Learn Microsoft Office Excel 2007 Step by Step, Level 3 eBook

Learn Microsoft Office Excel 2007 Step by Step, Level 3 eBook
®
LEVEL 3
Curtis D. Frye
Information in this document, including URL and other Internet Web site references, is subject to change
without notice. Unless otherwise noted, the example companies, organizations, products, domain names,
e-mail addresses, logos, people, places, and events depicted herein are fictitious, and no association with
any real company, organization, product, domain name, e-mail address, logo, person, place, or event is
intended or should be inferred. Complying with all applicable copyright laws is the responsibility of the
user. Without limiting the rights under copyright, no part of this document may be reproduced, stored in or
introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), or for any purpose, without the express written permission of Microsoft
Corporation.
The names of manufacturers, products, or URLs are provided for informational purposes only and Microsoft
makes no representations and warranties, either expressed, implied, or statutory, regarding these manufacturers or the use of the products with any Microsoft technologies. The inclusion of a manufacturer or product
does not imply endorsement of Microsoft of the manufacturer or product. Links are provided to third party
sites. Such sites are not under the control of Microsoft and Microsoft is not responsible for the contents of
any linked site or any link contained in a linked site, or any changes or updates to such sites. Microsoft is not
responsible for webcasting or any other form of transmission received from any linked site. Microsoft is providing these links to you only as a convenience, and the inclusion of any link does not imply endorsement of
Microsoft of the site or the products contained therein.
Microsoft may have patents, patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights
covering subject matter in this document. Except as expressly provided in any written license agreement
from Microsoft, the furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents, trademarks,
copyrights, or other intellectual property.
Copyright © 2007, 2009 Curtis D. Frye. All rights reserved.
Microsoft, Microsoft Press, Encarta, Excel, Internet Explorer, Outlook, PivotChart, PivotTable, PowerPoint,
Verdana, Visual Basic, Visual FoxPro, and Windows are either registered trademarks or trademarks of
Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. Other product and company names mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners.
Version 1.0
Contents
AbouttheAuthor............................................................ v
What’sNewinExcel2007? ...................................................vii
Becoming Familiar with the New User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Managing Larger Data Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Understanding the New Office File Formats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ix
Formatting Cells and Worksheets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xi
Managing Data Tables More Effectively . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii
Creating Formulas More Easily . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii
Summarizing Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiii
Creating Powerful Conditional Formats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiv
Creating More Attractive Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Controlling Printouts More Carefully . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi
Let’s Get Started! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi
FeaturesandConventionsofThisCourse..................................... xvii
GettingHelp .............................................................. xix
Getting Help with This Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xix
Getting Help with Excel 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xix
1
DataAnalysis
1
Defining an Alternative Data Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Defining Multiple Alternative Data Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Varying Your Data to Get a Desired Result by Using Goal Seek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Finding Optimal Solutions by Using Solver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Analyzing Data by Using Descriptive Statistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
iii
iv Contents
2
PivotTablesandPivotCharts
23
Analyzing Data Dynamically by Using PivotTables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Filtering, Showing, and Hiding PivotTable Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Editing PivotTables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Formatting PivotTables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Creating PivotTables from External Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
Creating Dynamic Charts by Using PivotCharts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
3
Macros
67
Introducing Macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Macro Security in Excel 2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Examining Macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Creating and Modifying Macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Running Macros When a Button Is Clicked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Running Macros When a Workbook Is Opened. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4
OfficeDocumentRecycling
91
Including Office Documents in Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Storing Workbooks as Parts of Other Office Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Creating Hyperlinks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
Pasting Charts into Other Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
5
Collaboration
109
Sharing Data Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Managing Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Tracking and Managing Colleagues’ Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118
Protecting Workbooks and Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
Authenticating Workbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
Saving Workbooks for the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
Sidebar: Saving a Workbook for Secure Electronic Distribution . . . . . . . . . . .133
Sidebar: Finalizing a Workbook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
Glossary ................................................................. 137
About the Author
Curtis Frye
Curt Frye is a freelance writer and Microsoft Most Valuable Professional for Microsoft
Office Excel. He lives in Portland, Oregon, and is the author of eight books from
Microsoft Press, including Microsoft Office Excel 2007 Step by Step, Microsoft Office
Access 2007 Plain & Simple, Microsoft Office Excel 2007 Plain & Simple, and Microsoft
Office Small Business Accounting 2006 Step by Step. He has also written numerous ­articles
for the Microsoft Work Essentials web site.
Before beginning his writing career in June 1995, Curt spent four years with The MITRE
Corporation as a defense trade analyst and one year as Director of Sales and Marketing
for Digital Gateway Systems, an Internet service provider. Curt graduated from Syracuse
University in 1990 with an honors degree in political science. When he’s not writing, Curt
is a professional improvisational comedian with ComedySportz Portland.
What’s New in Excel 2007?
This introduction briefly describes many of the new features in Excel 2007: the new user
interface, the improved formatting capabilities provided by galleries and minitoolbars,
the new ­capabilities offered by data tables, the new color management scheme, and the
improved charting engine. There are also new ways to manage the data in your workbooks. For example, you can create more flexible rules to have Excel 2007 format your
data based on its value, summarize your data by using new functions, and save your
workbooks as documents in other useful file formats. All these improvements combine
to make Excel 2007 an accessible, powerful program you can use to manage, analyze,
and present your data effectively.
Becoming Familiar with the New User Interface
After you enter your data into a worksheet, you can change the data appearance,
summarize it, or sort it by using the commands on the user interface Ribbon. Unlike in
previous versions of Excel, which made you hunt through a complex toolbar and menu
system to find the commands you wanted, you can find everything you need at the
top of the Excel 2007 program window.
The Excel 2007 user interface divides its commands into seven tabs: Home, Insert,
Page Layout, Formulas, Data, Review, and View. The Home tab appears when you
start Excel 2007.
Tip If you work with macros or add-ins, you can add the Developer tab to the user interface.
Click the Microsoft Office Button, click Excel Options, and on the Popular page of the Excel
Options dialog box, click the Show Developer Tab In The Ribbon check box. Then click OK.
vii
viii What’s New in Excel 2007?
The Home tab contains a series of groups: Clipboard, Font, Alignment, Number, Styles,
Cells, and Editing. Each group, in turn, hosts a series of controls that enable you to
perform tasks related to that group (formatting fonts, setting cell alignment, creating
number formats, and so on). Clicking a control with a drop-down arrow displays a
menu that contains further options; if an option has an ellipsis (…) after the item name,
clicking the item displays a dialog box. If a group has a dialog box associated with
it, such as the Number group shown in the preceding graphic, you can display that
dialog box by clicking the dialog box launcher at the lower-right corner of the group.
(The dialog box launcher looks like a small box with an arrow pointing down and
to the right.)
Managing Larger Data Collections
Many Excel users take advantage of the program’s data summary and calculation ­capabilities to process large data collections. In Excel 2003 and earlier versions, you were limited
to 65,536 rows and 256 columns of data in a worksheet. You could always spread larger
data collections across multiple worksheets, but it took a lot of effort to make everything
work correctly. You don’t have that problem in Excel 2007. The Microsoft Excel 2007
product team expanded worksheets to include 16,384 columns and 1,048,576 rows of
data, which should be sufficient for most of the projects you want to do in Excel 2007.
Excel 2007 also comes with more powerful and flexible techniques you can use to
process your worksheet data. In Excel 2003, you could assign up to three conditional
formats (rules that govern how Excel displays a value) to a cell. In Excel 2007, the only
limit on the number of conditional formats you can create is your computer’s memory.
The table below summarizes the expanded data storage and other capabilities found in
Excel 2007.
Limit
Excel 2003
Excel 2007
Columns in a worksheet
256
16,384
Rows in a worksheet
65,536
1,048,576
Number of different colors allowed in a
workbook
56
4.3 billion
Number of conditional format conditions
applied to a cell
3
Limited by available
memory
Number of sorting levels of a range or table
3
64
Number of items displayed in an AutoFilter list
1,024
32,768
Total number of characters displayed in a cell
1,024
32,768
What’s New in Excel 2007? ix
Limit
Excel 2003
Excel 2007
Total number of characters per cell that Excel
can print
1,024
32,768
Total number of unique cell styles in
a workbook
4,000
65,536
Maximum length of a formula, in characters
1,024
8,192
Number of nested levels allowed in a formula
7
64
Maximum number of arguments in a formula
30
255
Number of characters that can be stored
and displayed in a cell with a text format
255
32,768
Number of columns allowed in a PivotTable
255
16,384
Number of fields displayed in the
PivotTable Field List task pane
255
16,384
Understanding the New Office File Formats
Starting with the 1997 release, all Microsoft Office programs have used a binary file
­format that computers (but not humans) can read. Excel 2007, Microsoft Office Word
2007, and Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007 have new and improved file formats that,
in addition to being somewhat readable, create much smaller files than the older
binary format.
The new Microsoft Office Open XML Formats combine XML and file compression to
create robust files that (on average) are about half the size of similar Excel 97–2003
files. You can open and save Excel 97–2003 files in Excel 2007, of course. If you want
to open Excel 2007 files in Excel 2000, Excel 2002, or Excel 2003, you can install the
Microsoft Office Compatibility Pack for Office Word 2007, Excel 2007, and Office
PowerPoint 2007 file formats from www.microsoft.com/downloads/.
In addition to smaller file sizes, Office XML formats offer several other advantages:
l Improved interoperability. Because the new file formats use XML as their base, it
is much easier for organizations to share and exchange data between the Microsoft
Office system programs and other applications. The older binary file format was
difficult to read and wasn’t standards-based.
l Enhanced customization. The letter X in XML stands for extensible, which means that
information professionals and developers can create custom document structures, or
schema, that meet their organization’s needs.
What’s New in Excel 2007?
l Improved automation. The Excel 2007 file format is based on open standards,
which means that any program written to process data based on those standards
will work with Excel 2007. In other words, you don’t need to write special routines
or use another program in the Microsoft Office system to handle your Excel 2007
data programmatically.
l Compartmentalizing information. The new Microsoft Office system file format
separates document data, macro code, and header information into separate containers, which Excel 2007 then combines into the file you see when you open your
workbook. Separating macro code (automated program instructions) from your
worksheet data improves security by identifying that a workbook contains a macro
and enables you to prevent Excel 2007 from executing code that could harm your
computer or steal valuable personal or business information.
You can save Excel 2007 files in the following Office XML file formats:
Extension
Description
.xlsx
Excel workbook
.xlsm
Excel macro-enabled workbook
.xlsb
Excel binary workbook
.xltx
Excel template
.xltm
Excel macro-enabled template
If electronic recipients of your files will be using an earlier version of Excel and will not
have access to the Office Compatibility Pack, you also have the options of saving files in
earlier (Excel 97-2003) formats.
What’s New in Excel 2007? xi
Formatting Cells and Worksheets
Excel has always been a great program for analyzing numerical data, but even Excel 2003
came up a bit short in the presentation department. In Excel 2003 and earlier ­versions of
the program, you could have a maximum of 56 different colors in your workbook. In addition, there was no easy way to ensure that your colors complemented the other colors in
your workbook (unless you were a graphic designer and knew what you wanted going in).
Excel 2007 offers vast improvements over the color management and formatting options
found in previous versions of the program. You can have as many different colors in a
workbook as you like, for example, and you can assign a design theme to a workbook.
Assigning a theme to a workbook offers you color choices that are part of a complementary whole, not just a dialog box with no guidance about which colors to choose. You
can, of course, still select any color you want when you format your worksheet, define
custom cell styles, and create your own themes. The preinstalled themes are there as
guides, not prescriptions.
xii What’s New in Excel 2007?
Managing Data Tables More Effectively
You’ll often discover that it makes sense to arrange your Excel 2007 data as a table, in
which each column contains a specific data element (such as an order number or the
hours you worked on a given day), and each row contains data about a specific business
object (such as the details of delivery number 1403).
In Excel 2007, tables enable you to enter and summarize your data efficiently. If you want
to enter data in a new table row, all you have to do is type the data in the row below the
table. After you press Tab or Enter after typing in the last cell’s values, Excel 2007 ­expands
the table to include your new data. You can also have Excel 2007 display a Totals row,
which summarizes your table’s data using a function you specify.
Creating Formulas More Easily
Excel 2003 and earlier versions of the program provided two methods to find the name
of a function to add to a formula: the help system and the Insert Function dialog box.
Excel 2007 adds a new tool to your arsenal: Formula AutoComplete. Here’s how it works:
When you begin typing a formula into a cell, Excel 2007 examines what you’re typing
and then displays a list of functions and function arguments, such as named cell ranges
or table columns that could be used in the formula.
What’s New in Excel 2007? xiii
Formula AutoComplete offers lists of the following items as you create a formula:
l Excel 2007 functions. Typing the characters =SUB into a cell causes Excel 2007 to
display a list with the functions SUBSTITUTE and SUBTOTAL. Clicking the desired
function name adds that function to your formula without requiring you to finish
typing the function’s name.
l User-defined functions. Custom procedures created by a programmer and included
in a workbook as macro code.
l Formula arguments. Some formulas accept a limited set of values for a function
argument; Formula AutoComplete enables Excel 2007 to select from the list of
acceptable values.
l Defined names. User-named cell ranges (for example, cells A2:A29 on the Sales
worksheet could be named February Sales).
l Table structure references. A table structure reference denotes a table or part of
a table. For example, if you create a table named Package Volume, typing the letter
P in a formula prompts Excel 2007 to display the table name Package Volume as a
possible entry.
Summarizing Data
The Microsoft Excel 2007 programming team encourages users to suggest new
­capabilities that might be included in the future versions of the program. One of the
most common requests from corporations using Excel was to find the average value
of cells where the value met certain criteria. For example, in a table summarizing daily
sales by department, a formula could summarize sales in the Housewares department
for days in which the sales total was more than $10,000.
xiv What’s New in Excel 2007?
The Excel 2007 team responded to those requests by creating five new formulas that
enable you to summarize worksheet data that meets a given condition. Here are quick
descriptions of the new functions and any existing functions to which they’re related:
l AVERAGEIF enables you to find the average value of cells in a range for cells that
meet a single criterion.
l AVERAGEIFS enables you to find the average value of cells in a range for cells that
meet multiple criteria.
l SUMIFS, an extension of the SUMIF function, enables you to find the average value
of cells in a range for cells that meet multiple criteria.
l COUNTIFS, an extension of the COUNTIF function, enables you to count the
number of cells in a range that meet multiple criteria.
l IFERROR, an extension of the IF function, enables you to tell Excel 2007 what to
do in case a cell’s formula generates an error (as well as what to do if the formula
works the way it’s supposed to).
Creating Powerful Conditional Formats
Businesses often use Excel to track corporate spending and revenue. The actual figures
are very important, of course, but it’s also useful for managers to be able to glance at
their data and determine whether the data exceeds expectations, falls within an acceptable range, or requires attention because the value falls below expectations. In versions
prior to Excel 2007, you could create three conditions and define a format for each one.
For example, you could create the following rules:
l If monthly sales are more than 10 percent ahead of sales during the same month in
the previous year, display the value in green.
l If monthly sales are greater than or equal to sales during the same month in the
previous year, display the value in yellow.
l If monthly sales are fewer than sales during the same month in the previous year,
display the value in red.
In Excel 2007, you can have as many rules as you like, apply several rules to a single data
value, choose to stop evaluating rules after a particular rule has been applied, and change
the order in which the rules are evaluated without having to delete and re-create the
rules you change. You can also apply several new types of conditional data formats: data
What’s New in Excel 2007? xv
bars, which create a horizontal bar across a cell to indicate how large the value is; color
gradients, which change a cell’s fill color to indicate how large the value is; and icon sets,
which display one of three icons depending on the guidelines you establish.
Creating More Attractive Charts
Excel 2007 enables you to manage large amounts of numerical data effectively, but
­humans generally have a hard time determining patterns from that data if all they have
to look at are the raw numbers. That’s where charts come in. Charts summarize your
data visually, which means that you and other decision-makers can quickly detect trends,
determine high and low data points, and forecast future prospects using mathematical
tools. The Excel charting engine and color palette haven’t changed significantly since
Excel 97, but Excel 2007 marks a tremendous step forward with more ways to create
­attractive and informative charts quickly.
xvi What’s New in Excel 2007?
Controlling Printouts More Carefully
One of the Excel 2007 product group’s goals for Excel 2007 was to enable you to create
great-looking documents. Of course, to create these documents, you must know what
your documents will look like when you print them. The Microsoft Excel team introduced
the Page Break Preview view in Excel 97, which enabled you to see where one printed
page ended and the next page began. Page Break Preview is somewhat limited from a
printing control and layout perspective in that it displays your workbook’s contents at an
extremely small size. When you display a workbook in Page Layout view, you see exactly
what your work will look like on the printed page. Page Layout view also enables you to
change your workbook’s margins, add and edit headers and footers, and edit your data.
Let’s Get Started!
If you’ve used Excel before, you’ll need to spend only a little bit of time working with the
new user interface to bring yourself back up to your usual proficiency. If you’re new to
Excel, you’ll have a much easier time learning to use the program than you would have
had with the previous user interface. So let’s get started!
Features and Conventions of
This Course
This course has been designed to lead you step by step through all the tasks you are most
likely to want to perform in Microsoft Office Excel 2007. If you start at the beginning and
work your way through all the exercises, you will gain enough proficiency to be able to
create and work with all the common types of Excel files. However, each topic is self contained. If you have worked with a previous version of Excel, or if you completed all the
exercises and later need help remembering how to perform a procedure, the following
features of this course will help you locate specific information:
l Detailed table of contents. Search the listing of the topics and sidebars within
each module.
l Topic-specific running heads. Within a module, quickly locate the topic you want
by looking at the running head of odd-numbered pages.
l Glossary. Look up the meaning of a word or the definition of a concept.
l Companion CD. Access the practice files used in the step-by-step exercises, as well
as a fully searchable electronic version of this course.
You can save time when taking this course by understanding how the Step by Step series
shows special instructions, keys to press, buttons to click, and other features.
Convention
Meaning
This icon at the end of a module introduction indicates information
about the practice files provided on the companion CD for use in
the module.
USE
This paragraph preceding a step-by-step exercise indicates the practice
files that you will use when working through the exercise.
BE SURE TO
This paragraph preceding or following an exercise indicates any requirements you should attend to before beginning the exercise or actions
you should take to restore your system after completing the exercise.
OPEN
This paragraph preceding a step-by-step exercise indicates files that
you should open before beginning the exercise.
(continued on next page)
xvii
viii Features and Conventions of This Course
Convention
Meaning
CLOSE
This paragraph following a step-by-step exercise provides instructions
for closing open files or programs before moving on to another topic.
1
2
Blue numbered steps guide you through step-by-step exercises.
1
2
Black numbered steps guide you through procedures in sidebars and
expository text.
➜
An arrow indicates a procedure that has only one step.
See Also
These paragraphs direct you to more information about a topic in this
course.
Learn More
These paragraphs direct you to more information about a topic in
another course or elsewhere.
Troubleshooting These paragraphs explain how to fix a common problem that might
prevent you from continuing with an exercise.
Tip
These paragraphs provide a helpful hint or shortcut that makes working through a task easier, or information about other available options.
Important
These paragraphs point out information that you need to know to
complete a procedure.
Save
The first time you are told to click a button in an exercise, a picture of
the button appears in the left margin. If the name of the button does
not appear on the button itself, the name appears under the picture.
F
In step-by-step exercises, keys you must press appear as they would on
a keyboard.
H+>
A plus sign (+) between two key names means that you must hold
down the first key while you press the second key. For example, “press
H+>” means “hold down the H key while you press the > key.”
Program interface In steps, the names of program elements, such as buttons, commands,
and dialog boxes, are shown in black bold characters.
elements
Glossary terms
Terms that are explained in the glossary at the end of the course are
shown in blue italic characters.
User input
Anything you are supposed to type appears in blue bold characters.
Getting Help
Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this course. If you do run into
problems, please contact the sources listed below.
Getting Help with This Course
If your question or issue concerns the content of this course, please first search the online Microsoft Press Knowledge Base, which provides support information for known
errors in or corrections to this course, at the following Web site:
www.microsoft.com/mspress/support/search.asp
If you do not find your answer at the online Knowledge Base, send your comments or
questions to Microsoft Press Technical Support at:
[email protected]
Getting Help with Excel 2007
If your question is about Microsoft Office Excel 2007, and not about the content of this
course, your first recourse is the Excel Help system.
If your question is about Microsoft Office Excel 2007 or another Microsoft software
product and you cannot find the answer in the product’s Help system, please search
the appropriate product solution center or the Microsoft Knowledge Base at:
support.microsoft.com
In the United States, Microsoft software product support issues not covered by the
Microsoft Knowledge Base are addressed by Microsoft Product Support Services.
Location-specific software support options are available from:
support.microsoft.com/gp/selfoverview/
xix
1 DataAnalysis
In this module, you will learn to:
✔ Define an alternative data set.
✔ Define multiple alternative data sets.
✔ Vary your data to get a desired result by using Goal Seek.
✔ Find optimal solutions by using Solver.
✔ Analyze data by using descriptive statistics.
When you store data in a Microsoft Office Excel 2007 workbook, you can use that data,
either by itself or as part of a calculation, to discover important information about your
business. When you track total sales on a time basis, you can find your best and worst
sales periods and correlate them with outside events. For businesses such as Consolidated
Messenger, package volume increases dramatically during the holidays as customers ship
gifts to friends and family members.
The data in your worksheets is great for asking this question: “What happened?” The data
is less useful for asking “what-if” questions such as this: “How much money would we save
if we reduced our labor to 20 percent of our total costs?” You can always save an alternative version of a workbook and create formulas that calculate the effects of your changes,
but you can do the same thing in your workbook by defining one or more alternative
data sets and switching between the original data and the new sets you create.
Excel 2007 also provides the tools to determine the inputs that would be required for a
formula to produce a given result. For example, the chief operating officer of Consolidated
Messenger, Jenny Lysaker, could find out to what level three-day shipping would need to
rise for that category to account for 25 percent of total revenue.
In this module, you will define alternative data sets and determine the necessary inputs
to make a calculation produce a particular result.
Important Before you can use the practice files in this module, you need to install them
from the course’s companion CD to their default location. Your instructor will provide more
information about these practice files.
1
Module 1 Data Analysis
Defining an Alternative Data Set
When you save data in an Excel 2007 worksheet, you create a record that reflects the characteristics of an event or object. That data could represent an hour of sales on a particular
day, the price of an item you just began offering for sale, or the percentage of total sales
accounted for by a category of products. After the data is in place, you can create formulas
to generate totals, find averages, and sort the rows in a worksheet based on the contents
of one or more columns. However, if you want to perform a ­what-if analysis or explore the
impact that changes in your data would have on any of the ­calculations in your workbooks,
you need to change your data.
The problem of working with data that reflects an event or item is that changing any
data to affect a calculation runs the risk of destroying the original data if you accidentally save your changes. You can avoid ruining your original data by creating a duplicate
workbook and making your changes to it, but you can also create alternative data sets,
or scenarios, within an existing workbook.
When you create a scenario, you give Excel 2007 alternative values for a list of cells in a
worksheet. You can use the Scenario Manager to add, delete, and edit scenarios.
Clicking the Add button displays the Add Scenario dialog box.
Defining an Alternative Data Set From within this dialog box, you can name the scenario and identify the cells that will
hold alternative values. After you click OK, a new dialog box opens with spaces for you
to enter the new values.
Clicking OK returns you to the Scenario Manager dialog box. From there, clicking the
Show button replaces the values in the original worksheet with the alternative values
you just defined in a scenario. Any formulas using cells with changed values recalculate
their results. You can then remove the scenario by clicking the Undo button on the
Quick Access Toolbar.
Important If you save and close a workbook while a scenario is in effect, those values
­ ecome the default values for the cells changed by the scenario! You should strongly
b
­consider creating a scenario that contains the original values of the cells you change or
­creating a scenario summary worksheet (a topic covered later in this module).
4
Module1 DataAnalysis
In this exercise, you will create a scenario to measure the projected impact on total
revenue of a rate increase on two-day shipping.
USE the 2DayScenario workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice file is
located on your computer.
OPEN the 2DayScenario workbook.
1. On the Data tab, in the DataTools group, click What-IfAnalysis and then, in the
What-If Analysis
list, click ScenarioManager.
The Scenario Manager dialog box opens.
2. Click Add.
The Add Scenario dialog box opens.
3. In the ScenarioName field, type 2DayIncrease.
4. At the right edge of the Changingcells field, click the CollapseDialog button so
Collapse Dialog
the worksheet contents are visible.
The Add Scenario dialog box contracts.
5. In the worksheet, click cell C5 and then, in the AddScenario dialog box, click the
Expand Dialog
ExpandDialog button.
$C$5 appears in the Changing Cells field, and the dialog box title changes to Edit
Scenario.
DefininganAlternativeDataSet 5
. Click OK.
The Scenario Values dialog box opens.
7. In the value field, type 13.2, and then click OK.
The Scenario Values dialog box closes, and the Scenario Manager reappears.
. If necessary, drag the ScenarioManager dialog box to another location on the
screen so that you can view the entire table.
9. In the ScenarioManager dialog box, click Show.
Excel 2007 applies the scenario, changing the value in cell C5 to $13.20, which in
turn increases the value in cell E8 to $747,450,000.00.
10. Close the ScenarioManager dialog box.
11. On the QuickAccessToolbar, click the Undo button.
Undo
Excel 2007 removes the effect of the scenario.
CLOSE the 2DayScenario workbook.
Module 1 Data Analysis
Defining Multiple Alternative Data Sets
One great feature of Excel 2007 scenarios is that you’re not limited to creating one ­alternative data set—you can create as many as you like and apply them at will by using the
Scenario Manager. To apply more than one scenario by using the Scenario Manager, click
the name of the first scenario you want to display, click the Show button, and then do the
same for the second scenario. The values you defined as part of those scenarios will appear
in your worksheet, and Excel 2007 will update any calculations involving the changed cells.
Tip If you apply a scenario to a worksheet and then apply another scenario to the same
worksheet, both sets of changes appear. If the second scenario changes a cell changed by
the first scenario, the cell reflects the value in the second scenario.
Applying multiple scenarios gives you an overview of how the scenarios affect your
­calculations, but Excel 2007 also gives you a way to view the results of all your scenarios
in a single worksheet. To create a worksheet in your current workbook that summarizes
the changes caused by your scenarios, open the Scenario Manager, and then click the
Summary button. When you do, the Scenario Summary dialog box opens.
From within the dialog box, you can choose the type of summary worksheet you want
to create and the cells you want to appear in the summary worksheet. To choose the
cells to appear in the summary, click the button in the box, select the cells you want
to appear, and then expand the dialog box. After you verify that the range in the box
represents the cells you want included on the summary sheet, click to create the new
worksheet.
It’s a good idea to create an “undo” scenario named Normal with the original values
of every cell before they’re changed in other scenarios. For example, if you create
a ­scenario named High Fuel Costs that changes the sales figures in three cells, your
Normal scenario restores those cells to their original values. That way, even if you
­accidentally modify your worksheet, you can apply the Normal scenario and not have
to reconstruct the worksheet from scratch.
DefiningMultipleAlternativeDataSets 7
Tip Each scenario can change a maximum of 32 cells, so you might need to create more
than one scenario to restore a worksheet.
In this exercise, you will create scenarios to represent projected revenue increases from
two rate changes, view the scenarios, and then summarize the scenario results in a new
worksheet.
USE the Multiple Scenarios workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice file is
located on your computer.
OPEN the Multiple Scenarios workbook.
1. On the Data tab, in the DataTools group, click What-IfAnalysis and then, in the
What-If Analysis
list, click ScenarioManager.
The Scenario Manager dialog box opens.
2. Click Add.
The Add Scenario dialog box opens.
3. In the Scenarioname field, type 3DayIncrease.
4. At the right edge of the Changingcells field, click the CollapseDialog button.
Collapse Dialog
The Add Scenario dialog box collapses.
5. In the worksheet, click cell C4 and then, in the dialog box, click the ExpandDialog
Expand Dialog
button.
$C$4 appears in the Changing Cells field, and the dialog box title changes to Edit
Scenario.
. Click OK.
The Scenario Values dialog box opens.
7. In the value field, type 11.50.
. Click OK.
The Scenario Values dialog box closes, and the Scenario Manager reappears.
9. Click Add.
The Add Scenario dialog box opens.
10. In the Scenarioname field, type GroundandOvernightIncrease.
11. At the right edge of the Changingcells field, click the CollapseDialog button.
The Add Scenario dialog box collapses.
Module 1 Data Analysis
12. Click cell C3, hold down the H key, and click cell C6. Then click the Expand Dialog
button.
$C$3,$C$6 appears in the Changing Cells field, and the dialog box title changes to
Edit Scenario.
13. Click OK.
The Scenario Values dialog box opens.
14. In the $C$3 field, type 10.15.
15. In the $C$6 field, type 18.5.
16. Click OK.
The Scenario Values dialog box closes, and the Scenario Manager dialog box
reappears.
DefiningMultipleAlternativeDataSets 9
17. Click the 3DayIncrease scenario, and then click Show.
Excel 2007 applies the scenario to your worksheet.
1. Click the GroundandOvernightIncrease scenario, and then click Show.
Excel 2007 applies the scenario to your worksheet.
19. Click Summary.
The Scenario Summary dialog box opens.
20. Verify that the Scenariosummary option is selected and that cell E8 appears in the
Resultcells field.
21. Click OK.
Excel 2007 creates a Scenario Summary worksheet.
CLOSE the Multiple Scenarios workbook.
10 Module 1 Data Analysis
Varying Your Data to Get a Desired Result
by Using Goal Seek
When you run a business, you must know how every department and ­product is performing, both in absolute terms and in relation to other departments or products in
the company. Just as you might want to reward your employees for maintaining a
perfect safety record and keeping down your insurance rates, you might also want to
stop carrying products you cannot sell.
When you plan how you want to grow your business, you should have specific goals in
mind for each department or product category. For example, Jenny Lysaker of Consolidated
Messenger might have the goal of reducing the firm’s labor cost by 20 ­percent over the
previous year. Finding the labor amount that represents a 20 percent decrease is simple, but
expressing goals in other ways can make finding the solution more challenging. Instead
of decreasing labor costs 20 percent over the previous year, Jenny might want to decrease
labor costs so they represent no more than 20 percent of the company’s total outlays.
As an example, consider the following worksheet, which holds cost figures for Consolidated
Messenger’s operations and uses those figures to calculate both total costs and the share
each category has of that total.
Important In this worksheet, the values in the Share row are displayed as percentages, but
the underlying values are decimals. For example, Excel 2007 represents 0.3064 as 30.64%.
Although it would certainly be possible to figure the target number that would make
labor costs represent 20 percent of the total, there is an easier way to do it in Excel 2007:
Goal Seek. To use Goal Seek, you display the Data tab and then, in the Data Tools group,
click What-If Analysis. From the menu that appears, click Goal Seek to open the Goal
Seek dialog box.
VaryingYourDatatoGetaDesiredResultbyUsingGoalSeek 11
In the dialog box, you identify the cell with the target value; in this case, it is cell C4,
which has the percentage of costs accounted for by the Labor category. The box has
the target value (.2, which is equivalent to 20%), and the box identifies the cell with the
value Excel 2007 should change to generate the target value of 20% in cell C4. In this
example, the cell to be changed is C3.
Clicking OK tells Excel 2007 to find a solution for the goal you set. When Excel 2007
finishes its work, the new values appear in the designated cells, and the Goal Seek
Status dialog box opens.
Tip Goal Seek finds the closest solution it can without exceeding the target value. In this
case, the closest percentage it could find was 19.97%.
In this exercise, you will use Goal Seek to determine how much you need to decrease
transportation costs so those costs comprise no more than 40 percent of Consolidated
Messenger’s operating costs.
USE the Target Values workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice file is
located on your computer.
OPEN the Target Values workbook.
1. On the Data tab, in the DataTools group, click What-IfAnalysis and then, in the
What-If Analysis
list, click GoalSeek.
The Goal Seek dialog box opens.
12 Module1 DataAnalysis
2.
3.
4.
5.
In the Setcell field, type D4.
In the Tovalue field, type.4.
In the Bychangingcell field, type D3.
Click OK.
Excel 2007 displays the solution in both the worksheet and the Goal Seek Status
dialog box.
. Click Cancel.
Excel 2007 closes the Goal Seek Status dialog box without saving the new
worksheet values.
CLOSE the Target Values workbook.
Finding Optimal Solutions by Using Solver 13
Finding Optimal Solutions by Using Solver
Goal Seek is a great tool for finding out how much you need to change a single input to
generate a desired result from a formula, but it’s of no help if you want to find the best
mix of several inputs. For example, marketing vice president Craig Dewar might want to
advertise in four national magazines to drive customers to Consolidated Messenger’s
Web site, but he might not know the best mix of ads to place among the publications.
He asked the publishers for ad pricing and readership numbers, which are reflected in
the spreadsheet shown as follows, along with the minimum number of ads per publication (3) and the minimum number of times he wants the ad to be seen (10,000,000).
Because one of the magazines has a high percentage of corporate executive readers,
Craig does want to take out at least four ads in that publication despite its relatively
low readership. The goal of the ad campaign is for the ads to be seen as many times
as possible without spending more than the $3,000,000 budget.
Tip It helps to spell out every aspect of your problem so that you can identify the cells you
want Solver to use in its calculations.
If you performed a complete installation when you installed Excel 2007 on your system,
you see the Solver item on the Data tab in the Analysis group. If not, you need to install
14 Module 1 Data Analysis
the Solver Add-In. To do so, click the Microsoft Office Button, and then click Excel Options.
In the Excel Options dialog box, click Add-Ins to display the Add-Ins page. At the bottom
of the dialog box, in the Manage list, click Excel Add-Ins, and then click Go to display the
Add-Ins dialog box. Select the Solver Add-in check box and click OK to install Solver.
Tip You might be prompted for the Microsoft Office system installation CD. If so, put the
CD in your CD drive, and click OK.
After the installation is complete, Solver appears on the Data tab, in the Analysis group.
Clicking Solver displays the Solver Parameters dialog box.
The first step of setting up your Solver problem is to identify the cell that reflects the
results of changing the other cells in the worksheet. To identify that cell, click in the Set
Target Cell box, click the target cell, and then select the option representing whether
you want to minimize the cell’s value, maximize the cell’s value, or make the cell take on
a specific value. Next you click in the By Changing Cells box and select the cells Solver
should vary to change the value in the target cell. Finally, you set the limits for the values
Solver can use by clicking Add to display the Add Constraint dialog box.
You add constraints to the Solver problem by selecting the cells to which you want
to apply the constraint, selecting the comparison operation (less than or equal to,
greater than or equal to, requiring the value to be an integer, and so on), clicking in the
Constraint box, and selecting the cell with the value of the constraint. You could also
type a value in the Constraint box, but referring to a cell makes it possible for you to
change the constraint without opening Solver.
FindingOptimalSolutionsbyUsingSolver 15
Tip After you run Solver, you can use the controls in the Solver Results, save the results as
changes to your worksheet, or create a scenario based on the changed data.
In this exercise, you will use Solver to determine the best mix of ads given the following
constraints:
l You want to maximize the number of people who see the ads.
l You must buy at least eight ads in three magazines and at least ten in the fourth.
l You can’t buy part of an ad (that is, all numbers must be integers).
l You can buy no more than 20 ads in any one magazine.
l You must reach at least 10,000,000 people.
l Your ad budget is $3,000,000.
USE the Ad Buy workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice file is located on
your computer.
OPEN the Ad Buy workbook.
1. If Solver doesn’t appear in the Analysis group on the Data tab, follow the instructions on page 190 to install it.
2. In the Analysis group on the Data tab, click Solver.
The Solver Parameters dialog box opens.
3. Click in the SetTargetCell box, and then click cell G9.
$G$9 appears in the Set Target Cell field.
4. Click Max.
5. Click in the ByChangingCells field, and select cells E5:E8.
$E$5:$E$8 appears in the By Changing Cells field.
16 Module 1 Data Analysis
6. Click Add.
The Add Constraint dialog box opens.
7. Select cells E5:E8.
$E$5:$E$8 appears in the Cell Reference field.
8. In the operator list, click int. Then click Add.
Excel 2007 adds the constraint to the Solver problem, and the Add Constraint
­dialog box clears to accept the next constraint.
9. Click cell F9.
$F$9 appears in the Cell Reference field.
10. Click in the Constraint field, and then click cell G11.
$G$11 appears in the Constraint field.
11. Click Add.
Excel 2007 adds the constraint to the Solver problem, and the Add Constraint
­dialog box clears to accept the next constraint.
12. Click cell G9.
$G$9 appears in the Cell Reference field.
13. In the operator list, click =.
14. Click in the Constraint field, and then click cell G12.
$G$12 appears in the Constraint field.
15. Click Add.
Excel 2007 adds the constraint to the Solver problem, and the Add Constraint
­dialog box clears to accept the next constraint.
16. Select cells E5:E7.
$E$5:$E$7 appears in the Cell Reference field.
Finding Optimal Solutions by Using Solver 17
17. In the operator list, click =.
18. Click in the Constraint field, and then click cell G13.
$G$13 appears in the Constraint field.
19. Click Add.
Excel 2007 adds the constraint to the Solver problem, and the Add Constraint
­dialog box clears to accept the next constraint.
20. Click cell E8.
$E$8 appears in the Cell Reference field.
21. In the operator list, click =.
22. Click in the Constraint field, and then click cell G14.
$G$14 appears in the Constraint field.
23. Click Add.
Excel 2007 adds the constraint to the Solver problem, and the Add Constraint
­dialog box clears to accept the next constraint.
24. Select cells E5:E8.
$E$5:$E$8 appears in the Cell Reference field.
25. Click in the Constraint field, and then click cell G15.
$G$15 appears in the Constraint field.
26. Click OK.
Excel 2007 adds the constraint to the Solver problem, and the Solver Parameters
dialog box reappears.
27. Click Solve.
The Solver Results dialog box opens, indicating that Solver found a solution. The
result is displayed in the body of the worksheet.
1 Module1 DataAnalysis
2. Click Cancel.
The Solver Results dialog box closes.
29. Click Close. If you are asked if you want to save your changes, click No.
The Solver dialog box closes.
CLOSE the Ad Buy workbook.
AnalyzingDatabyUsingDescriptiveStatistics 19
Analyzing Data by Using Descriptive Statistics
Experienced businesspeople can tell a lot about numbers just by looking at them to see
if they “look right” (that is, the sales figures are about where they’re supposed to be for a
particular hour, day, or month; the average seems about right; and sales have increased
from year to year). When you need more than an off-the-cuff assessment, however, you
can use the tools in the Analysis ToolPak.
If you don’t see the Data Analysis item in the Analysis group on the Data tab, you can
install it. To do so, click the Microsoft Office Button, and then click Excel Options. In the
Excel Options dialog box, click Add-Ins to display the Add-Ins page. At the bottom of
the dialog box, in the Manage list, click Excel Add-Ins, and then click Go to display the
Add-Ins dialog box. Select the Analysis ToolPak check box and clickOK.
Tip You might be prompted for the Microsoft Office system installation CD. If so, put the
CD in your CD drive, and click OK.
After the installation is complete, the Data Analysis item appears in the Analysis group
on the Data tab.
You then click the item representing the type of data analysis you want to perform, click
OK, and use the controls in the resulting dialog box to analyze your data.
In this exercise, you will use the Analysis ToolPak to generate descriptive statistics of
driver sorting time data.
USE the Driver Sort Times workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice file is
located on your computer.
OPEN the Driver Sort Times workbook.
1. On the Data tab, in the Analysis group, click DataAnalysis.
The Data Analysis dialog box opens.
2. Click DescriptiveStatistics, and then click OK.
The Descriptive Statistics dialog box opens.
20 Module1 DataAnalysis
3. Click in the InputRange field and point to the top of the SortingMinutes
column header. When the pointer changes to a downward-pointing black
arrow, click the header.
$C$3:$C$17 appears in the Input Range field.
4. Select the SummaryStatistics check box.
5. Click OK.
A new worksheet that contains summary statistics about the selected data appears.
CLOSE the Driver Sort Times workbook.
Key Points 21
Key Points
l Scenarios enable you to describe many potential business cases within a single
workbook. You can change up to 32 cells in a scenario.
l You can summarize your scenarios on a new worksheet to compare how each
scenario approaches the data.
l To determine what value you need in a single cell to generate the desired result
from a formula, you can use Goal Seek.
l If you want to vary the values in more than one cell to find the optimal mix of
inputs for a calculation, you can use the Solver Add-In.
l You can use the advanced statistical tools in the Analysis ToolPak to go over your
data thoroughly.
2 PivotTablesand
PivotCharts
In this module, you will learn to:
✔ Analyze data dynamically by using PivotTables.
✔ Filter, show, and hide PivotTable data.
✔ Edit PivotTables.
✔ Format PivotTables.
✔ Create PivotTables from external data.
✔ Create dynamic charts by using PivotCharts.
One limitation of the standard Microsoft Office Excel 2007 worksheet is that you can’t
change how the data is organized on the page. For example, in a worksheet in which
each column represents an hour in the day, each row represents a day in a month, and
the body of the worksheet contains the total sales for every hourly period of the month,
you can’t easily change the worksheet so that it displays only sales on Tuesdays during
the afternoon.
An Excel 2007 tool enables you to create worksheets that can be sorted, filtered, and
rearranged dynamically to emphasize different aspects of your data. That tool is the
PivotTable. You can also create a PivotChart dynamic view that reflects the contents and
organization of the associated PivotTable.
In this module, you will create and edit PivotTables from an existing worksheet and how
to create a PivotTable with data imported from a text file. You will also create a dynamic
chart by using a PivotChart.
Important Before you can use the practice files in this module, you need to install them
from the course’s companion CD to their default location. Your instructor will provide more
information about these practice files.
23
24 Module 2 PivotTables and PivotCharts
Analyzing Data Dynamically by Using PivotTables
Excel 2007 worksheets enable you to gather and present important data, but the
­standard worksheet can’t be changed from its original configuration easily. As an
­example, consider the worksheet in the following graphic.
This worksheet records monthly package volumes for each of nine distribution centers in
the United States. The data in the worksheet is organized so that each row represents a
distribution center, whereas the columns in the body of the worksheet represent a month
of the year. When presented in this arrangement, the monthly totals for all centers and
the yearly total for each distribution center are given equal billing: neither set of totals
stands out.
Such a neutral presentation of your data is versatile, but it has limitations. First, although
you can use sorting and filtering to restrict the rows or columns shown, it’s difficult to
change the worksheet’s organization. For example, in a standard worksheet you can’t
reorganize the contents of your worksheet so that the hours are assigned to the rows
and the distribution centers are assigned to the columns.
Analyzing Data Dynamically by Using PivotTables 25
The Excel 2007 tool to reorganize and redisplay your data dynamically is the PivotTable.
You can create a PivotTable, or dynamic worksheet, that enables you to reorganize and
filter your data on the fly. For instance, you can create a PivotTable with the same layout
as the worksheet shown previously, which emphasizes totals by month, and then change
the PivotTable layout to have the rows represent the months of the year and the columns represent a distribution center. The new layout emphasizes the totals by regional
­distribution center, as shown in the following graphic.
To create a PivotTable, you must have your data collected in a list. The new Excel 2007
data tables mesh perfectly with PivotTable dynamic views; not only do the data tables
have a well-­defined column and row structure but the ability to refer to a data table by
its name also greatly simplifies PivotTable creation and management.
The following graphic shows the first few lines of the data table used to create the
PivotTable just shown.
26 Module 2 PivotTables and PivotCharts
Notice that each line of the table contains a value representing the Distribution Center,
Date, Month, Week, Weekday, Day, and Volume for every day of the years 2006 and
2007. Excel 2007 needs that data when it creates the PivotTable so that it can maintain
relationships among the data. If you want to filter your PivotTable so that it shows all
package volumes on Thursdays in January, for example, Excel 2007 must be able to
­identify January 11 as a Thursday.
After you create a data table, you can click any cell in that list, display the Insert
tab and then, in the Tables group, click PivotTable to display the Create PivotTable
dialog box.
Analyzing Data Dynamically by Using PivotTables 27
In this dialog box, you verify the data source for your PivotTable and whether you want
to create a PivotTable on a new worksheet. After you click OK, Excel 2007 creates a new
worksheet and displays the PivotTable Field List task pane.
Tip You should always place your PivotTable on its own worksheet to avoid unwanted edits
and reduce the number of cells Excel 2007 must track when you rearrange your data. You
might not notice a difference with a small data set, but it’s noticeable when your table runs
more than a few hundred rows.
To assign a field, or column in a data list, to an area of the PivotTable, drag the field head
from the Choose Fields To Add To Report area at the top of the PivotTable Field List task
pane to the Drag Fields Between Areas Below area at the bottom of the task pane. For
example, if you drag the Volume field header to the Values area, the PivotTable displays
the total of all entries in the Volume column.
28 Module 2 PivotTables and PivotCharts
If the PivotTable Field List task pane isn’t visible, click any cell in the PivotTable to display
it. If you accidentally click the Close button at the upper-right corner of the PivotTable
Field List task pane, you can redisplay the task pane by clicking any cell in the PivotTable
to display the PivotTable Tools contextual tabs. On the Options ­contextual tab, in the
Show/Hide group, click Field List.
It’s important to note that the order in which you enter the fields in the Row Labels and
Column Labels areas affects how Excel 2007 organizes the data in your PivotTable. As an
example, the following graphic shows a PivotTable that groups the PivotTable rows by
distribution center and then by month.
Analyzing Data Dynamically by Using PivotTables 29
And here is the same PivotTable data, but this time it’s organized by month and then by
distribution center.
30 Module 2 PivotTables and PivotCharts
In the preceding examples, all the field headers are in the Row Labels area. If you drag
the Center header from the Row Labels area to the Column Labels area, the PivotTable
reorganizes (pivots) its data to form this configuration.
To pivot a PivotTable, you drag a field header to a new position in the PivotTable Field
List task pane. As you drag the task pane, Excel 2007 displays a blue line in the interior
of the target area so you know where the field will appear when you release the left
mouse button. If your data set is large or if you based your PivotTable on a data collection on another computer, it might take some time for Excel 2007 to reorganize the
PivotTable after a pivot. You can have Excel 2007 delay redrawing the PivotTable by
selecting the Defer Layout Update button in the lower-left corner of the PivotTable
Field List task pane. When you’re ready for Excel 2007 to display the reorganized
PivotTable, click Update.
If you expect your PivotTable source data to change, such as when you link to an external
database that records shipments or labor hours, ensure that your PivotTable summarizes
all the available data. To do that, you can refresh the PivotTable connection to its data
source. If Excel 2007 detects new data in the source table, it updates the PivotTable contents accordingly. To refresh your PivotTable, click any cell in the PivotTable and then, on
the Options contextual tab, in the Data group, click Refresh.
AnalyzingDataDynamicallybyUsingPivotTables 31
In this exercise, you will create a PivotTable using data from a table, add fields to the
PivotTable, and then pivot the PivotTable.
USE the Creating workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice file is located
on your computer.
OPEN the Creating workbook.
1. Click any cell in the data table.
2. On the Insert tab, in the Tables group, click PivotTable.
The Create PivotTable dialog box opens.
3. Verify that the DailyVolumes table name appears in the Table/Range field and that
the NewWorksheet option is selected.
4. Click OK.
Excel 2007 creates a PivotTable on a new worksheet.
5. In the PivotTableFieldList task pane, drag the Center field header to the Row
Labels area.
Excel 2007 adds the Center field values to the PivotTable row area.
32 Module2 PivotTablesandPivotCharts
. In the PivotTableFieldList task pane, drag the Year field header to the Column
Labels area.
Excel 2007 adds the Year field values to the PivotTable column area.
7. In the PivotTableFieldList task pane, drag the Volume field header to the Values
area.
Excel 2007 fills in the body of the PivotTable with the Volume field values.
. In the PivotTableFieldList task pane, in the ColumnLabels area, drag the Year
field header to the RowLabels area, and drop it beneath the Center field header.
Excel 2007 changes the PivotTable to reflect the new organization.
CLOSE the Creating workbook.
Filtering, Showing, and Hiding PivotTable Data 33
Filtering, Showing, and Hiding PivotTable Data
PivotTables often summarize huge data sets in a relatively small worksheet. The more
details you can capture and write to a table, the more flexibility you have in analyzing
the data. As an example, consider all the details captured in the following data table.
Each line of the table contains a value representing the Distribution Center, Date,
Month, Week, Weekday, Day, and Volume for every day of the year. Each column, in
turn, contains numerous values: there are nine distribution centers, data from two
years, twelve months in a year, seven weekdays, and as many as five weeks and 31
days in a month. Just as you can filter the data that appears in a table, you can filter
the data displayed in a PivotTable by selecting which values you want the PivotTable
to include.
Learn More For more information about filtering an Excel 2007 data table, see the
intermediate-level course, Learn Microsoft Office Excel 2007 Step by Step, Level 2.
To filter a PivotTable based on a field’s contents, click the field’s header in the Choose
Fields To Add To Report area of the PivotTable Field List task pane to display a menu of
sorting and filtering options.
34 Module 2 PivotTables and PivotCharts
The PivotTable displays data that’s related to the values with a checked box next to them.
Clicking the Select All check box clears it, which enables you to select the check boxes
of the values you want to display. Selecting only the Northwest check box, for example,
leads to the following PivotTable configuration.
Filtering, Showing, and Hiding PivotTable Data 35
If you’d rather display as much PivotTable data as possible, you can hide the PivotTable
Field List task pane and filter the PivotTable by using the filter arrows on the Row Labels
and Column Labels headers within the body of the PivotTable. Clicking either of those
headers enables you to select a field by which you want to filter; you can then define
the filter using the same controls you see when you click a field header in the PivotTable
Field List task pane.
Excel 2007 indicates that a PivotTable has filters applied by placing a filter indicator next
to the Column Labels or Row Labels header, as appropriate, and the filtered field name
in the PivotTable Field List task pane.
So far, all the fields by which we’ve filtered the PivotTable have changed the organization
of the data in the PivotTable. Adding some fields to a PivotTable, however, might create
unwanted complexity. For example, you might want to filter a PivotTable by weekday, but
adding the Weekday field to the body of the PivotTable expands the table unnecessarily.
Instead of adding the Weekday field to the Row Labels or Column Labels area, you can
drag the field to the Report Filter area near the bottom of the PivotTable Field List task
pane. Doing so leaves the body of the PivotTable in the same position, but adds a new
area above the PivotTable in its worksheet.
36 Module 2 PivotTables and PivotCharts
Tip In Excel 2003 and earlier versions, this area was called the Page Field area.
When you click the filter arrow of a field in the Report Filter area, Excel 2007 displays
a list of the values in the field. In previous versions of Excel 2007, you could select only
one Report Filter value by which to filter a PivotTable; in Excel 2007, selecting the Select
Multiple Items check box enables you to filter by more than one value.
Finally, you can filter values in a PivotTable by hiding and collapsing levels of detail
within the report. To do that, you click the Hide Detail control (which looks like a box
with a minus sign in it) or the Show Detail control (which looks like a box with a plus sign
in it) next to a header. For example, you might have your data divided by year; clicking
the Show Detail control next to the 2006 year header would display that year’s details.
Conversely, clicking the 2007 year header Hide Detail control would hide the individual
months’ values and display only the year’s total.
Filtering,Showing,andHidingPivotTableData 37
In this exercise, you will focus the data displayed in a PivotTable by creating a filter, by
filtering a PivotTable based on the contents of a field in the Report Filters area, and
by showing and hiding levels of detail within the body of the PivotTable.
USE the Focusing workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice file is located
on your computer.
OPEN the Focusing workbook.
1. On the PivotTable worksheet, click any cell in the PivotTable.
2. In the PivotTableFieldList task pane’s Choosefieldstoaddtoreport section,
click the Center field header, click the Center field filter arrow, and then clear the
(SelectAll) check box.
Excel 2007 clears all the check boxes in the filter menu.
3. Select the Northwest check box, and then click OK.
Excel 2007 filters the PivotTable.
38 Module 2 PivotTables and PivotCharts
4. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Undo button.
Undo
Excel 2007 removes the filter.
5. In the PivotTable Field List task pane, drag the Weekday field header from the
Choose fields to add to report section to the Report Filter area in the Drag fields
between areas below section.
6. In the PivotTable Field List task pane, click the Close button.
Close
The PivotTable Field List task pane closes.
7. In the body of the worksheet, click the Weekday filter arrow, and then ­select the
Select Multiple Items check box.
Excel 2007 adds check boxes beside the items in the Weekday field filter list.
8. Clear the All check box.
Excel 2007 clears each check box in the list.
Filtering,Showing,andHidingPivotTableData 39
9. Select the Tuesday and Thursday check boxes, and then click OK.
Excel 2007 filters the PivotTable, summarizing only those values from Tuesdays and
Thursdays.
10. In cell A5, click the HideDetail button.
Hide Detail
Excel 2007 collapses rows that contain data from the year 2006, leaving only the
subtotal row that summarizes that year’s data.
CLOSE the Focusing workbook.
40 Module 2 PivotTables and PivotCharts
Editing PivotTables
After you create a PivotTable, you can rename it, edit it to control how it summarizes
your data, and use the PivotTable cell data in a formula. As an example, consider the
­following PivotTable.
Excel 2007 displays the PivotTable name on the Options contextual tab, in the PivotTable
Options group. The name PivotTable5 doesn’t help you or your colleagues understand
the data the PivotTable contains, particularly if you use the PivotTable data in a formula
on another worksheet. To give your PivotTable a more descriptive name, click any cell in
the PivotTable and then, on the Options contextual tab, in the PivotTable Options group,
type the new name in the PivotTable Name field.
When you create a PivotTable with at least one field in the Row Labels area and one
field in the Column Labels area of the PivotTable Field List task pane, Excel 2007 adds a
grand total row and column to summarize your data. You can control how and where
these summary rows and columns appear by clicking any PivotTable cell and then, in the
Design contextual tab, in the Layout group, clicking either the Subtotals or Grand Totals
button and selecting the desired layout.
After you create a PivotTable, Excel 2007 determines the best way to summarize the data
in the column you assign to the Values area. For numeric data, for example, Excel 2007
Editing PivotTables 41
uses the Sum function. If you want to change a PivotTable summary function, right-click
any data cell in the PivotTable values area, point to Summarize Data By, and then click
the desired operation. If you want to use a function other than those listed, click More
Options to display the Value Field Settings dialog box. On the Summarize By tab of the
dialog box, you can choose the summary operation you want to use.
You can also change how the PivotTable ­displays the data in the Values area. On the
Show Values As tab of the Value Field Settings dialog box, you can select whether to
display each cell’s percentage contribution to its column’s total, its row’s total, or its
contribution to the total of all values displayed in the PivotTable.
You can create a link from a cell in another workbook to a cell in your PivotTable. To create
a link, you click the cell you want to link to your PivotTable, type an equal sign, and then
click the cell in the PivotTable with the data you want linked. A GETPIVOTDATA formula
appears in the formula box of the ­worksheet with the PivotTable. When you press Enter,
the contents of the PivotTable cell appear in the linked cell.
42 Module2 PivotTablesandPivotCharts
In this exercise, you will rename a PivotTable, specify whether subtotal and grand total
rows will appear, change the PivotTable summary function, display each cell’s contribution
to its row’s total, and create a link to a PivotTable cell.
USE the Editing workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice file is located on
your computer.
OPEN the Editing workbook.
1. On the PivotTable worksheet, click any cell in the PivotTable.
2. On the Options contextual tab, in the PivotTablegroup, in the PivotTableName
field, type VolumeSummary.
Excel 2007 renames the PivotTable.
3. On the Design contextual tab, in the Layout group, click Subtotals, and then click
DoNotShowSubtotals.
Excel 2007 removes the subtotal rows from the PivotTable.
4. On the Design contextual tab, in the Layout group, click GrandTotals, and then
click Onforcolumnsonly.
Excel 2007 removes the cells that calculate each row’s grand total.
Editing PivotTables 43
5. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Undo button.
Undo
Excel 2007 reverses the last change.
6. Right-click any data cell in the PivotTable, point to Summarize Data By, and then
click Average.
Excel 2007 changes the Value field summary operation.
7. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Undo button.
Excel 2007 reverses the last change.
8. Right-click any data cell in the PivotTable, and then click Value Field Settings.
The Value Field Settings dialog box opens.
9. Click the Show values as tab.
The Show Values As tab appears.
10. In the Show values as list, click % of row.
11. Click OK.
Excel 2007 changes how it calculates the values in the PivotTable.
44 Module 2 PivotTables and PivotCharts
12. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Undo button.
Excel 2007 reverses the last change.
13. On the Design tab, in the Layout group, click Subtotals, and then click Show All
Subtotals at Bottom of Group.
Excel 2007 displays subtotals in the workbook.
14. Click the Package Summary sheet tab.
The Package Summary worksheet appears.
15. In cell C4, type =, but do not press F.
16. Click the PivotTable sheet tab.
The PivotTable worksheet appears.
EditingPivotTables 45
17. Click cell K32, and then press F.
Excel 2007 creates the formula =GETPIVOTDATA(“Volume”,PivotTable!$A$3,”Year”,
2007) in cell C4.
CLOSE the Focusing workbook.
46 Module 2 PivotTables and PivotCharts
Formatting PivotTables
PivotTables are the ideal tools for summarizing and examining large data tables, even
those containing in excess of 10 or even 100,000 rows. Even though PivotTables often
end up as compact summaries, you should do everything you can to make your data
more comprehensible. One way to improve your data’s readability is to apply a number
format to the PivotTable Values field. To apply a number format to a field, right-click any
cell in the field, and then click Number Format to display the Format Cells dialog box.
Select or define the format you want to apply, and then click OK to enact the change.
Learn More For more information about selecting and defining cell formats by using the
Format Cells dialog box, see see the beginning-level course, Learn Microsoft Office Excel 2007
Step by Step, Level 1.
Analysts often use PivotTables to summarize and examine organizational data with an
eye to making important decisions about the company. For example, chief operating
­officer Jenny Lysaker might examine monthly package volumes handled by Consolidated
Messenger and notice that there’s a surge in package volume during the winter months
in the United States.
Formatting PivotTables 47
Excel 2007 extends the capabilities of your PivotTables by enabling you to apply a
conditional format to the PivotTable cells. What’s more, you can select whether to
apply the conditional format to every cell in the Values area, to every cell at the same
level as the selected cell (that is, a regular data cell, a subtotal cell, or a grand total
cell) or to every cell that contains or draws its values from the selected cell’s field
(such as the Volume field in the previous example).
To apply a conditional format to a PivotTable field, click a cell in the Values area. On the
Home tab, in the Styles group, click Conditional Formatting, and then create the desired
conditional format. After you do, Excel 2007 displays a Formatting Options smart tag,
which offers three options on how to apply the conditional format:
l Selected cells, which applies the conditional format to the selected cells only
l All cells showing Sum of field_name values, which applies the conditional format to
every cell in the data area, regardless of whether the cell is in the data area, a subtotal row or column, or a grand total row or column
l All cells showing Sum of field_name values for fields, which applies the ­conditional
format to every cell at the same level (for example, data cell, subtotal, or grand total) as the selected cells
Learn More For more information about creating conditional formats, see the intermediatelevel course, Learn Microsoft Office Excel 2007 Step by Step, Level 2.
In Excel 2003 and earlier versions of the program, you were limited to a small number
of formatting styles, called autoformats, which you could apply to a PivotTable. In Excel
2007, you can take full advantage of the Microsoft Office system enhanced formatting
capabilities to apply existing formats to your PivotTables. Just as you can create data table
formats, you can also create your own PivotTable formats to match your organization’s
desired color scheme.
To apply a PivotTable style, click any cell in the PivotTable and then, on the Design
contextual tab, in the PivotTable Styles group, click the gallery item representing the
style you want to apply. If you want to create your own PivotTable style, click the More
button in the PivotTable Styles gallery (in the lower-right corner of the gallery), and
then click New PivotTable Style to display the New PivotTable QuickStyle dialog box.
48 Module 2 PivotTables and PivotCharts
Type a name for the style in the Name field, click the first table element you want to customize, and then click Format. Use the controls in the Format Cells dialog box to change
the element’s appearance. After you click OK to close the Format Cells dialog box, the
New PivotTable Quick Style dialog box Preview pane displays the style’s ­appearance. If
you want Excel 2007 to use the style by default, select the Set As Default PivotTable Quick
Style For This Document check box. After you finish creating your formats, click OK to
close the New PivotTable Quick Style dialog box and save your style.
The Design contextual tab contains many other tools you can use to format your
PivotTable, but one of the most useful is the Banded Columns check box, which you
can find in the PivotTable Style Options group. If you select a PivotTable style that offers
banded rows as an option, selecting the Banded Rows check box turns banding on. If
you prefer not to have Excel 2007 band the rows in your PivotTable, clearing the check
box turns banding off.
In this exercise, you will apply a number format to a PivotTable values field, apply a
PivotTable style, create your own PivotTable style, give your PivotTable banded rows,
and apply a conditional format to a PivotTable.
FormattingPivotTables 49
USE the Formatting workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice file is
located on your computer.
OPEN the Formatting workbook.
1. On the PivotTable worksheet, right-click any data cell, and then click Number
Format.
The Format Cells dialog box opens.
2. In the Category list, click Number.
The Number tab page opens.
3. In the Decimalplaces field, type 0.
4. Select the Use1000Separator(,) check box.
5. Click OK.
Excel 2007 reformats your PivotTable data.
50 Module 2 PivotTables and PivotCharts
6. If necessary, on the Design contextual tab, in the PivotTable Style Options group,
select the Banded Rows check box.
7. On the Design contextual tab, in the PivotTable Styles group, click the third style
from the left (when you point to it, Excel 2007 displays a ScreenTip that reads Pivot
Style Light 2).
Excel 2007 applies the PivotTable style.
Formatting PivotTables 51
8. In the lower-right corner of the PivotTable Styles gallery, click the More ­button.
More
The gallery expands.
9. Click New PivotTable Style.
The New PivotTable Quick Style dialog box opens.
10. In the Name field, type Custom Style 1.
11. In the Table Element list, click Header Row, and then click Format.
The Format Cells dialog box opens.
12. On the Font tab, in the Color list, click the white square.
13. On the Border tab, in the Presets area, click Outline.
14. On the Fill tab, in the Background Color area, click the purple square at the lowerright corner of the color palette.
15. Click OK.
The Format Cells dialog box closes, and the style change appears in the Preview
pane of the New PivotTable Quick Style dialog box.
16. In the Table Element list, click Second Row Stripe, and then click Format.
The Format Cells dialog box opens.
17. On the Fill tab, in the middle part of the Background Color section, click the eighth
square in the second row (it’s a light, dusty purple).
18. Click OK twice.
52 Module 2 PivotTables and PivotCharts
The Format Cells dialog box closes, and your format appears in the PivotTable
Styles gallery.
19. Click the new style.
Excel 2007 formats your PivotTable using your custom PivotTable style.
20. On the Design contextual tab, in the PivotTable Style Options group, clear the
Banded Rows check box.
Excel 2007 removes the banding from your PivotTable.
FormattingPivotTables 53
21. Select the cell ranges K6:K17 and K20:K31.
22. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, click ConditionalFormatting, point to Color
Scales, and in the top row, click the three-color scale with red at the top.
Excel 2007 applies the conditional format to the selected cells.
CLOSE the Formatting workbook.
54 Module 2 PivotTables and PivotCharts
Creating PivotTables from External Data
Although most of the time you will create PivotTables from data stored in Excel 2007
worksheets, you can also bring data from outside sources into Excel 2007. For example,
you might need to work with data created in another spreadsheet program with a file
format that Excel 2007 can’t read directly. Fortunately, you can export the data from the
original program into a text file, which Excel 2007 then translates into a worksheet.
Spreadsheet programs store data in cells, so the goal of representing spreadsheet data
in a text file is to indicate where the contents of one cell end and those of the next cell
begin. The character that marks the end of a cell is a delimiter, in that it marks the end
(or “limit”) of a cell. The most common cell delimiter is the comma, so the delimited
sequence 15, 18, 24, 28 represents data in four cells. The problem with using commas
to delimit financial data is that larger values—such as 52,802—can be written by using
commas as thousands markers. To avoid confusion when importing a text file, the most
commonly used delimiter for financial data is the Tab character.
To import data from a text file, on the Data tab, in the Get External Data group, click
From Text to display the Import Text File dialog box.
From within the Import Text File dialog box, you browse to the directory that ­contains the
text file you want to import. Double-clicking the file launches the Text Import Wizard.
Creating PivotTables from External Data 55
The first page of the Text Import Wizard enables you to indicate whether the data file
you are importing is Delimited or Fixed Width; Fixed Width means that each cell value
will fall within a specific position in the file. Clicking Next to accept the default choice,
Delimited (which Excel 2007 assigns after examining the data source you selected),
­advances you to the next wizard screen.
This screen enables you to choose the delimiter for the file (in this case, Excel 2007
­detected tabs in the file and selected the Tab check box for you) and gives you a preview
of what the text file will look like when imported. Clicking Next advances you to the final
wizard screen.
5 Module2 PivotTablesandPivotCharts
This screen enables you to change the data type and formatting of the columns in your
data list. Because you’ll assign number styles and PivotTable Quick Styles after you create
the PivotTable, you can click Finish to import the data into your worksheet. After the
data is in Excel 2007, you can work with it normally.
In this exercise, you will import a data list into Excel 2007 from a text file and then create
a PivotTable based on that list.
USE the Creating text file. The instructions in this exercise assume that this practice file is
located in the Documents\Microsoft Press\Excel2007SBS\PivotTablesCharts folder. Your
instructor will tell you if the file is in a different location on your computer.
1. On the Data tab, in the GetExternalDatagroup, click FromText.
The Import Text File dialog box opens.
2. Navigate to the Documents\Microsoft Press\Excel2007SBS\PivotTablesCharts folder,
and then double-click Creating.txt.
The Text Import Wizard starts.
3. Verify that the Delimited option is selected, and then click Next.
The next Text Import Wizard page appears.
4. In the Delimiters section, verify that the Tab check box is selected and also verify
that the data displayed in the Datapreview area reflects the structure you expect.
5. Click Finish.
The Import Data dialog box opens.
Creating PivotTables from External Data 57
6. Verify that the Existing worksheet option is selected, and then click OK.
Excel 2007 imports the data into your workbook.
7. On the Insert tab, in the Tables group, click PivotTable.
The Create PivotTable dialog box opens.
8. Verify that the Select a table or range option is selected, that the range
Sheet1$A$1:$H$6571 appears in the Table/Range field, and that the New
Worksheet option is selected.
9. Click OK.
Excel 2007 creates a new worksheet.
10. In the PivotTable Field List task pane, drag the Volume field header to the Values
area.
11. Drag the Weekday field header to the Column Labels area.
12. Drag the Center field header to the Row Labels data area.
5 Module2 PivotTablesandPivotCharts
13. On the QuickAccessToolbar, click the Save button.
Save
The Save As dialog box opens.
14. Browse to the Documents\Microsoft Press\Excel2007SBS\PivotTablesCharts folder.
15. In the Filename field, type ImportedData.
1. Click OK.
Excel 2007 saves your file.
CLOSE the Imported Data workbook.
Creating Dynamic Charts by Using PivotCharts 59
Creating Dynamic Charts by Using PivotCharts
Just as you can create tables that you can reorganize on the fly to emphasize different
aspects of the data in a list, you can also create dynamic charts, or PivotCharts, to reflect
the contents and organization of a PivotTable.
Creating a PivotChart is fairly straightforward. Just click any cell in a list or data table you
would use to create a PivotTable, and then click the Insert tab. In the Tables group, in
the PivotTable list, click PivotChart. In a worksheet with an existing PivotTable, click a cell
in the PivotTable, display the Insert tab and then, in the Charts group, click the type of
chart you want to create.
Any changes to the PivotTable on which the PivotChart is based are reflected in the
PivotChart. For example, if the data in an underlying data list changes, clicking the Refresh
Data button in the Data group on the Options contextual tab will change the PivotChart
to reflect the new data. Also, you can filter the contents of the PivotTable shown here by
clicking 2003 in the Year list and then clicking OK. The PivotTable then shows revenues
from 2003. The PivotChart also reflects the filter.
60 Module 2 PivotTables and PivotCharts
See Also For more information about manipulating PivotTables, see “Filtering, Showing, and
Hiding PivotTable Data” earlier in this module.
The PivotChart has controls with which you can filter the data in the PivotChart and
PivotTable. Clicking the Weekday arrow, clicking (All) in the list that appears, and then
clicking OK will restore the PivotChart to its original configuration.
If you ever want to change the chart type of an existing chart, you can do so by selecting
the chart and then, on the Design tab, in the Type group, clicking Change Chart Type to
display the Change Chart Type dialog box. When you select the desired type and click
OK, Excel 2007 re-creates your chart.
Important If your data is the wrong type to be represented by the chart type you select,
Excel 2007 displays an error message.
CreatingDynamicChartsbyUsingPivotCharts 1
In this exercise, you will create a PivotTable and associated PivotChart, change the underlying data and update the PivotChart to reflect that change, and then change the
PivotChart’s type.
USE the Revenue Analysis workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice file is
located on your computer.
OPEN the Revenue Analysis workbook.
1. On the Through2006 worksheet, click any cell in the data table.
2. On the Insert tab, in the Tables group, click the PivotTable arrow and then, in the
list that appears, click PivotChart.
The Create PivotTable With PivotChart dialog box opens.
Insert PivotTable
3. Verify that the QuarterlyRevenue table appears in the Table/Range field and that
the NewWorksheet option is selected.
4. Click OK.
Excel 2007 creates the PivotTable and associated PivotChart.
5. In the PivotTableFieldList task pane, drag the Center field header from the
Choosefieldstoaddtoreport area to the LegendFields area.
. Drag the Year field header from the Choosefieldstoaddtoreport pane to the
Axis Fields area.
62 Module 2 PivotTables and PivotCharts
7. Drag the Quarter field header from the Choose fields to add to report area to the
Axis Fields area, positioning it below the Year field header.
8. Drag the Revenue field header from the Choose fields to add to report area to
the Values area.
Excel 2007 updates the PivotChart to reflect the field placements.
9. Click the 2007 sheet tab.
The 2007 worksheet appears.
10. Select the data in cells B2:E10, and then press H+c.
Excel 2007 copies the data to the Clipboard.
11. On the tab bar, click the Through 2006 sheet tab.
The Through 2006 worksheet appears.
12. Select cell B147, and then press H+v.
Excel 2007 pastes the data into the worksheet and includes it in the table.
Creating Dynamic Charts by Using PivotCharts 63
13. Click the tab of the worksheet that contains the PivotChart.
The PivotChart appears.
14. Select the PivotChart and then, on the Analyze contextual tab, in the Data group,
click Refresh.
Excel 2007 adds the new table data to your PivotChart.
15. On the Design contextual tab, in the Type group, click Change Chart Type.
The Change Chart Type dialog box opens.
16. Click Line, and then click the second Line chart subtype.
17. Click OK.
Excel 2007 changes your PivotChart to a line chart.
18. In the PivotTable Field List task pane, in the Choose fields to add to report area,
click the Center field header.
4 Module2 PivotTablesandPivotCharts
19. Click the filter arrow that appears and then, in the filter menu, clear the SelectAll
check box.
Excel 2007 removes the check boxes from the filter list items.
20. Select the Northeast check box, and then click OK.
Excel 2007 filters the PivotChart.
CLOSE the Revenue Analysis workbook.
Key Points 65
Key Points
l You can use a PivotTable to rearrange your data dynamically, enabling you to
emphasize different aspects without creating new worksheets.
l Using the PivotTable Field List task pane makes creating and modifying a PivotTable
very straightforward.
l Just as you can limit the data shown in a static worksheet, you can use filters to
limit the data shown in a PivotTable. You can also make data stand out by using
formatting and styles.
l If you have data in a compatible format, such as a text file, you can import that
data into Excel 2007 and create a PivotTable from it.
l A PivotChart enables you to rearrange your chart on the fly, emphasizing different
aspects of the same data without having to create a new chart for each view.
3 Macros
In this module, you will learn to:
✔ Describe and examine macros.
✔ Create and modify macros.
✔ Run macros when a button is clicked.
✔ Run macros when a workbook is opened.
Many tasks you perform in Microsoft Office Excel 2007 (for example, entering sales data
for a particular day or adding formulas to a worksheet) are done once or (for example,
changing the format of a cell range) can be repeated quickly using available tools in
Excel 2007. However, you will often perform one or two tasks frequently that require a
lot of steps to accomplish. For example, you might have a number of cells in a worksheet
that contain important data you use quite often in presentations to your colleagues.
Instead of going through a lengthy series of steps to highlight the cells with the important information, you can create a macro, or a recorded series of actions, to perform the
steps for you. After you have created a macro, you can run, edit, or delete it as needed.
In Excel 2007, you run and edit macros using the items available in the Macros group on
the View tab. You can make your macros easier to access by creating new buttons on the
Quick Access Toolbar, to which you can assign your macros. If you run a macro to highlight
specific cells in a worksheet every time you show that worksheet to a colleague, you can
save time by adding a Quick Access Toolbar button that runs a macro to highlight the
cells for you.
Another handy feature of Excel 2007 macros is that you can create macros that run
when a workbook is opened. For example, you might want to ensure that no cells in
a worksheet are highlighted when the worksheet opens. You can create a macro that
removes any special formatting from your worksheet cells when its workbook opens,
enabling you to emphasize the data you want as you present the information to your
colleagues.
7
68 Module 3 Macros
In this module, you will open, run, create, and modify macros; create Quick Access
Toolbar buttons and shapes that enable you to run macros with a single mouse click; define macro security settings; and run a macro when a workbook is opened.
Important Before you can use the practice files in this module, you need to install them
from the course’s companion CD to their default location. Your instructor will provide more
information about these practice files.
Introducing Macros
69
Introducing Macros
After you have worked with your Excel 2007 documents for awhile, you will probably
discover some series of actions you perform repeatedly. Although many of these actions
(such as saving your changes and printing) can be accomplished quickly, some sequences
involve many steps and take time to accomplish by hand. For example, you might want to
highlight a number of cells in a worksheet to emphasize an aspect of your data. Instead
of highlighting the cells by hand every time you present your findings, you can create a
macro, or series of automated actions, to do the highlighting for you.
Macro Security in Excel 2007
It’s possible for unscrupulous programmers to write viruses and other harmful ­programs
using the Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) programming language, so you
need to be sure that you don’t run macros from unknown sources. In versions of Office
Excel prior to Excel 2007, you could define macro security levels to determine which
macros, if any, your workbooks would be allowed to run, but there was no workbook
type in which all macros were disallowed. Excel 2007 has several file types you can
use to control whether the workbook will allow macros to be run. The following table
­summarizes the macro-related file types.
Extension
Description
.xlsx
Regular Excel 2007 workbook; macros are disabled
.xlsm
Regular Excel 2007 workbook; macros are enabled
.xltx
Excel 2007 template workbook; macros are disabled
.xltm
Excel 2007 template workbook; macros are enabled
When you open a macro-enabled workbook, the Excel 2007 program-level ­security
­settings might prevent the workbook from running the macro code. When that happens,
Excel 2007 displays a security warning on the Message Bar.
70 Module 3 Macros
Clicking the Options button displays the Microsoft Office Security Options dialog box.
If you are expecting a workbook that contains macros and recognize the source of the
workbook, you can select the Enable This Content option and then click OK to enable
the workbook macros. Please take the time to verify the workbook’s source and whether
you expected the workbook to contain macros before enabling the content.
You can change your program-level security settings to make them more or less restrictive; to do so, click the Microsoft Office Button, click the Excel Options button and then,
in the Excel Options dialog box, click the Trust Center category. On the page that appears,
click the Trust Center Settings button to display a dialog box of the same name.
Introducing Macros
71
The Excel 2007 default macro security level is Disable All Macros With Notification, which
means that Excel 2007 displays a warning on the Message Bar, but you can enable the
macros by clicking the Options button and selecting the Enable This Content option.
Selecting the Disable All Macros Without Notification option does exactly what the label
says. If Consolidated Messenger’s company policy is to disallow all macros in all Excel
2007 workbooks, you would select the Disable All Macros Without Notification option.
Important Because it is possible to write macros that act as viruses, potentially causing
harm to your computer and spreading copies of themselves to other computers, you should
never choose the Enable All Macros security setting, even if you have virus-checking ­software
installed on your computer.
Examining Macros
The best way to get an idea of how macros work is to examine an existing macro. To do
that, display the View tab. In the Macros group, click the Macros button, and then click
View Macros.
72 Module 3 Macros
Tip In the Macro dialog box, you can display the macros available in other workbooks
by clicking the Macros In box and selecting a workbook by name or by selecting All Open
Workbooks to display every macro in any open workbook. If you select either of those
choices, the macro names displayed include the name of the workbook in which the macro
is stored. Clicking This Workbook displays the macros in the active workbook.
The Macro dialog box has a list of macros in your workbook. To view the code behind a
macro, you click the macro’s name and then click Edit to open the Microsoft Visual Basic
Editor.
Excel 2007 macros are recorded using VBA. The preceding graphic shows the code for
a macro that highlights the cell range C4:C7 and changes the cells’ formatting to bold.
After introductory information about the macro (its name and when it was created), the
first line of the macro identifies the cell range to be selected (in this case, cells C4:C7).
After the macros selects the cells, the next line of the macro changes the formatting of
the selected cells to bold, which has the same result as clicking a cell and then clicking the
Bold button in the Font group on the Home tab.
To see how the macro works, you can open the Macro dialog box, click the name of the
macro you want to examine, and then click Step Into. The Microsoft Visual Basic Editor
appears, with a highlight around the instruction that will be executed next.
IntroducingMacros
73
To execute an instruction, press F8. The highlight moves to the next instruction, and your
worksheet then changes to reflect the action that resulted from executing the preceding
instruction.
You can run a macro without stopping after each instruction by opening the Macro
dialog box, clicking the macro to run, and then clicking Run. You’ll usually run the macro
this way; after all, the point of using macros is to save time.
In this exercise, you will examine a macro in the Visual Basic Editor, move through the first
part of the macro one step at a time, and then run the entire macro without stopping.
USE the VolumeHighlights workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice file is
located on your computer.
OPEN the VolumeHighlights workbook.
1. On the MessageBar, click Options.
The Microsoft Office Security Options dialog box opens.
2. Select the Enablethiscontent option.
74 Module 3 Macros
3. Click OK.
The security warning disappears, and macros are enabled.
4. On the View tab, in the Macros group, click the Macros arrow and then, in the list
that appears, click View Macros.
The Macro dialog box opens.
5. Click the HighlightSouthern macro, and then click Edit.
The Visual Basic Editor opens, with the code for the HighlightSouthern macro
­displayed in the Module1 (Code) window.
6. In the Visual Basic Editor window, click the Close button.
Close
The Visual Basic Editor closes, and Excel displays the VolumeHighlights workbook.
7. In the Macros list, View Macros.
The Macro dialog box opens.
8. Click the HighlightSouthern macro, and then click Step Into.
The macro appears in the Visual Basic Editor, with the first macro instruction
highlighted.
9. Press the F8 key.
Excel 2007 highlights the next instruction.
Introducing Macros
75
10. Press the F8 key.
The macro selects the Atlantic row in the table.
11. Press the F8 key twice.
The macro changes the Atlantic row’s text color to red.
12. Click the Visual Basic Editor Close button.
A warning dialog box appears, indicating that closing the Visual Basic Editor will
stop the debugger.
13. Click OK.
The Visual Basic Editor closes.
14. In the Macros list, click View Macros.
The Macro dialog box opens.
15. Click the HighlightSouthern macro.
7 Module3 Macros
1. Click Run.
The Macro dialog box closes, and Excel 2007 runs the entire macro.
17. On the QuickAccessToolbar, click the Save button.
Save
Excel 2007 saves your work.
CLOSE the VolumeHighlights workbook.
Creating and Modifying Macros
77
Creating and Modifying Macros
The first step of creating a macro is to plan the process you want to automate. Computers
today are quite fast, so adding an extra step that doesn’t affect the outcome of a process
doesn’t slow you down noticeably, but leaving out a step means you will need to rerecord
your macro. After you plan your process, you can create a macro by clicking the View tab
and then, in the Macros group, clicking the Macros arrow. In the list that appears, click
Record Macro. When you do, the Record Macro dialog box opens.
After you type the name of your macro in the Macro Name box, click OK. You can
now perform the actions you want Excel 2007 to repeat later; when you’re done, in
the Macros list, click Stop Recording to add your macro to the list of macros available
in your workbook.
To modify an existing macro, you can simply delete the macro and rerecord it. Or if you
just need to make a quick change, you can open it in the Visual Basic Editor and add to
or change the macro’s instructions. To delete a macro, open the Macro dialog box, click
the macro you want to delete, and then click Delete.
In this exercise, you will record, save, and run a macro that removes the bold formatting
from selected cells.
7 Module3 Macros
USE the Yearly Sales Summary workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice
file is located on your computer.
OPEN the Yearly Sales Summary workbook.
1. On the View tab, in the Macros group, click the Macros arrow and then, in the list
that appears, click RecordMacro.
The Record Macro dialog box opens.
2. In the Macroname box, delete the existing name, and then type
RemoveHighlight.
3. Click OK.
The Record Macro dialog box closes.
4. Select the cell range C4:C7.
Bold
The text in these cells is currently bold.
5. On the Home tab, in the Font group, click the Bold button.
. On the View tab, in the Macros list, click StopRecording.
Excel 2007 stops recording the macro.
7. In the Macros list, click ViewMacros.
The Macro dialog box opens.
Creating and Modifying Macros
79
8. In the Macro name section, click RemoveHighlight, and then click Edit.
The Visual Basic Editor starts.
9. Click at the end of the line just above End Sub, press F, type Range(“C9”).
Select, and press F.
This macro statement selects cell C9.
10. Type Selection.Font.Bold = False, and then press F.
This macro statement removes bold formatting from the selected cell (C9).
11. On the Standard toolbar of the Visual Basic Editor, click the Save button to save
Save
your change.
A dialog box opens, informing you that you can’t save macros in a simple workbook.
12. In the dialog box, click No.
The Save As dialog box opens.
0 Module3 Macros
13. In the Saveastype list, click ExcelMacro-EnabledWorkbook(*.xlsm), and then
click Save.
Excel saves a marco-enabled version of the workbook.
14. On the title bar of the MicrosoftVisualBasic window, click the Close button.
Close
The Visual Basic Editor closes.
15. Select cells C3:C9, and format them as bold.
1. In the Macros list, click ViewMacros.
The Macro dialog box opens.
17. Click Remove Highlight, and then click Run.
The bold formatting is removed from cells C4, C5, C6, C7, and C9.
1. On the QuickAccessToolbar, click the Save button.
Excel 2007 saves your workbook.
CLOSE the Yearly Sales Summary workbook.
Running Macros When a Button Is Clicked
81
Running Macros When a Button Is Clicked
The Ribbon, which is the most visible indicator of the new Microsoft Office Fluent user
interface, enables you to discover the commands built into Excel 2007 quickly. However,
it can take a few seconds to display the View tab, open the Macro dialog box, select the
macro you want to run, and click the Run button. When you’re in the middle of a presentation, taking even those few seconds can reduce your momentum and force you to regain
your audience’s attention. Excel 2007 offers several ways for you to make your macros
more accessible.
If you want to display the Macro dialog box quickly, you can add the View Macros button
to the Quick Access Toolbar. To do so, click the Customize Quick Access Toolbar button at
the right edge of the Quick Access Toolbar, and then click More Commands to display the
Customize tab of the Excel Options dialog box.
Learn More For more information about customizing the Quick Access Toolbar, see the
beginning-level course, Learn Microsoft Office Excel 2007 Step by Step, Level 1.
82 Module 3 Macros
When you display the Popular Commands command group, you’ll see that the last
item in the command pane is View Macros. When you click the View Macros item, click
the Add button, and then click OK, Excel 2007 adds the command to the Quick Access
Toolbar and closes the Excel Options dialog box. Clicking the View Macros button on the
Quick Access Toolbar displays the Macro dialog box, which saves a significant amount of
time compared to displaying the View tab and moving the mouse to the far right edge
of the Ribbon.
If you prefer to run a macro without having to display the Macro dialog box, you can do
so by adding a button representing the macro to the Quick Access Toolbar. Clicking that
button runs the macro immediately, which is very handy when you create a macro for a
task you perform frequently. To add a button representing a macro to the Quick Access
Toolbar, click the Customize Quick Access Toolbar button at the right edge of the Quick
Access Toolbar, and then click More Commands to display the Customize tab of the Excel
Options dialog box. From there, in the Choose Commands From list, click Macros. Click the
macro you want represented on the Quick Access Toolbar, click Add, and then click OK.
If you add more than one macro button to the Quick Access Toolbar or if you want
to change the button that represents your macro on the Quick Access Toolbar, you
can ­select a new button from more than 160 options. To assign a new button to your
macro, click the macro item in the Customize Quick Access Toolbar pane and click
the Modify button to display your choices. Click the button you want, type a new
text value to appear when a user points to the button, and then click OK twice (the
first time to close the Modify Button dialog box and the second to close the Excel
Options dialog box).
RunningMacrosWhenaButtonIsClicked
3
Finally, you can have Excel 2007 run a macro when you click a shape in your workbook.
Assigning macros to shapes enables you to create “buttons” that are graphically richer
than those available on the Quick Access Toolbar. If you’re so inclined, you can even
create custom button layouts that represent other objects, such as a remote control.
To run a macro when you click a shape, right-click the shape, and then click Assign
Macro on the shortcut menu that appears. In the Assign Macro dialog box, click
the macro you want to run when you click the shape, and then click OK.
Important When you assign a macro to run when you click a shape, don’t change the
name of the macro that appears in the Assign Macro dialog box. The name that appears
refers to the object and what the object should do when it is clicked; changing the macro
name breaks that connection and prevents Excel 2007 from running the macro.
In this exercise, you will add the View Macros button to the Quick Access Toolbar, add
a macro button to the Quick Access Toolbar, assign a macro to a workbook shape, and
then run the macros.
USE the Performance Dashboard workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice
file is located on your computer.
OPEN the Performance Dashboard workbook.
1. If necessary, click the Options button that appears on the Message Bar. Then in the
MicrosoftOfficeSecurityOptions dialog box, click Enablethiscontentoption,
and click OK.
2. On the QuickAccessToolbar, click the CustomizeQuickAccessToolbar button,
Customize Quick
Access Toolbar
and then click MoreCommands.
The Customize page of the Excel Options dialog box appears, displaying the
Popular Commands category in the Choose Commands From panel.
3. In the Choosecommandsfrom panel, click ViewMacros.
4. Click Add.
The View Macros command appears in the Customize Quick Access Toolbar panel.
4 Module3 Macros
5. In the Choosecommandsfrom list, click Macros.
The available macros appear in the panel below.
. In the Choosecommandsfrom panel, click SavingsHighlight.
Troubleshooting If macros in the workbook are not enabled, the SavingsHighlight
macro will not appear in the list.
7. Click Add.
The SavingsHighlight macro appears in the Customize Quick Access Toolbar panel.
. In the CustomizeQuickAccessToolbar panel, click the SavingsHighlight command.
9. Click Modify.
The Modify Button dialog box opens.
10. Click the blue button with the white circle inside it (the fourth button from the left
on the top row).
11. Click OK twice to close the ModifyButton dialog box and the ExcelOptions
dialog box.
The Excel Options dialog box closes, and the View Macros and SavingsHighlight
buttons appear on the Quick Access Toolbar.
12. Right-click the ShowEfficiency shape, and then click AssignMacro.
RunningMacrosWhenaButtonIsClicked
5
The Assign Macro dialog box opens.
13. Click EfficiencyHighlight, and then click OK.
The Assign Macro dialog box closes.
14. On the QuickAccessToolbar, click the SavingsHighlight button.
SavingsHighlight
Excel 2007 runs the macro, which applies a conditional format to the values in the
Savings column of the table on the left.
15. Click the ShowEfficiency shape.
Excel 2007 runs the macro, which applies a conditional format to the values in the
Efficiency column of the table on the right.
1. On the QuickAccessToolbar, click the Save button to save your work.
Save
CLOSE the Performance Dashboard workbook.
Module3 Macros
Running Macros When a Workbook Is Opened
One advantage of writing Excel 2007 macros in VBA is that you can have Excel 2007 run a
macro whenever a workbook is opened. For example, if you use a worksheet for presentations, you can create macros that render the contents of selected cells in bold type, italic,
or different typefaces to set the data apart from data in neighboring cells. If you close a
workbook without removing that formatting, however, the contents of your workbook will
have highlights when you open it. Although this is not a catastrophe, returning the workbook to its original formatting might take a few seconds to accomplish.
Instead of running a macro by hand, or even from a toolbar button or a menu, you can
have Excel 2007 run a macro whenever a workbook is opened. The trick of making that
happen is in the name you give the macro. Whenever Excel 2007 finds a macro with the
name Auto_Open, it runs the macro when the workbook to which it is attached is opened.
Tip If you have your macro security set to the Disable With Notification level, clicking the
Options button that appears on the Message Bar, selecting the Enable This Content option,
and then clicking OK allows the Auto_Open macro to run.
In this exercise, you will create a macro to run whenever someone opens the workbook
to which it is attached.
USE the RunOnOpen workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice file is
located on your computer.
OPEN the RunOnOpen workbook.
1. If necessary, click the Options button that appears on the MessageBar.
The Microsoft Office Security Options dialog box opens.
2. Click Enablethiscontent, and then click OK.
The Microsoft Office Security Options dialog box closes.
3. On the View tab, in the Macros group, click the Macros arrow and then, in the list
that appears, click RecordMacro.
The Record Macro dialog box opens.
4. In the Macroname box, delete the existing name, and then type Auto_Open.
Running Macros When a Workbook Is Opened
87
5. Click OK.
The Record Macro dialog box closes.
6. Select the cell range B3:C11.
7. On the Home tab, in the Font group, click the Bold button twice.
Bold
The first click of the Bold button formats all the selected cells in bold; the second click
removes the bold formatting from all the selected cells.
8. In the Macros list, click Stop Recording.
Excel 2007 stops recording your macro.
9. In the Macros list, click View Macros.
The Macro dialog box opens.
Module3 Macros
10. Click Highlight, and then click Run.
The contents of cells C4, C6, and C10 appear in bold type.
Save
Close
11. On the QuickAccessToolbar, click the Save button to save your work.
12. Click the Close button to close the RunOnOpen workbook.
13. Click the MicrosoftOfficeButton and then, in the RecentDocuments list, click
RunOnOpen.xlsm. If a warning appears, click Options, click Enablethiscontent,
and then click OK to enable macros.
RunOnOpen opens, and the contents of cells C4, C6, and C10 change immediately
to regular type.
14. On the QuickAccessToolbar, click the Save button to save your work.
CLOSE the RunOnOpen workbook.
Key Points
89
Key Points
l Macros are handy tools you can use to perform repetitive tasks quickly, such as
­inserting blocks of text.
l Excel 2007 uses macro-enabled workbook types, which have the file extensions .xlsm
(a macro-enabled workbook) and .xltm (a macro-enabled template workbook).
l You don’t have to be a programmer to use macros; you can record your actions
and have Excel 2007 save them as a macro.
l You can create Quick Access Toolbar buttons and shapes that, when clicked, run
a macro. Or you can run a macro automatically when a workbook is opened.
4
OfficeDocument
Recycling
In this module you will learn to:
✔ Include Office documents in worksheets.
✔ Store workbooks as parts of other Office documents.
✔ Create hyperlinks.
✔ Paste charts into other documents.
By itself, Microsoft Office Excel 2007 provides a broad range of tools so that you can
store, present, and summarize your financial data. Other 2007 Microsoft Office system
programs extend your capabilities even further, enabling you to create databases, presentations, written reports, and custom Web pages through which you can organize
and communicate your data in print and over networks.
All the Microsoft Office system programs interact in many useful ways. For example,
you can include a file created with another Microsoft Office system program in an Excel
2007 worksheet. If you use Microsoft Office Word 2007 to write a quick note about why
a customer’s shipping expenditures decreased significantly in January, you can include
the report in your workbook. Similarly, you can include your Excel 2007 workbooks in
documents created with other Microsoft Office system programs. If you want to copy
only part of a workbook, such as a chart, to another Microsoft Office system document,
you can do that as well.
Excel 2007 integrates well with the Web. If you know of a Web-based resource that
would be useful to someone who is viewing a document, you can create a hyperlink, or
connection from a document to a place in the same file or to another file anywhere on
a network or the Internet that the user’s computer can reach.
91
92 Module 4 Office Document Recycling
In this module, you will learn how to include a Microsoft Office system document in a
worksheet, store an Excel 2007 workbook as part of another Office document, create
hyperlinks, and paste an Excel 2007 chart into another document.
Important Before you can use the practice files in this module, you need to install them
from the course’s companion CD to their default location. Your instructor will provide more
information about these practice files.
Including Office Documents in Worksheets 93
Including Office Documents in Worksheets
A benefit of working with Excel 2007 is that because it is part of the Microsoft Office
system, it is possible to combine data from Excel 2007 and other Microsoft Office system programs to create informative documents and presentations. Just like combining
data from more than one Excel 2007 document, combining information from other
Microsoft Office system files with an Excel 2007 workbook entails either pasting another Microsoft Office system document into an Excel 2007 workbook or creating a
link between a workbook and the other document.
There are two advantages of creating a link between your Excel 2007 workbook and
another file. The first benefit is that linking to the other file, as opposed to copying the
entire file into your workbook, keeps your Excel 2007 workbook small. If the workbook
is copied to another drive or computer, you can maintain the link by copying the linked
file along with the Excel 2007 workbook, re-creating the link if the linked file is on the
same network as the Excel 2007 workbook. It is also possible to use the workbook without the linked file. The second benefit of linking to another file is that any changes in
the file to which you link are reflected in your Excel 2007 workbook.
Tip You usually have to close and reopen a workbook for any changes in the linked
­document to appear in your workbook. The exception to this rule occurs when you open
the file for editing from within your Excel 2007 workbook (as discussed later in this module).
You create a link between an Excel 2007 workbook and another Microsoft Office ­system
document by clicking the Insert tab and then, in the Text group, clicking Object to
­display the Object dialog box. In the Object dialog box, click the Create From File tab.
94 Module 4 Office Document Recycling
Clicking the Browse button on the Create From File tab opens the Browse dialog box,
from which you can browse to the folder containing the file you want to link to. After
you locate the file, double-clicking it closes the Browse dialog box and adds the file’s
name and path to the File Name box of the Object dialog box. To create a link to the
file, select the Link To File check box, and click OK. When you do, the file appears in
your workbook.
If you want to link a file to your workbook but don’t want the file image to take up much
space on the screen, you can also select the Display As Icon check box. After you select
the file and click OK, the file will be represented by the same icon used to represent it in
Windows.
After you have linked a file to your Excel 2007 workbook—for example, a Microsoft Office
PowerPoint 2007 file—you can edit the file by right-clicking its image in your workbook
and then, on the shortcut menu that appears, pointing to the appropriate Object command and clicking Edit. For an Office PowerPoint file, you point to Presentation Object.
The file will open in its native application. When you finish editing the file, your changes
appear in your workbook.
Tip The specific menu item you point to changes to reflect the program used to ­create the
file to which you want to link. For an Office Word 2007 document, for example, the menu
item you point to is Document Object.
In this exercise, you will link a PowerPoint 2007 presentation showing a business summary
to an Excel 2007 workbook and then edit the presentation from within Excel 2007.
Important You must have PowerPoint 2007 installed on your computer to complete this
exercise.
IncludingOfficeDocumentsinWorksheets 95
USE the Summary Presentation workbook and the 2007 Yearly Revenue Summary
presentation. The instructions in this exercise assume that these practice files are located in
the Documents\Microsoft Press\Excel2007SBS\OfficeDocs folder. Your instructor will tell you
if the files are in a different location on your computer.
OPEN the Summary Presentation workbook.
1. On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Object.
The Object dialog box opens.
2. Click the CreatefromFile tab.
The Create From File tab appears.
3. Click Browse.
The Browse dialog box opens.
4. Browse to the Documents\Microsoft Press\Excel2007SBS\OfficeDocs folder, click
2007 Yearly Revenue Summary.pptx, and then click Insert.
The Browse dialog box closes, and the full file path of the 2007 Yearly Revenue
Summary presentation appears in the File Name box.
5. Select the Linktofile check box, and then click OK.
Excel 2007 creates a link from your workbook to the presentation.
9 Module4 OfficeDocumentRecycling
. Right-click the presentation, point to PresentationObject, and then click Edit.
The presentation opens in a PowerPoint 2007 window.
7. Click ConsolidatedMessengerFY2007.
The text box containing Consolidated Messenger FY2007 is activated.
. Select the FY2007 text, and then type CalendarYear2007.
9. In PowerPoint 2007, on the QuickAccessToolbar, click the Save button.
Save
PowerPoint 2007 saves your changes, and Excel 2007 updates the linked object’s
appearance to reflect the new text.
10. Click the MicrosoftOfficeButton, and then click Save.
Microsoft Office
Button
CLOSE the Summary Presentation workbook and the 2007 Yearly Revenue Summary
presentation.
Storing Workbooks as Parts of Other Office Documents 97
Storing Workbooks as Parts of Other Office
Documents
In this module’s preceding section, you learned how to link to another file from within
your Excel 2007 workbook. The advantages of linking to a second file are that the size
of your workbook is kept small and any changes in the second document will be reflected
in your workbook. The disadvantage is that the second document must be copied with
the workbook—or at least be on a network-accessible computer. If Excel 2007 can’t find or
access the second file where the link says it is located, Excel 2007 can’t display it. You can
still open your workbook, but you won’t see the linked file’s contents.
If file size isn’t an issue, and you want to ensure that the second document is always
available, you can embed the file in your workbook. Embedding another file in an Excel
2007 workbook means that the entirety of the other file is saved as part of your workbook. Wherever your workbook goes, the embedded file goes along with it. Of course,
the embedded version of the file is no longer connected to the original file, so changes
in one aren’t reflected in the other.
Important To view the embedded file, you need to have the program used to create it
installed on the computer where you open the workbook.
You can embed a file in an Excel 2007 workbook by following the procedure described
in the preceding section, except that the Link to file check box should not be selected.
It is also possible to embed your Excel 2007 workbooks in other Microsoft Office system
documents. In PowerPoint 2007, for example, you can embed an Excel 2007 file in a presentation by displaying the Insert tab in PowerPoint and then clicking Object to display
the Object dialog box. Then in the Object dialog box, click Create From File.
9 Module4 OfficeDocumentRecycling
To identify the file you want to embed, click the Browse button and then, in the Browse
dialog box that opens, navigate to the folder where the file is stored and double-click the
file. The Browse dialog box closes, and the file appears in the File Name box. Click OK to
embed your workbook in the presentation.
If you want to embed a workbook in a file created with another program, but you
don’t want the worksheet to take up much space on the screen, select the Display As
Icon check box. After you select the file to embed and click OK, the file is represented
by the same icon used to represent it in Windows. Double-clicking the icon opens the
embedded document in its original application.
To edit the embedded Excel 2007 workbook, right-click the workbook (or the icon
representing it) and then, on the shortcut menu that appears, point to Worksheet Object
and click Edit. The workbook opens for editing. After you finish making your changes,
you can click anywhere outside the workbook to return to the presentation.
In this exercise, you will embed an Excel 2007 workbook containing sales data in a
PowerPoint 2007 presentation and then change the formatting of the workbook from
within PowerPoint 2007.
Important You must have PowerPoint 2007 installed on your computer to complete this
exercise.
USE the 2007 Yearly Revenue Summary presentation and the RevenueByServiceLevel
workbook. The instructions in this exercise assume tha these practice files are located in the
Documents\Microsoft Press\Excel2007SBS\OfficeDocs folder. Your instructor will tell you if
the files are in a different location on your computer.
OPEN the 2007 Yearly Revenue Summary presentation.
1. In the Slides panel of the presentation window, click the second slide.
The second slide appears.
2. On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Object.
The Insert Object dialog box opens.
StoringWorkbooksasPartsofOtherOfficeDocuments 99
3. Click Createfromfile.
The Insert Object dialog box changes to allow you to enter a file name.
4. Click Browse.
The Browse dialog box opens.
5. Browse to the Documents\Microsoft Press\Excel2007SBS\OfficeDocs folder, and
then double-click the RevenueByServiceLevel workbook.
The Browse dialog box closes, and the file’s full path appears in the File Name box.
. Click OK.
The workbook appears in your presentation.
CLOSE the RevenueByServiceLevel workbook and the 2007 Yearly Revenue Summary
presentation.
100 Module 4 Office Document Recycling
Creating Hyperlinks
One of the hallmarks of the Web is that documents published on Web pages can
have references, or hyperlinks, to locations in the same document or to other Web
documents. A hyperlink functions much like a link between two cells or between
two files, but hyperlinks can reach any computer on the Web, not just those on a
corporate network. Hyperlinks that haven’t been clicked usually appear as underlined blue text, and followed hyperlinks appear as underlined purple text, but
those settings can be changed.
To create a hyperlink, click the cell in which you want to insert the hyperlink and then,
on the Insert tab, click Hyperlink. The Insert Hyperlink dialog box opens.
Tip You can also open the Insert Hyperlink dialog box by pressing Ctrl+K.
Creating Hyperlinks
101
You can choose one of four types of targets, or destinations, for your hyperlink: an existing file or Web page, a place in the current document, a new document you create on
the spot, or an e-mail address. By default, the Insert Hyperlink dialog box displays the
tools to connect to an ­existing file or Web page.
To create a hyperlink to another file or Web page, you can use the Look In box navigation
tool to locate the file. If you recently opened the file or Web page to which you want to
link, you can click either the Browsed Pages or the Recent Files button to display the Web
pages or files in your History list.
If you want to create a hyperlink to another place in the current Excel 2007 workbook,
you click the Place In This Document button to display a list of available targets in the
current workbook.
To select the worksheet to which you want to refer, you click the worksheet name in the
Or Select A Place In This Document box. When you do, a 3-D reference with the name of
the worksheet and cell A1 on that worksheet appears in the Text To Display box.
102 Module 4 Office Document Recycling
If you want to refer to a specific cell on a worksheet, click the worksheet name in the
Or Select A Place In This Document box, and then change the cell reference in the Type
The Cell Reference box.
You can also create hyperlinks that generate e-mail messages to an address of your
choice. To create this type of hyperlink, which is called a mailto hyperlink, click the
E-mail Address button.
In the dialog box that appears, you can type the recipient’s e-mail address in the E-mail
Address box and the subject line for messages sent via this hyperlink in the Subject box.
Tip If you use Windows Mail, Microsoft Office Outlook, or Microsoft Outlook Express
as your e-mail program, a list of recently used addresses will appear in the Recently Used
E-Mail Addresses box. You can insert any of those addresses in the E-mail Address box by
clicking the address.
Clicking a mailto hyperlink causes the user’s default e-mail program to open and create
a new e-mail. The e-mail message is addressed to the address you entered in the E-mail
Address box, and the subject is set to the text you typed in the Subject box.
Regardless of the type of hyperlink you create, you can specify the text you want to
represent the hyperlink in your worksheet. You type that text in the Text To Display
box. When you click OK, the text you type there appears in your worksheet, formatted
as a hyperlink.
CreatingHyperlinks
103
Tip If you leave the Text To Display box empty, the actual link will appear in your worksheet.
To edit an existing hyperlink, click the cell containing the hyperlink and then, on the
shortcut menu that appears, click Edit Hyperlink. You can also click Open Hyperlink to
go to the target document or create a new e-mail message, or click Remove Hyperlink
to delete the hyperlink.
Tip If you delete a hyperlink from a cell, the text from the Text To Display box remains in
the cell, but it no longer functions as a hyperlink.
In this exercise, you will create a hyperlink to another document and then a second
hyperlink to a different location in the current workbook.
USE the Hyperlink and Level Descriptions workbooks. The instructions in this exercise assume that these practice files are located in the Documents\Microsoft Press\Excel2007SBS\
OfficeDocs folder. Your instructor will tell you if the files are in a different location on your
computer.
OPEN the Hyperlink workbook.
1. On the Revenue by Level worksheet, click cell B9.
2. On the Insert tab, in the Links group, click the InsertHyperlink button.
The Insert Hyperlink dialog box opens.
Insert Hyperlink
3. If necessary, click the ExistingFileorWebPage button.
4. If necessary, use the controls to the right of the Lookin box to navigate to the
Documents\Microsoft Press\Excel2007SBS\OfficeDocs folder.
The files in the target folder appear in the Insert Hyperlink dialog box.
5. In the file list, click the LevelDescriptions workbook, and then click OK.
The workbook’s full path appears in the Text To Display box and the Address box.
104 Module 4 Office Document Recycling
6. In the Text to display box, edit the value so that it reads Level Descriptions.
7. Click OK.
8. Click the hyperlink in cell B9.
The Level Descriptions workbook appears.
9. In the Level Descriptions workbook, click the Microsoft Office Button, and then
click Close.
Microsoft Office
Button
The Level Descriptions workbook closes.
10. Right-click cell B11, and then click Hyperlink.
The Insert Hyperlink dialog box opens.
11. In the Link to pane, click Place in This Document.
The document elements to which you can link appear in the dialog box.
CreatingHyperlinks
105
12. In the Orselectaplaceinthisdocument pane, click Notes.
13. Click OK.
The Insert Hyperlink dialog box closes, and Excel 2007 creates a hyperlink in cell B11.
14. Right-click cell B11, and then click EditHyperlink.
The Edit Hyperlink dialog box opens.
15. Edit the Texttodisplay box’s value so it reads RevenueNotes.
1. Click OK.
The Edit Hyperlink dialog box closes, and the text in cell B11 changes to Revenue
Notes.
17. On the QuickAccessToolbar, click the Save button to save your work.
Save
CLOSE the Hyperlink and Level Descriptions workbooks.
10 Module4 OfficeDocumentRecycling
Pasting Charts into Other Documents
A final way to include objects from one workbook in another workbook is to copy the
object you want to share and then paste it into its new location. Copying Excel 2007
charts to Word 2007 documents and PowerPoint 2007 presentations enables you to
reuse your data without inserting a worksheet into the file and re-creating your chart
in that new location.
When you want to copy the image of the chart in its current form to another document,
you just right-click the chart, click Copy on the shortcut menu that appears, and then paste
the image into the other document. After the other Microsoft Office system program completes the paste operation, it displays the Paste Options button. Clicking the Paste Options
button enables you to choose whether to paste the chart as a chart that remains linked to
the worksheet that provides its data, to paste the entire workbook, or to paste an image
of the chart in its current state.
Tip In previous versions of Microsoft Office, the default option was to paste an image of
the chart. In the 2007 release, the programs assume that you want to paste the chart and
retain its connection to the source workbook.
In this exercise, you will copy a chart containing sales information to the Clipboard and
paste an image of the chart into a PowerPoint 2007 presentation.
Important You must have PowerPoint 2007 installed on your computer to complete this
exercise.
USE the Revenue Chart workbook and the Revenue Summary presentation. Your instructor
will tell you where these practice files are located on your computer.
OPEN the Revenue Chart workbook and the Revenue Summary presentation.
1. In the Revenue Chart workbook, right-click the chart, and then click Copy.
Excel 2007 copies the workbook to the Clipboard.
2. Display the Revenue Summary presentation.
3. Right-click a blank spot in the visible slide, and click Paste.
The chart appears in the presentation, and PowerPoint 2007 displays a Paste
Options button.
PastingChartsintoOtherDocuments
107
4. In the PasteOptions list, click PasteasPicture.
Paste Options
The chart appears as a static image.
CLOSE the Revenue Chart workbook and the Revenue Summary presentation.
108 Module 4 Office Document Recycling
Key Points
l You can exchange data between Excel 2007 and quite a few other programs by
pasting and linking it.
l You can embed Excel 2007 worksheets in other Office documents and embed
other Office documents (such as PowerPoint 2007 presentations) in Excel 2007
workbooks.
l Adding hyperlinks to Web pages, other documents, or specific locations in the cur-
rent workbook is quick and easy in the Insert Hyperlink dialog box. After you create
a hyperlink, you can change any part of it.
l If you create a chart in Excel 2007, you can paste it directly into another Office
document.
5
Collaboration
In this module you will learn to:
✔ Share data lists.
✔ Manage comments.
✔ Track and manage colleagues’ changes.
✔ Protect workbooks and worksheets.
✔ Authenticate workbooks.
✔ Save workbooks for the Web.
Even though a single individual might be tasked with managing a company’s financial
data and related information, many people have input when making future revenue
projections. You and your colleagues can enhance the workbook data you share by
adding comments that offer insight into the information the data represents, such as
why revenue was so strong during a particular month or whether a service level might
be discontinued. If the workbook in which those projections and comments will be
stored is available on a network or an intranet, you can allow more than one user to
access the workbook at a time by turning on workbook sharing. After a workbook has
been shared with your colleagues, you can have the workbook mark and record any
changes made to it. After all changes have been made, the workbook’s administrator
can decide which changes to keep and which to reject.
If you prefer to limit the number of colleagues who can view and edit your workbooks,
you can add password protection to a workbook, worksheet, cell range, or even an individual cell. By adding password protection, you can prevent changes to critical elements
of your workbooks. You can also hide formulas used to calculate values.
If you work in an environment in which you and colleagues, both inside and outside your
organization, exchange files frequently, you can use a digital signature to help verify that
your workbooks and any macros they contain are from a trusted source.
Finally, if you want to display information on a Web site, you can do so by saving a workbook as a Web page. Your colleagues won’t be able to edit the information, but they will
be able to view it, and comment by e-mail or phone.
109
110 Module 5 Collaboration
In this module, you will share a data list, manage comments in workbook cells, track and
manage changes made by colleagues, protect workbooks and worksheets, and digitally
sign your workbooks.
Important Before you can use the practice files in this module, you need to install them
from the course’s companion CD to their default location. Your instructor will provide more
information about these practice files.
Sharing Data Lists
111
Sharing Data Lists
To enable several users to edit a workbook simultaneously, you must turn on workbook
sharing. Enabling more than one user to edit a workbook simultaneously is perfect for an
enterprise such as Consolidated Messenger, whose employees need to look up customer
information, shipment numbers, and details on mistaken deliveries.
To turn on workbook sharing, on the Review tab, in the Changes group, click Share
Workbook. In the Share Workbook dialog box, turn on workbook sharing by selecting
the Allow Changes By More Than One User At The Same Time check box. You can then
set the sharing options for the active workbook by clicking the Advanced tab.
Important You can’t share a workbook that contains a data table. To share the workbook,
convert the table to a regular cell range by clicking the table, clicking the Design tab and
then, in the Tools group, clicking Convert To Range. Click Yes in the dialog box that appears
to confirm the change.
On the Advanced tab of the Share Workbook dialog box, two settings are of particular
interest. The first determines whether Microsoft Office Excel 2007 should maintain a
history of changes made to the workbook and, if so, for how many days it should keep
the changes. The default setting is to retain a record of all changes made in the past 30
days, but you can enter any number of days you like. Unless it’s critical that you keep all
changes made to a workbook, you should probably stay with the default setting of 30
days so the list doesn’t become too large and unwieldy.
112 Module5 Collaboration
The other important setting on this tab deals with how Office Excel 2007 decides
which of two conflicting changes in a cell should be applied. For example, a service
level’s price might change, and two of your colleagues might type in what they think
the new price should be. Selecting the Ask Me Which Changes Win option enables
you to decide which price to keep.
Another way to share a workbook is to send a copy of it to your colleagues via e-mail.
Although the specific command to attach a file to an e-mail message is different in
every program, the most common method of attaching a file is to create a new e-mail
message and then click the Attach button, as in Microsoft Office Outlook 2007.
In this exercise, you will turn on workbook sharing and then attach the file to an Office
Outlook 2007 e-mail message.
Tip You must have Outlook 2007 installed on your computer to follow this procedure
exactly.
USE the Cost Projections workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice file is
located on your computer.
OPEN the Cost Projections workbook.
1. On the Review tab, in the Changes group, click ShareWorkbook.
The Share Workbook dialog box opens.
SharingDataLists
113
2. Select the Allowchangesbymorethanoneuseratthesametime check box.
3. Click OK.
A message box appears, indicating that you must save the workbook for the action
to take effect.
4. Click OK.
Excel 2007 saves and shares the workbook.
5. Click the MicrosoftOfficeButton, point to Send, and then click E-mail.
Microsoft Office
Button
A new e-mail message opens with the Cost Projections workbook attached.
. Type an address in the To box.
7. Click Send.
Your e-mail program sends the message. If Excel 2007 had to open your e-mail
program to send the message, the program closes.
CLOSE the Cost Projections workbook.
114 Module 5 Collaboration
Managing Comments
Excel 2007 makes it easy for you and your colleagues to insert comments in workbook
cells, adding insights that go beyond the cell data. For example, if a regional processing
center’s package volume is exceptionally high on a particular day, the center’s manager
can add a comment to the cell in which shipments are recorded for that day, noting
that two exceptionally large bulk shipments accounted for the disparity.
When you add a comment to a cell, a flag appears in the upper-right corner of the
cell. When you point to a cell with a comment, the comment appears in a box next to
the cell, along with the name of the user logged on to the computer at the time the
comment was created.
Important Note that the name attributed to a comment might not be the same as the person who actually created it. Enforcing access controls, such as requiring users to enter account
names and passwords when they access a computer, can help track the person who made a
comment or change.
You can add a comment to a cell by clicking the cell, clicking the Review tab, and then
clicking New Comment. When you do, the comment flag appears in the cell, and a comment box appears next to the cell. You can type the comment in the box and, when
you’re done, click another cell to close the box for editing. When you point to the cell
that contains the comment, the comment appears next to the cell.
If you want a comment to be shown the entire time the workbook is open, click the cell
that contains the comment, click the Review tab and then, in the Comments group, click
ManagingComments
115
Show/Hide Comment. You can hide the comment by clicking the same button when the
comment appears in the workbook, and delete the comment by clicking the Review tab
and then, in the Comments group, clicking Delete. Or you can open the comment for
editing by clicking Edit Comment in the Comments group.
Important When someone other than the original user edits a comment, that person’s
input is marked with the new user’s name and is added to the original comment.
If you want to select every cell that contains a comment, you can do so by using the
Go To Special dialog box. To display the Go To Special dialog box, click Find & Select in
the Editing group on the Home tab, and then click Go To Special. In the Go To Special
dialog box, click Comments, and then click OK. Excel 2007 then selects every cell that
contains a comment.
In this exercise, you will add comments to two cells. You will then highlight the cells that
contain comments, review a comment, and delete that comment.
USE the Projections for Comment workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice
file is located on your computer.
OPEN the Projections for Comment workbook.
1. Click cell E6.
2. On the Review tab, in the Comments group, click NewComment.
A red comment flag appears in cell E6, and a comment box appears next to
the cell.
116 Module 5 Collaboration
3. In the comment box, type Seems optimistic; move some improvement to the
next year?
4. Click any cell outside the comment box.
The comment box disappears.
5. Click cell G7.
6. On the Review tab, in the Comments group, click New Comment.
A red comment flag appears in cell G7, and a comment box appears next to
the cell.
7. In the comment box, type Should see more increase as we integrate new
processes.
8. Click any cell outside the comment box.
The comment box disappears.
9. On the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Find & Select, and then click Go To
Special.
The Go To Special dialog box opens.
ManagingComments
117
10. Click Comments, and then click OK.
Excel 2007 selects all cells that contain comments.
11. Click any unselected cell.
Excel 2007 removes the previous selection.
12. Click cell G7.
13. On the Review tab, in the Comments group, click Delete.
Excel 2007 deletes the comment.
CLOSE the Projections for Comment workbook.
118 Module 5 Collaboration
Tracking and Managing Colleagues’ Changes
Whenever you collaborate with a number of your colleagues to produce or edit a
document, you should consider tracking the changes each user makes. When you
turn on change tracking, any changes made to the workbook are highlighted in a
color assigned to the user who made the changes. One benefit of tracking changes
is that if you have a question about a change, you can quickly identify who made the
change and verify that it is correct. In Excel 2007, you can turn on change tracking in
a workbook by clicking the Review tab and then, in the Changes group, clicking Track
Changes and then Highlight Changes.
In the Highlight Changes dialog box that appears, select the Track Changes While
Editing check box. Selecting this check box saves your workbook, turns on change
tracking, and also shares your workbook, enabling more than one user to access the
workbook simultaneously.
You can use the controls in the Highlight Changes dialog box to choose which changes
to track, but clearing the When, Who, and Where check boxes makes Excel 2007 track
all changes. Now, whenever anyone makes a change to the workbook, the change is
­attributed to the user logged in to the computer from which the change was made.
Each user’s changes are displayed in a unique color. As with a comment, when you
point to a change, the date and time when the change was made and the name of
the user who made it appear as a ScreenTip.
After you and your colleagues finish modifying a workbook, you can decide which changes
to accept and which changes to reject. To start the process, click the Review tab. In the
Changes group, click Track Changes, and then click Accept Or Reject Changes. After you
clear the message box that indicates Excel 2007 will save your workbook, the Select Changes
To Accept Or Reject dialog box opens. From the When list, you can choose which changes
to review. The default choice is Not Yet Reviewed, but you can also click Since Date to open
a dialog box, into which you can enter the starting date of changes you want to review. To
review all changes in your workbook, clear the When, Who, and Where check boxes.
TrackingandManagingColleagues’Changes
119
When you are ready to accept or reject changes, click OK. The Accept Or Reject Changes
dialog box opens, with the first change described in the body of the dialog box. Clicking
the Accept button institutes the change; whereas clicking the Reject button removes the
change, restores the cell to its previous value, and erases any record of the change. Clicking
Accept All or Reject All implements all changes or restores all cells to their original values,
but you should choose one of those options only if you are absolutely certain you are
doing the right thing.
If you want an itemized record of all changes you have made since the last time you saved
the workbook, you can add a History worksheet to your workbook. To add a History worksheet, click Track Changes in the Changes group, and then click Highlight Changes to open
the Highlight Changes dialog box. Select the List Changes On A New Sheet check box.
When you click OK, a new worksheet named History appears in your workbook. The next
time you save your workbook, Excel 2007 will delete the History worksheet.
In this exercise, you will turn on change tracking in a workbook, make changes to the
workbook, accept or reject changes, and create a History worksheet.
USE the Projection Change Tracking workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice file is located on your computer.
OPEN the Projection Change Tracking workbook.
1. On the Review tab, in the Changes group, click TrackChanges, and then click
HighlightChanges.
The Highlight Changes dialog box opens.
2. Select the Trackchangeswhileediting.Thisalsosharesyourworkbook
check box.
The Highlight Which Changes area controls become active.
120 Module 5 Collaboration
3. Click OK.
A message box appears, indicating that Excel 2007 will save the workbook.
4. Click OK.
The message box closes. Excel 2007 saves the workbook and begins tracking
changes.
5. In cell E6, type 15%, and then press F.
A blue flag appears in the upper-left corner of cell E6.
6. In cell E7, type 12%, and then press F.
A blue flag appears in the upper-left corner of cell E7.
7. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Save button to save your work.
8.
On the Review tab, in the Changes group, click Track Changes, and then click
Save
Highlight Changes.
The Highlight Changes dialog box opens.
9. Select the List changes on a new sheet check box, and then click OK.
Excel 2007 creates and displays a worksheet named History, which contains a list of
all changes made since the last time a user accepted or rejected changes.
TrackingandManagingColleagues’Changes
121
10. Click the Sheet1 sheet tab.
The Sheet1 worksheet appears.
11. On the Review tab, in the Changes group, click TrackChanges, and then click
Accept/RejectChanges.
The Select Changes To Accept Or Reject dialog box opens.
12. Click OK.
The Select Changes To Accept Or Reject dialog box displays the first change.
13. Click Accept.
Excel 2007 keeps the change and then displays the next change.
14. Click Accept.
Excel 2007 keeps the change and deletes the History worksheet. The Accept Or
Reject Changes dialog box closes.
CLOSE the Projection Change Tracking workbook.
122 Module 5 Collaboration
Protecting Workbooks and Worksheets
Excel 2007 gives you the ability to share your workbooks over the Web, over a corporate
intranet, or by copying files for other users to take on business trips. An important part
of sharing files, however, is ensuring that only those users you want to have access to
the files can open or modify them. For example, Consolidated Messenger might have a
series of computers available in a processing center so supervisors can look up package
volumes and handling efficiency information. Although those computers are vital tools
for managing the business process, it doesn’t help the company to have unauthorized
personnel, even those with good intentions, accessing critical workbooks.
You can limit access to your workbooks or elements within workbooks by setting
­passwords. Setting a password for an Excel 2007 workbook means that any users who
want to access the protected workbook must enter the workbook’s password in a dialog
box that appears when they try to open the file. If users don’t know the password, they
cannot open the workbook.
To set a password for a workbook, open the workbook to be protected, click the Microsoft
Office Button, and then click Save As. The Save As dialog box opens, with the name of
the open workbook in the File Name box. In the lower-left corner of the dialog box,
click the Tools button and then click General Options to open the Save Options dialog
box. In the Save Options dialog box, you can require users to enter one password to
open the workbook and another to modify it. After you click OK, the Confirm Password
dialog box opens, in which you can verify the passwords required to access and modify
the workbook. After you have confirmed the passwords, click Save in the Save As dialog
box to finish adding password protection to the workbook. To later remove the passwords from a workbook, repeat these steps, but delete the passwords from the Save
Options dialog box and save the file.
Tip The best passwords are random strings of characters, but random characters are
hard to remember. One good method of creating hard-to-guess passwords is to combine
­elements of two words with a number in between. For example, you might have a password
wbk15pro, which could be read as “workbook, Chapter 15, protection.” In any event, avoid
dictionary words in English or any other language, as they can be found easily by passwordguessing programs available on the Internet.
If you want to allow anyone to open a workbook but want to prevent unauthorized ­users
from editing a worksheet, you can protect a worksheet by displaying that worksheet,
clicking the Review tab and then, in the Changes group, clicking Protect Sheet to open
the Protect Sheet dialog box.
Protecting Workbooks and Worksheets
123
In the Protect Sheet dialog box, you select the Protect Worksheet And Contents Of Locked
Cells check box to protect the sheet. You can also set a password that a user must type in
before protection can be turned off again and choose which elements of the worksheet a
user can change while protection is turned on. To enable a user to change a worksheet
element without entering the password, select the check box next to that element’s name.
The check box at the top of the worksheet mentions locked cells. A locked cell is a cell that
can’t be changed when worksheet protection is turned on. You can lock or unlock a cell by
right-clicking the cell and clicking Format Cells on the shortcut menu that appears. In the
Format Cells dialog box, you click the Protection tab and select the Locked check box.
When worksheet protection is turned on, selecting the Locked check box prevents unauthorized users from changing the contents or formatting of the locked cell, whereas selecting
the Hidden check box hides the formulas in the cell. You might want to hide the formula in
a cell if you draw sensitive data, such as customer contact information, from another workbook and don’t want casual users to see the name of the workbook in a formula.
Finally, you can password-protect a cell range. For example, you might want to let users
enter values in most worksheet cells but also want to protect the cells with formulas that
perform calculations based on those values. To password-protect a range of cells, select
the cells to protect, click the Review tab and then, in the Changes group, click Allow
Users To Edit Ranges. The Allow Users To Edit Ranges dialog box opens.
124 Module5 Collaboration
To create a protected range, click the New button to display the New Range dialog
box. Type a name for the range in the Title box, and then type a password in the Range
Password box. When you click OK, Excel 2007 asks you to confirm the password; after
you do, click OK in the Confirm Password dialog box and again in the Allow Users To
Edit Ranges dialog box to protect the range. Now, whenever users try to edit a cell in
the protected range, they are prompted for a password.
Tip Remember that a range of cells can mean just one cell!
In this exercise, you will password-protect a workbook, a worksheet, and a range of cells.
You will then hide the formula in a cell.
USE the SecureInfo workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice file is located
on your computer.
OPEN the SecureInfo workbook.
1. Click the MicrosoftOfficeButton, and then click SaveAs.
Microsoft Office
Button
The Save As dialog box opens.
2. Click the Tools button, and then click GeneralOptions.
The General Options dialog box opens.
3. Type work15pro in the Passwordtoopen box.
4. Type pro15work in the Passwordtomodify box.
5. Click OK.
The Confirm Password dialog box opens.
. In the Reenterpasswordtoproceed box, type work15pro.
7. Click OK.
The Confirm Password dialog box changes to ask you to reenter the password to
modify the workbook.
Protecting Workbooks and Worksheets
125
8. In the Reenter password to modify box, type pro15work.
9. Click OK.
The Confirm Password dialog box closes.
10. Click Save.
Excel 2007 saves the workbook.
11. If necessary, click the Performance sheet tab.
The Performance worksheet appears.
12. Right-click cell B8, and then click Format Cells.
The Format Cells dialog box opens.
13. Click the Protection tab.
The Protection tab appears.
14. Select the Hidden check box, and then click OK.
Excel 2007 formats cell B8 so that it won’t display its formula after you protect the
worksheet.
15. On the Review tab, in the Changes group, click Protect Sheet.
The Protect Sheet dialog box opens.
16. In the Password to unprotect sheet box, type prot300pswd.
12 Module5 Collaboration
17. Clear the Selectlockedcells and Selectunlockedcells check boxes, and then click OK.
The Confirm Password dialog box opens.
1. In the Reenterpasswordtoproceed box, type prot300pswd, and then click OK.
19. Click the Weights sheet tab.
The Weights worksheet appears.
20. Select the cell range B2:C7.
21. On the Review tab, in the Changes group, click AllowUserstoEditRanges.
The Allow Users To Edit Ranges dialog box opens.
22. Click New.
The New Range dialog box opens, with the range B2:C7 called out in the Refers To
Cells box.
23. In the Title box, type AllWeights.
24. In the Rangepassword box, type work15pro, and then click OK.
25. In the ConfirmPassword dialog box, reenter the password work15pro.
The range appears in the Allow Users To Edit Ranges box.
2. Click ProtectSheet.
The Protect Sheet dialog box opens.
27. In the Passwordtounprotectsheet box, type work15pro, and then click OK.
2. In the ConfirmPassword dialog box, reenter the password work15pro, and then
click OK.
CLOSE the SecureInfo workbook, saving your changes.
Authenticating Workbooks
127
Authenticating Workbooks
The unfortunate reality of exchanging files over networks, especially over the Internet, is
that you need to be sure you know the origin of the files you’re working with. One way an
organization can guard against files with viruses or substitute data is to authenticate every
workbook using a digital signature. A digital signature is a value created by combining a
user’s unique secret digital signature file mathematically with the contents of the workbook, which programs such as Excel 2007 can recognize and use to verify the identity of
the user who signed the file. A good analog for a digital signature is a wax seal, which was
used for thousands of years to verify the integrity and origin of a document.
Tip The technical details of and procedure for managing digital certificates are beyond
the scope of this course, but your network administrator should be able to create a digital
certificate for you. You can also directly purchase a digital signature from a third party,
which can usually be renewed annually for a small fee. For the purposes of this course,
you’ll use the selfcert.exe Microsoft Office system accessory program to generate a certificate with which to perform the exercise at the end of the module. This type of certificate is
useful for certifying a document on your own computer, but it is not a valid certificate to
verify yourself to others across your network or on the Internet.
To create a digital certificate you can use as a demonstration, open the Start menu, click
All Programs, click Microsoft Office, click Microsoft Office Tools, and then click Digital
Certificate For VBA Projects. In the Create Digital Certificate dialog box, type a name
for your certificate and click OK to have the program create your trial certificate. Then,
in Excel 2007, click the Microsoft Office Button, click Prepare, and click Add A Digital
Signature. In the Sign dialog box, type your purpose for signing the document, and
then click Sign to sign your workbook.
Tip After you click Add A Digital Signature, Excel 2007 displays a dialog box, indicating that
you can buy digital signatures from third-party providers. To get information about those
services, click the Signature Services From The Office Marketplace button. To bypass the
message, click OK; to prevent the dialog box from appearing again, select the Don’t Show
This Message Again check box, and then click OK.
If you have several certificates from which to choose, and the desired certificate doesn’t
appear in the Sign dialog box, you can click Change to display the Select Certificate
­dialog box. In the Select Certificate dialog box, click the certificate with which you want
to sign the workbook, and then click OK. The Select Certificate dialog box closes, and
the certificate with which you signed the workbook appears in the Sign dialog box. As
before, click Sign to sign your document using the digital certificate.
In this exercise, you will create a digital certificate and digitally sign a workbook using
the certificate.
12 Module5 Collaboration
USE the Projections Signed workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice file is
located on your computer.
OPEN the Projections Signed workbook.
1. On the Start menu, click AllPrograms, click MicrosoftOffice, click Microsoft
OfficeTools, and then click DigitalCertificateforVBAProjects.
The Create Digital Certificate dialog box opens.
2. In the Yourcertificate’sname box, type Excel2007SBS, and then click OK.
A message box indicates that the program created your certificate successfully.
3. Click OK.
The message box closes.
4. Click the MicrosoftOfficeButton, click Prepare, and then click AddaDigital
Signature.
Microsoft Office
Button
A message box appears, offering the opportunity to view signature services on
Office Marketplace.
5. Click OK.
The message box closes, and the Sign dialog box opens.
. In the Purposeforsigningthisdocument box, type Testing.
7. Verify that the Excel2007SBS certificate appears in the Signingas area of the dialog
box, and then click Sign.
The Signature Confirmation dialog box opens.
. Click OK.
The Signatures task pane appears.
CLOSE the Projections Signed workbook.
Saving Workbooks for the Web
129
Saving Workbooks for the Web
Excel 2007 enables you to save Excel 2007 workbooks as Web documents, so you and
your colleagues can view workbooks over the Internet or a corporate intranet. For a
document to be viewed on the Web, the document must be saved as a Hypertext Markup
Language (HTML) file. HTML files, which end with either the .htm or the .html extension,
include tags that tell a Web browser such as Microsoft Internet Explorer how to display
the contents of the file.
For example, you might want to set the data labels in a workbook apart from the rest of
the data by having the labels displayed with bold text. The coding in an HTML file that
indicates text to be displayed as bold text is <b>...</b>, where the ellipsis points between
the tags are replaced by the text to be displayed. So the following HTML ­fragment would
be displayed as Excel:
<b>Excel</b>
You can create HTML files in Excel 2007 by clicking the Microsoft Office Button and
clicking Save As to display the Save As dialog box. To save a workbook as an HTML file,
select the Entire Workbook option, type a name for the file in the File Name box and
then, in the Save As Type list, click Web Page (*.htm; *.html). With the file type set to
Web Page, you can then click Save to have Excel 2007 create an HTML document for
each sheet in the workbook.
Tip If your workbook contains data only on the sheet displayed when you save the ­workbook
as a Web page, only that worksheet is saved as a Web page.
After you save an Excel 2007 workbook as a series of HTML documents, you can open it in
your Web browser. To open the Excel 2007 file, start Internet Explorer, and then click Open
on the File menu to display the Open dialog box. In the Open dialog box, click the Browse
button to open the Microsoft Internet Explorer dialog box. You can use the controls in that
dialog box to identify the file you want to open.
When you double-click the file you want to open, the Microsoft Internet Explorer dialog
box closes and the file’s name and path appear in the Open box. To display the Excel 2007
workbook, click OK, and the workbook appears in Internet Explorer. You can move among
the workbook’s worksheets by clicking the sheet tabs in the lower-left corner of the page.
130 Module 5 Collaboration
Saving a workbook to an organization’s intranet site enables you to share data with
your ­colleagues. For example, Consolidated Messenger’s chief operating officer, Jenny
Lysaker, could save a daily report on package misdeliveries to her team’s intranet so
that everyone could examine what happened, where the problem occurred, and how
to fix the problem. It’s also possible to save a workbook as a Web file that retains a
link to the original workbook. Whenever someone updates the workbook, Excel 2007
updates the Web files to reflect the new content.
To publish a workbook to the Web, click the Microsoft Office Button, click Save As and
then, in the Save As Type list, click Web Page. When you do, Excel 2007 displays the
Publish button; clicking the Publish button displays the Publish As Web Page dialog box.
The controls in the Publish As Web Page dialog box enable you to select which elements
of your workbook you want to publish to the Web. Clicking the Choose arrow displays
a list of publishable items, including the option to publish the entire workbook, items
on specific sheets, a PivotTable dynamic view, or a range of cells. To have Excel 2007
update the Web page whenever someone updates the source workbook, select the
AutoRepublish Every Time This Workbook Is Saved check box. You can also specify which
text appears on the Web page’s title bar. To do so, click the Change button, type the
page title in the Set Title dialog box, and click OK. When you save a workbook that has
AutoRepublish turned on, Excel 2007 displays a dialog box indicating that the changes
will update the associated Web file.
Important When you save a PivotTable to the Web, the PivotTable doesn’t retain its
i­nteractivity. Instead, Excel 2007 publishes a static image of the PivotTable’s current
­configuration.
SavingWorkbooksfortheWeb
131
In this exercise, you will save a workbook as a Web page and then publish a worksheet’s
PivotTable to the Web.
USE the Shipment Summary workbook. Your instructor will tell you where this practice file
is located on your computer.
OPEN the Shipment Summary workbook.
1. Click the MicrosoftOfficeButton, and then click SaveAs.
Microsoft Office
Button
The Save As dialog box opens.
2. In the Filename box, type ShipmentSummaryWeb.
3. In the Saveastype list, click WebPage.
The Save As dialog box changes to reflect the Web Page file type.
4. Click Save.
A warning message box appears, indicating that the workbook might contain
elements that can’t be saved in a Web page.
5. Click Yes to save the workbook as a Web file.
The message box closes, and Excel 2007 saves the workbook as a Web page.
. Click the MicrosoftOfficeButton, and then click Close.
7. Click the MicrosoftOfficeButton and then, in the list of recently viewed files, click
ShipmentSummary.
The Shipment Summary workbook opens.
132 Module5 Collaboration
. Click the MicrosoftOfficeButton, and then click SaveAs.
The Save As dialog box opens.
9. In the Filename box, type ShipmentSummaryPublish.
10. In the Saveastype list, click WebPage.
The Save As dialog box changes to reflect the Web Page file type.
11. Click Publish.
The Publish As Web Page dialog box opens.
12. In the Choose list, click ItemsonSheet2.
The available items on Sheet2 appear.
13. In the ItemtoPublish list, click PivotTable.
14. Select the AutoRepublisheverytimethisworkbookissaved check box.
15. Click Publish.
Excel 2007 publishes the PivotTable to a Web page. Excel 2007 will update
the contents of the Web page whenever a user saves the Shipment Summary
workbook.
CLOSE the Shipment Summary workbook.
SavingWorkbooksfortheWeb
133
Saving a Workbook for Secure Electronic Distribution
You can create a secure, read-only copy of a workbook for electronic distribution by
saving it as a Portable Document Format (PDF) or XML Print Specification (XPS) file.
To do so, you must first install the Save As PDF Or XPS add-in from the Microsoft
Download Center. To install the add-in, click the Microsoft Office Button, point to
Save As, and click Find Add-Ins For Other File Formats. Then follow the instructions
on the Web site to install the add-in.
Tip If PDF Or XPS appears on the Save As menu, the add-in is already installed.
To save a workbook as a PDF or XPS file:
1. Install the SaveAsPDForXPS add-in.
2. Click the MicrosoftOfficeButton,
ceButton, point to SaveAs
SaveAs,, and then click PDForXPS
PDForXPS..
3. In the PublishasPDForXPS dialog box, select the file format you want.
4. If you plan to distribute the file online but not print it, click Minimumsize
Minimumsize..
5. If you want to specify what portion of the workbook or types of content to
publish, click the Options button, make your selections, and then click OK
OK..
6. Click Publish
Publish..
134 Module5 Collaboration
Finalizing a Workbook
With the new features in Excel 2007, you can inspect a workbook for information you
might not want to distribute to other people, and create a read-only final version
that prevents other people from making changes to the workbook content.
Using the Document Inspector, you can quickly locate comments and annotations,
document properties and personal information, custom XML data, headers and
footers, hidden rows and columns, hidden worksheets, and invisible content. You
can then easily remove any hidden or personal information that the Document
Inspector finds.
To inspect and remove hidden or personal information, follow these steps:
1. Save the file.
2. Click the MicrosoftOfficeButton,
ceButton, point to Prepare
Prepare,, and then click Inspect
Document..
Document
3. In the DocumentInspector window, clear the check box of any content type
you don’t want to locate. Then click Inspect
Inspect..
4. In the inspection results list, click the RemoveAll button to the right of any
category of data you want to remove.
Marking a workbook as final sets the status property to Final and turns off data
entry, editing commands, and proofreading marks.
To mark a workbook as final, follow these steps:
1. Click the MicrosoftOfficeButton,
ceButton, point to Prepare
Prepare,, and then click Mark
asFinal..
asFinal
2. In the message box indicating that the file will be marked as final and then
saved, click OK
OK..
3. In the message box indicating that the file has been marked as final, click OK
OK..
To restore functionality to a workbook that has been marked as final, click the
Microsoft Office Button, point to Prepare, and then click Mark As Final.
Key Points
135
Key Points
l Sharing a workbook enables more than one user to view and edit the data at one
time.
l Adding comments to cells is a quick way to let your colleagues know what you’re
thinking without taking up valuable space in a cell.
l Tracking changes is vital when you share responsibility for a workbook with several
other people.
l When your workbook’s data is too important to leave lying around in the open, use
passwords to protect all or part of the file.
l Authenticating workbooks with digital signatures helps to identify the source of
a file.
l Saving a workbook as a Web-accessible HTML document is as easy as saving it as a
regular Excel 2007 file, and opening a workbook saved for the Web is just as easy
as opening any other Web page.
Glossary
3-D reference A pattern for referring to the
workbook, worksheet, and cell from which a
value should be read.
cell reference The letter and number combination, such as C16, that identifies the row and
column intersection of a cell.
active cell The cell that is currently selected and
open for editing.
charts Visual summaries of worksheet data, also
called graphs.
add-in A supplemental program that can be
used to extend Excel’s functions.
columns Cells that are on the same vertical line
in a worksheet.
alignment The manner in which a cell’s contents
are arranged within that cell (for example,
centered).
conditional formats Formats that are applied
only when cell contents meet certain criteria.
arguments The specific data a function requires
to calculate a value .
aspect ratio The relationship between a
graphic’s height and width.
auditing The process of examining a worksheet
for errors.
AutoComplete The ability to complete data
entry for a cell based on similar values in other
cells in the same column.
AutoFill The ability to extend a series of values
based on the contents of a single cell.
AutoFilter A Microsoft Excel tool you can use to
create filters.
AutoRepublish An Excel technology that
maintains a link between a Web document and
the worksheet on which the Web document is
based and updates the Web document whenever the original worksheet is saved.
browser A program that lets users view Web
documents.
cell The box at the intersection of a row and a
column.
cell range A group of cells.
conditional formula A formula that calculates a
value using one of two different expressions,
depending on whether a third expression is
true or false.
data consolidation Summarizing data from a set
of similar cell ranges.
data list One or more columns of data depicting multiple instances of a single thing (such
as an order).
data table A new Microsoft Office Excel 2007
object that enables you to store and refer to
data based on the name of the table and the
names of its columns and rows.
dependents The cells with formulas that use the
value from a particular cell.
driver A program that controls access to a file or
device.
dynamic-link library A file with programming
code that can be called by a worksheet
function.
embed To save a file as part of another file, as
opposed to linking one file to another.
error code A brief message that appears in a
worksheet cell, describing a problem with
a formula or a function.
137
13 Glossary
Extensible Markup Language (XML) A
content-marking system that lets you store
data about the contents of a document in
that document.
link A formula that has a cell show the value
from another cell.
field A column in a data list.
macro A series of recorded automated actions
that can be replayed.
fill handle The square at the lower right corner
of a cell you drag to indicate other cells that
should hold values in the series defined by
the active cell.
Fill Series The ability to extend a series of values
based on the contents of two cells, where the
first cell has the starting value for the series
and the second cell shows the increment.
filter A rule that Excel uses to determine which
worksheet rows to display.
formats Predefined sets of characteristics that
can be applied to cell contents.
formula An expression used to calculate a value.
Formula AutoComplete The ability to enter a
formula quickly by selecting functions, named
ranges, and table references that appear when
you begin to type the formula into a cell.
freeze To assign cells that will remain at the top
of a worksheet regardless of how far down the
worksheet a user scrolls.
function A predefined formula.
Goal Seek An analysis tool that finds the value
for a selected cell that would produce a given
result from a calculation.
graphs Visual summaries of worksheet data, also
called charts.
HTML See Hypertext Markup Language.
hyperlink A reference to a file on the Web.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) A
document-formatting system that tells a Web
browser such as Internet Explorer how to
display the contents of a file.
landscape mode A display and printing mode
whereby columns run parallel to the short
edge of a sheet of paper.
locked cells Cells that cannot be modified if their
worksheet is protected.
mailto A special type of hyperlink that lets a
user create an e-mail message to a particular
e-mail address.
Merge and Center An operation that combines
a contiguous group of cells into a single cell.
Selecting a merged cell and clicking the Merge
And Center button splits the merged cells into
the original group of separate cells.
metadata Data that describes the contents of
a file.
named range A group of related cells defined by
a single name.
Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) A protocol
that facilitates data transfer between databases
and related programs.
Paste Options A button that appears after you
paste an item from the Clipboard into your
workbook and provides options for how the
item appears in the workbook.
Pick from List The ability to enter a value into
a cell by choosing the value from the set of
values already entered into cells in the same
column.
pivot To reorganize the contents of a PivotTable.
PivotChart A chart that is linked to a PivotTable
and that can be reorganized dynamically
to emphasize different aspects of the underlying data.
PivotTable A dynamic worksheet that can be
reorganized by a user.
portrait mode A display and printing mode
whereby columns run parallel to the long edge
of a sheet of paper.
Glossary 139
precedents The cells that are used in a formula.
primary key A field or group of fields with values
that distinguish a row in a data list from all
other rows in the list.
property A file detail, such as an author name or
project code, that helps identify the file.
query A statement that locates records in a
database.
range A group of related cells.
refresh To update the contents of one document
when the contents of another document are
changed.
relative reference A cell reference in a formula,
such as =B3, that refers to a cell that is a specific
distance away from the cell that contains the
formula. For example, if the formula =B3 were
in cell C3, copying the formula to cell C4 would
cause the formula to change to =B4.
report A special document with links to one or
more worksheets from the same workbook.
smart tags A Microsoft Office technology that
recognizes values in a spreadsheet and finds
related information on the Web.
sort To reorder the contents of a worksheet
based on a criterion.
split bar A line that defines which cells have
been frozen at the top of a worksheet.
subtotals Partial totals for related data in a
worksheet.
tables Data lists in a database.
tags Marks used to indicate display properties or
to communicate data about the contents of a
document.
template A workbook used as a pattern for
creating other workbooks.
theme A predefined format that can be applied
to a worksheet.
trendline A projection of future data (such as
sales) based on past performance.
rows Cells that are on the same horizontal line in
a worksheet.
validation rule A test that data must pass to
be entered into a cell without generating a
warning message.
scenarios Alternative data sets that let you
view the impact of specific changes on your
worksheet.
what-if analysis Analysis of the contents of
a worksheet to determine the impact that
specific changes have on your calculations.
schema A document that defines the structure
of a set of XML files.
workbook The basic Excel document, consisting
of one or more worksheets.
sharing Making a workbook available for
more than one user to open and modify
simultaneously.
worksheet A page in an Excel workbook.
sheet tab The indicator for selecting a worksheet,
located at the bottom of the workbook window.
workspace An Excel file type (.xlw) that allows
you to open several files at once.
XML See Extensible Markup Language.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement