null  User manual
Agilent
FieldFox
RF Analyzer
N9912A
User’s Guide
Manufacturing Part Number: N9912–90001
Print Date: August 1, 2009
Supersedes: January 9, 2009
©Agilent Technologies, Inc. 2009
Warranty Statement
The material contained in this document is provided "as is," and is subject to being changed, without
notice, in future editions. Further, to the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, Agilent
disclaims all warranties, either express or implied with regard to this manual and any information
contained herein, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for
a particular purpose. Agilent shall not be liable for errors or for incidental or consequential damages in
connection with the furnishing, use, or performance of this document or any information contained
herein. Should Agilent and the user have a separate written agreement with warranty terms covering
the material in this document that conflict with these terms, the warranty terms in the separate
agreement will control.
DFARS/Restricted Rights Notice
If software is for use in the performance of a U.S. Government prime contract or subcontract, Software
is delivered and licensed as “Commercial computer software” as defined in DFAR 252.227–7014 (June
1995), or as a “commercial item” as defined in FAR 2.101(a) or as “Restricted computer software” as
defined in FAR 52.227–19 (June 1987) or any equivalent agency regulation or contract clause. Use,
duplication or disclosure of Software is subject to Agilent Technologies’ standard commercial license
terms, and non-DOD Departments and Agencies of the U.S. Government will receive no greater than
Restricted Rights as defined in FAR 52.227–19(c)(1–2) (June 1987). U.S. Government users will receive
no greater than Limited Rights as defined in FAR 52.227–14 (June 1987) or DFAR 252.227–7015 (b) (2)
(November 1995), as applicable in any technical data.
Technology Licenses
The hardware and/or software described in this document are furnished under a license and may be
used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license.
Contacting Agilent
Assistance with test and measurements needs and information on finding a local Agilent office are available on the
Web at: http://www.agilent.com/find/assist
If you do not have access to the Internet, please contact your Agilent field engineer.
In any correspondence or telephone conversation, refer to the Agilent product by its model number
and full serial number. With this information, the Agilent representative can determine whether your
product is still within its warranty period.
Safety and Regulatory Information
The safety and regulatory information pertaining to this product is located on page 146.
Where to Find the Latest Information
Documentation is updated periodically. For the latest information about Agilent’s FieldFox, including
firmware upgrades and application information, please visit the following URL:
http://www.agilent.com/find/fieldfox
2
FieldFox User’s Guide
What’s New in this Release........................................................... 6
Overview ......................................................................................................7
Options and Features....................................................................... 7
Accessories ....................................................................................... 8
About the FieldFox Manuals......................................................... 10
Preparing for Initial Use of Your New FieldFox ...................................11
Check the Shipment....................................................................... 11
Meeting Power Requirements for the AC/DC Adapter ........... 11
Install the Lithium-Ion Battery ..................................................... 13
FieldFox ON/OFF Settings ............................................................ 14
FieldFox High-Temperature Protection ....................................... 14
Avoid Overpowering the FieldFox ................................................ 15
Take the FieldFox Tour .................................................................. 16
Front Panel....................................................................................... 17
Top Panel ......................................................................................... 18
Side Panel ........................................................................................ 18
Screen Tour ..................................................................................... 19
How to Enter Numeric Values...................................................... 20
CAT (Cable and Antenna Test) Mode ....................................................21
CAT Mode Settings ........................................................................ 22
Return Loss Measurements ......................................................... 27
1-Port Cable Loss Measurements ............................................... 28
2-Port Insertion Loss Measurements ......................................... 29
DTF (Distance to Fault) Measurements ................................................31
DTF Measurement Settings.......................................................... 32
NA (Network Analyzer) Mode................................................................39
NA Mode Settings.......................................................................... 39
Calibration for CAT, NA, and VVM Modes ............................................47
Verifying Calibration and Jumper Cable Integrity ..................... 52
Calibration Method Summary....................................................... 52
FieldFox User’s Guide
3
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode...............................................................55
SA Mode Settings .......................................................................... 56
Channel Measurements ................................................................ 73
Interference Analyzer (Option 236) ............................................. 81
Power Meter Mode ..................................................................................89
Power Meter Settings.................................................................... 90
VVM (Vector Voltmeter) Mode ...............................................................95
Overview .......................................................................................... 96
VVM Mode Settings....................................................................... 97
1-Port Cable Trimming Measurements....................................... 99
2-Port Transmission Measurements......................................... 100
Data Analysis Features..........................................................................101
All about Markers......................................................................... 101
All about Limit Lines .................................................................... 106
All about Trace Math ................................................................... 108
File Management....................................................................................111
Saving and Recalling Files .......................................................... 111
Printing ........................................................................................... 117
System Settings ......................................................................................119
Run/Hold ....................................................................................... 119
Preset ............................................................................................. 119
Display Settings ............................................................................ 120
Preferences.................................................................................... 121
System Configuration .................................................................. 122
FieldFox Data Link Software.................................................................127
Install the FieldFox Data Link Software.................................... 127
Connect a PC to the FieldFox ..................................................... 127
How to Read FieldFox Data into the Data Link Software ...... 132
4
FieldFox User’s Guide
Update FieldFox Firmware ....................................................................137
Tutorials ...................................................................................................139
How do CAT and NA Modes Differ ........................................... 139
How 1-Port Measurements are Made ...................................... 139
About Display Formats ................................................................ 140
Making 75Ω (ohm) Measurements ........................................... 142
Interpreting DTF Measurement Results ................................... 143
Measuring Long Cable Lengths Accurately............................. 144
Working with the Lithium-Ion Battery ................................................147
Viewing Battery Charge Status.................................................. 147
Charging the Battery.................................................................... 149
Reconditioning the Battery ......................................................... 150
Battery Care................................................................................... 151
Maximizing Battery Life............................................................... 152
Lithium Ion Battery Disposal ...................................................... 152
Specifications .........................................................................................153
Cable and Antenna Analyzer ...................................................... 154
Network Analyzer (Option 303).................................................. 158
Spectrum Analyzer (Option 230 and 231)................................. 162
Preamplifier (Option 235) ............................................................ 170
Interference Analyzer (Option 236) ........................................... 170
Power Meter (Option 302) .......................................................... 170
General Information ..................................................................... 171
Safety Considerations ............................................................................174
Certification and Compliance Statements................................ 187
Appendix A: Hardkey/Softkey Menus .................................................189
Appendix B: Connector Care Review...................................................198
Index.........................................................................................................199
FieldFox User’s Guide
5
What’s New in this Release
For customers upgrading to FieldFox firmware Rev. 4.0, the following is a list of
new features.
DTF Enhancements
Bandpass Mode Default setting.......................... 33
DTF Settings Page with calculated values ........ 36
NA Mode
System Impedance (50/75) ................................ 45
Polar Format......................................................... 40
CAT/NA Calibration
Compatible Mode Calibrations........................... 51
Compatible 1-port and 2-port Calibrations ...... 51
Spectrum Analyzer (Opt 230/231)
Radio Standard List............................................. 57
Channel Selection ................................................ 58
Linear Scale .......................................................... 59
Triggering (External and Video) ........................ 65
Displayed Traces Legend .................................... 67
Trace Averaging increased to 10,000 ................ 68
AM/FM Tune and Listen ..................................... 71
Channel Measurements....................................... 74
o
Channel Power
o
Occupied Bandwidth
o
Adjacent Channel Power Ratio
Interference Analyzer (Opt 236)
Spectrogram Display ........................................... 81
Waterfall Display.................................................. 84
Record / Playback ................................................ 86
6
FieldFox User’s Guide
Overview
Options and Features
The FieldFox may be ordered to include the following options and features:
Options and Features
Learn more
Cable and Antenna Test (CAT) Mode
CAT Mode on page 21
▪ 2 MHz to 4 GHz (Option 104)
▪ 2 MHz to 6 GHz (Option 106)
Measurements:
▪ Distance-to-fault (DTF)
▪ DTF & Return Loss
▪ Return Loss (dB)
▪ VSWR
▪ DTF (VSWR)
▪ Cable Loss (1-Port)
▪ Insertion loss (2-Port) (Option 110)
Transmission Measurement (Option 110)
CAT Mode on page 21
NA Mode on page 39
QuickCal (Option 111)
Cal on page 49
Built-in cal kit. Industry first!
Spectrum Analyzer (SA) Mode
SA Mode on page 55
General purpose measurements for basic monitoring and
troubleshooting.
▪ 100 kHz to 4 GHz (Option 230)
▪ 100 kHz to 6 GHz (Option 231)
▪ Preamplifier for Spectrum Analyzer (Option 235)
On page 60
▪ Interference Measurements (Option 236)
On page 81
Power Meter Mode (Option 302)
Use with Agilent External USB Power Sensors
Power Meter Mode on
page 89
Network Analyzer (NA) Mode (Option 303)
NA Mode on page 39
▪ 2 MHz to 4 GHz (Option 104)
▪ 2 MHz to 6 GHz (Option 106)
▪ Vector 1-port (Standard)
▪ Scalar 2-port (Option 110)
Measurements:
▪ S11 Reflection (several formats)
▪ S21 Transmission (several formats) (Option 110)
▪ A receiver
▪ R receiver
Vector Voltmeter (VVM) Mode (Option 308)
VVM Mode on page 95
Measure electrical length
Measurements:
▪ 1-Port Cable Trimming (Mag and Phase)
Overview
7
▪ 2-Port Transmission (Magnitude only)
Designed for Field Environment
▪ Lightweight 6.2 lbs (2.8 kg) including battery
▪ Rugged, weather resistant shell with no fan/vents
▪ Daylight viewable 6.5” (16.5 cm) color LCD
▪ Backlit keys for night use
▪ Integrated kickstand
▪ Configurable hand and shoulder straps
▪ Softcase for carrying all gear
▪ Quick Reference Guide with laminated pages
Slots for removable USB Flash Drive and mini SD Card
Save / Recall on page 113
▪ Expands internal storage
▪ Useful for file transfer
▪ Flash Drive and mini SD Card not included
▪ FieldFox release 4.0 supports mini SDHC (high-capacity) Card
Battery or AC Power
On page 147.
▪ Rechargeable Li-Ion battery with ~4 hr life
▪ Easily removable battery
▪ AC/DC adapter
▪ External battery charger (N9910X–872)
FieldFox Data Link Software
On page 127
▪ Included on CD
▪ Easily manage files and compile reports
▪ Reads data from the FieldFox and plots traces
▪ Help file included with the software installation
▪ Download the latest version of the software at
http://www.agilent.com/find/fieldfox
Additional Features
Languages on page 121
▪ Menus localized to 7 languages
Accessories
The following accessories are included with every FieldFox. Spare accessories
can be ordered at any time.
8
Accessory Part
Number
Description
N9910X–873
AC/DC Adapter
N9910X–870
alternate part:
1420–0891
Lithium-Ion Battery
N9910X–880
Softcase w/ Backpack & Shoulder Strap
N9910X–884
Instrument Shoulder Strap
N9910X–890
User’s Guide (printed copy)
N9910X–891
Quick Reference Guide (printed copy)
N9912–10001
Data Link Software CD
FieldFox User’s Guide
The following accessories are NOT included, but can be ordered at any time.
Accessory Part
Number
Description
N9910X–874
External bias tee, 2.5 MHz to 6 GHz, 1 W, 0.5 A
0950–4776
External Dual-Bay Battery Charging Unit
3A US Power cord. For more information, see page 150.
-orN9910X–872
N9910X–870
Extra Lithium-Ion Battery
N9910X–881
Hard transit case
N9910X–860
Attenuator, 40 dB, 50W, Type-N (m-f)
0955–1458
Attenuator, 40 dB, 100W, Type-N (m-f)
-orN9910X–861
N9910X–821
Antenna Telescopic Whip
70–1000 MHz 10W 50 ohm
N9910X–820
Antenna Directional Multi-band
800–2500 MHz 10 dBi
RF Cables
8120–8862
Cable
Type-N(m) to Type-N(m)
N9910X–813
Rugged Phase Stable Cable
12 ft, 8 GHz, Type-N(m) to Type-N(f)
N9910X–812
Rugged Phase Stable Cable
12 ft, 8 GHz, Type-N(m) to Type-N(m)
N9910X–811
Rugged Phase Stable Cable
60 inches, 8 GHz, N(m) to N(f)
N9910X–810
Rugged Phase Stable Cable
60 inches, 8 GHz, N(m) to N(m)
Calibration Kits
N9910X–803
7/16 (f) Open-Short-Load
50 ohm Tee DC to 6 GHz
N9910X–802
7/16 (m) Open-Short-Load
50 ohm Tee DC to 6 GHz
N9910X–801
Type-N (f) Open-Short-Load
50 ohm Tee DC to 6 GHz
N9910X–800
Type-N (m) Open-Short-Load
50 ohm Tee DC to 6 GHz
Adapters
Overview
1250–3422
Adapter Type-N (f to-f)
1250–2908
Adapter Type-N (f) to 7/16 (m)
N9910X–843
Adapter, Type N (m) to 7/16 DIN(f)
1250–0780
Adapter, Type-N (m) to BNC (f)
1250–2810
Adapter, Type-N (f) to 7/16 (f)
9
About the FieldFox Manuals
Documentation Map
The following manuals and software are available for your FieldFox. For the very
latest version, please visit our website at:
http://www.agilent.com/find/fieldfox. Check the manual revision on
the first page of each manual.
ƒ User’s Guide –This manual, included with shipment.
ƒ Quick Reference Guide – Printed copy with laminated pages for outdoor use.
included with shipment.
ƒ FieldFox Data Link Software and Help – Included on CD. Free download at
http://www.agilent.com/find/fieldfox.
ƒ Service Guide – Free download available at
http://www.agilent.com/find/fieldfox.
Conventions that are used in the Manual
ƒ Hardkey indicates a front panel button. The functionality of these buttons
does not change.
The six Softkey menus change dynamically and follow these color conventions:
ƒ Softkey Blue indicates an available setting.
ƒ Softkey Green indicates a change in menu level when selected.
ƒ Softkey Black indicates the default or selected setting.
ƒ Softkey Yellow indicates an active entry in process.
ƒ Softkey Grey indicates a key that is NOT available.
Safety Notes
The following safety notes are used throughout this manual. Familiarize yourself
with each of the notes and its meaning before operating this instrument. More
pertinent safety notes for using this product are located in “Safety
Considerations” on page 146.
CAUTION
WARNING
10
Caution denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure that, if not
correctly performed or adhered to, could result in damage to or destruction
of the product. Do not proceed beyond a caution notice until the indicated
conditions are fully understood and met.
Warning denotes a hazard. It calls attention to a procedure which, if not
correctly performed or adhered to, could result in injury or loss of life. Do
not proceed beyond a warning note until the indicated conditions are fully
understood and met.
FieldFox User’s Guide
Preparing for Initial Use of Your New FieldFox
Check the Shipment
When you receive your FieldFox, check the shipment according to the following
procedure:
1. Inspect the shipping container for damage. Signs of damage may include a
dented or torn shipping container or cushioning material that indicates signs
of unusual stress or compacting. If not damaged, save the packaging
material in case the FieldFox needs to be returned.
2. Carefully remove the contents from the shipping container, and verify that
the standard accessories and your ordered options are included in the
shipment according to the Box Contents List.
3. For any question or problems, refer to Contacting Agilent on page 2.
Meeting Power Requirements for the AC/DC Adapter
Voltage:
100 VAC to 250 VAC
Frequency:
50 Hz to 60 Hz
Current:
1.25 – 0.56 A
The AC/DC adapter supplied with the analyzer is equipped with a three-wire
power cord, in accordance with international safety standards. The power cable
appropriate to the original product shipping location is included with the
FieldFox.
Various AC power cables are available from Agilent that are unique to specific
geographic areas. You can order additional AC power cables that are correct for
use in different areas. The AC Power Cords table provides a list of the available
AC power cables, the plug configurations, and identifies the geographic area in
which each cable is typically used.
Preparing for Initial Use of Your New FieldFox
11
AC Power Cords Table
12
FieldFox User’s Guide
Install the Lithium-Ion Battery
Step
Notes
1. Open the battery door.
Push the button on the battery compartment door while sliding the door outward.
2. Insert the battery.
The terminals end of the battery is inserted into the compartment.
3. Close the battery door.
Slide the battery compartment door upwards until it latches.
Battery Usage
NOTE
When you receive your FieldFox, the lithium-ion battery is not installed, and it is
partially charged to approximately 40% to preserve battery life. A lithium-ion
battery has no memory effect, so it can be used partially charged, as shipped.
A fully charged battery will power your FieldFox for about four hours, so if you
plan to use it for this long, you should fully charge the battery.
The FieldFox will shut down to prevent the battery from discharging to a level
that is damaging. If this occurs, charge the battery either internally or externally.
Learn more about the lithium-ion battery on page 146.
Battery charge status is viewable:
ƒ
In the upper-right corner of the screen.
ƒ On the Battery screen. To access the screen, select System, Service
Diagnostics, and Battery.
ƒ On the battery. Open the FieldFox battery compartment door to view the
battery LCD.
Preparing for Initial Use of Your New FieldFox
13
To conserve battery power:
ƒ Use Run/Hold to single-trigger a measurement when needed. Hold is shown on
the display.
ƒ Press System then Display then Brightness. Use the ▲|▼ arrows, the rotary
knob, or numeric keypad to adjust the brightness to dim the FieldFox display
as much as possible.
ƒ Briefly press the power button to switch to Stand By mode when the FieldFox
is not being used. Press again to restore power. All current settings are
preserved.
NOTE
When powered by the battery only, the FieldFox can stay in Stand By mode for a
maximum of four hours and then it powers off automatically. When the relative
battery charge drops about 20%, the FieldFox will power off to preserve the
remaining charge.
To recharge a battery:
Use ONLY a FieldFox charger to recharge a battery.
ƒ The battery can be fully charged while in the FieldFox in about 4 hours with
the FieldFox either ON or OFF.
ƒ It can be fully charged externally using the external battery charger (Opt 872)
in about 4 hours.
When the battery is removed, the FieldFox can still be powered by the AC/DC
adapter.
FieldFox ON/OFF Settings
ƒ To turn power ON, briefly press the power button. The LED is green. Boot-up
takes about 1 minute.
ƒ To switch to Stand By mode (low battery drain), briefly press the power
button. The LED is orange and blinks. To turn power ON, briefly press the
power button. Power and settings are restored instantly. See the Note above
concerning Stand By mode.
ƒ To turn Power OFF (very low battery drain), press and hold the power button
until power is OFF - about 4 seconds. The LED is off.
ƒ Data and instrument state are NOT automatically saved when the FieldFox is
powered OFF. Learn how to save data and instrument state on page 111.
FieldFox High-Temperature Protection
NOTE
The following features prevent degradation or damage in the event of high
internal temperatures in the FieldFox.
Do NOT store the FieldFox in the softcase while powered ON or in Stand By
mode.
How to monitor the internal FieldFox temperature:
ƒ Press System, then Service Diagnostics.
14
FieldFox User’s Guide
ƒ Then Internal Temperatures.
The temperature at which the following events occur is the average of the RF1,
RF2, SB1, SB2 temperatures. These temperatures come from internal sensors
embedded within FieldFox.
Temperature Control Mode
NOTE
At approximately 73 °C, the FieldFox enters Temperature Control mode by
reducing display intensity and measurement speed. This should decrease the
internal temperature which preserves measurement accuracy and maintains the
long-term reliability of the FieldFox.
When entering Temperature Control mode, save your instrument state and data
that you want to keep.
When the temperature drops to approximately 71°C, normal operating settings
are restored.
Measurement speed specifications do NOT apply in Temperature Control Mode.
High-Temp Shutdown
In extreme situations, Temperature Control mode may not stop an increase in
the FieldFox internal temperature. At approximately 75°C, High-Temperature
Shutdown will engage and turn OFF the FieldFox.
Just prior to shutdown, the FieldFox will display a warning of imminent shut
down.
Avoid Overpowering the FieldFox
The FieldFox can be damaged with too much power or voltage applied.
Exceeding the maximum RF power levels shown below will cause an ADC Over
Range message to appear on the screen.
WARNING
NOTE
Maximum Input Voltages and Power:
•
RF OUT Connector: ±50 VDC,
+23 dBm RF
•
Exter Trig/Ref Connector: 5.5 VDC
•
RF IN: ±50 VDC,
+27 dBm RF
•
DC Input: 19 VDC,
4 ADC
•
Power Sensor Input: +25 dBm (320 mW) average
+33 dBm peak (2 W) <10μs
+ 5 VDC
Very often, coaxial cables and antennas build up a static charge, which, if
allowed to discharge by connecting to the FieldFox, may damage the instrument
input circuitry. To avoid such damage, it is recommended to dissipate any static
charges by temporarily attaching a short to the cable or antenna prior to
attaching to the FieldFox.
Preparing for Initial Use of Your New FieldFox
15
Take the FieldFox Tour
Top Panel
Front Panel
16
Side Panel
FieldFox User’s Guide
Front Panel
No.
Caption
Description
Learn More on Page:
1
Power
ON: press momentarily.
14
STAND BY: with FieldFox power ON, press briefly.
OFF: press and hold until the FieldFox shuts off (about 4 seconds).
2
LED
Not lit: FieldFox OFF, not charging
14
Green: FieldFox ON. Charging status indicated by battery icon on screen
Orange, flashing: FieldFox STAND BY
Orange, intensity increasing, flashing slowly: FieldFox OFF, charging
System
3
Displays a submenu for system setup
119
4
Function keys
Includes: Freq/Dist , Scale/Amptd , BW , Sweep , Trace , Meas
Setup , Measure , and Mode
Refer to specific Mode.
5
Preset
Returns the analyzer to a known state
119
6
Enter
Confirms a parameter selection or configuration
--
7
Marker
Activates marker function
101
8
Mkr→/Tools
Displays a submenu for marker functions
104
9
Esc
Exits and closes the dialog box or clears the character input
--
10
Save/Recall
Saves the current trace or recalls saved data from memory
111
11
Limit
Sets limit lines for quick Pass/Fail judgment
106
12
Run/Hold
Toggles between free Run and Hold/Single operation.
119
13
Cal
Displays a submenu for calibration functions
47
14
Arrow keys
Increases or decreases a value or setting.
--
15
◄Back
Returns to the previous menu selection.
--
16
Rotary knob
Highlights an item for selection, or enables incremental changes to
values.
--
17
Softkeys
Allows selection of settings for configuring and performing
measurements, and for other FieldFox functions.
--
18
Screen
Transflective screen, viewable under all lighting conditions. If you are
using your FieldFox in direct sunlight, you do not need to shield the
display from the sunlight. In bright lighting conditions, the display is
brighter and easier to read when you allow light to fall directly on the
screen. Alternative color modes exist that maximize viewing in direct
sunlight conditions, as well as other conditions such as nighttime work.
120 - Display settings
19 - Screen Tour
Note: Clean the Transflective screen with gentle and minimal wiping
using Isopropyl alcohol applied to a lint-free cloth.
Preparing for Initial Use of Your New FieldFox
17
Top Panel
Caption
Description
Learn More
RF OUT
For CAT and NA measurements, use to make reflection measurements.
Maximum: ±50 VDC, +23 dBm RF
NA Mode on page 39
Ext Trig/Ext Ref
External Reference connector to connect to an external frequency
reference. Maximum: 5.5 VDC.
CAT Mode on page 21
Ext Ref on page 123
External Triggering is provided for future use.
RF IN
For CAT and NA mode, use to make transmission measurements.
SA Mode on page 55
For SA use to make all measurements.
Maximum: ±50 VDC, +27 dBm RF.
Side Panel
Caption
Description
Learn More
LAN
Ethernet cable connector to read trace data using the FieldFox Data Link Software.
On page 127
Reserved for future use.
Power
DC power connector used to connect to the AC/DC adapter. Maximum: 19 VDC, 4
ADC.
On page 13
Mini SD
Mini Secure Digital slot. Use to extend the memory of the FieldFox.
File locations on page 111
Standard USB connector used to connect a power sensor for Power Meter Mode.
Also used to save files to a USB flash drive.
File locations on page 111
Use of Keyboard and Mouse is NOT supported.
Audio output jack for use with SA Mode Tune and Listen.
18
On page 71
FieldFox User’s Guide
Screen Tour
Caption
Description
Learn More on Page:
1
Title – write your own text here
121
2
Current Mode
3
Run / Hold
119
4
Display Format
140
5
Scale/division
Mode dependent
6
Calibration Status (CAT and NA)
47
Detection Method (SA)
7
Velocity Factor (Fault Meas)
34
8
Averaging Status and Count
Mode dependent
9
Data / Mem Display (CAT and NA)
108- Trace Math
Step / FFT (SA)
61 - Res BW
10
Resolution Setting
Mode dependent
11
Measurement Start Freq or Distance
Mode dependent
12
Bandpass / Lowpass setting (Fault Meas)
34
IF BW in NA Mode
13
Output Power Level (CAT and NA)
26
14
Measurement Stop Freq or Distance
Mode dependent
15
Actual Sweep Time
Mode dependent
16
Limit Line Status
106
17
Time and Date
124
Preparing for Initial Use of Your New FieldFox
19
Caption
Description
Learn More on Page:
18
Marker Readout
101
19
Battery Status
147
20
Measurement Type (CAT and NA)
21
Reference Level
Mode dependent
22
Reference Position
Mode dependent
How to Enter Numeric Values
Many settings on the FieldFox require the entry of numeric values.
How to enter numeric values
Use any combination of the following keys:
ƒ Numeric 0–9 keys, along with the polarity (+/-) key.
ƒ Up/Down arrow keys to increment or decrement values.
ƒ Rotary knob to scroll through a set of values.
ƒ Back erases previously entered values.
ƒ Esc exits data entry without accepting the new value.
To complete the setting:
ƒ Press Enter or a different softkey or hardkey.
Multiplier Abbreviations
Many times after entering numeric values, a set of multiplier or suffix softkeys
are presented. The following explains the meaning of these abbreviations.
Select Frequency multipliers as follows:
ƒ GHz Gigahertz (1e9 Hertz)
ƒ MHz Megahertz (1e6 Hertz)
ƒ kHz Kilohertz (1e3 Hertz)
ƒ Hz Hertz
Select Time multipliers as follows:
ƒ s Seconds
ƒ ms milliseconds (1e–3)
ƒ us microseconds (1e–6)
ƒ ns nanoseconds (1e–9)
20
FieldFox User’s Guide
CAT (Cable and Antenna Test) Mode
CAT Mode is typically used to test an entire transmission system, from the transmitter
to the antenna. This process is sometimes referred to as Line Sweeping.
CAT Mode is similar to NA (Network Analyzer) Mode. Learn more in the Tutorials
chapter on page 139.
CAT Mode Distance to Fault measurements are discussed on page 31.
In this Chapter
Measurement Selection ....................................... 22
Quick Settings....................................................... 23
Frequency Range.................................................. 23
Scale Settings........................................................ 24
Averaging ............................................................. 25
Single/Continuous ............................................... 25
Resolution ............................................................. 26
Sweep Time........................................................... 26
Output Power ....................................................... 26
Interference Rejection ......................................... 27
Procedures
Return Loss Measurement .................................. 27
1-Port Cable Loss Measurement......................... 28
2-Port Insertion Loss Measurement .................. 29
Distance to Fault Measurements ....................... 31
See Also
All about Calibration ........................................... 47
Set Markers......................................................... 101
Use Limit Lines .................................................. 106
Use Trace Math................................................... 108
Making 75Ω (ohm) Measurements................... 142
CAT (Cable and Antenna Test) Mode
21
CAT Mode Settings
Select CAT Mode before making any setting in this chapter.
How to select CAT Mode
ƒ Press Mode.
ƒ Then CAT.
Measurement Selection
How to select a CAT Mode Measurement
Learn more about the following measurements in the Tutorials Chapter on page
127.
ƒ Press Measure 1 .
ƒ Then choose one of the following: These softkeys also appear after CAT Mode
is selected.
o
o
NOTE
Return Loss & DTF Displays a Return Loss measurement in the top plot
and a Distance to Fault measurement in the bottom plot. Use this format to
display the frequency settings that are used to make the DTF measurement.
Learn more about Bandpass Mode on page 33.
All plot settings, such as Scale, Markers, and so forth, are made to the DTF
(bottom) plot, NOT to the Return Loss (top) plot. However, the frequency
range of the Return Loss plot can be changed using the Alternate Sweep
setting. Learn more on page on page 36.
o
o
o
o
22
Distance to Fault 1-port reflection measurement that uses Inverse Fast
Fourier Transform (IFFT) calculations to determine and display the distance
to, and relative size of, a fault or disruption in the transmission line. Units
are in return loss format, expressed as a positive number in dB, unless the
measurement selected is DTF (VSWR). Learn more about DTF Measurements
on page 31.
Return Loss 1-port reflection measurement that displays the amount of
incident signal energy MINUS the amount of energy that is reflected. The
higher the trace is on the screen, the more energy being reflected back to the
FieldFox. Learn how to measure Return Loss on page 27.
VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio – also known as SWR) 1-port reflection
measurement that displays the ratio of the maximum reflected voltage over
the minimum reflected voltage. The higher the trace is on the screen, the
more energy being reflected back to the FieldFox. Learn more about SWR on
page 141.
DTF (VSWR) Distance to Fault in VSWR format.
1-Port Cable Loss 1-port reflection measurement that displays the loss of a
transmission line. Learn more on page 27.
FieldFox User’s Guide
o
2-Port Insertion Loss (Option 110 ONLY) 2-port transmission measurement
that accurately displays the loss through a cable or other device in dB. Both
ends of the cable must be connected to the FieldFox. NO phase information
is included in this measurement. Learn more on page 29.
Quick Settings
Both CAT and NA Modes allow you to view and change most relevant settings
from a single location. All of these settings are discussed in this chapter and,
unless otherwise noted, ALL of these settings can also be made using the
standard softkey menus.
How to view and change Quick Settings
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4 .
ƒ Then Settings.
ƒ Press Next Page and Previous Page to view all settings. If these softkeys are
NOT available, then all available settings fit on one page.
ƒ To change a setting:
o
Use the ▲|▼ arrows to highlight a setting.
o
Then press Edit. The current setting changes to yellow.
o
Some settings require you to press a softkey to change the value. Otherwise,
use the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or rotary knob to change the value.
o
When finished changing a value, press Done Edit.
o
When finished changing settings, press Done.
The Quick Settings menu. The resolution is being edited.
Frequency Range
Set the range of frequencies over which you would like to make CAT Mode
measurements.
When the frequency range is changed after a calibration is performed, the cal
becomes interpolated. Learn more on page 48.
How to set Frequency Range
ƒ Press Freq/Dist.
ƒ Then choose from the following:
CAT (Cable and Antenna Test) Mode
23
o
o
Start and Stop frequencies - beginning and end of the sweep.
Center and Span frequencies – the center frequency and span of
frequencies (half on either side of center).
ƒ Follow each setting by entering a value using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼
arrows, or the rotary knob.
o
o
After using the keypad, select a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier
abbreviations on page 20.
After using the ▲|▼ arrows or the rotary knob, press Enter. The amount of
frequency increment is based on the current span and can NOT be changed
in CAT Mode.
Scale Settings
Adjust the Y-axis scale to see the relevant portions of the data trace. The Y-axis is
divided into 10 graticules.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to set Scale
ƒ Press Scale / Amptd .
ƒ Then choose from the following three methods:
Autoscale Automatically adjusts the Y-axis to comfortably fit the Min and
Max amplitude of the trace on the screen.
Set Scale, Reference Level, and Reference Position:
1.
2.
o
o
o
3.
Ref Level Manually set the value of the reference line. Enter a negative
value by pressing Run/Hold (+/-) either before or after typing a value.
Ref Position Manually set the position of the reference line. Values must be
between 0 (TOP line) and 10 (BOTTOM line)
Set Top and Bottom graticule values. The scale per division is calculated.
o
Top to set the value of the Top graticule.
o
Bottom to set the value of the Bottom graticule.
o
24
Scale Manually enter a scale per division to view specific areas of the trace.
Enter a negative value by pressing Run/Hold (+/-) either before or after
typing a value.
FieldFox User’s Guide
Scale annotation on the
FieldFox screen
Reference Line = red arrow
Ref Level = 40 dB
Ref Position = 1
Scale = 5 dB per division
Averaging
Trace Averaging helps to smooth a trace to reduce the effects of random noise on
a measurement. The FieldFox computes each data point based on the average of
the same data point over several consecutive sweeps.
Average Count determines the number of sweeps to average. The higher the
average count, the greater the amount of noise reduction.
An average counter is shown in the left edge of the screen as Avg N. This shows
the number of previous sweeps that have been averaged together to form the
current trace. When the counter reaches the specified count, then a ‘running
average’ of the last N sweeps is displayed. Average Count = 1 means there is NO
averaging.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to set Trace Averaging
ƒ Press BW 2 .
ƒ Then Average N where N is the current count setting.
ƒ Enter a value using the numeric keypad. Enter 1 for NO averaging.
ƒ Press Enter.
ƒ While Trace Averaging is in process, press Sweep 3 then Restart to restart
the averaging at 1.
Single or Continuous Measure
This setting determines whether the FieldFox measures continuously or only
once each time the Single button is pressed. Use Single to conserve battery
power or to allow you to save or analyze a specific measurement.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to set Single or Continuous
ƒ Press Sweep 3.
ƒ Then choose one of the following:
CAT (Cable and Antenna Test) Mode
25
o
o
Single Automatically sets Continuous OFF and causes FieldFox to make
ONE measurement, then hold for the next Single key press. When a data
trace is displayed, the entire trace is measured, then holds. The Hold
annotation changes to an arrow --> while the measurement occurs.
Continuous Makes continuous measurements. This is the typical setting
when battery power is not critical.
ƒ You can also use Run / Hold +/- to toggle between Single and Continuous.
Resolution (Number of Data Points)
Data points are individual measurements that are made and plotted across the Xaxis to form a trace. Select more data points to increase measurement resolution.
However, more data points require more time to complete an entire
measurement sweep.
When the Resolution is changed after a calibration is performed, the cal becomes
interpolated. Learn more on page 48.
How to set Resolution
ƒ Press Sweep 3.
ƒ Then Resolution.
ƒ Then choose one of the following: 101 | 201 | 401 | 601 | 801 | 1001.
Sweep Time
NOTE
The fastest possible sweep time is always used as the default setting. Use the Min
Swp Time setting to slow the sweep time when measuring long lengths of cable.
Learn more in the tutorials section on page 144.
The actual sweep time is shown on the FieldFox screen. See the Screen Tour on
page 19. To increase the sweep time, enter a value that is higher than the actual
sweep time. The increase will not be exactly the amount that you enter, as the
actual sweep time is the composite of many factors.
Measurement speed specifications do NOT apply in Temperature Control Mode.
Learn more on page 15.
How to set Sweep Time
ƒ Press Sweep 3.
ƒ Then Min Swp Time.
ƒ Enter a value using the numeric keypad.
ƒ Press a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations on page 20.
Output Power
Set the power level out of the FieldFox to either High power or Low power.
Generally, the high power level (default setting) is more accurate because the
receivers are measuring farther from the noise floor. However, some devices are
sensitive to high power levels. Use the Low power setting when measuring
amplifiers.
26
FieldFox User’s Guide
NOTE
To help prevent damage to your DUT, when Output Power is changed in CAT
Mode, it is changed to the same value in NA Mode.
How to set Output Power
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4 .
ƒ Then Output Power High Low The underlined value is the current setting.
o
High Sets output power to approximately +5 dBm.
o
Low Sets output power to approximately –25 dBm.
Interference Rejection
Use this setting when you suspect that other signals in the area are interfering
with a measurement. Interference may look like a spike or lack of stability in the
measurement trace. While monitoring a measurement at a specific frequency,
toggle this setting between ON and OFF. If the measurement result decreases
while ON, then there is an interfering signal in the area. Continue to make
measurements with Interference Rejection ON. However, this will slow the
measurement speed.
Once enabled, up to SIX sweeps may be required before the interfering signal is
neutralized.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to set Interference Rejection
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4 .
ƒ Then Interference Rejection [current setting].
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
Off No interference rejection and fastest possible sweep speed.
o
Minimum The lowest level of Interference rejection.
o
Medium The medium level of Interference rejection.
o
Maximum The highest level of Interference rejection.
Return Loss Measurements
Return loss can be thought of as the absolute value of the reflected power as
compared to the incident power.
When measuring an OPEN or SHORT, all incident power is reflected and
approximately 0 dB return loss is displayed.
When measuring a LOAD, very little power is reflected and values of 40 dB to 60
dB are displayed.
The minus sign is usually ignored when conveying return loss. For example, a
component is said to have 18 dB return loss, rather than –18 dB.
How to measure Return Loss
ƒ Connect the cable or any adapter used to connect the device under test (DUT).
CAT (Cable and Antenna Test) Mode
27
ƒ Select Preset then Preset Returns the FieldFox to known settings.
ƒ Select Mode then CAT (Cable and Antenna Test)
ƒ Then Return Loss (Default measurement).
ƒ Press Freq/Dist and enter Start and Stop frequency values of the
measurement.
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4 then Settings to make appropriate settings before
calibrating.
ƒ Disconnect the cable or DUT and press Cal 5 then follow the calibration
prompts.
ƒ Reconnect the cable or DUT.
ƒ The return loss trace is displayed on the FieldFox screen.
NOTE
If the DUT just measured is a cable, and if you are now going to perform a 1-port
cable loss measurement, save the return loss measurement data to memory.
Doing this allows you to omit steps 10 and 11 on page 29 in the procedure for
making a 1-port cable loss measurement.
1-Port Cable Loss Measurements
NOTE
While all cables have inherent loss, weather and time will deteriorate cables and
cause even more energy to be absorbed by the cable. This makes less power
available to be transmitted.
A deteriorated cable is not usually apparent in a Distance to Fault measurement,
where more obvious and dramatic problems are identified. A Cable Loss
measurement is necessary to measure the accumulated losses throughout the
length of the cable.
A 2-port Insertion Loss measurement is usually more accurate than a 1-port
Cable Loss measurement. However, to perform a 2-port Insertion Loss
measurement, both ends of the cable must be connected to the FieldFox, and the
FieldFox must have option 110 installed.
In high-loss conditions, a Cable Loss measurement becomes ‘noisy’ as the test
signal becomes indistinguishable in the FieldFox noise floor. This can occur
when measuring a very long cable and using relatively high measurement
frequencies. To help with this condition, use High Power (page 26), and
Averaging. (page 25).
How to make a 1-port Cable Loss Measurement
Press Preset then Preset.
Then More then Cable Loss (1-Port) .
Connect the cable to be tested.
Press Freq/Dist and enter Start and Stop frequency values of the
measurement.
5. Press Sweep 3 then Min Swp Time. Increase the Sweep Time until a stable
trace is visible on the screen. The amount of time that is required increases
with longer cable lengths. Learn more in the tutorials section on page 144.
6. Remove the cable to be tested.
7. Press Cal 5 , then QuickCal or OSL.
1.
2.
3.
4.
28
FieldFox User’s Guide
8.
Follow the prompts to perform calibration at the end of the jumper cable or
adapter. Learn more about Calibration on page 49.
9. Connect the cable to be tested.
10. Connect a LOAD at the end of the cable to be tested. This limits the
reflections to faults that are located in the cable under test. These reflections
are visible on the screen as ‘ripple’ or low-level standing waves and obscure
the actual loss of the cable.
11. Press Trace 6 then Data->Mem to store the trace into Memory.
12. Remove the LOAD and leave the end of the cable to be tested open.
13. Press Data Math then Data – Mem. The ripple in the measurement is
removed. These minor imperfections in the cable should not be considered in
the Cable Loss measurement.
14. Use Averaging to remove random noise from high-loss measurements. Press
BW 2 then Average.
The displayed trace shows the Cable Loss values in one direction through the
cable. A Return Loss measurement would show the loss for both down the cable
and back. Therefore, a Cable Loss measurement is the same as a Return Loss
measurement divided by 2.
The average Cable Loss across the specified frequency range is shown on the
screen below the graticules.
2-Port Insertion Loss Measurements
NOTE
A 2-port Insertion Loss measurement, available with option 110, is used to
measure the loss through a DUT (device under test) – or cable – over a specified
frequency range. The FieldFox signal source is transmitted out the RF OUT
connector, through the DUT, and into the RF IN connector. Both ends of the DUT
must be connected to the FieldFox, either directly or indirectly using the cable
used in the normalization cal.
‘Insertion’ loss simply means loss through a device, usually expressed in dB. It is
exactly the same measurement as “S21 Transmission” in NA Mode.
2-port Insertion Loss measurements are generally more accurate than 1-port
Cable Loss measurements.
A Normalization Cal is REQUIRED for making accurate 2-port CAT or NA
measurements. Learn how on page 51.
For highest accuracy, when measuring the DUT also attach any cable or adapter
that was used in the normalization cal.
How to make a 2-port Insertion Loss Measurement
Press Mode then CAT.
Then More then Insertion Loss (2-Port) .
Press Freq/Dist and enter Start and Stop frequency values of the
measurement.
4. Press Sweep 3, then select a Resolution setting.
5. Press Cal 5 , then press Normalization. Perform normalization as explained
on page 51.
6. Connect the DUT and view the insertion loss measurement results.
1.
2.
3.
CAT (Cable and Antenna Test) Mode
29
When measuring very long lengths of cable, it may be necessary to increase the
sweep time. Learn how on page 26. Learn why in the Tutorials chapter on page
144.
30
FieldFox User’s Guide
DTF (Distance to Fault) Measurements
CAT Mode Distance to Fault (DTF) measurements are generally used to locate
problems, or faults, in a length of cable or transmission line. In this chapter, the
cable to be tested is referred to as the DUT (Device Under Test).
Settings that are NOT unique to DTF measurements are documented in the CAT
Mode chapter on page 21.
In this Chapter
How to make DTF Measurements ...................... 31
DTF Start and Stop Distance.............................. 32
DTF Units .............................................................. 32
Bandpass Mode .................................................... 33
Cable Specifications ............................................ 34
Window Settings .................................................. 35
Alternate Sweep ................................................... 36
DTF Settings Page ................................................ 36
About Alias Faults ............................................... 37
Optional settings
Markers ............................................................... 101
Limit Lines.......................................................... 106
Save Measurement Settings and Results ........ 111
Trace Math is NOT available in DTF Measurements.
How to make DTF Measurements
Before starting, you may need the following:
ƒ Jumper cable or adapter to connect the beginning of the DUT to the FieldFox.
ƒ LOAD with correct connector type and gender to terminate the end of the DUT
(if possible).
ƒ The known length and cable type of the DUT. If the cable type is not known,
then the Cable Loss (dB/Meter) and Velocity Factor of the DUT are required.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Connect any necessary jumper cable or adapter to the FieldFox RF OUT port.
Do NOT connect the DUT.
Press Preset then Preset to return the FieldFox to the default settings.
Then Mode then CAT.
Then DTF.
Press Freq/Dist, then Stop Distance and enter the length of the DUT. You
can optionally set the Start Distance.
Press Cal 5 and follow the Cal prompts. Learn all about Calibration on
page 47.
DTF (Distance to Fault) Measurements
31
7.
Disconnect any components or antenna that should NOT be measured and
connect a LOAD at the end of the DUT.
8. Press Meas Setup 4 then DTF Cable Specifications.
9. Either press Recall Coax Cable, or enter the Velocity Factor and Cable
Loss of the DUT.
10. Connect the start end of the DUT to the FieldFox.
11. Press Meas Setup 4 then Settings then Next Page. If the Alias-free Range
setting is False, then you may see Alias faults on the screen. Learn more on
page 37.
DTF Measurement Settings
You can set and view all of the DTF settings, including some calculated values, on
the DTF Settings page. Learn more on page 36.
DTF Start and Stop Distance
In DTF measurements, you set the physical length of cable or other device to be
tested. The FieldFox calculates the frequency range of the measurement from
this distance. The longer the cable to be tested, the lower the frequencies that
are used. You can also set the frequencies manually using the Frequency Mode
[Bandpass] setting.
How to set Start and Stop Distance
ƒ With a DTF measurement present, press Freq/Dist.
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
o
Start Distance Enter a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows,
or the rotary knob, then Enter. By default, the Start Distance is set to 0
Meters. This means that the measurement will display faults starting at the
point at which calibration standards are connected.
Stop Distance Enter a value between the start distance and 5 km (or
16,404 ft.) using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob,
then Enter.
DTF Units
By default, X-axis units for DTF measurement settings are displayed in Meters.
How to change DTF units
ƒ With a DTF measurement present, press Freq/Dist.
ƒ Then DTF Units.
ƒ The current selection is underlined m (meters) Feet.
NOTE
32
In CAT mode, Y-axis units are displayed in return loss format, expressed as a
positive number in dB, unless the measurement selected is DTF (VSWR).
FieldFox User’s Guide
Frequency Mode
All DTF measurements are made with frequency settings and, using Inverse Fast
Fourier Transform (IFFT), the time and distance to faults are calculated.
How to set Frequency Mode
With a DTF measurement present,
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4
ƒ Then Frequency Mode
ƒ Choose one of the following:
o
o
Lowpass Mode The frequency range of a DTF measurement is set
automatically based on the Start and Stop Distances. Use Lowpass mode
when the DUT is a cable ONLY.
Bandpass Mode (Default setting) The frequency range of a DTF
measurement is set manually. Use Bandpass mode when the DUT contains a
diplexer or other filtering device which does not pass some frequencies.
Typically, you will set the frequency range of the measurement to the passband
of the filter. However, you may also want to test the ability of the filter to reject
unwanted frequencies. In this case, set the frequency range to include those
frequencies which the filter may not be adequately rejecting.
When the DTF frequencies are set manually, they may not be the optimum
frequencies for measuring the distance to fault. The distance may no longer be
alias-free. Learn more about alias-free range on page 37.
How to manually set Frequencies in Bandpass Mode
ƒ Press Freq/Dist
ƒ Then Min Start Freq and type the start of the frequency range to use for the
DTF measurement.
ƒ Then Max Stop Freq and type the stop frequency to use for the DTF
measurement.
OR
ƒ Press More
ƒ Then Max Freq Span and type the frequency range to use for the DTF
measurement.
ƒ Then Center Frequency and type the center frequency of the range to use for
the DTF measurement.
These settings specify the minimum and maximum frequencies to be used for the
DTF measurement. These exact frequencies may not be used, but a narrower
frequency range may be used that will still pass through the bandpass filter.
To see the frequencies that are used in the DTF measurement, press Meas Setup
4 then Settings then Next Page. The calculated Start and Stop frequencies
determine the exact frequency range being used.
DTF (Distance to Fault) Measurements
33
Cable Specifications
By default, the FieldFox does NOT compensate DTF measurements to account for
the inherent loss of a cable. However, to make more accurate DTF measurements,
the cable loss and velocity factor can be entered using one of the following
methods:
ƒ Select a cable type from a list which contains the cable loss in dB/meter and
velocity factor.
ƒ Manually enter cable loss and velocity factor for the measurement.
The following is an example showing how DTF cable correction works:
The DUT is a 100 meter transmission cable. The specification file for the cable
shows .1 dB/meter loss at 300 MHz. This means that a signal traveling ONE WAY
through the cable will loose 10 dB of power (100 m * .1dB/m). Because the
FieldFox performs this measurement with 1 port, the test signal travels down the
cable and then back, for a total loss of 20 dB.
After a calibration has been performed, for the purpose of illustrating this point,
connect an OPEN to the end of the cable – a maximum-sized fault - for 100%
reflection of the 300 MHz test signal.
Without compensation for the loss of the cable, a –20 dB response would be
visible at 100 meters, which is the OPEN at the end of the DUT. This is from 10
dB of loss through the cable in each direction.
With compensation for the loss using the manufacturer’s specification, the
FieldFox compensates the trace as though the signal traveling through 100
meters was increased by +20 dB. Therefore the response will show 0 dB for 100%
reflection.
Manually specify Velocity Factor and Cable Loss
Velocity Factor is a property of the physical material of a cable. A VF of 1.0
corresponds to the speed of light in a vacuum, or the fastest VF possible. A
polyethylene dielectric cable has VF = 0.66 and a cable with Teflon dielectric has
VF = 0.7.
Cable Loss is specified in dB/meter. In addition to the length of the cable, loss is
also directly proportional to the frequency of the signal that passes through the
cable.
When entered manually, only one Loss value can be used for the entire frequency
range of the measurement. The frequency range is set using the Start and Stop
Distance. Learn more on page 33.
With a DTF measurement present:
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4 .
ƒ Then DTF Cable Specifications.
ƒ Select Cable Corr Auto Man to switch to manual entry.
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
o
34
Velocity Factor Using the numeric keypad, enter a value between 0.01 and
1. Then press Enter.
Cable Loss Using the numeric keypad, enter a positive cable loss value,
then press Enter.
FieldFox User’s Guide
How to recall and use a Coax Cable File
The FieldFox includes many predefined cable files with the manufacturer’s
specifications. You can edit these files or create new cable files using the
FieldFox Data Link Software. Learn more on page 127.
A predefined or custom cable file can contain several Frequency / Loss pairs to
define the cable loss characteristics.
With a DTF measurement present:
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4 .
ƒ Then Cable Specifications.
ƒ Then Recall Coax Cable.
ƒ Then using the ▲|▼ arrows or the rotary knob, highlight a cable, then press
Recall File. You can view the cable properties after it is recalled.
ƒ Or choose from the following:
o
o
Sort By Cable Name Sorts all pages of the cable list by Cable Name
Sort By Date Sorts all pages of the cable list by Date. This is the date that
the file was created or modified.
o
Next Page View the following page of the list.
o
Previous Page View the previous page of the cable list.
o
Cancel Closes the cable list without recalling a file.
Cable Corr Auto Man is displayed to indicate that a file is in use to compensate
the DTF measurement.
Press View Cable Data when a file is recalled to view the cable specifications.
Window Settings
Window settings provide the ability to choose between optimizing DTF
measurements for resolving closely-spaced faults or for the ability to measure
low-level faults.
How to select Window settings
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4 .
ƒ Then Settings.
ƒ Then press ▲|▼ arrows to move to the Window row.
ƒ Then press Edit.
ƒ Then press Window repeatedly and choose from the following:
o
Maximum – Optimized for dynamic range, the noise floor is lowered to
provide the ability to measure low-level responses. (Default setting)
o
Medium – Compromise between Min and Max window settings.
o
Minimum – Best Response Resolution, providing the ability to resolve
between two closely-spaced responses.
DTF (Distance to Fault) Measurements
35
ƒ Then press Done Edit.
ƒ Again press Done.
Alternate Sweep
Available ONLY in a Return Loss & DTF measurement.
With Alternate Sweep ON, two independent sweeps are performed:
ƒ Return Loss measurement sweep (Top plot).
ƒ DTF measurement sweep (Bottom plot).
With Alternate Sweep OFF, only one sweep is made for both the Return Loss and
DTF measurement.
How to set Alternate Sweep
ƒ Press Mode then CAT.
ƒ Then Return Loss & DTF.
ƒ Then Meas Setup 4 .
ƒ Then Alternate Sweep ON OFF.
With Alternate Sweep ON, the Start and Stop frequency settings can be changed
from the settings that are required to make the DTF measurement. However, the
DTF measurement continues to be made using the frequencies that are dictated
by the DTF Bandpass Mode setting. Learn more on page 33.
If a calibration is performed, it is applied to both sweeps.
How to set Start and Stop Frequency with Alternate Sweep ON
ƒ Press Freq/Dist.
ƒ Then Start Frequency and Stop Frequency.
•
Follow each by entering a value using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼
arrows, or the rotary knob.
•
After using the ▲|▼ arrows or the rotary knob, press Enter. The
increment setting of the arrows is based on the current span and can
NOT be changed in CAT Mode.
•
After using the keypad, select a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier
abbreviations on page 20.
DTF Settings Page
You can set and view all of the DTF settings, including some calculated values, on
the DTF Settings page.
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4 .
ƒ Then Settings.
ƒ Then press ▲|▼ arrows to move to a setting. If the setting can be changed, the
Edit key is available.
36
FieldFox User’s Guide
Calculated DTF values
Press Next Page to view the following calculated values:
c - Start Frequency – Start frequency that is used to calculate DTF.
c - Stop Frequency – Stop frequency that is used to calculate DTF.
c - Range Resolution. Indicates the accuracy of the distance to fault
measurement. For example, with range resolution of 500 mm, if the distance to
fault is 10 meters, this value could be inaccurate by +/- 500 mm or between 9.5 to
10.5 meters. This value is calculated from frequency span / resolution (points).
Response Resolution, not displayed, indicates the distance that could be between
two faults and still show as separate faults. Learn more in Window Settings on
page 35.
c – Maximum Distance. The distance that could be viewed with the current
settings. Defined by: Vf*c*Points/(2*Bandwidth) where:
o
Vf = velocity factor
o
c = speed of light
o
Points = resolution
o
Bandwidth = frequency range
c – Alias-free Range (True/False)
o
True = No Alias images
o
False = Alias images may appear in the response.
About Alias Faults
An alias fault is not a true device response. An alias fault appears because of the
method used to convert frequency to time.
On the DTF Settings page (above) the c - Alias-free Range = False setting
indicates alias images MAY appear on the screen.
Shorter stop distances (less than 10 meters) and a higher resolution (1001
points) will be more likely to result in Alias-free Range = False.
When the Alias-free Range = False, the following procedure will help to
determine if a response is true:
1. Put a marker on the response in question and note the distance to the fault.
2. Change the start or stop distance.
A true fault response will not move in distance. That is, if a true fault is present
at 10.3 meters, changing the stop distance from 15 m to 20 m will not move the
fault; the fault will remain at 10.3 meters. However, an alias response will
appear to move.
An un-terminated cable (with NO perfect load at the end) will show faults that
appear to be beyond the end of the cable. These are NOT alias faults. These faults
appear as the signal reflects off the open at the end of the cable and travels back
down the cable toward the connection at the FieldFox. Re-reflections are
measured at the FieldFox as mirror images of the original faults. The largest fault
is the open end of the cable. To avoid confusion, set the Stop distance shortly
after that fault.
DTF (Distance to Fault) Measurements
37
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38
FieldFox User’s Guide
NA (Network Analyzer) Mode
CAT Mode is very similar to NA (Network Analyzer) Mode. Learn more in the
Tutorials chapter on page 139.
In this Chapter
Measurement Selection ....................................... 39
Quick Settings....................................................... 40
Format ................................................................... 40
Frequency Range.................................................. 41
Scale Settings........................................................ 41
Averaging .............................................................. 42
IF Bandwidth........................................................ 43
Single/Continuous ............................................... 43
Resolution (number of points) ........................... 43
Sweep Time........................................................... 44
Output Power ....................................................... 44
Interference Rejection ......................................... 44
System Impedance ............................................... 45
S21 Transmission Measurement ........................ 45
See Also
All about Calibration ........................................... 47
Set Markers......................................................... 101
Use Limit Lines .................................................. 106
Use Trace Math................................................... 108
Making 75Ω (ohm) Measurements................... 142
NA Mode Settings
Select NA Mode before making any setting in this section.
How to select NA Mode
ƒ Press Mode_.
ƒ Then NA.
Measurement Selection
How to select a NA Measurement
ƒ Press Measure 1 .
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
S11 1-port reflection measurement.
NA (Network Analyzer) Mode
39
o
S21 2-port transmission measurement. Requires Opt 110. Learn how to
make this measurement on page 45.
o
A Measurement of the A receiver.
o
R1 Measurement of the R receiver.
Learn about A and R receiver measurements in the Tutorials chapter on
page 139.
Quick Settings
Both CAT and NA Modes allow you to view and change most relevant settings
from a single location. All of these settings are discussed in this chapter and,
unless otherwise noted, ALL of these settings can also be made using the
standard softkey menus.
How to view and change Quick Settings
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4 .
ƒ Then Settings.
ƒ Press Next Page and Previous Page to view all settings. If these softkeys are
NOT available, then all available settings fit on one page.
ƒ To change a setting:
o
Use the ▲|▼ arrows to highlight a setting.
o
Then press Edit. The current setting changes to yellow .
o
Some settings require you to press a softkey to change the value. Otherwise,
use the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or rotary knob to change the value.
o
When finished changing a value, press Done Edit.
o
When finished changing settings, press Done.
The Quick Settings menu. The resolution is being edited.
Format
Select the display format in which to present measurement results. Learn more
about Format on page 140.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to select a NA Format
40
FieldFox User’s Guide
ƒ Press Measure 1 .
ƒ Then Format [current setting].
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
o
o
o
Log Magnitude Displays magnitude in dB
Linear Displays positive values only. Y-axis: Unitless (U) for ratioed
measurements; Watts (W) for unratioed measurements.
VSWR (S11 and Fault Location Only) Displays unitless reflection data.
Phase (S11 Only) Displays phase in degrees. The trace ‘wraps’ every 360
degrees, from +180 to –180, for easy scaling.
Smith (S11 Only) Displays series resistance and reactance. See tutorial on
page 141.
More then Polar (S11 Only) Displays magnitude and phase of the reflection
coefficient.
In Smith and Polar formats, markers can be changed to display (Mag & Phase) or
(Real + Imaginary). Learn how to create markers on page 101.
Frequency Range
Set the range of frequencies over which you would like to make measurements.
When the frequency range is changed after a calibration is performed, the cal
becomes interpolated. Learn more on page 48.
How to set Frequency Range
This can be done in two ways:
ƒ Press Freq/Dist
ƒ Then choose from the following:
1.
2.
Start and Stop frequencies – Specify the beginning and end of the sweep.
Center and Span frequencies - Specify the center frequency and span of
frequencies (half on either side of center).
ƒ Follow each by entering a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or
the rotary knob.
ƒ After using the ▲|▼ arrows or the rotary knob, press Enter. The increment
setting of the arrows is based on the current span and can NOT be changed in
NA Mode.
ƒ After using the keypad, select a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier
abbreviations on page 20.
Scale Settings
Adjust the Y-axis scale to see the relevant portions of the data trace. The Y-axis is
divided into 10 graticules.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to set Scale
NA (Network Analyzer) Mode
41
ƒ Press Scale / Amptd.
ƒ Then choose from the following methods:
Autoscale Automatically adjusts the Y-axis to comfortably fit the Min and
Max amplitude of the trace on the screen.
Set Scale, Reference Level, and Reference Position
1.
2.
o
o
o
Scale Manually enter a scale per division to view specific areas of the trace.
Ref Level Manually set the value of the reference line. Enter a negative
value by pressing Run/Hold (+/-) either before or after typing a value.
Ref Position Manually set the position of the reference line. Values must be
between 0 (TOP line) and 10 (BOTTOM line)
Scale annotation on the
FieldFox screen
Reference Line = red
arrow
Ref Level = –40 dB
Ref Position = 1
Scale = 1 dB per division
Averaging
Trace Averaging helps to smooth a trace to reduce the effects of random noise on
a measurement. The FieldFox computes each data point based on the average of
the same data point over several consecutive sweeps.
Average Count determines the number of sweeps to average. The higher the
average count, the greater the amount of noise reduction.
An average counter is shown in the left edge of the screen as Avg N. This shows
the number of previous sweeps that have been averaged together to form the
current trace. When the counter reaches the specified count, then a ‘running
average’ of the last N sweeps is displayed.
Average Count = 1 means there is NO averaging.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to set Trace Averaging
ƒ Press BW 2 .
ƒ Then Average N where N is the current count setting.
ƒ Enter a value using the numeric keypad. Enter 1 for NO averaging.
ƒ Press Enter.
42
FieldFox User’s Guide
ƒ While Trace Averaging is in process, press Sweep 3, then Restart, to restart
the averaging at 1.
IF Bandwidth
The FieldFox converts the received signal from its source to a lower intermediate
frequency (IF). The bandwidth of the IF bandpass filter is adjustable. Reducing
the IF receiver bandwidth reduces the effect of random noise on a measurement.
However, narrower IF bandwidths cause longer sweep times.
How to set IF BW
ƒ Press BW 2 .
ƒ Then IF BW
ƒ Then choose from the following: 300 Hz | 1 kHz | 3 kHz | 10 kHz | 30 kHz
Single or Continuous Measure
This setting determines whether the FieldFox measures continuously or only
once each time the Single button is pressed. Use Single to conserve battery
power or to allow you to save or analyze a specific measurement.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to set Single or Continuous
ƒ Press Sweep 3.
ƒ Then choose one of the following:
o
o
Single Automatically sets Continuous OFF and causes FieldFox to make
ONE measurement, then hold for the next Single key press. When a data
trace is displayed, the entire trace is measured, then holds. The Hold
annotation changes to an arrow --> while the measurement occurs.
Continuous Makes continuous measurements. This is the typical setting
when battery power is not critical.
You can also use Run / Hold +/- to toggle between Single and Continuous.
Resolution (Number of Data Points)
Data points are individual measurements that are made and plotted across the Xaxis to form a trace. Select more data points to increase measurement resolution.
However, more data points also takes more time to complete an entire
measurement sweep.
When the Resolution is changed after a calibration is performed, the cal becomes
interpolated. Learn more on page 48.
How to set Resolution
ƒ Press Sweep 3.
ƒ Then Resolution.
ƒ Then choose from the following: 201 | 401 | 601 | 801 | 1001.
NA (Network Analyzer) Mode
43
Sweep Time
NOTE
The fastest possible sweep time is always used as the default setting. Use the Min
Swp Time setting to slow the sweep time when measuring long lengths of cable.
Learn more in the tutorials section on page 144.
The actual sweep time is shown on the FieldFox screen. See the Screen Tour on
page 19. To increase the sweep time, enter a value that is higher than the actual
sweep time. The increase will not be exactly the amount that you enter, as the
actual sweep time is the composite of many factors.
Measurement speed specifications do NOT apply in Temperature Control Mode.
Learn more on page 15.
How to set Sweep Time
ƒ Press Sweep 3.
ƒ Then Min Swp Time.
ƒ Enter a value using the numeric keypad.
ƒ Press a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations on page 20.
Output Power
NOTE
Set the power level out of the FieldFox to either High power or Low power.
Generally, the high power level (default setting) is more accurate because the
receivers are measuring farther from the noise floor. However, some devices are
sensitive to high power levels. Use the Low power setting when measuring
amplifiers.
To help prevent damage to your DUT, when Output Power is changed in NA
Mode, it is changed to the same value in CAT Mode.
How to set Output Power
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4 .
ƒ Then Output Power High Low.
o
High Sets output power to approximately +5 dBm.
o
Low Sets output power to approximately –25 dBm.
Interference Rejection
Use this setting when you suspect that other signals in the area are interfering
with a measurement. This may look like a spike or lack of stability in the
measurement trace. While monitoring a measurement at a specific frequency,
toggle this setting between ON and OFF. If the measurement result decreases
while ON, then there is an interfering signal in the area. Continue to make
measurements with Interference Rejection ON. However, this will slow the
measurement speed.
Once enabled, up to SIX sweeps may be required before the interfering signal is
neutralized.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to set Interference Rejection
44
FieldFox User’s Guide
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4 .
ƒ Then Interference Rejection [current setting].
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
Off No interference rejection and fastest possible sweep speed.
o
Minimum The lowest level of Interference rejection.
o
Medium The medium level of Interference rejection.
o
Maximum The highest level of Interference rejection.
System Impedance (Z0)
To accurately view data presented in Smith Chart format, first set the System
Impedance.
Learn how to select Smith Chart format on page 40.
Learn how to make 75Ω measurements on page 142.
How to set System Impedance
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4 .
ƒ Then System Z0 [current setting].
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
50 50Ω
o
75 75Ω
S21 Transmission Measurements
NOTE
An S21 Transmission measurement, available with option 110, is used to
measure the loss through a DUT – or cable – over a specified frequency range.
The FieldFox signal source is transmitted out the RF OUT connector, through the
DUT, and into the RF IN connector. Both ends of the DUT must be connected to
the FieldFox.
An S21 measurement is exactly the same measurement as “2-Port Insertion Loss”
in CAT Mode.
A Normalization Cal is REQUIRED when making 2-port CAT or NA
measurements.
For highest accuracy, when measuring the DUT also attach any cable or adapter
that was used in the normalization cal.
How to make an S21 Transmission Measurement
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Press Mode then NA then S21 Transmission.
Press Freq/Dist and enter Start and Stop frequency values of the
measurement.
Press Sweep 3 then select a Resolution setting.
Press Cal 5 then press Normalization. Perform normalization as explained
on page 51.
Connect the DUT and view the transmission measurement results.
NA (Network Analyzer) Mode
45
When measuring very long lengths of cable, it may be necessary to increase the
sweep time. Learn how on page 26. Learn why in the Tutorials chapter on page
144.
46
FieldFox User’s Guide
Calibration for CAT, NA, and VVM Modes
The FieldFox performs a calibration automatically when powered ON and when
Preset is performed. In addition, calibration can be performed manually. Key
presses are identical in all of these Modes.
In this Chapter
Definitions ............................................................ 47
The Calibration Process ...................................... 48
Preset Calibration ................................................ 49
QuickCal................................................................ 49
O,S,L Calibration.................................................. 49
Normalize .............................................................. 51
Compatible Mode Calibrations........................... 51
Compatible 1-port and 2-port Calibrations ...... 51
Save a Calibration................................................ 52
Verify Calibration ................................................ 52
Calibration Method Summary ............................ 52
See Also
Making 75 ohm Measurements......................... 142
Definitions
DUT (Device Under Test) is the cable, antenna, transmission line, or anything
else that is connected to the FieldFox that is to be measured.
OPEN, SHORT, and LOAD are calibration standards. These are precision
components that are used during calibration and to terminate a DUT during
some measurements. When an RF signal ‘hits’ these components, the signals are
reflected in a predictable manner.
ƒ A SHORT and OPEN standard both cause 100% of an RF signal to be reflected.
The difference between these two standards is what happens to the phase of
the reflected signal, which is beyond the scope of this discussion. Although an
OPEN standard is a precision component, simply leaving nothing connected at
the end of a cable can be a reasonable substitute for an OPEN.
ƒ A LOAD standard completely absorbs the incident signal and NO signal is
reflected back to the source.
Calibration Reference Plane is the point at which cal standards are connected
during a calibration. This can be either the FieldFox RF OUT connector, or at the
end of a jumper cable or adapter.
Calibration for CAT, NA, and VVM Modes
47
The Calibration Process
There are very well defined and understood systematic errors that are measured
and calculated during the calibration process. These errors are caused by
leakage and frequency response of the signals traveling to the internal receivers
and by the internal reflections that interact with the DUT. After calibration, these
errors are removed from subsequent measurements.
Interpolation
Highest measurement accuracy is achieved when the measurement type,
frequency range, power level, and resolution settings remain the same during the
measurement as when the FieldFox was calibrated. If these settings change after
a calibration, the FieldFox will interpolate the calibration so that VERY accurate
measurements continue to be made.
Interpolated Calibrations are only slightly less accurate than a calibration
performed at the measurement settings. For example, if frequency settings
change after a Preset Calibration is performed, the Preset Calibration is only
slightly less accurate. Learn more about the relative accuracy of FieldFox
calibrations on page 52.
When a calibration is being interpolated, an asterisk is added to the screen
annotation as follows: Cal ON*
For highest accuracy: a new cal should be performed when the temperature
changes more than about 10°F (5°C), or when the connection to the DUT requires
a different jumper cable or adapters.
How to turn Error Correction OFF
“Error Correction” is applying the results of a calibration to a measurement.
Error Correction is automatically turned ON after a calibration. You could turn
Error Correction OFF in order to see the effects of a calibration on the
measurement.
ƒ Press Cal 5 then Error Correction ON OFF.
ƒ Then Exit or Esc.
ƒ Cal OFF is shown on the screen when Correction is OFF.
ƒ Cal OFF* is shown on the screen when switching from a 1-port measurement
to a 2-port measurement or vice-versa. Calibration for the current
measurement has NOT been performed.
Cal ON ? – Questionable Accuracy
If a change made by the user to the output power setting, or a change made
automatically by the FieldFox firmware makes accurate calibration interpolation
questionable, a question mark is added to the screen annotation for all
calibration states (Ex: Cal ON ?). The resulting measurement accuracy depends
on how much the setting has changed. For optimum accuracy, recalibrate using
the new settings.
48
FieldFox User’s Guide
Preset Calibration (also known as CalReady)
Every FieldFox is factory calibrated at the RF Out connector. This CalReady
condition allows you to start using your FieldFox immediately if you are
measuring a device that is directly connected to the RF Out test port. CalReady
applies to the entire frequency range of the FieldFox. It can be used to check the
integrity of the jumper cable.
Cal ON is shown on the screen when powered ON or Preset.
When measuring a DUT using a jumper cable or adapter - NOT a direct
connection to the RF Out connector – then a QuickCal or O,S,L Cal is
recommended.
QuickCal
QuickCal (option 111) is ideal for making DTF and 1-Port Cable Loss
measurements at the end of a jumper cable or adapter. QuickCal corrects for
phase shift, time delay, and loss, of adapters or jumper cables.
How to perform a QuickCal
Press Esc at any time during the QuickCal to stop the calibration.
ƒ In CAT, NA, or VVM Mode, press Cal 5.
ƒ Then (if necessary) press Calibration Type to see [QuickCal].
ƒ Then Start Cal.
Step 1
1. Disconnect the DUT from the FieldFox.
2. If a jumper cable or adapter is required to connect the DUT to the FieldFox,
connect those components to the FieldFox RF Out connector NOW. The
effects of those components will be measured and removed during the
calibration, and only the effects of the DUT will be displayed in the
measurement results. These should be high-quality components!
3. Do NOT connect anything at the point where the DUT connects.
4. Then press QuickCal.
Step 2
Attach and measure Load when:
▪ A jumper cable or adapter is used to connect the DUT to the FieldFox.
▪ Measuring a DUT with good match (return loss > 15 dB).
1. Connect a LOAD standard at the point where the DUT will be connected.
This improves measurement accuracy by removing the reflections from the
added length of cable or adapter.
2. Then press Measure Load
▪ Otherwise, and when making DTF measurements, press Skip Load This step
does little to improve accuracy.
ƒ Press Finish.
Calibration for CAT, NA, and VVM Modes
49
ƒ Cal ON Q is shown on the screen when a QuickCal is correcting the
measurement.
O,S,L Cal
An OPEN, SHORT, LOAD Cal is performed using discrete standards from a Cal
Kit. (Cal Kits are available from Agilent – see page 10 for part numbers.) Built
into the FieldFox are definitions for both Male and Female Type-N Cal Kits, and
7/16 Cal Kits. Other Cal Kits can be added using the FieldFox Data Link
Software. Learn more on page 127.
O,S,L Cal is extremely accurate when performed using the recommended Cal Kits
with standards that are in clean and good repair, and when using correct
connection procedures.
CAL ON U is shown on the screen when an O,S,L Cal is correcting the
measurement.
How to perform O,S,L Cal
Before performing an O,S,L Cal, set the Measurement type, Frequency Range,
Power Level, and Resolution of the measurement. The calibration will remain
highly accurate until these settings change, or the physical connection to the
FieldFox changes.
ƒ Disconnect the DUT from the FieldFox.
ƒ If a jumper cable or adapter is required to connect the DUT to the FieldFox,
then connect those components to the FieldFox RF Out connector NOW. The
effects of those components will be measured and removed during the
calibration, and only the effects of the DUT will be displayed in the
measurement results. These should be high-quality components!
ƒ In CAT or NA Mode, press Cal 5 .
ƒ Then (if necessary) press Calibration Type to choose [O,S,L].
ƒ Then (if necessary) press Connector Type.
ƒ Then select the connector type and gender of your DUT. This will determine
the type and gender of cal kit to use. For example, if a Type-N Male connector
is used on the DUT, then the Type-N Male standards (OPEN, SHORT, AND
LOAD) will ALL be connected in place of the DUT during the calibration.
NOTE
Calibration kit definitions are unique to each connector type and connector sex.
They must be correctly applied to obtain the most accurate calibration.
ƒ Then press Start Cal.
ƒ Press Open, Short, and Load in any order.
ƒ Connect the corresponding standard at the point where the DUT will be
connected, then press Measure.
ƒ Measure each of the three standards. Standards can be measured again at any
time if you feel a standard was not connected securely.
ƒ Press Finish to complete the O,S,L calibration.
50
FieldFox User’s Guide
Normalize
NOTE
Normalize is used to calibrate a 2-port Insertion Loss measurement (CAT Mode)
and a S21 Transmission measurement (NA Mode).
A Normalization Cal is REQUIRED to make accurate 2-port Transmission or
Insertion Loss measurements.
How to perform a Normalization
ƒ Select CAT Mode, then More , then 2-port Insertion Loss or NA Mode, then
S21 Transmission.
ƒ Connect a short, high-quality, phase stable cable between the FieldFox RF OUT
and RF IN connectors.
NOTE
All subsequent insertion loss measurements are made relative to the insertion
loss of this cable. For example, if you use a Normalization cable with 1 dB of loss,
then after pressing Normalize, the display will show 0 dB of loss with this cable
in place. Therefore, for highest accuracy, when measuring the DUT also attach
the cable that was used in the normalization cal.
ƒ Press Cal 5 .
ƒ Calibration Type [Normalize] should appear.
ƒ Press Start Cal then Thru then Measure The trace is automatically stored to
Memory.
ƒ Press Finish.
ƒ Connect the DUT between the RF OUT and RF IN connectors.
NOTE
A Normalization cal will NOT be interpolated if the Resolution or Frequency
range changes.
CAL ON U is shown on the screen when a Normalization Cal is correcting the
measurement.
Compatible Mode Calibrations
Because CAT, NA, and VVM modes are very similar, a 1-port or 2-port calibration
that is performed in one mode can automatically be applied in the other modes.
This occurs ONLY when modes have the same frequency data points as those
that were calibrated, and have the same Power (Hi or Low) and IF BW. CAT and
VVM mode IF BW is 30 kHz and is NOT selectable.
Compatible 1-port and 2-port Calibrations
Typically, a 1-port calibration and a 2-port normalization can NOT be maintained
at the same time. The most recently performed calibration will usually overwrite
the other.
ƒ In CAT mode, the 1-port measurement is Return Loss or DTF, and the 2-port
measurement is Insertion Loss.
ƒ In NA mode, the 1-port measurement is S11, and the 2-port measurement is
S21.
However, a 1-port calibration CAN coexist with a 2-port normalization ONLY
when BOTH of the following conditions occur:
Calibration for CAT, NA, and VVM Modes
51
1.
A 1-port Cal already exists, then a Normalization Cal is performed. They can
NOT be performed in the reverse order.
2. The Frequency Range, Resolution, Power (Hi/Low), and IF BW (in NA Mode)
settings of the two calibrations are identical.
When both conditions occur, you can switch between the 1-port and the 2-port
measurements, and both will remain fully calibrated.
In a DTF measurement, the frequency range over which the calibration is made
can be viewed using the calculated Start and Stop Frequency on the Settings
page. Learn how to see this on page 36.
Save the Calibration
After performing any type of calibration, you can save the FieldFox settings
along with the calibration into a STATE (*.sta) file. These settings and calibration
can then be recalled as necessary. To learn how, see Saving and Recalling Files
on page 111.
Verifying Calibration and Jumper Cable Integrity
After calibrating, it is important to verify that the calibration is good. When using
a jumper cable, also verify that the cable is of high quality.
Verify a Calibration
ƒ Connect a LOAD standard at the calibration reference plane (where calibration
standards were connected). This may be at the end of the jumper cable or at
FieldFox RF OUT connector.
ƒ In CAT Mode, select a Return Loss measurement.
ƒ In NA Mode, select a S11 Reflection with Log Mag format.
ƒ Observe the trace on the FieldFox screen:
o
Lower than 40 dB indicates a GOOD calibration.
o
Higher than 30 dB indicates that you should recalibrate.
Test the Jumper Cable
With the LOAD standard still connected, move the jumper cable while observing
the trace.
ƒ If the measurement trace is relatively stable, the jumper cable is of good
quality.
ƒ If you observe significant movement in the peaks of the measurement trace
when moving the cable (>5 dB), the jumper cable may need to be replaced.
Calibration Method Summary
ƒ O,S,L is ALWAYS the most accurate Cal method. The quality of an O,S,L Cal is
completely dependent on the quality of the OPEN, SHORT, LOAD standards.
Use high quality standards to ensure the most accurate calibration.
52
FieldFox User’s Guide
ƒ QuickCal is ideal for DTF measurements. QuickCal should be performed when
good accuracy is required and when using a jumper cable or adapter.
o
During QuickCal, do NOT ‘Skip Load’ when measuring a DUT with good
match (Return Loss better than 15 dB).
ƒ Preset Cal is ONLY useful for DUT connections made at the RF Out port and
most accurate at room temperature.
ƒ For highest accuracy, a new QuickCal or O,S,L Cal should be performed:
o
when the temperature changes more than about 10°F (5°C)
o
when the connection to the DUT requires a different jumper cable or
adapters.
Calibration for CAT, NA, and VVM Modes
53
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FieldFox User’s Guide
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
SA Mode measures signals at the RF IN port. The RF OUT connector is NOT used.
General purpose Spectrum Analyzer measurements and are available with
Option 230 or 231. In addition,
SA measurements require NO calibration.
SA display with markers
Carrier with 5 kHz frequency modulation and deviation of 1 kHz
In this Chapter
Frequency Range.................................................. 56
Radio Standard .................................................... 57
Channel Selection ................................................ 58
Scale ...................................................................... 59
Attenuation and Preamp Control ...................... 60
Resolution Bandwidth......................................... 61
Video Bandwidth.................................................. 62
Sweep Acquisition ............................................... 62
Zero Span Measurements.................................... 64
Triggering .............................................................. 65
Single or Continuous ........................................... 65
Resolution (number of points) ........................... 67
Trace Display States ............................................ 67
Averaging Type..................................................... 68
Detection Method................................................. 69
Noise Marker ........................................................ 70
Tune and Listen ................................................... 71
Channel Measurements....................................... 73
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
55
o
Channel Power
o
Occupied Bandwidth
o
Adjacent Channel Power Ratio
Interference Analyzer (Opt 236)
Spectrogram Display ........................................... 81
Waterfall Display.................................................. 84
Record / Playback ................................................ 86
Optional settings
Markers ............................................................... 101
Limit Lines.......................................................... 106
Save Measurement Settings and Results ........ 111
SA Mode Settings
Select SA Mode before making any setting in this chapter.
Because there is no calibration, these settings can be made in any order.
How to select SA Mode
ƒ Press Mode_.
ƒ Then SA.
Frequency Range
The X-axis frequency range determines the frequencies that are measured for
each sweep. The default Start frequency is 0 Hz. However, the Start frequency
can be set as low as –100 MHz. The internal LO of the FieldFox can be seen at 0
Hz, which will mask signals that may be present.
The frequency range of the measurement can be changed using the following
methods:
ƒ Set Center and Span frequencies
ƒ Set Start and Stop frequencies
ƒ Toggle between Zero and Last selected span
ƒ Set Full Span of the FieldFox
ƒ Using Channel selection. Learn how on page 58.
ƒ Using Marker -> Center (frequency). Learn how on page 104.
How to set Frequency Range
ƒ Press Freq/Dist.
ƒ Then choose from the following:
56
FieldFox User’s Guide
o
o
Center and Freq Span frequencies. This is the most common method of
entering frequency range. Enter the frequency of interest. The Center
frequency is at the exact center of the X-axis. The Frequency Span places
half of the frequency range on either side of center. When the Center and
Frequency Span values are entered, then the X-axis annotation on the screen
shows the Center and Span frequencies.
Start and Stop frequencies. Start is the beginning of the X-axis and Stop is
the end of the X-axis. When the Start and Stop frequencies are entered, then
the X-axis annotation on the screen shows the Start and Stop frequencies.
ƒ Follow each of these by entering a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼
arrows, or the rotary knob.
ƒ When using the ▲|▼ arrows, press Enter. The increment setting of the arrows
is based on the current span. This can be changed in SA Mode. See How to
change frequency step size below.
ƒ After using the keypad, select a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier
abbreviations on page 20.
Two more ways to change the frequency range
ƒ Press Freq/Dist.
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
Zero/Last Span Each key press toggles the frequency span between 0 Hz
and the last specified frequency span.
More
Then Full Span Selects the entire frequency span of the FieldFox. The
Center frequency is set automatically.
How to change frequency step size
When using the ▲|▼ arrows to change any of the frequency settings, the size of
the frequency step can be changed.
ƒ Press Freq/Dist
ƒ Then More
ƒ Then CF Step Auto Man
o
o
Auto Each press of the ▲|▼ arrows increments or decrements the value by
1/10th (one division) of the current frequency span. Note: To change this
setting from Man to Auto, press CF Step twice.
Man Type a step size value using the numeric keypad, then select a
multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations on page 20.
Radio Standard
A Radio Standard is a collection of settings that are applied to the FieldFox for
specific cell phone protocols. When a Radio Standard is applied, the FieldFox
frequency range, Res BW, and other relevant settings change to that of the
standard.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
57
By default, the FieldFox locates the center frequency of the standard in the
middle of the screen and sets the frequency span to cover all of the Uplink and
Downlink frequencies. The selected Radio Standard name appears in the center
of the screen below the X-axis.
After a Radio Standard has been selected, the frequency range can be changed by
selecting channel numbers rather than frequency.
The application of a Radio Standards will not always change the center
frequency of a Channel Measurement. Learn more on page 73.
How to select a Radio Standard
ƒ Press Measure 1 OR Freq/Dist then More
ƒ Then Radio Standard
ƒ Then select a standard using the ▲|▼ arrows or rotary knob and press Enter.
Channel Selection
After a Radio Standard has been selected, the frequency range can be changed by
selecting channel numbers rather than frequency. Once enabled, the channel
number is appended to the X-axis frequency range.
How to enable Channel selection
ƒ Press Freq/Dist
ƒ Then More
ƒ Then Unit Freq Chan
How to change the Channel Number of the measurement
With Unit = Chan the FieldFox will NOT allow you to specify channels outside of
the selected Radio Standard.
ƒ Press Freq/Dist
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
58
Center Channel Places the center frequency of the specified channel in the
middle of the X-axis.
Start Channel Places the lowest frequency of the specified channel at the
beginning of the X-axis.
Stop Channel Places the highest frequency of the specified channel at the
end of the X-axis.
Freq Span Changes the span of frequencies while the center frequency
remains unchanged.
Follow each of the above settings by entering a value using the numeric
keypad or the rotary knob.
Use the ▲|▼ arrows to increment the channel number by an amount
specified by the Channel Step value (see below).
Then press Enter.
FieldFox User’s Guide
Select either Uplink or Downlink Frequencies
Press Chan Direction to toggle between Uplink and Downlink. If either of these
selections is not available, then the selected Radio Standard does not contain
those frequencies.
Channel number X-axis annotation
ƒ Dn indicates Downlink frequencies.
ƒ Up (not shown) indicates Uplink frequencies
ƒ (−) indicates that the lowest frequency in the channel (128) is at the left edge
of the screen.
ƒ (+) indicates that the highest frequency in the channel (130) is at the right edge
of the screen.
ƒ When Center Channel or Freq Span is specified, the X-axis shows the Center
Freq (Channel) and Frequency Span.
ƒ When Start or Stop Channel is specified, the X-axis shows the Start Freq
(Channel) and Stop Freq (Channel).
Change Channel Step Size (Optional)
This setting allows you to use the ▲|▼ arrows to increment the channel number
by the specified value.
ƒ Press Channel Step
ƒ Enter a step value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary
knob. Then press Enter.
Scale
Adjust the Y-axis scale to see the relevant portions of the data trace.
The Y-axis is divided into 10 graticules. A Reference Level is shown on the screen
as a solid horizontal bar that can be placed at any graticule.
When RF Attenuation set to Auto, the RF Attenuation is coupled to Reference
Level.
How to set Scale
Press Scale / Amptd. Then choose from the following:
ƒ Scale Type [current setting]
o
Log Logarithmic scale. Units are dB or dBm.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
59
o
Lin Linear scale. Units are Volts.
ƒ Autoscale Automatically adjusts the Y-axis to comfortably fit the Min and Max
amplitude of the trace on the screen.
ƒ Manually set Scale, Reference Level, and Reference Position.
o
o
o
Scale Manually adjust the scale per division to view specific areas of the
current trace. Enter a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or
the rotary knob. Then press Enter.
Ref Level Manually set the value of the reference line. Enter a negative
value by pressing Run/Hold (+/-) either before or after typing a value. This
can also change the RF Attenuation setting. See Attenuation Control –
Auto.
Ref Position Manually set the position of the Reference Level. Values must
be between 0 (TOP line) and 10 (BOTTOM line). Default position is zero
(top).
Attenuation Control
Both the RF Attenuation and Pre Amp functions control the power level into the
SA.
When too much power is present at the RF IN port, ADC Over Range appears
on the FieldFox screen. This does not necessarily mean that damage has
occurred, but that the measurement is probably compressed.
When high power levels are present at the RF IN connector, internal attenuation
can be switched in to keep the FieldFox receiver from compressing. At extremely
high power levels, use external attenuation to protect the internal circuitry from
being damaged.
WARNING
The FieldFox can be damaged with too much power.
RF Damage Level: +27 dBm
DC Damage Level: ±50 VDC
The displayed power level is automatically adjusted for RF Attenuation. As the
attenuation value changes, the displayed power level should NOT change.
How to set Attenuation
The default Attenuation setting is 10 dB. This value can be changed from 0 to 31
dB in 1 dB steps.
ƒ Press Scale/Amptd.
ƒ Then RF Atten Auto Man.
ƒ Auto RF Attenuation is set by adjusting the Reference Level. As the Reference
Level is lowered, for example from –10 dB to –30 dB, the FieldFox assumes
that you are looking at low-level signals. The RF Attenuation value is
automatically lowered in 5 dB steps to allow low-level signals to be viewed.
The RF Attenuation value is never automatically lowered below 5 dB.
ƒ Man RF Attenuation is set manually. Enter a value using the numeric keypad,
the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob. Values less than 5 dB must be typed
using the numeric keypad. Then press Enter
60
FieldFox User’s Guide
#Atten xx dB is shown at the top of the screen. (#) means manual setting.
Preamplifier Control (Opt 235)
When very low-level signals are analyzed, an internal preamplifier can be used
to boost the signal level by approximately 22 dB. The displayed signal level is
automatically adjusted for the increase in system gain.
How to control the Preamp
By default, the preamp is OFF.
ƒ Press Scale/Amptd.
ƒ Then Preamp ON OFF The underlined setting is the current setting.
The approximate gain of the preamp (PA 22 dB) is shown at the top of the
screen. 22 dB of gain is not a measured value, but an approximate value.
Check for Compressed Measurements
Compression occurs when too much power into an amplifier causes it to no
longer amplify in a linear manner. When too much power goes into the FieldFox
RF IN connector, the amplifiers in the SA receiver compress and signal power
will not be displayed accurately. This can occur even if ADC Over Range is not
displayed. Increase the RF Attenuation value to prevent the SA receiver from
being compressed.
How to Check for a Compressed Measurement
ƒ Using a marker at the signal peak, make note of the signal power level.
ƒ Increase the RF Attenuation level by 5 dB.
o
If the signal level does NOT change, then NO compression exists. This
indicates that the signal is in the linear region of the FieldFox receiver.
o
If the signal level DOES increase, then the receiver was compressed. Set the
RF Attenuation value at the setting when further increases no longer result
in an increase in the displayed power level.
Resolution Bandwidth (Res BW)
In SA Mode, the Res BW provides the ability to resolve, or see closely spaced
signals. The narrower (lower) the Res BW, the better the spectrum analyzer can
resolve signals. In addition, as the Res BW is narrowed, less noise is measured by
the spectrum analyzer ADC and the noise floor on the display lowers as a result.
This allows low level signals to be seen and measured. However, as the Res BW is
narrowed, the sweep speed becomes slower.
How to set Res BW
ƒ Press BW 2 .
ƒ Then Res BW Auto | Man.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
61
o
o
NOTE
Auto Res BW is coupled to the frequency span. As the frequency span is
narrowed, the Res BW is also narrowed providing increased ability to
resolve signals.
To change this setting from Man to Auto, press Res BW twice.
Man Enter a Res BW value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or
the rotary knob. Then press a multiplier if necessary or press Enter.
The current Res BW setting is shown at the bottom of the screen.
#Res BW x.xx XHz ( # ) means manual setting.
When the Res BW is set to 200 kHz and below, FFT is displayed in the lower-left
corner to indicate that Fast Fourier Transform calculations are being used to
process the measurement most efficiently.
Frequency Step mode is used above 200 kHz.
This setting could impact the accuracy of the measurement. See Specifications on
page 153.
Video Bandwidth (Video BW)
Video BW is a smoothing operation that is performed after measurement data is
acquired. The trace data is effectively smoothed so that the average power level
of the displayed noise is the same, but the peaks and valleys of adjacent data
points are smoothed together. More smoothing occurs as the Video BW is set
lower. However, as the Video BW is narrowed, the sweep speed becomes slower.
How to set VBW
ƒ Press BW 2 .
ƒ Then Video BW Auto Man.
o
o
NOTE
Auto Couples Video BW to the ResBW in a 1-to-1 ratio.
Man Enter a Video BW value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or
the rotary knob. Then press a multiplier if necessary or press Enter.
To change this setting from Man to Auto, press Video BW twice.
The current Video BW setting is shown at the bottom of the screen.
# VBW x.xx XHz ( # ) means manual setting.
When the Res BW/Video BW ratio exceeds 10,000, a Meas UNCAL warning may
appear to indicate that the Video BW filter has reached the maximum capacity
for averaging.
In Zero Span, the maximum Res BW/ Video BW ratio is 100.
Sweep Acquisition
When set to Auto, Sweep Acquisition is set to the minimum value required with
the current settings in order to achieve amplitude accuracy when measuring CW
signals yielding the fastest sweep update rate.
However, you can adjust this setting in order to increase the probability of
intercepting and viewing pulsed RF signals.
For example, with SwpAcquisition set to Auto a pulsed GSM signal is NOT
visible on the FieldFox screen, as shown in a blue trace in the following image.
62
FieldFox User’s Guide
However, while watching the trace, increase the SwpAcquisition value until the
pulse spectrum rises out of the noise and reaches its maximum level. Increasing
the SwpAcquisition value beyond this point only slows the update rate (increases
the actual Sweep time readout) but does not improve measurement quality.
A GSM signal in a framed data format; timeslot zero ON; all others OFF;
PRF = 218Hz, Duty Cycle = 12.5%. The pulsed signal becomes visible on every sweep
update with SwpAcquisition = 50.
How to set Sweep Acquisition Parameter
ƒ Press Sweep 3.
ƒ Then SwpAcquistion Auto Man.
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
Auto Sweep is set to the fastest sweep possible with the current settings.
o
Man Enter a relative acquisition value between 1 and 5000, where:
o 1 = Fastest sweep possible
o 5,000 = Slowest sweep possible
o # is shown in front of the actual sweep time to indicate a manual setting.
NOTE
Some Detector and Video Bandwidth settings will raise the Auto Sweep
Acquisition value greater than 1. In these cases, manually setting Sweep
Acquisition lower than the Auto value may have NO effect.
Measurement speed specifications do NOT apply in Temperature Control Mode.
Learn more on page 15.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
63
Zero Span Measurements
When setting the frequency span to Zero, there is NO spectrum of frequencies to
display, so the X-axis units becomes Time. The SA becomes like a tunable
oscilloscope, with the center frequency being the frequency of interest. This
capability is useful for analyzing modulation characteristics, such as pulsed
measurements.
GSM signal, framed data format, timeslot 0 and 3 on. Sweep Time is set to
approximately the frame interval. Press Single several times until the
waveform section of interest is viewable and stable. Then markers can be
used to measure the timeslot width and interval as shown.
How to set Zero Span
ƒ Set Center to the frequency of interest
o
o
then set Span to 0 Hz
or select Zero/Last Span. Each key press toggles the frequency span
between 0 Hz and the last specified frequency span.
How to change Sweep Time in Zero Span.
ƒ Press Sweep 3
ƒ Then SweepTime
ƒ Enter a value using the numeric keypad.
ƒ Then select a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations on page 20.
When the sweep time is longer than can be acquired with the current available
memory, Meas UNCAL is displayed on the screen. Learn more on page 71.
Four times the amount of memory is available with the FieldFox A.04.00 release,
allowing longer sweep times in Zero Span.
64
FieldFox User’s Guide
Triggering
External and Video triggering allows you to start a FieldFox sweep which is
initiated by an external event such as a signal burst.
External and Video triggering can be used in either Zero Span (time domain) or
frequency span measurements. However, Video triggering in frequency domain
sweeps is limited to cases where Res BW is less than or equal to 200 kHz.
FFT Gating is available for non-zero span measurements. Learn more about FFT
Gating at http://na.tm.agilent.com/fieldfox/ .
Trigger Type
ƒ Press Sweep 3
ƒ Then Trigger Settings
ƒ Then Trig Type
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
Free Run Triggering is provided by the FieldFox internal circuitry. A new
sweep begins when the previous sweep ends.
External A sweep is triggered on an external TTL signal at the External
Trigger connector. External trigger is available only after first setting BNC
Connector Use to Trigger. Learn how on page 123.
Video A sweep is triggered on a signal at the RF IN connector when the
amplitude of the incoming signal exceeds the settable Trigger Level. This
setting is called Video trigger because the signal that initiates the trigger
appears on the display.
Trigger Slope
Trigger Slope determines which edge of an External or Video trigger signal
initiates a sweep.
ƒ Press Sweep 3
ƒ Then Trigger Settings
ƒ Then Trig Slope
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
Pos Sweep is triggered by the rising (positive) edge of signal.
o
Neg Sweep is triggered by the falling (negative) edge of signal.
Trigger Delay
After a valid External or Video trigger signal is received, the sweep begins after
the specified Trigger Delay time. Only positive values are allowed.
To see the rising edge of a repetitive signal which is triggered on that edge, use
trigger delay to clearly view the subsequent signal one period later.
ƒ Press Sweep 3
ƒ Then Trigger Settings
ƒ Then Trig Delay
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
65
ƒ Enter a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
ƒ Then select a multiplier key or press Enter. Learn about multiplier
abbreviations on page 20.
Trigger Level
Used with Video triggering, an incoming signal with this amplitude or higher (for
positive slope) will initiate a sweep. The Units depend on the Scale Type setting:
(Log or Linear). Learn more on page 59.
The Video Trigger Level is a Time Domain (Zero Span) signal level comparison.
Therefore, the sweep will trigger close to the displayed level in Zero Span
measurements. In frequency span measurements, the sweep will appear to
trigger at levels that are lower than the trigger level setting. Therefore, in
frequency span measurements, you may need to set the trigger level higher than
the displayed level.
ƒ Press Sweep 3
ƒ Then Trigger Settings
ƒ Then Trig Level
ƒ Enter a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
ƒ Then select a multiplier key or press Enter. Learn about multiplier
abbreviations on page 20.
Auto Trigger Time
If an External or Video trigger signal is not received before the specified Auto
Trig Time, a sweep will occur automatically.
Enter 0 to set Auto Trigger OFF. When Auto Trigger is OFF, the FieldFox does
NOT sweep unless a valid External or Video trigger signal is received.
ƒ Press Sweep 3
ƒ Then Trigger Settings
ƒ Then AutoTrig Time [current setting]
ƒ Enter a Auto Trig Time using the numeric keypad.
ƒ Then select a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations on page 20.
Single or Continuous Measure
NOTE
The following behavior is unique to SA Mode.
This setting determines whether the FieldFox measures continuously or only
once each time the Single or Run / Hold +/- button is pressed. Use Hold /
Single or to conserve battery power or to allow you to save or analyze a specific
trace.
How to set Single or Continuous
ƒ Press Sweep 3.
ƒ Then choose one of the following:
66
FieldFox User’s Guide
o
o
o
Continuous ON Causes the SA to make continuous sweeps. This is the
typical setting for making measurements. Each Run / Hold +/- press causes
the SA to toggle between continuous sweep and Hold.
Single Automatically sets Continuous OFF and causes the SA to make ONE
sweep, then Hold.
Continuous OFF Causes the SA to Hold. Each Run / Hold +/- or Single
press causes the SA to make ONE sweep, then Hold. The Hold annotation
changes to an arrow --> while the sweep occurs.
Resolution
Resolution is the number of displayed data points across the X-axis. The higher
number of data points, the better the ability to resolve closely spaced signals and
the slower the sweep speed.
How to set Resolution
ƒ Press Sweep 3
ƒ Then Resolution [current setting]
ƒ Then choose from: 101|201|401|601|801|1001
Trace Display States
In SA Mode you can display up to four of the following types of traces. All SA
settings are applied to all displayed traces.
A color-coded legend for displayed traces is visible in the left pane of the SA
mode screen:
W = Clear/Write; M = MaxHold; m = MinHold; A = Average; V = View
How to display Trace types
ƒ Press Trace 6 .
ƒ Then Trace 1,2,3,4 repeatedly to select a trace number to display. Traces are
displayed in the following colors:
o
Trace 1 – Yellow
Trace 2 – Blue
o
Trace 3 – Orange
Trace 4 – Red
ƒ Then State [current setting] .
ƒ Then choose from the following trace types:
o
o
o
o
Clr /Wr (Clear/Write) Displays the actual measured data for each sweep.
MaxHold Displays the maximum response of the input signal over multiple
sweeps.
MinHold Displays the minimum response of the input signal over multiple
sweeps.
Average Each data point is averaged over multiple sweeps as set by the
Average Count setting. Learn more in following Trace Averaging section.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
67
o
o
View Displays and then holds the last complete measurement trace on the
screen.
Blank Displays no trace.
ƒ Press Default All to return all traces to their default settings: Trace 1
(Clear/Write); all other traces (Blank).
Averaging Type
In SA Mode, there are four different processes in which Averaging is performed:
ƒ Trace Averaging
ƒ Detection Method Averaging
ƒ Noise Marker Averaging
ƒ Video BW filtering (for non-Zero Span measurements)
There are two types of mathematical averaging that can be performed. Select
ONE of these types and it is used for all of the above averaging processes.
How to set Averaging Type
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
Auto - The FieldFox chooses the most appropriate type of averaging for the
current settings. When Detection Method is set to Average, a Noise Marker
is present, or a Channel measurement is active, then Power Average is
ALWAYS selected. Otherwise, Log Average is selected.
Log Averaging – Best for displaying Trace Averaging. LgAv is shown on the
left side of the FieldFox screen when selected.
Power (Linear) Averaging – Best for measuring true power levels. Used in
Detection Average and Noise Marker Average. Mathematically, trace noise is
2.5 dB higher than when using Log Average. PAvg is shown on the left side
of the FieldFox screen when selected.
Trace Averaging
Trace Averaging helps to smooth a trace to reduce the effects of random noise on
a measurement. The FieldFox computes each data point based on the average of
the same data point over several consecutive sweeps.
When Trace Averaging is selected, then the Average Count setting is also
available. Average Count determines the number of sweeps to average. The
higher the average count, the greater the amount of noise reduction.
An average counter is shown in the left edge of the screen as Avg N. This shows
the number of previous sweeps that have been averaged together to form the
current trace. When the counter reaches the specified count, then a ‘running
average’ of the last N sweeps is displayed.
How to set Trace Averaging
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4
68
FieldFox User’s Guide
ƒ Then State [current setting]
ƒ Then Average
ƒ Then Average Count
ƒ Enter a value from 1 to 10,000 using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or
the rotary knob.
ƒ Press Enter
ƒ When Trace State is set to Average, press Sweep 3, then Restart, to restart
the averaging at 1.
ƒ When Continuous sweep is OFF, a Restart will perform N sweeps, then Hold.
Detection Method
In SA Mode, the X-axis is comprised of data points, also known as “buckets”. The
number of data points is specified using the Resolution setting. Learn how on
page 67.
Regardless of how many data points are across the X-axis, each data point must
represent what has occurred over some frequency range and time interval.
From the frequency span of the measurement, the span of each data point is
calculated as (frequency span / (data points-1)). The detection method allows
you to choose how the measurements in each bucket are displayed.
One bucket showing Positive peak, Sample, and Negative peak Detection methods.
How to set Detection Method
The current Detection method is labeled on the left edge of the screen. When a
method is selected manually, a # precedes the label. For example: # Nrm means
that Normal was selected from the softkeys.
ƒ Press Trace__6
ƒ Then Detector
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
Auto Displays the most appropriate Detection method based on other
settings. [ # is NOT shown]
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
69
o
o
o
o
o
Normal [Nrm] Provides a better visual display of random noise than
Positive peak and avoids the missed-signal problem of the Sample Mode.
Should the signal both rise and fall within the bucket interval, then the
algorithm classifies the signal as noise. An odd-numbered data point
displays the maximum value encountered during its bucket. An evennumbered data point displays the minimum value encountered during its
bucket. If the signal is NOT classified as noise (does NOT rise and fall) then
Normal is equivalent to Positive Peak.
Positive Peak [Pk] Displays the maximum value of all the measurements in
each bucket. This setting ensures that no signal is missed. However, it is not
a good representation of the random noise in each bucket.
Negative Peak [NPk] Displays the minimum value of all the measurements
in each bucket.
Sample [Smp] Displays the center measurement of all the measurements in
each bucket. This setting gives a good representation of the random noise in
each bucket. However, it does not ensure that all signals are represented.
Average [#RMS] Displays the Root Mean Squared (RMS) average power of
all the measurements in each bucket. This is the preferred method when
making power measurements. Learn more on page 106.
Noise Marker
For comparison purposes, electronic noise measurements are often displayed as
though the measurement was made in a 1 Hz Res BW. However, making an actual
measurement at a 1 Hz Res BW is impossible, and at 10 Hz, extremely slow.
A Noise Marker, unique to SA Mode, mathematically calculates the noise
measurement as though it were made using a 1 Hz bandwidth.
Several data points (or ‘buckets’) are averaged together to calculate the Noise
Marker readout. To accurately measure noise, the Noise Marker should NOT be
placed on, or too close to, a signal. The distance from a signal depends on several
factors. To know if an accurate reading is being made, move the Noise Marker
until consistent measurements are displayed in adjacent data points.
In addition, when a Noise Marker is displayed, the Detection method is
automatically switched to Average and PAvg is shown on the FieldFox screen.
This occurs only when Detection is set to Auto. Learn more on page 69.
With a Noise Marker present, the Res BW can be changed and the displayed noise
floor will also change, but the Noise Marker readout will remain about the same.
Noise Markers can be used like regular markers. A Noise Marker is distinguished
from a regular marker by (1Hz) after the marker readout value. Learn more about
regular markers on page 101.
How to create a Noise Marker
ƒ Press Marker.
ƒ Then More.
ƒ Then Marker Noise ON OFF.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
Meas UNCAL Error
Meas UNCAL appears in the lower-left corner of the screen when the FieldFox
can NOT display accurate measurement results with the current settings.
Usually, the part of the trace that is inaccurate is shown at –200 dB.
The following situation can produce Meas UNCAL:
ƒ In Zerospan, when Sweep Time is set too high for the current Res BW. Lower
the Res BW or the Sweep Time setting.
ƒ When the ResBW/VBW ratio exceeds 10,000, causing the VBW filter to reach
the maximum capacity for averaging.
Old Data Indicator (*)
In SA mode, when the current trace does not exactly match the annotation that is
on the screen, an asterisk is displayed in the upper-right corner of the screen
graticule area. This would occur, for example, when the Res BW setting is
changed while in sweep Hold mode. The annotation is changed immediately, but
the trace is not updated until the next sweep occurs. Therefore, the current data
trace does not match the screen annotation. See the asterisk on page 55.
Tune & Listen (AM/FM)
The Tune & Listen feature can be used to identify an interfering AM or FM signal.
The demodulated AM or FM signal can be heard through the internal speaker or
through headphones using the 3.5 mm jack located on the FieldFox side panel.
The Tune & Listen tuner is separate from the SA display. This allows you to
listen to one frequency while displaying a different range of frequencies. The
Tune & Listen measurement alternates between normal SA sweeps for the
display and performing audio demodulation at the Tune Frequency. See the
Listen Time setting for more information.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
71
Tune & Listen ON with Tune Frequency indicated by a vertical bar (highlighted).
How to select Tune & Listen
ƒ Press Measure 1
ƒ Then Tune & Listen
ƒ Then choose a demodulation type. Select a setting based on the type of
interfering signal you suspect is being broadcast.
o
None Turns Tune & Listen OFF
o
AM Amplitude Modulation
o
o
FM Narrow Frequency Modulation; Narrow bandwidth. Choose when
interfering transmission consist of voice or data.
FM Wide Frequency Modulation; Wide bandwidth. Choose for high quality
music transmissions of FM broadcast radio.
Tune Frequency
The Tune & Listen tuner is separate from the SA display. This allows you to
listen to one frequency while displaying a different range of frequencies.
Set the Tune Frequency using one of three methods:
1. Selecting Preset, Mode Preset, or Meas Preset sets Tune Frequency to 3.0 GHz.
2. Specify Tune Frequency:
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4
ƒ Then Tune Freq
ƒ Enter a value using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
Then select a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations on page 20.
3. Using Mkr->Tune Freq
ƒ Create a normal marker at the frequency of interest. Learn how on page 101.
ƒ Press Mkr->/Tools
ƒ Then Mkr->Tune Freq to change the Tune Frequency to that of the marker.
Tip
To improve sound quality, try increasing power by reducing the Attenuation
setting and, if available, turn ON the Preamplifier. Learn how on page 60.
Listen Time
While Tune & Listen is actively demodulating a signal, the SA does not sweep
and update the display. Listen Time sets the amount of time that the FieldFox
demodulates, then stops to perform a single sweep and update the display, then
again demodulates.
To select Listen Time:
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4
ƒ Then Listen Time
ƒ Enter a value using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
Then select a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations on page 20.
72
FieldFox User’s Guide
Volume Control
To increase or decrease the Volume of the demodulated signal:
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4
ƒ Then Volume
ƒ Enter a value in percent between 0 and 100 (loudest) using the numeric
keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
Demod ON and OFF
To quickly stop the audio demodulation and perform only the normal SA sweeps,
select the following:
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4
ƒ Then Demod ON OFF
Channel Measurements
The following Channel Measurements are offered in SA Mode:
Channel Power ..................................................... 74
Occupied Bandwidth ........................................... 76
Adjacent Channel Power Ratio .......................... 77
The following four sections (Radio Standards and Channel Measurements,
Measurement Preset, Averaging, and Traces) are relevant for ALL Channel
Measurements.
Radio Standards and Channel Measurements
To tune the frequency range of any of the Channel Measurements using channels
instead of frequency, first select a Radio Standard, then select Units = CHAN.
Learn how to select a Radio Standard and channels on page 57.
When you first select a Radio Standard, then select a Channel Measurement:
ƒ With Units = FREQ selected, the center frequency and span will ALWAYS
change to the full frequency range of that standard (Uplink and Downlink) to
allow for a quick scan of energy. The X-axis annotation indicates the
frequency range.
ƒ With Units = CHAN selected, the FieldFox chooses either the uplink or
downlink band, and displays that range of frequencies. You can then tune
within that Standard using Start CHAN, Stop CHAN, or Center CHAN. The Xaxis annotation indicates the frequency range.
When you first select a Channel Measurement, then select a Radio Standard,
the BW, Offset, RRC, Integration BW, and Span settings are changed to those of
the standard. However, center frequency is NOT changed unless you first select
Units = CHAN.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
73
Measurement Preset
Measurement Preset allows you to easily reset any of the channel measurements
to its default settings. The Center Frequency, Preamp ON|OFF, RF Attenuation,
Markers, Limits, and Radio Standard settings are NOT reset.
To select Measurement Preset:
ƒ Press Preset then Meas Preset
Averaging
By default in ALL Channel measurements, averaging is enabled and set to
display the average of the last 15 measurements . When enabled, this average
setting is automatically making the following ‘averaging’ settings in order to
provide the most accurate power measurements:
ƒ Averaging Type is set to Power.
ƒ Trace State is set to Average.
ƒ Detector is set to Average.
ƒ Count is set to 15.
Any of these settings can be changed manually during a Channel measurement.
Learn more about these settings starting at page 68.
To change Averaging:
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4 .
ƒ Then Average Enable ON OFF OFF effectively sets the Average Count to 1.
ƒ Then Average Count
ƒ Enter a value between 1 and 10,000 using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows,
or the rotary knob.
ƒ Press Enter.
Traces
Only one measurement trace can be displayed in Channel Measurements.
Channel Power (CHP)
Channel Power measures total power over the specified Integrated BW. The
Integration Bandwidth (IBW) can be adjusted to measure the power over
multiple channels.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
Channel Power measurement; Chan 190 Downlink; GSM850 Radio Standard
The following two Channel Power levels are displayed:
ƒ Channel Power - measures total power over the specified Integrated BW.
ƒ Power Spectral Density – same measured power, but mathematically
normalized to a 1 Hz bandwidth using the same algorithm as Noise Marker.
Learn more about the Noise Marker on page 70.
How to select Channel Power
ƒ Press Measure__1
ƒ Then Channel Measurements
ƒ Then Channel Power
When Channel Power is selected, the following settings are maintained from a
previous measurement: Center Frequency, Preamp ON|OFF, and RF Attenuation.
Integration Bandwidth
When Channel Power is selected, vertical posts appear on the display to mark the
current Integration Bandwidth setting. The displayed Channel Power and Power
Spectral Density values are measured and calculated over the specified
Integration Bandwidth.
By default, the displayed frequency span is automatically coupled to the
Integration Bandwidth. As you change the Integration Bandwidth, the frequency
span is adjusted so that the vertical posts appear to NOT move. However, when
you manually change the frequency span, the Integration Bandwidth is no longer
coupled to the frequency span.
When a Radio Standard is selected, the appropriate Integration Bandwidth is set
automatically. Learn more about Radio Standards on page 57.
To change Integration Bandwidth:
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
75
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4
ƒ Then Integrating BW
ƒ Enter a value between 100 Hz and 100 MHz using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼
arrows, or the rotary knob.
ƒ Press Enter
Other Channel Power Settings
All relevant FieldFox settings are made automatically to ensure the highest
accuracy, such as ResBW, VideoBW, and sweep (SwpAcquisition) speed. These,
and all other SA Mode settings, can be changed manually in a Channel Power
measurement.
ƒ Learn about Measurement Preset on page 74.
ƒ Learn about Averaging on page 74.
ƒ Learn about RRC Weighting on page 80.
Occupied Bandwidth
Occupied Bandwidth measures the power of the displayed frequency span and
displays vertical posts at the frequencies between which the specified percentage
of the power is contained. The frequency span between the two vertical posts is
the Occupied Bandwidth. The Occupied Power, the power that is contained
between the two posts, is also displayed in dBm.
OBW measurement; Chan 190 Downlink; GSM850 Radio Standard
How to select Occupied Bandwidth
ƒ Press Measure__1
ƒ Then Channel Measurements
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FieldFox User’s Guide
ƒ Then Occupied BW
When Occupied Bandwidth is selected, the following settings are maintained
from a previous measurement: Center Frequency, Preamp ON|OFF, and RF
Attenuation.
Frequency Span
Occupied BW is calculated from power that is measured over the entire
displayed Frequency Span. The frequency span can be entered using arbitrary
frequencies or by using a Radio Standard in conjunction with channel numbers.
Learn how to select a Radio Standard and channels on page 57.
To change Frequency Span:
ƒ Press Freq/Dist
ƒ Then Freq Span
ƒ Enter a value using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
ƒ Press Enter
Power Percent
This setting specifies the percentage of total measured power to display between
the vertical posts. The measurement defaults to 99% of the occupied bandwidth
power. The remaining power (1% of default setting) is evenly distributed; .5% of
the power on the outside of each side of the vertical posts.
To change Power Percent:
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4
ƒ Then Power Percent
ƒ Enter a value between 10 and 99.99 using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows,
or the rotary knob.
ƒ Press Enter.
Other Occupied Bandwidth Settings
All relevant FieldFox settings are made automatically to ensure the highest
accuracy, such as ResBW, VideoBW, and sweep (SwpAcquisition) speed. These,
and all other SA Mode settings, can be changed manually in a Occupied
Bandwidth measurement.
ƒ Learn about Measurement Preset on page 74.
ƒ Learn about Averaging on page 74.
Adjacent Channel Power Ratio(ACPR)
ACPR measures the power of a carrier channel and the power in its adjacent
(offset) channels. The measurement results can help you determine whether the
carrier power is set correctly and whether the transmitter filter is working
properly.
You can measure the channel power in one, two, or three adjacent (offset)
channels on the low frequency and high frequency side of the center channel.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
77
Limits can be used to quickly see if too much power is measured in the adjacent
channels.
GSM 850-Ch 251-Up with one Offset.
Red Freqs (Mhz) added to illustrate Offset and Integ BW.
Data in the ACPR graphical chart is always presented in dBm for the carrier, and
dBc (dB below the carrier) for the offsets. This can NOT be changed. Use the
Meas Type setting (next page) to change how the data is presented in the table
below the graph.
How to select ACPR
ƒ Press Measure__1
ƒ Then Channel Measurements
ƒ Then Adjacent Channel Power
When ACPR is selected, the following settings are maintained from a previous
measurement: Center Frequency, Preamp ON|OFF, and RF Attenuation.
Frequency Range/Channel
When a Radio Standard is selected, the appropriate center frequency or channel
and span is set automatically. The frequency or channel number can then be
changed from the Freq/Dist menu. Learn how to select a Radio Standard and
channels on page 57.
The frequency range of an ACPR measurement can also be entered using
arbitrary frequencies.
When a Radio Std is NOT selected, the center frequency of a previous
measurement is maintained when ACPR is selected.
Integration Bandwidth
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FieldFox User’s Guide
The Integration Bandwidth of the carrier and offsets is the frequency span over
which power is measured.
To change Integration Bandwidth:
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4
ƒ Then Integrating BW
ƒ Enter a value between 100 Hz and 100 MHz using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼
arrows, or the rotary knob.
ƒ Press Enter
How to define adjacent (Offset) channels
An offset represents a range of frequencies over which power is measured. You
can specify up to three offsets. The frequency range for each offset is specified
with an Offset Freq and Integ BW. Each offset that is created has a Lower
(carrier MINUS Offset Freq) and Upper (carrier PLUS Offset Freq) set of
frequencies.
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4
ƒ Then Offsets
ƒ Press Offset 1 2 3 to select an offset.
ƒ Then Offset State to set that offset ON or OFF.
ƒ Select Offset Freq This is the difference between the carrier center frequency
and the center frequency of the offset channel. Then enter a value using the
numeric keypad.
ƒ Select Offset Integ BW This is the frequency range over which power is
measured in that offset; half of the range below and half above the Offset Freq.
How to set limits for adjacent channels
You can set a unique threshold power for each of the offsets that will cause a
FAIL indication (RED bar). This occurs when the calculated dBc power (on top
of the offset bar) is ABOVE the specified level.
To set limits, with an ACPR measurement on the screen:
ƒ Press Limit 8
ƒ Then Set Limits (1,2, or 3)
ƒ Then choose from the following:
ƒ Lower Offset Sets a limit for the lower-frequency offset.
ƒ Upper Offset Sets a limit for the higher-frequency offset.
ƒ Then enter a value using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
ƒ Then Limit Test ON OFF
Measurement Type
This setting determines how the measured carrier and offset power levels in the
table are presented. (Data in the graphical chart is always presented in dBm for
the carrier and dBc for the offsets.)
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
79
To select Meas Type:
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4 .
ƒ Then More
ƒ Then Meas Type
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
o
Total Pwr Ref – Integrated carrier power is represented in dBm, and
relative powers between offsets and carrier are represented as dBc (dB
below the carrier).
PSD Ref (Power Spectral Density) – Integrated carrier power is
normalized to a 1 Hz density as dBm/Hz using a similar algorithm as Noise
Marker. Learn more about the Noise Marker on page 70.
For both Meas Types, choose the reference for the offset data.
ƒ Auto – dB or dBc value is computed by subtracting the measured carrier
power from the measured offset power.
ƒ Man – dB or dBc value is computed by subtracting the entered RefValue from
the measured offset power.
o
o
Press Ref Value
Then enter a value to be used to reference the data using the numeric
keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
Other ACPR Settings
All relevant FieldFox settings are made automatically to ensure the highest
accuracy, such as ResBW, VideoBW, and sweep (SwpAcquisition) speed. These,
and all other SA Mode settings, can be changed manually in a ACPR
measurement.
ƒ Learn about Measurement Preset on page 74.
ƒ Learn about Averaging on page 74.
RRC Weighting
RRC, or Root-Raised-Cosign weighting, is offered with Channel Power and ACPR
measurements.
When RRC Weighting is applied to transmitted and received power, the edges of
the channel are ‘smoothed’ to help prevent interference. To accurately measure a
channel that has RRC weighting, set the same value of RRC weighting as that
used in the transmitter and receiver.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
Channel power measurement with .22 RRC applied
This value is set and enabled automatically when included in a selected radio
standard.
To set and enable RRC Weighting:
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4
ƒ Then RRC Weighting ON OFF
ƒ Then More
ƒ Then RRC Alpha [current setting]
ƒ Enter a value between 0 (no smoothing) and 1 (most smoothing) using the
numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob. A standard level of filtering
is .22.
ƒ Press Enter
Interference Analyzer (Option 236)
NOTE:
Option 236 provides Spectrogram display, Waterfall display and
Record/Playback. Learn more about Record/Playback on page 86.
Spectrogram and Waterfall displays provide a visual history of the measured
spectrum. Each display type can be used to locate intermittent signals or to view
signal levels over time.
Spectrogram is a single horizontal line of color-coded power while Waterfall uses
a 3-D color-coded display. The functional difference between these two displays
is that Spectrogram provides less trace detail than Waterfall display. However, it
also allows more traces to be viewed.
These two displays can NOT be used with Channel Measurements.
Although this document refers to past traces as ‘records’ these traces are not
saved in Spectrogram and Waterfall displays. They are only drawn on the
FieldFox screen.
Spectrogram Display
Spectrogram draws the most recent trace record at the top of the stack of
previously-drawn trace records. Drawing the live trace on the display is
optional.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
81
Spectrogram display- Overlay view- with time markers 23 seconds apart.
The following settings all contribute to the sweep time of an individual trace, and
therefore, the total elapsed time that can appear on the screen in Spectrogram
display:
ƒ Frequency Range. Learn more on page 56.
ƒ Resolution BW and Video BW. Learn more on page 61
ƒ Sweep Time (Acquisition). Learn more on page 62.
ƒ Resolution (Number of Points). Learn more on page 67.
How to select Spectrogram
ƒ Press Meas 1
ƒ Then Interference Analysis
ƒ Then Spectrogram
How to modify the Spectrogram
You can change how the spectrogram is displayed relative to the data trace. This
setting affects the total number of trace records that can be displayed.
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4 .
ƒ Then Spectrogram Settings
ƒ Then Spectrogram View
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
82
Overlay Displays the data trace over the spectrogram with NO graticules.
Total trace records: 340.
Full Screen Displays the spectrogram with NO data trace. Total trace
records: 340.
Top Displays the data trace above the spectrogram. Total trace records: 130.
FieldFox User’s Guide
o
Bottom Displays the data trace below the spectrogram. Total trace records:
130.
How to Restart the Spectrogram
Press Sweep 3 then Restart
Averaging
Averaging can be enabled on the underlying measurement. Press Trace
then State [Average]. Learn more on page 67.
6
Common Settings for Waterfall and Spectrogram
Set Red and Blue Limits
The colors displayed on the Waterfall and Spectrogram represent the various
measured power levels:
ƒ Red = Highest power levels
ƒ Blue = Lowest power levels
NOTE:
The full Red-to-Blue color spectrum is visible only with Indoor display colors.
Learn more on page 120
Adjust the Red and Blue limits to the power levels that you expect to measure.
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4 .
ƒ Then Spectrogram / Waterfall Settings
ƒ Then choose from the following:
At least 20 dB of power MUST separate the Red and Blue limits. Therefore, the
order in which the Red and Blue settings may be critical. For example, to lower
the default settings (-20 and -90) to (-80 and -100), first lower the Blue to -100,
then the Red to -80.
o
o
Red Limit Using the ▲|▼ arrows , rotary knob, or keypad, select the
HIGHEST power level that you expect to measure. This power level, and
those measured higher than this level, appear Red.
Blue Limit Using the ▲|▼ arrows , rotary knob, or keypad, select the
LOWEST power levels that you expect to measure. This power level, and
those measured lower than this level, appear Blue.
Time Markers
NOTE:
Use Time Markers to determine the elapsed time between any two displayed
records.
Spectrogram displays the most recent record at the top of the screen. Waterfall
displays the most recent record at the bottom.
To create Time Markers:
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4
ƒ Then Time Markers
ƒ Then Time
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
83
ƒ Then enter a value from 0 (the most recent sweep record) to the maximum
value, using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob. A 4
indicates the Time Marker.
ƒ Then Delta
ƒ Then enter a value from 0 (the most recent sweep record) to the maximum
value, using the numeric keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob. A 44
indicates the Delta Marker.
ƒ At the current sweep speed, the difference in time between these two markers
appears at the upper-right corner of the view as Delta Time: hh:mm:ss Sec.
ƒ An invalid (very large number) appears when a trace record is not available at
one or both of these markers.
How to Restart the Spectrogram
Press Sweep 3 then Restart
Averaging
Averaging can be enabled on the underlying measurement. Press Trace
then State [Average]. Learn more on page 67.
6
Measurement Preset
Measurement Preset resets ONLY the Spectrogram and Waterfall display settings.
It does not reset the measurement settings.
ƒ Press Preset
ƒ Then Meas Preset
Waterfall Display
Note:
84
The live trace is always drawn on a Waterfall display. Older trace records scroll
up from the displayed trace and eventually off the screen. Because of this, locate
the live trace on the bottom of the screen using the scale and reference settings.
Learn more on page 59.
Although this document refers to past traces as ‘records’ these traces are not
saved. They are only drawn on the FieldFox screen.
FieldFox User’s Guide
Waterfall display- moderate angle- with time markers 1 minute apart.
The following settings all contribute to the sweep time of an individual trace, and
therefore, the total elapsed time that can appear on the screen in Waterfall
display:
ƒ Frequency Range. Learn more on page 56.
ƒ Resolution BW and Video BW. Learn more on page 61
ƒ Sweep Time (Acquisition). Learn more on page 62.
ƒ Resolution (Number of Points). Learn more on page 67.
Waterfall Angle
This setting allows you to show more or less detail. More detail provides fewer
(time) records.
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4
ƒ Then Spectrogram Settings
ƒ Then Waterfall Angle
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
Moderate Compromise between detail and number of records.
o
Steep Least detail with highest number of records.
o
Gradual Most detail with lowest number of records.
o
Wide Angle Moderate angle with increased space between records.
Learn how to set Red and Blue Limits and Time Markers on page 83.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
85
Record Playback (DEMO VERSION – very limited capability)
ƒ Record Playback allows you to record up to 100 SA trace sweeps and play
them back at a later time.
ƒ Only one recording can be made. The recording is saved to internal memory
and can ONLY be accessed using the playback function. The record buffer is
cleared before a new recording begins.
ƒ Preset erases the current recording. Mode Preset does NOT erase the
recording.
Playback
ƒ Trace sweeps are played back as fast as the trace can be drawn on the screen.
ƒ Playback can be paused during playback to view individual recorded traces by
using Run/Hold +/-. Learn how on page 66.
ƒ No frequency or other settings are stored with the data. If SA mode settings are
changed between record and playback, the annotation on the screen may be an
incorrect representation of the data being played back. The settings under
which the data was recorded are not recalled.
To Record Trace Sweeps
ƒ Press Trace 6
ƒ Then Record Playback
ƒ Then Prototype control
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
Rec Immediately start recording.
o
OFF Immediately stop recording or playing.
o
Play Immediately start playing recorded traces. If no recorded traces are in
memory, Play 0/100 will be displayed.
Record Interval
Sets the amount of time between trace recordings.
To set Record Interval:
ƒ Press Trace 6
ƒ Then Record Playback
ƒ Then Record Interval
ƒ Enter a value in seconds between 0 (no delay) and 1,000,000 using the numeric
keypad, ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
ƒ Press Enter
Record Source
The simplest way to use Record Playback is to record RawMeas data, which is
then played back into all of the current Trace States.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
NOTE
However, for more complicated processing, refer to the following diagram. This
illustrates where data is recorded and played back in the FieldFox data chain.
For this discussion, it is important to understand Trace States. Learn more on
page 67.
FieldFox Record/Playback data points
ƒ Data can be recorded at the Raw Meas point where the data is acquired, or
from a specific trace (1,2,3,4).
ƒ Recorded data from a Clear/Write trace is exactly the same as Raw Meas data.
ƒ Data is ALWAYS played back as though it were Raw Meas data, through the
current Trace State, and onto the display.
To set Record Source:
ƒ Press Trace 6
ƒ Then Record Playback
ƒ Then Record Source
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
RawMeas Records raw measurement data.
o
Trace 1,2,3,4 Records data from the corresponding trace in its current state.
Record Playback Example
The following “Interval Recording” example shows how you can record spectral
activity over a longer period of time with less trace storage.
ƒ Press Trace 6 then, with Trace = 1, press State then Max Hold
ƒ Press Record Playback
ƒ Press Record Source to Trace1
ƒ Press Record Interval Sec to 10.
At the end of each 10 second record interval, the Max Hold trace is recorded and
the Max Hold processing is reset for the next 10 second record interval.
This session can be played back into any Trace State.
ƒ Into a Crl/Write trace, the play shows the “Max Hold” activity of each record
interval.
ƒ Into a Max Hold trace, the play shows the accumulation of “Max Hold” activity
over the entire recording.
SA (Spectrum Analyzer) Mode
87
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FieldFox User’s Guide
Power Meter Mode
Power Meter measurements, available with Option 302, are made with Agilent
U2000 Series USB power sensors. Power readings are displayed on the FieldFox
screen.
In this Chapter
Supported Power Sensors................................... 89
How to Connect the Power Sensor .................... 90
Zeroing................................................................... 90
Set Frequency....................................................... 91
Set Scale ................................................................ 91
Set Relative and Offset Power............................ 92
Set Display Units.................................................. 92
Set Averaging........................................................ 93
Single/Continuous ............................................... 93
Set Limits .............................................................. 93
Supported Power Sensors
NOTE
Power Meter measurements are made using any of the Agilent U2000 Series
USB Power Sensors.
The FieldFox does NOT support the following U2000 Series features: External
Triggering (Time Gated Burst Power Measurement), Power Sweep Operation, and
Frequency Sweep Operation.
Power Meter Mode
89
CAUTION
Please observe the damage level of your U2000 Series Power Sensor.
Typical damage levels of the U2000 Series Power Sensor are:
+25 dBm (320 mW) average
+33 dBm peak (2 W) <10μs
+5V
How to Connect the Power Sensor
NOTE
Connect your U2000 Series Power Sensor to one of the USB ports.
Use an attenuator between the DUT and the power sensor when measuring
power levels that are higher than +20 dBm. The attenuator value can be
subtracted from the measurement using the Offset feature, discussed on page 92.
A sequence of status lights are displayed on the base of the power sensor.
ƒ Green blinking light indicates the power sensor is communicating or self-tests
are being performed. Because the FieldFox is usually communicating with the
power sensor when it is connected, this is the normal mode of operation.
ƒ Amber light indicates Internal Zeroing is being performed.
ƒ Red light indicates an error has occurred with the power sensor. Refer to
power sensor documentation.
ƒ No light indicates the FieldFox is not communicating with the power sensor.
This is the case when NOT in Power Meter Mode.
Power Meter Settings
Select Power Meter Mode before making any setting in this section.
How to select Power Meter Mode
ƒ Press Mode_.
ƒ Then Power Meter.
Zeroing
The Agilent USB Power Sensors perform Internal Zeroing automatically. Because
the U2000 series power sensors have an internal switch, Internal Zeroing does
NOT require that the power source be turned OFF.
For highest measurement accuracy, when measuring power levels below –30
dBm, External Zeroing should be performed.
During External Zeroing, the power source MUST be turned OFF or the power
sensor disconnected from the power source (device under test). Power is OFF
when power sensor measurements are below –60 dBm. When power higher than
this is detected at the sensor, a warning message is shown on the FieldFox and
External Zeroing will not proceed.
How to perform External Zeroing
ƒ Press Cal 5 .
ƒ Then External Zero.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
While either Internal or External Zeroing is being performed, “Zeroing...” is
shown on the FieldFox screen. While this message is present, do NOT make any
changes to the FieldFox.
In addition, once External Zeroing has started, the power source must be OFF for
the entire time that the Zeroing message is present. Otherwise, the calibration
will be compromised but NO warning is shown.
Frequency
A table of correction factors versus frequency is stored within the Agilent U2000
Series Power Sensors. The frequency of the power to be measured is entered in
the FieldFox so that the appropriate correction factor can be used.
The frequency of the power measurement is NOT limited by the frequency range
of the FieldFox, but the frequency range of the power sensor, which can be much
wider.
How to Enter Frequency of the Power Measurement
ƒ Press Freq/Dist or Meas Setup 4 .
ƒ Then Frequency.
ƒ Then type a value using the numeric keypad. The default frequency is 50 MHz.
ƒ Then press a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier abbreviations on page 20.
The current frequency is shown on the FieldFox screen.
Scale
The scale of the Power Meter display can be set manually or automatically. The
major and minor ticks are set automatically and can NOT be changed. Although
the scale settings are limited, you can view measurements beyond these settings
by performing Autoscale.
How to Scale the Power Meter display
Manually:
ƒ Press Scale / Amptd.
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
o
Scale Min Sets the low power level of the power meter display. Type a
number and select the units or press Enter. This value is limited to –100
dBm.
Scale Max Sets the high power level of the power meter display. Type a
number and select the units or press Enter. This value is limited to 100
dBm.
Autoscale:
Using Autoscale, the current reading is used for the center of the scale, and Min
and Max values are set accordingly.
ƒ Press Scale / Amptd.
Power Meter Mode
91
ƒ Then More .
ƒ Then Autoscale.
Relative and Offset Power Measurements
Power measurements can be made that are relative to another reading or that are
offset by a fixed value.
ƒ Use Relative to measure the difference between power levels.
ƒ Use Offset to account for components or a long length of cable that is used
before the power sensor. For example, if using a 10 dB attenuator to protect
the FieldFox, enter an Offset Value of 10 to read the power as it would appear
without attenuation. If using a 10 dB amplifier, enter an Offset Value of –10 to
read the power as it would appear without amplification.
How to set Relative and Offset Power Measurements
ƒ Press Scale / Amptd.
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
Relative On Off When switched to ON, the FieldFox measures and stores
the current power level. Subsequent power measurements display a power
level which is relative to the stored value. When relative is ON, the units
change from dBm to dB or from Watts to %.
Offset On Off Toggles ON and OFF the displayed power level using the
Offset value.
Offset Val Value by which the power meter display is offset. A positive
value compensates for a component with loss. A negative value compensates
for a component with gain. Offset values are limited to +/- 100 dB.
Display Units
Sets the Power Meter display to dBm or Watts. When making relative power
measurements, these change to dB and %.
How to set Power Meter display units
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4 or Scale / Amptd.
ƒ Then Unit .
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
dBm (dB) Sets Power Meter display to dBm or dB.
o
Watt (%) Sets Power Meter display to Watts or %.
Resolution
Sets the number of digits to display after the decimal point on the digital power
meter display.
How to set Resolution
92
FieldFox User’s Guide
ƒ Press Scale / Amptd.
ƒ Then More.
ƒ Then choose from 0, 1, 2 , or 3.
Averaging
Power Meter Averaging is used to improve measurement accuracy in low power
or noisy power situations. Increased averaging improves measurement accuracy,
but also reduces measurement speed.
How to set Power Meter Averaging
ƒ Press BW 2 or Meas Setup 4.
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
o
Averaging Auto Man Off
o
Auto Allows the USB Power Sensor to use its Auto Averaging settings.
See the USB Power Sensor documentation for details.
o
Man Manually enter an averaging count by setting Num Averages.
o
OFF Performs NO averaging.
Num Averages Sets the number of Power Meter readings to be averaged
before a valid reading is displayed. When a number is entered, Averaging is
automatically set to Man
Single or Continuous Measure
This setting determines whether the FieldFox measures continuously or only
once each time the Single button is pressed. Use Single to conserve battery
power or to allow you to save or analyze a specific measurement.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to set Single or Continuous
ƒ Press Sweep 3.
ƒ Then choose one of the following:
o
o
Single Automatically sets Continuous OFF and causes FieldFox to make
ONE measurement, then hold for the next Single key press. When a data
trace is displayed, the entire trace is measured, then holds. The Hold
annotation changes to an arrow --> while the measurement occurs.
Continuous Makes continuous measurements. This is the typical setting
when battery power is not critical.
You can also use Run / Hold +/- to toggle between Single and Continuous.
Limits
In Power Meter Mode, Minimum and Maximum limits set a visible range of
acceptable readings between these two values. Readings that are below the
minimum or above the maximum are clearly visible on the power meter display.
Power Meter Mode
93
How to set Limits
ƒ Press Limit 8.
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
o
94
Min Limit On Off Toggles the display of the Minimum limit ON and OFF.
Min Limit Value Sets the Minimum limit power value. Power reading lower
than this will exceed the limit.
Max Limit On Off Toggles the display of the Maximum limit ON and OFF.
Max Limit Value Sets the Maximum limit power value. Power reading
higher than this will exceed the limit.
FieldFox User’s Guide
VVM (Vector Voltmeter) Mode
VVM Mode (Option 308) measures the electrical length of cables and other
devices. The 1-Port Cable Trimming application displays the electrical length in
both Magnitude and Phase. The 2-Port Transmission measurement displays
Magnitude ONLY.
Display for the 1-Port Cable Trimming measurement
In this Chapter
Overview ............................................................... 96
VVM Calibration ................................................... 97
Measurement Selection ....................................... 97
Frequency Selection ............................................ 97
Averaging .............................................................. 97
Single/Continuous ............................................... 98
Zeroing................................................................... 99
Procedures
1-Port Cable Trimming Measurement ............... 99
2-Port Transmission Measurement.................. 100
VVM (Vector Voltmeter) Mode
95
Overview
In the FieldFox, both 1-port and 2-port measurement types use a different
configuration setup from the HP/Agilent 8508A Vector Voltmeter.
Typical 8508A measurement configuration – taken from the 8508A manual.
The above block diagram requires an external source and directional coupler to
measure the electrical length of a DUT or cable to be trimmed. Separate paths
are used to measure the Incident signal (A) and Reflected signal (B). To measure
the ratio of the Reflected / Incident signals, you were required to select B/A for
both the Magnitude and Phase display.
In the following FieldFox block diagram, the source and directional coupler are
inside the instrument. This allows you to connect the DUT to ONLY the FieldFox
RF Out port, with NO external instruments, in order to make Cable Trimming
measurements.
FieldFox block diagram
ƒ The R receiver measures incident signal (green
line) out of the source.
ƒ The A receiver measures reflected signal (red
line) from the end of the DUT (black line).
ƒ In VVM mode, the display ALWAYS shows ratioed
(A/R) measurements which is the electrical length
of the DUT.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
VVM Calibration
In VVM Mode, calibration is performed in the same manner as in CAT and NA
Modes. In summary, a Preset Cal is sufficient when the DUT is connected
directly to the FieldFox RF Out test port. When using an adapter or jumper cable
to connect the DUT, first perform a QuickCal + Load or OSL Cal before making
measurements. Learn more about these FieldFox calibrations on page 47.
To make an accurate measurement, set Zero OFF before calibrating.
VVM Mode Settings
NOTE
Select VVM Mode before making any setting in this section.
In VVM Mode, the power level out of the internal FieldFox source is always
approximately +5 dBm and can NOT be changed. See the specifications for power
level under CAT Mode - Output Power - HIGH on page 154.
How to select VVM Mode
ƒ Press Mode
ƒ Then VVM
Measurement Selection
How to select a VVM Measurement
ƒ Press Measure 1
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
o
1-Port Cable Trimming 1-port reflection measurement. Learn how to make
this measurement on page 99.
2-Port Transmission 2-port transmission MAGNITUDE ONLY measurement.
Learn how to make this measurement on page 100.
Frequency Selection
VVM measurements are made at a single CW frequency.
How to set Frequency
ƒ Press Freq/Dist
ƒ Then Frequency
ƒ Enter a value using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the rotary knob.
ƒ After using the ▲|▼ arrows or the rotary knob, press Enter. The increment
setting of the arrows is based on the current span and can NOT be changed in
VVM Mode.
ƒ After using the keypad, select a multiplier key. Learn about multiplier
abbreviations on page 20.
VVM (Vector Voltmeter) Mode
97
Averaging
Averaging helps to reduce the effects of random noise on a measurement. The
FieldFox computes the displayed value over several consecutive readings.
Average Count determines the number of readings to average. The higher the
average count, the greater the amount of noise reduction.
An average counter is shown in the left edge of the screen as Avg N. This shows
the number of previous readings that have been averaged together. When the
counter reaches the specified count, then a ‘running average’ of the last N
readings is displayed.
Average Count = 1 means there is NO averaging.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to set Averaging
ƒ Press Meas Setup 4
ƒ Then More
ƒ Then Average N where N is the current count setting.
ƒ Enter a value using the numeric keypad. Enter 1 for NO averaging.
ƒ Press Enter.
ƒ While Averaging is in process, press Meas Setup 4 , then More, then Restart
to restart the averaging.
Single or Continuous Measure
This setting determines whether the FieldFox measures continuously or only
once each time the Single button is pressed. Use Single to conserve battery
power or to allow you to save or analyze a specific measurement.
This setting can be changed at any time without affecting calibration accuracy.
How to set Single or Continuous
ƒ Press Sweep 3.
ƒ Then choose one of the following:
o
o
Single Automatically sets Continuous OFF and causes FieldFox to make
ONE measurement, then hold for the next Single key press. When a data
trace is displayed, the entire trace is measured, then holds. The Hold
annotation changes to an arrow --> while the measurement occurs.
Continuous Makes continuous measurements. This is the typical setting
when battery power is not critical.
ƒ You can also use Run / Hold +/- to toggle between Single and Continuous.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
Zeroing
When performing a Cable Trimming operation, one cable is compared to another.
After measuring the first, shorter cable, pressing Zero performs the same
operation as Data->Memory, then Data/Mem, also known as Normalization. All
subsequent electrical length measurements are relative to the stored
measurement.
To make an accurate measurement, set Zero OFF before calibrating.
How to select Zeroing
o
Press Meas Setup 4
o
Then Zero
o
Press Zero Off to turn zeroing off.
1-Port Cable Trimming Measurements
A 1-Port Cable Trimming measurement is used in a cable fabrication procedure
to validate proper electrical length. Read the Overview section in this chapter to
learn more about this measurement and the calibration process.
How to make a 1-Port Cable Trimming Measurement
Press Mode then VVM then 1-Port Cable Trimming.
Press Freq/Dist and enter the frequency needed for the measurement.
Press Meas Setup 4 then Zero OFF.
If using an adapter or jumper cable to connect the cables to the FieldFox,
press Cal 5 then select Calibration Type,then either QuickCal (+ Load) or
OSL Cal. Follow the FieldFox calibration prompts.
5. You can perform the following optional Measurement Verification
procedure to ensure that the FieldFox is properly calibrated.
This measurement verification procedure is suitable for low frequency
measurements. However, for high frequency measurements, a more sophisticated
procedure is required.
a. Connect a short standard to the RF Out calibration plane (the
location where the calibration was performed).
b. Press Meas Setup 4 and press Zero.
c. Connect the open standard to the FieldFox RF OUT connector.
d. Confirm that magnitude measurement is less than –0.1 dB and that
the phase value reads 180 degrees.
6. Attach the shortest cable to the FieldFox RF OUT connector. This cable is the
reference cable. Leave the end of the reference cable open (unterminated).
7. Press Meas Setup 4 then press Zero.
8. Remove the reference cable from the FieldFox RF OUT connector.
9. Connect an unterminated, longer cable to the FieldFox RF OUT connector.
10. Observe the displayed phase difference between the reference cable and the
attached cable.
11. Carefully trim the cable until the phase shift reads zero. The attached
cable’s electrical length is now matched to the reference cable.
1.
2.
3.
4.
NOTE
VVM (Vector Voltmeter) Mode
99
12. Repeat steps 9 through 11 for the remaining cables to be trimmed.
2-Port Transmission Measurements
NOTE
A 2-Port Transmission measurement is used for measuring electrical length,
insertion loss, gain, or isolation of a device. The FieldFox signal source is
transmitted out the RF OUT connector, through the DUT, and into the RF IN
connector. Both ends of the DUT must be connected to the FieldFox.
Only Magnitude, NOT Phase, is displayed.
In the following image, the gain of an amplifier is being measured.
2-Port Transmission measurement of an amplifier
How to make a 2-Port Transmission Measurement
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Press Mode then VVM then 2-Port Transmission.
Press Freq/Dist and enter the measurement frequency.
Connect the RF Out and RF In test port cables to form a Thru connection as
in the image below. If an adapter is needed to make the connection, the
measurement results will be in error by the amount of loss in that adapter.
Press Meas Setup 4 then Zero.
Connect the DUT as in the diagram above.
The displayed magnitude value is the gain of the amplifier. To measure
isolation of the amplifier, reverse the connection to the amplifier (RF Out to
the amplifier output).
RF Out and RF In test port cables attached to form a Thru connection
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FieldFox User’s Guide
Data Analysis Features
The following features can be used after a measurement to analyze the results.
In this Chapter
All about Markers .............................................. 101
All about Limit Lines......................................... 106
All about Trace Math ......................................... 108
All about Markers
Markers move along the X-axis range of the measurement trace to provide a
numerical readout of each measured data point. Markers also allow you to search
for specific Y-axis values.
A trace can contain up to six markers.
The marker readout on the FieldFox screen displays X and Y-axis information for
the current active marker ONLY.
A Marker Table can be displayed that allows you to simultaneously view X and Yaxis information for all markers.
Markers can be used in CAT, SA, and NA Modes.
How to create Markers
ƒ Press Marker.
ƒ Then Markers 1...6 to select a marker to activate.
ƒ Then Normal to activate that marker. A marker is created on the trace in the
middle of the X-axis. That marker is now active.
ƒ Then move the marker using the rotary knob, the ▲|▼ arrows, or by entering
an X-axis position with the number keys.
ƒ Then press Enter.
How to move a Marker after it is created
ƒ Press Marker.
ƒ Then Markers 1...6 repeatedly until the marker of interest is selected. The
OFF, Normal, or Delta softkey is black to indicate the current setting of each
marker.
ƒ Then move the marker as when it was first created.
ƒ Markers can also be moved using one of the marker search functions. Learn
more on page 104.
Data Analysis Features
101
Marker 2 is Active, marker 1 is NOT active.
About Delta Markers
A delta marker provides X-and Y-axis readout information that is relative to a
‘reference’ marker.
A Delta marker is created with a ▲ (delta symbol) to distinguish it from the
reference marker.
All six markers can be a Delta marker pair.
Peak search functions can be performed using delta markers.
A Delta marker and its associated reference marker. The marker readout shows the
difference between the two markers in frequency and amplitude.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
How to Create a Delta Marker
ƒ Create a Normal marker and move it to the reference position.
ƒ Press Delta. The marker becomes the reference marker and fixed in its X-Axis
position.
NOTE
In SA Mode, the reference marker is also fixed in its Y-axis position as shown in
the previous image.
ƒ Move the Delta marker using the numeric keypad, the ▲|▼ arrows, or the
rotary knob.
ƒ Press Enter when finished.
How to move the Reference marker
ƒ Press Delta to turn the Delta marker OFF.
ƒ Move the marker to the new position.
ƒ Then press Delta again, to turn the Delta marker back ON.
Marker Table
The Marker Table, displayed at the bottom of the FieldFox screen, is used to
simultaneously display information for ALL markers. The Marker table
“squeezes” the graticule area when activated.
Marker table can be captured in screenshot even if it is not visible on the screen.
How to enable the Marker table
ƒ Press Marker.
ƒ Then Marker Table On Off.
Marker Trace
Both CAT and NA Modes can display a ‘live’ data trace and a memory trace.
Learn more on page 108.
SA Mode can display up to four traces. Learn more on page 67.
By default, markers are assigned to Trace 1 or the live trace. However, once
created, you can move a marker to any currently-displayed trace.
How to move a marker to a displayed trace
First create the trace that will host the marker.
ƒ Then press Marker
ƒ Then More
ƒ Then select the Marker to move using Marker 1,2,3,4,5,6.
ƒ Then select the trace to receive the selected marker using Marker Trace
1,2,3,4.
ƒ As each trace is selected, the marker moves to the same X-axis location on the
specified trace.
Data Analysis Features
103
ƒ If a trace is not already created, the Marker Trace can not be selected.
Marker Format
Available in NA Mode in either Smith Chart or Polar format. Choose the format
of the marker readout (upper right corner of screen). Learn more about Smith
Chart and Polar display on page 141.
How to choose marker format
ƒ Press Marker
ƒ Then More
ƒ Then Marker Format
ƒ Then choose from the following:
ƒ Mag & Phase Magnitude and Phase
ƒ Real + Imag Real and Imaginary
Marker Search Functions
Marker Search functions are used to move markers to various locations on the
trace, and also to change frequency range or distance settings to the frequency or
distance of the active marker.
How to use Marker Search Functions
ƒ Activate the marker to move.
ƒ Then press Mrk ->/Tools.
ƒ Then choose one of the following:
o
o
o
o
o
o
Peak Moves the active marker to the HIGHEST amplitude data point of the
trace. Peak Excursion value is ignored. In SA Mode, the LO feed-through
signal (0 Hz) is also ignored.
Next Peak Moves the active marker to the next highest amplitude peak from
where it currently resides.
Peak Left Moves the active marker to the next data point to the left that
meets the ‘Peak’ criteria. When no data points to the left meet the ‘Peak’
criteria, the marker does not move.
Peak Right Moves the active marker to the next data point to the right that
meets the ‘Peak’ criteria. When no data points to the right meet the ‘Peak’
criteria, the marker does not move.
Marker -> Center (Not available in DTF or SA mode with zero span) The
center frequency of the measurement becomes the value of the active
marker. The frequency span is adjusted accordingly.
More then Min Search (Not available in DTF) Moves the active marker to
the LOWEST amplitude data point of the trace.
The following applies to DTF Measurements ONLY:
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FieldFox User’s Guide
o
o
o
o
o
More 1 of 2.
Marker=>Start Distance The Start Distance of the measurement becomes
the value of the active marker. Markers that would no longer appear on the
screen are moved to the new Start Distance.
Marker=>Stop Distance The Stop Distance of the measurement becomes
the value of the active marker. Markers that would no longer appear on the
screen are moved to the new Stop Distance.
Track Peaks ON OFF When Track Peaks is ON, markers will find the new
peak with every sweep. While in this Mode, the markers can NOT be turned
OFF or moved.
Find 3 Peaks Three markers are created and find the highest peaks (faults)
on the trace.
What Is a ‘Peak’
NOTE
You define what the FieldFox considers a "peak" by setting the Peak Threshold
and Peak Excursion.
These two peak criteria settings apply to all markers, and are set individually for
CAT, SA, or NA Modes.
These settings remain through an instrument preset, but are reset to the default
values when the FieldFox power is shutdown.
Peak Threshold and Excursion are NOT available in DTF measurements.
However, peaks below –50 dB will NOT be found and this can NOT be changed.
How to set Peak Criteria
ƒ Press Mrk ->/Tools.
ƒ Then More.
ƒ Then select the following:
o
o
Peak Threshold Minimum amplitude (dB). To be considered valid, the peak
must be above the threshold level. The valley on either side can be below the
threshold level. Default = –190 for CAT and NA Modes; –90 for SA Mode.
Peak Excursion The vertical distance (dB) between the peak and the
valleys on both sides. To be considered a peak, data values must "fall off"
from the peak on both sides by the excursion value. Default = 0.5 dB for CAT
and NA Modes; 6 dB for SA Mode.
For example, the settings for the trace in the following image are:
Data Analysis Features
o
Threshold: –10 dB
o
Excursion: 1 dB
o
Scale = 1 dB / Division.
105
Peak A = Valid Peak (Above Threshold and Excursion Settings)
Peak B = Invalid Peak (Below 1 dB Excursion Setting)
Peak C = Invalid Peak (Below –10 dB Threshold Setting)
SA Noise Marker
For comparison purposes, electronic noise is often displayed as though the
measurement was made in a 1 Hz Res BW. However, making an actual
measurement with the FieldFox at a 1 Hz Res BW is impossible, and at 10 Hz,
extremely slow.
A noise marker mathematically calculates the noise measurement as though it
were made using a 1 Hz bandwidth.
Several data points (or ‘buckets’) are averaged together to calculate the Noise
Marker readout. To accurately measure noise, the Noise Marker should NOT be
placed too close to a signal. The distance from a signal depends on several
factors. To know if an accurate reading is being made, move the Noise Marker
until consistent measurements are displayed in adjacent data points.
In addition, when a Noise Marker is displayed, the Detection method is
automatically switched to Average. This occurs when Detection is set to Auto.
Learn more on page 69.
With a Noise Marker present, the Res BW can be changed and the noise floor will
also change, but the Noise Marker readout will remain about the same.
All about Limit Lines
Limit Lines are available in CAT Mode, NA Mode, and SA Mode. Power Meter
Mode uses different Limit settings. Learn more on page 93.
Limit Lines are visual representations on the FieldFox screen of the specified
limits for a measurement. With this capability, you can easily compare measured
data versus specifications. In addition, you can enable an audible beep and
display Pass or Fail information for each measurement.
You can have up to 10 Limit Lines for each measurement trace allowing you to
test all aspects of your measurements.
Limit Lines can be saved and recalled with an *.sta file. Learn more about *.sta
files on page 111. They can also be saved and recalled independently from the
Limit softkeys. Learn more on page 108.
Although allowed, Limit Lines and Limit testing are NOT useful with Smith
Chart display format in NA Mode.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
How to Create Limit Lines
In CAT, NA, or SA Mode:
ƒ Press Limit 8.
ƒ Then Edit.
ƒ A Limit Line Table appears. Use Left and Right softkeys, and Up / Down
hardkeys to create Limit Lines.
ƒ On Press Enter to toggle the display of the limit line ON (X ) and OFF (clear).
ƒ Type Press Enter to toggle the line Upper or Lower. An Upper limit will FAIL
any measured data point ABOVE the line. A Lower limit will FAIL any
measured data point BELOW the line .
Each Limit Line is constructed by setting the X/Y-coordinates for both the
beginning and end of line, as in the following image. The X-axis values for two
lines can overlap.
ƒ Start Frequency/Distance X-axis value for start of line.
ƒ Start Amplitude Y-axis value for start of line.
ƒ Stop Frequency/Distance X-axis value for stop of line.
ƒ Stop Amplitude Y-axis value for stop of line.
Limit table with two Upper limit lines. Warning ON.
Yellow circles and shading shows Start of lines.
Green circles and shading shows Stop of lines.
How to set Limit Options
ƒ Press Exit if the Limit Table is visible.
ƒ Then Options.
ƒ Then choose from the following:
Data Analysis Features
107
o
o
Beep On Off Audible beep sounds when each sweep fails.
Warning On Off Shows Pass or Fail indication on the display with each
sweep. Data points that fail are highlighted.
How to Save and Recall Limits
In addition to saving and recalling Limits with an *.sta file, Limit Lines can also
be saved and then recalled independent of the current mode or measurement.
Use this feature to recall and apply existing limit lines to measurements with
different settings or even a different frequency range.
Limit Line files can be loaded into the FieldFox Data Link Software. Learn how
in the help file that is included in the Data Link software.
How to Save and Recall Limits
ƒ Press Save/Recall then Select Device to set the Device (Internal, mini SD
card, or USB flash drive) to be used for the Save or Recall. Learn more on page
113.
ƒ Then press Limit.
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
o
Save Limits After Limit Lines have been defined, this saves the line
definition to a file on the specified device.
Recall Limits Recalls a Limit Line definition from the specified device.
All about Trace Math
Trace Math is available ONLY in CAT and NA Modes, but not in DTF
measurements.
A trace is a series of measurement data points that are connected to form a line.
This ‘live’ trace is displayed in yellow and is updated as data points are
measured.
A memory trace is a live trace that has been stored in the FieldFox volatile
memory. A memory trace is displayed in blue. It is static, meaning it is not
updated with measurements. It can be displayed on the screen by itself, or with
a live trace for comparison purposes.
ONE live trace and ONE memory trace can be displayed simultaneously in CAT
and NA Modes.
How to display ‘live’ and memory traces
ƒ Press Trace
6.
ƒ Then Data->Mem to store the current live trace into memory. A ‘beep’ sounds
to confirm the data trace has been saved to memory. There is no display
annotation that indicates that the memory trace has been stored.
o
Press Data to view only the live trace, displayed in yellow.
o
Press Memory to view only the memory trace, displayed in blue.
o
108
Press Data & Memory to view both the live trace and the stored memory
trace.
FieldFox User’s Guide
How to perform Trace Math
Trace math is performed between a live trace and a memory trace. When one of
the following math operations are selected, the yellow data trace displays the
current measurement with the selected trace math applied. The math operation
symbol indicated below in [brackets] is displayed on the lower left corner of the
screen.
ƒ Press Trace 6 .
ƒ If not already stored, press Data->Mem to store the current live trace into
memory.
ƒ Then Data Math.
ƒ Then choose one of the following:
o
o
o
o
Data + Memory [D+M] Current measurement data is added to the data in
memory.
Data – Memory [D-M] Current measurement data is subtracted from the
data in memory.
Data / Memory [D/M] Current measurement data is divided by the data in
memory.
Math Off [Data] Displays trace data with NO math applied.
About Math Operations
Data / Memory and Data - Memory math operations are performed on complex
linear data before it is formatted. Because data is often viewed in log format, it is
not always clear which of the two math operations should be used. Remember:
dividing linear data is the same as subtracting logarithmic data. The following
illustrates, in general, when to use each operation.
Use Data / Memory for normalization purposes, such as when comparing traces
"before" and "after" a change is made or when measuring trace noise. In the
following table, the Data/Mem values intuitively show the differences between
traces. It is not obvious what Data-Mem is displaying.
Values to compare
Data/Mem
Data-Mem
0.5 dB and 0.6 dB
0.1 dB
–39 dB
0.5 dB and 0.7 dB
0.2 dB
–33 dB
Use Data - Memory to show the relative differences between two signals. Use for
comparison of very small signals, such as the S11 match of two connectors.
In the following table, Data/Mem shows both pairs of connectors to have the
same 2 dB difference. However, the second pair of connectors have much better
S11 performance (–50 and –52) and the relative significance is shown in the
Data-Mem values.
Data Analysis Features
Values to compare
Data/Mem
Data-Mem
–10 dB and –12 dB
2 dB
–24 dB
–50 dB and –52 dB
2 dB
–64 dB
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FieldFox User’s Guide
File Management
The FieldFox can save any of the following types of files:
ƒ Current settings and calibration
ƒ Trace data (*csv and *.S1P)
ƒ Picture of the FieldFox screen
In addition, files can be saved to the internal memory, a USB Flash drive, or a
mini SD card.
In this Chapter
Save Files ............................................................ 111
Recall Files.......................................................... 112
Set File Type and Device .................................. 113
Manage Files ...................................................... 114
Manage Folders ................................................. 115
Edit Keywords .................................................... 115
Prefixes for Filenames ..................................... 116
Saving and Recalling Files
Save Files
How to Save a File
ƒ Press Save/Recall 9 .
ƒ Then Save.
ƒ At the top of the current ‘labeler’ screen (see following image) check the File
Type to save and Device (Internal, USB, Storage Card) to which the file is
saved. Learn how to change these settings on page 113.
ƒ Then use the labeler to specify a filename.
How to name files
The labeler is used to edit or change the current filename. It is also used to create
a title, prefix, and keyword to display on the FieldFox screen. Learn about Titles
on page 121.
ƒ Press Select to add the cursor character to the end of the existing filename.
ƒ Press Backspace to erase the last character from the current filename.
ƒ Press Clear to erase the current filename.
ƒ The preselected keywords (File, Site, and so forth) can be selected just like a
single character. These keywords can also be edited. Learn more on page 115.
File Management
111
The FieldFox labeler. The current filename is GF2.. The cursor is on the custom GF
keyword. The file will be saved to USB (flash drive). File Type is “Picture”.
How to move the cursor
ƒ Use the rotary knob to move cursor on the same row. The cursor will change
rows when it comes to a row end.
ƒ Use the ▲|▼ arrows to move the cursor up and down the rows.
When the current filename is complete
ƒ Press Done to save the file to the specified filename. If the filename already
exists, a warning is displayed.
ƒ Press Cancel to close the labeler without saving a file.
ƒ If the filename already exists, you are prompted to choose from the following:
o
Press Yes to overwrite the existing file.
o
Press Cancel to edit the filename.
Recall Files
State files and Trace + State files (*.sta) are the only file type that can be recalled
by the FieldFox.
ALL FieldFox instrument settings for ALL Modes are saved and recalled in a
*.sta file. If error correction is ON in CAT or NA Mode, then calibration data is
also saved and recalled.
How to Recall an *.sta File
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FieldFox User’s Guide
NOTE
Before recalling a file, first set File Type to State or Trace + State, and also
Select Device from which the file will be recalled.
ƒ Press Save/Recall 9 .
ƒ Then Recall.
ƒ Navigate to the file to be recalled using the Up/Down arrow keys.
ƒ Then Recall File or Enter.
Set File Type and Select Device
The following File TYPE and DEVICE settings are used to determine the type of
file to save, and the location to be used for all file operations.
These two settings remain through an instrument preset, but are reset to the
default values when the FieldFox power is shutdown.
Select Device (location of File Save/Recall)
ƒ Press Save/Recall 9 .
ƒ Then Select Device to set the LOCATION where the file is to be saved.
Choose from the following:
o
o
o
NOTE
Internal Saves/Recalls files to/from the FieldFox internal memory. To
specify a folder, first select Manage Folders (learn how on page 115). The
Data Link software will read data ONLY from the \UserData folder. Learn
more about Data Link software on page 127.
SD Card Saves/Recalls files to/from the mini SD card (not included),
inserted in the card slot. See FieldFox Tour on page 16. Only the root folder
is available.
USB Saves/Recalls files to or from a USB Flash drive (not included) that is
inserted in one of the USB connectors. Only the root folder is available.
Insert only ONE USB Flash Drive in the FieldFox when saving or copying files.
How to set File Type
State files are the only file type that can be recalled by the FieldFox.
ƒ Press Save/Recall 9 .
ƒ Then File Type. Choose one of the following:
o
o
o
o
State Saves ALL FieldFox instrument settings for ALL Modes to a *.sta file.
If a calibration is ON in CAT or NA Mode, calibration data is also saved.
This file can be opened ONLY by a FieldFox.
Trace + State Saves the current trace and instrument settings to a *.sta file.
In SA Mode, all traces are saved. This file can be opened ONLY by a
FieldFox. When recalled, the FieldFox sweep is set to Hold.
Picture Saves a 640 x 453 pixel image of the FieldFox screen to a *.png file.
The picture does NOT include the softkeys.
Data (SnP) Saves CAT and NA Mode trace data to an *.S1P file.
o In CAT Mode, S1P files are always Linear Mag / Angle format.
File Management
113
o In NA Mode, S1P files are Linear Mag / Angle for all formats except Smith
Chart which saves Real / Imaginary format.
o
Data (csv) Saves trace data from the current Mode to a *.csv file. This
format can be imported into spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel.
o In SA Mode, all visible data traces are saved. Each trace is saved to a
separate column that is labeled with the Trace State.
o In CAT and NA Modes, only the data trace is saved – not the memory
trace.
o In Power Meter and VVM Mode, NO data is saved.
Image of header information and three rows of data from a *.csv file saved in SA
mode with 4 traces visible. Column A is always the frequency at which the data is
measured.
Manage Files
Files that are stored in the FieldFox internal memory, mini SD card, and USB
Flash drive, can be copied to another device or deleted.
For Copy File and Copy All operations, files are always copied to the root
directory of the destination device. They can NOT be copied to other folders. To
get a file to another folder, it must be saved to the specified folder.
How to Manage files
ƒ Press Save/Recall 9 .
ƒ Then Select Device to select the location (Internal, USB, or mini SD Card) of
the file to copy or delete.
NOTE
When selecting Internal, it may also be necessary to first select Manage Folders
to specify an active folder which contains the files to copy or delete.
ƒ Then More.
ƒ Then Manage Files.
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
114
Copy File Select a file to copy. Then select a destination to copy the file to.
Choose from Internal, USB (must be inserted), or SD Card (must be
inserted). The file is copied to the root directory of the destination device.
FieldFox User’s Guide
o
o
NOTE
Copy All Files All files that appear will be copied. Then select a destination
to copy the files to. All of the displayed files are copied to a new folder at the
root directory of the destination device. The new folder name is the current
date-time.
Delete File The selected file is deleted after a warning prompt is displayed.
Insert only ONE USB Flash Drive in the FieldFox when saving or copying files.
Manage Folders
You can create new folders, delete old folders, and select the active folder to
which files can be saved. The Parent folder [..] is listed when not in the root
directory.
How to Manage Folders
ƒ Press Save/Recall 9 .
ƒ Then More.
ƒ Then Manage Folders.
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
Change Folder Changes the active folder to which files can be saved. The
active device and current folder is displayed at the top of the screen. Use the
▲|▼ arrows to highlight a folder within the current folder. Each time the
Change Folder softkey is pressed, the highlighted folder becomes the active
folder.
Create Folder A new folder is created in the current folder. Select a name
for the new folder from one of the displayed keywords: You can change these
keywords using the following Edit Keywords function.
Delete Folder The selected folder and its contents are deleted after a
warning prompt is displayed. A “Parent” folder or system folder can NOT be
deleted.
ƒ Press Exit when finished.
Edit Keywords
The preselected keywords (FILE, SITE, and so forth) can be edited to meet your
specific needs. Your keywords will remain in the FieldFox until you change them.
Keywords are limited to 30 characters.
How to edit keywords
ƒ Press Save/Recall 9 .
ƒ Then More.
ƒ Then Edit Keywords.
ƒ Then Next Page and Previous Page to view all keywords.
ƒ Use the ▲|▼ arrows to select a keyword to edit.
ƒ When a keyword is selected, then press Edit.
File Management
115
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
o
o
Press Select to add the cursor character to the end of the selected keyword.
Press Backspace to erase the last character from the end of the selected
keyword.
Press Clear to erase the selected keyword.
How to move the cursor:
ƒ Use the rotary knob to move the cursor along the same row. The cursor will
change rows when it comes to a row end.
ƒ Use the ▲|▼ arrows to move the cursor up and down between rows.
When the selected keyword is complete:
ƒ Press Done to save all keywords and close the Edit Keywords labeler. These
keywords will exist on the FieldFox until changed.
ƒ Press Cancel to close the labeler without saving changes.
Prefixes for Filenames
A prefix is used as a default filename to which characters can be added. The
prefix can be customized, and quickly enabled or disabled. When enabled, the
current prefix is automatically entered as the start of a filename when
performing a Save operation.
How to enable and disable the current Prefix
ƒ Press Save/Recall 9 .
ƒ Then More.
ƒ Then Prefix ON OFF The current selection is underlined.
How to edit the current Prefix
ƒ Press Save/Recall 9 .
ƒ Then More.
ƒ Then Prefix.
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
Press Select to add the cursor character to the end of the Prefix.
o
Press Backspace to erase the last character from the end of the Prefix.
o
Press Clear to erase the Prefix.
o
The preselected keywords (File, Site, and so forth) can be selected just like a
single character. These keywords can also be edited. See Edit Keywords.
How to move the cursor
ƒ Use the rotary knob to move cursor on the same row.
ƒ Use the ▲|▼ arrows to move the cursor up and down the rows.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
When the Prefix is complete
ƒ Press Done to save the Prefix and close the labeler. This Prefix will exist on
the FieldFox until it is changed.
ƒ Press Cancel to close the labeler without saving changes.
Printing
You can NOT print the measurement display directly from the FieldFox to a
printer. You can save a Picture file to a USB Flash Drive or mini SD card and
then print from any computer. Measurements can also be printed using the
FieldFox Data Link software.
File Management
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FieldFox User’s Guide
System Settings
In this Chapter
Run/Hold............................................................. 119
Preset................................................................... 119
Options (Licensing) ........................................... 122
Display Settings.................................................. 120
Colors ............................................................. 120
Brightness...................................................... 120
Title ................................................................ 121
Full Screen Mode .......................................... 121
Edit Keywords............................................... 121
Preferences
Language........................................................ 121
Display ........................................................... 121
External Frequency Reference........................... 122
Run/Hold
The Run/Hold key determines whether the FieldFox sweeps continuously or
does NOT sweep, but holds the display results of the last sweep that was
performed.
Use Hold to conserve battery power or to allow you to save or analyze the results
of a specific measurement sweep.
The current sweep mode is shown on the screen as:
ƒ
Continuous
ƒ Hold
Hold
ƒ -->
is displayed while a single sweep occurs.
How to perform a single sweep while in Hold
ƒ Press Sweep 3.
ƒ Then choose one of the following:
o
o
Single Automatically sets Continuous OFF (Hold) and causes FieldFox to
make ONE measurement sweep, then hold for the next Single key press.
Continuous Makes continuous sweeps. This is the typical setting when
battery power is not critical.
Preset
The Preset key restores the FieldFox measurement settings to a known condition.
You can preset the entire instrument, or just the current Mode (CAT, SA, Power
Meter, NA.)
System Settings
119
When Preset, the FieldFox performs a calibration for use in CAT and NA Modes.
Learn more on page 49.
How to Preset the FieldFox
ƒ Press Preset.
ƒ Then choose one of the following:
o
o
Preset Returns ALL Modes to the factory default settings.
Mode Preset Returns only the current Mode to the factory default settings.
The current settings for all other Modes remain.
Display Settings
NOTE
You can adjust the FieldFox for optimum viewing in a wide range of lighting
conditions.
To cause the display brightness and color settings to remain through a FieldFox
Preset and shutdown, save the display settings as Preferences. Learn how on
page 122.
Clean the transflective screen with gentle and minimal wiping using Isopropyl
alcohol applied to a lint-free cloth.
Display Brightness
Change the brightness of the background.
How to set Display Colors
ƒ Press System.
ƒ Then Display.
ƒ Then Brightness.
ƒ Use the ▲|▼ arrows, the rotary knob, or numeric keypad to enter a value
between 0 and 100%.
Display Colors
Change Display Colors to alter the viewing scheme.
How to set Display Colors
ƒ Press System.
ƒ Then Display.
ƒ Then Display Colors.
ƒ Then choose one of the following:
Indoor
Outdoor Dusk
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FieldFox User’s Guide
Outdoor Clouds
Outdoor Sun
Night Vision
Title
A custom title can be made to appear in the upper-left corner of the FieldFox
screen. The title can contain up to approximately 65 alpha-numeric characters.
To view the Title area, see the Screen Tour on page 19.
How to add or edit a Title
ƒ Press System.
ƒ Then Display.
ƒ Then Title.
ƒ Then enter or edit a title using the FieldFox labeler. This is the same labeler
function that is used to name files. Learn how to use the labeler on page 111.
ƒ Then Title ON OFF to make the title appear and disappear from the screen.
Edit Keywords
During a file save operation, keywords can be quickly appended to other text to
create unique filenames. The Edit Keywords feature allows you to create custom
keywords. Learn all about Edit Keywords on page 115.
Full Screen Mode
Full Screen Mode maximizes the display of trace. The screen annotations and
the soft keys are removed.
How to set Full Screen Mode
ƒ Press System.
ƒ Then Full Screen.
To Exit full screen Mode, press any key.
Preferences
Language
Choose the language in which to display FieldFox softkeys and other messages.
How to select a Language
ƒ Press System 7 .
System Settings
121
ƒ Then Preferences.
ƒ Then Language.
ƒ Then choose from the following:
o
English
o
Espanol – Spanish
o
Deutsch – German
o
Italiano – Italian
o
Francais – French
o
Japanese
o
Chinese
Display Preferences
You can save your display settings as preferences that will remain through a
FieldFox Preset and shutdown.
How to save Display Settings as Preferences
ƒ Configure the display brightness and color as you would like it to remain.
Learn how on 120.
ƒ Press System
ƒ Then Preferences
ƒ Then Save Current Settings There is a beep when your display settings have
been saved.
ƒ Press Reset Preferences to restore the factory default display settings.
System Configuration
Options (Licensing)
You can view and install options on your FieldFox. See all available options on
page 7.
How to view the Installed Options
ƒ Press System
ƒ Then System Configuration
ƒ Then Options(Licensing)
ƒ Then Show Options
The currently installed options are listed.
How to Install Options
A .lic file must already be on a USB Flash Drive. To learn how to obtain a .lic file,
visit: http://www.agilent.com/find/softwarelicense
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FieldFox User’s Guide
Insert the USB Flash Drive in the FieldFox.
ƒ Press System.
ƒ Then System Configuration
ƒ Then Options
ƒ Then Install Options The FieldFox reads, validates, then installs the options.
ƒ Press and hold the power button to shutdown, then restart the FieldFox.
For more information about Licensing, see the FieldFox Service Manual at
http://na.tm.agilent.com/fieldfox.
BNC Connector Use
Configure the BNC connector on the FieldFox top panel for use as an External
Frequency Reference or as an External Trigger input. See image of this
connector on page 16. This must be done before settings for either of these
functions can be made.
ƒ Press System 7
ƒ Then System Configuration
ƒ Then Freq Ref / Trig Input
ƒ Then BNC Connect Use The underlined keyword is the current selection.
o
o
Ref Use the BNC connector for an external frequency reference. Learn more
in the following section.
Trigger Use the BNC connector for an external trigger source in SA Mode.
Learn more on page 65.
External Frequency Reference
The FieldFox can phase lock with an external 10 MHz reference signal. When a
high-stability 10 MHz reference signal is available, this can improve the accuracy
and stability of measurements in CAT, NA, and SA Modes.
The External Reference setting will persist through a FieldFox Preset and is
saved as part of the Instrument State.
How to use an External Reference
ƒ Connect the 10 MHz External Reference to the BNC connector on the FieldFox
top panel.
ƒ Press System 7
ƒ Then System Configuration
ƒ Then Freq Ref / Trig Input
ƒ Then BNC Connect Use Ref
ƒ Then Freq Ref Source Int Ext
NOTE
System Settings
The FieldFox may take up to 10 seconds to lock to a valid External Reference
source.
123
When switched to Ext, if the FieldFox does NOT find an appropriate signal with
which it can lock, then Ext Ref UNLOCKED is displayed in the lower-left corner
of the screen. This can occur when any of the following conditions exist:
ƒ NO external reference signal is present.
ƒ A low-level external reference signal is present.
ƒ A very high-level external reference signal is present.
ƒ The external reference is off-frequency.
For best results, the signal should be between –5 dBm and +5 dBm.
Date and Time Setting
Set the local date and time that is shown on the FieldFox screen. This setting is
also used for identifying files that are saved.
How to set Date and Time
ƒ Press System 7 .
ƒ Then System Configuration.
ƒ Then Date and Time.
ƒ Press the ▲|▼ arrows to highlight the Date and Time row.
ƒ Then Edit.
ƒ Use the rotary knob to highlight the field to be edited.
ƒ Use the ▲|▼ arrows or numeric keypad to edit that field.
ƒ Press Cancel or Done when the Date and Time is accurate.
ƒ Press Done to exit the Date and time entry. The readout in the upper-right
corner of the FieldFox screen will update accordingly.
NOTE
Although allowed during entry, year settings higher than 2088 will not be
changed on the screen.
How to change Time and Date Format
ƒ Press System 7 .
ƒ Then System Configuration.
ƒ Then Date and Time.
ƒ Use the ▲|▼ arrows to highlight the Time Format or Date Format row.
ƒ Press Edit.
ƒ Use the ▲|▼ arrows to scroll through the available Time or Date formats. The
Date/Time readout on the FieldFox screen updates immediately.
ƒ Press Done Edit when finished.
ƒ Press Done when finished making all Date/Time settings.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
LAN Settings
NOTE
Configure the LAN settings to be used to communicate with the Data Link
Software. Learn more on page 127.
ONLY LAN 100Base-T connections are supported.
LAN Settings
How to configure the LAN settings
The first three ‘Current...’ settings can NOT be edited.
ƒ Press System 7 .
ƒ Then System Configuration.
ƒ Then LAN.
ƒ Use the ▲|▼ arrows to select one of the following, then press Edit.
o
Hostname Change the name that can be used to address the FieldFox if
your server supports this feature. The default hostname is generated
automatically.
o
Obtain IP Choose from:
o DHCP - IP Address is assigned dynamically. If your server supports this
feature, the IP Address for the FieldFox is assigned each time it is started.
o Static - Set the IP Address manually. The Address remains until you
change it.
o
Static IP Address - Enter the IP Address – including periods - in the format
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
o
Static Subnet Mask - Enter the Subnet Mask – including periods - in the
format nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
o
Static Gateway - Enter the Static Gateway – including periods - in the
format nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
o
Apply Settings Choose from:
o Power Up The above settings take effect when the FieldFox is started.
o Now The above settings take effect immediately.
NOTE
To make the LAN settings persist after power up, toggle Apply Settings to Now
then back to Power Up. You should see a message indicating that the LANconfig
file was saved.
ƒ Press Done Edit when finished.
System Settings
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FieldFox User’s Guide
FieldFox Data Link Software
The FieldFox Data Link Software allows you to connect the FieldFox to a remote
PC in order to do the following:
ƒ Read the FieldFox trace data from the screen, from the FieldFox internal
memory, or from an external memory device.
ƒ Analyze the data using one of the many analysis functions.
ƒ Modify Cable files, Cal Kits, and Keywords for use in the FieldFox.
ƒ Generate a report.
In this Chapter
Install the Data Link Software ......................... 127
Connect a PC to the FieldFox........................... 127
Read Data into the Data Link Software .......... 132
...using a USB Flash Drive or mini SD Card ... 133
...using a LAN Cable........................................... 133
The following information is also in the help file that is included with the Data
Link software.
Install the FieldFox Data Link Software
Install the FieldFox Data Link software
1.
Find the CD that was shipped with the FieldFox. If you can not find the CD,
the software can be downloaded from www.Agilent.com/find/FieldFox. To
order a replacement CD, see page 8.
Insert the CD into the PC. The CD should start automatically. If it does NOT,
open the CD drive using Windows Explorer, then click Autostart.exe.
When the program is visible on the PC, click Install FieldFox Data Link
Software.
Click Next at each dialog to accept the default settings and file locations.
4
2.
3.
4.
Connect a PC to the FieldFox
NOTE
This connection procedure is NOT necessary when using a USB Flash Drive or
miniSD Card to transfer files from the FieldFox to a PC. Learn how on page 133.
There are two methods for connecting from a PC to the FieldFox in order to
transfer files using the Data Link software. Both methods require that the
FieldFox Data Link software be already installed on the PC.
1. Connect both the FieldFox and the PC to the Internet using a LAN cable.
2. Directly connect the FieldFox to the PC using a LAN cable. Neither are
connected to the internet but only to each other.
FieldFox Data Link Software
127
Connect a PC to the FieldFox - both connected to the Internet
NOTE
Both the FieldFox and PC must have independent connections to the Internet
and have dynamically assigned (DHCP) IP Addresses.
Use a 100Base-T connection to connect the FieldFox to a PC. A slower 10Base-T
connection may cause problems.
On the FieldFox
Press System 7 then System Configuration then LAN
Confirm (or change) Obtain IP is DHCP. This allows the server to assign an
IP address dynamically
3. Connect the FieldFox to the Internet using a LAN cable.
To make the LAN settings persist after power up, toggle Apply Settings to Now
then back to Power Up. You should see a message indicating that the LANconfig
file was saved.
4. Shutdown, then restart the FieldFox.
5. Press System 7 then System Configuration then LAN.
6. Record the Current IP Address.
7. If 127.0.0.1 appears, this address indicates that an IP Address has not been
assigned dynamically. Use the Direct Connection method or read data using a
USB flash drive or miniSD card.
1.
2.
NOTE
On the PC – Agilent IO Libraries
1.
128
2.
In the lower right corner of the PC display, double-click the Agilent IO
Libraries Icon . If it is not present, click Start, then All Programs, point to
Agilent IO Libraries, then click Agilent Connection Expert.
Close the Welcome Screen
3.
In the above dialog, click Add Interface.
FieldFox User’s Guide
4.
FieldFox Data Link Software
In the above dialog, click Remote GPIB(via E5810 or Remote IO Server)
then click Add
129
In the above dialog:
5. Click IP address, then type the IP address of the FieldFox. Learn how to
view the IP address in “Connect a PC to the FieldFox - both connected to the
Internet” on page 128.
6. Change Logical unit to 9.
7. Click Test connection to verify that the FieldFox can be found.
8. When the ‘Success’ message is displayed, click OK.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
The ACE dialog will look like the above image.
Each time you connect the FieldFox to your PC, if your server dynamically
assigns a new IP address, you will have to change the IP address in ACE.
To do this:
1. In the left pane, right-click Remote (GPIB0)
2. Click Change Properties, then edit the IP address.
Direct connection using a LAN cable
Use this method if an Internet connection is NOT available. This method
requires that a static IP Address be assigned to both the FieldFox and the PC,
and the IP Address be changed in Agilent IO libraries.
Connect a standard LAN cable directly from the FieldFox to the PC. The PC can
NOT be connected to wireless LAN.
When a LAN cable is connected between the FieldFox and the PC, both LEDs on
the FieldFox LAN connector should be active. IF the LEDs are NOT active, use a
LAN crossover cable. This may be necessary when using an older PC. In most
cases, a crossover cable is NOT necessary.
On the FieldFox
ƒ Press System then System Configuration then LAN.
ƒ Set Obtain IP Address using: to Static
ƒ Set Static IP Address to 192.168.0.1 (Learn more on page 125)
ƒ Set Static Subnet Mask to 255.255.248.0
ƒ Press Done
ƒ Restart the FieldFox
ƒ After restarting, return to the LAN settings and confirm the Current IP
Address and Subnet Mask are what you just entered.
FieldFox Data Link Software
131
On the PC
ƒ Press Start, then Control Panel, then Network Connections
ƒ Right-click Local Area Connections
ƒ Select Properties
ƒ Select the General tab and scroll to Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
ƒ Click Properties
ƒ Select Use the following IP Address, then enter 192.168.0.2
ƒ Enter Subnet Mask: 255.255.248.0
NOTE
To make the LAN settings persist after power up, toggle Apply Settings to Now
then back to Power Up. You should see a message indicating that the LANconfig
file was saved.
ƒ Click OK and close dialogs
In Agilent IO Libraries
ƒ Follow the procedure starting on page 128. (On the PC – Agilent IO Libraries)
ƒ Enter the IP Address: 192.168.0.1
ƒ Change the Logical Unit to 9
ƒ Test the connection
How to Read FieldFox Data into the Data Link Software
The following two procedures show you how to read data from the FieldFox into
the Data Link software. Both procedures require that the Data Link software
already be installed on the PC.
ƒ The easiest method is using a USB Flash Drive or miniSD card. See procedure
below.
ƒ To learn how to read data using a LAN cable, see page 133.
About File Types
Before learning how to read FieldFox data, here is a little information about the
file types used in the FieldFox and Data Link software.
ƒ Data Link software reads traces from the FieldFox screen as raw data. There is
NO file type associated with the data yet.
ƒ Data Link software reads traces that have been saved to the FieldFox internal
memory as *.csv or *.s1p files. These file types are also saved onto a USB
Flash drive or mini SD card, and then can be Imported into Data Link
software.
ƒ Once data has been read, the Data Link software Saves and Recalls data as
*.dut files. These files include all of the Data Link settings, such as markers,
limits, format, and so forth. These files are used only by FieldFox Data Link
software.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
Read Data using a USB Flash Drive or mini SD Card
The files to be transferred must already be on the removable device. Learn how
to save these files on page 111.
1. Start the Data Link software by double-clicking the FieldFox Data Link icon
on the PC desktop.
2. Insert the USB Flash Drive or miniSD card into the appropriate drive on the
PC.
3. At the Data Link Welcome screen, click Cancel.
4. Click File, then Import.
ƒ To import *.csv files, select Text (comma delimited).
ƒ To import *.s1p files, select sNp.
5. Click Browse and navigate to the file on your PC or removable device.
6. Click OK.
7. Repeat this procedure to Import more traces.
Click Help in the Data Link software to learn more about Importing files.
Read Data from the FieldFox using a LAN Cable
This procedure requires the following:
ƒ The FieldFox Data Link Software must already be installed on the PC.
ƒ The FieldFox must already be connected to the PC using one of the previous 2
methods.
1.
FieldFox Data Link Software
Start the Data Link software by double-clicking the FieldFox Data Link icon
on the PC desktop.
133
2. At the Welcome screen, click Next to Open (read) data from the FieldFox.
To return to this Welcome screen at any time, click File, then New.
3.
NOTE
134
Each time you connect to the FieldFox , Virtual N9122A appears. Click ReScan to make a connection to the FieldFox.
If the FieldFox is in Power Meter mode during a connection, errors will appear
on the FieldFox screen. This is because data transfer is not allowed in Power
Meter mode. You can ignore the errors.
4. After finding the FieldFox, you will again see the Welcome screen above.
Click Next to read data from the FieldFox.
FieldFox User’s Guide
5.
Click a Download Selection, the click Next.
Download Selections
ƒ Saved Measurement Reads a *.csv or *.S1P file from FieldFox internal
memory. The Data Link software can look ONLY in the \UserData folder on
the FieldFox
ƒ Active Trace Reads the trace that is currently on the FieldFox screen. CAT,
NA, and SA modes. In SA mode, all existing traces (1 to 4) are read.
ƒ Memory Trace Reads the trace that is currently stored in Memory (CAT and
NA modes only). A data trace must already be stored in Memory using Trace
6 then Data -> Mem.
FieldFox Data Link Software
135
When a trace is already in the FieldFox Data Link Software, this dialog appears
to allow you to first save the trace to a *.dut file.
However, the existing data is NOT deleted or overwritten.
To learn more about the FieldFox Data Link Software, click Help in the software
menu.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
Update FieldFox Firmware
The FieldFox firmware is actually software that controls the instrument
hardware and all other settings. The term ‘firmware’ is a hold-over from the past
when the program was burned into integrated circuits, or ‘chips’.
You can update the FieldFox firmware as new releases become available. The
following procedure shows how to download and install the latest firmware on
your FieldFox.
How to Update Firmware
Visit: http://na.tm.agilent.com/fieldfox
1. Click Firmware Update to download the N9912A.zip file to a PC. The file is
less than 30 MB.
2. Right click on N9912A.zip and make the appropriate menu selection to
extract the compressed file to a USB flash drive. Do NOT copy the
N9912A.zip file to the USB flash drive.
3. Connect the AC/DC power adapter or confirm that the battery power is
greater than 30%.
4. Press and hold the FieldFox power button to turn power OFF (NOT Stand
By). Learn more about power OFF on page 14.
5. Insert the USB Flash Drive in one of the FieldFox USB connectors.
NOTE
Insert only ONE USB Flash Drive in the FieldFox when updating firmware.
6. Press the FieldFox power ON button. After a short wait, you should see the
Upgrade Firmware screen.
7. Press Start to load the firmware update from the USB flash drive.
Checkboxes appear on the screen as the update progresses.
Important Do NOT turn power OFF during the firmware update process. Use the AC/DC
adapter if battery power is low.
8. When prompted, remove the USB flash drive. The FieldFox will shut down
and restart automatically.
9. To check the new firmware revision, press System 7 then Service
Diagnostics then System Information.
Update FieldFox Firmware
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FieldFox User’s Guide
Tutorials
In this Chapter
How do CAT and NA Modes Differ .................. 139
How 1-port Measurements are Made............... 139
About Display Formats ..................................... 140
Interpreting Fault Measurement Results........ 142
Measuring Long Cable Lengths Accurately .... 144
How do CAT and NA Modes Differ
CAT (Cable and Antenna Test) and NA (Network Analyzer) Modes are similar.
Both perform 1-port and, with Opt 110, 2-port measurements. The main
difference between CAT Mode and NA Mode is that NA Mode measures the phase
of S11 measurements. Phase information is beneficial for component verification.
Phase is selected in NA Mode using Format – Phase and Smith Chart.
How 1-Port Measurements are Made
All 1-port measurements are by definition “reflection” measurements. This
means that only one port (RF OUT) is used to send a signal AND measure the
reflections of that signal.
There are three components in the FieldFox which are key to making 1-port
reflection measurements:
1.
2.
3.
Tutorials
A signal source which sends signal out the RF OUT port.
A “reference” (R) receiver that is used ONLY to accurately measure the
“incident” signal out of the source.
An (A) receiver for measuring reflected signals coming back INTO the RF
OUT port.
139
A transmission system is made up of the transmitter, the transmission cable, the
antenna, and all the connectors in between. In an ideal transmission system, all
of the signal power that is sent out the transmitter is completely broadcast into
the air. However, in reality, as the signal encounters disruptions, such as worn
connectors and cable kinks, some of the signal is reflected back toward the
transmitter. The amount of reflection is directly proportional to the severity of
the disruption. Any reflected signal is wasted energy and results in a weaker
signal being broadcast. If the reflections are significant they could cause damage
to the transmitter.
The following is a general process for making 1-port reflection measurements:
ƒ The FieldFox is connected to the transmission system in place of the
transmitter. The FieldFox internal signal source (transmitter) is of much
lower power than a transmitter that is used to transmit radio, TV, and cell
phone signals.
ƒ During the calibration process, the power, frequency, and phase of the
FieldFox transmitted signal is VERY accurately known. Adapters or cables that
are attached to the FieldFox are measured and their effects are removed from
subsequent measurements.
ƒ As disruptions in the transmission feed system are encountered, the power
and phase of the reflected signal is measured by the FieldFox ‘A’ receiver.
ƒ The reflected signals are compared, or ‘ratioed’ to the power and phase of the
‘R’ receiver incident signal that was transmitted.
ƒ From this general type of measurement, all of the FieldFox 1-port
measurements can be calculated. For example, ‘Fault’ measurements calculate
the severity and distance to all disruptions in the transmission system. For
more information how the calculation is performed, see
http://cp.literature.agilent.com/litweb/pdf/5989–5723EN.pdf
ƒ Also, the loss in the transmission cable can be measured if the end of the
transmission line is terminated in a SHORT or OPEN.
About Display Formats
Although the FieldFox in CAT Mode shows some of the following as
measurements, they are all the same 1-port reflection measurement, but
displayed in different formats. In NA Mode, the measurement (S11 and S21) and
format are selected separately.
Return Loss in dB
The easiest way to convey reflection data is with the return loss format which is
expressed in dB. Return loss can be thought of as the absolute value of the
reflected power as compared to the incident power.
ƒ When measuring an OPEN or SHORT, all incident power is reflected and 0 dB
of return loss is displayed.
ƒ When measuring a LOAD, very little power is reflected and values of 40 dB to
60 dB are displayed.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
VSWR or SWR
The incident signal and the reflected signal combine in a transmission cable to
create a "standing wave". The voltage of the peaks and valleys of the standing
wave can be measured. Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR or SWR for short) is
defined as the maximum standing wave voltage over the minimum standing wave
voltage.
With no reflections (a perfect transmission system), there is no difference
between the peaks and valleys, and the VSWR is 1/1 = 1.
With higher reflections, the maximum might be 3 V while the minimum may be 1
V. SWR = 3/1= 3. A SWR of 3 can be unacceptable in some systems.
Smith Chart
The Smith chart is a tool that maps the complex reflection coefficient (Γ) to the
test device's impedance.
In a Smith chart, the rectilinear impedance plane is reshaped to form a circular
grid.
With markers, you can readout Real + Imaginary (R + jX) or Magnitude and
Phase. Learn how on page 104.
Polar
Polar format is used to view the magnitude and phase of the reflection coefficient
(G) from your S11 measurement.
Tutorials
141
In Polar format, Markers display the following:
ƒ Linear magnitude (in units)
ƒ Phase (in degrees)
In the previous image, the dashed circles represent reflection coefficient. The
outermost circle represents a reflection coefficient (Γ) of 1, or total reflected
signal. The center of the circle represents a reflection coefficient (Γ) of 0, or no
reflected signal.
The radial lines show the phase angle of reflected signal. The right-most position
corresponds to zero phase angle, (that is, the reflected signal is at the same phase
as the incident signal). Phase differences of 90°, ±180°, and -90° correspond to
the top, left-most, and bottom positions on the polar display, respectively.
With markers, you can readout Real + Imaginary (R + jX) or Magnitude and
Phase. Learn how on page 104.
Making 75Ω (ohm) Measurements
The FieldFox can be used to make 75Ω cable TV measurements. The simplest
method is to use a 50Ω to 75Ω adapter such as the Agilent 1250-0597 (NOT a
minimum loss pad such as the 11852B).
Perform either a QuickCal or OSL Cal at the end of the minimum loss pad or at
the desired 75Ω reference plane. A Preset Cal is accurate ONLY at the test port.
ƒ QuickCal – When prompted to Measure Load, connect a 75Ω load. There is no
cal kit selection - QuickCal's math does not require the load specifications.
When the load is connected, it assumes no reflections. Once your calibration is
complete, you can view the return loss, DTF, or S11 data.
ƒ OSL Cal - A 75Ω Cal Kit must be used to perform an OSL Cal. Agilent 85036E
and 85036B are 75Ω cal kits. These Cal Kit definitions are NOT included as
standard Cal Kits in the FieldFox. The Cal Kit definition must be loaded from a
remote PC to the FieldFox using the Data Link Software and a LAN
connection. It can NOT be done using a USB Flash drive. Learn more about
connecting the FieldFox to a PC on page 127. Learn about Editing a Cal Kit by
clicking Help in the Data Link software. Once the 75Ω Cal Kit is loaded, you
can select it before the OSL Calibration, and then follow the Cal Wizard
prompts using the 75Ω OPEN, SHORT, AND LOAD standards.
To accurately view Smith Chart data in NA Mode, first set the System Impedance
to 75Ω. Learn how on page 45.
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FieldFox User’s Guide
For 2-port transmission measurements, the normalization calibration is
sufficient, and the displayed data is accurate.
Interpreting DTF Measurement Results
Periodic Cable Faults
CAT Mode DTF measures the reflection of incident energy that is caused by
imperfections or disturbances (bumps) which are distributed throughout the
cable length. These bumps may take the form of a small dent or a change in
diameter of the cable. These bumps are caused by periodic effects on the cable
while in the manufacturing process. For example, consider a turn-around wheel
with a rough spot on a bearing. The rough spot can cause a slight tug for each
rotation of the wheel. As the cable is passed around the wheel, a small
imperfection can be created periodically corresponding to the tug from the bad
bearing.
Each of these small variations within the cable causes a small amount of energy
to reflect back to the source due to the non-uniformity of the cable diameter.
Each bump reflects so little energy that it is too small to observe with fault
location techniques. However, reflections from the individual bumps can sum up
and reflect enough energy to be detected as Cable Loss or Return Loss. As the
bumps get larger and larger, or as more of them are present, the Cable Loss or
Return Loss values will also increase. The energy reflected by these bumps can
appear in the loss measurement as a reflection spike at the frequency that
corresponds to the spacing of the bumps. The spacing between the bumps is one
half the wavelength of the reflection spike. As the sizes of the bumps, their
spacing, and the number of bumps vary within the manufacturing process,
varying amounts of Cable Loss or Return Loss are observed.
Discrete Cable Faults
In addition to a set of periodic bumps, a cable can also contain one or more
discrete faults. For this discussion, discrete imperfections will be referred to as
“faults,” and periodic imperfections will be referred to as “bumps.”
Reflections from discrete faults within the cable will also increase the level of
reflection that is measured. The energy reflected from a fault will sum with the
energy reflected from the individual bumps and provide a higher reflection level.
A fault within the cable will provide the same type of effect as a bad connector. If
the fault is present within the end of the cable nearest to the FieldFox, the effect
will be noticed throughout the entire frequency range. As the fault is located
further into the cable, the cable attenuation will reduce the effect at higher
frequencies. The reflected energy travels further through the cable at lower
frequencies where the cable attenuation per unit distance is lower.
Tutorials
143
Cable Problems
The following shows potential problems with transmission cables.
Bent Cable
Poor measurement results can occur if the cable is bent or kinked near the end
of the spool.
Deformed Cable
Compressing the dielectric (the gap) will produce egg-shaped or oval
deformations which can cause impedance mismatches and affect the quality
of the connector Model compensation. This can easily happen when using
diagonal cutters to cut the cable.
Contaminated Dielectric
When a cable is cut, contamination of the dielectric can occur from cuttings or
shrapnel from the outer or inner conductor. This type of contamination can
cause problems and change the connector Model compensation needed.
Damaged Outer Conductor
The outer conductor may be cut or dented when the outer insulation is
removed. This can cause a close-in fault.
Non-Flush Cut
Cables which require a flush cut, such as for GTC-XXX-TX-N (“Pogo”)
connectors, might not actually be cut in such a way. This can cause an
inconsistent connection or poor repeatability of the measurement.
Measuring Long Cable Lengths Accurately
In CAT and NA Modes, the FieldFox signal source and receiver step frequency at
the same time. To make accurate reflection measurements, the signal must travel
to the end of the transmission line and back to the FieldFox receiver before
stepping to the next frequency. With a long cable length, the default sweep time
settings may not be adequate, and inaccurate measurements occur as a result.
To make these measurements accurately, it may be necessary to slow the sweep
speed allowing the signal time to return to the receiver before it steps to the next
frequency.
ƒ In CAT or NA Modes, for both Loss and DTF measurements:
ƒ Press Sweep 3.
144
FieldFox User’s Guide
ƒ Then Min Swp Time.
ƒ Then type a value, press a multiplier softkey, and press Enter to change the
sweep speed as desired. Learn more about Minimum Sweep Time on page 44.
ƒ When the trace no longer changes as more Sweep time is added, then an
accurate measurement is being made.
ƒ For cables with high loss, add Averaging to reduce noise. Learn how on page
25.
Tutorials
145
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146
FieldFox User’s Guide
Working with the Lithium-Ion Battery
In this Chapter
Viewing Battery Charge Status ........................ 147
Charging the Battery ......................................... 149
Reconditioning the Battery............................... 150
Battery Care........................................................ 151
Maximizing Battery Life.................................... 152
Battery Disposal................................................. 152
See Also
Installing the Battery........................................... 13
Conserving Battery Power.................................. 13
Battery Safety Considerations ......................... 176
Viewing Battery Charge Status
You can view the battery charge status in the following ways:
ƒ Icons in the upper right of the front panel screen.
ƒ Battery screen - select System then Service Diagnostics then Battery.
ƒ Built-in battery gauge. Open the FieldFox battery compartment door to view
the battery LCD.
Front Panel Icons
Icon
Status
Connected to external power through the AC/DC adapter. Battery installed
and charging. The amount of charge is indicated by the number of bars
shown.
Battery not charging with 84% battery life remaining.
Service Diagnostics – Battery Screen
NOTE
The Battery screen displays the following information. To access the screen,
select System then Service Diagnostics then Battery.
1. Status – Fully charged, No battery, Charging, Empty, or Discharging.
2. External DC Supply – true or false tells you if an external DC supply is
connected.
3. Battery Present – true or false tells you if a battery is installed.
Items 4 through 15 are read directly from the battery. The information is based
on the battery’s internal sensors and memory.
4. Battery Voltage – measured by the battery’s sensor.
5. Current – amount of current being consumed when operating from internal
battery. If battery is charging, indicates amount of charging current.
Working with the Lithium-Ion Battery
147
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Average Current – running average of current, as just explained in item #5 .
Battery Temperature – internal temperature of the battery as measured by a
sensor embedded in the battery.
Max Error – present accuracy of the battery gauge. If the error exceeds 10%,
you should recondition the battery. Learn more on page 150.
Relative State of Charge – current charge compared to actual full capacity.
This number lowers with age and number of battery cycles.
Absolute State of Charge – current charge compared to designed full
capacity of a new battery.
Remaining Capacity – number of amp hours remaining.
Full Charge Capacity – number of amp hours when fully charged.
Present Run Time to Empty – minutes of run time remaining based on
amount of current being used now.
Average Run Time to Empty – minutes of run time remaining based on
running average of current being used.
Charge Cycles – number of charge cycles battery has experienced. Charge
cycle defined as ≥80% change in relative state of charge.
Built-In Battery Gauge
Inspired Energy Battery
Gauge
Each lithium ion battery has an LCD gauge that displays its charge status. Each
segment represents 20% of the charge capacity. The gauge is active unless the
battery is in shutdown mode. To view the LCD gauge on the Inspired Energy
battery, open the FieldFox battery compartment door.
148
Gauge
Charge Remaining
5 segments
≥80%
4 segments
≥60%, < 80%
3 segments
≥40%, < 60%
2 segments
≥20%, < 40%
1 segment
< 20%
FieldFox User’s Guide
Charging the Battery
When you receive your FieldFox, the lithium-ion battery is partially charged to
approximately 30% to 40% to preserve battery life. Allow four hours to fully
charge the battery internally, or three hours by using the external battery charger
(N9910X–872). A fully charged battery will power your FieldFox for about four
hours. It is NOT necessary for you to do any type of battery preconditioning
before use.
The FieldFox circuitry ALWAYS prevents the battery from discharging to a level
that is damaging. However, if the battery is completely discharged, the FieldFox
may not turn ON. If this occurs, the battery can still be charged either internally
or externally.
Because a lithium-ion battery has no memory effect, you can charge a battery at
any time regardless of the current charge status. However, this could impair the
accuracy of its internal charge-remaining indicator. When the Max Error is
greater than 10%, the battery should be reconditioned. Learn more on page 150.
Internal Charging with the AC/DC Adapter
Important: Read the safety information for the AC/DC adapter on page 175.
Internal charging time for a fully depleted battery is approximately 4 hours with
the FieldFox either ON or OFF.
AC/DC adapter
To charge a battery inside the FieldFox, insert the AC/DC adapter plug into the
Power connector on the FieldFox side panel (middle hinged door), then plug the
adapter into an AC outlet.
ƒ FieldFox ON: Charging is indicated by a battery icon in the upper right of the
front panel screen. The icon shows 100% when charging is done.
ƒ FieldFox OFF: Charging is indicated by the FieldFox power LED glowing
amber, with its intensity increasing from dim to bright every few seconds. This
pattern repeats until the LED turns off when charging is done. Learn more on
page 17.
Working with the Lithium-Ion Battery
149
Using the External Battery Charger (N9910X–872)
Important: Read the safety information for the External Charger on page 176.
External Battery Charger (N9910X–872)
The external battery charger (N9910X–872), lets you charge a fully depleted
battery in approximately three hours. It is a two bay, level–3 stand-alone battery
charger that is compliant with the standard Smart Battery System. The two bays
are charged sequentially on a first-come, first-served basis, though a discharge
can be performed in the left bay while the right bay is charging. It uses an
external universal switching power supply
External Battery Charger LED
Charging Status
Green
Fully charged
Green flashing
Fast charging
Yellow flashing
Reconditioning – the accuracy of the
battery’s internal LED charge gauge is
being renewed. See “Reconditioning
Batteries.”
Yellow/green
Battery is reconditioned
Red flashing
Error
Yellow
Standby
For more information, refer to the Instruction Manual included with the external
battery charger.
Reconditioning the Battery
The battery contains electronics that monitors battery usage and tracks how
much capacity is available. This function can become less accurate because of
temperature fluctuations, aging, self-discharge, repeated partial charging, and
other factors. Reconditioning - also known as recalibrating - restores the
accuracy of the battery capacity tracking system.
Reconditioning is done by fully charging the battery, fully discharging it,
recharging it again, and then verifying that the error has been corrected.
How to determine if a battery needs reconditioning
150
FieldFox User’s Guide
ƒ Press System then Service Diagnostics then Battery.
ƒ On the Battery screen, if the Max Error is greater than 10%, the battery needs
to be reconditioned.
ƒ This error will affect many of the displayed battery charge indicators.
After reconditioning, if the battery is not fully charged or continues to show
more than a 10% Max Error reading, repeat the reconditioning procedure.
If the second reconditioning does not restore a full charge and give an error
reading of 10% or less, the battery needs replacement.
You can recondition a battery internally, or with the External Charger (N9910X–
872). The external charger process is faster and simpler.
How to perform Internal Reconditioning
ƒ Fully charge the battery inside the FieldFox (either ON or OFF) using the
AC/DC adapter.
ƒ Confirm that the battery has a 100% relative state of charge.
ƒ Fully discharge the battery by disconnecting the AC/DC adapter and leave the
FieldFox ON for approximately four to five hours. The FieldFox will shut down
when the battery is fully discharged.
ƒ Reconnect the AC/DC adapter.
ƒ Charge the battery and verify a full charge.
ƒ Check the System then Service Diagnostics then Battery screen to verify
that the Max Error is less than 10%.
How to Recondition with the External Battery Charger (N9910X–872)
ƒ Insert a battery into the left bay of the external charger.
ƒ Press the button labeled Push to Recalibrate Left Battery Bay
ƒ The charger will charge the battery fully, discharge it completely, then recharge
it fully again. The entire process can take up to 12 hours.
ƒ Install the battery into the FieldFox.
ƒ On the System, Battery screen, verify that the battery is fully charged and
reconditioned.
Battery Care
Visually inspect the battery periodically for signs of degradation, such as
swelling, cracking of the battery shell, or leakage of fluid. If degradation occurs,
replace the battery and dispose of it properly. Learn how on page 152. Operation
with a degraded battery could result in damage to the FieldFox. Learn more on
page 176.
Working with the Lithium-Ion Battery
151
Maximizing Battery Life
ƒ If AC power is continuously available (Ex: in a workbench environment),
remove the battery and use the AC/DC adapter.
ƒ If AC power is not continuously available (Ex: in a field environment), use the
battery and recharge it when it holds a 20% to 50% charge, as shown on the
screen’s battery charge icon. At this charge level, 2 or 3 segments show on the
battery gauge.
ƒ If the FieldFox is not going to be used for more than a week, remove the
battery. Best practice is to store the battery with a charge of about 50%. At this
charge level, 3 segments show on the battery gauge. Batteries that remain idle
eventually lose their ability to hold a charge.
ƒ Allow a battery to warm to room temperature before charging it. Temperature
shock can damage the battery chemistry and in some cases cause a short
circuit.
ƒ Store batteries in a cool, dry location, away from metal objects and corrosive
gases.
Storage temperature limits (20% to 50% relative charge is recommended):
Transportation:
–20°C to 50°C
Within 1 month:
–20°C to 45°C
Within 6 months:
–20°C to 40°C
Within 1 year:
–20°C to 35°C
ƒ Battery charging limits:
Charge temperature:
Discharge temperature:
0°C to 45°C (<10°C slows charge on some batteries)
–10°C to 60°C
ƒ Operate the FieldFox on battery power between the ambient temperatures of –
10 and +50°C (–14 to +122°F). Using the battery at lower or higher
temperatures can damage it and reduce operating life. Cold temperatures
affect battery chemistry, reducing charge capacity, especially below 0°C
(32°F).
Lithium Ion Battery Disposal
When you notice a large decrease in charge capacity after proper recharging, it’s
probably time to replace the battery.
Lithium-Ion batteries need to be disposed of properly. Contact your local waste
management facility for information regarding environmentally sound collection,
recycling, and disposal of the batteries. Regulations vary for different countries.
Dispose of in accordance with local regulations.
152
FieldFox User’s Guide
Specifications
In this Chapter
Cable and Antenna Analyzer............................ 154
Network Analyzer (Option 303) ...................... 158
Spectrum Analyzer (Option 230 and 231) ...... 162
Preamplifier (Option 235)................................. 170
Interference Analyzer (Option 236) ................ 170
Power Meter (Option 302) ............................... 170
General Information ......................................... 171
Definitions
Specification (spec.)
Warranted performance. Specifications include guardbands to account for the expected statistical performance distribution,
measurement uncertainties, and changes in performance due to environmental conditions. The following conditions must be met:
ƒ FieldFox has been turned on at least 90 minutes
ƒ FieldFox is within its calibration cycle
ƒ Storage or operation at 25°C ±5 °C range (unless otherwise stated)
Typical (typ.)
Expected performance of an average unit over a 20° C to 30 ° C temperature range after being at ambient temperature for two
hours, unless otherwise indicated; does not include guardbands. It is not covered by the product warranty. The FieldFox must be
within its calibration cycle.
Nominal (nom.)
A general, descriptive term or design parameter. It is not tested, and not covered by the product warranty.
Calibration
The process of measuring known standards to characterize an instrument's systematic (repeatable) errors.
Corrected (residual)
Indicates performance after error correction (calibration). It is determined by the quality of calibration standards and how well
"known" they are, plus system repeatability, stability, and noise.
Uncorrected (raw)
Indicates instrument performance without error correction. The uncorrected performance affects the stability of a calibration.
Specifications
153
Cable and Antenna Analyzer
Description
Specification
Typical
10 minute
warm up
Supplemental Information
90 minute
warm up
Frequency Range
Option 104
2 MHz to 4 GHz
Option 106
2 MHz to 6 GHz
Frequency Reference
Accuracy
±2 ppm
±2 ppm
±1 ppm/yr
±1 ppm/yr
±1 ppm over 0 to 55 ºC
±1 ppm
Aging Rate
Temperature Stability
Frequency Resolution
2 MHz to 1.6 GHz
2.5 kHz
> 1.6 GHz to 3.2 GHz
5 kHz
> 3.2 GHz to 6 GHz
10 kHz
Data Points
101, 201, 401, 601, 801,
1001
Measurement Speed
Return Loss
1.75 GHz – 3.85 GHz,
1001 points, Cal ON
1.5 ms/point (nominal)
DTF
0 to 500 ft, 601
points, Cal ON
2.4 ms/point (nominal)
Output Power (RF Out Port)
High
2 MHz to 4 GHz
< +8 dBm, +6 dBm (nominal)
> 4 GHz to 6 GHz
< +7 dBm, +2 dBm (nominal)
Low (Typically 31 dB below high power)
2 MHz to 4 GHz
< –23 dBm, –25 dBm (nominal)
> 4 GHz to 6 GHz
< –24 dBm, –25 dBm (nominal)
Immunity to Interfering Signals
+16 dBm (nominal)
154
FieldFox User’s Guide
Cable and Antenna Analyzer (continued)
Description
Specification
Typical
10 minute warm up
90 minute warm up
Directivity
Corrected with OSL calibration 1
>42 dB
>42 dB
≥42 dB
Corrected with QuickCal (Option 111) 3
Raw
2 MHz to 3.5 GHz
> 20 dB
> 3.5 GHz to 6 GHz
> 14 dB
Source Match
Corrected with OSL calibration 1
> 36 dB
> 36 dB
≥35 dB
Corrected with QuickCal (Option 111) 3
Raw
2 MHz to 3 GHz
> 25 dB
> 3 GHz to 6 GHz
> 16 dB
Reflection Tracking
Corrected with OSL calibration 1
±0.06 dB
±0.06 dB
±0.15 dB
Corrected with QuickCal (Option 111) 3
Reflection Dynamic Range
Reflection (RF Out port) (High power out)
2 MHz to 4 GHz
60 dB
> 4 GHz to 6 GHz
55 dB
Maximum Measurable Cable Loss Using 1–Port CAT Measurement Model 2
Refl Dyn Range /2
Transmission Dynamic Range(Option 110)
300 Hz IF Bandwidth
2 MHz to 2 GHz
72 dB
> 2 GHz to 3 GHz
67 dB
> 3 GHz to 5 GHz
58 dB
> 5 GHz to 6 GHz
49 dB
Return Loss
Display Range
Resolution
0 to 100 dB
0.01 dB
VSWR
Display Range
Resolution
1 to 100
0.01
Cable Loss
Display Range
Resolution
Specifications
0 to 100 dB
0.01 dB
155
Cable and Antenna Analyzer (continued)
Description
Specification
Supplemental Information
Range = [(number of points – 1) /
frequency span * 2] * velocity factor *
speed of light
Number of points auto coupled according to start
and stop distance entered
Resolution = Range / (number of
points – 1)
Number of points settable by user
Distance–to–Fault
Horizontal Range
Horizontal
Resolution
Bandpass Mode
Window Types
1 Using
Maximum, medium, and minimum windows
recommended calibration kits.
2 Higher
cable losses can be measured using transmission or S21 measurements. Cable losses measured in transmission mode
limited by transmission dynamic range.
3 QuickCal
is performed with the connect LOAD step.
Figure 1: CAT Mode, Type–N Calibration Kit – Magnitude (Specification)
156
FieldFox User’s Guide
Cable and Antenna Analyzer (continued)
Figure 2: CAT Mode, QuickCal – Magnitude (Typical)
Figure 3: CAT Mode, Preset Cal – Magnitude (Typical)
Specifications
157
Network Analyzer (Option 303)
The following CAT mode performance parameters apply to NA mode: frequency accuracy, frequency resolution, output power,
directivity, source match, reflection tracking, and reflection and transmission dynamic range. NA mode performance that is in
addition to CAT mode is listed in the table below.
Description
Specification
Supplemental Information
2 MHz to 4 GHz
Option 104
2 MHz to 6 GHz
Option 106
Frequency Range
Measurements
S11 magnitude and phase
S21 magnitude (option 110)
A receiver magnitude
R receiver magnitude
Formats
Log magnitude, Linear magnitude, VSWR, Phase, Smith Chart,
Polar
Measurement Speed
S11: 1.75 GHz – 3.85 GHz,
1001 Points, Cal ON
1.5 ms/point (nominal)
S21: 1.78 GHz – 2.06 GHz,
201 Points, Cal ON
1.9 ms/point (nominal)
S11 Phase Uncertainty1
See Figure 5 on
following page
Display Range
–180º to +180º
System Impedance
50Ω (nominal)
1 Using
158
75Ω with appropriate adapter and Cal Kit
recommended calibration kits.
FieldFox User’s Guide
Network Analyzer (continued)
Figure 4: NA Mode, Type–N Calibration Kit – Magnitude (Specification)
Figure 5: NA Mode, Type–N Calibration Kit – Phase (Specification)
Specifications
159
Network Analyzer (continued)
Figure 6: NA Mode, QuickCal – Magnitude (Typical)
160
FieldFox User’s Guide
Network Analyzer (continued)
Figure 7: NA Mode, Preset Cal – Magnitude (Typical)
Figure 8: NA Mode, Preset Cal – Phase (Typical)
Specifications
161
Spectrum Analyzer (Option 230 and 231)
Description
Specification
Supplemental Information
Option 230
100 kHz to 4 GHz
Usable to 5 kHz 1
Option 231
100 kHz to 6 GHz
Usable to 5 kHz 1
FREQUENCY
Frequency Range
Tunable to 6.1 GHz
Frequency Reference
Accuracy
Aging Rate
Temperature Stability
±2 ppm
± 1 ppm/yr
± 1 ppm over –10 to 55 °C
Frequency Readout Accuracy (start, stop, center, marker)
± (readout frequency x frequency
reference accuracy + RBW centering +
0.5 x horizontal resolution)
Horizontal resolution = span/(trace
points – 1)
RBW centering :
5% x RBW, FFT mode (nominal)
16% x RBW, Step mode (nominal)
Frequency Span
Range
0 Hz (zero span), 10 Hz to max freq
Accuracy
±(2 x RBW centering + horizontal
resolution)
Resolution
1 Hz
±(2 x RBW centering +2 x horizontal
resolution) for detector = Normal
Sweep Time, Span = 0 Hz
Range
Minimum
1.0 us
Maximum
RBW = 2 MHz
2.18 ms
RBW = 1 MHz
3.28 ms
RBW = 300 kHz
5.46 ms
RBW = 100 kHz
16.38 ms
RBW = 30 kHz
54.60 ms
RBW = 10 kHz
163.84 ms
RBW = 3 kHz
546.00 ms
RBW = 1 kHz
1.64 s
RBW = 300 Hz
Resolution
Readout
1With
162
2.54 s
100.0 ns
Entered value representing trace
horizontal scale range.
signal at center frequency.
FieldFox User’s Guide
Spectrum Analyzer (continued)
Description
Specification
Supplemental Information
1 to 5000. Number of data acquisitions per
trace point. Value is normalized to the
minimum required to achieve amplitude
accuracy with CW signals.
Auto coupled. For pulsed RF signals,
manually increase the sweep
acquisition value to maximize the
pulse spectrum envelope.
Sweep Acquisition, Span > 0 Hz
Range
Resolution
Readout
1
Measured value representing time required
to tune receiver, acquire data, and process
trace.
Trigger
Trigger Type
Free Run, Video, External
Trigger Slope
Positive, Negative edge
Trigger Delay
Range
Resolution
Auto Trigger
Auto Trigger Range
0 to 10 sec
100 nsec
Forces a periodic acquisition in the absence
of a trigger event
0 sec (OFF) to 10 sec
Time Gating
Gate Method
Gate Delay Range
Triggered FFT
Same as Trigger Delay
Trace Update
Span = 20 MHz, RBW = 3
kHz
1.5 updates/s (nominal)
Span = 100 MHz, RBW auto
coupled
7 updates/s (nominal)
Span = 6 GHz, RBW auto
coupled
1 update/s (nominal)
Trace Points
101, 201, 401, 601, 801, 1001
(Defaults to 401)
Specifications
163
Spectrum Analyzer (continued)
Description
Specification
Supplemental Information
Resolution Bandwidth (RBW)
Range (–3 dB bandwidth)
Zero Span
Non–Zero Span
300 Hz to 1 MHz in 1–3–10 sequence; 2 MHz
10 Hz to 300 kHz in 1/1.5/2/3/5/7.5/10
sequence; 1 MHz, 2 MHz
Step keys change RBW in
1–3–10 sequence
Accuracy
1 kHz to 1 MHz
± 5% (nominal)
10 Hz to 100 kHz non–
zero span
± 1% (nominal)
2 MHz
± 10% (nominal)
300 Hz zero span
± 10% (nominal)
Selectivity (–60 dB/ –3 dB)
4:1 (nominal)
Video Bandwidth (VBW)
Range
1 Hz to 2 MHz in 1/1.5/2/3/5/7/10
sequence
Description
Specification
VBW ≥ RBW in zero span
Typical
10 minute warm
up
90 minute warm
up
–88 dBc/Hz
–88 dBc/Hz
–89 dBc/Hz
–89 dBc/Hz
Stability
Noise Sidebands, CF = 1 GHz
10 kHz offset
< –85 dBc/Hz
30 kHz offset
100 kHz offset
–95 dBc/Hz
–95 dBc/Hz
1 MHz offset
–115 dBc/Hz
–115 dBc/Hz
Measurement Range
Displayed average noise level (DANL) to
+20 dBm
Input Attenuator Range
0 to 31 dB
Resolution
1 dB steps
Maximum Safe Input Level
Average Continuous Power
DC
164
+27 dBm (0.5 W)
±50 VDC
FieldFox User’s Guide
Spectrum Analyzer (continued)
Description
Specification
Typical
10 minute warm
up
90 minute warm
up
Displayed Average Noise Level (DANL)
Preamplifier OFF
20 to 30 °C:
10 MHz to 2.4 GHz
–130 dBm
> 2.4 GHz to 5.0 GHz
–125 dBm
> 5.0 GHz to 6.0 GHz
–119 dBm
Preamplifier ON (Option 235)
20 to 30 °C:
10 MHz to 2.4 GHz
< –143 dBm
–148 dBm
> 2.4 GHz to 5.0 GHz
< –140 dBm
–145 dBm
> 5.0 GHz to 6.0 GHz
< –132 dBm
–138 dBm
–10 to 55 °C:
10 MHz to 2.4 GHz
< –141 dBm
> 2.4 GHz to 5.0 GHz
< –138 dBm
> 5.0 GHz to 6.0 GHz
< –130 dBm
Display Range
Log Scale
Ten divisions displayed; 0.1 to 1.0
dB/division in 0.1 dB steps, and 1 to 20
dB/division in 1 dB steps
Trace Detectors
Normal, Positive Peak, Negative Peak,
Sample, Average
Trace States
Clear/Write, Max Hold, Min Hold,
Average, View, Blank
Number of Traces
4
Number of Averages
1 to 10,000
Reference Level
Range
–170 dBm to +30 dBm
Resolution
0.1 dB
Accuracy
0 dB
Specifications
165
Spectrum Analyzer (continued)
Description
Specification
Typical
10 minute warm
up
90 minute warm
up
Absolute Amplitude Accuracy at 50 MHz
Peak detector, 10 dB attenuation, preamplifier off, RBW < 2 MHz, input signal –5 dBm to –50 dBm, all settings auto–
coupled
20 to 30 ºC
±0.8 dB
–10 to 55 ºC
±1.1 dB
±0.8 dB
±0.4 dB
±0.8 dB
Frequency Response
Relative to 50 MHz, Peak detector, 10 dB attenuation, preamplifier off, RBW = 30 kHz, input signal 0 dBm to –50 dBm,
all settings auto–coupled
20 to 30 ºC:
2 MHz to 10 MHz
±1.1 dB
±1.0 dB
±0.5 dB
> 10 MHz to 3.0 GHz
±0.9 dB
±0.6 dB
±0.3 dB
> 3.0 GHz to 5.0 GHz
±1.3 dB
±1.1 dB
±0.5 dB
> 5.0 GHz to 6.0 GHz
±1.5 dB
±1.5 dB
±0.5 dB
–10 to 55 ºC:
2 MHz to 10 MHz
±2.0 dB
±1.0 dB
> 10 MHz to 3.0 GHz
±1.5 dB
±0.6 dB
> 3.0 GHz to 5.0 GHz
±2.0 dB
±1.1 dB
> 5.0 GHz to 6.0 GHz
±2.6 dB
±1.5 dB
Preamplifier ON (Option 235)
20 to 30 ºC:
2 MHz to 10 MHz
±0.7 dB
> 10 MHz to 3.0 GHz
±0.5 dB
> 3.0 GHz to 5.0 GHz
±0.7 dB
> 5.0 GHz to 6.0 GHz
±0.7 dB
–10 to 55 ºC:
2 MHz to 10 MHz
166
±1.2 dB
> 10 MHz to 3.0 GHz
±0.8 dB
> 3.0 GHz to 5.0 GHz
±1.3 dB
> 5.0 GHz to 6.0 GHz
±1.7 dB
FieldFox User’s Guide
Spectrum Analyzer (continued)
Description
Specification
Typical
10 minute
warm up
Supplemental Information
90 minute
warm up
Resolution Bandwidth Switching Uncertainty
RBW < 2 MHz
0.0 dB
0.7 dB peak–to–peak 3
Total Absolute Amplitude Accuracy 1
Peak detector, 10 dB
attenuation, preamplifier off,
RBW < 2 MHz, input signal 0
dBm to –50 dBm, all settings
auto coupled
Absolute
Amplitude at 50
MHz + Frequency
Response 4
20 to 30 ºC:
2 MHz to 10 MHz
±1.8 dB
±1.28 dB
±0.60 dB
> 10 MHz to 3.0 GHz
±1.5 dB
±1.0 dB
±0.50 dB
> 3.0 GHz to 5.0 GHz
±1.9 dB
±1.36 dB
±0.60 dB
> 5.0 GHz to 6.0 GHz
±2.1 dB
±1.7 dB
±0.60 dB
RF Input VSWR
At all attenuation settings
1.5:1 (nominal)
Second harmonic distortion (SHI)
–30 dBm signal at input
mixer 2
2 MHz to 1.35 GHz
< –70 dBc
+40 dBm SHI (nominal)
1.35 GHz to 3.0 GHz
< –80 dBc
+50 dBm SHI (nominal)
Third Order Intermodulation Distortion (TOI)
Two –30 dBm tones at input
mixer
1
With signal at center frequency.
2
Mixer level = RF input level – input attenuation
3
For signals not at center frequency.
< –96 dBc
+18 dBm TOI (nominal)
4
The specification for Total Absolute Amplitude Accuracy is less than the sum of the Absolute Amplitude Accuracy and
Frequency Response specifications because redundant uncertainty is removed.
Specifications
167
Spectrum Analyzer (continued)
Description
Supplemental Information
Residual Responses
Input terminated, 0 dB attenuation, preamplifier off, RBW ≤ 1 kHz, VBW auto coupled
20 MHz to 3 GHz
–90 dBm (nominal)
> 3 GHz to 6 GHz
–85 dBm (nominal)
Spurious Responses
Input Mixer level –30 dBm
RFsig = RFtune + 417 MHz
–70 dBc (nominal)
RFsig = RFtune + 1.716 GHz
–80 dBc (nominal)
Input Mixer level –10 dBm; First IF Image Response
Rfsig = Rftune – 2 x 0.8346 GHz
for Rftune 5.7 to 6.0 GHz
–50 dBc (nominal)
Sidebands
–80 dBc (nominal)
–60 dBc (nominal) when battery
charging, 260 kHz offset
168
FieldFox User’s Guide
Spectrum Analyzer (continued)
Figure 10
Figure 11
Specifications
169
Spectrum Analyzer (continued)
Description
Specification
Supplemental Information
AM/FM Tune and Listen
Audio demodulation types
AM, FM Narrow, FM Wide
Audio Bandwidth
16 kHz
Receiver IF Bandwidth
AM
35 kHz
FM Narrow
12 kHz
FM Wide
150 kHz
Listen Time Range
0 to 100 sec.
Radio Standards
With a Radio Standard applied, pre-defined frequency bands, channel numbers or Uplink / Downlink selections can be
used instead of manual frequency entry. The pre-defined FieldFox Radio Standards include bands such as W-CDMA,
LTE, and GSM.
FieldFox Power Suite Measurement types
Channel Power
Occupied Bandwidth
Adjacent Channel Power Ratio
Preamplifier (Option 235)
Description
Specification
Typical
10 minute warm up
Frequency Range
Option 230
100 kHz to 4 GHz
Option 231
100 kHz to 6 GHz
Gain
22 dB
Interference Analyzer (Option 236)
Description
Specification
Supplemental Information
Display Types
Spectrogram
Overlay, full screen, top, or
bottom with active trace
Waterfall
Markers
Time, delta time
Power Meter (Option 302)
Power Meter (Option 302) supports the Agilent Technologies U2000 Series USB Average Power Sensors. For specifications, refer
to the U2000 Series USB Sensor’s Data Sheet at http://www.agilent.com/find/usbsensor.
170
FieldFox User’s Guide
General Information
Description
Specification
Typical
Supplemental Information
Calibration Cycle
1 Year
Environmental
▪ Agilent Technologies Environmental
Test manual (ETM) for Outdoor
Equipment1
▪ MIL–PRF–28800F class 2
Altitude – Operating
9,144 m (30,000 ft)
Altitude – Non–
Operating
15,240 m (50,000 ft)
Under battery operation
AC to DC adapter rated at 3000m
IP Class
30
Temperature Range
Operating
AC Power
–10 to 55 °C
Battery
–10 to 50 °C
Storage
–51 to 71 °C
With the battery pack removed.
The battery packs should be
stored in an environment with
low humidity. Extended
exposure to temperature above
45 ºC could degrade battery
performance and life.
Complies with
European EMC
▪ IEC/EN 61326–2–1
▪ CISPR Pub 11 Group 1, class A
When subjected to continuously
present radiated electromagnetic
phenomena, some degradation of
performance may occur
–10 to 55 °C
EMC
Directive 2004/108/EC
▪ AS/NZS CISPR 11
▪ ICES/NMB–001
ESD
▪ IEC/EN 61000–4–2
Functional up to 20 kV test 1
Safety
Complies with
European Low Voltage
Directive 2006/95/EC
Specifications
▪ IEC/EN 61010–1 2nd Edition
▪ Canada: CSA C22.2 No. 61010–1–04
▪ USA: UL 61010–1 2nd Edition
171
General Information (continued)
Description
Specification
Typical
Supplemental Information
Power
Power Supply
External DC Input
15 to 19 VDC
40 W maximum when battery
charging
External AC Power
Adapter
Input
Output
Efficiency Level IV, 115 VAC
100 to 250 VAC, 50 to 60 Hz
1.25 – 0.56 A
15 VDC, 4 A
Power Consumption
On
12 W
Battery
10.8 V, 4.6 A–h
Operating Time
Charge Time
Lithium ion
4 hours
A fully discharged battery takes
about 1.5 hours to recharge to 80%,
4 hours to 100%
Discharge
Temperature Limits
–10 to 60 ºC2, ≤ 85% RH
Charge Temperature
Limits
0 to 45 ºC2, ≤ 85% RH
Storage Temperature
Limits
–20 to 50 ºC2, ≤ 85% RH
The battery packs should be stored
in an environment with low
humidity. Extended exposure to
temperature above 45 ºC could
degrade battery performance and
life
Minimum 16 MB
Up to 1000 instrument states and
trace
Data Storage
Internal
External
Supports USB 2.0 compatible
memory devices; Supports miniSD
and miniSDHC memory cards
Display
6.5” transflective color VGA LED–
backlit
640 x 480 with anti–glare coating
Weight
2.8 kg (6.2 lbs) including battery
Dimensions (H x W x D)
292 x 188 x 72 mm (11.5” x 7.4”
x 2.8”)
172
FieldFox User’s Guide
General Information (continued)
Description
Specification
Typical
Supplemental Information
Inputs & Outputs
RF Out Port
Connector
Type–N, female
Impedance
50 Ω (nominal)
Damage Level
> +23 dBm, > ±50 VDC
RF In Port
Connector
Type–N, female
Impedance
Damage Level
50 Ω (nominal)
> +27 dBm, > ±50 VDC
LO Emissions
0 dB attenuation,
preamplifier off
Headphone Jack
Connector
–65 dBm (nominal)
3.5 mm (1/8 inch) miniature audio
jack
USB
USB–A (2 ports)
Hi–speed USB 2.0
Mini USB (1 port)
Hi–speed USB 2.0
Provided for future use.
100Base-T ONLY
RJ–45 connector
10Base-T is NOT supported
LAN
External Reference /Trigger Input
Connector
BNC female
External Reference
Input Frequency
Input Amplitude
Range
10 MHz
–5 dBm to +10 dBm (nominal)
Impedance
50 Ω (nominal)
Lock Range
±10 ppm of external reference
frequency (nominal)
Trigger Input
Impedance
10 KΩ (nominal)
Level Range
Rising Edge
1.7 V (nominal)
Falling Edge
1 V (nominal)
1 Samples of this product have been type tested in accordance with the Agilent Environmental Test Manual (ETM) for outdoor
equipment (OE) and verified to be robust against the environmental stresses of storage, transportation and end use ; those stresses
include but are not limited to temperature, humidity, shock, vibration, altitude and power line conditions.
2 Charge and discharge temperatures are internal temperatures of the battery as measured by a sensor embedded in the battery.
The Battery screen displays temperature information. To access the screen, select System , Service Diagnostics, and Battery.
Specifications
173
Safety Considerations
Agilent has designed and tested the FieldFox in accordance with IEC Publication
61010–1:2001 Safety Requirements for Electrical Equipment for Measurement,
Control and Laboratory Use, and the FieldFox is supplied in a safe condition.
The FieldFox is also designed for use in Installation Category II and pollution
Degree 2 per IEC 61010 and IEC 60664 respectively. Read the following safety
notices carefully before you start to use this FieldFox to ensure safe operation
and to maintain the product in a safe condition.
For the FieldFox
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
No operator serviceable parts inside except for the lithium–ion battery. Refer
servicing to qualified personnel. To prevent electrical shock do not remove covers.
If this product is not used as specified, the protection provided by the equipment could
be impaired. This product must be used in a normal condition (in which all means for
protection are intact) when attached to the AC–DC adapter.
The unit may be used only in the operating conditions and positions specified by the
manufacturer. The Agilent N9912 Handheld Cable and Antenna Tester complies with
the following standards
IEC 61010 2nd Edition/EN 61010 2nd Edition
Canada: CSA C22.2 No. 61010–1–04
USA: UL 61010–1 2nd Edition
WARNING
Do not install substitute parts or perform any unauthorized modification to the
product. Return the product to Agilent Technologies or a designated repair center for
service to ensure that safety features are maintained.
WARNING
Applicable local or national safety regulations and rules for the prevention of
accidents must be observed in all work performed.
WARNING
Ensure that the connections with information technology equipment comply with
IEC950 I EN60950.
WARNING
Observe all ratings and markings of the instrument before connecting the instrument.
Maximum Input Voltages and Power:
RF Output Connector: 50V DC, +23 dBm RF
Ext Trig/Ref Connector: 5.5 V DC
RF Input: ±50 VDC, +27 dBm RF
DC Input: 19VDC, 4ADC
174
FieldFox User’s Guide
WARNING
When performing a measurement, ensure that the right safety and performance
ratings of the instrument and accessories are used.
Do not expose the circuit or operate the instrument without its cover or while power is
being supplied.
Do not operate the instrument in any environment at risk of explosion.
CAUTION
The power cord and connectors shall be compatible with the connector used in the
premise electrical system. Failure to ensure adequate earth grounding by not using the
correct components may cause product damage and serious injury.
CAUTION
The measuring terminals on this instrument are designed to be used with external
signals described in Measurement Category I, but NOT with external signals described
in Categories.
For the AC/DC Adapter
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
The AC/DC adapter is a Safety Class 1 Product (provided with a protective
earthing ground incorporated in the power cord). The mains plug shall only
be inserted in a socket outlet provided with a protective earth contact. Any
interruption of the protective conductor inside or outside of the product is
likely to make the product dangerous. Intentional interruption is prohibited.
Use only the designated AC/DC adapter supplied with the instrument.
Use only the designated power cord supplied with the AC/DC adapter.
No operator serviceable parts inside this product. Do not perform any
unauthorized modification to the product. Return the product to Agilent
Technologies or a designated repair center for service to ensure that safety
features are maintained.
Operated at an ambient temperature: 0 to 40°C; full power rating; derate
linearly to 50 W at 50°C.
Maximum output rating: +15V/4.0 A.
Input rating: AC 100–240 V, 50/60Hz
WARNING
WARNING
Safety Considerations
Main Plug : Use a 3–pin main plug that complies with IEC 60884–1, Plugs and
Socket–Outlets for Household and Similar Purposes – Parts1: General
Requirements and country specific safety authority requirements, such as UL,
SA, BSI, VDE, CCC, SA, NZ, and PSE.
Appliance Connector: Use an appliance connector certified to IEC 60320–
1/EN 60320–1 requirements
175
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
To prevent electrical shock, disconnect the AC to DC adapter from the mains
before cleaning. Use a dry cloth or one slightly dampened with water to
clean the external case parts. Do not attempt to clean internally.
When the FieldFox is connected to the AC/DC adapter, position the adapter
so the power cord is readily accessible. The power cord is the disconnecting
device. It removes main power to the AC/DC adapter. The FieldFox front
panel switch is only for the DC power within the instrument, and not for the
AC/DC adapter. Alternately, an AC switch or circuit breaker (which is
readily identifiable and is easily reached by the operator) may be installed
and used as a disconnecting device to remove mains power from the AC/DC
adapter.
To avoid overheating, always disconnect the FieldFox from the AC/DC
adapter before storing the FieldFox in the backpack.
If you prefer to leave the FieldFox connected to the AC/DC adapter while
inside the backpack, you can disconnect the AC/DC adapter from its AC
power source to prevent overheating.
CAUTION
CAUTION
The AC/DC adapter has an auto–ranging line voltage input – be sure the supply
voltage is within the specified range.
The AC/DC adapter is for indoor use only.
CAUTION
Never use a modified or damaged charger. Use the original AC–DC adapter
ONLY.
CAUTION
The AC/DC adapter is designed for use in Installation Category II and Pollution
Degree 2 per IEC 61010 Second Edition and 664 respectively.
For the External Battery Charger (N9910X–872)
CAUTION
If charging batteries externally, use the optional external charger available from
Agilent, or another SMBus charger of level II or higher.
Never use a non–SMBus charger because the battery issues commands over
the SMBus to the charger to control the charge rate and voltage.
Never use a modified or damaged charger.
For the Battery
Lithium battery packs may get hot, explode, or ignite and cause serious injury if
exposed to abuse conditions. Be sure to follow these safety warnings:
176
FieldFox User’s Guide
WARNING
Lithium–ion batteries:
Must not be exposed to high temperatures (>70°C) or fire.
Must be kept away from children.
Must not be short circuited.
Must be replaced only with Agilent qualified Li–ion batteries.
If replaced or charged improperly, there is a danger of explosion.
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
WARNING
Safety Considerations
Do not connect the positive terminal and negative terminal of the battery to each other
with any metal object (such as wire).
Do not carry or store the battery with necklaces, hairpins, or other metal objects.
Do not pierce the battery with nails, strike the battery with a hammer, step on the
battery, or otherwise subject it to strong impacts or shocks.
Do not solder directly onto the battery.
Do not expose the battery to water or salt water, or allow the battery to get wet.
Do not disassemble or modify the battery. The battery contains safety and protection
devices, which if damaged, may cause the battery to generate heat, explode, or ignite.
Do not place the battery in direct sunlight, or use or store the battery inside cars in
hot weather. Doing so may cause the battery to generate heat, explode, or ignite.
Using the battery in this manner may also result in a loss of performance and a
shortened life expectancy.
There is a danger of explosion if the battery is incorrectly replaced. Replace only with
the same or equivalent type of battery recommended. Discard used batteries
according to manufacturer’s instructions.
If you are charging the batteries internally, even while the FieldFox is powered off, the
FieldFox may become warm. Allow for proper ventilation.
Do not discharge the battery using any device except the FieldFox or the external
battery charger (N9910X–872). When the battery is used in a device other than those
specified, it may damage the battery or reduce its life expectancy. If the device causes
an abnormal current to flow, it may cause the battery to become hot, explode, or
ignite and cause serious injury
177
Battery Protective Functions
The following protective functions are designed into the lithium-ion rechargeable
battery system used in FieldFox.
The protective functions can be divided between two categories: active and
passive. Active protection refers to the type of protection that depends on at
least two or more protection devices working together to enable the protection
Passive protection refers to the type of protection that is always enabled
independent of any other protection device.
Active Protection
Primary Overcharge Voltage: This prevents the battery from being charged if
the voltage across any cell exceeds approximately 4.35 V per cell. Once the
overcharge protection is tripped, the voltage across each cell must drop below
approximately 4.15 V to reset the protection and permit charging.
Secondary Overcharge Voltage: This is a one-time, permanent protection that is
triggered when the voltage across any cell exceeds approximately 4.45 V. Once
this protection is tripped, the battery can no longer be used and must be
replaced.
Overdischarge Voltage: This prevents the battery from discharging if the voltage
across any cell drops below approximately 2.6 V. Once the overdischarge voltage
protection is tripped, the voltage across each cell must be charged to
approximately 3 V to reset the protection and permit discharging.
Primary Overcharge Current: This prevents the battery from being charged if
the average charging current reaches or exceeds 3.5A for a time period of 120
seconds or more.
Secondary Overcharge Current: This prevents the battery from being charged if
the charging current reaches or exceeds 4A+/–20% for a time period of 20
milliseconds or more.
Primary Overdischarge Current: This prevents the battery from being
discharged if the average current out of the battery reaches or exceeds 5A for a
time period of 120 seconds or more. This protection can be reset by removing
the load.
Secondary Overdischarge Current: This prevents the battery from being
discharged if the current out of the battery reaches or exceeds 6A for a time
period of 20 milliseconds or more. This protection can be reset by removing the
load.
Short Circuit Protection: This prevents the battery from being charged or
discharged and protects against damage or lost data if the current in or out of the
battery reaches or exceeds 12.5A for a time period of 183 microseconds or more.
This protection can be reset by removing the load.
Overtemperature Charging: The system microcontroller prevents the battery
from being charged if the cell temperature exceeds 46C. Once the
overtemperature charging protection is tripped, the cell temperature has to drop
to or below 45C to reset the protection and permit charging.
Overtemperature Discharging: The system microcontroller prevents the battery
from being discharged if the cell temperature exceeds 65C. Once the
overtemperature discharging protection is tripped, the battery is automatically
shut off which results in turning off the instrument as well.
178
FieldFox User’s Guide
Passive Protection
Reverse Charging: A reverse protection diode prevents against damage or lost
data due to a reverse charge polarity applied to the battery terminals.
Primary Overtemperature: A PTC(positive temperature coefficient) polyfuse in
series between the Li-ion cells and the charging and discharging transistors will
open up and limit current flow to the battery terminals as a function of very high
temperatures. This protection is resettable once the overstress condition is
removed.
The maximum operating temperature of this fuse is 85C.
Secondary Overtemperature: A second PTC polyfuse built into each Li-ion cell
will open up and limit current flow as a function of very high temperatures.
Tertiary Overtemperature: A current interrupt device (CID) within each Li-ion
cell will permanently open up when the temperature reaches 95C. As each cell
fuse is permanently interrupted, overall battery performance will become
severely degraded, up to and including disabling the battery.
Overcurrent Fuse: This is a one-time blow fuse with a rated current of 12A.
Safety Considerations
179
Batteries: Safe Handling and Disposal
180
FieldFox User’s Guide
Inspired Energy Battery
Safety Considerations
181
182
FieldFox User’s Guide
Safety Considerations
183
184
FieldFox User’s Guide
Environmental Requirements
Refer to the Specifications section of this document.
Electrical Requirements
The FieldFox allows you to use either the lithium-ion battery or the AC/DC
adapter - both are included.
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Precautions
The FieldFox was constructed in an ESD protected environment. This is because
most of the semiconductor devices used in this instrument are susceptible to
damage by static discharge.
Static charges are generated in numerous ways, such as simple contact,
separation of materials, and normal motions of persons working with the
FieldFox. To prevent instrument damage, practice industry accepted techniques
for handling static sensitive devices when using the FieldFox.
Very often, coaxial cables and antennas also build up a static charge, which, if
allowed to discharge by connecting to the FieldFox, may damage the instrument
input circuitry. To avoid such damage, it is recommended to dissipate any static
charges by temporarily attaching a short to the cable or antenna prior to
attaching to the instrument.
FieldFox Markings
The CE mark shows that the product complies with all relevant
European legal Directives (if accompanied by a year, it signifies when
the design was proven).
The CSA mark is a registered trademark of CSA International.
The C-Tick mark is a registered trademark of the Australian Spectrum
Management Agency.
This is a marking to indicate product compliance with the Canadian
Interference-Causing Equipment Standard (ICES–001).
This symbol is an Industrial Scientific and Medical Group 1 Class A
product (CISPR 11, Clause 4)
The standby symbol is used to mark a position of the instrument
power line switch.
This symbol indicates separate collection for electrical and electronic
equipment, mandated under EU law as of August 13, 2005. All electric
and electronic equipment are required to be separated from normal
waste for disposal (Reference WEEE Directive, 2002/96/EC).
Safety Considerations
185
Indicates the time period which no hazardous or toxic substance
elements are expected to leak or deteriorate during normal use. Forty
years is the expected useful life of the product.
CAUTION, risk of danger, refer to safety information in manual.
Dispose of properly
Hot surface - connectors get hot during extended operation, so care
must be taken when making connections and disconnections.
Battery Markings
The CE mark shows that the product complies with all relevant
European legal Directives (if accompanied by a year, it signifies when
the design was proven).
The battery parts can be recycled. Consult local or country
regulations.
Dispose of properly
Recycle the old battery properly. Consult local or country regulations
related to disposal.
Keep battery away from excessive heat. Do not dispose of by burning.
UL recognized in Canada and the United States.
Packaging Markings
This symbol on all primary and secondary packaging indicates
compliance to China standard GB 18455–2001.
AC/DC Adapter Markings
The UL Marks are registered certification marks of Underwriters
Laboratories Inc. (UL). It means that UL has tested and evaluated
representative samples of that product and determined that it meets
UL's safety requirements. When accompanied by a 'C' and 'US', it
indicates compliance to both Canadian and US requirements.
NOM Mark (Normality of Mexico) indicates that the product was
tested by an accredited laboratory in Mexicao and meets Mexico’s
safety requirements.
Japan’s safety and EMC compliance mark.
China’s safety and EMC compliance mark.
186
FieldFox User’s Guide
Taiwan’s safety and EMC compliance mark.
Singapore’s safety mark.
Korea’s safety and EMC mark.
GOST, Russia’s safety and EMC mark.
AC (Alternating Current).
Direct current (DC) equipment
CAUTION, risk of danger, refer to safety information in manual.
DC connector polarity
Dispose of properly
Certification and Compliance Statements
Certification
Agilent Technologies, Inc. certifies that this product met its published
specifications at the time of shipment from the factory. Agilent Technologies, Inc.
further certifies that its calibration measurements are traceable to the United
States National Institute of Standards and Technology, to the extent allowed by
the Institute's calibration facility, and to the calibration facilities of other
International Standards Organization members.
Manufacturer’s Declaration
This product has been designed and tested in accordance with accepted industry
standards, and has been supplied in a safe condition. The documentation
contains information and warnings that must be followed by the user to ensure
safe operation and to maintain the product in a safe condition.
Declaration of Conformity
Should the Declaration of Conformity be required, please contact an Agilent
Sales Representative, or the closest Agilent Sales Office. See Contacting Agilent.
Compliance with German Noise Requirements
This is to declare that this instrument is in conformance with the German
Regulation on Noise Declaration for Machines (Laermangabe nach der
Maschinenlaermrerordnung –3. GSGV Deutschland).
Safety Considerations
Acoustic Noise Emission
Geraeuschemission
LpA <70 dB
LpA <70 dB
187
Operator position
am Arbeitsplatz
Normal position
normaler Betrieb
per ISO 7779
nach DIN 45635 t.19
Compliance with Canadian EMC Requirements
This ISM device complies with Canadian ICES–001.
Cet appareil ISM est conforme a la norme NMB du Canada.
Disposal of Batteries
Do not throw batteries away – collect as small chemical waste.
188
FieldFox User’s Guide
Appendix A: Hardkey/Softkey Menus
This section shows the FieldFox Hardkey and Softkey menu structure.
The following conventions are used in the FieldFox and in this manual:
ƒ Grey bordered indicates front panel hardkey selections. Hardkeys are
dedicated keys that do not change functionality.
The following softkeys change dynamically:
ƒ Blue indicates available settings.
ƒ Black indicates the factory default or currently selected setting.
ƒ Green indicates more settings are available at a new menu level.
ƒ Yellow indicates an active entry is in process.
ƒ On Off Underlined items indicate current setting. Press to toggle between
settings.
ƒ Resolution [201] Brackets indicate the factory default or currently selected
setting. Press to select a different setting.
Mode .
CAT Cable and Antenna Test
SA Spectrum Analyzer
Power Meter Power Meter
NA Network Analyzer
Freq/Dist .
CAT
All Meas except
DTF
Start
Stop
Center
Span
All DTF Modes
ONLY
Start Distance
Stop Distance
DTF Units
More
Bandpass
Center
Bandpass
SA
Center
Start
Stop
Zero/last Span
Freq Span
More
Radio Standard
CF Step
Full Span
Back
Appendix A: Hardkey/Softkey Menus
Power
Meter
Frequency
NA Mode
Start
Stop
Center
Span
VVM
Frequency
189
Max Span
Bandpass
Mode On Off
Back
Scale/Amptd .
CAT
SA
Power
Meter
Autoscale
Scale/Div
Ref Level
Ref Pos
Top
Scale Type (Log Lin)
Scale
Ref Level
Ref Pos
RF Atten Auto Man
Bottom
More
Relative On Off
Offset On Off
Offset Val
Scale Min
Scale Max
More
Unit
dBm (dB)
Watt (%)
Back
Autoscale
Resolution 0 1 2 3
Back
Autoscale
Preamp On Off
Marker .
CAT
Marker 1 ,2,3,4,5,6
Off
Normal
Delta
Marker Table On Off
More
Marker 1 ,2,3,4,5,6
Markers (All Off)
Marker Trace 1,2
Back
190
SA
Marker 1 ,2,3,4,5,6
Off
Normal
Delta
Peak
More
Marker 1 ,2,3,4,5,6
Markers (All Off)
Marker Trace 1,2,3,4
Marker Noise On Off
Marker Table On Off
Back
NA Mode
Autoscale
Scale/Div
Ref Level
Ref Pos
VVM
None
Power
Meter
NA Mode
VVM
None
Marker 1 ,2,3,4,5,6
Off
Normal
Delta
Marker Table On Off
More
Marker 1 ,2,3,4,5,6
Markers (All Off)
Marker Trace 1,2
Back
None
FieldFox User’s Guide
Mkr =>/ Tools .
CAT
Peak
Next Peak
Peak Left
Peak Right
All except DTF
Marker=>Center
More
Min Search
Peak Excursion
Peak Threshold
Back
DTF ONLY
More
Marker=>Start Distance
Marker=>Stop Distance
Track Peaks ON OFF
Find 3 Peaks
Back
SA
Power
Meter
NA Mode
VVM
Peak
Next Peak
Marker=>Center
Marker=>RefLev
More
Min Search
Peak Excursion
Peak Threshold
Peak Left
Peak Right
Back
None
Peak
Next Peak
Peak Left
Peak Right
Marker=>Center
More
Min Search
Peak Excursion
Peak Threshold
Back
None
Measure 1
CAT
Distance to Fault
(DTF)
Return Loss & DTF(
Return Loss(dB)
VSWR
DTF (VSWR)
More
Cable Loss (1Port)
Insertion Loss (2Port)
Back
SA
Power
Meter
NA Mode
Radio Standard
Channel Measurements
None
Channel Power
Occupied BW
Adjacent Channel Power
Tune & Listen
None
AM
FM Narrow
FM Wide
Interference Analysis (Opt 236)
None
Spectrogram
Waterfall
All Meas Off
None
S11
S21
A
R
Format
Log Mag
LinMag
VSWR
Phase
Appendix A: Hardkey/Softkey Menus
VVM
1-Port Cable
Trimming
2-Port
Transmission
Smith
191
BW 2
CAT
Average 1
SA
Power
Meter
Res BW Auto Man
Averaging On Off
Video BW Auto Man
Num Averages
Sweep 3
CAT
SA
Single
Continuous On Off
Restart
Resolution [201]
201 | 401 | 601 |
801 | 1001
MinSwpTime 0.0
NA Mode
Average 1
IF BW
Power
Meter
Single
Continuous On Off
Restart
Resolution [401]
101 | 201 | 401 | 601 |
801 | 1001
SwpAcquisition
Or in Zero Span
SweepTime
VVM
None
NA Mode
Single
Continuous
On Off
VVM
Single
Continuous On Off
Restart
Resolution [201]
201 | 401 | 601 |
801 | 1001
MinSwpTime 0.0
None
Trigger Settings
Trig Type
Trig Slope
Trig Delay
Trig Level
AutoTrigTime
Back
Meas Setup 4
CAT
Settings
Output Power
High
Interference Rej.
Off
Minimum
Medium
Maximum
DTF
‘Settings’ ONLY
192
SA
AverageType
AverageCount
In Chan Power:
Integ BW
RRC Weighting
More
RRC Alpha
Power
Meter
Averaging On
Off
Num
Averages
Unit
dBm (dB)
Watt (%)
Back
Relative On
Off
NA Mode
Settings
Output Power Hi
Low
Interference Rej.
[Off]
Off
Minimum
Medium
Maximum
Format
VVM
Zero
Zero Off
Hold
Single
Continuous ON
OFF
More
Restart
Avg 1
Back
FieldFox User’s Guide
DTF Window
In Occupied BW:
Frequency
Power Percent
DTF ONLY
DTF Cable Specs
Velocity
Factor
Cable Loss
Cable Corr
Auto Man
Recall Coax
Cable
View Cable
Data
Back
‘DTF & Return
Loss’ ONLY
Alternate Sweep
In ACPR:
Log Mag
LinMag
VSWR
Phase
Smith
Integ BW
Offsets
Offset 1,2,3
Offset State
Offset Freq
Offset Integ BW
Back
RRC Weighting
More
Meas Type
Total Prw Ref
Ref Value
RRC Alpha
DTF ONLY
Frequency Mode
Bandpass
Cal 5
CAT
See page 49
Trace 6
CAT
Data =>Mem
Data
Memory
Data & Memory
All except DTF
Data Math
Math Off
Data + Mem
Data - Mem
Back
SA
Power
Meter
None
NA Mode
Ext Zero
SA
Trace 1 | 2 | 3 | 4
State [Blank]
Clr/Wr
MaxHold
MinHold
Average
View
Blank
Default All
Detector [Auto]
VVM
See page 49
Power
Meter
None
NA Mode
Data =>Mem
Data
Memory
Data & Memory
VVM
None
Data Math
Math Off
Data + Mem
Data - Mem
Data / Mem
Back
Appendix A: Hardkey/Softkey Menus
193
Data / Mem
Back
Auto
Normal
PositivePeak
NegativePeak
Sample
Average
AverageCount 10
Record Playback
Prototype Control
Record Source
Rec Interval Sec
Back
System 7
All Modes
Display
Display Colors
Outdoor Sun
Outdoor Dusk
Outdoor Clouds
Indoor
Night Vision
Back
Brightness
Title
Title On Off
Edit Keywords
Back
Full Screen
Preferences
Language
English
Espanol
Deutsch
Italiano
Francais
More
Japanese
Chinese
Back
Save Current Preferences
Reset Preferences
194
FieldFox User’s Guide
Back
System Configuration
Options (Licensing)
Show Options
Install Option
Back
Frequency Ref/Trig Input
BNC Connect Use
Freq Ref Source Int Ext
Back
Date and Time
LAN
Service Diagnostics
System Information
Error Log
Next Page
Previous Page
Clear Errors
Battery
Internal Temperatures
Back
Limit 8
CAT
Edit
Left
Right
Clear Limit
All Limits Off
Exit
Save Limits
Recall Limits
Options
Beep (On Off)
Warning (On Off)
Back
SA
Power
Meter
NA Mode
VVM
All except ACPR:
Edit
Left
Right
Clear Limit
All Limits Off
Exit
Save Limits
Recall Limits
Options
Beep (On Off)
Warning (On Off)
Back
In ACPR:
Set Limits (1,2,3)
Lower Offset Limit
Upper Offset Limit
Min Limit On Off
Min Limit Value
Edit
Left
Right
Clear Limit
All Limits Off
Exit
Save Limits
Recall Limits
Options
Beep (On Off)
Warning (On Off)
None
Appendix A: Hardkey/Softkey Menus
Max Limit On Off
Max Limit Value
Back
195
Back
Limit Test ON OFF
Save/Recall 9
All Modes
Save Shows labeler
Select
BackSpace
Clear
Cancel
Done
Recall Shows list of files
Recall File
Delete
Cancel
Device
Internal
SD Card
USB
File Type
State
Trace
Picture
Data (S1P)
Data (CSV)
Print
More
Manage Files Shows files
Copy File
Copy All Files
Delete File
Cancel
Manage Folders
Change Folder
Create Folder
Delete Folder
Exit
Prefix Shows labeler
Prefix On Off
Edit Keywords Shows keywords
Edit Shows labeler
196
FieldFox User’s Guide
Cancel
Done
Preset .
All Modes
Preset
Mode Preset
In SA Chan Meas:
Meas Preset
Run / Hold +/All Modes
Press to toggle between Continuous and Single sweep.
SA Mode has slightly different behavior. Learn more on
page 66.
Appendix A: Hardkey/Softkey Menus
197
Appendix B: Connector Care Review
Proper connector care and connection techniques are critical for accurate and
repeatable measurements. The following table contains for tips on connector
care.
Prior to making connections to your analyzer, carefully review the information
about inspecting, cleaning, and gauging connectors. For course numbers about
additional connector care instruction, contact Agilent Technologies. Refer to:
Handling and Storage
•
•
•
Do
Keep connectors clean
Extend sleeve or connector nut
Use plastic end-caps during storage
•
Do Not
Touch mating-plane surfaces
Set connectors contact-end down
Store connectors or adapters loose
•
Do Not
Use a damaged connector - ever
•
•
Do Not
Use any abrasives
Get liquid into plastic support beads
•
Do Not
Use an out-of-specification connector
•
•
•
•
Do Not
Apply bending force to connection
Over tighten preliminary connection
Twist or screw any connection
Tighten past torque wrench “break” point
•
•
Visual Inspection
•
•
•
Do
Inspect all connectors carefully
Look for metal particles, scratches,
and dents
Connector Cleaning
•
•
•
Do
Try compressed air first
Use isopropyl alcohol a
Clean connector threads
Gaging Connectors
•
•
•
•
Do
Clean and zero the gage before use
Use the correct gage type
Use correct end of calibration block
Gage all connectors before first use
Making Connections
•
•
•
•
Do
Align connectors carefully
Make preliminary connection contact lightly
Turn only the connector nut
Use a torque wrench for final connection
a
Cleaning connectors with alcohol shall only be done with the DC power cord removed, in a wellventilated area, and with the power to the FireFox turned OFF. Allow all residual alcohol moisture to
evaporate, and the fumes to dissipate prior to energizing the instrument.
198
FieldFox User’s Guide
Index
1
1-port cable loss measurements
CAT mode, 28
1-port cable trimming
measurements, VVM mode, 99
1-port measurements, tutorial, 139
2
2-port insertion loss measurements
CAT mode, 29
2-port transmission measurements,
VVM mode, 100
7
75Ω Measurements, 142
A
About Display Formats, tutorial,
140
AC power cords, 12
AC/DC adapter
markings, 186
power requirements, 11
using, 149
accessories, 8
adapters, 9
Adjacent Channel Power (ACPR),
77
Agilent, contacting, 2
Alias Faults, 37
all about limit lines, 106
all about markers, 101
all about trace math, 108
alternate sweep, 36
AM FM Tune & Listen, 71
appendix A, 189
appendix B, 198
attenuation, 60
averaging, 25
avoid overpowering, 15
B
bandpass mode, 33
battery
care, 151
charge status,viewing, 147
charging, 14
external, 150
internal, 149
disposal, 152
Index
gauge, 148
icons, display, 147
installing, 13
LED, 150
markings, 186
maximizing life, 14, 152
protective functions, 178
reconditioning
external, 151
internal, 151
safe handling, 180
service diagnostics, 147
viewing charge status, 13
bridge cancellation measurements,
VVM mode, 100
brightness, display, 120
C
cable and antenna test. See CAT
cable faults, periodic, 143
cable loss measurements, 28
cable problems, 144
Cal On ?, 48
Calculated DTF values, 37
calibration
annotation, 48
Cal On ?, 48
CAT and NA modes, 47
kits, 9
verifying integrity, 52
card, mini SD, 133
care of the battery, 151
CAT mode
1-port cable loss measurements,
28
2-port insertion loss
measurements, 29
calibration, 47
differs from NA mode, 139
DTF measurements, 31
DTF settings, 32
return loss measurements, 27
settings, 22
CD, included, 10
certification statements, 187
Channel Power (CHP), 74
Channel Selection, 58
charge status, viewing, 147
charging the battery
externally, 150
internally, 149
Clean Screen, 17
colors, display, 120
compliance statements, 187
compressed measurement, 61
connecting PC to FieldFox, 127
connector care review, 198
considerations, safety, 174
contacting Agilent, 2
control, temperature, 14
cursor, moving, 116
D
data analysis features, 101
data indicator (*), old, 71
data link software
installing, 127
reading data, 132
date/time setting, 124
declaration of conformity, 187
definitions of specifications, 153
delta marker, 103
detection method, 69
display
brightness, 120
colors, 120
formats, 140
front panel, 19
preferences, 122
settings, 120
disposal of battery, 152
dissipate static charge, 15
distance to fault. See DTF
distance, start and stop, 32
download selections, 135
DTF
measurements, 31
settings, 32
DTF Settings Page, 36
E
error
correction, 48, 153
max, 148, 149, 151
meas UNCAL, 71
power meter mode, 134
red flashing LED, external
battery charger, 150
systematic, 48
ESD, 185
external frequency reference, 123
External triggering, 65
external zeroing, 90
F
features
overview, 7
features, data analysis, 101
199
file management, 111
files
managing, 114
prefixes, 116
printing, 117
saving and recalling, 111
types, 132
firmware, updating, 137
flash drive, USB, 133
FM Tune & Listen, 71
folders, 115
formats
display, 140
return loss, dB, 140
Smith chart, 141
VSWR or SWR, 141
frequency
external reference, 123
range, setting, 23
step size, 57
front panel, 17
G
gauge, battery, 148
general information
specifications, 171
getting started information, 11
H
hardkey/softkey menu, 189
high-temperature protection, 14
hold, 119
How 1-Port Measurements are
Made, tutorial, 139
How do CAT and NA Modes
Differ, tutorial, 139
how to
add or edit a title, 121
change
frequency step size, 57
time and date format, 124
units to feet, 32
check for a compressed
measurement, 61
connect the power sensor, 90
control the preamp, 61
create
delta marker, 103
limit lines, 107
markers, 101
noise marker, 70
determine if a battery needs
reconditioning, 150
display "live" and memory
traces, 108
edit keywords, 115
edit, enable and disable the
current prefix, 116
enable the marker table, 103
enter
200
frequency of power
measurement, 91
numeric values, 20
install options, 122
make
1-port cable loss measurement,
28
1-port cable trimming
measurement, 99
2-port insertion loss
measurement, 29
2-Port transmission
measurement, 100
DTF measurements, 31
S21 transmission
measurement, 45
manage files, 114
manage folders, 115
measure return loss, 27
monitor the internal FieldFox
temperature, 14
move
cursor, 112, 116
marker, 101
reference marker, 103
name files, 111
perform
external battery reconditoning,
151
external zeroing, 90
internal reconditoning, 151
normalization, 51
O,S, L cal, 50
QuickCal, 49
single sweep while in Hold,
119
trace math, 109
preset, 120
read data into Data Link
software, 132
recall an *.sta file, 112
recondition battery with external
battery charger, 151
save
display settings as preferences,
122
file, 111
save and recall limits, 108
scale the power meter display, 91
select
CAT mode, 22
CAT mode measurements, 22
language, 121
NA formats, 40
NA measurements, 39
NA mode, 39
power meter mode, 90
SA mode, 56
VVM measurements, 97
VVM mode, 97
Windows settings, 35
zeroing, 99
set
alternate sweep, 36
attenuation, 60
bandpass mode ON, 33
date and time, 124
detection method, 69, 75, 76
display colors, 120
frequency range, 23, 56
full screen mode, 121
interference rejection, 27
limit options, 107
limits, 94
output power, 27, 44
peak criteria, 105
power meter averaging, 93
power meter display units, 92
relative and offset power
measurements, 92
res BW, 61
resolution, 26, 43
scale, 24
start and stop distance, 32
start and stop frequency with
alternate sweep, 36
sweep acquisition parameter,
63
sweep time, 26
sweep type, 25, 43, 66, 93, 98
trace averaging, 25
video BW, 62
zero span, 64
turn error correction OFF, 48
update firmware, 137
use
external reference, 123
marker search functions, 104
view and change Quick Settings,
23, 40
view the installed options, 122
I
icons, battery, 147
indicator (*), old data, 71
initial use, preparing for, 11
input voltages and power,
maximum, 15
insertion loss measurements, 29
installing
battery, 13
data link software, 127
Interference Analyzer, 81
interference rejection, 27
internet, 128
Interpreting DTF Measurement
Results, tutorial, 143
K
keywords, 115
FieldFox User’s Guide
L
LAN cable, 131
language, settings, 121
latest information, where to find, 2
LED
battery, 150
on/off settings, 14, 17
Licensing, 122
limit lines
saving and recalling, 108
setting, 107
lithium-ion battery
installing, 13
M
managing
files, 114
folders, 115
manuals, 10
markers
creating, 101
delta, 102
moving, 101
noise, 105
search function, 103
table, 103
trace, 103
markings
AC/DC adapter, 186
battery, 186
FieldFox, 185
packaging, 186
math
operations, 109
maximizing battery life, 152
maximum input voltages and power,
15
Meas UNCAL error, 71
measurements
1-port cable loss, CAT mode, 28
1-port cable trimming, VVM
mode, 99
2-port insertion loss, CAT mode,
29
2-port transmission, VVM mode,
100
bridge cancellation, VVM mode,
100
compressed, 61
distance to fault (DTF)
CAT mode, 31
long cable lengths, 144
return loss, CAT mode, 27
S21 transmission, NA mode, 45
selection, 22
Measuring Long Cable Lengths
Accurately, tutorial, 144
menu, softkeys/hardkeys, 189
menus, 189
mini SD card, 133
Index
mode
NA, 39
power meter, 89
SA, 55
temperature control, 14
VVM, 95
moving the cursor, 116
multipliers, 20
N
NA mode
calibration, 47
differs from CAT mode, 139
S21 transmission measurements,
45
settings, 39
specifications, 158
network analyzer, 39
noise marker, 70
normalization, 51
numeric values, 20
O
O, S, L cal, 50
Occupied Bandwidth, 76
old data indicator (*), 71
on/off settings, 14
options
and features, 7
installing, 122
viewing, 122
output power, 27, 44
overpowering, avoid, 15
overview, 7
P
packaging markings, 186
panel
front, 17
side, 18
top, 18
PC, connecting to FieldFox, 127
peak
criteria, 105
excursion, 105
threshold, 105
periodic cable faults, 143
power cords, AC, 12
power measurments
relative and offset, 92
power meter mode, 89
specifications, 170
power requirements for the AC/DC
adapter, 11
power sensor input, 15
Power Spectral Density, 75
power, maximum, 15
preamplifier specifications, 170
prefixes for file names, 116
preparing for initial use, 11
preset settings, 119
printing, 117
problems with cables, 144
protection, high temperature, 14
protective functions of the battery,
178
Q
Quick Cal, 49
Quick Settings, 23, 40
R
Radio Standard, 57
recalling files, 111, 112
reconditioning the battery
externally, 151
internally, 151
Record/Playback, 86
reference marker, 103
reference, external frequency, 123
res BW, 61
resolution, 26
return loss
format, 140
measurements, CAT mode, 27
reviewconnector care, 198
RF Cables, 9
RRC Weighting, 80
run/hold, 119
S
S11 measurements, NA mode, 39
S21 measurements, 45
NA mode, 45
SA mode
settings, 56
safety considerations, 174
saving files, 111
scale, setting, 24
Screen cleaning, 17
screen, front panel, 19
SD card, 133
service
diagnostics, 147
service guide, free download, 10
settings
CAT mode, 22
display, 120
DTF, 32
language, 121
NA mode, 39
on/off, 14
power meter mode, 90
preset, 119
run/hold, 119
SA mode, 56
system, 119
system configuration, 122
201
VVM mode, 97
windows, 35
side panel, 18
Smith chart, 141
softkey/hardkey menu, 189
software, data link
installing, 127
reading data, 132
specifications
definitions, 153
general information, 153, 171
NA, 153, 158, 159, 160, 161
power meter, 153, 170
preamplifier, 170
SA, 162
Spectrogram Display, 81
spectrum analyzer mode, 55
stand-by mode, 14
start and stop distance, 32
static charge, dissipate, 15
sweep
acquisition parameter, 63
alternate, 36
time, 26
type, 25, 43, 66, 93, 98
SWR, 141
system configuration settings, 122
System Impedance (Z0), 45
system settings, 119
T
temperature control mode, 14
time/date setting, 124
title, editing, 121
top panel, 18
trace averaging, setting, 25
trace math, 108
Triggering - SA Mode, 65
Tune & Listen (AM/FM), 71
tutorials
About Display Formats, 140
How 1-Port Measurements are
Made, 139
How do CAT and NA Modes
Differ, 139
Interpreting DTF Measurement
Results, 143
Measuring Long Cable Lengths
Accurately, 144
U
units, changing, 32
update FieldFox firmware, 137
USB flash drive, 133
V
values
multipliers, 20
numeric, 20
202
VBW, 62
vector voltmeter, 95
verifying integrity of
calibration, 52
jumper cables, 52
video BW, 62
Video triggering, 65
viewing
charge status, battery, 147
installed options, 122
VSWR, 141
VVM mode
1-port cable trimming
measurements, 99
2-port transmission
measurements, 100
bridge cancellation
measurements, 100
settings, 97
W
Waterfall Display, 84
where to find the latest information,
2
windows settings, 35
Z
zero span, 64
zeroing, external, 90
FieldFox User’s Guide
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