. You can also add a printout of a ile to OneNote (by using the built-in Send
To OneNote printer driver) or even insert an image from a scanner or a digital camera.
When you link to a ile, you can open the ile to update it—the content you add to the
notebook is live.
Linking to iles
The Link command on the Insert tab opens a dialog box in which you can specify a
website, ile, or location in OneNote that you want to link to from the current page. The
dialog box includes a text box where you can type display text to identify the link. For
example, you could type the display text “Home page demo” to identify a link that points
to a URL such as
Here are some more details:
To link to a website, type the site’s URL in the Address box or click Browse The Web
to open your default web browser and then navigate to the site. Copy the URL
in the browser’s address box, close the browser (or switch to OneNote), and then
paste the URL into the Address box in the Link dialog box. Add the display text you
want to provide for the link (for websites, OneNote does not provide any display
text by default), and click OK to add the link to the current page.
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To link to a ile (which could be on your local computer, on a network share, or
on SkyDrive or SharePoint), type the path to the ile in the Address box or click
Browse For File to open the Link To File dialog box. Navigate to the ile, select it,
and then click OK. For iles, OneNote inserts the ile’s name (without the ile name
extension) in the Text To Display box. Modify the display text if necessary.
The Link dialog box also lets you insert a link to another OneNote notebook, section, or page. In the dialog box, select the notebook, section, or page from the list
under All Notebooks. (The list shows open notebooks, not all notebooks on your
computer.) Use the plus and minus signs to expand and collapse the items that are
displayed. You can also search for a location in OneNote by typing the title of a
notebook, section, or page in the search box. By default, OneNote uses the display
name of the notebook or the title of the section or page for the link’s display text.
Change or add to the text if necessary.
Below the All Notebooks list is the Create New Page area. Select New
Page In Current Section (and type display text) if you want to link to a
new page from the current page. OneNote creates an untitled page in
the current section.
Attaching iles
In the Insert tab’s Files group, click File Attachment to attach a ile to a notebook. Select
the ile from the Choose A File Or A Set Of Files To Insert dialog box. You can select a
single ile or press and hold Ctrl or Shift to select a group of iles. (Press Ctrl to select a
set of noncontiguous iles; press Shift to select more than one ile listed contiguously.)
When you click Insert in this dialog box, you’ll see another dialog box (named Insert File)
with a list of options that depend on the type of ile you selected. These options let you
attach the ile and display it as an icon, attach the ile as a ile object (such as a spreadsheet), attach the ile as a printout, and others.
When you double-click an icon for a ile you’ve attached, OneNote warns that opening the attachment could harm your computer. Select the option Don’t Show This Again
before you click OK in the warning box to forego this step in the future. With the ile
open, you can make changes to it, but you are updating an embedded copy and not the
original ile. Embedded iles can increase the size of a notebook, so to keep the size of
notebooks smaller and the content they contain live, link to iles instead of embedding
them. Keep in mind, however, that a link breaks if a linked ile is moved.
Adding content to a notebook
Printing iles to OneNote
When OneNote is installed, a virtual printer is set up along with the program. This printer
lets you add a printout of a ile—fully formatted—to a notebook. You can make use
of this feature when you are working in OneNote or when you are working in another
application. For example, let’s say that the team member responsible for updating the
budget does so just before a scheduled meeting. To make a copy of the budget available
for discussion at the meeting, the team member can print the budget spreadsheet so
that an image of the ile appears in the team’s planning notebook.
To use this feature in OneNote, click File Printout on the Insert tab, and then select the
ile to print. OneNote opens the ile’s original application and then prints and inserts
the ile. You don’t need to make any additional settings. In addition to displaying the
ile’s content, OneNote attaches a copy of the ile. Double-click the icon to open the
original ile and edit it. (Be sure, of course, to save the ile in the original application if
you want to preserve any changes you make.) Modiications to the ile are not relected
in the printout, which is a static representation of the ile in the state it was when it was
When you are working in another application—another Ofice application or an application such as Adobe Acrobat or your web browser, for example—you can choose the Send
To OneNote printer driver in the Print dialog box (or on the Print page in Backstage view)
to insert a printout in a notebook. Choose the Print command in the application, choose
Send To OneNote from the list of printers, and then make any other print settings you
want to apply—specify a page range, for example. When you print the ile, OneNote
displays the Select Location In OneNote dialog box. Use this dialog box to specify the
section or page where you want to add the printout. In this case, only a representation
of the ile is included on the page you select. OneNote does not also embed the ile or
provide a link to it.
When you print to OneNote from another application, by default the Select Location In OneNote dialog box is displayed, prompting you to specify where you
want the printout to appear. You can change this setting (and settings for related
operations, such as sending a screen clipping to OneNote) on the Send To OneNote page in the OneNote Options dialog box. You can choose from three or
four options (depending on the operation) for how content is sent to OneNote:
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Always Ask Where To Send (default) With this setting selected, OneNote
displays the Select Location In OneNote dialog box, where you can designate a
speciic section or page (depending on the type of content).
To Current Page This option is available for e-mail messages and task notes
from Outlook and for web content and printing to OneNote. (For information
about sending Outlook items to OneNote, see Chapter 5.)
To New Page In Current Section This option is available for all types of
Set Default Location When you choose this setting, OneNote displays the
Select Location In OneNote dialog box. Select the section or page to which you
want to send this type of content by default. For example, you might create a
notebook named Printouts and send all printouts to a section in that notebook.
Inserting a spreadsheet
Use the Spreadsheet command in the Insert tab’s Files group to add a new or an existing
spreadsheet to a notebook. When the spreadsheet is inserted, click the Edit icon that appears in the top-left corner to open Excel so that you can make changes to the ile.
Adding images and drawings
To amplify and complement the text and iles you add to a notebook, you can insert
pictures and images and create drawings with a pen and shapes. You can compare the
drawing tools in OneNote to the tools you can use on a shared whiteboard in Lync.
(For more information about sharing a whiteboard in Lync, see “Working together on
a whiteboard” in Chapter 6.) Neither OneNote nor Lync have the scope of capabilities
of a program such as Microsoft PowerPoint or Microsoft Visio, but the drawing tools in
OneNote are a step beyond the whiteboard tools in Lync and can be used to sketch lowcharts and other business diagrams with some precision.
The Pictures command on the Insert tab opens the Insert Picture dialog box. Use this dialog box to add an image ile (or multiple iles) to a notebook. You can choose from many
types of formats, including .png, .bmp, .jpg, and .gif.
After you insert a picture, right-click the image to open a menu with commands that let
you rotate the image, move it behind or in front of other content on the page, reposition
or resize it, or restore it to its original size. If the picture you insert contains text (an im-
Adding content to a notebook
age of a Microsoft Visio drawing, for example), point to Make Text In Image Searchable
and then choose a language, or choose Disable to turn off this feature.
See Also For more information about searching in OneNote, see “Searching notebooks”
later in this chapter.
The Online Pictures command opens a different version of the Insert Pictures dialog box.
Use this command and dialog box to insert clip art from, an image from the
Internet (using the Bing search engine to locate the image), or from SkyDrive. You can
also link your Ofice account to a photo hosting service such as Flickr and insert pictures
from that site.
Screen clippings
Any team member who wants to add a screen capture to a notebook should become
familiar with the Screen Clipping command. The command appears on the Insert tab in
OneNote, but you can also add a screen clipping to a notebook when OneNote is not
running. (There’s a simple step you take to ensure this. If you don’t see the icon for the
OneNote clipping tool in the notiication area of the Windows taskbar—it appears there
by default—open the OneNote Options dialog box from the File tab and select the irst
option on the Display page—Place OneNote Icon In The Notiication Area Of The Taskbar.)
Imagine you’re browsing the web, looking for sites with interesting designs, or imagine
you want to quickly snag a few sentences from an insightful posting on a blog that you
follow. You don’t need to start OneNote. Instead, press the Windows logo key+S. This
key combination triggers the screen clipping feature. You’ll see the current window dim
and the pointer change to a cross. Drag to select the portion of the window you want
to capture. When you release the mouse button, the Select Location In OneNote dialog
box opens, and there you can choose the section or page where you want to add the
screen clipping. (Alternatively, click Copy To Clipboard to preserve the clipping for use in
a separate application).
Screen clippings are tagged with the date and time they are taken. Clippings from webpages are also tagged with the page name and the site’s
If you’re working in OneNote, be sure the program, document, or page from which you
want to capture a screen clipping is open. Click Screen Clipping, and you’ll see that the
OneNote window is minimized and the window behind OneNote appears, with the content in that window dimmed. Drag across the window to select the portion of the screen
you want to add to the current page. When you release the mouse button, OneNote
becomes the active window, and the screen clipping is added to the page.
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Typing what OneNote calls a quick note (or a side note) is something else you
can do when OneNote isn’t running (and when it is). Quick notes enable you to
record an idea—even make a quick sketch—in a OneNote window that provides
a subset of commands from the regular ribbon and no Navigation bar or page
When you set up OneNote, the icon for the OneNote clipping tool is displayed
by default in the notiication area of the Windows taskbar. When you click the
icon, you’ll see a small window where you can choose to create a screen clipping,
send content to OneNote, or create a quick note. Type or write your note (or
use the Draw tab to sketch), and then close the note window. When the window
closes, OneNote sends your note to the Quick Notes section, which appears at
the bottom of the Navigation bar. You can display notes and then drag them to
the page in the notebook they relate to or create a notebook to house them.
(If you want to keep the quick note window open and display it on top of other
windows, click Keep On Top on the View tab of the note window.) When you are
working in OneNote, you can display the clipping tool by clicking Clipping Panel
on the View tab.
Working with drawing tools
To add a sketch, a rough loor plan, or a simple business diagram to a notebook, work
with tools and commands on the Draw tab. The following list describes the details of
working with the commands in each group on the tab.
In the Tools group, the Select & Type tool is selected by default. Use the Eraser
tool (you can select an eraser of various sizes) to delete pen strokes and portions
of lines and shapes you’ve added to a page. Use the Lasso Select tool to select irregularly shaped areas of a drawing. Use the Panning Hand tool to scroll a page by
using the mouse, a pen, or a inger (for touch-enabled computers).
When you want to type a note again, you don’t need to click the Select
& Type tool. Just click the page where you want the note to appear and
type; OneNote automatically enables the Select & Type tool again.
Adding content to a notebook
The Tools group also includes a variety of pens and highlighters you can choose
from. See the following section for more detail.
The Shapes group provides several line styles (with arrows and without), ive basic
shapes, and three basic graph patterns. Select a shape (click More to reveal the
full set of shapes), and then click the page where you want the shape to appear.
The shape is selected when you add it, and you can use the handles on the shape’s
border to change the shape’s dimensions. Drag the shape to reposition it.
When you select and point to a shape, you’ll see a mini toolbar that
includes a number of commands. Use the mini toolbar to add a ill color,
to lag a shape, and so on.
If you want to use a different color or a different line thickness for a shape’s borders, click Color & Thickness in the Insert Shapes group, and then make the selections you want to use in the Color & Thickness dialog box. The color of the line
thickness options changes when you select a line color, which gives you a preview
of how the shape borders will appear.
The commands in the Edit group let you do the following:
Insert Space adds or removes space between note containers and other elements on a page. Click the button, and then position the pointer between the
two elements whose spacing you want to adjust. Drag up to decrease the space
between the elements; drag down to increase the space.
Delete removes the selected note container or other element.
Arrange provides a menu of options for positioning an element behind or in
front of other elements.
Rotate provides options for rotating an image or a shape and for lipping an
object horizontally or vertically to change its orientation.
Working with pen input
Also on the Draw tab is a gallery of pens and highlighters that you can use to handwrite
notes. In the Tools group on the Draw tab, click a pen color, and then start writing your
notes. Use the ScreenTips for the different pen tools to identify color, type (pen or highlighter), and thickness. (To type notes after you activate a pen, click Select & Type.)
You can work with additional pens and highlighters by clicking the Color & Thickness
button. This command opens the Color & Thickness dialog box. In the dialog box, select
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Pen or Highlighter, and then choose the line thickness you want. Under Line Color, select
the color for the pen or highlighter.
At the bottom of the pen and highlighter gallery is the Pen Mode command, which displays a set of options to let you control how OneNote interprets pen input:
Create Both Handwriting and Drawings This is the default setting. It converts
handwritten notes to text when you add input with a pen. To convert the input,
click Ink To Text in the Convert group on the Draw tab.
Create Drawings Only This setting disables the Ink To Text command. Handwritten text that you add to a page is represented as a drawing and cannot be
converted to text.
Create Handwriting Only This setting prevents OneNote from misinterpreting
your handwriting as a drawing.
Use Pen As Pointer This setting converts a pen to a pointing device (to select
items on page, for example) so you don’t need to switch to the Select & Type
The Advanced page of the OneNote Options dialog box includes settings
for working with pens. These options let you control whether the “scratch
out” gesture deletes portions of handwritten notes or drawings and control whether you switch automatically between inking, selecting, typing,
and panning.
Adding audio and video recordings
Like Lync (see Chapter 6 for details), OneNote lets you make audio and video recordings
(provided you have the necessary hardware, such as a microphone and a webcam). If
your team is meeting in a conference room instead of online via Lync, you can use OneNote to add recordings of the proceedings to a notebook.
For audio-only recordings, click Record Audio on the Insert tab and start speaking into
the microphone (or toward your computer if it has a built-in mic). OneNote displays
the Audio & Video Playback contextual tab on the ribbon. Use the controls on this tab
to pause or stop the recording, to play it back when you want to review it later, and to
rewind or fast forward through it.
When you click Record Video, OneNote opens a small window showing the video output.
A video recording also includes a sound recording. Like for an audio recording, use the
Adding content to a notebook
commands on the Audio & Video Playback tab to pause, stop, rewind, or fast forward a
video recording.
You can add notes and perform other operations in OneNote while recording. For example, you can attach iles or insert links. OneNote keeps track of the actions you take
while you record, which lets you follow the path of a conversation, for example, when
you replay a recording. If you select See Playback (in the Options group on the Playback
tab) when you replay a recording, OneNote highlights notes and other additions to the
page so that a note is highlighted at the point in the recording when the note was made.
If you highlight a note that was inserted during the recording, a small Play button appears next to the note. Click Play to replay the point in the recording that corresponds to
when the note was made.
OneNote’s search feature can locate words that are part of an audio or video recording. To set this option (and other options for audio and video recordings), click Audio &
Video Settings on the Playback tab, and then select the option under Audio Search in the
OneNote Options dialog box, as shown in Figure 7-5.
FIGURE 7-5 Click the option under Audio Search to include recordings in OneNote search results.
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Working with tables
Information that’s best displayed in a table often takes a little time to prepare. You
may need to tweak the dimensions of columns and rows or edit the wording of entries
to make them consistent. But tables don’t always need this level of attention, and the
variety of ways you can add tables to a notebook make them a useful format for quickly
listing items such as tasks, dates, and assignments, for example, or information like a supplier, a product, and the order quantity.
You can add a table by using the Table command on the Insert tab, but perhaps the most
direct approach is to type the text for the table’s irst entry (the irst column heading, for
example), and then press Tab to create another column. Press Tab again to create a third
column (you don’t need to type any text in the previous cell), and so on. Press Enter to
start the next row.
When you insert a table (or when you select a table), OneNote displays the Table Tools
Layout tab, which you can use to select the entire table or speciic columns, rows, or cells;
insert or delete columns and rows; hide the table’s borders; and align the contents of
table cells. Figure 7-6 shows the Table Tools Layout tab.
FIGURE 7-6 Insert a table in OneNote to capture information about schedules, tasks, products, and so on.
You can also access the table layout commands by right-clicking in a
table and choosing Table from the shortcut menu.
Adding links and linked notes
If you irst start a table by using the keyboard, you can continue to build it by using the
following key combinations to modify the layout:
To create a new column to the left or right of the current column, press Ctrl+Alt+E
or Ctrl+Alt+R, respectively.
To create a new row below the current one, even if the cursor is in the middle of
the row, press Ctrl+Enter.
To create a new row above the current row, move the cursor to the beginning of
the row and press Enter. (This does not apply to the irst row in a table.)
To begin a new paragraph in the same cell, press Alt+Enter.
Editing and formatting text in OneNote
Much of the information you add to OneNote can remain raw and essentially unformatted. But you can format and edit notes by using a variety of tools, many of which appear
on the OneNote ribbon’s Home tab. Applying styles and formatting to notes (as for other
types of content) helps emphasize important items and adds structure to them.
OneNote includes Format Painter, common to other Ofice applications. OneNote also
provides 11 built-in styles that you can apply to the text in a notebook. You cannot create your own styles or modify the styles that come with OneNote, but the Styles gallery
provides six levels of headings, a style for page titles, styles for citations and quotations,
a style for programming code, and the Normal style. If you need to remove text formatting that’s been applied in a notebook, select the text and then click Clear Formatting at
the bottom of the Styles gallery. You can also select the text and press Ctrl+Shift+N to
remove formatting and apply the Normal style.
Adding links and linked notes
As your team uses OneNote to record ideas and compile information, you can connect
pages, sections, notes, and whole notebooks to avoid repeating information and to navigate to data you need with greater ease.
You can also connect notes to information in other applications—to Microsoft Word
documents, PowerPoint presentations, or webpages, for example. Linking notes to pages,
sections, or notebooks and linking notes to iles created in other applications are two
ways you can deepen the associations between the content you include in a notebook.
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Linking pages to other OneNote pages
By linking one page to another, you can navigate through a notebook, create relationships between pages, and reduce redundant information. The Copy Link To Page command appears when you right-click a page in the page tabs bar. (You’ll see a similar command—Copy Link To Section—when you right-click a section title in the Navigation bar.)
Click this command, display the page you want to add the link to, and then paste the link.
If you click the Paste button on the Home tab, it’s best to choose the
Keep Source Formatting or Merge Formatting option. If you use one of
these options, OneNote uses the page title for the link’s display text. If
you choose Keep Text Only, the link will work, but the link’s display text
will be the lengthy ID OneNote uses to refer to a page.
By default, links to pages are shown in a blue font with a solid underline. Links to subpages are displayed in a blue font with a dashed underline. You can apply other formatting to a link by selecting it and then applying a style or by using the basic text formatting tools on the Home tab.
To modify a link, right-click it, and choose Edit Link. This opens the Link dialog box. (See
“Linking to iles” earlier in this chapter for more information.) Here you can choose a different page or section for the link. You can also use this dialog box to modify the display
text. Use the Copy Link, Select Link, and Remove Link commands on this shortcut menu
to manage the link as necessary.
Linking notes to pages, sections, and notebooks
In addition to using the Copy Link To Page command to link one page to another, you
can use variations of this command to link notes to pages, sections, and notebooks.
To link a note to a page, section, section group, or notebook, right-click the item in the
page tabs bar or the Navigation bar, and then choose one of the Copy Link To commands. The command’s full name relects the item you are linking to—Copy Link To
Page, Copy Link To Section, Copy Link To Section Group, and Copy Link To Notebook.
Right-click a paragraph in a note container and choose Copy Link To
Paragraph to create a link to a speciic note.
Adding links and linked notes
After copying the link to the destination, display the note (which could be a note you
added previously or a new note) in which you want to include the link, and press Ctrl+V
to paste the link. Right-click a link you’ve added to edit, copy, format, or remove the link.
(The Edit Link command on the shortcut menu opens the Link dialog box, which, as mentioned previously, you can use to change the display text for the link or to select another
Enclosing text in a pair of square brackets, such as [[text]], links a note to a page
or to a section in the current notebook or in another notebook. Just type the
name of the notebook, page, or section between the brackets. (This technique is
also used to create links in some wiki pages on websites.) If the page or section is
in a closed notebook, OneNote opens the notebook when you click the link.
You can also use the wikilink syntax to create a page and a link to that page at
the same time. To do this, type the text you want to use as a page title (which
can’t duplicate an existing page) between the brackets. OneNote creates the
page in the current section.
Working with linked notes
You can use linked notes to connect notes to speciic locations in OneNote, as well as to
Word documents, PowerPoint presentations, and webpages you view in Internet Explorer.
The advantage of using linked notes is that the link between a note and its reference or
location is created automatically when you enter a note in the docked OneNote window
(assuming that you haven’t turned off linked notes). With linked notes, you can do research in one application (reviewing the content on a webpage, for example), type a note
in the docked window, and then later use the link to open the page you were using for
See Also For detailed information about creating linked notes in Word, PowerPoint, and
Internet Explorer, see “Linking notes to other applications” later in this chapter.
On the View tab, click New Docked Window to dock a second OneNote window (which
displays the current page) along the right side of the screen. (If you use keyboard shortcuts, press Ctrl+Alt+D to dock the OneNote window.) This command also enables linked
notes, which is indicated by the link icon at the top of the docked window. In the docked
window, click the ellipsis to display the ribbon. You’ll see that the coniguration of the
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OneNote ribbon changes in the docked window. The Insert, History, and Review tabs are
no longer included, and the Home, Draw, and View tabs include a subset of their regular
To create a linked note that refers to another page in a OneNote notebook, display the
page you want to add the linked note to in the docked window. Then, in the main OneNote window, open the page you want the linked note to refer to. When you start typing
a note in the docked window, you’ll see the OneNote program icon displayed to the left
of the note container. Point to this icon to see which page the linked note refers to. Click
the icon to activate the link and jump to the page.
To work with linked notes, click the down arrow below the linked note icon (in the topleft corner of the docked OneNote window) to display a menu that lets you open a linked
ile, delete one or more links on the linked note page, stop taking linked notes (and
resume taking linked notes again), and set linked note options. Right-click the OneNote
icon or the program icon that appears with linked notes you create in Word, PowerPoint,
or Internet Explorer (see the next section) to open a menu and open the linked ile, copy
the link, change the destination of the link, remove the link, or set linked note options.
Linked note options appear on the Advanced page of the OneNote Options dialog box. Clear the Allow Creation Of New Linked Notes check
box to turn off the linked notes feature. Clear the check box for the
document snippet option if you don’t want OneNote to include identifying text with the linked note. Click Remove Links From Linked Notes
to remove links from the current notebook. (OneNote prompts you to
conirm this operation before the links are removed.)
Linking notes to other applications
Linked notes are also supported in Word, PowerPoint, and Internet Explorer. In each of
these programs, the steps to create linked notes are generally the same.
You can create linked notes only to saved Word documents and PowerPoint presentations.
Linking notes in Word and PowerPoint
To start using linked notes in Word, click Linked Notes in the OneNote group on the
Review tab in Word. The irst time you start taking linked notes in a document, OneNote
displays the Select Location In OneNote dialog box. Use this dialog box to specify the
OneNote page on which you want the linked notes to appear. You can also choose a
Adding links and linked notes
section, in which case OneNote creates a new page to store the linked notes. After you
create linked notes in a document, the page associated with the linked notes is opened
automatically in OneNote.
When you start typing a note in the docked OneNote window, OneNote adds the Word
icon to the left of the note to indicate that the note is linked to the document. When
you point to the icon, OneNote displays a ScreenTip that includes a short passage of the
text near the cursor, as shown in Figure 7-7. To associate a speciic passage of text with a
linked note, select the text in Word, and then type the note in OneNote.
FIGURE 7-7 Use the Linked Notes command in Word to open a OneNote window. Add notes to a page
that you can use to navigate back to the Word document to revise and review it.
You follow essentially the same steps to create notes linked to a PowerPoint presentation.
In PowerPoint, open the presentation you want to work with, and then click Linked Notes
in the OneNote group on the Review tab. Select a location (using the Select Location In
OneNote dialog box) if this is the irst time you’ve created linked notes for this presentation. If you have created linked notes previously, OneNote opens the associated page.
Display the slide you want to link a note to, and then type a note in the docked OneNote
window. OneNote adds the PowerPoint icon to the left of the note container to indicate
that the note is linked.
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Linking notes in Internet Explorer
In Internet Explorer 9, you can ind the OneNote Linked Notes icon on the command bar.
(Right-click to the right of the address box, and then choose Command Bar to display
the icon.) Go to the webpage you want to link to a note, and then type the note in the
docked OneNote window. This note could be as simple as the title of an article on the
page or the name of the site, but it can be more detailed, of course, and indicate the
reason you are creating the link, the relationship to your current task, and so on.
To see details about the link, point to the Internet Explorer icon that OneNote adds to
indicate that the note is linked. The ScreenTip shows the URL for the webpage and the
webpage’s title. To open the page, click the icon.
If OneNote isn’t running, you can send the content on a webpage to OneNote
by choosing Send To OneNote from the menu that appears when you rightclick the webpage in Internet Explorer. (The location of this command may
vary depending on which version of Internet Explorer you are using.) You can
send the entire page or elements (images or text) that you select on the page.
By default, the Select Location In OneNote dialog box opens after you choose
Send To OneNote. Specify where you want the content to appear, and select
the check box at the bottom of the dialog box if you want to set the location as
the default location. (Not all the formatting on the webpage will be preserved
in OneNote.)
Managing changes and additions to shared
Sharing notebooks with your team brings with it a few management needs, such as identifying who contributed a recent note and knowing what notes have been added since
you last opened the notebook. The commands on the History tab in OneNote let you
ind notes by different authors, see recent changes to a notebook, hide author initials,
and mark other users’ notes as read or unread.
Managing changes and additions to shared notebooks
Marking coauthor edits as read or unread
When you open a shared notebook, notes added by other users since the last time you
opened the notebook are highlighted. In addition, OneNote displays the names of pages
with unread notes in bold (see Figure 7-8). Use the commands in the Unread group on
the History tab to navigate to pages that contain unread notes and to mark notes as read
or unread.
FIGURE 7-8 Unread notes are highlighted, and the names of pages with unread notes appear in bold. Use
the Mark As Read menu to manage unread notes.
To move to the next page in a notebook with notes you haven’t read, go to the History
tab and click Next Unread. Using the commands on the Mark As Read menu, you can do
the following to indicate that you’ve read notes entered by others since the last time you
opened a notebook:
Click Mark As Read (or press Ctrl+Q) to show you have read notes on a page. The
notes on the page are no longer highlighted, and the page’s name is no longer
bold. You can choose Mark As Unread (or press Ctrl+Q) again to revert to showing
the highlighting.
Click Mark Notebook As Read to show you’ve read all new notes in a notebook.
Clear the Show Unread Changes In This Notebook check box if you don’t want to
track the status of new notes.
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Viewing recent edits
The Recent Edits menu in the Authors group on the History tab lets you choose an option
for seeing the edits made to a notebook over a speciic period of time. You can choose
Today, for example, to see the most recent changes, or Since Yesterday to review any
additions or changes made since the previous day. You can also specify a period of time,
such as the last seven days or a span as long as the past six months, or choose All Pages
Sorted By Date to see a list of pages organized by time period, as shown in Figure 7-9.
FIGURE 7-9 Click a command on the Recent Edits menu to locate notes added within the
timeframe you specify.
When you view recent edits, OneNote opens the Search Results pane and lists sections
and pages that match the option you selected. In the Search Results pane, the search
scope is set to Search This Notebook by default. You can choose an alternative from the
search scope list to search only the current section, search the current section group, or
search all open notebooks.
To switch to a different search scope by using the keyboard, press Ctrl+E,
press Tab, and then press Space to display the list of options.
Current Heading 1,h1 Section Title
Click Sort at the right of the Sort By list to change the order from ascending to descending. Clicking Recent Edits speciies that the Search Results pane is sorted by date modiied. After the Search Results pane opens, you can use the Sort By list to organize results
by section, title, or author.
Finding notes by author
You can also use the Search Results pane to ind notes added or changed by a speciic
author. Click Find By Author in the Authors group to display the Search Results pane with
Sort By Author selected in the list of sorting options.
You can expand and collapse the entries for a particular author by using the arrow to the
left of an author’s name. Click an entry in the list to jump to that page. Click Sort to sort
the entries in ascending or descending order.
You can use the Search Results pane independently of the commands on
the History page. You can select a different sorting option, for example,
or select a different search scope.
Hiding author initials
In a shared notebook, OneNote identiies the person who inserted or edited a note by
displaying that person’s name or initials next to the note. You can see more details—the
person’s full name and the last modiied date and time—by pointing to the initials to
reveal a ScreenTip.
If you want to see the page without the identifying initials, click Hide Authors in the
Authors group on the History tab. To reveal authors again, click Hide Authors a second
time. OneNote doesn’t identify notes or other content that you add yourself.
Working with page versions
OneNote maintains earlier versions of a page that has been changed by more than one
user. To view these versions, on the History tab, click the Page Versions button in the History group, and then choose Page Versions. An entry for each previous version, labeled
with the modiication date, is added to the page tabs bar, as shown in Figure 7-10.
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FIGURE 7-10 When you display page versions, you can see when a page was modified
and who modified it.
Other options on the Page Versions menu let you delete all previous versions in the
current section, section group, or notebook. You can also select Disable History For This
Notebook if you don’t want OneNote to track previous versions.
When you click a previous version in the page tabs list, a OneNote notiication indicates
that the page is a previous version, that it will be deleted over time, and that you can
click the notiication if you want to restore that version to the notebook. The menu that
appears when you click the notiication includes the commands available on the Page
Versions menu as well as commands for deleting that version, copying the earlier version
to another location in OneNote, and hiding the list of earlier versions.
Searching notebooks
When a notebook or a set of notebooks are full of information, how do you ind the
small nuggets of importance that you want to look back on and consider some more? In
OneNote, you can search a page, a section or section group, the current notebook, or all
open notebooks. OneNote’s search feature instantly ilters results as you type information in the search box. If you want to work with results in a separate task pane, you can
display the Search Results pane, where you can sort results by date or title, for example,
and also change the scope of your search.
Searching notebooks
Searching notebooks, sections, and pages
To search for a word or phrase on the current page, press Ctrl+F to activate the search
box. Type the word you are looking for, and OneNote highlights each instance of the
word. To the left of the search box, OneNote shows how many instances of the term
appear on the page. Move from the irst instance to the next (and back) by using the arrows next to the search box, or use F3 and Shift+F3 to move through the page.
You can use the AND and OR operators (use the uppercase characters) to
perform more complex searches. Use quotation marks around a term to
restrict the results to a speciic phrase. For example, type Contoso AND
August to ind notes that contain both of those terms. Type Contoso OR
Adventure Works to ind notes related to either company.
To ind a note in the current notebook, press Ctrl+E to activate the search box. OneNote
displays a list of open notebooks, and as you type your search text, OneNote quickly
ilters the contents of the list to show you relevant notes.
To change the search scope, click the arrow to the right of the search box and click This
Section, This Section Group, This Notebook, or All Notebooks. You can choose Set This
Scope As The Default at the bottom of the menu to specify the current scope as the one
you want OneNote to use each time you start a search.
OneNote provides a set of keyboard shortcuts you can use to conduct searches and
move through results, as summarized in the following table:
Move the cursor to the search box to search all notebooks.
While searching all notebooks, preview the next result.
Down Arrow
While searching all notebooks, go to the selected result
and dismiss Search.
Change the search scope.
Ctrl+E, Tab, Space
Open the Search Results pane.
Alt+O after searching
Search only the current page.
While searching the current page, move to the next result.
Enter or F3
While searching the current page, move to the previous result.
Dismiss search and return to the page.
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Displaying the Search Results pane
Instead of working in the results list, you can open the Search Results pane by clicking
the link at the bottom of the results list. In this pane, search results are initially sorted by
the date modiied. You can also sort by section or by title, and you can use the sort order
button to arrange results in ascending or descending order.
By default, the Search Results pane shows search results for the current notebook. To
change the scope of the results shown in the Search Results pane, open the list at the
top of the pane, and choose Search This Section, Search This Section Group, or Search All
Notebooks. The Search pane updates results immediately when you change the search
scope or the sorting arrangement.
Tagging notes
Many notes added to a notebook have common attributes. They may pertain to the
same event or project, for example, or all be items on the team’s to-do list. You can use
the tags feature in OneNote to identify and categorize notes. After notes are tagged, you
can use the tags to search for and locate certain types of notes or to group notes on a
summary page.
To apply a tag to a paragraph, select the paragraph, open the Tags menu on the Home
tab, and then select the tag you want to apply. You can apply one or as many as nine
tags to each paragraph in a note container. (If you select a note container and apply a
tag to it, the tag is applied to each paragraph in the container.) You can also apply a tag
as the irst step in creating a note by clicking a page, choosing the applicable tag from
the menu, and then typing or writing the note. To remove a tag from a paragraph, select
the paragraph, open the Tags menu, and then click Remove Tag—or simply right-click
the tag, and then choose Remove Tag from the shortcut menu.
Setting up a group of common tags
The default set of tags in OneNote serves as an example of the types of tags you can apply. Teams might use some of the built-in tags from the start, but tagging becomes more
useful when you customize the list, removing tags you won’t use, modifying those you
want to keep, and deining custom tags that the team adopts to identify notes related to
its projects, work assignments, and products.
At the bottom of the Tags menu, click Customize Tags to begin deining the set of tags
you want to use. Select any tag that you don’t need, and then click the Remove button
(the delete icon) below the Move Tag Up and Move Tag Down buttons. After you have a
Tagging notes
list of built-in tags you want to keep, you can use the Move Up and Move Down buttons
to reorder the tags, and then deine new tags and modify built-in tags to better suit your
To create a new tag, follow these steps:
In the Customize Tags dialog box, click New Tag.
In the New Tag dialog box, type a name for the tag.
Using the Symbol, Font Color, and Highlight Color controls, deine the visual properties for the tag.
Under Symbol, click None or one of the many choices that OneNote provides.
You can select from 40 font colors and from 15 highlight options.
The selections you make are shown in the Preview area of the New Tag dialog box.
(You don’t need to use each of these formatting options.)
To modify a tag, select the tag and then click Modify Tag in the Customize Tags dialog
box. The Modify Tag dialog box contains the same set of controls as the New Tag dialog
box, as shown in Figure 7-11. You can update the display name for the tag you are modifying and also make changes to the symbol that represents the tag, the font color, and
the highlight color.
FIGURE 7-11 Use the New Tag and Modify Tag dialog boxes to create a custom set of tags that team
members use to identify the content in a notebook.
■ IMPORTANT Note the statement just above the OK and Cancel buttons in the New Tag and Modify Tag
dialog boxes. If you change the appearance of the built-in To Do tag, for example, the tag’s appearance
doesn’t change for existing tagged notes. You’ll see the modiied tag when you apply the tag from this point
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Custom notes become part of the local OneNote proile of the person who creates or
modiies the note. For all team members to have access to a common set of tags, each
member needs to customize his or her own list. This means that you might need to write
down the name and formatting speciications for each tag you want to use, and then
each member can work in OneNote to compile those tags.
Even though some team members don’t have a speciic tag saved in their respective
proiles, they will see the tags when they open a notebook that uses them. At this point,
team members can copy a custom tag (one at a time) to their proiles by right-clicking
the custom tag’s symbol and clicking Add To My Tags.
Finding tagged notes
When you click Find Tags in the Tags group on the Home tab, OneNote displays the Tags
Summary pane and lists each tagged note in any open notebook under a heading for the
tag—all To Do notes are grouped together, for example, as are all the Important notes.
You can collapse and expand the tag groups to make your view of the notes in a group
more concise. To display the page that contains a tagged note, click its entry in the tag
To change the view and the results shown in the Tags Summary pane, in
the Group By list, change Tag Name (the default view) to Section, Title,
Date, or Note Text.
In the Search list below the tag groupings, specify the scope and the time period for
locating notes. For the search scope, you can choose from This Page Group, This Section,
This Section Group, This Notebook, and All Notebooks. The time period options include
Today’s Notes, Yesterday’s Notes, This Week’s Notes, Last Week’s Notes, and Older Notes.
Click Refresh Results after changing the setting in the Search list to update the results in
the Tags Summary pane.
Creating a tag summary page
A tag summary page displays all tagged notes in a section on their own page. Click
Create Summary Page in the Tags Summary pane to collect tagged notes on this page.
OneNote adds a page to the end of the current section (in a single note container) where
you can check off to-do items, for example, or review notes with other types of tags.
The entries on the tag summary page are copies that are linked to the original notes.
When you point to a tagged note on the summary page, a OneNote icon appears. Click
the icon to display the original note. Although the summary notes are linked to the
Doing more with OneNote
originals, they are not synchronized copies. This means that if you remove a tag on the
summary page or select the check box for a tagged note, the action you take does not
change the original note. In addition, notes you add to a section are not automatically
added to the summary page.
Click Create Summary Page a second time to create a second summary
page. Doing so does not update a summary page already in the notebook.
A few options for coniguring how OneNote displays original tags when you create a tag
summary page appear on the Advanced page in the OneNote Options dialog box. With
the default setting, Leave Original Tagged Notes Unchanged, OneNote shows tagged
notes as you see them when you irst apply the tags—in other words, tagged notes are
displayed the same on the tag summary page and on the pages that contain the original
notes. The Show Original Tagged Notes As Dimmed setting displays the tagged notes
as they normally appear on the tag summary page, but the tagged notes are dimmed
on the original pages. The Show Dimmed Tagged Notes In The Tags Summary Task Pane
option includes dimmed tags from the original page and the normal tag from the tag
summary page. By selecting this option, you essentially create duplicate entries for tags.
Doing more with OneNote
This section provides an overview of other features you’ll ind useful from time to time
when you work with OneNote on your own or as a team.
Saving the current page as a template
In Chapter 4, “Building team templates,” you learned about working with templates in
Word, Excel, and PowerPoint. Templates are also a feature of OneNote, which comes with
a number of page templates and also lets you deine a template of your own. You can review these templates—organized under ive default headings (Academic, Blank, Business,
Decorative, and Planners)—by clicking Page Templates on the Insert tab.
You can use one of the standard OneNote templates or a page template
you create as the default page template for the current section. Open
the Templates pane (click Page Templates in the page tabs bar), and then
choose the template you want to use from the list under Choose Default
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The irst step in creating your own page template is to set up the page with the text,
images, or other elements you want to work with. If you examine a few of the built-in
templates, you can see the types of elements they contain. For example, the Project
Overview template, which is included in the Business category, has placeholders for information such as the project name, the project goals, team members, and the schedule.
When the page is ready, follow these steps:
In the Templates pane, click Save Current Page As A Template.
In the Save As Template dialog box, type a name for the template.
To use this template as the default template for new pages in the current section,
select that option, and then click Save.
When you save your own page template, OneNote creates a new category called My
Templates and displays the templates in this group at the top of the Templates pane.
Research and references
In OneNote, as in other Ofice applications, you can look up word deinitions and ind
suitable synonyms in a thesaurus by using the Research pane. (In OneNote, you open
the Research pane from the Review tab.) Enter the term you want to look up, and then
choose the reference source you want to work with. For example, choose Encarta Dictionary to ind a deinition, or choose Bing to ind additional information about a topic or
term. You can navigate through recent searches by using the Back (the ScreenTip refers
to this button also as Previous Search) and Next Search buttons.
Sending pages in shareable formats
You can use the Email Page command in the E-Mail group on the Home tab to send a
OneNote page via e-mail to recipients you designate. For example, you might do this to
share the page with an absent team member or with a partner, vendor, or manager who
doesn’t meet regularly with the team and doesn’t have access to the notebooks you use.
Click Email Page to add the contents of the page, including the page title and the date
and time stamp, to a message window in Outlook. OneNote inserts the page’s name
in the message window’s subject line. Add addresses for recipients, update the subject
line (if necessary), and then send the message. You can also edit the message’s body as
Other options for sharing the content of a notebook via e-mail appear on the Send page
in Backstage view, as shown in Figure 7-12.
Doing more with OneNote
FIGURE 7-12 To distribute a page from a notebook to someone who doesn’t have OneNote, open the
Send page and select the format for how to send the page in e-mail.
The Send page lists three options for the format of a page you send in e-mail. The Email
Page option produces the same result as when you click Email Page on the Home tab.
The content of the page appears in the message body. Complete the message by adding
e-mail addresses for recipients and making any modiications to the subject line and
message body.
The Send As Attachment option attaches the page to the message in two different formats. The page is attached in the .one format as a OneNote section and also in the .mht
format, which lets recipients who don’t have OneNote open the page in Internet Explorer, Word, or the Word viewer application. (OneNote adds instructions about viewing the
.mht ile as a webpage to the message’s body.)
■ IMPORTANT The .mht ile name extension is associated with the MHTML format. (MHTML is an abbreviation for MIME HTML.) The page’s contents, including text and images, are saved along with formatting
in a single ile. You cannot directly open MHTML iles in browsers other than Internet Explorer or Opera, but
you can install an add-on to work with .mht iles in browsers such as Firefox or Safari.
To attach the current page as a PDF ile, click Send As PDF. OneNote displays a progress
bar to show that the page is being converted to PDF and then displays an Outlook message window with the attachment in place and the name of the page in the subject line.
The page name is also used for the ile name, with “as PDF” added to identify the format.
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Use the Send As PDF option to distribute pages to people who don’t have Microsoft Ofice installed on their computers, for example. Recipients do need at have Adobe Reader
or another compatible application installed to open and read a PDF ile.
Using the notebook Recycle Bin
Each notebook includes a built-in Recycle Bin where pages and sections are stored when
you delete them. OneNote preserves content in the Recycle Bin for 60 days. The content
in the Recycle Bin is read-only. You can’t edit notes or insert new content when you view
pages in the Recycle Bin.
To view the Recycle Bin, right-click a notebook in the Navigation bar, and then click
Notebook Recycle Bin. You can also click Notebook Recycle Bin on the History tab. To
restore a page or section, right-click the item in the Recycle Bin, and then click Move Or
Copy. In the Move Or Copy dialog box, select the location where you want to place the
item—in the current notebook or in a different one.
To clear items from the Recycle Bin, click Empty Recycle Bin on the Notebook Recycle Bin
menu on the History tab, and then click Yes when OneNote prompts you to conirm the
action. If you click Disable History For This Notebook, OneNote displays a message box
that prompts you to conirm whether you want to delete page versions and empty the
Recycle Bin.
Opening backup notebooks
OneNote maintains backup copies of notebooks on your computer, which it stores in
a hidden folder in your user proile. When you need to refer to a backup, click File and
then click Open Backups on the Info page. In the Open Backup dialog box, notebooks
are organized in folders, and within each folder you can see the backed-up section iles
with the date the backup was made. Double-click a backup ile to open a read-only copy
of the page or section in OneNote. The page is displayed under Open Sections, an entry
that OneNote adds to the Navigation bar. From the Open Sections area, you can drag
sections to any open notebook or right-click a section tab or a page tab and use the
Move Or Copy command to add the backed-up page to a notebook.
You control backup settings in the OneNote Options dialog box on the Save & Backup
page. You can clear the automatic backup option—which means you run more of a risk
of losing data—and also set the backup time period. The intervals range from one minute to six weeks. (All notebooks are affected by these settings.) Click Backup Changed
Files Now or Backup All Notebooks Now to create backup copies you can refer to later.
Working on shared
documents in Word
TE AMS OFTEN PRODUCE and distribute the content they use inter-
Controlling the editing of a
nally—such as meeting summaries, task lists, and status reports—without
Basic collaboration tools:
comments and revision
marks 210
that teams share with clients, partners, executives, and others need to
Comparing and combining
Coauthoring documents in
Word 223
formal reviews. However, the documents, spreadsheets, and presentations
meet a high bar. That means additional care is required to ensure that
the content is accurate and persuasive and that the formatting is clear
and well designed.
In Chapter 4, “Building team templates,” you saw how you can
incorporate many of the formatting options in Ofice programs
into templates you create in Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and
Microsoft PowerPoint. Formatting options like themes can be
applied with preset attributes or modiied to amplify the goals,
capabilities, and accomplishments of a team.
Just as much effort is required to create convincing content, so
team members generally don’t work in isolation when they are
responsible for a work product that will relect on the team as a
whole. It’s most often the case that documents of this sort, after
they are drafted, will be revised and reviewed more than once by
members of the team and possibly by outside reviewers.
In this chapter, you’ll learn about the sharing and collaboration
features in Word. In Chapter 9, “Collaborating in Excel,” I’ll describe
how teams can collaborate in Excel, and in Chapter 10, “Preparing a
presentation as a group,” I’ll outline a way teams can work together
to prepare a presentation in PowerPoint. As you’ll see, the collabo203
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Working on shared documents in Word
ration features in Word, Excel, and PowerPoint have a lot in common. In each program,
for example, you can annotate a ile with comments. You can also merge two or more
versions of a ile to see changes that reviewers have made to the original. Word, Excel,
and PowerPoint (along with Microsoft OneNote) also support coauthoring, a feature that
lets more than one person work on a single ile at the same time.
Coauthoring in Word and PowerPoint is supported only if a document is
stored on SharePoint or SkyDrive. Also, each contributor to the document
must be using Ofice 2010, Ofice 2013, or Word for Mac 2011. You can
also coauthor a document using Ofice Web Apps. To learn more about
working with the Web Apps, see Chapter 11, “Working with Ofice Web
Apps on SkyDrive.”
Teams can make use of this range of collaborative tools to create, review, and share
documents in Word. The speciic tools that a team member or a reviewer uses depends
on a number of factors, including the following:
Will all team members working on the document be updating every section, or do
some sections require expertise provided by different disciplines, such as inance,
design, or legal? Do you need to apply restrictions to some sections of a document
so that only the people designated can edit them?
Where is the document in its life cycle? Is it in draft form, or is it ready for revisions
and inal proofreading?
Does everyone who needs to review the document have access to a single copy, or
do some reviewers need to work on separate copies for logistical reasons?
You'll learn how the collaboration features in Word can address each of these situations
in the sections that follow.
Controlling the editing of a document
When you upload a document to your team site in SharePoint, place it on a network
share, or add it to a folder in SkyDrive, you need to consider who can access the document in the location where you store it—and also what restrictions you want to place
on the document itself. For some documents, you want to protect speciic areas of the
content or control how formatting can be applied. For example, should any team member with access to your team site be able to open and edit a contract or a proposal that
includes legally binding language as well as inancial assumptions and descriptions of
Controlling the editing of a document
complex engineering or design speciications? These documents might contain information that a majority of team members need as context for their work, but you want only
some team members to update all or part of them. To manage cases like these, you can
share a document with team members in a location that’s accessible and then restrict
what operations can be performed on the document and who can perform them.
To control how a Word document can be formatted and edited, you specify options and
settings in the Restrict Editing pane, which you open by clicking Restrict Editing on the
Review tab. Figure 8-1 shows the pane with the options to restrict formatting and editing
FIGURE 8-1 Options in the Restrict Editing pane let you control who can edit
specific sections of a document and how the document can be formatted.
You can choose from several options for editing restrictions, including one that allows no
changes. You can apply this option generally and then deine exceptions that apply to
sections of the document and grant access to speciic people or to everyone. Formatting
restrictions allow you to control which styles can be applied to a document. By choosing
only a select group of styles, you can keep the appearance of documents more uniform,
avoid unnecessary formatting, and preserve styles that are compatible for working with a
document in a more advanced desktop publishing program.
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Follow these steps to specify formatting restrictions:
In the Formatting Restrictions area, select the check box to limit formatting to a
speciic set of styles.
Selecting this option also prevents users of a document from modifying styles and
from applying local formatting such as bold and italics.
Click Settings to open the Formatting Restrictions dialog box, shown below.
In this dialog box, specify the set of styles you want to have available in the
All styles are selected by default. Click Recommended Minimum to use a subset
of styles that includes standard heading, list, and emphasis styles. To select a
speciic set of styles, click None to clear the check boxes, and then select each
style you want to include. For example, you can select only the styles deined for a
template associated with the document.
In the Formatting area, select the check boxes if you want to allow formatting that
Word applies automatically, to block users from switching themes, or to prevent
users from changing the group of styles in the Quick Styles gallery.
Click OK to return to the Restrict Formatting And Editing pane.
If the current document contains styles or formatting that aren’t allowed by the
settings you speciied, Word displays a message box that gives you the option to
remove the styles and formatting. If you click Yes, Word converts styles that aren’t
allowed to the default Normal style and removes restricted local formatting.
Controlling the editing of a document
If you are setting up only formatting restrictions, click Yes, Start Enforcing Protection at
this point, and then go to step 7 in the following procedure for more information. To
continue by adding editing restrictions, use the following steps:
In the Editing Restrictions area, select Allow Only This Type Of Editing In The
In the list box, choose an option to control the types of changes users can make to
the document. The choices are as follows:
No Changes (Read Only) This prevents users from making revisions, although you can set up exceptions that allow speciic users to edit all or certain
sections of the document, as you’ll see in the steps that follow.
Tracked Changes Revisions made to the document are indicated by revision
marks. Tracked changes cannot be turned off without removing protection.
Comments Users can add comments to the document, but they can’t make
revisions to the document’s content itself. For this option as well, you can set up
exceptions for speciic users. (For more information about adding comments in
Word, see “Annotating a document” later in the chapter.)
Filling In Forms This option lets you restrict input to illing in forms that are
part of a document.
If you select No Changes (Read Only) or Comments, use the Exceptions area to
specify users who can edit all or sections of a document. Exceptions apply to the
complete document by default, but you can also apply exceptions to a particular
section of a document by selecting that section and then designating the people
who can edit it. (You can also allow everyone to edit speciic sections.) You can apply different exceptions to different sections of a document. For each section you
want to deine exceptions for, select that section and then follow steps 3 and 5.
Click the More Users link.
In the Add Users dialog box, type the names of users, using the format DOMAIN\
username or using an e-mail address, as shown below:
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Click OK in the Add Users dialog box. In the Restrict Editing pane, select the check
box beside the user’s name. You can use the down arrow at the right side of the
list box to open a menu that provides options for locating sections the user can
edit and an option to remove editing permissions for the user.
Click Yes, Start Enforcing Protection.
In the Start Enforcing Protection dialog box, type a password that users need to
enter to remove protection from the document, or choose User Authentication
so that only users who are authenticated on the network can remove protection.
By choosing this option, you also encrypt the document.
If Information Rights Management isn’t already set up, choosing the
User Authentication option prompts you to enroll in this service. For
more information, see Chapter 3, “Managing access and preserving
history.” In addition, when you specify User Authentication, the user
account you select to manage Information Rights Management for
the document is added as an individual with access to the editing
exceptions you deine.
When a user opens a document that formatting and editing restrictions have been applied to, he or she can use the Restrict Editing pane to ind sections that can be edited
or stop protection by providing the password. This version of the pane is shown in
Controlling the editing of a document
Figure 8-2. In addition, in the document, sections that can be edited are highlighted by
FIGURE 8-2 Find the editable regions of a document
by using the buttons in the Restrict Editing pane.
If editing and formatting restrictions have been protected with the User Authentication
option, a user is likely to see the message shown in Figure 8-3 when he or she opens the
document. If the user’s credentials are veriied with the Information Rights Management
service, Word opens the document and displays a notiication indicating that access is
restricted. In the notiication, click Change Permission to open the Permission dialog box,
which you can use to provide Read and Change permissions to other users and to set
other options to control the use of the document.
FIGURE 8-3 Click OK in this message to open a restricted document that
is protected with Information Rights Management.
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Basic collaboration tools: comments and
revision marks
Comments and revision marks provide some of the basic mechanics of working with
shared documents. When circulating a draft, for example, team members writing the
document can use comments to provide context and guidance to reviewers. When reading the draft, reviewers can insert comments to point out missing or inaccurate data or
to call attention to sections that need further revision.
Revision marks (also called tracked changes) create a record of how the text and other
content in a document is changed during reviews and updates. Word tracks each revision, highlighting the text that authors and reviewers insert, delete, or move, and also
indicates changes in formatting. Revisions (like comments) are identiied so that teams
know who made a revision and when.
The purpose of both comments and revision marks is to facilitate feedback. Comments
appear beside the document’s content (or can be read in the Reviewing pane or as
ScreenTips). Someone reviewing the document can reply to a comment and, as needed,
update the text to address the issue the comment raises. The original comment and
replies to it are shown together in the Comments pane, which lets you see the thoughts
and actions a comment generates.
Revision marks are integrated into the text and identiied by formatting such as underlining or strikethrough. You can switch views to temporarily hide revision marks to see
clearly how a revision changes the text and then accept or reject revisions to produce an
updated version of the document.
Annotating a document
Comments provide a simple way to review and annotate a document. Teams can use
comments to do the following:
Highlight text or other content that needs to be revised or reformatted
Pose a question or seek clariication
Describe decisions to other reviewers of the document
Provide context or instructions for users of the document
To insert a comment, select the text or object (such as an image or a table) you want
to tie the comment to, and then click New Comment on the Review tab. (You can also
right-click and choose New Comment from the menu that appears.) Word identiies each
comment that's inserted in a ile with the name of the user who inserted it. You can see
Basic collaboration tools: comments and revision marks
more information—such as when the comment was inserted (which might be a few minutes ago or some days or months in the past)—by pointing to a comment. Right-click the
picture or user icon for the person who entered the comment to open a menu that lets
you contact that person by instant message, a call, a video conference, or e-mail.
The user name that identiies comments (and revisions) is speciied on
the General tab in the Word Options dialog box. For some documents,
you might want to be identiied by your role or by a different user name.
For example, you might want to associate revisions with the user name
Engineering if you are reviewing a document on behalf of that department. You can change your identity by clicking File, Options, and then
updating the User Name text box on the General tab. (You can also click
Change User Name in the Track Changes Options dialog box, shown
later in Figure 8-4.) You also need to select the option Always Use These
Values Regardless of Sign In To Ofice. Otherwise, comments will always
be identiied using the name associated with your account. Any change
you make is carried over to other documents. You should revert to your
standard user name as necessary.
Depending on the current view (Page Layout or Draft, for example) comments appear
in a pane along the side of a document, in the Reviewing pane, or in ScreenTips. Comments are displayed in a pane in the Print Layout, Read Mode, and Web Layout views.
In Draft and Outline views, comments are displayed in ScreenTips when you point to the
highlighted text. In any view (except Read Mode), you can open the Reviewing pane to
see comments. In Read Mode view, comments appear initially as comment icons. Click an
icon to read the comment. Choose Show Comments from the Tools menu in Read Mode
view to see the text of a comment instead of the icon.
Move from one comment to the next by using the Previous and Next buttons in the
Comments group on the Review tab. To reply to a comment, click in a comment balloon
and then click New Comment. Word identiies this comment by user name and indents it
under the comment above. Use the Delete button in the Comments group to remove a
comment or to remove all comments from a ile.
If you want to emphasize the text in a comment, you can apply a limited range of font
formatting from the Home tab or the mini toolbar. For example, you can apply bold or
italic to text in a comment, highlight a comment, and change the font and font color. You
cannot, however, change the size of the font.
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Tracking changes
Tracking revisions that you and other users make to a document can be straightforward.
For example, if three team members are responsible for updating a document, they can
in turn check out the ile from SharePoint (or open it from SkyDrive or another shared location), turn on the Track Changes option (only the irst person to open the ile needs to
take this step), revise text and other content in the ile, and then check the ile in. If all the
team members who are involved have set an alert in SharePoint, they’ll see that the ile is
available, and the next in line can add his or her revisions to the ile. When revisions are
complete, the designated team member (the team’s lead or maybe one of the reviewers)
opens the ile, reviews the changes, and accepts or rejects them.
To keep track of revisions in a ile, click Track Changes on the Review tab. This setting is
preserved when you save the ile. The next time someone opens the ile, Track Changes
is already enabled. With Track Changes turned on, insertions, deletions, and text moves
made in the document are highlighted. Changes to formatting and changes made in ink
(with pen input) are also tracked by default.
If you are working with a document in compatibility mode, text moves
are not tracked with distinct highlighting. They are treated as deletions
and insertions.
You can also create a password that prevents other users from turning off Track Changes.
On the Review tab, click Track Changes and then click Lock Tracking. In the dialog box
Word displays, enter and conirm the password.
Setting track changes options
You can set a number of options to modify how Word tracks changes and displays revisions. You manage basic settings for the types of revisions to show—insertions, deletions, formatting, and ink, for example—in the Track Changes Options dialog box, shown
in Figure 8-4. In this dialog box, you can also choose a setting for what balloons show
in the All Markup view and a display setting for the Reviewing pane. (You’ll learn more
about the All Markup view and related views later in this section.) To open the Track
Changes Options dialog box, click the dialog box launcher in the bottom-right corner of
the Review tab’s Tracking group.
Basic collaboration tools: comments and revision marks
FIGURE 8-4 The default settings for tracking changes provide a clear picture of the revisions made to
a document, but for personal preference or for specific documents, you can update the options in the
Track Changes Options dialog box.
For more control over the display of revisions, click Advanced Options in the Track
Changes Options dialog box. You’ll see the dialog box shown in Figure 8-5.
FIGURE 8-5 Advanced settings let you choose options for how insertions, deletions, and other elements
of track changes are displayed.
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In the Advanced Track Changes Options dialog box, you can do the following:
Specify formatting for insertions and deletions. By default, insertions are underlined and deletions are shown with strikethrough. Some of the other options for
showing insertions are Color Only, Bold, and Italic. For deletions, you can choose
formatting options such as Color Only, Bold, and Italic or use a special character
(either a carat or an asterisk) to mark where text is deleted. If you choose one of
the symbols, the symbol replaces the original text, so you see only where text was
deleted (not text with strikethrough as you do with the default setting).
The settings for insertions and deletions are by user (as are other settings in this
dialog box). They do not carry over when another user opens the document on his
or her computer. For example, if you choose Bold to mark deletions, that setting is
preserved for your use of the document, but if another team member has maintained the default Strikethrough setting, that team member sees deletions with the
strikethrough formatting, not in bold.
Use the Changed Lines list to specify where Word places a line that indicates
where a change has been made. In a lightly revised document, these lines help you
locate revisions. In the Changed Lines list, keep Outside Border (the default setting) or choose Left Border, Right Border, or None.
In the Color lists for insertions and deletions, choose the speciic color you want to
use to identify your changes, or keep the default setting By Author to have Word
assign a color to you. Revision marks for each reviewer of a document are displayed in a different color.
Under Comments, choose a background color that identiies comments you insert,
or keep By Author and let Word assign a color.
When Track Moves is selected, Word applies speciic formatting to text that is
moved by dragging or by cutting and pasting the text. If you clear the check box
for Track Moves, Word applies the formatting speciied for deletions and insertions
to text that is moved.
Use the lists under Track Moves to specify the formatting and colors Word applies
to identify text that's been moved (Moved From and Moved To) and to specify
options for how changes to the layouts in a table are marked. You can manage
settings separately for inserted, deleted, merged, and split cells.
Keep Track Formatting selected to see changes to a document’s formatting. In
long documents with extensive local formatting (italics, for example), clear this option if you don’t need to see each formatting change. By not tracking formatting,
you reduce the number of items listed in the Reviewing pane and the number of
balloons displayed, which can make reviewing changes more manageable.
Basic collaboration tools: comments and revision marks
Use the Preferred Width list to control the size of the markup pane. You can also
specify a different unit of measure (Measure In) and whether the pane appears
along the right or left margin.
If you expect to print a heavily revised document with a large number of comments, you might consider changing the setting for Paper Orientation In Printing
from Preserve (which uses the orientation speciied on the Page Layout tab) to
Force Landscape, which provides more room for comments along the side of the
Reviewing a ile
Reading through a heavily revised document that also includes a number of comments
and annotations—something like you see in Figure 8-6—can be time-consuming. You
want to understand the effect of each revision by seeing how the original text was
changed. The additional formatting and the gaps in the readable text can hinder your
FIGURE 8-6 A heavily revised and annotated document can be difficult to review. Word provides options
for temporarily hiding revision marks to make reading easier.
To adjust the view of how revisions are shown in a document, select one of the views
available in the Display For Review list at the top of the Tracking group to temporarily
show or hide revisions:
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Simple Markup The default option, shows the document as though revisions
have been accepted. Comments are shown as icons that you can click to read the
comment. Word marks areas of the document where revisions occur with a line
along the side of the window. You can go to a revised section and then switch
views to see the details for each change.
All Markup Shows insertions and deletions in the colors assigned to reviewers.
The full text of comments are shown along the side in Print Layout view.
No Markup Shows the document with insertions, deletions, and other revisions
accepted, but without any cues to where revisions have been made. No comment
icons are displayed either. Use this view to read the document in its current edited
Original Shows how the original document appeared without any revisions (as
the document would appear if all revisions were rejected).
In addition to switching views, you can use the Show Markup menu to control and ilter
the types of revisions you see. Here are the options you can choose from:
Comments Shows or hides comments. Clear this option if you want to view the
document without comments showing.
Ink Shows or hides any annotations or revisions made in ink.
Insertions And Deletions Clear this option to hide revision marks. If you are
revising a document, clearing this option is often helpful because you can read
the text and see the effect of your changes without seeing the revision marks
themselves. Word still tracks changes and shows them when you select this option
Formatting Clear the check mark for Formatting to suppress the corresponding
balloons or other highlighting in a document that indicate formatting changes.
Balloons Controls whether Word shows revisions in balloons or inline or shows
only comments and formatting changes in balloons.
Speciic People Word shows changes by all reviewers of a document by default.
If you want to see the changes made by a speciic reviewer or a particular set of
reviewers, click Speciic People, click All Reviewers to remove the check mark, and
then open the menu again and select the reviewer or reviewers whose work you
want to inspect. This option is particularly helpful when you want to see revisions
made by someone with a speciic perspective on a document—for example, a
product’s marketing manager. You can choose that reviewer from this list and then
scan the document to ind the changes and comments this individual made.
Basic collaboration tools: comments and revision marks
If you want to work with revisions in a separate pane, click Reviewing Pane and choose
the location where you want Word to display it (in a horizontal or vertical layout). The
pane shows you the collection of revisions made to a document and also displays a set of
statistics about how many of each type of change the document contains.
Accepting and rejecting changes
When you need to accept and reject changes, you have a couple of choices for how to
do this work. In the Reviewing pane, you can right-click an insertion or a deletion and
then accept or reject it. Working in the Reviewing pane can be cumbersome, however,
so you might prefer to work in the document itself. Close the Reviewing pane by clicking
the X in the pane’s upper-right corner or by clicking Reviewing Pane on the Review tab.
When the Reviewing pane is closed, you can use commands in the Changes group to
navigate from change to change (by clicking Previous or Next) and to accept or reject
the changes showing in the document. The Accept and Reject menus have similar sets
of commands, such as Accept And Move To Next, Accept All Changes Shown, Reject
Change, and Reject All Changes In Document. You can also choose Accept All Changes
And Stop Tracking (or the comparable command for rejecting changes) to manage
changes at once and no longer track changes.
The Accept (or Reject) All Changes Shown command is active only when you select an
option other than All Reviewers from the Show Markup menu described in the previous
section. By iltering which reviewers’ changes are showing, you can accept or reject revisions made by a particular reviewer or set of reviewers. To do that, follow these steps:
On the Review tab, in the Tracking group, click Show Markup, Speciic People.
Clear the check mark next to All Reviewers, and then repeat step 1 and select the
irst (or only) reviewer whose revisions you want to see. Repeat step 1 again to
select any other reviewer.
In the Changes group, click the arrow under Accept (or Reject) and then click Accept All Changes Shown or Reject All Changes Shown to work with this group
of revisions all at once.
You can also right-click a change and then click Accept Insertion or Reject
Insertion, for example.
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Comparing and combining documents
When each team member involved in producing a document can work on the same
copy, tracking changes is a good approach. (You can also use coauthoring to share a
single copy of a ile. Coauthoring is described later in this chapter.) In cases when reviewers need to work on separate copies of a document, you can distribute copies of the ile
to reviewers, collect the copies, and then use the Combine command to produce a single
document that displays and identiies revisions.
In other cases, you might simply want to compare two versions of a document to see
how the versions differ. You aren’t as concerned about who made revisions; you simply
want to know how the content in one version compares to content in the other.
The Compare and Combine commands provide similar results, but you apply them in different circumstances. Use Compare when you want to see the differences between two
documents. Use the Combine command to merge revisions in two or more versions of a
document and to identify who made the revisions.
Comparing documents
Let’s say you’re the team member in charge of preparing a proposal. On the team’s
SharePoint site you ind two documents, both in the proposal template, that you want
to use as the basis of the proposal you need to compile. One document was sent to the
same client you’re working with, but it was created two years ago, before you joined
the team. The second document is dated three months ago, and you know the proposal
process changed just before that document was prepared. You can compare these documents to see how they differ.
When you compare two documents, the differences between the original document—in
this case, the proposal given to your client two years ago—and the revised document—
the one the team prepared more recently—are shown in the original document (or in a
new document) as tracked changes. For the best results when you use the Compare command, the original and the revised documents should not contain any revision marks.
If either document does, Word treats the documents as though the changes have been
Here are the steps you follow to compare two documents:
On the Review tab, click the Compare button, and then click the Compare
Comparing and combining documents
In the Compare Documents dialog box, shown below, click the More button if you
don’t see the Comparison Settings and Show Changes areas. (The More button
becomes the Less button shown in the screen shot.)
In the Original Document list, select the original document or click the folder icon
to browse to the ile.
In the Revised Document list, select the document you want to compare with the
By default, all the options in the Comparison Settings area are selected. You can
clear the check box for any option other than Insertions And Deletions. If you
don’t need to see formatting differences, for example, clear the Formatting option. If you are interested chiely in comparing the differences in the main body
of each document, you might also clear the check boxes for Comments, Case
Changes (whether a character is lowercase or uppercase), White Space, Headers
And Footers, and Fields.
Under Show Changes, Word Level is selected by default. Select the Character
Level option to show when a change is made to a few characters of a word, such
as when only the case of the irst letter is changed. At the word level, the entire
word is shown as a revision; at the character level, only the letter is shown as a
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Under Show Changes In, select Original Document to display the differences
there (although you might not want to alter the original document in that way).
Select Revised Document to add changes to that document, or select New Document (which is always a safe choice) to create a document based on the original
with the differences shown with tracked changes.
Click OK.
Revisions in the comparison document are attributed to a single author and are displayed in a document window with the title Compared Document. You can use the
Previous and Next buttons in the Review tab’s Changes group to move from change to
change, view them, and accept or reject the differences. You can also view the compared,
original, and revised document at the same time —if that isn’t the view Word provides
when it completes the comparison—by clicking Show Source Documents on the Compare menu and clicking Show Both. (An example is shown in the next section in Figure
8-7.) Other options on the Show Source Documents menu include Hide Source Documents (which removes the original and the revised document from the view, keeping the
compared document), Show Original, and Show Revised.
Combining documents
You’re still in charge of creating a proposal, but in this case you need to send a draft
to three outside irms who will be your team’s partners in this project. You need their
comments on the sections you wrote about the work they’ll provide and about the sections that detail work you’ll do together. When you get the documents back, you want
to merge them with the original draft you’re working on to see the changes each irm
inserted. In a case like this, you need to combine the documents. You can combine more
than one document, but you combine each document with the original one at a time.
When you combine documents, differences between the original and revised documents
are shown as tracked changes. If a revised document includes tracked changes, these
changes are also displayed in the combined document as tracked changes. Each reviewer
is identiied in the combined document as well.
To combine two or more documents into a single document, follow these steps:
Open a blank document in Word. (You can also start with the original document
or one of the revised documents open.)
On the Review tab, click Compare, and then click Combine.
In the Combine Documents dialog box, shown below, select the original document. (It might be selected already.)
Comparing and combining documents
Select the revised document you want to combine with the original document.
You can combine only one document at a time with the original document. To
combine additional documents, you need to repeat this procedure.
In the Comparison Settings area (click More if this area is not displayed), clear
the check boxes for any settings that you don’t need to account for. For example,
clear Headers And Footers if that aspect of the document is not signiicant to the
combined result.
In the Show Changes At area, choose the option to show changes at the character
level or the word level.
In the Show Changes In area, choose an option for where Word will show changes:
in the original document, the revised document, or a new document.
When you click OK in the Combine Documents dialog box, Word is likely to display a
message box telling you that only one set of formatting changes can be stored in the
combined document. You need to choose between the changes in the original document
and the revised document to continue combining the documents.
Word can display the results of combining documents in a set of windows that shows
the combined document in a central pane and the original and revised documents in
smaller panes at the right. To set up this display, point to Show Source Documents on the
Compare menu and then choose Show Both. To facilitate your review of the combined
document, Word also displays the Revisions pane along the left side of the window, as
you can see in Figure 8-7.
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FIGURE 8-7 To review a combined document, you can display the original, revised,
and combined documents in a single view.
If you need to merge another version of the document, choose Combine from the Compare menu again. Select the combined document (Combined Document in Figure 8-7) as
the original document, and then select the next ile you want to combine.
To save the combined result, click Save on the Quick Access Toolbar (or click File, Save)
and then name the combined document. You can then open the combined document
and work through the variations (indicated by revision marks), accepting and rejecting
them as necessary, to achieve a inal document.
When you have the combined document and both source documents displayed
(as in Figure 8-7), you can scroll through the combined document and the
original and revised documents at the same time. Your location in each
document is synchronized, which lets you refer to any of the documents as you
need to.
Coauthoring documents in Word
Coauthoring documents in Word
This section introduces coauthoring, a feature that’s available in several of the Ofice
programs. Coauthoring gives team members the ability to work simultaneously on documents—in other words, more than one team member can be writing or editing the ile
at the same time. This doesn’t mean, however, that team members who are working on a
coauthored document always need to schedule a time to work together. Although these
occasions will occur—and coauthoring sessions might be scheduled—the broader purpose of coauthoring is that team members can work on the document when they need
to. No team member who’s contributing to the document needs to wait for another team
member to save and close the ile before he or she can start working on the ile.
The requirements for coauthoring are that you store the ile on a SharePoint site or on
SkyDrive and that each team member who needs to work on the document uses Word
2010, Word 2013, or Word for Mac 2011. Coauthoring works the same whether the ile is
saved on SharePoint or SkyDrive, but you get additional options for comparing and managing versions of a shared ile by storing it in SharePoint. You’ll learn more details about
working with versions of a coauthored document later in this section.
Word coauthoring basics
In Word, if the document isn’t already in SharePoint or on SkyDrive, start by using the
Save As page in Backstage view to save the document to a shared location. (You can,
of course, also upload the document when you are working in a SharePoint document
library or add it to a SkyDrive folder when you’re signed in and working in SkyDrive.) For
the team site, you can choose a library from the list of recent folders or click Browse to
ind the library you want to use. If you are storing the ile on SkyDrive, you might need to
sign in with your Microsoft account user name and password before Word lists available
As you’ll see in Chapter 9 and Chapter 10, the Share and Export pages in Excel
and PowerPoint, as well as in Word, provide several options that are designed
for sharing iles. For example, the Share page provides commands for sending a
ile as an e-mail attachment and for making an online presentation. In Chapter
9, you’ll see how to apply some of these commands in more detail, and in
Chapter 10, you’ll learn about commands designed speciically for your work in
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Working on shared documents in Word
■ IMPORTANT If your team is using a SharePoint document library as the location for sharing a ile you
want to work on as coauthors, you (or another team member) should not check out the ile before you open
it. You need only to open the ile from Word or from the shared library or folder where it’s stored.
When another team member opens the ile when you are already working in it, you’ll
see a notiication like the one shown in Figure 8-8. The status bar also indicates that the
document is being shared, and you can ind this information on the Info page in Backstage view as well.
FIGURE 8-8 Word displays a notification when a coauthor starts editing a shared document.
When a team member starts editing a section of the document, Word blocks other users
working on the ile from making changes to that section. On your screen, Word brackets
the paragraph and displays a ScreenTip indicating who is working in that section and
telling you the section is blocked. Figure 8-9 shows an example. As you can see, coauthoring is also integrated with Microsoft Lync. By pointing to the coauthor’s name, you
can display a small contact card that tells you about your coauthor’s status and provides
buttons for contacting the coauthor by instant message, a call, or e-mail. You can also
start a video call to share ideas.
FIGURE 8-9 Word blocks a section when a coauthor starts editing it. This helps prevent conflicts.
Coauthoring documents in Word
The section remains blocked until the person editing the section saves the ile. Saving
the ile refreshes the copy that’s stored in SharePoint or on SkyDrive and alerts you and
other users that an updated copy is available. The alert appears on the status bar (where
you’ll see the notiication Updates Available) and on the Info page in Backstage view.
To retrieve the updated copy, you also need to save the ile. Areas where changes were
made are highlighted in green.
Blocking authors
As I mentioned in the last section, Word automatically locks the section of a document a
coauthor is working on. You can also reserve sections to yourself by blocking other authors
manually. By blocking other authors, you can work on portions of a document and then
save changes without freeing the section for use by coauthors. This lets you complete and
preserve the writing or revisions you have underway without running into potential conlicts. (You’ll learn more about resolving conlicts in coauthoring later in the chapter.)
To block authors, follow these steps:
Select the paragraph or paragraphs you want to edit exclusively.
On the Review tab, in the Protect group, click Block Authors.
Word brackets that section and displays an icon to the left of it to indicate that
you blocked other authors from editing this section. Other coauthors will see a
notiication such as shown below. Notice that in this notiication, Word indicates
that the section is blocked until the person editing it unblocks the section.
With the section blocked, make the changes you want. You can save the ile without releasing the sections you reserved.
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When you’re ready to make the section available for others to edit again, click
Block Authors, Release All Of My Block Areas.
Save the ile to refresh the copy on the server so that coauthors can update the
copy they’re working on.
After you release blocked sections and save the ile, other team members working in the
ile are notiied that updates are available. They need to save the ile to refresh their copy
with your updates. When the ile is updated, Word highlights changes you entered so
that others can see them.
Resolving conlicts
Word is quick to recognize when a coauthor starts editing a section of a shared document, and Word then blocks other authors from editing that section to avoid conlicts.
But conlicts will occur when team members share a document. Two people working on
the document can simply start editing the same paragraph at the same time and make
conlicting changes before Word can lock that section. Conlicts can occur as well when
one team member updates a document while working ofline and then saves the document to the server (where the current version contains conlicting changes that were
made by other users online).
If conlicts occur, Word displays a notiication when you save the document, as shown
in Figure 8-10. You then need to work with the Conlicting Changes pane (which lists
conlicts) and the Conlicts tab (which provides commands you use to accept or reject
conlicts) to resolve conlicts before you can save the document to the shared location
Changes in the document are saved on your computer even though the
document contains conlicts, but the changes aren’t saved to the server
until the conlicts are resolved.
Coauthoring documents in Word
FIGURE 8-10 When conflicts occur, Word won’t upload the shared document. You need to resolve
conflicts before you save to the server again.
To resolve conlicts, follow these steps:
Click the notiication in the message bar, and then click Resolve.
In the Conlicting Changes pane, click a conlicting change. Word highlights the
conlicting text in the document.
On the Conlicts tab, click Accept My Change to preserve the change you made,
or click Reject My Change to preserve the conlicting change.
Use the Conlicts tab to add a comment to the ile if you can’t resolve the conlict
without consultation with others.
When all conlicts are resolved, you’ll see the notiication shown below. Click Save
And Close View to update the ile in the shared location.
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Comparing versions
As you’ve seen in this section, when you work on a ile set up for coauthoring, saving the
ile saves your changes to the ile on SharePoint or SkyDrive and updates the ile you are
viewing with changes made by coauthors. If the ile is stored on SharePoint, saving it also
stores the previous version.
You can view previous versions of a ile on SkyDrive, but not when working in Word, as you can for iles stored on SharePoint.
You can view and compare earlier versions of a shared ile by switching to the File tab
and working with the list of versions shown on the Info page. You can also work with
options on the Manage Versions menu, as shown in Figure 8-11.
FIGURE 8-11 When you store a file on SharePoint, you can use this menu and the version list to manage,
compare, and restore versions.
To view a speciic version, double-click a version in the list (for example, version 1.0,
shown in the igure), or one of the interim versions Word saved automatically. Word
opens the version you selected and also displays a notiication indicating that you are
Coauthoring documents in Word
viewing a previous version. In the notiication, click Compare to compare the previous
version with the current version. Changes are shown in a new compared document, with
the original and revised documents displayed in smaller windows, as in Figure 8-7, earlier
in this chapter. You can scroll through the compared document to see changes shown in
revision marks and use the commands in the Changes group on the Review tab to accept
and reject changes. The document Word creates to show the comparison is not tied to
the ile in SharePoint. If you save this document to keep as the current version, you need
to save it to the library again.
The other option Word provides when you view a previous version is Restore. When you
click this option in the notiication, Word makes the previous version the current version
in the library.
You can use the Manage Versions menu on the Info page to compare the current document with the last major version published to the library or with the last version saved
to the library. You can also use this menu to refresh the version list and to recover any
versions of the document that have not yet been saved.
See Also To learn more about managing versions in SharePoint, including publishing
major versions of a document, see Chapter 3.
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Collaborating in Excel
A GL ANCE AT the categories of Microsoft Excel templates listed on
Making use of ile formats and
the New page in Backstage view or available on shows
Distributing and merging
multiple workbooks
gets, calendars and schedules, lists, reports, and timesheets are just a
Sharing workbooks on a
Sharing Excel iles on SkyDrive
or SharePoint
you the assortment of information that can be managed in Excel—bud-
few examples. And as you’ll see in this chapter, when teams use Excel
in collaborative scenarios, team members can work independently and
together in a variety of ways, from distributing all or a portion of a workbook as an e-mail attachment to sharing a workbook so that more than
one person can work on the ile at the same time.
Most teams will use a mix of the collaborative features in Excel to
set up, review, and maintain data. Which techniques a team uses
depends in part on the type of information stored in the workbook, as well as on requirements and processes that your team or
organization needs to follow. Here are some situations and questions that can serve as a guide:
Does the workbook contain proprietary information such
as your proit margin, markup, or tax calculations? If you
answer yes to this question, you probably want to restrict
who can see formulas and other assumptions that underlie
the information in the workbook. In this case, you might not
want to distribute or share the workbook itself, but distribute
a snapshot or static copy of the data it contains.
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Does the workbook contain conidential information, such as salaries or human
resource data? Perhaps a workbook such as this should not be shared at all, but if
it is, changes to the workbook should be tightly managed.
Is everyone on the team responsible for information in a workbook or only one
or two individuals? If only a few team members are responsible for maintaining a
workbook, but the team at large provides feedback on workbook data, you can
distribute separate copies of the workbook and then review and merge changes.
Is the workbook suitable for simultaneous editing? For example, you can share
a workbook that's designed as a status report or task list so that team members
have access to it and can add and update information even when another member
has it open. If you do enable simultaneous editing, you need to decide how to
manage conlicts between changes that users enter, which you'll learn about later
in this chapter.
Does your team's coniguration or its work habits require that a workbook be
accessible on the Internet, outside an organization's domain? If so, you can store
a workbook on SkyDrive. Teams can use the Excel Web App in these situations to
update a workbook as coauthors.
See Also For more information about coauthoring in the Excel Web App, see Chapter 11,
"Working with Ofice Web Apps on SkyDrive."
Making use of ile formats and annotations
One regular aspect of collaboration is simply getting information to other people, who
might be everyday members of your team, colleagues in other departments, company
executives, prospective customers or clients, or business partners. In some cases, the systems you put in place, like a SharePoint team site, aren’t easily accessible to everyone in
these groups, or, perhaps more to the point, you don’t want everyone you involve in the
scope of your activities to participate in that system for reasons of simplicity of process,
limitations on administrative resources, or the need to keep at least some information
more conidential.
Another issue you need to address from time to time is how to provide context, emphasis, and explanations for information and analysis that might be clear to you and other
members of your team but isn’t familiar to people you want to inform and consult with
about decisions you’ve made or about the status of your work. This need can also arise
within a team. For example, perhaps inancial experts or people in other roles who use
Excel frequently need to identify information in a fairly complex spreadsheet so that
other team members can understand what’s relevant to their work.
Distributing Excel iles in other formats
To save Excel iles in different formats—which you might do when you distribute the iles
for review or informational purposes—you can use options on the Export page on the
File tab. Figure 9-1 shows the Export page with the Create PDF/XPS Document option
FIGURE 9-1 To distribute a workbook to others, you can create a PDF file or change the file type, including to earlier versions of Excel.
See Also You’ll learn more about the Browser View Options command later in this
chapter, in the section “Sharing Excel iles on SkyDrive or SharePoint.”
Creating a PDF/XPS document
When you want to provide information to others but don’t want to attach the Excel ile
itself, you can create a PDF or XPS document. (If you aren’t familiar with XPS, it is a portable document format designed by Microsoft that lets you view a ile in a web browser
or an XPS viewer.) Files you distribute in either of these formats show the workbook’s
data (and retain formatting applied in Excel), but recipients can’t see how the workbook
was put together by viewing formulas, data validation ranges, or conditional formatting
rules, for example. The information in the ile is not easily editable, and any changes that
can be made aren’t made to the workbook itself.
You also gain access to publishing options when you use the Create PDF/XPS Document
command, as you can see in Figure 9-2. Click Options in the Publish As PDF Or XPS dialog
box to specify a page range or whether to create a ile of the entire workbook, the active
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sheet, or a portion of a worksheet that you’ve selected. The Selection option might be
particularly helpful when you are in the middle of compiling a spreadsheet but want
feedback from someone else on a particular portion. Select the rows and columns you
want the other team member to review, create a PDF or XPS ile that shows just that
selection, and then attach that ile to an instant message in Lync.
If you don’t want to include document properties (such as the workbook’s author), clear the Document Properties option. Keep the Document Structure Tags For Accessibility option selected if you want to
include tags used by screen readers and other technologies designed for
accessibility. The PDF/A format is designed for archiving electronic iles.
Select the check box under PDF Options if you are creating a ile you
want to maintain in an archive.
FIGURE 9-2 When you create a PDF or XPS version of a workbook, you can specify a page range and also
choose to publish the full workbook, the active sheet, or a cell range you’ve selected.
If you want to view the PDF or XPS ile when you save it, select the Open
File After Publishing option in the Publish As PDF Or XPS dialog box.
Saving iles in different formats
Within your team (especially if you all work for the same company), it’s likely that you all
use the same version of Microsoft Ofice. If that’s not the case, or when you need to send
a workbook to a partner or another person outside your team, you can save the ile in a
different workbook ile type (the Excel 97-2003 Workbook format, for example) or one of
several other formats, included as a text ile, as you can see in Figure 9-3.
FIGURE 9-3 Convert a workbook to a different file type to share it with people who don’t use Excel, use
an earlier version of the program, or need to import Excel data into a database.
One example of a ile type you can choose is the OpenDocument Spreadsheet format,
which saves the workbook in an XML-based format that’s readable by programs that
aren’t Ofice programs. A tab-delimited text ile or comma-separated value ile (not
shown in Figure 9-3) are often compatible formats when data in Excel needs to be imported into a database such as Microsoft Access or Microsoft SQL Server.
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Chapter 6, “Working together in Lync,” describes how you can share a program
(or your whole desktop) during a conference call or online meeting so that participants can review and update a ile as they meet. You can also share information in Lync directly from Excel by using the Present Online command on the
Share page.
To share the current workbook in Lync, click Present Online, and then click Share.
(If you aren’t signed in to Lync, you’re prompted to do so at this point.) In the
Share Workbook Window, shown in the following screen shot, you can choose a
meeting that’s already scheduled (including one you’re already attending) or initiate a new meeting. Invite team members to join you, and then start a conversation via instant message, a Lync call, or a video conference. If you’re the one who
shares the workbook, Lync notiies you that you are presenting. Participants you
invite to the meeting can accept the sharing request and then see the shared ile
on their computers.
See Also For more details about sharing programs, see the section “Collaboration tools” in Chapter 6.
You can also share a workbook as an attachment to an instant message you send
in Lync. When you are signed in to Lync, the Send By Instant Message command
appears on the File tab’s Share page. Click this command, address the instant
message, replace the default subject line (which is initially simply the name of the
workbook), type a message, and then click Send IM.
The Share group on the Review tab in Excel includes similar commands (assuming that Lync is installed). Use Share Now to invite Lync contacts to an online
conference that features the open worksheet. Click Send By IM to attach the
workbook to an instant message session. Lync must be running for you to use
these commands.
Sending an Excel ile in e-mail
You can distribute a workbook via e-mail by using the Email command on the File tab’s
Share page. Click Send As Attachment to open a Microsoft Outlook message item with
the current workbook added as a ile attachment. Address the e-mail message, provide
some context in the message’s body, and send it.
Taking this step poses no special issues if the recipients of the workbook know about
the data it contains and you aren’t concerned that the ile you attached is editable and
that people viewing it can see not only the data but also any formulas used for analysis
or calculations. If you want to convert the workbook to a less revealing format before
you send your message, choose Send As PDF or Send As XPS. Choosing either of these
commands opens an Outlook message item with the current workbook attached in the
format you select. As you saw earlier in this chapter, you can also use the Create PDF/XPS
Document command on the Export page to convert a workbook to one of these formats.
Save a copy of the workbook as a PDF or XPS ile, instead of sending it directly as an attachment, when you want the option to save a selected cell range, for example, or only
the active worksheet.
Annotating and reviewing worksheets by using comments
On complex worksheets and on any worksheet to highlight speciic information, you
can use comments to identify the data that a certain cell requires, provide context, and
explain assumptions.
Comments are also useful when team members are reviewing a workbook. Comments
allow a reviewer to ask questions and suggest changes without affecting the structure of
the worksheet or changing the data.
A comment in Excel is attached to a particular cell. A small triangle at the top-right corner of a cell indicates the cell contains a comment. Nothing prevents you from associating a comment with a range of cells, but even if a range of cells is selected when you add
a comment, the indicator appears only in the cell that is at the top left of the range.
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You’ll ind the Comments group on the Review tab. Select a cell and then use the New
Comment button to insert a comment. (The name of the New Comment button changes
to Edit Comment when a commented cell is selected.) The other commands in the group
let you delete a comment that’s no longer needed, navigate from comment to comment
(Previous and Next), and control whether comments are displayed. Click Show All Comments to display the full set of comments in a worksheet. Use the Show/Hide button to
display or hide a comment in the selected cell. Use the Show Ink button to show or hide
comments written with a pen device.
When you point to a commented cell, Excel shows a ScreenTip that identiies who made
the comment and displays the text of the comment itself. A simple example is shown in
Figure 9-4.
FIGURE 9-4 Reviewers of a worksheet can use comments to raise questions or suggest changes.
Comments can also be used to provide context and directions to people who use a workbook.
All comments won’t have equal importance, and that’s where you can make use of
simple comment formatting. (You aren’t limited to simple formatting in a comment, as
you’ll see next.) To draw attention to a comment, you can use a different font or font
color, for example. Here are the steps you follow to change the standard font formatting
in a comment:
Right-click a commented cell, and then click Edit Comment. (Or select the cell,
and then click Edit Comment on the ribbon).
In the comment container, select the text you want to format.
Right-click the comment container, and then click Format Comment, which displays the Format Comment dialog box, shown here:
Use the controls on the dialog box’s Font tab to change fonts, apply bold or italic (or
a combination), change the font size or color, and apply other formatting effects.
When a comment is open and available for editing, you can also
select text in the comment and apply formatting by using the formatting controls on the Home tab.
Applying a variety of font properties is not where comment formatting leaves off. To
open an expanded version of the Format Comment dialog box, right-click a commented
cell, choose Edit Comment, right-click on the border of the comment container, and then
choose Format Comment. The Format Comment dialog box now includes eight tabs. The
Colors And Lines tab is active in Figure 9-5.
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FIGURE 9-5 For comments that need a variety of formatting for emphasis or effect, you can apply
colored lines, change margins, and adjust the size of the ScreenTip, among other formatting changes.
Explore the tabs in this version of the dialog box to see the range of formatting you can
apply. Here’s a list of what you can do in addition to changing the font properties of a
Alignment tab Set the horizontal and vertical alignment of the text (Left, Center,
Right, Top, Bottom, Justify, and Distribute are the options), change the orientation
of the text, and change the text direction.
Colors And Lines tab Apply a different background color to a comment container, add ills, and change properties of the comment container’s lines.
Size tab Set the height and width of a comment container. Use the Scale area on
this tab to change the relative proportions of the container’s height and width.
(You can also change the size of a comment by dragging the handles on the comment’s border.)
Protection tab If you have applied protection to a worksheet, use the Protection tab to lock the comment container and the comment text. For details about
protecting worksheets in Excel, see Chapter 3, “Managing access and preserving
Properties tab Use the options on the Properties tab to control whether a
comment container changes size or position when you move or resize the cell it is
associated with.
Distributing and merging multiple workbooks
Margins tab If you don’t want to use the default margins set for a comment
container, clear the Automatic option on this tab and then specify the margins you
want to use.
Alt Text tab Alt (for alternative) text is used by web browsers in lieu of a missing
image and for user assistance and by search engines to locate a webpage. You can
consider changing the default alt text (the text of the comment and the name of
the person who inserted the comment) if you are planning to post a worksheet on
the web.
Distributing and merging multiple workbooks
As I mentioned at the start of the chapter, how a team works together in Excel is inluenced in part by the degree to which the information in Excel needs to be controlled.
Controlling information means, among other things, determining who can make changes
to a shared worksheet: a single team member, a handful of team members, or all team
members. You can control through permissions who has access to a SharePoint document library and what operations individuals and groups can perform on a ile. That’s a
very workable approach in many cases—and you’ll learn more about sharing a workbook
on SharePoint and on the web later in this chapter.
See Also For more information about managing permissions in SharePoint, see
Chapter 2, “Building a SharePoint team site.”
But there’s another scenario that comes into play. How do you manage a workbook that
needs input from multiple people (team members and others) when for reasons of control you don’t want to post the ile to a location that’s generally accessible—when, in this
instance, you don’t want the group to work in a single ile? One solution is to distribute
copies, collect them, and merge them.
To implement this solution, you irst need to set up the workbook to be shared. Here are
the steps:
Open the workbook. (For a new workbook, save the workbook before continuing
with these steps.)
Click the Review tab, and then click Share Workbook.
On the Editing tab of the Share Workbook dialog box, select the option to allow
changes by more than one user, and then click OK.
When you are prompted to save the workbook, click OK to continue.
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You can now distribute this workbook, by e-mail or by other means, to the individuals
you want feedback from. Instruct the users to update the workbook and then save and
return it to you. Store these copies in the location that contains the shared workbook,
and be sure to use a unique ile name for each so that you don’t unintentionally overwrite changes from anyone.
The command you use to compare and merge workbooks isn’t on the ribbon by default.
You can add it to a custom group you create on the ribbon or to the Quick Access Toolbar. To add the command to the Quick Access Toolbar in Excel, follow these steps:
Click the arrow to the right of the Quick Access Toolbar, and then click More
On the Quick Access Toolbar page of the Excel Options dialog box, from the
Choose Commands From list, select Commands Not In The Ribbon.
Scroll down the list to locate the Compare And Merge Workbooks command.
Select it and click Add.
Click OK to close the Excel Options dialog box.
Now, to review the changes in the workbooks, follow these steps:
Open the copy you want to maintain as the master copy.
On the ribbon or the Quick Access Toolbar, click Merge And Compare
Click OK in the message that prompts you to save the workbook.
In the Select Files To Merge Into Current Workbook dialog box, select one or more
of the copies of the workbook you want to review, and then click OK. (To select
multiple copies of the workbook, press Ctrl or Shift and then select the iles.)
After you click OK to close the Select Files To Merge Into Current Workbook
dialog box, Excel highlights each of the cells in the master copy that contains a
change. (If changed cells aren’t highlighted, click Track Changes on the Review
tab and then choose Highlight Changes. Clear the When option—so that it is set
to All—and then click OK.) Point to a cell to display a comment container that
shows the revision.
In the Changes group on the Review tab, click Track Changes and then select
Accept/Reject Changes.
In the Select Changes To Accept Or Reject dialog box, shown below, select the
option from the Who list for the changes you want to review. You can choose a
speciic person, Everyone, or Everyone But Me, for example. Click OK.
Sharing workbooks on a network
Use the Accept Or Reject Changes dialog box to move through the worksheet and
accept or reject changes. The dialog box shows you who made a change and what
change was made, as you can see here.
Repeat steps 2 through 6 to merge other copies of the workbook. Once you have incorporated the changes into the master copy of the workbook, you can return to the Review
tab, select Share Workbook again, and then clear the option to allow changes by more
than one person.
Sharing workbooks on a network
Some of the workbooks your team uses will best be maintained if they are shared so that
each team member who needs to add or edit data in the ile uses the same copy. You can
use your team site to manage this process, but when one person opens the ile from the
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library where it’s stored, the ile is locked and not available to someone else who wants
to use it at the same time. Often, you want this degree of control because letting more
than one user edit a ile at the same time can introduce conlicts. In Excel, conlicts occur
if more than one user updates the same cell or group of cells.
Another approach is to share the ile on a network location (not on SharePoint), which
can make the ile available for simultaneous editing. Even though conlicts can occur,
making a ile available for simultaneous editing provides a distinct advantage—no one
needs to wait to update the ile—and Excel offers options for managing conlicts when
you need to.
To implement this sharing arrangement, you need to share the workbook in Excel,
specify options for how to manage changes and conlicts, and store the workbook in
a network location that’s available to the members of your team (you can’t keep this
workbook on your SharePoint site). With the workbook stored in an accessible network
location, team members can open and edit the workbook as they do with any local copy
of an Excel ile.
Figure 9-6 shows the Advanced tab of the Share Workbook dialog box and the options
that let you manage changes to a shared workbook. You’ll learn the details of these options in the procedure that follows.
FIGURE 9-6 One important option you set for a shared workbook is how to manage conflicts that multiple users can introduce. By default, Excel asks you which changes should “win.”
To set up a shared workbook, follow these steps:
With the workbook open, click Share Workbook on the Review tab.
Sharing workbooks on a network
In the Share Workbook dialog box, select the option Allow Changes By More
Than One User At The Same Time.
Switch to the Advanced tab, and then set the following options:
Track Changes Specify the time period (30 days is the default) for saving the
change history—a record of who made changes to the workbook and the data
that was changed. If you don’t want to keep this history, select that option.
Update Changes Choose when you want Excel to save changes. The default
setting is When File Is Saved, but for a iner degree of control, select Automatically Every and set the time period (if you want to change the default period of
15 minutes). If you choose to update changes automatically, two other options
are enabled. By default, when Excel updates changes at the time interval you
specify, changes you make are saved, and you see changes made by others. The
other option is to just see the changes other users have made.
Conlicting Changes Between Users If updates to a shared workbook result
in a conlict, Excel by default prompts you to review those changes to determine which should be incorporated. (You’ll learn more about how to resolve
conlicts shortly.) Instead of this option, you can choose The Changes Being
Saved Win. With this option selected, you won’t need to administer conlicts in
data, but you have less control over which changes are incorporated.
Include In Personal View With these options selected (they are selected by
default), you see print area settings and settings for ilters that other users have
applied when you open the shared workbook.
Some features are restricted or limited in shared workbooks. For example, you
cannot create a table, delete a worksheet, or merge or split merged cells in a
shared workbook. You can, however, insert rows and columns. In Excel Help,
search for the topic “Features a shared workbook doesn’t support” to ind
a table that lists the features that aren’t available in a shared workbook and
related features that are. If you plan to share complex workbooks, review the
limitations outlined in this table.
You can see a list of users who have a shared workbook open by clicking
Shared Workbook on the Review tab and selecting the Editing tab.
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Protecting a shared workbook
You learned about protecting workbooks and worksheets in Chapter 3, and shared
workbooks often need protection as well, especially if you need to maintain a record of
changes to the workbook’s data. To protect a workbook that you’ve shared, click Protect
Shared Workbook on the Review tab. In the dialog box that Excel displays, select Sharing With Track Changes. This protects change tracking, but someone with access to the
workbook can turn off protection.
You can add an extra level of security by specifying a password that someone sharing
the workbook must provide to remove protection, but you can do this only for a workbook that you haven’t already shared. Open the workbook, and click Protect And Share
Workbook on the Review tab. In this version of the Protect Shared Workbook dialog box,
the Password text box is enabled when you select Sharing With Track Changes. Type a
password to add the extra level of protection to change tracking.
Keep in mind that when someone enters the password required to remove protection
from the shared workbook, that step not only removes protection but also turns off
If you have already shared the workbook, click Share Workbook, and
then clear the sharing option on the Editing tab of the Share Workbook
dialog box.
Tracking changes in a workbook
Tracking changes in Excel works only for workbooks that are shared using the steps
outlined earlier in this section. (If you have not shared the workbook before you choose
the Track Changes, Highlight Changes command on the Review tab, selecting the Track
Changes While Editing option shares the workbook.) Excel keeps a history of changes to
a shared workbook, which can show you the following information:
Who made the change
What type of change was made
When the change was made
What cells were affected
What data was added or deleted
Sharing workbooks on a network
By default, Excel uses a different color to highlight changes by each user of a shared
workbook. You can view details about a change in a comment container that Excel associates with the updated cell. As you'll learn in the section "Viewing change history," you
can also direct Excel to compile the history of changes on a separate worksheet. You can
print this list or save it in its own workbook.
You can adjust settings in the Highlight Changes dialog box, shown in Figure 9-7, to view
changes according to when, who, and where.
In the When list, choose All or choose an option to see changes since a speciic
date, only the changes you haven’t yet reviewed, or only changes made since you
last saved the workbook.
Under Who, choose Everyone, Everyone But Me, or a speciic user.
For Where, you can select a cell range you want to review.
The Highlight Changes On Screen option is selected by default. Select List Changes
On A New Sheet if you want to document changes on a separate worksheet.
FIGURE 9-7 When you want to review changes on the screen, apply selections from the When, Who, and
Where lists to specify which changes you want Excel to display.
When the team member responsible for the data in the workbook is ready to accept or
reject changes, click Track Changes on the Review tab and select Accept/Reject Changes.
In the dialog box that Excel provides, you can set options for who, when, and where (as
described earlier). You can then use the Accept and Reject buttons to move from change
to change, using the change history that Excel displays to determine whether to incorporate a change or not.
Resolving conlicts
When you share a workbook so that more than one person can work on it simultaneously, you create the possibility of a conlict. Conlicts can occur when two people working in
the workbook try to save changes that affect the same cell.
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As mentioned earlier, on the Advanced tab of the Share Workbook dialog box, you can set
an option for how to manage conlicts. The default option is Ask Me Which Changes Win.
The alternative is the option The Changes Being Saved Win. With the default option, you
maintain more control over conlicting changes, so when a user saves a workbook that
contains conlicts, Excel displays the Resolve Conlicts dialog box, shown in Figure 9-8.
FIGURE 9-8 Excel displays conflicts in a shared workbook in the Resolve Conflicts dialog box. You can
then review which change you want to preserve.
To manage conlicts, follow these steps:
In the Resolve Conlicts dialog box, read the information about each change and
the conlicting changes made by the other user.
To keep your change or the other user’s change, click Accept Mine or Accept
Other. Excel then moves to the next conlicting change.
To keep all of your remaining changes or all of the other user’s changes,
click Accept All Mine or Accept All Others.
Viewing change history
Another of the advanced options you can set for a shared workbook is how long Excel
maintains a history of the changes that users have made. (The default period is 30 days.)
You can adjust this setting, but increasing it also increases the size of the workbook ile.
To maintain an eficient ile size and preserve changes over a longer period of time, you
can print the change history or save it in a separate ile.
The change history that Excel maintains will prove useful if you need to look back and
determine which cells were changed when (and by whom). Excel can compile the change
history on a separate worksheet in a workbook, and you can print this worksheet (or save
it in its own ile) to maintain the change history as part of your team record.
Sharing workbooks on a network
To work with the history of changes to a shared workbook, follow these steps:
On the Review tab, in the Changes group, click Track Changes, and then click
Highlight Changes.
In the When list, select All, and clear the check boxes for the Who and Where lists
if necessary.
If you just want to see the changes on the screen, keep Highlight
Changes On Screen selected, and then click OK in the Highlight
Changes dialog box.
Select the option List Changes On A New Sheet, and then click OK.
Excel creates a worksheet named History that lists details such as the date and time of a
change, who made the change, the type of change, and in which cell range the change
occurred. As Figure 9-9 shows, you can also see the new and old values and, for conlicts, which change won. If the worksheet had any conlicts, the changes that were kept
show Won in the Action Type column. The Losing Action column shows row numbers
that identify the rows with information about the conlicting changes that were not kept,
including any deleted data.
FIGURE 9-9 When you stop sharing a workbook, Excel erases the change history. To preserve a record of
changes, print the History worksheet or copy it to a separate workbook.
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Clearing the sharing option
Sharing a workbook can often be a temporary measure that teams use to compile and
reine information the workbook’s designed to hold. You might gather input to deine a
project’s preliminary budget or a series of sales forecasts by using a shared workbook.
You can then turn off sharing, have the team leads meet and reine the data, save the
workbook, and then post it to a SharePoint site, where it can be maintained as needed.
Here are the steps you follow to stop sharing a workbook:
Click Share Workbook on the Review tab.
On the Editing tab of the Share Workbook dialog box, check which users have the
workbook open.
If you need to remove a user, select that user and then click Remove, but be sure
to read the warning that Excel displays, describing the consequences of this action—any user you remove might lose unsaved work. (Use Lync to call a user you
are about to remove to be sure that you won’t create a problem.)
Clear the option to allow more than one user to make changes.
■ IMPORTANT If you protected the shared workbook, you must irst remove protection before you can
clear the option that shares a workbook. For more information, see “Protecting a shared workbook” earlier
in the chapter.
Sharing Excel iles on SkyDrive or SharePoint
To conclude this chapter, I’ll cover options for sharing Excel iles on a SharePoint site and
on SkyDrive. You can save iles to either SharePoint or SkyDrive from the Save As page
(it’s likely that one or both options are included on the Places list) or by using the Invite
People command on the File tab’s Share page.
See Also For more information about the Invite People command, see Chapter 1,
“Collaboration basics.”
Saving a ile to SkyDrive or SharePoint makes the ile accessible to you and other people
via the Internet or your network and lets you edit the ile in Excel Web App or the Ofice
desktop version of Excel. Storing a workbook on SkyDrive is a solution that virtual teams
can take advantage of. It provides common access to the ile, for example, and no one
person on the team needs to host the ile on an on-premises server. Excel Web App does
not provide the full set of features available in the desktop application, but among the
features it does provide is simultaneous editing of a ile by more than one user.
See Also You’ll learn more details about working on SkyDrive in Chapter 11.
When you select the SkyDrive option on the Save As page, Excel displays a list of current
and recent folders available on that site. Select the folder you want to save the ile to, or
click Browse to view other folders on the site. You’ll see a similar list of recent folders if
you choose the option to store the ile on your team site.
Click New Folder in the Save As dialog box if you want to create a folder
for the purpose of storing the current workbook.
With the ile stored in SkyDrive or SharePoint, you can open it in Excel by selecting it
from the Recent Workbooks list or via the Open dialog box. The ile is also accessible
from your SkyDrive location or the team site itself, of course, where you have the options
to view the ile in your browser, edit the ile in Excel Web App, or open the ile in Excel.
(On SharePoint, not all these options will be available for iles not stored in the most
recent Excel format.)
Excel Web App won’t open iles that you have set up for sharing in the desktop version
of Excel, but teams can use Excel Web App to work together on a ile at the same time
(a feature that Microsoft refers to as coauthoring). Excel Web App indicates the number
of people working on a ile in the lower-right corner of its window, as you can see in
Figure 9-10.
FIGURE 9-10 One way to enable simultaneous editing is to share a workbook
on SkyDrive or SharePoint and edit the file in Excel Web App.
■ IMPORTANT Some features in Excel are not compatible with editing a workbook in the Excel Web App.
Comments and shapes are two examples. The web app notiies you if a workbook contains elements that
aren’t compatible and lets you save a copy for editing.
Setting browser view options
Excel Services is a feature that lets you display all or portions of a workbook in a web
browser. You can, for example, show only selected sheets or other elements of the workbook (such as charts and tables) that users without permission to edit the ile can view in
their browser. (People with edit permission see these elements in their browser as well,
but can take the next step to edit the ile.) You might use this feature to make a chart of
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regional sales or a table that shows revenue by product available to users outside the
team, who you don’t want to set up as members of your team site, for example, and who
don’t need to see the entire workbook. Excel Services also lets you specify cells that are
the only cells that users viewing the ile can edit. By specifying editable cells—which
Excel refers to as parameters—you can have users modify or input data that you need
for further analysis and additional calculations.
To deine which portions of the workbook you want to make available for viewing in the
browser and to designate editable cells, you work with the Browser View Options dialog
box, shown in Figure 9-11. To open this dialog box, select Browser View Options on the
File tab’s Export page, and then click the Browser View Options button.
FIGURE 9-11 Before you publish a workbook to SharePoint or SkyDrive, you can specify which portions
will be visible in the browser for viewing. Use the Parameters tab to make named cells editable.
On the Show tab of the Publish Options dialog box, use the drop-down list to specify
elements of the workbook (one or more worksheets or items such as a table or a chart)
you want to display in the browser. The settings you make here affect only what users
see when they view the workbook in their browsers—when, for example, they open the
ile from SkyDrive in the Excel Web App or choose View In Browser in SharePoint. (The
entire workbook is stored on SkyDrive, for example, and the full workbook is available
when a user chooses Edit In Browser to use the Excel Web App or opens the ile for editing in Excel.)
To make a cell editable, you irst need to assign a name for the cell. (To name a cell,
select it and then click in the cell reference box to the left of the formula bar in Excel.
This box shows cell references such as A5, for example. Type a name for the cell, and
then press Enter. Cell names do have some restrictions. For example, they cannot include
spaces. Search Excel Help for more information about naming cells.) You can then add
that deined name as an item on the Parameters tab in the Browser View Options dialog
When a user views the workbook in a browser, any parameters you’ve deined are listed
along the right side of the window, as shown in Figure 9-12. Users can enter new values
for a parameter and then click Apply to cause calculations or update other data. Portions
of the workbook that are viewable but not deined as a parameter are not editable unless
a user (with adequate permissions) chooses Edit In Excel Web App or Open In Excel.
FIGURE 9-12 Only the cells defined as parameters are editable in this view.
Here the detailed steps for specifying browser view options:
On the Export page, select Browser View Options, and then click the Browser
View Options button.
In the Browser View Options dialog box, on the Show tab, use the drop-down
list to specify whether you want to publish the full workbook, only one or more
selected worksheets (as shown in Figure 9-11), or speciic items (such as tables or
On the Parameters tab, select cells you want to enable for editing in the browser.
Again, you can specify only single cells here and only cells to which you’ve already
assigned a name.
Of course, be careful that you don’t deine parameters in areas of the workbook
that you don’t select on the Show tab.
Click OK in the Browser View Options dialog box, and then save the ile.
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Preparing a
presentation as a
IN THIS CHAPTER , I’ll outline a path that teams can follow to develop
Working with a slide
library 256
a presentation using Microsoft PowerPoint. In the approach I describe,
Coauthoring a
others. You’ll see that PowerPoint easily supports both modes of working.
Adding annotations and
Comparing presentations 269
A few inal steps 271
team members work independently on some tasks and collaboratively on
To facilitate the development of presentations as a team, you can
follow the general steps described next. Of course, a lot of detailed
work creating slide content and deining presentation effects is associated with each stage.
Set up and populate a slide library in SharePoint. The steps
you follow to create a slide library are described in Chapter 2,
“Building a SharePoint team site.” In this chapter, you’ll learn
how to add slides to the library and how to use slides stored
in the library in your presentations. Some of the work required
to build the content of a slide library might take place before
you start creating any particular presentation. For example,
team members might spend time creating slides they know
they want to include in multiple presentations, which the use
of a slide library facilitates. The content of a slide library will
grow over time as well, as presentations are developed and
new slides are added to it.
Designate a speciic team member (a project manager, for
example) who will build the framework of the presentation by selecting the relevant slides from the slide library.
Post the framework ile to your team site or to SkyDrive for
shared access.
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Preparing a presentation as a group
Select the team members who have the most knowledge about the subject matter
of the presentation, as well as the team members who have the greatest range of
PowerPoint skills, and have them work as coauthors to develop the framework into
a complete draft.
Meet as a team (possibly using Microsoft Lync) and review, reine, and annotate
the draft. In Lync, teams can use the annotation tools that Lync provides through
its PowerPoint sharing feature. (See “Sharing a PowerPoint presentation” in Chapter 6, “Working together in Lync,” for more details.) You can also use the comments feature in PowerPoint to annotate slides.
Distribute the ile to key reviewers who don’t have access to the ile in the shared
location. Ask these reviewers to make changes, add suggestions, and return the
ile, and then have the team member with overall responsibility for the presentation use the Compare command in PowerPoint to merge accepted changes into
the master ile.
Inspect the document for any lingering comments or personal information and
mark the ile as inal. Marking the ile as inal creates a read-only copy of the ile
and lets team members know it is ready to be presented.
In the sections that follow, we’ll look at each stage in more detail.
Working with a slide library
As you saw in Chapter 2, one of the elements you can include on a SharePoint team site
is a slide library. A slide library has many of the features of a standard document library
(check in and check out, version management, and so on), but speciic features tailor its
support for slides you want to maintain and use in multiple presentations.
Having a library of standard slides means that team members don’t need to prepare every presentation from scratch or search through e-mail attachments or folders to locate
a presentation that was given last month and contains a slide you need for next week’s
presentation as well. Building presentations through ad hoc searches and the re-creation
of slides is not only an ineffective use of time, but it can introduce inconsistencies into
the information you present. You don’t want slides that contain your team’s mission
statement, for example, or an organizational chart or inancial information to vary or be
inaccurate. You want to present this information uniformly in any presentation you give.
Using a slide library also supports a helpful division of labor. Departments and specialists that manage speciic types of information can take on the responsibility for creating
slides, adding them to the library, and updating them when necessary. And, as you’ll see
Working with a slide library
in the sections that follow, you can select an option so that PowerPoint notiies you when
a new version of a slide in your presentation is available in the library. You don’t need to
search the contents of the library to see whether slides have been updated.
Building the library
You can add slides to a slide library from PowerPoint or when you are working in the
library in SharePoint. PowerPoint provides a default name to slides before you add them
to a library and uses a slide’s title to describe it. Whoever adds slides to a library should
update the default name and description so that the content and purpose of the slide are
clearly identiied for team members who want to include the slides in a presentation.
Adding slides from PowerPoint
In PowerPoint, the option you use to publish slides to a library is on the Share page in
Backstage view. Open the presentation that contains the slides, display the Share page,
and then follow these steps:
In the list of options under Share, click Publish Slides.
Click the Publish Slides button to open the Publish Slides dialog box, shown below.
The ile names and descriptions shown in this screen shot are the default values
that PowerPoint provides. Default ile names appear something like Project
Update_001, and the slide’s title is used as the description.
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In the Publish To box, type the address of the slide library, or click Browse to open
the Select A Slide Library dialog box and select the library.
To rename a slide, click in the File Name column and type the name. To change the
default description, click the entry in the Description column and then update the
text for that ield.
Select the slide or slides you want to add to the library (or click Select All), and
then click Publish.
If you are not signed in to your team site (or the site where the library is located),
you are prompted for your user name and password. After you are connected to
the site, you’ll see a progress bar in the status bar in PowerPoint indicating that the
slides are being published.
Adding slides from the team site
In a slide library, the New Document command is not available on the SharePoint ribbon.
Slide libraries aren’t designed for creating new slides. Instead, you add selected slides or
full presentations to the library by using the Upload command on the menu bar above
the list of slides.
■ IMPORTANT To upload slides to the library, you must be using Internet Explorer 5.5 or later to work
with the SharePoint site.
Follow these steps to upload slides to the library:
In the menu bar above the list of slides, click Upload, and then click Publish
Slides, as shown below:
In the Browse dialog box, open the presentation that contains the slide or slides
you want to upload to the library.
In the Publish Slides dialog box (shown in the previous procedure), use the check
boxes to select the slide or slides you want to add, update the ile names and descriptions for these slides, and then click Publish.
Working with a slide library
You can update the title (ile name) and description for a slide in the library by pointing
to the right of the name, clicking the arrow, and then choosing Edit Properties. The properties dialog box for a slide also shows you the presentation that originally contained
the slide. As the number of slides in the library grows, use the New Folder button on
the library’s Files tab to create folders for related slides, such as folders for departments,
projects, product lines, and the like.
Another way to organize a library with a large number of slides is to create or modify a
view that groups slides. For example, you could create a custom column named Department and then edit the properties of each slide to indicate which department created
and maintains the slide. Add the Department column to a custom view or modify the All
Slides view to include the Department column and choose Department as the group-by
ield. You could also use the Department ield to sort the library.
See Also For details about how to create columns and work with views in a SharePoint
library, see “Creating and modifying views” in Chapter 2.
Reusing library slides
After you and others populate a slide library, you can add slides to a presentation either
from PowerPoint or from the library itself. We’ll irst look at the steps you follow when
you’re working in PowerPoint.
To insert a slide from PowerPoint, open the presentation you want to work with, and
then follow these steps:
On the Home tab, click New Slide, and then click Reuse Slides in the list of
options below the gallery.
PowerPoint displays the Reuse Slides pane at the right side of the window.
In the Reuse Slides pane, click Open A Slide Library, and then select the slide
library in the dialog box that PowerPoint displays.
PowerPoint refreshes the content in the Reuse Slides pane with the slides contained in the library.
You can select a library you used recently from the Insert Slide
From list at the top of the Reuse Slides pane.
In the Reuse Slides pane, shown below, you can use the Search box to ind slides.
PowerPoint searches the text in the body of slides and slide titles and descriptions
for slides that match the text you type. Use the Group By list to organize slides by
date modiied, by presentation, or by editor.
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Before you insert a slide, select Keep Source Formatting if you want to use the
slide’s current formatting. If you don’t select this option, slides take on the theme
and other attributes applied to the current presentation.
If you want to be notiied when an updated version of a slide is available, select
Tell Me When This Slide Changes. You’ll learn more about this option later in
this chapter.
To insert a slide, click its thumbnail image in the Reuse Slides pane, or right-click a
slide, and then click Insert Slide.
The menu that appears when you right-click a thumbnail also contains commands
you can use to apply a theme to all or selected slides or to edit the slide before
you insert it.
Inserting slides from SharePoint
By sorting, grouping, and applying views and by referring to the titles, descriptions, and
other properties of the slides in a library, a team member can essentially build the framework for a presentation from SharePoint. If you want to add slides to a PowerPoint ile
that’s already in progress, open that ile before you begin these steps.
Working with a slide library
■ IMPORTANT To copy slides from the library, you must be using Internet Explorer 5.5 or later to work
with the SharePoint site.
To insert slides into a presentation when you are working in SharePoint, follow these
In the slide library, use the column headings to sort and ilter the list of slides to
help locate the slides you need. To apply a different view to the library, click the
Library tab, and then select the view from the Current View list.
In the list of slides, select the slides you want to insert.
On the library’s menu bar, click Copy Slide To Presentation. You’ll see the Copy
Slides To PowerPoint dialog box, shown below.
In the top section of the dialog box, select the option to add the slides to a new
presentation or to a presentation that is currently open. (If more than one presentation is open, select the presentation from the list.)
At the bottom of the Copy Slides To PowerPoint dialog box, select the options
you want to use: keep the source formatting and whether to be notiied when an
updated version of a slide is available in the library.
In many cases, you will want the slides you’re inserting to use the formatting applied to an open presentation, so don’t select Keep The Source Presentation Format in these cases. Setting the notiication option doesn’t update slides automatically. As you’ll see in the next section, you can choose to ignore an updated slide if
you want to.
Click OK, and the slide or slides are inserted at the end of an open presentation (or
the end of the current section).
For a new presentation, the slides appear in the order in which they’re listed in the
slide library. You can reposition the slides if necessary in PowerPoint.
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Updating slides
Selecting the Tell Me When This Slide Changes option in the Reuse Slides pane or in the
Copy Slides To PowerPoint dialog box creates a link between the slide in the presentation
and the slide library. Choosing this option is especially important for slides that you know
are still being developed by others, for example, and for slides that contain information
that’s likely to be updated frequently—such as sales data or a list of new investors.
When you open a presentation that contains slides with the Tell Me When This Slide
Changes option set, PowerPoint displays the Check For Slide Updates dialog box. At this
point, you can cancel the dialog box and not check for updates, click Disable to no longer check for updates, or click Check to see whether any slides have been updated. If you
click Check, PowerPoint displays either a message box telling you no slides in the presentation have been updated (just click OK to close the message box) or the Conirm Slide
Update dialog box, shown in Figure 10-1. This dialog box lists the slides in your presentation with updated versions in the slide library. You can replace the slide in your presentation with the updated version, append the updated slide to your presentation (and then
examine the new content in the full context of the presentation), or skip the update.
FIGURE 10-1 Keep the slides in your presentation up to date by replacing them with current versions
from the library.
Working with a slide library
In PowerPoint, slides from a slide library are marked with a small refresh
icon in the slide list. Right-click the icon to display a menu with commands that let you check for updates to that slide or all slides in the
presentation or to stop checking for updates.
In PowerPoint (as in other Ofice programs), the Backstage area provides a number of options that can be useful in collaborative projects. You can ind details
about some of these sharing options in Chapter 1, “Collaboration basics.”
In PowerPoint, review the options that appear on the Export, Save As, or Share
page in Backstage view. As you learned in Chapter 9, “Collaborating in Excel,”
these options let you save an Ofice ile as a PDF or an XPS document, for example, attach a ile to distribute it via e-mail, or save a ile in an earlier version of
a program or a different format. (For PowerPoint, you can save presentations as
PNG or JPEG image iles as well as in other PowerPoint formats.)
Among the commands on the Export page are the following:
Create Handouts This command produces a Microsoft Word document with
the slides and any presenter notes. You can edit this ile in Word and distribute
it for reference during a live presentation.
Package Presentation for CD This command creates a version of the presentation that can be viewed on computers that don't have PowerPoint installed,
for example.
Create a Video Use this command to produce a video of the presentation.
The video includes animations and other effects deined for the presentation.
On the Share page, choose Present Online to present a slide show to people
attending a meeting via Lync or to make a presentation by using the free Ofice
presentation service, which lets you broadcast a presentation over the Internet.
The presentation is displayed in a web browser. To connect to the Ofice presentation service, you need to sign in with a Microsoft account. To set up a broadcast in PowerPoint, follow these steps:
1 . On the Share page, select Present Online, choose Ofice Presentation Service
from the list of services, and then click the Present Online button.
2 . When prompted, sign in with a valid Microsoft account.
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3. The Present Online dialog box appears and displays a link to the broadcast, as
you can see in the following screen shot. Send the link via e-mail or an instant
message, or simply copy it to the Clipboard. (If you aren’t signed in to Lync,
the Send In IM option isn’t available.) You can send an invitation to as many as
50 people.
4 . When you’ve notiied your audience, click Start Presentation.
The presentation appears in the web browsers of people who click the link you
send. You don’t automatically get audio capabilities through the Ofice presentation service option, but you can set up a Lync call or converse over regular phone
lines as needed. If you are the presenter of an online slide show, you can use
the Present Online tab in PowerPoint to share meeting notes via OneNote, send
invitation to others (with the same meeting link), and manage the pace of the
slide show.
Coauthoring a presentation
At this point in the process I’ve outlined, one or more team members have assembled
the foundation for an upcoming presentation by inserting relevant slides from the team’s
slide library. The next step is for the team members who are closest to the presentation’s
subject matter (and perhaps someone on the team who’s a skilled PowerPoint user) to
work together to develop and reine the presentation. The team members involved can
collaborate on this work in a number of ways, from sharing the presentation in Lync, to
meeting together, or simply by taking turns editing the ile.
Coauthoring a presentation
Coauthoring in PowerPoint, which lets more than one person work on the ile at the
same time, is another option. To enable coauthoring, you need to store the presentation on a SharePoint site (such as your team site) or in a SkyDrive folder. (Each team
member who wants to contribute to the presentation must be using PowerPoint 2010 or
PowerPoint 2013. You can also coauthor by using the PowerPoint Web App. You’ll learn
more about using Ofice Web Apps in Chapter 11, “Working with Ofice Web Apps on
To save a presentation to a shared location, use options in the Places list on the Save As
page. When you choose SkyDrive, for example, you need to sign in (if you aren’t already),
and then you’ll see a list of folders where you can save the ile.
Team members working on the presentation can open the ile from PowerPoint or from
the shared location (by using the Edit In Microsoft PowerPoint command). When more
than one person is working on the ile, PowerPoint displays a notiication to other users. You can keep track of who is editing a ile by periodically checking the status bar in
PowerPoint or by switching to the Info page in Backstage view, as shown in Figure 10-2.
In addition, in the slide list, PowerPoint displays a small icon below the slide number to
indicate that a team member is editing that slide. Click the icon to see who in particular is
working on it.
FIGURE 10-2 The Info page is one of the places in PowerPoint where you can see which team members
are currently working on a file. Click Send A Message to contact other users via e-mail or with an instant
message in Lync.
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When team members complete their work and save changes (including formatting
changes, inserting or deleting slides, or changing the content of speciic slides), the
shared version of the ile is refreshed. If you still have the ile open, you can review the
changes other team members made and accept those you want to merge into the ile.
Team members can add comments to slides to provide context for
changes and additions they make. Having this context helps the team
member who reviews changes understand other team members’ decisions and preferences. For details about adding comments, see “Adding
annotations and comments” later in this chapter.
Follow these steps to review and merge changes:
Switch to the Info page in Backstage view
Under Document Updates Available, click Save, and then click Save And
You’ll see the following dialog box, which tells you that a coauthor has made
changes, and directs you to the File tab if you want to compare the current presentation with a previous version.
Click OK in the message box.
Notice that the PowerPoint window has changed its coniguration. The File tab remains,
but the standard tabs on the ribbon are replaced by the Merge tab and the Revisions
pane, which are shown in Figure 10-3.
As you can see, the Revisions pane is organized in two tabs, Details and Slides. On the
Details tab, the Slide Changes area lists elements on the current slide (for example, Content Placeholder 4) that contain text or formatting changes. The Presentation Changes
area lists slides that were inserted, deleted, or moved.
Coauthoring a presentation
FIGURE 10-3 Changes made by other authors are accepted by default. Clear the check box next to a
detailed change to reject that revision.
When you click an entry in the Slide Changes area on the Details tab, a small window
opens in the main pane with a list of the changes on that slide. (The changes made to
Content Placeholder 4 are shown in Figure 10-3.) The selected check box beside each
change indicates that the change has been accepted at this point. (You can also see this
in the content and formatting shown on the slide.) Clear the check box beside a change
to reject that change, and you’ll see that the text and formatting of the slide is updated.
You can also use the Accept and Reject buttons in the Resolutions group to manage
Some types of changes, for example changes to slide animations, will be
labeled “non-mergable.” You might see this notiication if you click an
entry in the Details pane for Slide Properties, for example.
You review changes listed under Presentation Changes in a similar manner. When you
click an entry in this list, PowerPoint displays the window describing the change at the
relevant location in the slide list. Clear the check box to reject any changes to the order
of the slides, to reinstate slides that were deleted, or to remove a slide that was inserted.
On the Slides tab on the Revisions pane, you can look over changes by reviewer. For a
slide that contains changes, you’ll see a thumbnail image on this tab. Otherwise, PowerPoint indicates that the selected slide has no changes and directs you to the next slide
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with changes. Point to the thumbnail, and then click the arrow that appears to open a
menu that lets you accept or reject changes made by the selected reviewer.
When you inish reviewing the presentation and have decided which changes to accept
and which to reject, click Close Merge View, and then save the ile.
In the PowerPoint Options dialog box, you can set an option to always
review changes when you work with others on a presentation. Open the
dialog box from the File tab, and then click Save in the list of categories.
Under File Merge Options For Shared Document Management Server
Files, select the Show Detailed Merge Changes When A Merge Occurs
check box.
If the shared presentation is stored on SharePoint (rather than on SkyDrive), you can use
the Manage Versions menu on the Info page in Backstage view to work with versions of
the ile. PowerPoint shows a list of versions that were saved by team members or saved
automatically. Each version is identiied by date and time and indicates whether the version was saved automatically or by an individual.
You can open a previous version by clicking its entry in the list. You’ll see a notiication
below the ribbon stating that you are viewing a previous version and that a newer version is available. Click Restore if at this point you want to view the most recent version on
the server.
Adding annotations and comments
At any step in developing a presentation, team members can make use of comments to
suggest changes to slides, to approve the work that’s been done, and to explain revisions and additions they make to a ile they’re sharing. Comments can be used as well by
people outside the team, who might receive the ile as an e-mail attachment instead of
accessing it through SharePoint or SkyDrive.
To annotate a presentation and manage comments in PowerPoint, start on the Review
tab by clicking New Comment. This opens the Comments pane along the right side of
the PowerPoint window, as shown in Figure 10-4. Type your comment in the text box
that PowerPoint displays.
Comparing presentations
FIGURE 10-4 Annotate a presentation with comments. Click Reply to respond to a comment another
team member made.
As you can see, PowerPoint identiies who adds a comment and how long ago the comment was inserted. Click New in the Comments pane to insert a comment, or click in
the Reply prompt to add to a comment already in the ile. To review the comments in a
presentation, use the Previous and Next buttons in the Comments pane or in the Comments group on the Review tab. You can also remove a comment by clicking Delete on
the Review tab or by clicking the Delete icon in the upper-right corner of a comment in
the Comments pane.
Click the Show Comments button to hide comments temporarily. Click the button again
to display them.
Comparing presentations
With a presentation nearing its inal state, you can post it for review by interested team
members and other colleagues. You might do this in a meeting and use Lync to share
the presentation and have one of the meeting’s presenters annotate the slides with inal
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See Also For details about sharing a presentation in Lync, see “Sharing a PowerPoint
presentation” in Chapter 6.
If some reviewers don’t have access to a shared ile, you can distribute the presentation
to these reviewers, have them mark up the ile with comments and revisions, and then
use the Compare command in PowerPoint to go over the suggested changes, merging
those you want to accept into the master ile.
The steps you take here are similar to those you use to review and merge changes for
a ile that is set up for coauthoring. They are also similar to how you can compare and
merge Excel workbooks (see the “Distributing and merging multiple workbooks” section in Chapter 9 for more details), but in PowerPoint, you can compare only one other
ile at a time. If you want to compare changes from a number of people, you need to go
through each ile separately and each time merge the changes you want to keep into the
master ile.
Comparing versions of a presentation shows you not only changes that a reviewer made
to the text of slides but changes to details such as font color and formatting. Both text
and formatting changes are visible when you compare iles, which gives you a preview of
how the inal slide will look.
Here are the steps you follow to compare two PowerPoint iles:
Open the master copy of the presentation.
On the Review tab, click Compare.
In the Choose File To Merge With Current Presentation dialog box, browse to the
folder where the review copies are stored. Select the copy you want to merge, and
then click Merge. (Remember that you can merge only one version of the presentation at a time.)
At this point, you’ll be working with commands and tools very similar to the tools
on the Merge tab that PowerPoint displays when you review changes made to a
coauthored presentation. (See “Coauthoring a presentation” earlier in this chapter
for details.) The Compare group on the Review tab lets you move from change
to change, accept or reject changes, and show or hide the Revisions pane. The
Revisions pane displays detailed changes to slides as well as changes to the overall
presentation—slides that were deleted, inserted, or moved, for example. In the
coauthoring approach, changes made by other authors are selected (accepted) by
default. When you compare presentations using the Compare command, however,
changes have not been incorporated. You need to accept any changes you want to
Select a check box beside a detailed change to accept it. The change is relected
on the preview of the slide, and you can undo the acceptance of a change simply
by clearing the check box again.
To see how a slide would look with all of a reviewer’s changes incorporated, switch
to the Slides tab on the Revisions pane, and then browse to that slide in the list of
slides. Point to the thumbnail, and then click the arrow to open a menu with commands that let you accept or reject all changes made by a reviewer on this slide.
When you inish reviewing changes, click End Review.
■ IMPORTANT Be sure to go through each change and specify whether to accept or reject it before you
click End Review. Any changes that haven’t been applied are rejected, and changes you accept aren’t fully
merged until you end the review and save the ile.
A few inal steps
After the presentation is complete, you can take the following steps to check for any
issues PowerPoint might ind in the ile and then mark the ile as inal.
Click the File tab, and then display the Info page.
Click Check For Issues, and then click Inspect Document.
The Document Inspector dialog box lists several categories (such as Comments
And Annotations, Document Properties And Personal Information, and Invisible
On-Slide Content) that PowerPoint examines to determine, for example, whether
the ile contains any comments or whether a document property such as Author
is illed in. A stray comment that someone forgot to delete is generally harmless
if only team members are looking at the ile, but you should know whether any
comments remain before you share a ile because the comment probably wasn’t
intended for everyone to read.
Click Inspect in the Document Inspector dialog box. Depending on which categories you selected and what PowerPoint discovers in the ile, you’ll see results such
as the following:
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In the results view, click Remove All for any categories you want to clear.
On the Info page, click Protect Presentation, and then click Mark As Final.
Click OK in the message box, and then you’ll see the following dialog box:
Marking the presentation inal is mostly an informative step. It doesn’t prevent someone
with access to the ile from turning off this setting and making changes. But any team
member who opens the presentation is notiied that ile has been marked as inal and
must remove this setting to make changes to the ile.
You can apply the steps in this section to other types of Ofice documents as well. Inspecting a document is an especially important step for
any ile you distribute outside your organization. For more details, see
Chapter 3, “Managing access and preserving history.”
Working with
Ofice Web Apps
on SkyDrive
COAUTHORING DOCUMENTS, storing iles in a shared repository,
The SkyDrive landscape
Using Mail, People, and Calendar
apps 281
Creating and editing documents
in Ofice Web Apps
sharing calendars, applying permissions, restoring a previous version.
In earlier chapters, you’ve seen examples of how these capabilities and
others like them facilitate the work teams do in Microsoft Ofice. For the
most part, the examples have shown how you work with these features
in the Ofice desktop programs. In this chapter, you’ll cross a boundary
and examine what you can do with Ofice Web Apps—web-based versions of the Ofice programs that render documents in your browser,
where you can view and edit the documents using many of the same
commands and features.
Ofice Web Apps are supported on a number of devices and platforms, including mobile phones and Microsoft SharePoint. The focus of this chapter is how you use the web apps from SkyDrive, the
service that provides cloud storage and, with a Microsoft account,
access to e-mail, calendars, and contacts as well.
Most teams will likely use Ofice Web Apps to complement the
work team members produce using the desktop versions of the
programs. A team member on the road working at a computer
kiosk or at home with a computer without Ofice installed can create an Excel spreadsheet in Excel Web App, set up the column and
row headings, input some of the data, and then share it with team
members via SkyDrive. Team members with access to the ile can
update it in the web app or open it in Excel and add more data and
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charts and perform more advanced analysis. With so many virtual teams operating these
days, and with many workers traveling and performing their jobs from multiple computing devices, tools like Ofice Web Apps can quickly become essential.
Before exploring how you work with Ofice Web Apps, I’ll describe how SkyDrive can
facilitate collaborative work within a team. The material covered here should be of particular interest to people like me, who work independently, often on teams with other selfemployed individuals under contract with a larger business. I don’t have much in the way
of at-home IT infrastructure. For example, I rely on hosted services for SharePoint, don’t
have a company network, and often need to work remotely. Freelance workers will ind
much they can take advantage of in SkyDrive, but SkyDrive’s services are equally geared
toward groups of friends with common activities, small businesses, families, and not-forproit organizations. As you’ll see, Ofice Web Apps have some limitations when compared with the full desktop versions of the programs, but they let people you work with
create iles, share them in variety of ways (including on social media sites), and quickly
gain access to the desktop programs if Ofice is installed on the computer you’re using.
If you’ve worked with Ofice Web Apps before, you might be interested to
learn about updated features in a recent iteration. For example, you can now
open documents with tracked changes in Word Web App. You can’t see the
changes or mark changes, but you can open the documents. You can also insert
comments in iles you open in Word Web App or in PowerPoint Web App.
Coauthoring is now enabled in Word Web App and PowerPoint Web App. The
ability to embed content in a website that you can view in a web app is new in
Word Web App, Excel Web App, and OneNote Web App. You can also now view
ink objects in Word Web App and OneNote Web App.
The SkyDrive landscape
Much of what you read and see in this section is subject to change. For example, I’ve
used SkyDrive on several projects over the past few months to store and transfer iles.
One day recently I signed in and found the SkyDrive user interface almost completely
changed—for the better. This is one reason that a service such as SkyDrive is useful. It’s
improved and enhanced periodically without you needing to install new software or
manage updates. You see the changes the next time you sign in.
The SkyDrive landscape
SkyDrive commands
The majority of the commands you work with in SkyDrive are for managing folders and
iles. This includes standard operations such as renaming, moving and copying, and deleting. Commands for these and related tasks appear on the Manage menu when a ile or
a folder is selected in the Files list, as shown in Figure 11-1. (Many of these commands are
also available when you right-click a ile or a folder.)
FIGURE 11-1 Folders such as Documents, Favorites, Photos, and Shared Documents are provided
by default. Use the Create menu to define folders of your own, which you can keep private or share
with others.
Other commands you use regularly include Create, Open, Upload, and Download. The
Create command leads you to the four Ofice Web Apps (for Word, Excel, PowerPoint,
and OneNote). When a ile is selected, the Open menu provides options for opening the
ile in the web app or in the related Ofice desktop program. Upload and Download let
you transfer iles between SkyDrive and your computer.
See Also To set up SkyDrive to use with a team, you use the Share command to make
documents and folders accessible to others. I’ll cover the details of sharing iles and folders in the next section.
The Embed command creates HTML (inside an iframe tag) that you can copy and paste
to add the content to a webpage or to a blog. You could use the Embed command to
add a PowerPoint slide show to your team blog or to your team’s website.
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In addition to Rename, Delete, and other utility commands, the Manage menu includes
the Properties command. Choose this command if you want to see details about a ile
or a folder. In the Properties pane, you can add a description or click Share to share the
ile or folder. You’ll also see details like the type of folder, when it was added and last
modiied, and the size. When you have a folder open, the Folder Actions menu includes
commands such as Download Folder and Delete Folder.
Sharing documents
In this section, I’ll use an Excel workbook in an example of how you can share a ile from
SkyDrive. You can do this in a couple of ways—using commands in SkyDrive or from the
web app when you have the ile open. In SkyDrive, you don’t have the degree of control
over access to a shared ile as you do in SharePoint, for example. You can assign either
the Can View or Can Edit setting to a ile or a folder. Files inherit the permission you set
for a shared folder, but you can also set permissions for particular iles in a folder that
you’ve shared.
Sharing from SkyDrive
When you share a document from SkyDrive, by default a link to the document is sent via
e-mail to the recipients you specify. You simply need to add the addresses, type a message to provide some context, and then select one or both of the sharing options shown
in Figure 11-2.
FIGURE 11-2 By default in SkyDrive, you share a file with others via e-mail and recipients can edit the file.
The SkyDrive landscape
The option Recipients Can Edit grants direct access to the document (signing in isn’t
required) and lets recipients edit the ile and save changes. Select Require Everyone Who
Accesses This To Sign In to share the ile but require others to sign in with a Microsoft
account to start working with the ile.
The people you share the document with receive the e-mail message and can click the
link to irst view the ile in the related web app’s Reading view. (They’ll need to sign in
if you select that option.) They can edit the ile in the Ofice desktop app (if Ofice is
installed) or edit the ile in the related web app in their browser. Remember that editing
rights are granted by default, so if your intent is to share the document but not let recipients make changes, be sure you clear the Recipients Can Edit option before you send the
message. By clearing this option, you grant rights to view the document only. In this case,
when a recipient opens the ile using the link (or from the Shared folder on the recipient’s SkyDrive), the document opens in the web app’s Reading view. The recipient can’t
open the ile to edit it in the web app. If a recipient opens the ile in the desktop version
of the program (Excel in this example), the ile is opened as read-only.
You have other options for sharing a ile as well. You can post it to a social network such
as Facebook, Twitter, or LinkedIn once you connect your Microsoft account with your account on the social network. In the sharing window shown in Figure 11-2, select the Post
To option, and then click the link Add Services. You’ll then need to sign in and connect
to the service, as shown in Figure 11-3 on the next page. You can use the link provided
to read about what connecting accounts means. Keep in mind that you can remove the
connection later if you want to stop sharing with the social network you chose. To update
that setting, sign in to SkyDrive. Click your account name, and then choose Account Settings. You’ll be required to sign in again before you see the Account Summary page. Click
Permissions in the navigation pane and then click Manage Your Accounts.
The Get A Link option (also shown in Figure 11-2) reveals three choices for sharing a ile:
View Only, View And Edit, and Public. Click Create to generate a link that you can copy
into an e-mail message, for example, and send to people you want to share the ile with,
granting them permission to only view the ile or to view and edit it. Click Shorten if you
want a shorter URL. Click Make Public to create a link that makes the ile available publically. The Public link grants view-only permissions to the ile, but it also allows people to
ind the ile through a search on the Internet.
After you share a ile or a folder, you can adjust the permissions granted by right-clicking
the ile and choosing Properties. In the Properties pane, under Sharing, you’ll see a list
of people who have access to the ile. Use the menu beside a person’s name to switch
between Can View and Can Edit, as shown in Figure 11-4 on the next page.
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FIGURE 11-3 From SkyDrive, you can share files and other information with your contacts in
a social network.
FIGURE 11-4 Manage permissions in the Sharing area of the Properties pane.
The SkyDrive landscape
Sharing a ile from a web app
If you are working on a ile, editing it in one of the web apps, you can also share it. Click
the File tab and then click Share. On the Share page, click Share With People. You’ll then
see the same window as shown in Figure 11-2 in the previous section. Address the e-mail
message, post the ile to a social media site your account is connected to, or click Get A
Link to generate links you can copy to send to others.
Sharing SkyDrive folders
The same options are available for sharing folders. Select the folder in the list under Files
and then click Share, or open the folder and then click Share Folder. You’ll see the sharing
options shown earlier in Figure 11-2. As you can for a ile, you can change the sharing
permissions for a folder in the Properties pane.
Using the SkyDrive Application
Keeping all or the majority of the iles you and other team members use on SkyDrive
means at least one trip to your browser to sign in so that you can upload, download, and
otherwise manage iles. You can also do some of the work of managing iles stored on
SkyDrive from your desktop by installing the SkyDrive app designed for your operating
system or device. The SkyDrive app keeps iles synchronized between your computer and
SkyDrive. In other words, you can open a ile from the SkyDrive folder the app creates on
your computer, update the ile, and then save it. The SkyDrive app will synchronize the
ile to SkyDrive.
When you install the SkyDrive app, iles already stored in your SkyDrive are downloaded
to the SkyDrive folder and synchronized. The SkyDrive app also lets you connect to another computer from the device you’re using. For example, let’s say you’re away from the
ofice, working on your laptop or tablet, and need a ile that’s on your main computer at
the ofice—a ile that isn’t stored on SkyDrive or in another shared location. If your ofice computer is turned on and you’re logged in, you can connect to it via SkyDrive and
retrieve the ile you need.
One limitation of the SkyDrive app is that it doesn’t provide access to iles that another
person has shared with you from his or her SkyDrive. You need to sign in to SkyDrive
with your browser to gain access to those iles.
■ IMPORTANT SkyDrive for Windows, the SkyDrive app discussed in this section, requires Windows 8,
Windows 7, or Windows Vista with Service Pack 2 and the Platform Update for Windows Vista. You can also
use SkyDrive for Windows on recent versions of Windows Server.
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Setting up the SkyDrive app
To install the SkyDrive app, click Get SkyDrive Apps at the bottom of the navigation bar in
SkyDrive. You’ll see links to versions for Windows desktop, Mac, Windows Phone, iPhone
and iPad, and Android. For the Windows desktop version, click Download The App.
Work through security messages to allow the installation. After the application downloads,
click Get Started in the Welcome To SkyDrive window. You’ll then need to sign in with your
Microsoft account. By default, the SkyDrive folder is set up in your user proile at C:\Users\
YourName\SkyDrive. You can direct the app to a different folder by clicking Change on
the page titled Introducing Your SkyDrive Folder. The next page provides the option that
lets you access iles on the current computer from other devices. That option is selected by
default, so clear the check box only if you don’t want to enable this feature. (You can set
up the computer to let you retrieve iles later if you clear the option at this point.)
Once the installation process is complete, you’ll see a SkyDrive icon in the notiication
tray in the Windows task bar and the welcome message shown in Figure 11-5. To open
the folder, right-click the icon in the notiication tray and then click Open Your SkyDrive
Folder. You’ll also see the status of synchronization.
FIGURE 11-5 You can access your local SkyDrive folder by right-clicking the SkyDrive icon in the notifica-
tion tray.
Using Mail, People, and Calendar apps
Connecting remotely from SkyDrive
As mentioned in the previous section, you can connect remotely to another PC from
SkyDrive (provided that the remote computer is turned on and you’re logged on). If you
did not enable remote connections when you set up the SkyDrive app, you can use the
Settings dialog box to enable the feature.
To open the dialog box, right-click the SkyDrive app icon in the notiication tray and then
click Settings. In the Settings dialog box, select the option Make Files On This PC Available To Me On My Other Devices, as shown in Figure 11-6.
FIGURE 11-6 In the Microsoft SkyDrive dialog box, select Make Files On This PC Available To Me On My
Other Devices to gain access to files you need that aren’t stored on SkyDrive.
With remote connections enabled, you’ll see an entry for each of your trusted computers
in the PCs list in SkyDrive. Click a computer to connect to it.
Using Mail, People, and Calendar apps
Beyond storage, ile sharing, synchronization, and access to Ofice Web Apps (which I’ll
cover in detail in the next section), when you sign in to SkyDrive using your Microsoft account, you gain access to three apps that assist group collaboration—a web-based e-mail
client, a contact application, and a calendar. To switch between these tools, point to the
SkyDrive label in the upper-left corner of the window and then choose Mail, People, or
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Microsoft periodically changes the user interface and coniguration for
SkyDrive and its associated services. The descriptions in the following
sections are based on a Microsoft account related to my email address. With other accounts, you might not see the same features.
For example, when I signed in to SkyDrive using an account that’s also
tied to an Ofice 365 subscription, I could not access the Mail app.
You probably won’t come to rely on the Mail app as your only e-mail application. It
doesn’t provide the range of commands in Outlook, for example. But for times when
you need to contact someone and don’t have access to any of your day-to-day PCs, the
Mail app serves the purpose. If you think you’ll use the Mail app regularly, you should
deinitely take steps to add contacts to the People app. You’ll ind that you get more use
from the Mail app that way.
The Mail app comes with a default set of folders that’s displayed along the left side of the
window. Click New to write a message and send it. A list of frequent contacts is displayed
for you to choose from (or you can simply type a name or address), and you can format
text, check spelling, save a draft, set priority, and choose a message format (Rich Text,
Plain Text, or Edit In HTML). To create additional folders, right-click Folders and type the
folder’s name.
The Quick Views area of the navigation pane lets you see messages by category, such
as messages with photos attached, shipping updates, and lagged messages. Click New
Category at the bottom of the list to deine a custom category, which can come in handy
if you create rules to help organize your e-mail messages.
If you’re using the Mail app for work purposes, rules help you manage messages related
to speciic projects or events by applying actions to the messages you receive from speciic senders or messages that contain speciic words in their subject lines. Setting up a
rule involves just a few steps. Start by right-clicking Folders, and then click Manage Rules.
In the next window, you’ll see a list of rules (if any are already deined). To set up a rule,
click New.
In the irst step, you specify criteria to identify the messages a rule applies to. Choose
from a list of options that includes Sender’s Address, Sender’s Name, To or CC Line,
Subject, and Attachments. Next you choose a iltering operator—such as Is, Contains,
Does Not Contain, or Begins With. The operators you can choose from depend on the
item you select in the irst list. Use the third text box in step 1 to deine the value for the
criteria—a sender’s name or text you want the rule to act on in the subject line. The
Create Rule page at this point should resemble Figure 11-7.
Using Mail, People, and Calendar apps
FIGURE 11-7 In step 1 of creating a rule, you specify criteria to identify messages. In step 2, you choose
an action.
In step 2, you deine the action that the rule applies. You can choose from the options
shown in Figure 11-7. For example, you can delete all messages from a speciic sender,
move messages to a folder, forward them, lag them, or add them to a category. Among
the built-in categories are Documents, Groups, and Travel. Although you can’t create
a category when you set up a rule, you can do this on the main Mail page in the Quick
Views area of the navigation pane. Also, you can’t apply more than one action to a rule—
you can’t, for example, add a category and move a message to a different folder.
Without overlooking too many of the features in the People app, which lets you add
contacts from various social media sites and invite contacts to converse using instant
messaging, I’ll highlight what I think teams can beneit from most here. That’s groups. By
creating a group, you can send a single message from the Mail app to all the members of
the group.
In the People app, add a new contact item for each person on your regular team (or
teams) and then follow these steps:
In the menu bar, click Manage, and then click Manage Groups.
On the Manage Groups page, click the plus sign next to Group.
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Type a name for the group, and then click Apply.
Go through your list of contacts and select each person you want to make a member of this group.
On the menu bar, click Groups, select the group you just created, and then click
Above the contact list, click the arrow next to All, and then choose the group.
You’ll see that the list of contacts is iltered to show only group members.
Click Send Email.
You’ll switch to the Mail app with a message addressed to each member of the group.
Clicking Calendar in the group of apps (SkyDrive, Mail, and People being the others)
opens a Hotmail calendar. Use the tabs along the top of the calendar to change views
(Day, Week, Month, Agenda, and To-Do List). Use the commands above the tab to schedule an event, add an item to your to-do list, and to delete calendar entries. You can create a calendar by clicking New, Calendar, and then giving the calendar a name, assigning
a color to identify entries, selecting a charm (an identifying icon), and describing it.
The Subscribe and Share commands will be useful to teams using Calendar to keep track
of meetings, events, deadlines, and the like. The next two sections cover these features in
more detail.
Subscribing to a calendar
Coordinating time among the members of a virtual team can be trickier than for a team
that shares a common domain and especially a common workplace. Creating a project or
team calendar, publishing it online, and then having each team member subscribe to the
calendar maintains a live calendar that each team member can see in its up-to-date form.
Keep in mind, however, that not everyone who subscribes to a calendar can update it. In
other words, ive team members can subscribe to a calendar that a sixth team member
owns and updates. That keeps the ive subscribers current about activities, but it does
make work for the individual in charge of maintaining the calendar.
See Also For information about publishing an Outlook calendar to the Internet so others can subscribe to it, see Chapter 5, “An integrated Outlook.”
Before you can subscribe to a calendar, you need the URL that points to the calendar.
The person who publishes the calendar should have this URL and can send it to you in an
e-mail message.
Using Mail, People, and Calendar apps
Click Subscribe in the Calendar toolbar. On the Import Or Subscribe To Calendar page,
keep Subscribe To A Public Calendar selected, and then paste the URL into the Calendar
URL box. Type a name, choose a color to identify the calendar, and select a charm if you
want to use one. Click Subscribe To Calendar.
You won’t see updates to the calendar instantaneously. The server where the calendar is
hosted will update the ile at some regular interval.
Sharing a calendar
Sharing a calendar with team members can take the burden off having any single team
member be responsible for updating the schedule for meetings, events, milestones, and
tasks. If you work with a shared calendar, you can also provide an e-mail address where
you’ll receive notiications when the calendar is updated.
To share a calendar with other people, follow these steps:
Click Share and then choose the calendar.
Select Share This Calendar.
In the options that appear, the default selection is Share Your Calendar Privately
With Friends And Family. You can also choose Send People A View-Only Link To
Your Calendar or Make Your Calendar Public. Stick with the default selection for
now, but if you choose one of the other options, you need to click Get Your Calendar Links to generate the address where people can ind the calendar. When you
select Make Your Calendar Public, you can also specify whether other people can
view calendar details or just free and busy times.
Click Add People. Type e-mail addresses or names in your list of contacts or use
the check boxes in the contact list to select people.
In the lists under Choose How Much These People See And Do, choose one of the
following options, which start with full privileges and work down to a limited view
of the calendar.
View, edit, and delete items
View details
View free/busy times, titles, and locations
View free/busy times
Use the Who Can See To-Dos list to specify the permission level at which people
can see tasks entered on the calendar's to-do list.
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Click Preview Invitation under the name of someone you’re sharing the calendar
with to see the e-mail message that will accompany the sharing invitation. The following screen shot shows an example:
Click Save, and then click OK in the Sharing Conirmation message box to send the
When recipients receive the message, they need to accept (or decline) the sharing invitation. When recipients accept a sharing invitation, they see a page where they can type a
description for the calendar, specify how often to be notiied about updates to the calendar, and choose whether to receive a daily e-mail message that summarizes the schedule
for the calendar.
As you can see, for team members spread far and wide who need to coordinate time,
travel, and tasks, setting up a simple shared calendar such as this will save hours of time.
Creating and editing documents in
Ofice Web Apps
The four Ofice Web Apps—Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and OneNote—should look familiar,
with the Ofice ribbon above the document window and commands organized in groups
on several tabs. The web apps don’t provide all the commands that the desktop versions
have, but you can perform a broad scope of work, and when necessary open a ile in the
full desktop version (assuming the relevant program is available on the computer you’re
In SkyDrive, use the Create menu to start a new document in the associated web app.
To open a document already on SkyDrive, right-click the ile and then choose to open
the ile in the web app or in the related desktop application. As you saw earlier, you can
share documents directly from a web app (or by using the commands in SkyDrive). The
web apps also support coauthoring, letting more than one person work in the same ile
simultaneously. The coauthoring experience in each of the web apps is different from
coauthoring in the desktop apps and also varies among the web apps. In the following
sections, I’ll describe how to coauthor in the web apps and also briely touch on other
capabilities the web apps have, including the commenting feature in the Word and
PowerPoint Web Apps.
Using Word Web App
When you open a document in Word Web App (and this applies to the web apps for
PowerPoint and Excel as well), the document opens in Reading view. You can’t make
changes to the text in a document in this view, but you can perform some operations.
Across the top of the document is the File tab and, left to right, commands named Edit
Document, Share, Find, and Comments. Use Edit Document to open the document for
editing in either the web app or in Word. Click Share to open the SkyDrive window (see
Figure 11-2 earlier in the chapter) that lets you share the ile, post it for contacts to see,
or generate a link to the ile. Click Find to open a pane along the left side of the window
where you can search for information in the ile. Click Comments to open a pane on the
right where you can read, insert, reply to, and manage comments. Opening a document
in Reading view is really all someone outside the team who’s responsible for reviewing a
document needs to do. He or she can use this view to insert comments and never need
to open the document for editing.
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Editing in Word Web App
To open the document for editing, click Edit Document and then choose Edit In Word or
Edit In Word Web App. If you choose the web app, you’ll see the ribbon appear with ive
tabs: File, Home, Insert, Page Layout, and View. The Home tab has most of the formatting tools included in the desktop version of Word, including options for applying font
and paragraph properties and styles. You can’t create or modify styles in the web app.
The Insert tab has fewer options than in the desktop version of Word. Absent, for example, are commands for several types of illustrations and objects such as text boxes. The
commands that are present let you insert tables, pictures, clip art, and links (to websites,
for example). On the Page Layout tab, you can change margins, page orientation, and
page size and also adjust indentation and line spacing in paragraphs. On the View tab,
you can switch between Editing view and Reading view.
You can manage a document you have open in Word Web App by displaying the File
tab and clicking Save, Save As (to download a copy), Print (to create a printable PDF), or
Share to share the ile (as you saw earlier). On the Info page, you can open the document
in Word or see a previous version.
Although you can coauthor a document in Word Web App and add comments, you don’t
have access to all the collaboration features included in the desktop version of Word. For
example, in Word Web App you can open a document in which Track Changes is turned
on, and changes to the document will be tracked (and visible in Word), but the web app
doesn’t display insertions or deletions (in colors or in other formatting). You can’t turn on
Track Changes in the web app either. Furthermore, if a document’s editing is restricted
(see “Controlling the editing of a document” in Chapter 8, “Working on shared documents in Word,” for details), the web app won’t open the document for editing. Instead,
you’ll see the message shown in Figure 11-8.
In addition, you can’t edit certain types of document objects in the web app. If a document
contains SmartArt or a watermark, for example, you won’t be able to remove or edit those
objects. You need to open the ile in Word before you can work with those elements.
Coauthoring in Word Web App
When more than one person has the ile open for editing in Word Web App, a notiication is displayed in the status bar. Open the notiication to see who’s editing the ile. Like
the desktop version, Word Web App locks a paragraph when a coauthor starts making
changes to it. Point to the icon to the left of the paragraph to see who’s editing it. You
can see a coauthor’s changes after that person saves the ile and you’re notiied that an
update is available. Save the document yourself at that point to see the updated version.
When the updated document is displayed, the changed text is highlighted to indicate
that it was changed, as shown in Figure 11-9.
FIGURE 11-8 When editing restrictions are applied to a document, you can’t open it in Word Web App.
FIGURE 11-9 Check the status bar to see who’s editing a document. Updates made by a coauthor are
highlighted in green.
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During a coauthoring session in the web app, if one of the coauthors opens the document in the full version of Word, the coauthoring session is maintained. If you do open
the document in Word, you can switch back to the browser window and close the web
If conlicts occur during a coauthoring session in the web app, the web app notiies you
and opens a window in which you can choose to keep your changes or the changes of
the coauthor. Select the option for which change to retain, and then click Submit to save
the document.
Taking notes in OneNote Web App
A notebook you create by using OneNote Web App appears as shown in Figure 11-10.
Initially, the notebook contains a single, untitled section, which you can name by rightclicking the label, choosing Rename, and then typing the name. To start taking notes,
type a title for the default page that’s provided and then click in the body of the page. In
the web app, you won’t see a note container as you do in OneNote.
FIGURE 11-10 Use this menu to rename a section, create a new page or section, delete the section, or
choose a background color to apply to the pages in a section.
To add a new page, click the plus sign beside the section name. Right-click a section
name and then choose New Section to add a section to the notebook. You can use this
menu to select a section color as well.
Use the Home tab to work with the Clipboard, format a note, apply a style or a tag, or
check spelling. In the web app, you can’t create or modify tags. (See “Tagging notes” in
Chapter 7, “ Keeping track of discussions and ideas,” for more details.)
On the Insert tab you can add a page or a section to the notebook, insert a table or images, and add links to websites. In the web app, you can still create a table by using the
keyboard (one of the handiest OneNote shortcuts, I think). Type the irst column heading,
press tab, type another column heading, and press enter to create a new row. On the
ribbon, contextual tabs appear when you select objects such as a table or a picture. Use
these tabs to modify the layout, sizing, and other properties of the object.
The View tab provides two notebook views: Editing view and Reading view. When you
switch to Reading view, the Home, Insert, and View tabs are replaced by the Edit Notebook command, the Share command, and the Show Authors command. Use the File tab
or the Edit Notebook command to switch back to Editing view in the web app or open
the notebook in OneNote.
The Show Authors command also appears on the View tab, along with the Page Versions command. Click Show Authors to see which team member added a note. Click
Page Versions to display a list of previous versions of a page under the page’s name in
the navigation bar. Refer to the date and author information to determine which version
you want to see. Select it, and OneNote displays that version in read-only format with
a notiication above the page. Click the notiication to hide versions, restore the version
you selected, or to delete that version.
Coauthoring in OneNote Web App is straightforward. More than one person can open
a notebook in the web app, but you won’t see the type of notiications that you do
in Word Web App, for example. You don’t need to save changes to see a coauthor’s
updates. Changes are saved automatically by the web app, and eventually you’ll see the
changes that other authors made, but you might experience a delay.
Working together in Excel Web App
Team members can work as coauthors on an Excel workbook when they edit the ile in
Excel Web App. You’ll see the same type of notiication that Word Web App displays,
shown earlier in Figure 11-9. In fact, this notiication appears even when only one person
is editing a ile.
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Unlike Word Web App, Excel Web App has no Save button. Edits to a worksheet are saved
automatically, so you’ll see a coauthor’s changes in the copy you have open as soon as a
change is made. The last value saved in a cell is the value that persists in the ile.
A coauthoring session in Excel Web App moves along smoothly until one of the coauthors clicks Open In Excel, which displays the message shown in Figure 11-11. That coauthor is prevented from opening the ile if another team member also has the ile open.
Clicking OK in this message doesn’t send a notiication to other coauthors, which would
be helpful. Coauthors need to close the ile before it can be opened in Excel.
FIGURE 11-11 You can’t open a workbook in Excel if more than one person is editing the file in
Excel Web App.
Excel Web App does not support features that you might otherwise apply to workbooks
you use collaboratively. For example, Excel Web App can’t open a shared workbook or a
workbook whose worksheets are protected. Also, you can’t work with PivotTables in the
web app at the same level of detail as you can in Excel.
The File tab in Excel Web App—as in the other Ofice Web Apps—lets you save a copy
of the ile, download the ile, display a “print friendly view” (something like print preview), and share the ile. You can also view earlier versions of a document via the File tab.
Click File, and then click Previous Versions. You’ll see a window such as the one shown in
Figure 11-12. Click an entry under Older Versions to display it. You can then restore that
version for editing or download that version.
FIGURE 11-12 Office Web Apps give you access to previous versions of a file. Click Restore to make the
selected version the current version on SkyDrive. Click Download to create a copy on your computer.
Building and editing presentations in PowerPoint Web App
Like Word Web App, PowerPoint Web App opens a ile in Reading view, where you can
open the ile to edit it or share the ile, view a slide show, or add or view comments.
Of the four Ofice Web Apps, PowerPoint Web App provides more of the features that
are available in the desktop version. For example, PowerPoint Web App is displayed with
seven standard tabs, including Animations and Transitions.
Coauthoring in PowerPoint Web App has some similarities with the experience in Excel
Web App and some with Word Web App. A notiication reporting that more than one
person is editing the ile is displayed in the status bar. Like Excel Web App, PowerPoint
Web App has no Save button, so changes are saved automatically, and your view of the
presentation is refreshed periodically. But as in Word Web App, you can use the desktop
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version of PowerPoint to open a presentation that you’re coauthoring in the web app
and continue editing the ile.
If you have the ile open in the desktop version of PowerPoint, you receive notiications
when another author changes the ile, even when that author is working in the web app.
You can then click Updates Available to see the current version from SkyDrive. Coauthors
working in PowerPoint Web App don’t receive such notiications.
You can view a slide show in the web app, or switch back to Reading view to scroll
through the slides and add comments. The process for developing a group presentation
outlined in Chapter 10, “Preparing a presentation as a group,” includes a stage in which
outside reviewers are provided with the ile, and they can then suggest changes and annotate the presentation with comments. For this stage, instead of sending a presentation
via e-mail, which can be problematic for especially large iles, post the presentation on
SkyDrive, share it with outside reviewers with the Can View setting, and let the reviewers
watch and annotate the ile in PowerPoint Web App using only Reading view.
You also have more editing capabilities for graphical objects in PowerPoint Web App
than you do in Word Web App, for example. You can modify the text in a SmartArt
diagram, or switch to a different SmartArt layout entirely. You can change ills and colors
as well. You also get access to context tabs such as the Drawing Tools tab, which lets
you work with drawing objects and shapes. You can change shape ill and outline, move
shapes forward and back in order, and rotate shapes. The level of functionality available
lets you complete nearly all the work required to prepare a inished presentation.
blocking, 224–226
limits on, workbook, 245, 292
managing, introduction to, 63–64
and password protection, 64, 67–68, 118, 246
See also sharing iles
Add Lists, Libraries, And Other Apps tile, 22
Advanced Search page, 59–60
Agenda list, 37
setting up, 41–43
for task list changes, 33
Alignment tab, for comments, 240
All Day Event ield, 35
All Mark view, 216
All Of These Words ield, 60
Alt Text tab, for comments, 241
Always Ask Where To Send option, 178
Animations tab, 99
adding to coauthored presentation, 268–269
deleting, 159
Lync tools, 256
in worksheets, 232, 237–241
See also comments, notes, tags
Any Of These Words ield, 60
Appear Away status, 148
apps. See Ofice Web Apps
archives, for messages, 124
Arrange command, 181
Asset Library, 29
Assigned To ield, 31
Attendees list , 37
audio recordings, adding to OneNote, 182–183
author initials, hiding, 193
authority, 4
blocking, 224–226
inding notes by, 193
See also coauthoring
AutoText entry, in Quick Parts, 115
Availability Only option, 134–135
Available status, 148
background, setting for template, 102
Backstage view, PowerPoint, 263
backup notebooks, 202
Balloons option, 216
Basic Meeting Workspace template, 37
Be Right Back status, 148
Blank Meeting Workspace template, 37
blocking authors, 224–226
brainstorming sessions, pros and cons, 8–9
browser view options, 251–252
building blocks, 113–115
control, 117
in templates, 106–107
Busy status, 148
managing, 136–137
permissions, 136–137
publishing online, 139–141
sending by e-mail, 134–136
sharing, 124, 138–139
subscribing to, 284–285
Calendar app, 284–286
Category ield, 35, 114
cells, making editable, 71–72, 252–253
change history. See editing, history, tracked
changes, versioning
Changed Lines list, 214
character styles, 111
check box control, 117
Check Permissions, 25
coauthoring, 43
in Excel Web App, 291–293
and marking edits as read or unread, 191
presentation, 264–268
resolving conlicts with, 226–227
in Word, 204, 223–229
in Word Web app, 288–290
See also collaborating, comments, sharing iles,
tracked changes, versioning
and Backstage view, 263–264
on document, 13–14, 18
collaborating, tools for
comments and revision marks, 210–217
in Lync, 157–163
in Ofice, 14–18
in Word, introduction, 203–204
See also coauthoring, comments,
communication, sharing iles, tracked
changes, versioning
colleagues privacy relationship, 145–146
color, setting for template, 101
Color list, 214
Colors And Lines tab, for comments, 240
columns, 184–185
creating, 48
as properties, 80–81
Combine command, 220–222
combo box control, 117
comments, 207, 210–212
in coauthored presentation, 268–269
in Excel worksheets, 237–241
formatting, 238–241
showing or hiding, 216
focusing on situation vs. person, 6
open, 5
and sharing, with Lync, 17
within virtual teams, 12
Company Conidential template, 65
Compare command, 218–220
competition, and performance, 10–11
conditional formatting, 90–92
conference calls, 146. See also online meetings,
video conference
conidential information
protecting. See documents, protecting
in workbook, 231
conlict resolution
during coauthoring, 226–227
in Excel, 247–248
interpersonal, 5
Conlicting Changes Between Users option, 245
Conlicts tab, 226–227
Connect & Export group, 43–44
connection, remote, from SkyDrive, 281
contact items, 130–131
creating group in Lync, 145
See also People app
adding controls, 116–118
adding to notebook, 174–185
approval, and versioning, 73–75
controlling, in templates, 107
managing, 16–17
content, 107, 116–118
on document editing, 204–209
See also Editing Restrictions area, password
protections, permissions
conversation history, 152–153
Conversations scope, 58–59
Create a Video command, 263
Create Both Handwriting and Drawings
option, 182
Create Drawings Only option, 182
Create Handouts command, 263
Create Handwriting Only option, 182
custom layout, 104–105
Custom option, in Data Validation, 95
Custom tab, setting properties, 79
data, using tables to manage, 88–90
Data Connection Library, 30
data validation, adding to template, 94–97
date picker control, 117
Decision Meeting Workspace template, 37
Decisions list, 37
Delete command, 181
Delete Selected Annotations tool, 159
deletions, specifying formatting for, 214
Description ield, 31, 35, 114
desktop, sharing, 157–158
Developer tab, 116–117
devil’s advocate, role for, 7–8
discussion boards
SharePoint team site, 33–34
managing from Outlook, 128
Disposition Approval worklow, 49
dissent, constructive, 6–8
Do Not Disturb status, 148
annotating, 210–212
approval, with worklow, 49–51
checking in and out, 39–41
coauthoring, 223–229
collaborative, 13–14, 18. See also coauthoring
comparing and combining, 218–222
creating and uploading, 39
editing, control of, 204–209
heavily revised, 215–217
options for sharing and exporting, 223
protecting, 64–72
reviewing, 215
sharing, 161–162. See also sharing iles
working with properties, 77–83
See also ile(s), notebook(s), presentation(s),
Document Inspector, 68–69
document library. See library(ies)
Document Panel, viewing, 82
document properties, 77–83, 115–116
document references in templates, 106
draft items, publishing, 75–76
See also versioning
drawings, adding to OneNote, 178–181
drawing tools, 180–181
“drive theory,” 10
drop-down list control, 117
Edit group, 181
Edit Ofline, 126–127
document, 204–209
home page, 22
marking as read or unread, 191
in OneNote, 185
presentations in PowerPoint Web App, 293–294
restricted. See permissions
simultaneous, on networks, 244–245
viewing recent, 192–193
in Word Web App, 287–288
See also comments, tracked changes
Editing Restrictions area, 207–209
elements. See template elements
adding to OneNote, 130–131
sending calendar by, 134–136
sending Excel ile, 237
See also instant messages, Mail app
eraser tool, 159
adding, 35–36
scheduling and managing, 34–38
template for tracking, 92–97
Everything scope, 58
The Exact Phrase, ield, 60
adding annotations and comments to
presentation, 268–269
assigning password, 66–67
coauthoring presentation, 264–268
collaborating in, introduction, 231–232
comparing presentations, 269–270
distributing iles in other formats, 232–237
e-mailing ile, 237
expanded list of properties, 78
protecting iles, 69–72
sharing iles on SkyDrive, 250–253
sharing workbook on network, 243–250
templates, 87–97
using comments with, 237–241
See also workbooks
Excel Web App, 291–293
Export page, in Word, 224
External Contacts privacy relationship, 146
attaching, 176
distributing in different formats, 232–237
inserting into notebook, 175–178
linking, 175–176
managing in SkyDrive, 275–276
Ofice applications, sharing across, 14–16
preparing to share, 68–69
preserving history of, 63–64, 73–77
printing to OneNote, 177
requiring check out and check in, 74–75
saving in different formats, 235
sharing. See sharing iles
See also document(s), notebook(s),
presentation(s), workbooks
ile formats, making use of, 232–237
Filling In Forms option, 207
Find By Author command, 193
lexibility, within virtual teams, 12
managing in SkyDrive, 275–276
renaming, 126
sharing from SkyDrive, 279
storing messages in, 124
Folders ield, 47
font, setting for template, 102
creating, 111–113
in templates, 106
Form Library, 29
in OneNote, 185
option, 216
restricting, 206–207
specifying in tracked changes, 214
See also styles, template(s)
forms, content controls for, 116–118
formulas, structured references, 90
Full Details option, 134–135
Gallery ield, 114
Getting Started tiles, 21–22
Give Group Permission To This Site option, 27
creating, 27–28
distraction and conlict created within, 11
working with, in SharePoint, 23–28
Group By ield, 47
Group Settings option, 27
group tasks, 13
groupthink, lessening, 7–8
handout masters, 105
creating, 111–113
in templates, 106
hierarchy, 4
highlighter tool, 159
conversation, 152–153
managing in SharePoint, 16
of ile, managing, 73–77
preserving, 63–64
viewing changes in, 248–249
home page, SharePoint, 20–22
ideas, discussing and evaluating, 5–11
adding to OneNote, 178–181
in templates, 106
Include In Personal View options, 245
individual tasks, 13
information, sharing
collecting and reviewing, 5–6
and privacy relationships, 145–146
Information Rights Management, 16
inheritance, breaking, 51–52
initiative, and respect, 6
Input Message tab, in Data Validation, 95
Insert command, 112
insertions, specifying formatting for, 214
Insertions And Deletions option, 216
insert picture tool, 159
Insert Space command, 181
instant messages, 149–151
Internet Explorer, linking notes in, 190
inventory list template, 87–92
invitation, to share calendar, 286
Invite People command, 15–16, 250
Item Limit ield, 47
items. See Outlook
Keep Email In Context tile, 22
keywords. See tags, adding
custom, 104–105
PowerPoint, 99
and dissent, 8
team dynamics and, 4–6
applying rights management to, 66
associating template with, 119
connecting in Outlook, 123, 125–128
controlling permissions through, 241
creating and modifying views in, 44–48
deining properties in, 80–83
document, 37, 38–41
slide, 255–264
sorting and iltering, 33
types, 29–30
wiki page, 54–56
See also list(s)
Limited Details option, 134–135
Link command, 175–176
linked notes, 187–188
adding in OneNote, 185–190
wiki, 55–56, 187
applying rights management to, 66–67
connecting to Outlook, 123
creating and modifying views in, 44–48
deining properties in, 80–83
sorting and iltering, 33
See also tables
list apps, adding, 30–31
list templates, 52–53
Location ield, 35
annotation tools for PowerPoint, 256
collaboration tools, 157–163
for communication and sharing, 17
contacts and presence, 145–148
instant messages, video calls, and online
meetings with, 149–156
introduction to, 143–144
and need for server, 143
sharing presentation in, 269–270
sharing workbook with, 236–237
Lync Recording Manager, 164–165
macros, 107
Mail app, 282–283
Manage Presentable Content option, 160
Margins tab, for comments, 241
Mark As Read menu, 191
notes, 132–133, 164, 166–167
online, 153–156
recording, 164–166
workspace, 36
Membership Requests option, 27
merging documents
coauthored presentations, 268
workbooks, 241–243
See also Combine command
messages, organizing in Outlook, 124
Microsoft Ofice. See Ofice applications
Mobile ield, 47
mobility, and lexibility, 18
Modify Style dialog box, 108–109
More Shape tools, 159
Multipage Meeting Workspace template, 37
Name And About Me Description, 27
Navigation group, 113
network, shared
putting workbook on, 244–245
See also SharePoint team site
No Changes (Read Only) option, 207
No Markup view, 216
None Of These Words ield, 60
backup, 202
creating in OneNote Web App, 290–291
linking to notes, 186–187
Recycle Bin, 202
searching, 194–196
shared, managing changes and additions to,
See also OneNote
note masters, 105
adding, 57
inding, 198
linked, 185–190
meeting, 132–133, 164, 166–167
tagging, 196–199
Number option, in custom column, 81
Objectives list, 37
Ofice applications
applying rights management to, 65–66
building and using templates in, 85–86
collaborative tools in, 14–18
connecting various programs and exporting
items, 43–44
setting properties in, 77–79
web. See Ofice Web Apps
See also Excel, Lync, OneNote, Outlook,
PowerPoint, Skydrive, SharePoint, Word
Ofice Web Apps, 18
creating and editing documents, 287–294
mail, people, and calendar, 281–286
SkyDrive, 273–274, 279–281
Off Work status, 148
adding content to notebook, 174–185
adding links and linked notes, 185–190
adding web content to, 190
additional features, 199–202
keeping records in, 17
linking Outlook items to notebooks, 123,
searching notebooks, 194–196
sharing notebooks, 172–173
synchronizing notebooks, 173–174
tagging notes, 196–199
taking notes in, 166–167
team activities using, 169–170
working with Outlook tasks in, 133
OneNote Web App, 290–291
online meetings, 153–156
online poll, conducting, 162–163
Options ield, 115
Options group, 113
Organizer, 110
Original view, 216
connecting libraries and lists to, 123
linking to OneNote, 130–133
and Lync, for online meetings, 154–156
organizing work in, 124
working with team site from, 124–130
Overlay command, 141
Owner option, 27
Package Presentation for CD command, 263
creating, 53–54
current, saving as template, 199–200
linking one to another, 186
linking to notes, 186–187
searching, 195
sending in shareable formats, 200–202
tag summary, 198–199
versions, working with, 193–194
page layout, in templates, 106
paragraph styles, 107–109
password protections, 64, 67–68
and Restrict Editing command, 118
for workbook, 246
PDF document, creating, 233–235
pen input, 181–182
pen tool, 159
People app, 283–284
People scope, 58–59
Percent (%) Complete ield, 31
performance, with and without competition,
applying to Excel iles, 69–72
breaking inheritance, 51–52
calendar, 136–137
controlling through library, 241
to create custom column, 80
deining level, 26
inheriting, 28
managing, 24–25
for versioning, 73
working with, in SharePoint, 23–28
picture, inserting, 159
picture control, 117
Picture Library, 29
Pictures command, 178–179
placeholders, 98
text in templates, 106
working with, 103–104
plain text control, 117
poll, online, 162–163
Position command, 113
assigning password, 66–67
creating custom template, 100–105
inalizing presentation, 271–272
linking notes in, 188–189
sharing presentation, 158–161
templates, 97–105
working independently and collaboratively, 255
working with slide library, 255–264
See also presentation(s)
PowerPoint Web App, 293–294
Predecessors ield, 31
Preferred Width list, 215
adding annotations and comments, 268–269
coauthoring, 264–268
comparing, 269–271
marking as inal, 271–272
in PowerPoint Web App, 293–294
team, steps to facilitate, 255–256
See also PowerPoint, slide(s)
presenters, in online meetings, 153
printing, heavily revised document, 215
printouts, adding to notebook, 175, 177–178
Priority ield, 31
privacy relationships, 145–146
program, sharing, 161–162
for building blocks, 115
for comments, 240
content control, 118
working with, 77–83
proprietary information, in workbook, 231
for comments, 240
document, 64–72. See also controls, on
document editing
password. See password protections
for shared workbook, 246
template, 118
See also permissions
Publish Online, calendar, 139–141
Publish Slides option, 257–258
Quick Parts, 113, 115–118
Recent Edits menu, 192–193
recognition, of team members, 5
adding audio and video, 182–183
making and managing, 164–166
recordkeeping, 17
Recurrence ield, 35
Recycle Bin, notebook, 202
references, in OneNote, 200
remote connection, from SkyDrive, 281
Report Library, 30
research, in OneNote, 200
responsibilities, fulilling, 6
Restrict Editing options, 118, 205, 208–209
reviewing. See coauthoring, collaborating,
comments, editing, sharing iles, tracked
revision marks. See tracked changes
accepting and rejecting, 217
and comparing documents, 219–220
See also comments, editing, tracked changes
rich text control, 117
rights management, 65–67
Rotate command, 181
rows, 184–185
data validation, 94–97
for managing Mail app, 282–283
Save In ield, 114–115
avoiding conlicts, 141
See also calendar
Screen Clipping command, 179
notebooks, sections, and pages, 195
results, 61, 196
SharePoint team site, 58–61
blocked while coauthoring, 224–226
linking to notes, 186–187
notebook, 170–171
searching, 195
select and type tool, 158–159
self-management, within virtual teams, 12
Send To options, 177–178
Set Default Location option, 178
Shapes group, 181
Share page, in Word, 224
SharePoint, 14–15
including properties in search results, 83
inserting slides from, 260–261
for managing content and history, 16
SharePoint Designer, creating worklows in, 51
SharePoint team site
adding custom templates to, 119–120
adding notebook to, 171
adding slides from, 258–259
classifying and searching for content, 56–61
developing, 49–56
groups and permissions, 23–28
home page, 20–22
introduction, 19–20
resistance to, 124–125
sharing notebook on, 171–173
working on, 28–44
working with Outlook, 124–130
Share Workbook Window, 236
Share Your Site tile, 21
sharing iles, 68–69, 161–162
calendars, 124, 138–139, 285–286
clearing option, 250
desktop, 157–158
Excel and Lync, 236–237
formats for, 200–202
limits on workbook, 245, 292
Lync, 17
notebooks, 172–173, 190–194
in Ofice, 14–16
presentation, 158–161
putting workbook on network, 244–245
and SkyDrive, 250–253, 276–279
from web app, 279
Word, 224
workbooks, 241–242
See also coauthoring, collaborating,
comments, editing, information sharing,
reviewing, tracked changes
shortcut, through Outlook, 123
Simple Markup view, 216
site pages, creating, 53–54
site templates, 52
Size tab, for comments, 240
skills, new, encouraging development of, 5
SkyDrive, 14–15
adding notebook to, 171
landscape, 274–281
and Ofice Web Apps, 18, 273–274
sharing Excel iles on, 250–253
using app, 279–281
adding from PowerPoint, 257–258
custom layout, 104–105
reusing, 259–260
setting size, 103
updating, 262–263
slide library, 255–264
adding, 28–29
building, 257–259
slide master, 97–98
Slide Master view, 100
SmartArt elements, 99
social media, sharing iles from SkyDrive, 278
Social Meeting Workspace template, 37
Sort ield, 46
Speciic People option, 216
spreadsheet. See workbooks
stamp tool, 159
Start Date and Due Date ield, 31
sharing information with team, 145–146
Sync, 173–174
viewing and managing, 147–148
structured references, 90
Style ield, 47
character, 111
paragraph, 107–109
in templates, 106
Subscribe command, for calendar, 284–285
summary page, 198–199
Sync Status, 173–174
tables, 184–185
Excel templates for, 88–90
in templates, 106
Tabular View ield, 47
tagging notes, 196–199
adding, 57
common, setting up group, 196–198
tag summary page, 198–199
adding and updating list in Outlook, 129–130
individual, group, and team, 13–14
tracking, 31–33
working with in OneNote, 133
task list, 37
Task Name ield, 31
Task Status ield, 31
team discussion
encouraging, 5
managing from Outlook, 128
See also discussion boards
team members
and constructive dissent, 6–8
positive ways to lead, 4–5
ways to create effective dynamic, 6
dynamics, 4–6
virtual, 11–12
working within vs. independently, 10–11
See also group
team tasks, 13
team templates, building, introduction to, 85–87
team website. See SharePoint team site
technology, and virtual teams, 11–12
telepointer tool, 158
template(s), 17
adding to team site, 119–120
Excel, 87–97
inventory list, 87–92
for meeting workspace, 36–37
PowerPoint, 97–105
protecting, 118
replacing generic with custom, 119
and rights management, 65
saving current page as, in OneNote, 199–200
saving ile, 105
site and list, 52–53
team, 85–87
tracking, with data validation, 92–97
Word, 106–118
template elements
customizing design, 101–103
PowerPoint, 98–99
Word, 106–107
content controls for, 117–118
editing and formatting in OneNote, 185
effects, setting for template, 102
theme, 101
Three-State worklow, 49–50
To Current Page option, 178
To New Page in Current Section option, 178
Tools group, 180–181
Totals ield, 47
tracked changes, 210, 212–217
accepting and rejecting, 217, 271
in Excel, 246–247
and merging documents, 242–243
setting options, 207, 212–215, 245
See also annotation; documents, comparing
and combining
tracking template, with data validation, 92–97
Track Moves list, 214
Transitions tab, 99
Update Changes option, 245
updating slides, 262–263
Use Pen As Pointer option, 182
users, adding to site or group, 23–24
comparing, 228–229
managing, 73–77
page, 193–194
See also documents, comparing and combining;
history; tracked changes; updating slides
video conference, 151
video recordings, adding to OneNote, 182–183
Backstage, 263
browser options, 251–252
creating and modifying, 44–48
revised document, 215–217
virtual teams, 11–12
web app. See Excel Web App, Ofice Web Apps,
OneNote Web App, PowerPoint Web App,
Word Web App
web content, adding to OneNote, 190
What’s Your Style tile, 22
whiteboard, working together on, 163
wikilinks, 55–56, 187
wiki page library, 29, 54–56
assigning password, 66–67
basic collaborative tools, 210–217
coauthoring documents in, 223–229
comparing and combining documents, 218–222
designing templates in, 106–118
linking notes in, 188–189
See also document(s)
Word Web App, 287–290
work, in team vs. independent, research on, 10–11
clearing share option, 250
coauthoring in Excel Web App, 291–293
deciding which collaborative tools to use, 231
inserting, 178
multiple, distributing and merging, 241–243
sharing on network, 243–250
using comments with, 237–241
and worksheets, protecting, 69–72
worklow, managing document approval with,
Working On A Deadline tile, 21
worksheet. See workbooks
XPS document, creating, 233–235
Your Site. Your Brand tile, 22
About the Author
John Pierce was an editor and writer at Microsoft Corporation for twelve
years. He is the author or coauthor of several books about Microsoft Ofice,
most recently MOS 2010 Study Guide for Microsoft Word Expert, Excel Expert,
Access, and SharePoint and MOS Study Guide for Microsoft Ofice 365. He
currently works on a number of virtual teams involved in publishing content
on the web, as e-books, and in print.
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