User Guide - Camtec Electronics Ltd.

User Guide - Camtec Electronics Ltd.
PFA Products V5.1
E
User Guide
Diagram here...
This User Guide is provided for the Ericsson PFA Products V5.1.0 release.
A comprehensive Index is provided for the User Guide allowing easy access to items of
interest. This index, when used in conjunction with the Table of Contents, should maximise the effectiveness of the User Guide for the customer.
1st Edition
December 1999
© Ericsson Telecom AB
Ericsson Intracom Ltd.
Leicester, UK
Preface
The information in this document is subject to change without notice and
should not be construed as a commitment by Ericsson Telecom AB.
Approvals
Approvals concerning safety and electromagnetic interference/susceptibility,
which encompass CE Mark Attestation are covered in the release notes
associated with the PFA product. The NET2 approval numbers for connection
to PTTs in various countries can be obtained from your local ERICSSON
company.
Health and Safety
The procedures in these instructions have been compiled on the assumption
that the persons following them will have received adequate technical training.
Such persons are deemed competent to act at all times with due regard and
safety of themselves, the equipment, and others engaged in work on the
equipment.
NOTE: Damage to equipment by untrained personnel might render
any warranty or maintenance contract invalid.
Acknowledgements
This User Guide is distributed in accordance with the following :
“Ericsson Business Networks AB - CISCO Systems Inc. Technology Agreement, paragraph 3.0 OWNERSHIP AND LICENSE GRANT, Heading 3.4 Documentation.”
GZIP Code Compressor for Flash EPROM
Author: J.-L. Gailly
GNU, Free Software Foundation Inc.
675 Mass Ave
Cambridge, MA 02139
USA
A machine-readable copy of the above source code is available from Ericsson
Intracom Ltd., 1 Bede Island Road, Leicester, England, LE2 7EU. A minimum
charge will be made for the cost of media and postage.
TFTP Bootstrap Code
Authors: S. Ostermann and J. Griffioen, The Xinu Project,
Purdue University
Incoming/Outgoing TELNET code
Incoming: Copyright (c) 1988 The Regents of the University of California,
Berkeley. All rights reserved.
Outgoing: Copyright (c) 1988, 1990, 1993 The Regents of the University of
California, Berkeley. All rights reserved.
Trademarks
NM400/NMS is a trademark of Ericsson Datacom Inc.
Apple Macintosh is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
Microsoft Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
OpenView is a trademark of Hewlett-Packard Ltd.
SNMPc is a trademark of Castle Rock Ltd.
Other User Documentation
The following publication is available to complement the PFA Products User
Guide:
Ericsson PFA Products
System Manual
Hardware and installation information.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
27
Features and Facilities...................................................... 27
POP PAKs ......................................................................................... 27
Routing .............................................................................................. 27
Access Control .................................................................................. 27
Load Control ..................................................................................... 28
Restricted Logon ............................................................................... 28
Help ................................................................................................... 28
Software ............................................................................................ 28
Statistics ........................................................................................... 29
Accounting ........................................................................................ 29
Management ..................................................................................... 29
Network/Line Testing ........................................................................ 30
Software Functions/Protocols ........................................................... 30
Port Numbering ................................................................. 32
Software Architecture....................................................... 33
Port Objects ...................................................................................... 33
Port Object Control ........................................................................... 35
Initialise ............................................................................................. 35
Set ..................................................................................................... 36
Deblock ............................................................................................. 36
Block ................................................................................................. 36
Print ................................................................................................... 36
Terminate .......................................................................................... 36
Reset ................................................................................................. 36
Port Object States ............................................................................. 37
Connecting Port Objects ................................................................... 38
Port Objects for Frame Relay ............................................................ 38
Port Objects for ATM ........................................................................ 38
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2. Administration
39
Configuration Port Setup.................................................. 39
Power-up Test Sequence ................................................. 39
Logging On ........................................................................ 40
User Logon ....................................................................................... 40
Logon Banner .................................................................................... 40
Command Authorities ....................................................................... 43
General ............................................................................... 44
Prompt Control ................................................................................. 44
Node Identity ..................................................................................... 44
Online Help ....................................................................................... 45
Command History ............................................................................. 47
Parameter Default Control ................................................................ 48
Time Server Configuration (PFA 660 only) ...................... 51
Default Node Settings ....................................................... 54
Configuration of Default Node Settings ............................................ 54
System Clock .................................................................................... 55
More Prompt Control ........................................................................ 56
Restarting PFA Software (NAREI) ..................................................... 57
Printing System Log/Config Errors (UILOP) ...................................... 58
Displays All Port Status (LIPOP) ....................................................... 58
Hardware Information (PFA 660 only) ............................................... 60
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3. Configuration/Image Management
63
Configuration Management ............................................. 63
Transfer of Configurations ................................................................ 63
Image Download Management ........................................ 70
Configuration for Image Downloading .............................................. 72
Configuration for Image Patching ..................................................... 78
Patching a READ-ONLY PROM image ............................................. 80
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4. General Network Management
81
Introduction ....................................................................... 81
Configuring a Session Port ............................................................... 81
NM400 Management ......................................................... 82
Introduction ....................................................................................... 82
NM400/NMS Connection .................................................................. 83
Heartbeats ........................................................................................ 83
Recovery ........................................................................................... 83
Alarm and Heartbeat Reports .......................................... 83
Alarm parameters .............................................................................. 83
Configuration of Printout Destinations .............................................. 84
Alarm Printouts ................................................................................. 87
HTTP Management ........................................................... 94
Login ................................................................................................. 95
Logout ............................................................................................... 95
Browser Dependencies ..................................................................... 95
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5. SNMP Management
97
Introduction ....................................................................... 97
SNMP Network Managers ................................................................ 98
SNMP Subsystem ............................................................. 99
Configuring an SNMP Subsystem .................................................... 99
Community Instances ..................................................... 101
Community Identifier ....................................................................... 102
Community Strings ......................................................................... 102
Access Types .................................................................................. 102
Request Validation .......................................................................... 103
Configuration of Community Instances ........................................... 103
Configuration of SNMP Manager Associations ............................... 105
MIBs ................................................................................. 107
MIBs Supported .............................................................................. 107
Traps ................................................................................ 108
Configuration of TRAP Community Instance .................................. 109
Troubleshooting Trap messages ..................................................... 109
Configuration of TRAPs .................................................................. 109
SNMP Example ................................................................ 111
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6. Asynchronous (APAD)
119
Introduction ..................................................................... 119
Async Port Configuration ............................................... 119
The Physical Layer .......................................................................... 121
The Link Layer ................................................................................. 121
The Network Layer .......................................................................... 121
Initialisation ..................................................................................... 121
Setting Parameters ......................................................................... 123
Deblocking ...................................................................................... 126
Blocking .......................................................................................... 127
Termination ..................................................................................... 130
Statistics ......................................................................................... 131
Macros ............................................................................................ 134
PAD Activity States ......................................................... 134
Making a Call ................................................................... 135
X.25 Facilities .................................................................................. 136
Non-X.25 Facilities .......................................................................... 138
Address field ................................................................................... 138
Call User Data field ......................................................................... 138
X.28 Command Signals .................................................. 138
Service Signals ................................................................ 142
Clearing a Call ................................................................. 145
Routing analysis for Async operation ........................... 145
Async Profiles .................................................................. 146
Line Profile ...................................................................................... 146
Call Profile ....................................................................................... 146
SET <param value><,param value> ................................................ 146
Standard CCITT Async Profiles ...................................................... 146
Non-CCITT Async Profiles .............................................................. 148
X.3-1988 Parameter Explanation .................................................... 153
Proprietary Parameters ................................................................... 157
Asynchronous Example .................................................. 159
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7. TPAD
161
Introduction ..................................................................... 161
HDLC mode .................................................................................... 161
BiSync mode ................................................................................... 162
TPAD Port Configuration ................................................ 162
The Physical Layer .......................................................................... 164
The Link Layer ................................................................................. 165
The Network Layer .......................................................................... 165
Initialisation ..................................................................................... 165
Setting Parameters ......................................................................... 166
Deblocking ...................................................................................... 168
Blocking .......................................................................................... 168
Print or Display ................................................................................ 169
Termination ..................................................................................... 171
Statistics ......................................................................................... 172
Macros ............................................................................. 174
Addressing analysis for TPAD operation ...................... 174
HVCs ............................................................................................... 174
TPAD Example................................................................. 175
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8. X.25/X.75
177
Introduction ..................................................................... 177
X.25 Features .................................................................................. 177
X.75 Features .................................................................................. 177
X.25/X.75 Port Configuration ......................................... 178
The Physical Layer .......................................................................... 180
The Link Layer ................................................................................. 181
The Network Layer .......................................................................... 181
Initialisation ..................................................................................... 181
Setting Parameters ......................................................................... 182
Deblocking ...................................................................................... 188
Blocking .......................................................................................... 188
Print or Display ................................................................................ 189
Termination ..................................................................................... 195
Statistics ......................................................................................... 195
Contacting PFA Products ............................................... 199
PING Contact in Packet Switching ................................................. 199
Macros ............................................................................. 200
Addressing Analysis for X.25/X.75 ................................ 201
HVCs/PVCs ..................................................................................... 201
X.25 Example ................................................................... 202
Port Configuration in PFA1 ............................................................. 202
Port Configuration in PFA2 ............................................................. 203
X.75 Example ................................................................... 203
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9. SNA Interfaces
207
Introduction ..................................................................... 207
Physical Units ................................................................................. 207
SNA Media Translations ................................................. 207
SNA/LLC(IEEE 802.2) over LAN ...................................................... 208
SNA/LLC over Frame Relay ............................................................ 208
SDLC ............................................................................................... 208
SNA Interfaces Port Configuration ................................ 209
The Physical Layer .......................................................................... 211
The Link Layer ................................................................................. 211
The Network Layer .......................................................................... 212
Initialisation ..................................................................................... 212
Setting Parameters ......................................................................... 214
Deblocking ...................................................................................... 217
Blocking .......................................................................................... 218
Print or Display ................................................................................ 218
Termination ..................................................................................... 224
Statistics ......................................................................................... 225
Macros ............................................................................. 228
Addressing Analysis for SDLC ....................................... 229
HVCs ............................................................................................... 229
SDLC Example ................................................................ 229
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10. Frame Relay
233
Introduction ..................................................................... 233
X.25/X.75 over Frame Relay ............................................................ 234
IP over Frame Relay ........................................................................ 234
SNA over Frame Relay .................................................................... 234
Ethernet Bridging over Frame Relay ............................................... 234
Congestion Control ......................................................... 235
Connection Admission Control - port-based ............... 236
Rate Enforcement - circuit-based ................................. 236
PVC Operation ................................................................. 238
sPVC Operation ............................................................... 238
SVC Operation ................................................................. 239
Frame Relay Configuration ............................................ 239
Introduction ..................................................................................... 239
Port Configuration ........................................................................... 241
Frame Relay NTN Configuration ..................................................... 262
Frame Relay PVC/sPVC Configuration ........................................... 264
Statistics .......................................................................... 271
Command Usage ............................................................................ 271
Macros ............................................................................. 277
Frame Relay Examples ................................................... 278
Example 1: PVC Connections ......................................................... 278
Example 2: sPVC Connections ....................................................... 286
Example 3: SVC Connections ......................................................... 293
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11. TCP/IP
297
Introduction ..................................................................... 297
TCP/IP Protocol .............................................................. 297
IP Subsystem .................................................................................. 297
TCP and UDP support .................................................................... 297
SLIP ................................................................................................ 297
TIP ................................................................................................... 298
IP Switching (IPS) ..................................................................................
298
RIP .................................................................................................. 298
TCP/IP Configuration ...................................................... 299
Ether-IP ........................................................................................... 299
X.25/X.75-IP .................................................................................... 300
SLIP-IP ............................................................................................ 301
FR-IP ............................................................................................... 302
BR-IP .............................................................................................. 304
Configuration of LAN Ports ............................................................. 305
Configuration of Network Interfaces ............................................... 309
Configuration of Remote Gateways ................................................ 315
IP Routing ....................................................................................... 320
Configuration of IP Routes .............................................................. 322
Configuration of Dynamic IP Routes (RIP) ...................................... 326
PING Request .................................................................. 332
Configuration of PING Requests ..................................................... 332
TELNET ............................................................................ 333
Introduction ..................................................................................... 333
Outgoing TELNET configuration ..................................................... 334
TELNET Sessions ............................................................................ 335
TCP Interface Port (TIP).................................................. 336
Introduction ..................................................................................... 336
Connection Establishment .............................................................. 336
TIP Disconnection ........................................................................... 337
Configuration of TIP Connection ..................................................... 337
Ethernet Bridging ............................................................ 339
Address Learning ............................................................................ 339
Configuration of Ethernet Bridging .................................................. 340
Configuration of Bridge LAN Ports.................................................. 342
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Direct Broadcasting ........................................................ 344
Command Usage ............................................................................ 344
UDP/IP Helper Addresses .............................................. 345
Introduction ..................................................................................... 345
Configuration of IP Helper Addresses ............................................. 345
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12. Address and Routing Analysis
349
Introduction ..................................................................... 349
Routing Analysis for Switched Calls ............................. 352
Configuration of Routes .................................................................. 352
Configuration of Routing Cases ...................................................... 357
Terminating Routing Cases (ANRCT) ............................................. 359
Configuration of Number Directions ............................................... 359
Virtual Call Preference (VCP) ......................................... 362
Routing Analysis for DTEs.............................................. 364
Introduction ..................................................................................... 364
Configuration of DTEs ..................................................................... 365
Hunt Groups .................................................................... 367
Hunt Group Configuration ............................................................... 368
Routing with Switched Access ...................................... 369
Dedicated Switched Access (Direct Call) ........................................ 369
Shared Switched Access ................................................................ 370
Configuration of Access Groups ..................................................... 370
Configuration of External Network Name ........................................ 372
Dedicated Routing Analysis Example ........................... 373
Introduction ..................................................................................... 373
Configuration in N4 ......................................................................... 375
Shared Switched Access Example ................................ 379
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
383
Types of Network Service .............................................. 383
HVCs/PVCs ...................................................................... 383
Introduction ..................................................................................... 383
Configuration of HVCs/PVCs .......................................................... 384
HVC/PVC Normal Operation ........................................................... 387
HVC/PVC Error Conditions ............................................................. 387
Addressing by Name Analysis ....................................... 387
Configuration of Name Analysis ...................................................... 388
Configuration Facilities for NTNs .................................. 390
DTE Charging Facilities for SVCs .................................................... 391
DTE Charging Facilities for PVCs/HVCs ......................................... 391
Facilities .......................................................................................... 391
Call Priorities ................................................................................... 393
Access Control ................................................................................ 393
Configuration of Facilities ............................................................... 394
PID-Dependent Call Priorities ........................................ 396
Configuration of PID-Dependent Call Priorities .............................. 396
Load Control .................................................................... 397
Call Priorities ................................................................................... 397
Load Control Resources ................................................................. 397
Configuration of Load Control ......................................................... 398
CUGs ................................................................................ 401
CUG With Outgoing Access (CUG/OA) ........................................... 401
CUG With Incoming Access (CUG/IA) ............................................ 402
Configuration of CUGs .................................................................... 402
Call Accounting ............................................................... 404
Services .......................................................................................... 406
Memory Management ..................................................................... 406
Restarts during Accounting ............................................................. 407
New Calls Allowed .......................................................................... 407
Multiservice Management Suite (MMS) with UDC .......................... 407
Configuration of Call Accounting .................................................... 408
Configuration of Charging Record Generation ................................ 408
Configuration of Call Accounting Rates .......................................... 409
Call Accounting FTP Server ............................................................ 414
IP Hosts for Accounting Access ..................................................... 417
Call Accounting Example ................................................................ 425
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14. Address Modification
431
Introduction ..................................................................... 431
Address Format And Numbering Plans ........................ 431
The X.121 Numbering Plan ............................................................. 431
International Data Number (IDN) ..................................................... 431
Network Terminal Number (NTN) .................................................... 432
National Number (NN) ..................................................................... 432
Address Principles .......................................................... 432
Introduction ..................................................................................... 432
Local and Remote Addresses ......................................................... 432
Remote Address Conversion .......................................................... 434
Local Address Conversion .............................................................. 437
MML Commands ............................................................. 442
Parameters for Address Modification ........................... 449
Remote Address Conversion .......................................................... 449
Local Address Conversion .............................................................. 449
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15. Network and Line Testing
455
Network Testing .............................................................. 455
Network Testing Traffic Ports ........................................ 455
Introduction ..................................................................................... 455
Packet Switching Traffic Generation ............................................... 456
Frame Relay Traffic Generation ...................................................... 456
Packet Switching Traffic Port Configuration ................................... 456
Frame Relay Traffic Port Configuration ........................................... 459
Network Testing - Echo Ports........................................ 464
Introduction ..................................................................................... 464
Packet Switching Echo Port Configuration ..................................... 464
Frame Relay Echo Port Configuration ............................................. 465
Line Testing for Serial Ports........................................... 467
Introduction ..................................................................................... 467
Characteristics ................................................................................ 468
Required port object states ............................................................ 469
Configuration of tests ...................................................................... 469
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EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
16. Transparent ISDN
473
Introduction ..................................................................... 473
Features .......................................................................................... 473
Software Versions ........................................................... 474
Access to TransISDN POP PAKs ................................... 474
Local Access ................................................................................... 474
Remote Access ............................................................................... 475
Transparent ISDN Configuration .................................. 475
Via the PFA User Interface .............................................................. 475
Via Direct Logon .............................................................................. 476
Routing ............................................................................. 479
Identifying Ports Using Subaddress ................................................ 479
Identifying Ports Using Multi-Subscriber Numbering (MSN) ........... 480
Transparent ISDN Example ............................................ 480
Switched Shared Access - V25bis Working (X.75) .......................... 480
Switched Direct Call Access - V25bis Working (X.75E) .................. 481
Switched Direct Call Access - DTR Autodial (Frame Relay) ........... 482
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17. MP/LCP
485
Introduction ..................................................................... 485
Bandwidth on Demand ................................................................... 488
BOD Connection Errors .................................................................. 489
Link Quality Errors ........................................................................... 489
POP PAKs ........................................................................ 490
Master Channeliser POP PAK (486-G1) .......................................... 490
Slave Channeliser POP PAK (486-G2) ............................................ 490
MP/LCP Configuration.................................................... 491
Configuration of MP Bundle ............................................................ 493
Configuration of LCP Links ............................................................. 495
Configuration of Bandwidth-on-Demand Table .............................. 502
Configuration of Virtual Port Objects .............................................. 505
Statistics .......................................................................... 507
Macros ............................................................................. 510
MP/LCP Examples .......................................................... 511
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18. ATM
525
Introduction ..................................................................... 525
Routing ............................................................................. 525
Notes ................................................................................ 525
ATM Port Configuration.................................................. 526
Physical Layer ................................................................................. 528
ATM layer ........................................................................................ 528
Rate mode....................................................................................... 528
Configuration of ATM port .............................................................. 529
Configuration of Virtual Ports .......................................................... 531
Statistics ......................................................................................... 535
ATM Example .................................................................. 541
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23
APPENDIX ONE: Integrated Router Board (IRB) .......... 545
Access into IRB ............................................................................... 545
Port Configuration ........................................................................... 546
CD-ROM Documentation (CISCO Systems, Inc.) ........................... 549
APPENDIX TWO: SNMP Topology Trap MML Commands550
APPENDIX THREE: X.25/X.75E Clear/Reset Cause Codes552
Clear Cause Codes ......................................................................... 553
Reset Cause Codes ........................................................................ 553
Diagnostic Codes ............................................................................ 554
APPENDIX FOUR: References ....................................... 557
APPENDIX FIVE: Facilities/Utilities................................ 559
General ............................................................................................ 559
Extra X.75E Utilities ......................................................................... 561
X.25 Facilities Handling ................................................................... 561
CCITT-Specified Facilities for X.25-1984 ........................................ 561
APPENDIX SIX: Deviations from FS 700 Products ....... 562
Functionality .................................................................................... 562
Line Configuration ........................................................................... 562
Routing Analysis ............................................................................. 562
Clocking - Timing Parameters ......................................................... 562
Unsupported Network Layer Features ............................................ 563
General ............................................................................................ 563
APPENDIX SEVEN: Packet Size Negotiation ................ 564
APPENDIX EIGHT: Port Monitor .................................... 565
Introduction ..................................................................................... 565
Initialising Port Monitor (LIPMI) ....................................................... 565
Setting Port Monitor (LIPMS) .......................................................... 566
Deblocking Port Monitor (LIPMD) ................................................... 568
Blocking Port Monitor (LIPMB) ....................................................... 568
Print or Display Port Monitor Setup (LIPMP) ................................... 568
Termination of Port Monitor (LIPMT) ............................................... 569
Print Decoded Frames (LIMRP) ...................................................... 569
APPENDIX NINE: Call Accounting Record File Format 578
Introduction ..................................................................................... 578
Call Accounting Data File ................................................................ 578
Format of Charging Records ........................................................... 578
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EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
APPENDIX TEN: PFA Trap Troubleshooting ................. 588
Notes on Severity Levels ................................................................ 588
Trap Descriptions ............................................................................ 588
APPENDIX ELEVEN: Training Courses ......................... 598
APPENDIX TWELVE: IP Switching ................................. 599
Semi-Permanent Routes ................................................................. 599
Semi-Permanent Remote Gateways ............................................... 599
Remote Gateway - Hold Timer ........................................................ 601
Default Gateway - Sink/Sinkmask ................................................... 601
APPENDIX THIRTEEN: Product Support ...................... 602
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25
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EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
1. Introduction
1. Introduction
Features and Facilities
POP PAKs
The physical interfaces, or POP PAKs, on the unit can be easily interchanged
as all interfaces are plug-in with all the necessary circuitry for a particular
interface specification built into the POP PAK.
The following POP PAKs are supported:
V.24/V.28 (DTE or DCE)
X.21/V.11 (DTE or DCE)
V.24/V.35 (DTE or DCE)
V.24/V.36 (DTE or DCE)
G.703 (64 Kbps D-type codirectional DTE)
G.703 (E1 BNC 75 W)
G.703 (E1 RJ45 120 W)
FE1 (Fractional E1 RJ45 120 W)
TransISDN (1 or 2-port)
10Base2 (Cheapernet)
10BaseT (Twisted pair)
STP/UTP Token Ring
Channeliser (Master)
Channeliser (Slave)
ATM E3 or DS3 (PFA 660 only)
Note that the software in the unit detects the presence, absence, type and
gender of the POP PAK.
Routing
Routing involves the validation of incoming call requests and determining the
subsequent network path to reach the call destination.
This can be achieved by configuration of dedicated DTEs or ROTs as well as
Shared Access DTEs and ROTs that exist in Access Groups. Network addresses (NTNs), unique to specific DTEs or ROTs, are used as the basis for
routing and can additionally be assigned a wide range of network services.
For any call setup by the unit, alternative calls may be specified for backup
should the initial call attempt fail to connect; a preferential route can also be
configured. This method allows automatic reselection of a call should a
particular service be unavailable.
Access Control
It is possible to bar incoming and/or outgoing calls by setting access control
parameters as configurable facilities at the NTN in question. As NTNs can be
set as a Number direction, or at any Local DTE, Hunt Group or Network
Interface this access control mechanism offers a versatile box-wide security
system for the unit.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
27
1. Introduction
Load Control
Load control can be used to regulate traffic on the basis of assigned call
traffic priorities. Certain priority calls can be cleared when CPU or memory
limits are exceeded.
Restricted Logon
Local and remote user access into the unit is restricted due to a Username
and Password login requirement. Any access required must be arranged with
the network manager.
At the same time as user names and passwords are arranged, an authority
level is assigned to the username which will allow that user full or restricted
access to groupings of commands depending on the importance and experience of the user.
Help
The HELP command can be used on the unit to display:
i) a listing of all or selected MML commands available.
ii) a description of each MML command.
iii) any match with a subject in an MML command listing.
iv) a listing of all possible parameter values for a given parameter.
Software
Feature Sets
Three versions of software can operate in the PFA product.
For non-Frame Relay/ATM environments, the X.25 Feature set can be ordered
and for non-X.25/X.75 environments, the Frame Relay Feature Set can be
used. For maximum flexibility, full functionality is provided with the Extended
Feature Set.
X.25 Feature Set
All functionality except Frame Relay
Full Functionality Set
All functionality avalable to the user.
Image Downloading
The unit supports the downloading of code images from a PC to an offline
non-volatile storage area called the Flash EPROM. The downloaded image
can then be loaded to the run-time system by the network manager at a
convenient time.
The consequence of this is that the remote upgrade of units is possible
without the need to visit remote sites or carry out a physical EPROM change
within the unit.
In addition, patch information can be downloaded to change images in the
config store of the unit. This allows remote fault management in the unlikely
event of a fault occurring.
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EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
1. Introduction
Configuration Transfer
Configurations existing in the unit can be transferred to a PC communications
package for backups and possible editing. Multiple configurations can be
stored to provide a “library” of configurations.
In the unlikely event of problems with the active configuration in the unit the
stored configuration in the PC can be restored back to the unit and subsequently reloaded on restart.
Additionally, MML command scripts can be written in the PC and be transferred to the unit in one session without the need to visit the site where the
unit is situated.
Statistics
Port statistics can be viewed via MML commands independently of port state,
either locally from the 9-pin config port or other configured async port, or
remotely via access into an X.29 session port or via an incoming TELNET
session.
The repeat feature in Command History allows statistics to be repeated at
configurable intervals to monitor call setups, port states, frame counters and
peak rate displays.
Accounting
Charging and billing information can be configured to be collected within the
PFA product. This permits charging records to be collected at a central
management system, e.g. the Multiservice Management Suite (MMS):  Usage
Data Collector (UDC), and the cost of usage allocated to the user if necessary.
Management
Basic Remote
An X.29 or TELNET remote operator service is available to allow entry into the
unit. This allows configuration of the software whilst in operation. Normal
access control restrictions apply with the Remote Operator providing
username and password; sufficient authority must be allocated to the user.
HTTP
The HTTP server permits the remote management of any PFA product from an
Internet browser.
Port configuration, statistics gathering and performance monitoring are all
available. Normal access control restrictions apply as for the remote operator
service.
SNMP
SNMP management (Simple Network Management Protocol) is supported to
allow the exchange of management information between an SNMP agent (the
unit) and an SNMP manager (an NMS supporting the SNMP protocol). The
MIBs supported include:
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
29
1. Introduction
Standard MIBs: MIB II, Interfaces, Frame Relay DTE
Ericsson-specific MIBs: DNA
PFA-specific MIBs: Packet Switching, Frame Relay, PFA, PFA Traps
The supported SNMP traps are listed in Chapter 5.
Multiservice Management Suite (MMS)
The MMS is an enterprise SNMP-based solution for node monitoring, local/
remote fault and configuration management of Ericsson network elements
including the PFA products. The software is supplied on Hewlett-Packard's
OpenView platform for UNIX. From the PFA perspective, the Suite comprises:
Node Manager: The user is presented with a icon-based network
topology map for network node configuration analysis. As the product is
based on an Open management platform further customisation of the
management function is possible.
Alarm Manager: The Alarm Manager collects SNMP traps from network
nodes.
Usage Data Collector (UDC): the UDC allows accounting billing and
analysis.
Network/Line Testing
Network testing for WAN protocols is performed with use of traffic generation
ports and susequent echoing of the traffic back to the originating unit.
In addition, V.24 line testing of modems can be carried out by using local and
remote loops (V.54).
Any serial port can also be entered into Port monitor mode to produce traces
for subsequent diagnostic analysis. Certain triggers can be configured to
capture a specific event during a call.
Software Functions/Protocols
Functions
The functions below are supported.
Connection Functions
Virtual Call
Hot Virtual Circuit (HVC)
Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC)
Frame Relay SVCs
Frame Relay PVCs
Frame Relay soft PVCs (sPVCs)
Routing Functions
Routing for
DTEs:
30
Dedicated Leased (for packet)
Dedicated Switched (Direct Call)
Shared Access with X.32 NUI
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
1. Introduction
Routing for
ROTs:
Dedicated Leased (for packet and frame)
Dedicated Switched (Direct Call)
Shared Switched Access with CLI
Shared Switched Access with NODEID
Preferential Routing
Subaddressing
Selection by name (asynchronous only)
Address Modification
Alternate Routing
Wild card addressing
IP Switching (IPS) for X.75E and Frame Relay
Virtual Call Preference for Frame Relay
Network Services
Incoming Calls Barred
Incoming Calls Barred (on calling address)
Outgoing Calls Barred
Closed User Groups
Charging Information
Load Control
Traffic Priority Classes
Network/Line testing
Port monitoring
Accounting
ATM Rate Adaption (PFA 660)
Management Functions
Online Software Image/Configuration Downloading
Remote Operator Management
Configuration Management
HTTP
Incoming/outgoing TELNET
NM400/NMS Management (with alarm reporting)
SNMP Management
Multiservice Management Suite (MMS)
Protocols
V.24/V.28, X.21/V.11, V.24/V.35, V.24/V.36, G.703, G.704
LAPB, LLC2, ARP, rARP, CSMA/CD
X.3. X.28, X.29 (1980,1984,1988)
X.25/X.75 (TCP/IP over X.25/X.75, SDLC over X.25)
Frame Relay (FUI, FDI, FTI, NNI (FRF.10), FII (FRF.10 plus Ericsson proprietary)
TCP/IP, UDP/IP, SLIP, RIP, TIP, ETHERNET BRIDGING, TELNET
TPAD
SDLC
QLLC (LLC over LAN)
MP/LCP
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
31
1. Introduction
ISDN BRI
ATM (E3: G.832/G.751 and DS3: PLCP/HEC) (PFA 660 only)
Encapsulations
Async over X.25/X.75
SNA over X.25/X.75
IP over X.25/X.75
X.25/X.75 over Frame Relay (PVC- and sPVC/SVC-based)
IP over Frame Relay (PVC-, SVC- and sPVC/SVC-based)
SNA/LLC over Frame Relay (PVC- and sPVC/SVC-based)
Port Numbering
The convention states that port numbers are normally broken into sections
which are delimited by hyphens; the format is:
cm-lm-lu-pp
or:
cm-lm-lu-fp
or:
cm-lm-lu-xfn
or:
cm-lm-lu-lfn
or:
cm-lm-lu-pp-llp
or:
cm-lm-lu-atmpp
where:
cm = computer module
lm = line module
lu = line unit
pp = physical port (1-18 or ATM1)
fp = FP port (physical)
xfn = logical LP/NP stack (for X.25/X.75 over Frame Relay)
lfn = logical LP/NP stack (for SNA/LLC over Frame Relay)
llp = logical link port (for SDLC or LLC/LAN)
atmpp = ATM port (physical)
The cm and lm fields are always set to 1 at present. The lu field can be set to
either 0 or 1 to reflect either LAN1 or serial ports, respectively.
ATM:
32
1-1-1-ATM1
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
1. Introduction
X.25/X.75/Async/
TPAD/Frame Relay:
1-1-1-(1-18)
Frame Relay LP/NP:
1-1-1-(XF1-XF15)
LAN:
1-1-0-(1-2)
SDLC:
1-1-1-(1-18)-(1-8)
LLC over LAN:
1-1-0-(1-2)-(1-8)
SNA/LLC over FR:
1-1-1-1-(LF1-LF15)
The port numbering for SDLC and LLC/LAN uses a one-to-one correlation
between port and link (as for, e.g. X.25 etc.), but the link and network layers
must use an additional field (i.e., llp) to indicate that there are logical “drops”
off the PP/LA port. A fifth field is therefore appended to the port number, e.g.
1-1-1-5-6 defines drop number 6 for SDLC on port 5.
Software Architecture
Port Objects
A port object refers to a single instance of a protocol entity. It is not sufficient
to define a port object by the port number alone. Each port object must be
further defined by its position within the relevant protocol stack. To achieve
this, the port object are assigned to be physical, link and network (PP, LP and
NP, respectively).
Port objects and associated protocols are shown in Figure 1-1. Note that the
ATM port object is not illustrated as it is used in a different manner to the
packet switching port objects.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
33
1. Introduction
34
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Figure 1-1: Relationship between Port objects and protocol.
Layer 3
NP
NP
X.29
TPAD
X.25
X.75
QLLC
Layer 2
LP
LP
X.28/
TELNET
TPAD
X.25
(LAPB)
X.75
(LAPB)
SDLC
Frame
Relay
Layer 1
PP
PP
V.28,
V.35,V.36
V.28,V.11
V.35,V.36,
G.703
V.28,V.11
V.35,V.36
G.703
V.28,V.11
V.35,V.36
G.703
V.28,V.11
V.35,V.36
V.28,V.11
V.35,V.36
G.703
Async/
TELNET
Stack
TPAD
Stack
OSI X.25
Stack
OSI X.75
Stack
SDLC
Stack
Port Object
Frame
Relay
10Base2
10BaseT
LAN
1. Introduction
Physical (PP)
The physical port objects provide services equivalent to, in the case of X.25,
layer 1 of the OSI model, e.g. port speeds are controlled here. The port object
attached to port 1-1-1-3 would be named PP=1-1-1-3.
Link (LP)
The link port objects provide services equivalent to, in the case of X.25, layer
2 of the OSI model.
Network (NP)
The network port objects provide services equivalent to, in the case of X.25,
layer 3 of the OSI model.
Frame (FP)
The FP object provide a link between the PP object and the FR subsystem. It
also handles the Frame Relay PVC connections over a specific serial port.
The FP object forms a link with the PP object.
ATM
The ATM port object provide a link between the PP object and the ATM
subsystem. The single port object is always available on the PFA 660 product
only.
Logical LP/NP (LP/NP)
The logical LP and NP objects combine to produce a virtual stack. This stack
is required to be configured for encapsulation of protocols over Frame Relay.
The LP object handles Level 2 procedures, whereas the NP object handles
Level 3 procedures. An identifier is used to associate the LP and NP layers.
LA
A LA port object has to be defined for any LAN port.
Network Interfaces are used to associate the IP subsystem with other subsystems, e.g. an X.25 NI associates the IP subsystem to the PS subsystem.
Port Object Control
Port objects are controlled from the user interface which introduces a configuration command for each layer of the stack. This means that for each port
object there is a set of commands providing for Initialisation, Setting, Blocking, Deblocking, Printing (i.e., Displaying), Terminating or Resetting of each
port object.
Initialise
The MML commands ending in "I" are used to “create” the port objects. The
created port object will be placed into the “blocked” state automatically.
If not specified, port object parameters are set according to the existing box
defaults.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
35
1. Introduction
Set
The MML commands ending in "S" are Set commands which are used to
change parameters associated with the port object. These commands may
only be used while the port object is manually blocked, and they may NOT be
used to change key parameters, i.e. the commands are not capable of creating a port object, they may only modify an existing one.
Deblock
The MML commands ending in "D" may be used to request the port object to
enter the “deblocked” state. The command allows the port object to commence operation. This command may only be applied to the object when the
object is manually blocked.
This is the operational state for a port object. In this state, it makes and
accepts attachments to other objects in the protocol stack and may pass
data.
It is not permissible to use the Set command in this state, although the Print
command is still valid.
Note that the sequence of state changes for a port object will be strictly
enforced. It will not be possible to enter the Deblocked state without initially
being in the Blocked state.
Block
The MML commands ending in "B" may be used to change the state of a port
object from deblocked to blocked. When the object is blocked, it is no longer
operational.
In this state a port object exists, it may have its configuration modified by the
Set command, and it may have its configuration displayed by the Print command. It is not yet attached to other port objects, and will not accept attachments from other port objects. When a port object is blocked it may be either
terminated by the Terminate command, or deblocked by the Deblock command.
Print
The MML commands ending in "P" are used to display the current configuration of a port object.
In addition, the port status for the port object is displayed.
Terminate
The MML commands ending in "T" are used to remove a port object from the
system. The port object must be in the blocked state before this command
may be accepted.
Note that after termination a port object no longer exists.
Reset
The MML commands ending in "R" are used to reset gathered statistics back
to zero.
36
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
1. Introduction
Port Object States
As port objects can be in Terminated, Blocked or Deblocked states the transition between these states and the rules that have to be obeyed are of paramount importance. Figure 1-2 illustrates the state transitions possible.
Port Object State
No State
Port Object Terminated
Use Initialise
MML Commands
MB,HB
Port Object Blocked
Use Deblock
MML Commands
WO,DIS,
AB,CB,HB
Use Terminate
MML Commands
Use Print and Set
MML Commands
Use Block
MML Commands
Port Object Deblocked
Use Print
MML Commands
Figure 1-2: State Transitions for port objects.
Port object states can change depending upon the actions of the user, the
state of the network, the associated POP PAK or another dependent port
object. The Port Object States can be observed with the LIPOP command.
There are six states that a port object can exist in.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
WO
Working order; this state exists when the port object is deblocked
and attached to another port object or subsystem. This is the fully
operational state of a port object.
MB
Manually Blocked; the MB state is only ever entered immediately
after a port object is either initialised or blocked with an
appropriate MML command.
CB
Conditionally Blocked; a port object with CB state indicates that
although the port object itself has been deblocked, the
dependent port object it is intended to attach to is not in an
acceptable state to attach.
AB
Automatically Blocked; the AB state is entered when the port
object has been deblocked but a PP port object is not in data
transfer state, e.g. when there is no cable.
HB
Hardware Blocked; the HB state can only be entered if the PP or
LA port object is in a blocked or deblocked state when an
associated POP PAK attached to the port has been disconnected
or is not present.
37
1. Introduction
DIS
Disconnected; the DIS state is entered when a port object
associated with Switched Access operation has no current
incoming/outgoing connection but is available for use.
Connecting Port Objects
A connection or attachment is an association between two port objects which
is performed when the port objects are DEBLOCKED. This attachment is
normally initiated by the higher layer of the protocol stack. The attachment is
used as a confirmation that the operator has selected compatible protocol
entities within a stack.
Port Objects for Frame Relay
The FR subsystem controls all Frame Relay communication between other FR
subsystems in other units and local PS and IP subsystems. Interworking
between all local subsystems provides a versatile system giving protocol
encapsulation and communication.
Port Objects for ATM
The PFA 660 possesses an ATM subsystem which controls all ATM communication and Frame Relay concentration into ATM.
38
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
2. Administration
2. Administration
Configuration Port Setup
The 9-pin configuration port on the rear panel of the PFA product is used to
allow local terminal connection to the PFA product. The dumb terminal or PC
with comms package connected to this port can operate with the following
settings:
Baud rate: 9600 (default), 19200 or 38400 baud
Parity: 8 bit, no parity check
Stop Bit: 1
The configuration port can be configured to operate at 9600, 19200 or 38400
baud with the NADNS command.
Note that local configuration of the unit is also possible via an async port by
configuring an internal X.29 call to the unit. This is made possible by creating
an X.29 session port with the SASPI command. By calling the session port
NTN, the user is presented with the USERNAME and PASSWORD prompts.
The NTN can be used or a mnemonic address can be set up with the ANNAI
command.
Power-up Test Sequence
The PFA product will display information related to the power up of the unit.
The normal power up sequence displays the following at a locally connected
configuration terminal, e.g.
Welcome to Ericsson PFA - System starting
V5.1.0 ID:491.399 Rxx DATE:1999-10-02 TIME:153816
Last system log:
EMPTY: Power-on restart
END
Checking system integrity...
Mother Board
: 491-G1
System Clock
: 25.0 MHz
PEB 1
: Present
PEB 2
: Present
PCI Interface
: Present with ATM DB.
Code Memory
: 16MB
Packet Memory
: 16MB
MAC address
: 00:00:ff:13:96:47
System now loading configuration
Configuration now loaded, system ready
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
39
2. Administration
5.
By pressing the <RETURN> key, the username prompt
will appear.
USERNAME:
The image name displayed after the logon banner is the currently operating
image loaded as a result of a restart or power up.
Logging On
When the PFA product is delivered to the network manager a default
USERNAME and PASSWORD is provided as there are no registered users on
the unit.
After pressing the <RETURN> key several times, the network manager is
prompted for a USERNAME and PASSWORD and the following should then
be input to gain entry into the unit:
USERNAME: SYSTEM
PASSWORD: INIT
Once logged on, the prompt “PFA>” is displayed as default.
The following notes concerning the above default USERNAME and PASSWORD should be considered.
1)
2)
3)
4)
They are available for the directly connected 9-pin config
port ONLY.
They are NOT case sensitive.
They are available with full authority to issue any command.
The password is not echoed on screen.
WARNING:
Once new usernames and passwords have been created it is important to
change the password for the USERNAME=SYSTEM and assign a low level of
authority to the logon.
User Logon
The user can log onto the PFA product by entering an assigned USERNAME
and PASSWORD provided by the System Manager, e.g.
USERNAME: FRED
PASSWORD: <password not echoed>
The password will not be echoed on screen during input. Once logged on a
banner will welcome the user.
Welcome to ERICSSON PFA
Logon Banner
Changing Logon Banner (UILTS)
The logon banner text can be changed from the default “Welcome to ERICSSON PFA” with the UILTS command as follows:
40
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
2. Administration
UILTS:TEXT="CONNECTED TO NODE3 FLOOR1";
This banner will then be displayed for every user after a successful login. The
inverted commas are required to maintain spaces and case sensitivity.
Printing Logon Banner (UILTP)
The UILTP will display the currently configured logon text, e.g.
UILTP;
TEXT = Connected to Node3 Floor1
END
Resetting Logon Banner (UILTR)
The UILTR command resets the currently configured logon text for the unit
back to the box default, i.e. “Welcome to ERICSSON PFA”.
UILTR;
User Control
The addition and control of users on the PFA product is possible with use of
the following commands.
NADCI
NADCD
NADCB
NADCS
NADCP
NADCT
Initialise a User Logon
Deblock a User Logon
Block a User Logon
Set Logon Passwords Authorities
Print User Logons
Terminate User Logon
Initialising a User Logon (NADCI)
A maximum of 11 User logons can be added to the PFA product. Each user is
assigned a username, password and authority.
NADCI:NAME=name,PASSWORD=password,AUTH=auth<,DIR=dir>;
Where:name
new user name
1-15 characters
password
new user password
1-15 characters
auth
Authority
A,B,C,D
dir
Directory
USER (not configurable)
As default, the username and password will automatically be blocked upon
creation until the network manager deblocks the assignment by using the
NADCD command.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
41
2. Administration
For example:
NADCI:NAME=FRED,PASSWORD=SPECIAL,AUTH=ABCD;
EXECUTED
Setting Logon Passwords and Authorities (NADCS)
The Passwords and Authorities assigned to a username can be changed for
any user by using the NADCS command, i.e.
NADCS:NAME=name<,PASSWORD=password><,AUTH=auth>
<,DIR=dir>;
Where the parameters are as described for the NADCI command.
NOTE: to change passwords or authorities the existing username
and password has to be blocked with the NADCB command. A
deblock command will be required to reinstate the user's login.
For example, for an existing user “Fred” with password “Special” and Authority “A”, the following command string can be used to change the password to
“XCY” and the authority to “ABC”.
NADCS:NAME=FRED,PASSWORD=XCY,AUTH=ABC;
Deblocking a User Logon (NADCD)
The NADCD command is needed immediately after the configuration of a user
logon to make the record “active” so the user can log onto the unit. In addition, after changes to passwords or authorities, carried out when the user
record is blocked, the user record will require to be deblocked to become
operative again.
NADCD: NAME=name<,DIR=dir>;
Where the parameters are as described for the NADCI command.
Blocking a User Logon (NADCB)
The NADCB command blocks an existing username to allow passwords and/
or authorities to be changed. Note that when user records are created they
are automatically blocked and will therefore require deblocking to become
operative.
NADCB:NAME=name<,DIR=dir>;
Terminating User Logons (NADCT)
Users can be removed from the USER directory by issuing the NADCT command.
NADCT:NAME=name<,DIR=dir>;
42
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
2. Administration
Printing User Logons (NADCP)
The users can be listed with the NADCP command as follows:
NADCP:DIR=USER;
USER DIRECTORY
NAME
STATUS
PASSWORD
AUTHORITY
——————————————————————————————————————————————
OPER
WO
DEFINED
ABCDE
FRED
MB
DEFINED
ABCD
STUDENT1
WO
DEFINED
A
MANAGER
WO
DEFINED
ABCD
END
Where:STATUS
Logon status
MB, WO
NOTE that passwords will not be displayed. The term DEFINED is used in their
place.
Logging Out
The user can log out of the PFA product by entering “exit” at the command
line. If connected to the config port, a banner will be displayed confirming this,
i.e.
PFA> EXIT
SYSTEM: signed off
Command Authorities
Authorities are assigned to individual users on the PFA product because there
is a requirement for only certain commands to be available to certain accredited users. The authority takes the form of a single letter or group of letters
from A to D which means that the user has authority to issue commands
assigned with categories A, B, C or D, i.e.
A
B
C
D
Allows basic prints/displays/statistics
Allows blocking, deblocking, initialisation, termination and
set
Configuration management, patch management, image
management
Restarts, SNMP management and User Login control
A student may only be able to issue commands which display information, i.e.
commands in category A, whereas a network manager may be assigned full
authority, i.e. ABCD, to permit the full command set to be used. Any combination of letters can be assigned by the network manager to the user. The
authority assigned to each user can be shown with the NADCP command.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
43
2. Administration
General
Prompt Control
Changing Prompt (UIPRS)
The default prompt “PFA>” can be changed by using the UIPRS command,
i.e.
PFA> UIPRS:PROMPT="PFA SITE2>";
Resetting Prompt (UIPRR)
The UIPRR command resets the currently configured prompt back to
“PFA>” which is the box default, e.g.
UIPRR;
Node Identity
The NANOS and NANOP allows the user to name the node.
Setting the Node Identity (NANOS)
The NANOS command sets the node name and identity of the PFA product.
NANOS:NODE=node<,NODEID=nodeid>;
Where:node
Node name
1-15 characters
nodeid
Node identifier
1-9999 or NONE;
For X.75E NODEID
signalling in Switched
Access. Nodes can be
identified in the access group
on the basis of their node ID,
see Section 13 X.25-Related
Network Services.
The NODE name is reported:
i) when logging into an async terminal.
ii) in the global wakeup banner, e.g.
PFA <NODE IDENTITY> X.28 line 3 Speed 9600
iii) in a packet switching ping (PSPIP).
iv) in SNMP; reported as SYSNAME in System Group of MIB II.
For example:
NANOS:NODE=STOCKHOLM;
44
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
2. Administration
Printing the Node Identity (NANOP)
The NANOP command displays the defined node identity, e.g.
NANOP;
NODE IDENTITY
NODE
= STOCKHOLM
NODEID
= 123
END
Online Help
A complete listing of MML commands available on the PFA product can be
displayed by using the HELP command, e.g.
PFA>HELP
ACNPP
Prints closed user group list
ACNPS
Modifies a closed user group
ACNPT
Terminates a closed user group
ANAMI
Initialises address modification entry
etc.
Groupings of MML commands can also be listed by specifying a portion of the
command names to be searched on, e.g.
PFA> HELP LINP
LINPB
Blocks a network layer
LINPD
Deblocks a network layer
LINPI
Initialises a network layer
LINPP
Prints a network layer
LINPS
Sets a network layer
LINPT
Terminates a network layer
END
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
45
2. Administration
Additionally, the text strings displayed with MML commands can be searched.
If MML commands concerning, e.g. SNMP, are required to be listed then the
following can be carried out.
PFA> HELP SNMP
SNMPP
Prints the SNMP interfaces if Table and if StackTable
NACGI
Initialise SNMP community instance
NACGP
Prints SNMP community instance
NACGS
Modify SNMP community instance
NACGT
Terminate SNMP community instance
NAMSI
Initialise SNMP management station
NAMSP
Prints SNMP management station settings
NAMSS
Sets SNMP management station association
NAMST
Terminate SNMP management station association
NANMP
Prints the SNMP parameters
NANMS
Sets SNMP parameters
etc.
More extensive help is available for individual MML commands. The command
authority, scope of the command, explanations of the command and parameter details are displayed by selecting the MML command in question. Three
columns display the parameter name, the parameter explanation and a possible value as an example.
For example, for the LINPI command:
PFA> HELP LINPI
MML = LINPI
Auth = B
Scope = LINPX
Initialises a network layer
PARAMETERS USED ARE
NP
Network port
(1-1-1-1)
PROT
Level 3 protocol
(X.25)
SIDE
Addressing for X75
(A)
TRAPID
SNMP Trap community instance identifier
(12)
TRAPS
SNMP Trap selection for NP object
(ALL)
LINKTRAP
Enable SNMP link up/down trap
(YES)
OBJTRAP
Enable SNMP object blocked/deblocked trap (YES)
CONFTRAP
Enable SNMP configuration change trap
(YES)
END
Finally, the individual parameters listed above and their possible values can be
displayed by specifying the parameter name after the command, i.e.
46
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
2. Administration
PFA>HELP LINPI.PROT
Level 3 protocol
Input/Output
QLLC, X29, X75, X25, TPAD
END
Command History
A series of shortcuts can be used at the command line to speed up configuration time. These are:
!
history list (last 20 commands issued)
!!
issue last command
^nn^ss
replace nn with ss
!n
execute command number n
!-n
execute relative command n
!string
execute last command starting with string
!n#t
execute command number n by t times; note that t£2^31.
!n#t,u
execute command number n by t times with pause of u
secs; note that u£60.
!n#t/u
execute command number n by t times with a home, clear
screen and a pause of u secs
NOTE: a ! after any of the above commands will not execute the command but
will print only; the command will be put into history text.
For example, a sample listing can be produced with the ! command:
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
47
2. Administration
PFA> !
0
1 UIDIP;
2 UIDSP;
3 LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-1;
4 LILPI:LP=1-1-1-1,PROT=X25;
5 LINPI:NP=1-1-1-1,PROT=X25;
6 LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-1;
7 LIPOB:PORT=1-1-1-5;
8 LINPT:NP=1-1-1-5;
9 LILPT:LP=1-1-1-5;
10 LIPPT:PP=1-1-1-5;
11 LIPOP;
12 STPPP;
13 STPPP:PP=1-1-1-1;
14 PSROI:ROT=7,NP=1-1-1-1;
15 ANRCI:RC=5,ROT=7;
16 ANRAI:ND=234403204,RC=4;
For example, using the above display:
!!
repeats most recent command
!12
repeats command 12
!12!
prints command 12 but does not execute
!^=4^=5
gives ANRAI:ND=234403204,RC=5; unless a line is
specified the previous command is acted upon
!13#3
execute command 13 three times
!13#3,5
execute command 13 three times with pause of 5
secs
!13#3/5
execute command 13 three times with a home, clear
screen and a pause of 5 secs
!12P=ALL;^;^:p!
gives STPPP:PP=ALL; but does not execute useful
bits
Parameter Default Control
To allow the user to reduce the number of keystrokes required to configure
the PFA product it is possible to modify the factory defaults for frequently
used MML commands. The following commands are used:
UIPDS
UIPDP
UIPDT
48
Sets Individual Parameter Defaults
Prints Parameter Defaults
Terminates a specified parameter value (brings back
default factory setting)
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
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Setting Parameter Defaults (UIPDS)
The UIPDS command modifies parameter factory default values displayed
with the UIPDP command. Defaults cannot be created for other parameters.
UIPDS:PARAM=parameter,VALUE=value;
Where:param
Parameter
text up to 15 chars
(scope.name)
value
Value of default
value=text up to 42 chars
The PARAM parameter is split into two sections referring to the scope and the
name fields. The “scope” refers to the group name which is common to MML
commands relating to a particular function, e.g. for configuration of network
ports, the commands LINPS and LINPI would be in the grouping LINPX. The
“name” is the parameter name associated with the MML command.
UIPDS:PARAM=PSROX.TOS,VALUE=HOME;
The “scope” and “name” can be found by using the UIPDP command.
Printing of Parameter Defaults (UIPDP)
The UIPDP command prints selected or all parameter defaults. If a parameter
is specified then only the value for that particular parameter will be displayed
otherwise all box default settings are displayed. The scope of a parameter can
be found by using the HELP <command name>.
UIPDP<:PARAM=parameter>;
Where:parameter
Parameter
text up to 15 chars
(scope.name)
For example:
UIPDP:PARAM=PSROX.TOS;
DEFAULT VALUES DATA
PARAM
VALUE
_______________________
PSROX.TOS
ROUND
END
A complete listing of parameter defaults is possible if no parameter is specified, e.g.
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2. Administration
PFA>UIPDP;
DEFAULT VALUES DATA
PARAM
VALUE
_______________________
PSCFX.ICB
NO
PSCFX.OCB
NO
PSCFX.CF
CAC
PSCFX.PRI
DEFAULT
PSCFX.IAC
NO
PSCFX.OAC
NO
ANAMX.EXTPREF
NONE
ANAMX.PID
01000000
ANAMX.ADDRFORM
IDN
ANAMX.INTPREF
NONE
etc.
PSTRX.INTINT
DISABLED
PSECX.WS
2
PSECX.PS
256
UIPRX.PROMPT
PFA>
UILTX.TEXT
Welcome to ERICSSON PFA
END
Resetting of Parameter Defaults (UIPDT)
The UIPDT command resets a specified parameter value back to the default
value (i.e., the factory setting), e.g.
UIPDT:PARAM=parameter;
Where:parameter
Parameter
(scope.name)
text up to 15 chars
For example:
UIPDT:PARAM=PSROX.TOS;
This example terminates the value associated with PSROX.TOS; the factory
default, i.e. ROUND, is then used.
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Time Server Configuration (PFA 660 only)
The PFA 660 does not possess a battery but instead supports FLASH
memory storage. As a result, Non-Volatile Memory (NVM) problems associated with battery exhaustion are overcome. However, with the PFA 660
system, the system clock needs to be reset by using an external time server
when the unit restarts. The time server service is available on TCP port 37 on
UNIX workstations; for Windows 95/WinNT PCs, a shareware time server
program is available from the PFA User Documentation CD-ROM or from your
Local Ericsson company.
Note: Call accounting records created immediately after a PFA 660 restart
may have a meaningless value for record start time. However the calculated
record duration time will be correct.
Initialising Time Server (IPTSI)
The command will configure a time server entry. This will indicate the time
server from which the PFA 660 will receive the current time/date.
IPTSI:ENTRY=entry,REMIP=remip<,ADJUST=adjust>
<,INTERVAL=interval><,RETRIES=retries>;
Where:ENTRY
Position in priority table 1..5
to place this IP entry
(1 is highest priority).
REMIP
Time server which
will provide the time
or mnemonic name.
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
where 0­ nnn­ 255
ADJUST
Time to add/subtract
to derive local time
from server time
-1440...+1440 minutes;
default=0.
INTERVAL
Time between retries
after failure to obtain
time from time server
1..255 seconds; default=10.
RETRIES
Retry count
1...255; default=10.
For example:
IPTSI:ENTRY=1,REMIP=192.9.100.47;
NOTE: The PFA 660 can have a local adjustment made if the Time
Server is located in a different timezone to that PFA product. For
PFA products and time servers operating in the same timezone
adjust the time in the time server application only.
Set Time Server (IPTSS)
The command is used to modify the parameters of a current time server
entry.
IPTSS:ENTRY=entry<,REMIP=remip><,ADJUST=adjust>
<,INTERVAL=interval><,RETRIES=retries>;
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Where parameters are defined as for the IPTSI command.
For example, to change the interval to 5 seconds:
IPTSS:ENTRY=1,INTERVAL=5;
Printing Time Server (IPTSP)
The command displays a specific or all IP time server entries.
IPTSP<:ENTRY=entry>;
For example:
IPTSP;
IP TIME SERVER DATA
ENTRY REMIP
ADJUST
INTERVAL
RETRIES
———————————————————————————————————————————————————————
1
192.9.100.47
+1440
5
10
2
164.48.18.101
+0
60
5
4
192.9.100.75
-60
60
15
5
192.201.201.100
+0
120
1
3
END
Where the parameters are as defined for the IPTSI command.
Terminating Time Server (IPTST)
The command is used to delete a current time server entry.
IPTST: ENTRY=entry;
For example:
IPTST:ENTRY=1;
Initialising Node Time Administrator (NATSI)
The NATSI command initialises the node time administrator. Attempts at
obtaining the current time from a time server will not be made until the node
time administrator has been deblocked.
NATSI<:UPDATE=update><,TRAPID=trapid>*
<,TIMEFAILTRAP=timefailtrap>*<,ACNTL=acntl>**
<,ACL=acl>*<,DESTID=destid>**;
Where:UPDATE
Interval to poll
for current time
0..65535 minutes
(0=only on restart);
default=0.
*These SNMP-related parameters are described in Section 5.
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** These NM400-related parameters are described in Section 4.
For example:
NATSI:UPDATE=1440,TRAPID=1,TIMEFAILTRAP=YES;
Set Node Time Administrator Parameters (NATSS)
This command will modify the parameters of an existing node time administrator entry. The node time administrator must be manually blocked for this
command to be issued.
NATSS:<UPDATE=update><,TRAPID=trapid><,TIMEFAILTRAP=
timefailtrap><,ACL=acl>*<,ACNTL=acntl>*<,DESTID=destid>*;
Where the parameters are as described for the NATSI command.
For example, to change the update interval to 20 minutes.
NATSS:UPDATE=20;
Deblocking Node Time Administrator (NATSD)
This command deblocks the Node Time Administrator, enabling the attempts
at obtaining the current time from an IP time server.
NATSD;
For example:
NATSD;
Blocking Node Time Administrator (NATSB)
This command blocks the Node Time Administrator, suspending the attempts
at obtaining the current time from an IP time server.
NATSB;
For example:
NATSB;
Printing Node Time Administrator (NATSP)
This command is used to print the current settings for the node time administrator.
NATSP;
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2. Administration
For example:
NATSP;
NODE TIME ADMINISTRATOR
UPDATE
NEXT
TIMEFAILTRAP
TRAPID
STATUS
————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
20
9
YES
ACL
= A2
ACNTL
= NOALARM
DESTID
= NODESTID
1
WO
END
The parameters are as described for the NATSI command with the exception
of:
NEXT
Time remaining
before next
attempt is made
time (in minutes)
STATUS
Status of node
time administrator
WO, MB
Terminating Node Time Administrator (NATST)
This command terminates the node time administrator. The administrator
must be manually blocked for this command to be issued.
NATST;
For example:
NATST;
EXECUTED
Default Node Settings
Default node settings can be configured to set values which are to be applied
to the entire PFA product.
Configuration of Default Node Settings
Setting Default Node Settings (NADNS)
The NADNS command sets default node settings which can be set globally for
the entire PFA product; values such as Data Network Identification Code
(DNIC) can be set for the public network that the node belongs to.
NOTE: If the Config port rate is changed, the program will not be
able to communicate with the PFA product. The terminal baud rate
must be adjusted accordingly to overcome this.
NADNS<:DNIC=dnic><,DEFPRI=defpri>
<,PREFTIME=preftime><,CFGRATE=cfgrate>;
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Where:dnic
Data network
0000,0001,..9999;
identification code
default=0000. This parameter
makes up the first four digits of
the X.121 called address
defpri
Default call priority
1,2,3,4 or default; default=1.
preftime
Time before
preferential port
is considered stable
1-65535 seconds;
default=20.
cfgrate
Config port rate
9K6, 19K2 or 38K4;
default=9K6.
For example, to set the DNIC to 2080, the DNIC for the French Transpac
network:
NADNS:DNIC=2080;
Printing Default Node Settings (NADNP)
The NADNP command displays the default node settings.
For example:
NADNP;
DNIC
= 2080
DEFPRI
= 1
PREFTIME
= 20
CFGRATE
= 9K6
END
System Clock
The NACLS and NACLP commands are used as follows.
Setting Date/Time (NACLS)
The NACLS command sets the current date and time for the PFA product. It is
essential to set the date and time for alarms reporting in network management.
NOTE: the PFA 660 the clock must be re-configured after every
restart.
NACLS:DATE=1998-12-22,TIME=134442;
Where:DATE
Current date
YYYY-MM-DD
(Y=year,M=month, D=day)
TIME
Current time
HHMMSS
(H=hour,M=Minute,S=second)
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Printing the Date/Time (NACLP)
The NACLP command displays the current date, time and weekday, e.g.
NACLP;
CLOCK DATA
DATE
TIME
WEEKDAY
_______________________________
1998-12-22
134442
THU
END
Where the parameters are as described for the NACLS command with the
exception of:
WEEKDAY
Weekday
MON,TUE,WED,
THU,FRI,SAT,SUN
More Prompt Control
The More prompt can be set per session to delimit lists when some long
printouts or displays are output, e.g. for UIPDP. Otherwise long lists will be
output to the screen with information lost to the user.
The following MML commands are used.
UIMOD
UIMOB
UIMOP
Enables More prompt
Disables More prompt
Prints or displays More Prompt Status
WARNING: It is not possible to backup a config file from the PFA
product if the More> prompt is set.
The More> prompt must not be enabled on PFA products subject to NM400/
NMS management.
Enabling More Prompt (UIMOD)
The UIMOD command enables the More> prompt. It is displayed after every
22 lines, e.g.
UIMOD;
EXECUTED
The <RETURN> key is pressed to reveal either the remainder of the list or
another 22 entries followed by the More> prompt. The issue of Ctrl.-C will
stop a display from scrolling off screen.
NOTE: the <MORE> prompt is disabled after the user is logged off
from the session.
Disabling More Prompt (UIMOB)
The UIMOB command disables the More> prompt during the session, e.g.
UIMOB;
EXECUTED
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Status of More Prompt (UIMOP)
The UIMOP command displays the status of the More> prompt during the
session, e.g.
UIMOP;
STATUS
= WO
END
Where:STATUS
Status of
More prompt
WO or MB; MB means the
More> prompt is disabled.
Restarting PFA Software (NAREI)
The NAREI command restarts the PFA software and applies the pending code
image and configuration as indicated with the UIDSP and NACCP commands,
respectively.
WARNING: Use with extreme caution as all calls will be lost on
restart.
Remember to save the configuration and, after restart, reset the clock for PFA
660. The NAREI command produces a different start up sequence than that
displayed after a power up, i.e.
NAREI;
Welcome to Ericsson PFA - System starting
V5.1.0 ID:491.399 Rxx DATE:1999-10-02 TIME:153816
Last system log:
0000-00-00 000000
ROOT
00000000 Unit restart, time stamp
0000-00-00 000000
UA00
00000000 System Restart by user
END
Checking system integrity...
Mother Board
: 491-G1
System Clock
: 25.0 MHz
PEB 1
: Not Present
PEB 2
: Not Present
PCI Interface
: Present with No DB.
Code Memory
: 16MB
Packet Memory
: 16MB
MAC address
: 00:00:ff:13:96:47
System now loading configuration
Configuration now loaded, system ready
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Press the <RETURN> key to produce the login prompt.
USERNAME:
The last system log will report the reason for the previous restarting of the
software.
Printing System Log/Config Errors (UILOP)
The UILOP command prints both the current system log and the last system
log generated before the most recent restart. System logs are used to provide
system information for management or, if the unit is not operating correctly,
for diagnostics.
In addition, if a config has loaded incorrectly, the message “CONFIG IN
ERROR SEE UILOP FOR DETAIL” is shown after every issued command after
the config is in operation. The UILOP command will display the MML commands which were in error (up to 10 in log). To remove this message use the
NACCS command.
For example:
PFA>UILOP;
Current system log:
1999-12-04 214050 ROOT 00000000 Unit restart, time stamp
Last system log:
1999-12-04 213828 ROOT 00000000 Unit restart, time stamp
1999-12-04 213953 UA00 00000000 System Restart by user
CONFIG LINES IN ERROR (first 10 only)
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-19,N1=261;
LILPS:LP=1-1-1-19,ACL=A2,DESTID=NODESTID;
END
Displays All Port Status (LIPOP)
The LIPOP command displays the physical, link and network layer status for a
specified or all configured ports.
LIPOP<:PORT=port>;
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For example, for a PFA 660:
PFA>LIPOP;
PORT STATUS INFORMATION
PORT
FP
PP
PROTOCOL USER
RATE
SVC LMI
------------------------------------------------------------------1-1-1-3
MB
MB
1-1-1-5
MB
NA MB
FII
ROT=2
1-1-1-6
AB
NA HB
FII
ROT=3
1-1-1-7
MB
NA
PORT
MB
FUI
DIS FII/V25BIS
NP LP
NI LA
ROT=24
64K
PROTOCOL USER
RATE
------------------------------------------------------------------1-1-0-1
WO
ETHER
1-1-0-1
WO
IP
MAC=00.00.ff.13.ba.d6 10M
IP=192.9.100.69
------------------------------------------------------------------1-1-1-ATM1-12 MB MB MB
FNI/FRSSCS
VCC=1.98
1-1-1-ATM1-13 WO WO WO
FNI/FRSSCS
VCC=1.99
1-1-1-ATM1-14 AB AB WO
FNI/FRSSCS
VCC=2.21
END
Where:
PORT
This displays the physical or logical serial port
if configured.
NP
The Network Port state, i.e. Working Order (WO),
Manually Blocked (MB), Automatically Blocked (AB),
Disconnected (DIS).
LP
The Link Port state, i.e. WO, MB, AB,
Conditionally Blocked (CB), DIS.
PP
The Physical Port state, i.e. WO, MB, AB, CB,
Hardware Blocked (HB).
PROTOCOL
This displays the protocols operating on the port.
USER
The USER field reports the NTN number, Access Group
number or IP address associated with a port.
RATE
This displays the line speed of the port.
ADDR
The ADDR field reports SDLC addresses only.
FP-SVC
This indicates the status of SVCs on FP port.
FP-LMI
This indicates the status of PVC/sPVCs on FP port.
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2. Administration
FR-NP
This displays the logical NP stack identifier for use in
encapsulation over Frame Relay.
FR-LP
This displays the logical LP stack identifier for use in
encapsulation over Frame Relay.
FR USER
This shows the NTN assigned to the logical LP stack.
NP USER
This shows the NTN/ROT assigned to the logical NP
stack.
NI
Shows the state of the NI for Ether if configured,
i.e. WO, MB, CB.
LA
Shows the LAN port object state, i.e. WO, MB, HB.
FP
Shows the state of the virtual Frame Relay port for FR to
ATM connections.
VP
ATM.
Shows the state of the virtual port for connection to
For Frame Relay VP port 1-1-1-ATM1-12, the FP status is AB because the the
ATM link is not operating.
Hardware Information (PFA 660 only)
Setting Hardware-related Information (NAHWS)
The NAHWS command configures the SNMP traps associated with the hardware for the PFA 660 only.
If configured, the fan and/or PSU fail traps will be raised if the fail alarm signal
is activated and TRAPS=ALL or TRAPS=LIST and the TRAPID parameter is
configured.
NAHWS<:TRAPID=trapid><,TRAPS=traps>
<,FANFAILTRAP=fanfailtrap><,PSUFAILTRAP=psufailtrap>;
Where:TRAPID
SNMP Trap
Community Instance
Identifier
1..32 or NONE;
default=NONE.
TRAPS
Disable/Enable
SNMP Traps
ALL (All enabled),
NONE (None enabled),
LIST (Selected enabled);
default=NONE.
FANFAILTRAP
Enable/disable
fan failure SNMP
trap
YES or NO;
default=NO.
PSUFAILTRAP
Enable/disable PSU
failure SNMP trap
YES or NO;
default=NO.
For example:
NAHWS:TRAPID=10,TRAPS=LIST,FANFAILTRAP=YES;
EXECUTED
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Printing hardware-related information (NAHWP)
The NAHWP command displays the configuration of the hardware-related
SNMP traps for the PFA 660 only.
For example:
NAHWP;
HARDWARE STATUS DATA
-------------------TRAPID
= 1
TRAPS
= LIST
FANFAILTRAP
= YES
PSUFAILTRAP
= YES
FANSTATUS
= OK
PSUSTATUS
= FAULTY
END
The above example shows that the FANFAIL and PSUFAIL traps have been
configured and that the one of the PSUs is Faulty. When TRAPS=NONE, the
trap parameters are not displayed.
Where:FANSTATUS
Status of fan
OK or FAULTY
PSUSTATUS
Status of PSU
OK or FAULTY
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3. Configuration/Image Management
Configuration Management
The configuration of an SP on the PFA product allows the network manager to
make an X.29 connection into the unit. This is described in Section 4 and will
allow the following:
1) Full configuration control
2) Storage/transfer of configuration
Transfer of Configurations
The transfer of configurations between a PC comms package and the PFA
product allows backup, restore and editing facilities for configurations. This
can be achieved by using the NACDI command. The NACDP command can
be used to not only display a selected local configuration but to backup a
configuration to the PC. To change configurations, the required config is
assigned to be the pending configuration (i.e., the pending configuration will
be copied into the usual config area and loaded upon restart); the current
configuration is always the configuration which is in operation. The original
configuration will still be stored in the config area.
Note that the terminal emulation settings should be set as described in the
Downloading Example section at the end of this chapter.
The management of configurations is possible with the following commands.
NACDI
NACDP
NACCI
NACCS
NACCP
NACCR
Initialises config area (RESTORE)
Prints selected/entire config specified (BACKUP)
Saves a current PFA 660 configuration
Sets the config area to be loaded
Prints the config area status
Resets the config area
Figure 3-1 shows the transfer mechanism for PFA configurations.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
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3. Configuration/image Management
Management
Station
Config Transfer (via X.29)
For Backup
FS
Backbone
SP
Config Transfer (via X.29)
For Restore/
Remote Configuration
PFA Product
Figure 3-1: Transfer mechanism for configurations.
Initialising Config Area (NACDI)
This command is effectively a Restore facility which will allow the downloading
of a configuration stored in the PC to the static RAM or Flash EPROM of the
general PFA products or PFA 660, respectively.
Transferred configurations can be stored locally in CONFIG areas 1, 2, 3 or 4
for general PFA products or as a filename for PFA 660.
NACDI:CONFIG=config,TRANSFER=state;
Where:config
config area
or name
to receive data
1, 2, 3, 4 or filename (up to 16
chars; for PFA 660 only)
state
start or end of
data transfer
START or END
The prompt will change to CNFOK> and the configuration file can be pasted
by "send text file" transfer or can be entered line by line at each successive
CNFOK> or CNF_OK> prompt.
If an error occurs in the download then the prompt will change to CNF_BAD>;
exit from this state by entering an escape sequence, e.g. Ctrl.-X.
At the end of a transfer, if an error has occurred then the error will be printed.
An example of a PFA configuration inserted line by line after the CNFOK>
prompt is as follows:
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NACDI:CONFIG=LONDONN1,TRANSFER=START;
CNFOK>LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-4,TYPE=PACKET,MODE=HDLC,TRAPID=NONE,
TRAPS=NONE;
CNFOK>LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-4,N1=261,TIMING=DEFAULT,RATE=38K4,
ENCODING=NRZ,IFM=0,ACNTL=ALARM,ACL=A2,ALARMTIM=60,DESTID=NODESTID,
ACCESS=SWITCHED_V25BIS,DUPLEX=FULL,TRAPID=NONE,TRAPS=NONE;
CNFOK>LILPI:LP=1-1-1-4,PROT=X75,TRAPID=NONE, TRAPS=NONE,SIDE=DYN;
CNFOK>LILPS:LP=1-1-1-4,ACL=A2,DESTID=NODESTID,LINK=ALARM,
LIM=1000,K=7,T1=5.00,N2=3,T2=0.50,TP=15.00,MODULO=8,TRAPID=NONE,
TRAPS=NONE,SIDE=DYN;
CNFOK>LINPI:NP=1-1-1-4,PROT=X75,SIDE=DYN,TRAPID=NONE,TRAPS=NONE;
CNFOK>LINPS:NP=1-1-1-4,VERSION=88,NETTYPE=ERIPAX,MODULO=8,
PC=NONE,IC=NONE,OC=NONE,TC=001-4095,WSN=NO,MWS=7,DWS=2,PSN=NO,
MPS=256,DPS=128,FAST=NO,CLAMN=NO,DTEFAC=NO,ADDRMOD=NONE,
CTIMER=200,RESTIMER=180,RSTTIMER=180,CLRTIMER=180,TCN=NO,TNIC=NO,
CNIC=NO,DTC=64K,EXTERNAL=NO,TRAPID=NONE,TRAPS=NONE,SIDE=DYN;
CNFOK>PSROI:ROT=17,TOS=ROUND,NP=1-1-1-4,RCI=YES, DISC=NONE-NONE;
CNFOK>ANRAI:ND=09876543212345,RC=1;
CNFOK>ANRCI: RC=1,ROT=17,TOS=HOME;
CNFOK>LIPPD:PP=1-1-1-4;
CNFOK>LILPD:LP=1-1-1-4;
CNFOK>LINPD:NP=1-1-1-4;
CNFOK>NACDI:CONFIG=londonN1,TRANSFER=END;
PFA>
Note, the final command you enter must be:
CNFOK>NACDI:CONFIG=londonN1,TRANSFER=END;
If you enter anything else the transfer will not complete correctly and you will
receive a CNF-BAD prompt.
Printing Selected Configs (NACDP)
The NACDP command will print either the current or specified configuration
stored in the PFA product. The command can be used to backup any config
stored in the PFA product by taking a text dump of the config once displayed;
the configuration can then be stored on a PC for added security. The NACDI
and NACDP commands can effectively upload and download configurations
from/to the PFA product, respectively.
It is also possible to print selected parts of an individual config to allow better
management of larger configurations.
WARNING: It is not advisable to backup a config file from the PFA product if
the More> prompt is set. Disable with UIMOB command before backup.
NACDP<:CONFIG=config><,MATCH=match....>;
Where:config
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
config area
or name
to receive data
1, 2, 3, 4 or filename (up to 16
chars; for PFA 660 only)
65
3. Configuration/image Management
match
Matching string
1 - 64 characters.
If MML command characters
(e.g. colon, semi-colon or
comma) exist in the string
enclose in inverted commas.
For example, to print the current configuration:
NACDP;
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-4,TYPE=PACKET,MODE=HDLC,TRAPID=NONE,TRAPS=NONE;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-4,N1=261,TIMING=DEFAULT,RATE=38K4,ENCODING=NRZ,
IFM=0,ACNTL=ALARM,ACL=A2,ALARMTIM=60,DESTID=NODESTID,
ACCESS=SWITCHED_V25BIS,DUPLEX=FULL,TRAPID=NONE,TRAPS=NONE;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-4,PROT=X75,TRAPID=NONE,TRAPS=NONE,SIDE=DYN;
LILPS:LP=1-1-1-4,ACL=A2,DESTID=NODESTID,LINK=ALARM,LIM=1000,K=7,
T1=5.00,N2=3,T2=0.50,TP=15.00,MODULO=8,TRAPID=NONE,TRAPS=NONE,
SIDE=DYN;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-4,PROT=X75,SIDE=DYN,TRAPID=NONE,TRAPS=NONE;
LINPS:NP=1-1-1-4,VERSION=88,NETTYPE=ERIPAX,MODULO=8,PC=NONE,
IC=NONE,OC=NONE,TC=001-4095,WSN=NO,MWS=7,DWS=2,PSN=NO,MPS=256,
DPS=128,FAST=NO,CLAMN=NO,DTEFAC=NO,ADDRMOD=NONE,CTIMER=200,
RESTIMER=180,RSTTIMER=180,CLRTIMER=180,TCN=NO,TNIC=NO,CNIC=NO,
DTC=64K,EXTERNAL=NO,TRAPID=NONE,TRAPS=NONE,SIDE=DYN;
PSROI:ROT=17,TOS=ROUND,NP=1-1-1-4,RCI=YES,DISC=NONE-NONE;
ANRAI:ND=09876543212345,RC=1;
ANRCI:RC=1,ROT=17,TOS=HOME;
LIPPD:PP=1-1-1-4;
LILPD:LP=1-1-1-4;
LINPD:NP=1-1-1-4;
END
For printing selected areas of a current configuration:
NACDP:MATCH="PSROI:ROT=17";
PSROI:ROT=17,TOS=ROUND,NP=1-1-1-4,RCI=YES,
DISC=NONE-NONE;
END
For printing a selected area of stored configuration (not currently loaded) with
a multiple match:
NACDP:CONFIG=1,MATCH="LILPI&PROT=X75";
LILPI:PP=1-1-1-4,PROT=X75,TRAPID=NONE,TRAPS=NONE,SIDE=DYN;
END
Initialising Config Area (NACCI) - PFA 660 only
The NACCI command saves the current configuration for the PFA 660 to Flash
EPROM. If this command is not issued on the PFA 660, all configuration
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3. Configuration/image Management
changes since the last NACCI command was issued will be lost as a result of
a restart.
NOTE: Until you issue the NACCI command your prompt will read:
Unsaved:PFA>
NACCI:CONFIG=config;
Where:config
config filename to
write to
filename (up to 16 chars)
For example, to save the current config to the file london2.cfg:
NACCI:CONFIG=LONDON2.CFG;
NOTE: A config can be copied by creating a new CONFIG name.
Setting Config Area (NACCS)
The NACCS command will set the config area or config filename from which
the configuration will be obtained at the next power up or restart.
The DEFAULT parameter specifies a configuration created by the PFA PROM
IMAGE that contains basic config information just to allow the node to be
contacted, e.g. IP address, NIs, port type. If a software image is loaded that is
later than the PFA PROM IMAGE and fails, the PFA 660 will automatically load
the PFA PROM IMAGE and DEFAULT config, rather than the config associated
with the downloaded image which the PFA PROM IMAGE would be unable to
understand.
NOTE: The DEFAULT parameter is for the PFA 660 only.
NOTE: The configuration indicated by the DEFAULT parameter
must have been created with the PFA PROM IMAGE.
The REMERR will remove errors printed after every command if there was
incompatibility in the config at power up.
NACCS:<:PENDING=pending><:DEFAULT=default><,REMERR=remerr>;
Where:pending
Area or file to load
config from restart
1, 2, 3, 4, filename or NONE
(filename for PFA 660 only)
default
Backup Config
filename (up to 16 chars)
PFA 660 only.
remerr
Delete config
error messages
YES or NO
For example, to select the configuration file LONDON2.CFG to be loaded
upon restart with any error messages automatically removed:
NACCS:PENDING=LONDON2.CFG,REMERR=YES;
The PFA 660 can be restarted with no configuration:
NACCS:PENDING=NONE;
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3. Configuration/image Management
Printing Config Area Status (NACCP)
The NACCP command will display the stored configurations and which configuration is CURRENT and PENDING on the next power up or restart.
The PFA 660 can store, in chronological order, up to as many configurations
as the size of FLASH memory permits. All other PFA products can only store
up to four configurations (in areas 1, 2, 3 or 4).
The image details in which the configurations were initially created are displayed with the appropriate configuration. A configuration should only be
transferred to other PFA products operating the same version (image) as the
configuration was created in.
For example:
NACCP;
CONFIG STATUS
CURRENT = 2
PENDING = 2
1
2
3
4
IMAGE
= PFA PROM IMAGE
REVISION
= V5.0 ID: 511.395RXX DATE:1999-07-22TIME:134442
BYTES USED
= 4845
STATUS = CHECKSUM OK
IMAGE
= 3V400Rxx.DOS
REVISION
= V4.0.0 ID: 511.395R23 DATE:1999-07-22TIME:093114
BYTES USED
= 3497
IMAGE
=
REV
=
USED
= 0
IMAGE
=
REV
=
USED
= 0
STATUS = CHECKSUM OK
STATUS=CHECKSUM OK
STATUS=CHECKSUM OK
TOTAL SRAM BLOCKS FREE = 712
END
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3. Configuration/image Management
or for PFA 660:
NACCP;
CONFIG STATUS
CURRENT = LondonN1
PENDING = LondonN1 DEFAULT = LondonN1V4
CONFIG
= LondonN1V4
REVISION
= V5.1.0 ID:491.399 Rx DATE:1999-07-22 TIME:191551
BYTES USED
= 1257
CONFIG
= LondonN1
REVISION
= V5.1.0 ID:491.399 Rx DATE:1999-07-22 TIME:095709
BYTES USED
= 1345
END
Where:CURRENT
Current config area
1, 2, 3, 4 or filename (up to 16
chars; for PFA 660 only)
PENDING
Area to load config
1, 2, 3, 4 or filename (up to 16
chars; for PFA 660 only)
DEFAULT
Default config
filename (up to 16 chars; for
PFA 660 only).
STATUS
Config status
CHECKSUM OK
or CHECKSUM BAD
The total SRAM blocks available will be displayed; note that 1 SRAM block =
128 bytes. Delete a spare configuration if the number of free blocks drops to a
low level.
NOTE: It is good working practice to have your PFA configured with
V4.0.0 as the DEFAULT.
Resetting Config Area (NACCR)
The NACCR command resets and empties either the complete configuration
storage area or selected config areas; a restart with the NAREI command is
required to completely clear the memory after the NACCR command is issued.
WARNING: Use command with extreme caution.
NACCR:CONFIG=config;
Where:config
config area to
receive data
1, 2, 3, 4, ALL or filename
(filename for PFA 660 only)
For example to remove the configuration file SWITCH.CFG:
NACCR:CONFIG=SWITCH.CFG;
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69
3. Configuration/image Management
Image Download Management
The software download function, allows the downloading of code or booter
images, from a PC/Workstation to the Flash memory of a PFA product. The
Flash EPROM provides storage of code/booter images and patches in the unit
so that downloaded code/booter image can be copied to the run-time area
and executed.
Software download allows software and associated booter files to be upgraded without the need to visit sites to physically change EPROMs. Code/
booter images can be downloaded over a network to a PFA product. Occasionally the upgrade to a newer version of software requires a BOOTER
upgrade. Consult your local Ericsson company for further information.
There is one default code image available in a PFA product, i.e. the original
present in the unit. The format of this code image is the same as a
downloaded code image, except that this default code image is factory supplied.
The manager configures which code image is to be copied to the run-time
area, via the user interface. If no download code image is available, then the
default code image is used.
Once the user enters download mode, code/booter images are downloaded in
the form of ASCII S-records (in Motorola 32-bit format). When the last Srecord is received or a download error occurs, download mode is automatically exited. If for any reason the code/booter image has not downloaded
successfully, an error is returned.
An S-record file consists of a sequence of specially formatted ASCII character
strings.
It is also possible to patch a code image. Patches are used to correct faults or
customise the code image and are loaded into the run-time area after the code
image, but before run-time code execution begins.
Figure 3-2 explains the download mechanism.
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3. Configuration/image Management
Is
There Space
Available?
N
Delete Unwanted
Image(s)
Y
Enter Download
Mode
Diagnose
Problem
Delete Image
Y
Download
Executed?
N
"Bad"
Status in
UIDIP?
N
Y
Install
Patches?
N
Y
Enter Patches
Select Pending
Image
Restart
Figure 3-2: Download mechanism for PFA products.
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3. Configuration/image Management
Note that access via Message Transfer Protocol (MTP) is not allowed; the
UIDII command is made unavailable.
Configuration for Image Downloading
The following MML commands are used to control the downloading function.
UIDII
UIDSS
UIDIP
UIDIT
UIDSP
UIDDI
Downloads a specified image to flash EPROM
Selects a downloaded image to run
Displays all downloaded images
Deletes a stored downloaded image
Displays current and pending images
Clones currently operating image to new image
Downloading Code/Booter Images (UIDII)
To download a code/booter image to Flash EPROM, download mode must be
entered by initialisation with use of the UIDII command. Only one user at a
time can be in download mode and other users are locked out until the
download is finished. The UIDII command is entered as follows:
UIDII:IMAGE=image;
Where:image
code/booter
image name
text, 1 - 64 characters.
If spaces exist in the image
name, or special characters
are needed, enclose in inverted
commas.
For example, a successful download sequence would occur as follows:
UIDII:IMAGE=6V510RXX.DOS;
WAITING FOR SRECS
<
<Download image echoed to screen>
EXECUTED
Each S-record has a checksum, and this is checked as each S-record is
downloaded.
To make sure that no individual S-records are lost, the line count S-record is
used. After the terminating S-record is received, the whole image is
checksummed and the checksum is stored for future checking.
Note the following:
A memory check is initially performed to check the space available in
the Flash EPROM.
The network protocols ensure that S-records are not lost.
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3. Configuration/image Management
If a download needs to be aborted, this can be achieved by transmitting
a BREAK (Ctrl.-C), clearing the connection or sending any other sequence to produce the error message “Invalid S-REC received”.
If a code image is not downloaded successfully, then the displayed
code image is marked as STATUS=BAD with the UIDIP command. The
user must then manually delete that code image with the UIDIT command.
For the PFA 660, once the code image is loaded after an upgrade,
remember to reset the system clock.
Download times will vary according to line speed and product loading.
Selecting Code Image (UIDSS)
The UIDSS selects a specified downloaded code image to be loaded. The PFA
660, when equipped with an ATM daughter board, must have not only the
main software loaded but a SAR image for the ATM daughter board. The SAR
image must be loaded into slot 2.
UIDSS:IMAGE=image<,SLOT=slot>;
Where:image
code image name
text, 1 - 64 characters
slot
slot number
(PFA 660 only)
1 (default = Motherboard)
or 2 (ATM Daughter Board);
For example:
UIDSS:IMAGE=6V510RXX.DOS,SLOT=1;
and:
UIDSS:IMAGE=6V510RXX.SAR,SLOT=2;
If selected as pending, the downloaded code image is loaded into the runtime area on system start-up. If the configured image is bad, then the default
image is used.
NOTE: a reload of the selected image is necessary by using the
NAREI command after selecting the image.
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3. Configuration/image Management
Displaying All Code Images (UIDIP)
The UIDIP command displays the downloaded code image information in the
PFA product. Each image will display a name which is named in accordance
with existing convention. Additionally, revision information is displayed which
shows the unique identity of the code image; this cannot be altered and
should be quoted, along with the image name, when reporting any problems
to your local Ericsson company.
For example, for PFA products:
UIDIP;
IMAGE INFORMATION
IMAGE = PFA PROM IMAGE
REVISION = V4.0.0 ID:491.299 R23
SIZE = 692832
DATE:1998-11-06
PATCHES = NO
TIME:112725
STATUS = READ ONLY
IMAGE = 3V510Rxx.DOS
REVISION=V5.1.0
ID:511.395 Rx
DATE:1999-07-30
SIZE = 703243
PATCHES = NO
STATUS = OK
TIME:134442
END
or for the PFA 660 (note the ATM SAR image "6V510R1.SAR") :
UIDIP;
IMAGE INFORMATION
IMAGE
= PFA PROM IMAGE
REVISION
= V4.0.0
SIZE
= 781726
PATCHES
= NO
STATUS
= OK
IMAGE
= 6V510Rx.DOS
REVISION
= V5.1.0 ID:491.399 Rx DATE:1999-07-30
SIZE
= 784643
PATCHES
= NO
STATUS
= OK
IMAGE
= 6V510R&.SAR
REVISION
= V5.1.0 ID:497.395 Rx DATE:1999-07-22
SIZE
= 1223294
PATCHES
= NO
STATUS
= OK
ID:491.399 Rx DATE:1998-11-06
TIME:095709
TIME:134442
TIME:151648
END
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3. Configuration/image Management
Where:IMAGE
code image name
text, 1 - 64 characters
REVISION
revision information
text, 1-64 characters; contains
version of software, internal ID
and image creation date/time
SIZE
size of stored image
1-1536000 bytes
PATCHES
are patches present?
YES or NO
STATUS
image status
OK or BAD
NOTE: that only one downloaded code image can exist in the Flash
EPROM; images present in the unit will also depend on the memory
available. However, in the PFA 660, the number of code images
stored is only restricted by the size of Flash EPROM fitted.
Deleting a Code Image (UIDIT)
The UIDIT command deletes a specified code image from the Flash EPROM.
A pause of up to 10 seconds may occur while the code image is being removed.
WARNING: This command should be used with care.
UIDIT:IMAGE=image;
For example:
UIDIT:IMAGE=6V401R31.DOS;
Displaying Current Code Image (UIDSP)
The UIDSP command displays which code image is in current use, the image
that is pending (if any), the monitor version number and the revision number.
For the PFA 660 with ATM daughter board fitted, the ATM SAR image in use is
also shown.
For example for the PFA 230:
UIDSP;
IMAGE SUMMARY
MONITOR =
ID:400-LOADER/BOOTER R20
CURRENT:
IMAGE = PFA PROM IMAGE
REVISION = V4.0.0 ID:511.395 Rx DATE:1998-12-22 TIME:100709
PENDING:
IMAGE = 3V510RXX.DOS
REVISION=V5.1.0 ID:511.395 Rx DATE:1999-07-22 TIME:134442
For the PFA 660:
UIDSP;
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3. Configuration/image Management
SLOT IMAGE SUMMARY
MONITOR = 491.402 LOADER/BOOTER R20
SLOT = 1
CURRENT:
IMAGE = PFA PROM IMAGE
REVISION = V4.1.0 ID:491.399 R31 DATE:1999-05-20
TIME:101903
PENDING:
IMAGE = 6V510R8.DL
REVISION = V5.1.0 ID:491.399 R8 DATE:1999-07-22 TIME:102006
SLOT = 2
CURRENT:
IMAGE = SAR_DL
REVISION = V4.0.0 ID:497.395 R7 DATE:1998-10-16 TIME:103304
PENDING:
IMAGE = SAR_DL
REVISION = V4.0.0 ID:497.395 R7 DATE:1998-10-16 TIME:103304
Where the parameters are as described for the UIDIP command, with the
exception of:
MONITOR
booter number
and version
text, 1-64 characters:
For internal use only.
Initialing Cloning of Code Image (UIDDI)
The UIDDI command will clone the currently operating code image and name
the newly cloned code image with the code image name specifed with the
IMAGE parameter.
The cloning will only succeed if the pending and current image version information are identical (UIDSP command), to ensure that valid images are being
copied. This should ensure that if there is a power failure or other system
reset then the PFA product will still be able to load a valid image.
UIDDI:IMAGE=image;
For example, if the PFA PROM IMAGE was currently operating then to clone
that image into Flash EPROM with new image name TEST:
UIDDI:IMAGE=TEST;
For example, to copy a currently operating downloaded image into the default
image area "PFA PROM IMAGE".
UIDDI:IMAGE=”PFA PROM IMAGE”;
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3. Configuration/image Management
NOTE: this will overwrite the supplied PFA PROM IMAGE. If there is
a power failure or other system fault during execution of this
command then it is imperative that the user ensures that a valid
default image is available by executing this command again.
Printing Directory List (DIR or DIRIP; PFA 660 only)
The DIR or DIRIP command lists the image, patch and configuration files
contained on the PFA 660 and stored in FLASH memory. The PFA 660 possesses a different memory system to PFA 230 such that there is no battery
utilisation, and therefore no Non-Volatile Memory. The FLASH system means
the files cannot be lost on battery failure; another advantage is that storage
space is greatly increased and that more meaningful configuration file names
can be used.
For example:
DIRIP;
DIRECTORY LISTING
Name
Flags
Size (Bytes)
----------------------------------------------V400R7.SAR
E.....
1223294
PFA PROM IMAGE.IMG
EP.CS.
804158
6V510RXX.DOS
E.BC..
806158
6V510RXX.IMG
E..CS.
804046
Q32.PAT
....S.
32768
DEFAULT.CFG
....S.
128
SWITCH.CFG
......
415
Files:
Sectors:
7.
Bad:
1.
256.
Bad:
0.
Free: 96.
END
Where the parameters are defined as:NAME
Name of file
File names can be up to 20
characters long
FLAGS
Flags associated with
the file
Flags = E (Executable)
P (Protected)
B (Bad)
C (Compressed)
S (System)
SIZE
Size of file
File size in Bytes
NFILES
file information
BFILES
file information
Files=No. of files in the
directory
Bad=No. of bad files in the
directory
TSECTORS
Sector information
BSECTORS
Sector information
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Sectors=total number of
sectors
Bad=number of unusable
77
3. Configuration/image Management
FSECTORS
Sector information
sectors
Free=number of free sectors
Configuration for Image Patching
It is possible to patch any image that is not the read-only PFA PROM IMAGE.
Patches are stored separately to images, and are copied to the run-time area
along with the selected code image for operation; the patch data overwrites
the image data. Note that the PFA PROM IMAGE can only be patched by
cloning the file to a new file name, patching the new file and then cloning that
image back onto the PFA PROM IMAGE.
NOTE: Patches can only be activated following a restart of the unit.
Adding Patches to Download Images (UIDPS)
The UIDPS command adds a patch to a non-default software image as follows:
UIDPS:IMAGE=image,PATCH=patch,ADDRESS=address,
LENGTH=length, DATA=data;
Where:image
code image name
text, 1 - 64 characters.
If spaces exist in the image
name or special characters are
needed enclose in inverted
commas.
patch
patch ref. number
text up to 6 characters
address
patch destination
0 - 232-1 (in HEX)
address
length
patch data length
1 - 32 (in decimal)
data
patch data
1 - 32 bytes in HEX
(separated by &)
For example:
WARNING: Do not enter this patch, this example is not an authorised patch.
UIDPS:IMAGE=6V510RXX.DOS,PATCH=510-01,ADDRESS=2E45,LENGTH=2,
DATA=3E&20;
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3. Configuration/image Management
Displaying Patches for Downloaded Image (UIDPP)
The UIDPP command is used to display all or selected patches for a nondefault software image.
UIDPP:IMAGE=image<,PATCH=patch><,STYLE=style>;
Where:image
code image name
text, 1 - 64 characters
patch
patch ref. number
text up to 6 characters
style
Style of output
LONG, SHORT;
default=LONG. STYLE=
SHORT will print the MML
command format to permit
copy and paste of patch
details.
For example:
UIDPP:IMAGE=6V510RXX.DOS;
PATCH INFORMATION
IMAGE
PATCH
ADDRESS
LENGTH
_______________________________________________
6V510RXX.DOS
510-01
2
E45
DATA
————
3E 20
END
The parameters displayed are as described for the UIDPS command.
Deleting a Patch from Download Image (UIDPT)
The UIDPT deletes a patch from a non-default software image.
NOTE: A restart with the NAREI command is required afterwards to
completely remove the patch from the configuration.
UIDPT:IMAGE=image,PATCH=patch;
Where:image
image name
text, 1 - 64 characters
patch
patch ref. number
text up to 6 characters
For example:
UIDPT:IMAGE=6V510RXX.DOS,PATCH=510-01;
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3. Configuration/image Management
Patching a READ-ONLY PROM image
It is not possible to add patches to a currently loaded read-only PFA PROM
IMAGE directly. However, an indirect procedure exists to enable patches by
cloning of the PFA PROM IMAGE.
Procedure
1. Make sure the read-only PFA PROM IMAGE is currently loaded, i .e.
UIDSS:IMAGE=”PFA PROM IMAGE”;
NAREI;
Note: ensure that the image to be patched is in fact the PFA PROM
IMAGE rather than another downloaded image!
2. Clone (copy) the image to a new image with a file name of your choice.
Ensure that there is enough space available to create the new temporary
image.
UIDDI:IMAGE=TEMP.IMG;
3. Add the patch(es) to the temporary image, e.g.
UIDPS:IMAGE=TEMP.IMG,PATCH=510-01,ADDRESS=2E45,LENGTH=2,
DATA=3E&20;
WARNING: Only enter a patch that has been supplied from your
Ericsson local company. The above patch, for PFA VERSION 5.1.0,
is an example and should not be installed in the PFA product.
4. Make the temporary image pending and reload the software.
UIDSS:IMAGE=TEMP.IMG;
NAREI;
5. Clone (copy) the temporary image back to the PFA PROM IMAGE image
and reload the image.
UIDDI:IMAGE=”PFA PROM IMAGE”;
NAREI;
6. Delete the image TEMP.IMG.
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4. General Network Management
4. General Network Management
Introduction
Configured Session Ports (SPs) on the PFA product are used to allow the
connection from the NM400/NMS or remote operator via the MTP and X.29
protocols, respectively. An SP is an internal software function handling higher
level protocols. Only one SP for X.29 and MTP is allowed per PFA node; up to
six sessions into the MTP SP are possible.
Configuring a Session Port
To configure a session port for either X.29 or NM400/NMS connection, each
SP is assigned an NTN. It is not possible to define more than one SP of a
particular protocol in a node.
For configuration of SPs, the following MML commands are used:
SASPI
SASPT
SASPP
for initialising Session Ports
for terminating Session Ports
for printing Session Ports
Initialising Session Port (SASPI)
The SASPI command initialises a session port for X.29 (Basic remote login) or
MTP (NM400/NMS).
SASPI:SP=sp, NTN=ntn;
Where:sp
Session Port protocol
X29 or MTP
ntn
Network Terminal
Number
1-15 digits
For example, to initialise an SP with X.29 and NTN 12345:
SASPI:SP=X29,NTN=12345;
Printing Session Port (SASPP)
The SASPP command prints all or selected SP settings.
SASPP<:SP=sp>;
Where:sp
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Session Port protocol
X29 or MTP
81
4. General Network Management
For example:
SASPP;
SESSION PORT DATA
SP
NTN
_________________
X29
12345
MTP
999
END
Terminating Session Port (SASPT)
The SASPT command terminates a selected SP.
SASPT:SP=sp;
Where:sp
Session Port protocol
X.29 or MTP
For example:
SASPT:SP=X29;
NM400 Management
Introduction
The NM400 Network management of the node is provided between the PFA
node and an NM400 network management system (NM400/NMS). A transport
layer protocol, called Message Transfer Protocol (MTP), is used to provide
connection between the network management entity within the node and the
network management entity in the NM400/NMS. The MTP protocol provides a
mechanism for delivering alarms and alarm status information to the NM400/
NMS, allows a command session to be set up for configuration of the node
and provides a heartbeat mechanism to the NM400/NMS.
Entities or objects, such as an X.25 port within the PFA product use the
network management entity to send alarms to one or more network management destinations.
The network management entity is responsible for formatting the alarm (including data/time and node name stamping) and delivering the alarm to the
relevant destination. Alarms are queued if the destination cannot be reached
at a given time.
Further support for Object Management Applications (OMA) allows the
NM400/NMS to graphically display network status information at both node
and link level for any PFA product.
The PFA product does not possess a local NMCI module.
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4. General Network Management
NM400/NMS Connection
The NM400/NMS (a VAX Station running a window manager) may connect
automatically, upon setting the NTN, to a node on a network map by clicking
on the node. This causes an MTP call to be made to the SP of the node and
the NM400 user is automatically logged on.
Heartbeats
Heartbeating is used to inform the NM400/NMS that the PFA node is active.
This is used by the NM400/NMS to indicate the status of a node (up or down)
on a graphical display. A heartbeat contains a distinct data message identifying the message as a heartbeat. The identity of the node sending the heartbeat is determined by the NM400/NMS using the X.25 addressing of the call.
In addition, Alarm Status Reports containing the current number of alarms for
each class are sent by the node immediately after the heartbeat to provide an
up-to-date display of the currently active alarms in the node. Heartbeat frequencies are configurable for each destination.
Recovery
MTP error recovery
When a protocol violation is detected the MTP session is terminated and the
call is cleared.
Resource limitation recovery
For a low-space condition, queued alarms will be deleted and an alarm indicating low space is inserted in the queue to indicate that alarms have been
lost.
If a call for alarm delivery cannot be made due to resource limitation then the
alarm will be queued (provided there is sufficient space). If the call cannot be
made for heartbeat delivery then the heartbeat attempt is discarded. The
NM400/NMS will be alerted by the lack of heartbeat.
Alarm and Heartbeat Reports
Alarm parameters
Alarms for NM400/NMS or printers can be generated for port objects by the
configuration of several parameters. The DESTID for the port object must fully
or partially match the DESTID configured in the NAPDS command.
The port object parameters related to NM400/NMS and printer alarms are as
follows:
acntl
alarm control
name
ALARM or NOALARM;
default=ALARM.
acl
alarm class
a1, a2, a3, o1, o2; default=a2.
There is no internal priority
assigned to them. Any priority
decisions are taken within the
NM400/NMS.
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4. General Network Management
alarmtim
alarm granularity
timer
1-1000 s or NONE;
default=60.
destid
alarm destination
id
1 to 10 chars or NODESTID
(default). This is translated to
an NTN by the alarms system.
link
port alarm
enable/disable
ALARM or NOALARM;
default=ALARM.
lim
disturbance alarm
limit
1-1000 or NONE;
default=1000. Maximum
retransmissions per 1000
frames allowed before an
alarm is generated.
Configuration of Printout Destinations
The following commands are used to configure the remote/network management output for alarm summaries and heartbeats as well as generated alarms.
NAPDI
NAPDS
NAPDD
NAPDB
NAPDT
NAPDP
Initialises printer destinations
Set printer destination entry parameters
Deblock printer destination entry
Block printer destination entry
Terminate printer destination entry
Print printer destination entry parameters
Initialising Printout Destinations (NAPDI)
The NAPDI command initialises the Printout Destination to which system
messages will be sent. System messages for heartbeat and alarm summaries
can only be delivered to an NM400/NMS.
NAPDI:NAME=name,DESTTYPE=desttype,NTN=ntn,
HBINT=hbint<,QLIM=qlim><,QLEN=qlen>
<,DESTID=destid<...>>;
Where:-
84
name
Printout destination
name
1-15 characters
desttype
Printout Destination
Type
NMCE or PAD; where
NMCE is an external
NM400/NMS and PAD is an
async device normally over
X.25 (via X.29).
ntn
Network Terminal
Number
1-15 digits
hbint
Heartbeat interval
0 or 1-1440 minutes. This is
the interval between
sending heartbeats to the
configured DESTID. If
DESTTYPE=PAD then only
the value 0 is allowed, i.e.
no heartbeats will be sent.
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4. General Network Management
qlim
Maximum printout
queue time limit
0 or 1-1440 minutes
(0 means queuing forever).
If timeout is reached the
queue is discarded and an
attempt is made to send an
alarm to the current
destination.
qlen
Max. Queue length
20 to 200; default=40;
Sets limit on no. of alarms
and OMA messages) which
can be stored for a
particular destination. If
number is exceeded then all
new alarms are discarded
until the queue has dropped
to 50% of QLEN. An alarm
is generated for the queue
length being exceeded.
destid
Destination identifier
string 1-10 characters or
DESTID=NODESTID (default).
Maximum 10 DESTIDs
allowed to each destination.
Alarms for objects with
DESTIDs assigned to them,
will be sent to all printout
destinations which have the
same DESTID, or the same
beginning of the DESTID.
Alarms for objects which do
not specify any destination
identifier will be sent to ALL
printout destinations.
For example, to send system messages to a printer:
NAPDI:NAME=PRINTER1,DESTTYPE=PAD,NTN=123,QLIM=30,HBINT=0;
Alternatively, to send system messages to the NM400/NMS:
NAPDI:NAME=NM400,DESTTYPE=NMCE,NTN=456,QLIM=30,QLEN=50,
HBINT=2,DESTID=LOCAL;
Setting Printout Destination Parameters (NAPDS)
The NAPDS command modifies parameter settings of a Printout Destination.
The command can only be used when the printout destination is manually
blocked.
NAPDS:NAME=name<,DESTTYPE=desttype><,NTN=ntn>
<,QLIM=qlim><,HBINT=hbint><,QLEN=qlen><,DESTID=destid<...>>;
Where the parameters are as described as for the NAPDI command.
For example:
NAPDS:NAME=NM400,HBINT=2,DESTID=NODESTID;
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4. General Network Management
Deblocking Printout Destinations (NAPDD)
The NAPDD command deblocks a Printout Destination.
NAPDD:NAME=name;
For example:
NAPDD:NAME=NM400;
Blocking Printout Destinations (NAPDB)
The NAPDB command manually blocks the Printout Destination. The queue of
messages will be discarded, and no messages will subsequently be sent to
the destination.
NAPDB:NAME=name;
For example:
NAPDB:NAME=NM400;
Printing Printout Destinations (NAPDP)
The NAPDP command prints out the data of a Printout Destination.
NAPDP<:NAME=name>;
For example:
NAPDP;
PRINTOUT DESTINATIONS
NAME
DESTTYPE
STATUS
NTN
QLIM
QLEN
HBINT
DESTID
—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
NM400
NMCE WO
PR1
PAD
456
WO
30
123
50
2
30
40
LOCAL
0
END
When the status is manually blocked (MB) no messages will be sent to the
destination.
Terminating Printout Destinations (NAPDT)
The NAPDT command terminates a Printout Destination. The printout destination must be manually blocked initially.
NAPDT:NAME=name;
For example:
NAPDT:NAME=NM400;
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4. General Network Management
Alarm Printouts
Alarm Classes
Once the relevant SPs are configured the alarms are sent as spontaneous
printouts within the X.29 or MTP protocol. Each alarm has an associated
alarm class which is configurable from within the PFA product for each alarm.
The NM400/NMS allows the user to select a level on which an alert will be
given when an alarm arrives. This means that certain classes of alarms can be
ignored if required.
The class may be one of A1, A2, A3, O1 or O2. The “A” class alarms are
urgent alarms and the “O” class alarms are informative and only generated
automatically. The following hierarchy is used:
Alarm A1 (High priority)
Alarm A2
Alarm A3
Alarm O1
Alarm O2 (Low priority; indicates port is, e.g. manually blocked)
Alarm Queues
If an alarm cannot be sent to an NM400/NMS or printer then it will be queued
in the PFA product. Each destination has an associated queue for this purpose.
A time limit or alarm queue length may be set for each queue with the QLIM
and QLEN parameters, respectively, so that queues do not grow forever.
When a queue is discarded, an alarm is generated to indicate that alarms have
been discarded.
The PFA product will also have a current alarms list. This is separate to the
queues for each destination and can be displayed with the NAALP command.
If the PFA product has an alarm condition at a given time then the alarm will
be held in this list. When an alarm condition has ceased, such as a port
becoming deblocked, then an alarm ceasing message is sent to the alarm
destinations and the alarm is removed from the current alarms list. Alarm
Ceasing Printouts have the same format as Alarm Printouts.
The current alarms list and alarm queue can be displayed and emptied,
respectively, with the following commands:
NAALP
NAALR
Print current alarms list
Deletes all alarm queues except current alarms list
Printing Current Alarm List (NAALP)
The NAALP command prints out the current active alarm list in the node.
These are removed fromt his list when the alarm condition ceases.
NAALP<:ACL=acl< ... >>;
Where:acl
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Alarm class
a1,a2,a3,o1 and o2
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4. General Network Management
For example, to list all alarms with alarm class A1:
NAALP:ACL=A1;
ALARM LIST
ALARM
A1
1998-12-30
144800
ALARM PRINTOUTS DISCARDED
REASON
QUEUE TIME LIMIT EXCEEDED
END
ALARM LIST
ALARM
A1
1998-12-30
144830
ALARM PRINTOUTS DISCARDED
REASON
OPERATOR’S REQUEST
END
Clearing Printout Destination Queue (NAALR)
The NAALR command clears or empties the printer destination queue. Alarms
occurring after the queue is emptied will be printed, e.g.
NAALR;
Alarm Printout Descriptions
Alarms are generated for the following reasons.
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)
viii)
ix)
x)
xi)
xii)
Alarm Printouts Discarded
Disturbance Supervision
HVC/PVC setup failure
Frame Relay PVC setup failure
Port Blocking
Node Restart
Loss of Carrier (async)
TIP Connection Failure
Load Control (CPU and MEMORY)
PSU Failure (PFA 660 only)
Fan Failure (PFA 660 only)
Time loss (PFA 660 only)
Alarm Ceasing Printouts are the same as Alarm Printouts except that the text
ALARM CEASING is present instead of ALARM.
If the DESTID for a port object is configured then the DESTID value is displayed on the printout destination (see Disturbance Supervision alarm).
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Alarm Printouts Discarded
Alarm printouts are generated when spontaneous printouts are discarded
because of one of the following reasons:
i)
ii)
iii)
At the operator’s request
When time limit for queuing the alarm printout in the node has
been exceeded
When the no. of alarms in the queue has been exceeded
Example 1:
ALARM
A1
1998-12-30
144830
ALARM PRINTOUTS DISCARDED
REASON
OPERATOR’S REQUEST
END
Example 2:
ALARM
A1
1998-12-30
144800
ALARM PRINTOUTS DISCARDED
REASON
QUEUE TIME LIMIT EXCEEDED
END
Example 3:
ALARM
A1
1998-12-30
144905
ALARM PRINTOUTS DISCARDED
REASON
QUEUE LENGTH EXCEEDED
END
Disturbance Supervision
This is the alarm printout for disturbance supervision for a link port. The alarm
condition is reached when there are X retransmissions of I frames per 1000
frames transmitted. The value X is the supervision limit and is set with the LIM
parameter in the LILPS command. The printout is given as an alarm printout
when the supervision limit is exceeded. The alarm condition is ceased when
there have been 3000 frames transmitted without error.
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4. General Network Management
For example:
ALARM
A2
1998-12-30
162030
DESTID=LONDON
DISTURBANCE SUPERVISION
PORT
1-1-1-4
END
Where:PORT
1-1-1-(1-18)
1-1-1-(XF1-XF15)
1-1-1-(LF1-LF15)
1-1-1-(1-18)-(1-8)
1-1-0-(1-2)-(1-8)
1-1-1-MP(1-8)-(1-2)
1-1-1-ATM1-(1-n)
HVC/PVC Set-up Failure
An alarm is generated for setup failure for either an HVC or PVC. The status
printed is from the eleventh attempt to set up the HVC/PVC.
For example:
ALARM
A2
1998-12-30
090501
HVC SET-UP FAILURE
NTNA
NTNB
STATUS
12345
23456
CLEARED 5:0
END
In the example, the HVC between the NTN 12345 and NTN 23456 has been
cleared by the network. Note that the format for a PVC will be identical to the
above display except “PVC SET-UP FAILURE” will be reported instead of
“HVC SET-UP FAILURE”.
Where:
NTNA
Network terminal number on the A-side.
NTNB
Network terminal number on the B-side.
STATUS
Status of the HVC/PVC. One of:
CLEARED cc:dd
INVALID SERVICE:
90
HVC/PVC cleared (from
network) with cause code
cc (decimal) and diagnostic
dd (decimal).
A-side cannot handle the
HVC/PVC service or all
logical channels are used
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4. General Network Management
at the A-side.
NTNB not defined in the
network.
INVALID ADDRESS:
Frame Relay PVC Set-up Failure
The alarm is printed from the eleventh attempt to set up a Frame Relay PVC.
ALARM
A2
1998-12-30
090501
PVC ALARM
NTNA
DLCIA
NTNB
DLCIB
STATUS
12345
34
23456
39
BCHAN DOWN
END
In the example, the Frame Relay PVC between the two NTNs has been cleared
by the network because the B channel is down.
Where:
NTNA
NTN on the A-side.
DLCIA
Data Link Connection Identifier for A-side.
NTNB
NTN on the B-side.
DLCIB
Data Link Connection Identifier for B-side.
STATUS
Status of the PVC. One of:
INACTIVE
The PVC is reported as
inactive from the network.
BCHAN DOWN
The Bearer channel is not
operating correctly due to loss
of frames at the FP port.
Port Blocked
Alarm printouts of the format described below are given when the PP, LP or
VP is blocked, i.e. no longer operational until deblocked.
For example:
ALARM
A2
1998-12-30
120545
<port object> BLOCKED
PORT
STATE
1-1-1-2
AB
<Alarm info>
END
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4. General Network Management
Where:
<port object>
PP, LP or VP
PORT
1-1-1-(1-18)
1-1-1-(XF1-XF15)
1-1-1-(LF1-LF15)
1-1-1-(1-18)-(1-8)
1-1-0-(1-2)-(1-8)
1-1-1-MP(1-8)-(1-2)
1-1-1-ATM1-(1-n)
STATE
Port state, one of:CB
HB
AB
MB
Alarm info
Conditionally blocked
Hardware Blocked
Automatically Blocked
Manually Blocked
One of:
For PP:
MANUALLY BLOCKED
PORT NOT CONNECTED
X.21 CONTROLLED NOT READY
X.21 UNCONTROLLED NOT READY
POP_PAK OUT
MODE AND INTERFACE ARE INCOMPATIBLE
For LP:
LINK SETUP FAILURE
MANUALLY BLOCKED
Node Restart
An alarm restart is generated in the event of a restart by the PFA product.
The restart may be:
1) A Power-on Restart
2) A System Restart by user (i.e., NAREI command)
3) A System Crash
For example:
ALARM
A1
1998-12-30
120645
NODE RESTARTED
REASON
<Restart reason>
END
In the example, the alarm printout indicates that the PFA product has restarted.
Where <Restart reason> could be :POWER-ON RESTART
SYSTEM RESTART BY USER
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4. General Network Management
NO RESTART CALLS LOGGED
ERROR LOG
Loss of Carrier (async)
An async alarm is generated when a Loss of Carrier is detected as a result of
NO DTR or NO DCD.
For example:
ALARM
A1
1998-12-30
120546
LOSS OF CARRIER
REASON
<Alarm info.>
END
Where:<Alarm info.> = NO DTR or NO DCD
TIP Connection Failure
An alarm is generated when a TIP connection cannot be made.
For example:
ALARM
A1
1998-12-30
120545
TIP CONNECTION ERROR
TIP (number>
END
Where <number> =1 to 5.
Load Control Alarm (CPU and Memory)
Load control alarms are generated as a result of load control limits being
exceeded after being set in the NALOS command. The limits are set on calls
of different priority resulting in alarms being generated for calls with respect to
their relative call priority number.
For example, for CPU utilisation:
ALARM
A2
1998-12-30
120546
CALLS NOT ACCEPTED - CPU LIMITS EXCEEDED FOR PRIORITY X
END
For memory utilisation:
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4. General Network Management
ALARM
A2
1998-12-30
140034
CALLS CLEARED - MEMORY LIMITS EXCEEDED FOR PRIORITY X
END
Where X = 1, 2, 3 or 4.
PSU Failure (PFA 660 only)
An alarm is generated (PSUFAIL signal raised) if one of the PSUs on the PFA
660 fails. The alarm condition will cease when the PSUFAIL signal is cleared.
Note that the alarm will not indicate which PSU has failed.
For example:
ALARM
A1
1998-12-30
120545
POWER SUPPLY UNIT HARDWARE FAILURE
END
Fan Failure (PFA 660 only)
An alarm is generated (FANFAIL signal raised) if the hot-swap fan on the PFA
660 fails. The alarm condition will cease when the FANFAIL signal is cleared.
For example:
ALARM
A1
1998-12-30
120545
FAN FAIL HARDWARE ERROR
END
Time Failure (PFA 660 only)
An alarm is generated if the PFA 660 is unable to request a date and time from
an external time server.
For example:
ALARM
A1
1998-12-30
120545
NODE TIME ADMINISTRATOR FAILED TO SET TIME
END
HTTP Management
The HTTP server permits the user to remotely configure and monitor the PFA
product. In addition, current configurations and parameter settings can be
viewed at any time. The HTTP user interface is in a form-based format that
allows both user input and display information to be entered or presented.
The HTTP server is available by connecting to any operational Network Interface, including those for X.25 and Frame Relay. The server uses the TCP/IP
stack on the PFA to establish a socket to port 80 (WWW). All connections to
port 80 are considered HTTP requests.
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If only the IP address of the NI of the PFA product is specified the main PFA
home page is loaded.
The features are:
MML command input.
Parameter Settings Display and Statistics.
Port Throughput Monitoring.
CPU and Memory Monitoring.
Note the following:
The HTTP server will not support the POST request type.
The HTTP server supports multiple simultaneous users.
Login
A new user or a user that has been inactive for more than 5 minutes will be
presented with a login dialog box when a page is requested. The username
and password must already exist in the PFA; the same user name/password
entries are used for HTTP as those configured locally via the NADCI command. Authority levels configured locally also apply when connecting via
HTTP.
Logout
The user can logout at any time by typing exit at the command line.
Browser Dependencies
The following browsers are recommended for PFA HTTP management:
Netscape Communicator Pro 4.x or later
Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.x or later
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
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4. General Network Management
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5. SNMP Network Management
5. SNMP Management
Introduction
In a typical network environment, network nodes are geographically separate
to the extent that remote management is essential for maintenance, monitoring and configuration. The remote management of the PFA product is possible
by using one of three methods:
i) Basic remote login management
ii) NM400 network management
iii) SNMP network management
As SNMP is an application level protocol which normally utilises UDP as a
transport mechanism, with UDP in turn using the IP protocol, IP traffic and
hence SNMP traffic can be transported over LAN, SLIP, X.25 or Frame Relay
ports via configured Network interfaces.
A range of defined MIBs (Management Information Bases) which cover the
various functional areas of the SNMP agent, i.e. the PFA product acts as a
database.
The SNMP protocol allows an SNMP management application to access and
update management information in network elements by using SNMP agents.
The requests GET, SET or GET_NEXT can be made to the PFA product to
permit various access types into the MIBs to gather management information.
GET
request for read only retrieval of management information.
SET
request to write to MIBs.
GET_NEXT request for read only sequential retrieval from tables of
management information.
The SNMP framework uses a concept similar to password protection to
provide different levels of access to SNMP agents from the SNMP manager(s).
This is known as the Community String.
Each community string has an access type (e.g. GET, SET, RESTRICTED or
TRAP) and a community identifier associated with the access type; the access
type and identifier form a community instance which itself is identified by a
Community Instance identifier number. This number can then be associated
with one or several SNMP network manager addresses.
A Community Instance with access type TRAP is used to direct generated
traps (i.e., alarms) to an SNMP manager.
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5. SNMP Network Management
SNMP Manager
(Client)
PFA
SNMP Agent
(Server)
TRAP
SNMP
SET, GET or
GET-NEXT
Response
SET, GET or
GET-NEXT
UDP
IP
Example:
Message Type
GET
Community String
Variables
"secret"
Figure 5-1: SNMP management for PFA products.
Error Conditions
Each request is of a particular command type. The agent processes the
request from a management application and creates a reply. If an error occurs
whilst processing a request, then the whole packet operation fails and an error
message is returned to the SNMP manager.
SNMP Network Managers
As the SNMP protocol is an open standard there are many potential SNMPbased management applications that can be used for PFA products. These
include:
Multiservice Management Suite (MMS) including Node Manager, Alarm
Manager and Usage Data Collector (UDC)
HP OpenView
SNMPc
Multiservice Management Suite (MMS)
An Ericsson produced Management tool which is based on the HP Openview
platform (SNMP-based). There are several key components to the MMS:
i) Node Manager. This core application provides a visual representation
of a physical network including nodes such as the PFA.
ii) Alarm Manager. This collects SNMP traps generated from nodes and
provides quick resolution.
iii) Performance Monitor. Monitors node statistics.
iv) Customer Service Manager. a network service monitor.
v) Billing Gateway Lite. Collection of customer usage details for billing.
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5. SNMP Network Management
vi) Usage Data Collector. Especially for PFA products, this offers scheduled polling to collect Accounting data or subject to a memory threshold
alarm, an immediate collection of alarms.
HP OpenView
This is a standard SNMP-based application based on the HP Openview or PC
platform (SNMP-based). No customisation for Ericsson-specific nodes is
offered.
SNMPc
This software application for PCs is to manage SNMP agents, e.g. PFA products, offering similar functionality as management with HP OpenView.
SNMP Subsystem
Configuring an SNMP Subsystem
The SNMP subsystem is started as part of the product initialisation and is
always available. The MIB has some configuration items which should be
configured immediately for correct operation of the SNMP subsystem.
For configuration of the SNMP subsystem, the following MML commands are
used.
NANMS
NANMP
for setting the SNMP subsystem
for printing the SNMP subsystem
NACGI
NACGS
NACGT
NACGP
for initialising a Community Instance
for setting a Community Instance
for terminating a Community Instance
for printing a Community Instance
NAMSI
NAMSS
NAMST
NAMSP
for initialising NMS manager association
for setting an NMS manager association
for terminating an NMS manager association
for printing an NMS manager association
Once the basic configuration is set up with the above commands, further
interactions with the SNMP subsystem is normally through an SNMP Network
Management System.
Setting SNMP Subsystem (NANMS)
The NANMS command configures the SNMP subsystem to permit network
management of the node via the SNMP protocol. Due to configuration restrictions one parameter can only be entered per line with use of the NAME= and
VALUE= parameters, i.e.
NANMS: NAME=<name>,VALUE="<value>";
All string values should normally be enclosed inside quotation marks to preserve the case of the string or to include punctuation marks or spaces. The
printable characters are defined to include ASCII characters from Space
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
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5. SNMP Network Management
(ASCII value 32) to ~ (ASCII value 126), excluding the quotation mark (ASCII
value 34). The ASCII value 39 should not be used instead of ASCII value 34.
The NANMS command is configured as follows:
NANMS:NAME=SYSCONTACT,VALUE=syscontact;
NANMS:NAME=SYSLOCATION,VALUE=syslocation;
NANMS:NAME=TRAPID,VALUE=trapid;
NANMS:NAME=COLDSTARTDEL,VALUE=coldstartdel;
NANMS:NAME=AUTHTRAP,VALUE=authtrap;
NANMS:NAME=TOPOLOGYTRAP,VALUE=topologytrap;
NANMS:NAME=TRAPADDR,VALUE=trapaddr;
Where:syscontact
Contact name
/E-mail address
up to 255 chars.
Conventionally the E-mail
address of the contact person
is also included here.
syslocation
Location of PFA
up to 255 chars.
trapid
Community String
identifier for
SNMP traps
1 to 32 or NONE.
Only for traps associated with
COLDSTARTDEL,AUTHTRAP
or TOPOLOGYTRAP
parameters.
coldstartdel
Delay before sending
coldStart trap
0 to 300 s. This allows time for
the links and ports to be
initialised after a power up to
prevent unnecessary traps
generation.
authtrap
Generate
Authentication
Failure trap
YES or NO.
Set AUTHTRAP=YES if
Authentication Failure trap is
to be generated when the SET
or GET community string does
not match the value
configured.
topologytrap
dnaInterfaceConfTable change trap
YES or NO.
YES generates traps signalling
changes to cited table
in DNA MIB.
trapaddr
Source IP address
for SNMP traps
IP address or NONE;
default=NONE. This is
equivalent to the IP address
configured as the LOCIP
parameter in an network
interface.
For example:
NANMS:NAME=SYSCONTACT,VALUE=”[email protected]”;
NANMS:NAME=SYSLOCATION,VALUE=”LONDON”;
NANMS:NAME=TRAPID,VALUE=21;
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5. SNMP Network Management
NANMS:NAME=COLDSTARTDEL,VALUE=250;
NANMS:NAME=AUTHTRAP,VALUE=YES;
NANMS:NAME=TOPOLOGYTRAP,VALUE=NO;
NANMS:NAME=TRAPADDR,VALUE=192.9.1.51;
Printing the SNMP Subsystem (NANMP)
The NANMP command prints selected or all parameters previously configured
with the NANMS command.
NANMP<:NAME=name>;
Where:name
parameter name
SYSDESCR,
SYSCONTACT,
SYSLOCATION,
TRAPID,
COLDSTARTDEL,
AUTHTRAP
TOPOLOGYTRAP
TRAPADDR
For example:
NANMP;
NAME
VALUE
_______________________
SYSDESCR
Ericsson PFA V5.1.0 ID:491.399
SYSCONTACT
[email protected]
SYSLOCATION
London
TRAPID
21
COLDSTARTDEL
250
AUTHTRAP
Yes
TOPOLOGYTRAP
No
TRAPADDR
SET: 192.9.1.51
USE: AS SET
END
Where the parameters are as described for the NANMS command with the
exception of:
SYSDESCR
System information
up to 255 characters; this is
automatically generated from
the software image.
TRAPADDR
Source IP address
for SNMP traps
SET: IP address or NONE
USE: IP address or AS SET.
Community Instances
Community instances are groupings of community identifier, community string
and community access type. An instance is configured with the NACGI command.
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5. SNMP Network Management
Two kinds of instances exist, i.e.
Access
GET, SET, RESTRICTED
Trap
TRAP
Access Community Instances allow management stations to have GET, SET
and GET_NEXT requests processed. Trap Community instances allow traps to
be directed to one or more SNMP managers.
Once a community instance has been initialised then a range of management
stations can be associated with it.
Community Identifier
The community identifier is a number used to uniquely identify a community
instance of type GET, SET, RESTRICTED or TRAP.
Community Strings
A community string is effectively a password which is used to validate incoming SNMP requests; the community string for TRAPs can be used to identify a
unit to the SNMP manager.
Access Types
Restricted
A RESTRICTED access type permits read only access to the MIB-II and
Interfaces MIB. Any requests which matches a RESTRICTED Community
Instance do not have their source network address checked. This access can
be used by unknown management stations to provide network mapping of
elements.
Get
A GET request with the appropriate community string and source network
address is allowed read-only access to all the MIBs supported by the unit.
Set
A SET request with the appropriate community string and source network
address is allowed read and write access. In this release, SET operations are
only allowed on the DNA network topology table of the DNA MIB. Any attempt
to set a read-only variable will not succeed.
Trap
TRAP type provides destinations for PFA trap messages. An object which
wants to send traps uses the appropriate MML command (e.g., LIPPI,
NANMS, FRPCI) to link to an existing TRAP-type Community Instance. The
management stations associated with this Community Instance will then
receive traps from that particular object.
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Request Validation
A request undergoes a validation process that can reject the request under
three conditions:
i. If the community string of the request is not present in the list of
configured Community Instances, then the request packet is destroyed
and an authentication failure SNMP trap is generated.
ii. If the request type does not correspond to the matching community
instance type, then a “general error” error response is generated and
returned to the request originator.
iii. If the request and the matching Community Instance have the same
type, then the source address of the request is validated. For access
type of RESTRICTED, this address does not need to be validated. This
address is checked against the list of network addresses associated
with the Community Instance. If there is no match, the request packet is
destroyed and an authentication failure trap is generated.
A TRAP type community instance is not a request access type and therefore
is not part of the validation process.
Configuration of Community Instances
Initialising Community Instance (NACGI)
The NACGI command initialises a Community Instance. This allows management stations to access, and receive traps from, the PFA product by using the
SNMP protocol. The COMM parameter is a unique identifier for the community string and TYPE instance. However, another instance can have the same
string value but a different type. This is still a valid community string instance
which will have a unique community identifier. The STRING parameter has to
be enclosed in quotation marks to ensure case sensitivity.
NACGI:COMM=comm,STRING=”string”,TYPE=type;
Where:comm
Community string
identifier
1-32
string
Community string
value
ASCII string value up to
255 chars; from ASCII 32 to
ASCII 126.
Do not use ASCII 34
type
Type of
community string
RESTRICTED, GET, TRAP
or SET.
For example:
NACGI:COMM=12,STRING=”MMS”,TYPE=GET;
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5. SNMP Network Management
Setting Community Instance (NACGS)
The NACGS command allows the user to modify an existing SNMP community instance. For a community instance of TYPE=TRAP, the TYPE field can
only be changed if no PFA port objects are registered as using the community
instance.
NACGS:COMM=comm<,STRING=”string”><,TYPE=type>;
Where the parameters are as described for the NACGI command.
For example:
NACGS:COMM=12,STRING=”MMS”;
or:
NACGS:COMM=12,TYPE=RESTRICTED;
or:
NACGS:COMM=20,STRING=”PFA1”,TYPE=TRAP;
Printing Community Instance (NACGP)
The NACGP command allows the user to display all the Community Instances
configured, a specific community instance, a specific community string value
or a particular instance type.
NACGP;
or:
NACGP:<COMM=comm><,STRING="string"><,TYPE=type>;
Where the parameters are as described for the NACGI command.
For a community instance configured for a trap:
NACGP:TYPE=TRAP;
COMMUNITY INSTANCES
COMM
TYPE
STRING
______________________________
12
TRAP
pfa1
13
TRAP
pfa1
END
Terminating Community Instance (NACGT)
The NACGT command allows the user to delete a Community Instance. The
instance will not be deleted if any management station is registered as using
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5. SNMP Network Management
it. If Community Instances of TYPE=TRAP require termination then any trap
associations still configured must first be disabled.
NACGT:COMM=comm;
For example:
NACGT:COMM=12;
Configuration of SNMP Manager Associations
Initialising SNMP Management Association (NAMSI)
The NAMSI command initialises an SNMP management station ready for
association with any existing community instances (see NACGx commands).
The COMM parameter is a unique identifier which refers to a particular community instance, as defined by the NACGx command. Up to eight management stations can be associated with any particular community instance.
NAMSI:NMS=nms<,COMM=comm1&comm2&comm3..
&commn>;
Where:nms
SNMP manager
name/address
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
where 0£nnn£255 or
mnemonic address
configured with ANNAI.
comm
Community instance
identifier
1-32
For example, for the IP address 192.9.200.77:
NAMSI:NMS=192.9.200.77,COMM=12;
For a mnemonic address, name analysis is used to associate the mnemonic
with an IP address:
ANNAI:NAME="MMS",PROT=IP,ADDR=192.9.200.226;
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5. SNMP Network Management
NAMSI:NMS=MMS,COMM=20&21;
Further details concerning name analysis is provided in Section XX.
Setting SNMP Manager Association (NAMSS)
The NAMSS command modifies the community instance identifiers for an
existing mnemonic or IP SNMP manager address. The new associations will
overwrite any existing associations.
NAMSS:NMS=nms<,COMM=comm1&comm2&
comm3...commn>;
Where the parameters are as described for NAMSI command.
For example:
NAMSS:NMS=192.9.200.77,COMM=12&20;
Printing SNMP Management Assocation (NAMSP)
The NAMSP command displays SNMP manager associations for either all
management stations, a specific manager or a particular community instance
identifier.
NAMSP;
or:
NAMSP:<NMS=nms><,COMM=comm>;
For example, for all SNMP network management associations:
NAMSP;
MANAGEMENT STATION ASSOCIATIONS
NMS
COMM
______________________
192.9.200.77
12
192.9.200.77
20
nms5
20
MMS
21
END
Terminating SNMP Manager Association (NAMST)
The NAMST command terminates an SNMP management station association.
NAMST:NMS=nms;
For example:
NAMST:NMS="MMS";
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MIBs
The product is configured with standard MIBs and PFA-specific MIBs. This
permits the GET and GET-NEXT requests to request variables in the MIB in
question. In addition, the product supports SET requests to permit the modification of the dnaInterfaceConfTable of the Ericsson DNA MIB.
These MIBs have to be installed on any SNMP network manager that intends
to provide full SNMP management.
MIBs Supported
MIB II (1213)
This standard MIB is based on RFC 1213 (see Appendix 4). It covers the
groups:
System
Address Translation
IP
ICMP
TCP
UDP
SNMP
Interfaces (1573)
This standard MIB is based on RFC 1573 (see Appendix 4). Coverage includes:
LAN physical interface
NIs for Ethernet, X25, Frame Relay, SLIP
PP, LP and NP Serial Port Objects (Async excluded)
Frame Relay Port Objects (FDI, FUI, FTI)
Multi-link (MP) and Link Control Protocol (LCP)
ifTable
ifXTable
ifStackTable
Frame Relay DTE (fr-rfc1315++)
This is a draft standard Frame Relay DTE MIB based on RFC 1315 detailed in
Appendix 4. This MIB includes:
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5. SNMP Network Management
DLCMI Table
Circuit Table
Error Table
DNA (dna)
This is an Ericsson-specific DNA MIB (see Appendix 4) including:
Topology Table
Trap Destination Table
Note that MML commands are described in Appendix 2 to initialise topology
table entries in the DNA MIB. This provides topology information to the Ericsson EBC DNA Node Manager application in the event of restarts.
Packet Switching (pfa-PS)
This Ericsson-specific MIB for PP, LP and NP serial port statistics covers:
Synchronous PP Statistics Table
LAPB LP Statistics Table
SDLC LP Statistics Table
X25/X75 NP Statistics Table
QLLC NP Statistics Table
NP Clearing Cause Table
Frame Relay (pfa-FR)
This Ericsson-specific MIB provide enterprise-specific objects related to the
PFA Frame Relay DTE and DCE interfaces. Included are:
Frame Relay PP Statistics Table
Frame Relay PP DLCI Statistics Table
Frame Relay VP Statistics Table
Frame Relay VP DLCI Statistics Table
PFA (pfa)
This is a PFA-specific MIB containing common definitions.
PFA Traps MIB (pfa-traps)
The Traps MIB defines PFA Traps and traps-related MIB objects. These are
displayed in Figure 5-2.
Traps
Spontaneous trap generation from the unit can be configured to inform any
standard SNMP manager of exception conditions. The set of asynchronous
events or traps emitted by the network device is normally kept to a small
number of significant events that the NMS need to know. This is in order to
minimise the use of the network bandwidth for network management purposes. Any additional management information required by the NMS can be
retrieved, from the network device MIB, by sending appropriate requests
through SNMP.
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There are three categories of traps supported, i.e.
i) Traps specified as part of the SNMP standard
ii) Ericsson DNA-specific traps
iii) PFA-specific traps
The trap types listed in Figure 5-2 indicate the category of trap they belong to.
Assuming TRAP community instances, TRAPID and management associations
are configured, a coldStart trap is automatically sent to the SNMP manager
only after a power up of the unit and an expiry of the COLDSTARTDEL parameter configured in the NANMS command. The NMS should poll the unit on
receipt of a coldStart trap to find out the current status of individual ports and
links. Hence, no other traps are generated during this time period.
A trap sequence number, unique to each trap destination address, is included
in the trap message to allow the SNMP manager to detect if a trap was lost in
transit. It is the responsibility of the NMS to decide what actions, if any, to
take in such an event and initiate the necessary steps to recover from a loss.
Configuration of TRAP Community Instance
A Trap Community Instance, similar to the Access Community Instances
defined for the access to the PFA MIBs, requires configuration. This is possible by using the NACGI and NAMSI commands which associate Trap community instance identifiers (TRAPIDs) with the IP address or mnemonic name of
the SNMP network manager.
Troubleshooting Trap messages
The SNMP traps generated by the PFA product are listed in Appendix 10.
Along with each possible trap is the appropriate cause and action required.
Configuration of TRAPs
Traps can be enabled/disabled for port objects or error conditions by using
existing MML configuration commands, e.g. LIPPS is used to configure
linkUp, linkDown, pfaObjectBlocked, pfaObjectDeBlocked,
configurationChangeAdd, configurationChangeDelete, pfaPopPakIn and
pfaPopPakOut traps on a serial physical port object. Traps can also be
configured for serial or LAN POP PAKs indicating whether they are IN/OUT.
A parameter is included in the relevant MML command to configure whether
the specific trap is to be generated. The user can enable all, disable all or
enable selected traps with the use of the TRAPS=NONE, TRAPS=ALL or
TRAPS=LIST parameters, respectively. In addition, a TRAPID parameter is
used to specify which trap community identifier receives traps from the port
object, i.e. which SNMP NMS the trap is sent to.
Note that the community identifier must be configured with the NACGI command (with TYPE=TRAP) before the TRAPID parameter can be configured in
the MML commands.
The TRAP parameters configured with MML commands are illustrated in
Figure 5-2.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
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5. SNMP Network Management
TRAP PARAM ETER
110
Port Object /
Funct ion
MML
C ON F- OBJ- LIN K
TRAP
TRAP TRAP
POP- PVC TRAP TRAP
PP- Packet
PP- Frame
LIPPx
ü
2
ü
2
ü
1
ü
LP- LAPB
LP- SDLC
LP- LLC
LILPx
ü
2
ü
2
ü
1
NP- X.25/X.75 LIN Px
ü
2
ü
2
ü
1
NP- QLLC
NP- LLC
LIN Px
ü
2
ü
2
M P Bundle
LIMPx
ü
2
ü
2
ü
1
LCP
LILC x
ü
2
ü
2
ü
1
X.25/X.75/
QLLC
PVC/HVC
PSPC x
Frame Relay
FP Port
LIFPx
FR PVC
FRPC x
LA
LILAx
ü
2
ü
2
ü
1
Et her/SLIP/
VNI NI
IPN Ix
ü
2
ü
2
ü
1
X.25/FR NI
IPN Ix
ü
2
ü
2
SNM P
N AN Mx
C OLDSTARTDEL 1
AU THTRAP 1
TOPOLOGYTRAP 2
Account ing
General
C DFTx
N ALOx
FTPTRAP 3
LOWMEMTRAP 3
Call
Account ing
Admin (CAA)
C DAAx
DELETETRAP 3
REC SLOSTTRAP 3
BU FFTRAP 3
C ALLREJTRAP 3
C AASTATU STRAP 3
ATM *
LIATx
ü
2
ü
2
ü
1
FR VP port *
LIVPx
ü
2
ü
2
ü
1
PSU Failure*
N AHWx
PSU FAILTRAP 3,4
Fan Failure*
N AHWx
FAN FAILTRAP 3,4
Time Server*
N ATSx
TIMEFAILTRAP 3,4
ü
2
ü
2
ü
OTHER
3
FRMRTRAP 3/HDLC TRAP 3 /DISTTRAP 3
ü
2
ü
2
1
ü
3
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
5. SNMP Network Management
Figure 5-2: PFA Traps. Where 1=Standard Trap, 2=Ericsson DNA-specific
trap, 3=PFA-Specific Trap. 4=PFA 660 only. * Applicable to PFA
660 only.
SNMP Example
The example assumes that the relevant MIBs are installed in the SNMP network management systems.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
111
112
Open
View
RESTRICTED
TRAPs
PFA2
GET/SET
“MMS1”
“public”
SNMP NMS3
GET
“snmpc”
SNMP NMS2
SNMPc
Multiservice
Management
Suite (MMS)
1-1-1-6
TRAP
GET
GET
SET
RESTRICTED
traps
snmpc
MMS1
MMS1
public
MMS1
2&12&13
NMS ASSOCIATIONS FOR PFA1/PFA2
---------------------------------------------------------nms2
11&2
2
11
12
13
14
COMMUNITY INSTANCES FOR PFA1/PFA2
------------------------------------------------------------
1-1-1-6
TRAPs
PFA1
RESTRICTED
GET/SET
1-1-1-2
5. SNMP Network Management
Figure 5-3: Example of SNMP in PFA network.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
5. SNMP Network Management
Configuration in PFA1
Configuring SNMP Subsystem
The SNMP subsystem in PFA1 requires configuration to identify the unit to the
SNMP manager.
NANMS:NAME=SYSCONTACT,VALUE=MIPSC;
NANMS:NAME=SYSLOCATION,VALUE="LONDON";
NANMS:NAME=COLDSTARTDEL,VALUE=100;
NANMS:NAME=AUTHTRAP,VALUE=YES;
NANMS:NAME=TRAPID,VALUE=2;
NANMS:NAME=TOPOLOGYTRAP,VALUE=YES;
NANMS:NAME=TRAPADDR,VALUE=192.9.200.34;
Setting up Community Instances
Community Instances for access to MIBs and sending of TRAPs requires
configuration.
NACGI:COMM=2,STRING=”TRAPS”,TYPE=TRAP;
NACGI:COMM=11,STRING=”SNMPC”,TYPE=GET;
NACGI:COMM=12,STRING=”MMS1”,TYPE=GET;
NACGI:COMM=13,STRING=”MMS1”,TYPE=SET;
NACGI:COMM=14,STRING=”PUBLIC”,TYPE=RESTRICTED;
Setting up Management Stations
The network management stations MMS1 and NMS2 are associated with
Community Instances by using the COMM parameters. Note that mnemonic
names have been set up for MMS1 and NMS2.
ANNAI:NAME=MMS1,PROT=IP,ADDR=192.9.200.226;
NAMSI:NMS=MMS1,COMM=2&12&13;
ANNAI:NAME=NMS2,PROT=IP,ADDR=192.9.200.135;
NAMSI:NMS=NMS2,COMM=2&11;
Setting up Traps
Port objects can be set up to report traps once the port objects are initialised
and deblocked.
For Port 1-1-1-6, to enable and send all traps, including the
configurationChangeAdd trap, to the trap community identifier 2:
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-6,TYPE=PACKET,TRAPID=2,TRAPS=ALL;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-6,PROT=X25,TRAPID=2,TRAPS=ALL;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-6,PROT=X25,TRAPID=2,TRAPS=ALL;
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5. SNMP Network Management
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-6;
For Port 1-1-1-2, to selectively enable linkUp, linkDown, pfaPopPakIn and
pfaPopPakOut traps on PP 1-1-1-2 and send these traps to the trap community identifier 2:
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-2,TYPE=PACKET,TRAPID=2,
TRAPS=LIST,LINKTRAP=YES,POPTRAP=YES;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-2,PROT=X25;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-2,PROT=X25;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-2;
The PFA unit PFA1 must have a network interface configured to identify itself
with an IP address, i.e.
IPNII:TYPE=X25,LOCIP=192.9.200.34,LOCNTN=56456,
MASK=255.255.255.0;
IPNID:LOCIP=192.9.200.34;
Configuration in PFA2
Configuring SNMP Subsystem
The SNMP subsystem in PFA2 requires configuration to identify the unit to the
SNMP manager.
NANMS:NAME=SYSCONTACT,VALUE=MIPSC;
NANMS:NAME=SYSLOCATION,VALUE="STOCKHOLM";
NANMS:NAME=COLDSTARTDEL,VALUE=100;
NANMS:NAME=AUTHTRAP,VALUE=YES;
NANMS:NAME=TRAPID,VALUE=2;
NANMS:NAME=TOPOLOGYTRAP,VALUE=YES;
NANMS:NAME=TRAPADDR,VALUE=192.9.200.33;
Setting up Community Instances
Community Instances for access to MIBs and sending of TRAPs requires
configuration.
NACGI:COMM=2,STRING=”TRAPS",TYPE=TRAP;
NACGI:COMM=11,STRING=”SNMPC”,TYPE=GET;
NACGI:COMM=12,STRING=”MMS1”,TYPE=GET;
NACGI:COMM=13,STRING=”MMS1”,TYPE=SET;
NACGI:COMM=14,STRING=”PUBLIC”,TYPE=RESTRICTED;
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Setting up Management Stations
The network management stations MMS1 and NMS2 are associated with
Community Instances by using the COMM parameters. Note that mnemonic
names have been set up for MMS1 and NMS2.
ANNAI:NAME=MMS1,PROT=IP,ADDR=192.9.200.226;
NAMSI:NMS=MMS1,COMM=2&12&13;
ANNAI:NAME=NMS2,PROT=IP,ADDR=192.9.200.135;
NAMSI:NMS=NMS2,COMM=2&11;
Setting up Traps
The port object for a LAN port can be set up to report traps once the port
object is initialised and deblocked.
For LAN port 1-1-0-1, to enable and send all traps, including the
configurationChangeAdd trap, to the trap community identifier 2:
LILAI:LA=1-1-0-1,TYPE=ETHER,TRAPID=2,TRAPS=ALL;
LILAD:LA=1-1-0-1;
The PFA unit PFA2 must have an Ether network interface configured to identify
itself with an IP address, i.e.
IPNII:TYPE=ETHER,LOCIP=192.9.200.30,
LA=1-1-0-1,MASK=255.255.255.0,TRAPID=2,TRAPS=ALL;
IPNID:LOCIP=192.9.200.30;
For Port 1-1-1-6, to enable and send link traps, including the
configurationChangeAdd trap, to the trap community identifier 2:
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-6,TYPE=PACKET,TRAPID=2,TRAPS=ALL;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-6,PROT=X25,TRAPID=2,TRAPS=LIST,LINKTRAP=YES,
HDLCTRAP=YES;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-6,PROT=X25,TRAPID=2,TRAPS=LIST,LINKTRAP=YES;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-6;
The unit PFA2 must have a network interface configured to identify itself with
an IP address, i.e.
IPNII:TYPE=X25,LOCIP=192.9.200.33,LOCNTN=56455;
IPNID:LOCIP=192.9.200.33;
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5. SNMP Network Management
Test Cases
An example of an agent with the community strings and management station
associations is shown below.
ID
2
11
12
13
14
String
“traps”
“snmpc”
“MMS1”
“MMS1”
“public”
Type
TRAP
GET
GET
SET
RESTRICTED
Address
MMS1
NMS2
MMS1.NMS2
MMS1
not required
The table below describes the behaviour of the validation process for various
incoming SNMP requests.
Request
String
Address
Result
Get
“snmpc”
MMS1
authentication failure
trap due to no
matching IP address.
Get
“private”
MMS1
authentication failure
trap due to no
matching string.
Get
“snmpc”
NMS4
authentication failure
trap due to no
matching string.
Set
“MMS1”
MMS1
accepted.
Set
“snmpc”
NMS2
authentication failure
trap due to
community
string not of type
SET.
Get
“MMS1”
MMS1
accepted.
Get
“public”
NMS3
accepted for
restricted access.
Get
“MMS1”
NMS2
authentication failure
trap due to no
matching IP address.
In the table above the get-next protocol operation could be substituted for the
get request with no changes in behaviour.
Example Output of TRAPs
The output of TRAP messages sent from the PFA1 and PFA2 is as a result of,
in example 1, a restart of the PFA product, and, in example 2, the blocking of
PFA1 Port 1-1-1-6.
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NOTE: The trap messages displayed below only indicates the trap
information carried to MMS1 and NMS2. The actual interpretation
of the trap message, and how it is displayed at the NMS manager is
not within the scope of this User Guide. Please consult your SNMP
manager user documentation.
Example 1:
192.9.200.34: Cold Start Trap (0) Uptime: 0:00:36
enterprises.193.11.1.1.2.1.1.2.192.9.200.226 = 1
Example 2:
192.9.200.34: Object Blocked Trap (2) Uptime: 0:02:32
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifIndex.13 = 13
enterprises.193.11.1.1.2.1.1.2.192.9.200.226 = 16
31.1.1.1.1.0 = “1-1-1-6”
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.13 = “X25 NP=1-1-1-6”
192.9.200.34: Link Down Trap (0) Uptime: 0:02:32
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifIndex.13 = 13
enterprises.193.11.1.1.2.1.1.2.192.9.200.226 = 17
31.1.1.1.1.0 = “1-1-1-6”
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.13 = “X25 NP=1-1-1-6”
192.9.200.30: Link Down Trap (0) Uptime: 15 days, 20:08:17
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifIndex.6 = 6
enterprises.193.11.1.1.2.1.1.2.192.9.200.226 = 35204
31.1.1.1.1.0 = “1-1-1-6”
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.6 = “X25 LP=1-1-1-6”
192.9.200.30: Link Down Trap (0) Uptime: 15 days, 20:08:17
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifIndex.11 = 11
enterprises.193.11.1.1.2.1.1.2.192.9.200.226 = 35205
31.1.1.1.1.0 = “1-1-1-6”
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.11 = “X25 NP=1-1-1-6”
192.9.200.34: Link Down Trap (0) Uptime: 0:02:32
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifIndex.6 = 6
enterprises.193.11.1.1.2.1.1.2.192.9.200.226 = 18
31.1.1.1.1.0 = “1-1-1-6”
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.6 = “X25 LP=1-1-1-6”
192.9.200.34: Object Blocked Trap (2) Uptime: 0:02:32
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifIndex.6 = 6
enterprises.193.11.1.1.2.1.1.2.192.9.200.226 = 19
31.1.1.1.1.0 = “1-1-1-6”
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.6 = “X25 LP=1-1-1-6”
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5. SNMP Network Management
192.9.200.34: Object Blocked Trap (2) Uptime: 0:02:32
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifIndex.1 = 1
enterprises.193.11.1.1.2.1.1.2.192.9.200.226 = 20
31.1.1.1.1.0 = “1-1-1-6”
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.1 = “PACKET PP=1-1-1-6”
192.9.200.34: Link Down Trap (0) Uptime: 0:02:32
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifIndex.1 = 1
enterprises.193.11.1.1.2.1.1.2.192.9.200.226 = 21
31.1.1.1.1.0 = “1-1-1-6”
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.1 = “PACKET PP=1-1-1-6”
192.9.200.30: Link Down Trap (0) Uptime: 15 days, 20:08:18
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifIndex.1 = 1
enterprises.193.11.1.1.2.1.1.2.192.9.200.226 = 35206
31.1.1.1.1.0 = “1-1-1-6”
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.1 = “PACKET PP=1-1-1-6”
192.9.200.30: HDLC Event Trap (8) Uptime: 15 days, 20:08:37
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifIndex.6 = 6
enterprises.193.11.1.1.2.1.1.2.192.9.200.226 = 35207
31.1.1.1.1.0 = “1-1-1-6”
enterprises.193.5.2.4.3.0 = “N2*T1 expiry”
Output Explanation
Trap message
PFA IP address
PFA Current
Uptime
192.9.200.34: Object Blocked Trap (2) Uptime: 0:02:32
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifIndex.13 = 13
enterprises.193.11.1.1.2.1.1.2.192.9.200.226 = 16
31.1.1.1.1.0 = "1-1-1-6"
interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.13 = "X25 NP=1-1-1-6"
<ifIndex value of
the affected interface>
<Trap Sequence No.
relevant to NMS>
<Affected port, ifName>
<Description, ifDescr,
of the affected interface>
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EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
6. Asynchronous (APAD)
Introduction
All PFA products support asynchronous (async) operation which allows the
unit to operate as a Packet Assembler/Disassembler (PAD). This provides an
interface between async terminals and hosts on a PSDN or PSTN.
An network with asynchronous terminal access could exist as illustrated in
Figure 6-1.
FS
Backbone
Asynchronous
Host
Host
Line
PFA Product
PFA Product
PSDN
Asynchronous Lines
PSTN
Asynchronous
Terminal Access
Figure 6-1: Asynchronous terminal access in networks.
Async Port Configuration
The order for configuration is detailed in Figure 6-2.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
119
6. Async
120
Figure 6-2: async port configuration.
LIPPS
1)
LILPS
2)
Start
LIPPI
LINPS
LILPI
3)
4)
5)
6)
LINPI
LIPPI - Initialise PP
LILPI - Initialise LP
LINPI - Initialise NP
LIPPS - Set PP (optional)
LILPS - Set LP (optional)
LINPS - Set NP (optional)
LIPPD - Deblock PP
LILPD - Deblock LP
PSTEI - Initialise async port as a local DTE
LINPD - Deblock NP
ANNAI - Set Asynchronous addressing
LIPPD
LILPD
PSTEI
LINPD
ANNAI
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
Any serial port on the PFA product can be configured in software to operate
as an async terminal port up to a speed of 256 Kbps; the X.28-1988, X.3-1988
and X.29-1988 protocols are fully supported. Pre-configured async terminal
profiles can be set for async lines in order to implement X.3 parameters; all
profiles can be edited to customise the operation of the unit. Call names, X.3
profiles, X.25 facilities and call user data can be assigned via asynchronous
“Name Analysis” addressing.
The ports on the PFA product can also be changed in software to operate as
asynchronous host ports. Pre-configured host profiles (e.g., REMHOST) or
user-customised profiles can be set for host lines in order to change X.3
parameters.
The Physical Layer
The physical layer controls the physical layer serial interfaces on the PFA
product.
In order to implement SLIP connections, the physical layer is also utilised to
form a point-to-point serial connection which carries IP datagrams. For further
details see the TCP/IP Section.
POP PAKs
The following list of POP PAKs are recommended for asynchronous use.
V.28 DTE
V.28 DCE
25-way D-type male connector
25-way D-type female connector
All other serial POP PAKs are supported.
The Link Layer
The LP layer is used to maintain the X.3 parameter set and to implement the
X.28 protocol for operation on the port in question; the LP layer does not
generate any alarms.
The LP layer is compliant with CCITT X.28-1988.
The Network Layer
The NP layer is used to implement the X.29 protocol and will generate statistics concerning calls, packet types, clearing causes, L3 Packet/Octets and
rate counters; no alarms are generated for the NP layer.
The NP layer is compliant with CCITT X.29-1988.
Initialisation
Initialising PP (LIPPI)
The command will initialise the requested physical port for async operation.
The LIPPI command can also be used to provide a point-to-point SLIP connection when used in conjunction with the LIPPS command.
LIPPI:PP=port,TYPE=type;
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6. Async
Where:port
Physical port number
1-1-1-(1-18)
type
port type
ASYNC or PACKET;
default=PACKET
For example, to initialise port 3 to be asynchronous:
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-3,TYPE=ASYNC;
EXECUTED
Initialising LP (LILPI)
The LILPI command initialises the link port for X.28. Note that some parameters are not applicable to all protocols. Any existing LP present on the same
LP port must be terminated for the command to be accepted.
LILPI:LP=port,PROT=prot;
Where:port
Link port number
1-1-1-(1-18)
prot
protocol
X28 only
For example, to initialise port 3 to be an X.28 PAD:
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-3,PROT=X28;
Initialising NP (LINPI)
The LINPI command will initialise the network port and the protocol for the
requested NP.
LINPI:NP=port,PROT=prot;
Where:port
Network port number
1-1-1-(1-18)
prot
protocol
X29 only
For example, to initialise port 3 to be X.29:
122
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-3,PROT=X29;
Setting Parameters
When a PP, LP or NP is initialised, a default set of parameters will be created.
Parameters can be modified or set without having to terminate the port objects for PP, LP or NP.
Setting PP (LIPPS)
The command will modify port parameters for PP. The PP must be manually
blocked for the command to be accepted.
LIPPS:PP=port<,RATE=clockrate><,PARITY=parity>
<,ENCODING=encoding><,DCDMODE=dcdmode>
<,MODEMFLOW=modemflow><,XONFLOW=xonflow>
<,DUPLEX=duplex><,MODEMSTRING=modemstring>
<,STARTSTRING=startstring><,ACNTL=acntl>*<,ACL=acl>*
<,ALARMTIM=alarmtim>*<,DESTID=destid>*;
Where:port
Physical port number
1-1-1-(1-n) where n is the
maximum number of ports on
a PFA
rate
clock rate (in seconds)
1200,2400,4800,9600,14k4,
19k2,28k8,38k4,48k,
56k,64k,72k,128k,
256k,512k,1m,1.45m,2m;
default=64k.
autobaud (from 1200 up)
autobaud (from 9600 up)
75 Tx 1200 Rx
1200 Tx 75 Rx
AUTO
AUTOH
SPLIT
SPLITH
The RATE parameter will ignore the baud rate setting at the terminal. However, if the terminal is to dictate the baud rate of the line then RATE=AUTO or
RATE=AUTOH should be selected. Speed detection is carried out by pressing
<RETURN> repeatedly in the idle state until the banner appears.
parity
Hardware parity
UNCHANGED,NONE,
EVEN,ODD,MARK,SPACE;
default=NONE.
The parity bit is stripped off
Rxd chars for all modes apart
from parity = UNCHANGED.
encoding
line encoding
NRZ,MARK,SPACE;
default=NRZ
dcdmode
DCD mode
YES,NO,DISC; default=DISC.
DCDMODE senses the signal applied on a V.24
Circuit 109 (DCD) for a DTE POP PAK or senses
the V.24 Circuit 108 ( DTR) signal for a DCE POP
PAK. DCDMODE=NO implies no check of DCD state is
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
123
6. Async
made. YES implies that in case of loss of DCD (DTR),
both an alarm “LOSS OF CARRIER” will be raised, and
the line will be disconnected. DISC implies that the line
will be disconnected.
modemflow
RTS/CTS hardware
flow control
YES,NO; default=NO. If NO
there is no hardware flow
control.
xonflow
XON/XOFF
flow control s'ware
YES,NO; default=YES.
charbits
Data bits
5,7 or 8; default=8.
stopbits
Stop bits
AUTO,1,1.5,2; default=1.
If STOPBITS=AUTO is entered then the stop bit is set
according to the baud rate, i.e.
1 Stop Bit ž300 baud
2 Stop Bits <300 baud
If an autobaud line is set, STOPBITS=AUTO will be
forced internally.
Stop bits can also be set to 1, 1.5 or 2 independent of
speed under non-standard applications.
access
Access mode
LEASED, SWITCHED,
SWITCHED_HAYES;
default=LEASED. Use
V.24-based DTE POP PAKs
for switched access.
duplex
RTS mode
FULL or HALF; default=FULL.
DUPLEX shall be set according to modems used
on line. DUPLEX=HALF will force V.24 Circuit
105 (RTS) low after each transmission is
completed. If DUPLEX=FULL, then RTS will be
constantly raised, unless flowed off and
MODEMFLOW=YES when line is established
and characters will be echoed to the screen. If the
type of terminal is not known, it is recommended
that DUPLEX=FULL be set.
modemstring
Default no. for
modem to dial
up to 30 chars; default=none.
For ACCESS=
SWITCHED_HAYES only.
MODEMSTRING set in PSTEI
command takes priority.
startstring
Startup command
for automatic
TELNET initiation
from async port
up to 30 chars; The format
"open <ip_address>" should
be used; quotes are
mandatory. Applicable
to either an X.28 or TELNET
port. Active when LP is
deblocked.
*These NM400-related parameters are described in Section 4.
124
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
For example, to set selected port 3 parameters for asynchronous operation:
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-3,RATE=19K2,DUPLEX=FULL;
Setting LP (LILPS)
The LILPS command allows the user to modify port parameters for LP. The LP
must be manually blocked for the command to be accepted. Note that parameters enclosed in quotation marks have their cases preserved.
LILPS:LP=port<,TPROFILE=tprofile><,HPROFILE=
hprofile><,PROMPT="prompt"><,CALLTEXT="calltext">
<,CLEARTEXT="cleartext"><,BREAKTEXT="breaktext">
<,FORCENUI=forcenui><,DESTID=destid>*;
Where:port
Link port number
1-1-1-(1-18)
tprofile
Async profile name
1-16 chars; default=INITIAL.
hprofile
Host Profile name
1-16 chars; this profile is sent
to an X29 host after accepting
an incoming call. The profile~
REMHOST is available in the
default configuration.
prompt
PAD user prompt
1-16 characters; default="*"
calltext
Call service signal
1-16 chars; default="COM".
Text to be sent to terminal on
call connection.
cleartext
Clear service signal
1-16 chars; default="CLR".
Text sent to terminal on call
clear.
breaktext
Break service signal
1-16 chars; default="". Text
sent to terminal on indication
of break.
forcenui
Make NUI
mandatory
YES or NO; default=NO.
The user will not be able to
make a call unless an NUI is
entered when FORCENUI=yes.
*This NM400-related parameter is described in Section 4.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
125
6. Async
For example, to set port 1-1-1-3 parameters for operation of an X.28 PAD
service:
LILPS:LP=1-1-1-3,TPROFILE=TRANSPARENT,PROMPT=“Pad>”,CALLTEXT=”COM”,
CLEARTEXT=”CLR”,BREAKTEXT=”BRK”,DESTID=LOCAL;
Setting NP (LINPS)
The LINPS command allows the user to modify port parameters for the NP.
The NP must be manually blocked.
LINPS:NP=port,PACKSIZE=packsize,CUD=cud;
Where:port
Network port number
1-1-1-(1-18)
packsize
packet size
16,32,64,128,256,512, 2048,
4096; default=512.
cud
Call user data
0-16 ASCII (except ‘+’) or HEX
characters; default=NONE.
The CUD string should be
enclosed in quotes to preserve
case sensitivity, commas or
semi-colons; If HEX input,
CUD should be specified as,
e.g. "^01^02^03fred".
For example, to set port 3 with a packet size of 256:
LINPS:NP=1-1-1-3,PACKSIZE=256;
Deblocking
In order to “activate” the PP, LP and NP layers and therefore to change the
status of the ports from Manually Blocked (MB) the following should be
carried out.
Deblocking PP (LIPPD)
The command LIPPD deblocks the specified PP.
LIPPD:PP=port;
Deblocking LP (LILPD)
The command LILPD deblocks the LP.
LILPD:LP=port;
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EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
Deblocking NP (LINPD)
The LINPD command deblocks the NP. The NP cannot be deblocked until an
NTN has been configured for the NP.
LINPD:NP=port;
Blocking
Blocking PP (LIPPB)
The command LIPPB blocks the specified PP. All data queues and other
resources will be relinquished.
LIPPB:PP=port;
Blocking LP (LILPB)
The command LILPB blocks the specified LP. All data queues and other
resources will be relinquished.
LILPB:LP=port;
Blocking NP (LINPB)
The command LINPB blocks the specified NP. All data queues and other
resources will be relinquished.
LINPB:NP=port;
Print or Display
Printing PP (LIPPP)
The command will display the PP parameters for the requested port.
LIPPP:PP=port;
Where:port
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Physical port number
1-1-1-(1-n) where n is the
maximum number of ports on
the PFA
127
6. Async
For example:
LIPPP:PP=1-1-1-3;
PHYSICAL PORT DATA
PP
POP-PAK
RATE
PARITY
ENCODING
DCDMODE STATUS
———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
1-1-1-3
V28 DTE
19K2
TYPE
= ASYNC
DUPLEX
= FULL
MODEMFLOW
= NO
XONFLOW
= YES
CHARBITS
= 8
STOPBITS
= 1
ACCESS
= LEASED
ACNTL
= ALARM
ACL
= A2
ALARMTIM
= 60
EVEN
DESTID
= NODESTID
DTR
= ON
DCD
= OFF
RTS
= ON
CTS
= OFF
DSR
= ON
LOOP2
= OFF
LOOP3
= OFF
TI
= OFF
RI
= OFF
NRZ
YES
WO
END
Where the parameters displayed are described for the LIPPS command earlier
in this section, with the exception of the following:-
128
POP-PAK
POP PAK type/
gender
V.28 DTE or V.28 DCE
STATUS
The status field reflects the PP object state and
the state of the POP PAK, e.g.
LIPPP Status
PP STATE
POP PAK
MB
MB
HB
CB, WO,
AB or DIS
Blocked
Blocked
Deblocked
Deblocked
OUT
IN
OUT
IN
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
Where status =
MB = Manually blocked
AB = Automatically blocked
HB = Hardware blocked
CB = Conditionally blocked
WO = Working order
DIS = Disconnected
In addition to the above, the state of Automatically Blocked (AB) will be entered when the physical layer is NOT in state 13 (X.21) or in Data Transfer
(X.21bis). For the purpose of status reporting to the user, HB has precedence
over AB.
DTR
Data terminal ready
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
DCD
Data carrier detect
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
RTS
Request to send
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
CTS
Clear to send
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
DSR
Data set ready
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
LOOP2
Loop2 request
ON or OFF
LOOP3
Loop3 request
ON or OFF
TI
Test indication
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
RI
Ring indication
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
Printing LP (LILPP)
The LILPP command prints the current configuration of the LP.
LILPP:LP=port;
For example, to print the LP configuration for async port 4:
LILPP:LP=1-1-1-4;
LINK PORT DATA ( LP )
LP
PROT
STATUS
———————————————————————-————————-———
1-1-1-4
X28
WO
TPROFILE
=
"INITIAL"
HPROFILE
=
" "
PROMPT
=
"*"
CALLTEXT
=
"COM"
CLEARTEXT
=
"CLR"
BREAKTEXT
=
"BREAK"
FORCENUI
=
NO
DESTID
=
NODESTID
END
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
129
6. Async
Where the parameters are as described for the LILPS command earlier in this
section, with the exception of:
STATUS
LP status
WO,AB,CB,MB,DIS
Printing NP (LINPP)
The command will print port parameters for a requested network port.
LINPP:NP=port;
For example, for an X.29 port:
LINPP:NP=1-1-1-4;
NETWORK PORT DATA
NP
PROT
STATUS
———————————————————————-————————-———
1-1-1-4
X29
PACKSIZE
= 256
CUD
= NONE
WO
END
Where the parameters displayed are as described for the LINPS command
earlier in this section, with the exception of the following:STATUS
NP status
WO,AB,CB,MB,DIS
Termination
Terminating PP (LIPPT)
The command LIPPT terminates the PP. The PP must be manually blocked
before this command is allowed.
LIPPT:PP=port;
Terminating LP (LILPT)
The command LILPT terminates a specified LP. To terminate the LP, it must
be manually blocked.
LILPT:LP=port;
Terminating NP (LINPT)
The command LINPT terminates the specified NP. The NP must be manually
blocked before this command is allowed. Any NTN associated within a DTE,
ROT or Access group must also be removed.
LINPT:NP=port;
130
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
Statistics
Printing Statistics for PP (STPPP)
The STPPP command displays the PP statistics for a selected port, all PPs
combined or all PPs reported in port number order; statistics are reported
independent of port state.
The display for combined PP statistics (STPPP;) will separate synchronous PP
statistics from asynchronous PP statistics.
STPPP<:PP=port>;
Where:port
Physical port number
1-1-1-(1-18) or all; PP=all
prints PP statistics for each
initialised port in turn.
For example, for physical port statistics for async port 3:
STPPP:PP=1-1-1-3;
PHYSICAL PORT STATISTICS
PP
TYPE
———————————————
1-1-1-3
ASYNC
OVERRUNS
=
0
PARITY_ERR
=
1
MEMORY ERRS =
0
FRAME ERRS
0
=
FLOWTYPE
IN: XONXOFF
OUT: XONXOFF
FLOWSTATE
IN: ON
OUT: OFF
CHARS
IN: 1458382
OUT: 23738935
CHARS PER MIN
IN: 0
OUT: 0
CHARS PEAK/MIN
IN: 0
OUT: 0
END
Note the following parameters:
FLOWTYPE
Type of incoming/
outgoing flow control
NOFLOW,MODEM,
XONXOFF or BOTH.
When ACCESS=SWITCHED_HAYES, the following fields are appended to the
STPPP output display:
Successful Outgoing Connections
Successful Incoming Connections
Failed Outgoing Connections
Failed Incoming Connections
Connections cleared by DCE
Connections cleared by DTE
Note that the accumulated values for the STPPP command can be reset to
zero as follows:
STPPR:PP=1-1-1-3;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
131
6. Async
Printing Statistics for LP (STLPP)
The STLPP command displays the LP statistics only for a specifed async port,
all LPs combined or all LPs reported in port number order. Statistics are
reported independent of port state.
STLPP<:LP=port>;
Where:port
Link port number
1-1-1-(1-18) or all; "LP=all"
prints LP statistics for each
initialised port in turn.
For example:
STLPP:LP=1-1-1-3;
LINK PORT STATISTICS
LP
:
1-1-1-3
PORT STATE
: IDLE
END
Where:Port state:
State of the link port. One of:
COMMAND
IDLE
CONNECTING
CONNECTED
DISCONNECTING
TRANSFERRING
TELNET
TESTING
Printing Statistics for NP (STNPP)
The STNPP command prints NP statistics for a selected NP, all NPs combined
or all NPs reported sequentially in port number order; statistics are reported
independent of port state.
The combined NP statistics include NP statistics for X.25/QLLC.
STNPP<:NP=port>;
Where:port
Network port number
1-1-1-(1-18) or all; "NP=all"
prints NP statistics for each
initialised port in turn.
For example, to print statistics for the X.29 network port 1-1-1-3:
132
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
STNPP:NP=1-1-1-3;
NETWORK PORT STATISTICS
NP
:
1-1-1-3 PROT
Call duration
:
00:24:34
: X29
Port State
:
CONNECTED OUTGOING
X.25 address
:
1234589001
Total calls
:
1 IN
2 OUT
Accepted calls
:
0 IN
1 OUT
Current calls
:
0 IN
1 OUT
L3 DATA PKTS
:
2929 IN
2932 OUT
L3 OCTETS
:
3501 IN
3513 OUT
L3 INT
:
0 IN
0 OUT
L3 RST request
:
0 IN
0 OUT
0 GEN
L3 CLR request
:
0 IN
0 OUT
0 GEN
Last CLR cause/diag
:
0/0 IN
0/0 OUT
0/0 GEN
Clearing
: 00:0
01:0
03:0
05:0
09:0
11:0
13:0
Causes
: 17:0
19:0
25:0
33:0
41:0
Others:0
[— TRAFFIC / MINUTE —]
L3 PACKETS
:
0 IN
0 OUT
L3 OCTETS
:
32 IN
32 OUT
L3 PACKETS (peak)
:
0 IN
0 OUT
L3 OCTETS (peak)
:
32 IN
32 OUT
END
Note that:
Port state
State of the port. One of:
CONNECTING INCOMING
CONNECTING OUTGOING
CONNECTED INCOMING
CONNECTED OUTGOING
CLEARING INCOMING
CLEARING OUTGOING
DISCONNECTED
X.25 address
Called address originating from async port before any
address modification.
Note that the accumulated values for the STNPP command can be reset to
zero as follows:
STNPR:NP=1-1-1-3;
Total and current calls are unchanged as well as traffic/min rate counters.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
133
6. Async
Macros
The configuration of async ports can be simplified by the use of macro commands, i.e.
LIPOI
LIPOD
LIPOB
LIPOT
Initialises all port objects
Deblocks all port objects
Blocks all port objects
Terminates all port objects
The LIPOI command automatically initialises a PP, LP and NP for either an
async or shared async/TELNET port, e.g.
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-1,PROT=X28;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-1,PROT=X28_OR_TELNET;
PAD Activity States
The configured async port can be in one of three activity states:
a. IDLE
b. COMMAND (logged on or not logged on)
c. DATA TRANSFER
If no calls are present or the port is not being used, the port will enter the idle
state. This means that it appears dormant because it is sending no data to the
screen.
To “wake-up” the async port, the user must press the <RETURN> key once
or, if RATE=auto is set in LIPPS, several times. The user will see either the
default command prompt (*) or a user configured prompt (e.g., PFA2 Site 3>).
If the prompt is shown, the async port is now in the command state.
Normally, the user will want to make a call to a specific device or service. In
doing so, the async port enters the data transfer state.
The user is then free to interact with the device or service as if it was connected directly to the user’s terminal.
Figure 6-3 describes the three states and the commands required to change
between each state.
134
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
Data Transfer State
i) Issue <BREAK>
ii) ESCAPE
iii) incoming CLR from
network if terminal call
i) CLR from network
when call from
network
i) Initiate Call
ii) INT, ICLEAR,RPAR, RPAR?,RSET? or
RESET
(if call present)
iii) Press <RETURN> (if call present)
Command State
i) Timeout (60 s)
(if no call present)
ii) LOGOFF
i) Press <RETURN>
Idle State
Figure 6-3: State transitions for async ports.
Making a Call
There are several different methods for making an asynchronous terminal call.
The degree of flexibility possible allows X.25 facilities and Call User Data to be
selected along with the numeric or mnemonic called address in the call string.
The call procedure is as follows:
1.)
2.)
3.)
Press <RETURN> key once or several times (fixed or autobaud,
respectively) until the prompt is displayed
Type <call string> <RETURN>
Carry out normal processing
If a user attempts to call a host and is already connected, then he/she will be
notified by the display:
ERR
If a user attempts to call an unknown X.25 address then the following message is displayed:
CLR
The format of the call string is:
<X.25 FACILITIES>-<ADDRESS>* D<CALL USER DATA>
where the X.25 facilities and Call User Data fields are optional.
For example:
1234 - makes a call to the specified called address, i.e. 1234.
.ERICSSON - makes a call to a called address which is configured in
the ANNAI command (see Routing section), linking the mnemonic
address ERICSSON to an NTN. Note that mnemonic addressing must
start with “.” and the first character must not be a digit.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
135
6. Async
.ERICSSON*DCALLDATA - as for .ERICSSON, except the mnemonic
address .ERICSSON is to be called with specific Call User Data selected, i.e. “CALLDATA”.
N12,R,G01-1234*DCALLDATA - incorporates selected X.25 facilities to
be requested (N12,R and G01) and specifies a numeric called address
(1234) and call user data information of “CALLDATA”. Where:
Network User Identification = 12
Reverse Charging is required
Closed User Group Number =1
Called address = 1234
Call User Data = CALLDATA
In addition, the term CALL can precede any call string at any time, e.g.
CALL 1234
CALL .ERICSSON
CALL N12,R,G01-1234*DCALLDATA
X.25 Facilities
The X.25 facilities can either be selected in the call string or in the ANNAI
command; facilities selected on the command line override X.25 facilities set
with the ANNAI command. With the former method particular facilities can be
requested by entering the letter associated with the facility before the called
address, i.e.
R,Gnn-1234
In this instance, Reverse charging and a Closed User Group are requested
with the call of NTN 1234. If facilities are requested then “-” must ALWAYS be
used to delimit the Facilities field from the Address field.
The facilities available are:
N<<NUI string>>
N (Network User Identification) identifies the user/originator of the call for
security purposes, e.g. to allow access to PSS. The <<NUI string>> is network
dependent but must not contain space, del, “-”, “,” or “+”. Alphanumeric as
well as numeric values are allocated by the public network. If echo suppression is needed, the NUI can also be selected with the NUI command before
the call is attempted; the NUI can be switched off at any time by using the
IDOFF command.
Gnn
Gnn (Closed User Group) is used to create a private network on a public
service allowing users in the same group to call and be called by each other. A
unique number nn (00 to 99) has to be provided by the public service for each
user in the basic group. Once provided, access to members of the group is by
selecting, e.g. G05.
Onn
Onn (Closed User Group with Outgoing Access) is an optional facility agreed
for a period of time for virtual calls. This facility, if subscribed to, enables the
136
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
DTE to belong to one or more CUGs and to originate virtual calls to DTEs in
the open part of the network (i.e., DTEs not belonging to any CUG) and to
DTEs belonging to other CUGs with the incoming access capability. A unique
number nn (00 to 99) has to be provided by the public service for each user in
the basic CUG.
R
R (Reverse Charging requested) is set in the CALL packet which causes the
recipient of the call rather than the originator of the call to be charged for the
call.
F
F (Fast Select) alters the format of a call request packet. The packets are
invisible to the user, and would only be set if specially required for the network
or the service being called. The greatest effect of setting F is that the call user
data field of the packet is expanded from 16 to 128 bytes. It can be used to
contain all the information required to set up the host session so that logging
on is not required etc., hence Fast Select. F also allows the user to send user
data in the accept packet or the clear packet.
Q
Q (Fast select Restricted Response) is as for F but the call may only be
cleared by the call recipient (e.g., datagram service).
Pnn
Pnn (Maximum Packet Size) is selected under non-standard circumstances
when a required max. packet size can be enforced on a per call basis. The nn
value is comprised of a 1st digit which is for outgoing packets and a 2nd digit
for incoming packets, i.e.
Packet Size
16
32
64
128
256
512
1024
2048
4096
n digit value
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
Note that incoming and outgoing max. packet sizes are normally set to be the
same.
Wnn
Wnn (Default Window Size) can be selected when window sizes of 1 to 7 are
required in both directions. As for Pnn, the nn value for W is comprised of a
1st and 2nd digit for outgoing and incoming packets per call, respectively. For
example, typing W22 would set a window size of 2 in both directions.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
137
6. Async
Non-X.25 Facilities
S
S (Reselection Prevention Facility) prevents X.29 reselection messages from
being effective at the called DTE.
Address field
The addresses can be either numeric or mnemonic; if a mnemonic is required
it will be translated according to the ANNAI command. Mnemonic addresses
must ALWAYS be preceded by a “.”, e.g. “.SUPPORT”; any character can be
used in the string except for “*”, “+”, DEL and “,” . In addition, mnemonic
addresses cannot start with a digit.
If Call User Data is required, then all addresses must be separated from the
Call User Data field by using “*”.
Call User Data field
The optional Call User Data field is separated from a mnemonic address field
only by use of a “*”; for numeric address fields “*” is not required. The field
should start with either D or P followed by up to 12 ASCII characters. An
example would be “R,Gnn-1234*DEricsson PFA1”. Either the letters D (Data)
or P (Password) are used to precede the Call User Data field to separate it
from the rest of the call string. When the P form is used the password is NOT
echo suppressed.
X.28 Command Signals
PAD command signals provide the following functions:
Establishment and clearing of a virtual call
Establishment of user profiles
Selection of PAD parameters
Sending of Interrupts
Request Circuit status
Resetting of virtual calls
The following command signals are available to the user. For conformance to
X.28 the plus sign (+) can be used anywhere in an X.28 specified command
signal instead of the <RETURN> key.
138
PAD COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
<BREAK>
Break signal. Dependent on the setting of X.3
parameter 7.
CALL [addr]
This establishes a connection between the
user and a given device (specified by the
address) by preceding the called address
(numeric or mnemonic) with CALL.
CLR (CLEAR)
Clears the call and makes the line inactive if
the call originated from the network. If a Fast
Select call is cleared then Call User Data (up to
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
128 characters) can be specified after CLR as
follows:
CLR <Call User Data>
The Call User data message will vary with
application.
ICLR (ICLEAR)
Sends an X.29 “Invitation to Clear” message to
network, i.e. DTE clearing of the remote PAD,
during a call.
INT
Sends an INTerrupt packet to the network.
Typically used for telling a host to exit from a
process, i.e. the listing of a long file.
PROF (PROFILE)
This command is used to select a different
async profile to the one implemented at the
start of the call. Select the profile as, e.g.
PROF 90, Where “90” is the async profile
name.
HELP
The following HELP is available:
HELP ADDRESS displays the called addresses that are
valid.
HELP PROFILE displays the currently operating profile and
the profile set for the line
HELP PROFILES displays all profiles and settings on the
unit.
HELP PROFILE < profile name> displays the parameter
settings for the specified profile
HELP COMMAND(S) displays a list of all X.28 commands
available
HELP PARAMETERS displays all extended format
parameter identifier for X.3 parameters
HELP PARAMETER <param name/number>provides a
description of the X.3 parameter selected
HELP ADDRESS displays all configured address details
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
LANG (LANGUAGE)
This command specifies the language to be
used for extended dialogue mode and service
signals. Only the English language is
supported.
LOGOFF
Clears any call in progress. The line becomes
inactive.
IDOFF
IDOFF switches off the NUI of the terminal
user if the NUI set previously by the NUI
command signal. Note that NUIs set in the call
139
6. Async
string will automatically be switched off when
the call is cleared.
PAR? (PARAMETER)
READ
A listing of local X.3 parameters are displayed
either showing the parameter reference
number and the associated decimal value or
the extended dialogue mode and the
associated decimal value.
PAR? <param>
Selected local X.3 parameters can be
displayed by entering PAR? and selecting the
parameter reference number (i.e. PAR? 1 or
PAR? 6,11,12,15) or extended dialogue
abbreviation(i.e., PAR? esc or PAR?
sig,spe,flo,edi).
RPAR? (RREAD)
As for the PAR? command but sends an X.29
message to display the X.3 parameters of the
remote X.29 host/device rather than the local
PAD.
RPAR <param>
As for the PAR? command but sends an X.29
message to selectively display X.3 parameters
of the remote X.29 host/device rather than the
local PAD.
RESET
Resets a virtual call. All incoming terminal data
will be purged except for pending clear
commands.
SET
This sets selected X.3 parameters to override
those set when a line or call profile is in
operation. Normally SET is issued when a call
is up. The command is used as follows:
SET 1:0 or SET esc:0
SET 1:0,16:5 or SET esc:0,sig:5
Single or multiple X.3 parameters can be set in
normal or extended format.
SET? <param>
The SET? <param no> command will set local
X.3 parameters and will display the changed
X.3 parameters in the parameter reference
number form with the associated decimal
value or the extended format, e.g.
SET? 1:0 or SET? esc:0
SET? 1:0,2:0 or SET? esc:0,ech:0
gives: PAR 1:0 or PAR esc:0 or PAR 1:0 2:0 or
esc:0 ech:0
140
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
If parameter 6 is >16 then the extended format
is displayed.
RSET? <param>
(RSETREAD <param>)
STAT
STAT requests the status of the virtual circuit.
The following messages are displayed if the
proprietary parameter YEAR=1 (this is default):
If YEAR:1
FREE
ENGAGED
If YEAR:2
FREE - No Call Established
ENGAGED - Call Established
If YEAR:128
ENGAGED (or FREE)
Line Totals:
Characters out:
Characters in:
Parity errors:
Framing errors:
RX device overruns:
RX buffer overruns:
66295
3999
0
0
0
0
Call Totals:
Characters out:
Characters in:
0
3
ENGAGED
Line Totals:
Characters out:
Characters in:
Parity errors:
Framing errors:
RX device overruns:
RX buffer overruns:
66295
3999
0
0
0
0
Call Totals:
Characters out:
Characters in:
0
3
If YEAR:129
(If call present)
If YEAR:130
(If call present)
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
As for the SET? <param> command but is
used
to send an X.29 message to change and
display X.3 parameters from the remote X.29
host/device rather than the local PAD.
ENGAGED - Call Established
Outgoing call
X.25 Called
= 7777
X.25 Calling
= 01
141
6. Async
Line Totals:
Characters out:
Characters in:
Parity errors:
Framing errors:
RX device overruns:
RX buffer overruns:
66295
3999
0
0
0
0
Call Totals:
Characters out:
Characters in:
0
3
Note that Outgoing calls and Call Totals are not displayed when no call is
established.
Service Signals
Service signals provide the following functions:
Transmit call progress signals to the start stop mode DTE, i.e. terminal.
Acknowledge PAD command signals.
Transmit information regarding PAD operation to the start stop mode
DTE, i.e. terminal.
Note that all PAD service signals will be suppressed if X.3 parameter 6 is set
to 0.
PADID
This PAD identification service signal is
displayed when waking an asynchronous line
from the idle state, e.g. PFA X.28 0 line 1
Speed 9600
ERR
This is an indication that the X.28 command
issued to the PFA product was in error. The
prefix “ERR - ” will be displayed followed by a
more meaningful error message,
e.g. ERR - BAD COMMAND
If the logoff timer expires (after 255 seconds)
then the “CLR ERR - TIMED OUT” signal will
also be issued.
COM
This indicates an incoming call to a terminal.
The service signal can be displayed with the
destination called address, the X.25 facilities
selected and Call User data displayed, e.g.
123450055
FAC: P88,W77,F
Welcome
COM
142
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
Up to 12 characters are allowed for the Call
User Data (up to 124 if Fast Select is used).
CLR
The CLR service signal is associated with an
incoming clear packet from the network which
could be in response to an X.25 clear packet
from network or link failure, ICLEAR X.29
command, an unsuccessful call attempt or an
unsolicited clearing of the call by the remote
station. The full format of the service signal is:
CLR <cause><cause code>- <diagnostics><text>
<DTE address>
<facilities>
<clear user data>
For example:
CLR DTE C:0 D:65 Call cleared, by remote device,
data may be lost
123450055
Thank you
<cause>
The <cause> field (e.g., DTE, INV etc.)
indicates the reason for the call to be cleared.
<cause
code>
This is the decimal representation of the cause
code.
<diagnostics>
This is the decimal representation of the
diagnostic code.
<text>
The <text> string is generated to explain the
reason for a CLR, e.g. Call cleared, by remote
device.
<DTE
The <DTE address> string is the X.25 called
address>* DTE address which initiated the clear. This will
always be displayed with a Fast select call
irrespective of the “YEAR=” parameter.
<clear
user
data>*
Any clear user data contained in a clear packet
is displayed when a Fast select call is cleared.
* NOTE
The fields marked with “*” are only displayed when X.281988 is in operation (i.e., YEAR=2 or YEAR=130 must be
set).
CLR CONF
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
This service signal is associated with an
incoming CLC packet from the network and
143
6. Async
would normally be issued in response to a
command. The full format is:
CLR
CLR CONF - <text>
<facilities>
The <text> string (e.g., Call cleared, confirmed)
is generated to explain the reason for a CLR.
The <facilities> string provides charging
information only if the facility C was requested
at call setup.
NOTE:
The <text> and <facilities> fields are only displayed when
X.28-1988 is in operation (i.e., parameter YEAR=2 or
YEAR=130 must be set).
RESET
This service signal is issued when the RESET
command is used to reset the virtual circuit.
The full format is:
RESET<cause><diagnostic><text>
See the CLR service signal for explanations of
<cause>, <diagnostic> and <text>.
TRANSFER TO
This service signal is an indication of the host
making a X.29 reselection request.
The full format is:
TRANSFER TO:
<reselected DTE address block>
<facilities>
TRANSFER TO:
123456788
FAC: R
An attempt to reselect on an incoming call or a
call that has reselection prevention facility
requested (i.e., S) will cause an X.29 error
message to be generated.
144
PAGE
This service signal will be output to the
terminal when the number of lines indicated by
X.3 parameter 22 have been output in the
command state. The PFA product will then be
in “page wait state” until a <RETURN> key is
pressed.
ENGAGED
AND FREE
These service signals are only displayed as a
result of a STAT command when a call is either
in progress or not in progress, respectively.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
ENGAGED - Call Established
FREE - No Call Established
PAR
This service signal is displayed as a response
to a PAR? command and reports the X.3
parameter settings of the local PAD to the
terminal.
RPAR
This service signal is a response to a RPAR?
or RSET? command and reports the X.3
parameter settings of the remote PAD to the
terminal.
* (PROMPT)
This default PAD prompt service signal (*) is
shown if the PFA product is ready to accept a
command signal and if:
X.3 parameter 6 is set to 5
or:
X.3 parameter 6 is set to 21
Note that if X.3 parameter 6 is set to <20 then
changing the * prompt will make the PFA
product not conform to X.28.
Clearing a Call
The procedure for clearing a call is:
1.
2.
Return to the Command State by issuing the <BREAK> sequence
(e.g. Ctrl. P)
Type CLR <RETURN>
The PFA product will return to the Idle State if the user is not logged on and
the call will be cleared. After a call has been cleared the service signal is
displayed, e.g.
CLR CONF - Call cleared, confirmed
The cleared message displayed is dependent on X.3 parameters 6 and proprietary parameter YEAR=year.
If the PFA product is in Command State but receives no input for 1 min, it will
automatically revert to the IDLE state.
Routing analysis for Async operation
With respect to routing analysis, the async port can be configured to be one
of:
Dedicated DTE (leased)
Dedicated DTE (Switched Direct Call)
Shared Access DTE
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
145
6. Async
The DTE is associated with a unique NTN with the PSTEI command. This NTN
can be assigned to a dedicated async port or to an Access Group. Various
network services such as HVCs/PVCs, access control restrictions and mnemonic name analysis are available.
For further details see Section 12.
Async Profiles
To make asynchronous operation easier for the user, a series of X.3 parameter
settings can be grouped together to form a Profile which will be invoked for an
asynchronous call. The profile is given a name which reflects its usage (e.g.,
INITIAL); standard profiles are already available in the PFA product and reflect
some “typical” groupings of parameters.
Asynchronous profiles can be implemented in several ways.
Line Profile
Profiles can be set for asynchronous lines during asynchronous line configuration with the LILPS command. The profile is invoked immediately the line
becomes deblocked.
Call Profile
Upon call setup, a different async profile to the one specified for the port (with
LILPS command) can be selected by associating the called address with a
profile via the ANNAI command; this associates the profile with the call. When
the call is cleared the async profile operating will again be the one associated
with the port.
Alternatively, the PROF <Profile Name> command can be used to override all
other profiles after “breaking” into the current call.
SET <param value><,param value>
This is not strictly the setting of a complete profile but allows the setting of
selected X.3 parameters. This “fine tuning” process can be carried out when a
call is either in progress or not in progress, although it is more usually used
when a call is connected.
The priorities for profile usage are as follows:
SET >>>
Highest
CALL PROFILE >>
LINE PROFILE
Lowest
Standard CCITT Async Profiles
Standard CCITT async profiles available to the user are as follows:
INITIAL
90
91
MESSAGE
CHAR
TRANS
TEST
146
Terminal profile
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
"
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
REVERSE
REMHOST
(for Reverse PAD applications)
Host profile
NOTE:
The above profiles cannot be modified.
The TEST async profile should not be used except when performing async line
testing.
The table shown in Figure 6-4 displays the parameter values that are set for
the above profiles.
1
ESC APE
INIT IA L
REVERSE
90
91
M ESSAGE
CHA R
T RA NS
TEST
e sc
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
2
EC HO
ech
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
3
Forwa rdi ng se t
f or
18
0
126
0
2
0
0
2
4
Forwa rd Ti m e r
i dl
0
1
0
20
0
1
1
0
5
Anc i l l a ry
De vi c e C ontrol
de v
2
2
1
0
2
2
0
2
6
C ontrol of PAD
se rvi c e si gna l s
si g
21
8
1
0
21
21
21
8
7
Bre a ka c ti on
bre
8
4
2
2
19
19
8
0
8
Di sc a rd output
di s
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
9
C Rpa d
c rp
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
Li n e Fo l d
f ol
80
0
0
0
80
80
0
0
11
Ba ud ra te
spe
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
12
PAD Fl ow
C ontrol
flo
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
13
LF i nse rt
lfi
4
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
14
LFpa d
lfp
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
15
Edi t
e di
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
16
C ha ra c te r
de l e te
c de l
127
127
127
127
127
127
0
0
17
Li ne de l e te
Ide l
24
24
24
24
24
24
0
0
18
Li ne di spl a y
Idi s
18
18
18
18
18
18
0
0
19
Edi ti ng PAD
se rvi c e si gna l s
e si g
2
2
1
1
2
2
0
0
20
Ec ho m a sk
mas
248
0
0
0
248
248
0
0
21
Pa ri ty
tre a tm e nt
pa r
3
1
0
0
3
3
0
0
22
Pa ge wa i t
pa g
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
* Pri ntm a sk
pm a s
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
* C ontrol c ha rs
c o nc
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
-
* Host
host
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
-
* Ta bs e ve ry
ta bs
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
-
* Te rm ta bs
tta b
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
-
* Host ta bs
hta b
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
-
* Hostpa ri ty
hpa r
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
-
* YEAR
ye a r
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
-
* Awa ke
a wa ke
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
147
6. Async
Figure 6-4: Standard async profile parameter settings. Asterisk (*) indicates
proprietary parameter.
Host Connection
There is only one async profile for host usage that is supplied as standard.
REMHOST
The REMHOST profile is not a local terminal profile b
but is used to set the X.3 parameters of the
call-initiating X.29 host. This is primarily used to
suppress local echo at the remote X.29 host. The
profile has the X.3 parameters:
P1=1,P2=0,P3=18,P4=0,P5=2,P6=0,P7=29,P8=0,
P9=0,P10=0,P12=1,P13=0,P14=0,P15=0,P16=0,
P17=0,P18=0,P19=0,P20=0,P21=3,P22=0
If extra profiles are to be configured for connection to an X.29 host ensure
parameter 6 is always set to 0.
Non-CCITT Async Profiles
New profiles can be created in addition to the standard CCITT async profiles
by configuring a new profile name and user selected string of X.3 parameters.
The following MML commands are associated with async profiles.
NAPRI
NAPRS
NAPRT
NAPRP
Initialising async USER profile
Setting async USER profile
Terminating async USER profile
Printing async profile (CCITT and USER)
Initialising Async USER Profile (NAPRI)
The NAPRI command will create a named USER profile and set the specified
X.3 parameters. These parameters can be input in long form (e.g., ESC=1) or
its equivalent short form (e.g., P1=1).
NAPRI:PROFILE=name<,PROT=prot><,ESC=esc>
<,ECH=ech><,FOR=for><,IDL=idl><,DEV=dev><,SIG=sig>
<,BRE=bre><,DIS=dis><,CRP=crp><,FOL=fol><,FLO=flo>
<,LFI=lfi><,LFP=lfp><,EDI=edi><,CDEL=cdel><,LDEL=ldel>
<,LDIS=ldis><,ESIG=esig><,MAS=mas><,PAR=par>
<,PAG=pag><,PMASK=pmask><,CONC=conc>
<,HOST=host><,TABS=tabs><,TTAB=ttab><,HTAB=htab>
<,HPAR=hpar><,YEAR=year><,AWAKE=awake>;
Where:-
148
name
Profile name
1-16 characters
prot
Protocol
TERMINAL or HOST;
default=TERMINAL.
esc
(or P1)
PAD escape char
OFF (0)
DLE (1)
(32-126); default=1.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
ech
(or P2)
Echo control
OFF (0)
ON (1); default=1.
for
(or P3)
Forwarding chars
OFF (0)
<&ANUM> (&1)
<&CR> (&2)
<&ESCG> (&4)
<&DELG> (&8)
<&ETXG> (&16)
<&FORMAT> (&32)
<&OTHERS> (&64)
combination of:
idl
(or P4)
Forward idle timer
(in 1/20ths sec.)
0-255;
default=0
dev
(or P5)
Inflow control
OFF (0)
DATA (1)
ALWAYS (2); default=2.
sig
(or P6)
Service signal display
OFF (0)
<&SIGS> (&1)
<&PROMPT> (&4)
<&NOCMD> (&8)
<&EXTENGLISH>
(&16)
or sum of these bits
<0-21>; default=21
bre
(or P7)
Breakaction
OFF (0)
<&INTERRUPT> (&1)
<&RESET> (&2)
<&X29BREAK> (&4)
<&ESCAPE> (&8)
<&DISCARD> (&16)
or sum of these bits
<0-31>; default=12.
dis
(or P8)
Discard
OFF (0)
ON (1); default=0.
crp
(or P9)
No. of CR pad chars
OFF (0)
(0-255); default=0.
fol
(or P10)
No. of chars per line
OFF (0)
(0-255); default=80.
flo
(or P12)
Outflow
OFF (0)
ON (1); default=1.
lfi
(or P13)
Lfinsert
OFF (0)
<&TX> (&1)
<&FORWARD> (&2)
<&ECHO> (&4)
or sum of these bits <0-7>;
default=5.
lfp
(or P14)
No. of LF pad chars
OFF (0)
(0-255); default=0.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Alpha-numerics
CR
ESC,BEL,ENQ
DEL,CAN,DC2
ETX,EOT
HT,LF,VT,FF
All other control chars;
default=18.
149
6. Async
edi
(or P15)
Edit control
OFF (0)
ON (1); default=1.
cdel
(or P16)
ASCII delete char
0-127;
default=127.
ldel
(or P17)
ASCII line delete
0-127;
default=24.
ldis
(or P18)
ASCII line display
0-127;
default=18.
esig
(or P19)
Control of edit
service signals
OFF (0),
PRINTER (1)
VDU (2);
(8,32-126)
or sum of these bits
<0-128>; default=2.
mas
(or P20)
Echo mask
ALL (0)
<&CR> (&1)
<&LF> (&2)
<&FORMAT> (&4)
<&BELG> (&8)
<&ESCG> (&16)
<&ACKG> (&32)
<&EDIT> (&64)
<&OTHERS> (&128)
150
echo all control character
no echo of CR
no echo of LF
no echo of VT HT FF
no echo of BELL BS
no echo of ESC ENQ
no echo of ACK NAK STX
no echo of designated
edit chars
no echo of other ctrl. chars
or sum of these bits
<0-248>; default=248.
par
(or P21)
Parity handling
OFF (0)
CHECK (1)
GENERATE (2)
CHECK&GENERATE (3);
default=3.
pag
(or P22)
Page height
0-255;
default=0.
*pmask
(no)printmask
NO (0)
YES (1); default=0.
*conc
(no)controlchars
NO (0)
YES (1); default=1.
*host
(no)host X29 control
NO (0)
YES (1); default=1.
*tabs
tabs every n chars
0-255; default=8.
*ttab
(no)termtabs
NO (0)
YES (1); default=1.
*htab
(no)hosttabs
NO (0)
YES (1); default=1.
*hpar
hostparity
UNCHANGED (0)
EVEN (1)
ODD (2)
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
MARK (3)
SPACE (4); default=0.
*year
triple-x revision year
1980 (0)
1984 (1)
1988 (2)
<&EXTENSIONS> (128)
proprietary extensions to
YEAR
<0,1,2,128,129,130>;
default=2.
*awake
autowake
NO (0)
YES (1); default=0.
Parameters marked with * are non-X.3 proprietary parameters.
For example, in long format:
NAPRI:PROFILE=VAX,PROT=TERMINAL,ESC=DLE,ECH=ON,FOR=CR&ETXG,IDL=0,
DEV=ALWAYS,SIG=SIGS&PROMPT&EXT.ENGLISH,BRE=ESCAPE,DIS=ON,CRP=OFF,
FOL=OFF,FLO=ON,LFI=ECHO,LFP=OFF,EDI=ON,CDEL=127,LDEL=24,LDIS=18,
ESIG=VDU,MAS=ALL,PAR=CHECK&GENERATE,PAG=0,PMASK=NO,CONC=YES,
HOST=YES,TABS=8,TTAB=YES,HTAB=YES,HPAR=EVEN,YEAR=1988,AWAKE=NO;
Setting an Async USER Profile (NAPRS)
The NAPRS command will allow profile parameters for an existing USER
profile to be modified; this prevents a user from having to delete and reinitialise a USER profile if some parameters need to be altered.
NAPRS:PROFILE=name<,ESC=esc><,ECH=ech>
<,FOR=for><,IDL=idl><,DEV=dev><,SIG=sig><,BRE=bre>
<,DIS=dis><,CRP=crp><,FOL=fol><,FLO=flo><,LFI=lfi>
<,LFP=lfp><,EDI=edi><,CDEL=cdel><,LDEL=ldel>
<,LDIS=ldis><,ESIG=esig><,MAS=mas><,PAR=par>
<,PAG=pag><,PMASK=pmask><,CONC=conc>
<,HOST=host><,TABS=tabs><,TTAB=ttab><,HTAB=htab>
<,HPAR=hpar><,YEAR=year><,AWAKE=awake>;
Where the parameters for the profile are as defined for the NAPRI command
earlier in this section.
For example, to alter the profile VAX by setting the ESCAPE to 0:
NAPRS:PROFILE=VAX,P1=0;
Printing an Async Profile (NAPRP)
The NAPRP command displays either a listing of the profiles available on the
unit or the individual async profile parameters if the profile name is specified.
NAPRP<:PROFILE=name><,STYLE=style>;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
151
6. Async
Where:name
Profile name
1-16 characters
style
output style
LONG,SHORT;
default=SHORT
For example, for a listing of CCITT and user defined profiles available on the
unit:
NAPRP;
PROFILE
PROT
INITIAL
TERMINAL
REVERSE
TERMINAL
REMHOST
HOST
90
TERMINAL
91
TERMINAL
MESSAGE
TERMINAL
CHAR
TERMINAL
CCITT
TRANS
TERMINAL
TEST
TERMINAL
TESTPROF
TERMINAL
ZMODEM
TERMINAL
USER
END
Alternatively, for a typical recommended profile for use on MODEM lines, the
configured X.3 parameters can be displayed.
NAPRP:PROFILE=zmodem;
PROT=TERMINAL,P1=0,P2=0,P3=0,P4=1,P5=0,P6=5,P7=8,P8=0,P9=0,P10=0,
P12=0,P13=0,P14=0,P15=0,P16=127,P17=24,P18=18,P19=2,P20=248,P21=0,
P22=0,PMASK=0,CONC=1,HOST=1,TABS=8,TTAB=1,HTAB=1,HPAR=0,YEAR=2,
AWAKE=1;
END
If the profile was to be modified for KERMIT operation, the parameters P3=2
and P4=0 should be set instead of P3=0 and P4=1.
Terminating an Async USER Profile (NAPRT)
The NAPRT command will delete a specified async profile.
NAPRT:PROFILE=profile;
For example, to terminate an asynchronous profile “VAX”:
NAPRT:PROFILE=VAX;
EXECUTED
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EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
X.3-1988 Parameter Explanation
Parameter 1: esc
If the value is set to 1 (i.e., 1:1 or esc:1) the escape character will be DLE (Ctrl.
P) and will return the user to the command state; specifying a value of 0 will
not return a user to the command state. The optional escape values from 32
to 126 decimal, representing the ASCII value of the selected escape character
are also supported.
Parameter 2: ech
If echo is set (i.e., 2:1 or ech:1) then the terminal input will be echoed by the
PFA product. If noecho is set (i.e., 2:0 or ech:0) then input will not be echoed.
Parameter 3: for
This parameter, along with parameter 4, selects the data forwarding conditions. The “number” denotes the appropriate decimal value which can be the
sum of the following values:
0
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
No data forwarding characters
the characters A-Z, a-z and 0-9
CR
ESC, BEL, ENQ, ACK
DEL, CAN and DC2
ETX, EOT
HT, LF, VT, FF
All other characters except those specified in 2, 4, 8, 16, 18, 32
Forwarding is checked for only after other special actions have been taken; in
particular, the editing characters never cause forwarding.
The above numbers can be added together to suit a users requirements, e.g.
2 + 16 = 18 =>CR, ETX, EOT.
NOTE:
Any automatically inserted LF character in data to the host will be
placed in the same packet as the preceding <RETURN>. Thus
FOR=18 should be set rather than to 48 if LF is being inserted
automatically.
Parameter 4: idl
This forward timer can be in the range 0-255; 0 indicates that no data forwarding on timeout is enabled. Local editing will be suppressed if forwarding on a
timer is enabled, however this will not effect the reported value of parameter
15: edi.
Parameter 5: dev
This parameter affects software flow control from terminal to PFA product. If
DEV=DATA is set (i.e., 5:1) then only XON/XOFF flow control is enabled; if
DEV=OFF is set (i.e., 5:0) then only XON/XOFF flow control is disabled. If
DEV=ALWAYS is set to 5:2 then XON flow control is enabled as for 5:1;
parameter 5 will be read as SET.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
153
6. Async
Parameter 6: sig
Parameter 6 controls the PAD service signals/command signals and can be
set to:
0
1
5
8
21
No service signals sent to DTE
Service signals sent to DTE (no pad prompt)
Service signals sent to DTE plus English language (1+4)
Never enters command state (acts as reverse PAD)
Extended dialogue mode plus English plus Service signals sent to
DTE
The Extended dialogue mode is only supported on X.28-1988 so if 6:21 is set
then the YEAR parameter must be set to 2 or 130 to fully conform to the
standard.
Parameter 7: bre
This parameter sets the action to be taken if a BREAK command is issued or a
line break signal is received. The user will not normally need to set BRE=0 as
either the PFA product or the host should set the appropriate value. The
signals that the PFA product can send to the host are “indication of break”,
“interrupt” and “reset”. If BRE=0 then no action is taken; other possible values
and actions are as follows:
0
1
2
4
5
8
21
No action taken (NOBREAK, BREAKACTION=0)
Send “interrupt” signal
Send “reset”
Send "indication of break"
Send “interrupt” and then “indication of break”
Escape from data transfer state
send “interrupt”, “indication of break” and discard output (set
parameter DIS=1 also)
Note that BREAK time is fixed to 150 ms.
Parameter 8: dis
If parameter 8 is set to 1 then it will be set to discard data on receipt of a
<BREAK> from the DTE; parameter 7 must be set to 21 for this to occur.
Parameter 8 will be set back to normal data delivery on receipt of a RESET
command from the DTE or network. If 8:0 then normal data delivery will occur
on receipt of a <BREAK>.
Parameter 9: crp
The parameter controls the number of padding characters (NULs) to be
transmitted to the DTE after a <RETURN>. The value can be from 0-255 where
0 (X.28 compliant) does not insert padding characters except for the insertion
of two padding characters for line speed 1200 bps or four padding characters
for line speed 200,300,1200 or 75/1200 bps; value 255 (non-X.28 compliant)
disables padding characters irrespective of line speed. The parameter is only
applicable in the data transfer state. The setting of this parameter will not
normally be performed by an X.29 command.
154
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
Parameter 10: fol
The parameter controls line fold which is the number of graphic characters
displayed per line. The value can be from 0-255 where 0 means do not insert
any line folding.
Parameter 11: spe
Not displayed for this product.
Parameter 12: flo
If parameter 12 is set to 1 then this allows use of XON/XOFF for software flow
control of data from PFA product to the terminal. If parameter 12 is set to 0
then use of XON/XOFF is not allowed for flow control of data from PFA product to terminal.
Parameter 13: lfi
This parameter controls the insertion of a line feed after a <RETURN> in data
from the PAD to the DTE and also in the data stream to the network. Insertion
of a line feed is only applicable in the data transfer state. Permitted values are
as follows:
0
1
2
4
5
6
7
No line feed insertion
add line feed after <RETURN> from host
add line feed after <RETURN> to host
add line feed after <RETURN> echoed
add line feed after transmission to the DTE and after echo of
<RETURN> (1+4)
add line feed in data stream after <RETURN> from the DTE and
after echo of a <RETURN> to the DTE (2+4)
insert line feed in the data stream to and from the DTE and after
echo of a <RETURN> to the DTE (1+2+4)
Parameter 14: lfp
Parameter 14 controls the number of padding characters (NULs) to be transmitted to the DTE after a Linefeed character. LF padding is only applicable in
the data transfer state. The following characters are allowed:
0
1-255
Disables Linefeed padding
Sets the no. of padding characters
Parameter 15: edi
If edit is set (i.e., 15:1 or edi:1) then the local editing characters denoted by
parameters 16, 17 and 18 will perform the local editing function. If edit is not
set (i.e., 15:0 edi:0) then editing using parameters 15, 16 and 17 is not possible. See parameter 20 for suppression of edit character echo.
Parameter 16: cdel
This parameter defines the character that will cause character deletion in the
data stream from the stop start mode (i.e. terminal) DTE to the PFA product.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
155
6. Async
ASCII values available range from 0-127 (127 is DEL; default). Parameter 15
must be set to 1 for this parameter to be effective.
Parameter 17: ldel
This parameter defines the character that will cause line deletion. The ASCII
values available range from 0-127. Note that parameter 15 must be set to 1 for
this parameter to be effective.
Parameter 18: ldis
This parameter defines the character that will cause line buffer display. The
ASCII values available range from 0-127. Note that parameter 15 must be set
to 1 for this parameter to be effective.
Parameter 19: esig
This parameter controls the service signals for character/line deletions. The
values which can be set are:
0
1
2
No editing PAD service signals
Editing PAD service signals for printer
Editing PAD service signals for VDU
Editing service signals are not displayed if parameter 6 is 0.
Parameter 20: mas
This parameter controls the echoing of International Alphabet No. 5 Control
characters (i.e., Columns 0 and 1 of IA5) from the DTE.
0
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
No echo mask (all characters echoed)
No echo of <RETURN>
No echo of LF
No echo of VT, HT, FF
No echo of BEL, BS
No echo of ESC, ENQ
No echo of ACK, NAK, STX, SOH, EOT, ETB, ETX
No echo of editing characters as designated by Parameters 16,17
and 18
No echo of all other characters not mentioned above in columns
0 and 1 of IA5, i.e. NUL, SO, SI, DLE, DC1, DC2, DC3, DC4 and
SYN.
Combinations of the basic values may be formed.
This parameter is not effective when parameter 2 (ech) is set to 0. If parameter
5, 12 or 22 is set to a non-zero value, then the XON and XOFF characters are
not echoed.
Parameter 21: par
This parameter controls the handling of parity between the PFA product and
the DTE. Parameter 21 cannot be altered if hardware parity checking is enabled. Four values can be selected:
156
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
6. Async
0
1
2
3
No parity checking or generation
(NOINPARITY,OUTPARITY=unchanged )
Parity checking (sets INPARITY)
Parity generation (sets OUTPARITY)*
Parity checking and generation
* Parity sense OUTPARITY is set by Even, Odd, Mark, Space or Unchanged.
Parameter 22: pag
This parameter sets the number of line feed characters considered by the PFA
product for the page wait function; the value can be 0-255. If the number of
line feed characters has been reached a service signal of PAGE will be displayed.
The line count reset conditions are:
<RETURN> or XON (if param. 5 and 12 set to 0) after the PAGE service
signal is issued
Data forwarding conditions are met
Line feed in user input echoed
Line deleted service signal has been sent
On leaving PAD command state
Note that if 22:0 (pag:0) then page wait is disabled.
Proprietary Parameters
PMASK
If PMASK=1 is specified then control characters other than BEL, BS, TAB, LF,
VT, FF and CR are to be suppressed in host output to the terminal. If
PMASK=0 then all characters are transmitted to the terminal.
CONC
If CONC=1 then control characters received from the terminal will be transmitted to the host. If CONC=0 then control characters other than for local editing
or flow control will be ignored.
HOST
If HOST=1 is specified then a host message to set X.3 parameters will be
honoured. If HOST=0 then messages to set parameters will be ignored.
TABS
This specifies the tab settings with the format TABS=nn where nn is a value
between 0 and 255. The number of characters separating each tab position
can be specified.
TTAB
If TTAB=1 is specified then the terminal is capable of dealing with a horizontal
tab character and these are sent without transformation. If TTAB=0 is set then
the terminal cannot handle the horizontal tab character and these are ex-
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
157
6. Async
panded to the correct number of spaces (as required by the TABS parameter)
in the output.
HTAB
If HTAB=1 is specified then tab characters received from the terminal will be
transmitted to the X.29 host. If HTAB=0 is set then tab characters received
from the terminal are expanded to the number set by the TABS parameter in
the buffer.
HPAR
This proprietary HPAR parameter changes the sense of the parity generated
on data sent to the X.29 host. The “HPAR=” value specifies the type of parity
required:
0 = unchanged
1 = even
2 = odd
3 = mark
4 = space
YEAR
This proprietary parameter (e.g., YEAR=year) alters the version of X.28 implemented and whether a proprietary mode is to be implemented, i.e.
0
1
2
128
129
130
implements X.28-1980
implements X.28-1984
implements X.28-1988
implements X.28-1980 plus proprietary mode
implements X.28-1984 plus proprietary mode
implements X.28-1988 plus proprietary mode
AWAKE
If AWAKE=1 is specified then the line, upon initialisation, will behave as if it
has received a <RETURN> and will become active when DTR is raised. If
AWAKE=0 is set then DTR will not be raised.
158
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
ANNAI:NAME=TERM01,NTN=234101,ORIG=1111;
PSTEI:NP=1-1-1-1,
NTN=234101,INSADDR=NO;
ANNAI:NAME=TERM02,NTN=234102,TPROFILE=90;
TERM01
PFA1
Call:
PFA Product
Async
Port 1-1-1-1
.term02
.VAXHOST
VAXHOST
234206
X.25 1-1-1-6
ND=234206
X.25
Port 1-1-1-6
Asynchronous Example
Figure 6-5: Example of asynchronous operation.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
ANNAI:NAME=VAXHOST,NTN=234206;
Async
Port 6
X.25
Port 1-1-1-6
TERM02
Call:
.term01
.VAXHOST
Async
Port 1-1-1-2
PSTEI:NP=1-1-1-2,
NTN=234102,INSADDR=YES;
6. Async
159
6. Async
All terminals operate at 9600, 8,1.
Port Configuration in PFA1
TERM01
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-1,TYPE=ASYNC;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-1,PROT=X28;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-1,PROT=X29;
To initialise the local DTE for async:
PSTEI:NTN=234101,NP=1-1-1-1,
INSADDR=NO;
To deblock the async port:
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-1;
TERM02
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-2,TYPE=ASYNC;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-2,PROT=X28;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-2,PROT=X29;
To initialise the local DTE for async:
PSTEI:NTN=234102,NP=1-1-1-2,
INSADDR=YES;
To deblock the async port:
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-2;
X.25 port 6
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-6,TYPE=PACKET;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-6,PROT=X25;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-6,PROT=X25;
Addressing in PFA1
The ANNAI command is used to configure routing analysis for asynchronous
operation.
ANNAI:NAME=TERM01,NTN=234101,ORIG=1111;
ANNAI:NAME=TERM02,NTN=234102,TPROFILE=90;
ANNAI:NAME=VAXHOST,NTN=234206;
The following configuration is required in PFA1 to allow terminal connection to
remote host VAXHOST.
PSROI:ROT=1,NP=1-1-1-6;
ANRCI:RC=1,ROT=1;
ANRAI:ND=234206,RC=1;
To deblock the X.25 port 1-1-1-6:
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-6;
Note that configuration for the X.25 network or PFA2 is not detailed in this
example.
160
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
7. TPAD
7. TPAD
Introduction
Any serial port on the PFA product can be configured as TPAD in order to
connect to a wide range of equipment operating according to HDLC-like bit
synchronous protocols or Bisync-like byte synchronous protocols.
The operation of TPAD ports could be as illustrated in Figure 7-1.
Frame Relay
Backbone
Incoming/Outgoing
Protocols
TPAD Port
with HVC
PFA Product
PFA Product
TPAD Port
with HVC
Incoming/Outgoing
Protocols
Figure 7-1: TPAD in operation in network.
All frames/blocks sent from the DTE into the TPAD will be encapsulated in
X.25/X.75 packets and forwarded transparently to a remote TPAD. At the
remote TPAD, the frames/blocks will be extracted from the packet and forwarded to the remote DTE. The virtual circuit between the two TPADs is a Hot
Virtual Circuit (HVC).
The main feature of the TPAD is that it is not protocol specific.
The following operating modes are supported:
HDLC mode:
(bit oriented)
Max. line speed = 2 Mbps
Max. frame size = 4100 bytes
Bisync mode:
(byte oriented)
Max. line speed = 19200 Mbps
Max. frame size = 4096 bytes
HDLC mode
The TPAD starts receiving when a frame start is detected in the stream of
flags. The frame (without the checksum) is assembled into packets into the
call user data field of an X.25/X.75 packet and forwarded to the remote TPAD
port. If the length of the frame exceeds the specified size (N1) or if the frame
had an erroneous checksum, the frame is discarded.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
161
7. TPAD
BiSync mode
The TPAD either transmits when at least two or more synchronisation characters are sent or starts receiving when two or more synchronisation characters
are received. The synchronisation character is defined in the MML command
LIPPS when a Bisync TPAD port is required. The first character which is not a
synchronisation character will be the first character put into the X.25/X.75
packet. The X.25/X.75 packet is then filled with the characters received from
the line until two trailpadding characters, also defined in the LIPPS command,
are detected.
NOTE: In Bisync mode, the FCS checksum is included in the data
packet and forwarded over the network. The TPAD itself will not
detect any FCS errors.
Transparent text is not supported.
TPAD Port Configuration
The order for configuration is detailed in Figure 7-2.
162
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Figure 7-2: TPAD port configuration.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
LIPPS
1)
LILPS
Start
2)
LIPPI
3)
4)
5)
6)
LILPI
LIPPI - Initialise PP
LILPI - Initialise LP
LINPI - Initialise NP
LIPPS - Set PP (optional)
LILPS - Set LP (optional)
LIPPD - Deblock PP
LILPD - Deblock LP
PSTEI - Initialise TPAD port as a local DTE
LINPD - Deblock NP
PSPCI - Initialise an HVC
LINPI
LIPPD
LILPD
PSTEI
LINPD
PSPCI
End
7. TPAD
163
7. TPAD
The Physical Layer
The physical layer controls the physical layer serial interfaces.
POP PAKs
The following is a list of POP PAK interfaces supported.
V.11 DTE
V.11 DCE
V.28 DTE
V.28 DCE
V.35 DTE
V.35 DCE
V.36 DTE
V.36 DCE
G.703 64 Kbps DTE
G.703 E1
G.703 E1
15-way D-type male connector*
15-way D-type female connector*
25-way D-type male connector
25-way D-type female connector*
34-way male MRAC connector
34-way female MRAC connector*
37-way D-type male connector
37-way D-type female connector*
15-way D-Type connector*
2 X BNC connectors (75 W)*
RJ45 connector (120 W)*
* Does not support V.54 loopback testing
POP PAK handling
The following rules apply to the handling of POP PAKs:WARNING: Do not under any circumstances plug in any POP PAK
with the network cable connected to it.
The inserted POP PAK type can be displayed by the LIPPP command
during all PP states except TERMINATED. Should a POP PAK be
removed then the PP object shall display NO POPPAK.
The POP PAK DTE/DCE info will be used to set split/default clocking
(see “Timing” parameter in LIPPS command).
The POP PAK DTE/DCE info will be used to disable/enable V.54 tests
on a V.28, V.35 or V.36 interface.
On insertion of a POP PAK, the PP object shall assume the correct
external state automatically.
For all G.703 POP PAKs, the RATE and TIMING parameters in the LIPPI
command are unused.
V.11 DCE/DTE POP PAKs and all G.703 POP PAK types cannot be
used when MODE=BISYNC.
NOTE: All POP PAKs can be “Live inserted” such that no power
down of the unit is necessary.
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EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
7. TPAD
The Link Layer
The configuration of the link layer is necessary for correct operation of the PP/
LP/NP stack.
NOTE: As the TPAD has no knowledge of the LP protocol it cannot
monitor the link state. A deblocked LP will never be in AB state.
No LP statistics for TPAD will be generated.
The Network Layer
The configuration of the network layer is necessary to complete the PP/LP/NP
stack and does not require any additional parameters to be set.
Initialisation
Initialising PP (LIPPI)
The command will initialise the requested PP for TPAD operation.
LIPPI:PP=port<,TYPE=type><,MODE=mode>
<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*
<,POPTRAP=poptrap>*;
Where:port
Physical port number
1-1-1-(1-18)
type
port type
PACKET
mode
TPAD mode
BISYNC or HDLC;
default=HDLC
*These SNMP-related parameters are detailed in Section 5.
For example, to initialise physical port 3 to operate as a TPAD in BiSync
mode:
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-3,TYPE=PACKET,MODE=BISYNC;
Initialising LP (LILPI)
The LILPI command initialises the LP for TPAD operation.
LILPI:LP=port,PROT=prot;
Where:port
Link port number
1-1-1-(1-18)
prot
protocol
TPAD only
For example, to initialise the LP for port 3 to be TPAD:
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-3,PROT=TPAD;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
165
7. TPAD
Initialising NP (LINPI)
The LINPI command will initialise the NP for TPAD operation.
LINPI:NP=port,PROT=prot;
Where:port
Network port number
1-1-1-(1-18)
prot
protocol
TPAD only
For example, to initialise network port 3 to be TPAD:
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-3,PROT=TPAD;
Setting Parameters
Setting PP (LIPPS)
The LIPPS command sets parameters for BiSync or HDLC mode or vice
versa. The port must be manually blocked for the command to be accepted.
LIPPS:PP=port<,N1=n1><,TIMING=timing><,RATE=clockrate>
<,ENCODING=encoding><,IFM=ifm><,ACCESS=access>
<,DUPLEX=duplex><,ACNTL=acntl>**<,ACL=acl>**
<,ALARMTIM=alarmtim>**<,DESTID=destid>**
<,STARTCHAR=startchar><,TRAILCHAR=trailchar>;
Where:port
Physical port number
1-1-1-(1-n) where n is the
maximum number of ports on
a PFA
n1
Max frame size
80 to 4120;
default=261
timing
Clocking for
physical DTE
or DCE Type
DEFAULT (default) or SPLIT.
The PP object will modify the
clocking behaviour of the
interface to comply with the
selected interface type if
TIMING=DEFAULT is
selected.
rate
166
POP PAK + TIMING
Tx Clock
Rx Clock
DTE - SPLIT
DTE - DEFAULT
DCE - SPLIT
DCE - DEFAULT
OUT (internal)
IN (external)
OUT (internal)
OUT (internal)
IN (external)
IN (external)
IN (external)
OUT (internal)
clock speed
1200,2400,4800,9600
(BISYNC default),14k4,16k,
19k2,28k8,38k4,48k,56k,64k
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
7. TPAD
(HDLC default),72k,128k,256k,
512k,1024k,2M.
This parameter is unused
if TIMING=DEFAULT on a
DTE POP PAK.
encoding
encoding type
NRZ, MARK, SPACE;
default=NRZ
ifm
interframe fill
0(default),1,2,4,8,12,16,24,36.
This is the no. of additional
flags between frames. It is
used to slow down the
interframe times for use with
slow hosts.
access
Access mode
LEASED only,
default=LEASED.
duplex
RTS mode
FULL or HALF default=FULL.
startchar
start character
0..FF (in HEX); default=16. For
MODE=BISYNC only.
trailchar
trail character
0..FF (in HEX); default=FF.
For MODE=BISYNC only.
*These SNMP-related parameters for TPAD HDLC only are described in
Section 7
**These NM400-related parameters are described in Section 4.
For example, to change the STARTCHAR parameter for a TPAD BiSync port
to 3E:
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-3,STARTCHAR=3E;
Setting LP (LILPS)
The LILPS command is used to set the DESTID parameter for alarms.
LILPS:LP=port,DESTID=destid*;
Where:port
Link port number
1-1-1-(1-18)
*This NM400-related parameter is described in Section 4.
For example, to change the DESTID parameter to be London:LILPS:LP=1-1-1-3,DESTID=london;
Setting NP (LINPS)
The LINPS command is not required for TPAD configuration.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
167
7. TPAD
Deblocking
In order to “activate” the PP, LP and NP layers and therefore to change the
status of the ports to working order (WO) the following should be carried out.
Deblocking PP (LIPPD)
The command LIPPD deblocks the specified physical port.
LIPPD:PP=port;
Deblocking LP (LILPD)
The command LILPD deblocks the specific link port.
LILPD:LP=port;
Deblocking NP (LINPD)
The LINPD command deblocks the specific network port. The NP cannot be
deblocked until an NTN has been configured for the NP.
LINPD:NP=port;
Blocking
Blocking PP (LIPPB)
The command LIPPB blocks the specified PP. All data queues and other
resources will be relinquished.
LIPPB:PP=port;
Blocking LP (LILPB)
The command LILPB blocks the specified LP. All data queues and other
resources will be relinquished.
LILPB:LP=port;
Blocking NP (LINPB)
The command LINPB blocks the NP. All data queues and other resources will
be relinquished.
LINPB:NP=port;
168
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
7. TPAD
Print or Display
Printing PP (LIPPP)
The command will display the physical port parameters for the requested port
or for all ports sequentially.
LIPPP:PP=port;
Where:port
Physical port number
1-1-1-(1-n) or all;
"PP=all" prints parameters
set for all PPs in sequence.
For example:
LIPPP:PP=1-1-1-3;
PHYSICAL PORT DATA
PP
POP-PAK
PACKSIZE
TIMING
RATE
ENCODING IFM
STATUS
—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
1-1-1-3 V28 DTE
128
TYPE
= PACKET
MODE
= BISYNC
STARTCHAR
= 16
TRAILCHAR
= FF
ACCESS
= LEASED
ACNTL
= ALARM
ACL
= A2
ALARMTIM
= 60
DESTID
= NODESTID
PROTOCOL
= V24
DTR
= ON
RTS
= ON
CTS
= OFF
DCD
= ON
DSR
= ON
DEFAULT
19K2
NRZ
0
WO
END
The CASMODE, CAS INPUT and CAS OUTPUT parameters are displayed
when a Channeliser POP PAK is being used, i.e.
PROTOCOL=CAS
The above parameters are described for the LIPPS command with the exception of the following:
PROTOCOL
POP PAK
protocol
STATUS
The status field reflects the PP object state and the
state of the POP PAK, e.g.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
V24, X21 or G.703
169
7. TPAD
LIPPP Status
PP STATE
POP PAK
MB
MB
HB
CB, WO,
AB or DIS
Blocked
Blocked
Deblocked
Deblocked
OUT
IN
OUT
IN
Where status =
MB = Manually blocked
AB = Automatically blocked
HB = Hardware blocked
CB = Conditionally blocked
WO = Working order
DIS = Disconnected
MODE
STARTCHAR
TRAILCHAR
These parameters are as described for the LIPPS command earlier in this
section. Note that the PACKSIZE, STARTCHAR and TRAILCHAR parameters
are not displayed when MODE=HDLC.
Printing LP (LILPP)
The LILPP command prints the current configuration of the link protocol for
the selected port or for all ports sequentially.
LILPP:LP=port;
Where:port
Link port number
1-1-1-(1-18) or all;
"LP=all" prints parameters
set for all LPs in sequence.
For example:
LILPP:LP=1-1-1-3;
LINK PORT DATA ( LP )
LP
PROT
STATUS
——————————————————————————————
1-1-1-3
TPAD
WO
DESTID = LONDON
END
Where the parameters are as described for the LILPS command earlier in this
section, with the exception of:
STATUS
170
Port status
WO or MB
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
7. TPAD
Printing NP (LINPP)
The command will print port parameters for a requested network port or for all
ports sequentially.
LINPP:NP=port;
Where:port
Network port
1-1-1-(1-18) or all;
"NP=all" prints parameters
set for all NPs in sequence.
For example:
LINPP:NP=1-1-1-3;
NETWORK PORT DATA
NP
PROT
STATUS
——————————————————————————————
1-1-1-3
TPAD
WO
END
Where the above parameters are explanatory with the exception of the following:STATUS
Port status
WO or MB
Termination
Terminating PP (LIPPT)
The command LIPPT terminates the specified PP. The port must be manually
blocked before this command is allowed.
LIPPT:PP=port;
Terminating LP (LILPT)
The command LILPT terminates the specified LP. The LP must be manually
blocked initially.
LILPT:LP=port;
Terminating NP (LINPT)
The command LINPT terminates the specified NP. The NP must be manually
blocked initially.
LINPT:NP=port;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
171
7. TPAD
Statistics
Printing Statistics for PP (STPPP)
The STPPP command displays the PP for a selected port, all PPs combined
or all PPs reported in port number order; statistics are reported independent
of port state.
The display for combined PP statistics (STPPP;) will separate synchronous PP
statistics from asynchronous PP statistics.
STPPP<:PP=port>;
Where:port
Physical port number
1-1-1-(1-18) or all;
"PP=all" prints PP statistics for
each initialised port in turn.
For example:
STPPP:PP=1-1-1-3;
PHYSICAL PORT STATISTICS
PP
TYPE
——————————————————
1-1-1-3
PACKET
FCS TOTALS
= 34
FCS PER HOUR
= 2
OVERRUNS
= 0
UNDERRUNS
= 0
MEMORY ERRS
= 1
OVERLENGTH
IN: 0
DISCARDED
OUT: 0
FRAMES
IN: 123322
OUT: 154354
OCTETS
IN: 0
OUT: 0
FRAMES PER MIN
IN: 0
OUT: 0
OCTETS PER MIN
IN: 0
OUT: 0
FRAMES PEAK/MIN
IN: 0
OUT: 0
OCTETS PEAK/MIN
IN: 0
OUT: 0
END
Note that the accumulated values for the above can be reset to be zero as
follows:
STPPR:PP=1-1-1-3;
172
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
7. TPAD
Printing Statistics for LP (STLPP)
No statistics are defined for the TPAD LP layer.
Printing Statistics for NP (STNPP)
The STNPP command prints or displays the NP statistics for a selected port,
all NPs or all NPs reported sequentially in port number order; statistics are
reported independent of port state.
STNPP<:NP=port>;
Where:port
Network port number
1-1-1-(1-18) or all;
"NP=all" prints NP statistics for
each initialised port in turn.
For example, to print the statistics for the network TPAD port 1-1-1-3.
STNPP:NP=1-1-1-3;
NETWORK PORT STATISTICS
NP
:
1-1-1-3
PROT
Total calls
:
0 IN
2 OUT
Accepted calls
:
0 IN
1 OUT
: TPAD
Current calls
:
0 IN
0 OUT
L3 OCTETS
:
0 IN
0 OUT
Last CLR cause/diag
:
0 IN
Clearing
: 00:0
01:0
03:0
05:0
09:0
11:0
Causes
: 17:0
19:0
25:0
33:0
41:0
Others:0
0 OUT
0/0 GEN
13:0
[— TRAFFIC / MINUTE —]
L3 PACKETS
:
0 IN
0 OUT
L3 OCTETS
:
32 IN
32 OUT
L3 PACKETS (peak)
:
0 IN
0 OUT
L3 OCTETS (peak)
:
32 IN
32 OUT
END
Note that the accumulated values for TPAD ports can be reset to zero as
follows, e.g.
STNPR:NP=1-1-1-3;
Total and current calls are unchanged as well as traffic/min rate counters.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
173
7. TPAD
Macros
The configuration of TPAD ports can be simplified by the use of macro commands, i.e.
LIPOI
LIPOD
LIPOB
LIPOT
Initialises all Port Objects for TPAD port
Deblocks all Port Objects for TPAD port
Blocks all Port Objects for TPAD port
Terminates all Port Objects for TPAD port
The LIPOI command initialises a TPAD port (HDLC mode) as follows:
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-2,PROT=TPAD;
For a TPAD port (BiSync mode):
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-2,PROT=TPAD,MODE=BISYNC;
Addressing analysis for TPAD operation
With respect to routing analysis, the TPAD port is treated as a local DTE on
the PFA product. This means the local DTE operating as the TPAD port is
assigned a unique NTN. This is carried out with the PSTEI command, e.g.
PSTEI:NTN=9999,NP=1-1-1-3;
Where:NTN=9999 is the NTN number assigned to the TPAD port.
NP=1-1-1-3 is the TPAD port number.
HVCs
A Hot Virtual Circuit (HVC) can be initialised between the local and remote
PFA product by linking the local and remote NTN addresses assigned to an
HVC via the PSPCI command. For example, when using the configured Local
DTE described above, the local HVC addressing could be configured as
follows:
PSPCI: NTNA=9999,NTNB=7000122;
Where the local side is denoted the A-side (NTNA) and the remote side as the
B-side (NTNB)
NOTE: HVCs should only be defined in the node serving as the Aside.
For further details of HVC operation see Section 13.
174
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Bisync-like byte
synchronous protocols
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
HVC A-side
TPAD Port (BiSync)
1-1-1-3
NTN=34343434
PFA1
HVC B-side
TPAD Port
(BiSync)
1-1-1-6
NTN=87878787
PFA2
7. TPAD
TPAD Example
Figure 7-3: example of TPAD operation.
175
7. TPAD
If Bisync TPAD operation is required the PP, LP and NP layers for the TPAD
port in question have to be configured. The unit PFA1 must also identify its
TPAD port as a local DTE which will allow an HVC to be established between
the two units PFA1 and PFA2.
Port Configuration in PFA1
To configure port 3 in PFA1 as a TPAD port:
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-3,TYPE=PACKET,MODE=BISYNC;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-3,PROT=TPAD;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-3,PROT=TPAD;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-3,STARTCHAR=17,TRAILCHAR=3E,PACKSIZE=512;
To initialise the local DTE for TPAD operation:
PSTEI:NTN=34343434,NP=1-1-1-3;
To deblock the TPAD port:
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-3;
Finally, to initialise an HVC between PFA1 (A-side) and PFA2 (B-side) the
following command is entered.
PSPCI:NTNA=34343434,NTNB=87878787;
Port Configuration in PFA2
To configure port 6 in PFA2 as a TPAD port:
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-6,TYPE=PACKET,MODE=BISYNC;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-6,PROT=TPAD;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-6,PROT=TPAD;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-6,STARTCHAR=17,TRAILCHAR=3E,PACKSIZE=512;
To initialise the local DTE for TPAD operation:
PSTEI:NTN=87878787,NP=1-1-1-6;
To deblock the TPAD port:
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-6;
Remember that the HVC does not need to be initialised at the B-side.
176
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
8. X.25/X.75
8. X.25/X.75
Introduction
Section 1 discussed the PP, LP and NP port objects, their relationship with
each other and their relationship with the “brain” of the PFA product, the WAN
subsystem.
X.25 Features
These include:
X.25-1988 support
Packet and Window Size Negotiation
Fast Select
Reverse Charging
Extended Packet Sequence Numbering (MODULO-128)
Throughput Class Negotiation
Called Line Address Modified Notification
Other FS 700 X.25 facilities are passed transparently through the PFA product.
X.75 Features
Closed User Groups
Closed User Groups (Outgoing Access)
Transit Network Identification Code signalling
Clearing Network Identification Node signalling
Extended Packet Sequence Numbering (MODULO-128)
Proprietary Ericsson X.75 with support for:
NODEID signalling
Priority Classes
Charge Transfer
PVCs
Other FS 700 X.75E utilities are passed transparently through the PFA product.
Unsupported packet types
The following packet types will never be generated by the PFA product.
DIAGNOSTIC
REGISTRATION
REJECT
The following actions will be associated with the receipt of these
unimplemented packets:
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
177
8. X.25/X.75
DIAGNOSTIC - ignore
REGISTRATION - ignore
REJECT within established call - RESET (cause, local procedure error
diagnostic, Unidentifiable packet)
PVCs
It is possible to configure normal PVCs between Network Ports. The configuration of PVCs is described in Section 13.
For X.75E, a proprietary form of PVC usage can be used.
Facilities
The facilities supported are listed in Appendix 5.
X.75E
The protocol X.75E (see Ericsson references; Appendix 4) is an extended
proprietary Ericsson protocol of X.75-1988. The protocol is initialised, as
default, or by selecting the NETTYPE=ERIPAX parameter in the LINPS command.
X.25/X.75 Port Configuration
Port configuration involves the configuration of parameters for each port
object on a per port basis. Essentially, each port must have an operational
port object to function.
For dedicated X.25 or X.75 ports, the PP, LP and NP port objects must be
correctly configured and have routing configuration assigned to the port.
However, for X.25/X.75 ov er Frame Relay, the PP port object is not required
as the LP/NP port objects connect to a Frame Relay FP/PP port object.
178
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Figure 8-1: X.25/X.75 port configuration.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
1)
LIPPS
2)
LILPS
3)
LINPS
4)
LILPI
LIPPI
5)
LIPPI - Initialise PP
LILPI - Initialise LP
LINPI - Initialise NP
LIPPS - Set PP (optional)
LILPS - Set LP (optional)
LINPS - Set NP (optional)
LIPPD - Deblock PP
LILPD - Deblock LP
PSROI - Initialise Route
ANRCI - Initialise Routing Case
ANRAI - Initialise Number direction
or:
PSTEI: Initialise DTE
LINPD - Deblock NP
LINPI
LIPPD
LIPPS
LIFPS
LILPD
PSROI
LIPPI
ANRCI
LIFPI
ANRAI
LINPD
End
179
8. X.25/X.75
PSTEI
(X.25 only)
8. X.25/X.75
The Physical Layer
The physical layer controls the physical layer serial interfaces. Functions
include the basic interrupt driver structure, loopback control and statistics
reporting. In addition, modem control protocols are used to control the management of the POP PAKs described below.
POP PAKs
The following is a list of POP PAK interfaces supported.
V.11 DTE
V.11 DCE
V.28 DTE
V.28 DCE
V.35 DTE
V.35 DCE
V.36 DTE
V.36 DCE
G.703 64 Kbps DTE
G.703 E1
G.703 E1
FE1 (fractional E1)
TransISDN (1 port)
TransISDN (2 port)
Channeliser (Master)
Channeliser (Slave)
15-way D-type male connector*
15-way D-type female connector*
25-way D-type male connector
25-way D-type female connector*
34-way male MRAC connector
34-way female MRAC connector*
37-way D-type male connector
37-way D-type female connector*
15-way D-type connector*
2 X BNC connectors (75 W)*
RJ45 connector (120 W)*
RJ45 connector (120 W)*
1 RJ45 connector*
2 RJ45 connectors*
2 x BNC connectors
none
* Does not support V.54 loopback testing.
POP PAK handling
The following rules apply to the handling of POP PAKs:WARNING: Do not under any circumstances plug in any POP PAK
with the network cable connected to it.
The inserted POP PAK type can be displayed by the LIPPP command
during all PP states except TERMINATED. Should a POP PAK be
removed then the PP object shall display NO POPPAK.
The POP PAK DTE/DCE info will be used to set split/default clocking
(see “Timing” parameter in the LIPPS command).
The POP PAK DTE/DCE info will be used to disable/enable V.54 tests
on a V.28, V.35 or V.36 interface.
For all G.703 POP PAKs, the RATE and TIMING parameters in the
LIPPS command are unused.
On insertion of a new POP PAK, the PP object shall assume the correct
external state automatically.
NOTE: All POP PAKs can be “Live inserted” such that no power
down of the unit is necessary.
180
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
8. X.25/X.75
The Link Layer
The Link layer (LAPB) is compliant with CCITT X.25-1988 or X.75-1988.
The Network Layer
The Network layer is compliant with CCITT X.25-1988 or X.75-1988.
Initialisation
If reconfiguring, any existing PP, LP or NP port objects on the same port must
be terminated before initialisation can take place.
Initialising PP (LIPPI)
The LIPPI command initialises the PP. Note that the interface type is not set
but is derived from the POP PAK.
LIPPI:PP=port<,TYPE=type><,MODE=mode>
<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=
linktrap>*<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*
<,POPTRAP=poptrap>;
Where:port
physical port number
1-1-1-(1-18)
type
port type
PACKET only
mode
Transparent mode
HDLC only
* These SNMP-related parameters are detailed in Section 5.
For example, to initialise physical port 3 for X.25.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-3,TYPE=PACKET;
Initialising LP (LILPI)
The LILPI command initialises the LP for X.25 or X.75.
X75 LPs can be configured to operate as SIDE=A, B or dynamic. Either ends
of an X.75 link should be configured with respect to the SIDE parameter, as A
- B, B - A or DYN - DYN.
LILPI:LP=port,PROT=prot<,SIDE=side><,LCP=lcp>
<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*
<,DISTTRAP=disttrap>*<,FRMRTRAP=frmrtrap>*
<,HDLCTRAP=hdlctrap>*;
Where:port
port number
1-1-1-(1-18), 1-1-1-(XF1-XF15)
or 1-1-1-MP(1-6)-2
prot
protocol
X25 or X75
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
181
8. X.25/X.75
side
side of X.75
connection
A, B or DYN; default=A.
For DYN, side originating
the call will be set as SIDE=A.
lcp
LCP port number
1-1-1-(1-18) or ANY. Only
used when an X.75 port
1-1-1-MP(1-6) is connected
to an MP bundle
(see Section 17).
* These SNMP-related parameters are detailed in Section 5.
For example:
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-3,PROT=X25;
or:
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-3,PROT=X75,SIDE=A;
Initialising NP (LINPI)
The LINPI command initialises the NP for X.25 or X.75.
Either ends of an X.75 link should be configured with respect to the SIDE
parameter, as A - B, B - A or DYN - DYN.
LINPI:NP=port,PROT=prot<,SIDE=side><,TRAPID=trapid>*
<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
Where:port
network port
1-1-1-(1-18), 1-1-1-(XF1-XF15)
or 1-1-1-MP(1-6) -2.
prot
selected protocol
X25 or X75
side
side of X.75
connection
A, B or DYN; default=A.
For DYN, side originating the
call will be set as SIDE=A.
* These SNMP-related parameters are detailed in Section 5.
For example:
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-3,PROT=X25;
or:
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-3,PROT=X75,SIDE=A;
Setting Parameters
Once the port objects have been created then the parameters associated with
the PP, LP and NP can, if necessary, be modified without terminating the port
object in question.
182
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
8. X.25/X.75
Setting PP (LIPPS)
The LIPPS command modifies the physical port (PP) parameters. The PP must
be manually blocked for the command to be accepted.
LIPPS:PP=port<,N1=n1><,TIMING=timing><,RATE=rate>
<,ENCODING=encoding><,IFM=ifm><,ACCESS=access>
<,DUPLEX=duplex><MODEMSTRING=modemstring>
<,TCONN=tconn><,ACNTL=acntl>**<,ACL=acl>**
<,ALARMTIM=alarmtim>**<,DESTID=destid>**
<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=
linktrap>*<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*
<,POPTRAP=poptrap>*;
Where:port
physical port
number
1-1-1-(1-18)
n1
Max. frame size
80 to 4120; default=261.
timing
Clocking Type
for DTE or DCE
DEFAULT (default) or SPLIT.
The PP object will modify the
clocking behaviour of the
interface to comply with the
interface type if TIMING=
DEFAULT is selected.
POP PAK +TIMING
Tx Clock
Rx Clock
DTE - SPLIT
DTE - DEFAULT
DCE - SPLIT
DCE - DEFAULT
OUT (internal)
IN (external)
OUT (internal)
OUT (internal)
IN (external)
IN (external)
IN (external)
OUT (internal)
rate
clock speed
1200,2400,4800,9600,14k4,
16k,19k2,28k8,38k4,48k,56k,
64k (default),72k,128k,256k,
512k,1024k,2M.
This parameter is unused
if TIMING=DEFAULT on a
DTE POP PAK.
encoding
encoding type
NRZ, MARK, SPACE;
default=SPACE.
ifm
interframe fill
0(default),1,2,4,8,12,16,24,36.
This is the no. of additional
flags between frames. It is
used to slow down the
interframe times for use with
slow host.
access
Access mode
LEASED,SWITCHED,
SWITCHED_V25BIS;
default=LEASED.
duplex
RTS mode
FULL or HALF; default=FULL.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
183
8. X.25/X.75
modemstring
Default no. for attached up to 32 chars; default=NONE.
modem/ISDN
For ACCESS=SWITCHED_
POP PAK to dial
V25BIS only.
tconn
Maximum call
connection time
before failing
1-600 s; default=60. For
ACCESS=SWITCHED_
V25BIS only.
* These SNMP-related parameters are detailed in Section 5.
** These NM400-related parameters are described in Section 4.
For example, to set port 3 to operate with split clocks:
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-3,TIMING=SPLIT;
Setting LP (LILPS)
The LILPS command modifies the link layer parameters for X.25 or X.75. The
link port must be manually blocked for the command to be accepted.
LILPS:LP=lp<,SIDE=side><,MODULO=modulo><,K=k>
<,T1=t1><,N2=n2><,DXE=dxe><,T2=t2><,TP=tp>
<,LCP=lcp><,POLL=poll><,FASTRESTART=fastrestart>
<,RATEENF=rateenf><,LINK=link>**<,ACL=acl>**<,LIM=lim>**
<,DESTID=destid>**<,TRAPS=traps>*
<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*
<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*<,DISTTRAP=disttrap>*
<,FRMRTRAP=frmrtrap>*<,HDLCTRAP=hdlctrap>*;
Where:-
184
lp
port number
1-1-1-(1-18), 1-1-1-(XF1-XF15
for PFA 030/130/230 and XF1XF32 for PFA 660)
or 1-1-1-MP(1-6)-2.
side
side of X.75
connection
A, B or DYN;
default=A.
modulo
Level 2 modulus
8 or 128; default=8.
k
Remote I-frame
Window Size
2 to 7 (default) or 2-127.
Max. no. of outstanding
info. frames.
t1
T1 ACK idle
detect timer
0.02-30 s (0.02 s intervals);
default=5.
n2
T1 timeout retries
1-100; default=3.
Defines the no. of retries
with P-bit set before resetting.
dxe
logical link type
for X.25 only
DTE, DCE (default) or DYN.
Dynamic (DYN) should be
used when X.25 port is
operating SWITCH_V25BIS.
t2
T2 delayed ACK
timer
0.0-100 s (0.02 s intervals);
default=0.5.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
8. X.25/X.75
tp
TP idle polling
0.02-512 s; default=15.
poll
Poll SABM or DISC
in X.25
SABM or DISC; default=SABM.
A SABM or DISC is sent in
disconnected phase.
fastrestart
Allows network
RESTARTS at intervals
<T1 value
YES or NO; default=YES.
rateenf
Outgoing rate
enforcement
YES or NO; default=NO.
Applies when X.25/X.75 over
Frame Relay is used.
*These SNMP-related parameters are described in Section 5.
**These NM400-related parameters are described in Section 4.
For example, to modify the T1 parameter for port 1-1-1-3:
LILPS:LP=1-1-1-3,T1=0.2;
Setting NP (LINPS)
The command LINPS modifies the network port parameters. The network port
must be manually blocked for the command to be accepted.
LINPS:NP=port<,SIDE=side><,NETTYPE=nettype>
<,VERSION=version><,DXE=dxe><,PC=pc><,IC=ic>
<,OC=oc><,TC=tc><,MODULO=modulo><,WSN=wsn>
<,MWS=mws><,DWS=dws><,PSN=psn><,MPS=mps>
<,DPS=dps><,FAST=fast><,CLAMN=clamn>
<,DTEFAC=dtefac><,ADDRMOD=addrmod>
<,ACCESS=access><,CTIMER=ctimer><,RESTIMER=restimer>
<,RSTTIMER=rsttimer><,CLRTIMER=clrtimer><,TCN=tcn>
<,DTC=dtc><,ZEROCAUSE=zerocause>
<,ACCADDR=accaddr><,NUI=nui><,TNIC=tnic>
<,CNIC=cnic><,EXTERNAL=external><,TRAPID=trapid>*
<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
Where:port
Network port
1-1-1-(1-18), 1-1-1-(XF1-XF15
for PFA 030/130/230 and XF1XF32 for PFA 660)
or 1-1-1-MP(1-6)-2.
side
side of X.75
connection
DTE, DCE or DYN;
default=DCE.
nettype
Type of X.75
network
CCITT or ERIPAX;
CCITT=standard X.75
ERIPAX=X75E only.
Default=ERIPAX.
version
Which X.25 revision
80 or 88 (default).
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
185
8. X.25/X.75
186
dxe
logical link type
for X.25 only
DTE, DCE (default) or DYN,
Dynamic (DYN) should be
used when X.25 is operating
SWITCHED_V25BIS.
pc
Highest PVC channel
1..4095, NONE; default=NONE.
ic
Incoming Logical
Channel Range
1..4095-1..4095 (decimal)
or NONE (default). Incoming
means towards the PFA.
oc
Outgoing Logical
Channel Range
1..4095-1..4095 (decimal)
or NONE (default). Outgoing
means out from the PFA.
tc
Two Way Logical
Channel Range
1..4095-1..4095 (decimal)
or NONE; default=001-4095.
modulo
Level 3 modulo
8 or 128; default=8.
wsn
Window Size
Negotiation
YES/NO;
default=NO.
mws
Max Window Sizes
(two directions)
2..127;
default=7.
dws
Default Window Sizes
(two directions)
2..127,
default=2.
psn
Packet Size
Negotiation
YES/NO;
default=NO.
mps
Max Packet Size
(two directions)
128,256,512,1024,2048,4096;
default=256.
dps
Default Packet Size
(two directions)
128,256,512,1024,2048,4096;
default=128.
fast
Fast select calls
allowed
YES/NO;
default=NO.
clamn
Called line address
modified notification
YES/NO; default=NO. Allowed
to be sent to DTE from DCE
only. (Supported
transparently).
dtefac
Forwards X.25-1984
facilities transparently
YES/NO;
NO (default) means clear call.
addrmod
Address Modification
table number
NONE (default) or 1-255;
Address modification is off if
NONE is specified.
access
Access control
table number
NONE (default) or 1-255;
This refers to a previously
configured table number (use
ANAMI in Section 14) such
that incoming calls will be
rejected at the receiving NP if
the calling address cannot be
matched to a configured
LOCADDR value in the access
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
8. X.25/X.75
table. Access tables may be
chained.
ctimer
Call Retry Timer
1-512 seconds; default=200.
restimer
Restart Timer
1-512 seconds; default=180.
rsttimer
Reset Timer
1-512 seconds; default=180.
clrtimer
Clear Timer
1-512 seconds; default=180.
tcn
Throughput class
negotiation
YES or NO; default=NO.
If TCN=YES each call is
negotiated down to the
configured default.
dtc
Default throughput
class from port
to port
75,150,300,600,1200,2400,
4800,9600,19k2,48k,64k,128k,
192k in bps; default=64k.
zerocause
Inhibit non-zero
cause codes
YES/NO;
default=YES.
accaddr
Allow addresses
in Call Accept
Packets
YES/NO/RESTORE
default=YES. RESTORE inserts
addresses received in original
call request. For TRANSPAC
usage set ACCADDR=NO.
nui
Network User
Identifier
transmission
STRIP or PASS;
default=STRIP. NUI=STRIP
does not pass NUIs. Only
relevant when DXE=DTE.
tnic
Transit Network
Identification Code
signalling for X.75
only
YES or NO; default=NO.
If TNIC=NO the utility is
removed and the call passed.
If EXTERNAL=YES, the TNIC
utility is inserted for the current
network.
cnic
Clearing Network
Identification Code
signalling for X.75
only
YES or NO; default=NO.
If CNIC=NO the utility is
removed and the call passed.
If EXTERNAL=YES, CNIC
is inserted for current network.
external
Port connected to an
external or internal
network
YES or NO;
default=NO.
X.75 only.
*These SNMP-related parameters are as described in Section 5.
For example, to modify port 1-1-1-3 to have a call retry timer of 50 seconds:
LINPS:NP=1-1-1-3,CTIMER=50;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
187
8. X.25/X.75
Deblocking
In order to associate the PP, LP and NP layers and therefore to change the
status of the ports to working order (WO) the following should be carried out.
Deblocking PP (LIPPD)
The command LIPPD deblocks the specified PP.
LIPPD:PP=port;
Deblocking LP (LILPD)
The LILPD command deblocks the specified LP.
LILPD:LP=port;
Deblocking NP (LINPD)
The LINPD command deblocks the NP. The NP cannot be deblocked until a
ROT, DTE or Access Group has been configured for the NP.
LINPD:NP=port;
Blocking
Blocking PP (LIPPB)
The command LIPPB blocks the specified PP. All data queues and other
resources will be relinquished.
LIPPB:PP=port;
Blocking LP (LILPB)
The LILPB command blocks the specified LP. All data queues and other
resources will be relinquished.
LILPB:LP=port;
Blocking NP (LINPB)
The LINPB command blocks the specified NP. All data queues and other
resources will be relinquished.
LINPB:NP=port;
188
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
8. X.25/X.75
Print or Display
Printing PP (LIPPP)
The command LIPPP prints/displays parameters for a selected PP or for all
PPs sequentially.
LIPPP:PP=port;
Where:port
Physical port number
1-1-1-(1-18) or all;
“PP=all” prints parameters
set for all PPs in sequence.
For example:
LIPPP:PP=1-1-1-3;
PHYSICAL PORT DATA
PP
POP-PAK
N1
TIMING
RATE
ENCODING
IFM
STATUS
___________________________________________________________________
1-1-1-3
V28 DTE
261
TYPE
= PACKET
MODE
= HDLC
ACCESS
= LEASED
ACNTL
= ALARM
ACL
= A3
ALARMTIM
= 60
DESTID
= NMC2
DUPLEX
= FULL
PROTOCOL
= V24
DTR
= ON
RTS
= ON
CTS
= ON
DCD
= ON
DSR
= ON
RI
= ON
LOOP2
= OFF
LOOP3
= OFF
TI
= OFF
TRAPID
= NONE
TRAPS
= NONE
DEFAULT
64K
NRZ
0
WO
END
The TCONN and MODEMSTRING parameters are only displayed when
Switched access is used.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
189
8. X.25/X.75
The above parameters are defined in the LIPPS command with the exception
of the following:POP-PAK
POP PAK present
STATUS
The status field reflects
the PP object state and
the state of the POP PAK, e.g.
Where status =
NO POPPAK,V.28,V.11,V.35,
V.36 (shown as DCE or DTE),
G.703 64k (DTE),
G703 2 Meg (FE1).
LIPPP Status
PP STATE
POP PAK
MB
MB
HB
CB, WO,
AB or DIS
Blocked
Blocked
Deblocked
Deblocked
OUT
IN
OUT
IN
MB = Manually blocked
AB = Automatically blocked
HB = Hardware blocked
CB = Conditionally blocked
WO = Working order
DIS = Disconnected
In addition to the above, the state of Automatically Blocked (AB) will be
entered when the physical layer is NOT in state 13 (X.21) or in Data Transfer
(X.21bis). For the purpose of status reporting to the user, HB has precedence
over AB.
190
TYPE
Type of PP
PACKET only
MODE
Type of mode
HDLC only
PROTOCOL
POP PAK protocol
V24, X21, G703 or V25BIS
DTR
Data terminal ready
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
RTS
Request to send
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
CTS
Clear to send
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
DCD
Data carrier detect
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
DSR
Data Set Ready
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
RI
Ring indicator
ON, OFF
*LOOP2
loop2 request
ON, OFF
*LOOP3
loop3 request
ON, OFF
*TI
Test Indication
ON, OFF
†C
X.21 Control
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
†I
X.21 Indication
ON,OFF or UNSTABLE
†TXSTATE
Tx data state
CNR, READY or DATA
†RXSTATE
Rx data state
CNR, UNR, READY or DATA
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
8. X.25/X.75
REMCLK
G.703 remote clock
(not displayed)
nally.
ON or OFF; ON specifies that
the clock is supplied exterOFF indicates a possible fault
condition.
*Only displayed for physical V.24/V.28 DTE POP PAK.
†Only displayed for physical X.21/V.11 POP PAK.
Printing LP (LILPP)
The LILPP command prints the parameters for a selected LP or for all LPs
sequentially.
LILPP:LP=port;
Where:port
Link port number
1-1-1-(1-18), 1-1-1-(XF1-XF15
for PFA 030/130/230 and XF1XF32 for PFA 660) or
1-1-1-MP(1-6) -2 or all;
“LP=all” prints parameters set
for all LPs in sequence
For example, to print the link configuration for X.25 port 3:
LILPP:LP=1-1-1-3;
LINK PORT DATA (LP)
LP
PROT
STATUS
——————————————————————————————
1-1-1-3
X25
MODULO
= 8
K
= 7
T1
= 5.00
N2
= 3
DXE
= DTE
POLL
= SABM
WO
FASTRESTART = YES
T2
= 0.50
TP
= 15.00
LINK
= ALARM
ACL
= A1
LIM
= 10
DESTID
= NMC2
TRAPID
= NONE
TRAPS
= NONE
END
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
191
8. X.25/X.75
Where the displayed parameters for X.25 are defined in the LILPS command
with the exception of the following parameter:
STATUS
LP status
WO,AB,CB,MB,DIS.
If the link is down,
level 2 indicates AB.
Note that for X.75, the SIDE parameter is displayed instead of the DXE parameter.
Printing NP (LINPP)
The LINPP command displays the parameters for a selected NP or for all NPs
sequentially.
LINPP:NP=port;
Where:port
network port
1-1-1-(1-18), 1-1-1-(XF1-XF15)
or 1-1-1-MP(1-6)-2 or all;
“NP=all” prints parameters set
for all NPs in sequence
For example, for an X.25 NP:
192
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
8. X.25/X.75
LINPP:NP=1-1-1-3;
NETWORK PORT DATA (NP)
NP
PROT
VERSION
DXE
STATUS
—————————————————————————————————————————————————————
1-1-1-3
X25
NETTYPE
= CCITT
PC
= NONE
IC
= NONE
OC
= NONE
TC
= 001-4095
MODULO
= 8
WSN
= YES
MWS
= 7
DWS
= 2
PSN
= YES
MPS
= 4096
DPS
= 256
FAST
= YES
CLAMN
= NO
DTEFAC
= NO
ADDRMOD
= 6
ACCESS
= NONE
CTIMER
= 512
RESTIMER
= 60
RSTTIMER
= 60
CLRTIMER
= 100
TCN
= NO
DTC
= 64K
ZEROCAUSE
= YES
ACCADDR
= YES
TRAPID
= NONE
TRAPS
= NONE
88
DTE
WO
END
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
193
8. X.25/X.75
For example, for an X.75 NP:
LINPP:NP=1-1-1-3;
NETWORK PORT DATA
NP
PROT
VERSION
STATUS
—————————————————————————————————————————————————
1-1-1-3
X75
SIDE
= A
NETTYPE
= ERIPAX
PC
= NONE
IC
= NONE
OC
= NONE
TC
= 001-4095
MODULO
= 8
WSN
= YES
MWS
= 7
DWS
= 2
PSN
= YES
MPS
= 4096
DPS
= 256
FAST
= YES
CLAMN
= NO
DTEFAC
= NO
ADDRMOD
= 6
ACCESS
= NONE
CTIMER
= 512
RESTIMER
= 60
RSTTIMER
= 60
CLRTIMER
= 100
TCN
= NO
DTC
= 64K
ACCADDR
= YES
TNIC
= NO
CNIC
= NO
EXTERNAL
= NO
TRAPID
= NONE
TRAPS
= NONE
88
WO
END
Where the displayed parameters are defined as in the LINPS command with
the exception of the following parameter:
STATUS
194
NP status
WO,AB,CB,MB,DIS
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
8. X.25/X.75
Termination
Terminating PP (LIPPT)
The command LIPPT terminates the specified PP. The port must be manually
blocked before this command is allowed.
LIPPT:PP=port;
Terminating LP (LILPT)
The command LILPT terminates a specified LP. The port must be manually
blocked before this command is allowed.
LILPT:LP=port;
Terminating NP (LINPT)
The command LINPT terminates the NP. The port must be manually blocked
before this command is allowed. Any NTN associated with a ROT, DTE or
Access Group must also be removed.
LINPT:NP=port;
Statistics
When lines are configured and are in operation it is likely that statistics will
require to be read from those lines to monitor the network. This monitoring is
possible when the PP, LP or NP port objects are in BLOCKED or
DEBLOCKED state.
Printing Statistics for PP (STPPP)
The command STPPP prints or displays the PP statistics for a selected port,
all PPs or all PPs reported sequentially in port number order; statistics are
reported independent of port state.
The display for combined PP statistics (STPPP;) will separate synchronous PP
statistics from asynchronous PP statistics.
STPPP<:PP=port>;
Where:port
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Physical port number
1-1-1-(1-18) or all;
“PP=all” prints PP statistics
for each initialised port in turn.
195
8. X.25/X.75
For example, to print port 3 physical port statistics:
STPPP:PP=1-1-1-3;
PHYSICAL PORT STATISTICS
PP
TYPE
———————————————————————
1-1-1-3
PACKET
FCS TOTALS
= 0
FCS PER HOUR
= 0
OVERRUNS
= 0
UNDERRUNS
= 0
MEMORY ERRS
= 0
OVERLENGTH
IN:
0
DISCARDED
OUT: 25
FRAMES
IN: 21
OUT: 22
OCTETS
IN: 47
OUT: 54
FRAMES PER MIN
IN: 0
OUT: 0
OCTETS PER MIN
IN: 0
OUT: 0
FRAMES PEAK/MIN
IN: 0
OUT: 0
OCTETS PEAK/MIN
IN: 0
OUT: 0
END
When ACCESS=SWITCHED_V25BIS, the following fields are appended to the
STPPP output display:
Successful Outgoing Connections:
Successful Incoming Connections:
Failed Outgoing Connections:
Failed Incoming Connections:
Connections cleared by DCE:
Connections cleared by DTE:
Note that the accumulated values for the above can be reset to be zero as
follows:
STPPR:PP=1-1-1-3;
Printing Statistics for LP (STLPP)
The STLPP command prints or displays the LP statistics for a selected port,
all PPs or all PPs reported sequentially in port number order; statistics are
reported independent of port state.
196
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
8. X.25/X.75
STLPP<:LP=port>;
Where:port
Link port number
1-1-1-(1-18), 1-1-1-(XF1-XF15)
or 1-1-1-MP(1-6)-2 or all;
“LP=all” prints LP statistics for
each initialised port in turn
For example, to print port 3 LP statistics for X.25 or X.75:
STLPP:LP=1-1-1-3;
LINK PORT STATISTICS
LP
: 1-1-1-3
LP RESETS
: 1
LP STATE
: INFORMATION TRANSFER
LAST FRAME SENT
: RR COMMAND
LAST FRAME RCVD
: RR RESPONSE
LP I
:
3056 IN
3547 OUT
LP RR
:
27266 IN
24611 OUT
LP RNR
:
0 IN
0 OUT
LP REJ
:
0 IN
0 OUT
LP FRMR
:
0 IN
0 OUT
LP FRAMES
:
30325 IN
28162 OUT
[--- TRAFFIC / MINUTE ---]
LP I
:
0 IN
0 OUT
END
Where:LP STATE =
DISCONNECTED PHASE
LINK DOWN
AWAITING LINK SET UP
FRAME REJECTED
DISCONNECT REQUEST
LINK RESET
INFORMATION TRANSFER
REJECT SENT
WAITING I FRAME ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
LOCAL BUSY
REMOTE BUSY
BOTH BUSY
LOCAL BUSY AND WAITING
REMOTE BUSY AND WAITING
BOTH BUSY AND WAITING
REJ SENT AND REMOTE BUSY
Note that the accumulated values for the above can be reset to zero as
follows:
STLPR:LP=1-1-1-3;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
197
8. X.25/X.75
Printing Statistics for NP (STNPP)
The STNPP command prints or displays the NP statistics for a selected port,
all NPs or all NPs reported sequentially in port number order; statistics are
reported independent of port state.
STNPP<:NP=port>;
Where:port
Network port number
1-1-1-(1-18), 1-1-1-(XF1-XF15
for PFA 030/130/230 and XF1XF32 for PFA 660)
or 1-1-1-MP(1-6)-2 or all;
“NP=all” prints NP statistics
or each initialised port in turn.
For example, to print port 3 NP statistics for X.25:
STNPP:NP=1-1-1-3;
NETWORK PORT STATISTICS
NP
:
1-1-1-3 PROT
: X25
Total calls
:
2 IN
2 OUT
Accepted calls
:
1 IN
1 OUT
Current calls
:
1 IN
1 OUT
L3 Restarts
:
0
L3 DATA PKTS
:
139 IN
139 OUT
L3 OCTETS
:
17792 IN
17792 OUT
L3 RR
:
0 IN
0 OUT
L3 RNR
:
0 IN
0 OUT
L3 INT
:
0 IN
0 OUT
L3 RST request
:
0 IN
0 OUT
0 GEN
L3 CLR request
:
0 IN
0 OUT
23 GEN
Last RST cause/diag
:
0 IN
0 OUT
0/0 GEN
Last CLR cause/diag
:
0 IN
Clearing
: 00:0
01:0
03:0
05:0
09:0
11:0
Causes
: 17:0
19:0
25:0
33:0
41:0
Others:0
0 OUT
0/0 GEN
13:0
[— TRAFFIC / MINUTE —]
L3 PACKETS
:
60 IN
60 OUT
L3 OCTETS
:
7680 IN
7680 OUT
L3 PACKETS (peak)
:
60 IN
60 OUT
L3 OCTETS (peak)
:
7680 IN
7680 OUT
END
For an X.75 NP, the PROT field will display X.75.
Note that the accumulated values for the above can be reset to zero as
follows, e.g.
STNPR:NP=1-1-1-3;
198
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
8. X.25/X.75
Total and current calls are unchanged as well as traffic/min rate counters.
Contacting PFA Products
The software architecture of the PFA products permits the use of a PING
request to test whether remotely situated PFA nodes can be contacted.
PING Contact in Packet Switching
Packet Switching Ping Printout (PSPIP)
The PSPIP command operates in a similar manner to the IPPIP command
except that PSPIP operates over X.25 rather than IP. The command prints the
PING status as a response to a PING request to the destination NTN; this
destination NTN should be an echo port in the PFA product.
A response is returned if the destination can be contacted. The response will
include the node name (as defined with NANOS command) of the destination
node.
PSPIP:DEST=dest<,WAIT=wait><,PRI=pri><,ORIG=orig>;
Where:dest
Destination NTN
1 to 15 decimal digits
wait
Response timeout
1 to 300 s; default=10 s
pri
Call priority
assigned to NTN
1-4 or DEFAULT;
default=DEFAULT.
orig
Calling address for
ping request
1 to 15 decimal digits
For example:
PSPIP:DEST=123445,WAIT=40;
YOU HAVE REACHED NODE1
DEST =
123445
TIME =
10000
END
or:
PSPIP:DEST=123344,WAIT=40;
PSPIP FAILED
REASON = CALL CLEARED
CAUSE = 13
DIAG = 67
NODES TRAVERSED = 3
END
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
199
8. X.25/X.75
Where:TIME
Time of response
0 to 300000 ms
REASON
Reason for failure
TIMER EXPIRED, INVALID
DATA RECEIVED or
CALL CLEARED
CAUSE
Call failure cause
two decimal digits
DIAG
Call failure
diagnostics
three decimal digits
Macros
The configuration of X.25 or X.75 ports can be simplified by the use of macro
commands, i.e.
LIPOI
LIPOD
LIPOB
LIPOT
Initialises all Port Objects for X.25/X.75 port
Deblocks all Port Objects for X.25/X.75 port
Blocks all Port Objects for X.25/X.75 port
Terminates all Port Objects for X.25/X.75 port
For X.25, the LIPOI command initialises an X.25 port as follows:
For DXE=DTE, DXE=DCE and DXE=DYN:
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-3,PROT=X25,DXE=DTE;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-3,PROT=X25,DXE=DCE;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-3,PROT=X25,DXE=DYN;
For X.75 ports where X.75 Side=A, Side=B or Side=Dynamic:
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-3,PROT=X75,SIDE=A;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-3,PROT=X75,SIDE=B;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-3,PROT=X75,SIDE=DYN;
NOTE: SIDE=DYN will set the PP to operate Switched_V25BIS.
For X.25/X.75 over Frame Relay, Frame Relay LP/NP stacks are configured as
follows, e.g.
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-XF1,PROT=X25,DXE=DTE;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-XF1,PROT=X25,DXE=DCE;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-XF1,PROT=X25,DXE=DYN;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-XF1,PROT=X75,SIDE=A;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-XF1,PROT=X75,SIDE=B;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-XF1,PROT=X75,SIDE=DYN;
200
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
8. X.25/X.75
Addressing Analysis for X.25/X.75
With respect to routing analysis, the X.25 or X.75 port can be configured to be
either a local DTE or ROT.
The local DTE is assigned a unique NTN and would be typically used to
identify a local user access port, e.g. an X.25 terminal. This is carried out with
the PSTEI command, e.g.
PSTEI:NTN=9999,NP=1-1-1-2;
Where:NTN=9999 is the NTN assigned X.25 port.
NP=1-1-1-2 is the X.25/X.75 network port number.
The X.25/X.75 can also be configured to be a ROT, which when associated
with a routing case and a subsequent Number Direction, can be used to route
non-local switched calls out of the unit to other destinations, e.g.
PSROI:ROT=1,NP=1-1-1-2;
ANRCI:RC=3, ROT=1;
ANRAI:ND=888888,RC=3;
NOTE: Incoming or outgoing calls can also be barred at the port
with the PSCFS command. For further details see Section 13.
HVCs/PVCs
An HVC/PVC can be initialised between the local and remote DTEs by linking
the configured NTNs assigned to the HVC via the PSPCI command. For
example, when using the configured Local DTE described above, the local
HVC addressing could be configured as follows:
PSPCI: NTNA=9999,NTNB=7000122;
Where the local side is denoted the A-side (NTNA) and the remote side as the
B-side (NTNB).
NOTE: HVCs should only be defined in the node serving as the Aside.
For further details of HVC operation see Section 13.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
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8. X.25/X.75
X.25 Example
PSROI:ROT=14,NP=1-1-1-1;
12345
ANRCI:RC=15,ROT=14; 2355 PFA2
PFA1
ANRAI:ND=12345,RC=15;
X.25 Port 1-1-1-1
with V.28 DTE
POP PAK
X.25 Port 1-1-1-3
with V.28 DCE
POP PAK
PSROI:ROT=1,NP=1-1-1-3;
ANRCI:RC=2,ROT=1;
ANRAI:ND=2355,RC=2;
Figure 8-2: Example of X.25 operation.
Port Configuration in PFA1
The unit PFA1 has a V.28 DCE POP PAK present in port 1-1-1-3. To configure
port 3 in PFA1 as an X.25 port:
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-3,TYPE=PACKET;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-3,PROT=X25;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-3,PROT=X25;
To configure routing, the PSROI, ANRCI and ANRAI commands are:
PSROI:ROT=1,NP=1-1-1-3;
ANRCI:RC=2,ROT=1;
ANRAI:ND=2355,RC=2;
To deblock the port 1-1-1-3:
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-3;
202
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
8. X.25/X.75
Port Configuration in PFA2
The unit PFA2 has a V.28 DTE POP PAK present in port 1-1-1-1. As clocks are
provided from PFA1, the default logical DXE of DCE in PFA2 has to be
changed to DTE. To configure port 1 in PFA2 as an X.25 port:
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-1,TYPE=PACKET;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-1,PROT=X25;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-1,PROT=X25;
LILPS:LP=1-1-1-1,DXE=DTE;
LINPS:NP=1-1-1-1,DXE=DTE;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-1;
To configure routing, the PSROI, ANRCI and ANRAI commands are:
PSROI:ROT=14,NP=1-1-1-1;
ANRCI:RC=15,ROT=14;
ANRAI:ND=12345,RC=15;
To deblock the port 1-1-1-1:
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-1;
This will permit X.25 calls to be routed between PFA1 and PFA2 as part of a
larger X.25 network.
X.75 Example
A typical mixed PFA/FS network would exist as illustrated in Figure 8-3. The
example network uses the proprietary protocol X.75E which provides additional utilities to X.75 (see Appendix 5).
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
203
8. X.25/X.75
PSROI:ROT=1,NP=1-1-1-3;
ANRCI:RC=2,ROT=1;
ANRAI:ND=2355,RC=2;
PFA1
PSROI:ROT=4,NP=1-1-1-4;
ANRCI:RC=5,ROT=4;
ANRAI:ND=2455,RC=5;
12345
X.75A Port 1-1-1-3
with V.28 DCE
POP PAK
X.75A Port 1-1-1-4
with V.35 DCE
POP PAK
PSROI:ROT=14,NP=1-1-1-1;
ANRCI:RC=15,ROT=14;
ANRAI:ND=12345,RC=15;
2355 PFA2
X.75B Port 1-1-1-1
with V.28 DTE
POP PAK
FS700
Figure 8-3: Example of X.75E operation in a mixed PFA/FS 700 network.
Configuration in PFA1
The unit PFA1 has a V.28 DCE and V.35 DCE POP PAK present in ports 1-1-13 and 1-1-1-4, respectively. The respective cables 247 and 432 are used.
To configure port 3 in PFA1 as an X.75E port to connect to PFA2:
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-3,TYPE=PACKET;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-3,PROT=X75,SIDE=A;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-3,PROT=X75,SIDE=A;
204
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
8. X.25/X.75
To configure routing, the PSROI, ANRCI and ANRAI commands are:
PSROI:ROT=1,NP=1-1-1-3;
ANRCI:RC=2,ROT=1;
ANRAI:ND=2355,RC=2;
To deblock the port 1-1-1-3:
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-3;
To configure port 4 in PFA1 as an X.75E port to connect to an FS 700:
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-4,TYPE=PACKET;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-4,PROT=X75,SIDE=A;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-4,PROT=X75,SIDE=A;
LINPS:NP=1-1-1-4,TC=1-16,WSN=YES,MWS=2,PSN=YES, MPS=128,
TCN=YES,CLAMN=YES,DTEFAC=YES,CNIC=YES,TNIC=YES,
FAST=YES;
Note the recommended settings for PFA/FS 700 interworking in the LINPS
command.
To configure routing, the PSROI, ANRCI and ANRAI commands are:
PSROI:ROT=4,NP=1-1-1-4;
ANRCI:RC=5,ROT=4;
ANRAI:ND=2455,RC=5;
To deblock the port 1-1-1-4:
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-4;
Configuration in PFA2
The unit PFA2 has a V.28 DTE POP PAK present in port 1-1-1-1. To configure
port 1 in PFA1 as an X.75 port:
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-1,TYPE=PACKET;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-1,PROT=X75,SIDE=B;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-1,PROT=X75,SIDE=B;
To configure routing, the PSROI, ANRCI and ANRAI commands are:
PSROI:ROT=14,NP=1-1-1-1;
ANRCI:RC=15,ROT=14;
ANRAI:ND=12345,RC=15;
To deblock the port 1-1-1-1:
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-1;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
205
8. X.25/X.75
Configuration in FS 700
The following setting should be configured in the FS 700.
LISLS:NP=1-1-1-1,DSR=PERMANENT,CTS=PERMANENT,
DCD=PERMANENT;
206
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
9. SNA Interfaces
9. SNA Interfaces
Introduction
The PFA product is capable of concentrating IBM PU Type 2.0 cluster controllers when any serial port is configured to operate as an SDLC Terminal Attachment Interface (STAI). The cluster controller can then communicate with
an IBM SNA host PU Type 4 with SDLC or X.25 support (NPSI).
A LAN PC SNA server compliant to PU 2.1 can pass SDLC traffic over data
link layer LLC on LANs to communicate with IBM AS400 hosts operating PU
2.1. Alternatively, a PC server compliant to PU2.0 can communicate with an
IBM host operating PU4.0 running NPSI (QLLC over X.25).
Another SNA solution is to carry SNA traffic over data link layer LLC in Frame
Relay frames according to RFC1490. Virtual ports are used to interface between physical Frame Relay ports and PU2 cluster controllers.
Physical Units
There are several Physical Unit software types, handling lower SNA layers,
that can operate in an SNA environment. These types implement the same
data link layer protocols differently:
PU2.0
This type is present in an IBM cluster controller or PC, and
typically interfaces to a PU4 host in a master - slave
relationship. The slave cannot initiate a connection. Many
PC software packages emulate PU2.0.
PU2.1
This type is similar to PU2.0 except that the PU2.1compliant LAN PC SNA servers that interface to AS400
hosts (also PU2.1-compliant) have a peer - peer
relationship with that host. Both sides can initiate a
connection. Many PC software packages also emulate
PU2.1.
PU4
This type is present in Front-End Processors, e.g. the 37xx
series, for IBM hosts. The PU4 types interface to PU2.0
types.
SNA Media Translations
Media translation enables the communication between SNA devices accessing the network through different data link protocols. The PFA products
support several possible configurations for SNA media translation. These are:
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
207
9. SNA Interfaces
Access
Prot ocol
LLC2 over
LLC2 over
Et hernet /
Token Ring
PU
Type
2.0
4.0
2.0
2.1
4.0
2.0
2.1
ü
ü
ü
2.1
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
2.0
ü
2.1
4.0
ü
ü
2.1
SNA/FR
(RFC1490)
4.0
ü
ü
2.0
SDLC
2.1
ü
2.0
4.0
2.0
ü
4.0
QLLC/X.25
SNA/FR
(RFC1490)
SDLC
ü
2.0
2.1
Token
Ring
2.1
QLLC/X.25
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
SNA/LLC(IEEE 802.2) over LAN
The data link protocol LLC permits SDLC traffic to be transported over LANs
and translated over X.25 links to remote IBM hosts.
SNA/LLC over Frame Relay
The data link protocol LLC also permits SNA traffic to be carried over Frame
Relay as defined in RFC1490. See Appendix 4.
SDLC
SNA/SDLC devices can attach to the STAI using either switched or dedicated
circuits. When dedicated circuits are used the STAI port interface can support
either point-to-point or multi-drop SDLC configurations. In the case of
switched SDLC ports, point-to-point must be used. The recommended maximum line speed supported is 64 Kbps for point-to-point configuration and
19.2 Kbps for multidrop. Lines speeds have to be reduced if a multidrop
configuration is required.
The serial controller can be programmed to support various electrical data
formats. The following port codings are supported:NRZ (Non-Return to Zero)
NRZI mark (Non-Return to Zero Inverted)
NRZI space
The physical level may be full duplex or half duplex. Typically, point-to-point
lines will be full duplex, whereas, multi-drop will be half duplex.
208
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
9. SNA Interfaces
Polling of the secondary stations is performed locally by the STAI. In the
multidrop configuration, polling and transmission is performed cyclically among
the connected secondary stations.
Note the following:
In a multidrop configuration the max. number of drops is 8.
SDLC modulo-8 frame sequencing is supported.
Group address and broadcast address are not supported.
The maximum number of outstanding Info frames is 7.
The maximum length of an information field is 4096 bytes.
Commands and Responses
The following SDLC commands and responses will be supported. Two Way
Alternate transmission is supported and all commands and
responses, except I frames, must be transmitted with the P/F bit set to 1.
Commands:
I (sequenced I-frame)
RR (ready to receive)
RNR (not ready to receive)
SNRM (set normal response mode, transmit
on command only)
DISC (no transmit or receive information)
XID (exchange identification)
TEST (test pattern in information field)
Responses
I (sequences I-frame)
RR (ready to receive)
RNR (not ready to receive)
FRMR (invalid frame received: must receive
SNRM or DISC)
UA (acknowledgement for unnumbered
commands SNRM, DISC)
DM (this station is in disconnected mode)
RD (request disconnect)
XID (identification in information field)
TEST (test pattern in information field)
SNA Interfaces Port Configuration
Port configuration involves the configuration of parameters for each port object
on a per port basis. Essentially, each port must have an operational or
deblocked port object to function.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
209
Figure 9-1: SNA Interfaces port configuration.
Start
or:
LIPPI
or:
LIPPS
Start
2)
LILPS
LILAI
LILAS
3)
LINPS
LILPI
4)
5)
6)
9. SNA Interfaces
210
1)
LIPPI - Initialise PP
LIPPS - Set PP (optional)
LILAI - Initialise LA
LILAS - Set LA
LIFPI - Initialise Frame Relay port
LIFPS - Set Frame Relay port
LILPI - Initialise LP
LINPI - Initialise NP
LILPS - Set LP (optional)
LINPS - Set NP (optional)
LIPPD - Deblock PP
LILPD - Deblock LP
PSTEI - Initialise Local DTE
PSPCI - Initialise HVC
LINPD - Deblock NP
LINPI
Start
LIFPS
LIFPI
LIPPD
LILPD
PSTEI
PSPCI
LINPD
End
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
9. SNA Interfaces
The Physical Layer
The physical layer controls the physical layer serial interfaces on the PFA
product. At this layer the selection of the type of protocols (SDLC) is not
required, i.e. it is protocol independent.
Functions include the basic interrupt driver structure, loopback control and
statistics reporting.
In addition, modem control protocols are used to control the management of the
POP PAKs described below.
POP PAKs
The following is a list of POP PAK interfaces supported.
V.11
V.11
V.28
V.28
V.35
V.35
V.36
V.36
DTE
DCE
DTE
DCE
DTE
DCE
DTE
DCE
10Base2
10BaseT
15-way D-type male connector*
15-way D-type female connector*
25-way D-type male connector
25-way D-type female connector*
34-way male MRAC connector
34-way female MRAC connector*
37-way D-type male connector
37-way D-type female connector*
Cheapernet BNC connector*
Token ring RJ45 connector*
* Does not support V.54 loopback testing.
POP PAK handling
The following rules apply to the handling of POP PAKs:WARNING: Do not under any circumstances plug in any POP PAK
with the network cable connected to it.
The inserted POP PAK type can be displayed by the LIPPP or LILAP
command during all PP states except TERMINATED. Should a POPPAK be removed then the PP or LA object will display NO POPPAK.
The POP PAK DTE/DCE info will be used to set split/default clocking
(see “Timing” parameter in LIPPS command).
The POP PAK DTE/DCE info will be used to disable/enable V.54 tests
on a V.28, V.35 or V.36 interface.
On insertion of a new POP PAK, the PP object shall assume the correct
external state automatically.
NOTE: All POP PAKs can be “Live inserted” such that no power
down of the unit is necessary.
The Link Layer
Up to 8 SDLC or LLC2 links per port can be configured for the link layer with the
SDLC or LLC protocol selected, respectively.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
211
9. SNA Interfaces
For SNA over Frame Relay, up to 15 SNA/LLC over Frame Relay LP virtual ports
may be configured.
The Network Layer
Up to 8 SDLC or LLC2 links per port can be configured for the network layer
with the QLLC protocol selected.
For SNA over Frame Relay, up to 15 SNA/LLC over Frame Relay NP virtual ports
may be configured.
Initialisation
Any existing PP, LP or NP port objects on the same port must be terminated
before initialisation can take place.
The configuration of the LILAI and LILAS commands is described in Section 11.
The configuration of the LIFPI and LIFPS commands is described in Section 10.
Initialising PP (LIPPI)
The LIPPI command initialises a new physical port for SDLC cluster controller
connection. Note that on this product the interface type is not set but is
derived from the POP PAK.
LIPPI:PP=port<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,TRAPS=traps>*
<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*
<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*<,POPTRAP=poptrap>*;
Where:port
physical port number
1-1-1-(1-18)
*These SNMP-related parameters are as described in Section 5.
For example, to initialise port 1-1-1-3:
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-3,TYPE=PACKET;
Initialising LP (LILPI)
The LILPI command initialises either the SDLC or LLC protocol for a specified
LP.
For LLC, the physical port must be either a Frame Relay or LAN port.
LILPI:LP=lp,PROT=prot<,ADDR=address><,TRAPID=
trapid>*<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*
<,DISTTRAP=disttrap>*<,FRMRTRAP=frmrtrap>*
<,HDLCTRAP=hdlctrap>*;
Where:lp
212
link port number
For SDLC: 1-1-1-(1-18)-(1-8),
For SNA/LLC2 over LAN:
1-1-0-(1-2)-(1-8),
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
9. SNA Interfaces
For SNA/LLC over Frame
Relay: 1-1-1-(LF1-LF15)
prot
protocol
SDLC or LLC
address
SDLC address field
1 - FE (in HEX); required
for PROT=SDLC.
*These SNMP-related parameters are as described in Section 5.
For example, for a single SDLC drop:
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-3-3,PROT=SDLC,ADDR=3;
or, for an SNA/LLC2 over LAN LP port:
LILPI:LP=1-1-0-1-3,PROT=LLC;
or, for an SNA/LLC over Frame Relay LP port:
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-LF1,PROT=LLC;
Initialising NP (LINPI)
The LINPI command initialises either the SDLC or LLC protocol for the NP.
LINPI:NP=np,PROT=prot<,TRAPID=trapid>*
<,TRAPS=traps>*<OBJTRAP=objtrap>*
<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
Where:np
network port number
For SDLC: 1-1-1-(1-18)-(1-8),
For SNA/LLC2 over LAN:
1-1-0-(1-2)-(1-8),
For SNA/LLC over Frame
Relay: 1-1-1-(LF1-LF15)
prot
selected protocol
QLLC only
*These SNMP-related parameters are as described in Section 5.
For example, to initialise network port 3 link 3 with the QLLC
protocol:
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-3-3,PROT=QLLC;
or, for an SNA/LLC2 over LAN NP port:
LINPI:NP=1-1-0-1-3,PROT=QLLC;
or, for an SNA/LLC over Frame Relay NP port:
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-LF1,PROT=QLLC;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
213
9. SNA Interfaces
Setting Parameters
Once the port objects have been initialised then the associated parameters
can, if necessary, be modified without terminating the port object in question.
Setting PP (LIPPS)
The LIPPS command allows the modification of PP parameters. The PP must
be manually blocked for the command to be accepted.
LIPPS:PP=pp<,N1=n1><,TIMING=timing><,RATE=rate>
<,ENCODING=encoding><,IFM=ifm><,ACCESS=access>
<,DUPLEX=duplex><,ACNTL=acntl>**<,ACL=acl>**
<,ALARMTIM=alarmtim>**<,DESTID=destid>**<,TRAPID=trapid>*
<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*
<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*<,POPTRAP=poptrap>*;
Where:-
214
pp
physical port
1-1-1-(1-18)
n1
Max frame size
80 to 4120; default=261.
timing
Clocking Type
for DTE or DCE
DEFAULT (default) or SPLIT.
The PP object will modify the
clocking behaviour of the
interface to comply with the
selected interface type if
TIMING=DEFAULT is
selected.
POP PAK+TIMING
Tx Clock
Rx Clock
DTE - SPLIT
DTE - DEFAULT
DCE - SPLIT
DCE - DEFAULT
OUT (internal)
IN (external)
OUT (internal)
OUT (internal)
IN (external)
IN (external)
IN (external)
OUT (internal)
rate
clock speed
1200,2400,4800,9600,14k4,
16k,19k2,28k8,38k4,48k,56k,
64k(default),72k,128k,256k,
512k,1024k,2M. Parameter is
unused if TIMING=DEFAULT
on DTE POP PAK.
encoding
hardware
encoding type
NRZ, MARK or SPACE;
default=SPACE
ifm
interframe fill
0(default),1,2,4,8,12,16,24,36.
This is the no. of additional
flags between frames. It is
used to slow down the
interframe times for use with
slow hosts.
access
Access mode
LEASED only;
default=LEASED.
duplex
RTS mode
FULL or HALF; default=FULL.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
9. SNA Interfaces
*These SNMP-related parameters are described in Section 5.
**These NM400-related parameters are described in Section 4.
For example, to modify physical port 3 to operate with split clocks:
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-3,TIMING=SPLIT;
Setting LP (LILPS)
The LILPS command can be used to modify the LP parameters for SDLC or
LLC. The LP must be manually blocked for the command to be accepted.
For SDLC:
LILPS:LP=lp<,K=k><,T1=t1><,N2=n2><,ADDR=addr><,TL=tl>
<,T1TEST=t1test><,N2TEST=n2test><,TEST=test><,DATMODE=
datmode><,LINK=link>**<,ACL=acl>**<,LIM=lim>**
<,DESTID=destid>**<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,TRAPS=traps>*
<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*
<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*<,DISTTRAP=disttrap>*
<,FRMRTRAP=frmrtrap>*<,HDLCTRAP=hdlctrap>*;
For LLC:
LILPS:LP=lp,OWNMAC=ownmac,REMMAC=remmac,
OWNSAP=ownsap,REMSAP=remsap<,T2=t2><,TP=tp>
<,K=k><,T1=t1><,N2=n2><,FIDTYPE=fidtype><,LINK=link>**
<,ACL=acl>**<,LIM=lim>**<,DESTID=destid>**
<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*
<,DISTTRAP=disttrap>*<,FRMRTRAP=frmrtrap>*
<,HDLCTRAP=hdlctrap>*;
Where:lp
port number
For SDLC: 1-1-1-(1-18)-(1-8),
For SNA/LLC2 over LAN:
1-1-0-(1-2)-(1-8),
For SNA/LLC over Frame
Relay: 1-1-1-(LF1-LF15)
k
Remote I-frame
Window Size
2 to 7 (default);
Maximum no. of
outstanding info frames.
t1
T1 ACK idle
detect timer
0.02-30 (0.02 s intervals;
default=5). Time within which
the secondary station should
respond to poll from the
primary station. This applies to
any frame type.
n2
T1 timeout retries
1-100; default=3.
Defines the no. of retries with
P-bit set before resetting.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
215
9. SNA Interfaces
addr
SDLC address field
1-FE (HEX)
tl
SDLC link poll timer
0.02-10 (0.02 s intervals);
default=0.1.
t1test
SDLC test frame
timer
0.02-10 (0.02 s intervals);
default=0.2. If the timer expires
the cluster is considered idle.
n2test
SDLC test retries
2..100; default=3.
test
SDLC TEST frame
type
frame=TEST (default), XID,
SNRM. Specifies the frame
type to be used when testing
contactability of the SDLC
device before HVC setup.
datmode
SDLC transmission
mode
TWA or TWS; default=TWA.
This selects Two-Way
Alternate or Two-Way
Simultaneous transmission
mode.
ownmac
Virtual MAC address
of IBM host(s)
00.00.00.00.00.00 to
FF.FF.FF.FF.FF.FF;
default=DEFAULT.
remmac
MAC address
of LAN PC SNA
server(s)
00.00.00.00.00.00 to
FF.FF.FF.FF.FF.FF;
default=DEFAULT.
ownsap
Service Access
Point address of
PFA port
04-FC in HEX; default=04.
This permits multiplexing
on SAP addresses instead of
MAC addresses.
remsap
Remote Service
Access Point
address
04-FC in HEX; default=04.
This permits multiplexing
on SAP addresses
instead of MAC addresses.
t2
T2 delayed ACK
timer
0.00-100 s
(0.02 s intervals);
default=0.5.
tp
TP idle polling
0.02-512 s; default=15.
fidtype
Formal identifier
of SNA layer
FID2.0, FID2.1 or FID4;
default=FID2.0.
*These SNMP-related parameters are described in Section 5.
**These NM400-related parameters are described in Section 4.
For example, to modify link port parameters:
LILPS:LP=1-1-1-3-3,T1=1.0,N2=3,ADDR=C1;
216
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
9. SNA Interfaces
Setting NP (LINPS)
The LINPS command modifies the NP parameters for an SDLC or LLC port. The
NP must be manually blocked for the command to be accepted.
LINPS:NP=np<,LOCPU=locpu><,XIDMODE=xidmode>
<,XIDSTRING=xidstring><,TESTINT=testint><,PACKSIZE=
packsize><,TRAPID=trapid>*<,TRAPS=traps>*<OBJTRAP=
objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
Where:np
Network port
For SDLC: 1-1-1-(1-18)-(1-8),
For SNA/LLC2 over LAN:
1-1-0-(1-2)-(1-8),
For SNA/LLC over Frame
Relay: 1-1-1-(LF1-LF15)
locpu
Type of physical
SDLC equipment
PU2.0, PU2.1 or PU4;
default=PU2.0.
xidmode
Determines action
upon receipt of QXID
OFF (default),
AUTO, CHECK, REPLACE
testint
Interval between two
10-60 s;
consecutive attempts
default=10.
to contact SDLC device
xidstring
Number to identify
remote SDLC device
12 digits. Not used if
XIDMODE=OFF.
Default=000000000000.
packsize
Max. X.25
packet size
128,256,512 (default),
1024,2048,4096.
*These SNMP-related parameters are as described in Section 5.
For example, to set parameters:
LINPS:NP=1-1-1-3-3,TESTINT=10,PACKSIZE=256;
Deblocking
In order to associate the port objects together and therefore to change the
status of the port to working order (WO) the following should be carried out.
Deblocking PP (LIPPD)
The LIPPD command deblocks the specified PP.
LIPPD:PP=port;
Deblocking LP (LILPD)
The LILPD command deblocks the specified LP.
LILPD:LP=port;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
217
9. SNA Interfaces
Deblocking NP (LINPD)
The LINPD command deblocks the specified NP. The NP cannot be deblocked
until an NTN has been configured for the NP.
LINPD:NP=port;
Blocking
Blocking PP (LIPPB)
The LIPPB command blocks the PP. All data queues and other resources will
be relinquished.
LIPPB:PP=port;
Blocking LP (LILPB)
The command LILPB blocks the specified LP. All data queues and other
resources will be relinquished.
LILPB:LP=port;
Blocking NP (LINPB)
The LINPB command blocks the specified NP. All data queues and other
resources will be relinquished.
LINPB:NP=port;
Print or Display
Printing PP (LIPPP)
The command LIPPP prints/displays parameters for a selected PP or for all
PPs sequentially.
Note that the LILAP and LIFPP commands are used to display LAN and Frame
Relay port settings, respectively.
LIPPP:PP=port;
Where:port
218
Physical port number
1-1-1-(1-18) or all;
“PP=all” prints parameters
set for all PPs in sequence.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
9. SNA Interfaces
For example, to display port 3 parameters.
LIPPP:PP=1-1-1-3;
PHYSICAL
PORT
DATA
PP
POP-PAK N 1
TIMING
RATE
ENCODING
IFM
STATUS
_________________________________________________________________
1-1-1-3
V28 DCE 261
DEFAULT
TYPE
= PACKET
MODE
= HDLC
ACCESS
= LEASED
ACNTL
= ALARM
ACL
= A2
ALARMTIM
= 60
DESTID
= NODESTID
DUPLEX
= FULL
PROTOCOL
= V24
DTR
= ON
RTS
= ON
CTS
= ON
DCD
= ON
DSR
= ON
RI
= ON
TRAPID
= NONE
TRAPS
= NONE
64K
NRZ
0
WO
END
Where the parameters are defined as for the LIPPS command with the exception of:POP-PAK
POP PAK present
NO POPPAK,V.28,
V.11,V.35,V.36
STATUS
The status field reflects the PP object state and
the state of the POP PAK, e.g.
LIPPP Status
PP STATE
POP PAK
MB
MB
HB
CB, WO or
AB
Blocked
Blocked
Deblocked
Deblocked
OUT
IN
OUT
IN
Where status =
MB = Manually blocked
AB = Automatically blocked
HB = Hardware blocked
CB = Conditionally blocked
WO = Working order
The state of Automatically Blocked (AB) will be entered when a problem
external to the PFA product has occurred to bring the link down.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
219
9. SNA Interfaces
For the purpose of status reporting to the user, HB has precedence over AB.
TYPE
Type of PP
PACKET
MODE
Type of mode
HDLC only
DTR
Data terminal ready
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
RTS
Request to send
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
CTS
Clear to send
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
DCD
Data carrier detect
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
DSR
Data Set Ready
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
RI
Ring indicator
ON,OFF
*LOOP2
loop2 request
ON, OFF
*LOOP3
loop3 request
ON, OFF
*TI
Test Indication
ON, OFF
†I
X.21 Indication
ON,OFF or UNSTABLE
†C
X.21 Control
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
†TXSTATE
Tx data state
CNR, READY or DATA
†RXSTATE
Rx data state
CNR, UNR, READY or DATA
*Only displayed for physical V.24/V.28 DTE POP PAK.
†Only displayed for physical X.21/V.11 POP PAKs.
Printing LP (LILPP)
The command LILPP prints the parameters for a selected LP or for all LPs
sequentially.
LILPP:LP=port;
Where:port
220
Link port number
For SDLC: 1-1-1-(1-18)-(1-8),
For SNA/LLC2 over LAN:
1-1-0-(1-2)-(1-8),
For SNA/LLC over Frame
Relay: 1-1-1-(LF1-LF15) or all;
"LP=all” prints param eters set
for all LPs in sequence
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
9. SNA Interfaces
For example, to display the link configuration for SDLC port 3 link 3:
LILPP:LP=1-1-1-3-3;
LINK PORT DATA (LP)
LP
PROT
ADDR
STATUS
———————————————————————————————————————————————
1-1-1-3-3
SDLC
K
= 2
T1
= 5.00
N2
= 2
TL
= 0.10
T1TEST
= 0.20
N2TEST
= 3
TEST
= TEST
DATMODE
= TWA
LINK
= NOALARM
ACL
= A1
LIM
= 50
DESTID
= NMC1
TRAPID
= NONE
TRAPS
= NONE
C1
WO
ADDR
STATUS
END
or for SNA/LLC2 over LAN:
LILPP:LP=1-1-0-1-1;
LINK PORT DATA ( LP )
LP
PROT
———————————————————————————————————————————————
1-1-0-1-1
LLC
OWNMAC
= 40.00.25.00.00.10
REMMAC
= 00.60.97.9b.37.d6
OWNSAP
= 04
REMSAP
= 04
T2
= 0.50
TP
= 15.00
K
= 7
T1
= 5.00
N2
= 3
LINK
= ALARM
ACL
= A2
LIM
= 1000
DESTID
= NODESTID
TRAPID
= NONE
TRAPS
= NONE
AB
END
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
221
9. SNA Interfaces
or for SNA/LLC over Frame Relay:
LILPP:LP=1-1-1-LF1;
LINK PORT DATA ( LP )
LP
PROT
STATUS
———————————————————————————————————
1-1-1-LF1
LLC
FIDTYPE
= FID2.0
OWNSAP
= 04
REMSAP
= 04
T2
= 0.50
TP
= 15.00
K
= 7
T1
= 5.00
N2
= 3
RATEENF
= NO
LINK
= ALARM
ACL
= A2
LIM
= 1000
DESTID
= NODESTID
TRAPID
= NONE
TRAPS
= NONE
MB
END
Where the displayed parameters for SDLC are defined as in the LILPS command with the exception of the following:
STATUS
LP status
WO,AB,CB,MB; if the link is
down, level 2 should indicate
AB
Printing NP (LINPP)
The LINPP command displays the parameters for a selected NP or for all NPs
sequentially.
LINPP:NP=port;
Where:port
222
network port
For SDLC: 1-1-1-(1-18)-(1-8),
For SNA/LLC2 over LAN:
1-1-0-(1-2)-(1-8),
For SNA/LLC over Frame
Relay: 1-1-1-(LF1-LF15) or all;
“NP=all” prints parameters set
for all NPs in sequence
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
9. SNA Interfaces
For example, to display the SDLC network port link 1-1-1-3-3:
LINPP:NP=1-1-1-3-3;
NETWORK
PORT
NP
DATA
PROT
STATUS
——————————————————————————————
1-1-1-3-3
QLLC
LOCPU
= PU2.0
XIDMODE
= AUTO
XIDSTRING
=
TESTINT
= 600
PACKSIZE
= 512
TRAPID
= NONE
TRAPS
= NONE
MB
0200135abcff
END
or for SNA/LLC2 over LAN:
LINPP:NP=1-1-0-1-1;
NETWORK
PORT
NP
DATA
PROT
STATUS
——————————————————————————————
1-1-0-1-1
QLLC
LOCPU
= PU2.0
XIDMODE
= OFF
TESTINT
= 10
PACKSIZE
= 512
TRAPID
= NONE
TRAPS
= NONE
MB
END
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
223
9. SNA Interfaces
or for SNA/LLC over Frame Relay:
LINPP:NP=1-1-1-LF1;
NETWORK
PORT
NP
DATA
PROT
STATUS
———————————————————————————
1-1-1-LF1
QLLC
LOCPU
=
PU4
XIDMODE
=
OFF
TESTINT
=
10
PACKSIZE
=
512
TRAPID
=
NONE
TRAPS
=
NONE
MB
Where the displayed parameters are as described in the LINPS command with
the exception of the following parameter:
STATUS
NP status
WO,AB,MB
Termination
Terminating PP (LIPPT)
The command LIPPT terminates the specified PP. The PP must be manually
blocked before this command is allowed.
LIPPT:PP=port;
Terminating LP (LILPT)
The command LILPT terminates a specified LP. The LP must be manually
blocked before this command is allowed.
LILPT:LP=port;
Terminating NP (LINPT)
The LINPT command terminates the specified NP. The NP must be manually
blocked before this command is allowed. Any NTN associated with a DTE must
also be removed.
LINPT:NP=port;
224
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
9. SNA Interfaces
Statistics
When ports are configured and are in operation it is likely that statistics will
require to be read from those ports to monitor the network. This monitoring is
possible when the PP, LP or NP port objects are in BLOCKED or DEBLOCKED
state.
Printing Statistics for PP (STPPP)
The command STPPP prints or displays the PP statistics for a selected port, all
PPs or all PPs reported sequentially in port number order; statistics are reported independent of port state.
The display for combined PP statistics (STPPP;) will separate synchronous PP
statistics from asynchronous PP statistics.
STPPP<:PP=port>;
Where:port
Physical port number
1-1-1-(1-18) or all;
“PP=all” prints PP statistics for
each initialised port in turn.
For example, to print port 3 physical port statistics:
STPPP:PP=1-1-1-3;
PHYSICAL
PORT
PP
STATISTICS
TYPE
——————————————————
1-1-1-3
PACKET
FCS TOTALS
= 0
FCS PER HOUR
= 0
OVERRUNS
= 0
UNDERRUNS
= 0
MEMORY ERRS
= 0
OVERLENGTH
IN:
0
DISCARDED
OUT: 0
FRAMES
IN: 470320
OUT: 949559
OCTETS
IN: 2963000
OUT: 25063905
FRAMES PER MIN
IN: 2313
OUT: 19224
OCTETS PER MIN
IN: 371
OUT: 739
FRAMES PEAK/MIN
IN: 10368
OUT: 23702
OCTETS PEAK/MIN
IN: 662
OUT: 808
END
Note that the accumulated values for the above can be reset to be zero as
follows:
STPPR:PP=1-1-1-3;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
225
9. SNA Interfaces
Printing Statistics for LP (STLPP)
The STLPP command prints or displays LP statistics for SDLC/LLC for a selected port, all LPs combined or all LPs reported sequentially in port number
order.
STLPP<:LP=port>;
Where:port
Link port number
For SDLC: 1-1-1-(1-18)-(1-8),
For SNA/LLC2 over LAN:
1-1-0-(1-2)-(1-8),
For SNA/LLC over Frame
Relay: 1-1-1-(LF1-LF15) or all;
“LP=all” prints LP statistics
for each initialised port in turn
For example, to print port 1-1-1-3-1 SDLC link statistics:
STLPP:LP=1-1-1-3-1;
LINK
PORT
STATISTICS
LP
: 1-1-1-3-1
LP RESETS
: 1
LP STATE
: REJ COMMAND P0
LAST FRAME SENT
: RR COMMAND P1
LAST FRAME RCVD
: RR RESPONSE F1
LP I
:
3056 IN
LP RR
:
27266 IN
24611 OUT
LP RNR
:
0 IN
0 OUT
LP REJ
:
0 IN
0 OUT
LP FRMR
:
0 IN
0 OUT
LP XID
:
0 IN
0 OUT
LP TEST
:
2 IN
2 OUT
LP FRAMES
:
30325 IN
28162 OUT
3547 OUT
[*** TRAFFIC / MINUTE ***]
LP I
:
0 IN
0 OUT
END
For an LLC LP port such as 1-1-0-1-1, LP STATE and LAST FRAME SENT/
RECEIVED will be replaced with a LAST RESET field.
226
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
9. SNA Interfaces
Where:LP STATE=
DISCONNECTED PHASE
LINK DOWN
AWAITING LINK SET UP
FRAME REJECTED
DISCONNECT REQUEST
LINK RESET
INFORMATION TRANSFER
REJECT SENT
WAITING I FRAME ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
LOCAL BUSY
REMOTE BUSY
BOTH BUSY
LOCAL BUSY AND WAITING
REMOTE BUSY AND WAITING
BOTH BUSY AND WAITING
REJ SENT AND REMOTE BUSY
Note that the accumulated values for the above can be reset to zero as
follows:
STLPR:LP=1-1-1-3-3;
Printing Statistics for NP (STNPP)
The STNPP command prints or displays NP statistics for SDLC/LLC for a
selected port, all NPs combined or all NPs reported sequentially in port
number order; statistics are reported independent of port state.
STNPP<:NP=port>;
Where:port
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Network port number
For SDLC: 1-1-1-(1-18)-(1-8),
For SNA/LLC2 over LAN:
1-1-0-(1-2)-(1-8),
For SNA/LLC over Frame
Relay: 1-1-1-(LF1-LF15) or all;
“NP=all” prints NP statistics
for each initialised NP in turn.
227
9. SNA Interfaces
For example, to print the SDLC statistics for the network port 1-1-1-3-1:
STNPP:NP=1-1-1-3-1;
NETWORK
PORT
STATISTICS
NP
:
1-1-1-3-1 PROT
: QLLC
Total calls
:
0 IN
2 OUT
Accepted calls
:
0 IN
1 OUT
Current calls
:
0 IN
1 OUT
L3 OCTETS
:
1229 IN
676 OUT
Last CLR cause/diag
:
13/67 IN
0/0 GEN
Clearing
: 00:0
01:0
03:0
05:0
09:0
11:0
Causes
: 17:0
19:0
25:0
33:0
41:0
Others:0
13:1
[— TRAFFIC / MINUTE —]
L3 PACKETS
:
0 IN
0 OUT
L3 OCTETS
:
0 IN
0 OUT
L3 PACKETS (peak)
:
44 IN
27 OUT
L3 OCTETS (peak)
:
1100 IN
351 OUT
END
Note that the accumulated values for SDLC ports can be reset to zero as
follows, e.g.
STNPR:NP=1-1-1-3-3;
Total and current calls are unchanged as well as traffic/min rate counters.
Macros
The configuration of SDLC or LLC ports can be simplified by the use of macro
commands, i.e.
LIPOI
Initialises all Port Objects for SDLC/LLC port
LIPODDeblocks all Port Objects for SDLC/LLC port
LIPOBBlocks all Port Objects for SDLC/LLC port
LIPOT
Terminates all Port Objects for SDLC/LLC port
The LIPOI command initialises an SDLC port as follows, e.g.
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-3-1,PROT=SDLC,ADDR=0E;
The LIPOI command can also be used for an LLC port, e.g.
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-0-1-1,PROT=LLC;
or:
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-LF1,PROT=LLC;
228
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
9. SNA Interfaces
Addressing Analysis for SDLC
With respect to routing analysis, the SDLC or LLC connection is treated as a
local DTE. This means the local DTE operating as the SDLC or LLC port is
assigned a unique NTN. This is carried out with the PSTEI command, e.g.
PSTEI:NTN=9999,NP=1-1-1-3-1;
PSTEI:NTN=342523523,NP=1-1-0-1-2;
PSTEI:NTN=703801,NP=1-1-1-LF1;
Where:NTN=9999, 342523523 and 703801 are the NTN numbers assigned to the
ports.
NP=1-1-1-3-1 is the SDLC network port number for SDLC.
NP=1-1-0-1-2 is the network port number for SNA/LLC2 over LAN.
NP=1-1-1-LF1 is the network port number for SNA/LLC over Frame Relay.
Note that incoming or outgoing calls can also be barred at the port with the
PSCFS command. For further details see Section 13.
HVCs
A Hot Virtual Circuit (HVC) has to be initialised between the local and remote
PFA product by linking the local and remote NTN addresses assigned to an
HVC via the PSPCI command. For example, when using the configured Local
DTE described above, the local HVC addressing could be configured as
follows:
PSPCI: NTNA=9999,NTNB=7000122;
PSPCI: NTNA=342523523,NTNB=7000122;
Where the local side is denoted the A-side (NTNA) and the remote side as the
B-side (NTNB)
NOTE: HVCs should only be defined in the node serving as the A-side.
For further details of HVC operation see Section 13.
SDLC Example
The example assumes that:
UNIT1 port 1-1-1-3 has a physical V.24/V.28 DTE POP PAK attached and is
connected to a modem.
UNIT2 LAN port 1-1-0-1 has a physical 10Base2 POP PAK fitted.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
229
230
CC C2
CC C1
NP=1-1-1-3-2
NTN=50077
NTN=50061
C5
NP=1-1-1-3-1
NTN=50076
MODEM
IBM
PC
UNIT1
X.75E
Port 1-1-1-6
ND=70
SDLC
Port 1-1-1-1-1
X75
X.75E
Port 1-1-1-4
ND=563
37XX
FEP
NTN=70078
NPSI
IBM
HOST
(PU4)
X1
NTN=70090
PSTEI:NTN=70311111,NP=1-1-0-1-1;
LA=1-1-0-1
LP=1-1-0-1-1
NP=1-1-0-1-1
NTN=70311111
UNIT2
NPSI
AS400
HOST
(PU2.1)
X2
Workstation
TELNET
REMMAC=00.00.11.11.11.11
LLC 1-1-0-1-1
L1 (PU2.1)
OWNMAC=00.00.77.77.77.72
9. SNA Interfaces
Figure 9-2: Example of SDLC operation.
Port Configuration in UNIT1
Cluster Controller Configuration
To configure SDLC links on port 1-1-1-3 in UNIT1 for connection to cluster
controllers via a modem:
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
9. SNA Interfaces
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-3,TYPE=PACKET;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-3-1,PROT=SDLC,ADDR=C2;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-3-1,PROT=QLLC;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-3-2,PROT=SDLC,ADDR=C1;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-3-2,PROT=QLLC;
To configure the local DTEs and HVCs, the PSTEI and PSPCI commands are
used, respectively, e.g.
PSTEI:NTN=50076,NP=1-1-1-3-1;
PSTEI:NTN=50077,NP=1-1-1-3-2;
PSPCI:NTNA=50076,NTNB=70078;
PSPCI:NTNA=50077,NTNB=70078;
To deblock the SDLC/STAI links:
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-3-1;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-3-2;
IBM PC Configuration
An IBM PC can be connected via a point-to-point connection with a PFA
SDLC link, i.e.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-1,TYPE=PACKET;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-1-1,PROT=SDLC,ADDR=C5;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-1-1,PROT=QLLC;
To configure the local DTE and associated HVC:
PSTEI:NTN=50061,NP=1-1-1-1-1;
PSPCI:NTNA=50061,NTNB=70078;
Routing via X.75E
The following configuration is needed to route X.75E packets containing
encapsulated SDLC traffic to the IBM host.
To configure port 1-1-1-6 in UNIT1 as an X.75E port:
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-6,TYPE=PACKET;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-6,PROT=X75,SIDE=A;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-6,PROT=X75,SIDE=A;
To configure routing, the PSROI, ANRCI and ANRAI commands are:
PSROI:ROT=1,NP=1-1-1-6;
ANRCI:RC=15,ROT=1;
ANRAI:ND=70,RC=15;
To deblock the X.75E port 1-1-1-6.
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-6;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
231
9. SNA Interfaces
Port Configuration in UNIT2
In Figure 9-2 the PU 2.1 device L1 on the Ethernet should be connected to the
PU2.1 AS400 Host X2.
For AS400 host X2, a virtual MAC address (called OWNMAC) must be defined
in UNIT2. For the LAN-attached PU2.1 device L1, a MAC address (called
REMMAC) is configured to be 00.00.11.11.11.11.
Define the LAN port (this LAN port could also be used for IP traffic and/or
Frame Relay bridging).
LILAI:LA=1-1-0-1,TYPE=ETHER;
The PU2.1 device L1 also requires LLC and QLLC protocols to operate.
Define the LP and NP connecting PU L1 with host X1.
LILPI:LP=1-1-0-1-1,PROT=LLC;
LILPS:LP=1-1-0-1-1,OWNMAC=00.00.77.77.77.72,
REMMAC=00.00.11.11.11.11;
LINPI:NP=1-1-0-1-1,PROT=QLLC;
LINPS:NP=1-1-0-1-1,LOCPU=PU2.1;
PSTEI:NP=1-1-0-1-1,NTN=70311111;
PSPCI:NTNA=70311111,NTNB=70090;
232
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
10. Frame Relay
Introduction
The Frame Relay protocol can be used in the following main applications:
Frame Relay over ATM (PFA 660 only)
Frame Relay switching (PVC, sPVC and SVCs)
X.25/X.75 over Frame Relay (PVC and sPVC)
TCP/IP over Frame Relay (PVC, sPVC and SVC)
SNA over Frame Relay (PVCs)
Ethernet Bridging over Frame Relay (PVCs)
With respect to Frame Relay, the PFA product supports:
Frame relay ports (FP) on all PPs
Virtual Frame Relay ports for connection to ATM
Congestion control
Connection Admission Control
Virtual Call Preference (VCP)
Rate enforcement
Interfaces which support bit rates up to 8 Mbps
A max. frame size of 4200 bytes
Up to 1000 connections shared between PVCs, sPVCS and SVCs
Up to 32 X.25/X.75 over frame relay links for PFA 660
Up to 15 X.25/X.75 over frame relay links for PFA general
Up to 15 SNA/LLC over frame relay links
Up to four Frame Relay network interfaces
Up to 1051 remote gateways per Frame Relay network interface
Frame Relay Traffic Generation/Echo Ports
Semi-permanent IP routes and gateways for IP switching over Frame
Relay
Permanent IP routes and gateways
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
233
10. Frame Relay
X.25/X.75 over Frame Relay
The PFA product supports the establishment of X.25/X.75 connections over a
Frame Relay network via PVCs/sPVCs according to FRF3.1 - ANSI.T617Annex G (see Appendix 4). The remote end of the Frame Relay connection
must be compliant with this standard, but it does not necessarily have to be
another PFA product.
Carrying X.25/X.75 over frame relay has the advantage of reducing the network load and delay observed with X.25 networks on occasion. This is accomplished since no level 3 switching is performed in the frame relay network.
To improve performance in high delay networks (e.g., satellite links), modulo
128 may be used over the X.25/X.75 link.
Note that the X.25 data being forwarded over frame relay may carry other
protocols such as X.29.
The PFA product can be used as an access node for an X.25 DTE. A PVC/
sPVC from these devices can be routed over the Frame Relay network to
another PFA product. Note that X.25/X.75 perceives the Frame Relay PVC/
sPVC as a leased line connection. This X.25/X.75 level 2 connection ensures
that no data is lost in the frame relay network.
IP over Frame Relay
The PFA product supports the routing of IP datagrams over frame relay
network(s). The encapsulation of IP within frame relay is according to RFC
2427 (see Appendix 4).
Note that the service provided by frame relay, i.e. fast but not guaranteed
delivery, is well suited to IP. The protocol IP relies on higher layers to recover
from lost packets. It therefore makes more sense to use a fast but unreliable
service like frame relay than to use a slow but reliable service like X.25.
Routing analysis within the PFA product routes IP datagrams from the LAN to
the appropriate remote gateway through a configured frame relay PVC, sPVCs
or SVC (via an NI) via an FP port; static remote gateways or Inverse ARP
(PVCs/sPVCs) can be used. At the remote gateway, the IP datagram will be
extracted from the frame and routed towards its destination.
SNA over Frame Relay
The data link protocol LLC permits SNA traffic to be carried over Frame Relay
as defined in RFC 2427 (see Appendix 4).
Internal PVC segments can be used between the virtual LP/NP stack and the
physical Frame Relay port (i.e., the A- and B-sides, respectively). Additional
HVCs connect the SDLC links (connecting to the cluster controllers) to the
virtual LP/NP stack.
Ethernet Bridging over Frame Relay
The PFA product supports Ethernet Bridging over Frame Relay according to
RFC 2427 (see Appendix 4). Basic Ethernet bridging is used to connect two
geographically distant LANs over Frame Relay via Frame Relay PVCs (carrying
bridged Ethernet frames).
234
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
Congestion Control
A congestion condition is defined as when the number of frames queued for
transmission or reception exceed a pre-defined limit.
All frames are subject to congestion control. When congestion conditions
arise, the first action is to set the Forward and Backward Explicit Congestion
Notification bits (FECN and BECN). If congestion gets worse then all frames
with the DE bit set are discarded. If this still does not ease the congestion
then the last resort is to discard all frames.
The FECN bit notifies the user that congestion avoidance procedures should
be initiated where applicable for traffic in the direction of the frame carrying
the FECN indication. The FECN bit is set to indicate to the receiving end-point
that the frames it receives have encountered congested resources.
The BECN bit notifies the user that congestion avoidance procedures should
be initiated where applicable for traffic in the opposite direction of the frame
carrying the BECN indicator. The BECN bit is set to indicate to the receiving
end-point that the frames it transmits may encounter congested resources.
All frames at the FTI are subjected to the same congestion control as frames
at other Frame Relay Interfaces. However no FECN/BECN signalling is possible over the FTI. Should the FTI encounter congestion, BECN is signalled over
the FDI/FUI/FNI.
The transmitted data rate is reduced to committed burst size (Bc). The rate is
then increased to excess burst size (Be) + Bc over one committed rate measurement interval (Tc).
X.25/X.75/SNA over Frame Relay
There are two possible congestion scenarios for X.25/X.75/SNA over frame
relay.
Traffic being sent by the Frame Relay LP over the Frame Relay interface may
encounter congestion. In this case, the Frame Relay LP could receive BECN.
The Frame Relay LP however, takes no notice of a received BECN. In case of
more serious congestion, frames may be discarded by the network. This will
cause the Frame Relay LP to retransmit frames, thereby possibly worsening
the condition.
Traffic being received by the Frame Relay LP over the Frame Relay interface
may also encounter congestion. In this case, the Frame Relay LP could
receive FECN. The Frame Relay LP however, takes no notice of a received
FECN. In case of more serious congestion, frames may be discarded by the
network. This may cause the Frame Relay LP to send rejects, thereby possibly
worsening the condition.
IP over Frame Relay
Traffic being sent or received by the Frame Relay NI over the Frame Relay
interface may encounter congestion. In this case the Frame Relay NI could
receive BECN or FECN. The Frame Relay NI however, takes no notice of a
received BECN or FECN. In case of more serious congestion, frames may be
discarded by the network. This would cause a TCP connection to slow down
the rate with which data is sent. For UDP however, the outcome depends on
the application.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
235
10. Frame Relay
Connection Admission Control - port-based
For PVCs, connection admission control is used to control circuit initialisation
when attempting to deblock new PVCs. Every PVC possesses a particular CIR
value. Each Frame Relay FP port has a configured ACCCIR value
(ACCumulated CIR value) which must be greater than the sum of all CIRs of
deblocked circuits on that FP. When an attempt is made to deblock a PVC, if
the ACCCIR is exceeded on either the A-side (for pure frame relay PVCs) and/
or the B-side, then the deblock request is rejected.
For sPVCs/SVCs, the connection admission control works in a similar way,
except that the CIR is signalled in the sPVC setup rather than being
configured on the PVC.
NOTE: Ensure that the ACCCIR value configured on the FP port
takes into account sPVC traffic as well as PVC traffic.
VCP is only available for Frame Relay FII ports. See Section 12 for further
details.
Rate Enforcement - circuit-based
The parameters RATEENFIN and RATEENFOUT (configured with LIPPS
command) control whether rate enforcement is in operation for incoming or
outgoing frames. For IP or X.25/X.75 over Frame Relay, the parameter
RATEENF (configured with IPNIS or LILPS command, respectively) controls
whether rate enforcement is in operation for outgoing frames towards a Frame
Relay network only. For IP over Frame Relay, the Frame Relay NI accepts a
data rate corresponding to the configured commited burst size (Bc).
The PFA node monitors the data flow on each individual Frame Relay PVC or
SVC on all network connections. The data flow will be compared with the
throughput parameter settings configured for the PVC or signalled for the
SVC. These are:
Be
Bc
Tc
Excess Burst size
Committed Burst size
Committed Rate Measurement Interval
The following tables illustrate the expected response to rate enforcement on
outgoing and incoming frames.
236
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
Bit Throughput
Bc
+
Be
Do not transmit
Set DE on all
frames
Bc
Transmit
Normally
Time Period
Figure 10-1: rate enforcement on outgoing frames.
Outgoing frames are put on hold for a period not exceeding the rate measurement interval (Tc), at which point transmission will recommence.
Bit Throughput
Bc
+
Be
Discard
All Frames
Forward
frames and log
stats
Bc
Forward
frames
Time Period
Figure 10-2: rate enforcement on incoming frames.
For IP over Frame Relay, an ICMP Source Quench message will be sent to the
host when frames are discarded.
The Committed Information Rate (CIR) is not available as a parameter but is
derived from the equation:
CIR = 1000 x Bc/Tc
The maximum value Be is restricted according to:
Be = (16384 - CIR) x Tc/1000 for PFA 660.
Be = (12288 - CIR) x Tc/1000 for all other PFAs.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
237
10. Frame Relay
NOTE: For slower line speeds, care should be taken, as Be can
allow bursts greater than the line speed.
Where:CIR has units of Kbits/s
Bc = 0 - 512 Kbits per Tc
Be = 0 - 8192 Kbits per Tc
Tc = 125-4000 ms.
PVC Operation
To connect to different Frame Relay interfaces, internal Frame Relay PVC
segments may be used within the same node. A PVC segment can be considered to have two sides, A and B. The A-side of a PVC segment can be one of
several types of Frame Relay object. These are:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
an FP port
IP Network Interface
logical X.25/X.75 stack
logical SNA/LLC stack
ethernet bridge port
The B-side must ALWAYS be associated with a physical FP port or virtual
ATM FP port.
This association is achieved by configuring each side of a PVC segment with
a unique NTN number.
sPVC Operation
The LMI Frame Relay sPVC service provides a virtual circuit between two
geographically distant Frame Relay end-points. Unlike SVCs, the users are not
required to signal to the network the destination and service parameters; the
LMI will act as the call request and call accept agent on behalf of the user to
set up the call. These service parameters are configured in the same way as
for PVCs, i.e. via the FRPCI command. However, unlike PVC configuration, the
destination address (NTNB) will not be local to the node so additional SVC
routing (ND, RC and ROT) is required to direct the sPVC to its remote destination.
Configuration is possible by the configuration of A and B-sides of an sPVC
connection, as for PVCs, where the A-side is one of several types of Frame
Relay objects. These are:i)
ii)
iii)
an FP port
IP Network Interface
logical X.25/X.75 stack
However, the B-side must be associated with a remote Frame Relay object of
the same type not connected to the local PFA product.
This association is achieved by configuring each side of the sPVC connection
with a unique NTN number.
238
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
SVC Operation
The SVC service can operate on either Frame Relay FII or FNI interfaces. The
destination and service parameters are signalled at the SVC interface using
the Q.933 signalling protocol.
The same routing mechanism is used for Frame Relay SVCs as for X.25/X.75E
SVCs.
NOTE: A Frame Relay ROT and X.25/X.75E ROT cannot exist within
the same routing case.
Frame Relay Configuration
Introduction
The PFA products support the switching of Frame Relay frames and may
therefore be part of a Frame Relay network.
Frame relay frames contain user data which may contain various types of
protocols utilised by network access devices. Any protocol information sent in
the I-field of a frame is transparent to the frame relay network.
There are several types of Frame Relay interface available to exist on Frame
Relay ports (FPs), although there can only be one at a time.
FUI
FDI
FTI
FNI
FII
Frame Relay User Interface
Frame Relay DTE Interface
Frame Relay Transparent Interface
Frame Relay Network Interface
Frame Relay Internode Interface (Ericsson Proprietary)
The FUIs and FDIs are used in a similar manner to X.25 DTE and DCEs,
respectively, where inter-node connections must be configured with FDI and
FUI interfaces at each end. Intra-node FUI-FUI, FDI-FDI and FUI-FDI switching
is also possible, as is FTI-FUI and FTI-FDI switching. Also note that there can
only be one PVC segment through an FTI port, since no multiplexing using
DLCIs is possible.
The FNI type can be used as a trunk interface for connecting different Frame
Relay networks according to FRF.10 (NNI). These interface types must be
connected as FNI-FNI. This service can also be used to connect Frame Relay
networks over an ATM backbone (PFA 660 only); this conforms to FRF.5. Note
that FUI-FDI connections over ATM may also be used but these do not conform to FRF.5.
Finally, a trunk proprietary NNI interface called FII is available to provide an
SVC service between Frame Relay backbone nodes. The use of SVCs greatly
reduces the configuration requirements by using standard SVC routing procedures. The FII protocol can be used over ATM also.
NOTE: FR SVCs over MPs do not exist.
The FII protocol
FII protocol is an enhancement to standard NNI (FRF.10).
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
239
10. Frame Relay
Frame Relay Port Configuration
For Frame Relay configuration, every FP must be associated with a Frame
Relay-configured Physical Port (PP). This association is achieved by initialising a PP and FP with the same port identifier. This is done using the LIPPI and
LIFPI commands. There is a one-to-one relationship between a PP and FP.
Similarly, for Frame Relay over ATM, every FP must be associated with an
ATM virtual port. This association is achieved by initialising an ATM VP and
FP with the same port identifier. This is done using the LIVPI and LIFPI commands. There is a one-to-one relationship between a VP and FP.
Transparent Frame Switching
A special case of frame relay switching is transparent frame switching. This
involves connecting non-frame relay DTEs over a Frame Relay network between HDLC-style devices only.
Frames/blocks received on an FP port configured as an FTI are encapsulated
and transmitted on an FDI/FUI port (with a frame relay header including the
relevant DLCI). Frames received on the FDI/FUI port (with a frame relay header
including the relevant DLCI) are transmitted on the FTI port but without the
frame relay header.
POP PAKs
The following is a list of POP PAK interfaces recommended for Frame Relay.
V.11 DTE
V.11 DCE
V.28 DTE
V.28 DCE
V.35 DTE
V.35 DCE
V.36 DTE
V.36 DCE
G.703 64 Kbps DTE
G.703 2 Mbit/s - 75W
G.703 2 Mbit/s - 120W
FE1 (Fractional E1)
15-way D-type male connector
15-way D-type female connector
25-way D-type male connector*
25-way D-type female connector*
34-way male MRAC connector*
34-way female MRAC connector
37-way D-type male connector*
37-way D-type female connector
15-way D-Type connector
BNC
RJ45
RJ45
* Supports V.54 loopback testing
POP PAK handling
The following rules apply to the handling of POP PAKs:WARNING: Do not under any circumstances plug in any POP PAK
with the network cable connected to it. All POP PAKs can be “Live
inserted” such that no power down of the unit is necessary.
The inserted POP PAK type can be displayed by the LIPPP command
during all PP states except TERMINATED. Should a POP PAK be
removed then the PP object shall display NO POPPAK.
240
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
Configuration of TIMING=DEFAULT in LIPPS command will autosense
the type and gender of the POP PAK fitted.
The POP PAK DTE/DCE info will be used to disable/enable V.54 tests
on a V.28, V.35 or V.36 interface.
For all G.703-based POP PAKs, the RATE and TIMING parameters in
the LIPPS command are unused.
Port Configuration
Frame Relay Switching
This section describes the MML commands required to permit “pure” Frame
Relay switching with PVC, sPVC or SVC connections.
Block and Terminate commands (not illustrated) are used in the reverse order
to Initialise and Deblock commands.
Figure 10-3 shows the configuration within a single PFA node. Internal PVC
segments have an A- and B-side locally, as opposed to sPVCsSVCs (Figure
10-4) which have an A-side locally but a B-side in a remote node. In Figure
10-5, An SVC is configured as for packet switching where full or partial
matches on called addresses pass the call out of the PFA product.
For PVCs, apart from FRPCI, the MML commands are entered for the A- and
B-sides either in parallel or for each port in turn.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
241
10. Frame Relay
242
Side B
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Figure 10-3: Port configuration for Frame Relay switching (PVC
based).
LIFPD
LIFPI
LIVPD
LIATD
LIATI
LIVPI
Physical ATM
Side A
Deblock
Initialise
LIPPD
LIPPI
LIFPD
LIFPI
LIFPD
FRPCD
FRTEI FRPCI
FRTEI
LIFPI
LIPPD
LIPPI
Physical FR
Deblock
Initialise
Deblock
Initialise
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Side A
LIFPI
LIATD
LIVPD
LIATI
LIVPI
Deblock
Initialise
Physical ATM
(Outgoing)
Deblock
Initialise
LIPPD
LIPPI
LIFPD
LIFPI
FRTEI FRPCI
Physical FR
(Incoming)
LIFPD
FRPCD
ANRAI ANRCI
PSROI
LIFPI
LIPPD
LIPPI
Deblock
Initialise
Physical FR
(Outgoing)
10. Frame Relay
243
Figure 10-4: Port configuration for Frame Relay switching (sPVC
based).
LIFPD
10. Frame Relay
244
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Figure 10-5: Port configuration for Frame Relay switching (SVC
based).
LIFPD
LIFPI
LIATD
LIVPD
LIATI
LIVPI
Deblock
Initialise
Physical ATM
(Outgoing)
Deblock
Initialise
LIPPD
LIPPI
LIFPD
LIFPD
LIFPI
FRTEI
Physical FR
(Incoming)
ANRAI ANRCI
PSROI
LIFPI
LIPPD
LIPPI
Physical FR
(Outgoing)
Deblock
Initialise
10. Frame Relay
X.25/X.75 over Frame Relay
In order to configure X.25/X.75 over Frame Relay, the user must make use of a
Frame Relay X.25/X.75 LP/NP stack which is created with the LILPI and LINPI
commands; the stack is identical to an X.25 or X.75 LP/NP stack but is not
associated with a PP layer. A maximum of 15 stack can be configured for all
PFAs and 32 stacks can be configured for PFA 660s.
See Section 8 for details on configuring X.25/X.75 LP and NP port objects.
The order for X.25/X.75 over Frame Relay (PVC based) configuration is detailed in Figure 10-6 and the order for X.25/X.75 over Frame Relay (sPVC
based) configuration is detailed in Figure 10-7.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
245
10. Frame Relay
246
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Figure 10-6: Port configuration for X.25/X.75 over Frame Relay
(PVC based).
LIFPD
LIFPI
LIVPD
LIATD
LIATI
LIVPI
Physical ATM
Side A
Deblock
Initialise
LILPD
LILPI
LINPD
LINPI
LIFPD
FRPCD
FRTEI PSROI FRPCI
FRTEI
LIFPI
LIPPD
LIPPI
Physical FR
Deblock
Initialise
Deblock
Initialise
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
ANRAI
LIFPD
ANRCI
LIFPI
PSROI
Deblock
Initialise
LILPD
LILPI
LINPD
LINPI
Logical X.25/X.75
FRTEI
LIVPD
LIATI
LIVPI
PSROI
LIFPD
ANRAI ANRCI
Deblock
Initialise
Physical ATM
FRPCD
FRPCI
LIATD
PSROI
LIFPI
LIPPD
LIPPI
Deblock
Initialise
Physical FR
247
10. Frame Relay
Figure 10-7: Port configuration for X.25/X.75 over Frame Relay
(sPVC based).
Side A
10. Frame Relay
SNA over Frame Relay
In order to configure SNA over Frame Relay, the user must make use of a
Frame Relay SNA LP/NP stack which is created as a result of the LILPI and
LINPI commands. A maximum of 15 stacks can be configured.
See Section 8 for details on configuring SDLC LP and NP port objects.
Physical FR
Initialise
LIPPI
FRTEI
Logical 1-1-1-LFx ports
FRPCI
PSTEI
LINPI
LILPI
Initialise
FRPCD
LINPD
LILPD
PSPCI
FR Side A
Deblock
Initialise
LILPI
LINPI
PSTEI
SNA
LINPD
LILPD
Deblock
LIFPI
LIFPD
LIPPD
Physical ATM
Deblock
Initialise
LIATI
LIVPI
LIFPI
LIFPD
LIVPD
Side B
LIATD
Deblock
The order for configuration is detailed in Figure 10-8.
Figure 10-8: Port configuration for SNA over Frame Relay (PVC based).
248
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
IP over Frame Relay
In order to encapsulate IP packets within Frame Relay frames for transmission
over a Frame Relay network, an FP port and a Frame Relay Network Interface
(NI) must be configured for each Frame Relay network.
The Frame Relay NI is an interface which connects the physical Frame Relay
network to the IP subsystem, ie. the TCP/IP protocol. Up to four NIs for Frame
Relay can be configured.
As there is no dynamic ARP supported on Frame Relay networks, there must
be a static mapping between the next-hop IP address and the address of a
remote gateway. Up to 1051 remote gateways can be configured for each
Frame Relay NI.
The user can configure either:
i) a remote gateway to provide the Frame Relay NI with routing information on how to reach specific remote destinations on the network
attached to the Frame Relay NI. The information provided is in the form
of which PVCs/sPVCs to use in order to reach each of these destinations.
ii) an Inverse ARP cache which automatically generates a local gateway
address table at the NI. Note that PVCs/sPVCs must be established for
Inverse ARP to operate correctly.
The order for PVC, sPVC or SVC-based configuration are detailed in Figures
10-9, 10-10 and 10-11.
NOTE: Network interfaces of TYPE=FR are used for PVCs/sPVCs
and interfaces of TYPE=FRSVC are used for SVCs only.
Block and terminate commands (not illustrated) are used in the reverse order
to Initialise and deblock commands.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
249
10. Frame Relay
250
Side B
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Figure 10-9: Port configuration for IP over Frame Relay (PVC
based).
LIFPD
LIFPI
LIVPD
LIATD
LIATI
LIVPI
Physical ATM
Side A
Deblock
Initialise
IPNID
IPNII
LIFPD
FRPCD
IPGAI
FRPCI
FRTEI
LIFPI
LIPPD
LIPPI
Physical FR
Deblock
Initialise
Deblock
Initialise
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Side A
LIFPI
Initialise
IPNID
IPNII
FRPCI
LIFPD
ANRAI ANRCI
Deblock
Initialise
Physical ATM
FRPCD
IPGAI
LIATI
LIVPI
PSROI
Deblock
LIATD
LIVPD
PSROI
LIFPI
LIPPD
LIPPI
Deblock
Initialise
Physical FR
251
10. Frame Relay
Figure 10-10: Port configuration for IP over Frame Relay (sPVC
based).
LIFPD
252
Initialise
Deblock
IPNII
IPNID
IPGAI
IPROI
ANRAI ANRCI
LIATI
LIATD
LIPPI
LIPPD
Physical FR
LIFPI
LIFPD
Physical ATM
LIVPD
LIVPI
PSROI
LIFPI
LIFPD
Initialise
Deblock
Initialise
Deblock
10. Frame Relay
Figure 10-11: Port configuration for IP over Frame Relay (SVC
based).
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
Initialising PP (LIPPI)
The LIPPI command initialises the specified PP.
NOTE: The interface type is not set but is derived from the POP
PAK.
LIPPI:PP=pp,TYPE=type<,MODE=mode><,TRAPID=trapid>*
<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*
<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*<,POPTRAP=poptrap>*;
Where :pp
Physical port number
1-1-1-(1-18)
type
Port type
FRAME or FTI; Where
FRAME=Frame Relay or
FTI=Frame Transparent
Interface
mode
Mode of transparent
operation
HDLC only;
For TYPE=FTI only
For example, the initialisation of a Frame Relay port requires LIPPI and LIFPI
to be configured.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-3,TYPE=FRAME;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-3,PROT=FII;
Setting PP (LIPPS)
The LIPPS command is used to set parameters for a physical port.
LIPPS:PP=pp<,N1=n1><,TIMING=timing><,RATE=clockrate>
<,ENCODING=encoding><,IFM=ifm><,ACCESS=access>
<,DUPLEX=duplex><BUFFERS=buffers><,CRC=crc>
<,ACNTL=acntl>**<,ACL=acl>**<,ALARMTIM=alarmtim>**
<DESTID=destid>**<,RATEENFIN=rateenfin>
<,RATEENFOUT=rateenfout><,TRAPID=trapid>*
<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*
<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*<,POPTRAP=poptrap>*;
Where :port
Physical port number
1-1-1-(1-n) where n is the
maximum number of ports on
a PFA
n1
Max. frame size
80 to 4120 octets;
default=261.
This includes LAPB header,
user data and CRC.
timing
Clock type for
DTE or DCE
DEFAULT (default)
or SPLIT.
rate
clock speed
1200,2400,4800,9600,
14k4,38k4,48k,56k,
64k (default),72k,128k,256k,
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
253
10. Frame Relay
512k,1024k,64K,4M,8M.
This parameter is unused if
TIMING=DEFAULT on a
DTE POP PAK.
encoding
encoding type
NRZ, MARK,
SPACE; default=NRZ
ifm
interframe fill
additions (flags)
0 (default),1,2,4,8,12,16,24,36.
access
Access mode
LEASED or SWITCHED;
default=LEASED.
ACCESS=SWITCHED should
only be used for ISDN backup
over trunk FII interfaces.
duplex
RTS mode
FULL or HALF; default=FULL.
buffers
No. of receive
buffers reserved
for port
50-200; default=100.
Note that if too few buffers
are configured, the port may
reset due to memory errors.
A high value however will
consume memory.
crc
Cyclic redundancy
frame check sequence
16, 32 (in bits);
default=16.
rateenfin
Control of Rate
Enforcement for
incoming frames.
(i.e., Bc, Be)
YES, NO;
default=NO.
rateenfout
Control of Rate
Enforcement for
outgoing frames.
(i.e., Bc, Be)
YES, NO;
default=NO.
*These SNMP-related parameters are described in Section 5.
**These NM400-related parameters are described in Section 4.
For example, to set incoming rate enforcement for PP 1-1-1-3:
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-1,RATEENFIN=YES;
Deblocking PP (LIPPD)
The LIPPD command deblocks the physical port.
LIPPD:PP=pp;
Blocking PP (LIPPB)
The LIPPB command blocks the specified PP. All data queues and other
resources will be relinquished.
LIPPB:PP=pp;
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EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
Printing PP (LIPPP)
The LIPPP command will display the PP parameters.
LIPPP:PP=pp;
Where :pp
Physical port number
1-1-1-(1-n) or all;
“PP=all” prints parameters
set for all ports in sequence.
For example, for a PP port:
LIPPP:PP=1-1-1-1;
PHYSICAL PORT DATA
PP
POP-PAK
N1
TIMING
RATE
ENCODING
IFM
STATUS
———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
1-1-1-1
G703 64K
261
TYPE
= FRAME
MODE
= HDLC
ACCESS
= LEASED
ACNTL
= ALARM
ACL
= A1
ALARMTIM
= 60
DESTID
= TOKYO
DUPLEX
= FULL
PROTOCOL
= G703
REM_CLK
= ON
RATEENFIN
= YES
RATEENFOUT
= YES
BUFFERS
= 100
CRC
= 16
TRAPID
= NONE
TRAPS
= NONE
DEFAULT
64K
NRZ
0
WO
END
Parameters displayed with LIPPP are as explained for the LIPPI command
with the exception of:
POP-PAK
POP PAK present
NO POPPAK,V.28,V.11,
V.35,V.36 (shown as DCE
or DTE),G.703 64k (DTE),
G.703 64K, FE1
STATUS
Status of port
WO, MB, AB, HB, CB,DIS
PROTOCOL
POP PAK protocol
V24, X21 or G703
*DTR
V.24 Data terminal ready
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
*RTS
V.24 Request to send
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
*CTS
V.24 Clear to send
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
255
10. Frame Relay
*DCD
V.24 Data carrier detect
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
*DSR
V.24 Data Set Ready
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
*RI
V.24 Ring Indicator
ON, OFF
*LOOP2
V.24 loop2 request
ON, OFF (DTE only)
*LOOP3
V.24 loop3 request
ON, OFF (DTE only)
*LOOP3
V.24 loop3 request
ON, OFF (DTE only)
*TI
V.24 Test Indication
ON, OFF (DTE only)
**C
X.21 Control
ON, OFF or UNSTABLE
**I
X.21 Indication
ON,OFF or UNSTABLE
**TXSTATE
X.21 Tx data state
CNR, READY or DATA
**RXSTATE
X.21 Rx data state
CNR, UNR, READY or
DATA
REM_CLK
G.703 remote clock
ON or OFF; ON specifies
that the clock is supplied
externally. OFF indicates a
possible fault condition.
*Only displayed for physical V.24/V.28 POP PAKs.
**Only displayed for physical X.21/V.11 POP PAKs.
Terminating PP (LIPPT)
The LIPPT command terminates the specified PP.
LIPPT:PP=pp;
Initialising FP (LIFPI)
The LIFPI command is used to initialise an FP port, which is one of:
FUI, acting as a UNI DCE, is used when interfacing an FP port to a
remote DTE, e.g. FRAD. Status messages are sent in response to
Status Enquiry messages. This is according to FRF.4.
FDI, acting as a UNI DTE, is used when interfacing an FP port to a
remote DCE. Status enquiries for PVCs are sent from FDI interfaces.
This is according to FRF.4.
FTI is used for transparent mode operation; this attaches non-frame
relay DTEs to the Frame Relay network. A TPAD port should be used
instead of the FTI port for communication over a frame relay network
between BiSync-style devices. Use PROT=FTI only when TYPE=FTI in
the LIPPI command.
FNI is normally used to connect different Frame Relay networks together according to NNI (FRF.10). Both ends of the connection send
status enquiries and full status messages as a response to status
enquiries. Connect Frame Relay networks as FNI - FNI.
256
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
FII is a proprietary based implementation of NNI (FRF.10) for node-tonode SVC connection in a Frame Relay network. Routing is performed
by specifying ROT, Routing Case and Number Direction.
PVC
sPVC
SVC
FU I
ü
ü
ü
FDI
ü
ü
ü
FTI
ü
ü
û
FN I
ü
ü
ü
FII
û
û
ü
The command syntax for configuration of an FP is:
LIFPI:FP=fp,PROT=prot<,TRAPID=trapid>*
<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
Where:fp
Frame Relay port
The FP port can be one of:
For physical port: 1-1-1-(1-18)
For MP bundle: 1-1-1-MP(1-6)-3
For ATM FP port:
1-1-1-ATM1-(1-64)
prot
FP port protocol
FUI, FDI, FTI, FNI or FII
*The SNMP-related parameters as described in Section 5.
For example, the initialisation of a Frame Relay port requires LIPPI and LIFPI
to be configured.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-2,TYPE=FRAME;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-2,PROT=FII;
Setting FP (LIFPS)
The LIFPS command modifies the port parameters for the requested FP port.
If the FP port is set up with PROT=FTI the LIFPS command is not used.
For PROT=FUI:
LIFPS:FP=fp<,ACCCIR=acccir><,CONN=conn><,LLM=llm>
<,N392=n392><,N393=n393><,T392=t392><,PVCSTATUS=pvcstatus>
<,LCP=lcp><,SVC=svc><,PVCDLCI=pvcdlci><,T200=t200>
<,N200=n200><,T203=t203><,INACT=inact><,TRAPID=trapid>*
<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
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10. Frame Relay
For PROT=FDI:
LIFPS:FP=fp<,ACCCIR=acccir><,CONN=conn><,LLM=llm>
<,N391=n391><,T391=t391><,N392=n392><,N393=n393><,LCP=lcp>
<,SVC=svc><,PVCDLCI=pvcdlci><,T200=t200><,N200=n200>
<,T203=t203><,INACT=inact><,TRAPID=trapid>*<,TRAPS=traps>*
<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*
<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
For PROT=FNI:
LIFPS:FP=fp<ACCCIR=acccir><,CONN=conn><,LLM=llm>
<,T391=t391> <,T392=t392><,N391=n391><,N392=n392>
<,N393=n393><,PVCSTATUS=pvcstatus><,LCP=lcp>
<,SVC=svc><,PVCDLCI=pvcdlci><,T200=t200><,N200=n200>
<,T203=t203><,FNITYPE=fnitype><,INACT=inact><,TRAPS=traps>*
<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*
<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
For PROT=FII:
LIFPS:FP=fp<ACCCIR=acccir><,CONN=conn><,SVC=svc><,T200=t200>
<,N200=n200><,T203=t203><,VCP=vcp><,INACT=inact>
<,TRAPS=traps>*<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
Where:fp
Frame Relay port
The FP port can be one of:
For physical port: 1-1-1-(1-18)
For MP bundle: 1-1-1-MP(1-6)-3
For ATM FP port:
1-1-1-ATM1-(1-64)
258
acccir
64K,3M,4M,
Max. permitted
48K,64K,128K,1M,
total CIR for all
circuits (PVCs,
sPVCs, SVCs)
5M,6M,7M, 8M,9M,10M;
default=10M. This parameter
allows oversubscription
beyond the physical bandwidth
of the port.
conn
Maximum number
of Frame Relay
connections
1..1000; default=500
llm
PVC Link Layer
Management
(LLM)
ANSI, NO_LMI or CCITT;
default=CCITT. Switching off
LLM (NO_LMI) will lose the
integrity status of the links that
LMI provides and any loss of
PVC integrity will not be
indicated.
t391
Interval between
PVC Status Enquiries
5..180 in seconds;
default=10.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
t392
Interval during which
time DCE expects to
receive a STATUS
ENQ in seconds.
n391
Count of number
1..255; default=6.
of PVC Status Enquiries
before a Full Status
Enquiry is issued.
n392
Error threshold
value to determine
service-affecting
condition for PVCs
1..10; default=3.
n393
Monitored PVC events
count
1..10; default=4.
Should be set to £N392.
pvcstatus
Set PVC async status
update message ON
for FUI/FNI
YES or NO; default=NO.
Provide the LMI with the
up-to-date status of a
single deblocked PVC.
lcp
LCP port number
1-1-1-(1-18) or ANY.
Default=ANY. Only used when
a FP port 1-1-1-MP(1-6)-3 is
connected to an MP bundle
(see Section 17). Only relevant
to the FUI or FNI protocol
since it allows the interface to
be configured to provide
optional asynchronous status
updates (from an FR DCE).
svc
SVC signalling enabled YES or NO; default=NO.
The SVCs will use DLCIs
outside the range defined for
PVCs (with the PVCDLCI
parameter). For FII ports,
SVC=YES is always set.
pvcdlci
DLCI range for
1..1023 or NONE;
PVC/sPVC connections default=1..20.
t200
SVC retransmission
timer
n200
Maximum number
1..100; default=3.
of SVC retransmissions
t203
SVC idle timer
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
5..200 in seconds;
default=15.
2..300 secs (in 00.1 sec
increments); default=1.5.
0.2 to 60 secs; default=30.
This is the max. time without
frames being exchanged.
259
10. Frame Relay
fnitype
SVC interface type
USR or NTW; default=USR.
This indicates SVC signalling
differences. Only valid for
PROT=FNI.
0..300 s; default=120.
inact
Inactivity timeout
for ISDN B-channel
clearing
vcp
VCP retry timer
8..1024 in seconds or
DISABLED allow the VCP call
retry timer to be configured.
Default=30. VCP=DISABLED
will disable call retry. VCP is
only valid for Frame Relay FII.
inact
Switched access
inactivity time
0..300 in seconds;
default=120.
*SNMP-related parameters are as described in Section 5.
For example:
LIFPS:FP=1-1-1-2,PVCSTATUS=YES,LLM=ANSI,T392=15;
Dealing with PVCDLCI Allocations
For newly delivered PFA products, the PVCDLCI allocation is restricted to lie
between 1 and 20 by default. If a wider range of DLCI values are required the
user must expand the range by configuring the PVCDLCI parameter in the
LIFPS command. The remaining DLCIs are available for SVCs.
However, an upgrade from previous versions to this release will accept any
existing previously configured DLCI values that rest within the range 1 to
1023. This causes the software to switch off SVC functionality automatically
by setting SVC=NO in the LIFPS command. The following steps must be taken
to set SVC services for this release.
i) Switch SVCs back on and reset the PVCDLCI range back to the default
range:
UIPDT:PARAM=LIFPX.SVC;
UIPDT:PARAM=LIFPX.PVCDLCI;
ii) Reconfigure the PVCDLCI values on each FP port in the upgraded configuration with the LIFPS command to allow SVCs to use the remaining unused
part of the DLCI range, e.g. PVCs could use DLCIs in the range PVCDLCI=130 and SVCs could use the remaining range from 31-1023. Care should be
taken to ensure that the PVCDLCI allocations in the remote nodes are adjusted to take into account the new local DLCI values.
Deblocking FP (LIFPD)
The LIFPD command is used to deblock a FP port. Note that a Frame Relay
NTN or ROT must be defined before the command can be issued.
LIFPD:FP=fp;
For example, to deblock FR Port 1-1-1-1:
LIFPD:FP=1-1-1-1;
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10. Frame Relay
Blocking FP (LIFPB)
The LIFPB command is used to block a FP port.
LIFPB:FP=fp;
For example, to block FR Port 1-1-1-1:
LIFPB:FP=1-1-1-1;
Printing FP (LIFPP)
The command will print the requested FP port parameters. The printout will
differ, depending on the protocol configured on the port.
NOTE: The LCP parameter is only displayed when the FP port is
connected to an MP bundle, i.e. 1-1-1-MP(1-6)-3.
LIFPP:FP=fp;
Where:fp
Frame Relay port
The FP port can be one of:
For physical port: 1-1-1-(1-18)
For MP bundle: 1-1-1-MP(1-6)-3
For ATM FP port:
1-1-1-ATM1-(1-64)
For example, for FP port with PROT=FUI:
LIFPP:FP=1-1-1-2;
FRAME RELAY PORT DATA
FP
PROT
STATUS
STATUS
LMI
SVC
——————————————————————————————————————————
1-1-1-2
FUI
ACCCIR
= 10M
CONN
= 500
LLM
= CCITT
N392
= 3
N393
= 4
T392
= 5
PVCSTATUS
= YES
TRAPID
= NONE
TRAPS
= NONE
PVCDLCI
= 001-020
SVC
= YES
T200
= 1.5
N200
= 3
T203
= 30
WO
WO
END
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
261
10. Frame Relay
For example, for FP port with PROT=FII:
LIFPP:FP=1-1-1-1;
FP
PROT
STATUS
STATUS
LMI
SVC
---------------------------------------1-1-1-1
FII
ACCCIR
=
10M
CONN
=
500
TRAPID
=
NONE
TRAPS
=
NONE
SVC
=
YES
T200
=
1.5
N200
=
3
T203
=
30
INACT
=
120
VCP
=
30
NA
MB
END
Where the parameters are as described for the LIFPI command with the
exception of:STATUS LMI
Status of FP
WO, MB or AB
STATUS SVC
Status of FP
WO, MB, AB or NA
PROT
FP port protocol
FUI, FDI, FTI, FII
Terminating FP (LIFPT)
The LIFPT command is used to terminate a FP port.
LIFPT:FP=fp;
For example, to terminate FR Port 1-1-1-1:
LIFPT:FP=1-1-1-1;
Frame Relay NTN Configuration
Initialising Frame Relay NTN (FRTEI)
The FRTEI command is used to assign a Frame Relay NTN to one of several
Frame Relay port objects.
FRTEI:NTN=ntn,FP=fp;
or:
FRTEI:NTN=ntn,LP=lp;
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EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
Where:ntn
Network terminal
number
1-15 digits
fp
Frame Relay port
The FP port can be one of:
For physical port: 1-1-1-(1-18)
For MP bundle: 1-1-1-MP(1-6)-3
For ATM FP port:
1-1-1-ATM1-(1-64).
lp
Link/Network Layer ID
1-1-1-(XF1-XF32) for X.25/X.75
or 1-1-1-(LF1-LF15) for SNA
Note XF1-XF15 is for all PFAs.
XF1-XF32 is for PFA 660 only.
For example, to assign NTN 100 to FP port 1-1-1-3:
FRTEI:NTN=100,FP=1-1-1-3;
For example, to assign NTN 50 to Frame Relay LP/NP layer with LP 1-1-1XF5:
FRTEI:NTN=50,LP=1-1-1-XF5;
Printing Frame Relay NTNs (FRTEP)
The FRTEP command is used to display the status of the NTNs associated
with a source of Frame Relay data, i.e. an LP object for packet-switched
traffic over Frame Relay.
Regardless of which parameters are used, the entries should be displayed in
NTN order.
FRTEP<:NTN=ntn><:TYPE=type>;
Where:ntn
Network terminal
number
1-15 digits
type
FR DTE type
associated with NTN
LP or FP
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
263
10. Frame Relay
For example, to print all Frame Relay NTNs along with information about the
status of the FR data source associated with it:
FRTEP;
LOCAL FRAME RELAY DTE DATA
NTN
FP
LP
STATUS
———————————————————————————————————————————————
200
1-1-1-1
WO
201
205
1-1-1-LF1
WO
1-1-1-3
WO
206
1-1-1-XF8
WO
207
1-1-1-MP1-3
WO
212
1-1-1-ATM1-40
WO
END
Where the parameters are as described as for the FRTEI command with the
exception of:
STATUS
Frame Relay NTN
status
WO, AB, MB
Terminating Frame Relay NTN (FRTET)
The command is used to terminate a specific Frame Relay NTN.
FRTET:NTN=ntn;
For example, to terminate Frame Relay NTN 210:
FRTET:NTN=210;
Frame Relay PVC/sPVC Configuration
Initialising Frame Relay PVC/sPVC (FRPCI)
The FRPCI command is used to initialise a Frame Relay PVC/sPVC. This
command is not used for Frame Relay SVC services.
For PVCs, the A and B extensions to the NTN and DLCI parameters refer to
the two ends of a PVC segment which both co-exist on the same node. They
DO NOT refer to the two sides of an internode end-to-end PVC. The NTN
values must have previously been configured with the FRTEI command.
For sPVCs, the A and B-sides to the NTN/DLCI parameters refer to settings
between a local PFA product and a remote PFA product; no internal PVC
segments are configured. Locally, the NTNB value for an sPVC would typically
be a partial match of a number direction associated with a trunk FNI or FII
interface.
For IP over Frame Relay (PVC-based), the two NTNs are identified at the Aside with the PVCID or at the B-side with the DLCIB. NTNA is associated with
the Frame Relay NI and NTNB is always associated with a FP port.
264
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
The NTNA is associated with one of the following:
i) another FP port
ii) an X.25/X.75 LP/NP port
iii) a LAN port (via a Frame Relay NI)
iv) an SNA LP/NP port
v) a Bridge port
The NTNB must be associated with a different FP port. Note that an FP port
configured with an FTI interface, can only be associated with an A-side.
The maximum number of PVCs at a Frame Relay interface is limited by the
maximum frame size (N1) configured with the LIPPS command.
Note If FP port LLM=CCITT then required frame size = 13 + (no. of PVCs x 5).
Note If FP port LLM=ANSI then required frame size = 14 + (no. of PVCs x 5).
For an FP port PVC/sPVC at SIDEA with PROT=FUI, FDI, FNI:
FRPCI:SIDEA=FR,NTNA=ntna,DLCIA=dlcia,NTNB=ntnb,
DLCIB=dlcib<,BC=bc><,BE=be><,TC=tc><,N201=n201>
<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,PVCTRAP=pvctrap>*;
For an FP port PVCs with PROT=FTI:
FRPCI:SIDEA=FTI,NTNA=ntna,NTNB=ntnb,DLCIB=dlcib
<,BC=bc><,BE=be><,TC=tc><,TRAPID=trapid>*
<,PVCTRAP=pvctrap>*;
For X.25/X.75 PVCs over Frame Relay:
FRPCI:SIDEA=X25,NTNA=ntna,NTNB=ntnb,DLCIB=dlcib
<,BC=bc><,BE=be><,TC=tc><,TRAPID=trapid>*
<,PVCTRAP=pvctrap>*;
For SNA PVCs over Frame Relay:
FRPCI:SIDEA=SNA,NTNA=ntna,NTNB=ntnb,DLCIB=dlcib
<,BC=bc><,BE=be><,TC=tc><,TRAPID=trapid>*
<,PVCTRAP=pvctrap>*;
For IP PVCs over Frame Relay:
FRPCI:SIDEA=IP,NTNA=ntna,PVCID="pvcid",NTNB=ntnb,
DLCIB=dlcib<,BC=bc><,BE=be><,TC=tc><,TRAPID=
trapid>*<,PVCTRAP=pvctrap>*;
For Ethernet Bridging PVCs over Frame Relay:
FRPCI:SIDEA=BRIDGE,NTNA=ntna,PVCID="pvcid",NTNB=ntnb,
DLCIB=dlcib<,BC=bc><,BE=be><,TC=tc><,TRAPID=
trapid>*<,PVCTRAP=pvctrap>*;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
265
10. Frame Relay
For Frame Relay Traffic Port PVCs:
FRPCI:SIDEA=FRTP,NTNA=ntna,DLCIA=dlcia,
NTNB=ntnb,DLCIB=dlcib<,BC=bc><,BE=be><,TC=tc>;
For IP sPVCs over Frame Relay:
FRPCI:SIDEA=IPSPVC,NTNA=ntna,NTNB=ntnb,SPVCREF=spvcref
<,PVCID=pvcid><,N201=n201><,BE=be><,TC=tc><,BC=bc>
<,TRAPID=trapid><,PVCTRAP=pvctrap>;
For X.25/X.75 sPVCs over Frame Relay:
FRPCI:SIDEA=X25SPVC,NTNA=ntna,NTNB=ntnb<,N201=n201>
<,BE=be><,TC=tc><,BC=bc><,TRAPID=trapid><,PVCTRAP=pvctrap>;
For a Frame Relay Echo Port:
FRPCI:SIDEA=FREP,NTNA=ntna,DLCIA=dlcia,NTNB=ntnb,
DLCIB=dlcib<,BC=bc><,BE=be><,TC=tc>;
For sPVC SIDEB with PROT=FUI, FDI, FNI:
FRPCI:SIDEB=FR,NTNA=ntna,DLCIA=dlcia,NTNB=ntnb,
DLCIB=dlcib<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,PVCTRAP=pvctrap>*;
For sPVC SIDEB for X.25:
FRPCI:SIDEB=X25SPVC,NTNA=ntna,NTNB=ntnb<,TRAPID=trapid>
<,PVCTRAP=pvctrap><,N201=n201><,BC=bc><,BE=be><,TC=tc>;
For sPVC SIDEB for IP:
FRPCI:SIDEB=IPSPVC,NTNA=ntna,NTNB=ntnb,PVCID="pvcid",
SPVCREF=spvcref<,TRAPID=trapid><,PVCTRAP=pvctrap><,N201=n201>
<,BC=bc><,BE=be><,TC=tc>;
Where:-
266
sidea
Originating side
of a PVC/sPVC
PVC: FR, FTI, X25 (also for
X.75), BRIDGE, FRTP, FREP.
sPVC: FR,IPSPVC, X25SPVC.
sideb
Terminating side
of an sPVC only
FR,IPSPVC,X25SPVC. The Bside will never setup an sPVC
but is only configured for sPVC
management when the A-side
of an sPVC is located in a
different node.
ntna
NTN at A-side
1-15 digits
ntnb
NTN at B-side
1-15 digits
dlcia
Data Link Connection
Identifier at A-side
1-1023
dlcib
Data Link Connection
Identifier at B-side
1-1023
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
bc
Committed Burst
size
0-512 Kbit; default=32
be
Excess Burst size
0-8192 Kbit; default=64
tc
Committed rate
125-4000 ms; default=125
n201
Information Field Size
1-4200 octets; default=250.
This is the max. payload
carried per frame.
Note n201-4= n1 where n1 is
configured for the PP at the
A- or B-side.
"pvcid"
PVC identifier at
A-side
"3 to 10 characters"; if
Inverse ARP is not used, this
must match the PVCID value
set in the remote gateway on
the Frame Relay NI. Inverted
commas can be used to
preserve case sensitivity.
spvcref
Reference to connect
1-1023
A and B sides of an IP
over Frame Relay sPVC
*SNMP-related parameters are as described in Section 5.
For example, for an FP port PVC/sPVC at SIDEA with PROT=FDI, FUI, FNI:
FRPCI:SIDEA=FR,NTNA=100,DLCIA=123,NTNB=50,
DLCIB=234,TC=500,BE=896;
For example, X.25/X.75(E) PVCs over Frame Relay:
FRPCI:SIDEA=X25,NTNA=100,NTNB=50,DLCIB=12;
For example, IP PVCs over Frame Relay:
FRPCI:SIDEA=IP,NTNA=100,PVCID=LONDON,NTNB=50,DLCIB=1;
For example, for an sPVC at the B-side:
FRPCI:SIDEB=FR,NTNA=23456,DLCIA=234,NTNB=12345,DLCIB=123;
Setting Frame Relay PVC/sPVC (FRPCS)
The FRPCS command is used to modify the parameter values for a specific
PVC/sPVC.
FRPCS:[<,NTN=ntn><,DLCI=dlci><,PVCID=pvcid>]<,BC=bc>
<,BE=be><,TC=tc><,N201=n201><,SPVCREF=spvcref>
<,TRAPID=trapid>*<PVCTRAP=pvctrap>*;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
267
10. Frame Relay
Where the parameters are as described for FRPCI. The NTN and DLCI parameters are used to identify the A or B side of a PVC segment.
For example:
FRPCS:NTN=1234,DLCI=12,BC=16,TC=500;
or:
FRPCS:NTN=1234,PVCID=LONDON,BC=16,TC=500;
Deblocking Frame Relay PVC/sPVC (FRPCD)
The FRPCD command is used to deblock a specific or all Frame Relay PVCs/
sPVCs associated with an NTN. The Frame Relay object associated with the
NTN being used must be deblocked before the PVC/sPVC is deblocked.
For PVCs, the B-side is always associated with a FP port; for sPVCs, the Bside is in a different node to the A-side.
A PVC cannot be deblocked if the ACCCIR value is exceeded. If this is the
case the total CIR will need to be reduced.
FRPCD:[<,NTN=ntn><,DLCI=dlci><,PVCID="pvcid">];
Where:
ntn
Network Terminal
Number
1-15 digits
dlci
Data Link Connection
Identifier
1-1023 or ALL;
DLCI=ALL deblocks all PVCs/
sPVCs associated with an NTN
"pvcid"
PVC identifier
associated with a
Remote Gateway
"string"
For example, to deblock a PVC/sPVC using the A-side:
FRPCD:NTN=1234,DLCI=234;
For example, to deblock a PVC using the B-side:
FRPCD:NTN=23456,PVCID=234;
Blocking Frame Relay PVC/sPVC (FRPCB)
The FRPCB command is used to block a specific or all Frame Relay PVCs/
sPVCs associated with an NTN. The Frame Relay object associated with the
NTN being used must be blocked before the PVC/sPVC is blocked.
For PVCs, the B-side is always associated with a FP port; for sPVCs, the Bside is in a different node to the A-side.
268
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
FRPCB:[<,NTN=ntn><,DLCI=dlci><,PVCID="pvcid">];
Where:
ntn
Network Terminal
Number
1-15 digits
dlci
Data Link Connection
Identifier
1-1023 or ALL;
DLCI=ALL blocks all PVCs
associated with an NTN.
"pvcid"
PVC identifier
associated with a
Remote Gateway
"string"
For example, to block using the A-side:
FRPCB:NTN=1234,DLCI=234;
For example, to block using the B-side:
FRPCB:NTN=23456,PVCID=234;
Printing Frame Relay PVC/sPVCs (FRPCP)
The FRPCP command is used to print out the parameters of the configured
Frame Relay PVC/sPVC.
FRPCP;
or:
FRPCP:NTN=ntn<,ALL=all>;
or:
FRPCP:NTN=ntn,DLCI=dlci<,ALL=all>;
or:
FRPCP:NTN=ntn,PVCID="pvcid"<,ALL=all>;
Where the parameters are as described for the FRPCD command with the
exception of:all
Display all details
all;
Indicates that Bc, Be and Tc
parameters are also
displayed.
spvc_clear_code
FR sPVC Clearing
cause code
0 to 255
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
269
10. Frame Relay
For example, for a specific Frame Relay PVC:
FRPCP:NTN=12345,DLCI=1,ALL=ALL;
FRAME RELAY PVC DATA
SIDEA
NTNA
DLCIA/PVCID
NTNB
DLCIB
STATUS
PVC A B
——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
FR
12345
BC
= 64
BE
= 8
TC
= 250
N201
= 1600
SPVC CLEARCODE
= 0
TRAPID
= NONE
PVCTRAP
= NONE
1
23456
234
WO WO WO
END
For example, for all Frame Relay PVCs associated with a specific NTN.
FRPCP:NTN=12345;
FRAME RELAY PVC DATA
SIDEA
NTNA
DLCIA/PVCID NTNB
DLCIB/
STATUS
SPVCREF
PVC A B
——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
FR
12345 1
FR
12345 2
31211
17
WO WO WO
FR
586
12345
4
WO WO WO
1
23456
234
WO WO WO
END
For Frame Relay over ATM, the status of the B-side may be CB if either the
ATM E3/DS3 link is not working or if the PVC between the virtual FP port and
ATM port is not working.
Where the parameters are as described for the FRPCI command with the
exception of:
STATUS
270
Frame Relay PVC
status
WO, AB, CB or MB
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
Statistics
Command Usage
Printing Physical Port Statistics (STPPP)
The STPPP command prints the PP statistics for a selected PP, all PPs (all
synchronous ports combined) or all PPs reported sequentially in port number
order; statistics are reported independent of port state.
In addition, the command monitors the statistics for an individual Frame Relay
PVC or group of Frame Relay PVCs as the PP is the only object through which
all Frame Relay frames are guaranteed to pass through.
STPPP;
or:
STPPP:PP=pp;
or:
STPPP:PP=pp,DLCI=dlci;
Where :pp
Physical port number
1-1-1-(1-n) or all; n=number
of ports“PP=all” prints PP
statistics for each initialised
port in turn.
dlci
Data Link Connection
Identifier for Frame
Relay PVC
0-1023
To print out combined statistics for all synchronous ports, i.e. X.25, X.75,
TPAD and Frame Relay ports, the STPPP command is used without parameters.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
271
10. Frame Relay
For example, to print statistics for a specific Frame Relay port:
STPPP:PP=1-1-1-3;
PHYSICAL PORT STATISTICS
PP
TYPE
TOTAL PVCs
————————————————————————————————————————
1-1-1-3
FRAME
2
FCS TOTALS
= 34
FCS PER HOUR
= 2
OVERRUNS
= 0
UNDERRUNS
= 0
MEMORY ERRORS
= 1
OVERLENGTH
IN: 0
DISCARDED
IN: 0
OUT: 0
FECN
IN: 0
SET: 0
BECN
IN: 0
SET: 0
DE
IN: 0
SET: 0
FRAMES>CIR
IN: 0
OUT: 0
OCTETS>CIR
IN: 0
OUT: 0
FRAMES>EIR
IN: 0
OUT: 0
OCTETS>EIR
IN: 0
OUT: 0
FRAMES
IN: 64916
OUT: 64916
OCTETS
IN: 129847
OUT: 129847
FRAMES PER
MIN
IN: 16
OUT: 16
OCTETS PER
MIN
IN: 32
OUT: 32
FRAMES PEAK/MIN
IN: 16
OUT: 16
OCTETS PEAK/MIN
IN: 32
OUT: 32
BITS PER SECOND
IN: 15
OUT: 15
UTILISATION(%)
IN: 61
OUT: 61
END
272
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
For example, to print statistics for a specific Frame Relay PVC on a FP port:
STPPP:PP=1-1-1-3,DLCI=2;
PHYSICAL PORT STATISTICS
PP
TYPE
———————————————————————
1-1-1-3
FRAME
FECN
IN: 0
SET: 0
BECN
IN: 0
SET: 0
DE
IN: 0
FRAMES > CIR
IN: 0
OUT: 0
OCTETS > CIR
IN: 0
OUT: 0
FRAMES > EIR
IN: 0
OUT: 0
OCTETS > EIR
IN: 0
OUT: 0
FRAMES
IN: 2
OUT: 2
OCTETS
IN: 60
OUT: 60
FRAMES PER MIN
IN: 0
OUT: 0
OCTETS PER MIN
IN: 0
OUT: 0
FRAMES PEAK/MIN
IN: 60
OUT: 60
OCTETS PEAK/MIN
IN: 2
OUT: 2
END
Note that:TOTAL PVCS
Frame Relay PVCs currently active on port
MEM ERRS
Frames discarded by buffer starvation
RX BECN
No. of frames received on port marked BECN
RX FECN
No. of frames received on port marked FECN
RX DE
No. of frames received on port marked DE
FECN SET
No. of frames transmitted where FECN-bit set
BECN SET
No. of frames transmitted where BECN-bit set
FRAMES > CIR
No. of incoming/outgoing frames received which
exceeded CIR (BC/TC)
OCTETS > CIR
No. of incoming/outgoing octets received which
exceeded CIR (BC/TC)
FRAMES > EIR
No. of incoming/outgoing frames received which
exceeded EIR (CIR + BE/TC)
OCTETS > EIR
No. of incoming/outgoing octets received which
exceeded EIR (CIR + BE/TC)
BITS PER SECOND
UITILISATION
Number of data bits per second
Percentage of line utilisation
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
273
10. Frame Relay
Note that the accumulated values for the above can be reset to zero as
follows, e.g.
STPPR:PP=1-1-1-4;
Printing FP Port Statistics (STFPP)
The STFPP command prints the statistics for a specified FP port including
contents of the frame relay error table. The statistics include SVC call information.
STFPP:<:FP=fp>;
Where:fp
Frame Relay port
The FP port can be one of:
For physical port: 1-1-1-(1-18)
For MP bundle: 1-1-1-MP(1-6)-3
For ATM FP port:
1-1-1-ATM1-(1-64).
For example:
STFPP:FP=1-1-1-7;
FRAME RELAY ERRORS
FP
PROT
--------------------------------------------1-1-1-7
FII
LMI STATISTICS
LAST ERROR
=
NO ERROR
LAST ERROR TIME
=
0-0-0 000000
SYSUPTIME AT LAST ERROR
=
0
NO OF FRAMES DISCARDED
=
0
NO OF INTERFACE FAULTS
=
0
LAST FAULT TIME
=
0-0-0 000000
SYSUPTIME AT LAST FAULT
=
0
SVC STATISTICS
LAYER 3 STATISTICS
274
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
Total calls
:
3535
Current calls
:
1
Total disconnects
:
0
Last cause value
:
255
Last diagnostic value :
IN
255
OUT
255
IN
255
OUT
Call proceeding msgs
:
6027
IN
3783
OUT
Connect msgs
:
3526
IN
9
OUT
Setup msgs
:
3783
IN
6028
OUT
Disconnect msgs
:
0
IN
0
OUT
Release msgs
:
6027
IN
3786
OUT
RST msgs
:
3
IN
0
OUT
RST acknowledege
:
3
IN
3
OUT
Status msgs
:
0
IN
0
OUT
Status enquiry msgs
:
0
IN
0
OUT
SABME frames
:
3
IN
42
OUT
DISC frames
:
0
IN
0
OUT
DM frames
:
0
IN
0
OUT
UA frames
:
0
IN
3
OUT
RR frames
:
9838
IN
13358
OUT
RNR frames
:
0
IN
0
OUT
REJ frames
:
0
IN
0
OUT
UI frames
:
0
IN
0
OUT
Information frames
:
23150
IN
19643
OUT
XID frames
:
0
IN
0
OUT
FRMR frames
:
0
IN
Invalid frames
:
0
IN
SABM errors
:
2
LAYER 2 STATISTICS
END
Where the fields are explanatory except for:PROT
protocol of frame
relay port
FUI, FDI, FTI, FNI, FII
LAST ERROR
Type of error in last received erroneous frame.
One of:
UNKNOWN
FRAME TOO SHORT
FRAME TOO LONG
ILLEGAL DLCI
PROTOCOL ERROR
UNKNOWN IE
SEQUENCE ERROR
UNKNOWN REPORT
NO ERROR
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
275
10. Frame Relay
LAST ERROR TIME
Date and Time error was recorded in the last received
erroneous frame YYYY-MM-DD HHMMSS where
Y=year, M=month, D=day.
H=hours, M=minutes, S=seconds
SYSUPTIME AT
LAST ERROR
Time elapsed between system restart and the receipt of
the last erroneous frame (in 1/100ths sec).
LAST
ERRONEOUS
FRAME
Prints up to the first 100 bytes of the last received
erroneous frame.
NO OF FRAMES
DISCARDED
No. of frames discarded because of format errors or
because the DLCI was not known.
NO OF
INTERFACE
FAULTS
No. of times the interface has gone down.
Note that the accumulated values for the above can be reset to zero as
follows, e.g.
STFPR:FP=1-1-1-5;
Printing Frame Relay LP Layer Statistics (STLPP)
This prints LP layer statistics for X.25/X.75 or SNA traffic being carried over
Frame Relay.
STLPP<:LP=lp>;
Where :lp
Frame Relay LP
1-1-1-(XF1-XF32) for layer
identifier X.25/X.75 or 1-1-1(LF1-LF15) for SNA.
Note XF1-XF32 for PFA 660
only. XF1-XF32 for all PFA
products.
See Sections 8 or 9 for examples of STLPP on an X.25/X.75 or SNA LP port,
respectively.
Note that the accumulated values for the above can be reset to zero as
follows, e.g.
STLPR:LP=1-1-1-XF9;
or:
STLPR:LP=1-1-1-LF1;
Printing Frame Relay NP Layer Statistics (STNPP)
The STNPP command prints NP layer statistics for X.25/X.75 or SNA traffic
being carried over Frame Relay.
STNPP<:NP=np>;
276
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
Where :np
Frame Relay NP
1-1-1-(XF1-XF32) for layer
identifier X.25/X.75 or
1-1-1-(LF1-LF15) for SNA.
Note: XF1-XF32 for PFA 660
only. XF1-XF15 for all PFAs.
See Sections 8 or 9 for examples of STNPP on an X.25/X.75 or SNA NP port,
respectively.
Note that the accumulated values for the above can be reset to zero as
follows, e.g.
STNPR:NP=1-1-1-XF9;
or:
STNPR:NP=1-1-1-LF1;
Current calls statistics are not zeroed.
Macros
The configuration of Frame Relay ports can be simplified by the use of macro
commands, i.e.
LIPOI
LIPOD
LIPOB
LIPOT
Initialises all Port Objects for FP port or Frame Relay LP/NP
stack
Deblocks all Port Objects for FP port or Frame Relay LP/
NP stack
Blocks all Port Objects for FP port or Frame Relay LP/NP
stack
Terminates all Port Objects for FP port or Frame Relay LP/
NP stack
The LIPOI command initialises Frame Relay ports as follows, e.g.
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-3,PROT=FUI;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-3,PROT=FDI;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-3,PROT=FTI;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-3,PROT=FNI;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-3,PROT=FII;
For an ATM FP port, e.g.
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-ATM1-12,PROT=FNI;
For X.25/X.75 port, e.g.
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-XF1,PROT=X25,DXE=DCE;
For SDLC port, e.g.
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-LF1,PROT=SDLC,ADDR=CE;
NOTE: The port could be an LP/NP stack for X.25/X.75 or SNA over
Frame Relay, e.g. PORT=1-1-1-XF1 or PORT=1-1-1-LF1, respectively.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
277
278
DLCI 17
DLCI 15,16
A
A
FDI
FUI
A A
A
B
A
A
B
PP 1-1-1-6
FP 1-1-1-6
NTN=901006
B
FUI
FDI
PP 1-1-1-1
FP 1-1-1-1
NTN=902001
B
PP 1-1-1-6
FP 1-1-1-6
NTN=9020120
A
Frame Relay NI
IP=192.9.200.201
LOCNTN=20
LA 1-1-0-1
IP=192.168.2.1
DLCI 60
FUI
Frame Relay
Network2
PFA2 (902)
Frame Relay
Network1
PFA3 (903)
PP port 1-1-1-6
FP port 1-1-1-6
NTN=9030100
A
DLCI 100, 101
FNI
DLCI 40,
41, 42, 43,
44, 45, 46
FNI
PP port 1-1-1-3
FP port 1-1-1-3
NTN=903004
LP 1-1-1-XF1
NP 1-1-1-XF1
NTN=9018888
ND=903
PP 1-1-1-4
FP 1-1-1-4
NTN=901004
A NTN=703902
LP=1-1-1-LF2
NP=1-1-1-LF2
B
NTN=703802
PFA1 (901)
= Internal HVC segment
= Internal PVC segment
= A -side PVC
= B -side PVC
LA 1-1-0-1
IP=192.168.1.1
FR NI
IP=192.9.200.1
LOCNTN=10
PP 1-1-1-1
FP 1-1-1-1
NTN=901001
A
PP 1-1-1-2
FP 1-1-1-2
NTN=901002
NTN=703901
LP=1-1-1-LF1
NP=1-1-1-LF1
NTN=703801 B
NP=1-1-1-3-1
NTN=50076
MODEM
NP=1-1-1-3-2
NTN=50077
DLCI 20,21
CC C1
CC C2
FNI
DLCI 60, 61, 62, 63
10. Frame Relay
Frame Relay Examples
Note that deblocking and blocking procedures are not described for clarity
reasons. Figure 10-12 depicts services for FDI, X.27/X.75 and SNP.
Example 1: PVC Connections
The following examples illustrate the use of Frame Relay PVCs in Frame Relay
switching, X.25 over Frame Relay, SDLC over Frame Relay, IP over Frame
Relay and Ethernet bridging over Frame Relay.
PVC Connections: FUI/FDI Service
PVC connections can be established locally between FDI, FUI, SNA/X.25/IP
and FNI or FDIs.
Figure 10-12: Example of Frame Relay PVC connectivity.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
Configuration in PFA1
For the FDI A-side, the FP port 1-1-1-1 is initialised as a FR UNI DTE by a
combination of the LIPPI and LIFPI commands.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-1,TYPE=FRAME;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-1,N1=1502,RATE=64K;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-1,PROT=FDI;
LIFPS:FP=1-1-1-1,PVCDLCI=1-101,LLM=ANSI;
The FP port is assigned a Frame Relay NTN of 901001, i.e.
FRTEI:NTN=901001,FP=1-1-1-1;
For the FUI A-side, the FP port 1-1-1-2 is initialised as a FR UNI DCE by a
combination of the LIPPI and LIFPI commands.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-2,TYPE=FRAME;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-2,N1=1502,RATE=64K;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-2,PROT=FUI;
LIFPS:FP=1-1-1-2,PVCDLCI=1-101,LLM=ANSI,PVCSTATUS=YES;
The FP port is assigned a Frame Relay NTN of 901002, i.e.
FRTEI:NTN=901002,FP=1-1-1-2;
To configure the B-side, the FP port is configured:
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-4,TYPE=FRAME;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-4,N1=1502,RATE=64K;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-4,PROT=FNI;
LIFPS:FP=1-1-1-4,PVCDLCI=1-101,LLM=ANSI,PVCSTATUS=YES;
A Frame Relay NTN is also associated with the FP port.
FRTEI:NTN=901004,FP=1-1-1-4;
In order to associate the A- and B-sides, internal PVC segments are initialised.
The PVCs to be established are configured with the FRPCI command.
FRPCI:SIDEA=FR,NTNA=901001,DLCIA=15,NTNB=901004,DLCIB=40;
FRPCI:SIDEA=FR,NTNA=901001,DLCIA=16,NTNB=901004,DLCIB=41;
FRPCI:SIDEA=FR,NTNA=901002,DLCIA=20,NTNB=901004,DLCIB=42;
FRPCI:SIDEA=FR,NTNA=901002,DLCIA=21,NTNB=901004,DLCIB=43;
Additionally an FP port 1-1-1-6 acts as the B-side of a PVC segment allowing
connection to PFA2.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-6,TYPE=FRAME;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-6,N1=1502,RATE=64K;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
279
10. Frame Relay
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-6,PROT=FDI;
LIFPS:FP=1-1-1-6,PVCDLCI=1-101,LLM=ANSI,PVCSTATUS=YES;
The FP port is assigned a Frame Relay NTN of 901006, i.e.
FRTEI:NTN=901006,FP=1-1-1-6;
The internal PVC segment requires configuration between FP port 1-1-1-1 and
FP 1-1-1-6:
FRPCI:SIDEA=FR,NTNA=901001,DLCIA=17,NTNB=901006,DLCIB=100;
Configuration in PFA2
Two Frame Relay Frame Relay ports are configured for FUI operation, i.e
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-1,TYPE=FRAME;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-1,N1=1502,RATE=64K;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-1,PROT=FUI;
LIFPS:FP=1-1-1-1,PVCDLCI=1-101,LLM=ANSI,PVCSTATUS=YES;
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-6,TYPE=FRAME;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-6,N1=1502,RATE=64K;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-6,PROT=FUI;
LIFPS:FP=1-1-1-6,PVCDLCI=1-101,LLM=ANSI,PVCSTATUS=YES;
For PVCs, the Frame Relay ports are assigned Frame Relay NTNs, i.e.
FRTEI:NTN=902001,FP=1-1-1-1;
FRTEI:NTN=9020120,FP=1-1-1-6;
A PVC attaching the FUI ports can be configured to connect to PFA1.
FRPCI:SIDEA=FR,NTNA=9020120,DLCIA=60,NTNB=902001,DLCIB=100;
Configuration in PFA3
This can be configured in the same manner as for PFA1.
A single Frame Relay FP port is configured for NNI operation, i.e.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-6,TYPE=FRAME;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-6,N1=1502,RATE=64K;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-6,PROT=FNI;
LIFPS:FP=1-1-1-6,PVCDLCI=1-101,LLM=ANSI,PVCSTATUS=YES;
For PVCs, the Frame Relay port is assigned a Frame Relay NTN, i.e.
FRTEI:NTN=9030100,FP=1-1-1-6;
A series of PVCs from the FUI can be configured to connect to PFA1.
FRPCI:SIDEA=FR,NTNA=903004,DLCIA=60,NTNB=9030100,DLCIB=40;
FRPCI:SIDEA=FR,NTNA=903004,DLCIA=61,NTNB=9030100,DLCIB=41;
FRPCI:SIDEA=FR,NTNA=903004,DLCIA=62,NTNB=9030100,DLCIB=42;
FRPCI:SIDEA=FR,NTNA=903004,DLCIA=63,NTNB=9030100,DLCIB=43;
280
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
PVC Connections: X.25 over Frame Relay Services
An example of X.25 encapsulation over Frame Relay is given in Figure 10-12.
Encapsulation of X.75 traffic is carried out as for X.25 but PROT=X75 is used
instead of PROT=X25 in the LILPI and LINPI commands.
From the A-side, any matching X.25 traffic (not illustrated) is routed via routing
analysis to a configured PVC segment. For this to happen an X.25 LP/NP
stack is configured. This is carried out with the LILPI and LINPI commands,
i.e.
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-XF1,PROT=X25;
LILPS:LP=1-1-1-XF1,DXE=DCE;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-XF1,PROT=X25;
LINPS:NP=1-1-1-XF1,DXE=DCE;
The X.25 LP/NP stack is assigned a Frame Relay NTN, i.e.
FRTEI:NTN=9018888,LP=1-1-1-XF1;
To configure the B-side, the FP port 1-1-1-4 is used, i.e.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-4,TYPE=FRAME;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-4,RATE=64K,N1=1502;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-4,PROT=FNI;
FRTEI:NTN=901004,FP=1-1-1-4;
To allow X.25 traffic to be routed over Frame Relay, X.25 calls are routed via
an appropriate Number Direction, passed to a Routing Case, and then to a
ROT, which is linked to the LP/NP stack identifier.
The NP parameter is required in the PSROI command which matches that
configured in LILPI/LINPI, i.e.
PSROI:ROT=10,NP=1-1-1-XF1;
ANRCI:RC=10,ROT=10;
ANRAI:ND=903,RC=10;
In order to associate the A- and B-side an internal PVC segment is initialised.
The PVC to be established is configured with the FRPCI command.
FRPCI:SIDEA=X25,NTNA=9018888,NTNB=901004,DLCIB=44;
Any X.25 calls entering PFA1 with a called address beginning with 903 will be
routed out of FNI port 1-1-1-4 as encapsulated X.25 packets in Frame Relay
frames.
PVC Connections: SNA over Frame Relay Services
An example of SNA encapsulation over Frame Relay is given in Figure 10-12.
For this configuration, PFA1 uses a Frame Relay physical port 1-1-1-4
configured to carry SNA traffic over Frame Relay (according to RFC2427).
Cluster Controller Configuration
First configure cluster controllers. To configure SDLC links on port 1-1-1-3 in
PFA1 for connection to cluster controllers via a modem:
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-3,TYPE=PACKET;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
281
10. Frame Relay
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-3-1,PROT=SDLC,ADDR=C1;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-3-1,PROT=QLLC;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-3-2,PROT=SDLC,ADDR=C2;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-3-2,PROT=QLLC;
To configure the local DTEs the PSTEI command is used, e.g.
PSTEI:NTN=50076,NP=1-1-1-3-1;
PSTEI:NTN=50077,NP=1-1-1-3-2;
Each of the two virtual LP/NP ports for SNA over Frame Relay need to be
configured. These interface between the physical Frame Relay port and the
SDLC port.
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-LF1,PROT=LLC;
LILPS:LP=1-1-1-LF1,FIDTYPE=FID2.0;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-LF1,PROT=QLLC;
LINPS:NP=1-1-1-LF1,LOCPU=PU4;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-LF2,PROT=LLC;
LILPS:LP=1-1-1-LF2,FIDTYPE=FID2.0;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-LF2,PROT=QLLC;
LINPS:NP=1-1-1-LF2,LOCPU=PU4;
To configure local DTEs for each of the above virtual ports:
PSTEI:NP=1-1-1-LF1,NTN=703801;
PSTEI:NP=1-1-1-LF2,NTN=703802;
To configure the Frame Relay NTNs associated with the above virtual ports:
FRTEI:NTN=703901,LP=1-1-1-LF1;
FRTEI:NTN=703902,LP=1-1-1-LF2;
To configure the B-side of both LLC stacks, the outgoing FP port is
configured, i.e.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-4,TYPE=FRAME;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-4,PROT=FNI;
FRTEI:FP=1-1-1-4,NTN=901004;
Internal Frame Relay PVCs are used to connect between the virtual ports and
the physical Frame Relay port. In order to associate the A- and B-sides, the
PVC is configured with the FRPCI command.
FRPCI:SIDEA=SNA,NTNA=703901,NTNB=901004,DLCIB=45;
FRPCI:SIDEA=SNA,NTNA=703902,NTNB=901004,DLCIB=46;
The HVCs are configured between each DTE and the virtual ports.
PSPCI:NTNA=50076,NTNB=703801;
PSPCI:NTNA=50077,NTNB=703802;
282
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
PVC Connections: IP over Frame Relay Services
An example of IP encapsulation over Frame Relay is illustrated in Figure 1012.
At the A-side of the Frame Relay PVC segment, an FR NI is initialised with IP
address 192.9.200.1. Note that Inverse ARP must be switched off when the
IPGAI command is used.
IPNII:TYPE=FR,LOCIP=192.9.200.1,MASK=255.255.255.0,LOCNTN=10,
INVARP=YES;
At the B-side, an FP port is initialised to link with the NI via an internal PVC
segment. The following commands initialise FP port 1-1-1-6.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-6,TYPE=FRAME;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-6,RATE=64K,N1=1510;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-6,PROT=FDI;
LIFPS:FP=1-1-1-6,LLM=ANSI,PVCSTATUS=YES;
The FP port is assigned a Frame Relay NTN in the following manner:
FRTEI:NTN=901006,FP=1-1-1-6;
At the A-side, initialise a PVC segment between the NI and FP port.
FRPCI:SIDEA=IP,NTNA=10,PVCID=GATE-X, NTNB=901006,
DLCIB=101;
For dynamic learned routing, RIP is initialised on the RIP neighbour:
IPRGI:GATE=192.9.200.201;
NOTE: IP routes may require adding with the IPROI command.
PVC Connections: Ethernet Bridging over Frame Relay Services
Geographically distant networks can be bridged with the use of bridge
groups, Virtual Network Interfaces and Frame Relay PVCs. Figure 10-13
illustrates Ethernet Bridging over Frame Relay.
NOTE: The virtual NI (VNI), which interfaces to a different IP network is connected to the Bridge group.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
283
284
LA 1-1-0-1
BR1
A
A
B
B
NTN 9019007
VNI
Routing
FR
NI
192.9.9.9
192.9.200.20
NTN 901999
PFA1
1-1-1-6
NTN 901006
FDI
DLCIB 76
1-1-1-2
NTN 901007
FDI
DLCIB 12
IP network
192.9.200.0
DLCIB 76
BR1
LA 1-1-0-1
PP 1-1-1-1
FP 1-1-1-1
UNIT2
10. Frame Relay
Figure 10-13: Ethernet Bridging over Frame Relay
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
Configuration in PFA1
The configuration in PFA1 would be as follows:
Basic Ethernet Bridging
To configure a Frame Relay port and associate an NTN.
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-6,PROT=FDI;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-6,N1=1546,BUFFERS=50,RATE=64K;
FRTEI:NTN=901006,FP=1-1-1-6;
NOTE: The N1 value should always be less than or equal to 1546
and the BUFFER parameter should be set appropriately with respect to the N1 parameter value.
To configure the LAN port:
LILAI:LA=1-1-0-1,TYPE=ETHER;
NOTE: For basic Ethernet bridging, LAN port IP addressing is not
required as bridging operates at the MAC level.
To configure the Bridge group and associated Bridge LAN port:
LIBRI:BR=1,LOCNTN=9019007,PVCFWD=NO,REMOTEMACS=256,
BUFFER=65536,PRIORITY=2;
LIBRD:BR=1;
LIBPI:BR=1,LA=1-1-0-1;
To configure an internal Frame Relay PVC between the local NTN of the
Bridge group and the Frame Relay NTN.
FRPCI:SIDEA=BRIDGE,NTNA=9019007,NTNB=901006,
PVCID=BR_LINK1,DLCIB=76;
To deblock configured commands:
FRPCD:NTN=9019007,PVCID=BR_LINK1;
NOTE: The DLCIB value on the Frame Relay PVC link in UNIT1 must
be matched with those in UNIT2 in an equivalent configuration.
Advanced Ethernet Bridging
As illustrated in Figure 10-13, a Virtual NI can be configured to link to the
previously configured Bridge group 1.
To configure the Virtual Network Interface:
IPNII:LOCIP=192.9.9.9,TYPE=VNI,MASK=255.255.255.0,MTU=1500,
BR=1,TRAPID=NONE,TRAPS=NONE;
IPNID:LOCIP=192.9.9.9;
To configure a Frame Relay NI for the 192.9.200.0 network to link via routing
to the Virtual NI:
IPNII:TYPE=FR,LOCIP=192.9.200.20,LOCNTN=901999;
Further configuration creates a physical Frame Relay FP port and a Frame
Relay PVC link, i.e.
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-2,PROT=FDI;
FRTEI:NTN=901007,FP=1-1-1-2;
FRPCI:SIDEA=IP,NTNA=901999,PVCID=LINK1,NTNB=901007,DLCIB=12;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
285
286
192.9.100.0
DLCI 50,51
DLCI 60,61
.69
LA 1-1-0-1
FDI
FUI
PP Port 1-1-1-6
FP Port 1-1-1-6
ROT=2
PP Port 1-1-1-5
FP Port 1-1-1-5
ROT=1
PP Port 1-1-1-4
FP Port 1-1-1-4
ROT=4
= sPVC connections
via SVCs
= PVC connections
IP=193.9.100.12
LOCNTN=901111
FR
NI
PP port 1-1-1-1
FP Port 1-1-1-1
NTN=901001
PP Port 1-1-1-2
FP Port 1-1-1-2
NTN=901002
PFA1 (901)
FII
FII
DLCI 91
FII
1-1-1-4
ROT=11
SPVCREF 10
DLCI 80
DLCI 90
FII
1-1-1-5
ROT=12
PFA4 (904)
PFA3 (903)
PP port 1-1-1-6
FP port 1-1-1-6
NTN=9030100
PP port 1-1-1-2
FP port 1-1-1-2
NTN=9030120
Frame Relay
Network1
FNI
DLCI 81
FNI
FUI
FII
FII
FR
NI
IP=193.9.100.11
LOCNTN=902111
PP 1-1-1-1
FP 1-1-1-1
ROT=5
PP 1-1-1-2
FP 1-1-1-2
ROT=6
PP 1-1-1-6
FP 1-1-1-6
NTN=9020120
PFA2 (902)
FUI
.69
LA 1-1-0-1
Frame Relay
Network2
194.9.100.0
10. Frame Relay
Example 2: sPVC Connections
Note that deblocking and blocking procedures are not described for clarity
reasons.
Figure 10-14: Example of Frame Relay sPVC connectivity.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
sPVC Connections: FUI/FDI Services
The sPVC connections can be established across geographically distant
nodes between FUI, FDI and FNI interfaces. In the example illustrated in
Figure 10-14, an FDI and FUI connects to remote FDIs via sPVC connections;
SVCs are used between nodes.
This means that NNI (FRF.10) with Ericsson proprietary network signalling is
being used. Connections of the form FII - FII are necessary for correct operation of trunk interfaces between PFA nodes.
Configuration in PFA1 (A-side)
The FP port 1-1-1-1 is initialised as a FR UNI DTE by a combination of the
LIPPI and LIFPI commands.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-1,TYPE=FRAME;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-1,N1=1510,RATE=64K;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-1,PROT=FDI;
LIFPS:FP=1-1-1-1,LLM=ANSI,PVCDLCI=1-101;
The FP port is assigned a Frame Relay NTN of 901001, i.e.
FRTEI:NTN=901001,FP=1-1-1-1;
Similarly, the FP port 1-1-1-2 is initialised as a FR UNI DCE by a combination
of the LIPPI and LIFPI commands.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-2,TYPE=FRAME;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-2,N1=1502,RATE=64K;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-2,PROT=FUI;
LIFPS:FP=1-1-1-2,LLM=ANSI,PVCDLCI=1-101;
The FP port is assigned a Frame Relay NTN of 901002, i.e.
FRTEI:NTN=901002,FP=1-1-1-2;
To configure sPVCs from ports 1-1-1-1 and 1-1-1-2 to PFA2 and PFA3, the
following is configured:
FRPCI:SIDEA=FR,NTNA=901001,DLCIA=50,NTNB=9020120,DLCIB=80;
FRPCI:SIDEA=FR,NTNA=901001,DLCIA=51,NTNB=9030120,DLCIB=81;
FRPCI:SIDEA=FR,NTNA=901002,DLCIA=60,NTNB=9020120,DLCIB=90;
FRPCI:SIDEA=FR,NTNA=901002,DLCIA=61,NTNB=9030120,DLCIB=91;
NOTE: The NTNB value for each sPVC is a partial match of the
Number direction associated with the trunk FII or FNI interfaces.
To carry SVCs, the Frame Relay ports are configured for operation as an NNI
interface (FRF.10) by using PROT=FNI or as an FII interface. Connections of
the form FNI - FNI or FII - FII are necessary for correct operation.
The FP ports 1-1-1-4, 1-1-1-5 and 1-1-1-6 are initialised for operation, i.e.
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-4,PROT=FNI;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-4,RATE=64K,N1=1502;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
287
10. Frame Relay
Initialise all port levels for port 1-1-1-5 and 1-1-1-6. Assign ROTs, routing
cases and number directions:
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-6,PROT=FII;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-5,PROT=FII;
PSROI:ROT=2,FP=1-1-1-6;
PSROI:ROT=1,FP=1-1-1-5;
ANRCI:RC=2,ROT=2&1;
ANRAI:ND=902,RC=2;
The interfaces will use SVCs as standard. The FNI port is then assigned a
Frame Relay ROT, a routing case and a Number direction:
PSROI:ROT=11,FP=1-1-1-4;
ANRCI:RC=11,ROT=11;
ANRAI:ND=903,RC=11;
Configuration in PFA2
This can be configured in the same manner as for PFA1, except that the
sPVCs are configured as the B-side.
Initialise all port levels for port 1-1-1-2 and 1-1-1-1. Assign ROTs, routing
cases and number directions:
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-1,PROT=FII;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-2,PROT=FII;
PSROI:ROT=1,FP=1-1-1-1;
PSROI:ROT=2,FP=1-1-1-2;
ANRCI:RC=2,ROT=5&6;
ANRAI:ND=901,RC=2;
A single Frame Relay FP port is configured for FUI operation, i.e.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-6,TYPE=FRAME;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-6,N1=1502,RATE=64K;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-6,PROT=FUI;
For PVCs, the Frame Relay port is assigned a Frame Relay NTN, i.e.
FRTEI:NTN=9020120,FP=1-1-1-6;
The sPVCs can be configured from the FDI and FUI in PFA1 to the FUI in
PFA2.
FRPCI:SIDEB=FR,NTNA=901001,DLCIA=50,NTNB=9020120,DLCIB=80;
FRPCI:SIDEB=FR,NTNA=901002,DLCIA=60,NTNB=9020120,DLCIB=90;
Configuration in PFA3
This can be configured in the same manner as for PFA2.
A single Frame Relay FP port is configured for FUI operation, i.e
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-2,TYPE=FRAME;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-2,N1=1502,RATE=64K;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-2,PROT=FUI;
LIFPS:FP=1-1-1-2,LLM=ANSI,PVCDLCI=1-101;
288
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
For PVCs, the Frame Relay port is assigned a Frame Relay NTN, i.e.
FRTEI:NTN=9030120,FP=1-1-1-2;
The sPVCs can be configured from the FDI and FUI in PFA1 to the FUI in
PFA3.
FRPCI:SIDEB=FR,NTNA=901001,DLCIA=51,NTNB=9030120,DLCIB=81;
FRPCI:SIDEB=FR,NTNA=901002,DLCIA=61,NTNB=9030120,DLCIB=91;
Configuration in PFA4
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-4,PROT=FII;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-5,PROT=FII;
PSROI:ROT=11,FP=1-1-1-4;
PSROI:ROT=12,FP=1-1-1-5;
ANRCI:RC=6,ROT=11;
ANRCI:RC=7,ROT=12;
ANRAI:ND=901,RC=6;
ANRAI:ND=902,RC=7;
sPVC Connections: IP over Frame Relay Services
The Frame Relay NI of type FR can be created to support an sPVC service for
IP over frame relay. SPVC remote gateways can either be obtained statically
or dynamically through the use of Inverse ARP.
In the example illustrated in Figure 10-14, an sPVC connection is established
between PFA1 and PFA2.
Configuration in PFA1 (A-side)
Initialise a network interface for the Frame Relay network. There is a one-toone relationship between NIs and IP networks. The NI type for a SPVC is FR:
IPNII:TYPE=FR,LOCIP=193.9.100.12,LOCNTN=901111,MASK=255.255.255.0;
Initialise a sPVC. NTNA should be the local NI's NTN address, and NTNB the
remote NI NTN:
FRPCI:SIDEA=IPSPVC,PVCID=SPVC1,NTNA=901111,NTNB=902111,
SPVCREF=10;
NOTE: NTNA must match the LOCNTN of the local FR NI.
NOTE: Number Direction must partially match with the NTNB set
for the outgoing port.
NOTE: NTNB must match the NTN of the remote FR NI.
If Inverse ARP has been disabled on the NI, configure a remote gateway tied
to the sPVC:
IPGAI:REMIP=193.9.100.11,LOCIP=193.9.100.12,PVCID=SPVC1;
Configure an IP route from the 192.9.100.0 network to the 194.9.100.0 network:
IPROI:DEST=194.9.100.0,GATE=193.9.100.11,MASK=255.255.255.0;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
289
10. Frame Relay
Initialise a LAN port:
LILAI:LA=1-1-0-1,TYPE=ETHER;
Configure an Ether Network Interface:
IPNII:LOCIP=192.9.100.69,TYPE=ETHER,MASK=255.255.255.0,
LA=1-1-0-1;
Configuration in PFA2 (B-side)
Initialise a network interface for the Frame Relay network. There is a one-toone relationship between NIs and IP networks. The NI type for a SPVC is FR:
IPNII:TYPE=FR,LOCIP=193.9.100.11,LOCNTN=902111,MASK=255.255.255.0;
Initialise a sPVC. NTNA should be the remote NI's NTN address, and NTNB
the local FR NI NTN:
FRPCI:SIDEB=IPSPVC,PVCID=SPVC1,NTNA=901111,NTNB=902111,
SPVCREF=10;
NOTE: NTNA must match the NTN of the remote FR NI.
If Inverse ARP has been disabled on the NI, configure a remote gateway tied
to the sPVC:
IPGAI:REMIP=193.9.100.12,LOCIP=193.9.100.11,PVCID=SPVC1;
Configure an IP route from the 194.9.100.0 network to the 192.9.100.0 network:
IPROI:DEST=192.9.100.0,GATE=193.9.100.12,MASK=255.255.255.0;
sPVC Connections: X.25/X.75(E) over Frame Relay Services
The example assumes that the core Frame Relay FII ports and associated
routing for PFA1 and PFA2 is as indicated in the sPVC connections: FUI/FDi
services section.
290
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
X.25 Port
1-1-1-1
ND 904
PFA3
(903)
X.25
= sPVC connections
via SVCs
PP Port 1-1-1-6
FP Port 1-1-1-6
ROT=2
PP Port 1-1-1-5
FP Port 1-1-1-5
ROT=1
LP=1-1-1-XF1
FR NTN 901033
NP=1-1-1-XF1
ND 904
Logical
X.25 stack
X.25 Port
1-1-1-1
ND 903
PFA1 (901)
FII
FII
FII
1-1-1-5
ROT=12
Frame Relay
Network1
FII
1-1-1-4
ROT=11
PFA4
FII
FII
PP 1-1-1-6
FP 1-1-1-6
ROT=2
PP 1-1-1-5
FP 1-1-1-5
ROT=1
X.25 Port
1-1-1-1
ND 904
NP=1-1-1-XF1
ND 903
Logical
X.25 stack
LP=1-1-1-XF1
FR NTN 902033
PFA2 (902)
X.25
X.25 Port
1-1-1-1
ND 903
PFA4
(904)
10. Frame Relay
Figure 10-15: Example of X.25/X.75(E) over Frame Relay
291
10. Frame Relay
Configuration in PFA 1 (A-side)
Initialise all port levels for port 1-1-1-1:
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-1,PROT=X25,DXE=DTE;
Assign ROTs, a routing case and a number direction:
PSROI:ROT=9,NP=1-1-1-1;
ANRCI:RC=9,ROT=9;
ANRAI:ND=903,RC=9;
Initialise port levels for port 1-1-1-XF1. Initialise a Frame Relay NTN and
assign a ROT, a routing case and a number direction:
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-XF1,PROT=X25,DXE=DTE;
FRTEI:NTN=901033,LP=1-1-1-XF1;
PSROI:ROT=33,NP=1-1-1-XF1;
ANRCI:RC=33,ROT=33;
ANRAI:ND=904,RC=33;
Initialise a Frame Relay sPVC for X.25/X.75 over frame relay:
FRPCI:SIDEA=X25SPVC,NTNA=901033,NTNB=902033;
Configuration in PFA2 (B-side)
Initialise all port levels for port 1-1-1-1:
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-1,PROT=X25,DXE=DCE;
Assign ROTs, a routing case and a number direction:
PSROI:ROT=9,NP=1-1-1-1;
ANRCI:RC=9,ROT=9;
ANRAI:ND=904,RC=9;
Initialise port levels for port 1-1-1-XF1. Initialise a Frame Relay NTN and
assign a ROT, a routing case and a number direction:
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-XF1,PROT=X25,DXE=DCE;
FRTEI:NTN=902033,LP=1-1-1-XF1;
PSROI:ROT=33,NP=1-1-1-XF1;
ANRCI:RC=33,ROT=33;
ANRAI:ND=903,RC=33;
Initialise a Frame Relay sPVC for X.25/X.75 over frame relay:
FRPCI:SIDEB=X25SPVC,NTNA=901033,NTNB=902033;
292
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10. Frame Relay
Example 3: SVC Connections
SVC Connections: IP over Frame Relay Services
The SVC service provides connections for the IP subsystem to transmit and
receive packets across a Frame Relay network using the network's switching
services. Remote gateway configuration provides the mapping between an NI
and a remote frame relay destination.
A particular FR-NI object can be created to support the IP-over-SVC service.
This type of NI is called FRSVC. Remote gateways that use the SVC service
are statically configured.
IP over Frame Relay via SVCs is illustrated in Figure 10-16.
Configuration in PFA1
To allow for alternative routing in the event of link/port failure, two Frame
Relay ports are configured for FII operation.
The Frame Relay ports 1-1-1-5 and 1-1-1-6 are initialised for operation as FII
interfaces, i.e.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-5,TYPE=FRAME;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-5,RATE=64K,N1=1510;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-5,PROT=FII;
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-6,TYPE=FRAME;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-6,RATE=64K,N1=1510;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-6,PROT=FII;
The interfaces will use SVCs as standard. The ports are then assigned Frame
Relay ROTs, a routing case and a Number direction:
PSROI:ROT=1,FP=1-1-1-5,COST=10;
PSROI:ROT=2,FP=1-1-1-6,COST=25;
ANRCI:RC=1,ROT=1 & 2;
ANRAI:ND=902,RC=1;
Any calls not destined for local services will be routed out over port 1-1-1-6 or
in the event of a failure on port 1-1-1-5.
NOTE: For SVCs the protocol must be FII.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
293
294
192.9.100.0
.69
LA 1-1-0-1
Ether
NI
FRSVC
NI
IP=193.9.100.12
LOCNTN=901111
PP Port 1-1-1-6
FP Port 1-1-1-6
ROT=2
PP Port 1-1-1-5
FP Port 1-1-1-5
ROT=1
PFA1 (901)
FII
FII
Frame Relay
193.9.100.0
FII
1-1-1-5
ROT=12
Frame Relay
Network1
FII
1-1-1-4
ROT=11
PFA4 (904)
FII
FII
PP 1-1-1-1
FP 1-1-1-1
ROT=5
PP 1-1-1-2
FP 1-1-1-2
ROT=6
FRSVC
NI
Ether
NI
IP=193.9.100.11
LOCNTN=902111
PP 1-1-1-6
FP 1-1-1-6
NTN=9020120
PFA2 (902)
.69
LA 1-1-0-1
FUI
194.9.100.0
10. Frame Relay
Figure 10-16: Example of IP over SVC.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
10. Frame Relay
Initialise a Frame Relay Network Interface:
IPNII:TYPE=FRSVC,LOCIP=193.9.100.12,LOCNTN=901111,MTU=1500,
MASK=255.255.255.0;
NOTE: That for SVCs the TYPE in the IPNII must be FRSVC.
Ensure that the MTU and Frame Relay header does not exceed the
N1 value.
NOTE: The remote gateway configured in PFA1 has a REMNTN
value which must match the LOCNTN value of the remote FRSVC
NI of PFA2.
Initialise a LAN port:
LILAI:LA=1-1-0-1,TYPE=ETHER;
Configure an Ether Network Interface:
IPNII:LOCIP=192.9.100.69,TYPE=ETHER,MASK=255.255.255.0,
LA=1-1-0-1;
Initialise a remote gateway and necessary routing:
IPGAI:REMIP=193.9.100.11,LOCIP=193.9.100.12,REMNTN=902111;
IPROI:DEST=194.9.100.0,MASK=255.255.255.0,GATE=193.9.100.11;
NOTE: The ND parameter of ANRAI corresponds in part to the
address of the destination IP NTN in the remote gateway.
Configuration in PFA2
The Frame Relay ports can be configured for operation as proprietary FII
interfaces to create the FII - FII connection to port 1-1-1-6 in PFA1 and FP
port 1-1-1-5 in PFA4.
The Frame Relay ports 1-1-1-1 and 1-1-1-2 are initialised for operation as FII
interfaces, i.e.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-1,TYPE=FRAME;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-1,RATE=64K,N1=1502;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-1,PROT=FII;
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-2,TYPE=FRAME;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-2,RATE=64K,N1=1502;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-2,PROT=FII;
The ports are then assigned Frame Relay ROTs:
PSROI:ROT=5,FP=1-1-1-1;
PSROI:ROT=6,FP=1-1-1-2;
ANRCI:RC=1,ROT=5&6;
ANRAI:ND=901,RC=1;
Initialise a LAN port:
LILAI:LA=1-1-0-1,TYPE=ETHER;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
295
10. Frame Relay
Configure an Ether Network Interface:
IPNII:LOCIP=194.9.100.69,TYPE=ETHER,MASK=255.255.255.0,
LA=1-1-0-1;
Initialise a Frame Relay Network Interface:
IPNII:LOCIP=193.9.100.11,TYPE=FRSVC,LOCNTN=902111,MTU=1500,
MASK=255.255.255.0;
NOTE: that for SVCs the TYPE in the IPNII must be FRSVC.
Ensure that the MTU and Frame Relay header does not exceed the
N1 value.
Initialise a remote gateway:
IPGAI:REMIP=193.9.100.12,LOCIP=193.9.100.11,REMNTN=901111;
IPROI:DEST=192.9.100.0,MASK=255.255.255.0,GATE=193.9.100.12;
NOTE: The ND parameter of ANRAI corresponds in part to the
address of the destination IP NTN in the remote gateway.
296
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
11. TCP/IP
11. TCP/IP
Introduction
The IP subsystem enables the connection of distant IP LANs over X.25,
X.75(E) or Frame Relay networks via PVC, sPVCs or SVCs. This is carried out
by encapsulation of IP frames in X.25 packets according to RFC 1356 or by
encapsulation in Frame Relay frames according to RFC 2427; identification of
an IP call will be by the NTN number in the normal PS or FR subsystem.
These non-proprietary standards mean that other manufacturers’ units which
also conform to the standard can work together on the same IP network.
TCP/IP Protocol
IP Subsystem
The software architecture is based around several distinct subsystems, i.e. the
PS, FR and the IP subsystem. The IP subsystem is always active and supports both static and dynamic routing between IP networks defined by Network interfaces (NIs).
The IP subsystem provides the following services:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
IP routing between X.25/X.75, Frame Relay, SLIP, Ether and
Virtual NIs
TCP and UDP protocol support for, e.g. incoming/outgoing
TELNET and SNMP
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
Inverse ARP (Frame Relay only)
RIPv1 and RIPv2 (Routing Information Protocol)
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)
IP subnet support (includes varialbe length subnetting)
TCP and UDP support
The IP subsystem provides full TCP and UDP support, i.e. higher layer end-toend transport protocols, which are required to support Telnet (for remote
access) and SNMP (for cross-platform PFA network management), respectively.
SLIP
The protocol SLIP can be used over asynchronous serial lines primarily to
support TCP/IP on PCs not equipped with Ethernet interface cards. The serial
COM port can be used along with the asynchronous serial port of a PFA
product to form a point-to-point SLIP connection.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
297
11. TCP/IP
TIP
A TIP connection can be made between the LAN ports of two PFA products.
This allows X.25/X.75 traffic to be encapsulated over the TIP connection
providing an alternative route for X.25/X.75 traffic; the inclusion of a TIP
identifying number for the local TIP connection in a routing case, along with
the other routes associated with the X.25 connections, makes this possible.
IP Switching (IPS)
IP switching for X25 and Frame Relay allows semi-permanent IP routes or
remote gateways to be configured but not stored permanently in the configuration area. Semi-permanent IP routes and gateways may be manipulated as
part of the IP function without affecting the configuration area and are always
lost following a node restart. These attributes allow a proprietary network
management system to maintain IP routing plans and to automatically
configure nodes to take account of changing IP routing requirements. See
Appendix 12 for more information.
RIP
The protocol RIP is used to dynamically "collect" or request IP route information from other locally connected RIP-compliant routers in order to update
internal routing tables. This provides automatic re-routing around network
failures, and reduces the administrative overhead inherent in configuration of
static routes.
The PFA product will respond to route requests from another locally connected host or router. In addition, periodic broadcasts (RIP update packets)
are sent from the PFA product to inform other routers about its learnt routes
or whenever the product detects a change in the network configuration.
RIP1 (RFC 1058; Appendix 4) and RIP2 (RFC 1723; Appendix 4) are supported; RIP2 provides route authentication and dynamic subnet routing.
298
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
LILAI
LILAD
LILAI - Initialise the LAN1 port
LILAD - Deblock the LAN1 port
IPNII - Initialise the NI for Ether
IPNIS - Set the NI for Ether (optional)
IPNID - Deblock the NI for Ether
IPROI - Initialise Routes (optional)
IPNII
IPNIS
IPNID
IPROI
End
TCP/IP Configuration
Ether-IP
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
11. TCP/IP
299
To configure an Ether to IP connection, the order shown in Figure 11-1 should
be followed.
Figure 11-1: Ether-IP configuration.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Start
Start
4)
LIPPI
LINPS
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
LILPI
LINPI
LIPPD
LILPD
PSROI
ANRCI
ANRAI
IPNII
IPNIS
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
LINPD
IPNID
IPGAI
IPROI
End
11. TCP/IP
3)
LILPS
To configure an X.25/X.75 to IP connection, the order shown in Figure 11-2
should be followed.
Figure 11-2: X.25/X.75-IP configuration.
2)
LIPPS
LIPPI - Initialise PP
LILPI - Initialise LP
LINPI - Initialise NP
LIPPS - Set PP (optional)
LILPS - Set LP (optional)
LINPS - Set NP (optional)
LIPPD - Deblock PP
LILPD - Deblock LP
PSROI - Initialise Route
ANRCI - Initialise Routing Case
ANRAI - Initialise Number Direction
IPNII - Initialise the NI for X.25
IPNIS - Set the NI for X.25 (optional)
LINPD - Deblock NP
IPNID - Deblock the NI for X.25
IPGAI - Initialise Remote Gateway(s)
IPROI - Initialise IP Route(s) (optional)
X.25/X.75-IP
300
1)
SLIP-IP
LIPPI
LIPPI - Initialise a PP port
LIPPS - Set parameters for PP port
IPNII - Initialise the NI for SLIP
IPNIS - Set the NI for SLIP
LIPPD - Deblock the PP port
IPNID - Deblock the NI for SLIP
IPROI - Initialise IP routes
LIPPS
IPNII
IPNIS
LIPPD
IPNID
IPROI
End
301
11. TCP/IP
To configure a SLIP to IP connection, the order in Figure 11-3 should be
followed.
Figure 11-3: SLIP-IP configuration.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Start
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
11. TCP/IP
LIPPI, LIPPS and LIPPD should be configured as described in Section 10.
The following recommendations for SLIP operation should be noted.
Serial SLIP line speeds should be >1200 baud.
Autobaud should not operate on the SLIP line, i.e. use fixed speeds.
The following parameters should be set for SLIP with the LIPPS command.
MODEMFLOW=YES, XONFLOW=NO,
CHARBITS=8, PARITY=UNCHANGED,
DUPLEX=FULL, DCDMODE=DISC or YES.
FR-IP
To configure a Frame relay to IP connection, the order shown in Figure 11-4
should be followed.
302
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Figure 11-4: FR-IP configuration.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
1)
2)
LIPPS
3)
4)
LIFPS
5)
6)
7)
8)
Start
LIPPI
LIPPI - Initialise PP
LIFPI - Initialise FP
LIPPS - Set PP (optional)
LIFPS - Set FP (optional)
LIPPD - Deblock PP
IPNII - Initialise the NI for FR
(PVC or sPVC) or FRSVC (SVC only)
IPNIS - Set the NI for FR (optional)
LIFPD - Deblock FP
IPNID - Deblock the NI for X.25
IPGAI - Initialise Remote Gateway(s)
LIFPI
LIPPD
IPNII
IPNIS
LIFPD
IPNID
End
303
11. TCP/IP
IPGAI
LIBRS
IPNII
IPNIS
LIBRD
IPNID
IPROI
End
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
To configure a Bridge group to IP connection, the order shown in Figure 11-5
should be followed.
Figure 11-5: BR-IP configuration.
LIBRI
LIBRI - Initialise a Bridge Group
LIBRS - Set parameters for Bridge Group
IPNII - Initialise NI for Virtual Connection
IPNIS - Set NI for Virtual Connection
LIBRD - Deblock Bridge Group
IPNID - Deblock the NI for Virtual Connection
IPROI - Initialise IP routes
11. TCP/IP
BR-IP
304
Start
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
11. TCP/IP
Configuration of LAN Ports
To permit IP routing from a physical LAN environment, the LAN port has to be
initially configured to create an LA port object. Physical LAN interfaces exist as
plug-in POP PAKs in the LAN port housings.
Only the PFA 230 with 511 motherboard supports two LAN ports (LAN1 and
LAN2).
LAN POP PAKs
All POP PAKs have to be secured to the rear panel of the unit with attached
captive head screws.
There are two types of live insertable POP PAKs that can be inserted into the
LAN port, i.e.
10Base2 POP PAK
The 10Base2 POP PAK can be inserted into the available LAN housing on the
rear panel. The POP PAK can then be secured by using the supplied screws.
The connector used is a 50-W BNC connector (T-piece).
Note that if the unit is situated at the end of the network cable then the free
end of the T-piece must be fitted with a 50-W BNC terminator.
For PFA 120/130/230/660 products, an STP CAT5 straight cable is connected
from a 10BaseT hub to the POP PAK via an RJ45 connector.
Note that an STP CAT5 cross-over cable can be used for point-to-point PC PFA connection.
LAN POP PAK Handling
The following rules apply to the handling of POP PAKs for the LAN port. The
inserted POP PAK can be displayed in all states, except in TERMINATED
state, by using the LILAP command.
The following rules apply:
Should the POP PAK in LAN port be removed, then the STATUS and
POP PAK columns as a result of a LILAP command will report Hardware
Blocked (HB) and NO POPPAK, respectively.
A configured port must be manually blocked before a POP PAK is
removed or added.
WARNING: Do not under any circumstances plug in any POP PAK
with the network cable connected to it.
WARNING: ALL POP PAKs can be live inserted such that no power
down of the unit is necessary.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
305
11. TCP/IP
MAC Addresses
It is the responsibility of Ericsson to ensure that every ISO 8802 network
interface is allocated a unique MAC address. The MAC address is a unique
48-bit 12-digit hardware address assigned to every LAN port. These addresses are administered by the IEEE on behalf of ISO.
The PFA unit and IRBs will be assigned a MAC address during manufacture;
this address cannot be changed after factory despatch. For the PFA product,
the MAC address of each LAN will be reported in the Hardware status with the
NAHSP command.
Initialising LAN port (LILAI)
The LILAI command initialises the LAN port.
LILAI:LA=la,TYPE=type<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,TRAPS=traps>*
<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*
<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*<,POPTRAP=poptrap>*;
Where:la
LAN Port number
1-1-0-(1-2)
type
Type of LAN Protocol
ETHER only
*
These SNMP-related parameters are described in Section 5.
For example, to initialise LAN port 1-1-0-1:
LILAI:LA=1-1-0-1,TYPE=ETHER;
Setting LAN port (LILAS)
The LILAS command allows the previously configured parameters for a LAN
port to be modified. The LAN port must be manually blocked to use the LILAS
command.
LILAS:LA=la<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,TRAPS=traps>*
<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*
<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*<,POPTRAP=poptrap>*;
For example, to disable the POPTRAP parameter for the LAN port 1-1-0-1:
LILAS:LA=1-1-0-1,POPTRAP=NO;
Deblocking LAN port (LILAD)
The LILAD command deblocks the LAN port. This enters the LA port object
into the WO state unless the LAN POP PAK is not present.
LILAD:LA=la;
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EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
11. TCP/IP
Blocking LAN port (LILAB)
The LILAB command blocks the LAN port. The LA port object will enter the
Manually Blocked state.
LILAB:LA=la;
Printing LAN port (LILAP)
The LILAP command allows the user to display the setup of the LAN port.
LILAP<:LA=la>;
Where:la
LAN Port number
1-1-0-(1-2)
For example:
LILAP;
LAN PORTS
LA
TYPE
FRSIZE
SPEED
MACADDR
STATUS
POP-PAK
——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
1-1-0-1
ETHER
1518
TRAPID
= NONE
TRAPS
= NONE
10
00.00.FF.E0.00.29
WO
10BASE 2
END
Where the parameters are as described for the LILAS command with the
exception of:
FRSIZE
Maximum frame size
1518 only
SPEED
LAN speed
10 Mbps only
MACADDR
MAC address of
LAN port
00.00.FF.xx.xx.xx
STATUS
Status of LAN port
MB, WO or HB
POP-PAK
Type of POP PAK
inserted
NO POPPAK, 10 BASE 2
or 10 BASE T
Terminating LAN port (LILAT)
The LILAT command terminates the LAN port.
LILAT:LA=la;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
307
11. TCP/IP
Printing Statistics for LAN port (STLAP)
The STLAP command prints LAN port statistics for a specified LAN port or for
all LAN ports combined. The command can be issued when the port is in any
state.
STLAP<:LA=la>;
Where:
la
LAN Port number
1-1-0-(1-2)
For example:
STLAP:LA=1-1-0-1;
LA
:
1-1-0-1
OCTETS
:
480916 IN
1329 OUT
UNICAST FRAMES
:
1 IN
1 OUT
NON-UNICAST FRAMES
:
6158 IN
0 OUT
ERRORS
:
0 IN
0 OUT
DISCARDS
:
0 IN
0 OUT
OCTETS/SECOND (CURRENT)
:
78 IN
0 OUT
OCTETS/SECOND (PEAK)
:
78 IN
0 OUT
OCTETS/SECOND (AVERAGE)
:
3 IN
0 OUT
UNKNOWN PROTOCOLS
:
0 IN
OUTPUT QUEUE LENGTH
:
0
CARRIER SENSE PROBLEMS
:
0
TRANSMITTER HELD OFF
:
0
OUT OF WINDOW COLLISIONS
:
0
MISSED FRAMES
:
0
END
Note that:
TRANSMITTER
HELD OFF
No. of outgoing Ether collisions
Note that the accumulated values for the above can be reset to zero with the
exception of the Output Queue Length parameter.
STLAR:LA=1-1-0-1;
Printing ARP Table (STARP)
The STARP table displays the internal ARP table linking MAC addresses to IP
addresses.
308
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
11. TCP/IP
STARP;
ARP CACHE
PROTADDR
HARDADDR
TYPE
__________________________________________
192.9.100.207
080020031F63
DYNAMIC
192.9.100.112
0800200EFF75
INTERFACE
END
Where:PROTADDR
IP address of
local connecting
unit
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn where
0£nnn£255
HARDADDR
MAC address of
connecting units
up to 12 HEX digits
TYPE
ARP entry type
STATIC, DYNAMIC or
INTERFACE
All entries in the internal ARP table can be deleted as follows:
STARR;
Configuration of Network Interfaces
A Network Interface (NI) is an object that connects the protocol IP to a physical network. The number of NIs possible for each network is shown below.
Type of NI
Ether
X.25/X.75
Frame Relay
SLIP
Virtual NI
No. of NIs
2*
up to 4
up to 4
up to 18*
up to 16
No. of Remote Gateways
N/A
1000
1000
N/A
N/A
*Depending on ports available.
NI for Ether
This type of NI provides an interface between the IP subsystem and either the
LAN1 or LAN2 port; this allows the IP subsystem to transmit packets over an
Ether network. No remote gateway mapping is required for the NIs as ARP is
supported, i.e. automatic mapping occurs between an IP address and the
MAC address.
NI for X.25/X.75
The NI for X.25/X.75 provides an interface between the IP subsystem and
X.25/X.75; this allows the IP subsystem to transmit and receive IP traffic
across an X.25/X.75 network. Because no dynamic address resolution is
supported on a Non-Broadcast Multi-Access network (NBMA) such as X.25/
X.75, there must be a static mapping between the next-hop IP address and
the X.25/X.75 address or NTN number of a remote gateway. This is carried out
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
309
11. TCP/IP
by using the remote gateway command IPGAI (see p.306). Inverse ARP is not
supported on X.25/X.75 networks.
Each NI for X.25/X.75 will support a maximum of 250 incoming calls with no
calling address. These calls may not be linked to a remote gateway and are
called “blind LCs”. Incoming IP packets will be accepted on these connections, but no outgoing IP packets will be routed.
See "Configuration of Remote Gateways" for recommended routing procedures.
NI for Frame Relay
There are two types of NI for Frame Relay/X.25/X.75 which provide an interface between the IP subsystem and Frame Relay. These are:
FR
FRSVC
For PVC and sPVC based IP over Frame Relay
For SVC based IP over Frame Relay connectivity
For PVC based Frame Relay networks, Inverse ARP can be used as an alternative to manually configuring Remote Gateways as in NIs for X.25/X.75.
Inverse ARP allows the automatic local generation of an IP gateway address
table; remote gateway addresses are "collected" from automatic Frame Relay
PVC connections from the Network Interface. Gateways must be able to
support Inverse ARP.
Alternatively, the NI for Frame Relay can be used, as for X.25/X.75 NIs, in
conjunction with the remote gateway IPGAI command but only usually for
gateways not supporting Inverse ARP.
SVC based Frame Relay networks do not operate Inverse ARP. See "Configuration of Remote Gateways" for recommended routing procedures.
NI for SLIP
The NI for SLIP provides an interface between the IP subsystem and a serial
interface (PP port object) providing asynchronous I/O. Any available async
port can be configured to operate SLIP.
For SLIP connections, the following parameters should be set in the LIPPS
command:
MODEMFLOW=YES, XONFLOW=NO, CHARBITS=8,
PARITY=UNCHANGED, DUPLEX=FULL, DCDMODE=DISC or YES
Note that RATE=AUTO or RATE=AUTOH should never be set.
No remote gateway mapping is required for a SLIP connection as it is a pointto-point connection.
NI for Virtual Connection
The Virtual NI interfaces an IP network to an Ethernet Bridge Group. The
sourcing of remote LAN traffic over a WAN network to a local LAN is possible.
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EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
11. TCP/IP
NI States
Each network interface can be in one of several states. These are as follows:
NI for Ether
WO (Working Order), MB (Manually Blocked) or CB
(Conditionally Blocked when LA port object is
blocked)
NI for X.25/VNI
WO, MB
NI for FR/FRSVC WO, MB or CB
NI for SLIP
WO, MB or AB (Automatically Blocked when PP port
object is not WO)
For NIs to be fully operational, they must be in the WO state.
There must be an initialised LAN1 or LAN2 port before an NI for Ether may be
initialised. Similarly, an async serial port must be initialised before an NI for
SLIP is initialised.
Initialisation of NI (IPNII)
This command initialises the network interfaces to IP.
IPNII:TYPE=ETHER,LOCIP=locip,LA=la,MASK=mask
<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
IPNII:TYPE=X25,LOCIP=locip,LOCNTN=locntn,MASK=mask
<,MTU=mtu><,SH=sh><,TRAPID=trapid>*<,TRAPS=traps>*
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
IPNII:TYPE=SLIP,PP=pp,LOCIP=locip,MASK=mask
<,MTU=mtu><,COMPRESSION=compression>
<,BUFFER=buffer><,TRAPID=trapid>*<,TRAPS=traps>*
<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*
<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
IPNII:TYPE=VNI,LOCIP=locip,BR=br,MASK=mask
<,MTU=mtu><,TRAPID=trapid>*<,TRAPS=traps>*
<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*
<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
IPNII:TYPE=FRSVC,LOCIP=locip,LOCNTN=locntn,MASK=mask
<,RATEENF=rateenf><,MTU=mtu><,TRAPID=trapid><,SH=sh>
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap><,CONFTRAP=contrap>;
IPNII:TYPE=FR,LOCIP=locip,LOCNTN=locntn,MASK=mask
<,MTU=mtu><,RATEENF=rateenf><,INVARP=invarp>
<,BUFFER=buffer><,SH=sh><,TRAPID=trapid>*<,TRAPS=
traps>*<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
Where:type
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Type of network
connected to
ETHER, X25 (use for X.75
also), FR, SLIP, VNI, FR or
FRSVC.
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11. TCP/IP
locip
Local IP address
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn where
0<nnn<255.
la
LAN1 or LAN2 port
number
1-1-0-(1-2); for
TYPE=ETHER only.
locntn
NTN address of local
Gateway
up to 15 digits; for
TYPE=X.25, FR or FRSVC.
pp
Physical port number
1-1-1-(1-18); for TYPE=SLIP
only.
br
Bridge group identifier
1-16; for TYPE=VNI only.
mask
Subnet IP address
mask
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn where
0<nnn<255.
mtu
Max. transmission
unit
128 to 4096; default=1500.
IP datagrams larger than the
maximum will be fragmented.
sh
RIP split horizon
mode
FULL or PARTIAL;
default=FULL.
For TYPE=X.25, FR or FRSVC
only.
rateenf
Rate enforcement
YES or NO; default=NO.
For TYPE=FR only.
See Section 18.
invarp
Inverse ARP
YES or NO; default=YES. For
TYPE=FR only. RFC 1293
applied.
compression
Selects if TCP/IP
header compression
is used
YES or NO; default=NO.
Received datagrams
indicating that they have
compressed headers when
“COMPRESSION=NO”
will be counted as “InErrors”
in the STNIP command.
For TYPE=SLIP only.
buffer
Transmit Buffer Size
1 to 32768; default=4096.
Defines no. of bytes queued
before being sent out of the
outgoing port. If an attempt is
made to queue more data than
is configured by this parameter
then request to send will be
refused. For TYPE=FR or SLIP.
For example:
IPNII:TYPE=ETHER,LOCIP=192.9.199.163,LA=1-1-0-1,MASK=255.255.0.0;
or:
IPNII:TYPE=FRSVC,LOCIP=192.9.200.72,MASK=255.255.0.255
LOCNTN=27,RATEENF=YES;
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11. TCP/IP
Setting an NI (IPNIS)
This command modifies an existing NI. The command can only be used when
the NI is manually blocked. Note that an NI for Ether cannot be modified.
IPNIS:LOCIP=locip<,LOCNTN=locntn><,MTU=mtu>
<,SH=sh><,COMPRESSION=compression><,RATEENF=rateenf>
<,INVARP=invarp><,BUFFER=buffer><,TRAPID=trapid>*
<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
Where the parameters are as described for the IPNII command.
For example, for an NI for X.25/X.75:
IPNIS:LOCIP=192.9.200.123,MTU=1024;
EXECUTED
Deblocking of NI (IPNID)
This command deblocks an NI. This changes the NI state from manually
blocked to working order.
IPNID:LOCIP=locip;
Blocking of NI (IPNIB)
This command manually blocks an NI.
IPNIB:LOCIP=locip;
Printing NI (IPNIP)
This command displays the parameters for an NI by selecting the local IP
address.
IPNIP<:LOCIP=locip>;
For example:
IPNIP:LOCIP=192.9.199.163;
NETWORK INTERFACE DATA
LOCIP
TYPE
MASK
MTU
STATUS
————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
192.9.199.163
ETHER
LA
= 1-1-0-1
TRAPID
= NONE
TRAPS
= NONE
255.255.255.0
1500
WO
END
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11. TCP/IP
or:
IPNIP:LOCIP=192.9.201.163;
NETWORK INTERFACE DATA
LOCIP
TYPE
MASK
MTU
STATUS
————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
192.9.201.163
FR
LOCNTN
= 11234
SH
= FULL
RATEENF
= NO
INVARP
= NO
BUFFER
= 4096
TRAPID
= NONE
TRAPS
= NONE
255.255.255.0
1500
WO
END
Where the parameters are as described for the IPNII command with the
exception of:
STATUS
Status of network interface
WO, MB, AB or CB
Termination of NI (IPNIT)
This command terminates an NI by selecting the local IP address. The NI has
to be manually blocked before this command can be used. Note that if the NI
is set for X.25/X.75, FR or FRSVC, any manually configured remote gateways
should be removed before issuing the IPNIT command.
IPNIT:LOCIP=locip;
Printing Statistics for NI (STNIP)
This command displays NI statistics by selecting the local IP address associated with the NI.
STNIP:LOCIP=locip;
For example:
STNIP:LOCIP=192.9.2.123;
NETWORK INTERFACE STATISTICS
LOCIP=192.9.2.123
FRAMES
FRAMES
FRAMES/MIN
IN
OUT
IN
FRAMES/MIN
OUT
—————————————————————————————————————————————
21432134
21321323
23
23
END
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11. TCP/IP
Note that the accumulated values for the above can be reset to zero as follows:
STNIR:LOCIP=192.9.2.123;
Configuration of Remote Gateways
IP remote gateways can be permanent and semi-permanent according to the
value of the CONFIG parameter in the IPGAI command. Permanent IP gateways are configured with CONFIG=YES (this is the default); semi-permanent
gateways are configured with CONFIG=NO. Semi-permanent gateways have
extra parameters associated with their configuration.
Up to 1000 permanent/semi-permanent remote gateways can be active at any
one time.
Permanent Remote Gateways
The user defines a remote gateway as the next routing hop towards a destination IP network or host whose addresses have been configured in the user
interface as IP routes. This command set is not required if Inverse ARP is
being used on a PVC based Frame Relay network.
As an X.25/X.75 network is a NBMA network which does not support ARP, a
remote gateway entry is required for each host or gateway which communicates through the NI for X.25/X.75; up to 1000 remote gateways will be supported per NI dependent on network performance. There will be one NI for
each IP network or subnetwork which is connected across an X.25/X.75
network to a maximum of four networks. The remote gateway address mapping is provided with use of the IPGAx commands.
Similarly, Frame Relay networks may use the above IPGAx commands to
define remote gateways for the Frame Relay network. However, in PVC based
Frame Relay networks it is possible to use Inverse ARP (RFC 1293; see
Appendix 4) instead of IPGAx commands to automatically create a cache of
gateway IP addresses locally, upon setup of Frame Relay PVCs.
Semi-Permanent Remote Gateways
See Appendix 12.
Initialising Remote Gateway (IPGAI)
This command configures an IP remote gateway. Note that other port parameters requiring configuration, e.g. Frame Relay ACCCIR value, must be set by
using the LINPS command (see Section 10).
Note that semi-permanent remote gateways are not stored in the config area
and can be automatically deleted after timeout. Any modifications to the
CONFIG and TIMEOUT parameters must be made by terimations and reinitialisation of the gateway.
For X.25/X.75:
IPGAI:REMIP=remip,LOCIP=locip,REMNTN=remntn
<,BUFFER=buffer><,REVIN=revin><,REVOUT=revout>
<,LC=lc><,INACT=inact><,RETRY=retry><,OUTGOING=outgoing>
<,CONFIG=config><,TIMEOUT=timeout>;
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11. TCP/IP
For Frame Relay PVC/sPVC:
IPGAI:REMIP=remip,LOCIP=locip,PVCID=pvcid
<,BUFFER=buffer><,CONFIG=config><,TIMEOUT=timeout>;
For Frame Relay SVC:
IPGAI:REMIP=remip,LOCIP=locip,REMNTN=remntn<,BUFFER=buffer>
<,LClc><,BC=bc><,BE=be><,TC=tc><,N201=n201><,OUTGOING=outgoing>
<,INACT=inact><,RETRY=retry><,CONFIG=config><,TIMEOUT=timeout>;
Where:-
316
remip
Remote gateway
IP address on X.25/
X.75 or Frame Relay
network
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn where
0£nnn£255; do not use
127.0.0.1.
locip
Local IP address
for X.25/X.75
or Frame Relay
network
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn where
0£nnn£255; do not use
127.0.0.1.
remntn
Remote gateway
DTE address
up to 15 digits;
for X.25 and FRSVC NIs only.
pvcid
PVC identity
3 to 10 chars; for FR NIs only.
buffer
No. of bytes buffered
per remote gateway
(towards X.25 or FR)
1 to 32768; default=4096.
There is no buffering in the
direction of the LAN interface.
revin
Allow reverse
charged X.25 calls in
YES or NO; default=NO.
For X.25/X.75 NIs only.
revout
Force outgoing X.25
YES or NO; default=NO.
calls as reverse charged For X.25/X.75 NIs only.
lc
Max. no. of logical
channels allowed
between NI and
remote gateway
1 to 8; default=1. The LCs
are used on Round robin basis:
1 packet will go to each remote
gateway in sequence.
inact
Inactivity timer
1 to 15300 s or DISABLED;
default=180. This timer
specifies the approximate
period of time in which
inactivity is allowed before the
LC clears. INACT=DISABLED
means the LC will never clear.
retry
Wait time before
call retry after call
1 to 10000 s; default=30.
Call collisions may occur when
both ends of a link have data
to transmit and both
simultaneously send a Call
Request packet. Where
possible, configure timers to
be different at each end and
use more than 1 LC if available.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
11. TCP/IP
outgoing
Make LC value relate
to outgoing calls only
YES or NO; default=NO.
This parameter is used with the
LC parameter to show that the
LC parameter only refers to
outgoing VCs
(OUTGOING=YES) or to both
incoming and outgoing VCs
(OUTGOING=NO).
Incoming calls are
connected independently to
the LC value.
config
Store the gateway in
config?
YES or NO; default=YES.
For semi-permanent gateways
set CONFIG=NO.
See Appendix 12.
timeout
Time before semipermanent unused
remote gateway can
be deleted through
inactivity
10-4800 minutes; default=10.
Dependent on NUMGATES
parameter value in IPGHS
command. See Appendix
12.
BE
Excess Burst Size
0 to 8192 kbit; default=64.
BC
Committed Burst Size
0 to 512 kbit; default=32.
TC
Committed rate
measurement interval
125,250,500,1000,2000,
4000 msec; default=125.
N201
Information Field Size.
The maximum payload
in octets carried in one
frame.
1 to 4200; default=250.
For example, for Frame Relay PVC/sPVC:
IPGAI:REMIP=192.9.201.199,LOCIP=192.9.201.163,PVCID=LONDON,
BUFFER=4096;
For example, for Frame Relay SVC:
IPGAI:REMIP=192.12.4.5,LOCIP=192.12.4.66,REMNTN=1443,BUFFER=4096,
N201=4196;
Setting Remote Gateway (IPGAS)
This command allows the user to modify parameters within a remote gateway.
Note that BUFFER and LOCIP parameters cannot be modified and may only
be re-initialised with the IPGAI command.
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11. TCP/IP
IPGAS:REMIP=remip<,REMNTN=remntn><,REVIN=revin><,BC=bc>
<,TC=tc><,N201=n201><,REVOUT=revout><,LC=lc><,OUTGOING=outgoing>
<,INACT=inact><,RETRY=retry><,PVCID=pvcid>;
Where the parameters are as described for the IPGAI command.
For example, to change the PVCID of a Frame Relay remote gateway:
IPGAS:REMIP=192.9.201.199,PVCID=STOCKHOLM;
Printing Remote Gateway (IPGAP)
This command prints a specified remote gateway.
IPGAP:REMIP=remip;
or:
IPGAP:LOCIP=locip;
Where:remip
Remote gateway
IP address
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
where 0£nnn£255
locip
Local IP address
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
where 0£nnn£255
For Frame Relay remote gateway:
IPGAP:LOCIP=192.9.201.163;
REMIP
LOCIP
REMNTN
DERIVATION
STATUS
------------------------------------------------------------------192.9.200.2
192.9.200.1
BUFFER
=
4096
LC
=
1
BC
=
32
BE
=
64
TC
=
125
N201
=
250
OUTGOING =
NO
INACT
=
180
RETRY
=
30
CONFIG
=
YES
1701
STATIC
WO (FRSVC)
END
Note that if CONFIG=YES, then TIMEOUT and UNUSED are not displayed.
Where the displayed parameters are as defined for the IPGAI command with
the exception of the following parameters:
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11. TCP/IP
STATUS
Status of gateway
WO or AB
TIMEOUT
Time before semipermanent unused
remote gateway is
deleted
10-4800 minutes.
For semi-permanent gateways
only.
UNUSED
Time since last activity
0-4800 minutes.
For semi-permanent gateways
only.
DERIVATION
Derived gateway
type
STATIC or DYNAMIC.
If STATIC, gateways are
created through IPGAI
command; if DYNAMIC then
the remote gateway was
created through inverse ARP.
Terminating Remote Gateway (IPGAT)
This command allows the user to delete an IP remote gateway.
WARNING: This may leave routes “floating” - these routes should
be removed as they will fill up the configuration store.
IPGAT:REMIP=remip;
For example:
IPGAT:REMIP=192.9.201.199;
Printing Statistics for Remote Gateway (STGAP)
The STGAP command displays IP remote gateway statistics.
STGAP:REMIP=remip;
For example, for IP over Frame Relay (via SVCs):
STGAP:REMIP=192.9.201.199;
GATEWAY STATISTICS
FRAMES
FRAMES
FRAMES/MIN
IN
OUT
IN
FRAMES/MIN
OUT
—————————————————————————————————————————————————
21432134
21321323
23
23
END
Note that for IP over X.25/X.75 the following are displayed:
CAUSE
Last clearing cause received (in decimal)
DIAG
Last call diagnostic received (in decimal)
LCs CONNECTED
Total no. of LCs connected to remote IP address
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11. TCP/IP
Note that the accumulated values for the above can be reset to zero as follows, e.g.
STGAR:REMIP=192.9.201.199;
Initialising Default Gateway (IPDGI)
The IPDGI command allows the user to initialise the IP default gateway. This is
the default gateway to be used when a destination IP address does not have a
configured route associated with it. Any datagram not recognised in the
configured routes will be sent to the default gateway. If a default gateway is
configured it will be displayed as a result of an IPROP command where the
TYPE column is set to DEFAULT.
IPDGI:DGATE=dgate<,METRIC=metric>;
Where:dgate
Default gateway
IP address
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn where
0£nnn£255; do not
use 127.0.0.1.
metric
RIP route metric
1£metric£15; default=1.
For example:
IPDGI:DGATE=192.9.1.1;
Printing Default Gateway (IPDGP)
The IPDGP command prints the setting for the default gateway IP address,
e.g.
IPDGP;
DEFAULT GATEWAY
(T)YPE: (I)NTERFACE (P)LP I/F(N)ET (H)OST (D)EFAULT
(P)ROT: (L)OCAL (R)IP (I)CMP-REDIRECT (S)SEMI PERMANENT LOCAL
(M)ETRIC
DEST
MASK
GATE
T
P
M
AGE
TAG
STATE
———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
19.9.1.1
D
L
1
1
0
UP
END
Terminating Default Gateway (IPDGT)
The IPDGT command terminates the default gateway address. A re-initialisation would be required to recreate a new default remote gateway address, e.g.
IPDGT;
IP Routing
Permanent or semi-permanent IP routes can either be added to the routing
table manually with the IPROI command or routes can be added dynamically
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EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
11. TCP/IP
by using the RIP protocol. All configured or dynamically created routes can be
displayed with the IPROP command.
IP routes can be permanent or semi-permanent according to the value of the
CONFIG parameter in the IPROI command. Permanent routes are configured
with CONFIG=YES (this is the default). Semi-permanent routes are configured
with CONFIG=NO and have extra parameters associated with their configuration.
IP frames on Ether networks
The routing of IP datagrams on an Ether network is carried out as follows:
1.
If the destination node is connected to the same directly
connected network as the PFA, i.e. the same network number
read from the IP address, then the datagram is transferred
directly to the destination node with no need to be routed.
2.
If the node is not connected directly to the same IP network,
then the destination IP address is searched for in the manual or
dynamic route table displayed with the IPROP command. If an
entry is found with the same IP network address, the datagram is
sent to the specified remote gateway node.
3.
If the destination IP address is not located in the above route
table then the datagram is routed to the IP address set with the
DGATE parameter in the IPDGI command. If the IP address does
not exist, an ICMP message of “Destination Unreachable” is sent
to the originator.
IP frames on X.25/X.75 Networks
There is a need for any incoming X.25/X.75 calls carrying IP data to be identified as such and routed accordingly. This is carried out by matching an incoming called DTE address at the local gateway with a number direction, i.e. the
LOCNTN parameter set in the IPNII command.
A final Protocol ID check is made for the HEX value CC in the Call User Data
field of the X.25/X.75 call packet. This is carried out according to RFC 1356
(see Appendix 4). Any incoming call with a Protocol ID other than CC (HEX)
will be cleared.
IP frames on Frame Relay Networks
PVCs, sPVCs and SVCs on a Frame Relay network which are carrying IP data
are routed as for IP frames on X.25/X.75 networks.
Incoming frames are checked according to RFC 2427 (see Appendix 4). If
frames do not conform they are dropped.
Semi-Permanent Routes
See Appendix 12.
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11. TCP/IP
Permanent Routes
Static routes are added by using the IPROI command. The destination and
gateway IP addresses are configured to add a new route entry.
Dynamic Routes with RIP
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a routing protocol where
PFA products can learn new IP routes and update existing routes, by exchanging RIP messages with directly connected hosts and routers, i.e. neighbours.
Periodically, routers send out UDP RIP update packets detailing all the routes
they know about. Neighbouring routes build up their own routing tables by
listening to these updates and periodically sending out their own tables.
The PFA implementation of RIP supports the following:
Periodic Updates
Triggered Updates
Unicast and Broadcast of Updates
Split Horizon (full or partial)
Split Horizon with Poisoning Reverse
Hold down
Host Routes
Default Routes
RIP2 Authentication
RIP2 Subnetting
Route Distribution between RIP1 and RIP2
The implementation of RIP complies with RFC 1058 (RIP1), RFC 1723 (RIP2)
and RFC 1812 (IP routing).
Configuration of IP Routes
Initialisation of IP Routes (IPROI)
This command allows the user to initialise an IP route to either a specific IP
host or to an IP network.
IPROI:DEST=dest,MASK=mask,GATE=gate<,METRIC=metric>
<,CONFIG=config><,LIFETIME=lifetime>;
Where:-
322
dest
Destination IP
address
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
where 0£nnn£255; do not
use 127.0.0.1.
mask
Destination IP
address mask
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
where 0£nnn£255; do not
use 127.0.0.1.
gate
Remote gateway
IP address
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
where 0£nnn£255;
This address directs
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
11. TCP/IP
datagrams to the next “hop”
IP gateway.
Do not use 127.0.0.1.
metric
RIP route metric
1£metric£16; default=1. When
metric=16, the route is
installed into the configuration
but not the pNA routing table.
Lowering the Metric value will
install the route.
config
Store the route in
config?
YES or NO; default=YES.
For semi-permanent routes set
CONFIG=NO. See Appendix
12.
lifetime
Time before semipermanent route can
be deleted
0 to 20160 minutes; default=0.
For semi-permanent routes.
See Appendix 12.
For example:
IPROI:DEST=192.8.20.0,MASK=255.255.255.0,GATE=192.9.200.21,
METRIC=1;
Setting IP Routes (IPROS)
This command modifies the operating parameters associated with the previously configured IP Route.
IPROS:DEST=dest,MASK=mask<,GATE=gate><,METRIC=metric>;
Where the parameters are as described for the IPROI command.
For example:
IPROS:DEST=192.8.20.0,MASK=255.255.255.0,GATE=192.9.200.22;
Printing IP Routes (IPROP)
This command allows static, semi-permanent and dynamically learnt IP routes
to be listed with respect to their gateway. All configured internal Network
Interfaces are also listed.
The optional LOCIP parameter can be used to list routes associated with the
local IP address of an NI. This will allow the user to delete an NI by firstly
deleting the routes listed for that NI.
Routes are listed starting from least specific subnet mask; routes with the
same subnet mask are then ordered numerically.
It is possible to specify a DEST that corresponds to a semi-permanent route,
where the age (CURRENT) and lifetime (LIFETIME) values for that route may
be displayed.
IPROP<:DEST=dest><,LOCIP=locip>;
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11. TCP/IP
Where:dest
Destination IP
address
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
where 0£nnn£255
locip
Local IP address
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
where 0£nnn£255
For example, for all configured and dynamic routes:
IPROP;
IP ROUTES
(T)YPE: (I)NTERFACE (P)2P I/F(N)ET (H)OST (D)EFAULT
(P)ROTOCOL: (L)OCAL (R)IP (I)CMP-REDIRECT (S)EMI-PERMANENT
(M)ETRIC
DEST
MASK
GATE
T P M
AGE TAG STATE
———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
192.168.90.17
D L 1
1
0
UP
172.16.0.0
255.255.0.0
192.168.33.20
N L 1
1
309
UP
192.168.99.0 255.255.255.0
192.168.90.17
N R 2
10
0
UP
192.168.99.0 255.255.255.0
192.168.90.106 N L 1
1
308
UP
192.168.98.0 255.255.255.0
192.168.90.17
N R 2
10
0
UP
172.30.5.0
172.30.5.13
I L 16
1
302
UP
192.168.33.2
I L 1
1
303
UP
I L 1
1
300
UP
H S 2
3
0
UP
255.255.255.0
192.168.33.0 255.255.255.0
127.0.0.1
255.255.255.255 127.0.0.1
192.169.1.71 255.255.255.0
191.169.1.101
pNA+ Route Table
172.16.0.0
255.255.0.0
192.168.33.20
127.0.0.1
0.0.0.0
127.0.0.1
192.168.99.0 255.255.255.0
192.168.98.0 255.255.255.0
192.168.33.0 255.255.255.0
192.168.90.106
192.168.90.17
192.168.33.2
END
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11. TCP/IP
For example, for a semi-permanent route:
IPROP:DEST=192.169.1.71;
IP ROUTES
(T)YPE: (I)NTERFACE (N)ET (H)OST (D)EFAULT
(P)ROT: (L)OCAL (R)IP (I)CMP-REDIRECT (S)EMI-PERMANENT
(M)ETRIC
DEST
TAG
MASK
GATE
T
P
M
AGE
STATE
———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
—————————————————
192.169.1.71
3
255.255.255.0
0
191.169.1.101
H
S
2
UP
LIFETIME
= 10
CURRENT
= 3
Where:MASK
Destination IP
address mask
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
where 0£nnn£255
GATE
Remote gateway
IP address or RIP
neighbour
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
where 0£nnn£255
T
Type of route
I (local interface), P (Point to
Point) N (network),
H (host) or D (default gateway)
P
Protocol that
installed the route
L (local), R (RIP), I (ICMP),
S (Semi-permanent Route)
M
RIP route metric
1£metric£16
AGE
Age of route
1-60 secs. This is the age
since the last RIP update or
poll of an interface route.
TAG
Route identification
tag
0£tag£65535.
This is a value for static routes
configured with IPRPS in a
remote unit. This is advertised
on RIP2 routes only.
STATE
state of route
DOWN, UP,
NOT INSTALLED (RIP only),
POISONING (RIP only),
TERMINATING (RIP only).
LIFETIME
Lifetime of semipermanent route
1-20160 minutes or 0 for
disabled. Only shown when
CONFIG=NO is configured for
route.
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11. TCP/IP
CURRENT
Current age of
semi-permanent route
since installation
Only shown when CONFIG=
NO is configured for route.
Terminating IP Routes (IPROT)
The IPROT command deletes an IP route.
IPROT:DEST=dest,MASK=mask<,GATE=gate>;
For example:
IPROT:DEST=192.8.20.0,MASK=255.255.255.0;
Configuration of Dynamic IP Routes (RIP)
The RIPv1 and RIPv2 protocols (RFC 1058 and RFC 1723, respectively; see
Appendix 4) can be run over any existing Network Interface (NI).
For Ethernet NIs, the GATE parameter in the IPRGI command is configured to
be the network broadcast IP address, e.g. for an NI of 10.0.0.1,
GATE=10.255.255.255 must be configured.
For NIs for X.25/X.75/Frame Relay, if RIP is required on a particular IP interface, then the IPRGI command must be configured, ensuring that the GATE
parameter is the interface IP address of the RIP neighbour, whether it be the
LOCIP IP address of the remote PFA Network Interface or the IP address of
the RIP interface on another manufacturer's equipment.
Split Horizon
A limitation to the utilisation of RIP is the possibility of temporary routing loops
arising due to the crash of another RIP neighbour and subsequent widespread
advertising on all interfaces. Such loops can be avoided by using a technique
known as split horizon.
Split horizon is configurable on either an X.25/X.75 or Frame Relay Network
Interface with the SH parameter in the IPNII command. Two modes can be
set:
FULL - This mode does not re-advertise a learnt route back to the
subnet or network it originated from. This is the default.
PARTIAL - This mode does not re-advertise a learnt route back to the IP
subnet from which it originated from. However, this allows advertisement to other subnets on the same major network. It is important to
note that partial Split Horizon needs to be used carefully in a meshed
Frame Relay/X.25 network, since this will enable the flooding of RIP
updates on the same major network but different subnets.
Split Horizon with Poison Reverse
Poison Reverse is a modified type of split horizon processing. When a new
route is installed dynamically via RIP, the PFA product starts a poison timer as
configured by the POISON parameter in the IPRPS command. When the new
route is advertised, the PFA product will re-advertise the learnt route back to
where it originated from with the METRIC set to infinity (16) for the duration of
the configured POISON timer.
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Initialising RIP Neighbour (IPRGI)
The IPRGI command initialises the connection to a RIP neighbour. The protocol RIP will only exchange information with this RIP neighbour. The RIP
function can operate in a mixed network running RIP1 and RIP2.
IPRGI:GATE=gate<,RXMODE=rxmode>
<,TXMODE=txmode><,DEFGATE=defgate>
<,RXAUTH=rxauth><,TXAUTH=txauth>;
Where:gate
Interface IP
address of RIP
neighbour
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
where 0£nnn£255; do not
use 127.0.0.1.
rxmode
RIP RX mode
for data FROM
this neighbour
OFF,RIP1,RIP2,ANY;
default=ANY.
txmode
RIP TX mode
for data TO
this neighbour
OFF,RIP1,RIP2;
default=RIP1.
defgate
RIP default neighbour
handling
NONE,TX,RX,BOTH;
default=BOTH.
When DEFGATE=BOTH, the
installation and advertising of
RIP default gateways is
possible; DEFGATE=Tx only
advertises, DEFGATE=RX only
installs and DEFGATE=NONE
does neither.
rxauth
RX authentication
string for RIPV2 only
1-16 chars;
default=NONE.
txauth
TX authentication
string for RIPV2 only
1-16 chars;
default=NONE.
For example:
IPRGI:GATE=192.9.201.199,RXMODE=ANY,TXMODE=RIP1,DEFGATE=BOTH;
Setting RIP Neighbour (IPRGS)
The IPRGS command modifies an existing RIP neighbour entry.
IPRGS:GATE=gate<,RXMODE=rxmode>
<,TXMODE=txmode><,DEFGATE=defgate>
<,RXAUTH=rxauth><,TXAUTH=txauth>;
Where the parameters are as described for the IPRGI command.
For example:
IPRGS:GATE=192.9.201.199,RXMODE=ANY,TXMODE=RIP2;
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11. TCP/IP
Printing RIP Neighbour (IPRGP)
The IPRGP command prints the details of the configured RIP neighbour(s).
IPRGP<:GATE=gate>;
For example:
IPRGP;
RIP GATEWAYS
GATE
RXMODE
TXMODE
DEFGATE
RXAUTH
TXAUTH
—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
192.9.100.255
ANY
OFF
NONE
192.9.201.199
ANY
RIP2
BOTH
192.10.1.2
RIP1
RIP1
TX
END
Where:Entry 1 will allow processing of incoming RIP1 and RIP2 messages from any
source on the broadcast 192.9.100.0 network but will not allow any broadcasting to the network. Default RIP updates will not be generated or received.
Entry 2 will allow processing of incoming RIP1 and RIP2 messages only from
192.9.201.199. RIP2 messages will be sent to 192.9.201.199. Default gateway
updates will be both generated and received.
Entry 3 will allow processing of incoming RIP1 messages only from the RIP
neighbour 192.10.1.2, and will send RIP1 messages back to that destination,
i.e. 192.10.1.2. Default gateway updates will be transmitted only, received
ones will be ignored.
Terminating RIP Neighbour (IPRGT)
The IPRGT command terminates a RIP neighbour. RIP will no longer exchange
information with the terminated RIP neighbour. Routes acquired from the
terminated neighbour will timeout and be deleted.
IPRGT:GATE=gate;
For example:
IPRGT:GATE=192.9.201.199;
Setting RIP (IPRPS)
The IPRPS command configures the operating parameters of the RIP function.
IPRPS<:UPDATE=update><,TIMEOUT=timeout>
<,GARBAGE=garbage><,POISON=poison><,HOLD=hold>
<,TAG=tag>;
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Where:update
RIP update time
/broadcast interval
5-3600 seconds;
default=30.
timeout
RIP route timeout
1-10 update periods;
default=6.
garbage
RIP route poisoning
1-10 update periods;
default=4.
poison
RIP split horizon
poison reverse timer
0-10 update periods;
default=0.
Period for which invalid RIP
routes are "poisoned". After
the TIMEOUT period, invalid
RIP routes are removed from
the routing table.
hold
RIP hold timer
0-10 update periods;
default=2.
This is the infinite cost hold
down period. A router will
ignore network updates for this
period until the network
stabilises.
tag
RIP2 route tag
base number
0-65530; default=0.
Permits identification of a
static route and is reported
to a RIP neighbour.
In addition to the limits set by the UPDATE parameter, the following extra
conditions are checked:
1 £ HOLD £ GARBAGE
1 £ POISON £ TIMEOUT
For example:
IPRPS:TIMEOUT=6,GARBAGE=4,HOLD=2,POISON=1;
Deblocking RIP (IPRPD)
The IPRPD command deblocks the RIP function. Exchange of RIP data will
occur with the configured RIP neighbour(s) once the RIP function is
deblocked, e.g.
IPRPD;
Blocking RIP (IPRPB)
The IPRPB command manually blocks the RIP function. No exchange of RIP
data will occur once RIP is manually blocked and all RIP-acquired routes will
be immediately deleted.
IPRPB;
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11. TCP/IP
Terminating RIP settings (IPRPT)
The IPRPT command sets the RIP settings back to default, e.g.
IPRPT;
Printing RIP (IPRPP)
The IPRPP command prints the operating parameters of the RIP function.
For example:
IPRPP;
RIP CONFIGURATION
—————————————————
STATUS
= WO
UPDATE
= 30 Seconds
TIMEOUT
= 6 Update periods
GARBAGE
= 4 Update periods
POISON
= 1 Update periods
HOLD
= 2 Update periods
TAG
= 0
END
Where the parameters are as described for the IPRPS command with the
exception of:
STATUS
RIP status
MB,AB,WO. State AB will
occur when all RIP neighbours
are terminated.
Printing RIP Neighbour statistics (STRGP)
The STRGP command prints RIP neighbour statistics for use in analysing
routing stability and diagnosing RIP configuration problems. The statistics
may be printed as box totals or on a per RIP gateway basis.
STRGP<:GATE=gate>;
Where:gate
330
Interface IP
address of RIP
neighbour
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
where 0£nnn£255; do not
use 127.0.0.1.
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11. TCP/IP
For example:
STRGP:GATE=192.9.201.199;
RIP GATEWAY STATISTICS
NUMBER OF ROUTES
= 137
NUMBER OF INSTALLED ROUTES
= 56
PERIODIC UPDATES
IN: 45678
OUT: 45743
TRIGGERED UPDATES
IN: 126
OUT: 34
REJECTED UPDATES
= 0
OF WHICH AUTHENTICATION FAIL = 0
ROUTE CHANGES/HOUR
= 3
ROUTE REDIRECTIONS/HOUR
= 1
END
Where:
ROUTES
Number of routes RIP knows about
INSTALLED
ROUTES
Number of active pNA routes
PERIODIC
UPDATES
Number of periodic updates received/sent
TRIGGERED
UPDATES
Number of triggered updates received/sent
REJECTED
UPDATES
Number of received updates rejected
OF WHICH
AUTHENTICATION FAIL
Number of updates failing authentication
ROUTE
CHANGES/HOUR
Route changes per hour not affecting routing1
ROUTE
REDIRECTIONS
/HOUR
Route changes per hour affecting routing 2
Non-rate counts are 31 bit, with a * prefix indicating counter wrap.
1
Route changes, e.g. metric change that does result in a change to the pNA
routing table.
2
Route changes that result in a change to the pNA routing table.
Note that the accumulated values for the above can be reset to zero as follows, e.g.
STRGR:GATE=192.9.201.199;
Statistics may be reset on an individual RIP neighbour basis or for all RIP
neighbours.
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11. TCP/IP
PING Request
The industry standard PING request and display of response time is combined
into a “single shot” command, i.e. IPPIP.
Configuration of PING Requests
Initialisation/Print of PING (IPPIP)
This command prints the Ping status following a PING request to the destination IP address. A response is returned if the destination can be contacted.
The TIME parameter should not be confused with the configurable “WAIT=”
parameter which is only a "no response" timeout.
IPPIP:DEST=dest<,WAIT=wait>;
Where:dest
Destination IP
address
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
where 0£nnn£255
wait
Response timeout
1 to 300 seconds; default=5.
If timer expires then one of the
error messages generated
from the REASON parameter
is output.
For example:
IPPIP:DEST=192.9.200.12,WAIT=40;
DEST = 192.9.200.12
TIME = 4 ms
END
or:
IPPIP:DEST=192.9.200.12,WAIT=40;
NO RESPONSE FROM 192.9.200.12
REASON = NETWORK IS DOWN
END
Where:-
332
DEST
Destination IP
address
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
where 0£nnn£255
TIME
Time of response
up to 300000 msecs; this value
could be used to estimate
transit delays.
REASON
Reason for failure
one of:
DESTINATION ADDRESS IS
INVALID
NETWORK IS DOWN
NETWORK IS UNREACHABLE
HOST IS UNREACHABLE
HOST IS DOWN
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11. TCP/IP
FROM
Last gateway that
tried to forward PING
request before failure
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
where 0£nnn£255
TELNET
Introduction
Outgoing TELNET permits terminal users to connect to other products at
remote sites as if the connection had been made to a local machine; in addition, local TELNET to other units on the same LAN is also possible. Note that
Identical UserID, password protection and command availability will exist as if
connecting locally.
Incoming TELNET support permits access into the PFA from other devices
supporting outgoing telnet.
TELNET TN3270 is not supported.
An example of TELNET access is illustrated in Figure 11-6.
Outgoing
TELNET Sessions
FS 700
Backbone
X.28_OR_
TELNET
TELNET
PFA
FR
port
Workstation/
TELNET Terminal
Server
Incoming
TELNET
from Frame Relay
TELNET
192.9.200.201
PFA Product
Figure 11-6: Incoming/outgoing TELNET access.
For example, if access is needed over Frame Relay, and the NI for Frame
Relay is configured, the user can enter from a remote terminal:
TELNET 192.9.200.201
Connected to 192.9.200.201
UserID:
Password:
Where:192.9.200.201 is the IP address to be contacted.
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11. TCP/IP
Outgoing TELNET configuration
A TELNET session can be initiated from an asynchronous terminal attached to
a configured async port on the PFA product. This conforms to RFC 0854 (see
Appendix 4).TELNET is also available on a 9-pin configuration port. Enter
TELNET then open<IP_address>.
The async port can be in one of two modes for TELNET, i.e.
TELNET
A dedicated async port configured for TELNET
only.
X28_OR_TELNET
A shared async port configured for TELNET
and async.
To configure an async port to operate a TELNET service, the PP must be
configured as described below. Instead of configuring the async LP as
PROT=X28, the TELNET service requires PROT=TELNET or
PROT=X28_OR_TELNET to be initialised.
For TELNET:
LIPPx
LILPx
For X.28_OR_TELNET:
LIPPx
LILPx
LINPx
For example, to configure a TELNET-only port.
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-1,PROT=TELNET
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-1;
To configure a combined X.28/TELNET port.
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-2,PROT=X28_OR_TELNET;
PSTEI:NTN=11111,NP=1-1-1-2;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-2;
Note that an NTN must be assigned to the X.28/TELNET port with
the PSTEI command.
Address Configuration
Mnemonic addresses can be used instead of IP addresses to make TELNET
operation more user friendly; these are configured with the ANNAI command.
An operator would find it easier to TELNET by specifying, e.g. “TELNET
MACHINE13” rather than, e.g. TELNET 195.6.5.9. The command below would
have to be configured.
ANNAI:NAME=MACHINE13,PROT=IP,ADDR=195.6.5.9;
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11. TCP/IP
TELNET Sessions
Assuming that the async port has been configured and the PP, LP or NP
layers have been deblocked the user can start a TELNET session.
TELNET
The async port configured for TELNET only will display the “telnet>” prompt.
At this prompt the user can open a session to the destination IP address
assuming the IP address is configured in routing, e.g.
telnet> open 192.66.66.5
Trying 192.66.66.5 ....
Will take up to 60 Seconds
Connected to 192.66.66.5.
Escape character is ‘^]’.
TELNET Daemon: Connected.
Please ensure that your TELNET client is using “line” mode with
local echo.
USERNAME: oper
PASSWORD:
If the destination IP address is unreachable the attempted TELNET connection
will time out after 60 seconds.
A user can escape from a TELNET session by pressing the default Escape
character, i.e. (^]). At the resulting “telnet>” prompt, the user can enter
“CLOSE” to close the connection. The CLOSE command is one of a number
of commands available as standard for TELNET (4.3 Berkeley Release); the
commands supported are as follows:
CLOSE
DISPLAY
MODE
OPEN
SEND
SET
STATUS
TOGGLE
?
QUIT
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
close current connection
display operating parameters
try to enter line or character mode (“mode ?” for more)
connect to a site
transmit special characters (“send ?” for more)
set operating parameters (“set ?” for more)
print status information
toggle operating parameters (“toggle ?” for more)
print help information
only for PROT=X28_OR_TELNET
335
11. TCP/IP
X28_OR_TELNET
To allow for greater flexibility, the async port can be used for X.28 and TELNET operation by toggling between the two services. The TELNET functionality is identical to the above.
Assuming that an async port has been configured with
PROT=X28_OR_TELNET a prompt of “READY>” should be seen when connecting a terminal to the async port; the prompt is used to indicate that X.28
or TELNET sessions are not in progress, i.e.
READY>
To enter an async session:
READY> XXX
PFA X.28/TELNET line 1 Speed 9600
*
The async session is now in progress. To exit from the async session:
* LOGOFF
READY>
To enter a TELNET session:
READY> TELNET
TELNET>
The TELNET session is now in progress. To exit from a TELNET session:
TELNET> QUIT
READY>
TCP Interface Port (TIP)
Introduction
The TCP Interface Port (TIP) provides an alternative way of interconnecting
PFA product nodes by encapsulating X.25 traffic over Ether.
The WAN subsystem treats the TIP as any other port object that can be
assigned to a ROT.
Note that since TCP provides a reliable service, it hides most network failures
from the TIP.
Connection Establishment
The TIP connection requires one of the TIPs to be a client (A-side) and the
other to be a server (B-side); the client initiates the connection.
If the connection attempt fails, the A-side will repeat the attempts periodically
until the TCP connection has been established.
When the TCP connection has been established, both TIPs will send a
TIP_RESTART message over the TCP connection. This handshake will verify
that two TIPs are communicating, and that the software versions at both ends
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11. TCP/IP
are compatible. If a TIP receives an incompatible TIP-RESTART message, it
will close the current TCP connection and try again.
Once the handshake is successful, each TIP will signal to the WAN subsystem
that the port is ready to establish X.25 virtual circuits.
TIP Disconnection
The TIP connection is disconnected if one of the two TIPs is blocked or if a
serious error occurs in the underlying IP network.
The A-side will try to re-establish the connection (unless the A-side is
blocked).
Configuration of TIP Connection
It is possible to define up to five TIPs in a PFA product; each TIP supports up
to 255 calls in each direction. Both ends of the TIP connection must be
configured as A- and B-sides.
For routing purposes, a TIP is assigned to a ROT. The ROT may either include
one TIP or one or more NPs. It is not possible to allocate both TIPs and NPs
to one ROT.
Initialising TIP (IPTPI)
The IPTPI command initialises a TIP. The TIP identifier should be used to
associate with a remote TIP identifier.
IPTPI:TIP=tip,SIDE=side,REMIP=remip;
Where:tip
TIP Identifier
1-5
side
A or B side of TIP
connection
A or B
remip
Remote TIP address
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
where 0£nnn£255; do not
use 127.0.0.1.
For example, TIP 3 is initialised with a remote IP address of 198.7.8.2:
IPTPI:TIP=3,SIDE=A,REMIP=198.7.8.2;
Setting TIP (IPTPS)
The IPTPS command is optionally used to change the parameters of a TIP
already initialised. The TIP must be manually blocked before an IPTPS command is carried out.
IPTPS:TIP=tip<,SIDE=side><,REMIP=remip>;
For example, to change the remote IP address of TIP 3 to 198.7.8.5:
IPTPS:TIP=3,REMIP=198.7.8.5;
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11. TCP/IP
Deblocking TIP (IPTPD)
The IPTPD command deblocks a TIP. If the TIP has been configured as the Bside, it will start listening for a connection from its A-side. If the TIP has been
configured as the A-side, it will attempt to connect to its B-side.
IPTPD:TIP=tip;
Blocking TIP (IPTPB)
The IPTPB command blocks the TIP. The TIP will release any connection to its
peer.
IPTPB:TIP=tip;
Printing TIP (IPTPP)
The IPTPP command prints a specified TIP or a list of TIPs.
IPTPP<:TIP=tip>;
For example:
IPTPP:TIP=3;
TCP INTERFACE PORT
TIP
SIDE
REMIP
STATUS
———————————————————————————————————————————————
3
A
198.7.8.5
WO
END
Where the parameters are as described for the IPTPI command with the
exception of:
STATUS
status of TIP
MB, AB, WO
Terminating TIP (IPTPT)
The IPTPT command terminates a TIP. The TIP has to be manually blocked in
order to be terminated.
IPTPT:TIP=tip;
Printing TIP Statistics (STTPP)
The STTPP command prints the TIP statistics.
STTPP:TIP=tip;
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11. TCP/IP
For example:
STTPP:TIP=3;
TCP INTERFACE PORT STATISTICS
TIP
:
3
L3 Packets
:
25628 IN
22222 OUT
L3 CALL REQ
:
0 IN
0 OUT
L3 CALL ACPT
:
0 IN
0 OUT
L3 CLEARS
:
0 IN
0 OUT
TCP RESETS
:
0
TCP RESET REASONS
:
[— TRAFFIC / MINUTE —]
L3 PACKETS
:
0
IN
0
OUT
L3 DATA SEGS
:
0
IN
0
OUT
L3 OCTETS
:
0
IN
0
OUT
END
Note that the accumulated values for the above can be reset to zero as follows:
STTPR:TIP=3;
Ethernet Bridging
Basic Ethernet bridging allows Ethernet LAN devices to communicate transparently, at the MAC level only, over a WAN network. Configurable bridge
groups are used to link any physical LAN port with WAN links, e.g. a Frame
Relay PVC. The Bridge Group can contain up to two LAN port and up to 250
Frame Relay PVC links, which carry the bridged Ethernet frames. This is
carried out in accordance with RFC 2427 (see Appendix 4).
Advanced Ethernet bridging allows the connection of a single Virtual Network
Interface (VNI) to any bridge group. This allows the sourcing of remote LAN
traffic over a WAN network to a local LAN.
Address Learning
Ethernet frames are forwarded between LA and WAN links based on the
destination MAC address information carried in the Ethernet frame.
The LA port object promiscuously accepts traffic from LANs and will forward
or “flood” non-locally destined frames over WAN links connected to the
associated Bridge group.
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11. TCP/IP
Local
Local address learning ensures that the LA link does not forward Ethernet
frames on to the WAN that are locally destined. It does this by storing the
source addresses of frames seen on the LANs and rejecting frames with these
destination addresses.
After deblocking a LAN port, the LAN port monitors the source addresses of
frames on the LAN before forwarding them up to the Bridge group. This
prevents local traffic from being forwarded to the bridge. The Bridge group is
not available to users for a period of 60 s while learning takes place.
The 16 most used local destination addresses are filtered out in hardware.
Learnt addresses are aged out after 5 minutes.
Remote
Remote address learning ensures that the bridge forwards frames down the
correct WAN link. It does this by storing source addresses of frames received
on the WAN links and forwarding frames to these links if the destination
address matches. If the destination address is unknown, then the frame is
flooded to all active WAN links. Learnt addresses are always aged out after 5
minutes.
Configuration of Ethernet Bridging
Bridge groups and Bridge LAN ports can be configured with the following
MML commands:
LIBRI
LIBRS
LIBRD
LIBRB
LIBRT
LIBRP
Initialise Bridge group
Sets Bridge group
Deblocks Bridge group
Blocks Bridge group
Terminates Bridge group
Prints Bridge group
LIBPI
LIBPD
LIBPB
LIBPT
LIBPP
Initialise Bridge LAN port
Deblocks Bridge LAN port
Blocks Bridge LAN port
Terminates Bridge LAN port
Prints Bridge LAN port
Initialising Bridge Group (LIBRI)
The LIBRI command initialises a Bridge group which may be used to tie
together bridged LAN traffic from LAN ports and Frame Relay PVCs.
LIBRI:BR=br,LOCNTN=locntn<,PVCFWD=pvcfwd>
<,REMOTEMACS=remotemacs><,BUFFER=buffer>
<,PRIORITY=priority>;
Where:
br
340
Bridge group
identifier
1-16.
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11. TCP/IP
locntn
Local NTN of
bridge group
1-15 digits
or NONE.
pvcfwd
Allow PVC - PVC
forwarding
YES or NO;
default=YES.
remotemacs
No. of entries in
PVC - MAC address
pair cache
16-4096;
default=256.
buffer
No. of data bytes
buffered per PVC
1024-65536;
default=65536. This specifies
the number of data bytes
buffered between the bridge
and the LMI before frames are
discarded.
priority
Priority of
MEM limits
1-4; default=2.
This is used to decide whether
flooded frames are to be
forwarded or discarded.
For example:
LIBRI:BR=1,LOCNTN=9991;
Setting Bridge group (LIBRS)
The LIBRS command modifies the parameters of an existing Bridge group.
The Bridge group must be manually blocked for the command to be accepted.
LIBRS:BR=br<,PVCFWD=pvcfwd><,REMOTEMACS=remotemacs>
<,BUFFER=buffer><,PRIORITY=priority>;
Where the parameters are defined in the LIBRI command.
For example, to change the BUFFER and PRIORITY parameters:
LIBRS:BR=1,BUFFER=1024,PRIORITY=1;
Deblocking Bridge group (LIBRD)
The LIBRD command deblocks the specified bridge group, allowing Frame
Relay PVCs to connect and encapsulated Ethernet traffic to pass.
LIBRD:BR=br;
For example:
LIBRD:BR=1;
Blocking Bridge group (LIBRB)
The LIBRB command blocks a specified bridge group. Any Frame Relay PVCs
or VNI connected to the Bridge group should be manually blocked before
issuing this command. All LA bridge ports connected to the bridge group
must be terminated before blocking the bridge group.
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11. TCP/IP
LIBRB:BR=br;
For example:
LIBRB:BR=1;
Printing Bridge groups (LIBRP)
The LIBRP command prints the parameters of a specific or all Bridge groups.
LIBRP<:BR=br>;
For example:
LIBRP:BR=1;
BRIDGE GROUP
BR
STATUS ———————————
1
WO
LOCNTN
= 9991
BUFFER
= 65536
PVCFWD
= YES
REMOTEMACS
= 256
PRIORITY
= 2
END
Where:STATUS
status of bridge group
MB,CB or WO
Terminating Bridge group (LIBRT)
The LIBRT command terminates a specified bridge group. All Frame Relay
PVCs or VNI connected to the Bridge group should be terminated before
issuing this command.
LIBRT:BR=br;
For example:
LIBRT:BR=1;
Configuration of Bridge LAN Ports
Initialising Bridge LAN Ports (LIBPI)
The LIBPI command initialises any LAN port to be a Bridge LAN port for
connection to a bridge group.
The BR parameter is used to associate up to two Bridge LAN port with the
bridge group.
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Note that the LAN port or any specific VNI may not be used by more than one
Bridge Group.
LIBPI:BR=br,LA=la;
Where:br
Bridge group
identifier
1-16
la
LAN port number
1-1-0-(1-2)
For example:
LIBPI:BR=1,LA=1-1-0-1;
Deblocking Bridge LAN Port (LIBPD)
The LIBPD command deblocks a Bridge LAN port.
LIBPD:BR=br,LA=la;
For example:
LIBPD:BR=1,LA=1-1-0-1;
Blocking Bridge LAN Port (LIBPB)
The LIBPB command blocks a Bridge LAN port.
LIBPB:BR=br,LA=la;
For example:
LIBPB:BR=1,LA=1-1-0-1;
Printing Bridge Ports (LIBPP)
The LIBPP command prints the bridge port information for a specified or all
Bridge Groups.
LIBPP<:BR=br>;
For example:
LIBPP;
BRIDGE PORT PRINTOUT
BR
STATUS
INFO
——————————————————————————————————1
WO
LAN LA=1-1-0-1 FILTERING
1
WO
LAN LA=1-1-0-2 FILTERING
1
WO
WAN PVCID=BR_LINK1
1
WO
WAN PVCID=BR_LINK2
2
AB
WAN PVCID=bridge_link3
2
WO
NI
LOCIP=192.9.9.1
END
Where:
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11. TCP/IP
STATUS
Bridge port status
WO, AB or MB
INFO
Port information
LAN port number, WAN FR
PVC link (with PVCID) or
VNI (with local IP address).
The LAN port can display either LEARNING or FILTERING to indicate if local
address learning is in progress (for 60 s) after the LAN port has been
deblocked.
Note that bridge LANs, WAN Frame Relay PVC links and VNIs are
configured with the LIBPI, FRPCI and IPNII commands, respectively.
Terminating Bridge LAN Port (LIBPT)
The LIBPT command terminates a Bridge LAN port.
Note that if a bridge group is to be blocked then all connected bridge LAN
ports must first be terminated.
LIBPT:BR=br,LA=la;
For example:
LIBPT:BR=1,LA=1-1-0-1;
Direct Broadcasting
It is possible for IP broadcast messages to be forwarded through the PFA
product with use of the following MML commands.
Command Usage
Deblocking IP Directed Broadcast (IPDBD)
The IPDBD command activates the function to enable forwarding of IP directed broadcasts through the PFA product, e.g.
IPDBD;
Blocking IP Directed Broadcast (IPDBB)
This command blocks the function to disable forwarding of IP directed broadcasts, e.g.
IPDBB;
Printing IP Directed Broadcast (IPDBP)
The IPDBP command displays the state of the IP directed broadcast function.
IPDBP;
IP DIRECTED BROADCAST FUNCTION: MB
Where:STATUS is MB or WO.
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11. TCP/IP
UDP/IP Helper Addresses
Introduction
The UDP/IP Helper Address function allows the PFA product to forward
specific UDP/IP datagrams to servers on an IP network where standard IP
routing would be unable to do so. For example, limited IP broadcasts (i.e., to
address 255.255.255.255) are used to direct to NetBIOS name servers and are
not normally forwarded by PFA routing.
Configuration of IP Helper Addresses
In order to configure Helper Addresses, a series of MML commands must be
used, i.e.
IPHAI
Initialises Helper Address
IPHAD
Deblocks Helper Address
IPHAB
Blocks Helper Address
IPHAT
Terminates Helper Addresses
IPHAP
Prints Helper Addresses
Initialising UDP/IP Helper Addresses (IPHAI)
The IPHAI command initialises IP helper addresses. Up to 16 destination
broadcast IP addresses can be configured while each address can have at
least eight server addresses associated with it.
When deblocked, the IP address of every incoming UDP datagram is checked
against the broadcast IP address configured with the DEST parameter. If a
match occurs then copies of the datagram are sent to the server IP address as
indicated by the associated SERVER parameter; the relevant server address is
substituted for the original destination address and the IP checksum updated.
The original datagram is discarded. In the case of no match, the datagram will
be passed via PFA routing as normal.
Ensure that the configured DEST parameter is the local interface broadcast
address as any other IP address will not work.
When the IP helper address function is enabled, if the PFA product receiving
the datagrams for translation is required to respond to the packet, then one of
its interface addresses must be configured by using the SERVER parameter.
IPHAI:DEST=dest,SERVER=server;
Where:dest
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Local IP broadcast
address match
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
0£nnn£255
345
11. TCP/IP
server
Server IP address
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
0£nnn£255
For example, to forward UDP-limited IP broadcasts matching
255.255.255.255 (i.e., all broadcasts) to addresses 192.9.200.231 and
192.9.200.232:
IPHAI:DEST=255.255.255.255,SERVER=192.9.200.231;
IPHAI:DEST=255.255.255.255,SERVER=192.9.200.232;
Deblocking UDP/IP Helper Addresses (IPHAD)
The IPHAD command deblocks an IP helper address, e.g.
IPHAD;
Blocking UDP/IP Helper Addresses (IPHAB)
The IPHAB command manually blocks an IP helper address, e.g.
IPHAB;
Printing UDP/IP Helper Addresses (IPHAP)
The IPHAP command displays either a specified or all IP helper addresses.
IPHAP<:DEST=dest>;
For example:
IPHAP;
IP Helper Status: WO
DEST
SERVER
——————————————————————————————
255.255.255.255
192.9.200.231
192.9.100.0
192.9.200.47
192.9.100.255
192.9.200.231
END
Terminating UDP/IP Helper Addresses (IPHAT)
The IPHAT command terminates a specified IP helper address. The IP helper
address must be manually blocked before it can be terminated.
IPHAT:DEST=dest,SERVER=server;
For example:
IPHAT:DEST=255.255.255.255,SERVER=192.9.200.231;
EXECUTED
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SLIP Example
It is possible to configure a SLIP connection between a serial port of a PFA
product and a host or router supporting SLIP as illustrated in Figure 11-7. This
permits the transfer of IP datagrams across a point-to-point connection.
In the example, the node PFA1 has a physical port 1-1-1-1 configured with a
local IP address of 192.1.1.12 and the PC has an IP address of 192.1.1.30.
192.9.200.16
PC operating
TCP/IP software
+SLIP support
via COM port
IP ADDRESS = 192.1.1.12
PP=1-1-1-1
IP ADDRESS = 192.1.1.30
PFA1
192.1.2.123
SLIP Connection
X.25 Network
LAN Network
Figure 11-7: Example SLIP configuration.
Configuration in PFA1
A SLIP connection is made by the configuration of a PP port object (e.g. 1-11-1) and a Network Interface (NI) for SLIP. An automatic association is made
between the PP parameter in the LIPPI and IPNII commands.
The unit PFA1 would have the following configurations.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-1,TYPE=ASYNC;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-1,RATE=9600,PARITY=UNCHANGED,
MODEMFLOW=YES,XONFLOW=NO,CHARBITS=8,DUPLEX=FULL,
DCDMODE=YES;
IPNII:TYPE=SLIP,LOCIP=192.1.1.12,MASK=255.255.255.0,PP=1-1-1-1;
IPROI:DEST=192.9.200.16,MASK=255.255.255.0,GATE=192.1.2.123;
LIPPD:PP=1-1-1-1;
IPNID:LOCIP=192.1.1.12;
Configuration in PC host
The remote end of the SLIP connection, i.e. the PC host, must be configured.
The PC should be operating TCP/IP software which supports the SLIP protocol with a configured IP address of 192.1.1.30.
As the connection is serial, the port (e.g., COM1) should be operating at 9600,
8 bit, parity (none).
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12. Address and Routing Analysis
Introduction
The main purpose of address and routing analysis is to check whether a
requested destination address is valid and to determine the network path to
reach that destination, whether it be a local service or another network node.
The resulting path of a call may go through one or more nodes. Each node
will, when a call request packet is received, determine whether the destination
is local to the node, e.g. a DTE, NI or other local service or whether the call
has to be forwarded to an adjacent node. A node has no knowledge about the
configuration of other network nodes and can only deal with addresses up to
15 decimal digits.
For X.25, X.75(E) and Frame Relay calls, identification through network addresses by using a configurable routing mechanism is used both as a basis
for address and routing analysis, and to determine the network services
assigned to the identified entity. For switching calls, i.e. calls not destined for
local services, the entire routing mechanism centres on three important terms,
i.e.
ROute Termination (ROT)
Routing Case (RC)
Number Direction (ND)
The configuration of ROTs, RCs and NDs allows the incoming called address
of an X.25, X.75(E) or Frame Relay call to be analysed and the call be routed
out of another port to the next node (assuming it is not a local service).
Additionally, routing analysis requirements for the correct operation of DTEs
and other local services are detailed.
The Routing Analysis mechanism is illustrated in Figure 12-1.
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12. Address and Routing Analysis
FR Subsystem
FRAD
FRTP
PP
FREP
FP
FR SVC
NI
RC
ND
Dedicated
ROT
FP
PP
PS Subsystem
Dedicated/Shared Access
Local
DTE
NP
PP
PP
LP
Hunt
group
NP
NP
PP
X.25/
X.75 NI
EP
SP
ND
RC
Dedicated/
Shared
access ROT
PP
NP
LP
PP
TIP
PP
NP in access group
Figure 12-1: Routing Analysis Mechanism.
The routing analysis functions are not dependent on any particular address
syntax or format and can thus be applied to different numbering plans. Configuration space allocated to routing each node will however be smaller and
easier to administer if the most significant part of the address corresponds to
a geographic area.
NOTE: Alternate routing is supported as part of the routing mechanism.
NOTE: Frame Relay PVC-based networks utilise DLCI addressing
as described in Section 10.
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12. Address and Routing Analysis
Access Type
Configuration of DTEs or ROTs as either a dedicated or shared connection is
possible as shown in the following tables. Frame Relay SVCs use dedicated
ROTs (leased or switched).
The type of DTE/ROT is closely linked to the type of access required; this is
configurable with the ACCESS parameter at the physical port (PP) associated
with the DTE/ROT.
Several access types can be configured at the PP. The relationship of access
type, parameter settings and the type of protocol to be configured for the port
is shown below. Note the identification types possible.
SWITCH TYPE
DTE/ROT
Where is Phone
No. set ?*
Async/
X.28
FRAM E RELAY/
SDLC/ Async/
TPAD
X.25
X.75E
Point t o Point
LEASED
N /A
ü
ü
ü
ü
Direct call
(DTR Aut odial)
SWITC H ED
As SET REMOTE
ADDRESS i n
Tra nsISDN POP PAK
ü
1
ü
Direct Call
SWITC H ED_V25BIS
As MODEMSTRIN G i n
ü
LIPPS
1
Point t o Point
SWITC H ED_V25BIS
As MODEMSTRIN G i n
ü
PSTEI (Ac c e ss Group)
Point t o
M ult ipoint
SWITC H ED_V25BIS
Direct Call
SWITC H ED_H AYES
ü
1
ü
2
û
ü
1
ü
2
1
û
ü
1
ü
2
As MODEMSTRIN G i n
ü
PSROI (Ac c e ss
Group)
1
û
ü
1
ü
2
As MODEMSTRIN G i n
ü
LIPPS
1
û
û
3
1
NUI identification via USER parameter for DTE.
2
NODEID identification via NODEID parameter for ROT.
3
Frame Relay FII ports only.
û
* Warning: Do not set MODEMSTRING elsewhere.
All DTEs permit default user access.
Switched Access shall be set according to desired handling of V.24 circuit 108
(DTR), and is only applicable to physical V.24 DTE or TransISDN POP PAKs.
Where the difference between LEASED and SWITCHED line handling is the
handling of DTR. The access type SWITCHED (direct call) will allow for proper
use of a switched line by not turning DTR on unless an incoming call is
present, or there is a need to establish the line. The objective of taking down
DTR at line disconnection is to release the switched network access path.
.
Network Services
The routing analysis process also determines what network services can be
used. Services include:
PVCs/HVCs
Frame Relay PVCs/sPVCs/SVCs
X.25/X.75 SVCs
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12. Address and Routing Analysis
Configuration Facilities (Charging, Call Priorities and Access Control)
Load Control
CUGs
For further details of X.25-related Network Services, see Section 13.
Routing Analysis for Switched Calls
Configuration of Routes
A route is a logical connection between two adjacent network nodes. There
may be more than one route between two network nodes. For example in
Figure 12-2, routes 1 and 2 can be connected using two dedicated NPs at
each side; route 3 indicates a connection over a data network. However, route
4 can also connect to an external bearer service network (EBSN), e.g., PSTN/
ISDN.
PSDN
PFA
Route 3
PFA
Route 1
Route 2
Route 4
PSTN
/ISDN
Figure 12-2: Example of route between nodes.
For each route, a ROute Termination (ROT), identified by a number, can be
defined to reach the adjacent node. A route is thus defined implicitly via a
coordinated definition of the ROTs in each of the two network nodes. The ROT
numbers in the two nodes may be different.
The ROT selected can be either:
i) a Dedicated ROT (X.25/X.75) which is tied to 1-18 NPs.
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ii) a Dedicated ROT (Frame Relay) which is tied to 1-18 FPs.
iii) a TCP Interface Port (TIP) ROT which associates with a TIP identifier
number.
iv) a Shared Access ROT which associates with an Access Group.
v) a Switched access ROT (X.25/X.75 or Frame Relay) which is used for
DTR autodial.
For configuration of ROTs, the following commands are used:
PSROI
PSROS
PSROT
PSROP
Initialising routes
Setting routes
Terminating routes
Printing routes
Dedicated ROT
The ROT contains an NP or FP that is used to reach the call destination.
If there is more than one entry in the list, the first entry is chosen according to
a configured search algorithm, i.e. the Type of Search (TOS) is dependent on
the search algorithm which may be HOME or ROUND. If it is HOME, the
entries will be tried in order, always starting with the first entry in the list. If it is
ROUND, the entries will be tried according to a round-robin algorithm.
NOTE: The selection of an alternative FP does not constitute VCP.
An NP may fail immediately if it is not working or it has no logical channel
available. If the NP does not fail immediately, the call request packet will be
forwarded via that NP.
NOTE: Mixing NPs and FPs together in the same ROT is not advisable.
TIP ROT
A TIP ROT specifies the TCP Interface Port (TIP) to be used. If the TIP is not
working or if call setup is not successful, an attempt will be made to select a
new ROT. If the call fails due to Clearing Cause 05 or 00 the call will be rerouted or not re-routed, respectively.
Shared Access ROT
A Shared Access ROT may use any free shared NP belonging to the same
Access Group to dynamically establish a connection through an external
network (EXTNET).
As the access is switched, the physical connection will only be established
when needed.
An NP in the Access Group is selected as follows :
If there is an NP in the Access Group that is already connected to the
required adjacent node, this NP is chosen. Otherwise, an NP is chosen
among the disconnected NPs by using the search algorithm as defined
for the Access Group. If a disconnected NP is chosen, an outgoing
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12. Address and Routing Analysis
physical connection is initiated by dialling the address specified with
the MODEMSTRING parameter in the PSROI command.
If the attempt is unsuccessful, an attempt will be made to choose a new
NP within the Access Group. Should this fail, an attempt will be made to
choose a new ROT.
Reselection within ROT
If a clear request is received with clearing cause of 5 (Network Congestion) or
9 (Out of Order) in direct response to the call request, reselection may take
place.
If reselection does occur, a new NP in the same ROT is selected. A new ROT
is selected when all NPs, TIPs or access groups have been tried in the initial
ROT. When all the reselection possibilities have been exhausted, the last
obtained reason for the setup failure is transferred backwards in the network
and reselection is performed in the previous node.
Initialising Routes (PSROI)
The PSROI command initialises either dedicated, TIP or Shared Access ROTs.
For Dedicated ROT for X.25/X.75(E):
PSROI:ROT=rot,NP=np<...><,TOS=tos><,RCI=rci><,CC=cc>;
For Dedicated ROT for Frame Relay:
PSROI:ROT=rot,FP=fp<...><,TOS=tos><,COST=cost>;
For TIP ROT:
PSROI:ROT=rot,TIP=tip<,CC=cc>;
For Shared Access ROT:
PSROI:ROT=rot,AG=ag,EXTNET=extnet,DTE=dte<,RCI=rci>
<,NODEID=nodeid><,MODEMSTRING=modemstring><,CC=cc>
<,DISC=disc>;
Where:rot
Route number
1-500
np
Network port
1-1-1-(1-n) for X.25/X.75 where
n is the maximum number of
ports, 1-1-1-(XF1-XFp) for
X.25/X.75 over Frame Relay
where p is the maximum
number of X25/FR stacks
cost
Cost used for
0 to 100; default=0. For VCP
only
frame relay routes
fp
354
Frame Relay port
1-1-1-(1-n) for FP ports where
n is the maximum number of
ports, 1-1-1-ATM1(mm) where 1£mm£number of
VCCs
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
12. Address and Routing Analysis
tos
Type of search
HOME, ROUND;
default=ROUND.
rci
Allow X.25/X.75
reverse charging
indication
YES or NO;
default=YES.
disc
Incoming/outgoing
disconnect time if
no logical channels
in use
1..300 secs or NONE-1..300
secs or NONE;
default=NONE-NONE.
cc
Call accounting
on X.25/X.75 ROT
IN (incoming calls only),
OUT (outgoing calls only),
BOTH (incoming and outgoing
calls), NONE (no accounting);
default=NONE. For switched/
shared access ROT only
tip
TIP Identifier
1-maximum number of tips
ag
Access group
number
1...127
extnet
External network
name
up to 10
characters
dte
Address in external
network
1-15 digits
nodeid
Node identity
of adjacent node
NONE or 1..9999;
default=NONE. For X.75E
only.
modemstring
String passed
to modem
up to 20 characters;
default is the configured DTE
value.
For example, for a dedicated Frame Relay ROT:
PSROI:ROT=90,FP=1-1-1-1,COST=1;
For example, for a Shared Access ROT where ROT 96 uses Access Group 1 in
an external ISDN network.
PSROI:ROT=96,AG=1,EXTNET=ISDN,DTE=3434,MODEMSTRING=3434;
Setting Routes (PSROS)
The PSROS command allows the modification of route parameters previously
configured with the PSROI command. Note that any old NPs in the list that are
not specified in the command will be removed from the list, i.e. the PSROS
command overwrites all existing NP port settings for the ROT.
If there are no calls through a DTE or ROT, and the DISC timer is then set from
NONE-NONE to, e.g. 10-10, it will not activate. The timer is only started after
an actual clear.
PSROS:ROT=rot<,DISC=disc><,AG=ag><,EXTNET=extnet>
<,DTE=dte><,NODEID=nodeid><,MODEMSTRING=modemstring>
<,CC=cc>;
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12. Address and Routing Analysis
or:
PSROS:ROT=rot,FP=fp<..><,TOS=tos><,COST=cost>;
or:
PSROS:ROT=rot <,NP=np><,TOS=tos><,CC=cc>;
or:
PSROS:ROT=rot,TIP=tip<,CC=cc>;
Where the parameters are as described for the PSROI command.
For example, to change the existing ROT 95 to specify the type of search as a
round robin search:
PSROS:ROT=95,TOS=ROUND;
Printing Routes (PSROP)
The PSROP command displays network port details for one or all routes.
PSROP<:ROT=rot>;
For example:
PSROP;
ROUTE DATA
ROT
TOS
NP/TIP/FP
AG
EXTNET DTE
RCI
DISC
NODEID
STATUS
———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
90
ROUND 1-1-1-1
WO
CC = NONE
COST=1
95
ROUND 1-1-1-1
WO
1-1-1-4
WO
1-1-1-XF1
WO
CC=BOTH
96
1
ISDN
3434
2
WO
MODEMSTRING=3434
CC=NONE
END
Where:STATUS
356
Network port
or TIP status
WO,AB,MB,DIS
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12. Address and Routing Analysis
Terminating Routes (PSROT)
The PSROT command deletes a specified route independent of ROT type.
PSROT:ROT=rot;
For example:
PSROT:ROT=9;
Configuration of Routing Cases
A Routing Case is a user defined number which specifies ROTs that should be
used to allow a call to reach a non-local destination. The routing case number
can contain one or more ROTs as well as the route selection algorithm, e.g.
for X.25/X.75
Routing Cases
RC
1
2
3
ROTs
24 34
24 34
34 24
Type of Search
Round
Round
Round
The following takes place:
1)
The RC number assigns a route (implicitly defined by a ROT
number)
2)
The ROT number then selects a configured NP/FP/Access Group
and thus the port(s) for the call to be passed to.
A particular route fails if:
i) the route is found to be the same as the incoming route.
ii) the route leads to a node that has already been tried.
iii) the node associated with the route is already present in the NODEID
list and has already been tried (X.75 only).
Should all the routes of a routing case fail, a clear request packet is sent
backwards in the network where reselection will take place, if possible.
For configuration of Routing Cases, use the following commands:
ANRCI
ANRCT
ANRCP
Initialising Routing Case
Terminating Routing Case
Printing Routing Case
NOTE: Due to the separate X.25/X.75(E) and Frame Relay routing
schemas, the routing case should never contain X.25/X.75 and
Frame Relay ROTs together.
Reselection within Routing Case
If a clear request is received with clearing cause of 5 (Network Congestion) or
9 (Out of Order) in direct response to the call request, reselection may take
place.
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12. Address and Routing Analysis
If reselection does occur, a new ROT within the same Routing Case is selected. A new Routing Case is selected when all ROTs have been tried in the
initial Routing Case. When all the reselection possibilities have been exhausted, the last obtained reason for the setup failure is transferred backwards in the network and reselection is performed in the previous node.
Initialising Routing Cases (ANRCI)
The ANRCI command initialises a routing case which specifies routes to be
used at call setup.
ANRCI:RC=rc,ROT=rot<...><,TOS=tos><,MAR=mar>;
Where:rc
Routing Case
1-500
rot
Route
1-500
tos
Type of Search
ROUND or HOME;
default=HOME
mar
Maximum number
of alternative routes
0-5;default=5
Note that the MAR parameter is only used for Frame Relay
If more than one route is given, the routes will be used in the order specified if
TOS=HOME. If TOS=ROUND is set, a round-robin scheme will be applied.
The maximum number of ROTs permissible per RC is 18.
For example, to establish calls using ROT10 if possible.
ANRCI:RC=2,ROT=10&11&12,TOS=HOME;
For example, to initialise the MAR value to 3 when establishing calls using
ROT 5 if possible.
ANRCI:RC=2,ROT=5&6&7,MAR=3,TOS=HOME;
Printing Routing Cases (ANRCP)
The ANRCP command invokes a printout of the routes in one or all routing
cases.
ANRCP<:RC=rc>;
For example, to print routing case 2:
ANRCP:RC=2;
ROUTING CASES
RC
ROT
TOS
MAR
_____________________________________
2
5
ROUND 3
6
7
END
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Terminating Routing Cases (ANRCT)
The ANRCT terminates the specified routing case.
ANRCT:RC=rc;
For example, to terminate routing case 2:
ANRCT:RC=2;
Configuration of Number Directions
A number direction (ND) is a numeric string of up to 15 decimal digits that is
used to create a full or partial match with a called address. ND matches are
those with the greatest number of matching significant digits. For example, a
called address 123456003 can match with the number directions 1, 12, 123, ..
123456003 but not 13, 124 or 1234560031. It is normal practice to define a
number direction which is a partial match of another number direction, e.g.
ANRAI:ND=903,RC=1;
ANRAI:ND=904,RC=2;
Using this example, any calls addressed to 903x will be routed out on RC 1.
Any calls addressed to 904x will be routed out on RC 2; The ND would typically be the number schema allocated to a PFA node, e.g. PFA1 is 901x and
PFA2 has 902x.
A number direction is associated with:
1)
A remote destination, reachable via a Routing Case
2)
DTE with dedicated NP (X.25 or async terminal, TPAD or SDLC)
3)
A DTE with Access Group (Shared Access)
4)
An internal service (Session or Echo port)
5)
Network Interfaces for X.25/X.75 or Frame Relay SVCs
6)
A Frame Relay DTE (FUI, FDI, FNI)
7)
A Hunt Group
NOTE: The NTN values assigned to DTEs, internal services, IP
network interfaces and hunt groups are treated as Number Directions so all address values can be managed via the ANDAP command for the entire PFA product.
NOTE: Address extensions (NSAPs) in an X.25-1988 call packet are
not part of the called address.
If the called address does not match any of the above defined NDs and the
call is cleared.
If there is a match, the actions taken depends on the matching ND. Figure 123 shows a flow chart of the address and routing analysis procedure.
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12. Address and Routing Analysis
Any
Address
Match with
ND?
N
Y
Clear Down
Y
ND in
Hunt Group?
N
DTE/ Int.
Service?
Y
Call Sent to DTE
or Int. Service
(Session/IP/Echo port)
N
Is
ROT in
RC?
Reselection
N
Y
N
FP/NP/TIP/
Access Group
in ROT?
Reselection
Y
FP/NP/TIP/
Access Group
Working?
N
Y
Forward Call
via FP/NP/TIP/
Access Group
Figure 12-3: Flow chart of Address and Routing Analysis.
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For configuration of NDs, the following commands are used:
ANRAI
ANRAT
ANDAP
Initialising Number Direction
Terminating Number Direction
Printing Number Directions
Initialising Number Direction (ANRAI)
The command is used to specify a routing case for a particular ND. Incoming
calls with a called address matching the ND will be routed as specified by the
routing case.
ANRAI:ND=nd,RC=rc;
Where:nd
Number Direction
1-15 digits
rc
Routing Case
1-500
For example:
ANRAI:ND=12345,RC=2;
Printing Number Directions (ANDAP)
The ANDAP command prints out information for all or selected NDs.
ANDAP<:ND=nd>;
For example:
ANDAP;
DIGIT ANALYSIS
ND
ANARES
RC
NP/FR-LP/FP/BR
LOCIP
————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
1234
X25-NI
192.9.200.123
1235
FR-NI
30.1.1.103
16601
DTE-P
1-1-1-1
16602
DTE-P
1-1-1-2
22
GTN
23455
RC
45678
FR-LP
1-1-1-XF2
201000094
DTE-F
1-1-1-5
101
DTE-F
1-1-1-ATM1-12
102
DTE-F
1-1-1-ATM1-13
103
DTE-F
1-1-1-ATM1-14
= 1
END
Where:ND
Number direction
1-15 digits
ANARES
Analysis result
one of:
DTE-P
Local packet mode terminals
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GTN
ECHO
MTP
X29
FRTP
FREP
BRIDGE
(async or X.25), SDLC or
TPAD port
Routing case
Frame relay LP
Frame relay DTE
X.25 network interface
Frame relay network interface
(For FR and FRSVCs NIs)
Hunt Groups
Echo port
MTP session port
X.29 session port
Frame Relay Traffic Port
Frame Relay Echo Port
Bridge group
RC
Routing case value
1-500
NP/FR-LP
Port type
1-1-1-(1-18) (X.25/X.75/Async/
TPAD/Frame Relay) or
1-1-1-(1-18)-(1-8) (SDLC),
1-1-1-(XF1-XF15) (Frame
Relay) or
1-1-1-(LF1-LF15) SNA/
LL Cover, Frame Relay) or
1-1-1-(MP1-MP6)-(1-3) (MP),
1-16 (Bridge Port)
1-1-1-ATM1-(1-64) (ATM)
Local IP address
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
where 0£nnn£255
RC
FR-LP
DTE-F
X25-NI
FR-NI
/FP/BR
LOCIP
Terminating Number Direction (ANRAT)
The ANRAT command allows the termination of NDs. Note that it is not possible to remove NDs corresponding to async/X.25 DTEs, FR NTN, IP ports or
Session Ports with the ANRAT command. For removal of these, see the
PSTET, FRTET, IPNIT and SASPT commands.
ANRAT:ND=nd;
For example, to terminate a number direction of 12345:
ANRAT:ND=12345;
Virtual Call Preference (VCP)
The purpose of VCP is to maintain the primary route wherever possible or the
lowest cost alternative to the primary route. If the primary route goes down,
VCP will select the lowest cost route available within the same routing case.
The lower the cost, the higher the preference.
NOTE: VCP is only available for Frame Relay.
NOTE: Always set the primary route with the lowest cost. VCP will
ensure the primary route is used whenever it is available.
An example of VCP can be shown through the setup of the 3-node network in
Figure 12-4.
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Node1
Node3
118(S)
119(S)
Node2
230
120(P)
121(S)
CSDN
231
P=Primary route
S=Secondary route
Figure 12-4: VCP Example
The ROTs are as follows:
Node 1:
ROT=118,COST=25
ROT=119,COST=30
ROT=120,COST=0
ROT=121,COST=50
Node 2:
ROT=230,COST=0
ROT=231,COST=25
The following routing cases are defined (assuming TOS=HOME):
Node 1:
Node 2:
RC=13,ROT=120&118&119&121
RC=23,ROT=230&231
There are eight possible paths between Node 1 and Node 3 (in order of
preference);
Path 1:
Path 2:
Path 3:
Path 4:
Path 5:
Path 6:
Path 7:
Path 8:
ROTs=120&230
ROTs=120&231
ROTs=118&230
ROTs=118&231
ROTs=119&230
ROTs=119&231
ROTs=121&230
ROTs=121&231
The calls are normally established via the primary path, ROT=120 and
ROT=230, when the VCP function is not activated.
If the path between ROT=120 and 230 fails, the VCP function will re-establish
the connection via ROT=120 and ROT=231. If the port associated with
ROT=120 fails, the next ROT in the routing case is used to provide a new
connection between ROT=118 and ROT=230. If ROT=118 fails, VCP will
establish a connection via ROTs=119 and ROT=230 as this is the next lowest
cost and so on. The VCP function will always try to re-establish the connection at a timed interval (between 0 and 1024 seconds; default of 30) via the
primary path. This interval is configured with the VCP parameter in the LIFPS
command. The VCP function will switch back to the primary path when
ROT=120 is working again because it is of the lowest cost.
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MAR Value
The MAR value keeps a record of the number of alternative routes being used
and calculates when enough alternative routes have been used.
Any Frame Relay SVC on a Frame Relay network will possess both a maximum MAR value and an accumulated MAR value.
As the call passes through routing cases present in each transitory node the
maximum MAR value for the call will be set to the lowest MAR value of any
Routing Case that the call may have passed through. This value will have been
configured in the ANRCI command with the MAR parameter.
If no alternative routing occurs in the local Routing Case, and the received
maximum MAR value is less than MAR configured with ANRCI command then
the received value will be sent out. If the received maximum MAR value is
greater than the MAR configured with ANRCI then the MAR value configured
with ANRCI will be sent.
The call’s accumulated MAR value, starting at 0, will increment by 1 in the
event of the call taking an alternative route.
At such a point when accumulated MAR > maximum MAR, the call will be
cleared. When maximum MAR is set to 0 on the outgoing route, no further
alternate routing is permitted at the next node, i.e. only the subsequent primary route can be used.
Routing Analysis for DTEs
Introduction
The DTE is a general name used for various types of computers and terminals,
which are locally connected to the PFA product for the purpose of using the
communication services provided by the network. All DTEs are assigned an
NTN which uniquely identifies the DTE.
A DTE can be either:
i) a Dedicated DTE.
ii) a Shared Access DTE.
DTE D
PSTN
DTE E
Modem
Modem
Access
Group
DTE A
DTE C
DTE F
DTE B
Figure 12-5: dedicated and shared access DTEs.
Figure 12-5 shows DTE A, DTE B and DTE C connected through a dedicated
NP connection. DTE D, DTE E and DTE F are connected through the PSTN.
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Any of the two PFA modem ports, configured as async, in the Access Group
can be used to communicate with any of DTE D, DTE E and DTE F.
The dedicated or shared access DTEs can be configured for X.25 terminals,
TPAD, asynchronous terminals or an SDLC connection; the DTE can also be
configured to generate a calling address to be passed in a call request packet.
The DTEs can be configured with the following MML commands:
PSTEI
PSTET
PSTEP
Initialising DTE
Terminating DTE
Printing DTE
Dedicated DTE
In order to allow for calls to be directed to a dedicated DTE, the DTE must be
defined in the node it connects to by assigning a network address (NTN)
identifying the DTE, and a network port, e.g. NP=1-1-1-3 or NP=1-1-1-3-1.
The PP may be configured for leased or switched access.
If the access is switched, the physical connection will only be established
when needed.
Shared Access DTE
A Shared Access DTE uses an Access Group to allow any NP in that Access
Group to perform a dial-out to a predefined physical address. Dial-out will not
be necessary if an NP is already connected to the DTE.
The physical connection will only be established when needed.
Configuration of DTEs
Initialising DTE (PSTEI)
The PSTEI command initialises a DTE (e.g., X.25 terminal, TPAD, asynchronous terminal or SDLC connection) to be a dedicated connection (Leased or
Switched direct call) or Shared Access connection.
For a Dedicated DTE with Leased/Switched (Direct call):
PSTEI:NTN=ntn,NP=np<,INSADDR=insaddr><,DISC=disc>;
For a Shared Access DTE and dial-in allowed through Called Line Identification (CLI):
PSTEI:NTN=ntn,DTE=dte,EXTNET=extnet,AG=ag
<,MODEMSTRING=modemstring><,INSADDR=insaddr><,DB=db>;
For a Shared Access DTE and dial-in allowed through X.32 NUI identification:
PSTEI:NTN=ntn,DTE=dte,USER=user,EXTNET=extnet,
AG=ag<,MODEMSTRING=modemstring><,INSADDR=insaddr><,DB=db>;
For a Shared Access DTE with unidentified user (default user)
PSTEI:NTN=ntn,EXTNET=extnet<,INSADDR=insaddr>;
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12. Address and Routing Analysis
Where:ntn
Network terminal
number
1-15 digits
np
Network port
1-1-1-(1-18) for X.25/async/
TPAD, 1-1-1-(XF1-XFn) for
X.25/X.75 over Frame Relay,
1-1-1-(1-18)-(1-8) for SDLC,
1-1-1-(LF1-LF15) for SNA over
Frame Relay, 1-1-0-(1-18)-(1-8)
for SNA/LLC over LAN,
1-1-1-(MP1..MP6)-(1-2) for MP
bundles.
insaddr
NTN inserted as
calling address
YES or NO; default=YES.
For async, if INSADDR=NO a
calling address specified by
ORIG parameter in ANNAI
command is passed. If DTE is
for an PC with X.25 networking
software (X.25 terminal), any
calling address configured in
software is passed.
disc
Incoming/outgoing
disconnect time if
no logical channels
NONE or 1..300 secs/
NONE or 1..300 secs
default=NONE-NONE.
dte
Address in external
network
1-15 digits
extnet
External network
name (EBSN)
up to 10 characters
ag
Access group number
1, 2...127
db
Disconnect incoming
connection and
dial-back?
YES, NO;
default=NO.
user
Username/password
for X.32 NUI
1-10 chars/1-10 chars.
modemstring
String passed
to modem/ISDN
POP PAK
up to 32 characters;
default=DTE value.
For switched access only.
If set, this takes precedence
over DTE and
MODEMSTRING set in LIPPS
command. Use for ISDN
sub-addressing.
If there are no calls through a DTE or ROT, and the DISC timer is then set from
NONE-NONE to, e.g. 10-10, it will not activate. The timer is only started after
an actual clear.
For example, for a dedicated DTE connection:
PSTEI:NTN=201,NP=1-1-1-4;
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For example, for a shared access connection through the EBSN named
"ISDN". The MODEMSTRING 1234567 can be used to establish a connection
using access group 18. This number can also be used to identify a dial-in user
by means of X.32 NUI. At incoming connection, dial-back will be performed.
PSTEI:NTN=209,EXTNET=ISDN,DTE=1234567,AG=18,DB=YES,DISC=60-60,
USER=OPER-ATOR,MODEMSTRING=1234567;
Printing DTEs (PSTEP)
The PSTEP command displays all or a selected DTE.
PSTEP<:NTN=ntn>;
For example, to display all configured DTEs:
PSTEP;
TERMINAL DATA
NTN
NP/DTE
INSADDR
EXTNET
AG
ID
STATUS
——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
201
1-1-1-4
YES
DISC
209
WO
= NONE/NONE
1234567
YES
DB
= YES
MODEMSTRING
= 1234567
ISDN
18
OPER
WO
END
NTN 201 is assigned to a dedicated DTE on NP 1-1-1-4.
NTNs 209 is assigned to a Shared Access DTEs accessed through the external network "ISDN". At dial-in, these NTNs are identified through X.32 NUI
procedures (ID username OPER). The DTEs can be reached using access
group 18 and the telephone numbers 1234567. Dial-back is enabled.
Where the displayed parameters are as described as for the PSTEI command
with the exception of the following parameter.
STATUS
DTE status
WO,AB,MB,DIS
Terminating DTEs (PSTET)
The PSTET command terminates a DTE identified by the specified NTN.
PSTET:NTN=ntn;
For example, to terminate a DTE with NTN 201:
PSTET:NTN=201;
Hunt Groups
If there are several connections to a host or routes to another node, then it is
possible to prioritise particular connections within a pre-configured group,
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12. Address and Routing Analysis
known as a Hunt Group, in the event of one connection being busy or not
available. A Hunt Group is identified by its Group Terminal Number (GTN).
The NTNs listed in the Hunt Group are “scanned” for possible address
matches. Connections could be:
DTEs: Async, TPAD or SDLC
Number directions
Network Interfaces
Internal Services: session, traffic or echo ports
Hunt Groups can be configured with the following commands:
ANGNI
ANGNP
ANGNT
Reselection in Hunt Groups
If a clear request is received in direct response to a call request then
reselection may take place but only if the clearing cause is not 5 (Network
Congestion) or 9 (Out of Order).
If reselection does occur, the next NTN in the Hunt Group list will be tried. No
reselection is possible for the last network destination tried. When all the
reselection possibilities have been exhausted, the last obtained reason for the
setup failure is transferred backwards in the network and reselection is performed in the previous node.
Hunt Group Configuration
Initialising Hunt Groups (ANGNI)
The ANGNI command is used to initialise a Hunt Group and specify up to 18
NTNs that belong to that Hunt Group. The order in which the hunt group list is
searched for a free NTN at call setup can be specified with the TOS parameter. The hunt group will be in effect at the next call setup.
The search algorithm (TOS) may be HOME or ROUND. If it is HOME, the NTNs
will be tried in order, starting with the first NTN in the list. If it is ROUND, the
NTNs will be tried according to a round-robin algorithm.
ANGNI:GTN=gtn,NTN=ntn<...><,TOS=tos>;
Where:gtn
Group Terminal
Number
1-15 digits
ntn
Network terminal
number
1-15 digits
tos
Type of search
HOME or ROUND;
default=ROUND
NOTE: A GTN should not include another GTN. This is not checked
at command entry.
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For example:
ANGNI:GTN=12,NTN=128711&128712&123333,TOS=HOME;
Printing Hunt Groups (ANGNP)
The command is used to print one or all Hunt Groups.
ANGNP<:GTN=gtn>;
For example:
ANGNP;
GTN
NTN
TOS
————————————————————————————
12
128711
ROUND
128712
123333
END
Where the displayed parameters are as described for the ANGNI command.
Terminating Hunt Group (ANGNT)
The ANGNT command terminates a Hunt Group. The termination will be in
effect at the next call setup.
ANGNT:GTN=gtn;
For example, to terminate Hunt Group 12:
ANGNT:GTN=12;
Routing with Switched Access
An External Bearer Service Network (EBSN) may be used as a transmission
medium for Switched Access data traffic. The EBSN, which may be a PSTN or
ISDN, supports dynamic establishing and releasing of connections between
end points identified by their physical addresses (e.g. phone number).
Two types of switched access are provided, i.e.
Dedicated Switched Access (Direct Call)
Shared Switched Access
Any physical port required for switched access must be set for Switched
Access (ACCESS=SWITCHED, SWITCHED_V25BIS or SWITCHED_HAYES)
with the LIPPS command.
A Switched Access DTE or ROT may be configured to disconnect its physical
connection a configurable amount of time after the last logical channel has
been cleared. This provides a bandwidth-on-demand solution.
Dedicated Switched Access (Direct Call)
Dedicated Switched Access takes place at dial-in or dial-out through a dedicated NP or FP. Since the NP or FP is dedicated to a particular ROT or Local
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12. Address and Routing Analysis
DTE, no identification procedures are necessary. The physical address (e.g.
telephone number) has to be stored in the modem or TransISDN POP PAK.
Direct calls for ISDN backup in Frame Relay must be carried out through FII
ports.
Shared Switched Access
Shared Switched Access takes place at dial-in or dial-out through a shared
ROT or DTE. Since the DTE or ROT is shared, identification is necessary at
dial-in by one of the following means:
CLI (Calling Line Identification)
If ISDN is used as an EBSN, CLI is used to identify the caller; the incoming
calling address ties the incoming call to a ROT or DTE with a matching NTN. If
the EBSN does not supply a calling number then CLI cannot be used.
NODEID (Node Identity)
If X.75E is operating over a PSTN or ISDN it is possible to signal the node
identities of other PFA products belonging to the same Access Group. The
NODEID value is passed in the exchanged X.75E restart packet and matched
against a NODEID configured in the incoming node in order to identify the
connecting node.
X.32 NUI (Network User Identification)
A dial-in Shared Access DTE can use the X.32 NUI facility. Async terminals
existing in the Access Group provide a username and password for authentication at the Shared Access DTE. Note that for X.25 terminals, the NUI facility
only identifies the logical channel, the DTE itself remains unidentified and no
calls can be routed out towards the DTE on this port.
Default User (Unidentified Access)
It is possible to define a default user (unidentified dial-in access) for DTEs.
This will allow for users to dial in without identifying themselves.
Dial Back
Any Shared Access DTE supports dial-back to users for added security. The
DTE will disconnect the physical connection and order a dial-out back towards the user.
Note that if the USER parameter has not been defined, a failure to identify a
dial-in user will cause the call to be cleared, and, if configured, the physical
disconnection.
Configuration of Access Groups
An access group is a grouping of shared NPs interfacing to an ESBN. They
can be dynamically connected (e.g., by dial-out through an ISDN or PSTN) to
a DTE or another network node.
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Up to 18 Access Groups can be configured with the following MML commands:
PSAGI
PSAGS
PSAGP
PSAGT
Reselection within Access Group
If a clear request is received with clearing cause of 5 (Network Congestion) or
9 (Out of Order) in direct response to the call request, reselection may take
place.
If reselection does occur, a new NP within an Access Group is selected. If an
Access Group is in a ROT, a new ROT is selected when all NPs have been
tried in the initial Access Group. When all the reselection possibilities have
been exhausted, the last obtained reason for the setup failure is transferred
backwards in the network and reselection is performed in the previous node.
Initialising Access Groups (PSAGI)
The PSAGI command initialises an access group. The External Network name
must be set before this command can be used.
PSAGI:AG=ag,NP=np<...>,EXTNET=extnet<,TOS=tos>
<,DISC=disc>;
Where:ag
Access group
1..127
np
Network port
1-1-1-(1-18)
extnet
External network
name
up to 10
characters
tos
Type of search
HOME or ROUND;
default=ROUND.
disc
Incoming/outgoing
disconnect time if
no logical channels
1..300 secs or NONE1..300 secs or NONE;
default=NONE-NONE.
If more than one NP is given, the NPs will be searched in the order specified if
TOS=HOME. If TOS=ROUND is set, a round-robin scheme will be applied.
For example:
PSAGI:AG=95,NP=1-1-1-5&1-1-1-6,EXTNET=ISDN,TOS=ROUND,DISC=30-100;
Setting Access Group parameters (PSAGS)
The PSAGS command is used to change specified access group parameters.
Note that any modified parameter settings will be in effect at the next call
setup/clearing.
PSAGS:AG=ag<,DISC=disc><,TOS=tos>;
Where the parameters are as described for the PSAGI command.
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12. Address and Routing Analysis
For example:
PSAGS:AG=95,DISC=50-100;
Printing Access Groups (PSAGP)
The PSAGP command prints the parameter settings for one or all access
groups.
PSAGP<:AG=ag>;
For example:
PSAGP;
ACCESS GROUP DATA
AG
NP
STATUS
USER/ROT
TOS
EXTNET
DISC
———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
2
95
1-1-1-3
WO
1-1-1-4
DIS
1-1-1-5
WO
1-1-1-6
DIS
NTN=123
ROUND DATEX
ROT=3
ROUND ISDN
NONE-NONE
50-100
END
Where the parameters are as described for the PSAGI command with the
exception of:
STATUS
Status of NP
WO,AB,MB,DIS
USER/ROT
NTN or ROT
Currently
Connected
1-15 chars
Terminating Access Groups (PSAGT)
The PSAGT command terminates an access group.
PSAGT:AG=ag;
For example:
PSAGT:AG=95;
Configuration of External Network Name
The external network name refers to the EBSN name in switched access
operation. The EBSN name, configured with the EXTNET parameter name, is
used in the PSROI and PSTEI commands to identify the bearer service.
The following MML commands can be used to configure the external network
name.
Initialising External Network Name (PSENI)
The PSENI command initialises an external network. Up to 10 external networks may be defined.
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PSENI:EXTNET=extnet;
Where:EXTNET
External network
name
up to 10 characters
For example:
PSENI:EXTNET=ISDN;
Printing External Network Name (PSENP)
The PSENP command prints one or all external networks configured.
PSENP<:EXTNET=extnet>;
For example:
PSENP;
EXTERNAL NETWORK DATA
EXTNET
——————
ISDN
DATEX
END
Terminating External Network Name (PSENT)
The PSENT command terminates an external network.
PSENT:EXTNET=extnet;
For example:
PSENT:EXTNET=ISDN;
Dedicated Routing Analysis Example
Introduction
This section serves as an example of the configuration of address and routing
analysis. Examples of Frame Relay and TCP/IP routing are not included in this
section.
An example network is shown in Figure 12-6. Only the configuration for node
N4 is detailed; the other nodes must be configured accordingly.
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NTN=100303
IBM HOST
FEP
NTN=200345
NTN=200930
NTN=100321
X.75E
N1
N2
X.75E
X.75E
N4
TERM01
NTN=300477
Local DTE
1-1-1-4
NTN=400377
X.75E Port
1-1-1-1
TERM02
Local DTE
1-1-1-6
NTN=400401
X.75E Port
1-1-1-2
X.75E
N3
TERM03
Local DTE
1-1-1-7
NTN=400402
X.75E Port
1-1-1-3
X.75E
TERM04
Local DTE
1-1-1-8
NTN=400403
SDLC Port
1-1-1-5-1
IBM Cluster
Controller
NTN=400932
Figure 12-6: Example network of routing analysis.
Figure 12-6 shows four PFA nodes (N1, N2, N3 and N4) in an X.75E network.
The N4 node has:
i)
a connection to N2 via an X.75E port with the corresponding
NP 1-1-1-1.
ii)
a connection to N3 via two X.75E ports with the corresponding
NPs 1-1-1-2 and 1-1-1-3.
iii)
no direct connection to N1, but N1 can be reached via either N2
or N3.
iv)
a DTE (for an X.25 terminal) of NTN 400377 connected to
NP 1-1-1-4.
v)
a DTE (for an SDLC connection to a cluster controller) of
NTN 400932 with an associated NP of 1-1-1-5-1.
vi)
Dedicated DTEs (for async terminals) with NTNs 400401, 400402
and 400403 and respective NPs 1-1-1-6, 1-1-1-7 and 1-1-1-8.
The Network Manager has decided that the most significant digits of local
addresses in:
N1 should be 10
N2 should be 20
N3 should be 30
N4 should be 40
It is assumed that all the ports (NPs, LPs and PPs) have been defined in N4,
i.e.
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LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-1,PROT=X75,SIDE=A;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-2,PROT=X75,SIDE=B;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-3,PROT=X75,SIDE=A;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-4,PROT=X25;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-5-1,PROT=SDLC,ADDR=C1;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-6,PROT=X28;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-7,PROT=X28;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-8,PROT=X28;
Configuration in N4
Step 1
The route to N2, arbitrarily denoted ROT24, is defined as follows:
PSROI:ROT=24,NP=1-1-1-1;
The route to N3 is arbitrarily denoted ROT34 and the operator, desiring an
even distribution of calls over the route, initialises the route with round robin
type of search, i.e.
PSROI:ROT=34,NP=1-1-1-2&1-1-1-3,TOS=ROUND;
Step 2
A user defined routing case is allocated, e.g. 2, to the ROTs 24 and 34 described above, and the search algorithm TOS=HOME is set, e.g.
ANRCI:RC=2,ROT=24&34,TOS=HOME;
Step 3
A number direction is defined, i.e. 20 to associate with routing case 2 (RC2)
described above. The number direction will partially match any NTN address
beginning with 20, e.g. 201, 200345 etc.
ANRAI:ND=20,RC=2;
Now, all call requests with NTN addresses starting with 20 will be routed over
ROT24 to N2. Only if ROT24 fails, will ROT34 be automatically re-tried.
Step 4
A user defined routing case is allocated, e.g. 3, to the ROTs 34 and 24, and
the search algorithm TOS=HOME is set.
ANRCI:RC=3,ROT=34&24,TOS=HOME;
Step 5
A number direction is defined, i.e. 30, to associate with routing case 3 (RC3).
ANRAI:ND=30,RC=3;
All call requests with NTN addresses starting with 30 are routed over ROT34
to N3. Only if ROT34 fails, ROT24 should be tried. This is achieved by utilising
the previously configured ROTs 24 and 34 in Step 1.
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Step 6
All call requests with called address starting with 10 should be routed to N1.
Both ROT24 and ROT34 can be used, with no particular preference.
Step 7
A user defined routing case is allocated, e.g. 1, to the ROTs 24 and 34, and
the search algorithm TOS=ROUND is set.
ANRCI:RC=1,ROT=24&34,TOS=ROUND;
Step 8
A number direction is defined, i.e. 10, to associate with routing case 1.
ANRAI:ND=10,RC=1;
Step 9
A dedicated DTE, for use as an X.25 terminal, should assign an NTN (starting
with 40) to an NP as follows:
PSTEI:NTN=400377,NP=1-1-1-4;
Note that the NTN number is the unique NTN number assigned to the DTE.
Step 10
A dedicated DTE, for use as an SDLC connection, should assign an NTN
(starting with 40) to an NP as follows:
PSTEI:NTN=400932,NP=1-1-1-5-1;
An HVC is now configured to connect the A-side and B-side of the HVC link
(units N4 and N2, respectively), i.e.
PSPCI:NTNA=400932,NTNB=200930;
The NTNB address is routed out from RC 2 to ROT 24. An appropriate address match in N2 should be configured to accept the call request from N4
and to pass the call to the FEP (Front End Processor).
Step 11
The dedicated DTEs TERM02, TERM03 and TERM04, for use as async terminals, should have NTNs (starting with 40) assigned to their NPs as follows:
PSTEI:NTN=400401,NP=1-1-1-6,INSADDR=YES;
PSTEI:NTN=400402,NP=1-1-1-7;
PSTEI:NTN=400403,NP=1-1-1-8;
A PVC is now configured to automatically connect TERM03 to N1VAXHOST:
PSPCI:NTNA=400402,NTNB=100303,LCB=23;
Although NTNs can be used to initiate a call, addressing by name analysis can
be configured with the ANNAI command. This allows an async call to be made
to N1VAXHOST as well as between TERM02 and TERM04:
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ANNAI:NAME=N1VAXHOST,NTN=100303;
ANNAI:NAME=N1TERM16,NTN=100321;
ANNAI:NAME=TERM02,NTN=400401;
ANNAI:NAME=TERM04,NTN=400403;
Step 12
A session port is defined to make it possible to log on to node N4 from an
NM400/NMS:
SASPI:SP=MTP,NTN=400066;
The complete matching of the NTN with the incoming called address allows
connection to the internal module for NM400 network management. Note that
it is good practice to end addresses for network management with an identifiable ending, e.g. “......66”.
Parameter Settings
After configuring node N4 according to Steps 1-12, the address and routing
tables will have the following contents:
PSROP;
ROUTE DATA
ROT
TOS
NP/TIP
AG
EXTNET DTE RCI
DISC
NODEID
STATUS
—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
24
ROUND
34
ROUND
1-1-1-1
WO
1-1-1-2
WO
1-1-1-3
WO
END
ANRCP;
ROUTING CASES
RC
ROT
TOS
—————————————————
1
24
ROUND
34
2
24
HOME
34
3
34
HOME
24
END
ANDAP;
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12. Address and Routing Analysis
DIGIT ANALYSIS
ND
ANARES
RC
NP/FR-LP/FP/BR
LOCIP
————————————————————————————————————————————————————
10
RC
= 1
20
RC
= 2
30
RC
= 3
400066
MTP
400377
DTE
1-1-1-4
400401
DTE
1-1-1-6
400402
DTE
1-1-1-7
400403
DTE
1-1-1-8
400932
DTE
1-1-1-5-1
END
Case 1
Action: Call Request comes in via NP 1-1-1-1 with called address 400066.
Result: The called address matches ND 400066, which indicates the MTP
session port for NM400 network management. The MTP session port software
is informed and accepts the call.
Case 2
Action: A Call Request comes in via NP 1-1-1-3 with called address 400377.
Result: The called address matches number direction or NTN 400377, which
indicates a DTE, in this instance an X.25 terminal. The DTE can be reached via
NP 1-1-1-4, so the call request is forwarded via NP 1-1-1-4.
Case 3
Action: A Call Request comes in from the X.25 terminal via NP 1-1-1-4 with
called address 100321.
Result: The called address matches number direction 10, which indicates
routing case 1. The routing case table shows that routing case 1 specifies
ROTs 24 and 34, to be tried in round robin order. Assuming that it is the turn
of ROT34, this ROT is tried first.
The ROT table shows that ROT34 consists of two NPs, 1-1-1-2 and 1-1-1-3,
to be searched in round robin order. Assuming that it is the turn of NP 1-1-1-3,
the call request packet is forwarded via this NP to the next node.
If the call attempt fails (clear request received) then alternative routing can
take place. First a new NP in ROT34 is tried. The next (and last) NP is 1-1-1-2.
Should this NP also fail, a new ROT has to be selected. The next (and last)
ROT in the routing case 1 is ROT24.
The ROT table shows that ROT24 contains only one NP (1-1-1-1), so the call
request packet is forwarded using NP 1-1-1-1. Should this attempt also fail,
then all alternative routing possibilities have been exhausted, and a clear
request packet is sent back over the NP originating the call, i.e. NP 1-1-1-4.
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Case 4
Action 1: A local call is attempted from TERM02 to TERM04 by entering at the
prompt on TERM02:
.TERM04
Break into the call with Ctrl.-P and then enter CLR. This will clear the terminal
call.
Action 2: An async call is attempted from TERM02 to the remote host by
entering at the prompt:
.N1VAXHOST
The call should connect to the host on node N1; the user id and password is
then displayed.
Action 3: Note the automatic PVC connection on TERM03 between
NTN=400402 and NTN=100203.
Shared Switched Access Example
It is assumed that ports 1-1-1-1 to 1-1-1-3 are equipped with physical V.24based DTE POP PAKs, and that port 1-1-1-4 is equipped with a TransISDN
POP PAK (1 port). In addition, PFA2, PFA3 and PFA4 must have their node
identities configured to allow dial-in authentication into PFA1; this is carried
out with the NANOS command in each node.
DTE
NTN=7004
DTE
NTN=7003
Where:-
x: 02124
y: 021233
z: 0666777
b: 01854333
c: 01854332
d: 01553444
x
PFA2
y
AG=2
b
PSTN
1-1-1-3
c
PFA3
Modem
ISDN
TA
1-1-1-1
1-1-1-4
PFA1
Modem
Modem
d
1-1-1-2
AG=1
ISDN
TA
PFA4
AG=3
ISDN
z
Figure 12-7: Example of shared access.
An external bearer service network, PSTN, is used to provide dynamic shared
access between N1 and two DTEs (with NTNs 7003 and 7004) and three PFAs
(denoted N2, N3 and N4).
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Additionally, an ISDN network is available to be used as a backup connection
if other shared access ROTs are faulty.
Configuration in PFA1
Ports 1-1-1-1 to 1-1-1-4 for shared switched access must be configured, e.g.
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-1,PROT=X75,SIDE=DYN;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-1,ACCESS=SWITCHED_V25BIS;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-2,PROT=X75,SIDE=DYN;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-2,ACCESS=SWITCHED_V25BIS;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-3,PROT=X28;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-3,ACCESS=SWITCHED_HAYES;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-4,PROT=X75,SIDE=DYN;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-4,ACCESS=SWITCHED_V25BIS;
The external networks are defined:
PSENI:EXTNET=PSTN;
PSENI:EXTNET=ISDN;
Three access groups are then defined. One access group for the DTEs, one
access group for the other units connected to the PSTN and a third access
group for connection to ISDN. (Note: If the same NP/LP protocol is used to
connect the PFAs and the DTEs it would be sufficient to define one access
group).
PSAGI:AG=1,NP=1-1-1-1&1-1-1-2,TOS=HOME,EXTNET=PSTN;
PSAGI:AG=2,NP=1-1-1-3,EXTNET=PSTN;
PSAGI:AG=3,NP=1-1-1-4,EXTNET=ISDN;
To define routes (arbitrarily denoted ROT1) to PFA2, PFA3 and PFA4, the
following commands are used :
PSROI:ROT=1,AG=1,EXTNET=PSTN,DTE=01854333,NODEID=2;
PSROI:ROT=2,AG=1,EXTNET=PSTN,DTE=01854332,NODEID=3;
PSROI:ROT=3,AG=1,EXTNET=PSTN,DTE=01553444,NODEID=4;
PSROI:ROT=4,AG=3,EXTNET=ISDN,DTE=0666777,NODEID=4;
The ROTs can be configured in a Routing Case according to normal routing
procedures.
The AG parameter specifies which access group (and hence which NPs)
should be used to perform a dial-out. The DTE parameter specifies the telephone number to dial. Any dial-in unit will be identified by signalling its node
identity (e.g., 2) in the X.75E restart packet.
The Access Group 2 is used to grant two users (usernames user43 and user
44) access to N1 whereas Access Group 3 is used for a backup ISDN connection.
To define dial-in users to N1, the following commands are issued:
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PSTEI:NTN=7003,EXTNET=PSTN,AG=2,DTE=02124,
USER=user43-flame,DB=YES;
PSTEI:NTN=7004,EXTNET=PSTN,AG=2,DTE=021233,
USER=user44-blues,DB=YES;
user44 is assigned a network address of 7003. The AG parameter specifies
which access group (and hence which NP) should be used to perform a dialout. The DTE parameter specifies the telephone number to dial. The USER
parameter specifies the username and password to identify user43 or user44
as a dial-in user through X.32 NUI procedures. The DB parameter specifies
that dial-back should be performed for added security.
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
Types of Network Service
PVCs/HVCs
Both PVCs and HVCs can be configured between two NTNs; the NTN can be
the NTN of a Number Direction, DTE, Echo port, Session port or a Network
Interface for IP. Support for HVCs is restricted to SDLC, TPAD and async
ports.
Call Facilities
The routing analysis process also determines what network facilities can be
applied to a call. Facilities include:
CUGs
Load Control
Charging Information
Access Control
Call Priorities
HVCs/PVCs
Introduction
Routing analysis with HVC/PVC can be used extensively throughout networks,
in addition to Routing Analysis with ROTs, Routing Cases and Number Directions, to establish automatic connections without the need for call request and
call accept setup times.
An HVC or PVC is a logical connection between two points in the network.
One side of the HVC/PVC is denoted the A-side and the other the B-side.
The HVC/PVC differs from a normal SVC, since the network will try to establish the HVC automatically. The HVC/PVC is established when the DTE associated with the A-side becomes operative. The NP will then create a call request
packet and forward it towards the B-side (see Figure 13-1). From the B-side,
the HVC/PVC is just like any incoming call.
PVC addressing must be configured at every point on the network unless the
proprietary X.75E protocol is in operation.
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
PFA product
FS 700
Backbone
A-side
(NTNA)
HVC/PVC
Connection
B-Side
(NTNB)
PFA product
Figure 13-1: HVC/PVC Initialisation Black dots indicate where PVC addressing has to be configured.
PVCs with X.75E
For the proprietary ERICSSON protocol X.75E, a PVC logical channel assignment mechanism permits true end-to-end PVC connection without assignment of PVC addressing in every node.
Configuration of HVCs/PVCs
The routing analysis for HVCs/PVCs is identical to that for an SVC such that
the NTNB value matches with a Number Direction, then is passed to a Routing
Case followed by a ROT.
Initialisation of HVC/PVC (PSPCI)
The PSPCI command initialises either an HVC or PVC between NTNs at the Aand B-side of a network when the port at the A-side is configured and in
Working Order. For DTEs, the NTNA value should be identical to the NTN
value set for PSTEI, however, for switched connections, the NTNA value
should be identical to the associated Number Direction.
The specification of the LCB parameter (logical channel for the B-side) is the
only difference between the initialisation of an HVC or PVC; omit this parameter and an HVC will be initialised. The logical channel at the A-side (i.e., LCA
parameter) does not need to be specified for PVCs whose A-side protocol
does not support more than one logical channel, e.g. SDLC (QLLC) or async.
A priority class can also be assigned to an HVC/PVC which takes precedence
over any call priorities associated with the NTN that the HVC/PVC is originating from.
For HVCs:
PSPCI:NTNA=ntna,NTNB=ntnb<,LCA=lca><,PRI=pri>
<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,PVCTRAP=pvctrap>*;
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For PVCs:
PSPCI:NTNA=ntna,NTNB=ntnb<,LCA=lca><,LCB=lcb>
<,PRI=pri><,TRAPID=trapid>*<,PVCTRAP=pvctrap>*;
Where:ntna
NTN of HVC/PVC
at A-side
1-15 digits
ntnb
Destination NTN
of HVC/PVC
at the B-side
1-15 digits
lca
Logical Channel
number at A-side
of HVC/PVC
1-4095 or NONE;
default=NONE.
lcb
Logical Channel
number at B-side
of PVC
1-4095 or NONE;
default=NONE.
pri
Call Priority of
HVC/PVC
1-4 or DEFAULT;
default=DEFAULT. Where 4
is the highest priority.
*These SNMP-related parameters are as described in Section 5.
For example, for an HVC:
PSPCI:NTNA=12345,NTNB=23456;
And for two PVCs (for async and X.25, respectively):
PSPCI:NTNA=12346,NTNB=23456,LCB=25;
PSPCI:NTNA=12347,NTNB=23456,LCA=1,LCB=26;
Printing of HVCs/PVCs (PSPCP)
It is possible to print or display one or all defined HVC/PVC. The status of
each HVC/PVC will also be shown along with associated NTNs. Note that the
status is from the latest attempt to set up the HVC/PVC. When an HVC/PVC is
terminated, the logical connection will be cleared.
PSPCP<:NTNA=ntna<,LCA=lca>>;
Where:ntna
NTN at A-side
1-15 digits
lca
Logical Channel
number at A-side
of HVC/PVC
1-4095
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
For example, for all HVC/PVC data:
PSPCP;
HOT/PERMANENT VIRTUAL CIRCUIT DATA
NTNA
LCA
NTNB
LCB
PRI
STATUS
————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
12345
NONE
TRAPID
= NONE
23456 NONE
PVCTRAP
= NO
12346
NONE
TRAPID
= NONE
PVCTRAP
= NO
12347
1
TRAPID
= NONE
PVCTRAP
= NO
23456 25
23456 26
2
PVC/HVC CONNECTED
DEFAULT
PVC/HVC CLEARED 000 131
DEFAULT
PVC/HVC CONNECTED
END
Where the parameters are as described for the PSPCI command with the
exception of:STATUS
386
Status of HVC/PVC
one of:
PVC/HVC SETUP
PVC/HVC setup in progress.
PVC/HVC
CONNECTED
PVC/HVC is established.
PVC/HVC
BLOCKED
A-side manually or
conditionally blocked.
PVC/HVC
INVALID SERVICE
Occurs if the NP
associated with NTNA
cannot support PVCs/HVCs.
Also obtained when all
channels are used at A-side.
PVC/HVC
INVALID ADDRESS
Occurs if NTNB is not found in
the addressing
PVC/HVC
CLEARED ccc ddd
Occurs if 10 consecutive
attempts to set up HVC/PVC
have failed due to received
Clear packets. The alarm
specifies clearing cause and
diagnostic codes received in
the last clear request packet.
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Termination of HVCs/PVCs (PSPCT)
The PSPCT command terminates an HVC/PVC. If the HVCs/PVCs are established through the network then the virtual circuits are cleared.
PSPCT:NTNA=ntna<,LCA=lca>;
If the LCA parameter is omitted, it is assumed that the A-side protocol of the
specified HVC or PVC does not support logical channels, i.e. SDLC or async.
For example, to remove all HVCs/PVCs associated with NTN 12345:
PSPCT:NTNA=12345;
To remove a PVC with a Logical Channel number 20 at the A-side:
PSPCT:NTNA=12345,LCA=20;
HVC/PVC Normal Operation
When the DTE associated with the A-side becomes operational, an attempt
will be made to call the B-side. The status of the PVC/HVC will report “PVC/
HVC SETUP” as shown with the PSPCP command.
Should the HVC setup fail (after all alternative routing possibilities have been
exhausted), the status will remain PVC/HVC SETUP, and a new attempt will be
made after 5 seconds. This may be repeated up to 10 times, when a PVC/HVC
CLEARED message will occur. Should an HVC be cleared, new attempts are
made to set up the HVC again. No intervention from the network operator is
needed.
If the HVC setup is successful (Call Connected received), the status of the
HVC will change to PVC/HVC CONNECTED. The data may then be forwarded
over the connection. In data phase, the HVC behaves as a normal SVC.
HVC/PVC Error Conditions
Certain error conditions will cause an alarm (PVC/HVC SETUP FAILURE) to be
sent to all defined printout destinations.
If an error is detected during the setup of an HVC/PVC, an alarm will be raised
and the status of the HVC/PVC will change. Up to 10 attempts to set up the
HVC/PVC will still be made, but the interval between two attempts will be 60
seconds. The error conditions will persist until the HVC/PVC is successfully
established, or until the HVC/PVC is terminated.
The alarms generated are described in Section 4.
Addressing by Name Analysis
To simplify addressing it is possible for mnemonic "name" addresses to be
used instead of numeric called addresses. This feature is particularly important for creating mnemonic names locally for:
i) async hosts
ii) async terminals
iii) TELNET servers
iv) SNMP management stations
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
v) IP hosts for Call Accounting Collection
Configuration of Name Analysis
Initialising Addressing by Name Analysis (ANNAI)
The ANNAI command initialises addressing by name analysis. A mnemonic
name and corresponding NTN or IP address are associated with each other.
For async operation, the mnemonic can also be associated with an asynchronous profile to permit easy call initiation. The settings will be re-instated at the
next call setup.
For IP hosts, the mnemonic address is linked to the ADDR parameter, i.e. the
destination IP address.
For async hosts/terminals:
ANNAI:NAME=name,NTN=ntn<,PROT=prot><,FAC="fac">
<,PID=pid><,CUD="cud"><,TPROFILE=tprofile><,ORIG=orig>;
For IP hosts:
ANNAI:NAME=name,PROT=prot,ADDR=addr;
Where:-
388
name
mnemonic name
string, 1-16 chars; the string
cannot begin with a digit.
ntn
destination X.25
called address
1-15 digits
prot
Protocol
X28 (default) or IP.
Use PROT=IP for IP host.
"fac"
X.25 facility string
B,C,D,E,F,G,N,O,P,Q,R,S,T,W
<0..128>; default=NONE.
pid
Protocol ID
4 bytes; default=01000000.
Defined using the MML
HEX input mechanism,
e.g. 01000000 for X.29
or 015E0300 for Greenbook.
"cud"
Call user data
0-12 ASCII (except ‘+’) or HEX
characters; default=NONE.
cud=0-124 chars if Fast select
specified. The CUD string
should be enclosed in quotes
to preserve case sensitivity,
commas or semi-colons; If
HEX input, CUD should be
specified as, e.g.
"^01^02^03fred".
tprofile
Async profile name
1-16 characters;
default=NONE.
orig
Originating calling
address
1-15 digits; default=NONE.
This calling address is passed
in the outgoing call only if
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
INSADDR=NO is set with the
PSTEI command. If
INSADDR=YES, the ORIG
parameter is ignored and the
local DTE NTN is passed as
the calling address.
addr
Destination IP
address
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
where 0£nnn£255; do not
use 127.0.0.1.
For example:
ANNAI:NAME=IBM,NTN=12360,FAC=”F,R”,CUD=”Welcome”,
TPROFILE=VAXTERM,ORIG=1234567;
The name IBM is inserted in the addressing and will be converted to the NTN
12360. The Fast select and reverse charge facilities are requested. Call user
data “Welcome” is also to be inserted into the call packet. The async profile
VAXTERM is used at the asynchronous side of the connection and a calling
address of 1234567 is passed with the outgoing async call.
ANNAI:NAME=PFA13,PROT=IP,ADDR=195.6.5.9;
The name PFA13 is converted to the IP address 195.6.5.9 for outgoing TELNET sessions.
Setting Addressing by Name Analysis (ANNAS)
The ANNAS command permits an existing mnemonic address setup to be
modified. The settings will be in effect at the next call setup.
ANNAS:NAME=name<,NTN=ntn><,PROT=prot><,FAC="fac">
<,PID=pid><,CUD="cud"><,TPROFILE=tprofile><ORIG=orig>;
or:
ANNAS:NAME=name,ADDR=addr<,PROT=prot>;
The parameters are as described as for the ANNAI command.
For example:
ANNAS:NAME=IBM,NTN=12460,FAC="";
Printing Addressing by Name Analysis (ANNAP)
The ANNAP command displays the addressing for one or all defined names.
ANNAP<:NAME=name><,DETAIL=detail>;
Where :detail
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Type of display
all,summary; default=summary.
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
For example:
ANNAP:DETAIL=SUMMARY;
NAME ANALYSIS
NAME
PROT
NTN/ADDR
ORIG
FAC
PID
CUD
TPROFILE
—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
TERM01
X28
23425
PFA1
IP
192.6.5.8
NMS1
IP
192.6.5.3
*
*
*
*
VAXTERM
END
When PROT=X28, the displays for the ORIG, FAC, PID and CUD parameters,
if set, are always set as “*” to allow correct on-screen formatting. To allow
these fields to be displayed use the “DETAIL=all” parameter.
Alternatively, to print data for name TERM01 with all detail:ANNAP:NAME=TERM01,DETAIL=ALL;
NAME ANALYSIS
NAME
=
TERM01
PROT
=
X28
NTN
=
23425
ORIG
=
22
FAC
=
"F,R"
PID
=
01000000
CUD
=
“my calldata”
TPROFILE
=
VAXTERM
END
Note that when parameters are not set they will not be displayed.
The parameters and their values displayed are explained as for the ANNAI
command.
Terminating Addressing by Name Analysis (ANNAT)
The ANNAT command removes a mnemonic address entry.
ANNAT:NAME=name;
For example:
ANNAT:NAME=IBM;
Configuration Facilities for NTNs
The following facilities can be requested per NTN by using the PSCFS command. The facilities that can be set are:
DTE Charging facilities
Call priorities
Access Control
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DTE Charging Facilities for SVCs
The charging facilities are mainly applicable for DTEs using the SVC service
but some facilities also apply when using the PVC and HVC services. The
point of DTE charging data collection may be independent of the access point
of the DTE charged for the call. It can be specified as one of the following:
i) the calling DTE access point
ii) the called DTE access point
iii) both the calling and called DTE access points
iv) at the access point of the charged DTE
v) not collected at all
For an SVC service, various charging facilities can be requested per NTN
using the CF parameter in the PSCFS command.
DTE Charging Facilities for PVCs/HVCs
The charging facility assigned to the DTE is interpreted in the following way for
PVCs/HVCs. The CAC and NCC facilities are interpreted as for the SVCs but
RCA, CT and LCP facilities are not applicable for PVCs and are interpreted as
for the CAC facility.
If at least one of the called or calling DTEs subscribes to the NCC facility, the
PVC/HVC will be free of charge. Charging data will not be collected at the Aor B-side. Otherwise, the calling A-side is charged for the call.
Note that for HVCs only, if the B-side of an HVC subscribes to the Charge
Transfer (CT) facility, it will be charged for the call, unless the A-side signals
the NCC parameter in the call request packet.
Facilities
The table below shows the charging effects as a result of all the possible
combinations of facilities for the calling and called DTEs. The effects are then
explained with and without the presence of reverse charging indication (RCI)
in the call request packet.
C a l l e d DTE Subsc ri pti on
C a l l i ng DTE
Subsc ri pti on
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
C AC
RCA
LC P
CT
NCC
C AC
1
3
1
2
4
RC A
1
3
1
2
4
LC P
5
7
5
6
4
CT
1
3
1
2
4
NCC
4
4
4
4
4
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
RCI signalling from Calling DTE
Effect
Wit hout RCI
Wit h RCI
1
C a l l i ng DTE i s c ha rge d.
C a l l i s c l e a re d by
c a l l e d DC E.
2
C a l l e d DTE i s c ha rge d.
C a l l e d DTE i s c ha rge d.
C a l l e d DC E stri ps RC I.
3
C a l l i ng DTE i s c ha rge d. C a l l e d DTE i s c ha rge d.
4
C a l l i s f re e of c ha rge .
C a l l i s f re e of c ha rge .
5
C a l l i s c l e a re d by
c a l l e d DC E.
C a l l i s c l e a re d by
c a l l e d DC E.
6
C a l l e d DTE i s c ha rge d.
C a l l i ng DC E i nse rts
RC I. C a l l i ng DC E stri ps
RC I.
C a l l e d DTE i s c ha rge d.
C a l l e d DC E stri ps RC I.
7
C a l l e d DTE i s c ha rge d.
C a l l i ng DC E i nse rts
RC I.
C a l l e d DTE i s c ha rge d.
Charged as Caller (CAC)
The CAC facility is the default assignment where the DTE is charged when
originating calls but not when receiving calls.
Reverse Charging Acceptance (RCA)
The DTE is charged when originating calls. For incoming calls, the DCE is
authorised to transmit to the DTE incoming call packets that request the
Reverse Charging facility. If the DTE does not accept the incoming call and
responds with a clear request, it is still identified as the charged DTE (CUD
may have been present in the call packet).
Local Charging Prevention (LCP)
The DTE is never charged, neither when originating calls nor when receiving
calls. If the DTE is not requesting reverse charging when originating calls, the
DCE enforces the reverse charging facility before forwarding the call into the
network.
Charge Transfer (CT) - X.75E only
The DTE is charged when originating calls. For incoming calls, the CT facility
authorises the DCE to charge the DTE for all incoming calls except from a DTE
that subscribes to the No Charging Collection (NCC) facility. It is similar to the
RCA facility except that the calling DTE does not have to explicitly request
reverse charging. The use of the CT facility will be indicated in the charging
record collected for the call as if the calling DTE had requested reverse charging.
On X.75E, if reverse charging was not requested, the called DCE inserts the
network utility ‘Charge Transfer’ with utility parameter value ‘Forced Reverse
Charging’ in the call connected packet sent to the originating DCE. When the
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
CT facility is assigned to a DTE, this is also implying that the reverse charging
facility is assigned, i.e. incoming calls with an explicit request for reverse
charging will be accepted but the reverse charging facility will not be signalled
to the called DTE.
No Charging Collection (NCC) - X.75E only
A charging record is never created when originating or receiving calls. A call is
free of charge if at least one of the called or calling DTEs subscribes to the
NCC facility. When a DTE that subscribes to the NCC facility originates a call,
the DCE inserts the network utility ‘Charge Transfer’ with utility parameter ‘No
Charging Collection’ in the call packet before forwarding the call to the network.
Call Priorities
Call priority is used to set the importance of certain types of calls on a network. It also allows intelligent load control.
Call priorities of 1 to 4 can be set for each NTN.
The precedence for priority assignment is as follows:
1. Priority assigned to a HVC/PVC (see PSPCI command)
2. Call priority signalled as an X.75E utility
3. Priority of calling NTN (see PSCFS command)
4. X.25 PID priority (see PSPRS command)
5. Box default priority (see NADNS command)
Access Control
Incoming/Outgoing Calls Barred
It is possible to control the access of incoming/outgoing calls through a node,
whether it is a switched call or incoming/outgoing call to a DTE. This is made
possible by associating the ICB and OCB parameters in the PSCFS command
to the NTN configured in Routing Analysis.
The illustration in Figure 13-2 shows the access control mechanism and its
relationship with the parameters ICB and OCB.
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
Calls in both directions
ICB=NO
OCB=NO
ICB=NO
Outgoing calls barred
OCB=YES
ICB=YES
Incoming calls barred
OCB=NO
ICB=YES
No calls passed either direction
OCB=YES
Access Control
at NTNs (Number Directions,
Local DTEs, Hunt Groups,
Network Interfaces)
Figure 13-2: Access control mechanism.
Incoming/Outgoing CUG Access
The control of incoming calls from open networks into CUGs, and outgoing
calls from CUGs into open networks is possible by setting the IAC and OAC
parameters of the PSCFS command. Similarly, incoming calls to DTEs are
allowed from DTEs with outgoing access permitted in CUGs, and outgoing
calls to DTEs with incoming access permitted in CUGs.
Configuration of Facilities
Setting Configurable Facilities for NTNs (PSCFS)
The PSCFS command modifies the configurable facilities of an NTN. The
command settings will be in effect at the next call setup.
PSCFS:NTN=ntn<,CF=cf><,PRI=pri><,ICB=icb>
<,OCB=ocb><,IAC=iac><,OAC=oac><,BESTPATH=bestpath>;
Where:ntn
Network Terminal
Number
1-15 digits
cf
Charging facility
CAC,RCA,LCP,CT,NCC;
default=CAC.
Where:CAC = charged as caller
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
RCA = reverse charging acceptance
LCP = local charging prevention
CT = charge transfer (X.75E only)
NCC = no charging collection (X.75E only)
pri
Call priority
assigned to NTN
1-4 or DEFAULT;
default=DEFAULT.
icb
Incoming Calls Barred
YES,NO; default=NO.
ocb
Outgoing Calls Barred
YES,NO; default=NO.
iac
Incoming CUG
access
YES,NO; default=NO.
DTE allows calls from DTEs in
the open network and from
DTEs (with outgoing access
set) belonging to other CUGs.
oac
Outgoing CUG
access
YES,NO; default=NO.
DTE allows call to DTEs in
open network and to DTEs
(with incoming access set)
belonging to other CUGs.
bestpath
If enabled the network YES,NO; default=NO.
will try to setup a better
path for SVC established
and rerouted calls
(Frame Relay NTNs only)
For example, to set NTN 123 with charging facility set to Reverse Charging
Acceptance and call priority of 2.
PSCFS:NTN=123,CF=RCA,PRI=2;
Printing Configurable Facilities for NTNs (PSCFP)
The PSCFP command prints configurable facilities settings for either all NTNs
or a specified NTN.
PSCFP<:NTN=ntn>;
For example, to print all configurable facilities for all NTNs:
PSCFP;
CONFIGURABLE FACILITY DATA
NTN
CF
PRI
ICB
OCB
IAC
OAC
BESTPATH
____________________________________________
123
CAC
1
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
124
RCA
DEFAULT
YES
NO
NO
YES
NO
125
NCC
1
NO
NO
YES
YES
NO
126
CAC
4
YES
YES
NO
NO
NO
END
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
Where the parameters are as described as for the PSCFS command.
Terminating Configurable Facilities for NTNs (PSCFT)
The command terminates all configurable facilities for an NTN. The change will
be in effect at the next call setup to/from the NTN.
PSCFT:NTN=ntn;
For example:
PSCFT:NTN=123;
PID-Dependent Call Priorities
Congestion control in networks is possible by controlling calls with a particular
X.25 PID set.
This is possible with the PSPRS command which creates an association
between the PID set for calls and a configured call priority.
Configuration of PID-Dependent Call Priorities
Setting PID-Dependent Call Priorities (PSPRS)
The PSPRS command allocates a priority to calls with a given PID; up to 20
default call priorities can be set.
PSPRS:PID=pid,PRI=pri;
Where:pid
Protocol ID of call
00000000-FFFFFFFF (in HEX)
pri
Call priority
1,2,3,4. Where PRI=4 is the
highest priority.
For example, to allocate a priority of 3 to IP calls:
PSPRS:PID=CC000000,PRI=3;
Printing PID-Dependent Call Priorities (PSPRP)
To print priorities of calls with particular PIDs, e.g.
PSPRP;
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
PRIORITY DEFAULTS
PID
PRI
____________________
00000000
1
01000000
1
CC000000
3
END
Terminating PID-Dependent Call Priorities (PSPRT)
The PSPRT command is used to terminate a call priority for a given PID.
PSPRT:PID=pid;
Load Control
In congestion conditions, routing analysis will clear calls with different priorities
at set levels of free memory and CPU load. This is called Load Control and is
configurable by the user.
Load control requires that precedence is given to certain types of call; this is
carried out by assigning call priorities to call types from 1 to 4, with 4 being
the highest priority. Priorities can be set per NTN or for individual PVC.
Call Priorities
A non-CCITT utility will be passed in X.75E transit nodes, and the priority
recorded for each call.
The default priority for the PFA is also configurable. For example to make IP
calls low priority, the box default could be raised to 3, and the priority of NTNs
for local NIs set as 1.
To facilitate some congestion control in non-X.75 networks, which are acting
as transit (i.e., not access) nodes, a priority can be configured for calls with a
particular X.25 PID. This is possible with the PSPRS command.
The precedence for priority assignment is as follows:
1. Priority assigned to a HVC/PVC (see PSPCI command)
2. Call priority signalled as an X.75E utility
3. Priority of calling NTN (see PSCFS command)
4. X.25 PID priority (see PSPRS command)
5. Box default priority (see NADNS command)
Load Control Resources
There are several types of resources that can be manipulated in Load Control.
These are:
CPU load
Free memory
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
CPU
MEM
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
The decisions for rejecting or clearing calls are based upon the average values
for the above resources. When calculating an average value, a smoothing
constant is used for each resource.
The update interval for CPU load and MEMory values is 4 seconds.
There are two limit values for each of the four priorities a call can have, one
high value (H) and one low value (L). For CPU, the H limit is the value that
must be exceeded if load control is to reject new calls (existing calls are
unaffected). The L value is the limit that the load must pass below again in
order to permit new calls for that priority. For MEM, the L limit is the amount of
free memory that new and existing calls on that priority will be cleared and the
H limit defines when calls on that priority are allowed again.
The congestion control levels (fixed as percentages) for low memory or allocated blocks, used in LAPB (which causes RNR) and also in the X25 NI (which
causes frame discard) acts as a second line of defence.
NOTE: The CPU resource in the load control system can be disabled by setting the H limit to 100%.
NOTE: An alarm will be generated when CPU and MEM load control limits are exceeded.
NOTE: For Frame Relay, load control is effected according to how
the following parameters are configured: RATEENFIN,
RATEENFOUT, BUFFERS in the LIPPS command, ACCCIR in the
LIFPS command and Be, Bc and Te in the FRPCI command.
Configuration of Load Control
Setting Load Control Limits (NALOS)
The NALOS command sets the parameters that will be used by load control to
adjust the load in the unit.
Note that new values are checked against old ones. If values are set in a way
that would cause a higher priority limit to be used before a lower one, or if an
L limit is higher than an H limit, the command is rejected.
When accounting is used, the parameter value for LOWMEM must be set to at
least 5% higher than the MEM1H, or set to 100% if MEM1H is set to >95 %.
MEM1H specifies the required upper limit for free memory in order to allow
new priority 1 calls.
The parameters FR_MEM and ATM_MEM are used as a safeguard against
Frame Relay or ATM consuming all the memory in the unit. As the user
configures a Frame Relay or an ATM port then, depending on the N1 and
BUFFERS parameter settings (for Frame Relay) or the BUF_SIZE and BUFFERS paramter settings (for ATM), the user may be prevented from initialising
the port with the message "Insufficient Resources".
NALOS<:lllps=limit><,lll_SMOOTH=smooth><,LOWMEM=lowmem>
<,FR_MEM=fr_mem><,ATM_MEM=atm_mem><,TRAPID=trapid>*
<,LOWMEMTRAP=lowmemtrap>*;
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Where:lll
Type of resource
lll=CPU or MEM
p
call priority
p=1,2,3,4
s
low or high limit used
s=L,H
limit
limit value
(percentage)
0-100 for CPU;
20-100 for MEM.
smooth
smoothing constant
used in calculation
of average values
1..100; default=16.
lowmem
Boxwide low code
memory limit for
account gathering
to stop
0-100%; default=20.
fr_mem
maximum percentage
of memory statically
used by Frame Relay
0-80%; default=40.
atm_mem
maximum percentage
of memory statically
used by ATM
0-80%; default=40.
For PFA 660 only.
*These SNMP-related parameters are as described in Section 5.
For example:
NALOS:CPU1H=65;
This example sets the high limit for the CPU load for priority one calls to 65%.
This means that calls will be rejected when the CPU load exceeds 65%.
NALOS:MEM2H=30,MEM2L=20,MEM_SMOOTH=20;
This example sets the memory limits for priority 2 calls. At the low limit (free
memory of 20%) the priority 2 calls will be cleared and at the high limit (free
memory of 30%) priority 2 calls are allowed again. The smoothing constant,
used when calculating the average free memory value, is set to 20.
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
NALOS:LOWMEM=40,TRAPID=10,LOWMEMTRAP=YES;
This example sets a low memory limit of 40% and enables a low memory
SNMP trap which is associated with it. If memory on the box falls to below
40%, then a trap will be raised and, if call accounting is active, the Calling
Accounting Administrator will become AB.
NALOS:ATM_MEM=45;
This example sets the static memory limit associated with ATM operation to
45%.
Printing Load Control Limits (NALOP)
The NALOP command displays the load control limit settings and statistics.
For example:
NALOP;
LOAD CONTROL LIMITS
Call priority:
1
2
L
H
L
3
H
L
4
H
L
Smoothing
H
constants
————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
CPU-limits:
60
65
70
75
85
90
95
100
16
MEM-limits:
45
50
40
45
35
40
25
30
16
LOAD STATS
Current
Percent Actual
Smoothed
Extreme
Percent Actual
Percent Actual
——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
CPU:
4
3
QUE:(pckts)
98
115
100
205
PKTMEM:(free)
81
6851036
81
6850816
81
6850716
CODEMEM:(free)
98
10272108
98
10395904
98
10266700
percentage limits for L2 RNR
Max available
—————————————————————————————————————————————————————
MEM (free):
20
Max Quota percent
654896
Current Quota percent
——————————————————————————————————————————————————————
FR_MEM
40 %
9 %
ATM_MEM
40 %
28 %
TRAPID
= NONE
LOWMEMTRAP
= NO
LOWMEM
= 55
END
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The smoothing constant is calculated as:
smooth
(256 - smooth)
+ -------------nav =--------* (iv)
* (oa
256
256
Where:nav = new average value
iv = instant value
oav = old average value
Load Control limits are expressed as percentages.
Note that the smoothed and extreme load stat values can be reset to the
current load stat values as follows:
NALOR;
CUGs
Closed User Groups (CUGs) are optional user utilities in X.75 only which are
agreed for a period of time. The utility enables a DTE to belong to one or more
CUGs. A CUG permits DTEs belonging to the group to communicate with
each other but prevents communication with all other DTEs. Note that incoming/outgoing access control (IAC/OAC parameters in PSCFS command) at the
DTE can be used to override CUG restrictions.
A DTE may belong to up to 100 CUGs. Each DTE belonging to at least one
CUG has either:
1. The closed user group facility
2. One or both of:
(i) CUG with outgoing access (CUG/OA)
(ii) CUG with incoming access (CUG/IA)
Different combinations of CUG utilities may apply for different DTEs belonging
to the same CUG.
When a DTE belonging to one or more CUGs places a virtual call, the DTE
may explicitly indicate in the call request packet the CUG selected by using
the CUG selection facility. When a DTE belonging to one or more CUGs
receives a virtual call, the CUG selected may be explicitly indicated in the
incoming call packet through the CUG selection facility.
When a DTE belongs to more than one CUG, it must belong to a preferential
CUG to be in accordance with CCITT recommendations. The preferential CUG
is always assigned index 0.
Note that incoming/outgoing calls barred within a CUG, as well as Bilateral
CUG-related facilities are not supported.
The operation of CUGs is compatible with their operation on FS/700 products.
CUG With Outgoing Access (CUG/OA)
The CUG/OA utility is an optional user facility assigned for a period of time
which enables the DTE to belong to one or more CUGs but also to originate
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
calls to DTEs in the open part of the network, i.e. DTEs not belonging to any
CUG), and to originate calls to DTEs (with incoming access set) belonging to
other CUGs. Outgoing access applies to an individual DTE and not to a
specific CUG.
CUG With Incoming Access (CUG/IA)
The CUG/IA utility is an optional user facility assigned for a period of time.
This user facility enables the DTE to belong to one or more CUGs but also to
receive incoming calls from DTEs in the open part of the network (i.e., DTEs
not belonging to any CUG), and to receive calls from DTEs (with outgoing
access set) belonging to other CUGs. Incoming access applies to an individual
DTE and not to a specific CUG.
Configuration of CUGs
Setting DTE in CUG (ACNPS)
The ACNPS command is used to register a DTE in a CUG. The command will
be in effect at the next call setup to/from the DTE and must be executed in the
network node where the NTN is defined.
For a specified NTN, the conversion between CUG code (as used in the
network) and a CUG index number (a parameter used locally by the DTE to
map to the CUG code) is specified.
The CUG code can just be the CUG number itself, i.e. the CUG is regarded as
a national CUG, or the CUG code can be made up of the CUG number plus a
DNIC (-dnic), i.e. the CUG code is regarded as an international CUG where “dnic” is the DNIC of the network administrating the CUG.
ACNPS:NTN=ntn,CUG=code(-dnic),INDEX=index;
Where:ntn
Network Terminal
Number
1..15 digits
code
(-dnic)
CUG code
(CUG or CUG(-dnic))
1..65535 or
1..65535-0000..9999.
index
Local CUG index
0..99; Maps two-digit number
to CUG number.
Note:
INDEX=0 is used for preferential CUG.
Incoming and outgoing access from/to the open network will not be
allowed when a DTE belongs to a CUG unless IAC or OAC parameters
are specified in the PSCFS command.
An international CUG call towards a national CUG will be rejected even
if the DNIC in the call equals the DNIC of the network.
For example:
ACNPS:NTN=12345,CUG=127,INDEX=5;
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The NTN 12345 is included as a member of the national CUG 127. Locally,
index 5 is used to access other DTEs in the national CUG 127.
ACNPS:NTN=67890,CUG=789-2402,INDEX=6;
The NTN 67890 is included as a member of the international CUG 789 administered by the network with DNIC 2402. Locally, index 6 is used on the DTE/
DCE interface to access other DTEs in the international CUG 789.
Printing CUGs (ACNPP)
The ACNPP command prints the CUG information for DTEs. Note that only
those NTNs that are defined in the network node where the command is
executed are printed.
ACNPP;
or:
ACNPP:CUG=code(-dnic);
or:
ACNPP:NTN=ntn;
For example, to display all NTNs in CUGs:
ACNPP;
CLOSED USER GROUPS
NTN
CUG
INDEX
—————————————————————————————
123
816-2402
2
125
37
0
24-3421
3
816-2402
5
127
END
For example, to display CUGs related to a specific NTN:
ACNPP:NTN=125;
CLOSED USER GROUPS
NTN
CUG
INDEX
_____________________________
125
37
0
24-3421
3
END
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
For example, to display NTNs related to specific CUG:
ACNPP:CUG=816;
CLOSED USER GROUPS
CUG
NTN
INDEX
_____________________________
816-2402
123
2
127
5
END
Terminating DTEs in CUG (ACNPT)
The ACNPT command terminates a DTE from one or all CUGs. The command
will be in effect at the next call setup to/from the DTE.
Note that the command must be executed in the network node where the NTN
is defined.
ACNPT:NTN=ntn<,INDEX=index>;
Where:ntn
Network Terminal
Number
1..15 digits
index
Local CUG index
0..99; default=all indices
For example:
ACNPT:NTN=12370,INDEX=5;
The NTN 12370 is removed from the CUG corresponding to Local CUG index
5.
ACNPT:NTN=456;
The NTN 456 is removed from all of the CUGs that it belongs to.
Call Accounting
Call Accounting data provides information relating to the network resources
used by individual calls. Such information may be used for several purposes,
including the allocation of costs for the network usage by the individual users.
Call Accounting functions will provide sufficient information for each individual
X.25/X.75/X.75(E) call which may be used by a Billing system running on an
external IP host to produce bills for the individual users.
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Accounting data
SNMP traps
PFA
ACCT DATA
Ericsson
Multiservice
Management
Suite (MMS)
with UDC
UDC
Standard
FTP/SNMP
Manager
13. X.25-Related Network Services
Figure 13-3: Call Accounting.
Charging records of accounting are collected by the Call Accounting Administrator (CAA) function when operational.
Completed charging records are normally generated when:
i) a call has cleared.
ii) a call has exceeded the long duration time interval.
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iii) the current rate band has changed (subject to NEWRECORDS parameter).
iv) the CAA has been manually blocked.
A full description of the Call accounting file charging record format is provided
in Appendix 9.
For each DTE, the CF parameter, configured with PSCFS command, controls
charging. For PVCs, HVCs and SVCs of long duration, partial records are
generated at regular intervals.
For each ROT, the CC parameter, configured with PSCFS command, specifies
whether charging records shall be collected for incoming, outgoing, both ways
or not at all.
If calls cannot be charged due to a manually or automatically blocked charging system, new calls configured for charging data collection can either be
rejected or accepted.
Services
The main services provided by the PFA Call Accounting system include:
1. Configuration of NTNs and ROTs for call charging.
2. Rating of calls based on the type of day and the time of the day by
using user-specified Rate Bands.
3. Storing Call Accounting data until explicitly deleted by the user or
until the PFA restarts.
4. Starting and stopping collection of Call Accounting data.
5. Conversion and subsequent transfer of the Call Accounting data to
an external IP host using FTP.
6. Generation of Accounting-related SNMP traps.
Memory Management
The maximum amount of memory allocated for the storage of call accounting
records is specified by using the BUFFSIZE parameter in the CDAAC command. The CAA is responsible for managing the call accounting buffer within
this limit.
Requests for memory are made when:
1. A new call is set up on an NTN or ROT with charging enabled.
2. It has been informed of a change in the rate band by CAA. Depending
on the NEWRECORD parameter value in the CDAAC command, this
may require extending the current record with a new rate item or the
generation of a new call record.
3. The CAA is manually or automatically blocked because it is not
possible to obtain more memory, forcing the generation of partial call
records for all calls in progress with charging enabled. The call records
in this instance have a reason code of “charging turned off”.
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4. The long call duration timer has expired for a call resulting in the
generation of partial call record(s).
Rather than reserving the user-specified amount of memory at the time the
CAA is initialised or deblocked, the CAA makes requests for small amounts of
memory from the system. Requests for additional memory will always be
accepted, except in two situations, i.e.
i) If the BUFFSIZE parameter value has been reached. If specified by the
user with the EXCEEDBUFF parameter in the CDAAC command,
memory for existing calls will be allocated beyond this threshold.
ii) The amount of available free memory has fallen below a percentage
specified by the LOWMEM parameter value specified in the NALOS
command.
If the CAA is unable to allocate memory for records for any of above reasons it
will be changed to AB (Automatically Blocked) state. The currently stored call
accounting records will continue to exist unless explicitly deleted by the user
or if the CAA is terminated.
Restarts during Accounting
If the unit restarts when accounting is in progress and completed or uncompleted (current) call records have been stored, the records are lost and an
appropriate message is appended to the system log viewable with the UILOP
command after the PFA software is reloaded. The SNMP RECSLOSTTRAP
trap is also generated in this instance.
Long Call Duration
When the CAA is operational, all current calls are scanned to check for long
duration expiry at an interval directly related to the specified long duration
period. This scan interval is always re-calculated when the CAA is deblocked.
The long duration time period is relevant to current calls from the time when
the CAA is deblocked. There is no “carry-over” effect of this time period
during the CAA blocked phase, since all current charging records are sent to
the CAA when the CAA is blocked.
New Calls Allowed
If the CAA is initialised but not in operational state, new calls will not be made
if NEWCALLS=NO. This only applies to calls that would normally generate
charging records in that node. For ROTs, in the instance where a routing case
has more than one ROT, if a ROT exists with charging disabled on it, then this
ROT will be used and the call allowed through. For NTNs, at call request time,
if it is unclear whether or not charging records were intended to be generated,
the call will be cleared if NEWCALLS=NO.
Multiservice Management Suite (MMS) with UDC
The MMS with UDC (Usage Data Collector) collects all accounting information
concerning network usage in order to prepare billing and cost analysis of
calls. The UDC constitutes part of the MMS which will also provide access
security, secure accounting-related SNMP traps handling and presentation.
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Collection is made via an FTP session into the PFA product from the UDC.
The only FTP commands available on the PFA are GET, BINARY and DELETE;
the DELETE command automatically resets the single accounting data collection file (PFA_PS.ACT) to file size 0 once the data has been succesfully transferred to the UDC.
Accounting-related SNMP traps generated are as follows:
i) CAASTATUSTRAP: the status of CAA becomes Operational or NonOperational (MB or AB).
ii) BUFFTRAP: 50, 90 or 100% of buffer space reserved by the user for
the storage of accounting records has been used up.
iii) DELETETRAP: the accounting records have been deleted from the
user interface or through an FTP session.
iv) RECSLOSTTRAP: Accounting records have been lost because the
PFA restarts.
v) CALLREJTRAP: New calls have been rejected.
vi) FTPTRAP: if unauthorised attempt to access stored accounting
records via FTP is made.
vii) LOWMEMTRAP: low memory limit for account gathering to stop
(percentage).
For more information related to these SNMP related commands see Section 5.
Configuration of Call Accounting
To facilitate Call Accounting, there are four elements to be configured as listed
below. The order of command execution does not need to match the order
shown below, but it makes sense to configure the correct charging rates to be
applied before the Call Accounting Administrator is initiated (Deblocked) - at
which point charging records will start to be created. The same recommendation applies to configuring the IP addresses of hosts to be allowed access to
these records.
(i) Configure ROTs or NTNs on which charging records are to be generated.
(ii) Configure Call Accounting rates.
(iii) Configure IP/mnemonic addresses for account-gathering management stations.
(iv) Configure Call Accounting Administrator to initiate charging.
Configuration of Charging Record Generation
Charging record generation can be configured in two ways, on specific NTNs
and specific ROTs, i.e.
408
PSROI
Configure call charging on a ROT
PSCFS
Configure call charging on an NTN (DTE)
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The user can enable charging on existing ROTs, or initialise new ROTs with
charging enabled at any point in time, regardless of the state of the Call
Accounting Administrator. This is done using the CC parameter on the PSROI
or PSROS command.
The CF parameter in the PSCFS command is used to control charging on a
specific NTN. For local DTEs, the NTN configured in the PSTEI command
must match that configured with PSCFS command.
Configuration of Call Accounting Rates
Call Rate Bands
Each call record generated for accounting has one or more rate bands associated with it. The rate bands applied to a call depend on the type of day and
the time of the day the call is in progress.
The CAA is responsible for storing details related to the rates to be applied,
detecting a change in the current rate band and changing the rate to be
applied for calls currently in progress. The CAA will either extend the existing
call record(s) with a new rate item or create new call records for all affected
calls currently in progress.
A new rate band becomes applicable for one of three reasons:
i) The time or date has advanced “naturally” to a point where the currently applicable rate table indicate that a new rate band should be
applied.
ii) The user has modified the rates table with the effect that there is a
change in the currently applicable rate band.
iii) The user has modified the system date and/or time by using the
NACLS command.
The following MML commands are used to configure call accounting rates:
CDRTS
CDRTP
CDRTR
Set Rate Table
Print Rate Tables
Reset Rate Tables
CDWDS
CDWDP
Set default week days
Print weekday settings
CDSDI
CDSDT
CDSDP
Initialise a Special Day
Terminate Special Day
Print Special Day Table
The CDWDS command allow each of the seven days of the week to be assigned to a default rate table type, whilst the CDSDS commands allow a list of
Special Days to be configured, for example, for bank holidays. On these
special days, the rate table specified in the CDSDI command is used rather
than the usual default one.
These commands can be entered at any time, i.e. rates can be changed even
when the CAA is not initialised or is deblocked.
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Setting Call Accounting Rate Tables (CDRTS)
The CDRTS command configures the charging rate to be applied over different time periods during the day. The user can configure three rate tables, one
for each of business, weekend or holiday days.
The rate tables can be configured at any time, irrespective of the state of the
CAA. If CAA is deblocked, then any rate changes entered by the user will have
immediate effect. The information contained within a rate table is not lost after
termination of the CAA object, and it can only be deleted by issuing new
parameter values with the CDRTS command or by deleting the entire table
contents by using the CDAAR command.
The start and end times specified in a CDRTS command must both fall within
the same day.
For any time periods not configured by the user, a default rate of 0 will be
applied.
CDRTS:TABLE=table,START=start,END=end,RATE=rate;
Where:TABLE
Rate type timetable
BUSINESSDAY,
WEEKENDDAY, HOLIDAY
START
Time that rate begins
0000-2359
END
Time that rate ends
0001-2400
RATE
Rate to be charged
0-128
For example:
CDRTS:TABLE=BUSINESSDAY,START=0000,END=0800,RATE=3;
CDRTS:TABLE=BUSINESSDAY,START=0800,END=1800,RATE=5;
CDRTS:TABLE=BUSINESSDAY,START=1800,END=2400,RATE=3;
The two sets of commands above and below, show two different ways of
achieving the same result. They both configure the rates to be applied during
business days. Between the hours of 8:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. charging rate 5
is applied, at all other times, charging rate 3 is applied.
CDRTS:TABLE=BUSINESSDAY,START=0000,END=2400,RATE=3;
CDRTS:TABLE=BUSINESSDAY,START=0800,END=1800,RATE=5;
In the example above, the charging information configured in the second
command "overwrites" some of the information contained in the first command, i.e. the charging rates to be applied during the hours of 8:00 a.m. and
6:00 p.m.
Printing Call Accounting Rate Tables (CDRTP)
The CDRTP command is used to display all or specific call accounting rate
tables.
CDRTP<:TABLE=table>;
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For example, to display the rates applied during business days:
CDRTP:TABLE=BUSINESSDAY;
RATE TABLE FOR BUSINESS DAYS
START
END
RATE
——————————————————————
0000
0800
3
0800
1800
5
1800
2400
3
END
Resetting Call Accounting Rate Table (CDRTR)
The CDRTR command resets the call accounting rate table. The default
charging rate of 0 is applied to all calls on the days which make use of the
specified rate table.
CDRTR:TABLE=table;
Setting Default Week Days for Call Accounting Rate Tables (CDWDS)
The CDWDS command configures a call accounting rate table to be used for
each day of the week.
CDWDS:DAY=day<...>,TABLE=table;
Where:DAY
Day of week
MONDAY,TUESDAY,
WEDNESDAY,
THURSDAY,FRIDAY,
SATURDAY,SUNDAY
TABLE
Type of rate
timetable
BUSINESSDAY,
WEEKENDDAY,
HOLIDAY
By default the following configuration applies:
BUSINESSDAY
WEEKENDDAY
HOLIDAY
MONDAY - FRIDAY
SATURDAY
SUNDAY
For example, to change Sunday to a weekend day rate:
CDWDS:DAY=SUNDAY,TABLE=WEEKENDDAY;
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Printing Default Week Days for Call Accounting Rate Tables (CDWDP)
The CDWDP command is used to display the call accounting rate table associated with each week day.
For example:
CDWDP;
DAY OF WEEK CHARGING INFORMATION
DAY
RATE TABLE
———————————————————————
SUNDAY
HOLIDAY
MONDAY
BUSINESSDAY
TUESDAY
BUSINESSDAY
WEDNESDAY
BUSINESSDAY
THURSDAY
BUSINESSDAY
FRIDAY
BUSINESSDAY
SATURDAY
WEEKENDDAY
END
Initialising a Call Accounting Special Day (CDSDI)
The CDSDI command initialises special days within the year when a different
rates table will be used, instead of the usual one.
By default, there are no special days configured, and a rate of 0 is applied to
any time periods within the rate tables which are not configured by the user.
If a range of dates is specified, then the start and end dates must fall within
the same month.
The effect of each command is "additive', i.e. each new special day entered
by the user is added to the list of special days previously configured.
CDSDI:TABLE=table, DATE=date<...>;
Where:TABLE
Rate table used
during special days
BUSINESSDAY,
WEEKENDDAY, HOLIDAY
DATE
Date of special
day
MM-DD; where
MM=month, DD=day.
For example, for a bank holiday on 14th March, the charging rates to be
applied are as follows:
CDSDI:DATE=03-14,TABLE=HOLIDAY;
For example, to select individual dates such as 25th, 26th and 27th December, which use the Holiday rates table.
CDSDI:DATE=12-25&12-26&12-27,TABLE=HOLIDAY;
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or:
CDSDI:DATE=12-25&&12-27,TABLE=HOLIDAY;
The “&” operator is used to specify a set of days, whilst the “&&” operator is
used to specify a range of days.
For example, to select ranges of dates such as 1st-3rd January and 1st-5th
May, which use the Holiday rates table:
CDSDI:DATE=01-01&&01-03&05-01&&05-05,TABLE=HOLIDAY;
Printing Call Accounting Special Days (CDSDP)
The CDSDP command displays either all or specified configured Special Days
for a date, month or from a specific rate table.
A list of those special days within a given month, which use a specific rate
table type can also be obtained.
CDSDP<:DATE=date><:MONTH=month><:TABLE=table>;
or:
CDSDP:MONTH=month,TABLE=table;
Where:date
Date of special day
MM-DD; MM=month, DD=day
month
Month to be
displayed
1-12
table
Rate table to be
displayed
BUSINESSDAY,
WEEKENDDAY, HOLIDAY
For example, to display all special days:
CDSDP;
SPECIAL DAY INFORMATION
DATE
RATE TABLE
—————————————————————
01-01
HOLIDAY
02-29
BUSINESS
03-14
HOLIDAY
05-01
WEEKENDDAY
05-30
WEEKENDDAY
08-05
WEEKENDDAY
12-25
HOLIDAY
12-26
HOLIDAY
END
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Terminating Call Accounting Special Days (CDSDT)
The CDSDT command terminates entries from the list of special days. If a
range is specified, the command will be executed if there is at least one day in
the special day list within this range.
Note that all special days can be terminated by using DATE=ALL.
CDSDT:DATE=date<...>;
Where:DATE
Date of special
day
MM-DD or ALL;
MM=month, DD=day
For example, to terminate the 14th March from the list of special days:
CDSDT:DATE=03-14;
For example, to terminate three days specified from the list of Special Days:
CDSDT:DATE=12-25&12-26&12-27;
For example, to terminate all special days that fall within the period 27th
December - 5th January:
CDSDT:DATE=12-27&&01-05;
Call Accounting FTP Server
The PFA FTP Server will be a limited implementation of RFC 959 (see Appendix 4), sufficient to provide facilities to allow a remote FTP client to access
accounting data. Only the commands GET, BINARY and DELETE are supported.
At any stage after the CAA is initialised, an accounting data file (PFA_PS.ACT)
will be made available to the FTP server. If the CAA is not initialised, the FTP
service is not available. The file can be retrieved and deleted via FTP either
manually or automatically.
The following MML commands can be used:
CDFTS
CDFTP
STFTP
Setting FTP server parameters
Printing FTP Server parameters
Printing FTP server statistics
The FTP server will only allow access to a single client at any one time. Any
attempts to make further connections will be refused. Inactive connections will
be timed out after 60 seconds. The PFA FTP server will timeout an inactive
session after 15 minutes.
FTP Server Authentication
The FTP Server has two levels of authentication.
1. The first check is of the IP address of any connecting remote IP
hosts. The IP address must be configured with the CDIPI command.
FTP connection requests from an unauthorised host will be refused and
an SNMP FTPTRAP trap will be generated.
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2. Secondly, the required user name and password must already be
configured in the unit by using the NADCI command with access privileges of ABCD. If the specified user is not allowed access to the accounting data, connection to the FTP server will be refused with an
SNMP FTPTRAP trap generated.
Setting Call Accounting FTP Server (CDFTS)
The CDFTS command configures parameters for the Call Accounting FTP
server.
CDFTS<:TRAPID=trapid>*<,FTPTRAP=ftptrap>*;
* Where the SNMP parameters are described in Section 5.
For example, to enable the SNMP FTPTRAP:
CDFTS:TRAPID=10,FTPTRAP=YES;D
If any IP host not specified previously with the CDIPI command attempts to
access the Call Accounting data, the trap will be raised.
Printing Call Accounting FTP Server Setup (CDFTP)
This command prints the status of the Call Accounting FTP Server, e.g.
CDFTP;
CALL ACCOUNTING FTP SERVER DATA
CONNECTION STATUS
——————————————————
NOT CONNECTED
TRAPID
= NONE
FTPTRAP
= NO
END
Where:CONNECTION
STATUS
FTP server
status
CONNECTED,
NOT CONNECTED
or TRANSER
Printing Call Accounting FTP Server Statistics (STFTP)
The STFTP command displays information relating to Call Accounting FTP
server transactions, including details of the last five FTP connections established where user, password and client address were valid and any data
transfers which took place.
The records are displayed in chronological order, with the earliest being
displayed first, e.g.
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STFTP;
CALL ACCOUNTING FTP SERVER TRANSACTION DATA
USERNAME
HOSTIP
CONNECT TIME
DISCONNECT TIME
------------------------------------------------------------------LONDON
190.8.155.88
1999-1-16 101536
TRANSFER STATUS
=
FTP COMPLETED
STARTTIME
=
1998-1-16 101549
NUM BYTES
=
80488
NUM RECORDS
=
789
ENDTIME
=
1998-1-16 101555
DELETETIME
=
1998-1-16 101559
LEICESTER
190.8.200.77
1998-1-16 101657
1999-1-16 102137
TRANSFER STATUS
=
FTP IN PROGRESS
STARTTIME
=
1998-1-16 102150
NUM BYTES
=
8560
NUM RECORDS
=
79
END
The example above shows information relating to two FTP connections,
including one currently in progress.
The first connection was started on 16/01/99 at 101536; 789 accounting
records were transferred before being deleted at 101559.
The second connection currently in progress was started at 102137 and is
transferring the contents of the accounts file. So far, 79 records or 8560 bytes
have been transferred.
Where:-
416
USERNAME
FTP logon
user name
1-15 characters
HOSTIP
IP address of
connected host
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
0£nnn£255 or mnemonic
address configured with
ANNAI.
CONNECT TIME
Date & time
FTP connection
established
YYYY-MM-DD HHMMSS
where YYYY=year,
MM=month, DD=day and
HH=hour, MM=minute,
SS=second.
DISCONNECT
TIME
Date & time FTP
connection ended
YYYY-MM-DD HHMMSS;
For cleared connections.
TRANSFER
STATUS
FTP server status
FTP COMPLETED,
FTP IN PROGRESS or
FTP INTERRUPTED
STARTTIME
Date & time FTP
transfer established
YYYY-MM-DD HHMMSS
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NUM BYTES
Bytes transferred
during FTP session
0-232
NUM RECORDS
Records transferred
during FTP session
0-232
ENDTIME
Date & time FTP
transfer ended
YYYY-MM-DD HHMMSS;
Only if FTP has finished.
DELETETIME
Date & time CAA
records deleted
YYYY-MM-DD HHMMSS
IP Hosts for Accounting Access
For security reasons, a pre-defined list of IP hosts has to be configured if the
hosts require FTP access to the accounting records. If other non-valid IP
hosts try to connect via FTP an FTPTRAP SNMP trap is enabled.
The following commands are used:
CDIPI
Initialising IP host permitted to access call accounting
records
CDIPT
Terminating IP host permitted to access call accounting
records
CDIPP
Printing IP hosts permitted to access Call Accounting
records
Initialising Call Accounting IP Hosts (CDIPI)
The CDIPI command is used to initialise a set of IP hosts, which will be allowed to access the Call Accounting records.
CDIPI:HOSTIP=hostip;
Where:hostip
IP host allowed to
access accounting
records
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
0£nnn£255 or mnemonic
address configured with
ANNAI.
For example:
CDIPI:HOSTIP=190.8.200.77;
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Printing Call Accounting IP Hosts (CDIPP)
The CDIPP command is used to print the set of IP hosts which are allowed to
access call accounting records, e.g.
CDIPP;
CALL ACCOUNTING PERMITTED HOSTS
HOSTIP
———————
190.8.200.77
189.7.88.21
187.8.200.77
186.8.200.67
LEICESTER
END
Terminating Call Accounting IP Host (CDIPT)
The CDIPT command is used to delete an IP host from the list of those permitted to access the Call Accounting data.
CDIPT:HOSTIP=hostip;
For example:
CDIPT:HOSTIP=190.8.200.77;
Call Accounting Administrator (CAA)
The following MML commands configure the operation of the call accounting
system.
CDAAI
CDAAS
CDAAC
CDAAD
CDAAB
CDAAR
CDAAT
CDAAP
Initialising Call Accounting Administrator
Setting Call Accounting Administrator
Changing Call Accounting Administrator parameters
Deblocking Call Accounting Administrator (starts charging)
Blocking Call Accounting Administrator (stops charging)
Resetting Call Accounting records buffer
Terminating Call Accounting Administrator
Printing Call Accounting Administrator parameters
STAAP
STAAR
Printing Call Accounting Administrator statistics
Resetting Call Accounting Administrator statistics
In order to initiate call charging, the user must issue the CDAAD command. As
soon as this is done call accounting records will be produced for each new
call carried on the charged ROTs and NTNs.
When the CAA is manually blocked by the user, call charging is stopped, but
the buffer containing call records is maintained, i.e. the call records are still
available for collection.
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Initialising Call Accounting Administrator (CDAAI)
The CDAAI command will initialises the CAA. Call Accounting records will not
be generated until the CAA is initialised, e.g.
CDAAI;
Setting Call Accounting Administrator (CDAAS)
The CDAAS command modifies CAA parameters previously configured with
the CDAAI command; the CAA must be manually blocked before the parameters can be changed.
Each time an accounted calls exceeds the time set for LONGCALL parameter,
a new partial charging record will be created for it.
CDAAS<:LONGCALL=longcall><,DTECOL=dtecol>;
Where:LONGCALL
Time duration
associated with
long call
10-600 minutes;
default=600.
DTECOL
DTE Collection
point for charging
record generation
CALLING, CALLED
BOTH, DYNAMIC or NONE;
default=DYNAMIC.
For example, to define a long call lasting £ 30 minutes and specify that CAA
records will be generated at the called DTE side:
CDAAS:LONGCALL=30,DTECOL=CALLED;
Changing Call Accounting Administrator (CDAAC)
The CDAAC command modifies CAA parameters in any state.
If call charging is suspended due to action by the user or the threshold of the
BUFFSIZE or LOWMEM parameters (configured in NALOS command) being
reached - and NEWCALLS=NO, then any new calls received at a charged ROT
or NTN will be rejected.
CDAAC<:NEWCALLS=newcalls><,NEWRECORD=newrecord>
<,EXCEEDBUFF=exceedbuff><,BUFFSIZE=buffsize>
<,TRAPS=traps>*<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,BUFFTRAP=bufftrap>*
<,CALLREJTRAP=callrejtrap>*<,DELETETRAP=deletetrap>*
<,RECSLOSTTRAP=recslosttrap>*<,CAASTATUSTRAP=caastatustrap>*;
Where:NEWCALLS
New calls allowed
on charged ROTs
and NTNs
YES or NO; default=YES
Only if CAA is stopped by user,
buffer is filled, or memory is
low.
NEWRECORD
New record
generation
YES or NO; default=NO.
Specifies if new record should
be generated when a call
moves between rate bands.
If NEWRECORD=NO then
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
the existing record will simply
be extended to include an
additional rate record.
EXCEEDBUFF
Whether new records
YES or NO; default=YES
relating to calls in
progress can be created because of a rate band
change or LONGCALL
duration timer expiry even if the CAA buffer
has reached the limit
specified in the BUFFSIZE
parameter
BUFFSIZE
Max. memory
available for
storing records
1-1000 Kbytes;
default=100.
When BUFFTRAP=YES, an SNMP trap is sent when 50, 90 and 100% of the
memory, specified with the BUFFSIZE parameter, is used. The CAA will go AB
if 100% is reached.
* These SNMP-related parameters are as described in Section 5.
For example:
CDAAC:NEWCALLS=YES,NEWRECORD=YES;
In the example, if the CAA becomes non-operational, then any new calls will
be accepted on those ROTs and NTNs with accounting configured, as
NEWCALLS=YES.
A new record will be generated for every chargeable call at each change of
rate band which extends over more than one rate band.
Deblocking Call Accounting Administrator (CDAAD)
The CDAAD command deblocks the CAA, which will then start to produce
records for any ROTs or NTNs on which charging is specified.
CDAAD;
When deblocked, the state of the object will remain WO, unless the CAA
buffer becomes full, or the amount of memory on the box becomes too low
(as defined in the LOWMEM parameter for NALOS command) ; in both cases
the CAA status will then be AB.
The first situation can be remedied by allocating more memory to the buffer
(using BUFFSIZE parameter in CDAAC), deleting the records via FTP or
deleting the contents of the Completed Records buffer by issuing a CDAAR.
The second situation can be remedied by changing the value of the LOWMEM
parameter for the NALOS command.
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Blocking Call Accounting Administrator (CDAAB)
The CDAAB command blocks the CAA and stops the creation of Call Accounting records. The CAA will be passed any call records that were in the
process of being created and any records already created will still be stored in
the buffer, i.e. they are not deleted, e.g.
CDAAB;
Printing Call Accounting Administrator (CDAAP)
The CDAAP command displays the configured CAA parameters as well as the
amount of memory currently used (BUFFERS USED).
The user may want to increase or decrease the amount of memory assigned
to call accounting depending on the frequency with which the user collects
(and deletes) the records, or the speed at which the buffer is filled.
For example:
CDAAP;
CALL ACCOUNTING ADMINISTRATOR DATA
BUFFSIZE
BUFFERS
NUM OF RECORDS
CURRENT
CAA
USED
COMPLETED CURRENT
RATE
STATUS
——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
200
14
109
NEWCALLS
=
YES
LONGCALL
=
20
EXCEEDBUFF
=
YES
DTECOL
=
DYNAMIC
NEWRECORD
=
NO
TRAPS
=
NONE
TRAPID
=
NONE
0
10
MB
END
Where the parameters are as describe as for the CDAAS command with the
exception of:
BUFFERS USED
Memory used by
CAA records
0-1000; to nearest Kbyte
NUM OF
RECORDS
No. of CAA records
stored internally
0-232
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
COMPLETED
Completed charging
records that are ready for
FTP transfer.
CURRENT
Active, incomplete
records still being
processed.
CURRENT
RATE
Rate currently
being applied to
0-127
CAA STATUS
CAA Status
WO, MB, AB
Terminating Call Accounting Administrator (CDAAT)
The CDAAT command terminates the CAA. The command can only be issued
if the CAA is manually blocked and no accounting records are stored in the
unit. In addition, the CAA cannot be terminated if an FTP session from the IP
host is in progress.
CDAAT;
Delete Completed Accounting Records (CDAAR)
The CDAAR command deletes completed records relating to each accounted
call in any CAA state; this excludes current call records. This allows the
removal of unwanted records without having to interfere with any ongoing call
charging.
It should be noted that if the user enters a CDAAR whilst the CAA is
deblocked, only “Completed” records will be deleted and “Current” records
relating to ongoing calls will be maintained, whereas if CDAAR is issued when
the CAA is blocked, all records will be deleted.
The DELETETRAP SNMP trap in the CDAAC command indicates that call
records have been deleted.
For example:
CDAAR;
Printing Call Accounting Statistics (STAAP)
The STAAP command is used to print out Call Accounting statistics.
The number of calls rejected since last reset is as a result of:
i) CAA being blocked.
ii) CAA buffer being full.
iii) PFA memory being low whilst NEWCALLS=NO in the CDAAC command.
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For example:
STAAP;
CALL ACCOUNTING STATISTICS
CALLS CHARGED
= 846
CALLS REJECTED
= 0
NON ACCOUNTED
= 56
END
Where:CALLS
CHARGED
Chargeable calls
accounted since stats
were last reset
0..232
CALLS
REJECTED
Total no. of
chargeable calls
rejected
0..232
NON
ACCOUNTED
Total no. of nonchargeable calls
not accounted since
stats were last reset
0..232
Note that the accumulated value for the above can be reset to zero as follows:
STAAR;
Printing Call Accounting Records (CDCRP)
The CDCRP command prints finished or currently processed Call Accounting
records stored in the CAA buffer.
The SEARCH and VALUE parameters can be used to select particular records
according to the NTN or ROT from which accounting records have been
generated.
Note: Call accounting records created immediately after a PFA 660
restart may have a meaningless value for record start time. However the calculated record duration time will be correct.
CDCRP:BUFFTYPE=bufftype,RANGE=range
<,FORMAT=format><,SEARCH=search,VALUE=value>;
Where:BUFFTYPE
Type of records
to examine
CURRENT or
COMPLETED
RANGE
Range of records
to display
1-2^16-1-2^16. The user
cannot specify a range
covering >20 records, unless
the SEARCH/VALUE
parameters are specified.
FORMAT
Information
format
STANDARD or EXTENDED;
default=STANDARD
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
SEARCH
Type of search
to carry out
ADDRESS or ROT
VALUE
Value of NTN or ROT
to be searched for
1-15 digits (for SEARCH=
ADDRESS) or 1-500 (for
SEARCH=ROT)
The SEARCH=ADDRESS parameter displays those records which match or
partially match the specified address/NTN (i.e. the search value) in the called
or calling address field. The SEARCH=ROT displays those records which
relate to the ROT specified (i.e. the search value).
For example:
CDCRP:BUFFTYPE=COMPLETED,RANGE=20-21,FORMAT=EXTENDED;
CALL ACCOUNTING CHARGING RECORD INFORMATION
RECORD NUMBER
= 20
CALLED ADDRESS
= 111
CALLING ADDRESS
= 222
PORT TYPE
= INTERNAL FUNCTION
START TIME
= 1998-1-16 113521
DURATION
= 165370
CHARGING REASON
= CLEARED BY NW
DIRECTION
= OUTGOING
FIXED PART:
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 02 85 FA 00 00 00 00 00 80 4E 90 11 35
21 97 01 16 00 88 02 02 09 00
ADDRESS PART:
33 11 12 22
ENCODED PART:
92 01 00 4B 00 00 00 D3 2C 00 00 00 4F 00 00 00 4E 01 00 00
00 00 00 78 00 00 00 78 02 00 00 00 00 00 78 00 00 00 78
03 00 00 00
SEGMENTS: TX:79 RX:78 RATE:1 RESETS: NET:0 DTE:0
SEGMENTS: TX:120 RX:120 RATE:2 RESETS: NET:0 DTE:0
SEGMENTS: TX:120 RX:120 RATE:3 RESETS: NET:0 DTE:0
SEGMENTS: TX:12 RX:12 RATE:4 RESETS: NET:0 DTE:0
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
RECORD NUMBER
= 21
CALLED ADDRESS
= 111
CALLING ADDRESS
= 222
PORT TYPE
= INTERNAL FUNCTION
START TIME
= 1998-1-16 113521
DURATION
= 165370
CHARGING REASON
= CLEARED BY NW
DIRECTION
= OUTGOING
FIXED PART:
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 02 85 FA 00 00 00 00 00 80 4E 90 11 35
21 97 01 16 00 88 02 02 09 00
ADDRESS PART:
33 11 12 22
ENCODED PART:
92 01 00 4C 00 00 00 D3 2C 00 00 00 4F 00 00 00 4E 01 00 00
00 00 00 78 00 00 00 78 02 00 00 00 00 00 78 00 00 00 78
03 00 00 00 00 00 0C 00 00 00 0C 04 00 00
SEGMENTS: TX:79 RX:78 RATE:1 RESETS: NET:0 DTE:0
SEGMENTS: TX:120 RX:120 RATE:2 RESETS: NET:0 DTE:0
SEGMENTS: TX:120 RX:120 RATE:3 RESETS: NET:0 DTE:0
SEGMENTS: TX:12 RX:12 RATE:4 RESETS: NET:0 DTE:0
END
This example shows two completed records, records 20-21, stored in the call
accounting buffer. They are displayed in their extended form with the Fixed
Part, Address Part and Encoded part of the record displayed in HEX.
Records are displayed along with a Record Number which shows their position in the buffer.
Should the last record be displayed, then the message “END OF BUFFER”,
will be displayed.
Call Accounting Example
Configuration of Rate Bands
The following commands will configure:
(i) Monday-Friday as Business days, with a period between 8:00 a.m. and 6:00
p.m. with a charging rate of 15, and periods between 6:00 p.m. - midnight and
midnight - 8:00 a.m., when a charging rate of 8 and 10 , respectively, will be
applied.
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
(ii) Saturday and Sunday as Weekend days with a rate of 5 applied throughout
the 48 hour period.
CDWDS:DAY=MONDAY,TABLE=BUSINESSDAY;
CDWDS:DAY=TUESDAY,TABLE=BUSINESSDAY;
CDWDS:DAY=WEDNESDAY,TABLE=BUSINESSDAY;
CDWDS:DAY=THURSDAY,TABLE=BUSINESSDAY;
CDWDS:DAY=FRIDAY,TABLE=BUSINESSDAY;
CDWDS:DAY=SATURDAY,TABLE=WEEKENDDAY;
CDWDS:DAY=SUNDAY,TABLE==WEEKENDAY;
CDRTS:START=0800,END=1800,RATE=15,TABLE=BUSINESSDAY;
CDRTS:START=0000,END=0800,RATE=10,TABLE=BUSINESSDAY;
CDRTS:START=1800,END=2400,RATE=8,TABLE=BUSINESSDAY;
CDRTS:START=0000,END=2400,RATE=5,TABLE=WEEKENDDAY;
If the user executes a CDRTP at this stage, the output will be as follows:
CDRTP;
RATE TABLE FOR BUSINESSDAY
START
END
RATE
——————————————————————
0000
0800
10
0800
1800
15
1800
2400
8
END
RATE TABLE FOR WEEKENDDAY
START
END
RATE
——————————————————————
0000
2400
5
RATE TABLE FOR HOLIDAY
START
END
RATE
——————————————————————
0000
2400
0
END
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
Changing Charging Rates Whilst Call Charging is Active
Assuming that the CAA is deblocked and therefore call charging is active, the
user can alter charging rates without the need to suspend charging in any
way. Let us assume that the Business Day rate table shown below is currently
being applied, and that the currently applied rate is 10 - since the current time
is 9.30 p.m. and therefore falls within the 1800 - 2400 time slot - as shown
below.
RATE TABLE FOR BUSINESS DAYS
START END
RATE
———————————————
0000
0800
10
0800
1800
15
1800
2400
10
END
If the user creates a new rate band using the following two commands, then
the amended rate table will look like the one shown below.
CDRTS:START=0400,END=0630,RATE=8,TABLE=BUSINESSDAY;
CDRTS:START=2100,END=2300,RATE=8,TABLE=BUSINESSDAY;
RATE TABLE FOR BUSINESS DAYS
START END
RATE
———————————————
0000
0400
10
0400
0630
8
0630
0800
10
0800
1800
15
1800
2100
10
2100
2300
8
2300
2400
10
END
The new rate of 8 will be instantly applied, i.e. the CDRTS command has
immediate effect on the call charging taking place.
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427
PFA 2
PFA 1
1-1-1-3
1-1-1-1
cc= out
ROT=1
ROT=5
1-1-1-1 1-1-1-3
cc= both
NTN= 400678
charged as
caller
NTN=100231
charged as
caller
1-1-1-2
cc= out
ROT=1
ROT=5
1-1-1-2
cc= both
13. X.25-Related Network Services
Figure 13-4: Example of Accounting.
local
DTE
MMS_UDC1
IP=128.9.6.5
Example of Charging Record Generation
428
Multiservice
Management
Suite (MMS)
with UDC
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
13. X.25-Related Network Services
The above diagram serves as a simple example of when and where charging
records are generated for a given call.
In PFA1:
PSROI:ROT=1,NP=1-1-1-1&1-1-1-2,CC=OUT;
ANRCI:RC=1,ROT=1;
ANRAI:ND=100,RC=1;
PSTEI:NTN=400678,NP=1-1-1-3;
PSCFS:NTN=400678,CF=CAC;
CDIPI:HOSTIP=128.9.6.5;
ANNAI:NAME=MMS_UDC1,PROT=IP,ADDR=128.9.6.5;
CDAAI;
CDAAS:DTECOL=DYNAMIC;
CDAAD;
In PFA2:
PSROI:ROT=5,NP=1-1-1-1&1-1-1-2,CC=BOTH;
ANRCI:RC=1,ROT=5;
ANRAI:ND=400,RC=1;
PSTEI:NTN=100231,NP=1-1-1-3;
PSCFS:NTN=100231,CF=CAC;
CDIPI:HOSTIP=128.9.6.5;
ANNAI:NAME=MMS_UDC1,PROT=IP,ADDR=128.9.6.5;
CDAAI;
CDAAS:DTECOL=DYNAMIC;
CDAAD;
Example 1:
If a call is made from NTN 400678 to NTN 100231, and assuming reverse
charging is not signalled, charging records will be generated at the following
points:
-In PFA1 for NTN 400678, since the DTECOL parameter is set to
DYNAMIC and NTN 400678 is the charged DTE for this call.
-In PFA1 for ROT 1, since the call goes out on this route and the CC
parameter for this route is set to OUT.
-In PFA2 for ROT 5, since the call comes in on this route and the CC
parameter for this route is set to BOTH, i.e. generate charging records
for this route for incoming and outgoing calls.
Note that no charging records are generated in PFA2 for NTN 100231. If the
DTECOL parameter setting in PFA2 had been CALLED or BOTH, a charging
record would have been generated for this NTN.
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13. X.25-Related Network Services
The accounting records are collected via FTP at regular intervals by the
Ericsson Multiservice Management Suite (MMS) with UDC named
MMS_UDC1. Both PFA1 and PFA2 have the IP address of the UDC machine
registered for authenticated FTP file transfer of accounting records.
Example 2:
If a call is made from NTN 100231 to NTN 400678, charging records would be
generated at the following points:
-In PFA2 for NTN 100231, the charged DTE.
-In PFA2 for ROT 1.
Note that no charging records are generated in PFA1. ROT 1 in PFA1 is
configured so that charging records are generated for outgoing calls only.
The UDC machine MMS_UDC1 will collect accounting records as in Example
1.
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14. Address Modification
14. Address Modification
Introduction
Internal network addresses are used within a network to identify the destination as well as the origin of a virtual call. Network addresses are also used to
identify the network users for administrative purposes, such as for registration
of services and facilities subscription and for charging purposes. The numbering plan of a network describes how different parts of a network address can
be interpreted e.g. for routing purposes.
Users connected to a private data network may need to communicate with
users connected to external networks, such as public data networks or other
private data networks. This requires that methods for representing external
network addresses are defined in a numbering plan. This is the basis of
address modification.
The representation of internal as well as external addresses required to be
used in signalling between the networks may be different from the representation used in the internal network signalling. Address format conversion will
then have to be performed at the interface to the external network.
This section covers the definition of internal and external address formats for
private PSDN applications, as well as the address modification functions
required for network interworking, in particular for interworking between
private and public networks.
Address Format And Numbering Plans
The X.121 Numbering Plan
The international numbering plan adopted by public data networks is specified
in CCITT Recommendation X.121.
While the address format used on international links between public data
networks is always the International Data Number, it is common to allow use
of a shorter format without DNIC/DCC for internal network addressing. In this
case when different address formats are permitted, it is necessary to be able
to distinguish between the formats. The generally adopted principle for this is
to use a specific prefix digit, usually “0” to indicate that the address is in the
full IDN format.
The following address format principles are recognised and supported for
public data network addressing:
International Data Number (IDN)
The IDN is used for all addresses and can be up to 14 digits in length. The first
four digits are denoted the Data Network Identification Code (DNIC) which is
used to identify a country and is always included in both internal and external
addresses. The Network Terminal Number which follows may consist of up to
10 digits and identifies a network node, e.g.
11112222222222
Where:
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
1111 = DNIC
2222222222 = NTN
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14. Address Modification
Network Terminal Number (NTN)
The short NTN format is used for internal addresses. The international format
address, with a one-digit international prefix, is used for all external addresses, e.g.
For Internal address:
22222222222
For International address:
011112222222222
Where:
0 = International Prefix
1111 = DNIC
2222222222 = NTN
National Number (NN)
In some countries, a national integrated numbering scheme may be used, that
is, the fourth digit of the IDN is always included as the first digit of the national
number (NN) (this identifies a particular network within a country). The first
three digits of the IDN represents the Data Country Code (DCC), e.g.
22233333333333
Where:
222 = DCC
33333333333 = NN
This type of addressing is very similar to that used for the NTN addressing.
Address Principles
Introduction
Depending on the degree to which the numbering plans and address formats
of the networks described above can be aligned, and on the required
interworking capability between the networks, various types of address
modification may be required to be performed at the gateway node between
the local and remote networks.
The address modification functions described here are for private/public
network interworking, where the private network is connected as a DTE to the
public network and thus from a numbering point of view is subordinated to the
public network.
The same functions may of course also be used for interworking between
private networks provided that their numbering plans and address formats are
related in a similar way.
Local and Remote Addresses
The terms “local address” and “remote address” denote the addresses signalled via the interface between the private and the public network and referring to DTEs connected to the private (local) and public (remote) network,
respectively (see Figure 14-1).
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14. Address Modification
Public (remote)
Network containing:
Local Addresses - Internal DTE addresses converted to a DTE address in PSDN
Remote Addresses - External DTE addresses converted to public PSDN format
DTE-Y
Gateway Node
Private (local)
DTE-X
Network
containing:
Internal Addresses - DTE addresses for own private PSDN
External Addresses - DTE addresses prefixed for public PSDN
Figure 14-1: Private and Public Data Networks.
Conversion of DTE-X address in X.25 gateway:
DTE-X = internal address —> DTE-X’ = local address
Conversion of DTE-Y address in X.25 gateway:
DTE-Y = external address —> DTE-Y’ = remote address
Addresses are always present in call request and incoming call packets, and
may also be included in call accepted, call connected and clear request
packets. In a call request packet sent from the private to the public network
the local address is the same as the calling DTE address and the remote
address is the called DTE address. For an incoming call packet the opposite is
true.
In Figure 14-1, a virtual call established between DTE-X, connected to the
private network, and DTE-Y, connected to the public network, the internal
address of DTE-X may be indicated as a part of the local address. The external address corresponding to DTE-Y may have to be converted to/from the
remote address format at the PFA gateway node.
The gateway function, which is considered to belong to the private network
has to perform the required conversions between internal and local addresses
and between external and remote addresses.
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14. Address Modification
Remote Address Conversion
General
Different public PSDNs prescribe different types of remote address representation over the DTE/DCE interface as described above. The different address
representations are called “IDN format”, “NN format” or “NTN format”.
Within a private network it is advisable to use a single format for all public
network addresses.
In some private network applications it may be possible to use exactly the
same representation of external addresses and remote addresses. Remote
address conversion is then of course not required.
Conversion of IDN Format Addressing
The “IDN format” without prefix is used at the public network interface and the
“external prefix”, EXTPREF, e.g. 0, is used at the gateway of the private
network to preceed external addresses and indicates to the gateway node
that the outgoing call is for a network other than the current private network.
In addition, the EXTPREF, e.g. 0, is inserted before all received remote addresses at the gateway in order to obtain the corresponding external address
for the private networks.
Public Network
Private Network
EXTPREF
Remote Address
DNIC
External Address
DNIC
NTN
NTN
Gateway
Node
Configured
EXTPREF=
Figure 14-2: IDN Address Modification.
Conversion of NN Format Addressing
The “NN format” with a short address format for national addresses and with
an international prefix preceding international format addresses, is used at the
public network interface.
For international addresses, the external prefix, EXTPREF, used within the
private network to indicate an external address, does not have to be the same
as the international prefix, INTPREF, used by the public network to indicate an
address in the international format. Consequently, conversion of the prefix is
required for such remote addresses, which in the public network are represented in the full international format.
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EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
14. Address Modification
For national addresses, the conversion which has to be done by the gateway
is to remove the EXTPREF and DCC from the external address if the DCC has
the value “DCC” in order to obtain the remote address format to be transmitted. The external prefix and the DCC are inserted before the received remote
address in order to obtain the external address format.
1) International addresses
Public Network
Private Network
INTPREF
EXTPREF
Remote Address
DNIC
External Address
DNIC
NTN
NTN
Gateway
Node
Configured
EXTPREF=
INTPREF=
DCC=
Figure 14-3: International Address Modification.
2) National addresses
Public Network
EXTPREF
DCC
Private Network
External Address
Remote Address
NN
NN
Gateway
Node
Configured
EXTPREF=
DCC=
Figure 14-4: National Address Modification.
Conversion of NTN Format Addressing
The “NTN format”, with a short address format for addresses within the public
network and with an international prefix preceding international format addresses, is used at the PSDN interface.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
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14. Address Modification
For international addresses, the external prefix, EXTPREF, used within the
private network to indicate an external address, does not have to be the same
as the international prefix, INTPREF, used by the public network to indicate an
address in the international format. Consequently, conversion of the prefix is
required for such remote addresses, which in the public network are represented in the full international format.
For national addresses the conversion which has to be done by the gateway is
to remove the EXTPREF and the DNIC from the external address if the DNIC
has the value which is defined by the parameter DNIC in order to obtain the
remote address format to be transmitted. The EXTPREF and the DNIC are
inserted before the received remote address in order to obtain the external
address format, if the remote address is in the short network format, i.e. does
not begin with the international prefix, INTPREF.
The DNIC (“local DNIC”) parameter indicates the DNIC associated with the
local public network to which the gateway port is connected.
1) International addresses
Public Network
Private Network
EXTPREF
INTPREF
Remote Address
DNIC
External Address
DNIC
NTN
NTN
Gateway
Node
Configured
EXTPREF=
INTPREF=
Figure 14-5: International Address Modification.
2) National addresses
Public Network
EXTPREF
Private Network
DNIC
External Address
Remote Address
NTN
NTN
Gateway
Node
Configured
EXTPREF=
DNIC=
Figure 14-6: National Address Modification.
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14. Address Modification
Exception handling
If a remote address arriving from the private network does not start with the
defined external prefix digit, no address conversion on the remote address is
done but the address is forwarded unchanged to the public network.
Local Address Conversion
General
Use of the same address representation for internal and local addresses
requires that the private network numbering plan is completely integrated in
the public numbering plan. This presupposes that the public numbering plan
allows sufficient addressing space for the needs of the private network, either
in the form of subaddress digits or by allocating a Private Network Identification Code, PNIC, to the private network. This may be possible in some private
network applications, but generally some conversion between internal and
local addresses has to be done by the PFA gateway node.
The local address modification function performs a translation in both directions, between the Internal address format and the Local address format.
The translation is based on a full or partial mapping of the internal network
numbering plan on the subaddress field of the local address.
The mapping can be performed as a direct translation between the
subaddress range and a specified range of consecutive internal addresses.
Note:
If an entry for a specified local address/subaddress is found in an
address modification table, free mapping is assumed.
If a MAPCODE is defined range mapping is assumed.
If no conversion record for an address is found, full mapping is assumed.
As an alternative, an individual translation between subaddresses and internal
addresses may be performed.
If the called address in an incoming call packet received from the public
network does not start with that specified for the gateway port, the incoming
call will be rejected with clearing cause “DTE originated/not obtainable” (Code
141) and with diagnostic code “Invalid called address” (Code 67).
Full mapping
When the full internal address can be mapped on the subaddress field of the
local address, the conversion is performed as follows.
Outgoing Conversion
The translation from internal to local address is done by insertion of the
parameter value OWNADDR, i.e. the public main station address assigned to
the PFA gateway node, before the internal network address in order to obtain
the local address to be transmitted to the public network.
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14. Address Modification
If the internal network address is longer than the number of digits indicated by
the parameter SUBADDRLEN, the internal network address will be completely
deleted before the OWNADDR is inserted.
Incoming Conversion
The conversion from local to internal address is done by deletion of the specified OWNADDR from the beginning of received local addresses in order to
obtain the internal address.
If the local address is longer than SUBADDRLEN then the address is shortened to the length of SUBADDRLEN.
The relevance of the OWNADDR parameter in connection with full address
mapping is illustrated below for a case when the IDN format is used for public
network addressing and when the SUBADDRLEN parameter, that is the
allowed number of subaddress digits (SA) in the local address, corresponds to
the length of the internal address.
Public Network
Private Network
Local Address
DNIC
NTN
Internal Address
SA
OWNADDR
SA
Gateway
Node
Configured
OWNADDR=
SUBADDRLEN=5
Figure 14-7: Full Mapping of Local Addresses.
Range mapping
When the number of subaddress digits permitted by the public network is less
than the number of digits used by internal network addresses, it is obviously
not possible to achieve full access from the public network into the private
network. A limited access can however be provided by means of partial
address mapping. Full mapping is attempted as described previously then:
- For each address modification table, the MAPCODE parameter can be
used to define a range of internal addresses. Internal network addresses starting with the digits assigned to the MAPCODE parameter
will be addressable by means of subaddressing from the public network.
Outgoing Conversion
For outgoing calls from DTEs belonging to the MAPCODE range defined, the
MAPCODE digits are removed from the beginning of the internal network
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address and the remaining digits are indicated as calling DTE subaddress in
the local address signalled to the public network.
A gateway port may also be used for outgoing calls from DTEs not belonging
to the MAPCODE range but in this case no calling DTE subaddress will be
indicated.
Incoming Conversion
The value of the MAPCODE parameter defined will be inserted before a received subaddress in order to obtain an internal network address, which is
used for internal routing of a call from the public network.
The relevance of the OWNADDR and MAPCODE parameters in connection
with partial address mapping is illustrated below for a case when the IDN
format is used for public network addressing and when the value of
SUBADDRLEN is less than the length of the internal network address.
Gateway
Node
Public Network
Private Network
Local Address
DNIC
NTN
Internal Address
SA
SA
OWNADDR
SA
MAPCODE
Configured:
OWNADDR=
MAPCODE=nnn
Figure 14-8: Range Mapping of Local Addresses.
Free mapping
Full mapping is attempted as described previously then:
- When a completely free definition of the translation between
subaddresses and internal network addresses is preferred, the free
mapping function can be employed. In this case an individual registration at the gateway node is required for each internal network address
to be mapped on the subaddress space. Internal network addresses
included in the address modification table will be addressable by means
of subaddressing from the public network.
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14. Address Modification
Outgoing Conversion
For outgoing calls from DTEs represented in the address modification table
associated with the gateway port, the internal address is used to fetch the
digits to be used as the calling DTE subaddress in the local address signalled
to the public network.
A gateway port may also be used for outgoing calls from DTEs not represented in the associated table, but in this case no calling DTE subaddress
may be indicated.
Incoming Conversion
A received subaddress will be scanned through the table to find the corresponding internal address. The resulting internal network address is then used
as called address for internal routing of the call. A complete match is not
necessary - only matched digits should be modified.
The relevance of the OWNADDR parameter in connection with free mapping is
illustrated in Figure 14-9 for a case when the international format is used for
public network addressing.
Public Network
Private Network
Internal Address
Local Address
DNIC
NTN
SA
n
io
at
l
ns
a
Tr
OWNADDR
SA
Gateway
Node
Configured
OWNADDR=
INTADDR=
LOCADDR=
SUBADDRLEN=2
Conversion table required
Figure 14-9: Free Mapping of Local Addresses.
Free Mapping with End-to-End Subaddressing
End-to-end subaddressing allows a public network DTE to use some
subaddress digits to access a local DTE (e.g., a host computer or a local
subnetwork) connected to the private network and use additional subaddress
digits to address a specific destination/application within this DTE.
All of the described versions of local address conversion support use of endto-end subaddressing without the need to register end-to-end subaddresses
for address conversion by the gateway. This is self-evident in the case of “full
mapping” and “range mapping”. In the case of “free mapping” the function is
as described below.
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The local address conversion performed by means of the free mapping procedure supports the use of end-to-end subaddressing by allowing any digits
following the subaddress and internal address to be carried over transparently
in the address modification.
This is illustrated below for a case when the two most significant digits of the
subaddress to the public network address are translated by means of free
mapping to an internal address, and vice versa. The remaining subaddress
digits are used as an end-to-end subaddress.
Gateway
Node
Public Network
Private Network
Local Address
DNIC
NTN
Internal Address
SA
EESA
n
tio
la
ns
a
Tr
OWNADDR
SA
Configured:
OWNADDR=
INTADDR=
LOCADDR=
Conversion table required
Figure 14-10: End-to-end subaddressing.
The use of end-to-end subaddressing within free mapping is done automatically by allowing digits to follow the subaddress and internal address to be
carried over transparently in the address conversion.
One-directional mapping
The value of the SUBADDRLEN parameter defines the maximum number of
subaddress digits which may be inserted after OWNADDR in local addresses
signalled to the public network. It does not in any way affect the processing
and possible conversion of received local addresses.
When the value of the SUBADDRLEN parameter is set to “0” this will have the
effect that no subaddress digits are indicated in local address signalling to the
public network.
The origin within the private network of an outgoing call to the public network,
or the destination reached within the private network by an incoming call from
the public network will in this case not be indicated to the public network and
remote DTE.
Multiple Gateway Ports and multiple tables
When a private network has several gateway ports to a public network, it is
possible to specify different MAPCODE and conversion records for different
gateway ports. This will enable different sets of private network DTEs to be
reached from the public network via different gateway ports, thus extending
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14. Address Modification
the number of DTEs which can be reached to more than the subaddressing
capability available at a single port.
The selection of gateway port to be used by an outgoing call to the public
network is based on the destination address only. It is consequently not
possible to guarantee that the identity of the calling DTE is mapped at the
local address, unless all gateway port alternatives available for calls from a
specific DTE use a MAPCODE or a set of conversion records, which covers
the internal address of the DTE.
Multiple tables may be linked together, in this case the local address/
subaddress to be converted will be searched sequentially through the linked
tables. To avoid search loops, an installation dependent value defines max.
level of search steps ( i.e. it will be possible to link as many tables as wanted,
but only a certain number of tables will be scanned ). Note that the remote/
external address conversion is made with regards only to the data defined in
the first entry point in the linked tables.
Table extension
When a set of entries defining local/subaddress conversion is common for
different tables a special “extension” table can be defined. This table will
contain only conversion records and will be linked to all the tables referring to
those entries.
MML Commands
The command LINPS is used to associate the PFA gateway Network Port (NP)
with either:
i) a configured address modification table by using the parameter
ADDRMOD=n where n is the table number. The table allows the conversion of addresses between public and private networks.
ii) a configured access control table by using the parameter
ACCESS=n where n is the table number. The table permits barring of an
incoming call if the calling address cannot be matched with the
LOCADDR parameter value.
If no address modification or access control is required the ADDRMOD or
ACCESS parameter should be set to be NONE.
LINPS
ANAMI
ANAMS
ANAMT
ANAMP
Set network port parameters
Initialisation of an address modification/access control
table
Set address modification/access control table
Termination of an address modification/access control
table
Printout for address modification/access control table(s)
Note that several gateway ports may refer to the same table.
Initialising Address Modification/Access Control Table (ANAMI)
The ANAMI command initialises an address modification or access control
table. The tables are identical in design but have a different function from
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each other. If the table is not an extension table then, if address modification
is required, one table should be created per physical port, i.e. six tables would
be required for every six ports requiring address modification. A table must be
created with “ANAMI:TABLE=table;” before conversion records (i.e., INTADDR
and LOCADDR parameters) can be added. To configure an access control
table, the user should only set the LOCADDR parameter so that incoming calls
will be rejected at the receiving NP if the calling address cannot be matched
to the configured LOCADDR value in the access table. Access control tables
may be chained.
The command can also initialise an extension table, which links existing tables
to the extension table which will only contain conversion records and no
default gateway profile. This use of extension tables reduces configuration
time as it can be used for multiple ports.
Wild card characters cannot be used in both INTADDR and LOCADDR parameters in the same conversion record.
ANAMI:TABLE=table<,EXTENSION=extension>;
then, if required:
ANAMI:TABLE=table,INTADDR=intaddr,LOCADDR=locaddr
<,CUD=cud><,PID=pid>;
Where:
table
table number
1...255
extension
Extension table
required?
YES or NO; default=NO.
Table will contain only
conversion records.
intaddr
Internal address
used in private
network
1 to 15 digits or NONE
Note that the wild-card
character "?" can be used
anywhere in the string to
match multiple addresses.
locaddr
Local address used in
public network or
calling address match
1 to 15 digits or NONE.
cud
Call user data
0-16 ASCII (except ‘+’)
or HEX characters;
default=NONE. The CUD
string should be enclosed in
quotes to preserve case
sensitivity, commas or
semi-colons; If HEX input,
CUD should be specified
as, e.g. "^01^02^03fred".
pid
Protocol ID (X.29)
for outgoing call
00000000FFFFFFFF (in HEX);
default=01000000.
For example:
ANAMI:TABLE=3;
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14. Address Modification
This example initialises an address modification table number 3. This table will
contain a header with the default values of the gateway profile and contains
no conversion records at present. Table 3 will be used for a specific port as
defined in the LINPS command.
ANAMI:TABLE=3,INTADDR=23885499,LOCADDR=211058;
This example adds a conversion record to table number 3. The record will
contain the internal address 23885499 and the corresponding local address
211058.
If multiple ports require address modification it may be easier to create an
extension table which will hold all local and internal address conversions
together. This reduces configuration time.
Firstly, address modification tables set up per port to provide gateway profiles
must indicate that conversion records for each table are in another separate
table, e.g.
ANAMI:TABLE=4;
ANAMI:TABLE=5;
ANAMI:TABLE=6;
Table 45 is known as an extension table and is created in a different way to
address modification tables for gateway profiles, i.e.
ANAMI:TABLE=45,EXTENSION=YES;
Extension table 45 contains no gateway profiles and contains no conversion
records at the moment.
ANAMI:TABLE=45,INTADDR=49745,LOCADDR=3496222;
ANAMI:TABLE=45,INTADDR=674666,LOCADDR=988979;
ANAMI:TABLE=45,INTADDR=85674,LOCADDR=1445??;
The examples add conversion records to the newly created extension table
45. The last entry matches multiple addresses, e.g. 144543, 144500 or 144599
but not 1445567 or 143567.
ANAMI:TABLE=99;
ANAMI:TABLE=99,LOCADDR=4567300;
This example adds a LOCADDR value of 4567300 to access table 99. Incoming calls into an NP with ACCESS=99 set will have their calling address
checked against the LOCADDR value.
Setting an Address Modification/Access Control Table (ANAMS)
The ANAMS command sets or modifies the address modification/access
control table parameters.
ANAMS:TABLE=table<,ADDRFORM=addrform><,OWNADDR
=ownaddr><,MAPCODE=mapcode><,INTPREF=intpref>
<,DCC=dcc><,DNIC=dnic><,SUBADDRLEN=subaddrlen>
<,NEXTTABLE=nexttable><,EXTPREF=extpref>;
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Where:table
Address mod. table
1...255
addrform
Address format used
NONE,IDN, NN,NTN
(default=IDN); defines whether
modification of remote
addresses shall be performed,
and, if so, the type of address
format used at the interface to
the public network.
ownaddr
Connected public
main station
address
1 to 15 digits, NONE (default);
sets the public network main
address assigned to the
gateway port, provided that
the complete address is used
in local address signalling. If
the local address signalling
carries subaddresses only the
OWNADDR parameter should
be "NONE”.
mapcode
Mapping code
1 to 15 digits, NONE (default);
defines the range mapping
function initial address digits
which the relevant internal
addresses have to start with.
The internal address digits
following the MAPCODE
correspond directly to the
subaddress digits of the local
address signalled via the
gateway port.
intpref
International prefix
1-15 digits or NONE (default).
The value of INTPREF defines
the prefix used by the public
network to indicate that an
address is in the international
format. Only valid for
ADDRFORM=NN or NTN.
dcc
Connected network
DCC
000..999 or NONE (default).
This indicates the country code
associated with the local
public network to which the
gateway port is connected.
Only valid for
ADDRFORM=NN.
dnic
Connected network
DNIC
0000..9999 or NONE (default).
The Local DNIC indicates the
Data Network Identification
Code associated with the local
public network to which the
gateway port is connected.
Only valid for
ADDRFORM=NTN.
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14. Address Modification
subaddrlen
Max. length
of subaddress
0..15 (default=2); sets to the
no. of subaddress digits which
are allowed to follow the
OWNADDR in the local
address signalled to the public
network. It does not affect the
handling of subaddresses
received from the public
network. The default value is
defined at installation.
nexttable
Linked extension
address mod. table
number
1..255,NONE (default)
extpref
External address
prefix
0-9,NONE (default).
This is a network dependent
parameter for use in a private
network to indicate that an
address is external. External
public network addresses are
represented by the external
prefix followed by the X.121
international data number.
For example:
ANAMS:TABLE=3,ADDRFORM=NTN,OWNADDR=23450077,
MAPCODE=34789,DNIC=2375;
This configures address modification table 3 with a gateway profile.
ANAMS:TABLE=1,NEXTTABLE=100;
This configures table number 1 to link to extension table number 100.
Printing Address Modification/Access Control Tables (ANAMP)
The ANAMP command prints out data for specified or all tables. The command can also printout a specific conversion record within a table.
ANAMP;
ANAMP:TABLE=table<,LOCAL=local>;
ANAMP:INTADDR=intaddr<,LOCAL=local>;
ANAMP:LOCADDR=locaddr<,LOCAL=local>;
ANAMP:TABLE=table,INTADDR=intaddr<,LOCAL=local>;
ANAMP:TABLE=table,LOCADDR=locaddr<,LOCAL=local>;
Where the parameters are as described for the ANAMI command with the
exception of:
local
446
Sorting criteria
YES or NO; default=NO.
If LOCAL=YES, LOCADDR
values are displayed in first
column instead of last column.
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For example:
ANAMP:TABLE=3;
ADDRESS MODIFICATION
TABLE=3
BASIC DATA
ADDRFORM
=
NTN
OWNADDR
=
2345355
INTPREF
=
NONE
MAPCODE
=
NONE
DCC
=
NONE
DNIC
=
NONE
EXTPREF
=
NONE
SUBADDRLEN
=
2
NEXTTABLE
=
99
INTADDR
LOCADDR
PID
675
777
01000000
CUD
END
This example prints the address modification table number 3.
ANAMP:TABLE=99;
ADDRESS MODIFICATION
TABLE=99
BASIC DATA
EXTENSION
=
YES
NEXTTABLE
=
NONE
EXTPREF
=
NONE
INTADDR
LOCADDR
PID
49745
3496222
01000000
CUD
This example prints the extension table 99 which is referenced by Table 3 in
the previous example.
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14. Address Modification
ANAMP:INTADDR=23885499;
ADDRESS MODIFICATION
TABLE=3
BASIC DATA
ADDRFORM
=
NTN
OWNADDR
=
2345355
INTPREF
=
NONE
MAPCODE
=
NONE
DCC
=
NONE
DNIC
=
NONE
EXTPREF
=
NONE
SUBADDRLEN
=
2
NEXTTABLE
=
NONE
INTADDR
LOCADDR
PID
23885499
211058
01000000
CUD
END
This example prints the table associated with internal address 23885499, i.e.
table 3.
Terminating Address Modification/Access Control Tables (ANAMT)
Address modification or access control can be disabled by either setting
ADDRMOD=NONE or ACCESS=NONE in the LINPS command for a specific
port or by using the ANAMT command which completely terminates an address modification table/record or a conversion record of an address modification table.
Note that if a complete table is to be terminated ensure other network ports
are not using the address modification table to be terminated.
An extension table cannot be terminated if it is still used by other address
modification tables.
ANAMT:TABLE=table<,INTADDR=inaddr,LOCADDR=locaddr>;
Where the parameters are as described for the ANAMI command.
For example:
ANAMT:TABLE=3;
This example terminates the address modification table number 3, including all
conversion records.
ANAMT:TABLE=3,INTADDR=2388559,LOCADDR=211058;
This example terminates the conversion record associated with internal address 2388559 in table 3 but leaves the table and other conversion records
intact.
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Parameters for Address Modification
Remote Address Conversion
The following sections offer the user some guidelines for the setting of parameters in particular applications.
IDN address format for PSDN
The external prefix, EXTPREF, is a network dependent parameter and is
configured with the ANAMS command, e.g.
ANAMS:TABLE=1,EXTPREF=1;
The ADDRFORM parameter should be assigned the value IDN.
NN format for PSDN
For International addresses:
The ADDRFORM parameter should be assigned the value NN.
Define INTPREFIX. Use the international prefix, i.e the external prefix of the
PSDN.
For National addresses:
The ADDRFORM parameter should be assigned the value NN.
Define DCC. Use the DCC (Data Country Code) of the public data network to
which the PFA product is connected.
NTN format for PSDN
For International addresses:
The ADDRFORM parameter should be assigned the value NTN.
Define INTPREFIX. Use the international prefix, i.e the external prefix of the
PSDN.
For National addresses:
The ADDRFORM parameter should be assigned the value NTN.
Define DNIC. Use the DNIC (Data Network Identification Code) of the public
data network.
Local Address Conversion
General
To convert between local and internal address formats there are three types of
address conversion principles:
Full mapping
Range mapping
Free mapping
Local address is the internal DTE address.
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14. Address Modification
Full mapping conversion
The conversion from internal address to local address is done by insertion of
OWNADDR before internal network number.
-Define OWNADDR. Use the public main station address signalled to the
gateway port. If only subaddress is signalled then OWNADDR should be set to
NONE.
The value of the SUBADDRLEN indicates the maximum number of subaddress
digits used by the gateway and supported by the public data network. Note
the total length of OWNADDR + SUBADDRLEN should not exceed 15 digits.
-Define SUBADDRLEN. The subaddress length should correspond to the
length of the internal network address.
Range mapping conversion
-Define OWNADDR. Use the public main station address signalled to the
gateway port. If only subaddress is signalled then OWNADDR should be set to
NONE.
The value of the SUBADDRLEN indicates the maximum number of
subaddress digits used by the gateway and supported by the public data
network. Note the total length of OWNADDR + SUBADDRLEN should not
exceed 15 digits.
-Define SUBADDRLEN. The subaddress length should correspond to the
length of the internal network address.
-Define MAPCODE. The mapcode should define a range of network internal
addresses.
Free mapping conversion
The conversion from internal address to local address by a free conversion is
done by a conversion record changing internal address to local address
subaddress and insert OWNADDR before local subaddress.
-Define INTADDR and LOCADDR. INTADDR is the complete internal network
address used by the network for routing purposes. LOCADDR is the
subaddress that the INTADDR is converted to, typically the public network
subaddress.
-Define OWNADDR. Use the public main station address signalled to the
gateway port. If only subaddress is signalled then OWNADDR should be set to
NONE.
The value of the SUBADDRLEN indicates the max. number of subaddress
digits used by the gateway and supported by the public data network. Note
the total length of OWNADDR + SUBADDRLEN should not exceed 15 digits.
-Define SUBADDRLEN. The subaddress length should correspond to the
length of the internal network address.
One-directional mapping
Set SUBADDRLEN parameter to value 0. This will have the effect that no
subaddress digits are indicated after OWNADDR in local address signalling to
the public network.
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Multiple tables and table extension
Multiple address modification tables can be used when connecting the private
network to different public networks, or accessing different sets of internal
addresses from different gateways, all with common address conversion
principle.
Multiple address modification tables may be linked together, in this case the
local address/subaddress to be converted will be searched sequentially
through the linked tables.
For example:
Gateway port 1 -> table 1 -> extension table 3
Gateway port 2 -> table 2 -> extension table 3
conversion 1
conversion 2
conversion n
ANAMI:TABLE=1;
ANAMI:TABLE=3,EXTENSION=YES;
ANAMS:TABLE=1,NEXTTABLE=3;
ANAMI:TABLE=2;
ANAMS:TABLE=2,NEXTTABLE=3;
ANAMI:TABLE=3,INTADDR=XXXX,LOCADDR=ZZ; conversion 1
ANAMI:TABLE=3,INTADDR=YYYY,LOCADDR=VV; conversion 2
ANAMI:TABLE=3,INTADDR=RRRR,LOCADDR=PP; conversion n
Search Algorithm
Whether converting from an internal to a local address or from a local to an
internal address, the type of mapping depends on which parameters are
configured in ANAMI and ANAMS. If MAPCODE is configured, the conversion
will conform to the range mapping rules. If INTADDR and LOCADDR are
configured, the conversion will be a free mapping. If there is no address match
in the tables for INTADDR or LOCADDR, or they are not configured, then a full
mapping conversion will be attempted.
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14. Address Modification
Address Modification Example
Public (remote)
Network
DTE-Y
PSDN
(operates NTN format)
DNIC=1234
Private (local)
Network
PFA
Gateway Node
Network Port = 1-1-1-2,
OWNADDR= 43215678,
ADDRFORM=NTN,
SUBADDRLEN=2,
MAPCODE=1111,
DNIC=1234,
INTPREF=0’
EXTPREF=9
DTE-X
Figure 14-11: Example of Address Modification.
The network port NP=1-1-1-2 connects to the PSDN. The PSDN uses the NTN
address format. The DNIC of the PSDN is 1234. The PSDN main address
signalled to the gateway port is 43215678. The PSDN provides the use of
subaddress with two digits and uses the international prefix zero (0). Within
the private data network, a group of up to 100 DTEs with addresses starting
with the digits 1111 should be integrated with the numbering plan of the
public data network. The external prefix within the private network is assumed
to be 9.
The following definition should be made:
LINPS:NP=1-1-1-2,ADDRMOD=1;
ANAMI:TABLE=1;
ANAMS:TABLE=1,ADDRFORM=NTN,OWNADDR=
43215678,SUBADDRLEN=2,MAPCODE=1111,DNIC=1234,INTPREF=0,
EXTPREF=9;
The following cases show the address modification in action.
Case 1
An incoming call to the gateway from the PSDN with called/calling address
4321567801/656565 is converted by the gateway and forwarded to the private
DTE as called/calling address 111101/91234656565. (Note calling address
modification - if there is no INTPREFIX then insert the DNIC)
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Case 2
An incoming call to the gateway from the PSDN with called/calling address
4321567801/034056565 is converted by the gateway and forwarded to the
private DTE as called/calling address 111101/934056565.
Case 3
An outgoing call directed to the gateway with called/calling address
91234765432/111123 is converted by the gateway and forwarded to the
PSDN as called/calling address 765432/4321567823.
Case 4
An outgoing call directed to the gateway with called/calling address
924023232/111188 is converted by the gateway and forwarded to the PSDN
as called/calling address 024023232/4321567888.
Case 5
An outgoing call directed to the gateway with called/calling address
924023232/545678 is converted by the gateway and forwarded to the PSDN
as called/calling address 024023232/43215678.
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15. Network and Line Testing
15. Network and Line Testing
Network Testing
A Traffic Port (TP) is a software function within a PFA product that generates
traffic to another PFA product. By combining the TP with an Echo Port (EP),
i.e. an internal software function within a remote unit, the traffic is echoed
back to the sender and statistics can be read accordingly.
This is carried out to create an artificial network load, or measure the network
performance, e.g. response and call set-up times, of the nodes on the network.
In Figure 15-1, a TP is used to generate traffic to another unit.
PFA
Product
TP
Call Statistics Echoed
back to Traffic Generator
FS/PFS
Backbone
Fast Select call for
Traffic Generation
EP
PFA
Product
Figure 15-1: Traffic and Echo Ports.
Note that TP and EPs can also be set up independently of each
other to test connections and to create network loads.
Network Testing Traffic Ports
Introduction
Two types of traffic generation can be carried out between units, i.e.
i) Packet Switching Traffic Generation
ii) Frame Relay Traffic Generation
For statistics collection, the TP is used in conjunction with an EP, i.e. the
parameter “ECHO=YES” should be set for the TP.
The TP will, in echo mode, examine all incoming data packets and frames and
check for errors. Assuming that it is connected to a packet switching or Frame
Relay EP, the content of a received data packet or frame should be exactly
the same as the content of a data packet or frame previously sent.
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15. Network and Line Testing
Packet Switching Traffic Generation
Each TP is given a numeric or mnemonic name to be used as an ID.
When a TP is deblocked, it will attempt to establish one or more calls to the
selected destination.
Frame Relay Traffic Generation
Frame relay traffic generation allows frame relay traffic to be sent to a
configurable destination. When used in conjunction with a Frame Relay EP,
the Frame Relay TP can be used to simulate an artificial load on a frame relay
network. The resulting collected statistics can then be analysed.
Traffic generation requires the configuration of a single Frame Relay TP and
Frame Relay FP port(s) which are linked via internal PVC segment(s).
Packet Switching Traffic Port Configuration
Initialising Packet Switching Traffic Ports (PSTRI)
The PSTRI command initialises up to 8 Traffic Ports (TP). The TP will not
become active (start generating traffic) until it is deblocked.
PSTRI:ID=id,NTN=ntn,ORIG=orig<,USER=user>;
Where:id
Identity of traffic
generator
1 to 10 characters
ntn
Destination NTN
1 to 15 digits
orig
Originating NTN
1 to 15 digits. This is the NTN
to use as calling address in call
request packets.
user
Sends NUI facility
with specified
username and
password
username-password;
each field up to 10 chars,
e.g., USER=OPER-ATOR
When testing PFA products back to back, addressing can be simplified by
ensuring NTN, ORIG and the remote ECHO port are the same value.
For example:
PSTRI:ID=TP1,NTN=12345,ORIG=54321;
Setting Packet Switching Traffic Port (PSTRS)
The PSTRS command modifies parameters previously configured for a TP. It
is only possible to set a TP that is manually blocked. When the TP is manually
blocked it will clear any established calls.
PSTRS:ID=id<,NTN=ntn><,ORIG=orig><,LC=lc><,ECHO=echo>
<,PRI=pri><,DATALEN=datalen><,CLEARINT=clearint>
<,RESETINT=resetint><,DATAINT=dataint><,INTINT=intint><,PS=ps>
<,WS=ws><,PAD=pad><,PID=pid><,USER=user>
<,CALLWAIT=callwait>;
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15. Network and Line Testing
Where the parameters are as described for the PSTRI command with the
exception of:
lc
No. of logical
channels
1 to 24; default=1
echo
Echo or discard
mode
YES/NO (default=YES).
Note that if ECHO=YES, then
the TP will monitor the call
user data in received call
confirm packets and the data
field in data packets.
pri
Call priority class
assigned to traffic
port calls
1-4 or DEFAULT;
default=DEFAULT.
If PRI=DEFAULT the default
call priority defined in PSPRS
is used.
datalen
Length of data
packets to be sent
1 - 4096 bytes;
default=128.
clearint
Interval between
two clears
100-3600000 ms or
DISABLED (default). The first
clear will be sent clearint
millisecs after the call has been
accepted. If set to DISABLED,
the TP will not initiate a clear.
resetint
Interval between
two resets
100-3600000 ms or
DISABLED (default). The first
reset will be sent resetint
millisecs after the call has been
accepted. If set to DISABLED,
the TP will not initiate a reset.
dataint
Interval between
two data packets
100-3600000 ms or
DISABLED; default=1000.
The first data packet will be
sent dataint millisecs after the
call has been accepted. If set
to DISABLED, the TP will not
send data packets.
intint
Interval between
two interupt
packets
100-3600000 ms or
DISABLED (default). The first
interrupt packet will be sent
intint millisecs after the call has
been accepted. If set to
DISABLED, the TP will not
send interrupt packets.
ps
Packet size
128,256,512,1024,2048,4096;
default=256.
Note: PS£DATALEN.
ws
Window size
2-127; default=2.
pad
Traffic data type
YES/NO; default=NO.
If PAD=NO, data from 00 to FF
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15. Network and Line Testing
(HEX) will be sent. If
PAD=YES only ASCII printable
data is sent (used for traffic to
async terminals).
pid
Protocol ID of
traffic port call
00000000-FFFFFFFF (in HEX);
default=01000000.
callwait
Time interval to wait
before re-establishing
a cleared call
100-3600000 ms;
default=1000.
For example:
PSTRS:ID=TP1,NTN=12345,PS=256;
Deblocking Packet Switching Traffic Port (PSTRD)
The PSTRD command deblocks a TP. The TP will try to establish call(s) and
send data/interrupt/clear/reset according to its configuration.
PSTRD:ID=id;
Blocking Packet Switching Traffic Port (PSTRB)
The PSTRB command blocks a TP. All established calls will be cleared, but
the TP will remain in the configuration, ready to be deblocked.
PSTRB:ID=id;
Printing Packet Switching Traffic Port Parameters (PSTRP)
The PSTRP command requests a printout of one or all TPs. If ID is specified
then the selected TP will be printed, otherwise all TPs will be printed. The
printout will display both the configuration of the TP and collected statistics.
PSTRP<:ID=id>;
For example:
PSTRP:ID=TP1;
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15. Network and Line Testing
PRINTOUT OF TRAFFIC PORTS
ID
:
TP1
STATE
:
WO
NTN
= 12345
ORIG
= 54321
ECHO
= YES
LC
= 8
DATALEN
= 100
CLEARINT(ms)
= DISABLED
RESETINT(ms)
= DISABLED
DATAINT(ms)
= 100
PS
= 256
WS
= 7
INTINT (ms)
= DISABLED
PAD
= NO
PID
= 01000000
PRI
= DEFAULT
CALLWAIT
= 1000
USER
= NONE
NUM OF CALLS
= 8
AVERAGE CALL DELAY (s)
= 0.0234
NUM OF DATA PKTS SENT
= 3277
NUM OF DATA PKTS RECEIVED
= 3109
AVERAGE DATA DELAY (s)
= 23
NUM OF INTERRUPTS SENT
= 0
NUM OF INTERRUPTS RECEIVED
= 0
NUM OF CLEARS SENT
= 0
NUM OF CLEARS RECEIVED
= 0
NUM OF RESETS SENT
= 0
NUM OF RESETS RECEIVED
= 0
LAST CAUSE CODE RECEIVED
= 000
LAST DIAGNOSTIC CODE RECEIVED
= 000
END
Terminating Packet Switching Traffic Port (PSTRT)
The PSTRT command terminates a TP. The TP will be deleted from the configuration.
PSTRT:ID=id;
Frame Relay Traffic Port Configuration
The configuration of the Frame Relay TP is carried out by initialising the Frame
Relay TP with the FRTRI command. The configured NTN is then used in one
or several PVC segments connecting the Frame Relay TP to a physical FP
port configured with the LIPPI, LIFPI and FRTEI commands. Each PVC segment is configured with the FRPCI and FRTPI commands which match together the PVCID parameter at the A-side of the segment.
NOTE: Traffic generation is only possible by using Frame Relay
PVCs. No traffic generation is possible with Frame Relay SVCs.
The diagram illustrated in Figure 15-2 shows the configuration process.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
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Initialise
LIPPI
LIFPI
Initialise
FRTRI
FRPCI FRTPI
FRTEI
LIFPD
FRPCD FRTRD
Deblock
Side A
Side B
LIPPD
Deblock
15. Network and Line Testing
Figure 15-2: Frame relay TP configuration (PVCs only).
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15. Network and Line Testing
Initialising Frame Relay Traffic Port (FRTRI)
The FRTRI command initialises a single Frame Relay TP only. The TP will not
become active (start generating traffic) until it is deblocked.
FRTRI:NTN=ntn;
Where:ntn
NTN of Frame
Relay TP
1-15 digits
For example:
FRTRI:NTN=345000;
Deblocking Frame Relay Traffic Port (FRTRD)
The FRTRD command deblocks a Frame Relay TP which will try to establish
PVCs.
FRTRD;
Blocking Frame Relay Traffic Port (FRTRB)
The FRTRB command blocks a Frame Relay TP. All PVCs will be cleared, but
the TP will remain in the configuration, ready to be deblocked.
FRTRB;
Printing Frame Relay Traffic Port Parameters (FRTRP)
The FRTRP command prints the configuration of the Frame Relay TP, associated PVCs and collected statistics reported back to the Frame Relay TP.
FRTRP<,PVCID=pvcid>;
For example:
FRTRP:PVCID="London";
PRINTOUT OF FRAME RELAY TRAFFIC PORT PVCS
NTN
= 345000
TRAFFIC PORT STATE = WO
PVCID
= London
DATALEN
= 128
DATAINT (ms)
= 1000
BURSTSIZ
= 100
ECHO
= YES
PVC STATE
= WO
NUM OF DATA PKTS SENT
= 186000
NUM OF DATA PKTS RECEIVED
= 186000
NUM OF DATA PKTS DROPPED
= 66
AVERAGE DATA DELAY (s)
= 0.0234
NUM OF DATA PKTS FAILING DATA INTEGRITY CHECK
= 0
END
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15. Network and Line Testing
Terminating Frame Relay Traffic Port (FRTRT)
The FRTRT command terminates a Frame Relay TP. The TP must be manually
blocked before it can be terminated. In addition, any dependent Frame Relay
PVCs must also be terminated.
FRTRT;
Initialising Frame Relay PVCs (FRPCI)
The FRPCI command initialises Frame Relay PVCs and belongs to the following group of commands:
FRPCS
FRPCD
FRPCB
FRPCT
FRPCP
Set Frame Relay PVC parameters
Deblock Frame Relay PVC
Block Frame Relay PVC
Terminate Frame Relay PVC
Print Frame Relay PVCs
The configuration of Frame Relay PVCs is required for use with Frame Relay
TPs, the configuration of PVCs is the same as described in Section 10 where
the SIDEA parameter is set to SIDEA=FRTP for Frame Relay TP operation.
Initialising Frame Relay TP PVC (FRTPI)
The FRTPI command initialises up to 20 Frame Relay TP PVCs for the single
Frame Relay TP. The PVCID parameter matches with the PVCID parameter
configured with the FRPCI command.
FRTPI:PVCID="pvcid"<,DATALEN=datalen>
<,DATAINT=dataint><,BURSTSIZ=burstsiz><,ECHO=echo>;
Where:"pvcid"
PVC identifier
at A-side
3 to 10 characters.
Inverted commas can be used
to preserve case sensitivity.
datalen
Length of data
frames to be sent
20..4096 bytes;
default=128.
dataint
Interval between
two data bursts
100..3600000 ms or
DISABLED; default=1000.
burstsiz
Burst size
1-2000; default=100.
This is no. of packets sent
between each burst.
echo
Echo generated
traffic?
YES or NO; default=YES.
If ECHO=NO then incoming
traffic will be discarded.
For example:
FRTPI:PVCID="London",DATALEN=256,DATAINT=2000,
BURSTSIZ=150,ECHO=YES;
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15. Network and Line Testing
Setting Frame Relay TP PVC (FRTPS)
The FRTPS command modifies parameter values previously configured with
the FRTPI command.
FRTPS:PVCID=pvcid<,DATALEN=datalen>
<,DATAINT=dataint><,BURSTSIZ=burstsiz><,ECHO=echo>;
Where the parameters are as described for the FRTPI command.
For example, to modify the data interval for a Frame Relay TP PVC:
FRTPS:PVCID="London",DATAINT=1500;
Terminating Frame Relay TP PVC (FRTPT)
The FRTPT command terminates a specified Frame Relay TP PVC.
FRTPT:PVCID=pvcid;
Where:"pvcid"
PVC identifier
at A-side
3 to 10 characters.
Inverted commas can be used
to preserve case sensitivity.
For example:
FRTPT:PVCID="London";
Printing Frame Relay TP PVC (FRTPP)
The FRTPP command prints a specified or all Frame Relay TP PVC.
FRTPP<:PVCID=pvcid>;
Where:"pvcid"
PVC identifier
at A-side
3 to 10 characters;
Inverted commas can be used
to preserve case sensitivity.
For example:
FRTPP;
PVCID
= London
DATALEN
= 256
DATAINT (ms)
= 1500
BURSTSIZ
= 100
ECHO
= YES
PVCID
= Stockholm
DATALEN
= 128
DATAINT (ms)
= 1000
BURSTSIZ
= 100
ECHO
= YES
END
Where the parameters are as described for the FRTPI command.
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15. Network and Line Testing
Network Testing - Echo Ports
Introduction
The Packet switching or Frame Relay Echo Port (EP) is primarily used in
conjunction with the respective TP generator to echo traffic generated back to
the originating traffic generated.
When a packet switching or Frame Relay EP is initialised it is assigned an
NTN.
Packet Switching Echo Port
The Packet switching EP can be used to direct an X.25 terminal call across
the network to the EP to indicate connection. Calls coming into the node with
a called address equal to the NTN assigned to the EP will be routed to the EP.
The EP examines the fifth byte of the Call User Data. If this byte equals decimal 69 (ASCII E), i.e. when the originating remote traffic generator has
“ECHO=YES” set in the PSTRS command, the call will be in echo mode, i.e.
the EP will echo all incoming data and interrupt packets back to the sender. If
this is not the case, the call will be in sink mode, i.e. the EP will ignore all
incoming data and interrupt packets (ECHO=NO).
Frame Relay Echo Port
The Frame Relay EP will examine the first byte of every PVC data frame to
check if echo mode is set. If this byte equals decimal 69 (ASCII E), i.e. when
the originating remote traffic generator has “ECHO=YES” set in the FRTPI
command, the PVC data frame will be in echo mode, i.e. the EP will echo the
data frame back to the sender. If this is not the case, the data frame will be in
sink mode, i.e. the EP will discard the data frame (ECHO=NO).
Packet Switching Echo Port Configuration
Initialising Packet Switching Echo Port (PSECI)
The PSECI command initialises a packet switching EP. Incoming calls to a
node with a called address equal to the NTN will be directed to the packet
switching EP.
PSECI:NTN=ntn<,PS=ps><,WS=ws>;
Where:ntn
NTN of EP
1 to 15 digits
ps
Packet size
128,256,512,1024,2048,4096;
default=256.
Note: PS£DATALEN
ws
Window size
2-127; default=2
For example:
PSECI:NTN=7000999,PS=128,WS=7;
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15. Network and Line Testing
Printing Packet Switching Echo Port Parameters (PSECP)
The PSECP command prints the packet switching EP settings, e.g.
PSECP;
ECHO PORT SETUP
NTN
: 7000999
PS
: 4096
WS
: 2
END
Terminating Packet Switching Echo Port (PSECT)
The PSECT command terminates a packet switching EP. When the EP is
terminated, any established calls will be cleared, and it will no longer receive
any incoming calls.
PSECT;
Frame Relay Echo Port Configuration
In a similar manner to the Frame Relay TP configuration, the configuration of
the Frame Relay EP is carried out by initialising the Frame Relay EP with the
FRECI command. The configured NTN is then used in one or several PVC
segments connecting the Frame Relay EP and a physical FP port configured
with the LIPPI, LIFPI and FRTEI commands. Each PVC segment is configured
with the FRPCI command.
The diagram illustrated in Figure 15-3 shows the configuration process.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
465
Initialise
LIPPI
LIFPI
Initialise
FRECI
FRPCI
FRTEI
LIFPD
Deblock
Side A
FRPCD
Side B
LIPPD
Deblock
15. Network and Line Testing
Figure 15-3: Frame relay EP configuration (PVC only).
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15. Network and Line Testing
Initialising Frame Relay Echo Port (FRECI)
The FRECI command intialises a single Frame Relay EP.
FRECI:NTN=ntn;
Where:ntn
NTN of Frame Relay
echo port
1-15 digits
For example:
FRECI:NTN=867000;
Printing Frame Relay Echo Port (FRECP)
The FRECP command prints the Frame Relay EP parameters, e.g.
FRECP;
NTN
= 867000
END
Terminating Frame Relay Echo Port (FRECT)
The FRECT command terminates a Frame Relay EP, e.g.
FRECT;
Initialising Frame Relay PVCs (FRPCI)
The FRPCI command initialises Frame Relay PVCs and belongs to the following group of commands:
FRPCS
FRPCD
FRPCB
FRPCT
FRPCP
Set Frame Relay PVC parameters
Deblock Frame Relay PVC
Block Frame Relay PVC
Terminate Frame Relay PVC
Print Frame Relay PVCs
The configuration of Frame Relay PVCs is required for use with Frame Relay
EPs, the configuration of PVCs is the same as described in Section 10 where
the SIDEA parameter is set to SIDEA=FREP for Frame Relay EP operation.
Line Testing for Serial Ports
Introduction
The unit supports serial line testing for modems which support the V.54 test
loops only, i.e. V.28, V.35 and V.36. These loops are applied by the use of the
V.24 signals 140, 141 and 142 for LOOP2, LOOP3 and TI, respectively.
Note that:
X.150 line testing for X.21/V.11 serial ports and V.54 lin testing for SDLC are
not supported.
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15. Network and Line Testing
The line testing facility is applicable to all serial ports with the exception of
Frame Relay ports.
Characteristics
A port object dedicated to line testing acts in conjunction with a layer 2 LP
object. The line testing does not affect the PP/LP/NP port stack such that no
settings will be changed.
It is possible to simultaneously operate one test loop for each serial port
provided that V.54 loops are supported on the interface. If an attempt is made
to apply a loop to V.11 or G.703 interfaces (i.e., interfaces not supporting
V.54) then the “LOOP FAILED” message will be displayed upon with the
STLTP command.
Supported loops/tests
The line test function supports two types of tests. These are tests where an
external modem is controlled by the unit so that loops may be applied, or
tests where cables are used.
Four tests are possible:
1. Modem test for remote digital loop 2 (sets TI to be ON)
2. Modem test for local analogue loop 3 (sets TI to be ON)
3. Test supported by cable insertion (loopback cable)
4. Test supported by cable insertion (end-to-end testing)
Modem Tests with Loop2 and Loop3
The following diagram shows the positioning of test loops 2 and 3 within a
network of two units connected by two modems supporting V.54 testing.
Local
Loop 3
Remote
Loop 2
Unit
Unit
Figure 15-4: V.54 Loopback Tests for Modems.
Tests Supported by Cable Insertion
Two tests are supported without modems by the application of a network or
loopback cable. The function of the loopback cable is to connect the transmit
signals on a port to its own input signals, thus looping the interface.
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15. Network and Line Testing
Loopback Cable
End to End Testing
(Normal Cable)
Unit
Unit
Figure 15-5: End-to-End Testing with Cables.
It should be noted that the use of end-to-end testing requires both of the
connected units to be placed into line test mode. In this mode, the number of
transmitted frames on one unit should correspond to the number of received
frames on the second unit.
Required port object states
In order to use the line testing module, an additional line test port object is
configured to operate as the LP object; the NP and LP objects must be
manually blocked in order to configure the line test port object.
The deblocking of the line testing LP will initiate the line test. Note that the NP
layer cannot be modified if the LP is in test mode.
Configuration of tests
Unlike many other command sets for the line configuration, there is no LILTS
command to set parameters for the line test function. This is done with the
LILTI command. It is possible to read the configuration of the line test function
at any time after initialisation by use of the LILTP command.
If a port is already configured and port object are in WO state, the following
order should be used for setting up the test.
1) Block NP
2) Block LP
3) Initialise line test
4) Deblock line test
The deblocking at step 4 runs the test. Once the test has been completed and
the line statistics have been analysed, the line test port object can be terminated.
Initialising Test Process (LILTI)
The LILTI command initialises a line test process on the specified port.
LILTI:LP=lp<,LOOP=loop><,DELAY=delay>
<,DURATION=time>;
Where:lp
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Link port number
1-1-1-(1-18)
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15. Network and Line Testing
loop
Loop number
NONE,LOCAL(default) or
REMOTE (LOCAL=loop 3,
REMOTE=loop 2). The NONE
option is intended for use with
a looping cable to emulate a
modem, or for a test between
two units.
delay
Loop to test delay
5...100 seconds(default=5)
This specifies the delay
between application of a loop
and the start of transmission of
test frames.
time
Test duration
1..100000 seconds
(default=60). Test frames are
transmitted as soon as the
previous frame is transmitted.
This means that the frames are
sent at the maximum rate for
the baud rate selected.
For example:
LILTI:LP=1-1-1-2,LOOP=LOCAL,DELAY=5,DURATION=60;
Deblocking a Test Process (LILTD)
The LILTD command deblocks the line test process on the specified port. This
actually sets the test running.
LILTD:LP=port;
Blocking a Test Process (LILTB)
The LILTB blocks or stops the line test process on the specified port.
LILTB:LP=port;
Printing Test Process (LILTP)
The LILTP command prints or displays the serial line test configuration on the
specified port.
LILTP:LP=port;
For example:
LILTP:LP=1-1-1-3;
PORT TEST SETUP
LP
LOOP
DELAY
DURATION
STATUS
______________________________________________________
1-1-1-3
LOCAL
20
60
WO
END
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15. Network and Line Testing
Where the parameters are as described for the LILTI command with the
exception of:
STATUS
Line test port
object status
WO (working order) or
MB (manually blocked)
Terminating a Test Process (LILTT)
The LILTT command terminates the line test process on the specified port.
The command can only be carried out if the line test port object has been
manually blocked.
LILTT:LP=port
Printing Line Test Statistics (STLTP)
The STLTP prints the line test results; this is the TEST OUTPUT. This may be
used at any time in order to examine the status of the loop and the transmit/
receive and error rates etc.
STLTP:LP=port;
For example:
STLTP:LP=1-1-1-3;
PORT TEST RESULTS
LP
STATE
LOOP
—————————————————————————————————————————————
1-1-1-3
TEST COMPLETE
LOCAL
TEST STARTED AT: 1997-MM-DD HHMMSS
TX FRAMES
RX FRAMES
ERROR RATE
—————————————————————————————————————————————
4177
4177
0
END
Where:-
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
STATE=
LOOP SETTING
LOOP SET
LOOP DELAY
LOOP FAILED
TESTING
TEST COMPLETE
TEST INITIALISED
WAITING FOR LAST FRAME
LOOP=
NONE
LOCAL
REMOTE
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15. Network and Line Testing
The date and time the test was started is displayed. The format is YYYY-MMDD and HHMMSS.
TX FRAMES =
total transmitted test frames
RX FRAMES =
total received test frames
ERROR RATE =
% error rate. Any errors observed during the test will be
expressed as a percentage as follows:
LT TX frames - LT RX frames/ LT TX frames X 100
Resetting Line Test Statistics (STLTR)
The STLTR command resets the line test results for a specified port once
analysed. Link status indications are unchanged, e.g.
STLTR:LP=1-1-1-3;
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16. Transparent ISDN
16. Transparent ISDN
Introduction
The transparent ISDN functionality is possible with use of two versions of
TransISDN POP PAK which support their own user interface.
TransISDN POP PAK (1 port)
TransISDN POP PAK (2 port)
The TransISDN POP PAKs provide a dial-up transparent pipeline across an
ISDN network carrying X.25, X.75(E) or Frame Relay.
Multiple channels are provided for the transfer of information. There are two
bearer channels denoted as the “B” channels which:
• Are capable of 64 Kbps each.
• Carry digitised voice or data including X.25, X.75(E) and Frame Relay.
• Do not carry ISDN signalling information.
• Provide circuit-switched or leased circuit connections.
• Can be used by lower rate services.
A third channel called 16 Kbps “D” or Delta channel is used which is:
• Used for ISDN signalling (instructions, negotiations, call control). The
call control functions on the “D” channel set up and terminate B channel
calls.
The operation of the three channels is why the commonly used phrase of
“2B+D” is used in ISDN.
NOTE: It is recommended that your ISDN access point (NT) should
be allocated a single phone number as opposed to two numbers.
Features
The features supported by the TransISDN POP PAKs are:
• Connection to Basic Rate ISDN.
• Single- or dual-port POP PAK version.
• A 64 Kbps input capable of utilising any one of the two separate 64
Kbps B channels connected to different ISDN destinations.
• Use of ISDN as a transparent carrier, e.g. X.25, X.75(E) or Frame Relay
data.
• ISDN used for extra bandwidth/backup to X.25 or Frame Relay line.
• ISDN addressing controlled by the V25BIS protocol.
• X.25 packet switching at >200 pps
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16. Transparent ISDN
Software Versions
The TransISDN POP PAKs are supplied with user selectable software versions. To select a particular software version on the POP PAK, the following
command is used:
SET NET <version>
Where <version> can be:
EUR
ATT
DMS
US1
HOL
AUS
NTT
EIR
ISR
FRA
Eur0ISDN (shipped as default)
USA, AT&T Exchange, 5ESS Custom Protocol
USA, NT, DMS100, Northern Telecom Exchanges
USA, National ISDN-1
EurISDN with Dutch/Holland variations
Australia TPH1962
Nippon Telecom (Japan)
EurISDN with Eire variations
Israel
France, VN3
For example, to select French ISDN software:
SET NET FRA
The SAVE and RESET commands should be used after using the SET NET
<version> command.
Note that the currently operating version of software can only be read by local
connection into the POP PAK with the SHOW VERSION command.
The US1 networks require a Service Provider ID (SPID) to be set within the
TransISDN POP PAK. A SPID must entered for each B channel. A SPID is
issued to the customer from the service provider when the line is first rented;
the number (minimum 9 digits) is the full telephone number of the B channel
including the area code with several digits added to the end. The SPID is
entered from the config port of the POP PAK as follows:
SET SPID 1 <number>
SET SPID 2 <number>
Access to TransISDN POP PAKs
Two types of access are permitted into the TransISDN POP PAK.
Local Access
Local Access to TransISDN POP PAKs is via the 9-pin CONFIG port on the
rear of the TransISDN POP PAK. The dumb terminal or PC with comms
package connected to this port must have the following settings:
Baud rate: 9600 baud
Parity: no parity check
8 dats bits, 1 stop bit
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16. Transparent ISDN
Remote Access
The TransISDN POP PAK can be remotely configured over an ISDN B channel.
In order to distinguish between incoming data transfer calls and remote
management calls, the management calls use a unique “type of call” value.
The remote management port is always port 3. To access that port type:
3 <RETURN>
From this port dial a remote unit by using the DIAL command, e.g.
dial 0123456789 <RETURN>
Where 0123456789 is the ISDN address of the remote TransISDN POP PAK.
If the call is successful the response will be:
>3< REMOTE CONNECTION ESTABLISHED
R>1<
All command prompts from the remote unit are preceded by the letter R. Once
the call is established the commands can be entered as if the user is directly
connected to the remote unit. To hangup, the user must enter the HANG
command.
Transparent ISDN Configuration
Configuration of the TransISDN POP PAK is carried out in one of two ways:
i) via the unit user interface (LIISS command).
ii) via direct logon to the TransISDN POP PAK.
Via the PFA User Interface
Send V25bis message (LIISS)
The LIISS command will send a V25bis string to the port (>1<) associated with
the TransISDN POP PAK; a reply is expected from the port within the time
configured with the WAIT parameter. Note that the PP object must have
ACCESS=SWITCHED_V25BIS configured with the LIPPS command and that
the NP object must also be manually blocked.
LIISS:PP=pp,V25STRING=v25string<,WAIT=wait>;
Where:pp
physical port
number
1-1-1-(1-18)
v25string
V25bis modem
string
1-30 characters
wait
Time to wait
for response
1-200 seconds;
default=10.
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16. Transparent ISDN
For example, to set speed at 19200 baud from a choice of 9600, 19200,
48000, 56000 and 64000 (default):
LIISS:PP=1-1-1-1,V25STRING=”PSP 19200",WAIT=10;
For example, to set channel 0, 1 or 2, in this case 0 which means ANY channel.
LIISS:PP=1-1-1-1,V25STRING=”PCH 0",WAIT=10;
For example, to set a local ISDN address, e.g. 2426507#3 (note optional
subaddress #3).
LIISS:PP=1-1-1-1,V25STRING=”PLA 2426507#3",WAIT=10;
For example, to save the currently configured setup. All changes will be lost if
this command is not issued.
LIISS:PP=1-1-1-1,V25STRING=”PMW”,WAIT=10;
Note: These are the only valid SWITCHED_V25BIS commands that
can be sent from the PFA to the TransISDN POP PAK.
Note: “VAL” indicates that the command entered is valid. “NO
RESPONSE RECEIVED” message is expected when a configuration
is saved.
Reset PP (LIPPR)
The LIPPR command resets a port on a TransISDN POP PAK where fitted to
allow any remote POP PAK to be restarted from across a network. It will have
no effect on any port NOT fitted with the POP PAK. The port must be manually
blocked for the LIPPR command to be issued.
LIPPR:PP=port;
Where:port
physical port
number
1-1-1-(1-18)
For example, to reset the ISDN POP PAK on PP 1-1-1-3:
LIPPR:PP=1-1-1-3;
Via Direct Logon
TransISDN POP PAK (1 port Version)
Only use the >1< prompt.
Although it is possible to switch to port 2, by entering >2<, the port >2< is not
in operation.
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16. Transparent ISDN
TransISDN POP PAK (2 port Version)
When connected locally via the CONFIG port, the user can switch between
ports 1 and 2 for configuration, i.e.
>1<
>1< 2 <RETURN>
>2<
For port 1, i.e. at the >1< prompt, the recommended settings should be as for
the 1-port version above except:
SET CHAN 1
This ties channel one to port 1.
For port 2, i.e. at the >2< prompt, the recommended settings should be as for
the 1-port version above except:
SET CHAN 2
This ties channel two to port 2.
Command Set
A subset of the full command set available ONLY when logged onto the
TransISDN POP PAKs is as follows:
RESET
Resets the POP PAK.
SAVE
Saves current configuration in non-volatile memory on POP PAK.
SET ANSWER MANUAL (default)/AUTOMATIC
This specifies how an incoming ISDN connection will be answered. The
command SET ANSWER AUTO will answer incoming connections automatically. When SET ANSWER MANUAL is used the port will wait for an "answer"
command.
SET AUTODIAL ENABLE/DISABLE (default)
This command enables or disables autodialling on the TransISDN POP PAK.
When DTR is raised through the POP PAK, autodialling occurs to the remote
ISDN address which must to be configured in the TransISDN POP PAK with
the SET REMOTE ADDRESS command.
NOTE: Ensure autodialling is switched off on unused port <-2->
SET CALL CONTROL V25 HDLC (default) /DATA
This command specifies the port protocol to be used. It is recommended that
SET CALL CONTROL V25 HDLC is used in all instances.
SET CHAN 1/2/ANY (default)
This command specifies the ISDN bearer channel to be used by the current
port when making outgoing connections or when performing checks on
incoming connections. If SET CHANNEL 1 is set on a port, and an incoming
connection arrives on bearer channel 2 the port will ignore it.
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16. Transparent ISDN
SET HELP
This command will list all SET commands.
SET LOCAL ADDRESS/SUBADDRESS
The SET LOCAL ADDRESS <addr> command sets the local ISDN address (up
to 23 digits) for the current port; alphanumberic characters 0-9 can only be
used. The address of an incoming ISDN connection has to match with this
address.
For the two-port POP PAK version, ensure that each port is designated with a
distinct local ISDN address either by MSN or subaddressing.
The SET LOCAL SUBADDRESS <subaddr> command specifies the local
subaddress (up to 6 alphanumeric chars) for the current port; up to six alphanumeric characters can be used. As with the local address, the subaddress of
an incoming ISDN connection has to match with this subaddress. If a match is
not made then the connection request is ignored.
SET PORT SYNC/SYNC DIAL/ASYNC (default)
The SET PORT command specifies the port interface (sync or async) to be
used.
The SET PORT SYNC DIAL command will accept synchronous data when
there is no end-to-end connection present. A call may be initiated by the
attached DTE using an AT command. When the call connects to the remote
destination the port will automatically switch to Sync mode and provide
clocks. The connection can be cleared by de-asserting DTR on the port.
SET PORT SYNC (default) /ASYNC PERM
This command is used to configure an I.430-compliant permanent B channel
(without D-channel + second B channel).
To enable or disable the permanent channel once configured:
SET PERM ENABLE (DISABLE)
To unconfigure the permanent B-channel use SET PORT SYNC (ASYNC).
Note that these commands can only be used in countries where this service is
offered, e.g. Germany. In addition, the default channel setting SET CHAN ANY
is illegal when using permanent B channels.
SET REMOTE ADDRESS/SUBADDRESS
The SET REMOTE ADDRESS <addr> command sets the remote ISDN address (up to 23 digits) for the current port; alphanumberic characters 0-9 can
only be used. The address is used for outgoing ISDN connection when only
DTR Autodial (Direct Call) is being used.
The SET REMOTE SUBADDRESS <subaddr> sets the subaddress identifier
(up to 6 alphanumeric chars) to be appended onto the REMOTE ADDRESS in
DTR Autodial mode (Direct Call). Up to six alphanumeric characters can be
used.
SET SPEED
The SET SPEED <speed> command allows the synchronous speed to be set
for the current port.
<speed> = 9K6, 19K2, 48K, 56K or 64K (default).
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16. Transparent ISDN
SHOW ALL
The SHOW ALL command displays all port settings.
1 (default), 2 OR 3
The port can be changed by entering the port number at the command line.
Any configuration changes with respect to addressing, port interface type,
answer type and channel number will be for that port number. The prompt will
indicate the port number currently selected, i.e. >1<, >2< and >3<.
STATUS
The STATUS command displays the status of the current port.
Routing
Full Routing procedures for dedicated and switched access connections are
described in Section 12.
For outgoing connections an outgoing ISDN address can be configured by
using the PSROI and PSTEI commands; the DTE and MODEMSTRING parameters are used for this purpose. Alternatively, for Direct call, the
MODEMSTRING parameter can be configured with LIPPS command.
For incoming connections to more than one TA/ ISDN POP PAK on the same
S-bus, local ISDN addresses must be configured to allow specific ports/POP
PAKs to be identified for incoming ISDN connections with a matching ISDN
address. This is done by local access into the ISDN POP PAK via the 9 pin
CONFIG port. If there is only one TA/ISDN POP PAK on the S-bus, the local
ISDN address does not need to be configured.
For example, channel 1 on a TransISDN POP PAK can have an ISDN address
(up to 23 digits) configured as follows:
>1< SET LOCAL ADDRESS 1004543535
Any incoming connection with ISDN called address of 1004543535 will connect.
Identifying Ports Using Subaddress
In addition to the configuration of the local ISDN address, local subaddressing
can also be configured.
The calling address can carry a subaddress identifier (up to 6 alphanumeric
chars) to the called TransISDN POP PAK. A called TransISDN POP PAK will
decide the port to which the call should be routed to, depending on the
received subaddress matching one of the two locally configured
subaddresses.
The subaddresses can be configured with the following command:
SET LOCAL SUBADDRESS <subaddr1>
Where <subaddr1> is the subaddress identifier associated with the port.
Having configured the local subaddress values, the same remote subaddress
identifier must be configured in the remotely connected TransISDN POP PAK
(1 port).
SET REMOTE SUBADDRESS <subaddr1>
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16. Transparent ISDN
Note that the use of subaddress information not only allow us to distinguish
between two ports in a single unit, but also multiple ports in multiple units
attached to the same ISDN line.
In addition, because the subaddress sent from the caller to the called POP
PAK must match the subaddress configured in the called POP PAK, a basic
form of security access can be achieved. Incoming calls which do not have
the correct subaddress will not be allowed to connect to the relevant port.
Identifying Ports Using Multi-Subscriber Numbering (MSN)
As a service provider facility, it is possible to address each port individually
from a remote address, when up to 10 ports and devices are inclusive on an
NT. Only a single port should respond to its own address.
An ISDN calling address can be configured for each port on the POP PAK and
the called address configured in address routing to indicate each port by use
of a suffix.
Configuration is carried out by assigning a unique local ISDN address as
described above with the following:
SET LOCAL ADDRESS <addr>
WARNING: MSN is preferable to subaddressing although the use of
the subaddress and MSN facilities is dependent on the local service
provider.
If the local and remote ISDN lines do not have the subaddress facility enable
on them, DO NOT set a local subaddress on the local unit. The local
subaddress will act as an access password if a subaddress is not passed to
the unit with an incoming call the call will not be accepted.
Transparent ISDN Example
Switched Shared Access - V25bis Working (X.75)
For V25bis working with access groups in an X.75E environment, address
configuration is performed in the PFA and the TransISDN POP PAK.
Configuration in PFA
The port must initially be configured for Shared Access working. A Shared
Access ROT can be configured which allocates an ISDN address to be called
out.
For example, to configure an X.75E port fitted with a TransISDN POP PAK (1
port version):
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-1,PROT=X75,SIDE=DYN;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-1,ACCESS=SWITCHED_V25BIS;
The respective External Network Name, Access Group and Shared Access
ROT can then be set:
PSENI:EXTNET=ISDN;
PSAGI:AG=3,NP=1-1-1-1,EXTNET=ISDN;
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16. Transparent ISDN
PSROI:ROT=23,AG=3,EXTNET=ISDN,DTE=2426510,
NODEID=5,MODEMSTRING=2426510.1;
To deblock the port:
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-1;
Note the use of subaddressing in the MODEMSTRING parameter; the entire
ISDN address will be sent out over ISDN.
Configuration in POP PAK
Connect to CONFIG port at 9600 baud, 8 bit, no parity, 1 Stop Bit.
For switched access, the port >1< has default settings of 64 Kbps, manual
answering, autodial disabling. synchronous mode, call control V25 HDLC and
any channel used.
The local ISDN address must be configured (to match with addresses associated with incoming ISDN connections) by local access into the TransISDN
POP PAK, i.e.
SET LOCAL ADDRESS 1004543535
In addition, a subaddress associated with the POP PAK can be configured if
necessary:
SET LOCAL SUBADDRESS 1
Any incoming ISDN connections with address 1004543535.1 will be sent to
this POP PAK.
For an X.25 environment, the same configuration is used except that DTEs
should be configured instead of ROTs and the USER parameter should be
used instead of the NODEID parameter.
Switched Direct Call Access - V25bis Working (X.75E)
Configuration in PFA
The port must initially be configured for V25bis working. A Dedicated ROT
must also be configured.
For example, to configure an X.75E port, fitted with a TransISDN POP PAK (1
port version):
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-2,PROT=X75,SIDE=DYN;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-2,ACCESS=SWITCHED_V25BIS,
MODEMSTRING=2426510.1;
The respective routing for the dedicated ROT can then be set.
PSROI:ROT=24,NP=1-1-1-2;
To deblock the port:
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-2;
Note the use of subaddressing in the MODEMSTRING parameter; the entire
address will be sent out over ISDN to a remote TransISDN POP PAK with local
ISDN address 2426510.1.
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16. Transparent ISDN
Configuration in POP PAK
Connect to CONFIG port at 9600 baud, 8 bit, no parity, 1 Stop Bit.
For switched access, the port >1< has default settings of 64 Kbps, manual
answering, autodial disabled, synchronous mode, call control V25 HDLC and
any channel used.
The local ISDN address must be configured to match with addresses associated with incoming ISDN connections by local access into the TransISDN POP
PAK, i.e.
SET LOCAL ADDRESS 1004543535
In addition, a subaddress associated with the POP PAK can be configured if
necessary:
SET LOCAL SUBADDRESS 1
Any incoming ISDN connections with address 1004543535.1 will be sent to
this POP PAK.
No REMOTE ADDRESS value requires configuration as the destination ISDN
address is passed as the value configured in the LIPPS command, i.e.
2426510.1.
Switched Direct Call Access - DTR Autodial (Frame Relay)
Switched access working for DTR Autodial (Direct Call) applications requires a
remote ISDN address to be set in the POP PAK as well as the local ISDN
address.
The configuration for Direct Call working is similar to the above except that
ACCESS=SWITCHED should be set on the PP, a dedicated ROT must be
assigned and a remote address (also subaddress if necessary) must be
configured in the TransISDN POP PAK.
Configuration in PFA 1
The Frame Relay port must initially be configured for DTR Autodial (Direct Call)
working.
The port should be configured to be a dedicated switched access rather than
a shared access port, i.e.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-1,TYPE=FRAME;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-1,PROT=FII;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-1,ACCESS=SWITCHED;
The dedicated Frame Relay ROT for the port is as follows:
PSROI:ROT=24,FP=1-1-1-1;
This ROT would then be part of a Routing Case along with a primary Frame
Relay ROT (leased line).
To deblock the port:
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-1;
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16. Transparent ISDN
Configuration in POP PAK 1
For configuration of a remote address for DTR Autodial (Direct Call) operation,
the procedure below should be followed:
Connect to the CONFIG port at 9600 baud, 8 bit, no parity, 1 Stop Bit.
For switched access, the port >1< has default settings of 64 Kbps, manual
answering, autodial enabled, synchronous mode, call control V25 HDLC and
any channel used.
The required local and remote address can be set so that the remote address
2426510 will be called when DTR is raised. In addition, autodialling must be
enabled.
SET LOCAL ADDRESS 384000
SET REMOTE ADDRESS 384020
SET AUTODIAL ENABLE
NOTE: Frame Relay over ISDN is only possible via DTR Autodial
(Direct Call) and over Frame Relay ports with the FII protocol in
operation.
Configuration in POP PAK 2
For configuration of a remote address for DTR Autodial (Direct Call) operation,
the procedure below should be followed:
Connect to the CONFIG port at 9600 baud, 8 bit, no parity, 1 Stop Bit.
The port must be set to synchronous mode and call control must be set to V
25 HDLC:
SET PORT SYNC
SET CALL CONTROL V25 HDLC
The required local and remote address can be set so that the remote address
2426510 will be called when DTR is raised. In addition, autodialling must be
enabled.
SET LOCAL ADDRESS 384020
SET REMOTE ADDRESS 384000
SET AUTODIAL ENABLE
Note that Frame Relay over ISDN is only possible via DTR Autodial (Direct
Call) and over Frame Relay ports with the FII protocol in operation.
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16. Transparent ISDN
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17. MP/LCP
17. MP/LCP
Introduction
The Multi-link Protocol (MP) enables many physical channels to be grouped
into a bundle to increase the aggregate bandwidth as perceived by higher
levels. This is carried out in accordance with RFC 1717 (See Appendix 4).
Bandwidth-On-Demand algorithms (BOD) are used to dynamically allocate
more bandwidth when the need arises, and to deallocate the bandwidth when
less bandwidth is needed.
The MP provides:
i) Creation of bundles comprising 1 - 18 physical channels
ii) Inverse Multiplexing of data over connected physical channels
iii) Segmentation of transmitted data
iv) Reassembly of received data
v) Different data priorities
vi) Link Quality Monitoring on selected physical channels
vii) Dynamic connection of a backup physical channel if the link quality
goes below a pre-defined level
Each bundle is responsible for:
i) sorting the LP traffic into a datastream
ii) assembling/disassembling data packets
iii) bringing links up and down
iv) monitoring the PP protocol stacks
A typical example of the use of MP bundles is illustrated in the following
Figures.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
485
486
X.75
LP
MP
TPAD
NP
HVC
TPAD
LP
Frame
Relay
FP
TPAD
NP
VIRTUAL
VIRTUAL
VIRTUAL
X.75
NP
PP
PP
LCP
TPAD
LP
PP
PP
PP
LCP
LCP
LCP
D-channel
from MD
Data +
outgoing
D-channel
Data
Data
Data
UNIT1
G.703/
G.704
CAS
Interface
TLU76/3
LIM
VCU
64k
Trunk
VCU
TLU76/3
LIM
UNIT2
TPAD
LP
LCP
PP
PP
LCP
LCP
LCP
PP
PP
PP
VIRTUAL
Frame
Relay
FP
TPAD
NP
VIRTUAL
TPAD
LP
HVC
TPAD
NP
MP
X.75
LP
VIRTUAL
X.75
NP
17. MP/LCP
Figure 17-1: MP LCP/PP links into MD110 LIM with Channeliser POP PAKs.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
17. MP/LCP
X.75
LP
FR FP
TPAD
LP
MP
LCP
LCP
UNIT2
PP
PP
UNIT2
PP
PP
LCP
LCP
MP
FR FP
X.75
LP
TPAD
LP
X.75
NP
TPAD
NP
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EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
X.75
NP
TPAD
NP
Figure 17-2: MP LCP/PP links with Serial/ISDN POP PAKs.
17. MP/LCP
Bandwidth on Demand
Each LCP/PP stack is configured to be either leased or switched.
The BOD algorithms (physical connection/disconnection) apply only to stacks
operating SWITCHED_ACCESS.
An MP is configured to be either Master or Slave. BOD actions (connection/
disconnection) are always initiated by the Master.
A Master MP is assigned to a BOD table. This table specifies:
i) the exponential smoothing constant (SMOOTH)
ii) the time between invocations of the BOD algorithm (TSAMPLE)
iii) the levels of smoothed bandwidth at which the i-th connection should
be established (connection(i)) on the switched LCP links.
iv) the levels of smoothed bandwidth at which the i-th connection
should be released (disconnection(i)) on the switched LCP links.
Note that to ensure smooth BOD behaviour the following is required:
connection(i) ž disconnection(i)
connection(i+1) ž connection(i)
disconnection(i+1) ž disconnection(i)
Every TSAMPLE seconds the MP calculates the incoming and outgoing
smoothed bandwidth.
The smoothed bandwidth is calculated according to the formula:
Bs = Bp * (SMOOTH/256) + (1-(SMOOTH/256))*Bm
where Bs is the smoothed bandwidth
Bp is the previous value (TSAMPLE seconds ago) of Bs.
Bm is the currently measured bandwidth utilisation on all connected
LCP stacks.
SMOOTH is the smoothing constant, a value between 0 and 255.
If Bs > connection(i), and there are less than ’i’ switched connections, the MP
will attempt to establish a new connection using the disconnected LCP link
with the lowest connection preference number.
If Bs < disconnection(i), and there are ’i’ or more switched connections established, the MP will attempt to release an established connection using the
connected LCP stack with the highest connection preference number.
To further improve the smoothness, the MP will not initiate BOD connection/
disconnection if BOD connection/disconnection is already in progress.
The figure below shows an example of the BOD algorithm.
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17. MP/LCP
bits/
sec
con2
dis2
con1
dis1
T1
T2
T3
T4
T5
T6
T7
T8
Figure 17-3: BOD algorithm.
The graph shows the smoothed bandwidth varying with time.
At T1, Bs > con1, so the first BOD connection is established.
At T3, Bs > con2, so the second BOD connection is established.
At T7, Bs < dis2 and Bs < dis1, so the second BOD connection is released.
Only one connection can be released at each sampling interval.
At T8, Bs < dis1, so the first BOD connection is released.
Note that at BOD disconnection the MASTER MP will first take down the
switched LCP link and then the physical connection. During disconnection of
the switched LCP link it will not transmit data but still accept incoming data on
that link. This way no data should be lost due to BOD disconnection.
BOD Connection Errors
If an outgoing BOD connection fails but a callback has been registered, the
MP will wait for an incoming connection. If this does not happen within 2
minutes, the MP will retry the BOD connection on the same port that registered the callback. During this time no other BOD connections will be attempted.
If an outgoing BOD connection fails and no callback has been registered, the
MP will retry immediately using the next disconnected switched LCP in the
bundle with the lowest connection preference number. This will go on until all
the switched LCPs in the bundle have been tried.
Link Quality Errors
Note the following:
i) If an LCP used by the MP detects a link quality error, the MP is informed.
ii) Data originating from an LP configured with LCP=ANY will not be sent
over an LCP link that has detected a link quality error.
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17. MP/LCP
iii) Data originating from an LP configured with a specific LCP corresponding to this link will still be forwarded over this link, in spite of the
detected link quality error.
iv) If a link quality error is detected on the last (or only) leased port with
good quality and all switched LCP links are disconnected, the MASTER
MP will initiate a backup connection (using the LCP link with the lowest
connection preference number).
v) A backup connection will also be established after five failed attempts
by the MASTER MP to establish an LCP link connection over a leased
port when there are no leased links with good quality available.
vi) If the link quality of a leased LCP/PP stack goes from bad to good,
or if the MASTER MP manages to connect the LCP link connection, the
backup link will be disconnected. In all cases only a single backup link
will be established.
POP PAKs
It is possible to run the LCP/PP links associated with an MP bundle through
not only physical V.28, V.11, V.35, V.36, G.703 and TransISDN POP PAKs but
through Channeliser POP PAKs of which there are two physical types, i.e.
Master Channeliser POP PAK (486-G1)
Slave Channeliser POP PAK (486-G2)
These POP PAKs can direct traffic from each LCP/PP port into an assigned
timeslot of a 2 Mbps data stream via a G.703/G.704 CAS interface. The
interface would typically be directed to a TLU76 line card in an MD110.
Master Channeliser POP PAK (486-G1)
The Master Channeliser POP PAK supports three CAS channels, although it
can be linked to further Slave POP PAKs (each one supporting three CAS
channels) to support up to 30 CAS channels through a single G.703/G.704
CAS interface. The POP PAK is equipped with three synchronous data ports
for the CAS channels and a G.703/G.704 Multiplexer/Demultiplexer BNC port.
The G.703/G.704 port connects via a coaxial cable to, e.g. a TLU76/3 line
card.
Slave Channeliser POP PAK (486-G2)
Each slave Channeliser POP PAK is used to provide an additional three channels per POP PAK in addition to the three CAS channels supplied by the
master Channeliser POP PAK. The Slave Channeliser POP PAK is identical to
the Master POP PAK but without the G.703/G.704 ports. An internal ribbon
cable is used to connect Channeliser POP PAKs together.
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17. MP/LCP
MP/LCP Configuration
The MP bundle may be used by up to three virtual protocol stacks, i.e.
TPAD LP/NP
X.75(E) LP/NP
Frame Relay FP
Only one stack of the same protocol may use the MP bundle.
The MP bundle also controls the Link Control Protocol (LCP) which handles
the PPP link protocol. Each LCP is associated with a PP with the same port
identifier (e.g. 1-1-1-1) as defined for a PP. These LCPs are grouped or “bundled” into the MP bundle defined by a unique MP bundle number.
The virtual protocol stack using the MP can be configured to use any LCP or a
specific LCP in the bundle. The protocol stack which uses the virtual protocol
stack using the MP can be configured to use any LCP or a specific LCP in the
bundle. The protocol stack which uses the MP is assigned a data priority:
TPAD LP/NP stacks have a high data priority but X.75 LP/NP and Frame Relay
FP stacks have a low data priority.
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17. MP/LCP
MPBDI
LIMPI
FRTEI
PSROI
ANRCI
LILPI
LILCI
ANRAI
LINPI
PSROI
PSTEI
ANRCI
ANRAI
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LIFPI
LIPPI
up to
18 LCP
links per MP
Figure 17-4: MP/LCP port configuration.
17. MP/LCP
Configuration of MP Bundle
The MP bundle controls a grouping of LCP stacks and can be denoted as
being a master or slave MP bundle. A Master MP bundle always connects to a
slave MP bundle; the slave MP has no intelligence.
This master/slave MP relationship should not be confused with the Master and
Slave Channeliser POP PAKs.
The MP bundles are configured with the following MML commands.
LIMPI
LIMPS
LIMPD
LIMPB
LIMPT
LIMPP
Initialises MP bundle
Sets MP bundle
Deblocks MP bundle
Blocks MP bundle
Terminates MP bundle
Prints MP bundle
Initialising MP Bundle (LIMPI)
The LIMPI command initialises an MP bundle. Up to 6 MP bundles can be
initialised per unit; each MP is able to create a bundle consisting of up to 18
LCP stacks of which seven of the LCP stacks can be subject to BOD if
configured to operate SWITCHED_ACCESS.
If a master MP bundle is required then a bandwidth-on-demand table must be
configured prior to the configuration of the master MP bundle.
LIMPI:MP=mp,BOD=bod<,MODE=mode>
<,MINFRAG=minfrag><,RATEENFIN=rateenfin>
<,RATEENFOUT=rateenfout><,TRAPID=tradid>*
<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
Where:mp
MP bundle number
MP(1-6)
bod
Bandwidth-ondemand table
name for switched
1 to 10 chars or NONE; when
MODE=SLAVE then BOD
should be set to NONE (this
command is set by using the
MPBDI command)
LCP links
mode
Control mode
SINGLE, MASTER or SLAVE;
default=SLAVE.
minfrag
Minimum fragment
size
30-1600 bytes;
default=30.
rateenfin
Control of Rate
Enforcement for
incoming frames
YES, NO; default=NO.
For FDI and FUI.
rateenfout
Control of Rate
Enforcement for
outgoing frames
YES, NO; default=NO.
For FDI and FUI.
*These SNMP-related parameters are described in Section 5.
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17. MP/LCP
For example, to initialise bundle MP1 as the master with a BOD table called
SPOKE for bandwidth-on-demand usage:
LIMPI:MP=MP1,MODE=MASTER,BOD=SPOKE;
Setting MP Bundle (LIMPS)
The LIMPS command allows MP bundle parameters to be modified. The MP
bundle and any configured LCP links must be manually blocked for the command to be accepted.
LIMPS:MP=mp<,BOD=bod><,MODE=mode>
<,MINFRAG=minfrag><,RATEENFIN=rateenfin>
<,RATEENFOUT=rateenfout><,TRAPID=tradid>*
<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
Where the parameters are as described for LIMPI.
For example, to change the bandwidth-on-demand table name to TEST:
LIMPS:MP=MP1,BOD=TEST;
Deblocking MP Bundle (LIMPD)
The LIMPD command deblocks the MP bundle.
LIMPD:MP=mp;
For example:
LIMPD:MP=MP1;
Blocking MP Bundle (LIMPB)
The LIMPB command blocks the MP bundle.
LIMPB:MP=mp;
For example:
LIMPB:MP=MP1;
Printing MP Bundle (LIMPP)
The LIMPP command prints the MP bundle details.
Only available LCP links are displayed with this command, i.e. links that are
manually blocked will not be displayed.
LIMPP<:MP=mp>;
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For example:
LIMPP;
MP BUNDLE LINKS AVAILABLE
MP
MODE
BOD
LCP
STATUS
——————————————————————————————————————————
MP1
MASTER
SPOKE
MINFRAG
=
30
RATEENFIN
=
NO
RATEENFOUT
=
NO
TRAPID
=
12
TRAPS
=
ALL
LINKTRAP
=
YES
OBJTRAP
=
YES
CONFTRAP
=
YES
WO
1-1-1-1
WO
1-1-1-2
AB
1-1-1-18
DIS
END
Where the parameters are as described for the LIMPI command with the
exception of:
STATUS
Status of MP
bundle or LCP link
MB, DIS, AB or WO.
Terminating MP Bundle (LIMPT)
The LIMPT command terminates MP bundle. The MP bundle and any associated available LCP links must be manually blocked before this command can
be executed.
LIMPT:MP=mp;
For example:
LIMPT:MP=MP1;
Configuration of LCP Links
Each LCP link in an MP bundle is made up of a PP object and an LCP object.
Both port objects when combined are used to create an association between
grouped LCPs in an MP bundle and their physical port connections, i.e.
PP=1-1-1-1
LCP=1-1-1-1
A maximum of 18 LCP links can be connected to a single MP bundle with up
to 7 switched LCP links capable of being used for bandwidth on demand. The
remaining LCP links must be configured to be leased connections.
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17. MP/LCP
PP
The PP port objects are configured with the following MML commands.
LIPPI
LIPPS
LIPPD
LIPPB
LIPPT
LIPPP
Initialises PP
Sets PP
Deblocks PP
Blocks PP
Terminates PP
Prints PP
The PP could be associated with a V.28, V.11, V.35, V.36, G.703, TransISDN
POP PAK or a Channeliser POP PAK. For a Channeliser POP PAK, the port is
allocated a timeslot which is set according to a timeslot switch on the
Channeliser POP PAK itself.
LCP Link
The LCP link is linked to the configured PP and is responsible for:
i) configuration and testing of the individual links that make up the MP
bundle.
ii) encapsulating the data that travels across the link.
iii) communicating with remote LCP links with respect to N1 size on the
PP object. This controls how much data is sent.
The LCP links are configured with the following MML commands.
LILCI
LILCS
LILCD
LILCB
LILCT
LILCP
Initialises LCP link
Sets LCP link
Deblocks LCP link
Blocks LCP link
Terminates LCP link
Prints LCP link
All LCP packets are sent as low priority data.
Initialising PP (LIPPI)
The LIPPI command initialises a PP, e.g.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-1,TYPE=PACKET,MODE=HDLC;
For PP ports in LCP links, TYPE=PACKET and MODE=HDLC should be
configured.
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Setting PP (LIPPS)
The LIPPS command allows the modification of PP parameters.
LIPPS:PP=port<,N1=n1><,TIMING=timing><,RATE=rate>
<,ENCODING=encoding><,IFM=ifm><,ACCESS=access>
<,DUPLEX=duplex><,MODEMSTRING=modemstring>
<,ACNTL=acntl>**<,ACL=acl>**<,ALARMTIM=alarmtim>**
<,DESTID=destid>**<,CASMODE=casmode><,TCONN=tconn>
<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*
<,POPTRAP=poptrap>*;
Where the parameters are as described for LIPPS in the X.25/X.75 section,
with the exception of:
CASMODE
Channel
Associated
Signalling
Mode
P7 or EL7; default=P7.
Use RATE=16K or 64K,
respectively. Only configurable
when Channeliser POP PAK
present.
TCONN
Maximum call
connection time
before failing
0-600 s; default=60.
For SWITCHED ACCESS
only.
*These SNMP-related parameters are described in Section 5.
**These NM400-related parameters are described in Section 4.
Deblocking PP (LIPPD)
The LIPPD command deblocks the PP, e.g.
LIPPD: PP=1-1-1-1;
Blocking PP (LIPPB)
The LIPPB command blocks the PP, e.g.
LIPPB: PP=1-1-1-1;
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17. MP/LCP
Printing PP (LIPPP)
The LIPPP command prints the PP parameters, e.g.
LIPPP:PP=1-1-1-1;
PHYSICAL PORT DATA
PP
POP-PAK
N1
TIMING
RATE
ENCODING
IFM
STATUS
——————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
1-1-1-1 CHAN
261 DEFAULT
TYPE
= PACKET
MODE
= HDLC
ACCESS
= SWITCHED
ACNTL
= ALARM
ACL
= A2
ALARMTIM
= 60
DESTID
= NODESTID
DUPLEX
= FULL
16K
NRZ
0
DIS
MODEMSTRING =
TCONN
= 60
PROTOCOL
= CAS
CASMODE
= P7
CAS INPUT
= 1 1 0 1
CAS OUTPUT = 1 0 0 1
TRAPID
= 3
TRAPS
= ALL
END
Where the parameters are as described for LIPPS in the X.25/X.75 section,
with the exception of:
CAS INPUT
Incoming CAS
state
n n n n where n=0 or 1.
Indicates input from
MD110 LIM into PFA.
CAS OUTPUT
Outgoing CAS
state
n n n n where n=0 or 1.
Indicates output from PFA
into MD110 LIM
Note:
Both Master and Slave Channeliser POP PAKs will be reported as “CHAN”
with the LIPPP command.
The CASMODE parameter will only be displayed when a Channeliser POP
PAK is fitted.
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Terminating PP (LIPPT)
The LIPPT command terminates the PP, e.g.
LIPPT:PP=1-1-1-1;
Initialising LCP Link (LILCI)
The LILCI command initialises an LCP link. It is possible to configure up to 18
LCP links for each MP bundle of which up to seven LCP links can be used for
bandwidth on demand connections.
The LQP, QTIME, QSAMPLE and QNUMBER parameters are used to control
the monitoring of link quality. The link quality mechanism used is a simple LCP
ping/response system, where LCP ping messages are sent out at QTIME
intervals, with a response being expected before the next send is due.
The RSTIMER, MAXTERM, MAXCONF and MAXFAIL parameters are used to
control link negotiation.
The CONPREF parameter sets the connection preference value for an LCP link
configured for Switched Access. Links with CONPREF of ­ 100 can be used
for bandwidth on demand or backup. A link with a lower CONPREF value will
be connected before those set with higher CONPREF values. The LCP links
can be used as overflow and backup (when CONPREF ­ 100) or as backup
(when CONPREF ž100) first.
The TXWIN parameter is used for data priority handling to control the number
of bytes of data that are in transit in the PP object. Once this limit has been
reached the LCP object will store data internally on different priority queues
and will only pass more data to the PP (from the higher priority queue first)
once the PP reports that it has transmitted the outstanding data. This mechanism allows the user to control the maximum delay that high priority data will
experience due to handling of low priority data.
LILCI:LCP=lcp,MP=mp<,LQP=lqp><,QTIME=qtime>
<,QSAMPLE=qsample><,QNUMBER=qnumber>
<,RSTIMER=rstimer><,MAXTERM=maxterm>
<,MAXCONF=maxconf><,MAXFAIL=maxfail>
<,CONPREF=conpref><,TXWIN=txwin><,TRAPS=traps>*
<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
Where:lcp
Link Control
Protocol port
number
1-1-1-(1-18)
mp
MP bundle number
MP(1-6) or 1-1-1-MP(1-6)
lqp
Link quality
monitoring
YES or NO; default=NO.
Specifies whether this LCP link
will source LQP messages.
qtime
Time between LQP
message sends
1-60 seconds; default=10.
Only used if LQP=YES.
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17. MP/LCP
qsample
Number of LQP
message periods
used to determine
link quality
1-10; default=5.
Only used if LQP=YES.
qnumber
Number of LQP
successes in the
last QSAMPLE
period required
for link to be
considered OK
1-10; default=4.
Only used if LQP=YES.
rstimer
LCP restart timer
1-30 seconds; default=3.
maxterm
LCP maximum
TermReq counter
1-20; default=2.
maxconf
LCP maximum
ConfReq counter
1-20; default=10.
maxfail
LCP maximum
ConfNak counter
1-20; default=5.
conpref
Connection order
preference for
switched access
LCP Links
1-200; default=1.
Lower numbers are used first.
txwin
Local LCP-PP
transmit
window size
1-65536;
default=16384.
*The SNMP parameters are as described in Section 5.
For example, to initialise an LCP layer for port 1-1-1-1:
LILCI:LCP=1-1-1-1,MP=MP1,LQP=NO,CONPREF=1;
Setting LCP Link (LILCS)
The LILCS command allows the modification of LCP link parameters. The LCP
link must be manually blocked before this command can be executed.
LILCS:LCP=lcp<,MP=mp><,LQP=lqp><,QTIME=qtime>
<,QSAMPLE=qsample><,QNUMBER=qnumber>
<,RSTIMER=rstimer><,MAXTERM=maxterm>
<,MAXCONF=maxconf><,MAXFAIL=maxfail>
<,CONPREF=conpref><,TXWIN=txwin><,TRAPS=traps>*
<,TRAPID=trapid>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
Where the parameters are as described for LILCI.
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For example, to modify the parameter for link quality monitoring:
LILCS:LCP=1-1-1-1,LQP=YES;
Deblocking LCP Link (LILCD)
The LILCD command deblocks an LCP link so that it may be used by its MP
bundle to make connections.
LILCD:LCP=lcp;
For example, to deblock the LCP link for port 1-1-1-1:
LILCD:LCP=1-1-1-1;
Blocking LCP Link (LILCB)
The LILCB command blocks an LCP link.
LILCB:LCP=lcp;
For example, to block the LCP link associated for port 1-1-1-1:
LILCB:LCP=1-1-1-1;
Terminating LCP Link (LILCT)
The LILCT command terminates the LCP link. The LCP link must be manually
blocked before this command can be executed.
LILCT:LCP=lcp;
For example, to terminate the LCP link for port 1-1-1-1:
LILCT:LCP=1-1-1-1;
Printing LCP Link (LILCP)
The LILCP command prints an individual or all LCP links details.
LILCP<:LCP=lcp>;
For example, to print a summary of initialised LCP objects:
LILCP;
LINK CONTROL LAYER DATA
LCP
MP
LQP
STATUS
—————————————————————————————
1-1-1-1
MP1
YES
WO
1-1-1-2
MP2
NO
AB
1-1-1-3
MP2
NO
DIS
END
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17. MP/LCP
For example, to print details for a single LCP object:
LILCP:LCP=1-1-1-1;
LINK CONTROL LAYER DATA
LCP
MP
LQP
STATUS
—————————————————————————————
1-1-1-1
MP1
YES
QTIME
= 10
QSAMPLE
= 7
QNUMBER
= 5
RSTIMER
= 3
MAXTERM
= 2
MAXCONF
= 10
MAXFAIL
= 5
CONPREF
= 1
TXWIN
= 16384
TRAPID
= 3
TRAPS
= ALL
LINKTRAP
= YES
OBJTRAP
= YES
CONFTRAP
= YES
WO
END
Where the parameters are as described for the LILCI command with the
exception of:
STATUS
LCP status
MB, AB, WO or DIS
Configuration of Bandwidth-on-Demand Table
Any configured master MP bundle must be associated with a BOD table.
Initialising MP Bandwidth-on-demand Table (MPBDI)
The MPBDI command initialises the MP BOD algorithm table.
Smoothed bandwidth levels are configured for BOD connections to be established/released for up to 7 switched LCPs. The parameters DIS1 and CON1
indicate first switched access connection disconnected and established,
respectively, and correspondingly DIS7 and CON7 indicate the seventh
switched access connection disconnected and established.
MPBDI:BOD=bod<,TSAMPLE=tsample>
<,SMOOTH=smooth><,DIS1=dis1><,CON1=con1>
<,DIS2=dis2><,CON2=con2><,DIS3=dis3>
<,CON3=con3><,DIS4=dis4><,CON4=con4>
<,DIS5=dis5><,CON5=con5><,DIS6=dis6>
<,CON6=con6><,DIS7=dis7><,CON7=con7>;
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Where:bod
Bandwidth-ondemand table name
1 to 10 chars
tsample
Time interval
for algorithm
1-60 seconds; default=10.
Determines how often BOD
algorithm should be invoked.
smooth
Exponential
smoothing constant
0-256;
default=128.
dis1
First disconnect
bandwidth level
0-2048000 bps;
default=14000.
con1
First connect
bandwidth level
0-2048000 bps;
default=15000.
dis2
Second disconnect
bandwidth level
0-2048000 bps;
default=28000.
con2
Second connect
bandwidth level
0-2048000 bps;
default=30000.
dis3
Third disconnect
bandwidth level
0-2048000 bps;
default=44000.
con3
Third connect
bandwidth level
0-2048000 bps;
default=46000.
dis4
Fourth disconnect
bandwidth level
0-2048000 bps;
default=60000.
con4
Fourth connect
bandwidth level
0-2048000 bps;
default=62000.
dis5
Fifth disconnect
bandwidth level
0-2048000 bps;
default=76000.
con5
Fifth connect
bandwidth level
0-2048000 bps;
default=78000.
dis6
Sixth disconnect
bandwidth level
0-2048000 bps;
default=92000.
con6
Sixth connect
bandwidth level
0-2048000 bps;
default=94000.
dis7
Seventh disconnect
bandwidth level
0-2048000 bps;
default=108000.
con7
Seventh connect
bandwidth level
0-2048000 bps;
default=110000.
Note :
CON1£CON2£CON3£CON4£CON5£CON6£CON7
DIS1£DIS2£DIS3£DIS4£DIS5£DIS6£DIS7
DIS1 £
DIS2 £
DIS3 £
DIS4 £
DIS5 £
DIS6 £
DIS7 £
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
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CON2
CON3
CON4
CON5
CON6
CON7
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17. MP/LCP
The bandwidth value will be calculated as:
Bs=Bp*SMOOTH/256 +Bm*(1-SMOOTH/256)
Where:Bs
Smoothed bandwidth value
Bp
Previously smoothed bandwidth value
Bm
Measured bandwidth value
For example, to initialise a BOD table called SPOKE:
MPBDI:BOD=SPOKE,TSAMPLE=10,SMOOTH=80,DIS1=12000,CON1=15000,
DIS2=20000,CON2=30000,DIS3=35000,CON3=40000;
Setting MP Bandwidth-on-demand Table (MPBDS)
The MPBDS command sets the MP BOD algorithm table.
MPBDS:BOD=bod<,TSAMPLE=tsample>
<,SMOOTH=smooth><,CON1=con1><,DIS1=dis1>
<,CON2=con2><,DIS2=dis2><,CON3=con3><,DIS3=dis3>
<,CON4=con4><,DIS4=dis4><,CON5=con5><,DIS5=dis5>
<,CON6=con6><,DIS6=dis6><,CON7=con7><,DIS7=dis7>;
Where the parameters are as described for the MPBDI command.
For example, to modify the time interval that the BOD algorithm should be
invoked for table SPOKE:
MPBDS:BOD=SPOKE,TSAMPLE=20;
Printing MP Bandwidth-on-demand Tables (MPBDP)
The MPBDP command prints the MP BOD table.
MPBDP<:BOD=bod>;
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17. MP/LCP
For example:
MPBDP:BOD=SPOKE;
BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND TABLE
BOD
TSAMPLE
SMOOTH
—————————————————————————————
SPOKE
10
DIS1
= 14000
CON1
= 15000
DIS2
= 30000
CON2
= 31000
DIS3
= 45000
CON3
= 47000
DIS4
= 60000
CON4
= 62000
DIS5
= 76000
CON5
= 78000
DIS6
= 92000
CON6
= 94000
DIS7
= 108000
CON7
= 110000
80
END
Where the parameters are described in the MPBDI command.
Terminating MP Bandwidth-on-demand Table (MPBDT)
The MPBDT command terminates the MP BOD table.
MPBDT:BOD=bod;
For example, to terminate table SPOKE:
MPBDT:BOD=SPOKE;
Configuration of Virtual Port Objects
The virtual port objects for TPAD, X.75 and Frame Relay require configuration
to permit an association between the operating protocol and the LCP in the
MP bundle.
A port identifier is configured along with the relevant LCP, e.g.
For TPAD on MP bundle 1:
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-MP1-1,PROT=TPAD,LCP=1-1-1-1;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-MP1-1,PROT=TPAD;
For X.75(E) on MP bundle 1:
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-MP1-2,PROT=X75,SIDE=DYN,LCP=ANY;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-MP1-2,PROT=X75,SIDE=DYN;
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17. MP/LCP
For Frame Relay on MP bundle 1:
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-MP1-3,PROT=FUI,LCP=ANY;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-MP1-3,PROT=FDI,LCP=ANY;
Where:lp
Virtual link port
identifier
1-1-1-MP(1-6)-1 for TPAD
1-1-1-MP(1-6)-2 for X.75
np
Virtual network port
1-1-1-MP(1-6)-1 for TPAD
1-1-1-MP(1-6)-2 for X.75
fp
Virtual Frame
Relay FP port
1-1-1-MP(1-6)-3
prot
Protocol
X75,TPAD,FUI,FDI
side
Side of X.75
connection
A, B or DYN
lcp
LCP port
1-1-1-(1-18) or ANY;
default=ANY.
The virtual LP identifier (e.g., LP=1-1-1-MP1-2) indicates the MP bundle and
drop number to which data should be passed (e.g., 1-1-1-MP1-2 for the
second drop on bundle MP1). The drop number is used to distinguish virtual
stacks of different protocols.
Routing to Virtual Port Objects
Any virtual X.75, TPAD or Frame Relay stack can be associated with routing
just as if it was a physical stack. This permits switched calls as well as HVCs
and PVCs to be passed to the MP bundle.
The existing PSTEI (for TPAD), PSROI (for X.75) or FRTEI (for Frame Relay)
commands can be used, e.g.
For TPAD:
PSTEI:NTN=55555555,NP=1-1-1-MP1-2;
For X.75(E):
PSTEI:NTN=34343,NP=1-1-1-MP1-1;
For Frame Relay:
FRTEI:NTN=5666566,FP=1-1-1-MP1-3;
See Section 12 for further routing information.
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Statistics
The MP bundle collects statistics about the number of packets/fragments sent
and received, and the number of protocol errors. A Master MP collects statistics of the 10 last BOD events and the current and extreme smoothed bandwidth in and out.
An LCP link collects statistics about the number of data octets/packets successfully sent and received, the number of data, and the number of data
packets discarded in both directions.
Printing MP Bundle Statistics (STMPP)
The STMPP command prints the MP statistics for the specified MP bundle.
STMPP:MP=mp;
For example:
STMPP:MP=MP1;
MP BUNDLE STATS
MP
: MP1
PACKETS
IN : 540003
OUT : 430337
FRAGMENTS
IN : 1200002
OUT : 1344456
M
23444
TX DISCARDS
3
RX FRAGMENT LOSSES
5
RX SEQ NUM ERRORS
0
RX INVALID HEADERS
0
RX QUEUE EXCEEDED
0
RX INVALID PIDS
0
LAST LINK ACTIONS
NONE
END
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17. MP/LCP
The following is only displayed if the MP is a MASTER:
BOD CONNECTIONS
78
BOD DISCONNECTIONS
76
BACKUP CONNECTIONS
1
SMOOTHED BANDWIDTH IN
CURRENT : 18023
EXTREME : 34000
SMOOTHED BANDWIDTH OUT CURRENT : 18311
EXTREME : 23222
LAST LINK ACTIONS
1997-09-23 163300 DISCONNECT
PORT=1-1-1-3
1997-09-23 163300 DISCONNECT
PORT=1-1-1-2
1997-09-24 090000 CONNECT
PORT=1-1-1-2
RMRU = 1596
1997-09-24 102400 CONNECT
PORT=1-1-1-3
RMRU = 1596
1997-09-24 163300 DISCONNECT
PORT=1-1-1-3
1997-09-24 163300 DISCONNECT
PORT=1-1-1-2
1997-09-25 090000 CONNECT
PORT=1-1-1-2
RMRU = 1596
1997-09-25 102400 CONNECT
PORT=1-1-1-3
RMRU = 1596
1997-09-25 163300 DISCONNECT
PORT=1-1-1-3
1997-09-26 163500 BACKUP CONNECT
PORT=1-1-1-5
END
Where:-
508
PACKETS
Total incoming/outgoing packets
FRAGMENTS
Total incoming/outgoing fragments
M
Last received sequence no. on all LCP links in a bundle.
M is only valid if FRAGMENTS IN is non-zero.
TX DISCARDS
No. of fragments discarded because they could not be
sent to a working LCP object.
RX FRAGMENT
LOSSES
No. of fragments discarded because they could not be
recombined into a valid packet.
RX SEQ NUM
ERRORS
No. of fragments received that violate the sequence
number pattern expected. This may increment if the
peer MP restarts.
RX INVALID
HEADERS
No. of frames received that had general errors in their
headers. This should be 0 at all times.
RX QUEUE
EXCEEDED
No. of times the receive fragment queue was purged
due to too many fragments being queued without
recombination.
RX INVALID
PIDS
No. of packets received that were addressed to an
unknown higher layer protocol.
BOD
CONNECTIONS
Total BOD connections made.
BOD DISCONNECTIONS
Total BOD disconnections made.
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17. MP/LCP
SMOOTHED
BANDWIDTH
IN
The incoming current and extreme (max.)
throughput rate (in bps) subject to smoothing
SMOOTHED
BANDWIDTH
OUT
The outgoing current and extreme (max.)
throughput rate (in bps) subject to smoothing
A status log of LCP link connections is displayed with respect to date/time,
connection state, port number and the Remote Maximum Receive Unit
(RMRU). The RMRU indicates the size of the maximum frame that may be
received at the far end of the LCP link when connected.
Note that the accumulated values for the above can be reset to zero as follows:
STMPR:MP=MP1;
Printing LCP Link Statistics (STLCP)
The STLCP command reports the statistics collected for a specific or all LCP
links.
STLCP<:LCP=lcp>;
For example:
STLCP:LCP=1-1-1-1;
LCP PORT STATS
LCP
: 1-1-1-1
LCP STATE
: OPENED
LQP STATUS
: GOOD
OCTETS OK
:
440 IN
620 OUT
PACKETS OK
:
12 IN
17 OUT
0 IN
0 OUT
PACKETS DISCARDED :
END
Where:
*LCP
LCP port number
*LCP STATE
Current state of link with respect to LCP.
One of:
NO PHYSICAL CONNECTION
IDLE
M REQUEST SENT
M ACKNOWLEDGEMENT SENT
M ACKNOWLEDGEMENT RECEIVED
S REQUEST SENT
S ACKNOWLEDGEMENT SENT
S ACKNOWLEDGEMENT RECEIVED
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17. MP/LCP
OPENED
M CLOSING
ERROR REPORT
S CLOSING
S STOPPING
*LQP STATUS
Current status of link with respect to LQP.
One of:
LCP STATE NOT OPENED
UNKNOWN
GOOD
BAD
OCTETS OK
No. of incoming/outgoing octets passed to the higher
layer.
PACKETS OK
No. of incoming/outgoing packets passed to the higher
layer.
PACKETS
DISCARDED
No. of incoming/outgoing packets that were discarded
due to link state error.
* Only displayed when the LCP is specified.
All counts are 31 bit, with a * prefix indicating counter wrap.
Note that the accumulated values for the above can be reset to zero as follows:
STLCR;
or:
STLCR:LCP=1-1-1-1;
Macros
The configuration of LCP links and virtual stacks for MP bundle can be simplified by the use of macro commands, i.e.
LIPOI
LIPOD
LIPOB
LIPOT
Initialises all Port Objects for LCP link or virtual stack
for MP bundle
Deblocks all Port Objects for LCP link or virtual stack
for MP bundle
Blocks all Port Objects for LCP link or virtual stack for
MP bundle
Terminates all Port Objects for LCP link or virtual
stack for MP bundle
The LIPOI command initialises an LCP link in an MP bundle as follows, e.g.
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-1,PROT=LCP,MP=MP1;
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17. MP/LCP
In addition, virtual stacks for connection to the MP bundle can be configured,
e.g.
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-MP1-1,PROT=TPAD;
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-MP1-2,PROT=X75,SIDE=DYN;
MP/LCP Examples
Example1: MP/LCP With Channeliser POP PAKs (4x64Kbps data channels)
This scenario uses four 64 Kbps digital channels as a variable bandwidth (64
to 256 Kbps) data link. The 64 Kbps "switched" channels released when the
volume of data traffic is low could be used for narrow band video connections
or uncompressed voice calls between nodes.
The example assumes that the following is used:
i) Two Channeliser POP PAKs (1 Master/1 Slave) are fitted.
ii) Time slots for master and slave Channeliser POP PAKs are set to 01
and 04, respectively.
iii) No voice compression.
The following shows an example of MP/LCP in PFA - LIM operation.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
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17. MP/LCP
MP1
Bundle
UNIT1
LP
Virtual
X.75 stack
1-1-1-MP1-2
ND=2
NP
FP
Virtual Frame
Relay Stack
1-1-1-MP1-3
NTN=345678
Port
1-1-1-1
Port
1-1-1-2
Port
1-1-1-3
Port
1-1-1-4
LCP
LCP
LCP
LCP
PP
PP
PP
PP
G.703/G.704
CAS
Interface
LIM 2
TLU
76/3
Figure 17-5: MP/LCP example (with Channeliser POP PAKs).
MP Bundle Configuration
The unit UNIT1 is the Master unit and therefore a BOD table must be defined:
MPBDI:BOD=UNIT1,DIS1=60000,CON1=62000,DIS2=124000,
CON=2126000,DIS3=188000,CON3=190000;
The MP bundle is then initialised.
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EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
17. MP/LCP
LIMPI:MP=MP1,MODE=MASTER,BOD=UNIT1;
The MP bundle should contain one leased port and 3 switched ports such that
links 1-1-1-2, 1-1-1-3 and 1-1-1-4 will be used as overflow ports in that order,
subject to the CONPREF parameter values. Outgoing D-channel communication is via port 1-1-1-1.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-1,TYPE=PACKET;
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-2,TYPE=PACKET;
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-3,TYPE=PACKET;
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-4,TYPE=PACKET;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-1,RATE=64K,CASMODE=EL7,ACCESS=LEASED;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-2,RATE=64K,CASMODE=EL7,ACCESS=SWITCHED;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-3,RATE=64K,CASMODE=EL7,ACCESS=SWITCHED;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-4,RATE=64K,CASMODE=EL7,ACCESS=SWITCHED;
LILCI:LCP=1-1-1-1,LQP=YES,MP=MP1;
LILCI:LCP=1-1-1-2,MP=MP1,CONPREF=10;
LILCI:LCP=1-1-1-3,MP=MP1,CONPREF=30;
LILCI:LCP=1-1-1-4,MP=MP1,CONPREF=50;
Normal Data Traffic from UNIT1 uses either a virtual X.75 LP/NP or Frame
Relay stack assigned to the bundle. The stacks can use any LCP link in the
MP bundle:
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-MP1-2,PROT=X75,SIDE=A,LCP=ANY;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-MP1-2,PROT=X75,SIDE=A;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-MP1-3,PROT=FUI;
The X.75 LP/NP stack is assigned a dedicated ROT:
PSROI:ROT=12,NP=1-1-1-MP1-2;
ANRCI:RC=4,ROT=12;
ANRAI:ND=2,RC=4;
The Frame Relay stack is assigned a Frame Relay NTN:
FRTEI:FP=1-1-1-MP1-3,NTN=345678;
Finally, all ports should be deblocked:
LIMPD:MP=MP1;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-1;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-2;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-3;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-4;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-MP1-2;
LIFPD:FP=1-1-1-MP1-3;
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17. MP/LCP
LIM Configuration
Note that the examples in this section are carried out on the
MD110 that the PFA is connected to rather than the PFA itself.
The MD110 LIM must have the following configured for the CAS connection.
To configure common categories for extensions.
EXCCS:CAT=2,TRAF=03151515,SERV=02001300,CDIV=000150000;
To initiate 64 Kbps EL7 extension on channels 1, 2, 3 and 4 of TLU 76/3 Line
Card in LIM 2 MAG 0 BPOS 40:
EXTEI:CAT=2,DIR=1001&1004,TYPE=EL7,EQU=2-0-40-1,
ADC=200000000,ICAT=1067;
Automaticnetworkconnections
To set up Static Semi-Permanent Connections (Connection from CAS Extension 1001 to Tie Line Trunk Individual 1):
SEMII:EQUA=2-0-40-1,EQUB=2-0-30-1;
To set up Special Purpose Extension which is Direct Hot Line Connection from
CAS Extension 1002-1004 to exchange D (It is assumed that Exchange D uses
CAS Extensions 1005-1007 for switched connections).
SPEXI:DIR=1002,OPT=N,NDC=8411005;
SPEXI:DIR=1003,OPT=N,NDC=8411006;
SPEXI:DIR=1004,OPT=N,NDC=8411007;
Additional information - Trunk routes for Tie line / PSTN
To configure tie lines (ISDN PRI in this example).
Note: at the Slave end RODAI parameter VARO should be set to
06300000.
To initiate Route 4 (Tie line to Exchange C):
ROCAI:ROU=4,SEL=711000000000,TRM=4,SERV=3110000000,TRAF=03151515,
SIG=011100000031,BCAP=101101;
RODAI:ROU=4,TYPE=SL60,VARC=00000310,VARI=15400000,
VARO=06400000;
Initiate trunk individuals on TLU76/1 (ISDN PRI) in LIM 2 MAG 0 BPOS 30:
ROEQI:ROU=4,TRU=2-1&&2-4,EQU=2-0-30-1;
To set up external destination data for route for hotline calls to exchange D
(note - RODDI command only required in the calling exchange).
RODDI:DEST=841,ROU=4,SRT=4,ADC=0606100000000250;
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17. MP/LCP
Example 2: MP/LCP With Channeliser POP PAKs (4x16 Kbps data/voice
channels over 64 Kbps trunk)
This scenario uses a single 64 Kbps digital channel, together with VCUs, to
provide a variable bandwidth (16 to 64 Kbps) data link. When the volume of
data traffic is low, the "switched" VCU channels could be used for up to three
compressed voice calls. Note that the PFA is used to merge the D channel
traffic used for signalling between the VCUs, with the packet data traffic
carried in the "leased" sub rate trunk circuit between nodes.
The example assumes that the following is used:
i) Two Channeliser POP PAKs (1 Master/1 Slave) are fitted.
ii) Time slots for master and slave Channeliser POP PAKs are set to 01
and 04, respectively.
iii) Voice Compression with VCU card in LIM.
The following shows an example of how to connect two geographically distant
units.
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17. MP/LCP
D-Channel
MP1
Bundle
UNIT1
LP
LP
Virtual
X.75 stack
1-1-1-MP1-2
ND=2
NP
Virtual Frame
Relay Stack
1-1-1-MP1-3
NTN=345678
FP
NP
DTE=100812
Virtual
TPAD stack
1-1-1-MP1-1
LP
Port
1-1-1-1
Port
1-1-1-2
Port
1-1-1-3
Port
1-1-1-4
TPAD Port
1-1-1-5
LCP
LCP
LCP
LCP
PP
PP
PP
PP
G.703/G.704
CAS
Interface
LIM 2
TLU
76/3 VCU
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
516
HVC
DTE=100005
NP
Figure 17-6: MP/LCP example (with Channeliser POP PAKs).
17. MP/LCP
MP Bundle Configuration
The unit UNIT1 is the Master unit and therefore a BOD table must be defined
(with default values):
MPBDI:BOD=UNIT1;
The MP bundle is then initialised.
LIMPI:MP=MP1,MODE=MASTER,BOD=UNIT1;
The MP bundle should contain one leased port and 3 switched ports such that
links 1-1-1-2, 1-1-1-3 and 1-1-1-4 will be used as overflow ports in that order,
subject to the CONPREF parameter values. Outgoing D-channel communication is via port 1-1-1-1.
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-1,TYPE=PACKET;
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-2,TYPE=PACKET;
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-3,TYPE=PACKET;
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-4,TYPE=PACKET;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-1,RATE=16K,CASMODE=EL7,ACCESS=LEASED;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-2,RATE=16K,CASMODE=EL7,ACCESS=SWITCHED;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-3,RATE=16K,CASMODE=EL7,ACCESS=SWITCHED;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-4,RATE=16K,CASMODE=EL7,ACCESS=SWITCHED;
LILCI:LCP=1-1-1-1,LQP=YES,MP=MP1;
LILCI:LCP=1-1-1-2,MP=MP1,CONPREF=10;
LILCI:LCP=1-1-1-3,MP=MP1,CONPREF=30;
LILCI:LCP=1-1-1-4,MP=MP1,CONPREF=50;
Normal Data Traffic from UNIT1 uses either a virtual X.75 LP/NP or Frame
Relay stack assigned to the bundle. The stacks can use any LCP link in the
MP bundle:
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-MP1-2,PROT=X75,SIDE=A,LCP=ANY;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-MP1-2,PROT=X75,SIDE=A;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-MP1-3,PROT=FUI;
The X.75 LP/NP stack is assigned a dedicated ROT:
PSROI:ROT=12,NP=1-1-1-MP1-2w;
The Frame Relay stack is assigned a Frame Relay NTN:
FRTEI:FP=1-1-1-MP1-3,NTN=345678;
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17. MP/LCP
D-Channel Configuration
The D-channel communication enters via a channelised TPAD port and
passes, via an HVC, to a virtual TPAD LP/NP stack assigned to the MP bundle.
The physical TPAD port is configured as follows:
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-5,PROT=TPAD;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-5,RATE=64K,ACCESS=LEASED,CASMODE=EL7;
This port has to be assigned an NTN:
PSTEI:NTN=100005,NP=1-1-1-5;
A virtual TPAD LP/NP stack has to be configured to link between the MP
bundle and the above TPAD port.
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-MP1-1,PROT=TPAD,LCP=1-1-1-5;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-MP1-1,PROT=TPAD;
A virtual TPAD LP/NP stack is also assigned an NTN:
PSTEI:NTN=100812,NP=1-1-1-MP1-1;
The TPAD port 1-1-1-5 and the virtual TPAD LP/NP stack can be connected
through an HVC:
PSPCI:NTNA=100005,NTNB=100812;
Finally, all ports should be deblocked:
LIMPD:MP=MP1;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-1;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-2;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-3;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-4;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-5;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-MP1-1;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-MP1-2;
LIFPD:FP=1-1-1-MP1-3;
LIM Configuration
Note that the examples in this section are carried out on the
MD110 that the PFA is connected to rather than the PFA itself.
The MD110 LIM must have the following configured for the CAS connection.
To configure common categories for extensions.
EXCCS:CAT=2,TRAF=03151515,SERV=02001300,CDIV=000150000;
To initiate 16 Kbps EL7 extension on channels 1, 2, 3 and 4 of TLU 76/3 Line
Card in LIM 2 MAG 0 BPOS 40:
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EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
17. MP/LCP
EXTEI:CAT=2,DIR=1004&&1007,TYPE=EL7,EQU=2-0-40-4,
ADC=200000000,ICAT=1077;
To initiate 64K EL7 Extension on channel 9 of TLU76/3 (E1 CAS) in LIM 2 MAG
0 BPOS 40*/
EXTEI:CAT=2,DIR=1009,TYPE=EL7,EQU=2-0-40-9,
ADC=200000000,ICAT=1067;
VCU board configuration
To initiate Voice Compression Configuration for VCU in LIM 2 MAG 0 BPOS
50:
VCCOI:TYPE=SL60,BPOS=2-0-50,CONFIG=2;
Internal Routes for VCU connections
To configure VCU lines, initiate Route 10 for VCU ‘output side’ (64K):
ROCAI:ROU=10,SEL=010200000000,TRM=4,SERV=0110000000,TRAF=03151515,
SIG=111100000031,BCAP=101100;
RODAI:ROU=10,TYPE=SL60,VARC=00010218,VARI=00000000;
Initiate trunk individuals on VCU in LIM 2 MAG 0 BPOS 50:
ROEQI:ROU=10,TRU=2-1,EQU=2-0-50-0;
ROEQI:ROU=10,TRU=2-2,EQU=2-0-50-15;
Initiate Route 3 (Master end) for VCU ‘input side’ (speech or 16K) (note - at the
Slave end RODAI parameter VARO should be set to 06C40000):
ROCAI:ROU=3,SEL=711000000000,TRM=4,SERV=3110000000,
TRAF=03151515,SIG=111100000031,BCAP=000101;
RODAI:ROU=3,TYPE=SL60,VARC=00030318,VARI=15400000,
VARO=06B40000;
Initiate trunk individuals on VCU in LIM 2 MAG 0 BPOS 50 (using VCU signal
terminal):
ROEQI:ROU=3,TRU=2-1,EQU=2-0-50-1,SQU=0-50-15,
INDDAT=000000000001;
ROEQI:ROU=3,TRU=2-2,EQU=2-0-50-2,SQU=0-50-15,
INDDAT=000000000002;
ROEQI:ROU=3,TRU=2-3,EQU=2-0-50-3,SQU=0-50-15,
INDDAT=000000000003;
ROEQI:ROU=3,TRU=2-4,EQU=2-0-50-4,SQU=0-50-15,
INDDAT=000000000004;
To change default mode for first VCU board individual to 16K time slot switching (mode 2):
VCMOC:TYPE=SL60,EQU=2-0-50-1,MODE=2;
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17. MP/LCP
Automatic network connections
To set up external destination data for VCU route for hotline calls to exchange
(note - RODDI command only required in the calling exchange):
RODDI:DEST=843,ROU=3,SRT=4,ADC=0606100000000250;
To set up Static Semi-Permanent Connections:
Connection from VCU output to Tie Line Trunk Individual:
SEMII:EQUA=2-0-50-0,EQUB=2-0-30-1;
Connection from CAS Extension 1004 to VCU input 1:
SEMII:EQUA=2-0-40-4,EQUB=2-0-50-1;
Connection from VCU D channel to CAS Extension 1009:
SEMII:EQUA=2-0-40-9,EQUB=2-0-50-15;
To set up Special Purpose Extensions:
Direct Hot Line Connection from CAS Extensions 1005-1007 to Extensions in
exchange D (note - SPEXI commands are only required in the calling exchange; it is assumed that Exchange D uses CAS Extensions 1002-1004 for
switched connections):
SPEXI:DIR=1005,OPT=N,NDC=8431002;
SPEXI:DIR=1006,OPT=N,NDC=8431003;
SPEXI:DIR=1007,OPT=N,NDC=8431004;
Trunk routes for Tie line / PSTN
To configure tie lines (first channel of ISDN PRI in this example):
To initiate Route 4 (note - at the Slave end RODAI parameter VARO should be
set to 06300000):
ROCAI:ROU=4,SEL=711000000000,TRM=4,SERV=3110000000,
TRAF=03151515,SIG=011100000031,BCAP=101101;
RODAI:ROU=4,TYPE=SL60,VARC=00000310,VARI=15400000,
VARO=06400000;
To initiate trunk individual on TLU76/1 (ISDN PRI) in LIM 2 MAG 0 BPOS 30:
ROEQI:ROU=4,TRU=2-1,EQU=2-0-30-1;
Example 3: MP/LCP with Serial/ISDN POP PAKs
The example assumes that the following is used in UNIT2:
i) An X.21/V.11 DCE POP PAK is present in port 1-1-1-1.
ii) A TransISDN POP PAK (1 port version) is present in port 1-1-1-2.
The following shows an example of how an MP bundle can be used to provide
overflow to a primary leased point-to-point route by initiating a secondary
switched access route over ISDN. The link can also be used as a backup for
the primary leased connection as the CONPREF value for the switched access
link is £100.
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EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
17. MP/LCP
ROT=12
X.75
LP
Virtual X.75E
LP/NP stack
1-1-1-MP2-2
Master
MP2
BOD
PP
PP
UNIT2
LCP
LCP
PP=1-1-1-1
V.11 DCE POP PAK
PRIMARY LEASED
PP=1-1-1-2
TransISDN POP PAK
SECONDARY SWITCHED
ISDN
PP=1-1-1-1
PRIMARY LEASED
PP=1-1-1-2
SECONDARY SWITCHED
UNIT3
PP
PP
LCP
LCP
Slave
MP2
X.75
NP
Virtual X.75E
LP/NP stack
1-1-1-MP2-2
X.75
LP
PP=1-1-1-3
X.75 PORT
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EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
X.75
NP
PP=1-1-1-3
X.75 PORT
Figure 17-7: MP/LCP example (with Serial/ISDN POP PAKs).
17. MP/LCP
Configuration in UNIT2
The unit UNIT2 is the Master unit and therefore a BOD table must be defined
(with default values):
MPBDI:BOD=UNIT2,DIS1=45000,CON1=50000;
The MP bundle is then initialised.
LIMPI:MP=MP2,MODE=MASTER,BOD=UNIT2;
The MP bundle contains one leased port and one switched access port; the
switched access port has a CONPREF value of 1 which means it will be the
first LCP link to be used if any more LCP links are configured .
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-1,TYPE=PACKET;
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-2,TYPE=PACKET;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-1,RATE=64K,ACCESS=LEASED;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-2,RATE=64K,ACCESS=SWITCHED;
LILCI:LCP=1-1-1-1,LQP=YES,MP=MP2;
LILCI:LCP=1-1-1-2,MP=MP2,CONPREF=1;
Normal Data Traffic in UNIT2 uses a virtual X.75 LP/NP stack assigned to the
bundle. This stack can use any LCP link in the MP bundle:
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-MP2-2,PROT=X75,SIDE=A,LCP=ANY;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-MP2-2,PROT=X75,SIDE=A;
The X.75 LP/NP stack is then assigned a dedicated ROT:
PSROI:ROT=12,NP=1-1-1-MP2-2;
Finally, all ports should be deblocked:
LIMPD:MP=MP2;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-1;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-2;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-MP2-2;
Any calls into UNIT2 with called addresses beginning with 12 can be routed to
the MP bundle. For bandwidth on demand, the switched access port 1-1-1-2
will pass traffic when the bandwidth reaches 50 Kbps (i.e,, CON1 value) and
will stop when bandwidth drops below 45 Kbps. Note that CON1 and DIS1
indicate the first available switched access connection.
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17. MP/LCP
Configuration in UNIT 3
The unit UNIT3 is the slave unit and therefore does not require a bandwidthon-demand table associated with the MP bundle.
LIMPI:MP=MP2,MODE=SLAVE;
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-1,TYPE=PACKET;
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-2,TYPE=PACKET;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-1,RATE=64K, ACCESS=LEASED;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-2,RATE=64K, ACCESS=SWITCHED;
LILCI:LCP=1-1-1-1,LQP=YES, MP=MP2;
LILCI:LCP=1-1-1-2,MP=MP2, CONPREF=1;
LILPI:LP=1-1-1-MP2-2,PROT=X75,SIDE=A,LCP=ANY;
LINPI:NP=1-1-1-MP2-2,PROT=X75,SIDE=A;
PSROI:ROT=12,NP=1-1-1-MP2-2;
LIMPD:MP=MP2;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-1;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-2;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-MP2-2;
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17. MP/LCP
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18. ATM
18. ATM
Introduction
The Ericsson PFA 660 possesses a single physical ATM port. The port is used
as a trunk line to connect multiple local or geographically distant Frame Relay
connections into a main ATM core network.
The Frame Relay over ATM functionality enables other protocols to be carried
in Frame Relay just as in backbone Frame Relay networks. Services include:
IP
X.25/X75(E)
SNA/LLC
Virtual ports are used to interface between ATM and logical Frame Relay port
objects. For Frame Relay FRF.5 (see Appendix 4), internal Frame Relay PVC
segments can be used to connect a logical Frame Relay FNI port and ATM
virtual port to one or more physical Frame Relay ports. The ATM virtual port
provides the FR-SSCS part of the network interworking function as described
in ITU-T I.365.1 (see Appendix 4). For a proprietary Frame Relay SVC service,
SVCs can be switched over logical Frame Relay FII ports connected to ATM
virtual ports. This allows an overlayed Frame Relay switching service over
ATM to be employed. The PFA 660 is therefore able to act as a Frame Relay
concentrator into other Ericsson equipment, e.g. the AXD 301 ATM Switching
System.
Only PVCs can be used if FRF.5 compliance isrequired.
Routing
Frame Relay PVCs, sPVCs and SVCs can be carried over ATM. The interfaces
FUI, FDI, FNI and FII can be used for the Frame Relay/ATM connections in the
same manner as for Frame Relay ports described in Section 10. Figure 18-1
illustrates the configuration of ATM, Frame Relay ports and associated routing.
Notes
Connection multiplexing is supported by using the DLCI. The ATM layer
supports connection multiplexing using the VCC. There are two inter-operable
methods of multiplexing frame relay connections:
One-to-One Multiplexing: each frame relay logical connection is mapped
to a single VCC.
Many-to-One Multiplexing: multiple frame relay logical connections are
multiplexed into a single ATM VCC. This method can only be used for
frame relay PVCs which terminate on the same ATM-based end-system.
The FRF5 OAM is fully supported. This is used for VC level network integrity.
Mapping is performed according to mode 1 & 2 as specified by FRF.5. For
mode 2 connection, the value of CLP to be set in the FR ---> ATM is
configurable for each ATM VC (CLP parameter in LIVPS command). The BECN
fields are mapped unchanged between the FR_SSCS and FR, during buffering
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
525
18. ATM
in the PFA 660 the congestion notification is reflected in the forwarded BECN
field.
Forward congestion indication is supported at the frame level with FECN and
at the cell level with EFCI. Backward congestion indication is supported only
at the frame level by the BECN field.
ATM Port Configuration
Port configuration for ATM involves the initialisation of a single ATM port
object and subsequent initialisation of virtual ports (VPs) for connection to
Frame Relay PVC, sPVC and SVC services (FRF.5).
For configuration from a Frame Relay service perspective, see Section 10.
526
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
LIATI
LIATD
up to maximum
number of VCCs
required on unit
Initialise
Deblock
LIFPI
LIFPI
LIVPI
LIVPI
LIFPI
LIFPD
LIFPI
LIFPD
LIVPI
LIVPD
LIVPI
LIVPD
FRTEI
FRTEI
FRTEI
PSROI
SVC
Services
ANRAI
PVC
Services
ANRCI
18. ATM
Figure 18-1: ATM port configuration (with Frame Relay connectivity).
527
18. ATM
Physical Layer
The Physical layer is subdivided into two layers: Framing and Line Interface.
The framing layer controls how to frame/deframe data, encode clocks, map
payloads and insert data into frames. The Line Interface layer is used to send
data according to the Line Interface Type. The Line Interface Types is associated with the POP PAK type.
Framing Format
Line Interface type
LI description POP PAK Type
(encoding)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------G.751
G.703
twin 75 W COAX
E3
G.832
G.703
twin 75 W COAX
E3
DS3_PLCP
G.703
twin 75 W COAX
DS3
DS3_HEC
G.703
twin 75 W COAX
DS3
The framing format required is configured with the ENCODING parameter in
the LIATI command.
POP PAKs
The following POP PAK interfaces are supported for the single ATM port.
Electrical E3 (34M)
Electrical DS3 (45M)
2 x BNC connectors
2 x BNC connectors
POP PAK handling
The following rules apply to the handling of the ATM POP PAKs:WARNING: Do not under any circumstances plug in any POP PAK
with the network cable connected to it.
The inserted POP PAK type can be displayed by the LIATP command during
all PP states except TERMINATED. Should a POP PAK be removed then the
PP object shall display NO POPPAK.
WARNING: ATM POP PAKs cannot be “live inserted”. The ATM port
must be in blocked state before the POP PAK is inserted or removed. The LIATB command is used for this.
ATM layer
The ATM layer is responsible for passing data into the physical layer.
Rate mode
The PFA 660 supports Unsolicited Bit Rate (UBR) and Generic Call Rate
Algorithm (GCRA) rate modes. The former is used in applications not sensitive
to delay and cell loss, e.g. banking transactions, email, telex, LAN traffic. The
GCRA rate mode is used when running lots of ATM VCs or if a circuit,
528
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
18. ATM
normally defined as UBR, is used to transmit a large file transfer, e.g.
packetised voice/video, SNA networks for airline reservations or banking.
Configuration of ATM port
The single ATM port exists on the rear panel of the PFA 660. The port is
operational when a suitable POP PAK is fitted and the following command is
configured.
Initialising ATM port (LIATI)
The command will initialise the settings for the physical ATM port.
NOTE: The port may not be able to be initialised because the
BUF_SIZE and BUFFERS parameter settings require too much
memory. This is triggered as a result of the ATM_MEM parameter
setting in the NALOS command; adjusting the memory allocation
for other resources may alleviate the lack of memory.
LIATI<:PORT=port><,BUF_SIZE=buf_size>
<,CLOCK_MODE=clock_mode>
<,ENCODING=encoding><,LINE_LEN=line_len>
<,BUFFERS=buffers><,TRAPID=trapid>*<,TRAPS=traps>*
<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*
<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
Where:port
ATM port number
1-1-1-ATM1 only
buf_size
Receive buffer size
128..4105 bytes; default=1050.
For IP over Frame Relay/ATM,
if an MTU value of 1500 bytes
is used for Ethernet and Frame
NIs, then the BUF_SIZE pa
rameter for ATM (configured
with LIATI) is recommended to
be set to >1550.
clock_mode
E3/DS3 clock mode
SLAVE only.
encoding
E3 encoding
or DS3 cell
mapping
For 34M E3: G832, G751.
For 45M DS3: DS3_PLCP,
DS3_HEC. Default=G832.
line_len
Line length
for E3/DS3
LONG, SHORT;
default=LONG. For E3, always
set length to LONG, for DS3
usage, set to SHORT (£78
metre cable) or LONG (£78
metre cable).
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
529
18. ATM
buffers
Number of receive
buffers
500...16383; default=1000.
* These SNMP-related parameters are detailed in Section 5.
For example:
LIATI:PORT=1-1-1-ATM1,BUF_SIZE=1550;
Setting ATM port (LIATS)
The LIATS command will modify the settings for the physical ATM port when
the port is manually blocked.
LIATS<:PORT=port><,BUF_SIZE=buf_size><,CLOCK_MODE=clock_mode>
<,ENCODING=encoding><,LINE_LEN=line_len>
<,BUFFERS=buffers><,TRAPID=trapid>*<,TRAPS=traps>*
<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*
<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
Where the parameters are as described in the LIATI command.
For example, to modify the receive buffer size on the ATM port:
LIATS:PORT=1-1-1-ATM1,BUF_SIZE=4000;
Deblocking ATM port (LIATD)
The LIATD command deblocks the ATM port.
LIATD<:PORT=port>;
For example:
LIATD;
Blocking ATM port (LIATB)
The command will manually block the ATM port. All data queues and other
resources will be relinquished.
LIATB<:PORT=port>;
For example:
LIATB;
Printing ATM port (LIATP)
The command will print the settings for the physical ATM port.
LIATP<:PORT=port>;
530
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
18. ATM
For example:
LIATP;
ATM PORT DATA
PORT
PORT_TYPE
ENCODING
CLOCK_MODE
STATUS
____________________________________________________________
1-1-1-ATM1
E3
G832
BUF_SIZE
=
4096
BUFFERS
=
500
LINE_LEN
=
LONG
SIGNAL
=
HIGH
TRAPID
=
NONE
TRAPS
=
NONE
SLAVE
WO
END
The above parameters are explained as for the LIATI command with the
exception of:
STATUS
Status of port
WO, MB, AB, HB or CB.
SIGNAL
Output signal
strength for E3/DS3
ATM connections
HIGH, LOW.
This value will be automatically
set by type of POP PAK fitted,
i.e. SIGNAL=HIGH for E3
POP PAKs and SIGNAL=LOW
for DS3 POP PAKs.
Terminating ATM port (LIATT)
The command will terminate the physical ATM port. The port must be manually blocked before this command can be issued.
LIATT<:PORT=port>;
For example:
LIATT;
Configuration of Virtual Ports
The ATM functionality uses virtual ports to establish interfaces with Frame
Relay ports. A unique virtual port identifier of the format 1-1-1-ATM1-(1-n)
(where n is from 1 to 64) is used to link between ATM and Frame Relay.
This virtual frame port provides the FR-SSCS part of the network interworking
function as described in “ITU-T I.365.1 - Frame Relaying Service Specific
Convergence Sublayer (FR-SSCS) (See Appendix 4).
Initialising virtual port (LIVPI)
The LIVPI command will initialise a specified virtual port. A virtual port number,
e.g. VP 1-1-1-ATM1-3, is associated with an FP port, i.e. FP 1-1-1-ATM1-3
which is configured with the LIFPI command.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
531
18. ATM
LIVPI:VP=vp,VCC=vcc<,TYPE=type><,TRAPID=trapid>*
<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
Where:vp
Virtual Port number
1-1-1-ATM1-(1-64).
vcc
Virtual Channel
Connection number
nnnn.mmmm 0£nnnn£255;
32£mmmm£65536.
The VCC value is made up of
the Virtual Path Identifier
(nnnn) and Virtual Channel
Identifier (mmmm).
type
Port type
FRF5 only.
* These SNMP-related parameters are detailed in Section 4.
For example, to initialise VP 1-1-1-ATM1-3 with VCC 1.232:
LIVPI:VP=1-1-1-ATM1-3,VCC=1.232;
Setting virtual port (LIVPS)
The command is used to set parameters for the ATM virtual port connected to
a Frame Relay port.
LIVPS:VP=vp<,VCC=vcc><,MAXPDU=maxpdu><,OAM_FLOW=
oam_flow><,RATEENFIN=rateenfin><,RATEENFOUT=rateenfout>
<,RATEMODE=ratemode><,MAPMODE=mapmode><,CLP=clp>
<,GCRA_BE=gcra_be><,GCRA_RATE=gcra_rate>
<,ATMTXBUFFS=atmtxbuffs><,ACNTL=acntl>**
<,ACL=acl>**<,DESTID=destid>**<,TRAPID=trapid>*
<,TRAPS=traps>*<,LINKTRAP=linktrap>*
<,OBJTRAP=objtrap>*<,CONFTRAP=conftrap>*;
Where:-
532
vp
Virtual Port number
1-1-1-ATM1-(1-64).
vcc
Virtual Channel
Connection number
nnnn.mmmm 0£nnnn£255;
32£mmmm£65536.
The VCC value is made up of
the Virtual Path Identifier
(nnnn) and Virtual Channel
Identifier (mmmm).
maxpdu
Maximum Protocol
Data Unit (PDU) for
FR-SSCS
256 to 4196; default=261.
This is used for Frame Relay
memory allocation and is not
normally changed from the
default.
oam_flow
Operation And
Maintenance (OAM)
flow control enabled
YES, NO; default=YES.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
18. ATM
rateenfin
Control of Rate
Enforcement for
incoming frames
YES, NO;
default=NO.
rateenfout
Control of Rate
Enforcement for
outgoing frames
YES, NO;
default=NO. See Section 10,
Rate Enforcement.
ratemode
Type of rate adaption
for ATM
GCRA or UBR;
default=UBR. See Section 10,
Rate Enforcement.
mapmode
Cell loss mapping
mode
1 or 2; default=1.
clp
Cell Loss Priority
0 or 1; default=0. Only when
MAPMODE=2.
gcra_be
GCRA Burst
Size
1..200; default=3.
RATEMODE=GCRA must be
set.
gcra_rate
GCRA Committed
Rate
10000..150000000;
default=2097152.
RATEMODE=GCRA must be
set.
atmtxbuffs
Max. number of
ATM transmit buffers
1..50; default=20.
* These SNMP-related parameters are detailed in Section 5.
** These NM400-related parameters are detailed in Section 4.
For example, to modify the ATMTXBUFFS value for VP 1-1-1-ATM1-3:
LIVPS:VP=1-1-1-ATM1-3,ATMTXBUFFS=40;
Deblocking virtual port (LIVPD)
The LIVPD command deblocks the specified virtual port.
LIVPD:VP=vp;
For example, to deblock VP 1-1-1-ATM1-3:
LIVPD:VP=1-1-1-ATM1-3;
Blocking virtual port (LIVPB)
The LIVPB command manually blocks the specified virtual port. All data
queues and other resources will be relinquished.
LIVPB:VP=vp;
For example, to block VP 1-1-1-ATM1-3:
LIVPB:VP=1-1-1-ATM1-3;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
533
18. ATM
Printing virtual port (LIVPP)
The command will display the parameters for the requested virtual port.
LIVPP:VP=vp;
For example, for virtual port 1-1-1-ATM1-3:
LIVPP:VP=1-1-1-ATM1-3;
VIRTUAL PORT DATA
VP
VCC
MAXPDU STATUS
____________________________________
1-1-1-ATM1-3
1.232
TYPE
=
FRF5
OAM_FLOW
=
YES
RATEENFIN
=
NO
RATEENFOUT
=
NO
RATEMODE
=
GCRA
GCRA_BE
=
3
GCRA_RATE
=
2097152
MAPMODE
=
1
CLP
=
1
261
ATMTXBUFFS
=
20
ACNTL
=
ALARM
ACL
=
A2
DESTID
=
NODESTID
TRAPID
=
NONE
TRAPS
=
NONE
WO
END
The above parameters are defined as for the LIVPS command with the exception of:
STATUS
Virtual Port status
WO, MB, CB, AB
Note: GCRA_BE and GCRA_RATE parameters will not be displayed
when RATEMODE=UBR. The CLP parameter will be displayed
when MAPMODE=2.
Terminating virtual port (LIVPT)
The LIVPT command terminates the specified virtual port. The virtual port
must be manually blocked before this command is allowed. When a virtual
port is associated with a frame relay FP port then the FP port must be terminated before the virtual port can be terminated.
LIVPT:VP=vp;
534
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
18. ATM
For example, to terminate VP 1-1-1-ATM1-3:
LIVPT:VP=1-1-1-ATM1-3;
Configuration of Frame Relay FP ports
The FP ports are configured as described for the LIFPx command set in
Section 10. The port numbering for FP ports connecting to ATM services is of
the format 1-1-1-ATM1-(1-64).
Statistics
Printing ATM port statistics (STATP)
The STATP command will display statistics for the physical ATM port.
STATP<:PORT=port>;
For DS3_PLCP or DS3_HEC operation:STATP;
ATM PORT DATA
PORT
PORT_TYPE
MEDIA
ENCODING
---------------------------------------------------1-1-1-ATM1
DS3
COAX
DS3_PLCP
CONF_VCC
0
VPI_BITS
8
VCI_BITS
16
UNI_TYPE
PUBLIC
UNI_VER
3.1
LCV
134678326
UNCOR_HEC
0
COR_HEC
0
NON_ZERO_GFC
0
NON_MAT_CNT
0
FR_ERRS
1275668
PAR_ERRS
181212
PAT_PAR_ERRS
78041
FEBE_ERRS
0
PLCP_FR_ERR
0
PLCP_BIP
0
PLCP_OOF
0
PLCP_FEBE
0
DROPPED_CELLS
000000000
IDL_CELL_CNT
000000000
FRAMES
IN: 0
OUT: 0
CELLS
IN: 000000000
OUT: 000000000
FRAMES PER MIN
IN: 0
OUT: 0
CELLS PER MIN
IN: 0
OUT: 0
FRAMES PEAK/MIN IN: 0
OUT: 0
CELLS PEAK/MIN
OUT: 0
IN: 0
END
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
535
18. ATM
For E3 operation (G.751):STATP;
ATM PORT DATA
PORT
PORT_TYPE
MEDIA
ENCODING
---------------------------------------------------1-1-1-ATM1
E3
COAX
G751
CONF_VCC
0
VPI_BITS
8
VCI_BITS
16
UNI_TYPE
PUBLIC
UNI_VER
3.1
LCV
221093339
UNCOR_HEC
0
COR_HEC
0
NON_ZERO_GFC
0
NON_MAT_CNT
0
FR_ERRS
417
PLCP_FR_ERR
0
PLCP_OOF
0
PLCP_BIP
0
PLCP_FEBE
0
DROPPED_CELLS
000000000
IDL_CELL_CNT
000000000
FRAMES
IN: 0
OUT: 0
CELLS
IN: 000000000
OUT: 000000000
FRAMES PER MIN
IN: 0
OUT: 0
CELLS PER MIN
IN: 0
OUT: 0
FRAMES PEAK/MIN IN: 0
OUT: 0
CELLS PEAK/MIN
OUT: 0
IN: 0
END
536
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
18. ATM
For E3 operation (G.832):STATP;
ATM PORT DATA
PORT
PORT_TYPE
MEDIA
ENCODING
---------------------------------------------------1-1-1-ATM1
E3
COAX
G832
CONF_VCC
1
VPI_BITS
8
VCI_BITS
16
UNI_TYPE
PUBLIC
UNI_VER
3.1
LCV
1
UNCOR_HEC
0
COR_HEC
1
NON_ZERO_GFC
0
NON_MAT_CNT
0
OOF
1
FEBE_ERR
29
FERF_ERR
1
B1_BIP_ERRS
30
LOCD_CNT
0
DROPPED_CELLS
000000000
IDL_CELL_CNT
03039297541
FRAMES
IN: 11643
CELLS
IN: 000000114
FRAMES PER MIN
IN: 20
OUT: 20
CELLS PER MIN
IN: 20
OUT: 20
FRAMES PEAK/MIN IN: 27
OUT: 27
CELLS PEAK/MIN
OUT: 11526
OUT: 11666
OUT: 000000117
IN: 11504
END
Where:General parameters:PORT_TYPE
DS3 or E3
MEDIA
COAX
ENCODING
DS3_HEC, DS3_PLCP, G751, G832
CONF_VCC
Total no. of configured ATM VCCs.
VPI_BITS
Total no. of Virtual Path Identifier bits.
VCI_BITS
Total no. of Virtual Circuit Identifier bits.
UNI_TYPE
Type of ATM service.
UNI_VER
Version of ATM service. 3.1 only.
LCV
Total no. of Line Code Violations.
UNCOR_HEC
Total no. of uncorrected HEC errors.
COR_HEC
Total no. of corrected HEC errors.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
537
18. ATM
NON_ZERO_GFC
Total no. of ATM cells with non-zero Generic Flow
Control GFC) set.
NON_MAT_CNT
Total no. of received ATM cells not matching any header
screens.
DROPPED_CELLS
Total no. of dropped ATM cells.
IDL_CELL_CNT
Total no. of idle cells received.
FR_IN
Total no. of incoming frames.
FR_OUT
Total no. of outgoing frames.
CELLS_IN
Total no. of incoming cells.
CELLS_OUT
Total no. of outgoing cells.
FR_IN_MIN
Total no. of incoming frames in last minute.
FR_OUT_MIN
Total no. of outgoing frames in last minute.
CELLS_IN_MIN
Total no. of incoming cells in last minute.
CELLS_OUT_MIN
Total no. of outgoing cells in last minute.
FR_IN_MIN_P
Peak no. of incoming frames in last minute.
FR_OUT_MIN_P
Peak no. of outgoing frames in last minute.
CELLS_IN_MIN_P
Peak no. of incoming cells in last minute.
CELLS_OUT_MIN_P Peak no. of outgoing cells in last minute.
DS3-related:
FR_ERRS
Total no. of frame errors.
PAR_ERRS
Total no. of parity errors.
PAT_PAR_ERRS
Total no. of path parity errors.
FEBE_ERRS
Total no. of Far End Block errors.
PLCP_FR_ERR
Total no. of PLCP frame errors.
PLCP_BIP
Total no. of PLCP Bit Interleaf Parity errors.
PLCP_OOF
Total no. of PLCP Out Of Frame events.
PLCP_FEBE
Total no. of PLCP Far End Block Errors.
E3-G751-related:
FR_ERRS
Total no. of Frame errors.
PLCP_FR_ERRS
Total no. of PLCP Frame errors.
PLCP_OOF
Total no. of PLCP Out Of Frame events.
PLCP_BIP
Total no. of PLCP Bit Interleaf Parity errors.
PLCP_FEBE
Total no. of PLCP Far End Block Errors.
E3-G832-related:
538
OOF
Total no. of Out Of Frame events.
FEBE_ERR
Total no. of Far End Block Errors.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
18. ATM
FERF_ERR
Total no. of Far End Receive Failure Errors.
B1_BIP_ERRS
Total no. of B1 Bit Interleaf Parity errors.
LOCD_CNT
Loss Of Cell Delineation count.
Printing ATM VCC statistics (STVCP)
The STVCP command prints the statistics for a selected VCC or all VCC
statistics combined.
STVCP<:VCC=vcc>;
Where:vcc
Virtual Channel
Connection number
nnnn.mmmm
0£nnnn£255;
32£mmmm£66536.
For example, for a specific VCC:
STVCP:VCC=16.522;
VCC
RATE_MODE
USER
STATUS
——————————————————————————————————————————————
16.522
GCRA
1-1-1-ATM1-3
WO
END
or, for all VCCs combined:
STVCP;
GCRA TOTALS
------------------------STATUS WO
STATUS AB
234
14
UBR TOTALS
STATUS WO
STATUS AB
------------------------3056
44
END
Printing virtual port statistics (STVPP)
The STVPP prints the statistics for a selected virtual port or all virtual ports
combined.
STVPP<:VP=vp,<DLCI=dlci>>;
Where:vp
Virtual Port number
1-1-1-ATM1-(1-64).
dlci
Data Link Connection
Identifier of
Frame Relay PVC
0..1023
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
539
18. ATM
For example, for a virtual port 1-1-1-ATM1-3:
STVPP:VP=1-1-1-ATM1-3;
VIRTUAL PORT STATISTICS
VP
Total PVCs
————————————————————————————————————————————
1-1-1-ATM1-3
2
FECN
IN:
6
SET:
0
BECN
IN:
7
SET:
0
DE
IN:
12
FRAMES > CIR
IN:
0
OUT:
0
OCTETS > CIR
IN:
0
OUT:
0
FRAMES > EIR
IN:
0
OUT:
0
OCTETS > EIR
IN:
0
OUT:
0
FRAMES
IN:
75
OUT:
75
OCTETS
IN:
1427
OUT:
1307
FRAMES PER MIN
IN:
6
OUT:
6
OCTETS PER MIN
IN:
88
OUT:
78
FRAMES PEAK/MIN IN:
10
OUT:
9
OCTETS PEAK/MIN IN:
472
OUT:
366
END
For cumulative virtual ports:
STVPP;
VIRTUAL PORT STATISTICS
TOTAL PVCS
---------2
FECN
IN:
131545
SET:
153328
BECN
IN:
7
SET:
0
DE
IN:
12
FRAMES > CIR
IN:
0
OUT:
0
OCTETS > CIR
IN:
0
OUT:
0
FRAMES > EIR
IN:
0
OUT:
0
OCTETS > EIR
IN:
0
OUT:
0
FRAMES
IN:
314189
OUT:
316000
OCTETS
IN:
40844570
OUT:
41080000
FRAMES PER MIN
IN:
5900
OUT:
5900
OCTETS PER MIN
IN:
767000
OUT:
767000
FRAMES PEAK/MIN IN:
6000
OUT:
6000
OCTETS PEAK/MIN IN:
78000
OUT:
78000
END
540
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
18. ATM
Note that the accumulated values for a virtual port can be reset to zero as
follows, e.g.
STVPR:VP=1-1-1-ATM1-3;
ATM Example
This example illustrates the use of ATM and the concentration of Frame Relay
Traffic into ATM cells.
The example assumes the following:
i) UNIT1 and UNIT2 are Ericsson PFA 660s of identical specifications.
UNIT3 could be a PFA 660 but has to primarily be able to terminate the
Frame Relay connections, i.e. support FRF.5.
ii) A 34M E3 (G.832) ATM connection is present which connects the PFA
660 to the public ATM network via an Ericsson AXD 301 ATM switch. A
34M/45M ATM Daughterboard and E3 ATM POP PAK are fitted to the
PFA 660.
iii) The IP connectivity example illustrates the encapsulation of IP services over Frame Relay via SVCs, and subsequent transport over ATM.
However, IP over Frame Relay can also be carried over ATM by using
PVCs/sPVCs. Services such as X.25/X.75 over Frame Relay can also be
carried over PVCs and sPVCs. See Section 10 for more information.
Figure 18-2 illustrates the example:
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
541
18. ATM
DLCI66
DLCI67
Frame Relay
FP 1-1-1-1
FR NTN=201000094
FDI
DLCI68
Frame Relay
FP 1-1-1-2
FR NTN=201000095
FDI
A
A
A
B
B
B
1/96
1/97
1/98
UNIT1
VP/FP
1-1-1-ATM1-12
FR NTN=20101
FNI
VP/FP
1-1-1-ATM1-13
FR NTN=20102
FNI
VP/FP
1-1-1-ATM1-14
ROT=22, ND=202
FII
FRSVC NI
LOCIP=1.0.0.1
LOCNTN=201999
I86
DLC I87
DLC
I88
DLC
ATM
1-1-1-ATM1
(E3 G.832)
AXD 301
ATM
BACKBONE
DLCI 86, 87, 88
VP/FP
1-1-1-ATM1-12
FR NTN 20201
FNI
VP/FP
1-1-1-ATM1-13
FR NTN 20202
FNI
VP/FP
1-1-1-ATM1-14
ROT=22,ND=201
FII
UNIT3
DEVICE
SUPPORTING
FRF5
UNIT3
FRSVC NI
LOCIP 1.0.0.2
LOCNTN=202999
FP 1-1-1-1
FR NTN 202000094
FUI
FP 1-1-1-2
FR NTN 202000095
FUI
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
542
LAN1
1-1-0-1
Ether NI
LOCIP=192.9.1.11
192.9.2.0
Figure 18-2: Frame Relay/ATM operation.
18. ATM
Configuration in UNIT1
ATM port
The ATM port is initialised with the LIATI command. Only one ATM port exists.
LIATI:PORT=1-1-1-ATM1,ENCODING=G832,BUF_SIZE=1550;
The BUF_SIZE parameter is set to 1550 to manage MTU=1500 which is set for
Frame Relay and Ethernet NIs. The extra 50 bytes is needed for overhead
(Frame Relay headers).
Frame Relay ports
The two physical Frame Relay ports must be configured as FR UNI DCE by
using a combination of LIPPI and LIFPI commands:
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-1,TYPE=FRAME;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-1,RATE=2M,N1=1502;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-1,PROT=FUI;
LIFPS:FP=1-1-1-1,LLM=ANSI,PVCSTATUS=YES;
and:
LIPPI:PP=1-1-1-2,TYPE=FRAME;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-2,RATE=2M,N1=1502;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-2,PROT=FUI;
LIFPS:FP=1-1-1-2,LLM=ANSI,PVCSTATUS=YES;
Each Frame Relay port is assigned a Frame Relay NTN, i.e.
FRTEI:NTN=201000094,FP=1-1-1-1;
FRTEI:NTN=201000095,FP=1-1-1-2;
Virtual Ports
Virtual ports (VPs) are configured to provide FRF5 services between the ATM
physical port and Frame Relay. An association is made between the VP which
sets the VPI/VCI for the ATM Virtual Circuit, and an FP port which sets the
Frame Relay protocol, i.e. FNI.
LIVPI:VP=1-1-1-ATM1-12,VCC=1.98,TYPE=FRF5;
LIVPI:VP=1-1-1-ATM1-13,VCC=1.97,TYPE=FRF5;
LIVPI:VP=1-1-1-ATM1-14,VCC=1.96,TYPE=FRF5;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-ATM1-12,PROT=FNI;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-ATM1-13,PROT=FNI;
LIFPI:FP=1-1-1-ATM1-14,PROT=FII;
LIFPS:FP=1-1-1-ATM1-12,LLM=ANSI,PVCSTATUS=YES,T391=180,
T392=200,N391=1;
LIFPS:FP=1-1-1-ATM1-13,LLM=ANSI,
PVCSTATUS=YES,T391=180, T392=200,N391=1;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
543
18. ATM
Each Frame Relay virtual port is assigned a Frame Relay NTN or ROT, i.e.
FRTEI:NTN=20101,FP=1-1-1-ATM1-12;
FRTEI:NTN=20102,FP=1-1-1-ATM1-13;
PSROI:ROT=22,FP=1-1-1-ATM1-14;
ANRCI:RC=22,ROT=22;
ANRAI:ND=202,RC=22;
IP Connectivity
The LAN port is configured so that local IP services can be carried over Frame
Relay SVCs and subsequently over ATM.
LILAI:LA=1-1-0-1,TYPE=ETHER;
The Network Interfaces for Ether and Frame Relay SVCs require configuration
to allocate unique IP addresses, and for Frame Relay, a local Frame Relay
NTN.
IPNII:LOCIP=192.9.1.11,MASK=255.255.255.0,TYPE=ETHER,
LA=1-1-0-1;
IPNII:LOCIP=1.0.0.1,MASK=255.0.0.0,TYPE=FRSVC,LOCNTN=201999;
The Remote gateway must be set:
IPGAI:LOCIP=1.0.0.1,REMIP=1.0.0.2,REMNTN=202999;
An IP route will route any IP traffic for the 192.9.2.0 network via gateway
1.0.0.2.
IPROI:DEST=192.9.2.0,MASK=255.255.255.0,GATE=1.0.0.2;
Frame Relay PVCs
The FRPCI command is used to associate the A- and B-sides of internal
Frame Relay PVC segments. Two PVCs connect between FP 1-1-1-1 and the
virtual port FP 1-1-1-ATM1-12, and one between FP 1-1-1-2 and FP 1-1-1ATM1-13.
FRPCI:SIDEA=FR,NTNA=201000094,NTNB=20101,DLCIA=66,DLCIB=86;
FRPCI:SIDEA=FR,NTNA=201000094,NTNB=20101,DLCIA=67,DLCIB=87;
FRPCI:SIDEA=FR,NTNA=201000095,NTNB=20102,DLCIA=68,DLCIB=88;
Note: the DLCI values must match with DLCI values set on the
remote device across the ATM network.
Configuration in UNIT2
The configuration in UNIT2 would be very similar to UNIT1 except the addressing changes illustrated in Figure 18-2.
544
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
APPENDIX ONE: Integrated Router Board (IRB)
Access into IRB
Local Access Via PFA User Interface
The IRB can be accessed from the user interface via the 9-pin config port as
follows:
CISCO <RETURN>
<RETURN>
The user will then enter the IRB user interface.
The following settings are pre-configured in the factory. However, if the configuration of the user is lost the settings must be re-entered manually, i.e.
Router>
enable
Password>
Router#
Enter
system
config
t
configuration
commands,
console
one
per
Router
(config)#line
Router
(config-line)#flowcon
software
Router
(config-line)#int
ser
0
Router
(config-line)#no
shutdown
Router
(config-line)#int
ser
Router
(config-line)#encap
Router
(config-line)#no
Router
(config-line)#enable
Router
(config-line)#^z
Router#
line
End
with
CNTL/Z
0
1
x25
shutdown
password
system
write
#####[OK]
To exit from the user interface enter:
PFA>
<RETURN>
<RETURN>
Further configuration must be carried out with the aid of the relevant CISCO user
documentation.
NOTE: Access to the IRB is not possible via X.29.
Local Access Via Aux Port
The 9-pin Aux port on the rear panel can be used to directly connect to the IRB.
This may be used as an alternative to local access via the 9-pin config port.
Terminals should be set to 9600, 8 bit none.
Remote Access via TELNET
The IRB can be accessed via TELNET remotely once the local IP address has
been configured in the IRB (see CISCO documentation).
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
545
Appendices
Remote Access via X.29
The IRB can be accessed via X.29 once either the IRB S0 or S1 port (see
System Manual) has been configured as X.25 with an appropriate X.29 address;
the X.29 address is checked at the IRB. Additionally, the PID of incoming traffic
is checked at the IRB for X.29 or encapsulated IP traffic.
Port Configuration
For the correct operation of the IRB it is essential to configure internal connections between the motherboard and the IRB. This involves the configuration of
port 1-1-1-6 and IRB port S1 and all associated routing.
The choice of X.25 or Frame Relay protocol is dependent on user requirements.
Additionally, external serial (S0) and LAN port on the IRB will require configuration via the CISCO user interface.
1-1-1-5
IRB
EXTERNAL SERIAL
LOCIP = 130.1.1.17
LOCNTN = 345678
X.25
NI
IRB User Interface
130.1.1.107
1-1-1-6
S1
X.25
NTN=3453453534
102040
LAN2
PFA
1-1-1-5
IRB
EXTERNAL SERIAL
FR
NI
IRB User Interface
A
211.1.1.22
B
S1
LOCIP = 211.1.1.122
LOCNTN = 122000089
Frame
Relay
FUI
Internal PVC
Segment (DLCI16)
1-1-1-6
NTN=122060
LAN2
Figure A-1: Example of PFA - IRB Interconnection
546
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
Configuration of Port 1-1-1-6
Warning: Do not use port 1-1-1-6 for any other use when an IRB is
fitted.
Port 1-1-1-6 is always used for internal connection between the PFA and IRB
port S1. As the connection is internal, the POP PAK housing associated with
port 1-1-1-6 is blanked off.
The port can be configured as X.25 or Frame Relay.
For example, for IP over X.25:
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-6,TYPE=PACKET;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-6,RATE=2M,N1=1029;
LINPS:NP=1-1-1-6,TC=1-10,DWS=7,DPS=1024,MPS=1024,ZEROCAUSE=NO;
PSTEI:NTN=102,NP=1-1-1-6;
IPNII:LOCIP=130.1.1.17,TYPE=X25,MASK=255.255.255.0,
LOCNTN=345678;
IPGAI:LOCIP=130.1.1.17,REMIP=130.1.1.107,REMNTN=102040;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-6;
IPNID:LOCIP=130.1.1.17;
The PFA side of the connection acts as the physical DCE and therefore supplies clocks, hence the configuration of the line speed.
For example for IP over Frame Relay:
LIPOI:PORT=1-1-1-6,PROT=FUI;
LIPPS:PP=1-1-1-6,RATE=2M,N1=1502;
LIFPS:FP=1-1-1-6,LLM=ANSI;
FRTEI:NTN=122060,FP=1-1-1-6;
IPNII:LOCIP=211.1.1.122,TYPE=FR,MASK=255.255.255.0,
LOCNTN=122000089,INVARP=YES;
FRPCI:NTNB=122060,DLCIB=16,NTNA=122000089,SIDEA=IP,PVCID=PFA;
LIPOD:PORT=1-1-1-6;
IPNID:LOCIP=211.1.1.122;
FRPCD:NTN=122060,DLCI=16;
This example connects port 1-1-1-6 to the Frame Relay NI with LOCIP address
211.1.1.122.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
547
Appendices
Configuration of IRB port S1
Port S1 is used as an internal link to the PFA 230/660. As a result, port 1-1-1-6
is used for the internal link and is blanked off.
For the connection on the IRB side, the internal Serial port S1 of the IRB can be
configured as X.25 or FR.
For example, for IP over X.25:
PFA>cisco
<RETURN>
<RETURN>
Router
(config)#int
ser
1
Router
(config-if)#ip
Router
(config-if)#encapsulation
address
130.1.1.107
Router
(config-if)#x25
address
Router
(config-if)#x25
htc
10
Router
(config-if)#x25
win
7
Router
(config-if)#x25
wout
Router
(config-if)#x25
ips
1024
Router
(config-if)#x25
ops
1024
Router
(config-if)#^z
255.255.0.0
x25
102040
7
Router#
SYS-5-CONFIG_I:
Router#
Configured
from
console
by
console
write
#####[OK]
This creates a link between the motherboard and the IRB.
For example, for IP over Frame Relay:
PFA>cisco
<RETURN>
<RETURN>
Router
(config)#int
ser
1
Router
(config-if)#ip
Router
(config-if)#encapsulation
Router
(config-if)#frame-relay
Router
(config-if)#^z
address
211.1.1.22
255.255.255.0
frame-relay
lmi-type
IETF
ansi
Router#
SYS-5-CONFIG_I:
Router#
Configured
from
console
by
console
write
#####[OK]
This permits IP traffic to pass over Frame Relay from int ser 1 (S1) to the PFA
via port 1-1-1-6 and Frame Relay NI. Note that Inverse ARP is in operation as
default.
548
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
Configuration of IRB S0
The IRB port S0 is the external serial port of the IRB. The port is labelled as Ch5
on the back panel of the PFA 230/660.
Consult the CISCO documentation for S0 port configuration details.
Routing through IRB
Once the internal motherboard - IRB connection is made (PP/LP and PP/FP for
X.25 and Frame Relay port 1-1-1-6, respectively, should be Working Order) it
is necessary to configure routing depending upon the network topology.
CD-ROM Documentation (CISCO Systems, Inc.)
User documentation for operation of the IRB for Ethernet or Token ring is available on the following CD-ROM.
Documentation (Cisco Systems Inc.) CD-ROM;
Mac, Win, Unix. Sales Order Number 83-1085-01.
Contact your local Ericsson company for ordering information.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
549
Appendices
APPENDIX TWO: SNMP Topology Trap MML Commands
The following MML commands are for use with the proprietary Ericsson
Multiservice Management Suite (MMS): Node Manager component only.
The commands are intended to edit the topology table of the DNA MIB to
provide topology information to the Node Manager application in the event of
restarts. The topology table maps the local and remote physical connections of
ports. In addition to manually adding entries, automatic discovery of X.75E and
Frame Relay FII connections between PFA - PFA and PFA - FS 700 products is
possible. Any updates to connections are carried out automatically.
Initialising Topology Table Entry (NATPI)
The NATPI command initialises a topology table entry. The LOCNAME is the
ifName MIB variable associated with the physical port, which is the PP or LAN
port identifier. The REMADDR and REMNAME parameters describe what is on
the other end of the connection. The initialisation of an entry in the topology
table is not dependent on the configuration of the actual port.
NATPI:LOCNAME=locname,REMADDR="remaddr",
REMNAME="remname";
Where:
locname
Port number
1-1-1-(1..18) for X.25,X.75, FP
1-1-0-(1..2) for LAN ports
1-1-1-(1..18)-(1..8) for SNA ports
1-1-1-(XF1..XF32) for X.25/X.75
over Frame Relay ports
1-1-1-(LF1..LF15) for SNA
over Frame Relay ports
1-1-1-(MP1..MP6)-(1-3) for
MP virtual ports
1-1-1-ATM1 for ATM
1-1-1-ATM1-(1..64) for ATM
virtual port.
"remaddr"
Remote address
up to 40 ASCII characters; this
is typically the NODEID
configured with the NANOS
command. Inverted
commas may be used to
preserve case sensitivity.
remname
Remote name
up to 40 ASCII characters;
this is typically the remote port
to which the local port defined
with the LOCNAME parameter
connects to. Inverted
commas may be used to
preserve case sensitivity.
For example:
NATPI:LOCNAME=1-1-1-4,REMADDR=902,REMNAME=1-1-1-8;
550
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
Printing Topology Table (NATPP)
The NATPP command allows the user to display the DNA topology table. Either
the whole table or the entry for a particular LOCNAME (i.e., port) can be shown.
Automatically discovered FII and X.75E entries from remote nodes are displayed along with entries manually initialised with the NATPI command.
NATPP<:LOCNAME=locname>;
Where the parameters are as described for the NATPI command with the
exception of:
source
Source of entry
ASCII string value of MANUAL
or AUTO. AUTO shows that the
entry is made by automatic
discovery of physical X.75(E)/
Frame Relay FII connections in
the DNA topology table.
protocol
Protocol of
entry.
Input=FII, Output=X75(E);
Default = FII.
For example:
NATPP;
DNA
TOPOLOGY
TABLE
__________________
LOCNAME
=
1-1-1-3
REMADDR
= 902
REMNAME
=
1-1-1-2
SOURCE
=
MANUAL
LOCNAME
=
1-1-1-4
REMADDR
= 902
REMNAME
=
1-1-1-7
SOURCE
= AUTO
PROTOCOL
= FII
LOCNAME
=
REMADDR
= 903
REMNAME
=
1-1-1-8
1-1-1-1
SOURCE
= AUTO
PROTOCOL
= X75E
END
Terminating Topology Table Instance (NATPT)
The NATPT command terminates a topology table instance. The termination of
an entry in the topology table is not dependent on the configuration of the actual
port.
NATPT:LOCNAME=1-1-1-4;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
551
Appendices
APPENDIX THREE: X.25/X.75E Clear/Reset Cause Codes
A Clear packet is issued when some component of a Virtual Circuit wants to
indicate to the other components that the call is now finished.
The Clear packet may be issued either when the Virtual Circuit is being established between the two network DTEs, or after the call is fully connected. The
packet may be issued either by a component of the network, or by one of the
DTEs, e.g.
During connection, the call may be cleared by the network because the
network is too busy to handle the extra traffic. In this case the remote
DTE would never know of the existence of the call.
During connection, the call may be cleared by the remote DTE because
the DTE is going down for maintenance in five minutes and is not prepared to accept any new calls.
Once the call is established, it may be cleared by the network because
one of the DTEs failed to follow the protocol.
Once the call is established, it may be cleared by the remote DTE
because the user has typed a “logoff” command and therefore no longer
requires the Virtual Circuit.
When the Clear packet is generated, two fields are completed to indicate why
the Clear was issued. These are the Cause field, which is a general indication
of the reason, and the Diagnostic field, which is much more detailed.
The Cause and Diagnostic fields are shown in the display from the STNPP
command such that the first two digits show the Cause field and the second
two digits show the Diagnostic field; both fields are always displayed in decimal.
Networks tend to use the same CLEAR and RESET cause codes. A Cause code
of 00 indicates that the call was cleared by the remote DTE not by the network.
In this case the service supplier should provide information on what Diagnostic
codes are used. If a DTE attempts to issue a non-zero Cause code, then the
network will change this to indicate Remote Procedure Error because the
remote DTE is not following the agreed protocol.
When the remote DTE is a PFA then the Cause and Diagnostic are generally
both zero.
A non-zero cause code indicates that the call was cleared by the network.
Consistent use of Clearing causes in Networks
The clearing cause contained in a clear packet can be extremely useful for
diagnostic purposes. It is also essential in a network for deciding when to reroute a call which has cleared.
There is a parameter called ZEROCAUSE configurable with the LINPS command
which affects the behaviour of the cause codes. This is because the X.25
recommendation expects logical DTE devices to clear calls with the clearing
cause set to 0 (or >80 hex/127 decimal). To enable these cause codes to be
passed across a network, it is recommended that the ZEROCAUSE parameter
is set to NO, to allow these cause codes to be maintained across the network.
552
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
There are some exceptions when the unit is behaving as a logical DTE, so
ZEROCAUSE=YES is used when connecting to logical DCE devices such as
Ericsson FS 700 switches, Public Networks or other DCE devices which strictly
enforce the recommendations for clearing causes. The user may have to contact the supplier of the DCE device to confirm how it behaves.
Clear Cause Codes
The clear cause codes are listed below. Only decimal values are displayed by
the unit.
When a PFA product is configured as a DCE then it will issue these clear
causes as appropriate with a Diagnostic field of 00.
In the case of a switched call then as a DCE, the ERICSSON access product
will pass a received Clear packet transparently through.
DEC
0
1
3
5
9
11
HEX
00
01
03
05
09
0B
13
17
19
21
25
0D
11
13
15
19
33
41
21
29
57
39
MEANING
DTE clearing
Called DTE busy
Invalid facility request
Network congestion
Out of order
Access barred. Connection
between DTE's not permitted
Not obtainable
Remote Procedure Error
Local Procedure Error
Agency out of order
DTE cannot accept Reverse
Charge calls
DTE incompatible call
DTE cannot accepts Fast
Select calls
Ship absent
Reset Cause Codes
Reset packets may be issued by a network component to indicate that a
problem has occurred and some data may have been lost. Any data in transit is
flushed as a result of the Reset.
The normal codings for Reset Cause fields are listed below. These are allocated
by the network administration as for Clear causes so they may be different in
some cases.
Only decimal values are displayed by the unit.
DEC
0
1
3
5
7
9
15
17
29
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
HEX
00
01
03
05
07
09
0F
11
1D
MEANING
DTE issued the Reset
Out of order
Remote Procedure Error
Local Procedure Error
Network congestion
Remote DTE operational
Network operational
Incompatible destination
Network out of order
553
Appendices
Diagnostic Codes
The allocation of Diagnostic codes is the responsibility of the network administration and may vary with different networks. Users should therefore approach
the administration to determine the actual allocation of diagnostic codes. The
non-zero Diagnostics that may be generated with a Cause code of 00 are listed
below. All diagnostic codes are displayed as decimal.
CCITT Diagnostic Codes for X.25/X.75
554
DEC
0
1
2
HEX
00
01
02
MEANING
No additional information
Invalid P(S)
Invalide P(R)
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
1A
1B
1C
1D
Packet type invalid
For state r1
For state r2
For state r3
For state p1
For state p2
For state p3
For state p4
For state p5
For state p6
For state p7
For state d1
For state d2
For state d3
32
33
34
20
21
22
35
36
23
24
37
38
39
40
41
25
26
27
28
29
43
2A
44
45
48
49
50
51
52
53
64
2C
2D
30
31
32
33
34
35
40
Packet not allowed
Unidentifiable packet
Call on one-way logical
channel
Invalid packet type on PVC
Packet on unassigned logical
channel
Reject not subscribed to
Packet too short
Packet too long
Invalid general format identifier
Restart or registration packet
with non-zero in bits of 1-4
octet 1, or bits 1-8 of octet 2
Packet type not compatible
with facility
Unauthorised interrupt
Unauthorised reject
Timer expired
For incoming call
For clear indication
For reset indication
For restart indication
For call deflection
Call setup, call clearing or
registration problem
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
65
41
66
42
67
68
69
43
44
45
70
71
72
73
74
76
46
47
48
49
4A
4C
77
4D
78
4E
80
50
81
51
82
83
84
52
53
54
Miscellaneous; config changes
that clear old calls
Improper cause code from
DTE
Not aligned octet
Inconsistent Q-bit settings
NUI problem
96
60
Not assigned
98
99
100
62
63
64
TNIC mismatch
Call id mismatch
Dial back
112
113
114
115
116
117
70
71
72
73
74
75
118
76
119
120
121
122
128
77
78
79
7A
80
129
81
International problem
Remote network problem
International protocol problem
International link out of order
International link busy
Transit network facility
problem
Remote network facility
problem
International routing problem
Temporary routing problem
Unknown called DNIC
Maintenance action
Reserved for network specific
diagnostic information
Incoming line disconnection
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Facility/registration code not
allowed
Facility parameter not allowed;
reverse charging requested
when barred
Invalid called DTE address
Invalid calling DTE address
Invalid facility/registration
length
Incoming calls barred
No logical channel available
Call colision
Duplicate facility requested
Non-zero address length
Facility not provided when
expected
Invalid CCITT-specified DTE
facility
Max. number of call
redirections or call deflections
exceeded
555
Appendices
PFA-specific Diagnostic Codes for X.25/X.75
64
40
163
A3
165
166
246
A5
A6
F6
247
250
252
253
F7
FA
FC
FD
Address modification call
setup problems
DTE resource constraint; no
free connections on gateway
Invalid partially full data packet
Unexpected D-bit received
Incoming preferential port
available
Preferntial port available
Insufficient priority
No incoming access
No outgoing access
Diagnostic Codes for SDLC
12
80
112
115
0C
50
70
73
120
122
123
124
160
161
78
7A
7B
7C
A0
A1
Wrong protocol ID
QLLC general error
SDLC error
SDLC timeout (retransmission
limit exceed)
SDLC FRMR received
XID check failure
QLLC LLC test timeout
QLLC LLC XID timeout
Packet not allowed
Invalid M-bit sequence
Diagnostic Codes for Switched Access
556
228
229
230
231
232
233
237
238
239
E4
E5
E6
E7
E8
E9
ED
EE
EF
248
F8
Engaged tone
Local DCE busy
Ring tone timeout
Abort tone timeout
No answer tone
Forbidden call
Local DTE timeout
Modem command error
Connection request without
addressing
No switched line available
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
APPENDIX FOUR: References
General References
CCITT RECOMMENDATIONS X.1 - X.32
Section 2: X25
IXth Plenary Assembly, Melbourne, 14-25 November 1988
CCITT RECOMMENDATIONS X.40 - X.181
Section 3: X.75
IXth Plenary Assembly, Melbourne, 14-25 November 1988
ITU-T Recommendation Q.933
DIGITAL SUBSCRIBER SIGNALLING SYSTEM NO. 1 (DSS 1) SIGNALLING SPECIFICATION FOR FRAME MODE BASIC CALL
CONTROL, 03/93
ITU-T Recommendation I.365.1 - FRAME RELAYING SERVICE SPECIFIC
CONVERGENCE SUBLAYER (FR-SSCS)
ANSI.T617-Annex D: Frame Relay PVC signalling
protocol
FRF.2 - Frame Relay Network-to-Network (NNI) Implementation Agreement
FRF3.1 - ANSI.T617-Annex G: X.25/X.75 over Frame Relay
FRF.4 - Frame Relay User-to-Network SVC Implementation Agreement.
FRF.5 - Frame Relay/ATM Network Interworking Implementation Agreement.
FRF.10 - Frame Relay Network-to-Network SVC Implementation Agreement.
RFC References
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
RFC0854
S
J. Postel, J. Reynolds, "Telnet
Protocol specification", 05/01/1983.
(Pages=15) (Format=.txt) (Obsoletes
RFC0764) (STD 8)
RFC0959
S
J. Postel, J. Reynolds, "File Transfer
Protocol", October 1985. (Pages=69)
(Format=.txt) (Obsoletes RFC 765)
RFC 1058
S
C. Hedrick, "Routing Information
Protocol", June 1988. Rutgers University
RFC1144
PS
V. Jacobson, “Compressing TCP/IP
headers for low-speed serial links”,
02/01/1990. (Pages=43) (Format=.txt, .ps)
557
Appendices
RFC1157
S
M. Schoffstall, M. Fedor, J. Davin, J.
Case, “A Simple Network Management
Protocol (SNMP)”, 05/10/1990.
(Pages=36) (Format=.txt)
(Updates RFC1098) (STD 15)
RFC1213
S
K. McCloghrie, M. Rose, “Management
Information Base for Network Management
of TCP/IP-based internets: MIB-II”,
03/26/1991 (Pages=70) (Format=.txt)
(Obsoletes RFC1158) (STD 17)
RFC1293
S
T. Bradley, C. Brown, "Inverse Address
Resolution Protocol". Jan 1992.(Pages=6)
(Format=.txt)
RFC1315
C. Brown, F. Baker, C. Carvalho, "Management
Information for Frame Relay DTEs". April 1992.
(Pages=19) (Format=.txt)
RFC1356
PS
A. Malis, D. Robinson, R. Ullmann,
“Multiprotocol Interconnect on X.25 and
ISDN in the Packet Mode”, 08/06/1992.
(Pages=14) (Format=.txt) (Obsoletes
RFC0877)
RFC1490
DS
T. Bradley, C. Brown, A. Malis,
"Multiprotocol Interconnect over Frame
Relay", 07/26/1993. (Pages=35)
(Format=.txt) (Obsoletes RFC1294)
RFC 1573
K. McCloghrie, F. Kastenholtz, "Evolution
of the Interfaces Group of MIB-II",01/20/1994.
(Format=.txt)
RFC 1717
?
K. Sklower, B. Lloyd, G. McGregor, D. Carr
"The PPP Multilink Protocol (MP)", Nov. 1994.
(Pages 21) (Format=.txt)
RFC 1723
S
G. Malkin, "RIP Version 2 - Carrying
Additional Information". November 1994
(Format=.txt) (Obsoletes: 1388)
(Updates: 1058)
RFC 1812
S
F. Baker, "Requirements for IP Version 4
Routers", Jun 1995. (Pages=175) (Format=.txt)
Ericsson References
ASK 101 01 R7: X.75E Network Signalling System, Doc. No. 14/155 17AND 201 04 Uen,1992-06-26.
558
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
APPENDIX FIVE: Facilities/Utilities
General
Facilities may be supported, unsupported or passed transparently by the PFA.
If a facility is not supported, then the call will normally be cleared if the facility
is detected. There are however, a group of facilities which may not be interpreted by the unit, but which may be useful to other switches in the network.
These facilities are passed transparently and not altered.
For X.25-1988, all facilities will be policed according to table 29 and table G1 of
X.25-1988.
The following table displays the facilities/utilities possible in a typical network
and how those facilities are dealt with by various ports of different ports. To
help in understanding the table, a key can be used:
Supported
Not Supported
Passed Transparently
Call Clears
Not applicable
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Y
N
T
C
N/A
559
Appendices
X.25
X.75
Async
Pa c ke t Si z e ne goti a ti on
Y
Y
Y
Wi ndow Si z e ne goti a ti on
Y
Y
Y
Throughput C l a ss ne goti a ti on
Y
Y
Y
C U G se l e c ti on - Ba si c
Y
Y
Y
C U G se l e c ti on - Exte nde d
N ,T
N ,C
N ,C
C U G se l e c ti on wi th Outgoi ng Ac c e ss - Ba si c
Y
Y
Y
C U G se l e c ti on wi th Outgoi ng Ac c e ss - Exte nde d
N ,T
N ,C
N ,C
Bi l a te ra l C U G Se l e c ti on
N ,T
N ,C
N ,C
Fa st se l e c t
Y,T
Y,T
Y
Re ve rse c ha rgi ng
Y
Y
Y
N e twork U se r Ide nti f i c a ti on
Y,T
N
Y
C ha rgi ng Inf orm a ti on
Y,T
Y,T
N
RPOA se l e c ti on
Y,T
Y,T
N
C a l l de f l e c ti on se l e c ti on
Y,T
T
N /A
C a l l re di re c ti on or de f l e c ti on noti f i c a ti on
Y,T
T
N /A
C a l l e d Li ne Addre ss Modi f i e d N oti f i c a ti on
Y,T
Y,T
Y
Tra nsi t de l a y se l e c ti on
Y,T
Y,T
N /A
Tra nsi t de l a y i ndi c a ti on
Y,T
Y,T
N /A
Tra nsi t N e twork Ide nti f i c a ti on
N /A
Y,T
N /A
C l e a ri ng N e twork Ide nti f i c a ti on
N /A
Y,T
N /A
C a l l i de nti f i e r
N /A
Y
N /A
Ta ri f f s
N /A
Y,T
N
Tra f f i c C l a ss Indi c a ti on
N /A
N
N
On Li ne Fa c i l i ty Re gi stra ti on
N
N
N /A
Exte nde d Pa c ke t Se que nc e N um be ri ng
Y
Y
N /A
Pa c ke t Re tra nsm i ssi on
N
N
N /A
Fa st se l e c t - Re stri c te d Re sponse
Y
Y
Y
Fa st se l e c t a c c e pta nc e
Y
Y
Y
C a l l re di re c ti on
N
N
N /A
C a l l e d re di re c ti on noti f i c a ti on
Y,T
Y,T
N /A
De f a ul t Throughput C l a ss a ssi gnm e nt
Y
Y
N /A
Re ve rse c ha rgi ng a c c e pta nc e
Y
Y
Y
Figure A-2: X.25, X.75 & Async Facilities
560
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
Extra X.75E Utilities
Utility Marker
Supported.
Priority class
Supported. The utility will be signalled in outgoing calls
and configured on a per NTN basis. The utility will be
passed transparently and recorded in transit nodes. The
call priority will be used to determine which calls to clear
in a congestion situation.
Charge transfer
Supported. Configurable on a per NTN basis to force
charging at a PFS.
PVCs
Supported. This is used to signal the logical channel to
be used at the B-side of the PVC.
Max.alternate
routes
The Max alternate routes utility is passed transparently.
There is no action taken by the NP object on these
utilities.
NodeIDlist
The node id list is set and acted upon by the routing
algorithms. The local node ID must be inserted when a
call is routed. There is no action taken by the NP on
these utilities.
Restart packets
An information field may be present which may be up to
12 octets long.
X.25 Facilities Handling
X.25 restricts the maximum length of a facilities block in a packet to 109 bytes.
Because the unit can add window or packet size requests to a packet which
did not previously contain them (by the PSN and WSN parameters in the LINPS
command), any incoming facility requests which do not contain window or
packet size facilities should be restricted to a maximum of 106 bytes if one of
these facilities is not present, or 103 bytes if neither of them are present.
If the unit has to add the Window or Packet Size facilities, thus exceeding the
length to over 109 bytes, then it will clear the call.
CCITT-Specified Facilities for X.25-1984
The following facilities support the OSI network service and are forwarded
transparently only if DTEFAC=YES is set in the LINPS command. If DTEFAC is
set to NO, then the call will be cleared (facility not supported).
Calling Address Extension
Called Address Extension
Minimum Throughput Class
End-to-End Transit Delay
Expedited Data Negotiation
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
561
Appendices
APPENDIX SIX: Deviations from FS 700 Products
Functionality
The following functions are unsupported:
CPAD
Packet Broadcast
D-bit
Network Management Restart Dumps
Incoming International Calls Barred
Outgoing International Calls Barred
Idle Channel Detection
Origin Dependent Analysis (ODA)
Recursive Definition of Routing Cases
Address fields >2 bytes
Multi-casting
Priorities signalled as Private non-CCITT X.25 Facilities
Line Configuration
Parameters have been rationalised and can be configured in the logical layers
most appropriate to them. For example, Baud Rate settings are only
configurable in the logical physical port and X.25 version is set in the logical
network port.
Routing Analysis
Even though the basic concepts and algorithms are identical, the address and
routing analysis in PFA product differ in some cases from the address and
routing analysis in Ericsson FS 700 products, i.e.
i) Wild card address matching is possible.
ii) A number direction can be a partial string of another number direction,
e.g. 123 and 123456 can exist in the same routing table as each other.
Clocking - Timing Parameters
Ericsson PFA Clock
562
Ericsson FS/PFS Clock
TIMING=DEFAULT
with Physical DTE
POP PAK
=
NODE; FS 700
provides all clocks
TIMING=DEFAULT
Physical DCE
POP PAK
=
MODEM; Ericsson with
FS 700 receives all clocks
TIMING=SPLIT
=
SOURCE; Split Clocks
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
Unsupported Network Layer Features
Diagnostic, Registration
or Reject packets
Never generated by PFA.
Upon receipt, diagnostic
and registration packets are
ignored; a reject will cause a
reset if a call is in progress.
General
MML commands cannot be terminated by a full stop.
Alarms are generated for PP and LP layers of the stack rather than for the port
as a whole as in the FS 700 products.
The NOT ACCEPTED error message refers to syntax errors as well as procedural errors. Further clarification is given with a subsequent error message.
Only the status for each signal (e.g., DTR, DSR, DCD etc.) is displayed in the
LIPPP command. The signals cannot be set.
The CTS signal on a V.24-based DCE POP PAK is fixed.
Additional Port Monitor features include record TRIGGER and RFILTER and the
option of decoding levels 2+3 in unison.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
563
Appendices
APPENDIX SEVEN: Packet Size Negotiation
For maximum efficiency, it is advisable when using packet size negotiation that
a call should use the same packet size consistently between the end-points.
This is to avoid the additional overhead encountered when packets have to be
split and recombined.
It is therefore good practice to set the PSN parameter (Packet Size Negotiation)
to Yes wherever possible; this is carried out by using the LINPS command. The
only exception would be if the equipment in question could not accept packet
size negotiation on switched calls.
Note that a packet service cannot be preserved across a network.
564
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
APPENDIX EIGHT: Port Monitor
Introduction
The purpose of the Port monitor is to monitor traffic on a port and to decode
resulting data.
The output from the Port monitor will be similar to that provided by commercial
line analysers; frames are stored in binary format and translated to HEX format
on output.
In order to monitor the selected port by initiating frame buffering from a process, the LIPMD command must be issued. Buffering stops when a LIPMB
command is issued, or when a trigger is activated. The contents of the buffer
can then be decoded and therefore examined by using the LIMRP command.
Frames will be stored in a circular manner so that if during buffering more than
255 frames are received, the 255 most recent will be stored.
Note that SNA over Frame Relay port monitoring is not supported.
Initialising Port Monitor (LIPMI)
The LIPMI command will initialise the port monitor for the requested port and
select the data source (i.e., PP, LP, MP, FP or VP) from which the frames are
buffered.
Note that:
PP parameter is used for monitoring Frame Relay PP or MP LCP/PP only.
LP parameter is used to monitor X.25/X.75 LP, SDLC, LLC, TPAD LP,
virtual Frame Relay LP or a virtual LP stack (TPAD or X.75) connected to
an MP bundle.
MP parameter is used to monitor frames from an entire MP bundle.
FP parameter is used to monitor a virtual FP stack connected to an MP
bundle.
VP parameter is used to monitor a virtual Frame Relay VP port (used for
Frame Relay concentration into ATM).
The MML command syntax is:
LIPMI:PP=pp;
or:
LIPMI:LP=lp;
or:
LIPMI:MP=mp;
or:
LIPMI:FP=fp;
or:
LIPMI:VP=vp;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
565
Appendices
Where:pp
Physical port number
1-1-1-(1-18).
lp
LP port number
1-1-1-(1-18),
1-1-0-(1-2)-(1-6)
1-1-1-(XF1-XF15)
or 1-1-1-MP(1-6)-(1-2)
mp
Multi-link MP
bundle number
MP(1-6)
fp
Frame Relay FP
attached to MP
1-1-1-(MP(1-6)-3
vp
Virtual Frame Relay
port number
1-1-1-ATM1-n where
1­ n­ max. number of VCCs.
For example an X.25/X.75 LP:
LIPMI:LP=1-1-1-4;
Setting Port Monitor (LIPMS)
The LIPMS command modifies port monitor parameters such as triggers and
filters.
The TRIGGER parameter is used to stop the recording of frames or packets by
automatically blocking (AB) the port monitor object when triggered by the
specified trigger parameter value. The HEX string trigger can be used on any
protocol type.
A set of default parameters will be used if some parameters are not selected.
LIPMS:<TRIGGER=trigger><,RFILTER=rfilter>
<,FRAMESAFTER=framesafter>;
or:
LIPMS:DLCIFILTER=dlcifilter;
Where:trigger
566
Event for automatic
blocking
NOTRIGGER (default)
For Level 2:
SABM, UA, FRMR, DISC, I
For Level 3:
CALL, CAA, CLEAR,RESET,
DIAG, RESTART.
For all levels:
HEX/<start byte>/
<HEX string>;
For MP bundle:
PHYSCONREQ,
PHYSCONCFM,
PHYSCONIND,
PHYSDISCREQ,
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
PHYSDISCIND,
LINKCONREQ,
LINKCONCFM,
LINKCONIND,
LINKDISCREQ,
LINKDISCIND,
PROTREJ, QUALREP
Where: <start byte>=1-255
and <hex string>=2, 4, 6 or 8
HEX chars; wild card char “x”
may be used.
Note that for X25, do not set a
level 2 trigger if
RFILTER=NPONLY.
framesafter
No. of frames
between trigger and
blocking
0..100; default=0.
This allows the user to
monitor around an event
such as an FRMR.
rfilter
Filter for
X.25/SDLC
frame store
NOFILTER (default),
NPONLY, NOLPRR,
EVENTSONLY; Used to
limit frames stored to
maximise buffer space.
NPONLY stores only I
frames containing NP
packets (X.25/X.75 only)
NOLPRR (SDLC only)
prevents recording
SDLC RRs.
EVENTSONLY stores
only MP and LCP events
(MP only).
dlcifilter
DLCI-specific frame
buffering
0..1023-0..1023 or
NOFILTER (default). For
Frame Relay FP port. If
DLCIFILTER=NOFILTER
is set then PVC frames
from DLCIs 0-1023 are
buffered.
ppfilter
Multi-link Protocol
LCP/PP record
filter
1-1-1-(1-18) or NOFILTER
(default). Ensures that
only MP packets carrying
a frame from a specified
LCP/PP are buffered.
For example:
LIPMS:TRIGGER=hex/8/xx0402;
This example sets the Port monitor to stop buffering frames when a frame is
discovered that has the HEX character sequence xx0402 in bytes 8-10.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
567
Appendices
LIPMS:DLCIFILTER=0-0;
This example ensures that only Frame Relay frames on DLCI 0 are buffered.
LIPMS:PPFILTER=1-1-1-2,TRIGGER=LINKDISCREQ,FRAMESAFTER=5;
This example ensures that only MP packets containing frames to/from LCP/PP
1-1-1-2 are buffered by the Port monitor. In addition, buffering will stop if a Link
Disconnect Request control frame is found and after a further 5 frames have
been stored.
Deblocking Port Monitor (LIPMD)
The LIPMD command deblocks the port monitor and starts the buffering of
frames, e.g.
LIPMD;
Blocking Port Monitor (LIPMB)
The LIPMB command blocks the port monitor and stops the buffering of frames.
Note the monitor may also automatically block due to a trigger being discovered
(see LIPMS command), e.g.
LIPMB;
Print or Display Port Monitor Setup (LIPMP)
The LIPMP command prints the port monitor parameter settings and checks the
number of frames currently buffered (SEQNO parameter) and checks that
buffering is still taking place, i.e. that automatic blocking (state=AB) has not
occurred due to the discovery of a trigger (if set).
LIPMP;
For example, for a monitored X.25 LP port:
LIPMP;
PORT
MONITOR
LP
DATA
PROT
STATUS
——————————————————————————————
1-1-1-1
X25
SEQNO
WO
= 1-219
TRIGGER
= SABM
FRAMESAFTER
= 100
RFILTER
=
NOFILTER
END
568
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
Where the parameters are as described for the LIPMI command with the exception of:STATUS
Status of the port
WO,MB,AB
SEQNO
Frame Sequence
Range
1..255-1..255;
reports range of frames to
be decoded in the buffer.
NOTE: the PROT field may show X25, X75, FR, SDLC, LLC, TPAD,
MP, VP or UNKNOWN depending on the port to be monitored.
Termination of Port Monitor (LIPMT)
The LIPMT command terminates the Port monitor session. The port being
monitored must be manually blocked before this command is permitted, e.g.
LIPMT;
Print Decoded Frames (LIMRP)
The LIMRP command decodes the frames contained within the frame buffer
and prints the results. The type of decoding and the default level used is
dependent on the protocol being used on the port.
Frames are automatically decoded in either Modulo-8 or Modulo-128 format for
both levels 2 and 3. When Level 3 decoding takes place then packets will be
numbered by frame number.
Each printout displays a list of sequence numbers, the associated date/time (in
format HH:MM:SS.nn; nn=1/100 s), type of frame and frames transmitted/received.
Should the print reach the end of the trace buffer, then the message “END OF
TRACE” will be displayed after the last message.
To read the trace results, the port monitor should be manually blocked with the
LIPMB command or have been automatically blocked following the activation of
a trigger.
For X.25, X.75A or X.75B:
LIMRP:<LEVEL=level><,SEQNO=seqno><,LC=lc>;
For SDLC and LLC:
LIMRP:<LEVEL=level><,SEQNO=seqno>;
For Frame Relay:
LIMRP:<LEVEL=level><,SEQNO=seqno><DLCIFILTER=dlcifilter>;
For MP:
LIMRP:<LEVEL=level><,SEQNO=seqno><,PPFILTER=
ppfilter>;
For LCP:
LIMRP:<LEVEL=level><,SEQNO=seqno>;
For other protocols:
LIMRP<:SEQNO=seqno>;
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
569
Appendices
Where:level
Level of decoding
to carry out
2, 2+3, 3, HEX;
seqno
Frame sequence
range
1..255-1..255; default =
1..255. Specifies range of
frames to be decoded in
the buffer. If not entered
then the entire contents of
the buffer are decoded.
lc
Logical channel
filter range
0..4095-0..4095 or
NOFILTER (default).
Specifies range from
which X.25/X.75
packets are decoded.
For LEVEL=2+3 or
LEVEL=3 only.
dlcifilter
Frame Relay PVC
filter DLCIs to
display
0..1023-0..1023 or
NOFILTER (default).
ppfilter
Multi-link Protocol
LCP/PP display
filter
1-1-1-(1-18) or
NOFILTER (default).
This ensures that only MP
packets carrying a frame
with the specified PP are
buffered.
NOTE: For all output modes the overall I-frame length will be displayed, but for security reasons, the DATA portion of a Network
layer DATA packets will not be displayed, even in HEX mode.
A HEX decode for an LCP link will display the first five frames of the frame.
The levels of decoding possible and the protocols monitored by Port monitor
are as follows (the asterisk * indicates the default level to be used for the
protocol):X.25/
X.75
SDLC
FR
MP
TPAD/
UNKNOWN
ASCII Level 2+3
ü
-
-
-
-
ASCII Level 3
ü
-
-
ü*
-
ASCII Level 2
ü*
ü*
ü*
-
-
HEX
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
Figure A-3: Port monitor protocols and levels
570
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
Example 1: Layer 2 mode (LP) - X.25, X.75 and SDLC ports
An example trace when operating in layer 2 mode:LIMRP:LEVEL=2,SEQNO=1-8;
001
13:01:01.33
in
03
sabm pf=1
002
13:01:01.38
out
03
ua
pf=1
003
13:01:01.23
in
03
I
N(s)=0
004
13:01:02.57
out
01
I
N(s)=0
005
13:01:51.12
in
03
rr
P=1
006
13:01:71.22
out
03
rr
F=1
007
13:03:44.47
in
03
error=short
008
13:05:65.78
in
03
4300 error=illegal
N(r)=0
len=5
N(r)=0
len=5
N(r)=1
N(r)=1
frame
i
field
The first column indicates sequence numbers within the buffer which can be
between 1 and 255.
NOTE: Length (len=) is only displayed for I frames.
In the case of an error, sufficient HEX data will be printed to allow the user to
diagnose the problem (the contents of the control field).
Errors are :short frame
illegal I field
illegal length frame
unknown frame type
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
571
Appendices
Example 2: Layer 3 mode (NP) - X.25/X.75 ports only
The following is an example of output in layer 3 mode:PFA>LIMRP:LEVEL=3,SEQNO=225-235;
225
00:03:23.01
out
lcn=4095
CALL 641000234444000000000045
226
00:03:23.01
out
lcn=4086
CLEAR 0000
227
00:03:23.01
out
lcn=4087
CLEAR 0000
228
00:03:23.01
out
lcn=4088
CLEAR 0000
lcn=4090
DATA QD=00 ps=4 m=0 pr=5
lcn=4089
CLEAR 0000
lcn=4089
DATA QD=00 ps=4 m=0 pr=5
lcn=4086
DATA QD=00 ps=4 m=0 pr=5
lcn=4087
DATA QD=00 ps=4 m=0 pr=5
lcn=4090
CLEAR 0000
lcn=4088
DATA QD=00 ps=4 m=0 pr=5
229 00:03:23.02 in
len=133
230
00:03:23.02
out
231 00:03:23.03 in
len=133
232 00:03:23.05 in
len=133
233 00:03:23.07 in
len=133
234
00:03:23.07
out
235 00:03:23.08 in
len=133
END OF TRACE
END
The packets are numbered according to the frame that they are contained
within. This ensures consistency between different levels of decoding, i.e. if the
contents of the frame buffer are decoded firstly at level 2 then again at level 3,
a specific I-frame/packet will carry the same offset in both cases.
Note that apart from the fields explicitly declared above, the rest of the packet
up to the start of any user data will be displayed as HEX. Note also that for
errors the message “error-error text” will be displayed before the HEX output
from the packet.
Possible error texts are:unknown/invalid packet
invalid data field
short packet
illegal length frame
572
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
Example 3: Layer 2 + Layer 3 mode (LP+NP) - X.25/X.75 ports only
The output for this mode will be a combination of the outputs for the above two
modes.
LIMRP:LEVEL=2+3;
001
01:24:23.67
in
01
sabm PF=1
002
01:24:54.32
out 0 1
ua
PF=1
003
01:24:59.89
in
01
I
N(s)=0
004
01:25:06.90
out 0 3
I
N(s)=0
005
01:25:23.12
in
03
I
N(s)=0
006
01:25:44.53
out 0 1
I
N(r)=0
restart
len=5
lcn=0
len=3
lcn=0
0000
N(r)=0
restartc
call
N(r)=0
len=14lcn=4ff
2310
N(s)=1
N(r)=1
len=5
lcn=4ff
caa
Example 4: Layer 2 mode (LP) - LLC
The Level 2 decode of frames on an LLC port is as follows:
001 09:47:30.50 in
0804
XID
pf=1
002 09:47:32.35 out 0408
XID
pf=1
003 09:47:32.35 in
XID
pf=1
0805
004 09:47:32.60 out 0408
005 09:47:32.60 in
0805
SABME pf=1
UA
pf=1
006 09:47:32.88 out 0408
I
ns=
0 nr=
0 pf=0
len=22
007 09:47:32.88 in
0804
I
ns=
0 nr=
1 pf=0
len=33
008 09:47:33.28 out 0408
I
ns=
1 nr=
1 pf=0
len=16
009 09:47:33.28 in
0804
I
ns=
1 nr=
2 pf=0
len=29
010 09:47:33.28 in
0804
I
ns=
2 nr=
2 pf=0
len=24
etc.
END OF TRACE
END
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
573
Appendices
Example 5: Layer 2 mode (LP) or HEX - Frame Relay (PVCs)
For Level2, the output from a Frame Relay PVC is displayed as follows:
LIMRP:LEVEL=2;
001 15:51:42.70 in
Data
002 15:51:43.81 in
Status Enquiry
dlci=0002
003 15:51:43.81 out Status
004 15:51:44.53 in
Data
dlci=1022
005 15:51:47.70 in
Data
dlci=0002
006 15:51:47.70 in
Full Status Enquiry
007 15:51:47.70 out Full Status
len=
4 fecn=0 becn=0 de=0
len=
14 tx=
7 rx= 5
len=
14 tx=
6 rx= 7
len=
len=
4 fecn=0 becn=0 de=0
4 fecn=0 becn=0 de=0
len=
14 tx=
8 rx= 6
len=
24 tx=
7 rx= 8
070300908207033ff082
END
The information element of the PVC contained within Full Status message and
Asynchronous Status message will be displayed in HEX.
The frames that are in error will have the error message displayed alongside
them along with the contents of the frame in HEX. Possible error messages are:
short data frames
short LMI framess
invalid report type ID
invalid link integrity ID
Or, for HEX:
LIMRP:
LEVEL=HEX;
001 10:22:34.63 out dlci=0000 len=13 00010308007551010153020b09
002 10:22:34.63 in
dlci=0000 len=13
003 10:22:37.47 out dlci=1022 len=4
004 10:22:37.47 in
00010308007d51010153020a0b
fce1
dlci=1022 len=4
fce1
005 10:22:37.47 out dlci=1022 len=4
fce1
006 10:22:37.47 in
dlci=1022 len=4
fce1
007 10:22:37.68 out dlci=0002 len=4
0021
In hex mode (LIMRP:LEVEL=HEX) only the DLCI, length field, direction indication
and the contents of the frame, in hex, will be displayed. Up to 80 bytes of data
will be displayed, including the contents of LMI frames, but none of the Data
frame’s user data will be displayed.
It should be noted that all frames will be treated in this way. No decode errors
will be displayed even for those frames that would invoke one when decoded
at level 2. For example, a frame might be decoded as ”error=Illegal length Data
frame” at level 2, but when decoded in HEX, this message will not appear.
574
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
Example 6: Layer 2 mode (LP) or HEX - Frame Relay (SVCs)
For Level2, the output for a Frame Relay SVC (including decoding of Q.933
messages) is displayed as follows:
LIMRP:LEVEL=2;
001 05:35:12.55 out Message Type = SETUP
IE = Bearer capability
Length = 03
Contents(hex) = 88 a0 cf
IE = DLCI
Length = 02
Contents(hex) = 41 a8
DLCI value = 21
IE = LL core params
Length = 25
Contents(hex) = 09 02 01 02 81 0a 30 40 30 c0 0b 30 01 30 81
0d 3e 40 3e c0 0e 3e 40 3e c0
Max frame size = 257
Throughput = 64000
Minimum Throughput = 1000
Committed Burst Size = 8000
Excess Burst Size = 8000
IE = Calling party num
Length = 08
Contents(hex) = 11 81 39 30 33 30 30 31
Number digits = “ 1 9 0 3 0 0 1 “
IE = Called party num
Length = 08
Contents(hex) = 91 35 35 35 31 32 31 32
Number digits = “ 5 5 5 1 2 1 2 “
002 05:35:12.59 in
RR
003 05:35:12.62 in
Message Type = CALL PROCEEDING
IE = DLCI
Length = 04
Contents(hex) = 40 00 00 aa
DLCI value = 0
004 05:35:12.62 out RR
005 05:35:12.62 in
Message Type = CONNECT
IE = LL core params
Length = 20
Contents(hex) = 09 02 01 02 81 0a 30 40 30 c0 0d 3e 40 3e c0
0e 3e 40 3e c0
Max frame size = 257
Throughput = 64000
Committed Burst Size = 8000
Excess Burst Size = 8000
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
575
Appendices
Or, for HEX:
LIMRP:
LEVEL=HEX;
001 05:35:12.55 in
dlci=0000
len=
65
000300000802000105040388a0cf190241a848190902010281
0a304030c00b300130810d3e403ec00e3e403ec06c08118139
303330303170089135353531323132
002 05:35:12.59 in
dlci=0000
003 05:35:12.62 in
len=
dlci=0000
len=
4
15 0001000208028001021904400000aa
004 05:35:12.62 out dlci=0000
len=
4
005 05:35:12.62 in
len=
31
dlci=0000
02010102
02010102
000102020802800107481409020102810a304030c00d3e403e
c00e3e403ec0
006 05:35:12.63 out dlci=0000
len=
4
02010104
In hex mode (LIMRP:LEVEL=HEX) only the DLCI, length field, direction indication
and the contents of the frame, in hex, will be displayed.
It should be noted that all frames will be treated in this way. No decode errors
will be displayed even for those frames that would invoke one when decoded
at level 2. For example, a frame might be decoded as ”error=Illegal length Data
frame” at level 2, but when decoded in HEX, this message will not appear.
Example 7: Layer 3 mode - MP
The Level 3 output from an MP bundle can be displayed as follows:
LIMRP:LEVEL=3;
001
15:06:29.60
pp=05
LCPB
ATTACH
REQUEST
002
15:06:29.60
out
pp=05
LCPB
LINK
CONNECTION
REQUEST
003
15:06:35.61
in
pp=05
LCPB
LINK
CONNECTION
CONFIRM
result=LCPB
576
in
OK
mru=257
004
15:06:40.03
out
pp=05
len=10
b=1
e=1
tx=21494
005
15:06:21.03
in
pp=05
len=10
b=1
e=1
tx=36830
006
15:06:21.04
out
pp=05
len=29
b=1
e=1
tx=21495
007
15:06:22.72
out
pp=05
len=10
b=1
e=1
tx=36831
008
15:06:22.72
in
pp=05
len=10
b=1
e=1
tx=21496
009
15:06:22.73
in
pp=05
len=29
b=1
e=1
tx=36832
010
15:06:22.73
out
pp=05
len=29
b=1
e=1
tx=21497
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
Example 8: HEX mode - LCP/PP frames
The HEX output from an individual LCP/PP link associated with an MP bundle is
as follows:
LIMRP:
LEVEL=HEX;
001
14:28:28.48
out
len=31
3dc0029c27
002
14:28:28.50
in
len=9
3dc00299d6
003
14:28:28.50
out
len=31
3dc0029c28
004
14:28:28.52
out
len=31
3dc0029c29
005
14:28:28.54
out
len=31
3dc0029c2a
006
14:28:28.56
out
len=31
3dc0029c2b
007
14:28:28.57
out
len=31
3dc0029c2c
008
14:28:28.59
out
len=31
3dc0029c2d
Example 9: HEX mode - All Serial ports
In the HEX mode, only the length field, direction indication and the contents of
the frame/packet will be output; the frame contents will be in HEX mode. No
user data will be displayed.
LIMRP:LEVEL=HEX;
0255
01:25:44.00
in
len=20
0300030405060708090102030
For Frame Relay FP ports, the port monitor will display an additional column for
DLCI values.
Overlength frames (those truncated by PP) are shown with a "+" symbol after
the "len=" value. The length will be equal to the N1 parameter configured in the
LIPPI command for the port.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
577
Appendices
APPENDIX NINE: Call Accounting Record File Format
Introduction
This section describes the format of the PFA Call Accounting Data file transferred through the PFA FTP Server. The structure and the contents of the Call
Accounting Records in the PFA is compatible with the FS 700 CDC Record.
For further information please consult PFA accounting as detailed in Section 13.
Call Accounting Data File
A Call Accounting data file retrieved from the PFA contains one or more Charging Records, with no field or record separators. Each charging record is structured as follows:
A 30 byte fixed part.
An address part.
An encoded part.
Since the data is in binary format, before the records can be visually inspected
or used by a Billing Software, a conversion to ASCII will be necessary. A sample "C" program, called conv and convcr, suitable for use on SUN workstations
has been developed by Ericsson Intracom Ltd. and is available in the Utilities
directory of the PFA User Documentation CD-ROM.
Format of Charging Records
The following sections describe how to interpret each part of a charging
records.
578
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
Fixed Part
FIELD
BYTES - BITS
USED
EXPLANATION
tota l l e ngth
byte 0-1 bi ts 0..15
Tota l l e ngth of thi s re c ord.
f orm a t i d
byte 2 bi ts 0..7
Form a t i d. N ot use d a t pre se nt.
c ha ngi ng i nf o re q
i nd
byte 3 bi ts 0
Indi c a ti on i f c ha ngi ng i nf orm a ti on re que ste d.
u n u se d
byte 3 bi ts 1..3
N ot use d a t pre se nt.
group l ogi c a l
c ha nne l
byte 3 bi ts 4..7
0..15 N ot supporte d a r pre se nt.
Se t to 0.
l ogi c a l c ha nne l
byte 4 bi ts 0..7
0..255 N ot supporte d a t pre se nt.
Se t to 0.
re c ord c ounte r
byte 5 bi ts 0..7
Mod 256 c ounte r of tota l re c ords f or thi s c a l l .
dura ti on
byte 6-9 bi ts 0..31
C a l l dura ti on i n m i l l i se c onds.
The a c c ura c y i s 10 m s.
C ode d a s 32-bi t i nte ge r.
port num be r
byte 10-13 bi ts
0..31
bi ts 0..7 - C M (Al wa ys 1).
8..15 - LM - c urre ntl y de f i ne d a s:
1 = 'sta nda rd' port, i .e . 1-1-1-< 1..18>
2 = XF ports, i .e . 1-1-1-XF< 1..32>
16..19 - LU
20..24 - PP
25..31 - LLP
i nc om i ng route
num be r
byte 14 bi ts 0..6
1..127 (0 i f te rm i na l or not a va i l a bl e or c a l l
di re c ti on= outgoi ng).
unuse d
byte 14 bi t 7
N ot use d a t pre se nt
outgoi ng route
num be r
byte 15 bi ts 0..6
1..127 (0 i f te rm i na l or not a va i l a bl e or c a l l
di re c ti on= i nc om i ng). Se e a l so type of port
f i e l d.
c a l l di re c ti on
byte 15 bi ts 7
0 - i nc om i ng c a l l to node .
1 - outgoi ng c a l l f rom node .
type of re c ord
byte 16 bi ts 0..1
00
01
10
11
- pa rti a l
- f i rst pa rt
- l a st pa rt
- c om pl e te re c ord
c a l l pri ori ty
byte 16 bi ts 2..3
00
01
10
11
- pri ori ty 1
- pri ori ty 2
- pri ori ty 3
- pri ori ty 4
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
579
Appendices
f a st se l e c t usa ge
byte 16 bi ts 4..5
00 - not re que ste d
01 - not use d
10 - f a st se l e c t
re que ste d
11 - f a st se l e c t
wi th re stri c ti on
c a l l e sta bl i she d
i nd
byte 16 bi ts 6
0 - c a l l no t
e sta bl i she d
1 - c a l l e sta bl i she d
re ve rse c hg i nd
byte 16 bi ts 7
0 - re ve rse c ha rg
not re q.
1 - re ve rse c ha rg
re que ste d
type of c a l l
byte 17 bi ts 0..2
000 - SVC
001 - HVC
010 - PVC
011 - DC , di re c t
call
100 - se l e c ti on by
na m e use d
1 0 1 - N o t u se d
1 1 0 - N o t u se d
1 1 1 - N o t u se d
type of port
byte 17 bi ts 3..4
00 - route
01 - c onne c te d
te rm i na l
10 - i nte rna l
f unc ti on
11 - i de nti f i e d di a l
i n/out
re c ord ge ne ra ti on
c a use
byte 17 bi ts 5..7
000 - not spe c i f i e d
001 - ne w ra te
pe ri od
010 - l ong c a l l
supe rvi si on
011 - c a l l c l e a re d
by DTE
100 - c a l l c l e a re d
by ne twork
101 - c ha rgi ng
turne d of f
110 - pe rf orm a nc e
te st
111 - not use d
sta rt ti m e , hh
byte 18 bi ts 0..7
hours, two BC D
c ode d di gi ts
sta rt ti m e , m m
byte 19 bi ts 0..7
m i nute s, two BC D
c ode d di gi ts
580
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
sta rt ti m e , ss
byte 20 bi ts 0..7
se c onds, two BC D
c ode d di gi ts
sta rt da te , c c *
byte 21 bi ts 0..7
c e ntury, two BC D
c ode d di gi ts
sta rt da te , yy
byte 22 bi ts 0..7
ye a r, two BC D
c ode d di gi ts
sta rt da te , m m
byte 23 bi ts 0..7
m onth, two BC D
c ode d di gi ts
sta rt da te , dd
byte 24 bi ts 0..7
da y, two BC D
c ode d di gi ts
c a l l i ng throughput
c l a ss
byte 25 bi ts 0..3
C ode d a s i n X25re c om m e nda ti on
c a l l e d throughput
c l a ss
byte 25 bi ts 4..7
C ode d a s i n X25re c om m e nda ti on
c a l l i ng pa c ke t si z e
byte 26 bi ts 0..3
C ode d a s i n X25re c om m e nda ti on
c a l l e d pa c ke t si z e
byte 26 bi ts 4..7
C ode d a s i n X25re c om m e nda ti on
c a l l i ng wi ndow
si z e
byte 27 bi ts 0..7
C ode d a s i n X25re c om m e nda ti on
c a l l e d wi ndow si z e
byte 28 bi ts 0..7
C ode d a s i n X25re c om m e nda ti on
c l e a ri ng c a use
byte 29 bi ts 0..7
C ode d a s i n X25re c om m e nda ti on
di a gnosti c c ode
byte 30 bi ts 0..7
C ode d a s i n X25re c om m e nda ti on
Tota l 31 byte s
*For Year2000, the accounting application used for collecting data should be
able to determine the century marker as indicated with *.
Address Part
The Address field is coded as in the X25-recommendation with the lengths of
the field first and then the addresses BCD-coded in the following bytes. If there
are odd number of digits in the Called Address, the higher nibble of the last
Called Address byte will contain the first digit of the Calling Address.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
581
Appendices
Field
Byt es - Bit s used
C a l l i ng a ddre ss
l e ngth
1 bi ts 0..3
C a l l e d a ddre ss
l e ngth
Comment
1 bi ts 4..7
C a l l e d a ddre ss
sta rts a t byte 2
C a l l i ng a ddre ss
sta rts i m m e di a te l y a f te r c a l l e d
a ddre ss
Encoded Part
In this part a number of encoded items, in any order, could be present. An
encoded item always starts with an item identifier. This identifier should be
used to interpret the rest of the bytes in the item.
There are four classes of encoded items, determined by the values of bits 7 and
8 of the item identifier as follows:
Class
A
B
C
D
Bit s 7, 8
Type of It em
00
One byte i te m .
01
Two byte s i te m .
10
Thre e byte s i te m .
11
Fi rst byte of the i te m c onta i ns the
l e n g th .
The following table lists each encoded item found in the encoded part of a
charging record.
582
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
Field
Class Binary Code
Hex
dum m y
-
0000 0000
00
DTE swi tc he d ne twork
a ddre ss
D
1100 0001
C1
XID
D
1100 0010
C2
NUI
D
1100 0011
C3
Modi f i e d a ddre ss
D
1100 0100
C4
C a l l i ng a ddre ss e xte nsi on
D
1100 0101
C5
N ot supporte d
C a l l e d a ddre ss e xte nsi on
D
1100 0110
C6
N ot supporte d
RPOA - ba si c
A
0000 0111
07
N ot supporte d
RPOA - e xte nde d
B
0100 1000
48
N ot supporte d
C N IC
B
0100 1010
4A
TN IC
B
0 1 0 0 1 0 11
4B
C U G (c ode )
D
1100 1100
CC
C U G OAC (c ode )
D
1100 1001
C9
C U G (i nde x) - ba si c
A
0000 1101
0D
N ot supporte d
C U G (i nde x) - e xte nde d
B
0100 1110
4E
N ot supporte d
C U G wi th OAC (i nde x) ba si c
A
0000 1111
0F
N ot supporte d
C U G wi th OAC (i nde x) e xte nde d
B
0101 0000
50
N ot supporte d
Bi l a te ra l C U G (i nde x)
B
0101 0001
51
N ot supporte d
Call id
C
1001 0010
92
Ra te re c ords
D
1101 0011
D3
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Comment
N ot supporte d
583
Appendices
Description of Encoded Items
Dum m y
byte 1
0000000 0
DTE swi tc he d ne twork a ddre ss (X.21, PSTN )
byte 1
1100000 1
byte 2
a ddre ss l e ngth
byte 3
.
.
byte n
c a l l i ng/c a l l e d
a ddre ss
m a x. 15 di gi ts
bc d-c ode d
byte 1
1100001 0
byte 2
l e ngth of f i e l d
byte 3
.
.
byte n
XID
m a x. 16 byte s
byte 1
1100001 1
byte 2
l e ngth of f i e l d
byte 3
.
.
byte n
NUI
m a x. 16 byte s
byte 1
1100010 0
byte 2
a ddre ss l e ngth
byte 3
.
.
byte n
Addre ss of de st
BC D-c ode d m a x
15 di gi ts
byte 1
1100010 1
byte 2
l e ngth of f i e l d
byte 3
.
.
byte n
C a l l i ng a ddr e xt
BC D-c ode d m a x
32 di gi ts
byte 1
1100011 0
byte 2
l e ngth of f i e l d
byte 3
.
.
byte n
C a l l e d a ddr e xt
BC D-c ode d m a x
32 di gi ts
XID (X.25, X.28 pri or to vi rtua l c a l l
i de nti f i c a ti on)
N ote : XID i s de f i ne d a s U SER/PASSWORD
but pa ssword i s re m ove d.
N U I (X.28,X.25)
N ote : N U I i s de f i ne d a s U SER/PASSWORD
but pa ssword i s re m ove d.
Addre ss Modi f i c a ti on
C a l l i ng a ddre ss e xte nsi on
C a l l e d a ddre ss e xte nsi on
584
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
RPOA se l e c ti on ba si c f orm a t - two BC D
c ode d di gi ts
RPOA se l e c ti on e xte nde d f orm a t - f our BC D
c ode d di gi ts
C N IC spe c i f i c a ti on - f our BC D c ode d di gi ts
TN IC spe c i f i c a ti on - f our BC D c ode d di gi ts
C U G (c ode )
C ode d a s 4 di gi ts DN IC + 16 bi t C U G c ode .
Le ngth i s a l wa ys 4 byte s.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
byte 1
0000011 1
byte 2
di gi t1
byte 1
0100100 0
byte 2
di gi t1
di gi t2
byte 3
di gi t3
di gi t4
byte 1
0100101 0
byte 2
di gi t1
di gi t2
byte 3
di gi t3
di gi t4
byte 1
0100101 1
byte 2
di gi t1
di gi t2
byte 3
di gi t3
di gi t4
byte 1
1100110 0
byte 2
l e n g th o f f i e l d
byte 3
di gi t1
di gi t2
byte 4
di gi t3
di gi t4
byte 5
byte 6
C U G c ode 16
bi ts
di gi t2
585
Appendices
C U G OAC (c ode )
C U G ba si c f orm a t - two BC D c ode d di gi ts
(i nde x)
C U G e xte nde d f orm a t - f our BC D c ode d
di gi ts
C U G wi th OAC ba si c f orm a t - two BC D
c ode d di gi ts
Bi l a te ra l C U G - f our BC D c ode d di gi ts
C a l l i de nti f i e r
Ra te re c ords
586
byte 1
1100100 1
byte 2
l e ngth of f i e l d
byte 3
di gi t1
di gi t2
byte 4
di gi t3
di gi t4
byte 5
byte 6
C U G c ode 16
bi ts
byte 1
0000110 1
byte 2
di gi t1
byte 1
0100111 0
byte 2
di gi t1
di gi t2
byte 3
di gi t3
di gi t4
byte 1
0000111 1
byte 2
di gi t1
byte 1
0101000 1
byte 2
di gi t1
di gi t2
byte 3
di gi t3
di gi t4
byte 1
1001001 0
byte 2
byte 3
byte 4
24 bi t c a l l i d
byte 1
1101001 1
byte 2
l e ngth of f i e l d
byte 3
.
.
byte n
l e ngth/11
re c ords
di gi t2
di gi t2
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
Each record has the following structure:
byte 1
N o. of se gm e nts se nt
byte 2
byte 3
32-bi t i nte ge r
byte 4
byte 5
N o. of se gm e nts re c e i ve d
byte 6
byte 7
32-bi t i nte ge r
byte 8
byte 9
ra te i d
0..127
byte 10
ne t re se t c ount
0..255
byte 11
port re se t c ount
0..255
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
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Appendices
APPENDIX TEN: PFA Trap Troubleshooting
Notes on Severity Levels
Unlike the Ericsson FS 700 products, there is no concept of SNMP trap severity
level being passed in SNMP traps in the PFA product range. Instead, the PFA
products allow the user to switch ON or OFF traps at the command interface by
setting, e.g. OBJTRAP=YES to enable a trap to be generated for deblocking or
blocking a port object. The building of a strategy for SNMP traps will allow the
network manager to select which SNMP traps need to be switched on. All
severity levels listed will be marked as Not Applicable (N/A).
Note that at the management station the traps can be interpreted
locally as traps of different severity level.
Trap Descriptions
pfaObjectDeblocked
Cause:
The PFA port object referenced by ifName is manually deblocked from the
native MML interface. The protocol layers on a port are deblocked individually
and the port becomes operational once all the layers are successfully
deblocked. Actioned by parameter OBJTRAP in LIPPx, LILPx, LINPx, LIFPx,
LILAx, LIMPx, LILCx, LIVPx, LIATx and IPNIx commands.
Action:
None. For information only.
pfaObjectBlocked
Cause:
This trap signifies that the PFA port object referenced by ifName was manually
blocked from the native MML interface. The protocol layers on a port are
blocked individually. Actioned by parameter OBJTRAP in LIPPx, LILPx, LINPx,
LIFPx, LILAx, LIMPx, LILCx, LIVPx, LIATx and IPNIx commands.
Action:
None. For information only.
LinkUp
Cause:
This trap indicates that the link state has moved from down to up, i.e. the port
object is fully operational. Actioned by parameter LINKTRAP in LIPPx, LILPx,
LINPx, LIFPx, LILAx, LIVPx and IPNIx commands.
Action:
None. For information only.
588
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
LinkDown
Cause:
This trap indicates that the link state has moved from up to down, i.e. the port
object is no longer operational. Actioned by parameter LINKTRAP in LIPPx,
LILPx, LINPx, LIFPx, LILAx, LIVPx and IPNIx commands.
Action:
Display the port status of the relevant port with the LIPOP command. Investigate the NP, LP, PP and LA port object states for the port in question. Possible
reasons for LinkDown include:
i) the physical POP PAK has been removed. This is indicated by an associated
POPPAKOut trap.
ii) The cable may be defective. Check cable.
iii) A port object may have been manually blocked. Check that no configuration
has taken place on the unit.
iv) The remote end of the connection may be disconnected.
v) A network problem may exist outside the control of either end of the connection.
pfaPopPakIn
Cause:
This trap indicates that a POP PAK of type popPAKType was inserted in the
physical port identified by ifName. Actioned by parameter POPTRAP in LIPPS,
LILAS, LIMPx or LILCx commands.
Action:
None. For information only. Usually validates that a POP PAK failure has been
fixed or that the POP PAK has been swapped for another POP PAK.
pfaPopPakOut
Cause:
This trap indicates that a POP PAK previously identified by ifName has been
removed from the physical port. Actioned by parameter POPTRAP in LIPPS,
LILAS, LIMPx or LILCx commands.
Action:
Check that:
i) the POP PAK is secure on the rear panel.
ii) no hardware reconfiguraton is taking place.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
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Appendices
pfaDisturbanceSupervision
Cause:
This trap is generated on an LP port if the user gets more than X
retransmissions per 1000 frames, where X is the LIM parameter value (in LILPS
command) between 1 to 1000 retransmissions. The trap will cease if 3000
consecutive frames are transmitted without retransmission. Actioned by parameter DISTTRAP in LILPx commands.
Action:
This trap is set because of line transmission quality causes the retransmission
ratio to exceed the disturbance limit. The trap automatically ceases if the
quality of the line improves.
It is normal that the quality of the line transmission can be temporarily impaired.
No action shall be taken unless the trap remains for a long time or if the trap is
frequent. In that case, check that the disturbance supervision limit (LIM value)
for the LP port is reasonable (in accordance with the line transmission quality).
If the disturbance limit is acceptable, a problem with the line that decreases the
transmission quality may have occured.
pfaLevel2FRMRRecd
Cause:
This trap indicates that a FRMR frame was received on the link port identified
by ifName. This means all calls over the link are cleared. Actioned by parameter FRMRTRAP in LILPx commands.
Action:
Re-assess the configurations at both ends of the link. In particular, Window
sizes and frame size should be configured correctly. Check compatibility. Take
protocol trace with external protocol analyser.
pfaLevel2FRMRSent
Cause:
This trap indicates that a FRMR frame was sent from the link port identified by
ifName. This means all calls over the link are cleared. Actioned by parameter
FRMRTRAP in LILPx commands. Reasons for transmitting an FRMR:
i) Unexpected Final bit received (no Poll bit sent)
ii) FRMR retransmission (no SABM received within T1 of previous FRMR)
iii) RX frame too long
iv) Invalid NR received (outside window)
v) Invalid NS received (outside window) X.75 only
vi)Unknown frame type received
vii) Invalid I field (too long/short for frame type, usually supervisory frame)
590
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
viii) illegal I field (usually I field unexpectedly present on U or S frame)
Action:
Re-assess the configurations at both ends of the link. In particular, Window
sizes and frame size should be configured correctly. Check compatibility. Take
protocol trace with external protocol analyser.
pfaHDLCEvent
Cause:
This trap signifies that an event leading to an error condition occurred on the
HDLC link port identified by ifName. Actioned by parameter HDLCTRAP in
LILPx commands.
This event has one of the following reasons:
SABM received in Data Transfer
DISC received in Data Transfer
DM received in Data Transfer
UA received in Data Transfer
N2 * T1 expiry
Unsolicited F bit
N(S) outside window
N(R) outside window
TEST Unexpected
XID Unexpected
Illegal frame
Action:
All the above HDLC Events are attributable to the unit at the remote end of the
connection experiencing severe operational problems.
pfaFRPVCStatusChange
Cause:
This trap is sent every time there is change in status of a Frame Relay PVC.
Actioned by parameter PVCTRAP in FRPCx commands.
Action:
Follow troubleshooting procedure as outlined under LinkDown actions.
pfaX25VCStatusChange
Cause:
This trap is sent every time there is change in status of an X.25/X.75 PVC/HVC.
When pfaLCNB is 0 the trap relates to an HVC, otherwise to a PVC. Actioned by
parameter PVCTRAP in PSPCx commands.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
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Appendices
Action:
Follow troubleshooting procedure as outlined under LinkDown actions.
pfaLowFreeMemory
Cause:
This trap indicates that the low memory limit set on the PFA has fallen below a
user-specified threshold as defined by the LOWMEM parameter in the NALOS
command. As a result, the Call Accounting Administrator function becomes
automatically blocked. Actioned by parameter LOWMEMTRAP in NALOS
command.
Action:
The following is suggested:
i) Make more memory available by upgrading DRAM.
ii) Collect accounting records more regularly.
iii) Raise the LOWMEM value to a higher level.
pfaFreeMemoryOK
Cause:
This trap is sent following a pfaLowFreeMemory trap to indicate that the percentage of free memory on the PFA is again above the threshold specified by
the user. Actioned by parameter LOWMEMTRAP in NALOS command.
Action:
None. For information only.
pfaAcctOperational
Cause:
This trap indicates that the Call Accounting Administrator (CAA) function in the
PFA is now operational. The CAA could become operational again after having
been automatically blocked due to low memory conditions (see pfaLowFree
Memory). Actioned by parameter CAASTATUSTRAP in CDAAC command.
Action:
None. For information only.
pfaAcctNonOperational
Cause:
This trap is sent when the Call Accounting Administrator (CAA) function becomes non-operational, e.g. by manual blocking, if a box-wide low memory
limit for account gathering to stop is reached or if the maximum buffer size
available for storing accounting records has been reached. Actioned by parameter CAASTATUSTRAP in CDAAC command.
592
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
Action:
The following is suggested:
i) Ensure CAA has not been manually blocked. If so deblock CAA again.
ii) If a box-wide low memory limit for account gathering to stop is reached,
adjust LOWMEM parameter in NALOS command. The CAA will then become
operational if reconfigured correctly.
iii) If the maximum buffer size available for storing accounting records has been
reached then increase BUFFSIZE parameter in CDAAC command.
iv) Collect accounting records more regularly.
pfaAcctMemThreshold
Cause:
This trap is sent when 50, 90 or 100% of the user allocated buffer for storing the
Call Acct data has been exceeded. The user allocated buffer is set with
BUFFSIZE parameter in the CDAAC command. Actioned by parameter
BUFFTRAP in CDAAC command.
Action:
Increase the BUFFSIZE value to a maximum of 1000 Kbytes.
pfaAcctRecordsDeleted
Cause:
This trap indicates that Call Accounting records were deleted by the user. The
object pfaCaaMethod indicates whether completed Accounting records were
deleted via MML (with the CDAAR command) or via FTP (with the DELETE
command). Actioned by parameter DELETETRAP in the CDAAC command.
Action:
None. For information only.
pfaAcctRecordsLost
Cause:
This trap is sent on PFA Startup if there were Call Accounting records lost at the
node as a result of a restart. Actioned by parameter RECSLOSTTRAP in CDAAC
command.
Action:
None. For information only.
pfaAcctCallsRejected
Cause:
This trap is sent when new chargeable calls are being rejected because the Call
Accounting Administrator (CAA) is not operational and the user has specified
that new chargeable calls should not be allowed (parameter NEWCALLS=NO is
set) if it is not possible to produce call accounting records. Actioned by parameter CALLREJTRAP in CDAAC command.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
593
Appendices
Action:
See pfaAcctNonOperational action.
pfaAcctCallsAccepted
Cause:
This trap is sent following a pfaAcctCallsRejected trap to indicate that new
chargeable calls are now being accepted because call accounting is operational. Actioned by parameter CALLREJTRAP in CDAAC command.
Action:
None. For information only.
pfaUnauthFTPConnection
Cause:
This trap is sent whenever an unknown FTP client IP address attempts to
access the Call Accounting FTP Server. Only clients configured via the CDIPI
command can access the server. Actioned by parameter FTPTRAP in CDFTS
command.
Action:
Investigate IP address responsible for unauthorised FTP connection attempts.
pfaUnauthFTPUser
Cause:
This trap is sent if an unknown user name is used when attempting to log into
the Call Accounting FTP Server. This second level of authentication (after
pfaUnauthFTPConnection trap) assumes that the IP address of the client is
configured with the CDIPI command and that a pfaUnauthFTPConnection trap
has not been generated. Actioned by parameter FTPTRAP in CDFTS command.
Action:
Verify if the FTP client needs access and if so, add a username/password with
access privileges ABCD with the NADCI command.
pfaFanFail
Cause:
This trap is sent when the PFA 660 indicates that the cooling fan is not operating at the correct speed. Actioned by parameter FANFAILTRAP in NAHWS
command.
Action:
Hot-swap the cooling fan out from the rear panel and replace with spare cooling
fan.
594
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
pfaFanOK
Cause:
This trap is sent when the PFA 660 indicates that the cooling fan is now operating correctly. This usually indicates a replacement fan has been fitted. Actioned
by parameter FANFAILTRAP in NAHWS command.
Action:
None. For information only.
pfaPSUFail
Cause:
This trap is sent when the PFA 660 indicates that one of the redundant Power
Supply units is not operating correctly. Actioned by the parameter
PSUFAILTRAP in the NAHWS command.
Action:
i) Confirm red LED is lit on front panel of unit. If so, remove front panel, then
take out PSU that does not have a lit LED. Replace with spare redundant PSU.
ii) Check Single Supply/Dual Supply switch at rear of PSUs is set correctly.
pfaPSUOK
Cause:
This trap is sent to indicate that the faulty PSU has now been replaced and that
a fully redundant PSU system is back in operation. Actioned by parameter
PSUFAILTRAP in NAHWS command.
Action:
None. For information only.
pfaNodeTimeFail
Cause:
This trap is sent when the PFA 660 is unable to retrieve the current time from
one of the configured IP time servers. Actioned by parameter TIMEFAILTRAP in
NATSx commands.
Action:
The following is suggested:
i) Check configuration settings for the Time Server.
ii) Verify the Time Server can be contacted via IPPIP command.
iii) Lower the priority of the Time Server entry with IPTSI command.
pfaNodeTimeSet
Cause:
This trap is sent when the PFA660 has successfully retrieved the current time
from one of the configured IP time servers. Usually occurs after PFA restart but
Time Server can be polled at regular intervals. Actioned by parameter
TIMEFAILTRAP in NATSx commands.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
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Appendices
Action:
None. For information only.
coldStart
Cause:
This trap is sent automatically when the unit restarts.
Action:
If the restart is not invoked by the user, issue a UILOP command to investigate
the restart cause.
authenticationFailure
Cause:
An Authentication Failure trap is sent when the SET or GET community string
value does not match the value configured with the NACGI command. Actioned
with the parameter AUTHTRAP in the NANMS command.
Action:
Investigate originator that caused the community string authentication failure.
configurationChangeAdd
Cause:
The PFA port object referenced by ifName has been initialised by the user.
Actioned by parameter CONFTRAP in LIPPx, LILPx, LINPx, LIFPx, LILAx, LILCx,
LIMPx, LIVPx, LIATx and IPNIx commands.
Action:
None. For information only.
configurationChangeDelete
Cause:
The PFA port object referenced by ifName has been terminated by the user.
Actioned by parameter CONFTRAP in LIPPx, LILPx, LINPx, LIFPx, LILAx, LILCx,
LIMPx, LIVPx, LIATx and IPNIx commands.
Action:
None. For information only.
dnaInterfaceConfigurationChangeAdd
Cause:
An automatically created or manual entry has been added or updated in the
topology table. The entry method (MANUAL or AUTO) is shown in the trap
message.
Action:
None. For information only.
596
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
dnaInterfaceConfigurationChangeDelete
Cause:
An automatically created or manual entry has been removed from the topology
table. The trap would also be generated if a update to an automatic X.75E or
Frame Relay FII connection was received (this would precede a
dnaInterfaceConfigurationChangeAdd trap).
Action:
None. For information only.
dnaConnEntMethodChange
Cause:
The entering method has changed for a connection in the topology table, e.g. an
automatically generated entry is replaced by a manual entry or vice versa.
Action:
None. For information only.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
597
Appendices
APPENDIX ELEVEN: Training Courses
Training courses are available for the PFA Product range.
Contact:
598
Hans Byström
Business Manager for Competence Development
Ericsson Telecom AB
Datacom Networks & IP Services
Augustendalsvagen 21
Nacka Strand
S-131 89 Stockholm
Sweden
Tel: +46 8 422 1769
FAX: +46 8 422 0274
e-mail: hans.byströ[email protected]
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
APPENDIX TWELVE: IP Switching
IP switching is used to provide semi-permanent routing to an Ericsson proprietary management application called Configuration Manager (CM). This gets
traffic from PFAs via the IP default route and then configures the PFA (via an
X.29 session) with semi-permanent routes and gateways with the IPROI and
IPGAI commands, respectively, to route subsequent traffic via a X.25 or FR
gateway.
The semi-permanent routes and gateways can be initialised by setting the
CONFIG=NO parameter in the above commands (this prevents routes/gateways
from being permanently stored in the non-volatile configuration).
However, if an X.25 or FR connection fails to connect due to an invalid NTN
(X.25 diagnostic “invalid called number” (0x43) is seen or FR X.25 cause code
“Unallocated NTN” (0x01)) the routes or remote gateways would enter a hold
down state as defined under heading "Remote gateway - Hold Timer".
A semi-permanent routes for which an ICMP UNREACHABLE message is
received from the gateway WAN side (FR or X.25) then the route enters hold
down state as defined under heading "Remote gateway - Hold Timer".
Semi-Permanent Routes
IP routes can be permanent or semi-permanent according to the value of the
CONFIG parameter in the IPROI command. Permanent routes are configured
with CONFIG=YES (default). Semi-permanent routes are configured with
CONFIG=NO. The LIFETIME parameter in the IPROI command sets up a maximum lifetime for a semi-permanent route. On expiry, the route is deleted
without affecting its underlying gateway or other routes using its underlying
gateway, even if it is currently used.
This function allows the route table to be refreshed independently of the underlying gateways so that inactive routes may be deleted even in situations where
gateways are kept active by other routes. The use of the LIFETIME parameter is
optional and defaults to UNUSED.
When the incrementing value for CURRENT (displayed with IPROP command)
reaches that of the LIFETIME parameter value then that route is deleted unless
LIFETIME=0.
Semi-Permanent Remote Gateways
IP remote gateways can be permanent and semi-permanent according to the
value of the CONFIG parameter in the IPGAI command. Permanent IP gateways
are configured with CONFIG=YES (this is the default); semi-permanent gateways are configured with CONFIG=NO. The TIMEOUT parameter in the IPGAI
command sets up na inactivity timer which marks a semi-permanent remote
gateway unused on expiry. This timer is reset each time an IP packet is
recevied or transmitted over the gateway.
Semi-permanent gateways may be deleted if they are marked as UNUSED and
if the gateway holding threshold value is exceeded (all associated IP routes are
also deleted); if it is not exceeded gateways are not deleted but will still be
marked as UNUSED. This value is configured with the IPGHS command and is
used to protect a minimum number of gateways, which includes permanent
gateways, irrespective of inactivity. The purpose of this threshold is to prevent
network congestion after, for example, national holidays when the network
might have been inactive for a number of days.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
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Appendices
Permanent and semi-permanent gateways may be added up to a maximum
configurable value. Gateway maximums and thresholds apply for each associated NI rather than for the entire node. Between the threshold value and the
maximum value, unused semi-permanent gateways are deleted when a new
gateway is added and the threshold is then exceeded and semi-permanent
gateways are immediately deleted when marked unused if the threshold has
already been exceeded.
Permanent gateways are not affected by this timer functionality.
For semi-permanent gateways (i.e., gateways with CONFIG=NO), when the
incrementing value for UNUSED (displayed with IPGAP command) reaches that
of the TIMEOUT parameter value, and if that gate is not protected by the
threshold value (NUMGATES parameter in IPGHS command), that gate is deleted and all semi-permanent routes that use that gate are also deleted.
Setting Semi-permanent Remote Gateway Holding rules (IPGHS)
The IPGHS command sets the holding rules for semi-permanent IP remote
gateways in X.25 or Frame Relay networks. This configures a threshold to allow
for a number of remote gateway entries to be cached even after the expiry of
the timer configured with the TIMEOUT parameter in the IPGAI command.
Remote gateways that have been inactive for the timeout period associated
with that gate will be deleted if the number of protected gates has been exceeded. Semi-permanent routes dependent on deleted remote gateways will
also be deleted. Existing permanent remote gateways are included in the
NUMGATES total although they are never automatically deleted.
IPGHS:X25GATES=x25gates,FRGATES=frgates;
Where:X25gates
Number of X.25 remote
gateways to protect
from timeout
1 to 500; default=500.
FRgates
Number of FR remote
gateways to protect
from timeout
1 to 525; default=500.
For example:
IPGHS:X25GATES=500,FRGATES=400;
Printing Semi-permanent Remote Gateway Holding rules (IPGHP)
The IPGHP command prints out the remote gateway holding rules. These rules
only relate to semi-permanent remote gateways.
For example:
IPGHP;
REMOTE
GATEWAY
HOLDING
X25GATES
= 500
FRGATES
= 400
RULES
END
600
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
Appendices
Remote Gateway - Hold Timer
To prevent excessive traffic to the CM, a hold down period is configured by
using a HOLD parameter in the IPGAI command :Hold
Network Failure
hold timer
5..1440 minutes or
DISABLED. default=DISABLED.
When the hold down timer is running the route will be maintained so that IP
traffic is directed toward the internal sink NI (if defined; see below) as their next
hop so traffic will not be seen by the CM. When the route’s hold down timer
has expired the route will be deleted; this may also apply to the gateway. This
will cause the next IP packet to be routed via the default route to the CM.
Note: If HOLD is DISABLED or the SINK NI has not been configured
then the gate and associated routes will be deleted immediately.
Default Gateway - Sink/Sinkmask
The SINK parameter in the IPDGI command specifies the LOCIP of a NI whose
only purpose is to delete any traffic arriving at its address. Use an unused
class C network address.
sink
sink IP address
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
sinkmask
sink IP address mask
nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
For example:
IPDGI:METRIC=1,SINK=222.222.222.2,SINKMASK=255.255.255.240;
This type of default gateway will appear in the IPROP/IPDGP printout as type
“S”. Routes that are in the hold-down state would be printed with the SINK NI
address in the gate column, e.g. 222.222.222.2.
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
601
Appendices
APPENDIX THIRTEEN: Product Support
All enquiries and requests for support in connection with this product should be
directed to the local ERICSSON company or distributor.
602
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
PFA Products Index
A
Access Control
at NTNs 393
with calling addresses 442
Accounting, call 404
billing/costing for
Multiservice Management Suite (MMS) with
UDC for 407
Call Accounting Administrator for 418
blocking 421
changing 419
deblocking 420
deleting completed records in 422
initialising 419
printing 421
printing records in 423
setting 419
terminating 421
call rate tables in
printing 410
printing default week days for 412
resetting 411
setting 410
setting default week days for 411
call rates in
configuration of 409
charging record generation in
configuration of 408
configuration of 408
example of 425
format for
charging record 578
data file 578
FTP server authentication for 414
FTP server for 414
printing 415
setting 415
IP hosts for record collection in 417
initialising 417
printing 418
terminating 418
management for
memory 406
special days for
initialising 412
printing 413
terminating 413
Address modification 431, 432
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
example of 452
initialising address modification tables in 442
International Data Number for 431
local address conversion in 437
parameters for 449
local and remote addresses in 432
National Number for 432
National Terminal Number for 432
printing address modification tables in 446
remote address conversion in 434
parameters for 449
setting address modification tables in 444
terminating address modification tables in 448
Addressing. See Routing Analysis
by name analysis
configuration of 388
initialising in 388
printing in 389
setting parameters in 389
terminating 390
Administration 39
Alarm list
printing of 87
Alarm printouts 87
generated 88
Alarms 83
classes of 87
queues of 87
ARP
Inverse
for remote gateways 310
ARP table
printing 307
resetting 309
Async calls
address field in 138
call user data field in 138
clearing 145
making 135
X.25 facilities in 136
Async operation
addressing in
name analysis for 146
example of 159
Non-CCITT USER profiles for 148
profile for
KERMIT 152
ZMODEM 152
profiles for 146
603
routing analysis in 145
standard CCITT profiles for 146
USER profiles for
initialising 148
printing 151
setting 151
terminating 152
Async port statistics. See Statistics: async port
ATM 525
adjusting memory requirement for 398
example of 541
POP PAKs for 528
virtual ports for 531
ATM port configuration. See Port configuration:
ATM
ATM port statistics. See Statistics: ATM
Authorities
command 43
AXD 301
Frame Relay concentration
PFA 660 for 541
B
Bridging, Ethernet. See Ethernet bridging
Broadcasts
IP-directed 344
blocking for forwarding in 344
deblocking for forwarding in 344
printing status of 344
C
Call accounting. See Accounting, call
Call priorities
at NTNs 393
default
printing 55
setting 54
PID-independent 396
configuration of 396
printing 396
setting 396
terminating 396
Calling address
barring calls with 443
Cause codes 552
clear 553
reset 553
Charging information. See Calls, charging of
Clock
system 55
printing 56
setting 55
Closed User Groups. See CUGs
604
Command history 47
Configuration port. See Port, configuration
Configurations
initialising for downloading 64
printing 65
printing command errors in 58
printing status of 68
resetting areas containing 69
selecting 67
transfer of 29, 63
CUGs 401
configuration of 402
printing 403
setting DTEs in 402
terminating 404
with incoming access 402
with outgoing access 401
D
Diagnostic codes 554
DNIC
default
setting 54
printing 55
DTEs
configuration of 365
initialising 365
local. See Local DTEs
printing NTNs for 367
terminating 367
E
Echo ports. See Testing, network, echo ports in
Ethernet Bridging 339
bridge group for
blocking 341
initialising 340
printing 342
setting 341
terminating 342
bridge LAN ports in
terminating 343
bridge ports in
printing 343
configuration for 340
group for
blocking 341
Ethernet bridging
bridge LAN ports for
blocking 343
configuration of 342
deblocking 343
initialising 342
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
F
Fan (PFA 660 only)
failure SNMP traps for
printing 61
setting 60
Frame Relay
adjusting memory requirement for 398
congestion control
IP over 235
X.25/X.75/SNA over 235
connection admission control (CAC) 236
Ethernet bridging over 234
FII 239
introduction to 233
IP over 234, 249
macros 277
POP PAKS 240
PVC connections
example of cluster controller configuration
281
example of Ethernet bridging 283
example of FUI/FDI 278
example of IP 283
example of SNA 281
example of X.25 281
PVC operation 238
rate enforcement 236
SNA over 208, 234, 248
sPVC operation 238
sPVC/SVC connections
example of FUI/FDI 287
example of IP 289
example of X.25/X.75(E) 290
SVC connections
example of IP 293
SVC operation 239
X.25/X.75 over 234, 245
FS/PFS products
compatibility of PFA product with 562
H
Heartbeats 83
Help
online 45
Hunt Group
configuration
initialising 368
printing 369
terminating 369
reselection in 368
HVCs 383
configuration of 384
error conditions in 387
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
initialising 384
printing setup for 385
terminating 385
I
Image downloading 63, 70
cloning in 76
deleting images in 75
displaying all images in 74
displaying current image in 75
initialising 72
selecting image in 73
Integrated Router Board
access into 545
exit from 545
IP Default Gateway
initialising 320
printing 320
terminating 320
IP network interfaces
Ether 309
blocking 313
deblocking 313
initialising 311
printing 313
printing statistics for 314
resetting statistics for 315
terminating 313
Frame Relay 310
blocking 313
deblocking 313
initialising 311
printing 313
printing statistics for 314
resetting statistics for 315
setting 313
terminating 313
SLIP 310
blocking 313
deblocking 313
initialising 311
printing 313
printing statistics for 314
resetting statistics for 315
setting 313
terminating 313
Virtual 310
initialising 311
X.25/X.75 309
blocking 313
deblocking 313
initialising 311
printing 313
605
printing statistics for 314
resetting statistics for 315
setting 313
terminating 313
IP remote gateways
configuration of 315
initialising 315
permanent 315
printing 318
printing statistics for 319
semi-permanent 599
printing holding rules for 600
setting holding rules for 600
setting 317
terminating 318
IP routes
configuration of 322
initialising static 322
permanent 322
printing 323
semi-permanent 599
setting static 323
terminating static 323
IP routing 320
configuration of dynamic RIP 326
IP Switching
IP Switching 298
IRB. See Integrated Router Board
ISDN. See also POP PAKS: Trans ISDN
transparent
configuration of 475
examples of 480
features of 473
routing in 479
software versions for 474
subaddressing in 479
L
LAN port. See Port, LAN
LAN port statistics. See Statistics: LAN port
Line testing. See Testing, line
Load control 397
configuration of 398
printing limits in 400
setting limits in 398
Logon
adding users 41
banner 40
changing 40
printing 41
resetting 41
Logon, for user
setting passwords/authorities in 42
606
Logon, for user 40
block 42
deblock 42
delete 42
Logon, user
printing 43
M
MAC addresses 306
Macros. See port configuration: macros for
Management, network
HTTP 94
NM400/NMS 82
printout descriptions for 84
SNMP
configuration of 99
editing topology trap MIB in 550
MIBs for 107
printing subsystem in 101
setting subsystem in 99
traps for 108
troubleshooting traps in 588
MML
ACNPP - Print CUGs 403
ACNPS - Set DTE in CUG 402
ACNPT - Terminate DTEs in CUG 404
ANAMI - Initialise Address Modification/Access
Control Table 442
ANAMP - Print Address Modification/Access
Control Tables 446
ANAMS - Set Address Modification/Access
Control Table 444
ANAMT - Terminate Address Modification/
Access Control Tables 448
ANDAP - Print Number Directions 361
ANGNI - Initialise Hunt Group 368
ANGNP - Print Hunt Group 369
ANGNT - Terminate Hunt Group 369
ANNAI - Initialise Addressing by Name Analysis
388
ANNAP - Print Addressing by Name Analysis
389
ANNAS - Set Addressing by Name Analysis 389
ANNAT - Terminate Addressing by Name Analysis 390
ANRAI - Initialise Number Direction 361
ANRAT - Terminate Number Direction 361
ANRCI - Initialise Routing Cases 358
ANRCP - Print Routing Cases 358
ANRCT - Terminate Routing Cases 358
Block Frame Port 261
CDAAB - Block Call Accounting Administrator
421
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
CDAAC - Change Call Accounting Administrator
419
CDAAD - Deblock Call Accounting Administrator 420
CDAAI - Initialise Call Accounting Administrator
419
CDAAP - Print Call Accounting Administrator
421
CDAAR - Delete Completed Accounting
Records 422
CDAAS - Set Call Accounting Administrator 419
CDAAT - Terminate Call Accounting Administrator 421
CDCRP - Print Call Accounting Records 423
CDFTP - Print Call Accounting FTP Server
Setup 415
CDFTS - Set Call Accounting FTP Server 415
CDIPI - Initialise Call Accounting IP Hosts 417
CDIPP - Print Call Accounting IP Hosts 418
CDIPT - Terminate Call Accounting IP Host 418
CDRTP - Print Call Accounting Rate Tables 410
CDRTR - Reset Call Accounting Rate Table 411
CDRTS - Set Call Accounting Rate Tables 410
CDSDI - Initialise a Call Accounting Special Day
412
CDSDP - Print Call Accounting Special Days
413
CDSDT - Terminate Call Accounting Special
Days 413
CDWDP - Print default Week Days for Call
Accounting 412
CDWDS - Set default Week Days for Call Accounting 411
DIRIP - Print Directory List
for PFA 660 only 77
FRECI - Initialise Frame Relay Echo Port 467
FRECP - Print Frame Relay Echo Port 467
FRECT - Terminate Frame Relay Echo Port 467
FRPCB - Block Frame Relay PVC/sPVC 268
FRPCD - Deblock Frame Relay PVC/sPVC 268
FRPCI - Initialise Frame Relay PVC/sPVC 264
FRPCI - Initialise Frame Relay PVCs 462, 467
FRPCS - Set Frame Relay PVC/sPVC parameters 267
FRTEI - Initialise Frame Relay NTN 262
FRTEP - Print Frame Relay NTNs 263
FRTET - Terminate Frame Relay NTN 264
FRTPI - Initialise Frame Relay TP PVC 462
FRTPP - Print Frame Relay TP PVC 463
FRTPS - Set Frame Relay TP PVC 463
FRTPT - Terminate Frame Relay TP PVC 463
FRTRB - Block Frame Relay Traffic Port 461
FRTRD - Deblock Frame Relay Traffic Port 461
FRTRI - Initialise Frame Relay Traffic Port 461
FRTRP - Print Frame Relay Traffic Port param-
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
eters 461
FRTRT - Terminate Frame Relay Traffic Port 462
IPDBB - Block IP Directed Broadcast 344
IPDBD - Deblock IP Directed Broadcast 344
IPDBP - Print IP Directed Broadcast 344
IPDGI - Initialise Default Gateway 320
IPDGP - Print Default Gateway 320
IPDGT - Terminate Default Gateway 320
IPGAI - Initialise IP Remote Gateway Entries
315
IPGAP - Print IP Remote Gateway Entries 318
IPGAS - Set IP Remote Gateway parameters
317
IPGAT - Terminate IP Remote Gateway 318
IPGHP - Print Semi-permanent Remote Gateway Holding 600
IPGHS - Set Semi-permanent Remote Gateway
Holding 600
IPHAB - Block UDP/IP Helper Address 346
IPHAD - Deblock UDP/IP Helper Address 346
IPHAI - Initialise UDP/IP Helper Address 345
IPHAP - Print UDP/IP Helper Address 346
IPHAT - Terminate UDP/IP Helper Address 346
IPNIB - Block Network Interface 313
IPNID - Deblock Network Interface 313
IPNII - Initialise Ether Network Interface 311
IPNIP - Print Network Interface parameters 313
IPNIS - Set Network Interface parameters 313
IPNIT - Terminate Network Interface 313
IPPIP - Print PING Request Status 332
IPRGI - Initialise RIP Gateway 327
IPRGP - Print RIP Neighbour 328
IPRGS - Set RIP Neighbour 327
IPRGT - Terminate RIP Neighbour 328
IPROI - Initialise IP Route 322
IPROP - Print IP Routes 323
IPROS - Set IP Route 323
IPROT - Terminate IP Route 323
IPRPB - Block RIP 329
IPRPD - Deblock RIP 329
IPRPP - Print RIP parameters 330
IPRPS - Set RIP parameters 328
IPRPT - Terminate RIP 330
IPTPB - Block TIP 338
IPTPD - Deblock TIP 338
IPTPI - Initialise TIP 337
IPTPP - Print TIP 338
IPTPS - Set TIP parameters 337
IPTPT - Terminate TIP 338
IPTSI - Initialise Time Server 51
IPTSP - Print Time Server 52
IPTSS - Set Time Server 51
IPTST - Terminate Time Server 52
LIATB - Block ATM port 530
607
LIATD - Deblock ATM port 530
LIATI - Initialise ATM port 529
LIATP - Print ATM port parameters 530
LIATS - Set ATM port parameters 530
LIATT - Terminate ATM port 531
LIBPB - Block Bridge LAN port 343
LIBPD - Deblock Bridge LAN port 343
LIBPI - Initialise Bridge LAN port 342
LIBPP - Print Bridge LAN port information 343
LIBPT - Terminate Bridge LAN port 343
LIBRB - Block Ethernet Bridging Group 341
LIBRD - Deblock Ethernet Bridging Group 341
LIBRI - Initialise Ethernet Bridging Group 340
LIBRP - Print Ethernet Bridging Group parameters 342
LIBRS - Set Ethernet Bridging Group parameters 341
LIBRT - Terminate Ethernet Bridging Group 342
LIFPD - Deblock Frame Port 260
LIFPP - Print Frame Port parameters 261
LIFPT - Terminate Frame Port 262
LIISS - Send V25bis message
for ISDN POP PAK 475
LILAB - Block LAN port 307
LILAD - Deblock LAN port 306
LILAI - Initialise LAN port 306
LILAP - Print LAN port parameters 307
LILAS - Set LAN port parameters 306
LILAT - Terminate LAN port 307
LILCB - Block LCP Link 501
LILCD - Deblock LCP Link 501
LILCI - Initialise LCP Link 499
LILCP - Print LCP Link details 501
LILCS - Set LCP Link parameters 500
LILCT - Terminate LCP Link 501
LILPB - Block Link Port
for Asynchronous 127
for SNA 218
for TPAD 168
for X.25/X.75 188
LILPD - Deblock Link Port
for Asynchronous 126
for SDLC 217
for TPAD 168
for X.25/X.75 188
LILPI - Initialise Link Port
for Asynchronous 122
for SDLC 212
for TPAD 165
for X.25/X.75 181
LILPP - Print Link Port parameters
for Asynchronous 129
for SNA 220
for TPAD 170
for X.25/X.75 191
608
LILPS - Set Link Port parameters
for Asynchronous 125
for SDLC 215
for TPAD 167
for X.25/X.75 184
LILPT - Terminate Link Port
for Asynchronous 130
for SNA 224
for TPAD 171
for X.25/X.75 195
LILTB - Block a Test Process 470
LILTD - Deblock a Test Process 470
LILTI - Initialise Test Process 469
LILTP - Print Test Process 470
LILTT - Terminate a Test Process 470
LIMPB - Block an MP bundle 494
LIMPD - Deblock an MP bundle 494
LIMPI - Initialise an MP bundle 493
LIMPP - Print MP bundle details 494
LIMPS - Set MP bundle parameters 494
LIMPT - Terminate an MP bundle 494
LIMRP - Print decoded frames for port monitor
569
LINPB - Block Network Port
for Asynchronous 127
for SNA 218
for TPAD 168
for X.25/X.75 188
LINPD - Deblock Network Port
for Asynchronous 127
for SDLC 218
for TPAD 168
for X.25/X.75 188
LINPI - Initialise Network Port
for Asynchronous 122
for SDLC 213
for TPAD 166
for X.25/X.75 182
LINPP - Print Network Port parameters
for Asynchronous 130
for SNA 222
for TPAD 171
for X.25/X.75 192
LINPS - Set Network Port parameters
for Asynchronous 126
for SDLC 217
for TPAD 167
for X.25/X.75 185
LINPT - Terminate Network Port
for Asynchronous 130
for SNA 224
for TPAD 171
for X.25/X.75 195
LIPMB - Block Port Monitor 568
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
LIPMD - Deblock Port Monitor 568
LIPMI - Initialise Port Monitor 565
LIPMP - Print Port Monitor setup 568
LIPMS - Set Port Monitor parameters 566
LIPMT - Terminate Port Monitor 568
LIPOB - Block all Port Objects
for Asynchronous 134
for Frame Relay 277
for MP/LCP 510
for SNA 228
for TPAD 174
for X.25/X.75 200
LIPOD - Deblock all Port Objects
for Asynchronous 134
for Frame Relay 277
for MP/LCP 510
for SNA 228
for TPAD 174
for X.25/X.75 200
LIPOI - Initialise all Port Objects
for Asynchronous 134
for Frame Relay 277
for MP/LCP 510
for SNA 228
for TPAD 174
for X.25/X.75 200
LIPOP - Display All Port Status 58
LIPOT - Terminate all Port Objects
for Asynchronous 134
for Frame Relay 277
for MP/LCP 510
for SNA 228
for TPAD 174
for X.25/X.75 200
LIPPB - Block Physical Port
for Asynchronous 127
for Frame Relay 254
for MP/LCP 497
for SDLC 218
for TPAD 168
for X.25/X.75 188
LIPPD - Deblock Physical Port
for Asynchronous 126
for Frame Relay 254
for MP/LCP 497
for SDLC 217
for TPAD 168
for X.25/X.75 188
LIPPI - Initialise Physical Port
for Asynchronous 121
for Frame Relay 253
for MP/LCP 496
for SDLC 212
for TPAD 165
for X.25/X.75 181
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
LIPPP - Print Physical Port parameters
for Asynchronous 127
for Frame Relay 255
for MP/LCP 498
for SNA 218
for TPAD 169
for X.25/X.75 189
LIPPR - Reset PP
for ISDN POP PAK 476
LIPPS - Set Physical Port parameters
for Asynchronous 123
for Frame Relay 253
for MP/LCP 497
for SDLC 214
for TPAD 166
for X.25/X.75 183
LIPPT - Terminate Physical Port
for Asynchronous 130
for Frame Relay 256
for MP/LCP 498
for SNA 224
for TPAD 171
for X.25/X.75 195
LIVPB - Block virtual port 533
LIVPD - Deblock virtual port 533
LIVPI - Initialise virtual port 531
LIVPP - Print virtual port parameters 534
LIVPS - Set virtual port parameters 532
LIVPT - Terminate virtual port 534
MPBDI - Initialise MP Bandwidth-on-demand
table 502
MPBDP - Print MP Bandwidth-on-demand
tables 504
MPBDS - Set MP Bandwidth-on-demand table
504
MPBDT - Terminate MP Bandwidth-on-demand
table 504
NAALP - Print Current Alarm List 87
NAALR - Clear Printout Destination Queue 88
NACCI - Initialise Config Area
for PFA 660 only 66
NACCP - Print Config Area Status 68
NACCR - Reset Config Area 69
NACCS - Set Config Area 67
NACDI - Initialise Config Area 64
NACDP - Print Selected Configs 65
NACGI - Initialise Community Instance 103
NACGP - Print Community Instance 104
NACGS - Set Community Instance 104
NACGT - Terminate Community Instance 104
NACLP - Print Date/Time 56
NACLS - Set Date/Time 55
NADCB - Block A User Logon 42
NADCD - Deblock A User Logon 42
609
NADCI - Initialise User Logon 41
NADCS - Sett Logon Passwords and Authorities
42
NADCT - Terminate User Logon 42
NALOP - Print Load Control Limits 400
NALOS - Set Load Control Limits 398
NAMSI - Initialise SNMP Management Association 105
NAMSP - Print SNMP Management Association
106
NAMSS - Set SNMP Manager Association 106
NAMST - Terminate SNMP Manager Association
106
NANMP - Print the SNMP Subsystem 101
NANMS - Set SNMP Subsystem 99
NANOP - Print Node Identity 45
NANOS - Set Node Identity 44
NAPDB - Block Printout Destinations
for NM400 86
NAPDD - Deblock Printout Destinations
for NM400 86
NAPDI - Initialise Printout Destinations
for NM400 84
NAPDP - Print Printout Destinations
for NM400 86
NAPDS - Set Printout Destination parameters
for NM400 85
NAPDT - Terminate Printout Destinations
for NM400 86
NAPRI - Initialise Async USER Profile 148
NAPRP - Print Async Profile 151
NAPRS - Set Async USER Profile 151
NAPRT - Terminate Async USER Profile 152
NATPI - Initialise Topology Table Entry 550
NATPP - Print Topology Table 551
NATPT - Terminate Topology Table Instance 551
NATSB - Block Node Time Administrator 53
NATSD - Deblock Node Time Administrator 53
NATSI - Initialise Node Time Administrator 52
NATSP - Print Node Time Administrator 53
NATSS - Set Node Time Administrator Parameters 53
NATST - Terminate Node Time Administrator 54
PSAGI - Initialise Access Group 371
PSAGP - Print Access Group parameters 372
PSAGS - Set Access Group parameters 371
PSAGT - Terminate Access Group 372
PSCFP - Print Configurable Facilities for NTNs
395
PSCFS - Print Configurable Facilities for NTNs
394
PSCFT - Terminate Configurable Facilities for
NTNs 396
PSECI - Initialise Packet Switching Echo Port
464
610
PSECP - Print Packet Switching Echo Port
parameters 465
PSECT - Terminate Packet Switching Echo Port
465
PSENI - Initialise External Network Name 372
PSENP - Print External Network Names 373
PSENT - Terminate External Network Name 373
PSPCI - Initialise HVC/PVC 384
PSPCP - Print data for HVCs/PVCs 385
PSPCT - Terminate HVCs/PVCs 385
PSPIP - Print Packet Switching PING Request
Status 199
PSPRP - Print PID-Dependent Call Priorities
396
PSPRS - Set PID-Dependent Call Priorities 396
PSPRT - Terminate PID-Dependent Call Priorities 396
PSROI - Initialise Routes 354
PSROP - Print Routes 356
PSROS - Set Routes 355
PSROT - Terminate Routes 356
PSTEI - Initialise DTE 365
PSTEP - Print data for DTE 367
PSTET - Terminate DTE 367
PSTRB - Block Packet Switching Traffic Port
458
PSTRD - Deblock Packet Switching Traffic Port
458
PSTRI - Initialise Packet Switching Traffic Port
456
PSTRP - Print Packet Switching Traffic Port
parameters 458
PSTRS - Set Packet Switching Traffic Port
parameters 456
PSTRT - Terminate Packet Switching Traffic Port
458
SASPI - Initialise Session Port 81
SASPP - Print Session Port 81
SASPT - Terminate Session Port 82
Set Frame Port parameters 257
STAAP - Print Call Accounting statistics 422
STARP - Print ARP cache 307
STATP - Print ATM port statistics 535
STFTP - Print Call Accounting FTP Server
statistics 415
STGAP - Print Remote Gateway statistics 319
STLAP - Print LAN port statistics 307
STLCP - Print LCP Link statistics 509
STLCR - Reset LCP Link statistics 510
STLPP - Print Link Port statistics
for Asynchronous 132
for SNA 226
for TPAD 173
for X.25/X.75 196
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
STLTP - Print Line Test statistics 471
STLTR - Reset Line Test statistics 472
STMPP - Print MP bundle statistics 507
STMPR - Reset MP bundle statistics 509
STNIP - Print IP Network Interface statistics
314
STNPP - Print Network Port statistics
for Asynchronous 132
for SNA 227
for TPAD 173
for X.25/X.75 198
STPPP
for Frame Relay 271
STPPP - Print Physical Port statistics
for Asynchronous 131
for SNA 225
for TPAD 172
for X.25/X.75 195
STRGP - Print RIP Neighbour statistics 330
STTPP - Print TIP statistics 338
STVCP - Print ATM VCC statistics 539
STVPP - Print virtual port statistics 539
UIDDI - Initialise Cloning of Image 76
UIDII - Download Image 72
UIDIP - Display All Images 74
UIDIT - Delete an Image 75
UIDPP - Display Patches for Downloaded Image
79
UIDPS - Add Patches to Download Images 78
UIDRT - Delete Patch from Download Image 79
UIDSP - Display Current Image 75
UIDSS - Select Image 73
UILTP - Print Logon Banner 41
UILTR - Reset Logon Banner 41
UILTS - Change Logon Banner 40
UIMOB - Disable More Prompt 56
UIMOD - Enable More Prompt 56
UIMOP - Status of More Prompt 57
UIPDP - Print Parameter Defaults 49
UIPDS - Set Parameter Defaults 49
UIPDT - Reset Parameter Defaults 50
UIPRS - Change Prompt 44
MMS. See Multiservice Management Suite
MP bundles
blocking 494
configuration of 493
deblocking 494
initialising 493
printing 494
setting 494
statistics for 507
printing 507
resetting 509
terminating 494
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
MP/LCP 485
bandwidth on demand in 488
bandwidth on demand tables in
configuration of 502
initialising 502
printing 504
setting 504
terminating 504
configuration of 491
examples of 511
POP PAKs for 490
Channeliser 490
virtual port objects in
configuration of 505
MP/LCP links
blocking 501
configuration of 495
macros for 510
deblocking 501
initialising 499
printing 501
setting 500
statistics for
printing 509
resetting 510
terminating 501
Multiservice Management Suite 30, 98
N
Network management. See Management, network
Network testing. See Testing, network
NIs. See IP Network interfaces
NM400/NMS. See Management network: NM400/
NMS
Node identity 44
printing 45
setting 44
NTNs
configurable facilities for 390
access control 393
call priority 393
configuration of 394
printing 395
setting 394
terminating 396
P
Packet size
negotiation of 564
PAD activity states 134
Parameter defaults 48
printing 49
resetting 50
611
setting 49
Patching
image 78
adding patches in 78
deleting patches in 79
displaying patches in 79
patching read-only image in 80
PFA 660
configurations in
saving 66
file information in
printing 77
node time administrator for
blocking 53
deblocking 53
initialising 52
printing 53
setting 53
terminating 54
time server for 51
initialising 51
printing 52
setting 51
terminating 52
PFA Products
contacting remote 199
power up of 39
PFA products
default node settings for 54
PING request
on IP lines 332
initialising 332
on X.25/X.75 lines 199
initialising 199
POP PAKs
Async 121
ATM 528
LAN 305
SDLC 211
TPAD 164
TransISDN
access into 474
MSN in 480
X.25/X.75 180
Port
configuration
settings for 39
session, X.29
configuration of 81
initialising 81
printing 81
terminating 82
Port configuration
async 119
macros for 134
612
async/SLIP
blocking in 127
deblocking in 126
initialising in 121
setting in 123
terminating in 127
ATM
blocking in 530
deblocking in 530
initialising in 529
printing in 530
setting in 530
terminating in 531
Frame Relay
blocking FP 261
blocking Frame Relay PVC/sPVC 268
blocking PP 254
deblocking FP 260
deblocking Frame Relay PVC/sPVC 268
deblocking PP 254
initialising FP 256
initialising frame relay PVC/sPVC 264
initialising NTN in 262
initialising PP 253
printing FP 261
printing Frame Relay PVC/sPVC 269
printing NTN in 263
printing PP 255
setting FP 257
setting frame relay PVC/sPVC 267
setting PP 253
terminating FP 262
terminating NTN in 264
terminating PP 256
LAN 305
blocking in 307
deblocking in 306
initialising in 306
printing 307
setting in 306
terminating in 307
SDLC 209
blocking in 218
deblocking in 217
initialising in 212
link layer in 211
network layer in 212
physical layer in 211
printing 218
setting in 214
terminating in 218
SLIP
deblocking NI in 313
deblocking PP in 126
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
initialising NI in 311
initialising PP in 121
setting NI in 313
setting PP in 123
SNA
macros for 228
SNA over frame relay
blocking in 218
deblocking in 217
initialising in 212
printing in 218
setting in 214
terminating in 218
TELNET
macros for 334
TPAD 162
blocking in 168
deblocking in 168
initialising in 165
macros for 174
printing in 169
setting in 166
terminating in 171
Virtual 531
blocking in 533
deblocking in 533
initialising in 531
printing in 534
setting in 532
terminating in 534
X.25/X.75 178
blocking in 188
deblocking in 188
initialising in 181
link layer in 181
macros for 200
network layer in 181
physical layer in 180
printing in 189
setting in 182
terminating in 195
Port monitor 565
blocking 568
deblocking 568
initialising 565
print decoded frames in 569
printing setup for 568
setting 566
Port objects
blocking 36
connecting 38
control of 35
deblocking 36
Frame relay 38
initialising 35
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
port objects in 33
printing 36
resetting 36
setting 36
terminating 36
Ports
numbering convention for 32
Printout destinations
blocking 86
clearing queue for 88
configuration of 84
deblocking 86
initialising 84
printing 86
setting 85
terminating 86
Prompt
changing 44
resetting 44
PSUs (PFA 660 only)
failure SNMP traps for
printing 61
setting 60
PVCDLCI allocations 260
PVCs/HVCs
facilities for
charging 391
R
References 557
RIP 298
blocking 329
configuration of
split horizon in 326
split horizon with poison reverse in 326
configuration of dynamic RIP 326
deblocking 329
neighbours for
initialising 327
printing 328
setting 327
terminating 328
operating parameters for
printing 330
setting 328
terminating 330
Routing analysis
access types in 351
example of 373
for DTEs 364
for switched calls 352
number directions in
configuration of 359
613
initialising 361
printing 361
terminating 361
routes (ROTs) in
configuration of 352
initialising 354
printing 356
setting 355
terminating 356
routing cases in
configuration of 357
initialising 358
printing 358
terminating 358
switched access
example of 379
VCP 362
with switched access 369
S
Scrolling
More prompt for 56
disabling 56
setting 56
status of 57
SDLC operation
addressing analysis in 229
SDLC port configuration. See Port configuration,
SDLC
SDLC port statistics. See Statistics, SDLC port
SLIP 297
example of 346
SLIP port configuration. See Port configuration,
SLIP
SLIP port statistics. See Statistics, SLIP port
SNMP. See Management, network: SNMP
Software
downloading of. See Image downloading
reloading 57
Software architecture 33
Statistics
async port
printing PP 131
printing LP 132
printing NP 132
resetting NP 133
resetting PP 131
ATM 535
printing 535
ATM VCC
printing 539
Frame Relay 271
printing FP port 274
614
printing LP in SNA over 276
printing LP in X.25/X.75 over 276
printing NP in SNA over 276
printing NP in X.25/X.75 over 276
printing PP in 271
resetting FP port 276
resetting LP in SNA over 276
resetting LP in X.25/X.75 over 276
resetting NP in SNA over 277
resetting NP in X.25/X.75 over 277
Frame Relay switching
resetting PP in 274
FTP server accounting
printing 415
LAN port
printing 307
resetting 308
repeating 47
RIP neighbour
printing 330
resetting 331
SDLC port 224
SLIP port
printing PP 131
resetting PP 131
SNA port
printing LP 226
printing NP 227
printing PP 225
resetting LP 227
resetting NP 228
resetting PP 225
TIP
printing 338
resetting 339
TPAD port 172
printing LP 173
printing NP 173
printing PP 172
resetting LP 173
resetting NP 173
resetting PP 172
virtual port
printing 539
resetting 541
X.25/X.75 port 195
printing LP 196
printing NP 198
printing PP 195
resetting LP 197
resetting NP 198
resetting PP 196
Status
port
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
global 58
SVCs
facilities for
charging 391
Switched access, dedicated
direct call 369
Switched access, shared 370
access groups in 370
initialising 371
printing 372
setting 371
terminating 372
external network name in 372
initialising 372
printing 373
terminating 373
System log
printing 58
T
TCP 297
TCP/IP 297
Technical support
for PFA products 599
TELNET 333
addressing in
name analysis for 334
outgoing
configuration of 334
sessions
TELNET-only 335
X.28_OR_TELNET 336
Testing, line 467
blocking (stopping) 470
cable insertion in 468
configuration of 469
deblocking (initiating) 470
initialising 469
modems in 468
printing parameters for 470
printing test statistics in 471
resetting test statistics in 472
terminating 470
Testing, network 455
echo ports in 464
Frame Relay
blocking traffic ports in 461
deblocking traffic ports in 461
initialising echo ports in 467
initialising traffic port PVCs in 462
printing echo ports in 467
printing traffic port PVCs in 463
printing traffic ports in 461
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
setting traffic port PVCs in 463
terminating echo ports in 467
terminating traffic port PVCs in 463
terminating traffic ports in 462
packet switching
blocking traffic ports in 458
deblocking traffic ports in 458
initialising echo ports in 464
initialising traffic ports in 456
printing echo ports in 465
printing traffic port parameters in 458
setting traffic ports in 456
terminating echo ports in 465
terminating traffic ports in 458
traffic ports in 455
TIP 298, 336
blocking 338
configuration of 337
deblocking 338
initialising 337
printing 338
setting 337
terminating 338
TPAD operation
addressing analysis in 174
Bisync mode in 162
example of 175
HDLC mode in 161
HVCs in 174, 229
TPAD port configuration. See Port configuration,
TPAD
TPAD port statistics. See Statistics, TPAD port
Training courses
for PFA products 598
TRANSPAC usage 187
U
UDP 297
helper addresses for 345
blocking 346
configuration of 345, 346
initialising 345
printing 346
W
WAN subsystem
port object states in 37
X
X.25
example of 202
facilities for 559
615
features in 177
X.25 port configuration. See Port configuration,
X.25/X.75
X.25 port statistics. See Statistics, X.25/X.75 port
X.25/X.75
addressing analysis in 201
X.28-1988
command signals in 138
service signals in 142
X.29 session port. See Port, session, X.29
X.3-1988
parameters for 153
X.75. See X.25/X.75
example of 203
features in 177
Interworking between PFA and FS700 203
utilities for 559
X.75 port configuration. See Port configuration,
X.25/X.75
X.75 port statistics. See Statistics, X.25/X.75 port
616
EN/LZT 102 2581 R5A
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