Microsoft® Office 2003 Super Bible eBook

Microsoft® Office 2003 Super Bible eBook
Microsoft® Office 2003
Super Bible eBook
Microsoft® Office 2003
Super Bible eBook
Various Author s
Wiley Publishing, Inc.
Microsoft® Office 2003 Super Bible eBook
Published by
Wiley Publishing, Inc.
10475 Crosspoint Boulevard
Indianapolis, IN 46256
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Copyright © 2003 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana
Published simultaneously in Canada
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About the Authors
Peter Kent has been using Microsoft Word for 14 years to write 50 books, scores of
technical manuals, and literally thousands of magazine articles and corporate documents. He
has worked in the software development business for nearly 22 years, designing and testing
software, writing documentation, and training users. He is the author of the widely reviewed
and praised Poor Richard’s Web Site. Today, he is vice president of marketing for Indigio, an
e-services firm. Peter, author of Word 2003 Bible, updated chapters 2, 11 and 18 of the Super
Bible eBook, from the original authors, Brent Heslop and David Angell.
Cary Prague is an internationally known best-selling author and lecturer in the database
industry. He owns Database Creations, Inc., the world’s largest Microsoft Access add-on
company. Its products include a line of financial software: Business! for Microsoft Office, a
mid-range accounting system; POSitively Business! point-of-sale software; the Inventory
Bar code manager for mobile data collection; Check Writer; and General Ledger. Database
Creations also produces a line of developer tools including the appBuilder, an application
generator for Microsoft Access; the EZ Access Developer Tools for building great user
interfaces; appWatcher for maintaining code bases among several developers, and Surgical
Strike, the only Patch Manager for Microsoft Access.
Local and national clients for Database Consulting, LLC, consist of many Fortune 100
companies, including Microsoft, United Technologies, ABB, Smith & Wesson Firearms,
Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, ProHealth, OfficeMax, and Continental Airlines.
Cary is one of the best-selling authors in the computer database management market, having
written more than 40 books that have sold over one million copies. His software topics
include Microsoft Access, Borland (Ashton-Tate) dBASE, Paradox, R:Base, Framework,
and graphics. Cary’s books include various editions of the Access Bible, Access 97 Secrets,
Access Crash Course, dBASE for Windows Handbook, dBASE IV Programming (winner of
the Computer Press Association’s Book of the Year award for Best Software-Specific Book),
and Everyman’s Database Primer Featuring dBASE IV.
Cary is certified in Access as a Microsoft Certified Professional and has passed the MOUS
test in Access and Word. He is a frequent speaker at seminars and conferences around the
country. He is on the exclusive Microsoft Access Insider Advisory Board and makes
frequent trips to Microsoft headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Cary holds an M.A. in computer science from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and an
M.B.A and Bachelor of Accounting from the University of Connecticut. He is also a
Certified Data Processor. As author of Access 2003 Bible, Carey provided chapters 8, 15,
and 22 to the eBook.
Bill Rodgers is a computing consultant from Newcastle, Australia, with a passion for
V8Supercars and Rugby league and Rugby Union football. Bill specializes in Office and
Windows systems, collaboration, and advanced technologies. Bill has been a contributing
author and technical editor on many Office books for leading international companies and has
been awarded the Microsoft MVP (Most Valuable Professional) award for the past four years
for his support of and expertise with Microsoft products. Bill, contributing author of Office
2003 Bible, wrote chapter 17 of this book.
Curt Simmons, A+, MCSA, MCSE, CTT is a technical trainer and freelance writer. The
author of more than thirty books on various Microsoft and Internet technologies, Curt most
often writes about Microsoft Office products and operating systems. He also teaches several
digital photography courses. Curt’s most recent books include Windows XP Networking
Inside Out, The A+ Technician’s On-the-Job Guide to Networking, iPhoto For Dummies, and
How To Do Everything with Photoshop Album. Curt lives in Saint Jo, Texas with his wife and
children. Visit Curt on the Internet at www.curtsimmons.com. Curt, author of FrontPage
2003 Bible, is responsible for chapters 7, 14, and 23 of this book.
Rob Tidrow is a writer, Web site designer, trainer, and president of Tidrow Communications,
Inc., a firm specializing in content creation and delivery. Rob has authored or co-authored
over 30 books on a wide variety of computer topics, including Microsoft Windows, Microsoft
Office, and Microsoft Internet Information Server. He is the Technology Coordinator for
Union School Corporation, Modoc, IN and lives in Milton, IN with his wife Tammy and their
two sons, Adam and Wesley. You can reach him on the Internet at
[email protected] Author of the Outlook 2003 Bible, Rob is the author of chapter
10 of this book. Contributing author of the Outlook 2003 Bible, Jim Boyce wrote chapters 3
and 19 of this book.
John Walkenbach is the author of approximately three dozen spreadsheet books. Visit his
Web site at http://.j-walk.com. John, as author of Excel 2003 Bible, wrote chapters 4,
12, and 20 of this book.
Faithe Wempen, M.A., is an A+ Certified hardware guru, Microsoft Office Specialist Master
Instructor, and software consultant with over 70 computer books to her credit. When she is
not writing, she teaches Microsoft Office classes in the Computer Technology department at
Indiana University/Purdue University at Indianapolis (IUPUI), does private computer training
and support consulting, and is the business manager of Sycamore Knoll Bed and Breakfast in
Noblesville, Indiana (www.sycamoreknoll.com). Faithe is a contributing editor at
CertCities.com, and a frequent contributor to CertCities.com, TechProGuild.com, and several
magazines. She teaches online classes for the Hewlett-Packard Learning Center, and serves
on the advisory board for the Computer Technician program at Training, Inc. in Indianapolis.
As author of PowerPoint 2003 Bible, Faithe wrote chapters 5, 13, and 21 of this book.
Edward Willett is the author of more than 20 books, ranging from computer books on a
variety of topics to children’s nonfiction to young adult science fiction and fantasy. A former
newspaper reporter and editor, he writes a science column for newspapers and radio and hosts
a weekly TV phone-in show about computers and the Internet. He’s also a professional actor
and singer. Ed lives in Regina, Saskatchewan, with his wife and daughter. Ed, as lead author
of Office 2003 Bible, wrote chapters 9 and 16 of this book.
Credits
Vice President & Executive Group
Publisher
Richard Swadley
Vice President and Executive Publisher
Bob Ipsen
Vice President and Publisher
Joseph B. Wikert
Executive Editorial Director
Mary Bednarek
Editorial Manager
Mary Beth Wakefield
Development Editor
Ami Frank Sullivan
Special Help
Brian Herrmann
Senior Permissions Editor
Carmen Krikorian
Composition Services
Lowell K. Heusel, Abshier House
Proofreading
TECHBOOKS Production Services
Contents at a Glance
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Part I: Getting Functional with Microsoft Office 2003 ....................... 1
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Microsoft Office 2003 Super Bible eBook .............................. 3
Chapter 2: Paragraph Formatting in Word ................................................................................ 7
Chapter 3: Configuring Outlook 2003 .................................................................................... 53
Chapter 4: Essential Excel Worksheet Operations ................................................................. 81
Chapter 5: Developing Your PowerPoint Action Plan ......................................................... 101
Chapter 6: Introducing Publisher .......................................................................................... 119
Chapter 7: Building FrontPage Web Sites ............................................................................ 137
Chapter 8: Understanding and Creating Access Reports ...................................................... 167
Part II: Collaborating and Integrating
with Microsoft Office 2003 ...................................................... 225
Chapter 9: Building Integrated Documents .......................................................................... 227
Chapter 10: Integrating Outlook with Other Applications ................................................... 241
Chapter 11: Comments and Reviewing Functions in Word ................................................. 257
Chapter 12: Sharing Excel Data with Other Applications .................................................... 279
Chapter 13: Team Collaboration on a Draft PowerPoint Presentation ................................. 295
Chapter 14: Integrating FrontPage with Office Applications ............................................... 317
Chapter 15: Exchanging Access Data with Office Applications .......................................... 353
Chapter 16: Collaborating on a Network .............................................................................. 373
Chapter 17: Windows SharePoint Services with Office System .......................................... 393
Part III: Beyond Mastery: Initiative within Office ........................... 429
Chapter 18: Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents ................................ 431
Chapter 19: Processing Outlook Messages Automatically ................................................... 451
Chapter 20: Analyzing Data with Pivot Tables in Excel ...................................................... 469
Chapter 21: Designing User-Interactive PowerPoint Presentations ..................................... 491
Chapter 22: Adding Security to Access Applications .......................................................... 515
Chapter 23: Adding FrontPage Web Components ................................................................ 559
Chapter 24: Advanced Publisher Techniques ....................................................................... 589
Contents
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Part I: Getting Functional with Microsoft Office 2003 .............. 1
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Microsoft Office 2003 Super Bible eBook ... 3
Who Should Read This Book ..................................................................................................... 3
How This Book Is Organized ..................................................................................................... 4
Part I: Getting Functional with Office 2003 ........................................................................ 4
Part II: Collaborating and Integrating with Office 2003 ..................................................... 4
Part III: Beyond Mastery: Initiative within Office .............................................................. 4
Of Special Note for the eBook .................................................................................................... 4
Using the companion Web site ............................................................................................ 5
Conventions Used in This Book ................................................................................................. 5
Chapter 2: Paragraph Formatting in Word ................................................... 7
Applying Paragraph Formatting ................................................................................................. 7
Checking paragraph formats ................................................................................................ 8
Duplicating paragraph formats ............................................................................................ 9
Removing paragraph formats ............................................................................................ 10
Using line breaks ............................................................................................................... 11
Aligning Paragraphs ................................................................................................................. 12
Click and Type: Inserting Paragraphs ....................................................................................... 13
Adjusting Line and Paragraph Spacing .................................................................................... 14
Adjusting paragraph spacing ............................................................................................. 14
Adjusting line spacing ....................................................................................................... 15
Setting Tabs ............................................................................................................................... 17
Setting tabs using the ruler ................................................................................................ 19
Changing or clearing a tab stop using the ruler ................................................................. 20
Setting tabs using the Tabs dialog box .............................................................................. 20
Changing and clearing tabs using the Tabs dialog box ..................................................... 21
Changing the default tab stops .......................................................................................... 22
Setting Indents .......................................................................................................................... 22
Setting indents using the Formatting toolbar .................................................................... 23
Setting indents using the ruler ........................................................................................... 24
Setting indents using keyboard shortcuts .......................................................................... 25
Setting indents using the Paragraph dialog box ................................................................ 25
Bordering and Shading Paragraphs and Pages ......................................................................... 27
Adding borders using the Borders toolbar ........................................................................ 28
Adding borders using the Borders and Shading dialog box .............................................. 29
Spacing between text and border ....................................................................................... 31
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Placing borders around individual lines ............................................................................ 31
Fitting a border within margins ......................................................................................... 32
Removing or changing borders ......................................................................................... 32
Adding shading .................................................................................................................. 33
Fill versus pattern ....................................................................................................... 33
Applying shading ....................................................................................................... 34
Adding horizontal lines ..................................................................................................... 35
Creating Bulleted or Numbered Lists ....................................................................................... 36
Creating bulleted lists ........................................................................................................ 36
Customizing a bulleted list ................................................................................................ 38
Picking another bullet image ...................................................................................... 38
Modifying a bullet’s font ..................................................................................... 39
Selecting a special character ............................................................................... 39
Selecting a bullet picture ..................................................................................... 39
Changing list positions ............................................................................................... 40
Creating numbered lists ..................................................................................................... 40
Customizing numbered lists .............................................................................................. 41
Restarting and continuing numbering ............................................................................... 42
Adding unbulleted or unnumbered paragraphs to a list .................................................... 43
Ending bulleted or numbered lists ..................................................................................... 43
Creating outline numbered lists ......................................................................................... 44
Customizing outline numbered lists .................................................................................. 44
Creating list styles .............................................................................................................. 46
Paragraphs and Pagination ........................................................................................................ 47
Hyphenation .............................................................................................................................. 49
Using automatic hyphenation ............................................................................................ 49
Using manual hyphenation ................................................................................................ 50
Using nonbreaking and optional hyphens ......................................................................... 51
Summary ................................................................................................................................... 51
Chapter 3: Configuring Outlook 2003 ......................................................... 53
Configuring E-mail Accounts ................................................................................................... 53
Using the E-mail Accounts Wizard ................................................................................... 54
Configuring Exchange Server accounts ............................................................................ 55
Setting general properties ........................................................................................... 57
Setting advanced options ............................................................................................ 57
Setting the offline store location ................................................................................ 59
Configuring security settings ..................................................................................... 60
Configuring connection settings ................................................................................. 61
Configuring Remote Mail settings ............................................................................. 62
Configuring POP3 and IMAP accounts ............................................................................ 62
General settings .......................................................................................................... 64
Outgoing server settings ............................................................................................. 65
Connection settings .................................................................................................... 65
Advanced settings ....................................................................................................... 65
POP3 delivery ..................................................................................................... 66
IMAP folders ....................................................................................................... 67
Contents
Understanding where Outlook stores your POP3 and IMAP messages .................... 67
Configuring HTTP accounts .............................................................................................. 67
Adding Data Files ..................................................................................................................... 68
Creating and Managing Outlook Profiles ................................................................................. 71
Creating an Outlook profile ............................................................................................... 71
Copying a profile ............................................................................................................... 73
Switching between profiles ............................................................................................... 73
Configuring Message Delivery Options ................................................................................... 73
Setting Your E-mail Options ..................................................................................................... 74
Setting the e-mail preferences ........................................................................................... 74
Setting the mail format options ......................................................................................... 78
Summary ................................................................................................................................... 79
Chapter 4: Essential Excel Worksheet Operations .................................... 81
Learning the Fundamentals of Excel Worksheets .................................................................... 81
Working with Excel’s windows ......................................................................................... 81
Moving and resizing windows ................................................................................... 83
Switching among windows ........................................................................................ 83
Closing windows ........................................................................................................ 84
Making a worksheet the active sheet ................................................................................. 84
Adding a new worksheet to your workbook ..................................................................... 85
Deleting a worksheet you no longer need ......................................................................... 86
Changing the name of a worksheet ................................................................................... 86
Changing a sheet tab’s color .............................................................................................. 87
Rearranging your worksheets ............................................................................................ 87
Hiding and unhiding a worksheet ...................................................................................... 89
Controlling the Worksheet View .............................................................................................. 90
Viewing a worksheet in multiple windows ....................................................................... 90
Comparing sheets side by side .......................................................................................... 91
Splitting the worksheet window into panes ....................................................................... 92
Keeping the titles in view by freezing panes ..................................................................... 93
Zooming in or out for a better view .................................................................................. 94
Saving your view settings .................................................................................................. 95
Monitoring cells with a Watch Window ............................................................................ 96
Working with Rows and Columns ............................................................................................ 96
Inserting rows and columns ............................................................................................... 96
Deleting rows and columns ............................................................................................... 97
Hiding rows and columns .................................................................................................. 98
Changing column widths and row heights ........................................................................ 98
Changing column widths ............................................................................................ 99
Changing row heights ................................................................................................. 99
Summary ................................................................................................................................. 100
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Chapter 5: Developing Your PowerPoint Action Plan .............................. 101
Step 1: Identifying Your Audience and Purpose .................................................................... 101
Step 2: Choosing Your Presentation Method ......................................................................... 104
Speaker-led presentations ................................................................................................ 105
Self-running presentations ............................................................................................... 106
User-interactive presentations ......................................................................................... 107
Step 3: Choosing Your Delivery Method ............................................................................... 108
Step 4: Choosing the Appropriate Template and Design ....................................................... 109
Step 5: Developing the Content .............................................................................................. 110
Step 6: Creating the Visual Image .......................................................................................... 110
Step 7: Adding Multimedia Effects ........................................................................................ 111
Step 8: Creating the Handouts and Notes ............................................................................... 112
Step 9: Rehearsing the Presentation ....................................................................................... 113
Rehearsing a live presentation ......................................................................................... 113
Rehearsing a self-running presentation ........................................................................... 113
Rehearsing a user-interactive presentation ...................................................................... 114
Step 10: Giving the Presentation ............................................................................................ 115
Step 11: Assessing Your Success and Refining Your Work ................................................... 115
Summary ................................................................................................................................. 116
Chapter 6: Introducing Publisher .............................................................. 119
The Publisher Workspace ....................................................................................................... 119
Using Publication Designs ...................................................................................................... 121
Working with Text .................................................................................................................. 123
Typing in text ................................................................................................................... 123
Inserting a text file ........................................................................................................... 124
Autoflow and linked frames ............................................................................................ 125
Formatting text ................................................................................................................. 126
Formatting toolbar buttons ....................................................................................... 126
Format menu options ................................................................................................ 127
The Measurements toolbar .............................................................................................. 129
Working with Graphics ........................................................................................................... 130
Inserting a picture file ...................................................................................................... 130
Inserting a Clip Organizer image ..................................................................................... 130
Inserting a scanner or camera image ............................................................................... 131
Formatting pictures .......................................................................................................... 131
Drawing lines and shapes ................................................................................................ 134
Working with Tables ............................................................................................................... 134
Inserting a table ................................................................................................................ 134
Entering data into a table ................................................................................................. 135
Editing a table .................................................................................................................. 135
Summary ................................................................................................................................. 136
Chapter 7: Building FrontPage Web Sites ................................................ 137
Web Design Strategies ............................................................................................................ 137
Why start with site design? .............................................................................................. 137
Contents
Defining navigational links ............................................................................................. 138
Defining Link Bars in Shared Borders ................................................................................... 141
Customizing links ............................................................................................................ 143
Adding links to page content .................................................................................... 143
Adding links to a shared border ............................................................................... 144
Adding link bars to page content .............................................................................. 144
Changing navigation labels ...................................................................................... 144
Importing an Existing Web Site .............................................................................................. 145
Importing files into a Web ............................................................................................... 145
Importing a Web site into a FrontPage Web .................................................................... 146
Using Web Templates and Wizards ........................................................................................ 148
One Page Web .................................................................................................................. 148
Using the Corporate Presence Web Wizard .................................................................... 148
Customer Support Web .................................................................................................... 149
Using the Database Interface Web Wizard ...................................................................... 150
Discussion Web Wizard ................................................................................................... 150
Empty Web ...................................................................................................................... 151
Import Web Wizard .......................................................................................................... 151
Personal Web ................................................................................................................... 151
Project Web ...................................................................................................................... 151
SharePoint Team Web ...................................................................................................... 152
Generating a Web site using the Corporate Presence Web Wizard .......................... 152
Creating Basic Web Page Content .......................................................................................... 153
Editing Web page text ...................................................................................................... 154
Inserting breaks ................................................................................................................ 154
Adding horizontal lines ................................................................................................... 155
Placing comments ............................................................................................................ 155
Inserting symbols ............................................................................................................. 156
Using Page Templates ............................................................................................................. 157
Other Views ............................................................................................................................ 158
Folders view ..................................................................................................................... 159
Reports view .................................................................................................................... 160
Hyperlinks view ............................................................................................................... 161
Tasks view ........................................................................................................................ 162
Global Site Editing .................................................................................................................. 163
Spell checking your entire site ........................................................................................ 163
Replacing text throughout a site ...................................................................................... 164
Editing Web page content ................................................................................................ 164
Summary ................................................................................................................................. 165
Chapter 8: Understanding and Creating Access Reports ....................... 167
Understanding Reports ........................................................................................................... 167
What types of reports can you create? ............................................................................. 168
Tabular reports .......................................................................................................... 168
Columnar reports ...................................................................................................... 169
Mailing labels ........................................................................................................... 170
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The difference between reports and forms ...................................................................... 171
The process of creating a report ...................................................................................... 172
Defining the report layout ........................................................................................ 172
Assembling the data ................................................................................................. 173
Creating a Report with Report Wizards .................................................................................. 173
Creating a new report ...................................................................................................... 173
Choosing the data source ................................................................................................. 174
Choosing the fields .......................................................................................................... 174
Selecting the grouping levels ........................................................................................... 175
Defining the group data ................................................................................................... 176
Selecting the sort order .................................................................................................... 177
Selecting summary options .............................................................................................. 177
Selecting the layout ......................................................................................................... 178
Choosing the style ........................................................................................................... 179
Opening the report design ............................................................................................... 180
Using the Print Preview window ..................................................................................... 180
Viewing the Report Design window ............................................................................... 182
Printing a Report ..................................................................................................................... 182
Saving the Report .................................................................................................................... 183
Starting with a Blank Form ..................................................................................................... 183
The Design Window toolbar ............................................................................................ 184
Banded Report Writer Concepts ............................................................................................. 185
How sections process data ............................................................................................... 186
The Report Writer sections .............................................................................................. 188
Report header section ............................................................................................... 189
Page header section .................................................................................................. 189
Group header ............................................................................................................ 190
Detail section ............................................................................................................ 190
Group footer ............................................................................................................. 190
Page footer ................................................................................................................ 190
Report footer ............................................................................................................. 191
Creating a New Report ........................................................................................................... 191
Creating a new report and binding it to a query .............................................................. 193
Defining the report page size and layout ......................................................................... 194
Placing fields on the report .............................................................................................. 195
Displaying the field list ............................................................................................ 196
Selecting the fields for your report ........................................................................... 197
Dragging fields onto your report .............................................................................. 197
Resizing a section ............................................................................................................ 198
Working with unattached label controls and text ............................................................ 198
Creating unattached labels ........................................................................................ 199
Modifying the appearance of text in a control ......................................................... 199
Working with text boxes and their attached label controls ............................................. 200
Creating and using text box controls ........................................................................ 200
Entering an expression in a text control ................................................................... 201
Sizing a text box control or label control ................................................................. 202
Contents
Changing the size of a label control ......................................................................... 202
Deleting and Cutting attached labels from text controls .......................................... 204
Pasting labels into a report section ........................................................................... 204
Moving label and text controls ................................................................................. 205
Modifying the appearance of multiple controls ....................................................... 206
Changing label and text box control properties .............................................................. 207
Growing and shrinking text box controls ........................................................................ 208
Sorting and grouping data ............................................................................................... 209
Creating a group header or footer ............................................................................ 211
Changing the group order ......................................................................................... 213
Removing a group header or footer ......................................................................... 213
Hiding a section ........................................................................................................ 213
Sizing a section ......................................................................................................... 214
Moving controls between sections ........................................................................... 214
Adding page breaks ......................................................................................................... 215
Making the Report Presentation Quality ................................................................................ 216
Adjusting the Page Header .............................................................................................. 218
Creating an expression in the Group Header .................................................................. 219
Changing the picture properties and the Detail section .................................................. 220
Creating a standard page footer ....................................................................................... 221
Saving your report ........................................................................................................... 222
Part II: Collaborating and Integrating
with Microsoft Office 2003 ................................................. 225
Chapter 9: Building Integrated Documents ............................................. 227
Inserting Objects from Other Applications ............................................................................ 228
Copy and paste ................................................................................................................. 228
Using Paste Special in Word .................................................................................... 228
Choosing a paste method .......................................................................................... 229
Using the Insert Object command ................................................................................... 229
Working with Embedded Objects ........................................................................................... 230
Working with Linked Objects ................................................................................................. 232
Moving and resizing linked objects ................................................................................. 233
Editing and updating links ............................................................................................... 233
Using the Locked and Save picture options .................................................................... 234
Other Methods of Sharing Data .............................................................................................. 234
Sending a Word document to PowerPoint ....................................................................... 234
Analyzing Access data in Excel ...................................................................................... 236
Publishing Access reports with Word .............................................................................. 236
Merging Access data in Word .......................................................................................... 236
Sending a PowerPoint presentation to Word ................................................................... 237
Sharing Data with XML ......................................................................................................... 238
Summary ................................................................................................................................. 238
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Chapter 10: Integrating Outlook with Other Applications ...................... 241
Integrating Outlook with Office ............................................................................................. 241
Creating a Mail Merge ............................................................................................................ 244
Getting names from contacts ........................................................................................... 244
Sending an E-mail from an Application ................................................................................. 249
Importing and Exporting Data ................................................................................................ 252
Importing information into Outlook ................................................................................ 253
Exporting information from Outlook .............................................................................. 254
Saving Outlook messages ................................................................................................ 254
Summary ................................................................................................................................. 255
Chapter 11: Comments and Reviewing Functions in Word ..................... 257
Placing Comments in Documents ........................................................................................... 258
Working with comments .................................................................................................. 259
Inserting voice comments ................................................................................................ 260
Changing and manipulating comments ........................................................................... 262
Reviewing comments ............................................................................................... 263
Printing comments .................................................................................................... 265
Highlighting text .............................................................................................................. 265
Using Reviewing Tools ........................................................................................................... 266
Adding revision marks ..................................................................................................... 266
Viewing changes .............................................................................................................. 267
Reviewing, accepting, and rejecting changes .................................................................. 268
Customizing revision marks ............................................................................................ 269
Comparing and merging documents ................................................................................ 270
Comparing documents .............................................................................................. 271
Merging comments and revisions from multiple reviewers ..................................... 272
Comparing side by side ................................................................................................... 273
Reading Layout View ............................................................................................................. 273
Moving around in Reading Layout view ......................................................................... 275
Changing text size ........................................................................................................... 276
Editing in Reading Layout view ...................................................................................... 276
Summary ................................................................................................................................. 277
Chapter 12: Sharing Excel Data with Other Applications ....................... 279
Understanding Data Sharing ................................................................................................... 279
Pasting and Linking Data ........................................................................................................ 280
Using the Clipboards ....................................................................................................... 280
Linking data ..................................................................................................................... 282
Copying Excel data to Word ............................................................................................ 283
Pasting without a link ............................................................................................... 284
Pasting with a link .................................................................................................... 284
Embedding Objects in Documents ......................................................................................... 284
Embedding an Excel range in a Word document ............................................................ 285
Creating a new Excel object in Word .............................................................................. 287
Embedding objects in an Excel worksheet ...................................................................... 288
Contents
Working with XML Data ........................................................................................................ 289
What is XML? ................................................................................................................. 289
Importing XML data by using a map .............................................................................. 290
Importing XML data to a list ........................................................................................... 292
Exporting XML data from Excel ..................................................................................... 293
Chapter 13: Team Collaboration on a Draft PowerPoint Presentation ... 295
Sharing Your Presentation File on a LAN .............................................................................. 295
Sharing the presentation locally ...................................................................................... 296
Sharing in Windows 2000 or XP .............................................................................. 296
Posting a presentation to an Exchange folder ................................................................. 298
Mailing a presentation via e-mail ........................................................................................... 299
Sharing a Presentation in a Document Workspace ................................................................. 300
Working with Comments ........................................................................................................ 303
Adding a comment ........................................................................................................... 303
Moving, editing, and deleting comments ........................................................................ 304
Reviewing comments ...................................................................................................... 304
Incorporating Changes from Reviewers ................................................................................. 305
Merging review revisions ................................................................................................ 305
Accepting or rejecting revisions ...................................................................................... 306
Using the Reviewing toolbar for revisions ...................................................................... 306
Finishing a review of revisions ........................................................................................ 307
Live Collaboration with NetMeeting ...................................................................................... 307
Live Collaboration with Windows Messenger ....................................................................... 308
Running Windows Messenger ......................................................................................... 308
Inviting someone to share PowerPoint ............................................................................ 309
Giving another participant control ................................................................................... 312
Taking control as a participant ......................................................................................... 314
Chatting with other participants ...................................................................................... 314
Using the Whiteboard ...................................................................................................... 315
Ending an application sharing session ............................................................................. 316
Summary ................................................................................................................................. 316
Chapter 14: Integrating FrontPage with Office Applications ................. 317
From Office to FrontPage ....................................................................................................... 318
Moving from Word to FrontPage .................................................................................... 318
Attaching text files to a Web site .............................................................................. 319
How Word creates HTML files ................................................................................ 320
Copying and pasting text into Web pages ................................................................ 320
Creating Web sites from Publisher files .......................................................................... 321
Sending Excel objects to FrontPage ................................................................................ 322
Copying tables into FrontPage ................................................................................. 322
Exporting Excel sheets as HTML pages .................................................................. 323
Sending charts to FrontPage ..................................................................................... 324
Saving Excel workbooks as folders ......................................................................... 324
From PowerPoint to FrontPage ....................................................................................... 326
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Contents
Converting slides to Web pages ............................................................................... 326
Integrating a slideshow into FrontPage .................................................................... 327
Importing files into Webs ................................................................................................ 328
Importing Word and Excel files into a Web site ...................................................... 328
Adding Office Web Components to Web Pages ..................................................................... 330
Adding Office spreadsheets ............................................................................................. 330
Defining ActiveX control properties for a spreadsheet ........................................... 332
Defining spreadsheet properties ............................................................................... 334
Adding Office charts ........................................................................................................ 335
Changing chart properties ........................................................................................ 336
Controlling charts using the chart menu .................................................................. 337
Presenting a database table in a Web spreadsheet ........................................................... 339
Creating Office PivotTables ............................................................................................ 341
Connecting a PivotTable to an Excel data source .................................................... 342
Adding fields to a PivotTable ................................................................................... 345
Formatting and calculating PivotTable data ............................................................. 347
Implementing an Office spreadsheet Web component ............................................. 348
From FrontPage to Office 2003 .............................................................................................. 349
Sending data to Word mail-merge files ........................................................................... 350
Sending data to Excel ...................................................................................................... 351
Sending reports to Excel .................................................................................................. 351
Summary ................................................................................................................................. 352
Chapter 15: Exchanging Access Data with Office Applications ............. 353
Using Automation to Integrate with Office ............................................................................ 354
Creating Automation references ...................................................................................... 354
Early binding an object ............................................................................................. 354
Late binding an object .............................................................................................. 356
Creating an instance of an Automation object ................................................................ 358
Using the New keyword to create a new instance ................................................... 358
Using the CreateObject function to create a new instance ....................................... 358
Getting an existing object instance .................................................................................. 359
Working with Automation objects ................................................................................... 360
Closing an instance of an Automation object .................................................................. 361
An Automation Example Using Word .................................................................................... 361
Creating an instance of a Word object ............................................................................. 365
Making the instance of Word visible ............................................................................... 366
Creating a new document based on an existing template ............................................... 366
Using Bookmarks to insert data ...................................................................................... 367
Activating the instance of Word ...................................................................................... 367
Moving the cursor in Word .............................................................................................. 367
Closing the instance of the Word object .......................................................................... 367
Inserting pictures by using Bookmarks ........................................................................... 368
Using Office’s Macro Recorder ....................................................................................... 368
Contents
Chapter 16: Collaborating on a Network .................................................. 373
Resource Sharing and Security ............................................................................................... 373
Setting file-sharing options when saving ........................................................................ 373
Protecting documents ...................................................................................................... 375
Protecting documents in Word ................................................................................. 375
Protecting documents in Excel ................................................................................. 377
Protecting files in Access and PowerPoint ............................................................... 378
Using Information Rights Management tools ................................................................. 379
Sharing Excel Workbooks ...................................................................................................... 381
Creating a shared workbook ............................................................................................ 381
Reviewing changes .......................................................................................................... 383
Collaborating in PowerPoint ................................................................................................... 384
Sharing Access Databases ...................................................................................................... 386
Using passwords .............................................................................................................. 386
Creating user and group accounts .................................................................................... 387
Securing the database ...................................................................................................... 388
Assigning permissions ..................................................................................................... 388
Encryption ........................................................................................................................ 389
Distributing Office Documents ............................................................................................... 389
Sharing documents via e-mail ......................................................................................... 390
Sending a document (without routing it) ................................................................. 390
Routing a document .................................................................................................. 390
Sending documents that aren’t already open ............................................................ 392
Posting documents to Exchange folders .................................................................. 392
Sending documents to online meeting participants .................................................. 392
Summary ................................................................................................................................. 392
Chapter 17: Windows SharePoint Services with Office System ............. 393
Working with SharePoint Sites and SharePoint Lists ............................................................. 394
Accessing SharePoint Services sites ............................................................................... 394
Windows SharePoint Services site permissions .............................................................. 397
Exploring the Windows SharePoint Services site ........................................................... 398
Adding items to existing lists .......................................................................................... 399
Creating new Windows SharePoint Services lists and libraries ...................................... 401
Working with Datasheet views and linking lists to Excel and Access ............................ 401
Collaborative Document Authoring ....................................................................................... 407
Exploring Document Libraries and Shared Workspaces ................................................. 408
Creating Shared Workspaces ........................................................................................... 412
Working with Shared Workspaces inside Office 2003 applications ............................... 413
SharePoint as a Central Contacts and Calendar Server .......................................................... 421
Making SharePoint contacts available to Outlook .......................................................... 423
Conducting an Online Meeting with the Meeting Workspace ............................................... 424
Summary ................................................................................................................................. 426
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Contents
Part III: Beyond Mastery: Initiative within Office ................. 429
Chapter 18: Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents .. 431
Using Outlines ........................................................................................................................ 431
Understanding Outline View ........................................................................................... 432
Creating outlines .............................................................................................................. 433
Rearranging your outline ................................................................................................. 436
Selecting in Outline view ......................................................................................... 436
Promoting and demoting outline levels .................................................................... 437
Moving outline headings .......................................................................................... 438
Using keyboard shortcuts .................................................................................. 438
Viewing both Outline and Normal view at once ............................................... 439
Printing an outline ........................................................................................................... 440
Copying an outline ........................................................................................................... 441
Understanding Master Documents ......................................................................................... 441
The Master Document view ............................................................................................ 442
Building a master document ............................................................................................ 444
Starting from scratch ................................................................................................ 444
Converting an existing document ............................................................................. 446
Inserting existing documents into a master document ............................................. 446
Working with master documents ..................................................................................... 446
Working with subdocuments ........................................................................................... 447
Opening a subdocument ........................................................................................... 447
Renaming or moving a subdocument ....................................................................... 448
Removing subdocuments ......................................................................................... 448
Rearranging the order of subdocuments .................................................................. 449
Splitting subdocuments ............................................................................................ 449
Merging subdocuments ............................................................................................ 449
Sharing subdocuments .............................................................................................. 449
Summary ................................................................................................................................. 450
Chapter 19: Processing Outlook Messages Automatically ..................... 451
Securing Against HTML Content ........................................................................................... 451
Blocking external HTML content ................................................................................... 452
Configuring security zones .............................................................................................. 453
Using Rules ............................................................................................................................. 454
Using the Rules Wizard ................................................................................................... 454
Creating a rule .......................................................................................................... 454
Controlling rule processing order ............................................................................. 459
Running rules manually ............................................................................................ 460
Modifying and copying rules ................................................................................... 461
Responding automatically to messages ........................................................................... 461
Importing, exporting, and backing up rules .................................................................... 462
Back up rules to a file ............................................................................................... 463
Import rules from a file ............................................................................................ 463
Contents
Filtering junk and adult content mail .............................................................................. 464
Using the Out of Office Assistant ........................................................................................... 465
Summary ................................................................................................................................. 467
Chapter 20: Analyzing Data with Pivot Tables in Excel .......................... 469
About Pivot Tables .................................................................................................................. 469
A pivot table example ...................................................................................................... 470
Data appropriate for a pivot table .................................................................................... 472
Creating a Pivot Table ............................................................................................................. 474
Step1: Specifying the data location ................................................................................. 474
Step 2: Specifying the data .............................................................................................. 476
Step 3: Completing the pivot table .................................................................................. 476
Using a dialog box to lay out a pivot table .............................................................. 477
Using the PivotTable Field List toolbar to lay out a pivot table .............................. 478
The finished product ................................................................................................. 479
Grouping Pivot Table Items .................................................................................................... 481
Creating a Calculated Field or Calculated Item ..................................................................... 484
Creating a calculated field in a pivot table ...................................................................... 485
Inserting a calculated item into a pivot table ................................................................... 487
Summary ................................................................................................................................. 490
Chapter 21: Designing User-Interactive PowerPoint Presentations ....... 491
What Is a Hyperlink? .............................................................................................................. 491
Navigational Control Choices ................................................................................................. 492
Choosing Appropriate Controls for Your Audience ............................................................... 493
Understanding Kiosk Mode .................................................................................................... 494
Using Action Buttons ............................................................................................................. 494
Setting up action buttons ................................................................................................. 496
Adding text to an action button ....................................................................................... 499
Creating your own action buttons ................................................................................... 500
Adding Text-Based Hyperlinks to Slides ............................................................................... 500
Typing a bare hyperlink ................................................................................................... 501
Creating text hyperlinks ................................................................................................... 502
Choosing the hyperlink address ....................................................................................... 503
Creating a link to a slide in this presentation ........................................................... 504
Creating a link to an existing file ............................................................................. 505
Creating a link to a Web or FTP site ........................................................................ 506
Creating a link to a new document ........................................................................... 508
Creating a link to an e-mail address ......................................................................... 509
Editing a Hyperlink ................................................................................................................. 511
Removing a Hyperlink ............................................................................................................ 511
Creating Graphics-Based Hyperlinks ..................................................................................... 511
Creating a hyperlink with Action Settings ...................................................................... 511
Creating a hyperlink with the Insert Hyperlink feature .................................................. 512
Distributing a User-Interactive Presentation .......................................................................... 512
Interactive Presentation Ideas ................................................................................................. 512
Summary ................................................................................................................................. 513
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Contents
Chapter 22: Adding Security to Access Applications ............................. 515
Understanding Jet Security ..................................................................................................... 515
Understanding workgroup files ....................................................................................... 516
Understanding permissions .............................................................................................. 516
Understanding security limitations .................................................................................. 517
Choosing a Security Level to Implement ............................................................................... 518
Creating a Database Password ................................................................................................ 518
Using the /runtime Option ...................................................................................................... 521
Using a Database’s Startup Options ....................................................................................... 523
Using the Jet User-Level Security Model ............................................................................... 525
Enabling security ............................................................................................................. 526
Working with workgroups ............................................................................................... 526
Creating a new workgroup ....................................................................................... 527
Joining an existing workgroup ................................................................................. 529
Working with users .......................................................................................................... 530
Adding and deleting user accounts ........................................................................... 530
Creating and changing user passwords .................................................................... 532
Working with groups ....................................................................................................... 534
Adding and deleting groups ..................................................................................... 535
Assigning and removing group members ................................................................ 536
Securing objects by using permissions ............................................................................ 538
Setting an object’s owner ......................................................................................... 538
Setting object permissions ........................................................................................ 540
Setting default object permissions .................................................................... 542
Setting database permissions ............................................................................. 542
Securing your database for distribution: A basic approach .............................. 542
Using the Access Security Wizard .......................................................................................... 544
Encrypting a Database ............................................................................................................ 551
Decrypting a Database ............................................................................................................ 553
Protecting Visual Basic Code ................................................................................................. 553
Preventing Virus Infections .................................................................................................... 554
Enabling sandbox mode ................................................................................................... 555
Chapter 23: Adding FrontPage Web Components .................................... 559
Adding FrontPage Web Components ..................................................................................... 559
Defining and using components ...................................................................................... 559
Web components are programs ........................................................................................ 560
Many Web components require FrontPage server extensions ........................................ 561
Many components don’t require FrontPage extensions .................................................. 562
Some components require SharePoint servers ................................................................ 563
The SharePoint server files (called SharePoint Team Services) .............................. 563
Inserting Components ............................................................................................................. 564
Using Components that Aren’t “Components” ...................................................................... 565
Using Date and Time ....................................................................................................... 565
Adding comments ............................................................................................................ 567
Exploring Web Components ................................................................................................... 568
Contents
Dynamic effects ............................................................................................................... 568
Interactive buttons .................................................................................................... 569
Scrolling marquees ................................................................................................... 570
Web search ....................................................................................................................... 571
Search form properties ............................................................................................. 572
Displaying search results .......................................................................................... 573
Spreadsheets and charts ................................................................................................... 574
Hit counters ...................................................................................................................... 574
Photo Gallery ................................................................................................................... 577
Included content ............................................................................................................... 577
Creating Substitutions .............................................................................................. 577
Including pages ......................................................................................................... 578
Embedding a page based on schedule or a picture based on schedule .................... 579
Including a page banner ........................................................................................... 580
Link bars .......................................................................................................................... 580
Inserting a table of contents ............................................................................................. 580
Assigning categories ................................................................................................. 581
Table of contents options .......................................................................................... 582
Using the Table of Contents template ...................................................................... 582
Top 10 lists ....................................................................................................................... 583
List view and document library components .................................................................. 585
Commercial and additional components ......................................................................... 585
Creating a page with Web components .................................................................... 585
Advanced Controls .......................................................................................................... 586
Summary ................................................................................................................................. 587
Chapter 24: Advanced Publisher Techniques .......................................... 589
Adding Special Effects ........................................................................................................... 589
BorderArt ......................................................................................................................... 589
Drop caps ......................................................................................................................... 591
WordArt ........................................................................................................................... 594
Using Linked and Embedded Objects .................................................................................... 596
Embedding a new object .................................................................................................. 597
Embedding an existing object ......................................................................................... 599
Mail and Catalog Merging in Publisher ................................................................................. 600
Using an existing list or Outlook contacts ...................................................................... 601
Creating a new list ........................................................................................................... 602
Create the publication ...................................................................................................... 603
Preview your publication ................................................................................................. 604
Merging ............................................................................................................................ 604
Merging a Catalog ........................................................................................................... 605
Designing Web Sites with Publisher ....................................................................................... 606
Creating a hotspot ............................................................................................................ 608
Inserting hyperlinks ......................................................................................................... 609
Adding a form control ..................................................................................................... 610
Inserting an HTML code fragment .................................................................................. 611
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Contents
Previewing your Web page .............................................................................................. 611
Using the Design Gallery ........................................................................................................ 611
Saving and Printing ................................................................................................................. 613
Using the Design Checker ............................................................................................... 613
Printing ............................................................................................................................. 613
Preparing for Outside Printing ......................................................................................... 614
Summary ................................................................................................................................. 614
P
Getting
Functional
with Microsoft
Office 2003
T
his part is comprised of chapters that cover the first useful
“getting started” functions in each of the Office 2003 suite
of applications, including Publisher. You will also find an
introduction to the Super Bible eBook itself, offering insight as to
where the chapters originally came from and the concept behind
generating this bonus free eBook as extra value for you.
A
R
T
I
.
.
.
.
In This Part
Chapter 1
Introduction to the
Microsoft Super Bible
eBook
Chapter 2
Paragraph Formatting
in Word
Chapter 3
Configuring Outlook
2003
Chapter 4
Essential Excel
Spreadsheet
Operations
Chapter 5
Your PowerPoint
Action Plan
Chapter 6
Introducing Microsoft
Publisher
Chapter 7
Building FrontPage
Web Sites
Chapter 8
Understanding and
Creating Access
Reports
.
.
.
.
Introduction to
the Microsoft
Office 2003
Super Bible
eBook
1
C H A P T E R
.
.
.
.
In This Chapter
Who Should Read
this Book
How this Book is
Organized
W
elcome to the Microsoft Office 2003 Super Bible. As part of
the Wiley Bible series, this book emphasizes “handiness”
by giving you bonus material in an easy-to-use format. In this
book, you find all the information that you need to successfully and
efficiently function within Office 2003 suite of applications both
with other coworkers and other applications. To make it as easy as
possible to find, understand, and implement information, throughout
the text the major tasks are clearly delineated. This guide is designed to facilitate your access to various functions within Office
2003 System and get you quickly on your way to getting the most
out of this truly exciting and powerful new product.
Who Should Read This Book
This Super Bible eBook is intended for anybody who has used
Microsoft Office products in the past, and wants to increase their
knowledge of Office 2003. Wiley carefully selected some of the
most useful chapters from each of their Office 2003 Bibles to
enable you to get the most out of all of Office 2003 products. The
material was chosen based on it’s ability to bring you up to speed
on some of the features that make Office 2003 a superior office
system, most notably the way the applications integrate well
together and allow you to collaborate with your coworkers or
project partners, whatever your project may be.
Of Special Note for
the eBook
Conventions Used in
this Book
.
.
.
.
4
Part I ✦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
How This Book Is Organized
This book is organized to accomplish two things: First, to introduce you to the key “mustknow” features of each of the Office applications, and then to make it as easy as possible
for you to integrate the application you most often use with other Office applications, while
collaborating with your coworkers. Finally, you will find material intended to make you
comfortable with some of the advanced or most useful features in each of the Office 2003
applications.
Part I: Getting Functional with Office 2003
Part I is comprised of chapters that cover the first useful “getting started” functions in each
of the Office 2003 suite of applications, including Publisher.
Part II: Collaborating and Integrating with Office 2003
Part II is comprised of chapters that enable users of one particular Office 2003 application
to more effectively collaborate and integrate their efforts with coworkers and/or other
applications.
Part III: Beyond Mastery: Initiative within Office
Part III is comprised of chapters that are the special “extras” that many people know about,
but might not be quite as familiar with as some of the other day-to-day functions. Once
you’ve read a sampling of the meat and potatoes functions in each application, and then
how to more efficiently work with your coworkers and other applications, these chapters
should enable you to take the initiative and go that next step.
Of Special Note for the eBook
Many of these chapters were culled from their original publications and adapted slightly for
the purposes of the eBook. The idea was not only to give you valuable, free content, but
also to whet your appetite for some of the other applications that Microsoft Office 2003
System offers. If you find that you have interest in learning more about any of the topics
you read about in this eBook, please visit www.wiley.com/compbooks/
officebibles2003. This Web site allows you to preview our other products with
detailed TOCs as well as other valuable information.
Note
Every attempt was made to keep this material as consistent as possible with what you
will see in the final product. Please be aware that depending on the OS system you are
currently using and the system that the screenshots were taken on, as well as the personal settings of each, some of the images may not match exactly.
Chapter 1 ✦ Introduction
Using the companion Web site
Be sure to visit the companion Web site at: www.wiley.com/compbooks/
officebibles2003/. Here’s what you’ll find on the Web site:
. Links to all the software found on the CDs of Wiley’s Office 2003 Bibles.
. Complete, detailed tables of contents for all the Wiley Office 2003 Bibles: Access
2003 Bible, Excel 2003 Bible, FrontPage 2003 Bible, Office 2003 Bible, Outlook
2003 Bible, PowerPoint 2003 Bible, and Word 2003 Bible
. Links to other Wiley Microsoft Office titles
Conventions Used in This Book
To make this book as easy as possible, icons in the margins alert you to special or
important information. Look for the following icons:
Caution
Note
Marks a warning about a particular procedure to which you should pay
particular attention.
Marks a special point or supplementary information about a feature or task.
Tip
Marks a tip that saves you time and helps you work more efficiently.
To further assist you in reading and learning the material in this book, the following
formatting conventions are used throughout:
. Text you are asked to type appears in bold.
. New words and phrases that may require definition and explanation appear in italics.
Text that carries emphasis and single characters that may be easy to lose in the text
also appear in italics.
. Menu commands are indicated in chronological order by using the command arrow:
File_Open.
. Keyboard shortcut keys look like this: Alt+Tab.
. When instructed to click an item, press the left mouse button unless otherwise
specified. When you should use the right mouse button instead, you are asked to
right-click. Of course, this will be different for left-handed users.
.
.
.
5
Paragraph
Formatting
in Word
2
C H A P T E R
.
.
.
.
In This Chapter
Aligning paragraphs
P
aragraphs — the basic building blocks of any document —
have a special meaning in Microsoft Word. Paragraphs can
include any amount of text and graphics, or any other item,
followed by a paragraph mark or break. Paragraph marks store the
formatting applied to each paragraph. In this chapter, you learn the
fundamentals of paragraph formatting in Word.
Each time you press the Enter key, Word begins a new paragraph.
Click the Show/Hide button on the Standard toolbar or press
Ctrl+Shift+* to display the paragraph marks. Press the Enter key
several times, and you’ll see Word insert strange little backward P
icons, with the semicircle at the top of the P filled in. These are the
paragraph marks, and they store the information about the paragraph.
Note
The paragraph ends at the paragraph mark. Thus formatting for a
paragraph is held in the paragraph mark at the end of the text; delete
that mark and the formatting for the preceding text is removed and
replaced with the formatting held in the next paragraph mark.
Applying Paragraph Formatting
This chapter looks at how to apply paragraph formatting directly.
In order to apply formatting to a paragraph, place the cursor
inside the paragraph you want to modify. Make sure you have
not selected any text within the paragraph, though, but that the
cursor is merely sitting in the paragraph. (In some cases if
you’ve selected a few characters or words and you apply some
kind of format, you’ll be modifying just the selected text, not the
entire paragraph.) You can also select an entire paragraph, or
multiple paragraphs, and then apply formatting.
Adjusting line and
paragraph spacing
Setting tabs and indents
Enhancing paragraphs
using lines, borders,
and shading
Creating bulleted,
numbered, and outline
numbered lists
Hyphenating your
documents
.
.
.
.
8
Part I ✦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
When you press Enter to start a new paragraph, that new paragraph will, in general, contain
exactly the same formatting as the previous paragraph. There are some cases when this
won’t happen, though. Some styles may be set up such that when you press Enter a new
style, with different formatting, is used for the next paragraph. For instance, a heading style
may be set up to automatically begin working with a body-text style when you press Enter.
You can apply paragraph formatting using buttons on the Formatting toolbar (see Figure
2-1), settings in the Paragraph dialog box (see Figure 2-2), or shortcut keys. By changing
the formatting of a paragraph, you can change the alignment and spacing of the lines
within that paragraph.
Figure 2-1: The Formatting toolbar.
Figure 2-2: The Paragraph dialog box.
Checking paragraph formats
The formats applied to the current paragraph appear in the settings on the Formatting
toolbar, the horizontal ruler, and in the Paragraph dialog box. If you select several
paragraphs with different formats, the dialog box settings may appear blank or dimmed.
Word cannot indicate different formats at the same time. On the ruler, dimmed indent and
tab markers show the settings for the first paragraph in the selection.
With Word, you can display information about any paragraph formats that are applied to a
given paragraph. To check the formatting of a paragraph, choose Format_Reveal
Formatting, or press Shift+F1 and the Reveal Formatting task pane opens (see Figure 2-3).
You can now click in a paragraph to see what formatting has been applied to the paragraph.
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
Figure 2-3: Paragraph formatting information
Duplicating paragraph formats
The easiest way to duplicate paragraph formatting is to carry that formatting forward by
pressing Enter. The current paragraph ends and a new one begins with the same formatting as
the preceding one. If the formatting that you want to copy is in another part of your document
or even a different document, use the Format Painter, with which you can duplicate all of the
formatting in the selected text. To use the Format Painter, select the text with the formatting
that you want to copy. Make sure that you select the entire paragraph, including the paragraph
mark at the end. Click the Format Painter button (see Figure 2-4) on the Standard toolbar, and
select the block of text to which you want to apply the formatting. Again, if you want to make
sure that you transfer all the paragraph formatting, be sure to select the entire paragraph,
including the end paragraph mark. Or, you can select several paragraphs at the same time.
Figure 2-4: The Format Painter button.
If you want to copy formats and apply them to multiple non-contiguous paragraphs, select
the paragraph with the formatting that you want to copy, double-click the Format Painter
button, and then select, one at a time, the paragraphs that you want to change. Click the
Format Painter button or press Esc to end the formatting.
9
10
Part I ✦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
You can also apply a formatting change to different paragraphs. Apply it once; then click
the next paragraph and select Edit_Repeat, press Ctrl+Y, or press F4. Remember that these
commands duplicate only the last action. So if you want to apply multiple formats at the
same time, such as both bold and strikethrough, use the Format Font dialog box rather than
keyboard shortcuts before using Edit_Repeat.
Because formats are stored in the paragraph mark, you can copy and paste the paragraph
mark itself to create new paragraphs with the same formatting. Use the Show/Hide button
to display the paragraph marks, select the paragraph mark of the paragraph that you want to
change, copy that mark, and then paste the copied paragraph mark immediately after the
last character of the paragraph to which you wish to apply formatting.
Removing paragraph formats
You can use a shortcut to remove any paragraph’s formats that have been applied,
converting the format back to that which is used by the paragraph’s style. We’d better
clarify that: Every paragraph in your document has a style applied to it. For instance, most
text will probably use the Normal style. The style defines how much space appears before
and after the paragraph, how much space between lines, and so on. But you can apply
formatting directly to the paragraph. For instance, say you used the Paragraph dialog box to
specify that a block of text is double-spaced, here’s a blank line after every line. That
paragraph format has been, in effect, laid over the Normal style’s settings.
You can press Ctrl+Q to remove any direct paragraph formatting and leave only the
paragraph’s style formatting. Thus, in our example, if you place the cursor in the text and
press Ctrl+Q, the double-spacing is removed and the paragraph returns to the Normal style.
Tip
This doesn’t change any direct character formatting applied to the paragraph’s text, however. So remember Ctrl+Q; it’s a very useful way to return a paragraph to its styles
formatting, without removing character formats such as bold and italics.
You can also press Ctrl+Shift+N to apply the default Normal style formatting to the
paragraph. (Again, the character formatting is not removed.) Almost the same as Ctrl+Q,
but of course, Ctrl+Q doesn’t change the style.
Some paragraph formatting commands and buttons act as toggle switches; using them, you
can turn the formatting on or off. For example, with the insertion point in a paragraph, you
can convert that paragraph to a bulleted item by clicking the Bullets button on the
Formatting toolbar. With the insertion point in that same paragraph, clicking the Bullets
button again removes the bullet formatting of the paragraph.
Tip
If you cut and paste text from another Word document or another application and have
difficulty reformatting that paragraph, cut the text (Ctrl+X), select Edit_Paste Special,
and choose Unformatted Text. All of the formatting is removed.
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
Using line breaks
We explained that when you press Enter, you start a new paragraph. But it’s possible to
create individual blocks of text, separated by a blank line if you wish, within a paragraph.
Instead of pressing Enter to go to the next line, press Shift+Enter, and Word inserts a line
break instead of a paragraph break. Instead of the backward P, you’ll see a little arrow with
a right-angle bend in it (see Figure 2-5).
Figure 2-5: You can see both paragraph breaks and line breaks in this image.
A line break is also known as a soft return. Using soft returns, you can break lines but keep
them in the same paragraph. Line breaks can save you a lot of time when formatting. Line
breaks are especially helpful for creating headings that you want to appear on more than
one line and also for creating lists aligned with tabs. After you finish entering the line
breaks, press Enter in the usual way to end that paragraph and begin the next.
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Aligning Paragraphs
Word provides four ways to align paragraphs within your document’s margin: left-aligned,
right-aligned, center-aligned, and justified. By default, Word aligns text flush with the left
margin (left-aligned), leaving a ragged right edge. Figure 2-6 shows the four different
paragraph alignments. With Word, you can align paragraphs using the Paragraph dialog
box, the align buttons on the Formatting toolbar, or shortcut keys.
Figure 2-6: Four paragraph alignment options in Word.
To align paragraphs, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
align.
2. Do one of the following:
• Click the alignment button on the Formatting toolbar for the justification that you
want (see Table 2-1).
• Press one of the shortcut keys in Table 2-1.
• Choose Format_Paragraph, or choose Paragraph from the shortcut menu
(Shift+F10), to display the Paragraph dialog box. Choose the alignment option
from the Alignment list in the Indents and Spacing tab, and then click OK.
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
Note
Before centering or aligning a paragraph relative to the left and right margins, make sure
that the paragraph is not indented. Paragraphs are aligned to the margins if no indentations are set for them; if paragraphs are indented, they align to the indentation. Working
with indents is explained later in this chapter.
Table 2-1
Paragraph Alignment Buttons and Shortcut Keys
Alignment
Type
Shortcut
Button
Keys
Description
Align Left
Ctrl+L
Text aligns with the left margin, and the
right margin is ragged. This is the default
setting.
Center
Ctrl+E
Text is centered between margins.
Align Right
Ctrl+R
Text aligns with the right margin, and the
left margin is ragged.
Justify
Ctrl+J
Text aligns with both the left and right
margins by adding extra spaces between
words.
Click and Type: Inserting Paragraphs
Word has a little-known feature called click and type that you turn on under the Edit tab of
the Options dialog box. When enabled, this feature lets you click, in Print Layout view, an
area of a page without an existing paragraph to begin a new one.
Suppose you just opened a new document. The page has a single paragraph on the first line.
Choose View_Print Layout, and move the mouse pointer around the page. Notice that it
changes as you move around the page. Depending on where you point, the insertion I-beam
has an additional icon next to it — an icon that corresponds with one of the alignment
buttons on the Formatting toolbar: Align Left, Center, or Align Right.
Click the Show/Hide button on the Standard toolbar so that you can see the first paragraph
mark at the top of the page. Now move the mouse pointer down the page and point at the
bottom-right corner of the page, but stay inside the margins set for the document. You
should see an I-beam with an Align Right icon next to it. Double-click, and you’ve just
inserted a right-aligned paragraph near the bottom of the page, along with a number of
Normal paragraphs between the first line on the page and your newly inserted paragraph.
Note
You can even tell Word what paragraph style you want to use when you use the Click
and Type feature. Just choose a style from the Default Paragraph Style drop-down in the
Click and Type area of the Option dialog box’s Edit tab.
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Adjusting Line and Paragraph Spacing
You can adjust the spacing between lines in a paragraph as well as the spacing between
paragraphs themselves. By adjusting the spacing between paragraphs, you can control the
white space around paragraphs that contain oversized graphics or fonts. Using paragraph
spacing, you can manage the layout of your documents more precisely than you can just by
pressing Enter to create paragraph breaks for spacing.
Spacing between lines in a document is called leading (pronounced ledding). With Word,
you can control the leading to improve the readability of the text in paragraphs. For
example, if your text appears in long lines, you may need more spacing so that the reader’s
eye doesn’t lose its place when moving from the right margin back to the left.
Alternatively, if you’re using a font style with small letters, your text may require less
spacing between the lines than that between lines containing larger fonts. Line and
paragraph spacing makes it easy to use white space to make your documents easier to read
quickly. Very dense blocks of text are harder to read than text separated by white space
between paragraphs.
Tip
Adjusting spacing in the way we’ve just discussed is an example of a case in which doing it
right can save you a lot of time when making changes to a document. If you use paragraph
spacing to adjust the space that appears between paragraphs, you can modify that spacing
very easily later if you decide you want to adjust the document. If you used paragraph and
line breaks to adjust the space between text and paragraphs, you have a lot of work to do if
you want to change things. Also, paragraph formatting lets you adjust spacing in increments
of 1 point, something you can’t do easily by inserting paragraph and line breaks.
Adjusting paragraph spacing
Instead of pressing Enter to add blank lines before or after a paragraph, use the
Format_Paragraph command. Using the Paragraph dialog box, you can adjust the
paragraph spacing precisely as well as keep any spacing changes for a paragraph if you
copy, move, or delete that paragraph.
To adjust paragraph spacing, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want
to adjust.
2. Choose Format_Paragraph, or choose Paragraph from the shortcut menu. Click the
Indents and Spacing tab in the Paragraph dialog box.
3. Do one of the following:
• To change the space before the selected paragraph, click the up or down arrow in
the Spacing Before box to increase or decrease the spacing amount in half-line
increments. Alternatively, you can type a value in the box. The Preview section of
the Paragraph dialog box shows the effect of your selected spacing.
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
• To change the space after the selected paragraph, click the up or down arrow in
the Spacing After box or type a value in the box.
Tip
You can use measurements other than points to specify spacing. To add a quarter-inch
of spacing, type .25 in the Before or After box. To add spacing of two centimeters, type
2 cm. To add spacing of one pica, type 1 pi. The Preview section of the Paragraph
dialog box shows the effect of your selected spacing.
4. Click OK.
Note
If a paragraph has spacing before it and falls at the top of a page, Word ignores that
spacing so that the top margins of your document pages always remain even. If the
paragraph is the first paragraph in a document or a formatted section, however, Word
always observes this spacing. Word also observes the spacing before a paragraph that
follows a hard page break.
Adjusting line spacing
The line-spacing feature in Word begins with automatic spacing, and with this feature, you
can increase spacing, reduce spacing, permit extra spacing for a large character or
superscript on the line, or even control the spacing exactly. Spacing is measured in terms of
lines. Normal text has single spacing of one line, but you can choose from several line
options or even specify line spacing based on points. Table 2-2 describes the line-spacing
options in Word. You can apply line spacing using the Paragraph dialog box or shortcut
keys, but the Paragraph dialog box offers the most options.
Table 2-2
Line Spacing Options
Option
Spacing
Single
Single-line spacing. (Line height automatically adjusts to accommodate the
size of the font and any graphics or formulas in a line.)
1.5 Lines
Line-and-one-half spacing (an extra half-line of space between lines).
Double
Double-spacing (an extra full line of space between lines).
At Least
At least the spacing that you specify in the At box — the line won’t be shorter
than what you specify, but it may be taller because Word will add extra
spacing for tall characters, big graphics, and superscript or subscript text.
Exactly
The exact spacing that you specify in the At box. All lines are exactly the same
height, regardless of the size of the characters in the line; Word doesn’t add
extra spacing. Note that some text may be cut off if enough space is not
available.
Multiple
Multiples of single-line spacing, such as triple (3) or quadruple (4), as specified
in the At box.
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To adjust spacing between lines, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
adjust.
2. Do one of the following:
• Choose Format_Paragraph, or choose Paragraph from the shortcut menu. The
Paragraph dialog box appears. Click the Indents and Spacing tab, and in the Line
Spacing list box, choose one of the options listed in Table 2-2. To specify your
own line spacing, type the spacing amount that you want in the At box. For
example, enter 1.25 for an extra quarter line of space between lines, or click the
up or down arrow to increase or decrease the amount in half-line increments.
When you finish, click OK.
• Press one of the shortcut key combinations in Table 2-3.
Table 2-3
Shortcut Keys for Line Spacing Options
Note
Tip
Shortcut
Action
Ctrl+l
Single-spacing
Ctrl+5
1.2-line spacing
Ctrl+2
Double-spacing
Ctrl+0 (zero)
Add or remove 12 points of space before a paragraph
Notice the Don’t Add Space Between Paragraphs of the Same Style check box below the
Spacing controls in the Paragraph dialog box. This is not usually enabled; it’s enabled
when you open the dialog box from the Modify Style dialog box. Check this box and Word
adds extra space below the last paragraph of a series of paragraphs of the same style. So,
for instance, if you have a style you use for bulleted lists, you can press Enter at the end of
each bulleted item, creating a new paragraph for each. But it’s not until you press Enter
and start a new style that Word inserts extra space.
Do you ever have to create documents that are double-spaced (a blank line between
every line of text)? Students often do, for instance. Do not create this double spacing by
pressing Enter or Shift+Enter at the end of each line. (We’ve seen this many times, so
we know a lot of you are doing this!) If you do, you’ll find it a nightmare to readjust
everything when you insert or remove text during editing. Use Paragraph formatting and
save yourself hours of work.
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
Setting Tabs
A tab stop is the position at which the text-insertion point stops when you press the Tab
key. Pressing the Tab key moves the insertion point to the right, shifting the position at
which you will insert text. If there’s any text to the right of the insertion point when you
press Tab, that text is shifted, too.
Word documents are set up with default tab stops every 1/2-inch across the document, but
you can set your own tab stops, too, wherever you want them. In fact, there are several
different types of tab stop that you can use (left, centered, right, decimal, or bar) and a
variety of other options, too. When you set a custom tab, all the default tabs to the left of
the custom tab are cleared — that is, when you press Tab, Word will ignore the default tabs
and go to the first custom tab.
There’s an advantage to using tabs rather than spacing. After the tabs are in your document,
you can move or change the tab stops and then the selected text moves or realigns with
those stops. Remember, however, that tabs belong to paragraphs. If you set tab stops as you
type text and press Enter, the tab settings carry forward to the next paragraph.
One of the most common word-processing mistakes is using spaces to align text. In
most cases, the text is in proportional font. Because proportional-font characters take
up different amounts of space, however, the text in that font cannot align correctly with
this method. Using tabs ensures that your text is aligned perfectly and makes it much
easier to modify settings.
Note
You can set tabs using the horizontal ruler or the Tabs dialog box. To display the Tabs dialog box,
choose Format_Tab or click the Tabs button in the Paragraph dialog box (Format_Paragraph).
Table 2-4 describes the tab options available in Word, and Figure 2-7 shows how left-aligned,
center-aligned, right-aligned, and decimal tab settings affect a paragraph.
Table 2-4
Tab Options
Type of Tab
Ruler Tab Indicator
Action
Left-aligned
Begins text at the tab stop. (This is the
default tab setting.)
Center-aligned
Centers text on the tab stop.
Right-aligned
Ends the text at tab stop.
Decimal
Centers text over decimal point for a list of
numbers.
Bar
Runs a vertical line through a selected
paragraph at the tab stop.
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Figure 2-7: Tabs aligned using the Left, Center, Right, and Decimal tab settings.
Figure 2-8 shows columns divided using the bar tab.
Figure 2-8: Bar tabs dividing text.
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
Use line breaks rather than paragraph breaks between lines of short text within columns.
This way, you can realign the information, by adjusting the tab settings, very quickly
without needing to select the paragraphs (just click anywhere within the paragraph and
make your changes). Press Shift+Enter to insert the new line. If you add tabs later using
new lines, the tab applies to all of the lines before the next paragraph mark. If you want to
align large columns of text, use Word’s powerful table feature.
Note
Bar tabs are not real tabs! Placing a bar tab inserts a vertical line in your document,
down through the paragraph, at the bar-tab position. But a bar tab has no effect on text
position. Pressing the Tab key does not move text to the bar-tab position. Bar tabs are
usually combined with other types of tabs that set the text alignment.
Setting tabs using the ruler
A convenient way to set tabs is to use the ruler. If your ruler is not displayed, choose
View_Ruler to display it. At the left of the ruler is the Tab Alignment button, with which
you can quickly change tab styles. Using the mouse and the ruler, you can set, move, and
remove the left-aligned, center-aligned, right-aligned, decimal, or bar tabs with a precision
of as much as 1/16-inch. The ruler displays Word’s default tab stops (set every 1/2-inch,
unless you change the interval, which we look at later in this chapter) as tiny vertical lines
along the bottom of the ruler. (You may have to look closely to see these thin black lines on
the gray bar under the ruler.) When you set your own tab stops, all of the default tab stops
to the left are removed.
To set tabs using the ruler, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
adjust.
2. Click the Tab Alignment button at the far left of the ruler until the symbol for the tab
style you want is selected (see Table 2-4).
3. Position the pointer just below the mark on the ruler where you want the tab stop to
appear. Click the left mouse button to place the tab stop on the ruler. The tab stop
marker then appears for the tab style that you selected (see Figure 2-9).
4. Do one of the following:
• Repeat step 3 to add more tab stops of the same style.
• Repeat steps 2 and 3 to add other types of tab stops to the ruler.
Figure 2-9: The ruler with tab stops displayed.
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Changing or clearing a tab stop using the ruler
To change a tab marker on the ruler, place the insertion point in the paragraph you want to
work on. Then point to the tab marker with the mouse pointer, hold down the left mouse
button to select that marker, and drag the marker to its new position. When you release, the
marker is dropped into its new position.
To clear a tab stop quickly using the mouse and ruler, drag that marker all the way off the
ruler and onto the document — when you release, the marker is removed.
Setting tabs using the Tabs dialog box
Using the Tabs dialog box (see Figure 2-10) to set tabs offers some advantages over using
the ruler and mouse. With the Tabs dialog box, you can precisely set each tab’s position by
typing decimal numbers (in inches).
Figure 2-10: The Tabs dialog box.
You can also add dotted, dashed, or underlined tab leaders. A tab leader links related but
separate items across a page, such as entrées and prices in a menu or chapters and page
numbers in a table of contents (see Figure 2-11).
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
Figure 2-11: Leader tabs link related but separate items.
To set tabs using the Tabs dialog box, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
adjust.
2. Choose Format_Tabs. The Tabs dialog box appears.
3. Using decimal numbers, type the position of the tab stop that you want to set in the
Tab Stop Position box.
4. In the Alignment group, select the tab style that you want: Left, Center, Right,
Decimal, or Bar.
5. If you want a leader, select the tab leader style that you want in the Leader group: 1
None for no leader (the default setting), 2 for a dotted leader, 3 for a dashed leader,
and 4 for a solid underlined leader.
6. Choose Set to set the tab stop. The Tab Stops list box displays your tab stops after
you set them.
7. Repeat steps 3 through 6 to set additional tab stops.
8. Click OK to close the Tabs dialog box.
Changing and clearing tabs using the Tabs dialog box
To change existing tab stops using the Tabs dialog box (Format_Tabs), select the tab stop
that you want to change in the Tab Stops list box. Select the new formatting options for the
selected tab stop in the Alignment and Leader groups, and then click Set.
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You can clear tab stops either individually or as a group. You can also clear tabs using the
Tabs dialog box whether you originally set the tabs using this dialog box or the ruler.
To clear tabs, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
adjust.
2. Choose Format_Tabs to display the Tabs dialog box.
3. Do one of the following:
• Click Clear All to clear all of the tab stop settings.
• Select the tab that you want to delete from the Tab Stops list, and then click Clear.
Repeat this process to clear additional tab stops. As you select tab stops to clear
and then click Clear, the tab stops that you remove are listed in the Tab Stops to
be Cleared area at the bottom of the dialog box.
4. Click OK.
Changing the default tab stops
By default, Word has preset tabs every 1/2-inch. When you set a custom tab, however, all
of the preset tabs to the left of that custom tab are cleared. Use the Tabs dialog box to
change the default tab stop interval if you routinely use the preset tabs but don’t like the
default setting. Note that custom tab stops that you may have set for existing paragraphs
aren’t affected.
To change the default tab stops, display the Tabs dialog box. In the Default Tab Stops box,
type a new default tab interval or click the up or down arrow to change the number in the
box. Then click OK. Note that this changes the default for the current document only, not
for all documents.
Setting Indents
With indenting, you can set off a paragraph from other text. Figure 2-12 shows paragraphs
formatted with different indents. Don’t confuse page margins with paragraph indents,
however. Margins specify the overall width of the text and the area between the text and
the edge of the page, whereas indents move the paragraph’s text in or out from the left and
the right margins. You can indent paragraphs in the following ways:
. Indent paragraphs from the left, right, or both margins to set those paragraphs off
from other text.
. Use negative indents to run text into the left or right margin.
. Indent only the first line of a paragraph, which is commonly used as a substitute for
pressing Tab at the beginning of each new paragraph.
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
. Create a hanging indent, which hangs the first line of a paragraph to the left of the
rest of the paragraph. (In other words, every line except the first line is indented.)
Hanging indents are often used in bulleted and numbered lists, footnotes, and
bibliographic entries.
. Create nested indents, which are indentations within indentations.
Figure 2-12: Examples of indented paragraphs.
Word provides several ways to create indents. You can indent paragraphs using the
Formatting toolbar, the ruler, shortcut keys, or the Paragraph dialog box. Indenting with the
Formatting toolbar or shortcut keys, however, depends on tab-stop settings. If you haven’t
changed Word’s default 1/2-inch tab stops, you can create indents at 1/2-inch intervals
using the Formatting toolbar or shortcut keys.
Note
You can use hanging indents to create a bulleted or a numbered list, but with Word’s
bullets and numbering features, you can create such lists automatically — including the
bullets and the numbers. Working with bulleted and numbered lists is explained later in
this chapter.
Setting indents using the Formatting toolbar
The Formatting toolbar includes two buttons for indenting paragraphs to the next tab stop:
Decrease Indent and Increase Indent (see Figure 2-13). Use these buttons to create left
indents only; you cannot create first-line or hanging indents with these buttons. To indent
or to remove indents from paragraphs using the Formatting toolbar, position the insertion
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point in the paragraph or select the paragraphs that you want to adjust. Click the Increase
Indent button to indent text to the next tab stop, or click the Decrease Indent button to unindent text to the previous tab stop. You can click either button as many times as you want
to continue moving the indentation to the next tab stop.
Figure 2-13: The Decrease Indent and Increase Indent buttons of the Formatting toolbar
Setting indents using the ruler
You can create any kind of indent using the ruler, which contains triangular indent markers
at the left and right margins. Table 2-5 shows and describes each of these indent markers.
You can drag them in either direction along the ruler to set indents. At the left margin, the
top triangle represents the first-line indent and the bottom triangle represents the left indent.
Both the top and bottom triangles move independently, but you can use the square below
the bottom triangle to move the first-line and left-paragraph indents at the same time. At
the right margin, the triangle represents the paragraph’s right indent.
Table 2-5
Indent Markers on the Ruler
Drag
To Set
First-line indent
Left indent
First-line and left indents
Right indent
To set indentations using the ruler, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
indent.
2. Do one of the following:
• To set a first-line indent, drag the First Line Indent marker to the position where
you want the indentation.
• To set a left indent, drag the square below the Left Indent marker to the position
where you want the indentation. (Note that the top triangle moves as well.)
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
• To set a right indent, drag the Right Indent marker to the position where you want
the indentation.
• To set a hanging indent with the first line at the left margin, drag the Left Indent
marker to a new position on the ruler.
You can press and hold the Alt key while dragging to get more control; you’ll be able to
move the controls smoothly and drop them at any position rather than the default
gradations. You can also see exact measurements on the ruler as you drag.
Tip
When you drag the Left Indent or First Line Indent marker to the left of the left margin,
the ruler automatically scrolls to the left. If you want to scroll into the left margin on the
ruler without moving the indent markers, first make sure that you’re in Normal view
(View_Normal). Then hold down the Shift key as you click the left scroll arrow on the
horizontal scroll bar.
Setting indents using keyboard shortcuts
You can create indents using keyboard shortcuts as well. Keyboard shortcuts rely on
existing tab settings to determine the position of the indents. To create indents using
keyboard shortcuts, position the insertion point in a paragraph or select the paragraphs that
you want to indent. Then press one of the keyboard shortcuts listed in Table 2-6.
Table 2-6
Keyboard Shortcuts for Indenting Paragraphs
Tip
Keyboard Shortcut
Type of Indention
Ctrl+M
Moves the left indent to the next tab stop.
Ctrl+Shift+M
Moves the left indent to the preceding tab stop.
Ctrl+T
Creates a hanging indent.
Ctrl+Shift+T
Moves the left indent to the previous tab stop, but the first
line remains in its current position.
Here’s another way to set indents, although one that’s a little irritating to some users.
Choose Tools_AutoCorrect Options and click the AutoFormat as You Type tab. Make
sure that the Set Left- and First-Indent With Tabs and Backspaces check box is selected. Now, when you press Tab and then type a paragraph, you’ll be setting the indent
for that paragraph.
Setting indents using the Paragraph dialog box
You can use the Paragraph dialog box to set any type of indent. One advantage of using this
dialog box is that you can enter precise measurements instead of just eyeballing the text
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alignments with ruler measurements. You can also create indents using measurements other
than decimal inches. To create a six-point left indent, for example, type 6 pt in the Left
Indentation box. To create a left indent of two centimeters, type 2 cm. To create a left
indent of one pica, type 1 pi. (There are six picas in 1 inch and 12 points in one pica.)
To set indentations using the Paragraph dialog box, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
indent.
2. Choose Format_Paragraph, or choose Paragraph from the shortcut menu (Shift+F10),
to open the Paragraph dialog box. Then click the Indents and Spacing tab.
3. Do one of the following:
• To create a paragraph indent, type or select a value in the Left or Right Indentation text box. The Indentation group in the Paragraph dialog box lists three
options: Left, Right, and Special. (Table 2-7 describes these indentation options.)
The Preview box shows the effect of your choice.
• To create a first-line or a hanging indent, select First Line or Hanging from the
Special list box. Then type or select a value in the By text box to specify the firstline or hanging-indent measurement.
4. Click OK.
Table 2-7
Indentation Options
Option
Action
Left
Indents selected text from the left margin. If the amount to indent is a positive
number, the paragraph is indented inside the left margin; if the amount is a
negative number, the paragraph is indented outside the left margin (some
times called outdenting).
Right
Indents selected text from the right margin. If the amount to indent is a
positive number, the paragraph is indented inside the right margin; if the
amount to indent is a negative number, the paragraph is indented outside the
right margin.
Special
Indents the first line (or lines) of selected text from left indent used by
subsequent lines (or from the left margin if no indent is made). Click the down
arrow to select First Line or Hanging. First Line shifts the first line to the right
of subsequent lines, while Hanging moves the first line to the left of subsequent lines. The default indent is 1/2-inch. Change the indent by typing a new
number or by using the up- or down-arrow key.
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
Bordering and Shading Paragraphs and Pages
A border can be a box surrounding a paragraph on all sides or lines on one or more sides of
the block of text. Shading fills a paragraph (with or without borders) with a background
pattern. If you’re planning to print on a black and white printer, you’ll probably want to
stick to black, white, and gray for your lines and backgrounds, but Word does allow you to
use different colors. Figure 2-14 shows samples of different borders applied to paragraphs.
Figure 2-14: Examples of borders.
Like all forms of paragraph formatting, borders belong to the paragraphs in which they are
applied. In other words, they carry forward when you press Enter at the end of a paragraph.
If a group of paragraphs is formatted with a box around them and you press Enter at the
end of the last paragraph, your new paragraph falls within the same box as the previous
paragraph. To create a new paragraph outside of the border, move the insertion point
outside the border before you press Enter, or just press Enter and then press Ctrl+Q to
return the new paragraph to the default paragraph setting.
The width of a paragraph box, or of the line if you just created a horizontal line rather than
a box, is determined by the paragraph indent and margins. The line or box begins at the left
text position — the left margin or, if set, the left indent — and ends at the right text
position — the right margin or indent.
To place several paragraphs in a single box or to give them the same background shading,
make sure that all of the paragraphs have the same indents. If you select and then box or
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shade several paragraphs with different indents, each paragraph appears in its own separate
box or shading. To make paragraphs with different indents appear within a single box or
background shade, you must create a table, put each paragraph in a row by itself, and then
format a box around the table.
Note
Sometimes the screen inaccurately shows text as extending beyond borders or shading.
This situation results from screen fonts and screen resolutions, which differ from printer
fonts and resolution. Your printed text does format within the border or shading even if it
doesn’t display correctly on the screen.
The same border and shading options for paragraphs can be applied to an entire page as well.
Tools for creating paragraph borders and page borders are located in the same dialog box.
Adding borders using the Borders toolbar
Word includes a Tables and Borders toolbar, as shown in Figure 2-15, for applying borders,
lines, and shading.
Figure 2-15: The Tables and Borders toolbar.
To add boxes or lines to paragraphs using the Tables and Borders toolbar, follow these
steps:
1. Click the Tables and Borders button on the Formatting toolbar, or choose
View_Toolbars and select the Tables and Borders toolbar. You can also right-click
on any toolbar and select Tables and Borders.
2. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
enclose. Remember that if you create a box for more than one paragraph, that box
encloses those paragraphs as a group (unless they have different indents) with no
borders between them.
3. Click the Line style box down arrow, and choose a line style. If the Line style box is
not visible, drag the Tables and Borders toolbar so that you can see all of the options.
4. Choose the border that you want to add by clicking the Outside Border button then
selecting one of the border buttons that appears in the drop-down box (see Figure 2-16).
Figure 2-16: Border options in the Tables and Borders toolbar.
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
Adding borders using the Borders and
Shading dialog box
You can also add borders using the Borders and Shading dialog box (see Figure 2-17). Table 2-8
explains the options in the Border tab. The Borders and Shading dialog box includes the
Options button, which displays a dialog box in which you can change the distance from a box
line to the surrounded text precisely. You can also specify a shadow or a three-dimensional (3D) border option. Special options for placing a border on an entire page are found here as well.
Figure 2-17: The Borders tab of the Borders and Shading dialog box.
Table 2-8
The Borders and Page Borders Tab Options
Option
Effect
None
Removes an existing box.
Box
Creates a box with identical lines on all four sides.
Shadow
Creates a box with a drop shadow on the bottom and right sides.
3-D
Creates a border with a 3-D effect.
Custom
This button really isn’t very useful; in theory it combines any of the
previous effects with non-boxed border options, but in practice you should
probably ignore it.
Apply to
Defines where the border will be applied, and the options vary between
the Borders and Page Borders tabs — in the Borders tab you will see
Paragraph and, if you highlighted text within a paragraph first, Text.
Continued
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Table 2-8 (continued)
Option
Effect
Style
Provides a variety of lines styles for you to choose from. Select a Style
first and then a line Width, and the Style list box changes to show that
style in the selected thickness.
Width
This should probably be called Thickness, a less ambiguous term. Allows
selection of various line thicknesses, ranging from 1/4 to 6 points.
Color
Creates a line or a box in the selected color. Sixteen colors and gray
shades are available. If you select the Auto option, the default color for
text is used, generally black.
Art
Allows selection of various page borders, including over 150 different
icons and ornamental designs. The Art list box appears only on the Page
Border tab.
To add a border using the Borders and Shading dialog box, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
enclose. Remember that if you create a box for more than one paragraph, that box
encloses those paragraphs as a group (unless they have different indents) with no
borders between them.
2. Choose Format_Borders and Shading. The Borders and Shading dialog box
appears. Click the Borders tab. If you plan to apply a border to a page or a group of
pages (rather than to paragraphs), click the Page Border tab in the Borders and
Shading dialog box and select from the Apply To drop-down list box.
3. Select one of the line styles from the Styles list, or click one of the Settings boxes to
select a style and apply the lines around the box at the same time.
4. If you wish you may also select a line color from the Color drop-down, and a line
thickness from the Width drop-down.
5. Do one of the following:
• Click one of the buttons to the left and underneath the Preview image to place a
line in the associated position.
• Click inside the Preview image itself to place a line on one of the edges.
• If you selected multiple paragraphs, you’ll notice that the Preview image shows
two paragraphs, separated by a blank line; you can create a line between paragraphs by clicking this blank line in the Preview image.
6. Click OK.
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
Tip
You can use different lines on different edges. Select your first line style, color, and
thickness. Then click on an edge of the square in the Preview box inside the Borders
and Shading dialog box; select another line and click on another edge; and so on.
Spacing between text and border
When you place a border around text, Word drops the border into place very close to the
text all around. This is sometimes very inconvenient, especially if you want to shade an
area below a heading or place a border around an entire page — the text sits so close to the
border it looks bad in some cases.
You can adjust spacing between the text and the border, though. While working in the
Borders and Shading text box, click the Options button to see the Border and Shading
Options dialog box (see Figure 2-18). You can set the spacing here precisely.
Figure 2-18: Set spacing between borders and text here.
You can also use the mouse to change a border directly within your document. Move the
mouse pointer to the border line you want to adjust, and carefully place it directly over the
line — the mouse pointer will change from an arrow to two lines with up and down arrows
(or left and right arrows if you are adjusting a vertical border). Drag the border to change
the space between the text and that border.
Placing borders around individual lines
Word allows you to place borders around individual lines of text. Select the text you want
to place the border around, and then create your borders using the Borders and Shading
dialog box. Notice that the Apply To drop-down list box shows the word Text, meaning that
Word will create a text border rather than a paragraph border.
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When you click OK, Word creates the border, placing a left border in front of the first
character you selected, and a right border after the last one. If you selected multiple lines of
text, each line has its own border around it.
Fitting a border within margins
When you create a box around a paragraph, the left and right edges of the box are placed
slightly outside the page margins (assuming the text hasn’t been indented, of course, in
which case the margins are slightly to the left and right of the indent positions).
You may want the borders to fall within, or exactly at, the page margins. To make a border
fit within the margins, indent the paragraph on both the left and the right side by the width
of the border. You can use the ruler, but you can be more precise using the Borders and
Shading dialog box.
To make borders fall on the margins using the Borders and Shading dialog box, follow
these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
adjust.
2. Choose Format_Borders and Shading.
3. On the Borders tab, note the width (the thickness) of the border line in the Width
control.
4. Click Options. The Borders and Shading Options dialog box then appears. Note the
spacing in the From Text boxes labeled Left and Right.
5. Click OK or Cancel twice to close both dialog boxes.
6. Choose Format_Paragraph. Then click the Indents and Spacing tab.
7. In the Left and Right boxes of the Indentation group, type the number of points
equal to the combined width of the border and the spacing specified in the Left and
Right values in the Border and Shading Options dialog box. For example, if the
border is three points thick and the entry in the From Text box is one point, enter
four points in the Left and Right boxes.
8. Click OK.
Removing or changing borders
You can remove borders either all at once or line by line. You can remove or change a
border using the Borders toolbar or the Borders and Shading dialog box.
To remove or change borders using the Borders toolbar, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in the paragraph containing the borders, or select the
paragraphs that you want to adjust.
2. Display the Tables and Borders toolbar by clicking the Borders button on the
Formatting toolbar.
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
3. Do one of the following:
• Click the Outside Borders button, and choose no borders.
• Choose a new line style.
• Click the buttons for the boxes or borders that you want to add.
To remove or change borders using the Borders and Shading dialog box, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in the paragraph containing the borders, or select the
paragraphs that you want to adjust.
2. Choose Format_Borders and Shading, and click the Borders tab. If you’re removing
borders applied to an entire page or to a group of pages, click the Page Border tab.
3. Do one of the following:
• To remove a box border, select the None button in the Setting group.
• To remove individual border lines, click the button representing the line you want
to remove in the Preview image.
• To change a line, select the line that you want from the Style scroll box.
4. Click OK.
Adding shading
Shading in Word comes in various percentages of black (grays) and different colors, as
well as in various patterns. For each shade or pattern, you can select a foreground or a
background color. Colors are converted to shades of gray or patterns on a black-and-white
printer. You can use shading with borders so that a paragraph is surrounded by a line
and filled with shading, or you can use shading alone so that a paragraph is shaded but has
no border.
Working with shading requires playing with different configurations to find the one that is
most readable. As a general rule, however, the smaller the font size, the lighter you need to
make the paragraph shading. Applying bold to text may also help. To change the color of
text with a background shading, use the Font dialog box (Format_Font).
Fill versus pattern
Word lets you apply two forms of shading: fill and pattern. You can think of these as the
fill being the foundation, and the pattern being laid on top. Or the fill is the background
color, while the pattern is the foreground pattern or color. The fill is always a solid shade or
color. The pattern can be solid, but also may be an actual pattern of dots or lines.
Thus, you can have one color as a fill, and another color for the pattern — a fill of light
yellow with a pattern of black lines on top, for instance. Of course, if you use a solid
pattern you won’t see the fill underneath.
Note also the difference between a fill for which you have selected No Fill and one for
which you have selected the color white. These are not the same thing. No Fill means the
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paragraph has no background color; you can see through the text to the watermark below,
for example. If you use a white fill, the watermark would not be visible under that
paragraph.
The same goes for the pattern. If you have any kind of pattern, even a white pattern, the
document background cannot be seen below the paragraph. Thus a Clear pattern is not the
same as a white pattern. Select Clear if you want to use a fill, but with no pattern or color
sitting on top.
Applying shading
You can apply shading using the Shading tab of the Borders and Shading dialog box (see
Figure 2-19) or using the Tables and Borders toolbar.
To shade paragraphs using the Tables and Borders toolbar, position the insertion point in a
paragraph or select the paragraphs that you want to shade. Click the Tables and Borders
button on the Formatting toolbar to display the Tables and Borders toolbar, and then click the
down arrow next to the Shading button to display a palette of fill colors. Choose the color of
shading and the pattern that you want.
Figure 2-19: The Shading tab of the Borders and Shading dialog box.
To shade paragraphs using the Borders and Shading dialog box, follow these steps:
1. Position the insertion point in a paragraph, or select the paragraphs that you want to
shade.
2. Choose Format_Borders and Shading.
3. Click the Shading tab.
4. Select a Fill color (click the More Colors button if you don’t see the one you want
to use).
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
5. Select a Pattern Style. Style options include Clear (no pattern), Solid (completely
blocks both the Fill color and the document background), percentages (the density of
the Color shading), and striped as well as checkered patterns such as Dk Horizontal
(for dark horizontal stripes) and Lt Grid (for a grid made of light cross-hatching).
You can also apply light and dark trellises.
6. Select from the Color list to specify a color for the pattern you selected. The result of
your selection appears in the Preview box. Automatic is selected by default — this
means that the pattern will be created using black or gray.
7. Click OK.
Adding horizontal lines
You can also place horizontal lines, also known as horizontal rules, on your pages. You
may want to use these lines in documents intended for printing, although the horizontal-line
feature really grew out of the Web. Because Web pages are not divided like typical printed
pages, horizontal lines are frequently used to divide Web pages. Word includes several clipart images that can be used as lines.
To insert a horizontal line, choose Format_Borders and Shading. The Borders and Shading
dialog box appears. Click the Horizontal Line button, and the Horizontal Line dialog box
appears (see Figure 2-20). The box will fill with images of horizontal lines, but it may take
a little while. These are being drawn from an online library (so if you are not connected
you may not see any, or many). If the box remains blank, try clicking on the scroll bar to
move down the list and the box may suddenly fill.
Figure 2-20: The Horizontal Line dialog box.
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There’s a search box, too. In theory, you can type a word — star or arrow, for example —
and then click Search to find a matching horizontal line. In practice, it may not be worth
the trouble. You can also click the Import button to load a file on your hard disk into the
list of lines.
When you see a horizontal line you like — scroll down through the box to see more —
click on it and click OK, or simply double-click it. The line will be placed into your
document at the insertion-point position.
Double-clicking the line image in your document displays the Format Horizontal Line
dialog box, which you can use to change the width, height, and alignment of the line.
Creating Bulleted or Numbered Lists
Bulleted lists help to distinguish a series of important items or points from the rest of
the text in a document, and numbered lists are often used for step-by-step instructions.
Word provides flexible, easy-to-use methods for creating bulleted and numbered lists
with a variety of formats. You can type the text for the bulleted or numbered list and
then apply the list formatting to the text, or you can place the insertion point in a blank
line, apply the bulleted or numbered list format to that line, and then type the list. Either
way, Word sets a 1/2-inch hanging indent after you select a list format, and Word adds
the bullet or number in front of each paragraph, in the selected text, or in each new
paragraph that you type.
Tip
You can create a numbered or bulleted list automatically as you type. At the beginning of
a new paragraph, type a number or an asterisk followed by a space or a tab. Then, when
you press Enter to add the next item in the list, Word automatically inserts the next
number or bullet. To finish the list, press Enter followed by Backspace. This feature only
works, however, if Automatic Bulleted Lists and Automatic Numbered Lists are selected
in the AutoFormat As You Type tab of the AutoCorrect dialog box — select
Tools_AutoCorrect.
Creating bulleted lists
Word offers seven standard bullet shapes: solid circle, empty circle, solid square, 3-D box,
diamond, arrow, and checkmark. If you want to use a heart, pointing hand, or other symbol,
you can select these bullets from any of your installed symbol fonts, such as Symbol,
Wingdings, Webdings, and Monotype Sorts. You can even select a bullet image from a
library of hundreds.
You can create a bulleted list using the Bullets and Numbering dialog box (see Figure 2-21)
or the Formatting toolbar.
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
Figure 2-21: The Bulleted tab of the Bullets and Numbering dialog box.
To start a new bulleted list, simply place the insertion point where you plan to begin and
then click the Bullets button on the Formatting toolbar — Word automatically inserts a
bulleted-list entry using the solid black circle as a bullet. (To be more precise, it uses the
type of bullet you used the last time you created a bulleted list during the current session,
or, if it’s the first bulleted list in this session, it uses the solid circle.) Now simply start
typing, and each time you press Enter, Word moves the text to the next line and puts a
bullet at the beginning of that line, too.
If you want to specify a different bullet symbol, place the insertion point where you plan
to begin. Then choose Format_Bullets and Numbering, click the one you want to use,
and click OK. (We look at how to use a different bullet image, one that doesn’t appear in
this dialog box, in the next section).
You can also convert text that you have already typed to bulleted text. Simply place the
cursor in the paragraph you want to convert, or select several paragraphs, and click the
Bullets button or use the Bullets and Numbering dialog box.
When you want to end a bulleted list, type the last entry, press Enter, and then press the
Delete key.
Note
Note that when Word creates a bulleted list, it automatically sets up a hanging indent —
now you can see the purpose of the hanging indent. You want the bullet to appear to the
left of the text, so the first line has to hang out to the left. Take notice that if you rightclick on a bulleted list entry, the shortcut menu that appears has two extra commands,
Decrease Indent and Increase Indent; use these to adjust the position of the bulleted list
on the page.
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Customizing a bulleted list
You can customize a bulleted list in several ways:
. Picking another bullet image
. Modifying the position of the bullets
. Modifying the position of the text in the list
Picking another bullet image
To use another bullet image, open the Bullets and Numbering dialog box and click one of the
bullet-styles boxes. This is the style that you will be replacing with your new bullet. Click the
Customize button and the Customize Bulleted List dialog box opens (see Figure 2-22).
Figure 2-22: The Customize Bulleted List dialog box.
Tip
Notice the Reset button in the Bullets and Numbering box. This button is enabled if the
bullet-style box you click on has been modified. Clicking Reset changes the box to the
default.
You now have three ways to select another bullet image. You can select a Bullet Character
and modify the character’s font, you can select a special character, or you can select a
bullet image.
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
Modifying a bullet’s font
Click on one of the Bullet Characters at the top of the Customize Bulleted List dialog box
(this may be a character that was already there when you opened the dialog box, or a
character you placed there using the Character button, which we’ll look at shortly). The
Font dialog box opens.
You can now modify the character — change the size, make it bold or italic, use a different
font, even use one of the animation styles under the Text Effects tab. When you are
finished, click OK to close the Font box; then click OK again to close the Customize
Bulleted List box and place your selected character into your bulleted list.
Selecting a special character
If you click the Character button in the Customize Bulleted List dialog box the Symbol
dialog box opens. You can select a symbol from any of the typefaces on your system; in
particular, look at the Symbol, Webdings, and Wingdings typefaces.
Selecting a bullet picture
Click the Picture button, and the Picture Bullet dialog box opens (see Figure 2-23). This
functions in the same way as the Horizontal Line dialog box we looked at earlier in this
chapter. It slowly loads (it’s loading off the Internet) literally hundreds of bullet images. As
with the horizontal lines, these are really a Web feature, but there’s no reason you can’t use
the images in your print documents.
Figure 2-23: The Picture Bullet dialog box.
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Changing list positions
You can modify the position of the bullet and the text in the list. In the Customize Bulleted
List dialog box, modify the settings in the Bullet Position and Text Position boxes.
The Bullet Position setting defines how far to the right of the left margin the bullet should
be placed. The Tab Space After value defines at which point the text begins on the first line
— that is, how far Word tabs to the right after the bullet before starting the text. And the
Indent At value defines where subsequent lines of text appear. For example, if you set the
Bullet Position Indent At to 1" and the Text Position Indent At to 1", the bullet and the
subsequent lines of text are on the same vertical line.
Creating numbered lists
Numbered lists are created in a manner similar to bulleted lists, except that instead of
bullets Word places sequential numbers. This is a very useful feature, because if you add a
paragraph in the middle of a numbered list or rearrange the order of the paragraphs in a list,
Word automatically renumbers the paragraphs so that they retain their sequence. The
Numbered tab in the Bullets and Numbering dialog box (see Figure 2-24) offers seven
standard numbering formats and the ability to customize them. You can create a numbered
list in two ways: using the Bullets and Numbering dialog box or using the Numbering
button on the Formatting toolbar.
Figure 2-24: The Numbered tab in the Bullets and Numbering dialog box.
To create numbered lists, follow these steps:
1. Type your list, and then select it.
2. Do one of the following:
• Choose Format_Bullets and Numbering, or choose Bullets and Numbering from
the shortcut menu. Click the Numbered tab. Then select the numbering style that
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
you want from the predefined choices. Your choices include Arabic numbers,
Roman numerals, and letters, with periods, parentheses, or double parentheses to
separate the numbers from the list text. Click OK.
• Click the Numbered List button on the toolbar.
3. To add additional numbered items to your list, move the insertion point to the end of
a line formatted with a number and press Enter.
4. Move the insertion point to the end of the last numbered item in your list. Press
Enter and then Del, or press Enter and click the Numbering button on the Formatting
toolbar, to turn off the number formatting.
Tip
You can quickly convert a numbered list to a bulleted list by selecting the numbered list
and then clicking the Bullets button on the Formatting toolbar, and vice versa.
Customizing numbered lists
You can customize an existing numbered list or apply your own specifications to the
number format using the Customize button in the Numbered tab of the Bullets and
Numbering dialog box. Click on one of the number-style boxes and then click the
Customize button to display the Customize Numbered List dialog box (see Figure 2-25).
Table 2-9 explains the Numbered List options in this dialog box.
Figure 2-25: The Customize Numbered List dialog box.
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Table 2-9
Numbered List Options
Option
Action
Number format
Types the characters, if any, that you want to come before each
number. If you want each number enclosed in parentheses, for
example, type an opening parenthesis before the number in this box.
Do not type over this number in this box! If you do so, even replacing
it with another number, you will break the automatic numbering; each
number in the list will be the same.
Number style
Specifies the numbering style that you want. Choices include Arabic
numerals, uppercase and lowercase Roman numerals, uppercase and
lowercase alphabet letters, and word series (1st, One, and First). You
can also choose no numbers at all, killing the sequential numbering.
(Why? So that you can retain the indentation without the numbers.)
Font
Specifies the special font or font attributes (such as bold, italic, and
underline) and the point size for the numbers. A standard Font dialog
box appears when this button is chosen.
Start at
Indicates the starting number for your list. If you’re using a series of
lists, the starting number may be something other than 1.
Number position
Chooses the alignment of the number at the Aligned At position. For
instance, if you select Left, the number begins at the Aligned At
position; if right, the number ends there.
Aligned at
Sets the distance from the left margin that Word places the number.
Tab Space After
The distance between the Aligned At number position and the text on
the first line.
Indent at
The left-most position of the text on subsequent lines.
Restarting and continuing numbering
You can tell Word whether to restart or continue numbering. Notice, in the Bullets and
Numbering dialog box on the Numbered tab, the Restart Numbering and Continue Previous
List option buttons. When you use the dialog box to create a list, or when you open the box
while the list is selected, these option buttons are enabled and one is selected:
. Restart Numbering: Starts the numbering sequence over from 1. You might use
this to place two numbered lists one after the other. Word will want to continue the
second list with the next number in sequence from the previous list; this option tells
it not to. Also, there are times when Word gets a little confused and starts a brand
new list, many paragraphs away from the last list, with the next number in sequence.
This option slaps its hand and tells it not to.
. Continue Previous List: Tells Word you want to begin your list where the last one
left off. For instance, you may want to create a very long procedural description,
with paragraphs of unnumbered text within the list. This allows you to create lots of
individual numbered lists, but link them all together.
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
Tip
Another way to use these commands is to right-click on the first entry in the list and
select from the pop-up menu Restart Numbering or Continue Numbering.
Adding unbulleted or unnumbered paragraphs to a list
Sometimes the topic of a bulleted list or a numbered item cannot be discussed conveniently
in a single paragraph. If you require more than one paragraph to describe a single topic in a
bulleted list, only the first paragraph for that topic should have a bullet. The remaining
subordinate paragraphs for that topic don’t need bullets, but they do need the same hanging
indent as the bulleted paragraphs in the list. There are a couple of ways in which you can
create these indented subordinate paragraphs:
. Press Shift+Enter to make a line break (press twice if you want a blank line between
the blocks of text) and continue typing. The new block of text will not be preceded
by a bullet or number because Word regards it as part of the same paragraph (and
only places a bullet or number at the beginning of each paragraph).
. Click on a line from which you want to remove a bullet or number; then click the
Bullets or Numbering button on the toolbar to do so. Then use the Left Indent
marker on the ruler to line up the text of the subordinate paragraph with the text of
the previous paragraph.
Ending bulleted or numbered lists
As mentioned previously, the formatting for a paragraph is stored in the paragraph mark.
Therefore, as with other paragraph formatting, the bulleted or numbered list format carries
forward each time you press Enter to begin a new paragraph. If you create a bulleted list
by pressing Enter, you need to end the bullet or numbered list formatting when you finish
with the list. To end a bulleted or numbered list, press Enter at the end of a list and take
one of the following actions:
. Press Delete to remove the number and bullet, leaving the insertion point on the
line immediately below the last list entry and moved back to the style’s left
margin.
. Press Enter again. The same as pressing Delete, except that you’ll get a blank
line between the list and the line on which the insertion point is placed.
. Press Backspace to remove the bullet and place the insertion point on the line
below the last entry, at the bullet position.
. Press Ctrl+Shift+N return to the Normal style.
. Press Ctrl+Q to return to whatever style was applied to the text immediately
before you began the bulleted or numbered list.
. Click the Bullets button to remove the bullet or the Numbering button to
remove the number from the paragraph, returning the insertion point to the
style’s left margin.
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Creating outline numbered lists
Outline numbered lists are similar to numbered or bulleted lists, but in these multilevel lists,
the number or bullet of each paragraph changes according to its level of indention. With
outline numbered lists, you can mix numbered and bulleted paragraphs based on the
indentation level. You can create multilevel lists with as many as nine levels. Use the outline
numbered list format if you want your list to have numbered items with indented, bulleted
subparagraphs; for example, many types of technical and legal documents require each
paragraph and indentation level to be numbered sequentially. Multilevel lists are created using
the Outline Numbered tab in the Bullets and Numbering dialog box (see Figure 2-26).
Note
Outline Numbered is a misnomer. In fact these outline lists may be either numbered
or bulleted.
Figure 2-26: The Outline Numbered tab in the Bullets and Numbering dialog box.
As with bullets and numbering, you can set the outline numbering first and then begin
typing, or type and then select the text and apply the formatting. To create subordinate
paragraphs, simply increase the indentation using the Increase Indent button on the
Formatting toolbar, or by pressing Shift+Alt+right arrow — Word automatically switches
to the subordinate numbering system. To switch back to a higher level, use the Decrease
Indent button or Shift+Alt+Left Arrow.
Customizing outline numbered lists
You can customize an outline numbered list format by clicking Customize in the Outline
Numbered tab, which displays the Customize Outline Numbered List dialog box (see
Figure 2-27). You can see additional options by clicking More. Table 2-10 describes the
available options in the Customize Outline Numbered List dialog box.
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
Figure 2-27: The Customize Outline Numbered List dialog box.
Table 2-10
Options in the Customize Outline Numbered List Dialog Box
Option
Description
Level
Determines which level to modify.
Number format
Determines which characters (if any) come before each
number or bullet at this indentation level.
Number style
Determines the numbering or bullet style used. Choices
include a combination of the numbering choices available
for numbered lists and the bullet choices available for
bulleted lists or even no number or bullet at all.
Start at
Determines the starting number for paragraphs at the
selected level of indentation.
Previous Level Number
If you selected Level 2 or lower, and have chosen a
numbering format (rather than a bullet), this drop-down list
box is enabled. It displays a list of the levels for which you
have customized a format. If you select a previous level
number, Word will include that level number along with the
level number for the selected format. (More explanation of
this point follows the table.)
Font button
Determines any special font or font attributes (such as bold,
italic, and underline) or the point size for the numbers or
bullets used at this indentation level.
Number Position - Aligned At
The indentation at which the number is placed.
Text Position - Tab Space After How far Word tabs before beginning the text on the first line
after the number.
Indent at
The left position of the subsequent lines.
Continued
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Table 2-9 (continued)
Option
Description
Link level to style
Applies the selected style to the text used at this numbering
level..
Follow Number With
Tells Word to place a Tab after the number, to use spaces,
or to place nothing between the text and the number (in
which case the Tab Space After setting is disabled).
Legal style numbering
Converts Roman numerals (IV, V) to Arabic numerals
(4, 5) — the Number Style box is disabled.
Apply Changes To
If you are modifying an existing numbered list, you can
choose to modify the Whole List, from This Point Forward,
or the Current Paragraph.
The Previous Level Number tells Word to include the number of the previous level
along with the number of the level you are modifying. For instance, the first level would
be 1, the next level down would be 1.1, the next 1.1.1, the next at the same level 1.1.2,
and so on. This is a common outlining style for many government and military documents, for instance.
Creating list styles
Word also lets you customize lists by creating special list styles. Click the List Styles tab
in the Bullets and Numbering dialog box (see Figure 2-28). This dialog box lists all the
outline list styles that have been created — select one and click OK to apply that style to
your Outline list.
Figure 2-28: The List Styles tab of the Bullets and Numbering dialog box.
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
You can use the Add button to add another style, or Modify to change one you’ve selected.
When you click one of these buttons, you see the New Style or Modify Style dialog box (see
Figure 2-29). You can learn more about these dialog boxes in the Microsoft Word 2003
Bible’s discussion of styles (Chapter 13 in that book). For now, just know that you can create
a style that encompasses all levels of an outline list, defining exactly what font should be
used, how much indentation, whether to use a bullet or number, what number to start with,
and so on. Simply provide the style a name, select a starting number, select the level you want
to define, and then make all your selections. Then go back and do the next level.
Figure 2-29: The New Style dialog box.
Paragraphs and Pagination
Word automatically creates page breaks as you write, but you can control how paragraphs
are positioned relative to these page breaks. For example, you may want to prevent page
breaks within boxed or shaded paragraphs. To control paragraph positions relative to page
breaks, use the Line and Page Breaks tab in the Paragraph dialog box (see Figure 2-30).
Table 2-11 describes the options in the Line and Page Breaks tab.
Note
The page breaks created by Word are very different from the page breaks you can create yourself using Ctrl+Enter or the Insert_Break command. Word’s page breaks are
placed according to how much text is on the page, the page margins, and so on. On the
other hand, the breaks you enter are fixed. If you place a break immediately before a
paragraph, it doesn’t matter how much text you add before the paragraph, the break
remains there.
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Figure 2-30: The Line and Page Breaks tab in the Paragraph dialog box.
Table 2-11
Line and Page Breaks Tab Options
in the Paragraph Dialog Box
Option
Action
Widow/Orphan control
Instructs Word not to let a single line from a paragraph appear
by itself at the top or bottom of a page. This option is on by
default. A widow is the final line of a paragraph that jumps to the
top of the next page because it doesn’t fit on the current one. An
orphan is the first line of a paragraph that falls at the end of a
page with the remainder of the paragraph appearing on the next
page.
Keep lines together
Instructs Word not to split the paragraph into separate pages.
This is useful when working with lists.
Keep with next
Instructs Word to keep the paragraph with the next paragraph.
This is useful when working with captions and lists.
Page break before
Instructs Word to place the paragraph on top of the next page.
This is useful when working with figures, tables, and graphics.
Suppress line numbers
Instructs Word to remove line numbers from the selected text if
your document displays line numbers.
Don’t hyphenate
Instructs Word to exclude the selected paragraph from automatic hyphenation.
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
Hyphenation
Speaking of hyphenation, it’s time to cover that subject. Hyphenation reduces ragged right
edges on blocks of text (it also allows you to get more words on a page, though only
slightly). Hyphenation is the process of breaking words between lines, so part of a word
appears on the right side of one line, with a hyphen placed after it, while the rest of the
word appears on the left side of the next line. Why not use paragraph justification to create
nice straight right edges? Because justified text is hard to read. But hyphenation can even
be used with justified text, to reduce the amount of white space inserted between words.
The following sections look at four types of hyphenation:
. Automatic hyphenation
. Manual hyphenation
. Optional hyphenation
. Nonbreaking hyphenation
Using automatic hyphenation
Automatic hyphenation inserts optional hyphens. An optional hyphen is a hyphen that
Word uses only when a word or a phrase appears at the end of a line. If the word or phrase
moves to a different position because of editing, the optional hyphen is removed.
Note
Normally, optional hyphens are not visible in your document. You can view optional hyphens by choosing Tools_Options and then clicking the View tab. Under Formatting
Marks, select the Optional Hyphens check box.
To select automatic hyphenation, follow these steps:
1. Choose Tools_Language_Hyphenation to open the Hyphenation dialog box (see
Figure 2-31).
2. Select the Automatically Hyphenate Document check box.
3. If you do not want to hyphenate words in uppercase letters, leave the Hyphenate
Words in CAPS check box blank.
4. Set a value in the Hyphenation Zone. This value is the distance in inches between
the end of the last complete word in a line of text and the margin — in other words,
the degree of raggedness Word should allow. Word uses this measurement to
determine if a word should be hyphenated. Large values decrease the number of
hyphens; low values increase the number of hyphens but reduce the raggedness of
the right margin.
5. If you don’t want consecutive lines to have hyphens — it can make a document look
a little strange — set a limit in the Limit Consecutive Hyphens To box.
6. Click OK.
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Figure 2-31: The Hyphenation dialog box.
Tip
If you don’t want certain paragraphs to be hyphenated automatically, select those paragraphs and then choose Format_Paragraph. In the Paragraph dialog box, select the
Line and Page Breaks tab and then the Don’t Hyphenate check box.
Using manual hyphenation
Using manual hyphenation, you have more control over what is hyphenated and how it is
hyphenated. You can select which parts of the document are hyphenated and where a
hyphen appears in specific words. This is a huge hassle for a large document, but it does
allow you to do a better job than Word might do automatically — Word sometimes
hyphenates words in positions that don’t look good.
To select manual hyphenation, follow these steps:
1. Select the text you want to hyphenate manually. If you want to hyphenate manually
the entire document, don’t select anything.
2. Choose Tools_Language_Hyphenation to open the Hyphenation dialog box.
3. Click the Manual button, and Word immediately begins scanning the selection or the
document for words to be hyphenated. When such a word is located, Word displays
the Manual Hyphenation dialog box (see Figure 2-32).
4. To hyphenate the word at a point other than that suggested in the Hyphenate At box,
click where you want the hyphen to appear.
5. To accept the suggestion, click Yes.
6. To skip the word and move on, click No.
7. To stop the manual hyphenation, click Cancel.
Figure 2-32: The Manual Hyphenation dialog box.
Chapter 2 ✦ Paragraph Formatting in Word
Using nonbreaking and optional hyphens
Use nonbreaking hyphens to hyphenate phrases or terms that you don’t want to wrap to
another line (for example, 02-12-03). With nonbreaking hyphens, the entire phrase or term
wraps to the next line instead of breaking.
To insert a nonbreaking hyphen, do the following:
1. Position the insertion point where you want to place the nonbreaking hyphen.
2. Press Ctrl+Shift+- (hyphen).
Use an optional hyphen when you want to break specific lines of text. For example, if a
lengthy word wraps to the next line and leaves a large amount of white space, you can
insert an optional hyphen in that specific word so that the first part appears on the first
line. If the word later moves to a different position because of editing, the optional hyphen
does not print. If further editing moves the word back into a hyphenation zone, the hyphen
reappears.
To insert an optional hyphen, do the following:
1. Position the insertion point where you want the optional hyphen to appear.
2. Press Ctrl+- (hyphen).
Summary
Mastering paragraph fundamentals is essential for creating just about any document in
Word. Even when you work with graphics, basic paragraph formatting is used to place the
images. Because of the importance of paragraphs, Word provides several ways to apply
paragraph formats. In this chapter, you learned the key elements of formatting paragraphs,
including how to
. Apply paragraph formatting using the Formatting toolbar or Format Paragraph
dialog box (Format_Paragraph).
. Remove paragraph formatting by pressing Ctrl+Q to return the text to the current
style’s default settings or Ctrl+Shift+N to apply the Normal style to the paragraph.
. Align paragraphs using the following shortcut keys: Ctrl+L for left-align, Ctrl+R for
right-align, Ctrl+E for center-align, and Ctrl+J for justified text. You can also use the
alignment buttons on the Formatting toolbar.
. Set tabs using the horizontal ruler by clicking the Tab Alignment button at the farleft end to choose the tab style that you want and then clicking the ruler at the point
where you want to insert the tab. You can also use the Tabs dialog box
(Format_Tabs) to set tabs.
. Add borders and shading to paragraphs by clicking the Border button on the
Formatting toolbar to display the Border toolbar or by choosing Format_Borders
and Shading to display the Borders and Shading dialog box.
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. Insert horizontal lines using the Horizontal Line button in the Borders and Shading
dialog box (Format_Borders and Shading).
. Create bulleted and numbered lists using the Bullets and Numbering buttons on the
Formatting toolbar, or the Bullets and Numbering dialog box (Format_Bullets and
Numbering).
. Use the Hyphenation dialog box to automatically or manually create hyphens
(Tools_Language_Hyphenation).
.
.
.
3
Configuring
Outlook 2003
C H A P T E R
.
S
imilar to most applications, Outlook configures itself
automatically using a host of settings based on specific
assumptions that Microsoft has made about how you will use
Outlook. Although those assumptions are based on usability
research, there is no guarantee those default settings will suit your
needs or preferences. What’s more, you’ll need to set up your
own e-mail accounts because, all privacy jokes aside, Microsoft
can’t possibly know what accounts you use.
It isn’t difficult to set up an account, a profile, and a new file in
which to store your Outlook data. In this chapter you learn how to
perform each of these tasks as well as configure Outlook to
function the way you want. Some of these tasks include adding
other data storage files to your profile, creating additional
profiles, and defining the way Outlook delivers messages.
Configuring E-mail Accounts
Although you could use Outlook solely for tasks other than email, it’s likely that you’ll want to use Outlook for at least one email account. Before you can send or receive e-mail with
Outlook, you must set up the account.
Outlook 2000 offered two modes—Internet Mail Only (IMO) and
Corporate Workgroup (CW)—that were designed for two
different uses. IMO was targeted at non-Exchange Server users,
and CW was targeted primarily to Exchange Server users. These
two modes made it difficult to manage multiple account types.
In Outlook 2002, Microsoft did away with these two modes, and
introduced a single unified mode that enabled Outlook users to
work with multiple account types in a single profile. This
capability carries over to Outlook 2003, making it easy, for
example, to work with an Exchange Server account, a POP3
account, and a Hotmail account, all in one profile.
.
.
.
In This Chapter
Configuring e-mail
accounts
Adding data files
Creating and managing
Outlook profiles
Configuring message
delivery options
.
.
.
.
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Part I ✦ Getting Functional with Office 2003
The following sections explain how to add accounts to an existing profile. For information
on adding profiles, see “Creating and Managing Outlook Profiles” later in this chapter.
Using the E-mail Accounts Wizard
Outlook provides a wizard to help you add e-mail accounts to a profile. This section
explains how to use the wizard; the following sections explain how to configure specific
types of e-mail accounts.
Follow these steps to launch the E-mail Accounts Wizard:
1. Close Outlook, right-click the Outlook icon on the desktop (or in the Start menu),
and then choose Properties, or open the Mail applet from the Control Panel. Either
action opens the Mail Setup — Outlook dialog box.
2. In the Mail Setup — Outlook dialog box, click E-mail Accounts to start the wizard.
3. To add a new account, choose the Add a New E-mail Account option. You can
choose the type of account to add to the existing profile (Figure 3-1). To modify an
existing account, choose View or Change Existing E-mail Accounts; then click Next.
Tip
You can add or modify accounts with Outlook running. Choose Tools_E-mail Accounts to open
the wizard.
At this point in the wizard, you can choose the type of account to add or select an existing
account to modify (Figure 3-2). The following sections explain how to configure specific
types of accounts.
Figure 3-1: Choose the type of account to add to the existing profile.
Chapter 3 ✦ Configuring Outlook 2003
Figure 3-2: You can modify existing accounts with the wizard.
Configuring Exchange Server accounts
It’s relatively easy to set up an Exchange Server account in Outlook because you need to
specify only a handful of settings, such as the server name and the account name. You don’t
have to worry about the e-mail address or other settings as you do with a POP or IMAP
account because these settings are configured at the server by the Exchange Server
administrator.
1. Run the E-mail Accounts Wizard as explained in the previous section.
2. From the Server Type page of the wizard, choose Microsoft Exchange Server and
then click Next.
3. In the Exchange Server Settings page (Figure 3-3), enter the server name or IP
address in the Microsoft Exchange Server field.
4. In the User Name field, type the mailbox name or the account alias (this is often the
logon account name).
5. Choose the Use Local Copy of Mailbox option if you want to work with Exchange Server in cached local mode (explained later in the section, “Setting
advanced options”).
Tip
You can enter the NetBIOS name for the server in the Microsoft Exchange Server field, or
specify the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) for the server.
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Figure 3-3: Set the server and account name on the Exchange Server Settings page.
At this point you can click Next and then click Finish to add the account with default
settings. In many cases, however, you will need to configure some additional settings. You
can do this when adding the account, or change the settings afterward. On the Exchange
Server Settings Wizard page, click More Settings to open the Microsoft Exchange Server
property sheet shown in Figure 3-4. The following sections explain the options available in
this property sheet.
Figure 3-4: Use the General page to configure connection settings.
Chapter 3 ✦ Configuring Outlook 2003
Setting general properties
The General page controls basic settings and the connection state for the account. The
following list summarizes the options:
Exchange Account. Specify the name by which you want the account to appear in
the profile’s account list. By default, the name is Microsoft Exchange Server.
Automatically Detect Connection State. Let Outlook choose the connection state
automatically. Choose this option if you never disconnect your computer from the
network, or if you simply want Outlook to detect the connection state by itself.
Manually Control Connection State. This option enables you to control whether
Outlook uses the Exchange Server mailbox or the locally cached copy, rather than
allow Outlook to control the connection state. If you do not choose the option
Choose the Connection Type When Starting, Outlook automatically uses the
connection method specified by the Default Connection State options.
Choose the Connection Type When Starting. Select this option to have Outlook
prompt you at startup to select the type of connection method to use.
Connect with the Network. Use this option to have Outlook connect to the server
through the local area network, whether through a hardwired connection or existing
dial-up.
Work Offline and Use Dial-Up Networking. Have Outlook dial a specified dial-up
connection to connect to the Exchange Server.
Seconds Until Server Connection Timeout. Set the amount of time Outlook will
wait for responses from the Exchange Server before timing out. Increase the value if
you are working over a slow link, such as a dial-up connection, that frequently
causes Outlook to timeout and disconnect.
Setting advanced options
The Advanced page (Figure 3-5) enables you to open one or more other mailboxes along
with your own. For example, an assistant for a small group of users might open the
mailboxes of those other users to manage their schedules or handle mail processing. Or,
perhaps you want to keep your mail in separate mailboxes for different purposes. Whatever
the case, you can click Add to specify a mailbox name, and add it to the list of mailboxes
that Outlook will open at startup.
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Figure 3-5: Use the Advanced page to configure mailbox settings.
Tip
You can also open a single folder from another user’s mailbox by choosing File_Open_Other
User’s Folder. With either method, you must either own the mailbox or have been given delegate access to it.
The settings under the Mailbox Settings group let you specify how Outlook downloads
messages from the mailbox, and whether it uses a local copy of the mailbox or works only
from the server:
Use Local Copy of Mailbox. Select this option to use Cached Exchange Mode (CEM),
which directs Outlook to create a local copy of the mailbox on your computer.
Download Only Headers. Used with CEM, this option directs Outlook to download
only headers to the local cache, and leave the item bodies and attachments on the
server.
Download Headers Followed by the Full Item. Outlook first downloads all headers
and then begins downloading the item bodies and attachments.
Download Full Items. Outlook downloads each item in its entirety.
The option you choose depends on how much of the item you need and your current
connection state. Download only the headers if you’re working over a slow link or have a
large amount of data in the mailbox and want to speed up offline synchronization. If you
choose the option Download Headers Followed by the Full Item, Outlook will be able to
synchronize the headers fairly quickly so you can see what items the mailbox contains. If the
synchronization is interrupted, you will at least be able to see what’s in the mailbox, even if
you can’t see the contents of some of the items. Choose the Download Full Items option if
you don’t have connection problems or are working from a fast connection, and you want all
of the items downloaded.
Chapter 3 ✦ Configuring Outlook 2003
Setting the offline store location
Outlook uses an offline store (OST) file to store the offline mailbox cache. You can use an
OST whether or not you work in cached mode. When you use an OST without CEM,
Outlook functions just as it did in previous versions with an OST file. Synchronization
doesn’t take place until you perform a send/receive for the Exchange Server account, either
manually or at a scheduled send/receive. Outlook uses the OST only if it can’t connect to the
Exchange Server.
With CEM, Outlook defaults to using the OST and handles synchronization automatically
based on the settings you provided in the Mailbox Settings group on the Advanced property
page. The main distinction between the two, therefore, is that with CEM, Outlook always
uses the OST and handles synchronization for you.
When you enable CEM, Outlook automatically creates an OST to contain the offline cache.
You can’t directly change the location of the OST, which you might want to do if you’re
running low on disk space where the OST resides. You can, however, disable offline storage
and then re-enable it to change the location. Follow these steps to accomplish the change:
1. Close Outlook, and start the E-mail Accounts Wizard from the Mail applet in the
Control Panel.
2. Click E-mail Accounts; then choose View or Change Existing E-mail Accounts,
and click Next.
3. Select the Exchange Server account, and click Change.
4. Clear the Use Local Copy of Mailbox option, and click Next; then click Finish.
5. Repeat steps 2 and 3.
6. Click More Settings and then click the Advanced tab.
7. Click Offline Folder File Settings, click Disable Offline Use, and click Yes when
prompted.
8. Click OK; then Next and then Finish.
9. Repeat steps 2, 3, and 6.
10. Click Offline Folder File Settings, click Browse, and specify a new path and
location for the OST; then click Open.
11. Click OK and then click Yes when prompted to create the new OST (assuming you
specified a new one and not an existing one).
12. Enable the option Use Local Copy of Mailbox on the Advanced page; then click
OK.
13. Click Next and then Finish; then Close.
When you start Outlook, it will use the new OST and will synchronize it accordingly.
If you want to use Outlook with an OST file but without CEM, you can follow the
previous steps 1 through 11 to create a new OST file. Close the account properties without
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enabling the Use Local Copy of Mailbox option. Keep in mind that you must manually
perform a synchronization, or use a scheduled send/receive to synchronize the OST before
Outlook can use it.
Configuring security settings
You can configure a small number of security settings for an Exchange Server account on
the Security page of the account’s properties (Figure 3-6).
Figure 3-6: Use the Security page to enable encryption and specify authentication
settings.
Following is an explanation of these settings:
Encrypt Information. Use this option to enable encryption to secure transmission
between the client and server computers. Always Prompt for User Name and Password. Select this option to require Outlook to prompt you for your account and
password, rather than caching it and logging on automatically. You should use this
option if you leave your computer unattended or share a computer with others.
Logon Network Security. Choose the authentication method required by your server.
Use Password Authentication (NTLM) if your Exchange Server is running on Windows
NT or you need to use NTLM when accessing a Windows 2000 or Windows 2003
Server. Choose Kerberos if your Exchange Server supports Kerberos-based authentication. Kerberos is the default authentication mechanism for Windows 2000 and Windows 2003 Server platforms.
Note
The Distributed Password Authentication (DPA) option available in Outlook 2002 is not included
with Outlook 2003.
Chapter 3 ✦ Configuring Outlook 2003
Configuring connection settings
Use the Connection page of the Exchange Server’s additional settings (Figure 3-7) to tell
Outlook how to connect to the Exchange Server. Choose an option based on the following list:
Connect Using My Local Area Network. Select this option if you connect through a
LAN, or want to use a dial-up connection that is already dialed and connected.
Connect Using My Phone Line. Select this option to use a specific dial-up connection
to the Internet or server’s network. Use the Modem group of controls on the page to
select the dial-up connection and set its properties.
Connect Using Internet Explorer’s or a 3rd Party Dialer. Select this option to use
the dialer configured in Internet Explorer, or to use a third-party dialer included with
other network client software.
Figure 3-7: Use the Connection page to specify how Outlook connects to the Exchange
Server.
The option Connect to my Exchange Mailbox Using HTTP lets you connect to the server
across the LAN or Internet using the HTTP protocol. This connection method enables you to
connect to an Exchange Server sitting behind a firewall that blocks traffic other than HTTP
(port 80). It’s also a handy mechanism for remote users who need to access an Exchange
Server across the Internet but don’t want to use Outlook Web Access (OWA) or when OWA
isn’t supported on the server.
Click Exchange Proxy Settings to open the Connection dialog box (Figure 3-8), which
enables you to specify proxy settings for the connection to the server. These settings are
self-explanatory.
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Figure 3-8: Use the Connection dialog box to configure proxy settings for the connection.
Configuring Remote Mail settings
You can use the Remote Mail page to configure general options for using Remote Mail with
the Exchange Server account. Remote Mail enables you to retrieve headers only and/or
retrieve only those messages that fit the filter criteria you specify.
Configuring POP3 and IMAP accounts
Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3) has long been the primary protocol used by Internet mail
servers. POP3 is gradually being replaced by Internet Mail Access Protocol (IMAP), and by
HTTP-based mail, such as that used by Hotmail and Yahoo!. Both POP3 and IMAP are
standards-based, public protocols supported by a wide variety of mail servers. Most Internet
Service Providers (ISPs) that offer mail accounts support both POP3 and IMAP.
POP3 is primarily an offline protocol, which means you download the messages from the
server and work with them locally. IMAP, by contrast, is primarily an online protocol. You
work with your IMAP folders and messages from the server. The fact that the messages
remain on the server simplifies the synchronization problems (such as having messages
scattered on different computers) you would otherwise face if you needed to access the same
POP3 account from more than one computer. Another useful benefit to IMAP is the
capability it gives you to selectively process messages and attachments without downloading
them from the server; however, you can gain most of these advantages for all account types
by using Outlook’s Remote Mail features.
Chapter 3 ✦ Configuring Outlook 2003
Tip
IMAP offers better security than POP3 because it uses a challenge-response mechanism to
authenticate the user, rather than passing the password across the network as plain text.
If your server supports both POP3 and IMAP, this author recommends using IMAP. The
configuration process is essentially the same for each.
1. Start the E-mail Accounts Wizard from the Mail applet in the Control Panel and then
click E-mail Accounts. Alternatively, choose Tools_E-mail Accounts in Outlook.
2. Choose Add a New E-mail Account and then click Next.
3. Choose POP3 if adding a POP3 account, or IMAP if adding an IMAP account; then
click Next.
4. On the Internet E-mail Settings page (Figure 3-9), specify settings according to the
following list:
Your Name. Specify your name as you want it to appear in the From field of messages
that others receive from you through this account.
E-mail Address. Enter the e-mail address for the account in the form
[email protected], such as [email protected]
Incoming Mail Server. Specify the IP address or DNS name of the server where your
mailbox is located.
Outgoing Mail Server. Specify the IP address or DNS name of the SMTP server that
this account should use for sending outgoing mail. The outgoing and incoming servers
need not be the same, and in the case of large ISPs such as CompuServe, are often
different.
User Name. Enter the name of your mailbox or logon name on the server. Typically,
this is the first part of your e-mail address. Do not include the @domain portion of the
address.
Password. Specify the password associated with the account you entered in the User
Name field.
Remember Password. Select this option to have Outlook cache the password. Clear
the option if you want Outlook to prompt you for the password each time it connects to
the server. Clearing this option provides better security and prevents others from
retrieving your mail when you are away from the computer.
Log On Using Secure Password Authentication (SPA). Select this option if the mail
server requires SPA for authentication. Most mail servers do not.
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Figure 3-9: Use the Internet E-mail Settings page to configure basic account properties
for POP3 and IMAP accounts.
Tip
You can click Test Account Settings when creating a POP3 account to send a test message
through a specified outgoing mail server and attempt a logon to the incoming mail server. This
helps you verify your settings before you finish creating the account.
In most situations you can click Next and then Finish at this point to create the account;
however, you can configure additional settings, if needed. Click More Settings to display the
Internet E-mail Settings property sheet. The General, Outgoing Server, and Connection
pages are the same for POP3 and IMAP accounts. Most of the options on the Advanced page
are the same, with a few exceptions. The following sections describe the available options.
General settings
Use the Mail Account field on the General page to specify the account name as you want it
to appear in Outlook’s list of accounts. You can add a company or organization name in the
Organization field. These settings are optional.
Use the Reply E-mail field to specify the reply to message property for the account. By
default, the account uses the e-mail address you specify in the E-mail Address field for the
account as the reply address. In some situations, however, you might want these to be
different. For example, you might want replies sent to a discussion list rather than to your
own mail address.
Chapter 3 ✦ Configuring Outlook 2003
Outgoing server settings
Use the settings on the Outgoing Server page to enable authentication for your SMTP server.
You can use the same authentication credentials as for the incoming server, or specify a
different account and password. You can also configure the account to use Secure Password
Authentication (SPA) for the outgoing server, if required.
POP3 accounts have an additional setting on this page: Log on to incoming mail server
before sending mail. Enable if your account is serviced by the same server for incoming and
outgoing mail, and requires that you authenticate to send messages.
Connection settings
Use the Connection page to specify how Outlook should connect to the server(s) to send and
receive messages. Use the LAN option if you connect through a network, or want to use
whatever dial-up connection is already established at the time you perform a send/receive.
The option Connect via modem when Outlook is offline, if enabled, causes Outlook to dial
the connection specified by the Modem options when Outlook detects that the server is
offline. Check your operating system’s Help documentation if you need help configuring a
dial-up account.
Advanced settings
The Advanced page differs slightly between POP3 and IMAP accounts. Figure 3-10 shows
the POP3 version.
Figure 3-10: The Advanced page for POP3 accounts.
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Figure 3-11 shows the IMAP version.
Figure 3-11: The Advanced page for IMAP accounts.
The Incoming and Outgoing server options specify the ports on which the mail servers are
configured to respond to incoming and outgoing mail requests, respectively. (In this usage,
incoming means mail coming from the server to you, and outgoing means mail going from
your computer to the server.) The default port for POP3 is 110 and is 143 for IMAP. The
default SMTP port is 25. For both POP3 and IMAP, you can select the SSL connection if the
server requires SSL for added security.
Use the Server Timeouts slider to set the amount of time that Outlook will wait for the server
to respond to requests before timing out. Increase the timeout if you are working over a slow
connection or with a busy server that tends to time out your sessions before they complete.
POP3 delivery
A POP3 account’s properties include a Delivery group of options that determine how
Outlook handles the messages on the server. These options are:
Leave a Copy of Messages on the Server. Download a copy of the message from the
server, but don’t delete the original from the server. Use this option when you want to
be able to retrieve the messages from other computers, or when you are troubleshooting
and don’t want Outlook to remove the messages from the server.
Remove from Server After n Days. Select this option to have downloaded messages
removed from the server after the specified number of days has elapsed.
Remove from Server When Deleted from ‘Deleted Items’. Select this option to have
Outlook remove the messages from the server when they are removed from the Deleted
Items folder, either manually by you or automatically by Outlook.
Chapter 3 ✦ Configuring Outlook 2003
IMAP folders
The Advanced page for an IMAP account contains only one setting that is different from
those for a POP3 account. The Root Folder Path specifies the path to the folder in your
mailbox that you want to use as the root folder for the mailbox. Leave this field blank if
you’re not sure of the folder path, and Outlook will use the default root for the account on
the server.
Understanding where Outlook stores your POP3
and IMAP messages
When you add a POP3 account and you already have a default mail store configured for the
profile such as an Exchange Server mailbox, set of personal folders, or PST file, Outlook
uses that default mail store as the delivery location for your POP3 mail. The other folders in
the default store serve to contain the Calendar, Contacts, and other non-mail folders. If there
are no other existing accounts, Outlook creates a PST to contain the message store. It uses
this same PST to store the nonmail items, as well.
When you create an IMAP account, Outlook automatically creates a PST to contain the
IMAP account’s folders. It does this even if you already have a message store for another
account. Each IMAP account you add gets its own PST. Outlook also creates a PST to
contain your nonmail Outlook folders.
Configuring HTTP accounts
Similar to Outlook 2002, Outlook 2003 supports HTTP-based e-mail accounts for MSN and
Hotmail. Follow these steps to configure an HTTP account:
1. Start the E-mail Accounts Wizard from the Mail applet in the Control Panel, and
click E-mail Accounts. Alternatively choose Tools_E-mail Accounts in Outlook.
2. Choose Add a New E-mail Account and then click Next.
3. Choose HTTP, and click Next.
4. On the Internet E-mail Settings page (Figure 3-12), specify settings according to the
following list:
Your Name. Specify your name as you want it to appear in the From field of messages
that others receive from you through this account.
E-mail Address. Enter the e-mail address for the account in the form
[email protected], such as [email protected]
HTTP Mail Service Provider. Select either Hotmail or MSN, depending on your
account type. You can select Other if you have the URL of an HTTP mail server
compatible with Outlook.
Server URL. This field is read-only for Hotmail and MSN accounts. Enter the URL for
your mail server if you selected Other from the HTTP Mail Service Provider dropdown list.
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User Name. Enter the name of your mailbox or logon name on the server. Outlook
creates this field automatically if you choose the MSN or Hotmail server options based
on your e-mail address.
Password. Specify the password associated with the account you entered in the User
Name field.
Remember Password. Select this option to have Outlook cache the password. Clear
the option if you want Outlook to prompt you for the password each time it connects to
the server. Clearing this option provides better security and prevents others from
retrieving your mail when you are away from the computer.
Log On Using Secure Password Authentication (SPA). Select this option if the mail
server requires SPA for authentication. Most mail servers do not.
Figure 3-12: Use the Internet E-mail Settings page to configure basic account properties
for POP3 and IMAP accounts.
As with other types of accounts, you can click More Settings to set a handful of other
options. These are the same as those on the General and Connection pages specified in the
sections, “General settings” and “Connection settings,” earlier in this chapter.
Adding Data Files
The previous section explained how to add e-mail accounts to an Outlook profile. When you
add a POP3 account with no existing Exchange Server account, Outlook creates a personal
folder file (PST) for you to store your messages. If this is the only account, Outlook also
stores your nonmail items (Calendar and so on) in the PST.
Chapter 3 ✦ Configuring Outlook 2003
When you add an IMAP account to a profile, Outlook creates a PST specifically for the
IMAP account. It does not, however, store your nonmail items in the IMAP PST. Instead,
Outlook creates a separate PST to store those items.
Although Outlook automatically creates PSTs as needed when you add accounts, you might
want to add your own PSTs to a profile. For example, perhaps you use an Exchange Server
account for your primary Outlook store, but want a set of personal folders to serve as an
archive; or perhaps you have an Exchange Server account and are adding a POP3 account.
Outlook will, by default, deliver your POP3 messages to the Exchange Server mailbox, but
you can create a rule that moves them to the PST after they come in.
If you’re interested to learn more about rules and how to create them, see chapter 8 of
Wiley’s Outlook 2003 Bible.
Follow these steps to add a set of personal folders to your profile:
1. If Outlook is not running, right-click the Outlook icon and then choose Properties, or
open the Mail applet from the Control Panel. Click Data Files to open the Outlook
Data Files dialog box (Figure 3-13). If Outlook is running, choose File_Data File
Management.
Figure 3-13: The Outlook Data Files dialog box.
2. Click Add to display the New Outlook Data File dialog box (Figure 3-14). Choose
one of the following options:
Microsoft Outlook 97-2002 Personal Folders File (.pst). Choose this option to create
a PST that is compatible with other Outlook versions. Use this type of PST if you need
to share a PST between different versions of Outlook.
Microsoft Outlook Personal Folders File (.pst). Choose this option to create a PST
that is not compatible with previous Outlook versions, but which supports a larger PST
file size and multilingual Unicode data.
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Figure 3-14: The New Outlook Data File dialog box.
3. Outlook displays the Create or Open Outlook Data File dialog box, which is similar
to the standard Outlook Open or Save dialog box. Choose a location and file name
for the PST, and click OK.
4. In the Personal Folders dialog box (Figure 3-15), enter settings according to the
following list:
Name. Specify the name for the PST as you want it to appear in the Outlook folder list.
Using a unique name will help you identify the set of folders more easily.
Encryption Setting. Choose No Encryption if you don’t want to use encryption for the
PST. Choose Compressible Encryption to use encryption that also allows the PST to be
compressed to conserve disk space (this is the default). Choose Best Encryption to
provide extra security at the expense of losing compression capability for the PST.
Password. Enter and confirm an optional password to protect the PST, and choose the
Save This Password in Your Password List to have Outlook cache the PST password in
your password cache. Use this option if you are concerned that others might be able to
access your computer and view the items in the personal folders.
Figure 3-15: The Create Microsoft Personal Folders dialog box.
Chapter 3 ✦ Configuring Outlook 2003
5. Click OK to create the PST; then click Close.
After you add a PST, it appears in the folder list under its own branch. The branch name
comes from the Name field you specify when you create the PST.
Creating and Managing Outlook Profiles
An Outlook profile stores a set of accounts and their associated settings such as the data
files associated with the profile. In most cases you will have only one profile that contains
all of the accounts that you use. In a few situations, however, you might need to create
additional profiles on a computer. For example, even though Outlook can handle multiple
e-mail accounts in one profile, you might prefer to keep your work account separate from
your personal accounts. Or, maybe two users work with the same computer and each need
their own profiles.
You can configure Outlook to use a particular profile by default, or you can configure it to
prompt you to choose a profile when Outlook starts. Use the former when you work from the
same profile most of the time, and use the latter when you need to change profiles frequently.
Keep in mind that Outlook profiles have nothing to do with the other kinds of profiles you
will find on a typical Windows computer, including hardware profiles, user profiles, or even
Office settings profiles. Outlook profiles store the accounts and related settings for Outlook
only, not for any other application or system.
Outlook profiles store specific types of information, including the following:
Services. This includes data file properties and settings for each of the e-mail accounts
in the profile. Services can also include address books, LDAP directory service settings,
and third-party services such as one that delivers faxes to your Inbox.
Delivery Settings. An Outlook profile stores settings that determine where it should
deliver new incoming messages.
Address Settings. The profile stores settings that determine which address book
Outlook uses by default and the address book order it uses to validate e-mail addresses.
When you run Outlook for the first time, it steps you through the process of adding a profile
and creating an e-mail account for the profile. The following section explains how to create
a new profile.
Creating an Outlook profile
You can add to or modify the contents of a profile in Outlook, but you can’t create a profile.
Instead, you must use the following steps:
1. Open the Mail applet in the Control Panel, or right-click the Outlook icon and then
choose Properties to open the Mail Setup dialog box.
2. In the Mail Setup dialog box (Figure 3-16), click Show Profiles to display the Mail
dialog box (Figure 3-17).
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3. Click Add to display the New Profile dialog box, enter a name for the profile, and
click OK.
Two options on the Mail dialog box control how Outlook handles multiple profiles:
Prompt for a Profile to be Used. Select this option to have Outlook display a dialog
box when the application starts from which you choose the profile to use.
Always Use This Profile. Select this option if you want Outlook to use a particular
profile automatically. Select the desired profile from the drop-down list.
4. The E-mail Accounts Wizard launches automatically. Use the wizard to add accounts, address books, or directory services to the profile. When you complete the
wizard, you’ll be returned to the Mail dialog box. Create any other profiles as
needed, and set the default profile as explained next; then click OK.
Figure 3-16: Use the Mail Setup dialog box to access the profiles stored in the user’s
profile.
Figure 3-17: The Mail dialog box shows all existing profiles within the user’s system
profile.
Chapter 3 ✦ Configuring Outlook 2003
Copying a profile
In some cases you might want to use the settings from an existing profile but make certain
changes, such as create two profiles that include a common e-mail account but which each
have a unique secondary account. If that’s the case, you can copy the existing profile and
then modify the copy. To do so, open the Mail dialog box as explained in the previous
section; then click Copy. Specify a name for the new profile, and click OK. You can then
modify the newly copied profile as needed.
Switching between profiles
If you maintain multiple Outlook profiles, it’s likely that sooner or later you will need to
switch to a different profile. If you switch frequently, the best approach is to configure
Outlook to prompt you to select a profile when Outlook starts. The section “Creating an
Outlook profile” earlier in this chapter explained how to do that.
There is no mechanism in Outlook to change profiles dynamically. You must exit Outlook
and, unless you’ve configured Outlook to prompt you for a profile at startup, change the
default profile before starting Outlook again. Here are the steps to take:
1. Open the Mail applet from the Control Panel and click Show Profiles to open the
Mail dialog box.
2. Select Always Use This Profile and then select the required profile from the list.
3. Click OK, and start Outlook to use the new profile.
Configuring Message Delivery Options
When an Outlook profile contains more than one e-mail account, Outlook prioritizes them
and uses the one with the highest priority as the one through which it sends e-mail by
default. For example, if you have an Exchange Server as well as a POP3 account in a
profile, and the Exchange Server account is at the top of the account list, Outlook will send
new messages through the Exchange Server account.
You can choose an account when you compose a message, and Outlook will send the
message through that account. To use a specific account, start a new message, click the
Accounts button in the toolbar, and select the account. Compose the message and then click
Send. Outlook will send it through the specified account.
Note
The Accounts button doesn’t appear unless you have at least two accounts set up.
You can easily change the account order so that Outlook uses a different account by default
for outgoing messages:
1. In Outlook, choose Tools_E-mail Accounts.
2. Choose View or Change Existing E-mail Accounts and then click Next.
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3. Select an account in the list, and click Move Up or Move Down to adjust the
account list. Set the desired account at the top of the list.
Setting the account order does more than just set the account Outlook uses by default for
outgoing messages—it also changes the order in which Outlook processes accounts. Outlook
performs sends and receives for multiple accounts in the order they are listed. Moving an
account up in the list means it will be processed before those below it.
One other change you might want to make for the profile is to specify the account to which
incoming mail is delivered. For example, imagine you have a POP3 account and an
Exchange Server account. In most cases you’ll likely want to leave the Exchange Server as
the location for incoming mail; however, you might decide to deliver mail to the POP3
account, which uses a local PST, because of network considerations or other reasons.
Here are the steps needed to specify the incoming mail store:
1. In Outlook, choose Tools_E-mail Accounts.
2. Choose View or Change Existing E-mail Accounts and then click Next.
3. In the E-mail Accounts dialog box (Figure 3-2), choose the mail store from the
Deliver New E-mail to the Following Location drop-down list.
4. Click Finish.
Setting Your E-mail Options
After you have the Internet e-mail service properly configured, you can set your e-mail
options. There are lots of these options, some more critical than others. In the following
sections, you have the opportunity to take a look at these settings so that you can learn how
the e-mail options affect you and your use of Outlook. Some of these settings will also be
covered in more detail in Part II of this book.
Setting the e-mail preferences
The e-mail preference settings affect the appearance and handling of your e-mail messages—
from what happens to messages you send to how replies are handled.
To set your e-mail options, follow these steps:
1. Select Tools_Options to display the Options dialog box. Click the Preferences tab if
necessary to bring it to the front.
2. Click the E-mail Options button to display the E-mail Options dialog box, shown in
Figure 3-18.
Chapter 3 ✦ Configuring Outlook 2003
Figure 3-18: Choose the basic e-mail options in this dialog box.
3. Select an action from the After moving or deleting an open item drop-down list box.
This specifies what you want to do when you close a message.
4. Select Close original message on reply or forward so that you won’t return to a
message you’ve replied to or forwarded. If you don’t select this check box, you’ll
need to close the original message yourself.
5. Select Save copies of messages in Sent Items folder to always save a copy of any
messages you send. If you don’t select this option, there will be no record that
you’ve sent messages, except in the Journal if those contacts have been selected for
recording in the Journal. Be sure to clean out the Sent Items folder occasionally if
you’ve selected this option.
6. Select Automatically save unsent messages to place copies of messages you’ve
begun but not yet sent in the Drafts folder.
7. Select Remove extra line breaks in plain text messages to have Outlook remove
extra line breaks in plain text messages, which compresses the message somewhat
and can make them easier to read.
8. Select Read all standard mail in plain text to have Outlook remove formatting in
messages.
9. Use the On replies and forwards options to specify how you want to handle the
original text of a message that you reply to or forward. You can only choose a line
prefix for the original message if you select the Prefix each line with option. It’s
become an Internet e-mail custom to prefix the original message lines with a greaterthan symbol (>), but you can use the options you prefer.
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Tip
Some of these e-mail option settings are codependent; others are mutually exclusive. For example, you will not be able to use a character to prefix the lines of the original messages when
replying to messages if you also choose to include and indent the original message.
10. Click the Advanced E-mail Options button to display the Advanced E-mail Options
dialog box, shown in Figure 3-19.
Figure 3-19: Choose the advanced e-mail options in this dialog box.
11. Choose the options you prefer from this dialog box. These options are generally selfexplanatory. Use the following list as a guide:
Save messages. These options control whether Outlook saves unsent messages, saves
replies along with an original message, and saves forwarded messages in the Sent Items
folder.
When new items arrive. Use these options to specify the actions that Outlook takes
when new messages arrive.
When sending a message. These options set the default sensitivity and importance
for new messages and the options that Outlook makes available when you create a
new message. In addition, the Add properties to attachments to enable Reply with
Changes option, if enabled, makes it possible for recipients of messages with attachments to make changes to the attached document and then reply back to the sender
with those changes.
Chapter 3 ✦ Configuring Outlook 2003
Note
Although you can set the importance and sensitivity level for messages, these settings generally accomplish very little in the real world. Mail recipients can choose to observe or ignore both
of these settings with impunity, which is one of the reasons that they are seldom used.
12. Click OK to close the Advanced E-mail Options dialog box.
13. Click the Tracking Options button to display the Tracking Options dialog box,
shown in Figure 3-20.
Figure 3-20: Set tracking options in this dialog box.
14. Choose the tracking options you prefer. Be aware of the differences between the two
receipt request options:
• A read receipt is a message that tells you the recipient has actually opened your
message.
• A delivery receipt is a message that simply tells you your message was delivered.
The message recipient may choose to ignore all your messages, even if they are
delivered, so a delivery receipt won’t confirm that your message was actually
read.
15. Choose how you want to respond to read receipt requests.
Tip
Notice that because you can turn off responses to read receipts, a sender can never be certain
that you’ve actually opened a message. It’s relatively difficult to block the sending of delivery
receipts, so both types of receipt requests do serve a useful function when it’s important to
know that your message arrived at its destination.
16. Click OK to close the Tracking Options dialog box.
17. Click OK to close the E-mail Options dialog box.
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Setting the mail format options
The mail format options affect the default appearance of outgoing e-mail messages that you
create. Figure 3-21 shows the Mail Format tab of the Options dialog box so you can get a
feel for all the available mail options.
Figure 3-21: The Mail Format page
The Mail Format page contains three option groups:
Message Format. These options enable you to specify either Word or Outlook as your
default mail editor, the default message format for new messages, and whether Outlook
uses Word or Outlook to read rich text messages. Click Internet Format to specify how
Outlook handles HTML- and rich text-based messages, as well as plain text messages.
You can also specify that Outlook use the UUENCODE format to encode attachments
for plain text messages.
Stationery and Fonts. Use this group of options to specify a default stationery, which
is a background and other elements that create a custom look for your messages. Click
Fonts to specify the fonts that Outlook uses for composing new messages, replies, and
forwarded messages, as well as other font-related settings.
Signature. Use this group to specify an optional signature (block of data, usually text)
to include at the bottom of each outgoing message. Note that your mail server might
also append notifications to your outgoing messages automatically.
If you are interested to learn more about the mail format options, see Wiley’s Outlook 2003
Bible, Chapter 6.
Chapter 3 ✦ Configuring Outlook 2003
Summary
Before you can use Outlook to send and receive e-mail, you must add at least one e-mail
account to your profile. This chapter explained how to add the various types of e-mail
accounts supported by Outlook. The chapter also explained the function of personal folder
(PST) files and how to add them. Personal folder files store Outlook items and enable you to
organize your Outlook items, for example keeping old items in a set of archive folders.
This chapter also explained a variety of options you can configure in Outlook that control
the way Outlook handles e-mail, both for incoming and outgoing messages. Finally, the
chapter explained the purpose of Outlook profiles, how to create them, and how to use them
effectively.
✦
✦
✦
79
Essential Excel
Worksheet
Operations
4
C H A P T E R
.
.
.
.
In This Chapter
T
his chapter covers some essential information regarding
worksheets. You’ll learn how to take control of your
worksheets so that you will be more efficient using the program.
Learning the Fundamentals of Excel
Worksheets
In Excel, each file is called a workbook, and each workbook can
contain one or more worksheets. You may find it helpful to think
of an Excel workbook as a notebook and worksheets as pages in
the notebook. As with a notebook, you can activate a particular
sheet, add new sheets, remove sheets, copy sheets, and so on.
The following sections describe the operations that you can
perform with worksheets.
Working with Excel’s windows
The files that Excel uses are known as workbooks. A workbook
can hold any number of sheets, and these sheets can be either
worksheets (a sheet consisting of rows and columns) or chart
sheets (a sheet that holds a single chart). A worksheet is what
people usually think of when they think of a spreadsheet. You can
open as many Excel workbooks as necessary at the same time.
Understanding Excel
worksheet essentials
Controlling your views
Manipulating the rows
and columns
.
.
.
.
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Figure 4-1 shows Excel with four workbooks open, each in a separate window. One of the
windows is minimized and appears near the lower-left corner of the screen. (When a workbook is minimized, only its title bar is visible.) Worksheet windows can overlap, and the title
bar of one window is a different color. That’s the window that contains the active workbook.
Figure 4-1: You can open several Excel workbooks at the same time.
The workbook windows that Excel uses work much like the windows in any other Windows
program. Each window has three buttons at the right side of its title bar. From the left to right,
they are: Minimize, Maximize (or Restore), and Close. When a workbook window is maximized, the three buttons appear directly below Excel’s title bar.
Excel’s windows can be in one of the following states:
• Maximized: Fills Excel’s entire workspace. A maximized window does not have a
title bar, and the workbook’s name appears in Excel’s title bar. To maximize a
window, click its Maximize button.
• Minimized: Appears as a small window with only a title bar. To minimize a
window, click its Minimize button.
• Restored: A nonmaximized size. To restore a maximized or minimized window,
click its Restore button.
If you work with more than one workbook simultaneously (which is quite common), you
have to learn how to move, resize, and switch among the workbook windows.
Chapter 4 ✦ Essential Excel Worksheet Operations
Moving and resizing windows
To move a window, make sure that it’s not maximized. Then click and drag its title bar with
your mouse.
To resize a window, click and drag any of its borders until it’s the size that you want it to
be. When you position the mouse pointer on a window’s border, the mouse pointer changes
to a double-sided arrow, which lets you know that you can now click and drag to resize the
window. To resize a window horizontally and vertically at the same time, click and drag
any of its corners.
Note
You cannot move or resize a workbook window if it is maximized. You can move a minimized
window, but doing so has no effect on its position when it is subsequently restored.
If you want all of your workbook windows to be visible (that is, not obscured by another
window), you can move and resize the windows manually, or you can let Excel do it for you.
The Window_Arrange command displays the Arrange Windows dialog box, as shown in
Figure 4-2. This dialog box has four window-arrangement options. Just select the one that
you want and click OK.
Figure 4-2: Use the Arrange Windows dialog box to quickly arrange all open workbook
windows.
Switching among windows
At any given time, one (and only one) workbook window is the active window. This is the
window that accepts your input, and it is the window on which your commands work. The
active window’s title bar is a different color, and the window appears at the top of the stack of
windows. To work in a different window, you need to make that window active. There are
several ways to make a different window the active workbook:
• Click another window, if it’s visible. The window you click moves to the top and
becomes the active window.
• Press Ctrl+Tab (or Ctrl+F6) to cycle through all open windows until the window that
you want to work with appears on top as the active window. Shift+Ctrl+Tab (or
Shift+Ctrl+F6) cycles through the windows in the opposite direction.
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• Click the workbook icon in the Windows Taskbar. If you don’t see workbook icons
in your Windows Taskbar, activate the Options dialog box, select the View tab, and
put a checkmark next to Windows in Taskbar.
• Click the Window menu and select the window that you want from the bottom part
of the pull-down menu (the active window has a check mark next to it). This menu
can display up to nine windows. If you have more than nine workbook windows
open, choose More Windows (which appears below the nine window names).
Tip
Most people prefer to do most of their work with maximized workbook windows. This enables
you to see more cells and eliminates the distraction of other workbook windows getting in the
way.
When you maximize one window, all the other windows are maximized, too (even though
you don’t see them). Therefore, if the active window is maximized and you activate a
different window, the new active window is also maximized. If the active workbook window
is maximized, you can’t select another window by clicking it (because other windows aren’t
visible). You must use either Ctrl+Tab, the Windows taskbar, or the Window menu to activate
another window.
Tip
You also can display a single workbook in more than one window. For example, if you have a
workbook with two worksheets, you may want to display each worksheet in a separate window.
All the window-manipulation procedures described previously still apply. You use the
Window_New Window command to open a new window in the active workbook.
Closing windows
If you have multiple windows open, you may want to close those windows that you no longer
need. To close a window, select File_Close or simply click the Close button (the X icon) on
the worksheet window’s title bar. If the workbook window is maximized, its title bar is not
visible, so its Close button appears directly below Excel’s Close button
When you close a workbook window, Excel checks whether you have made any changes
since the last time you saved the file. If not, the window closes without a prompt from Excel.
If you’ve made any changes, Excel prompts you to save the file before it closes the window.
Making a worksheet the active sheet
At any given time, one workbook is the active workbook, and one sheet is the active sheet in
the active workbook. To activate a different sheet, just click its sheet tab, located at the
bottom of the workbook window. You also can use the following shortcut keys to activate a
different sheet:
• Ctrl+PgUp: Activates the previous sheet, if one exists
• Ctrl+PgDn: Activates the next sheet, if one exists
Chapter 4 ✦ Essential Excel Worksheet Operations
If your workbook has many sheets, all of its tabs may not be visible. You can use the tabscrolling buttons (see Figure 4-3) to scroll the sheet tabs. The sheet tabs share space with the
worksheet’s horizontal scrollbar. You also can drag the tab split box to display more or fewer
tabs. Dragging the tab split box simultaneously changes the number of tabs and the size of the
horizontal scrollbar.
Figure 4-3: Use the tab controls to activate a different worksheet or to see additional
worksheet tabs.
Tip
When you right-click any of the tab-scrolling buttons to the left of the worksheet tabs, Excel
displays a list of all sheets in the workbook. You can quickly activate a sheet by selecting it from
the list.
Adding a new worksheet to your workbook
Worksheets can be an excellent organizational tool. Instead of placing everything on a single
worksheet, you can use additional worksheets in a workbook to separate various workbook
elements logically. For example, if you have several products whose sales you track individually, you might want to assign each product to its own worksheet and then use another
worksheet to consolidate your results.
The following are three ways to add a new worksheet to a workbook:
• Select the Insert_Worksheet command.
• Press Shift+F11.
• Right-click a sheet tab, choose the Insert command from the shortcut menu, select
Worksheet from the Insert dialog box, and then click OK.
When you add a new worksheet to the workbook, Excel inserts the new worksheet before the
active worksheet, and the new worksheet becomes the active worksheet.
Tip
To insert more than one worksheet at a time, hold down the Shift key and click a range of
worksheet tabs. When you issue the command to insert a worksheet, Excel will add as many
worksheets as the number of worksheet tabs you selected before issuing the command.
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Deleting a worksheet you no longer need
If you no longer need a worksheet, or if you want to get rid of an empty worksheet in a
workbook, you can delete it in either of two ways:
• Select the Edit_Delete Sheet command.
• Right-click the sheet tab and choose the Delete command from the shortcut menu.
If the worksheet contains any data, Excel asks you to confirm that you want to delete the
sheet. If you have never used the worksheet, Excel deletes it immediately without asking for
confirmation.
You can delete multiple sheets with a single command by selecting the sheets that you want to
delete. To select multiple sheets, press Ctrl while you click the sheet tabs that you want to
delete. To select a group of contiguous sheets, click the first sheet tab, press Shift, and then
click the last sheet tab. Then use either method to delete the selected sheets.
Tip
Caution
When you delete a worksheet, it’s gone for good. This is one of the few operations in Excel that
can’t be undone.
Changing the Number of Sheets in Your Workbooks
By default, Excel automatically creates three worksheets in each new workbook. You can change
this default behavior. For example, I prefer to start each new workbook with a single worksheet.
After all, it’s easy enough to add new sheets if and when they are needed. To change the default
number of worksheets:
1. Select Tools_Options.
2. In the Options dialog box, click the General tab.
3. Change the value for the Sheets in New Workbook Setting and click OK.
Making this change will affect all new workbooks but will have no effect on existing workbooks.
Changing the name of a worksheet
The default names Excel uses for worksheets — Sheet1, Sheet2, and so on — aren’t very
descriptive. If you don’t change the worksheet names, it can be a bit hard to remember where
to find things in multiple-sheet workbooks. That’s why providing more meaningful names for
your worksheets is often a good idea.
Chapter 4 ✦ Essential Excel Worksheet Operations
To change a sheet’s name, use any of the following methods to begin:
• Choose Format _Sheet_Rename.
• Double-click the sheet tab.
• Right-click the sheet tab and choose the Rename command from the shortcut menu.
After you have done one of the above actions, Excel highlights the name on the sheet tab so
that you can edit the name or replace it with a new name.
Tip
To edit the worksheet name rather than to replace it completely, it’s usually easiest to doubleclick the sheet tab and then click within the name where you want to make a change.
Sheet names can be up to 31 characters, and spaces are allowed. However, you can’t use the
following characters in sheet names:
:
colon
/
slash
\
backslash
?
question mark
*
asterisk
Keep in mind that a longer worksheet name results in a wider tab, which takes up more space
onscreen. Therefore, if you use lengthy sheet names, you won’t be able to see very many
sheet tabs without having to scroll the tab list.
Changing a sheet tab’s color
Excel allows you to change the color of one or more of your worksheet tabs. For example,
you may prefer to color-code the sheet tabs to make it easier to identify the worksheet’s
contents.
To change the color of a sheet tab, right-click the tab and choose Tab Color. Then select the
color in the Format Tab Color dialog box.
Rearranging your worksheets
You may want to rearrange the order of worksheets in a workbook. If you have a separate
worksheet for each sales region, for example, arranging the worksheets in alphabetical order
or by total sales might be helpful. You may want to move a worksheet from one workbook to
another. (To move a worksheet to a different workbook, both workbooks must be open.) You
can also create copies of worksheets.
You can move or copy a worksheet in the following ways:
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• Select the Edit_Move or Copy Sheet command to display the Move or Copy
dialog box.
• Right-click the sheet tab and select the Move or Copy command. (This also displays
the same Move or Copy dialog box.)
• To move a worksheet, click the worksheet tab and drag it to its desired location
(either in the same workbook or in a different workbook) to move the worksheet.
When you drag, the mouse pointer changes to a small sheet, and a small arrow
guides you.
• To copy a worksheet, click the worksheet tab, press Ctrl, and drag the tab to its
desired location (either in the same workbook or in a different workbook). When
you drag, the mouse pointer changes to a small sheet with a plus sign on it.
Tip
You can move or copy multiple sheets simultaneously. First select the sheets by clicking their
sheet tabs while holding down the Ctrl key. Then you can move or copy the set of sheets by
using the methods just described.
Dragging is usually the easiest method, but if the workbook has many sheets, you may prefer
to use the Move or Copy dialog box. This dialog box is shown in Figure 4-4, and it enables
you to select the workbook and the new location.
Figure 4-4: Use the Move or Copy dialog box to move or copy worksheets in the same or
another workbook.
If you move or copy a worksheet to a workbook that already has a sheet with the same name,
Excel changes the name to make it unique. For example, Sheet1 becomes Sheet1 (2).
Note
When you move or copy a worksheet to a different workbook, any defined names and custom
formats also get copied to the new workbook.
Chapter 4 ✦ Essential Excel Worksheet Operations
Hiding and unhiding a worksheet
In some situations, you may want to hide one or more worksheets. Hiding a sheet may be
useful if you don’t want others to see it, or if you just want to get it out of the way. When a
sheet is hidden, its sheet tab is also hidden. At least one sheet must remain visible. (You can’t
hide all the sheets in a workbook.)
To hide a worksheet, choose Format_Sheet_Hide. The active worksheet (or selected
worksheets) will be hidden from view.
To unhide a hidden worksheet, choose Format _Sheet_Unhide. Excel opens its Unhide
dialog box that lists all hidden sheets. Choose the sheet that you want to redisplay and click
OK. You can’t select multiple sheets from this dialog box, so you need to repeat the command for each sheet that you want to redisplay.
Tip
To more fully protect a workbook from unauthorized changes, use the Tools_Protection menu
commands. These commands give you several options in deciding how much access other
users will have to the worksheets in your workbooks. Be aware that this is a very weak security
measure. It is relatively easy to crack Excel’s protection features.
Making a Sheet Very Hidden
It’s also possible to make a sheet “very hidden.” A sheet that is very hidden does not appear in the
Unhide dialog box. To make a sheet very hidden:
1. Activate the worksheet.
2. Select View_Toolbars_Control Toolbox. This displays the Control Toolbox toolbar.
3. Click the Properties button on the Control Toolbox toolbar. This displays the Properties box,
shown in the following figure.
4. In the Properties box, select the Visible option, and choose 2 - xlSheetVeryHidden.
Continued
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Continued
After performing these steps, the worksheet will be hidden, and it will not appear in the Unhide
dialog box.
Be careful. After you make a sheet very hidden, you can’t use the Properties box to unhide it
because you won’t be able to select the sheet! In fact, the only way to unhide such a sheet is to use
a VBA macro. (See Part VI for more information about VBA.) This VBA statement will unhide Sheet1
in the active workbook:
ActiveWorkbook.Worksheets(“Sheet1”).Visible = True
Controlling the Worksheet View
As you add more information to a worksheet, you may find that it gets more difficult to
navigate and locate what you want. Excel includes a few options that enable you to view your
sheet, and sometimes multiple sheets, more efficiently. This section discusses a few additional
worksheet options at your disposal.
Viewing a worksheet in multiple windows
Sometimes, you may want to view two different parts of a worksheet simultaneously —
perhaps to make it easier to reference a distant cell in a formula. Or you may want to
examine more than one sheet in the same workbook simultaneously. You can accomplish
either of these actions by opening a new view to the workbook, using one or more
additional windows.
To create and display a new view of the active workbook, choose Window_New Window.
Tip
If the workbook is maximized when you create a new window, you may not even notice that
Excel has created the new window; but if you look at the Excel title bar, you’ll see that the
workbook title now has :2 appended to the name. Select Window_Arrange and choose one
of the options in the Arrange Windows dialog box to display the open windows.
Excel displays a new window for the active workbook, similar to the one shown in Figure 45. In this case, each window shows a different worksheet in the workbook. Notice the text in
the windows’ title bars: climate data.xls:1 and climate data.xls:2. To help
you keep track of the windows, Excel appends a colon and a number to each window.
Chapter 4 ✦ Essential Excel Worksheet Operations
Figure 4-5: Use multiple windows to view different sections of the workbook at the same
time.
A single workbook can have as many views (that is, separate windows) as you want. Each
window is independent of the others. In other words, scrolling to a new location in one
window doesn’t cause scrolling in the other window(s).
You can close these additional windows when you no longer need them. For example,
clicking the Close button on the active window’s title bar closes the active window but
doesn’t close the other windows.
Tip
Multiple windows make it easier to copy information from one worksheet to another. You can
use Excel’s drag-and-drop procedures to do this. In addition, multiple windows are useful when
examining formulas.
Comparing sheets side by side
New
Feature
The Compare Side by Side feature is new to Excel 2003.
In some situations, you may want to compare two worksheets that are in different windows.
A new feature in Excel 2003 makes this task a bit easier. The sheets can be in the same
workbook or in different workbooks.
First, make sure that the two sheets are displayed in separate windows. If you want to
compare two sheets in the same workbook, use the Window_New Window command to
create a new window for the active workbook. Activate the first window; then choose
Window_Compare Side by Side With. If more than two windows are open, you’ll see a
dialog box that lets you select the window for the comparison.
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The two windows will be tiled horizontally, not really “side by side.” If you prefer a true
side-by-side arrangement, select Window_Arrange, and select Vertical in the Arrange
Windows dialog box.
When using the Compare Side by Side feature, you’ll find that scrolling in one of the
windows also scrolls the other window. When you use this command, the Compare Side by
Side toolbar is displayed. This toolbar contains the following buttons:
• Synchronous Scrolling: Toggles automatic windows scrolling on and off.
• Reset Window Position: If you have rearranged or moved the windows, clicking
this button puts them back in the initial horizontal arrangement.
• Close Side by Side: Breaks out of side-by-side mode and returns to the previous
window positions. You can also use the Window_Break Side by Side command
for this.
Keep in mind that this feature is for manual comparison only. Unfortunately, Excel does not
provide a way to show you the differences between two sheets.
Splitting the worksheet window into panes
If you prefer not to clutter your screen with additional windows, Excel provides another
option for viewing multiple parts of the same worksheet. The Window_Split command
splits the active worksheet into two or four separate panes. The split occurs at the location
of the cell pointer. You can use the mouse to drag the individual panes to resize them.
Figure 4-6 shows a worksheet split into two panes. Notice that row numbers aren’t
continuous. In other words, splitting panes enables you to display in a single window
widely separated areas of a worksheet. To remove the split panes, choose
Window_Remove Split.
Figure 4-6: You can also split the worksheet window to view different areas of the
worksheet at the same time.
Chapter 4 ✦ Essential Excel Worksheet Operations
Another way to split and unsplit panes is to drag either the vertical or horizontal split bar.
These bars are the small rectangles that normally appear just above the top of the vertical
scrollbar and just to the right of the horizontal scrollbar. When you move the mouse pointer
over a split bar, the mouse pointer changes to a pair of parallel lines with arrows pointing
outward from each line. To remove split panes by using the mouse, drag the pane separator all
the way to the edge of the window or just double-click it.
Keeping the titles in view by freezing panes
If you set up a worksheet with row or column headings, it’s easy to lose track of just where
you are when you scroll to a different location in the worksheet. Excel provides a handy
solution to this problem: freezing panes. This keeps the headings visible while you are
scrolling through the worksheet.
To freeze panes, start by moving the cell pointer to the cell below the row that you want to
remain visible as you scroll and to the right of the column that you want to remain visible as
you scroll. Then, select Window_Freeze Panes. Excel inserts dark lines to indicate the frozen
rows and columns. You’ll find that the frozen row and column remain visible as you scroll
throughout the worksheet. To remove the frozen panes, select Window_Unfreeze Panes.
Figure 4-7 shows a worksheet with frozen panes. In this case, rows 1:3 and column A are
frozen in place. This allows you to scroll down and to the right to locate some information
while keeping the column titles and the column A entries visible.
Figure 4-7: By freezing certain columns and rows, they remain visible while you scroll
the worksheet.
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Tip
If you press Ctrl+Home while the worksheet has frozen panes, the cell selector moves to the
top-left unfrozen cell. You can move into the frozen rows or columns by using the direction keys
or your mouse.
Zooming in or out for a better view
Excel enables you to zoom in or out to scale the size of your worksheets. Normally,
everything you see onscreen is displayed at 100 percent. You can change the zoom
percentage from 10 percent (very tiny) to 400 percent (huge). Using a small zoom
percentage can help you to get a bird’s-eye view of your worksheet to see how it’s laid
out. Zooming in is useful if your eyesight isn’t quite what it used to be and you have
trouble deciphering tiny type. Figure 4-8 shows a window zoomed to 10 percent and a
window zoomed to 400 percent.
Figure 4-8: You can zoom in or out for a better view of your worksheets.
You can easily change the zoom factor of the active worksheet by using the Zoom tool on the
Standard toolbar. Just click the arrow and select the desired zoom factor. Your screen transforms immediately. You can also type a zoom percentage directly into the Zoom tool. If you
choose Selection from the drop-down list, Excel zooms the worksheet to display only the
selected cells (useful if you want to view only a particular range).
Tip
Zooming affects only the active worksheet, so you can use different zoom factors for different
worksheets. Also, if you have a worksheet displayed in two different windows, you can set a
different zoom factor for each of the windows.
Chapter 4 ✦ Essential Excel Worksheet Operations
If your worksheet uses named ranges, you’ll find that zooming your worksheet to 39 percent or
less displays the name of the range overlaid on the cells. This is useful for getting an overview
of how a worksheet is laid out.
Tip
You can also set the zoom percentage by using the View_Zoom command. This command
displays the Zoom dialog box, where you can select an option or enter a value between 10
and 400.
Caution
In some situations, using a zoom factor other than 100 may cause some strange display problems with Excel, especially if charts and graphics are used. If you experience any odd display
problems, setting the zoom factor is 100 may fix it.
Saving your view settings
If you create a number of different worksheet views for different purposes, you may want to
save those view settings so that you can easily recall them without going through all of the
necessary setup steps each time you want to use the same view. To save your view settings,
create a named view.
A named view includes settings for window size and position, frozen panes or titles, outlining, zoom factor, the active cell, print area, and many of the settings in the Options dialog
box. A named view can also include hidden print settings and hidden rows and columns. If
you find that you’re constantly fiddling with these settings and then changing them back,
using named views can save you lots of effort.
To create a named view, begin by setting up the view settings the way you want them (for
example, hide some columns). Then select View_Custom Views to display the Custom
Views dialog box. Click the Add button and provide a name in the Add View dialog box that
appears (see Figure 4-9). You can also specify what to include in the view by using the two
check boxes. Click OK to save the named view.
Figure 4-9: Use the Add View dialog box to create a named view.
The Custom Views dialog box displays a list of all named views. To select a particular view,
just select it from the list and click the Show button. To delete a named view from the list,
click the Delete button.
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Monitoring cells with a Watch Window
In some situations, you may want to keep track of the value in a particular cell. As you
scroll throughout the worksheet, that cell may disappear from view. Using a Watch Window can help.
The Watch Window is actually a special type of toolbar. To display the Watch Window
toolbar, choose View_Toolbars_Watch Window. Then click Add Watch and specify the cell
that you want to watch. The Watch Window will display the value in that cell. You can add
any number of cells to the Watch Window, and you can move the toolbar to a convenient
location. Figure 4-10 shows the Watch Window monitoring two cells.
Figure 4-10: Use the Watch Window toolbar to monitor the value in one or more cells.
Working with Rows and Columns
This section discusses some worksheet operations that involve rows and columns. Rows
and columns make up an Excel worksheet. Every worksheet has exactly 65,536 rows and
256 columns.
Note
One of the most commonly asked questions about Excel is How can I increase the number of
rows and columns? Unfortunately, there is no way to do it. The number of rows and columns is
fixed, and you can’t change them.
Inserting rows and columns
Although the number of rows and columns in a worksheet is fixed, you can still insert and
delete rows and columns if you need to make room for additional information — perhaps to
include additional items in a calculation, for example. These operations don’t change the
number of rows or columns. Rather, inserting a new row moves down the other rows to
accommodate the new row. The last row is simply removed from the worksheet if it is
empty. Inserting a new column shifts the columns to the right, and the last column is
removed if it’s empty.
Note
If the last row (row 65,536) is not empty, you can’t insert a new row. Similarly, if the last column
(column IV) contains information, Excel won’t let you insert a new column. Attempting to add a
row or column displays the dialog box shown in Figure 4-11.
Chapter 4 ✦ Essential Excel Worksheet Operations
Figure 4-11: You can’t add a new row or column if doing so would move nonblank cells
off the worksheet.
To insert a new row or rows, you can use any of the following techniques:
✦ Select an entire row or multiple rows by clicking the row numbers in the worksheet
border. Select the Insert_Rows command.
✦ Select an entire row or multiple rows by clicking the row numbers in the worksheet
border. Right-click and choose Insert from the shortcut menu.
✦ Move the cell pointer to the row that you want to insert and then select
Insert_Rows. If you select multiple cells in the column, Excel inserts additional
rows that correspond to the number of cells selected in the column and moves the
rows below the insertion down.
The procedure for inserting a new column or columns is similar, but you use the
Insert_Column command.
You also can insert cells, rather than just rows or columns. Select the range into which you
want to add new cells and then select Insert_Cells (or right-click the selection and choose
Insert). To insert cells, the other cells must be shifted to the right or shifted down. Therefore,
Excel displays the Insert dialog box shown in Figure 4-12 to learn the direction in which you
want to shift the cells.
Figure 4-12: You can insert partial rows or columns by using the Insert dialog box.
Deleting rows and columns
You may also find that it’s necessary to delete rows or columns in a worksheet. For example,
your sheet may contain old data that is no longer needed.
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To delete a row or rows, use any of the following methods:
• Select an entire row or multiple rows by clicking the row numbers in the worksheet
border and then select Edit_Delete.
• Select an entire row or multiple rows by clicking the row numbers in the worksheet
border. Right-click and choose Delete from the shortcut menu.
• Move the cell pointer to the row that you want to delete and then select
Edit_Delete. In the dialog box that appears, choose the Entire row option. If you
select multiple cells in the column, Excel deletes all selected rows.
Deleting columns works in a similar way. If you discover that you accidentally deleted a row
or column, select Edit_Undo (or Ctrl+Z) to undo the action.
Hiding rows and columns
If necessary, you can hide rows and columns. This may be useful if you don’t want users to
see particular information or if you need to print a report that summarizes the information in
the worksheet without showing all the details.
To hide rows or columns in your worksheet, select the row or rows that you want to hide and
then choose Format_Row_Hide. Or select the column or columns that you want to hide and
then choose Format_Column_Hide.
Tip
You also can drag the row or column’s border to hide the row or column. You must drag the
border in the row or column heading. Drag the bottom border of a row upward or the border of
a column to the left.
A hidden row is actually a row with its height set to zero. Similarly, a hidden column has a
column width of zero. When you use the arrow keys to move the cell pointer, cells in hidden
rows or columns are skipped. In other words, you can’t use the arrow keys to move to a cell
in a hidden row or column.
Unhiding a hidden row or column can be a bit tricky because selecting a row or column that’s
hidden is difficult. The solution is to select the columns or rows that are adjacent to the hidden
column or row. (Select at least one column or row on either side.) Then select
Format_Row_Unhide or Format_Column_Unhide. Another method is to select Edit_Go
To (or its F5 equivalent) to select a cell in a hidden row or column. For example, if column A is
hidden, you can press F5 and specify cell A1 (or any other cell in column A) to move the cell
pointer to the hidden column. Then you can use the appropriate command to unhide the column.
Changing column widths and row heights
Often, you’ll want to change the width of a column or the height of a row. For example, you
can make columns narrower to accommodate more information on a printed page. Or you
may want to increase row height to create a “double spaced” effect.
Excel provides several different ways to change the widths of columns and the height of rows.
Chapter 4 ✦ Essential Excel Worksheet Operations
Changing column widths
Column width is measured in terms of the number of characters of a fixed pitch font that will fit
into the cell’s width. By default, each column’s width is 8.43 characters. This is actually a rather
meaningless measurement because most of the fonts you will use are proportional fonts — the
width of individual characters varies; for example, the letter i is much narrower than the letter W.
Tip
If hash symbols (#) fill a cell that contains a numerical value, the column isn’t wide enough to
accommodate the information in the cell. Widen the column to solve the problem.
Before you change the width, you can select multiple columns, so that the width will be the
same for all selected columns. To select multiple columns, either click and drag in the column
border or press Ctrl while you select individual columns. To select all columns, click the
Select All button in the upper-left corner of the worksheet border (or press Ctrl+A). You can
change columns widths by using any of the following techniques.
• Drag the right-column border with the mouse until the column is the desired width.
• Choose Format_Column_Width and enter a value in the Column Width dialog box.
• Choose Format_Column_AutoFit Selection. This adjusts the width of the selected
column so that the widest entry in the column fits. If you want, you can just select cells
in the column, and the column is adjusted based on the widest entry in your selection.
• Double-click the right border of a column header to set the column width automatically to the widest entry in the column.
Tip
To change the default width of all columns, use the Format_Column_Standard Width command. This displays a dialog box into which you enter the new default column width. All columns that haven’t been previously adjusted take on the new column width.
Caution
After you manually adjust a column’s width, Excel will no longer automatically adjust the column
to accommodate longer numerical entries.
Changing row heights
Row height is measured in points (a standard unit of measurement in the printing trade — 72
points is equal to 1 inch). The default row height depends on the font defined in the Normal
style. Excel adjusts row heights automatically to accommodate the tallest font in the row. So,
if you change the font size of a cell to 20 points, for example, Excel makes the column taller
so that the entire text is visible.
You can set the row height manually, however, by using any of the following techniques. As
with columns, you can select multiple rows.
✦ Drag the lower row border with the mouse until the row is the desired height.
✦ Choose Format_Row_Height and enter a value (in points) in the Row Height
dialog box.
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✦ Double-click the bottom border of a row to set the row height automatically to the
tallest entry in the row. You also can use the Format_Row_AutoFit command
for this.
Changing the row height is useful for spacing out rows and is almost always preferable to
inserting empty rows between lines of data.
Summary
This chapter covered the basic spreadsheet operations to get you functional with Microsoft
Office Excel 2003. You also learned some of the new features in Excel 2003, such as the side
by side feature.
✦ Remember that Excel functions much the same way a binder does; you can add or
delete worksheets, move one to the “top,” etc. You interact with the different sheets
by using the tabs at the bottom left of the page and by using the typical Microsoft
functions for restore, minimize, etc.
✦ To create and display a new view of the active workbook, choose Window_New
Window.
✦ If you want to compare two sheets in the same workbook, use the Window_New
Window command to create a new window for the active workbook. Activate the
first window; then choose Window_Compare Side by Side With.
✦ Excel provides another option for viewing multiple parts of the same worksheet. The
Window_Split command splits the active worksheet into two or four separate panes.
✦ To remove the split panes, choose Window_Remove Split.
✦ A named view includes settings for window size and position, frozen panes or titles,
outlining, zoom factor, the active cell, print area, and many of the settings in the
Options dialog box. To create a named view, begin by setting up the view settings
the way you want them (for example, hide some columns). Then select
View_Custom Views to display the Custom Views dialog box. Click the Add
button and provide a name in the Add View dialog box.
✦ You can add or delete rows or columns from your spreadsheet using one of
several methods: Selecting the row/column and right clicking your mouse and
making the appropriate selection, or using the Edit menu for deleting and the
Insert menu for adding.
✦ To hide rows or columns in your worksheet, select the row or rows that you want to
hide and then choose Format_Row_Hide. Or select the column or columns that you
want to hide and then choose Format_Column_Hide.
✦ You can also change the width and/or height of columns or rows, using one of the four
methods discussed within the chapter.
✦
✦
✦
Developing
Your
PowerPoint
Action Plan
5
C H A P T E R
.
.
.
.
In This Chapter
Identifying your
audience and purpose
Choosing an appropriate
presentation method
C
an you guess what the single biggest problem is when most
people use PowerPoint? Here’s a hint: It’s not a problem
with the software at all. It’s that they don’t think things through
carefully before they create their presentation, and then they
have to go back and make major modifications later. You’ve
probably heard the saying, “If you don’t have time to do it right,
how are you going to find time to do it over?” This sentiment is
certainly applicable to creating presentations.
This chapter outlines an 11-point strategy for creating the
appropriate PowerPoint presentation right from the start. By
considering the issues addressed here, you can avoid making
false assumptions about your audience and their needs and
avoid creating a beautiful presentation with some horrible flaw
that makes it unusable. Spend a half hour or so in this chapter
and you can save yourself literally days in rework later.
Step 1: Identifying Your Audience
and Purpose
Before you can think about the presentation you need to create,
you must first think of your audience. Different audiences respond
to different presentation types, as you probably already know from
real-life experience. A sales pitch to a client requires a very
different approach than an informational briefing to your
coworkers. Ask yourself these questions:
Planning the visual
image to convey
Deciding whether to use
multimedia effects
Deciding whether
handouts are
appropriate
Planning your rehearsal
times and methods
.
.
.
.
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✦ How many people will be attending the presentation? The attendance makes
a difference because the larger the group, the larger your screen needs to be so
that everyone can see. If you don’t have access to a large screen, you have to
make the lettering and charts big and chunky so that everyone can read your
presentation.
✦ What is the average age of the attendees? Although it’s difficult to generalize
about people, it’s especially important to keep your presentation light and entertaining when you’re presenting to a very young audience (teens and children). Generally speaking, the older the audience, the more authoritative you need to be.
✦ What role will the audience take in relation to the topic? If you are rolling
out a new product or system, the managerial staff will likely want a general
overview of it, but the line workers who will actually be operating the product
need lots of details. Generally speaking, the higher the level of managers, the
more removed they will be from the action, and the fewer details of operation
they need.
✦ How well does the audience already know the topic? If you are presenting to a
group that knows nothing about your topic, you want to keep things basic and
make sure that you define all the unfamiliar terms. In contrast, with a group of
experts you are likely to have many follow-up questions after the main presentation, so you should plan on having some hidden backup slides ready in anticipation of those questions.
✦ Does the audience care about the topic? If the topic is personally important to
the attendees (such as information on their insurance benefits or vacation schedule), they will likely pay attention even if your presentation is plain and straightforward. If you must win them over, however, you need to spend more time on
the bells and whistles.
✦ Are the attendees prejudiced either positively or negatively toward the topic?
Keeping in mind the audience’s preconceived ideas can make the difference between
success and failure in some presentations. For example, knowing that a client hates
sales pitches can help you tailor your own to be out of the ordinary.
✦ Are the attendees in a hurry? Do your attendees have all afternoon to listen to you,
or do they need to get back to their regular jobs? Nothing is more frustrating than
sitting through a leisurely presentation when you’re watching precious minutes tick
away. Know your audience’s schedule and their preference for quick versus thorough coverage.
Next, think about what you want the outcome of the presentation to be. You might want more
than one outcome, but try to identify the primary one as your main goal. Some outcomes to
consider include the following:
✦ Audience feels good about the topic. Some presentations are strictly
cheerleading sessions, designed to sway the audience’s opinion. Don’t discount
this objective — it’s a perfectly legitimate reason to make a presentation! For
example, suppose a new management staff has taken over a factory. The new
Chapter 5 ✦ Developing Your PowerPoint Action Plan
management team might want to reassure the workers that everything is going to
be okay. A feel-good, Welcome to the Team presentation, complete with gimmicks like company T-shirts or hats, can go a long way in this regard.
✦ Audience is informed. Sometimes you need to convey information to a group of
people and no decision is involved on their part. For example, suppose your
company has switched insurance carriers and you want to let all the employees
know about their new benefits. An informational presentation can cover most of
the common questions and save your human resources people lots of time in
answering the same questions over and over.
✦ Audience members make individual decisions. This presentation is a kind of
sales pitch in which you are pitching an idea or product to a group but each
person says yes or no individually. For example, suppose you are selling timeshare vacation condos. You may give a presentation to a group of 100 in an
attempt to sell your package to at least a few of the group.
This presentation type can also have an informational flavor; you are informing
people about their choices without pushing one choice or the other. For example,
if your employees have a choice of health plans, you might present the pros and
cons of each and then leave it to each employee to make a selection.
✦ Audience makes a group decision. This is the kind of presentation that scares a
lot of people. You face a group of people who will confer and make a single
decision based on the information you present. Most sales pitches fall into this
category. You might be explaining your product to a group of managers, for
example, to try to get their company to buy it.
Think about these factors carefully and try to come up with a single statement that
summarizes your audience and purpose. Here are some examples:
✦ I am presenting to 100 factory workers to explain their new health insurance choices
and teach them how to fill out the necessary forms.
✦ I am presenting to a group of 6 to 10 midlevel managers, trying to get them to decide
as a group to buy my product.
✦ I am presenting to a group of 20 professors to convince at least some of them to use
my company’s textbooks in their classes.
✦ I am presenting to individual Internet users to explain how my company’s service
works.
Let’s take that first example. Figure 5-1 shows some notes that a presenter might take when
preparing to explain information about employee benefits enrollment to a group of factory
workers. Jot down your own notes before moving to Step 2.
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Figure 5-1: Make notes about your presentation’s purpose and audience.
Step 2: Choosing Your Presentation Method
You essentially have three ways to present your presentation to your audience, and you need
to pick the way you’re going to use up front. They include speaker-led, self-running, and
user-interactive. Within each of those three broad categories, you have some additional
choices. Before you start creating the presentation in PowerPoint, you should know which
method you are going to use because it makes a big difference in the text and other objects
you put on the slides.
Chapter 5 ✦ Developing Your PowerPoint Action Plan
Speaker-led presentations
The speaker-led presentation is the traditional type of presentation: you stand up in front of a
live audience (or one connected through teleconferencing) and give a speech. The slides you
create in PowerPoint become your support materials. The primary message comes from you;
the slides and handouts are just helpers. See Figure 5-2.
Figure 5-2: In a speaker-led presentation, the speaker is the main attraction; the slides
and handouts do not have to carry the burden.
With this kind of presentation, your slides don’t have to tell the whole story. Each slide can
contain just a few main points, and you can flesh out each point in your discussion. In fact,
this kind of presentation works best when your slides don’t contain a lot of information,
because people pay more attention to you, the speaker, if they’re not trying to read at the
same time. For example, instead of listing the top five reasons to switch to your service, you
might have a slide that just reads: Why Switch? Five Reasons. The audience has to listen to
you to find out what the reasons are.
This kind of presentation also requires some special planning. For example, do you want to
send each audience member home with handouts? If so, you need to prepare them. They may
or may not be identical to your PowerPoint slides; that’s up to you.
You also need to learn how to handle PowerPoint’s presentation controls, which is the subject
of an entire chapter in Wiley’s PowerPoint 2003 Bible. It can be really embarrassing to be
fiddling with the computer controls in the middle of a speech, so you should practice,
practice, practice ahead of time.
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Self-running presentations
With a self-running presentation, all the rules change. Instead of using the slides as teasers or
support materials, you must make the slides carry the entire show. All the information must
be right there, because you won’t be looking over the audience’s shoulders with helpful
narration. See Figure 5-3.
Figure 5-3: In a self-running presentation, the slides carry the entire burden because
there are no handouts and no live speaker.
In general, self-running presentations are presented to individuals or very small groups.
For example, you might set up a kiosk in a busy lobby or a booth at a trade show and
have a brief (say, five slides) presentation constantly running that explains your product
or service.
Because there is no dynamic human being keeping the audience’s attention, self-running
presentations must include attention-getting features. Sounds, video clips, interesting
transitions, and prerecorded narratives are all good ways to attract viewers. Part III of this
book explains how to use sounds, videos, and other moving objects in a presentation to
add interest.
You must also consider the timing with a self-running presentation. Because there is no
way for a viewer to tell the presentation, “Okay, I’m done reading this slide; bring on the
next one,” you must carefully plan how long each slide will remain on-screen. This kind
of timing requires some practice!
Chapter 5 ✦ Developing Your PowerPoint Action Plan
User-interactive presentations
A user-interactive presentation is like a self-running one except the viewer has some
input, as in Figure 5-4. Rather than standing by passively as the slides advance, the viewer
can tell PowerPoint when to advance a slide. Depending on the presentation’s setup,
viewers may also be able to skip around in the presentation (perhaps to skip over topics
they’re not interested in) and request more information. This type of presentation is
typically addressed to a single user at a time, rather than a group.
Figure 5-4: In a user-interactive presentation, the audience chooses when to advance
slides and what to see next. It typically requires more time to prepare because you must
account for all possible user choices.
This kind of presentation is most typically distributed over the Internet, a company
intranet, or via CD. The user runs it using either PowerPoint or a free program called
PowerPoint Viewer that you can provide for download. You can also translate a
PowerPoint presentation to HTML format (the native format for World Wide Web pages),
so that anyone with a Web browser can view it. However, presentations lose a lot of their
cool features when you do that (such as the sound and video clips), so consider the
decision carefully.
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Step 3: Choosing Your Delivery Method
Whereas the presentation method is the general conceptual way the audience interacts with
the information, the delivery method is the way that you deliver that interaction. It’s a subtle
but important difference. For example, suppose you have decided that speaker-led is your
presentation method. That’s the big picture, but how will you deliver it? Will you present
from a computer, or use 35mm slides, or overhead transparencies, or just plain old
handouts? All of those fall under the big umbrella of “speaker-led.”
PowerPoint gives you a lot of options for delivery method. Some of these are appropriate
mainly for speaker-led shows; others can be used for any presentation method. Here are
some of the choices:
✦ Computer show through PowerPoint. You can use PowerPoint’s View Show
feature to play the slides on the computer screen. You can hook up a larger, external
monitor to the PC so that the audience can see it better if needed. This requires that
PowerPoint (or the PowerPoint Viewer utility) be installed on the computer at the
presentation site. This works for speaker-led, self-running, or user-interactive shows.
✦ Computer show through a Web site. You can save your presentation in Web
format and then publish it to a Web site. You can use this for speaker-led, selfrunning, or user-interactive shows, and no special software is requiredjust a Web
browser. However, you lose some of the cool graphical effects, including some
transitions and animation effects. Web delivery is used mostly for user-interactive
or self-running shows.
✦ Computer show on CD. You can create a CD containing the presentation and the
PowerPoint Viewer utility. The presentation starts automatically whenever the
CD is inserted into a PC. This would be most useful for user-interactive or selfrunning shows.
✦ 35mm slides. For a speaker-led presentation, 35mm slides can be created. They
look good, but they require a slide projector and viewing screen, and don’t show
up well in a room with much light. You also, of course, lose all the special effects
such as animations and sounds. 35mm slides are for speaker-led shows only, as
are the next two options.
✦ Overhead transparencies. If you don’t have a computer or a slide projector
available for your speaker-led show, you might be forced to use an old-fashioned
overhead projector. You can create overhead transparencies on most printers. (Be
careful that the type you buy are designed to work with your type of printer!
Transparencies designed for inkjet printers will melt in a laser printer.)
✦ Paper. The last resort, if there is no projection media available whatsoever, is to
distribute your slides to the audience on paper. You will want to give them
handouts, but the handouts should be a supplement to an on-screen show, not the
main show themselves, if possible.
Note
For more information on incorporating any of these delivery methods in your PowerPoint presentation, see Wiley’s PowerPoint 2003 Bible, which covers everything in detail.
Chapter 5 ✦ Developing Your PowerPoint Action Plan
Step 4: Choosing the Appropriate Template
and Design
PowerPoint comes with so many presentation templates and designs that you’re sure to find
one that’s appropriate for your situation. PowerPoint provides three levels of help in this
arena. You can use an AutoContent Wizard to work through a series of dialog boxes that
help you create a presentation based on a presentation template, you can apply a design
template, or you can work from scratch.
PowerPoint includes two kinds of templates: presentation templates and design templates.
Presentation templates contain sample text and sample formatting appropriate to certain
situations. For example, there are several presentation templates that can help you sell a
product or service. The AutoContent Wizard is the best way to choose a presentation template.
If you want to take advantage of the sample text provided by a presentation template, you
should make sure you choose one that’s appropriate. PowerPoint includes dozens, so you
should take some time going through them to understand the full range of options before
making your decision. Remember, once you’ve started a presentation using one presentation
template, you can’t change to another without starting over.
A design template, in contrast, is just a combination of fonts, colors, and graphics, and you
can apply a different design to any presentation at any time. Therefore, it’s not as crucial to
select the correct design up front, because you can play with these elements later.
Tip
You aren’t stuck with the color scheme or design that comes with a particular presentation
template. If you like the sample text in one presentation template and the design in another,
start with the one containing the good sample text. Then borrow the design from the other one
later. Each design comes with several alternative color schemes, so pick the design first, and
then the color scheme.
Generally speaking, your choice of design should depend on the audience and the way you
plan to present. Here are some suggestions:
✦ To make an audience feel good or relaxed about a topic, use blues and greens. To
get an audience excited and happy, use reds and yellows. For slides you plan to
project on a slide screen or show on a PC, use high contrast, such as dark backgrounds with light lettering or light backgrounds with dark lettering. For slides you
plan to print and hand out, dark on white is better.
✦ For readability in print, use serif fonts like Times New Roman. For readability
onscreen, or for a casual, modern feel, use sans-serif fonts like Arial.
✦ The farther away from the screen the audience will be, the larger you need to make
the lettering.
✦ It’s best if all slides use the same design and color scheme, but there may be
exceptions when your interests are best served by breaking that rule. For example,
you might shake things up midway through a presentation by showing a key slide
with a different color background.
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Step 5: Developing the Content
Only after you have made all the decisions in Steps 1 through 4 can you start developing
your content in a real PowerPoint presentation. This is the point at which Chapter 6 of
the PowerPoint 2003 Bible picks up, guiding you through creating the file and
organizing slides.
Then comes the work of writing the text for each slide, which most people prefer to do in
Normal view. Type the text on the outline or on the text placeholder on the slide itself,
reformat it as needed to make certain bits of it special (for example, setting a key phrase in
bold or italics), and you’re ready to roll.
Developing your content may include more than just typing text. Your content may
include charts (created in PowerPoint or imported from another program, such as Excel),
pictures, and other elements.
Step 6: Creating the Visual Image
The term visual image refers to the overall impression that the audience gets from watching
the presentation. You create a polished, professional impression by making small tweaks to
your presentation after you have the content down pat.
You can enhance the visual image by making minor adjustments to the slide’s design.
For example, you can give a dark slide a warmer feel by using bright yellow instead of
white for lettering. Repositioning a company logo and making it larger may make the
headings look less lonely. WordArt can be used to take the place of regular text,
especially on a title slide (as in Figures 5-5 and 5-6). A product picture may be more
attractive in a larger size or with a different-colored mat around it. All of these little
touches take practice and experience.
Figure 5-5: The look of this sparsely populated page can be easily improved.
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Figure 5-6: Using WordArt allows this page to make a sharper impact.
Audiences like consistency. They like things they can rely on, like a repeated company logo
on every slide, accurate page numbering on handouts, and the title appearing in exactly the
same spot on every slide. You can create a consistent visual image by enforcing such rules in
your presentation development. It’s easier than you might think, because PowerPoint
provides a Slide Master specifically for images and text that should repeat on each slide.
Step 7: Adding Multimedia Effects
If you’re creating a self-running presentation, multimedia effects can be extremely
important for developing audience interest. Flashy videos and soundtracks can make even
the most boring product fun to hear about. How about a trumpet announcing the arrival of
your new product on the market, or a video of your CEO explaining the reasoning behind
the recent merger?
Caution
Even if you are going to be speaking live, you still might want to incorporate some multimedia
elements in your show. Be careful, however, not to let them outshine you or appear gratuitous.
Be aware of your audience (see Step 1), and remember that older and higher-level managers
want less flash and more substance.
All kinds of presentations can benefit from animations and transitions on the slides.
Animations are simple movements of the objects on a slide. For example, you might make
the bullet points on a list fly onto the page one at a time so you can discuss each one on its
own. When the next one flies in, the previous ones can turn a different color so the current
one stands out. Or you might animate a picture of a car so that it appears to “drive onto”
the slide, accompanied by the sound of an engine revving. You can also animate charts by
making data series appear one at a time, so it looks like the chart is building.
Transitions are animated ways of moving from slide to slide. The most basic and boring
transition is to simply remove one slide from the screen and replace it with another, but you
can use all kinds of alternative effects like zooming the new slide in; sliding it from the top,
bottom, left, or right; or creating a fade in transition effect.
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Step 8: Creating the Handouts and Notes
This step is applicable only for speaker-led presentations. With a live audience, you may want
to provide handouts so they can follow along. The handouts can be verbatim copies of your
slides, or they can be abbreviated versions with just the most basic information included as a
memory-jogger. Handouts can be either black and white or color.
PowerPoint provides several handout formats. You can print from one to nine slides per
printout, with or without lines for the audience to write additional notes. Figure 5-7 shows a
typical page from a set of audience handouts.
Figure 5-7: A live audience will appreciate having handouts to help them follow along
with the presentation and remember the content later.
Chapter 5 ✦ Developing Your PowerPoint Action Plan
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A continual debate rages in the professional speakers’ community over when to give out handouts. Some people feel that if you distribute handouts before the presentation, people will read
them and not listen to the presentation. Others feel that if you wait until after the presentation to
distribute the handouts, people will frantically try to take their own notes during the presentation
or will not follow the ideas as easily. There’s no real right or wrong, it seems, so distribute them
whenever it makes the most sense for your situation.
As the speaker, you may need your own special set of handouts with your own notes that
the audience should not see. PowerPoint calls these Notes Pages, and there is a special
view for creating them. (You can also enter notes directly into the Notes pane in Normal
view.). Notes, like handouts, are covered in Chapter 24 of Wiley’s PowerPoint 2003 Bible.
Step 9: Rehearsing the Presentation
No matter which type of presentation you are creating (speaker-led, self-running, or userinteractive), you need to rehearse it. The goals for rehearsing, however, are different for
each type.
Rehearsing a live presentation
When you rehearse a live presentation, you check the presentation slides to ensure they are
complete, accurate, and in the right order. You may need to rearrange them and hide some of
them for backup-only use.
You should also rehearse using PowerPoint’s presentation controls that display each slide on
a monitor and let you move from slide to slide, take notes, assign action items, and even
draw directly on a slide. Make sure you know how to back up, how to jump to the beginning
or end, and how to display one of your backup slides.
Rehearsing a self-running presentation
With a speaker-led presentation, the presenter can fix any glitches that pop up or explain
away any errors. With a self-running presentation, you don’t have that luxury. The
presentation itself is your emissary. Therefore, you must go over and over it, checking it
many times to make sure it is perfect before distributing it. Nothing is worse than a selfrunning presentation that doesn’t run, or one that contains an embarrassing error.
The most important feature in a self-running presentation is timing. You must make the
presentation pause the correct amount of time for the audience to be able to read the text on
each slide. The pause must be long enough so that even slow readers can catch it all, but
short enough so that fast readers do not get bored. Can you see how difficult this can be to
make perfect?
PowerPoint has a Rehearse Timings feature (Figure 5-8) designed to help you with this task.
It lets you show the slides and advance them manually after the correct amount of time has
passed. The Rehearse Timings feature records how much time you spend on each slide and
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gives you a report so you can modify the timing if necessary. For example, suppose you are
working on a presentation that is supposed to last 10 minutes, but with your timings, it
comes out to only 9 minutes. You can add additional time for each slide to stretch it out to
fill the full 10 minutes.
Figure 5-8: You can rehearse timings so your audience has enough time to read the
slides but doesn’t get bored waiting for the next one.
You may also want to record voice-over narration for your presentation. You can rehearse
this too, to make sure that the voice matches the slide it is supposed to describe (which is
absolutely crucial, as you can imagine!).
Rehearsing a user-interactive presentation
In a user-interactive presentation, you provide the readers with on-screen buttons they can
click to move through the presentation, so timing is not an issue. The crucial factor with a
user-interactive presentation is link accuracy. Each button on each slide is a link. When
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your readers click a button for the next slide, it had better darned well take them to the
next slide and not to somewhere else. And if you include a hyperlink to a Web address on
the Internet, when the readers click it, the Web browser should open and that page should
appear. If the hyperlink contains a typo and the readers see File Not Found instead of
the Web page, the error reflects poorly on you.
If you are planning to distribute your presentation via the Internet, you have a big decision
to make. You can distribute the presentation in its native PowerPoint format and preserve
all its whiz-bang features like animations and videos. However, not everyone on the
Internet owns a copy of PowerPoint, obviously, so you limit your audience. PowerPoint
supplies a free program called the PowerPoint Viewer that you can post for downloading
on your Web page, but not everyone will take the time to download and install that, so you
may turn off potential viewers before you start.
The other option is to save the presentation in HTML (Web) format. When you save in
HTML format, you convert each of the slides to a Web page, and you add links (if you
didn’t already have them) that move from slide to slide. You lose many of the animations,
transitions, sounds, videos, any animated graphics, and some other extras, but you retain
your text and most static elements of the presentation. The advantage is that everyone with
a Web browser can view your presentation with no special downloads or setup.
Step 10: Giving the Presentation
For a user-interactive or self-running presentation, giving the presentation is somewhat
anticlimactic. You just make it available and the users come get it. Yawn.
However, for a speaker-led presentation, giving the speech is the highlight, the pinnacle, of
the process. If you’ve done a good job rehearsing, you are already familiar with
PowerPoint’s presentation controls. Be prepared to back up, to skip ahead, to answer
questions by displaying hidden slides, and to pause the whole thing (and black out the
screen) so you can hold a tangential discussion.
What remains then? Nothing except setting up the room and overcoming your stage fright.
Step 11: Assessing Your Success and Refining
Your Work
If giving a presentation was a one-time thing for you — great. It’s over, and you never
have to think about it again. But more likely, you will have to give another presentation
someday, somewhere, so don’t drive the experience out of your mind just yet. Perhaps you
learned something that might be useful to you later?
Immediately after the presentation, while it is still fresh in your mind, jot down your
responses to these questions. Then keep them on file to refer to later, the next time you
have to do a presentation!
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✦ Did the colors and design of the slides seem appropriate?
✦ Could everyone in the audience read the slides easily?
✦ Did the audience look mostly at you, at the screen, or at the handouts? Was that
what you intended?
✦ Did the audience try to take notes as you were speaking? If so, did you give them
handouts with note-taking lines to write on?
✦ Was the length of the presentation appropriate? Did the audience get bored or
restless at any point?
✦ Were there any slides that you wished you had prepared but didn’t?
✦ Were there any slides that you would omit if you were doing it over?
✦ Did your speaker notes give you enough help that you could speak with authority?
✦ Did the transitions and animations add to the entertainment value, or were they
distracting or corny?
✦ Did the sound and video clips play with adequate quality? Were they appropriate
and useful?
Summary
Creating effective PowerPoint presentations requires more than just knowing the software. It
requires careful planning and step-by-step preparation. In this chapter, you learned about the
steps you need to take, from start to finish, to assemble the PowerPoint slides for your next
great success:
✦ Step 1: Identify your audience and purpose. No flip answers are acceptable here;
spend some time thinking about the right answers.
✦ Step 2: Choose your presentation method. Will you give a live, speaker-led show,
distribute it online, or set up a self-running kiosk show?
✦ Step 3: Choose your delivery method. Will you deliver with a 35mm projector?
With a computer? With overhead transparencies? Over the Internet?
✦ Step 4: Choose a template and design. PowerPoint comes with dozens of professional-quality templates, some of which include sample text. Choose the one that
matches your answers in Steps 1 and 2.
✦ Step 5: Develop the content. Flash is useless without substance. Create the text for
your presentation in Outline view in PowerPoint or import an outline from Word.
✦ Step 6: Create the visual image. Polish your presentation design by making sure
that the slides are attractive and consistent.
✦ Step 7: Add multimedia effects. Only after the content and overall image are solid
should you add extras like sound, video, transition, and animation.
Chapter 5 ✦ Developing Your PowerPoint Action Plan
✦ Step 8: Create handouts and notes. If you are giving a live presentation, you may
want notes for yourself (speaker notes) and notes for your audience (handouts).
✦ Step 9: Rehearse. Run through your presentation several times to make sure it is
free from embarrassing mistakes. If necessary, add timing controls and voice-over
narratives.
✦ Step 10: Give the presentation. Take a deep breath and imagine the audience in
their underwear! If you’re familiar with PowerPoint’s presentation controls, you’ll
do fine.
✦ Step 11: Review and revise your work. There’s always room for improvement.
Analyze your performance to make the next one even better.
✦
✦
✦
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6
Introducing
Publisher
C H A P T E R
.
O
.
.
In This Chapter
nce upon a time, it took designers, typesetters, and complex
mechanical equipment to turn out a published document,
especially if it featured pictures, fancy typefaces, and color. Today,
thanks to computers, every desktop is a full-featured print shop,
with designers, typesetters, and printing equipment within arm’s
reach — at least, it is if it has a computer with desktop publishing
software installed.
You can achieve a lot of desktop publishing effects with Word and
PowerPoint, but if you really want your publications to look their
best, you need a dedicated desktop publishing program. One of the
best is Microsoft Publisher, and this chapter will get you familiar
with the basics.
The Publisher Workspace
Publisher shares a basic look with other Microsoft Office
applications, but it’s still worthwhile taking a quick look at the
Publisher workspace before you begin trying to use the application.
When you first start Publisher, you’ll see a Start page that tells you
“To get started, select an option in the list.” The list referred to is
the New Publication task pane, which offers you the option of
creating a new publication based on one of the designs included
with Publisher (you can choose from Publications for Print, Web
Sites and E-mail, Design Sets or Blank Publications), creating a
new Blank Print Publication or Blank Web Page, or creating a new
publication based on an existing publication.
Note
.
The “Create a new publication based on an existing publication”
option won’t do you much good if this is the first time you’ve installed Publisher on your machine, because you won’t have any
existing publications.
Exploring the Publisher
workspace
Using Publication
Designs
Adding text
Inserting and formatting
graphics
Working with tables
.
.
.
.
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For now, click on the Blank Print Publication link under the New area. This opens a default
blank document in Publisher’s workspace, similar to Figure 6-1. The various components of
the workspace are labeled in that figure.
Figure 6-1: Publisher’s workspace is similar to that of other Office applications.
The main features of the workspace are the page area (the white rectangle) and the scratch
area (the gray area surrounding the page area). The page area is where you place the text,
graphics, and so forth that you want to appear in the final publication; the scratch area is a
virtual desktop where you can drag items when you want to get them out of the way or store
them for later use.
To the left of the scratch area is a task pane. You’ll see many different task panes as you work
with Publisher; as with other Office applications, they offer you a variety of options related to
whatever task you’re currently undertaking. In Figure 6-1, the Publication Designs task pane
is open.
Framing the top and left sides of the workspace are the vertical and horizontal rulers, which
help you position items precisely.
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Like most Office applications, Publisher displays the Standard and Formatting toolbars by
default. The Standard toolbar is directly under the menu bar, and the Formatting toolbar is
directly under that.
Publisher also has a special toolbar called the Objects toolbar, which runs vertically down the
left side of the workspace. These tools let you create what Publisher calls objects, which
include text boxes, picture frames, WordArt, tables, lines, shapes, and Web-specific objects
such as hotspots, form controls, and HTML code fragments.
Down the right side of the workspace, the Picture toolbar is displayed by default. It offers
tools for inserting and working with pictures, including a cropping tool, color, brightness and
contrast controls, and text wrapping controls.
Among the tools on the Standard toolbar are the Zoom controls. The Zoom list box lets you
choose how large you want the display of your page to be; in addition to specific percentages
of full size, it offers you the choice to view the whole page, the full width of the page, or to
zoom in to a selected object. You can zoom in and out a step at a time by using the Zoom In
and Zoom Out buttons, marked with a plus and minus sign, respectively.
At the bottom of the workspace is the status bar, which provides precise information about
the location of the pointer and the dimensions of objects that are currently selected. As well, it
shows a numbered icon for each page in the publication; you can jump from page to page just
by clicking on its icon.
Using Publication Designs
Whenever you start Publisher, the Start page offers you the opportunity to work from a
publication design. The four options are Publications for Print, Web Sites and E-mail, Design
Sets and Blank Publications.
These pre-designed publications are organized in two different ways. You can browse through
them by publication type (by selecting Publications for Print or Web Sites and E-mail), or you
can browse through them by their overall design (by choosing Design Sets). You can also
select one of a number of blank publications by choosing Blank Publications.
The four main categories are broken down into many subcategories. For instance, if you click
on Web Sites and E-mail, you open a submenu offering you Web Sites and E-mail. If you
then choose Web Sites, you’re offered four more choices: Easy Web Site Builder, 3-Page Web
Site, Product Sales and Professional Services.
Notice that each publication in the gallery has a name, for example, “Accent Box Services
Web Site” or “Floating Oval Services Web Site.” The latter part of the name refers to the type
of publication; the first part refers to the style in which the publication is designed.
If you click on the Design Set option, and you’re your way down through the sub-menu to the
individual design sets, you’ll see all the publication designs available within each one (see
Figure 6-2).
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Figure 6-2: Browsing by Design Sets shows you all the publications available that use a
certain basic design.
Note
In addition to Master Sets, which are based on common graphic elements, fonts, and so forth,
Publisher offers special design sets based around common themes: Personal Stationery Sets,
Special Event Sets, Fund-raiser Sets, Holiday Sets, We’ve Moved Sets, Restaurant Sets and
Special Paper. If you’re looking for something that falls within those themes, look there first.
As previously mentioned, you also have the option of starting a publication from scratch
by choosing Blank Publication from the New option on the design list, or Blank Print
Publication or Blank Web Page from the New area of the New Publication task pane.
Additionally, you can create a new publication based on an existing publication by
choosing “From existing publication” in the New area. This opens a copy of an existing
publication, which you can then modify and save without affecting the original
publication it is based on. Finally, you can simply open an existing publication that you
intend to alter.
Chapter 6 ✦ Introducing Publisher
Working with Text
The primary components of any publication are text and graphics, so the rest of this chapter
looks at how you insert and manipulate text and graphics in Publisher — beginning with text.
Typing in text
Once you have opened or created a Publisher publication, to type new text into it, follow
these steps:
1. Click the Text Box button at the top of the Objects toolbar.
2. Your pointer changes to a crosshairs; use this to draw a box where you want the text
to appear.
3. Type your text into the frame just as if you were typing a document in Word (see
Figure 6-3).
Figure 6-3: Typing text into a Publisher text box is as easy as typing in Word.
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If you run out of space, you can resize your text box by clicking and dragging the handles that
surround it. A text box can hold more text than is visible. If you reduce the size of the frame,
some text disappears but it isn’t lost; expanding the text box makes it visible again.
Note
New in Publisher 2003 is the option to insert a Vertical Text Box (that’s the button directly under
the Text Box button on the Objects toolbar). A vertical text box work just like a regular text box,
except the text you type into it is turned 90 degrees to the right and reads from top to bottom.
Inserting a text file
Sometimes you want to insert a whole text file from Word or some other application. To do
so, use these steps:
1. Draw a text box as before.
2. Choose Insert _ Text File from the menu bar.
3. Locate the file you want to insert and click OK.
4. Publisher inserts the file into your text box (see Figure 6-4).
Note
Notice the small box in the lower-right corner of the text box with the letter A followed by three
dots in it. That indicates that more text is contained in the text box than is currently visible.
Figure 6-4: This Word file, inserted into a Publisher document, keeps all its original
formatting.
Chapter 6 ✦ Introducing Publisher
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Autoflow and linked frames
When you insert text into an existing text box, sometimes you get a message warning you
that the inserted text won’t fit. You’re asked if you’d like to use autoflow. If you choose
Yes, Publisher jumps to every other text box in the publication in turn, asking if you’d like
to insert the remaining text into that frame. If you don’t place all the text in existing
frames, it eventually asks you if it should insert new pages and frames to accommodate
the text.
Text inserted into multiple frames using autoflow results in a series of linked frames. When
frames are linked, changing the formatting in one frame — making text larger, for instance, or
reducing line spacing — results in adjustments in all of the linked frames. You can also select
all the text in all of the frames simply by choosing Edit _ Select All.
You can tell when frames are linked because a small image of a chain link with an arrow
beside it appears in the lower-right corner of the first frame (see Figure 6-5); a similar
image appears in the upper-left corners and bottom-right corners of frames further down
the chain. Clicking these images takes you automatically to the next or previous frame in
the chain.
Figure 6-5: This little icon at the bottom of a text box indicates it’s just one frame in a
chain. Clicking on it takes you to the next frame in the chain.
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You can unlink text boxes at any time by clicking the Break Forward Link button on the
Connect Frames toolbar, which becomes active whenever you create linked frames. You can
also link text boxes together by selecting the first frame you want to link, clicking the Create
Text Box Link button, and then clicking the next frame.
Formatting text
Once you’ve inserted text into a text box, you can format it just as you would in Word. Many
of the tools on the Formatting toolbar are, in fact, identical, so choosing font, style, size,
alignment, and so forth will seem very familiar.
Note
You can set the formatting for a text box before you begin typing in it, or you can apply formatting to highlighted text.
Formatting toolbar buttons
Briefly, the Formatting toolbar buttons for text are as follows:
✦ Style: Choose the style you want from the list box. You can create your own style or
import styles from another program by choosing Format _ Styles and Formatting or
by clicking the Styles and Formatting button on the Formatting toolbar, both of
which open a task pane much like the one you use to modify styles in Word.
✦ Font: Choose the font you want to use from this list. Font names are shown in their
respective fonts by default, which makes it easier to pick the right one.
✦ Font Size: Choose the size you want your text to be, in points, from this list.
Remember that a point is approximately 1/72 of an inch, so 36-point letters, for
example, are about half an inch tall when printed.
✦ Bold, Italic, Underline: Click these buttons to apply their respective effects. Click
them again to cancel their effects
✦ Align Left, Center, Align Right, Justify: Specify the alignment of your text within
the text box with these buttons.
✦ Distribute All Lines: This is similar to Justify, but it expands all lines to fill the
space between the margins of the text box, including the final lines of paragraphs
that might otherwise end halfway.
✦ Numbering, Bullets: Create numbered or bulleted lists by clicking these buttons.
Specify the formatting of the lists by choosing Format _ Indents and Lists.
✦ Decrease Indent, Increase Indent: Clicking the Decrease Indent button moves text
closer to the left margin; clicking Increase Indent moves it away from the left
margin. Adjust indents with more accuracy by using the sliders on the horizontal
ruler or by choosing Format _ Indents and Lists.
✦ Decrease Font Size, Increase Font Size: Clicking these buttons changes the text
size to either the next smallest size in the Font Size list or the next largest.
Chapter 6 ✦ Introducing Publisher
✦ Fill Color, Line Color, Font Color: Fill Color determines the color that fills the
text box; you can also choose patterns as fills or create gradient fills. Line Color
and Font Color determine the color of any lines used in the text box border and the
color of the text itself, respectively. Each offers options for choosing colors from
the color schemes mentioned earlier, or for picking your own colors from those
available on your computer.
✦ Line/Border Style, Dash Style, Arrow Style: This lets you specify the location and
appearance of border lines around the text box and turn ordinary lines into arrows.
✦ Shadow Style, 3-D Style: Use these buttons to add a drop shadow or 3-D effect to
the text box (not to the text itself).
Format menu options
For more detailed formatting, choose Format from the menu bar and select the item you want
to fine-tune. Options under the Format menu include the following:
✦ Font: Opens a dialog box that lets you choose font, font style, size, and color all in
one place. In addition, it offers a variety of underlining styles and some formatting
styles that aren’t available by default on the Formatting toolbar, including
Superscript, Subscript, Emboss, and Engrave.
✦ Character Spacing: Lets you set scaling, tracking, and kerning. Scaling lets you
stretch or condense characters. It doesn’t change their height, only their width.
This can create interesting special effects (see Figure 6-6) or let you cram a bit
more text than you’d normally be able to into a narrow text box. Tracking adjusts
the overall spacing of a block of text, while kerning adjusts the spacing between
adjacent characters.
Figure 6-6: Scaling your text can create interesting effects. The word WEIGHT in this
figure is scaled to 200 percent.
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✦ Paragraph: Lets you adjust the amount of space between lines and between
paragraphs, as well as indents and other features.
✦ AutoFit Text: Choose Best Fit to automatically adjust the size of text in a selected
text box to come as close as possible to filling the text box. Choose Shrink Text on
Overflow to ensure that text that flows into other text boxes returns to the original
size, instead of taking the Best Fit size. By default, both these options are turned off.
✦ Tabs: Works the same as in Word; it lets you set tab stops and assign leaders
(repeating characters, such as dots or dashes) to them.
✦ Horizontal Rules: Tells Publisher to automatically insert horizontal lines before or
after (or both) a paragraph and lets you specify thickness, color, style, and position.
✦ Quick Publication Options, Publication Designs, Color Schemes, Font Schemes:
All of these enable you to apply some of the professionally designed schemes included
with Publisher to your current publication. Quick Publication Options (see Figure 6-7)
lets you automatically add elements of a Quick Publication, Publication Designs lets
you apply elements of one of the designs from the Publication Gallery, Color Schemes
changes the colors of your fonts and other elements to match a set color scheme
designed to look good, and Font schemes does the same with the fonts you’re using.
Figure 6-7: Publisher makes it easy at any time to apply one of the professionally
created designs included with the program to your own publication.
✦ Styles and Formatting: Opens the Styles and Formatting task pane and lets you
modify or apply styles.
✦ Text Box: Lets you format the text box itself. You can adjust its background color,
the line or border that surrounds it, and its size; rotate it anyway you want; adjust the
Chapter 6 ✦ Introducing Publisher
way text inside it wraps around graphics; set its internal margins; break the text
inside it into columns; and even add an automatic “Continued on page...” or
“Continued from page...” slug at the top or bottom of it. There are several tabs here;
explore them freely.
✦ Bullets and Numbering: Lets you create normal, bulleted or numbered lists and set
left, first-line, and right indents for lists.
✦ Drop Cap: Provides a selection of preformatted drop caps — extra-large capital
letters at the start of paragraph, as in old-fashioned books — or lets you create your
own custom drop cap, setting the font, size, and so on.
The Measurements toolbar
The Measurements toolbar lets you control many aspects of spacing and positioning of text
boxes with handy control boxes.
To view the Measurements toolbar, choose View _ Toolbars _ Measurements or click View
Toolbar on the dialog boxes just mentioned that have to do with spacing, such as the
Character Spacing dialog box.
The Measurements toolbar is shown in Figure 6-8. Any changes you make with the
Measurements toolbar controls show up immediately on the screen, which makes this a very
useful mechanism for fine-tuning your publication. Here’s how it works:
Figure 6-8: The Measurements toolbar lets you fine-tune your publication by entering
precise values for a number of parameters.
✦ The two top controls, labeled x and y, control the horizontal and vertical positions of
the text box, measured from the zero points of the horizontal and vertical rulers to
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the left and top edges of the text box. Of course, you can always drag a text box
around on the page to reposition it, but if you want precise positioning, these
controls can give it to you. You can either type in the coordinates you want or click
the little up and down arrows beside each control.
✦ The next two controls down control width and height of the text box.
✦ The next one controls rotation.
✦ In the bottom section are spacing controls for the text itself: from top to bottom,
tracking, scaling, kerning, and line spacing.
Working with Graphics
Pictures for your publication can come from several sources: the Clip Organizer, a file on
your computer (which you may have downloaded off the Internet, for example), a scanner, or
a digital camera. Once they’re inserted into your publication, you can manipulate them in a
variety of ways.
Inserting a picture file
To insert a picture file, follow these steps:
1. Click the Picture Frame button on the Objects toolbar.
2. From the menu, choose Picture from File.
3. Your pointer changes to a crosshairs; use it to draw a frame approximately the size
you want the inserted picture to be.
4. Publisher automatically opens the Insert Picture dialog box, a standard browsing box
that you can use to locate the picture file you want on your computer.
5. Click Insert.
6. The picture is inserted into the frame you drew for it. The frame is automatically
resized so the picture isn’t distorted; the width of the frame remains the same, but
the height may change.
Inserting a Clip Organizer image
To insert a Clip Organizer image, follow these steps:
1. Click the Picture Frame button on the Objects toolbar.
2. Choose Clip Art from the menu.
3. The Clip Art task pane opens. Search for the image you want and, after you find it,
click on it to insert it into your publication.
4. The Clip Art is inserted into the frame. Again, the frame’s size changes to prevent
the picture from being distorted.
Chapter 6 ✦ Introducing Publisher
Inserting a scanner or camera image
To insert an image from a scanner or digital camera, use these steps:
1. Choose Insert _ Picture _ From Scanner or Camera _ Select Device to choose the
camera or scanner you want to acquire the picture from (if you have more than one
installed).
2. Choose Insert _ Picture _ From Scanner or Camera _ Acquire Image to open the
device’s software and acquire the picture.
3. The picture is inserted into your document. You can then drag it to where you want
it and work with it in a variety of ways (see the next section).
Formatting pictures
Once you’ve inserted a picture, you can manipulate it in a variety of ways. You can:
✦ Recolor it: Choose Format _ Picture and then choose the Picture tab. In the
resulting dialog box you can apply a number of color effects; the Color drop-down
list includes Grayscale, Black & White, and Washout, as well as the default
Automatic, which uses the picture’s original colors. You can adjust the brightness
and contrast here as well, or you can click the Recolor button to open the dialog box
in Figure 6-9. This lets you recolor the whole picture or leave the black parts black
and just recolor the colored parts. Choose the color using the Color control; you can
also apply tint and shade fill effects. You can undo changes to the color of a picture
by clicking Restore Original Colors.
Figure 6-9: Recolor a picture, or restore it to its original color, using these controls.
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✦ Resize it: Choose Format _ Picture and choose the Size tab to open a dialog box
where you can change both the height and width of the picture by entering either a
specific measurement (in the Size and rotate area) or a percentage of its original
height and width (in the Scale area). You can return a picture to its original size by
clicking the Reset button. You can also rotate the picture using the rotation tools in
the “Size and rotate” area.
Caution
If you scale height and weight by different percentages, your picture is distorted. To avoid this,
check the Lock aspect ratio checkbox; this ensures that whenever you change one dimension
of the picture, the other changes proportionately.
✦ Apply a fill or a border: Choose Format _ Picture and click the Colors and Lines
tab to apply a fill or a border to the picture frame. You can achieve the same effect
by clicking the appropriate buttons on the Formatting toolbar.
✦ Change how text wraps around the picture: Choose Format _ Picture and click
the Layout tab to open the dialog box in Figure 6-10, where you can set margins for
the picture frame and also determine whether, if the picture is placed over a text box,
text wraps around the outside of the picture frame or tucks in closely around the
picture itself. This dialog box also enables you to position the text frame very
precisely, using the Position on page controls at the top.
Figure 6-10: Set the text wrap properties of a picture frame using this dialog box.
Chapter 6 ✦ Introducing Publisher
✦ Rotate the picture: As noted, you can do this using the Picture tab of the Format _
Picture dialog box, but the easiest way to do it is simply to point at the green handle
that sticks up from the top of the picture and rotate the picture visually, by clicking
and dragging.
✦ Crop the picture: Choose Format _ Picture and click the Picture tab. Crop the
picture using the controls at the top, by choosing how far from each edge to crop the
picture.
Tip
A better way to crop pictures is by using the Picture toolbar6-. This is displayed by default down
the right side of the workspace and contains a number of useful tools. Click the Crop button to
crop the picture visually by clicking and dragging on its corners (see Figure 6-11).
Figure 6-11: The Picture toolbar contains one-button controls for many of the options
also available through the Format _ Picture dialog box. Here the Crop tool is being used
to crop away everything but the head of the cow.
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Drawing lines and shapes
Publisher also lets you draw basic shapes with four simple drawing tools on the Objects
toolbar: the Line tool, the Oval tool, the Rectangle tool, and the Custom Shapes tool. The
Line tool also lets you draw arrows and adjust the shape of the arrowheads.
Custom Shapes provides you with a small menu of a variety of starbursts, arrows, and other
useful shapes. If the shape includes a small gray diamond, its shape is adjustable; click and
drag on the diamond to see what effect it has.
You can apply different line styles and fills to shapes and rotate them, as well.
Working with Tables
The third most common type of object you’re likely to want in a Publisher publication is a
table.
Inserting a table
To insert a table, follow these steps:
1. Click the Insert Table button on the Objects toolbar.
2. Draw a frame, just as you did for text and graphics.
3. The Create Table dialog box opens (see Figure 6-12). Enter the number of rows and
columns you want in your table.
4. Choose a design you like from Table Format menu.
5. Click OK. Publisher creates a table with the number of rows and columns you
indicated, sized to fit in the frame you drew.
Chapter 6 ✦ Introducing Publisher
Figure 6-12: The Create Table dialog box gives you a number of table designs to choose
from.
Entering data into a table
Once you’ve got your blank table, entering information into it is simply a matter of clicking
on the cell you want to enter information into and then typing away. The same formatting
tools are available to you for formatting text within a table as are available when you are
working in a text box.
Editing a table
Publisher tables don’t offer nearly as many options as, say, Word tables when it comes to
making changes. In fact, there are only a few, all accessed by choosing Table from the
menu bar:
✦ Insert: Choosing this option inserts Columns to the Left, Columns to the Right,
Rows Above or Rows Below, or a whole new table.
✦ Delete: Deletes the rows or columns containing the currently selected cells, or delete
the whole table.
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✦ Select: Selects the entire table, the current rows or columns, or just the cell in which
the cursor is currently located.
✦ Merge Cells: Turns any currently selected cells into one big cell, erasing the borders
between them.
✦ Split Cells: Highlights a merged cell and choose Split Cells to turn it back into its
original individual cells.
✦ Cell Diagonals: Splits currently selected cells into two distinct cells divided by a
diagonal line, which can slant either up or down.
✦ Table AutoFormat: Changes the format of your table.
✦ Fill Down and Fill Right: Fills a column or row of selected cells with the contents
of either the topmost or leftmost cell in the selected range.
✦ Grow to Fit Text: When checked, this automatically increases row height within the
table to make room for whatever text you enter into it.
Summary
This chapter introduced the most often used elements of Microsoft Publisher, the powerful
desktop publishing program that comes with some versions of Microsoft Office. Points
covered included:
✦ The Publisher workspace is very similar to that of other Office applications; if
you’re already used to Word, FrontPage or PowerPoint, you should feel right at
home.
✦ Publisher comes with a lot of pre-designed publications that you can use as the basis
of your own; the hard layout work has already been done, and all you need to do is
insert your own text and graphics.
✦ Working with text in Publisher is done within text boxes; within a text box, text can
be formatted in much the same way it is formatted in Word. You can change the
font, font size, color, spacing and more.
✦ Text can be linked from text box to text box, which makes it easier to flow long
items through a publication.
✦ You can insert graphics in Publisher from the Microsoft Clip Organizer, from a file
on your computer, or from a scanner or digital camera. You can also draw your own
shapes with Publisher’s built-in drawing tools.
✦ Tables are easy to insert and work with in Publisher, but not quite as full-featured as
you may be used to in Word.
✦
✦
✦
Building
FrontPage
Web Sites
7
C H A P T E R
.
.
.
.
In This Chapter
Y
ou might already know how to create a Web site with linked
pages. You might also be familiar with applying themes and
sharing borders, which give your site a sense of consistency and
enable visitors to navigate it. This chapter describes in more
detail the process of designing and adding content to a Web site.
Web Design Strategies
Web pages and Web sites have something of a chicken and egg
relationship: no real answer exists as to which comes first when
you design a Web site. You can create Web page content first and
then organize the pages as a Web site. Alternatively, you can
design a Web site and then plug in page content. With either
approach, however, your site design creates the framework for the
display of all the content that you provide.
Why start with site design?
Theoretically, you could create a Web site that consisted of a
single page. If your Web site has much content at all, however,
this approach presents both technical and aesthetic problems. The
page would take unnecessarily long to download in your visitors’
browsers, and they would have to wait for information to download that they didn’t even want to access. Aesthetically, visitors
would have difficulty finding and digesting information at your
site. For these reasons, Web sites generally modularize information into many small pages. In addition, many small, quickloading pages with digestible bites of information are generally
more helpful than a few long, slow-loading pages that mix
together different kinds of information.
Web design
strategies
Importing Web sites
Using Web
templates and
wizards
Creating Web page
content
Global site editing
and managing your
Web site with
Reports view
.
.
.
.
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You face two main strategic decisions when you design your Web site:
✦ What kind of navigational strategy do you want to provide for visitors? What options
for jumping to other pages in the site do you want to make available at each page?
✦ What kind of visual theme do you want to apply to your site? Consistent visual
elements — such as color schemes, navigational icons, page backgrounds, and fonts —
provide coherence to your site and are part of the message that you project to visitors.
After an architect designs a building and the beams are welded into place, the building can’t
easily be changed from a 48-story skyscraper to a sprawling, two-story campus. Luckily for
Web designers, things are more flexible in cyberspace. You can modify the structure and
design of a Web site fairly easily in FrontPage. You must still make some initial decisions,
however, as to the layout of your site. One of FrontPage 2003’s strengths is the capability it
provides to universally change both the layout and design of an entire Web site. The next
section investigates strategies for organizing your site structure.
Defining navigational links
Following are the two basic design approaches to laying out your Web site.
✦ Linear design: This approach takes visitors through your site in a straight line.
✦ Hierarchical design: This approach presents visitors with layers of options.
Figure 7-1 shows a Web site laid out in a linear design.
Figure 7-1 A linear Web site design marches visitors straight through your site.
Chapter 7 ✦ Building FrontPage Web Sites
139
Most Web sites are organized in a hierarchical structure, but both design strategies can be
useful, depending on the kind of presentation you are preparing for visitors. The important
thing is to make conscious decisions regarding which kind of approach you want to take to
your Web site design, and then stick to that approach. By doing so, visitors will feel
comfortable at your site, and will be able to jump intuitively to the information that they
want. By making conscious decisions about Web navigation strategy, a Web designer can
frame the kinds of options available to visitors in conformity with the site’s mission. For
example, if your goal is to introduce every product and service that your company
provides, the linear structure illustrated in Figure 7-1 channels visitors into a tour of those
products and services.
Orchestrating a linear flow in your Web site involves laying out your pages in Navigation
view and then assigning appropriate link bars in Web pages.
To create a Web site that provides a linear flow, start by either creating a new Web site or by
opening an existing one. You can review the section “Creating a Web site” in Chapter 1 of
Wiley’s FrontPage 2003 Bible, if necessary, for all the information that you need.
With your Web site open, click and drag in Navigation view to arrange your Web pages in
one or more lines. Selecting or deselecting the Folder list from the View menu shows (or
hides) a list of Web pages in your site. If you have Web pages that are not connected to the
navigational flow, you can drag them from the Folder list into the Navigation window, as
shown in Figure 7-2.
Figure 7-2 You can drag Web pages from the Folder list into the Navigation window.
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With your site design defined in Navigation view, you can define link bars in your Web
pages that apply the navigational structure in the form of navigational links. That process
is explained in the next section, “Defining Link Bars in Shared Borders.”
If you define a Web site with a long linear flow of pages, your site may be easier to view
horizontally than vertically. To rotate the display of your Navigation view flowchart,
right-click in the Navigation area and select Portrait/Landscape from the context menu.
Hierarchical Web structures are used more frequently than linear site designs. Hierarchical
structures enable visitors to make their own decisions about which pages they want to see,
and in what order. Furthermore, you can use hierarchical structures to organize Web pages
into groups, each with its own level of detail, as shown in Figure 7-3.
Figure 7-3 A hierarchical Web site design organizes options for a visitor.
A visitor who is interested only in CD products can navigate to the CD “branch” of the Web
site and choose between the various CD options (listen, lyrics, credits, cover), without being
distracted by other options.
Chapter 7 ✦ Building FrontPage Web Sites
Defining Link Bars in Shared Borders
After you lay out your site in Navigation view, you can define the link bars for each page.
You can insert link bars at any location in a Web page, but they are normally inserted in
shared borders, a special type of Web page that appears on every Web page. Shared borders
can be attached to the top, bottom, left, or right side of a Web page. Therefore, theoretically,
you can define four link bars in your Web site that will appear on every page in the site.
Four link bars would clutter up a Web site, but providing navigation options at the top,
bottom, and left (or right) side of a page might be appropriate in some cases.
Each link bar in a shared border generates links, depending on the logic that you define for
that particular bar. For example, if you lay out your Web site in a linear structure, you can
generate Next and Back buttons to help visitors travel from the beginning to the end of your
page sequence. Similarly, if you design your site with a hierarchical structure, you have
several options for enabling visitors to jump to parent and child pages.
Shared borders are not required in order to place link bars on a particular page. You can place
link bars in the body of a Web page. However, using shared borders with link bars is a method
by which you can create a navigational system for your entire Web site.
Tip
To assign shared borders to a Web site, follow these steps:
1. In any view, select Format _ Shared Borders from the menu.
If the Shared Borders option is grayed out on the Format menu, click Tools _ Page Options,
then click the Authoring tab. Click the Shared Borders check box to enable them.
Tip
2. In the Shared Borders dialog box, select the All Pages radio button to assign shared
borders to every page in your Web site.
Note
After you define a shared borders design for your entire Web site, you can disable the shared
border(s) for specific pages by selecting a page and using the Current Page radio button.
To insert a link bar in a shared border, follow these steps:
1. Open any Web page in a Web site to which you have added at least one shared border.
2. Click in a shared border.
3. Select Insert _ Navigation. In the Insert Web Component dialog box, click Bar Based
on Navigation Structure in the Choose a Bar Type area.
4. Click the Next button in the Insert Web Component dialog box, and use the vertical
scroll bar to explore the various styles of available link bars. Select one and click Next.
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5. In the final window of this Wizard, choose either a vertical or a horizontal layout for
your link bar and click Finish. You’re not really finished — you’re ready to define the
logic that will determine how FrontPage generates links.
6. In the Link Bar Properties dialog box, select one of the six radio buttons in the
Hyperlinks to Add to Page area at the top of the dialog box. Use the Additional Pages
checkboxes to add a link to the home page on every page, and/or a link to the Parent
Page on every page. The Link Bar Properties dialog box is shown in Figure 7-4.
Figure 7-4 The Link Bar Properties dialog box provides six navigation options for
your Web site.
7. You can revisit or revise the style choices you made for your link bar by clicking the
Style tab in the Link Bar Properties dialog box. In addition to (re)choosing a bar style
and orientation (vertical or horizontal), you can also use checkboxes to add vivid colors
(for example, a different color scheme based on, but more extreme than, the one
associated with your theme) or Active Graphics (graphical navigation buttons that react
when a visitor hovers over them with his or her mouse cursor).
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Navigation Options
The six radio buttons at the top of the Link Bar Properties dialog box basically break down into two
different navigational strategies. The Same Level option and the Back and Next option enable
visitors to navigate along a single row in the Navigation view, for a linear navigational approach. The
difference between these options is that Same Level enables a visitor to jump to any page in a row,
whereas Back and Next offers only two options, the pages to the right and left of a page in the
Navigation view flowchart.
The other radio buttons offer variations on a hierarchical scheme. The most utilitarian hierarchical
option is probably the Child Level radio button, along with the Home Page and Parent Page
checkboxes. This combination of selections in the Link Bar Properties dialog box enables visitors to
navigate up or down at any time, and always provides a link to the home page.
As you experiment with different navigational options, they are illustrated in the flowchart to the left
of the radio buttons.
After you assign link bars to your shared borders, save the page in which you edited the
links, and then select File _ Preview in Browser to test the links in your browser.
Customizing links
Automatically generated navigational links have a great advantage, which is also their
shortcoming: They apply the same logic to every single page. If you define a link to child
pages in your link bar, every page (that has a child page) will have a link to that page. In
that sense, link bars cannot be customized for particular pages.
However, other options are available that give you much more specific control over what
links are available from your Web pages. Those options are introduced next.
Adding links to page content
You can insert a link (or hyperlink, as FrontPage calls them) anywhere in a Web page. You
can either type the URL to which you are creating a link, or assign a link to an existing
object, such as text or a graphic image.
To include a link, simply type the URL (or e-mail address) in the Web page. Press Enter to
create a paragraph break, Shift+Enter to create a line break, or a punctuation key followed
by the spacebar. Your URL address is automatically transformed into a link.
To assign a link to existing text (or to a picture), select the text (or picture) and click the
Hyperlink button in the toolbar. The Hyperlink dialog box appears. Double-click a Web page
in your Web, or enter a URL address outside of your Web in the URL drop-down list. Then,
click OK to assign the link.
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Adding links to a shared border
Shared borders can include generated link bars, but they can also be edited to include other
text or links.
Besides the links generated by link bars, you can add your own, specific links to a Web site
or to any page. For example, you may want to include a link to a special page in your Web
site from any page in the site. If that special page is your home page, you can do this by
selecting the Home Page checkbox in the Link Bar Properties dialog box. If it isn’t your
home page, you can still add the link to a link bar.
Adding link bars to page content
A final option for customizing links is to insert a link bar directly into the content of a page.
Although this isn’t a widely used feature in FrontPage, it has some valuable uses. For
example, a link bar with links to child pages can function as a miniature table of contents in
a Web page.
Remember foremost that link bars inserted into page content appear only on the page in
which they are inserted, whereas link bars placed in shared borders appear on every page to
which a shared border has been applied.
Deleting pages from link bars
You can delete a page from the navigation structure by clicking the page in Navigation
view and pressing the Delete key. The Confirm Delete dialog box appears, as shown in
Figure 7-5.
Figure 7-5 You can delete a page from link bars or completely remove it from your Web
site.
Changing navigation labels
Navigation labels for generated link bars are based on page titles. You can customize other
generated navigation links (such as Home or Back) for your Web site.
You can redefine the labels that FrontPage generates for the home page, for moving up a
page in a Web structure and for Back and Next labels (used with a linear site design). To
change label names, follow these steps:
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1. Select Tools _ Site Settings and click the Navigation tab in the Site Settings dialog
box. The tab is shown in Figure 7-6.
Figure 7-6 You can rename the labels generated in link bars.
2. Enter new label names for any of the four generated titles. For example, you can change
the label assigned to a link to the previous page in a layout from “Back” (the default) to
“Previous.” (You could also use something like “See previous slide.”)
3. After you change the generated label text, click OK. (Clicking OK in the Web Settings
dialog box updates links in an existing site.)
Importing an Existing Web Site
You can organize existing file collections into FrontPage Webs by using the Import Wizard,
which imports files from two sources:
✦ An existing Web site that is not a FrontPage Web
✦ A folder on your local drive or network
After you import files, you can work with them as you would any FrontPage Web, organizing them in Navigation view, and adding themes, shared borders, link bars, and so on.
Importing files into a Web
To import files into a new Web, follow these steps:
1. Select File _ Import. The Import dialog box appears.
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2. Click the Add File button to add a file (or selected files) to your site, or the Add Folder
button to add one or more folders.
3. In the Open File dialog box, navigate to the file(s) or folder(s) you wish to import. You
can use Shift+Click or Ctrl+Click to select more than one folder or file. Click the Open
button to add selected file(s) or folder(s) to the Import list.
4. Click OK in the Import dialog box to add files to your site.
Importing a Web site into a FrontPage Web
To import an existing Web site into a FrontPage Web, follow these steps:
1. Select File _ Import.
2. Click the From Site button. The Import Web Site Wizard opens, as shown in Figure 7-7.
Figure 7-7 FrontPage provides a wizard to integrate existing objects into a new
Web.
3. At this point, you have the following options:
• Transfer from FrontPage Server Extensions or SharePoint Team Services
• DAV: Transfer using WebDAV
• FTP: Transfer using File Transfer Protocol
• File System: Transfer files from a source directory or computer
• HTTP: Import files from an Internet site
Chapter 7 ✦ Building FrontPage Web Sites
Make a selection, complete the requested information, and click Next.
4. Now you can choose the destination Web (where you will import the files) and choose
to use Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) if necessary. Click Next.
Figure 7-8 Choose where you want to import the site to.
5. In the Set Import Limits window, choose to import the home page plus link pages to a
specified number, import a maximum of kilobytes, or import only HTML and image
files. Click Next.
6. Click Finish to start the import.
Shared Borders — Plus and Minus
Love ‘em or hate ‘em, shared borders with link bars are a defining element of FrontPage Web sites.
They are incredibly convenient — you can generate distinct and somewhat intelligent links on every
page in your site in seconds by having FrontPage generate link bars in shared borders. Compared
to the tedium of manually creating, changing, and updating navigation areas of Web pages by hand,
shared borders with link bars are a godsend.
The downside? Link bars in FrontPage tend to give your Web sites that somewhat institutional look
that tells the world you created your site in FrontPage instead of handcrafting every page.
Is there a way to get the best of both worlds? One design approach often utilizes the productivity of
shared borders and link bars, but disguises their use by customizing themes and assigning unique
properties to shared borders.
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Using Web Templates and Wizards
In FrontPage terminology, a Web template is a set of predesigned Web pages collected into a
single Web. In many cases, sample text is supplied, or comment text is used, to help you add
content to the Web.
A wizard is similar to a template, only smarter. Rather than create a Web with all generic
content, the Corporate Presence and Discussion Web Wizards first ask you to answer some
probing questions, such as “What is your name?” They also ask you what kinds of Web
pages you want to include in your Web site. Those wizards then place your answers in the
appropriate spots in the template. When you first open a Web that is generated by one of
these two wizards, it is already filled with customized content based on your answers.
This feature can save you time, although you are likely to want to customize the pages to
your liking.
Some of the available templates are explored in more depth in the following sections.
One Page Web
Because the One Page Web template creates only a single Web page, you may wonder why
you should bother using it. Actually, the One Page Web handles several important tasks that
save time in generating a Web site. A Web folder is created on your server, ensuring that
FrontPage will properly manage all of your files. This template also creates a Web page with
the filename Default.htm and the page title Home Page.
The One Page Web template also generates two subfolders in your Web site: _private
and images. You can use the images folder to organize picture files for your site and
the _private folder to store pages and other files that you don’t want identified by
searches or linked in link bars.
If your project is to develop a Web site from scratch, the One Page Web is a quick way to
get started.
Using the Corporate Presence Web Wizard
The Corporate Presence Web Wizard is a basic site for communicating information about a
company. This is the most elaborate wizard included with FrontPage. The first dialog box in
the wizard, shown in Figure 7-9, asks you which main pages you want to include in your
Web site.
Chapter 7 ✦ Building FrontPage Web Sites
Figure 7-9 The Corporate Presence Web Wizard generates up to six main pages.
The pages available from the Corporate Presence Web Wizard are as follows:
✦ Home: Not optional, because it anchors all the navigational links in the site.
✦ What’s New: Lists links to other pages. If you select this checkbox, the wizard later
provides a list of linked articles that you can generate.
✦ Products/Services: Can have any number of links to both products and services. If you
select this checkbox, you are later asked how many products and services pages to
generate, and what information you want on those pages. Some of these generated
pages include input forms that collect data from visitors. The results of these forms are
saved in files stored in the _private folder.
✦ Table of Contents: Generates a table of contents for the site on a separate page.
✦ Feedback Form: Generates a Web page with an input form that collects feedback from
visitors. The data submitted to this form is collected in a file called inforeq.txt
(located in the _private folder). Double-click that file in Folders view to display
information in your word processor.
✦ Search Form: Creates a search form page that allows visitors to search your site (not
the Internet) for words or phrases.
After you select the pages you want to include in your Web site, the wizard prompts you
for information related to generating those pages. When you complete the wizard, you are
asked whether you want to see the Tasks view after your site is generated. Select Yes to
see a list of remaining tasks that you must perform to complete your Web site.
Customer Support Web
The Customer Support Web template generates ten main Web pages in a navigational
flow, as well as additional Web pages that are used to supplement those pages. The pages
in the Navigation view generated by this template are as follows:
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✦ Customer Support Web: Home page — welcomes visitors to the support site and
contains links to other pages.
✦ Contact Us: Creates a table with e-mail, phone, and Web site URL links.
✦ Search: Includes a search box that visitors can use to find information at your site.
✦ What’s New: A list of links to pages with update documentation. To make these
links functional, you must edit their content, right-click them, select Hyperlink
Properties from the context menu, and link them to actual pages that you create.
✦ Products: A page with links to support pages by product so you can support more
than one product at your site.
✦ FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions): Includes a list of six questions, with links to
bookmarked answers in the body of the page. Bookmarks are discussed in “Inserting
bookmarks,” later in this chapter. You must edit the questions and answers.
✦ Service Request: Provides a form that clients must fill out to receive help with a
specific problem.
✦ Suggestions: This Web page is also mainly composed of an input form. Data
entered into this form can be viewed by opening the Feedback.htm file.
✦ Catalogs/Manuals: Used to enable visitors to link to an FTP (File Transfer Protocol) download site. If you have files at an FTP site, you can edit the links at this
page to send visitors to those files.
✦ Support Forum: Links to a threaded discussion group, where visitors can post
comments or questions and respond to posted articles.
Using the Database Interface Web Wizard
The Database Interface Web (DIW) Wizard generates a site with input forms, reports, and
queries. A typical site generated by the DIW, with all options selected, creates an Access
database at your Web server, and includes the following:
✦ A submission form for visitors to enter data
✦ A results page that displays content from your database
✦ A Database Editor section — pages that enable visitors to view, add, delete, and
update records in your database using a Web browser
Discussion Web Wizard
The Discussion Web Wizard generates a fully threaded, searchable discussion group. Users
can access the discussion board and read messages as well as make posts.
Chapter 7 ✦ Building FrontPage Web Sites
Empty Web
The Empty Web template generates a Web folder and _private and images subfolders,
just like the One Page Web template. The difference is that the Empty Web template doesn’t
generate a home page.
Import Web Wizard
The Import Web Wizard is generated when you select File _ Import. For a discussion of
how this works, refer to “Importing an Existing Web Site,” earlier in this chapter.
Personal Web
The Personal Web template generates a Web site with a home page and the following five
other pages:
✦ About Me
✦ Interests
✦ Favorites
✦ Photo Gallery
✦ Feedback
Project Web
The Project Web template generates a Web site specifically designed for displaying projectmanagement information. The template generates six linked pages in Navigation view, some
of which are connected to additional pages that don’t display in Navigation view. The six
accessible pages are as follows:
✦ Members: Lists team personnel and provides hyperlinks to their e-mail addresses.
✦ Schedule: Posts tasks due this week and next week, and lists project milestones
(important nodal points in the project).
✦ Archive: Includes hyperlinks to documents created by project members, to software
programs, and to other elements of the project.
✦ Search: Includes a search box.
✦ Discussions: Includes links to two threaded discussion groups that are generated by the
Project Web template: the Requirements Discussion and the Knowledge Base.
✦ Contact Information: A page where you can enter your e-mail address.
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SharePoint Team Web
The SharePoint Team Web site is a ready-to-use, editable intranet site portal that enables
your department, organization, or group to share files and information. SharePoint is
included in Office 2003, and it requires that the SharePoint server files be installed on
your intranet server. For more information on using SharePoint, see Chapter 17 of this
eBook.
Generating a Web site using the Corporate Presence Web Wizard
In the following tutorial, you will use the Corporate Presence Web Wizard to generate a
Web site.
1. Select File _ New.
2. In the Task Pane, click the Web Site Templates link.
3. In the Web Site Templates dialog box, enter a location and name for your Web in the
“Specify the location of the new web” drop-down list.
4. Double-click the Corporate Presence Web icon in the dialog box.
5. Read the first wizard option box and click Next.
6. In addition to the Home Page option, select the What’s New, Feedback Form, and
Search Form checkboxes. Click Next.
7. From the list of topics that appear on your home page, select all four checkboxes and
click Next.
8. From the list of topics for the What’s New page, select all three checkboxes and click
Next.
9. From the list of options for the Feedback Form, select all seven checkboxes and click
Next.
10. For the Feedback Form format, select the option labeled “No, use web page format.”
This displays input data in a Web page. Click Next.
11. In the dialog box that asks what should appear on the top and bottom of each page,
choose all the checkboxes except Your Company’s Logo, and click Next.
12. In the Construction Icon options box, select the No radio button to omit the Under
Construction icon from your pages. Click Next.
13. In the dialog box that collects information about your company, fill in the three fields
and click Next.
14. In the dialog box that collects information about your phone numbers and e-mail
addresses, fill in the four fields and click Next.
15. Click the Choose Web Theme button and select the Straight Edge Theme from the
Choose Theme dialog box. Click OK and then click Next.
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16. In the final dialog box, leave the one checkbox selected to show the Tasks view after
your Web is generated. Click Finish.
17. In Tasks view, right-click the first task, Customize Home Page, and select Start Task
from the context menu.
18. Click and drag to select the comment text, and then replace it with text of your own.
19. Close the page, saving your changes. You are prompted to mark this task as completed. Click Yes in the dialog box.
20. Return to Tasks view and complete the remaining tasks by replacing comment text
with your own text.
21. Open the Home Page in Page view. Select File _ Preview in Browser to see your Web
site in your browser.
22. Inspect your home page in your browser. Test the link to the Feedback page at the top
of the page.
23. Fill in the fields in the Feedback form.
24. After you fill in the form, click the Submit Feedback button. Then, click the Return to
Form link in the Form Confirmation page.
25. Return to FrontPage and view your site in Folders view. Double-click the _private
folder to view files in that folder. Double-click the file Inforeq.htm to open that
file in Page view. Examine the input that you collected.
Note
Input forms work only when your Web is saved to a server with FrontPage extensions.
26. Select File _ Close Web to close your Web after you finish experimenting with it.
You can delete this Web by selecting File _ Open Web, right-clicking the Web, and
then selecting Delete from the context menu.
Creating Basic Web Page Content
After you lay out your Web’s basic structure, you are ready to fill in page content, which
includes text and many other components, such as pictures. Chapter 5 of FrontPage 2003
Bible explores in detail the editing and formatting of text; Chapter 12 of FrontPage Bible
covers the inserting of pictures. Other advanced elements are covered in FrontPage Bible’s
remaining chapters. In fact, for the most part, the rest of this book is about how to place
content on your Web pages.
In addition to text and pictures, FrontPage has many powerful elements, called Web components. They range from search boxes to time stamps to hit counters. This section briefly
looks at editing Web page text, and then examines some other basic elements of Web page
content, including breaks, horizontal lines, comments, and bookmarks.
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Editing Web page text
Entering and editing Web page text is very intuitive: click and type. You’ll find most of the
luxuries of a modern word processor, including red, squiggly underlining of words that are
not found in the dictionary. Other editing help includes the following:
✦ Format Painter: Select text, click the Format Painter tool, and then click new text to
apply the formatting of the original text to the target text.
✦ Thesaurus: Select a word and then choose Tools _ Thesaurus to see a list of synonyms. Find a good one in the Replace with Synonym list and click the Replace button.
✦ Edit, Find, and Edit Replace: Find text strings, with the option of designating
replacement text. The Find and Replace dialog boxes don’t have the option of locating
(or changing) special characters, such as hard line returns, tabs, or paragraphs.
✦ Tab key: Use it (or the spacebar) to insert additional spacing between words.
Inserting breaks
The Break dialog box enables you to insert a forced line break (as opposed to a paragraph
mark). To create a forced line break, select Insert _ Break. The Break dialog box appears,
as shown in Figure 7-10.
Figure 7-10 You can force line breaks with the Break dialog box.
To create a forced line break (within the same paragraph), click the Normal Line Break radio
button and then click OK. Use the Clear Left Margin, Clear Right Margin, or Clear Both
Margins radio button to move the next line past any pictures so that the left, right, or both
sides are cleared to the margin.
To toggle on and off forced line break symbols (nonprinting), click the Show All button in
the Standard toolbar.
Tip
An easy way to add a line break is to press Shift+Enter.
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Adding horizontal lines
Before modern browsers and faster modems were able to interpret and download graphics
quickly, older browsers recognized a graphic element called horizontal lines. New
browsers still interpret these lines, and you can insert them as dividers between text or
graphics. Select Insert _ Horizontal Line to place a horizontal line at your cursor point
(no need to press Enter first).
Note
Default horizontal lines are simply plain, black lines. FrontPage themes, however, provide customized lines that match the theme colors.
Placing comments
Comment text is visible in Page view, but doesn’t appear in a browser window. As such, it is
helpful for placing notes to yourself or a collaborator. For example, two Web developers can
use comments to leave each other messages about work that remains on a page.
To insert a comment, follow these steps:
1. Click to place your insertion point where the comment will appear in Page view.
2. Select Insert _ Comment.
3. Type text in the Comment window, as shown in Figure 7-11.
Figure 7-11 Comment text is not visible in a browser — unless the source HTML
code is examined.
4. Click OK.
Note
Although comment text doesn’t appear in a browser, it does appear if a visitor selects the View
_ Source command in Internet Explorer or the View _ Page Source command in Netscape
Navigator. When the underlying HTML code behind a Web page is displayed, comment text is
surrounded by the code
<!—Webbot bot=“PurpleText” PREVIEW=“xxx” —>
where xxx is the comment text.
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Therefore, don’t put anything in comment text that you don’t want the world to read!
You can double-click comment text to edit it. Comment text can be formatted like normal
text, by selecting it and applying formatting attributes such as font color and size. However,
formatting must be applied to an entire comment; you cannot apply separate formatting to
parts of a comment.
Inserting symbols
Symbols include characters such as ã, or ª, that aren’t available in normal keyboard keys.
Most browsers can interpret these symbols.
To insert a symbol, follow these steps:
1. Place your cursor at the insertion point where the symbol will appear.
2. Choose Insert _ Symbol.
3. From the Symbol dialog box, double-click the symbol that you want to insert.
4. Click Close in the Symbol dialog box.
Inserting bookmarks
Bookmarks are locators in a Web page that can be the target of a hyperlink. Bookmarks can
be used for navigation within a page, or as a locator for a link to a page.
To insert a bookmark in a page, follow these steps:
1. Click to place your insertion point on the page, or to select text.
2. Select Insert _ Bookmark from the menu.
3. If you selected text in Step 1, that text appears as the default bookmark name, as shown
in Figure 7-12. If not, the Bookmark Name text box will be empty in the Bookmark
dialog box, and you can enter a bookmark name. To avoid problems with older browsers, it is best to restrict the bookmark name to eight characters or less, with no spaces or
punctuation.
4. Click OK to place the bookmark. If you assigned the bookmark to text, that text
appears in Page view with a dotted line underneath. If you assigned the bookmark to a
blank space on your page, it appears as a small flag.
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Figure 7-12 Bookmarks serve as targets for links within a page.
You can edit (or clear) bookmarks by right-clicking the bookmark, selecting Bookmark
Properties, and then editing the properties in the Bookmark dialog box.
To create a link to a bookmark, follow these steps:
1. Select text (or a picture) that will be linked to the bookmark.
2. Click the Insert Hyperlinks button. The Hyperlinks dialog box opens.
3. If you are linking to a bookmark on another Web page, enter that page in the URL box.
If you are linking to a bookmark on the open page, you can leave that box blank.
4. From the Bookmark drop-down list, select the bookmark that is the target of your link.
5. The bookmark link target appears in the URL box, with the bookmark preceded by a
pound sign (#).
6. Click OK. You can test your link in the Preview tab either by previewing your page in a
browser or by holding down the Ctrl key and clicking the link in the Normal tab of
Page view.
Using Page Templates
FrontPage 2003 comes with page templates, in addition to the Web templates explored
earlier in this chapter. These page templates are of three types: General, Frames, and Style
Sheets.The options in the General tab of the New dialog box are explored here.
To utilize a page template, follow these steps:
1. Select File _ New.
2. Click Page Templates in the Task Pane.
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3. The Page Templates dialog box appears. You can preview a page template by clicking
(not double-clicking!) on it and viewing a sample of the page in the Preview area, as
shown in Figure 7-13.
Figure 7-13 You can check out page templates before you generate a new page.
Some page templates are taken from the pages generated by Web templates. These include
the Feedback Form page, the Form Page Wizard (that generates input forms), the Table of
Contents page, and the User Registration page. You were introduced to some of these pages
earlier in the chapter in the section “Using Web Templates and Wizards.”
Other pages include sample graphics and content. Many of these pages are laid out in
columns; these pages use tables.
Use page templates as starting points for your own page content.
Other Views
Up to now, the focus has been on Navigation view and Page view, the two most powerful
views in FrontPage. Navigation view displays and controls Web structure, while Page view
is used to edit individual pages.
Four other choices are available from the Views bar:
✦ Folders view
✦ Reports view
✦ Hyperlinks view
✦ Tasks view
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All four of these views, described next, complement Navigation view as a way to manage
your entire Web site.
Folders view
Folders view works like Windows Explorer, enabling you to view all of your files in folders.
As in Windows Explorer, you can create a subfolder in your currently selected folder by
choosing File _ New _ Folder.
When a FrontPage Web is generated, some folders are created that hold files that only
“advanced” users are supposed to know about. These folders include the following:
✦ _borders: Holds pages that serve as shared borders.
✦ _fpclass: Holds Java classes. These are files used for objects such as FrontPagegenerated Hover buttons.
✦ _overlay: Holds graphic images used with theme elements.
✦ _themes: Holds files used with themes.
In addition to these generated folders, you can create other folders when you apply advanced
features in FrontPage, or use add-in programs sold by third-party vendors that attach
additional features to FrontPage 2003.
To see these “advanced-level” hidden files, select Tools _ Site Settings, and click the
Advanced tab in the Site Settings dialog box. Select the Show Hidden Files and Folders
checkbox to display hidden files, as shown in Figure 7-14.
Figure 7-14 Hidden files include elements of themes and embedded shared border
pages.
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With hidden files displayed, you can open shared border pages (Left.htm, Right.htm,
Top.htm, or Bottom.htm) and edit them as you would any other page.
Reports view
Reports view provides a list of many useful statistics in your Web site. Additional reports
update you on the status of navigational links, slow pages, and new files. You can select a
report by choosing View _ Reports, and then selecting one of the available reports.
The following list describes each of the reports and how you can use them:
✦ Site Summary: Provides an overview of your site. The rows in the Site Summary view
are themselves links to other views. One of the most useful things about the Site
Summary view is that you can get a quick idea of the size of your Web site, which is
helpful when you look for server space for your site.
✦ All Files: Displays detailed information about each file in your Web site.
✦ Recently Added Files, Recently Changed Files, and Older Files: Display files that
are defined by selecting Tools _ Options and selecting the Reports View tab, as shown
in Figure 7-15. Slow pages are calculated based on the modem speed that you enter in
the Assume connection speed of spin box.
Figure 7-15 You can define which files to display as Recent, Recently Changed,
and Older.
✦ Unlinked Files: Shows files in your Web site to which no links exist. These stranded
Web pages are sometimes called orphan pages.
✦ Slow Pages: Displays a list of files that download too slowly, based on the time you
define in the Report Setting drop-down list in the Reporting toolbar.
Chapter 7 ✦ Building FrontPage Web Sites
✦ Broken Hyperlinks: Shows hyperlinks in your Web site that are either invalid or
untested. You can right-click one of these untested hyperlinks and choose Verify from
the context menu to test the link. If the link leads you to an Internet or intranet site, you
must be logged on to the Internet or your intranet to test the link.
✦ Component Errors: Tests FrontPage components for errors.
✦ Review Status and Assigned To: Used for workgroups collaborating on a Web site.
The Review Status report enables you to log pages that must be reviewed, and track
whether pages have been reviewed. The Assigned To report is similar to the Review
Status report, but tracks who is assigned to which page.
✦ Categories: Sorts components of your Web site by type, such as .jpeg images,
.html pages, .gif files, .class Java files, and so on.
✦ Publish Status: Lists which pages have been published to your Web (and which
haven’t).
Hyperlinks view
Hyperlinks view displays all links leading into a Web page from other pages in the site, and
all links out of a selected page. First, choose Hyperlinks view from the Views bar, and then
click a Web page in the Folders list.
Figure 7-16 shows a page in Hyperlinks view with links coming in and going out.
Figure 7-16 Viewing hyperlinks
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Tip
If you are trying to track and test every hyperlink in a page or on your Web site, using the Broken
Hyperlinks report discussed in the previous section of this chapter is much more efficient than
looking for broken links in Hyperlinks view. Use this view only if you need to examine in detail all
links in and out of a page. For example, before deleting a page, you can use this view to identify
the Web pages with links to the page.
You can modify Hyperlinks view to do the following:
✦ Show page titles: Right-click in Hyperlinks view and select Show Page Titles from the
context menu to display page titles instead of filenames. Repeat the process to deselect
page title display.
✦ Hyperlinks to Pictures: Right-click in Hyperlinks view and select Hyperlinks to
Pictures from the context menu to display links that lead to graphics files. You can
toggle off picture links in the same way.
✦ Repeated Hyperlinks: To display multiple hyperlinks with the same target URL, rightclick in Hyperlinks view and select Repeated Hyperlinks from the context menu.
Repeat the process to deselect this option to turn it off.
Tasks view
Tasks view contains a list of “things to do.” Tasks are added to the Tasks view list by
wizards that generate Webs, or you can add them yourself.
To add a task, follow these steps:
1. Select Tasks from the Views bar.
2. Select Edit _ Tasks _ Add Task, or right-click in Tasks view and select Add Task
from the context menu. The New Task dialog box opens, as shown in Figure 7-17.
Figure 7-17 Defining a task
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3. Enter a task name and a description. You can also modify the Assigned To box. Select
one of the three priority radio buttons to assign a relative level of urgency to the task.
4. Click OK. The task appears in the task list.
Tasks that are created with a page open are associated with that page. You can start these tasks
by right-clicking the task in Tasks view and selecting Start Task from the context menu.
The context menu that opens when you right-click a task can be used to edit, mark as
completed, or delete any task. However, only those tasks that were created with a page open
(or generated from a wizard) can be started by right-clicking.
Global Site Editing
Most of the work you do to edit you Web site’s content takes place in Page view, and is done
on a page-by-page basis. However, some editing tools in FrontPage work across an entire
Web. This section looks at two of these tools: spell checking, and search and replace.
Spell checking your entire site
To spell check your entire Web site, select Tools _ Spelling from a view other than Page view.
Note
If you select Tools _ Spelling in Page view, or click the Spelling tool in the Standard toolbar,
you spell check only your open page. When you select the Spelling dialog box (in a view other
than Page view), the dialog box has two radio buttons: Selected Page(s) and Entire Web. To
spell check your entire Web site, use the Entire Web option.
You can also select the checkbox labeled Add a Task for Each Page with Misspellings. This
creates a list of pages that need their spelling checked. After you select these options, click
the Start button to begin checking your spelling.
FrontPage checks all of your pages for spelling errors and then creates a list in the Spelling
dialog box, as shown in Figure 7-18.
Figure 7-18 Checking an entire Web site generates a list of pages with spelling mistakes.
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If you selected the Add a Task option, you can click the Add Task button to add the
marked pages to your task list. If you would rather correct your spelling immediately,
double-click the page in the provided list in the Spelling dialog box to check spelling on
that page.
Replacing text throughout a site
To replace text throughout a site, select Edit _ Replace in any view. In the Replace dialog
box, enter the text you want to find in the Find What text box, and specify replacement text
in the Replace With text box. The Replace dialog box includes the following options:
✦ Click the All Pages radio button to replace in every page.
Note
The Direction drop-down menu defines the direction in which the replacing tool moves through
Web pages. But it is only active when you are editing the current page, not when you replace
throughout your entire site.
✦ The Match Whole Word Only and Match Case checkbox options work like the Replace
dialog box in Word or other Office applications.
✦ The Find in HTML checkbox enables you to search and replace HTML code.
After you define your replace options, if you are replacing text in an entire Web, click the
Find in Web button. FrontPage will generate a list of pages at the bottom of the Replace
dialog box with the text to be replaced. Double-click a page to make the changes in that
page. Alternatively, click the Add Task button to add the task to your task list.
Editing Web page content
In the following tutorial, you will experiment with adding content to a Web page.
1. With a FrontPage Web open, choose Navigation view from the View bar.
2. In Navigation view, double-click the home page to open it in Page view.
3. Type Welcome to my Web site at the top of your home page and press Enter.
4. Click and drag to select the text that you typed. Select Arial Black from the Font dropdown list; 24 point from the Font Size list; Italics; Center; and Red, from the Font
Color palette.
5. Click at the end of the text and select Insert _ Horizontal Line.
6. Under the horizontal line, select Insert _ Symbol and double-click the © symbol. Click
Close. Type your name after the copyright symbol.
7. Select Insert _ Break and, with the Normal Line Break radio button selected, click OK
to create a forced line break.
8. Select Insert _ Comment and, in the Comment window, type This page needs to be
finished! Click OK.
Chapter 7 ✦ Building FrontPage Web Sites
9. Double-click the word “Welcome” and select Insert _ Bookmark. Click OK in the
Bookmark dialog box.
10. Click to place your insertion point after the comment text. Press Enter 12 times and
then type Go to top.
11. Double-click to select the word “top,” and then click the Hyperlink button in the
toolbar. Pull down the Bookmark list and select Welcome. Click OK.
12. On the Standard toolbar, click the New drop-down button and choose Task. Enter Add
Content in the Task Name text box. Click OK.
13. Click the Save button to save changes to the Web page.
14. Select View _ Reports to get an overview of your (rather small) Web site. How much
server space would you need for this Web site? (Hint: Look at the All Files row of the
report.)
15. Select Hyperlinks view. Right-click and select Hyperlinks Inside Page from the context
menu. The links illustrate the bookmark link in the page.
16. Click the Tasks view. Right-click the task and select Start Task from the context menu.
Add some text to your page and save it. Select Yes in the dialog box when prompted to
mark the page as a completed task.
Summary
In designing your Web site, start by placing yourself in the shoes of a visitor. What information do you want to present right on the home page? What options do you want to make
available from the home page? You can translate your vision into a real site design in
FrontPage’s Navigation view — where you drag pages into a flowchart.
FrontPage will generate automatic links on pages based on your Navigation view structure.
These links are created in Link bars, which can be placed on pages, or in shared borders that
are embedded in each page in your Web site (or most pages).
Once you design a site in FrontPage, you can use the Import tools to add other files from
your computer or from the Internet. Or, you can integrate an already existing site into your
FrontPage Web site.
FrontPage makes it fast and easy to create complex Web sites using templates, including an
instant Corporate Presence Web, a Customer Support Web, and even an instant online
database.
Creating page content is very similar to editing text in Microsoft Word. Additional page
components like line breaks, symbols, and horizontal lines are available as well.
Once you have created a FrontPage Web site, global site editing tools are available, including spell checking and site-wide search and replace.
✦
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Understanding
and Creating
Access Reports
8
C H A P T E R
.
.
.
.
In This Chapter
Understanding the types
of reports you can create
R
eports provide the most flexible way for viewing and
printing summarized information. Reports display
information with the desired level of detail, while enabling you to
view or print your information in almost any format. You can add
multilevel totals, statistical comparisons, and pictures and
graphics to a report. In this chapter, you learn to use Report
Wizards as a starting point. You also learn how to create reports
and what types of reports you can create with Access.
Note
In this chapter, you will create new reports using the report wizards and by creating a blank report without using a wizard. You
will use tables created in chapters from the Access 2003 Bible. If
you are following the examples and own a copy of Access 2003
Bible, you would use the Chap13Start.mdb database file on the
CD-ROM that comes with thatbook and follow the instructions in
each section of the chapter.
Understanding Reports
Reports are used for presenting a customized view of your data.
Your report output can be viewed onscreen or printed to a hard
copy device. Reports provide the capability to control
summarization of the information. Data can be grouped and sorted
in any order and then presented in the order of the groupings. You
can create totals that add numbers, calculate averages or other
statistics, and display your data graphically. You can print pictures
and other graphics as well as memo fields in a report. If you can
think of a report you want, Access can probably create it.
Knowing the differences
between a report and a
form
Understanding the
process of creating
reports
Creating reports with a
Report Wizard
Viewing, printing, and
saving reports
Creating a report from a
blank form
Sorting and grouping data
Adding label and text
controls to your report
Modifying the appearance
of text and label controls
Adding page breaks
Copying an existing report
.
.
.
.
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What types of reports can you create?
Four basic types of reports are used by businesses:
✦ Tabular reports. These print data in rows and columns with groupings and totals.
Variations include summary and group/total reports.
✦ Columnar reports. These print data as a form and can include totals and graphs.
✦ Mail-merge reports. These create form letters.
✦ Mailing labels. These create multicolumn labels or snaked-column reports.
Tabular reports
Figure 8-1 is a typical tabular-type report in the Print Preview window. Tabular reports (also
known as groups/totals reports) are generally similar to a table that displays data in neat
rows and columns. Tabular reports, unlike forms or datasheets, usually group their data by
one or more field values; they calculate and display subtotals or statistical information for
numeric fields in each group. Some groups/totals reports also have page totals and grand
totals. You can even have snaked columns so that you can create directories (such as
telephone books). These types of reports can use page numbers, report dates, or lines and
boxes to separate information. They can have color and shading and can display pictures,
business graphs, and memo fields, like forms. A special type of tabular report, summary
reports, can have all the features of a tabular report but not print the detail records.
Figure 8-1: A tabular report in the Print Preview window of Access 2003.
Chapter 8 ✦ Understanding and Creating Access Reports
Columnar reports
Columnar reports (also known as form reports) generally display one or more records per
page, but do so vertically. Columnar reports display data very much as a data-entry form
does, but the report is used strictly for viewing data and not for entering data. Figure 8-2 is
part of a typical columnar report from the Access Auto Auctions database system in the
Print Preview window.
Figure 8-2: A columnar report showing report controls distributed throughout
the entire page.
Another type of columnar report, known as a form/subform report, generally displays one
main record per page (like a business form) but can show many records within embedded
subforms. An invoice is a typical example. This type of report can have sections that display
only one record and at the same time have sections that display multiple records from the
many side of a one-to-many relationship — and even include totals.
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Figure 8-3 shows an invoice report from the Access Auto Auctions database system in the
Print Preview window.
Figure 8-3: An invoice report.
Mailing labels
Mailing labels are also a type of report. You can easily create mailing labels, shown in
Figure 8-4, using the Label Wizard to create a report in Access. The Label Wizard enables
you to select from a long list of Avery label (and other vendors) paper styles, after which
Access correctly creates a report design based on the data you specify to create your label.
After the label is created, you can open the report in design mode and customize it as
needed.
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Figure 8-4: A typical mailing-label report in the Print Preview window.
The difference between reports and forms
The main difference between reports and forms is the purpose of the output. Whereas forms
are primarily for data entry, reports are for viewing data (either onscreen or in hard copy
form). Calculated fields can be used with forms and can calculate an amount based on the
fields in the record. With reports, you calculate on the basis of a common group of records, a
page of records, or all the records processed during the report. Anything you can do with a
form — except data input — can be duplicated by a report. In fact, you can save a form as a
report and then customize the form controls in the Report Design window.
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The process of creating a report
Planning a report begins long before you actually create the report design. The report
process begins with your desire to view your data in a table, but in a way that differs from
datasheet display. You begin with a design for this view; Access begins with raw data. The
purpose of the report is to transform the raw data into a meaningful set of information. The
process of creating a report involves several steps:
✦ Defining the report layout
✦ Assembling the data
✦ Creating the report design using the Access Report Design window
✦ Printing or viewing the report
Defining the report layout
You should begin by having a general idea of the layout of your report. You can define
the layout in your mind, on paper, or interactively using the Access Report Design
window. Figure 8-5 is a report layout created with Microsoft Word and served as a
design from an analyst to a developer. This served as the basic design for the report
shown in Figure 8-1.Good reports can first be laid out on paper, showing the fields needed
and the placement of the fields.
Figure 8-5: A sample report layout.
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Assembling the data
After you have a general idea of your report layout, you should assemble the data needed for
the report. A report can use data from a single database table or from the results of a query
dynaset. You can link many tables with a query and then use the result of the query (its
dynaset) as the record source for your report. A dynaset appears in Access as if it were a
single table.You can select the fields, records, and sort order of the records in a query.
Access treats this dynaset data as a single table (for processing purposes) in datasheets,
forms, and reports. The dynaset becomes the source of data for the report and Access
processes each record to create the report. The data for the report and the report design are
entirely separate. In the report design, the field names to be used in the report are specified.
Then, when the report is run, Access matches data from the dynaset or table against the
fields used in the report and uses the data available at that moment to produce the report.
In this example, you will use data from only the tblProducts table.
Creating a Report with Report Wizards
With Access, you can create virtually any type of report. Some reports, however, are more
easily created than others, when a Report Wizard is used as a starting point. Like Form
Wizards, Report Wizards give you a basic layout for your report, which you can then
customize.
Report Wizards simplify the layout process of your fields by visually stepping you through a
series of questions about the type of report that you want to create and then automatically
creating the report for you. In this chapter, you use Report Wizards to create both tabular and
columnar reports.
Creating a new report
You can choose from many ways to create a new report, including the following:
✦ Select Insert_Report from the main menu when the Database window is selected.
✦ Select the Reports object button and press the New toolbar button on the Database
window.
✦ From the Database window, the datasheet, or the query toolbar, click the New
Object down arrow and select Report.
Regardless of how you start a new report, the New Report dialog box appears. The dialog
box in the figure is already filled in with the choices you are about to make.
The New Report dialog box enables you to choose from among six ways to create a report:
✦ Design View. Displays a completely blank Report Design window for you to start
with.
✦ Report Wizard. Helps you create a tabular report by asking you many questions.
✦ AutoReport: Columnar. Creates an instant columnar report.
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✦ AutoReport: Tabular. Creates an instant tabular report.
✦ Chart Wizard. Helps you create a business graph.
Label Wizard. Helps you create a set of mailing labels.
To create a new report using a Report Wizard, follow these steps:
For the example below, use the tblProducts table:
1. Create a new report by first selecting the Reports object button and then pressing
the New toolbar button.
2. In the New Report dialog box, select Report Wizard.
3. Select the table tblProducts and click OK.
4. Press the OK button to move to the next Report Wizard screen.
Choosing the data source
If you begin creating the report with a highlighted table or from a datasheet or query, the
table or query you are using is displayed in the Choose the table or query box. Otherwise,
you can enter the name of a valid table or query before continuing. You can also choose
from a list of tables and queries by clicking the combo box selection arrow. In this example,
you use the Hospital Report query you saw in Figure 10-5, which creates data for customer
visits on the date 7/11/01.
Tip
If you begin creating a report in Design View, you don’t need to specify a table or query in the
New Report dialog box because you can select the Record Source later on from the Properties
sheet.
Choosing the fields
After you select the Report Wizard and click the OK button, a field selection box appears.
This box is virtually identical to the field selection box used in Form Wizards. In this
example, select the fields from left to right (shown in Figure 8-6).
1. Select the chrCategory field and press the Select Field button (>) to place the field
in the Selected Fields: area.
2. Repeat for the chrProductID, chrDescription, intQtyInStock, curCost,
curRetailPrice, and curSalePrice fields and press the Select Field button (>) each
time to place the field in the Selected Fields: area.
3. Click the Next button when you are through to move to the next wizard screen.
Tip
You can double-click any field in the Available Fields list box to add it to the Selected Fields list
box. You can also double-click any field in the Selected Fields list box to remove it from the box.
Access then redisplays the field in the Available Fields list box.
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Figure 8-6: Selecting report fields.
You are limited to selecting fields from the original record source you started with. You can
select fields from other tables or queries by using the Tables/Queries: combo box in this wizard
screen. As long as you have specified valid relationships so that Access can link the data, these
fields are added to your original selection and you can use them on the report. If you choose
fields from tables that don’t have a relationship, a dialog box will ask you to edit the
relationship and join the tables. Or you can return to the Report Wizard and remove the fields.
After you have selected your data, click the Next button to go to the next wizard dialog box.
Selecting the grouping levels
The next dialog box enables you to choose which field(s) you want to use for a grouping. In
this example, Figure 8-7 shows the chrCategory field selected as the only group field. This
step designates the field(s) to be used to create group headers and footers. Groups are used
to combine data with common values.
Using the Report Wizard, you can select up to four different group fields for your report;
you can change their order by using the Priority buttons. The order you select for the group
fields is the order of the grouping hierarchy.
Select the chrCategory field as the grouping field and click (>). Notice that the picture
changes to graphically show chrCategory as a grouping field, as shown in Figure 8-7. This
means that data will be grouped or separated by category and also totaled as well if the
report chosen supports summarized footers.
After you select the group field(s), click the Grouping Options button at the bottom of the
dialog box to display another dialog box, which enables you to further define how your
report will use the group field.
CrossReference
You will learn more about groups, headers, and footers later in this chapter.
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Figure 8-7: Selecting report group fields.
Defining the group data
The Grouping Options dialog box, which is displayed by pressing the Grouping Options …
button in the lower-left corner of the Report Wizard screen, enables you to further define the
grouping. This selection can vary in importance, depending on the data type.
The list box displays different values for the various data types:
✦ Text. Normal, 1st Letter, 2 Initial Letters, 3 Initial Letters, 4 Initial Letters, 5 Initial
letters
✦ Numeric. Normal, 10s, 50s, 100s, 500s, 1000s, 5000s, 10000s, 50000s, 100000s.
✦ Date. Normal, Year, Quarter, Month, Week, Day, Hour, Minute.
Normal means that the grouping is on the entire field. In this example, use the entire
Customer Name field. By selecting different values of the grouping, you can limit the group
values. For example, suppose you are grouping on the Product ID field. A typical Product
ID value is CAR-01. The characters to the left of the — represent the category and the
numbers to the right of the — are a sequential number. By choosing the Product ID field for
the grouping and then selecting 3 Initial Letters as the grouping data, you can group the
products by their category.
In this example, the default text-field grouping option of Normal is acceptable.
If you displayed the Grouping Options dialog box, click the OK button to return to the
Grouping levels dialog box.
Click the Next button to move to the Sort order dialog box.
Chapter 8 ✦ Understanding and Creating Access Reports
Selecting the sort order
Access sorts the Group record fields automatically in an order that helps the grouping make
sense. The additional sorting fields specify fields to be sorted in the detail section. In this
example, Access is already sorting the data by the chrCategory field in the group section. As
Figure 8-8 shows, the data is also to be sorted by Product ID so that the products appear in
alphabetical order in the detail section.
Figure 8-8: Selecting the field sorting order.
The sort fields are selected by the same method that is used for grouping fields in the report.
You can select fields that you have not already chosen to group and use these as sorting
fields. The fields chosen in this dialog box do not affect grouping; they affect only the
sorting order in the detail section fields. You can determine whether the order is ascending
or descending by clicking the button to the right of each sort field, which toggles between
Ascending and Descending.
Selecting summary options
At the bottom of the sorting dialog box is a button named Summary Options. Clicking this
button displays the dialog box shown in Figure 8-9. This dialog box provides additional
options for numeric fields. As you can see in Figure 8-9, all of the numeric and currency
fields are displayed and selected to be summed. Additionally, you can display averages,
minimums, and maximums.
Sum should be checked. You can also decide whether to show or hide the data in the detail
section. If you select Detail and Summary, the report shows the detail data; selecting
Summary Only hides the detail section and shows only totals in the report.
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Finally, checking the box labeled Calculate percent of total for sums adds the percentage of
the entire report that the total represents below the total in the group footer. If, for example,
you had three products and their totals were 15, 25, and 10, respectively, they would show
30%, 50%, and 20% below their total (that is, 50) — indicating the percentage of the total
sum (100%) represented by their sum.
Clicking the OK button in this dialog box returns you to the sorting dialog box. There you
can click the Next button to move to the next wizard dialog box.
Figure 8-9: Selecting the summary options.
Selecting the layout
Two more dialog boxes affect the look of your report. The first (shown in Figure 8-10)
enables you to determine the layout of the data. The Layout area provides six layout choices;
these tell Access whether to repeat the column headers, whether to indent each grouping,
and whether to add lines or boxes between the detail lines. As you select each option, the
picture on the left changes to show the effect.
The Orientation area enables you to choose between a Portrait (up-and-down) and a
Landscape (across-the-page) layout. This choice affects how it prints on the paper. Finally,
the check mark next to “Adjust the field width so all fields fit on a page” enables you to
cram a lot of data into a little area. (Magnifying glasses may be necessary!)
For this example, choose Stepped and Landscape, as shown in Figure 8-10. Then click on
the Next button to move to the next dialog box.
Chapter 8 ✦ Understanding and Creating Access Reports
Figure 8-10: Selecting the page layout.
Choosing the style
After you choose the layout, you can choose the style of your report from the dialog box
shown in Figure 8-11. Each style has different background shadings, font size, typeface, and
other formatting. As each is selected, the picture on the left changes to show a preview. For
this example, choose Casual (as shown in Figure 8-11). Finally, click the Next button to
move to the last dialog box.
Figure 8-11: Choosing the style of your report.
Tip
You can customize the styles, or add your own, by using the AutoFormat option from the Format
menu of the Report Design window and choosing Customize.
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Opening the report design
The final Report Wizard dialog box contains a checkered flag, which lets you know that
you’re at the finish line. The first part of the dialog box enables you to enter a title for the
report. This title will appear once at the beginning of the report, not at the top of each page.
The default is the name of the table or query you used initially.
Change the report name to rptProductsCh13.
Next, you can choose one of the option buttons at the bottom of the dialog box:
✦ Preview the report
✦ Modify the report’s design
For this example, leave the default selection intact to preview the report. When you click the
Finish button, your report is displayed in the Print Preview window. Name the report
rptProducts. Click Finish to complete the Report Wizard and view the report.
Using the Print Preview window
Figure 8-12 displays the Print Preview window in a zoomed view of page 2. This view
displays your report with the actual fonts, shading, lines, boxes, and data that will be on the
printed report. When the Print Preview mode is in a zoomed view, pressing the mouse
button changes the view to a page preview that shows the entire page.
Figure 8-12: Displaying a report in the zoomed preview mode.
Chapter 8 ✦ Understanding and Creating Access Reports
You can move around the page by using the horizontal and vertical scrollbars. Use the Page
controls (at the bottom-left corner of the window) to move from page to page. These
controls include VCR-like navigation buttons to move from page to page or to the first or
last page of the report. You can also go to a specific page of the report by entering a value in
the text box between the previous and next controls.
Figure 8-13 shows a view of the report in the multi-page preview mode of Print Preview.
The sixth icon from the left displays up to six pages at a time. The magnifying glass mouse
pointer selects part of the page to zoom in. In Figure 8-13, you can see a representation of
the printed page. Use the navigation buttons (in the lower-left section of the Print Preview
window) to move between pages, just as you would to move between records in a datasheet.
The Print Preview window has a toolbar with commonly used printing commands.
Figure 8-13: Displaying a report in Multiple Pages Print Preview’s page preview mode.
If, after examining the preview, you are satisfied with the report, select the Printer button on
the toolbar to print the report. If you are dissatisfied, select the Close button to return to the
design window; Access takes you to the Report Design window to make further changes.
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Viewing the Report Design window
When you click Design View (the left-most button on the toolbar), Access takes you to the
Report Design window, which is similar to the Form Design window. The major difference
is in the sections that make up the report design. As shown in Figure 8-14, the report design
reflects the choices you made using the Report Wizard.
Figure 8-14: The Report Design window.
CrossReference
You may also see the Toolbox, Sorting and Grouping dialog box, property sheet, and Field List
window, depending on whether you pressed the toolbar buttons to see these tools. You learn to
change the design of a report in this chapter. For more detailed information on changing report
design, see Chapters 14, 15, and 16 of the Access 2003 Bible.
You can return to the Print Preview mode by selecting the Print Preview button on the
Report Design toolbar or by selecting the Print Preview option on the File menu. You can
also select Print or Page Setup from the File menu. This menu also provides options for
saving your report.
Printing a Report
You can print one or more records in your report, exactly as they look onscreen, using one of
these methods:
✦ Click File_Print in the Report Design window.
✦ Click the Print button in the Preview window.
✦ Click File_Print in the Database window (with a report highlighted).
Chapter 8 ✦ Understanding and Creating Access Reports
If you select File_Print, a standard Microsoft Windows Print dialog box appears. You can
select the print range, number of copies, and print properties. If you click the Print button,
the report goes immediately to the currently selected printer without displaying a Print
dialog box.
Saving the Report
You can save the report design at any time by selecting File_Save, or File_Save As, or
File_Export from the Report Design window, or by clicking the Save button on the toolbar.
The first time you save a report (or any time you select Save As or Export), a dialog box
enables you to select or type a name.
Starting with a Blank Form
There are many tools available in the Report Design window. When you create reports, you
use some of these tools in a slightly different manner from the way they are used to create
forms. Therefore, it is important to review some of the unique report menus and toolbar
buttons.
You can view a report in three different views: Design View, Layout Preview, and Print
Preview. You can also print a report to the hard copy device defined for Microsoft Windows.
This chapter focuses on the Report Design window.
The Report Design window is where you create and modify reports. The empty Report
Design window, shown in Figure 8-15, contains various tools, including the Toolbox.
Figure 8-15: The Report Design window, showing the Toolbox.
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The Design Window toolbar
The Report Design toolbar is shown in Figure 8-16. You click the button you want for quick
access to such design tasks as displaying different windows and activating wizards and
utilities. Table 8-1 summarizes what each item on the toolbar does. (The table defines each
tool from left to right on the toolbar.)
Figure 8-16: The Report Design toolbar.
The Report Design toolbar is distinct from the Format toolbar. To make such changes as font
selection and justification, you must first make sure that the Formatting (Form/Report)
design toolbar is displayed.
Table 8-1
The Design View Toolbar
Toolbar Item
Description
Report View button
Drop-down box displays the three types of views available
Save button
Saves the current report design
File Search button
Finds text within a database or on your computer
Print button
Prints a form, table, query, or report
Print Preview button
Toggles to print preview mode
Cut button
Removes selection from the document and adds it to the
Clipboard
Copy button
Copies the selection to the Clipboard
Paste button
Copies the Clipboard contents to the document
Format Painter button
Copies the style of one control to another
Undo/Redo button
Undoes/redoes previous commands
Insert Hyperlink button
Inserts hyperlink
Field List button
Displays or hides the Field List window
Toolbox button
Displays or hides the Toolbox
Sorting and Grouping
button
Displays or hides the Sorting and Grouping box
AutoFormat button
Applies a predefined format to a form or report
Continued
Chapter 8 ✦ Understanding and Creating Access Reports
Table 2-8 (continued)
Note
Toolbar Item
Description
Code button
Displays or hides the Module window
Properties button
Displays the properties sheet for the selected item
Build button
Displays the Builder or Wizard for selected control or item
Database Window
button
Displays the Database window
New Object button
Creates a new object
Microsoft Access
Help button
Displays Access Help
The tools on the Report Design screen are virtually identical to the Form Design tools.
Banded Report Writer Concepts
In a report, your data is processed one record at a time. Depending on how you create your
report design, each data item is processed differently. Reports are divided into sections,
known as bands in most report-writing software packages. (In Access, these are simply
called sections.) Access processes each data record from a table or dynaset, processing each
section in order and deciding (for each record) whether to process fields or text in each
section. For example, the report footer section is processed only after the last record is
processed in the dynaset.
A report is made up of groups of details — for example, as shown in Figure 8-17, all the
products sold by category. Each group must have an identifying group header, which for the
first category in this example is Minivans. Each group also has a footer where you can
calculate the total cost and profit for each category. For Minivans, the total profit is
$17,063. The page header contains column descriptions; the report header contains the
report title. Finally, the report footer contains grand totals for the report, and the page footer
prints the page number.
The Access sections are listed below:
✦ Report header. Prints only at the beginning of the report; used for title page.
✦ Page header. Prints at the top of each page.
✦ Group header. Prints before the first record of a group is processed.
✦ Detail. Prints each record in the table or dynaset.
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✦ Group footer. Prints after the last record of a group is processed.
✦ Page footer. Prints at the bottom of each page.
✦ Report footer. Prints only at the end of a report after all records are processed.
Figure 8-17 shows these sections superimposed on a report.
Figure 8-17: Typical Report Writer sections.
How sections process data
Most sections are triggered by changes in the values of the data. Table 8-2 shows the records
that make up the dynaset for the Products Summary Report (Yes indicates that a section is
triggered by the data).
Chapter 8 ✦ Understanding and Creating Access Reports
Table 8-2
Processing Report Sections
Category Product
Name
Name
Report
Header
Page
Category
Header Header
Detail
Category Page
Footer
Footer
Report
Footer
Minivans
Mini-03
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Minivans
Mini-101
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Minivans
Mini-102
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Minivans
Mini-103
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Minivans
Mini-104
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Minivans
Mini-105
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Minivans
Mini-115
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Motor
Homes
Mot-01
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
SUV
SUV-076 No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
SUV
SUV-101 No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
SUV
SUV-102 No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
SUV
SUV-103 No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
SUV
SUV-104 No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
SUV
SUV-111
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
SUV
SUV-112
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
SUV
SUV-113
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
SUV
SUV-568 No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
As you can see, Table 8-2 shows 17 records. Three groups of records are grouped by the
category. There are seven Minivans, one Motor Homes, and nine SUVs. Each record in the
table has corresponding columns for each section in the report. “Yes” means that the record
triggers processing in that section; “No” means that the section is not processed for that
record. This report is only one page, so it is very simple.
The report header section is triggered by only the first record in the reports dynaset. This
section is always processed first, regardless of the data. The report footer section is triggered
only after the last record is processed, regardless of the data.
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Access processes the page header section after the report header section for the first record
and then every time a new page is started. The page footer section is processed at the bottom
of each page and after the report footer section of the last page.
Group headers are triggered only by the first record in a group. Group footers are triggered
only by the last record in a group. Notice that the Mot-01 Motor Homes record triggers both
a group header and a group footer because it is the only record in a group. If three or more
records are in a group, only the first or the last record can trigger a group header or footer;
the middle records trigger only the detail section.
Access always processes each record in the detail section (which is always triggered,
regardless of the value of a data item). Most reports with a large amount of data have many
detail records and significantly fewer group header or footer records. This small report has
as many group header and footer records as it has detail records.
The Report Writer sections
Figure 8-18 shows what a report design looks like in Access. It is the Report Design window
for the Products Summary Report. As you can see, the report is divided into seven sections.
The group section displays data grouped by Categories, so you see the sections chrCategory
Header and chrCategory Footer. Each of the other sections is also named for the type of
processing it performs.
Figure 8-18: The Report Design window.
You can place any type of text or field controls in any section, but Access processes the data
one record at a time. It also takes certain actions (based on the values of the group fields, the
location of the page, or placement in the report) to make the bands or sections active. The
example in Figure 8-18 is typical of a report with multiple sections. As you learned, each
section in the report has a different purpose and different triggers.
Chapter 8 ✦ Understanding and Creating Access Reports
Note
Caution
189
Page and report headers and footers must be added as pairs. To add one without the other,
after the section is added, resize the section you don’t want to a height of zero or set its Visible
property to No.
If you remove a header or footer section, you also lose the controls in those sections.
Report header section
Controls in the report header section are printed only once at the beginning of the report. A
common use of a report header section is as a cover page or a cover letter or for information
that needs to be communicated only once to the user of the report.
You can also have controls in the report header section print on a separate page, which
enables you to create a title page and include a graphic or picture in the section. There is a
Force New Page property in the Report Header that can be set to After Section that will place
the information in the Report Header into a separate page.
In Figure 8-17, the report header section is not used.
Note
Only data from the first record can be placed in a report header.
Page header section
Text or field controls in the page header section normally print at the top of every page. If a
report header on the first page is not on a page of its own, the information in the page header
section prints just below the report header information. Typically, page headers serve as
column headers in group/total reports; they can also contain a title for the report. In this
example, placing the Products Summary report title in the Page Header section means that
the title appears on every page.
The page header section shown in Figure 8-18 also has lines above and below the label
controls. Each of the report’s label controls is separate and each can be moved or sized
individually. You can also change special effects (such as color, shading, borders, line
thickness, font type, and font size) for each text control.
Both the page header and page footer sections can be set to one of four settings (this setting
can be found in the Report’s properties, not the section properties):
✦ All Pages. Both the page header and page footer print on every page.
✦ Not with Report Header. Neither the page header nor footer prints on a page with
the report header.
✦ Not with Report Footer. The page header does not print with the report footer. The
report footer prints on a new page.
✦ Not with Report Header/Footer. Neither the page header nor the footer prints on a
page with the report header or footer.
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Group header
Group headers sections normally display the name of the group. Access knows when all the
records in a group have been displayed in a detail section when the group name changes. In
this example, the detail records are about products and their costs and profits. The group
header field control chrCategory tells you that these products are of a specific category type.
Group header sections immediately precede detail sections.
It is possible to have multiple levels of group headers and footers. In this report, for
example, the data is only for categories. However, in some reports you might have groups of
information with date values. You could group your sections by year or month and year, and
within those sections by another group such as category.
Note
To set group-level properties such as Group On, Group Interval, Keep Together, or something
other than the default, you must first set the Group Header and Group Footer property (or both)
to Yes for the selected field or expression. You will learn about these later in the chapter.
Detail section
The detail section processes every record in the data and is where each value is printed. The
detail section frequently contains a calculated field such as profit that is the result of a
mathematical expression. In this example, the detail section simply displays information
from the tblProduct table except for the last control. The profit is calculated by subtracting
the value of curCost from the value of curSalePrice.
Tip
You can tell Access whether you want to display a section in the report by changing the section’s
Visible property in the Report Design window. Turning off the display of the detail section (or by
excluding selected group sections) displays a summary report with no detail or with only certain
groups displayed.
Group footer
You use the group footer section to calculate summaries for all the detail records in a group.
In the Products Summary report, the expression =Sum([curSalePrice] - [curCost]) adds all
the calculations of Sale Price — Cost for a specific category. In the Minivans group, this
expression sums the seven records. This type of field is automatically reset to 0 every time
the group changes.
Tip
You can change the way summaries are calculated by changing the Running Sum property of
the field box in the Report Design window.
Page footer
The page footer section usually contains page numbers or control totals. In very large
reports, you may want page totals as well as group totals (such as when you have multiple
pages of detail records with no summaries). For the Products Summary Report, the page
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number is printed by combining the text Page, and built-in page number controls show Page
x of y where x is the current page number and y is the total number of pages in the report. A
text box control with the following expression in the Control Source property can be used to
display page number information.
=“Page: ” & [Page] & “ of ” & [Pages]
(which keeps track of the page number in the report).
You can also print the date and the time printed. Figures 8-18 and 8-19 show the date printed
in the Page Footer section as well as the page numbers.
Report footer
The report footer section is printed once at the end of the report after all the detail records
and group footer sections are printed. Report footers typically display grand totals or other
statistics (such as averages or percentages) for the entire report. The report footer for the
Products Summary report uses the expression =Sum with each of the numeric fields to sum
the amounts.
Note
When there is a report footer, the page footer section is printed after the report footer.
The Report Writer in Access is a two-pass report writer, capable of preprocessing all records
to calculate the totals (such as percentages) needed for statistical reporting. This capability
enables you to create expressions that calculate percentages as Access processes those
records that require foreknowledge of the grand total.
Creating a New Report
Fundamental to all reports is the concept that a report is another way to view the records
in one or more tables. It is important to understand that a report is bound to either a single
table or a query that brings together data from one or more tables. When you create a
report, you must select which fields from the query or table you want to see in your report.
Unless you want to view all the records from a single table, bind your report to a query.
Even if you are accessing data from a single table, using a query lets you create your
report on the basis of a particular search criterion and sorting order. If you want to access
data from multiple tables, you have almost no choice but to bind your report to a query. In
the examples in this chapter, all the reports are bound to a query (even though it is
possible to bind a report to a table).
Note
Access lets you create a report without first binding it to a table or query, but you will have no
fields on the report. This capability can be used to work out page templates with common text
headers or footers such as page numbering or the date and time, which can serve as models for
other reports. You can add fields later by changing the underlying control source of the report.
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Throughout this chapter, you learn the tasks necessary to create the Products Display
Report (the partial first page is shown in Figure 8-19). In this chapter, you design the basic
report, assemble the data, and place the data in the proper positions. You can learn more
about enhancing your reports by adding lines, boxes, and shading so that certain areas
stand out in Wiley’s Access 2003 Bible, chapter 14.
As with almost every task in Access, there are many ways to create a report without
wizards. It is important, however, to follow some type of methodology, because creating a
good report involves a fairly scientific approach. You should create a checklist that is a set
of tasks that will result in a good report every time. As you complete each task, check it
off your list. When you are done, you will have a great-looking report. The following
section outlines this approach.
Figure 8-19: The Products Summary report.
Chapter 8 ✦ Understanding and Creating Access Reports
Creating a new report and binding it to a query
The first step is to create a new report and bind it to the tblProducts table. Follow these steps
to complete this process:
1. Press F11 to display the Database window if it is not already displayed.
2. Click the Reports object button.
3. Click the New toolbar button. The New Report dialog box appears.
4. Select Design View.
5. Click the combo box which label starts with Choose a table or query. A drop-down
list of all tables and queries in the current database appears.
6. Select the tblProducts table.
7. Click OK.
8. Maximize the Report window.
A blank Report Design window appears (see Figure 8-20). Notice the three sections in the
screen display: Page Header, Detail, and Page Footer. The report is bound to the table
tblProducts. This means that the fields from the table are available for use in the report
design and that they appear in the Field List window. It also means that the data from that
table will be displayed when the report is viewed or printed.
Figure 8-20: A blank Report Design window.
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Defining the report page size and layout
As you plan your report, consider the page-layout characteristics as well as the kind of
paper and printer you want to use for the output. If you use a dot-matrix printer with a
wide-carriage feed, you design your report differently than for printing on a laser printer
with 8½ x 11-inch paper. After you make these decisions, you use several dialog boxes
and properties to make adjustments; these items work together to create the desired
output.
First, you need to select the correct printer and page-layout characteristics by selecting
File_Page Setup. The Page Setup dialog box enables you to select your printer and set
printer options.
The Page Setup dialog box has three tabs: Margins, Page, and Columns. The information
under the Page tab is divided into three sections:
✦ Orientation. Select the page orientation you want.
✦ Paper. Select the paper size and paper source you want.
✦ Printer. Select the printer you want.
Note
If you click the Printer button, the Page Setup dialog box for the selected printer appears.
Clicking Properties will then display a more extensive dialog box with all the applicable options.
The design for Product Summary report is to be a portrait report, which is taller than it is
wide. You want to print on letter size paper that is 8½ x 11 inches, and you want the left,
right, top, and bottom margins all set to 0.250 or the minimum your printer will allow.
Follow these steps to create the proper report setup for the Products Summary report:
1. Open the Page Setup dialog box and select the Page tab.
2. Click the Portrait option button.
Next to the Orientation buttons are two sheet-of-paper icons with the letter A
pictured on them. The picture of the sheet is an indication of its setting.
3. Click the Margins tab.
4. Click the Top margin setting and change the setting to 0.250.
5. Click the Bottom margin setting and change the setting to 0.250.
6. Click the Left margin setting and change the setting to 0.250.
7. Click the Right margin setting and change the setting to 0.250.
Some printers may not allow margins as small as .250 for all four settings. If you
receive a warning, you will need to use a different value.
8. Click OK to close the Page Setup dialog box.
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Access displays your reports in Print Preview view by using the driver of the active printer. If you
don’t have a good-quality laser or inkjet printer available for printing, install the driver for one
anyway so that you can view any graphics that you create (and see the report in a high-resolution display). Later, you can print to your inkjet or other available printer and get the actual hard
copy in the best resolution your printer offers.
Tip
After you define your page layout in the Page Setup dialog box, you need to define the size
of your report (which is not necessarily the same as the page definition).
To define the report size, place the mouse pointer on the right-most edge of the report (where
the white page meets the gray background). The pointer changes to a double-headed arrow.
Drag the pointer to change the width of the report. As you drag the edge, a vertical line appears
in the ruler to let you know the exact width if you release the mouse at that point. Be careful
not to exceed the width of the page you defined in the Page Setup dialog box.
When you position the mouse pointer at the bottom of the report, it changes to a doubleheaded arrow similar to the one for changing width. Dragging will change the height of the
page footer section or other specified bottom section, not the height of the whole page.
(Predefining a page length directly in the report section doesn’t really make sense because
the detail section will vary in length, based on your groupings.) Remember that the Report
Design view shows only a representation of the various report sections, not the actual report.
To set the right border for the Product Display report to 7½ inches, follow these steps:
1. Click the right-most edge of the report body (where the white page meets the gray
background). The mouse pointer changes to a double-headed arrow.
2. Drag the edge to the 7½-inch mark.
3. Release the mouse button.
Note
Tip
You can also change the Width property in the property window for the report.
When you run your report and every other page is blank, it is a sign that the width of your report
exceeds the width of your page. To fix this, decrease your left and right margin size or your
report width. Sometimes, when you move controls around, you accidentally make the report
width larger than your original design. For example, in a portrait report, if your left margin +
report width + right margin is greater than 8½ , you will see blank pages.
Placing fields on the report
Access takes full advantage of Windows’ drag-and-drop capabilities. The method for
placing fields on a report is no exception. As with forms, when you place a field on a
report, it is no longer called a field; it is called a control. A control has a control source (a
specific table field) that it is bound to, so the terms control and field are used
interchangeably in this chapter.
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To place controls on your report:
1. Display the Field List window by clicking the Field List toolbar button.
2. Click the desired Toolbox control to determine the type of control that will be
created if they are to be different from the default control types for the fields.
3. Select each of the fields that you want on your report and then drag them to the
Report Design window.
Displaying the field list
To display the Field List window, click the Field List button on the toolbar. A small
window with a list of all the fields from the underlying query appears. This window is
called a modeless dialog box because it remains onscreen even while you continue with
other work in Access. The Field List window can be resized and moved around the screen.
The enlarged Field List window is illustrated in Figure 8-21, showing all the fields in the
tblProducts table.
Figure 8-21: Dragging fields to the Design window.
Tip
You can move the Field List window by simply clicking on the title bar and dragging it to a new
location.
Chapter 8 ✦ Understanding and Creating Access Reports
Selecting the fields for your report
Selecting a field in the Report field list is the same as selecting a field in the Query field list.
The easiest way to select a field is simply to click it. When you click a field, it becomes
highlighted. After a field is highlighted, you can drag it to the Report window.
You can highlight contiguous (adjacent) fields in the list by following these steps:
• Click the first field you want in the field list.
• Move the mouse pointer to the last field you want from the list.
• Hold down the Shift key and click the last field you want.
The block of fields between the first and last field you selected is displayed in reverse video,
indicating it is selected. You can then drag the block of fields to the Report window.
You can highlight noncontiguous fields in the list by clicking each field while holding down
the Ctrl key. Each selected field will be displayed in reverse video; then you can drag the
fields as a group to the Report Design window.
Note
Unlike the Query field list, you cannot also double-click a field to add it to the Report window.
You can begin by selecting the tblProducts fields for the detail section. To select the fields
needed for the detail section of the Product Display report, follow these steps:
1. Click the chrProductID field.
2. Hold down the Shift key and click the curSalePrice field.
The block of fields from chrProductID to curSalePrice should be highlighted in the
Field List window, as shown in Figure 8-20.
3. Hold down the Ctrl key and click the memFeatures field and the olePicture field.
Holding down the Ctrl key lets you select noncontiguous fields. You should have
two blocks of field1.
Dragging fields onto your report
After you select the proper fields from the tblProducts table, all you need to do is drag them
to the detail section of your report. Depending on whether you choose one or several fields,
the mouse pointer changes shape to represent your selection. If you select one field, you see
a Field icon, which shows a single box with some unreadable text inside. If you select
multiple fields, you see a set of three boxes. These are the same icons you saw when you
were using the Query Design screens.
To drag the selected tbProducts table fields into the detail section of the Report Design
window, follow these steps:
1. Click within the highlighted block of fields in the Field List window. You may need
to move the horizontal scroll bar back to the left before starting this process.
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2. Without releasing the mouse button, drag the mouse pointer into the detail
section; place the icon under the 1½-inch mark on the horizontal ruler at the top
of the screen and next to the ½-inch mark of the vertical ruler along the left edge
of the screen.
3. Release the mouse button.
The fields appear in the detail section of the report, as shown in Figure 8-21. Notice that for
each field you dragged onto the report, there are two controls. When you use the drag-anddrop method for placing fields, Access automatically creates a label control with the field
name attached to the text control to which the field is bound.
Note
Notice the Bound Object Frame control for the field named Picture. Access always creates a
Bound Object Frame control for an OLE-type object found in a table. Also notice that the detail
section automatically resizes itself to fit all the controls. Above the Bound Object Frame control
is the control for the memo field Features.
You also need to place the desired field controls for the customer information you need in
the page header section. Before you do this, however, you need to resize the page header
frame to leave room for a title you will add later.
Resizing a section
To make room on the report for the title information in the page header, you must resize it.
You can resize a section by placing the mouse pointer at the bottom of the section you want
to resize. The pointer turns into a vertical double-headed arrow; drag the section border up
or down to make the section smaller or larger.
Resize the page header section to make it larger by following these steps:
1. Move the mouse pointer between the bottom of the page header section and the top
of the detail section.
2. When the pointer is displayed as a double-sided arrow, hold down the left mouse
button.
3. Drag the page header section border down until it intersects the detail section’s
ruler at the ¾-inch mark.
4. Release the button to enlarge the page header section.
The page header section expanded to fit the fields that were dragged into the section. All the
fields needed for the Product Display report are now placed in their appropriate sections.
Working with unattached label controls and text
When you drag a field from the Field List window to a report, Access creates not only a data
control but also a label control that is attached to the data control. At times, you will want to
add label controls by themselves to create headings or titles for the report.
Chapter 8 ✦ Understanding and Creating Access Reports
Creating unattached labels
To create a new, unattached label control, you must use the Toolbox (unless you copy
an existing label). The next task in the current example is to add the text headers Product
Display and Access Auto Auctions to your report. This task demonstrates adding and
editing text.
To begin creating an unattached label control, follow these steps:
1. Display the Toolbox.
2. Click the Label tool in the Toolbox.
3. Click near the top-left edge of the page header at about the 1/8-inch mark on the
ruler; then drag the mouse pointer downward and to the right to make a small
rectangle about 2½ inches wide and ½-inch high.
4. Type Product Display.
5. Press Enter.
Repeat the process for the label Access Auto Auctions and place it just below the
Product Display label, as shown in Figure 8-22. As you create these label rectangles, it
may make the Page Header section expand.
Tip
To create a multiple-line label entry, press Ctrl+Enter to force a line break where you want it in
the control.
Tip
If you want to edit or enter a caption that is longer than the space in the property window, the
contents will scroll as you type. Otherwise, open a Zoom box that gives you more space to type
by pressing Shift+F2.
Modifying the appearance of text in a control
To modify the appearance of the text in a control, select the control by clicking its border
(not in the control itself). You can then select a formatting style to apply to the label by
clicking the appropriate button on the Formatting toolbar.
To make the titles stand out, follow these steps to modify the appearance of label text:
1. Click the newly created report heading label Product Display.
2. Click the Bold button on the Formatting toolbar.
3. Click the arrow beside the FontSize drop-down box.
4. Select 18 from the FontSize drop-down list box.
5. Repeat for the Access Auto Auctions label, using a 12 pt font and Bold.
Figure 8-22 shows these labels added, resized, and formatted.
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Currently, the label rectangles are much large than their displayed text. To tighten the
display or to display all the text when a label rectangle isn’t big enough, you can simply
double-click the bottom left corner handle to resize it (which you will learn more about later
in this chapter).
Figure 8-22: Adding unbound labels to the report.
Working with text boxes and their attached
label controls
So far, you have added controls bound to fields in the tables and unbound label controls used
to display titles in your report. There is another type of text box control that is typically
added to a report: unbound text boxes that are used to hold expressions such as page
numbers, dates, or a calculation.
Creating and using text box controls
In reports, text box controls serve two purposes. First, they enable you to display stored data
from a particular field in a query or table. Second, they display the result of an expression.
Expressions can be calculations that use other controls as their operands, calculations that
use Access functions (either built-in or user-defined), or a combination of the two. You have
learned how to use a text box control to display data from a field and how to create that
control. Next, you learn how to create new text box controls that use expressions.
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Entering an expression in a text control
A function is a small program that, when run, returns a single value. The function can be one
of many built-in Access functions or it can be user-defined. For example, to facilitate page
numbering in reports, Access has a function called Page that returns the value of the current
report page. The following steps show you how to use an unbound text box to add a page
number to your report:
1 Click in the middle of the page footer section, resize the page footer so that it is ½inch in height, and then create a text box about three-quarters of the height of the
section and about ½-inch wide by resizing the default text box control.
2. Select the Text Box tool on the Toolbox.
3. Scroll down to the page footer section by using the vertical scroll bar.
4. Click the label control to select it. (It should say something similar to Text38.)
5. Click the beginning of the label control text, drag over the default text in the label
control, and type Page: or double-click the text to highlight it and then replace it.
6. Click twice on the text box control (it says “Unbound”); type =Page and press
Enter. (Notice that the Control Source property changes on the data sheet of the
Property window to =[Page]. If the Property window is not open, you may want to
open it to see the change.)
7. Click the Page label control’s Move handle (upper-left corner); move the label
closer to the =[Page] text box control until the right edge of the label control
touches the left edge of the text box control.
Although this is a good exercise for creating labels and text boxes, a better way to add a
page number in the Page Footer section is to use the automatic Page numbers dialog box. To
do this, follow the steps below:
1. Delete the text box you created in the last example from the Page Footer section.
2. Select Insert_Page Numbers… from the main menu.
The Page Numbers dialog box is displayed
3. Change the Format to Page N of M.
4. Change the Position to Bottom of Page [Footer].
5. Change Alignment to Right.
Format lets you choose between the final text Page N, where N is the page
number, or Page N of M, where N is the current page number and M is the total
number of pages in the report. It is recommended to always use Page N of M to
make sure the report isn’t missing any pages (or the last page). Position lets you
determine if the page number expression is created in the Page Header or Page
Footer. Alignment lets you determine if the text will be left, right, or centered
aligned. Because this text expression is going to be placed at the bottom right
corner of the report, the Right alignment is preferred. There is also a check box
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that can be unchecked and lets you eliminate the page number from the first page
(if it were to be used as a cover page).
The completed text box expression looks like this:
=”Page “ & [Page] & “ of “ [Pages]
This would display Page 5 of 25 if page 5 was the current page and there were 25
pages in the report.
The = sign begins an expression. The & symbol (known as concatenation) joins
keywords, fields, or other expressions to a text string. Text strings are surrounded
by double quotes. [Page] and [Pages] are keywords and are surrounded (known as
delimited) by braces ([ ]). Notice the “Page “ text contains a trailing space. This is
done so that there will be a space between the text Page and the current page
number. Notice that there are both leading and trailing spaces in the text string “of.”
Again, this separates the page numbers by a space from the word “of.”
Tip
You can always check your result by clicking the Print Preview button on the toolbar and zooming in on the page footer section to check the page number.
Sizing a text box control or label control
You can select a control by simply clicking it. Depending on the size of the control, from
three to seven sizing handles will appear — one on each corner except the upper-left corner
and one on each side. When you move the mouse pointer over one of the sizing handles, the
pointer changes into a double-headed arrow. When the pointer changes, click the control and
drag it to the size you want. Notice that, as you drag, an outline appears; it indicates the new
size that the label control will be when you release the mouse button.
If you double-click any of the sizing handles, Access resizes a control to the best fit for the
text in the control. This feature is especially handy if you increase the font size and then
notice that the text is cut off, either on the bottom or to the right. Note that for label controls,
this best-fit sizing resizes both vertically and horizontally, though text controls can resize
only vertically. The reason for this difference is that in the report design mode, Access
doesn’t know how much of a field you want to display; the field name and field contents
might be radically different. Sometimes label controls are not resized correctly, however,
and have to be adjusted manually.
Changing the size of a label control
Earlier in this chapter (in the steps that modified the appearance of label text), you changed
the characteristics of the Product Display label; the text changed, but the label itself did not
adjust. The text no longer fits well within the label control. You can resize the label control,
however, to fit the enhanced font size by following these steps:
1. Click the Product Display label control.
2. Move your mouse pointer over the control. Notice how the pointer changes shape
over the sizing handles.
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3. To size the control automatically, double-click one of the sizing handles. The label
control size may still need to be readjusted.
4. Place the pointer in the bottom-right corner of the label control so that the diagonal
double-arrow appears.
5. Hold down the left mouse button and drag the handle to resize the label control
until it correctly displays all of the text (if it doesn’t already).
Tip
You can also select Format_Size_To Fit to change the size of the label control text
automatically.
Before continuing, you should check how the report is progressing. You should do this
frequently as you create a report. You should also save the report frequently as you make
changes to it. You can send a single page to the printer or view the report in print preview.
Figure 8-25 is a zoomed print preview of how the report currently looks. The customer
information is at the top of the page; the pet information is below that and offset to the left.
Notice the title at the top of the page. You can see the page number at the bottom if you click
the magnifying glass button to zoom out and see the entire page. Only one record per page
appears on the report because of the vertical layout. In the next section, you move the fields
around and create a more horizontal layout.
Figure 8-23: A print preview of the report.
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Deleting and Cutting attached labels from text controls
In order to create the report shown in Figure 8-19, you must remove the label controls from
several of the text box controls and place the label controls in the page header section.
It’s very easy to delete one or more attached controls in a report. Simply select the desired
controls and press Delete. However, if you want to move the label to the page header
section, you can cut the label instead of deleting it. When removing attached controls, there
are two choices:
• Delete only the label control.
• Cut the label control to the clipboard.
• Delete or cut both the label control and the field control.
If you select the label control and press Cut (Ctrl-X) or the Delete key, only the label control
is removed. If you select the field control and press Cut or Delete, both the label control and
the field control are removed. To cut an attached label control (in this case, the Product ID
controls and their attached label), follow these steps:
1. Click the Close button on the toolbar to exit print preview mode. Select the Product
ID label control only in the detail section.
2. Press Ctrl-X (Cut).
After you have cut the label, you may want to place it somewhere else. In this
example, you will want to place it into the Page Header section.
Pasting labels into a report section
It is probably just as easy to cut labels from controls placed in the detail section and paste
them into the Page Header as it is to just delete the labels and create new ones in the Page
Header. Regardless, you will now paste the label you have cut in the previous steps:
1. Click anywhere in or on the Page Header section.
2. Press Ctrl-V (Paste).
The Product ID label appears in the Page Header.
3. Repeat for the Description, Category, and Quantity in Stock labels.
4. Delete the remaining label controls in the detail section, leaving all of the text box
controls.
If you accidentally selected the data field control and both controls are cut or deleted,
press the Undo toolbar button to undo the action.
Tip
If you want to delete only the field control and keep the attached label control, first select the
label control and then select Edit_Copy. Next, to delete both the field control and the label
control, select the field control and press Delete. Finally, select Edit_Paste to paste only the
copied label control to the report.
Chapter 8 ✦ Understanding and Creating Access Reports
Moving label and text controls
Before discussing how to move label and text controls, it is important to review a few
differences between attached and unattached controls. When an attached label is created
automatically with a text control, it is called a compound control. In a compound control,
whenever one control in the set is moved, the other control moves as well. With a text
control and a label control, whenever the text control is moved, the attached label is also
moved. Likewise, whenever the label control is moved, the text control is also moved.
To move both controls in a compound control, select one of the pair by clicking the control.
Move the mouse pointer over either of the objects. When the pointer turns into a hand, click
the controls and drag them to their new location. As you drag, an outline for the compound
control moves with your pointer.
To move only one of the controls in a compound control, drag the desired control by its
Move handle (the large square in the upper-left corner of the control). When you click a
compound control, it looks like both controls are selected, but if you look closely, you see
that only one of the two controls is selected (as indicated by the presence of both moving
and sizing handles). The unselected control displays only a moving handle. A pointing
finger indicates that you have selected the Move handles and can now move only one
control. To move either control individually, select the control’s Move handle and drag it to
its new location.
Tip
To move a label that is not attached, simply click any border (except where there is a handle)
and drag it.
To make a group selection, click with the mouse pointer anywhere outside a starting point
and drag the pointer through (or around) the controls you want to select. A gray, outlined
rectangle is displayed that shows the extent of the selection. When you release the mouse
button, all the controls that the rectangle surrounds are selected. You can then drag the group
of controls to a new location.
Tip
The global option Tools_Options — Forms/Reports tab — Selection Behavior is a property
that controls the enclosure of selections. You can enclose them fully (the rectangle must completely surround the selection) or partially (the rectangle must only touch the control), which is
the default.
Make sure you also resize all of the controls as shown in the figure. The memo field
memFeatures and the OLE picture field olePicture must also be changed in both size
and shape.
Place all of the controls in their proper position to complete the report layout. You want this
first pass at rearranging the controls to look like the example shown in Figure 8-24. You will
make a series of block moves by selecting several controls and then positioning them close
to where you want them. Then, if needed, you fine-tune their position. This is the way most
reports are done.
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Follow Figure 8-24 to begin placing the controls where they should be. You may want to
notice that the control labels in the Page Header section have been underlined. Also notice
the new label Cost/Retail/Sale Prices in the Detail section.
Figure 8-24: Rearranging the controls on the report.
At this point, you are about halfway done. The screen should look like the one shown in
Figure 8-24. (If it doesn’t, adjust your controls until your screen matches the figure.)
Remember that these screen pictures are taken with the Windows screen driver set at 1024 x
768. If you are using 800 x 600, 640 x 480, or large fonts, you’ll have to scroll the screen to
see the entire report.
These steps complete the rough design for this report. There are still properties, fonts, and
sizes to change. When you make these changes, you’ll have to move fields around again.
Use the designs in Figure 8-19 only as a guideline. How it looks to you, as you refine the
look of the report in the Report window, determines the real design.
Modifying the appearance of multiple controls
The next step is to format all the label controls in the Page Header section directly above the
section separator to be underlined. The following steps guide you through modifying the
appearance of text in multiple label controls:
1. Select all label controls in the bottom of the Page Header section by individually
clicking them while holding down the Shift key. There are four label controls to
select, as shown in Figure 8-24.
You could also have placed your cursor in the vertical ruler at about 1.25 inches
and, when it changed to a right-pointing bold arrow, clicked the mouse to select all
the controls in that horizontal area of the report.
2. Click the Underline button on the toolbar.
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You could also have selected all the label controls in the preceding steps by using the drag-andsurround method.
After you make the final modifications, you are finished, except for fixing the picture
control. To do this, you need to change properties, which you do in the next section. This
may seem to be an enormous number of steps because the procedures were designed to show
you how laying out a report design can be a slow process. Remember, however, that when
you click away with the mouse, you don’t realize how many steps you are doing as you
design the report layout visually. With a WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get)
layout like that of the Access report designer, you may need to perform many tasks, but it’s
still easier and faster than programming. Figure 8-24 shows the final version of the design
layout as seen in this chapter.
Changing label and text box control properties
To change the properties of a text or label control, you need to display the control’s property
sheet. If it is not already displayed, perform one of these actions to display it:
✦ Double-click the border of the control (anywhere except a sizing handle or Move
handle).
✦ Click the Properties button on the toolbar.
✦ Select View_Properties.
✦ Right-click the mouse and select Properties.
The property sheet enables you to look at a control’s property settings and provides an easy
way to edit the settings. Using tools such as the formatting windows and text-formatting
buttons on the Formatting toolbar also changes the property settings of a control. Clicking
the Bold button, for example, really sets the Font Weight property to Bold. It is usually
much more intuitive to use the toolbar (or even the menus), but some properties are not
accessible this way. In addition, sometimes objects have more options available through the
property sheet.
The Size Mode property of an OLE object (bound object frame), with its options of Clip,
Stretch, and Zoom, is a good example of a property that is available only through the
property sheet.
The Image control, which is a bound object frame, presently has its Size Mode property set
to Clip, which is the default. With Clip, the picture is displayed in its original size and may
be too large to fit in the frame. In this exercise, you will change the setting to Stretch so that
the picture is sized automatically to fit the picture frame.
To change the property for the bound object frame control that contains the picture, follow
these steps:
1. Click the frame control of the picture bound object.
2. Click the Size Mode property.
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3. Click the arrow to display the drop-down list box.
4. Select Stretch.
These steps complete the changes so far to your report. A print preview of the first few
records appears in Figure 8-25. If you look at the pictures, notice how the picture is properly
displayed and the Features field now appears across the bottom of the detail section. The
labels are all underlined.
Figure 8-25: The report print preview.
Growing and shrinking text box controls
When you print or print-preview fields that can have variable text lengths, Access provides
options for enabling a control to grow or shrink vertically, depending on the exact contents
of a record. The option Can Grow determines whether a text control adds lines to fit
additional text if the record contains more lines of text than the control can display. The
option Can Shrink determines whether a control deletes blank lines if the record’s contents
use fewer lines than the control can display. Although these properties are usable for any
text field, they are especially helpful for memo field controls like the Features control.
Table 8-3 explains the acceptable values for these two properties.
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Table 8-3
Text Control Values for Can Grow and Can Shrink
Property
Value
Description
Can Grow
Yes
If the data in a record uses more lines than the control is defined
to display, the control resizes to accommodate additional lines.
Can Grow
No
If the data in a record uses more lines than the control is defined
to display, the control does not resize; it truncates the data
display.
Can Shrink
Yes
If the data in a record uses fewer lines than the control is
defined to display, the control resizes to eliminate blank lines.
Can Shrink
No
If the data in a record uses fewer lines than the control is
defined to display, the control does not resize to eliminate blank
lines.
To change the Can Grow settings for a text control, follow these steps:
1. Select the Features text box control.
2. Display the Property window.
3. Click the Can Grow property; then click the arrow and select Yes.
Note
The Can Grow and Can Shrink properties are also available for report sections. Use a section’s
property sheet to modify these values.
The report is starting to look good, but you may want to see groups of like data together and
determine specific orders of data. In order to do this, you will use sorting and grouping.
Sorting and grouping data
Sorting enables you to determine the order in which the records are viewed in a datasheet,
form, or report, based on the values in one or more fields. This order is important when
you want to view the data in your tables in a sequence other than that of your input. For
example, new products are added to the tblProducts table as they are needed on an
invoice. The physical order of the database reflects the date and time a product is added.
Yet, when you think of the product list, you probably expect it to be in alphabetical order
by Product ID, and you want to sort it by Description of the cost of the product. By
sorting in the report itself, you don’t have to worry about the order of the data. Although
you can sort the data in the table by the primary key or in a query by any field you want, it
is more advantageous to do it in the report. This way, if you change the query or table, the
report is still in the correct order.
You can take this report concept even further by grouping — that is, breaking related records
into groups. Suppose that you want to list your products first by Category and then by
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Description within each Category group. To do this, you must use the Category and
Description fields to sort the data. Groupings that can create group headers and footers are
sometimes called control breaks because changes in data trigger the report groups.
Before you can add a grouping, however, you must first define a sort order for at least one
field in the report using the Sorting and Grouping dialog box, which is shown completed in
Figure 8-26. In this example, you use the Category field to sort on first and then the
Description field as the secondary sort.
To define a sort order based on Category and Description, follow these steps:
1. Click the Sorting and Grouping button on the toolbar to display the Sorting and
Grouping box.
2. Click in the first row of the Field/Expression column of the Sorting and Grouping
box. A downward-pointing arrow appears.
3. Click the arrow to display a list of fields in the tblProduct table.
4. Select chrCategory in the field list. Notice that Sort Order defaults to Ascending.
5. Click in the second row of the Field/Expression column.
6. Click the arrow to display a list of fields in the tblProduct table.
7. Select chrDescription in the field list. Notice that Sort Order defaults to Ascending.
Figure 8-26: The Sorting and Grouping box completed.
Tip
To see more of the Field/Expression column, drag the border between the Field/Expression and
Sort Order columns to the right.
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You can also drag a field from the Field List window into the Sorting and Grouping box Field/
Expression column rather than enter a field or choose one from the field list in the Sorting and
Grouping box Field/Expression column.
Although in this example you used a field, you can alternatively sort (and group) by using
an expression. To enter an expression, click in the desired row of the Field/Expression
column and enter any valid Access expression, making sure that it begins with an equal sign,
as in =[curRetailPrice]-[curCost].
To change the sort order for fields in the Field/Expression column, simply click the Sort
Order column and click the down arrow to display the Sort Order list; then select
Descending.
Creating a group header or footer
Now that you have added instructions to sort by the Category and Description, you will also
need to create a group header for Category to group all of the products by category. You
don’t need a group footer in this example because there are no totals by category or other
reasons to use a group footer.
To create a group header that enables you to sort and group by the chrCategory field, follow
these steps:
1. Click the Sorting and Grouping button on the toolbar if the Sorting and Grouping
box is not displayed. The field chrCategory should be displayed in the first row
of the Sorting and Grouping box; it should indicate that it is being used as a sort
in Ascending order.
2. Click on the chrCategory row in the Field/Expression column.
3. Click the Group Header property in the bottom pane; an arrow appears.
4. Click the arrow on the right side of the text box; a drop-down list appears.
5. Select Yes from the list. (A header section bar appears on the report.)
After you define a header or footer, the row selection bar changes to the grouping symbol
shown in Figure 8-26. This is the same symbol as in the Sorting and Grouping button on the
toolbar. Figure 8-26 shows both the grouping row symbol and the newly created report
section. The chrCategory header section appears between the page header and detail
sections. If you define a group footer, it appears below the detail section. If a report has
multiple groupings, each subsequent group becomes the one closest to the detail section. The
groups defined first are farthest from the detail section.
The Group Properties pane (displayed at the bottom of the Sorting and Grouping box)
contains these properties:
✦ Group Header. Yes creates a group header. No removes the group header.
✦ Group Footer. Yes creates a group footer. No removes the group footer.
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✦ Group On. Specifies how you want the values grouped. The options you see in
the drop-down list box depend on the data type of the field on which you’re
grouping. If you group on an expression, you see all the options. Group On has
more choices to make.
For Text data types, there are two choices:
✦ Each Value. The same value in the field or expression.
✦ Prefix Characters. The same first n number of characters in the field.
For Date/Time data types, there are additional options:
✦ Each Value. The same value in the field or expression.
✦ Year. Dates in the same calendar year.
✦ Qtr. Dates in the same calendar quarter.
✦ Month. Dates in the same month.
✦ Week. Dates in the same week.
✦ Day. Dates on the same date.
✦ Hour. Times in the same hour.
✦ Minute. Times in the same minute.
Currency, or Number data types provide three options:
✦ Each Value. The same value in the field or expression.
✦ Interval. Values falling within the interval you specify.
✦ Group Interval. Specifies any interval that is valid for the values in the field or
expression you’re grouping on.
The Group Interval has its own options which include:
• Keep Together. This option controls what’s known as widows and orphans in the
word processing world so that you don’t have a header at the bottom of a page
with no detail until the next page.
• Whole Group. Prints header detail and group footer on one page.
• With First Detail. Prevents the contents of the group header from printing
without any following data or records on a page.
• No. Do not keep together.
Note
After you create the Category group header, you are done with the Sorting and Grouping box for
this report on the CD-ROM that accompanies the Access 2003 Bible. You may need to make
additional changes to groupings as you change the way a report looks; the following three
sections detail how to make these changes. You should not make any of these changes, however, if you are following the examples or you should press the Save icon now to save the form
in the current state and then discard the changes done to this form after this point.
Chapter 8 ✦ Understanding and Creating Access Reports
Changing the group order
Access enables you to easily change the Sorting and Grouping order without moving all the
individual controls in the associated headers and footers. Here are the general steps to
change the sorting and grouping order:
1. Click the selector bar of the field or expression you want to move in the Sorting and
Grouping window.
2. Click the selector again and hold down the left mouse button.
3. Drag the row to a new location.
4. Release the mouse button.
Removing a group header or footer
To remove a page or report header/footer section, use the View_Page Header/Footer and
View_Report Header/Footer toggles. To remove a group header or footer while leaving the
sorting intact, follow these steps:
1. In the Sorting and Grouping window, click the selector bar of the field or expression that you want to remove from the grouping.
2. Click the Group Header text box.
3. Change the value to No.
4. Press Enter.
To remove a group footer, follow the same steps, but click Group Footer in Step 2.
To permanently remove both the sorting and grouping for a particular field (and thereby
remove the group header and footer sections), follow these steps:
1. Click the selector of the field or expression you want to delete.
2. Press Delete. A dialog box appears asking you to confirm the deletion.
3. Click OK.
Hiding a section
Access also enables you to hide headers and footers so that you can break data into groups
without having to view information about the group itself. You can also hide the detail
section so that you see only a summary report. To hide a section, follow these steps:
1. Click the section you want to hide.
2. Display the section property sheet.
3. Click the Visible property’s text box.
4. Click the drop-down list arrow on the right side of the text box.
5. Select No from the drop-down list box.
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Note
Sections are not the only objects in a report that can be hidden; controls also have a Visible
property. This property can be useful for expressions that trigger other expressions.
Sizing a section
Now that you have created the group header, you might want to put some controls in the
section, move some controls around, or even move controls between sections. Before you start
manipulating controls within a section, you should make sure the section is the proper height.
To modify the height of a section, drag the border of the section below it. If, for example,
you have a report with a page header, detail section, and page footer, change the height of
the detail section by dragging the top of the page footer section’s border. You can make a
section larger or smaller by dragging the bottom border of the section. For this example,
change the height of the group header section to 3/8 inch with these steps:
1. Move your mouse pointer to the bottom of the chrCategory section. The pointer
changes to a horizontal line split by two vertical arrows.
2. Select the top of the detail section (which is also the bottom of the chrCategory
Header section).
3. Drag the selected band lower until three dots appear in the vertical ruler (3/8”).
The gray line indicates where the top of the border will be when you release the
mouse button.
4. Release the mouse button.
Moving controls between sections
You now want to move the chrCategory control from the Detail section to the chrCategory
Header section. You can move one or more controls between sections by simply dragging
the control with your mouse from one section to another or by cutting it from one section
and pasting it to another section. Follow the instructions below to move the chrCategory
control from the Detail section to the chrCategory section:
1. Select the chrCategory control in the Detail section.
2. Drag the chrCategory control up to the chrCategory Header section and drop it
close to the vertical ruler, as shown in Figure 8-27.
3. Release the mouse button.
4. Press the Underline button to underline the chrCategory control to further
highlight it as a group header. Sometimes, you might want to bold it or even
increase the font size.
You should now do the following steps to complete the report design:
1. Delete the Category label from the Page Header.
2. Move the chrProductID control and its associated label after the chrDescription
control and its associated label, as shown in Figure 8-27.
Chapter 8 ✦ Understanding and Creating Access Reports
3. Move the chrDescription control and its associated label to the left so that it starts
just to the right of the start of the chrCategory control in the chrCategory Header
control.
By offsetting the first control in the Detail section slightly to the right of the start of
the control in the Group Header section, you show the hierarchy of the data
presented in the report. It now will show that each group of products is for the
category listed in the group header.
4. Lengthen the chrDescription control so that it approaches the chrProduct ID
control.
When you are done, the report design should look like the one shown in Figure 8-27.
Figure 8-27 shows this property window and the completed report design.
Figure 8-27: Completing the Group Header section and setting a Page Break.
Adding page breaks
Access enables you to add page breaks based on group breaks; you can also insert forced
breaks within sections, except in page header and footer sections.
In some report designs, it’s best to have each new group begin on a different page. You can
achieve this effect easily by using the Force New Page property of a group section, which
enables you to force a page break every time the group value changes.
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The four Force New Page property settings are listed below:
✦ None. No forced page break (the default).
✦ Before Section. Starts printing the current section at the top of a new page every
time there is a new group.
✦ After Section. Starts printing the next section at the top of a new page every time
there is a new group.
✦ Before & After. Combines the effects of Before Section and After Section.
To create the report you want, you will force a page break before the chrCategory group by
using the Force New Page property in the chrCategory header. To change the Force New
Page property on the basis of groupings, follow these steps:
1. Click anywhere in the chrCategory header.
2. Display the Property window.
3. Select the Force New Page property.
4. Click the drop-down list arrow on the right side of the edit box.
5. Select Before Section from the drop-down list box.
Tip
Alternatively, you can create a Group footer and set its Force New Page property to After
Section.
Sometimes, you don’t want to force a page break on the basis of a grouping, but you
still want to force a page break. For example, you may want to split a report title across
several pages. The solution is to use the Page Break tool from the Toolbox; just follow
these steps:
1. Display the Toolbox.
2. Click the Page Break tool.
3. Click in the section where you want the page break to occur.
Note
Be careful not to split the data in a control. Place page breaks above or below controls; do not
overlap them.
Making the Report Presentation Quality
As you near completion of testing your report design, you should also test the printing of
your report. Figure 8-28 shows a print preview of the first page of the Product Display
report. You can see six records displayed. There are a number of things still to do to
complete the report.
Chapter 8 ✦ Understanding and Creating Access Reports
217
Obviously, the Picture needs to be changed so that it displays all of each car. Currently, the
default Clip view is set. You will need to change that. But that is not the major problem. The
report is very boring, plain, and not something you want to give to anyone else. If your goal
is to just look at the data, this report is done. However, you need to do more before you are
really done.
Although the report has good data that is well organized, it is not of professional quality. To
make a report more visually appealing, you generally add some lines and rectangles,
possibly some special effects such as shadows or sunken areas if you have a background on
the report. You want to make sure sections have distinct areas separate from each other using
lines or color. Make sure controls aren’t touching each other (because text may eventually
touch if a value is long enough). Make sure text is aligned with other text above or below
and to the right or left.
In Figure 8-28, you can see some opportunities for professionalism.
Figure 8-28: Print previewing the data.
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Adjusting the Page Header
In the Page Header are several large labels. They are too far apart. The column headers
are too small and just hanging there. They could be underlined and made one font size
larger. Access generally creates controls with 8 point fonts. These are great for screens but
awful for people to view in a hard copy report. When you create a Word document, the
default font size is 10 point. Most people change their default font size to 12 point
because it is more easily readable. You should look at your hard copy report and decide if
you need to issue magnifying glasses to people over 40. If so, you might want to enlarge
some of your fonts.
Column headers should also be underlined and the entire Page Header should be separated
from the Detail section by a line.
If you wanted to add some color to your report, you could make the report name a different
color. Be careful not to use too many colors unless you have a specific theme in mind. Most
serious business reports use one or two colors, and rarely more than three with the exception
of graphs and charts.
Figure 8-29 shows these changes. The Product Display label has been changed to a
reverse video blue background color with white foreground text. This is done by first
selecting the control and then selecting Blue for the background. They have also been
placed under each other and left aligned. The rectangle around each of the controls was
also properly sized by double-clicking on the controls lower-right corner (or by selecting
Format_Size_To Fit).
The column labels have been changed to 11 point text, bolded, and underlined. They were
also moved to be above the controls for which they are the column headers.
The next step is to add a nice thick line separating the Page Header section from the
chrCategory Group Header section. To draw this line, follow the steps below:
1. Select the Line tool in the toolbox.
2. Start the cursor near the far left side of the Page Header, just to the right and above
of the 1 inch mark on the vertical toolbar, as shown in Figure 8-29.
3. Hold down the Shift key and then hold the left mouse button down and drag the
mouse across the Page Header, releasing it just to the left of the 7 ½ inch mark.
The Shift key is held down in order to draw a perfectly horizontal line.
4. Select the line and select the number 2 pt line thickness from the line thickness icon
on the toolbar, or select the 2 pt Border Width property from the line’s Property
window.
The line thickness icon should be next to the Border icon on the formatting toolbar.
Chapter 8 ✦ Understanding and Creating Access Reports
219
Figure 8-29: Adjusting controls in the Page Header.
Creating an expression in the Group Header
Figure 8-29 also shows that the chrCategory field has been replaced by an expression. If you
just place the value of the category in the Group Header section, it looks out of place and
may not be readily identifiable. Most data values should have some type of labels to identify
what they are.
The expression =”Category: “ & [chrCategory] will display the text
Category: followed by a space and then followed by the data value of the chrCategory
field. The & symbol (known as the concatenation symbol) joins a string to a data field.
Make sure you leave a space after the colon or the value will not be separated from the label.
The text control has been bolded, underlined, and the font point size increased as well.
There is one more very important task to complete. If you simply changed the chrCategory
text box to the expression and displayed the report, you would have seen an error in the Group
Header where the category expression would be. You must rename the control to something
other than the original name of the data field. The original control name was chrCategory and
that was also the control name. Under standard naming conventions, the control should have
been renamed txtCategory, but this may not have been done. When you create an expression
using the original text box control and you use the field name in the control, you will cause an
error. You cannot name a control the same name as any data field used within the expression
itself. This is a limitation of Access. See the Caution below for more information.
Caution
When you create a bound control, it often uses the name of the data field as the control name.
If you then change the control to an expression using the data field in the expression without
changing the name of your control, you will get a #Name or #Error when you display the control
on a form or report. You must rename the control to something other than the original field name.
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Follow the steps below to complete the expression and rename the control:
1. Select the chrCategory control in the chrCategory Group Header section.
2. Display the Property window for the control.
3. Change the Control Source property to =”Category: “ & [chrCategory].
4. Change the Name property to txtCategoryDisplay.
Changing the picture properties and the Detail section
The Detail section is in fairly good shape. Make sure the Description control is slightly
indented from the Category expression in the Group Header. A label should be created, as
shown in Figure 8-30, which identifies the values in the Cost, Retail Price, and Sale Price
controls.
A line is also good to add to this Detail section to separate one record from another. This is
often done when there are multiple lines of a record displayed.
The next step is to add a nice thick line separating each record. Because you don’t want two
lines at the bottom of each page (you’ll be adding a line to the Page Footer next), you will
put this line at the top of the Detail section. To draw this line, follow the steps below:
1. Select the Line tool in the toolbox.
2. Start the cursor near the far left side of the Detail section, just to the right and above
the 1/8 inch mark on the vertical toolbar, as shown in Figure 8-30.
You may have to first move all of the controls down in the Detail section to do this.
3. Hold down the Shift key and then hold the left mouse button down and drag the
mouse across the Page Header, releasing it just to the left of the 7 ½ inch mark.
The Shift key is held down in order to draw a perfectly horizontal line.
4. Select the line and select the number 2 pt line thickness from the line thickness icon
on the toolbar or select the 2 pt Border Width property from the line’s Property
window.
Normally, numeric fields are right aligned. Because they are next to each other horizontally
and not above each other vertically, they can be left aligned. Though the repeating groups of
records are above each other, they are separated by a wide space and left alignment is okay
One task to complete is to change the Picture control to make the picture fit within the
control and to add a shadow to dress up the picture and give it some depth. Follow the steps
below to complete these tasks:
1. Select the olePicture control in the Detail section.
2. Display the Property window for the control.
3. Change the Size Mode property to Stretch.
4. Select Shadowed from the Special Effect window.
Chapter 8 ✦ Understanding and Creating Access Reports
Creating a standard page footer
The Page Footer currently contains a page number control that you created earlier in this
chapter. A standard page footer is one that contains things you place at the bottom of all
your reports and that your users come to expect.
Although a Page n of m control is at the bottom, a date and time control would be nice as
well. Many times, you print off a copy of a report and then discover some bad data. You
correct the values, print off another copy, and discover you can’t tell them apart. Having a
print date and time solves this problem.
To create a date/time control, follow the steps below:
1. Select the TextBox control in the Toolbox.
2. Select the Page Footer section and create a text box control near the left edge.
A text box control should appear with an attached label.
3. Delete the attached label.
4. Display the property window for the control.
5. Enter =Now() into the text box’s Control Source property.
This displays the current date and time when the report is run. If you use the Date()
keyword, you would only get the current date and not the current time.
6. Select General Date from the control’s Format property.
7. Select Align Left text from the formatting toolbar for this control.
This control should have its text left aligned, but make sure the page number
control contains right-aligned text.
The last step is to move the controls down a little from the Page Footer section band and add
a line between the Page Header section band and these controls:
1. Select both the date and page number controls and move them down 1/8 inch.
2. While they are selected, press the Italic icon on the formatting toolbar.
An italicized page footer looks more professional.
3. Select the Line tool in the toolbox.
4. Start the cursor near the far-left side of the Page Footer, just to the right and above
the 1/8-inch mark on the vertical toolbar, as shown in Figure 8-30.
5. Hold down the Shift key and then hold the left mouse button down and drag the
mouse across the Page Header, releasing it just to the left of the 7 ½-inch mark.
The Shift key is held down in order to draw a perfectly horizontal line.
6. Select the line and select the number 2 pt line thickness from the line thickness
icon on the toolbar or select the 2 pt Border Width property from the line’s
Property window.
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Your screen should look like the one shown in Figure 8-30. The Print Preview for
this report is shown in Figure 8-31.
Figure 8-30: Adjusting controls in the Detail and Page Footer sections.
Caution
If every even-numbered page is blank, you accidentally widened the report past the 8-inch
mark. If you move a control to brush up against the right page-margin border or exceed it, the
right page margin increases automatically. When it is past the 8-inch mark, it can’t display the
entire page on one physical piece of paper. The blank page you get is actually the right side of
the preceding page. To correct this, make sure that all your controls are within the 8-inch right
margin; then drag the right page margin back to 8 inches.
Saving your report
After all the time you spent creating your report, you’ll want to save it. It is good practice to
save your reports frequently, starting as soon as you create them. This prevents the
frustration that can occur when you lose your work because of a power failure or human
error. Save the report as follows:
1. Select File_Save. If this is the first time you have saved the report, the Save As
dialog box appears.
2. Type a valid Access object name. For this example, type rptProductDisplayFinal.
3. Click OK.
Chapter 8 ✦ Understanding and Creating Access Reports
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If you already saved your report, Access saves your file with no message about what it is up to.
Figure 8-31: Print Preview of the Final Products Summary Report.
✦
✦
✦
P
Collaborating
and Integrating
with Microsoft
Office 2003
T
his part is comprised of chapters that enable users of one
particular Office 2003 application to more effectively
collaborate and integrate their efforts with coworkers and/or other
applications.
A
R
T
II
.
.
.
.
In This Part
Chapter 9
Building Integrated
Documents
Chapter 10
Integrating Outlook
with Other Applications
Chapter 11
Comments, Reviewing, and
Editing Control in Word
Chapter 12
Sharing Excel Data with
Other Applications
Chapter 13
Team Collaboration
on a Draft PowerPoint
Presentation
Chapter 14
Integrating FrontPage with
Other Office Applications
Chapter 15
Exchanging Access Data
with Other Office
Applications
Chapter 16
Collaboration
on a Network
Chapter 17
Windows SharePoint
Services with Office System
.
.
.
.
Building
Integrated
Documents
9
C H A P T E R
.
.
.
.
In This Chapter
E
ach Office application is so powerful in its own right that you
can usually find some way to make it do whatever you want
it to. Forcing Excel to print a letter, however, or trying to make a
Word table work like a spreadsheet isn’t very efficient. That’s
where linked and embedded objects come in: You can use them to
create an Office document in one application that contains objects
you created in other applications. Not only that, you can configure
Office so that changes made to objects in their original
applications are automatically reflected in the document in which
they all appear together.
First, a couple of definitions:
✦ A linked object is one that appears in your Office
document but isn’t really part of it: It’s stored somewhere
else. All that’s really included in your document is the
object’s name and location; when you display or print the
page that includes the linked object, Office fetches the
object from wherever it is and dutifully includes it. One
advantage of linking over embedding is that any changes
made to the object in the original program (e.g., Excel or
Word) will automatically be reflected in the Office
document in which it is included.
✦ An embedded object is created and edited with another
program, but all the data for it is contained within your
publication. Whereas a linked object has little effect on
the amount of disk space your publication takes up, an
embedded object may have a much greater effect.
Inserting objects from
other applications
Working with
embedded objects
Working with linked
objects
Other methods of
sharing data
Sharing data with XML
.
.
.
.
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Inserting Objects from Other Applications
There’s more than one way to insert an object created in another application into your current
Office document.
Copy and paste
One simple method to move an object from application to application is simply to copy and
paste it. For example, if you highlight a range of cells in an Excel spreadsheet, select
Edit_Copy, go to Word, and select Edit_Paste, the spreadsheet will be pasted into Word as a
Word table. The trouble with this is that you don’t actually have an Excel spreadsheet in the
Word document, which means you can’t manipulate the information in that object the way
you could before.
Tip
In Word, the Standard toolbar includes a button for creating an Excel spreadsheet. Click it and
choose the number of rows and columns you want it to display, just as if you were adding a
Word table. (It’s really a full spreadsheet, by the way; if you decide later you need more rows
and columns, you can simply drag its corner or side handles to reveal more.)
Using Paste Special in Word
A better choice is to select Edit_Paste Special in Word. This opens the dialog box shown in
Figure 9-1. Choose the format in which you want to paste the object from the clipboard, and
then click OK. By default, Paste Special creates an embedded object, but you can make it a
linked object by choosing Paste Link.
Figure 9-1: The Paste Special dialog box lets you choose how an object created in
another application is pasted into the current one.
Chapter 9 ✦ Building Integrated Documents
Choosing a paste method
You have several ways to paste your copied object into the new application:
✦ Object. This creates an embedded or linked object, depending on whether you have
the Paste or Paste link radio button selected. If you want to be able to edit the object
using the tools of the application that created it, this is the choice to make.
✦ Text. You can insert many objects as either formatted (RTF) or unformatted text. If
it’s primarily the words in the object you’re interested in, choose one of these
options.
✦ Picture. You can insert the object as a high-quality picture — the equivalent of a
screenshot — of itself, in Picture (Windows Metafile) (the best choice for highquality printers and also the one that takes up the least disk and memory space),
Bitmap, or Picture (Enhanced Metafile) format. The only editing you’ll be able to
do to the object if you make this choice is the kind of editing you can do to an
inserted piece of clip art: resizing, recoloring, and so on.
✦ HTML. This inserts the object in HTML format — extremely useful if you’re
building a Web page.
Using the Insert Object command
You can also insert objects into Office applications by choosing Insert_Object from the
menu. This opens a dialog box similar to the one shown in Figure 9-2, from Word.
Figure 9-2: The Insert_Object command lets you insert a variety of objects created in
other programs into an Office application.
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By default, the Create New tab is selected. Choose the type of object you want to insert
from the Object type list. Check the Display as icon box if you want to indicate the object
with an icon (which users must double-click in order to view the object). When you’ve
made your selection, click OK, and a new object of the type specified is embedded in your
Office document.
Clicking the Create from File tab changes the look of the dialog box to that shown in
Figure 9-3.
Figure 9-3: Use these tools in your Office application to create an embedded or linked
object that already exists as a separate file elsewhere.
Click Browse to locate the file you want to insert as a new object. By default, this will create
an embedded object, but you can make it a linked object by checking the Link to file box.
Although Paste Special and Insert Object can be used to accomplish the same ends, Insert
Object has the advantage of being able to create new objects of specific types as well as
create objects from existing files without your having to first open those files and copy their
contents, as Paste Special requires.
Working with Embedded Objects
Once you’ve inserted an embedded object into an Office document, it appears to be part of
the document. But there’s a big difference: If you click the object once, you can move it
around and possibly resize it, but you can’t edit it. To do that, you have to double-click it.
When you do, the menus and controls of the current application change to those of the
application that created the object, so you can use the controls of the object’s native
application to edit it.
Chapter 9 ✦ Building Integrated Documents
Figure 9-4 and 9-5 illustrate this concept. Figure 9-4 shows an embedded object, part of an
Excel worksheet, as it looks embedded in a Word document; Figure 9-5 shows what it looks
like when you double-click the embedded worksheet to edit it.
Figure 9-4: This embedded Excel spreadsheet looks pretty much like an ordinary
Word table . . .
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Figure 9-5: . . . but double-clicking it reveals its Excel roots — and Excel controls.
Working with Linked Objects
Linked objects, like embedded objects, look like they’re part of your Office document — but
they really aren’t. They’re simply displayed in it. They really still live somewhere else,
associated with the program that created them. (They’re a bit like graphics displayed on a
Web page in that regard; what you really see is a graphic that’s been called up from a different
location, not something that’s an integral part of the Web page, which, after all, is really only
a text file marked with HTML tags.)
If you’re working with dynamic data that changes all the time, linked objects are great,
because it doesn’t matter if someone changes some figures in the Excel spreadsheet you’ve
linked to on page three of your report — the link, which, by default, is updated every time
you open the document, ensures that your report reflects those changes.
Note
Linked objects require two documents in two different files — the source document and the
destination document. If you want to send a document containing linked objects to someone
else, you also have to send the source document for those objects — and make sure that the
recipient stores the source document in exactly the same drive and file folder as you had it
stored. If the source document isn’t where the destination document expects it to be, the link
won’t work.
Chapter 9 ✦ Building Integrated Documents
233
Moving and resizing linked objects
You can move or resize a linked object just as you can move or resize an embedded object.
You can also edit it in its source application by double-clicking it, with one difference: When
you double-click an embedded object, the menus and toolbars of the originating program are
displayed in the destination document’s application. Double-clicking a linked object opens
the source document in the originating application: In the case of the previous example, it
would open the source document in Excel in a new window.
Editing and updating links
If you have a lot of linked objects in the same document, the easiest way to work with them is
to choose Edit_Links. This opens a dialog box similar to the one shown in Figure 9-6. (Its
appearance varies slightly among the various Office applications.)
Figure 9-6: Edit your links using these controls.
The list box includes all the linked objects in the current document (in this case, only one).
Down the right side are additional controls:
✦ Update Now updates the linked object in the destination document to match the
source.
✦ Open Source opens the source file in its originating application.
✦ Change Source lets you browse your computer for a different source file. Obviously,
changing source files is likely to completely change the appearance of your current
document. You can also use Change Source to find a source file that has been
relocated, thus repairing the severed link.
✦ Break Link turns the linked object into a picture, severing its connection with the
source file.
You can also choose to either automatically update the linked object whenever you open the
destination document or whenever the source file changes, or you can choose to update the
linked object only when you click Update Now.
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Using the Locked and Save picture options
Some applications include two additional options in this dialog box: Locked and Save Picture
in Document. If Locked is available, you can select it to deactivate the Update Now button
and prevent the linked object from being updated automatically. You might do this to freeze
the data in your document at a particular point in time.
Save picture in document is normally checked. If you uncheck it, you can save a graphic as a
linked object instead of inserting it into your document. This can save disk space.
Other Methods of Sharing Data
The four main Office applications (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Access) offer
additional ways to share data. You’ll look at collaborating on a network (including the
Internet) in a separate chapter, but there are several other ways in which Office
applications work together.
CrossReference
For a full explanation of how you can collaborate on a network with Office applications, see
Chapter 16 of this Super Bible eBook.
Sending a Word document to PowerPoint
Word lets you send the currently active document to PowerPoint as the basis of a new
presentation. It automatically turns each paragraph of the document into a new PowerPoint
slide (see Figures 9-7 and 9-8), which you can then edit and format as you wish in
PowerPoint. To send a document to PowerPoint, choose File_Send To_Microsoft
PowerPoint.
You can reduce the amount of formatting you’ll have to do in PowerPoint by using styles.
PowerPoint will interpret each Heading 1 style as a title slide, each Heading 2 style as the
next level of text, and so on. For that reason, a Word outline actually makes a better
PowerPoint presentation than a Word document consisting of long paragraphs of text.
Chapter 9 ✦ Building Integrated Documents
Figure 9-7: This ordinary Word document can be sent to PowerPoint . . .
Figure 9-8: . . . where it becomes a presentation in which each paragraph forms a new
slide (although obviously some formatting work is needed!).
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Analyzing Access data in Excel
Access is a great application for storing and retrieving, but when you want to analyze data,
Excel wins out. For that reason, Office makes it easy to analyze Access databases in Excel.
To do so, open the Access table you want to analyze, and then choose Tools_Office
Links_Analyze it with MS Excel. Excel opens the table and converts it into a spreadsheet,
where you can play with the data to your heart’s content.
Publishing Access reports with Word
Access has a disadvantage when it comes to designing reports for its data: Its tools can seem
awkward if you aren’t thoroughly familiar with it. But one advantage of Office’s integration
is that you can usually use data from any application in another application with which you’re
more comfortable. For that reason, Access also makes it easy to publish reports in Word.
Open the report you want to publish in Word in Access, and then choose Tools_Office
Links_Publish it with MS Word. Access opens Word and converts the report into a new
document in RTF format.
Merging Access data in Word
Access also lets you easily merge data from a database table with a Word document.
To do so:
1. In Access, open the table you want to merge, and then choose Tools_Office
Links_Merge it with Microsoft Word. This opens the wizard shown in Figure 9-9.
Figure 9-9: Use this wizard to merge Access data in Word.
2. Choose either to link your data to an existing Microsoft Word document — a form
letter, for instance — or to create a new document and then link the data to it. If you
choose to use an existing document, you’ll be asked to select it.
Chapter 9 ✦ Building Integrated Documents
3. Access opens Word and either displays the existing document you chose or a blank
document that you can create and format. You can’t see it, but the Word document
and the Access document are linked.
4. From here on, the process of using the Access data is the same as creating any other
mail-merged document in Word.
Sending a PowerPoint presentation to Word
Just as you can turn a Word document into the basis of a PowerPoint presentation, you can
turn a presentation into a Word document which you can then edit and format. This can be a
great way to create a hard-copy version of it.
To do so, open the presentation you want to turn into a Word document, and choose
File_Send To_Microsoft Word. This opens the dialog box shown in Figure 9-10.
Figure 9-10: Turn your PowerPoint presentation into a Word document, laid out just the
way you like it.
Choose how you want to lay out the pages (you can position slides two to a page, with notes
or blank lines beside them; one to a page, with notes or blank lines below them; or send the
outline only, without any slide images), and whether you want to paste (embed) the
presentation into Word or paste it as a linked object.
Click OK. PowerPoint creates a new document in Word and pastes the presentation into it.
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Sharing Data with XML
As has been pointed out several times already in this book, Office 2003 offers XML
(eXtensible Markup Language) as a native file format — meaning you can save your files as
XML files instead of as Office files.
XML is described in greater detail elsewhere, but it’s worth reiterating what is likely the
clearest definition of differences between HTML (the markup language used to create Web
pages) and XML: XML was designed to describe data, focusing on what data is, whereas
HTML was designed to display data, focusing on how data looks.
That makes XML an ideal format in which to exchange data between applications,
especially between Office and non-Office applications (provided they, too, support XML to
the extent Office does).
However, because Office applications do a fine job of interacting with each other with their
standard file formats, there’s no particular reason to use XML instead when sharing data
between them — unless you’re also planning to share that data with non-Office applications.
In which case you’ll find the techniques for inserting linked and embedded files work with
Office documents saved in XML format just as they do for Office documents saved in their
standard formats.
Summary
In this chapter, you learned ways to build documents using more than one Office application
at a time. Key points included the following:
✦ There’s more than one way to insert an object from one application into another.
You can copy it and select Paste Special, choose Insert_Object from the menu, or,
in some applications, use built-in tools.
✦ When you use Paste Special, you can choose to insert an object in a number of
formats, which vary depending on what kind of object you copied. Typical options
include inserting the object as text, as a picture, as a linked or embedded object, or
as HTML.
✦ Embedded objects can be edited using the program that created them by doubleclicking them.
✦ Linked objects can be edited in the same way. The difference is that linked objects
are created from a source file, and if that source file is changed in the originating
program, the display in the destination document also changes. This is useful for
keeping documents up-to-date when data is changing rapidly.
✦ You can edit all the linked objects in your document by choosing Edit_Links. You
can choose to update links automatically or manually.
Chapter 9 ✦ Building Integrated Documents
✦ Other ways to share data in Office include sending Word documents to PowerPoint
presentations (and vice versa) and sending Access data to Excel for analysis or to
Word for publication or mail merging.
✦ You can integrate Office documents saved in XML format exactly the same way as
those saved in standard Office formats — useful if you need to keep your
documents in XML format for sharing with non-Office users.
✦
✦
✦
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Integrating
Outlook
with Other
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Integrating Outlook
with Office
C
omputers are wonderful and complex tools. Unlike a simple
tool such as a hammer, a computer is intended to handle
many very different tasks. This versatility is the result of the broad
range of software that is available for modern computers.
In all likelihood, your copy of Outlook came as a part of Microsoft
Office. But even if it did not, you probably have software that
provides word processing functions, other software that manages
database information, and software that handles calculations. You
probably have many other applications on your computer, too. All
these different pieces of software may seem totally independent of
each other, but as you learn in this chapter, you may want to use
some of them to complement each other. You might, for example,
want to use the contact information that you have in Outlook to
help you create perfectly addressed letters using your word
processor. You might also want to send a spreadsheet file that
you’re working on as an e-mail message. These are just a few of
the benefits you can gain from integrating Outlook with some of
the other applications on your computer.
Integrating Outlook with Office
As you would probably expect, Outlook works very well with the
other applications that are a part of Microsoft Office. If you want
to use your Outlook Contacts list to create a mail merge in
Microsoft, you’ll find a command right on the Outlook menu to
Creating a mail merge
Sending an e-mail
from an application
Importing and
exporting data
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begin the process (Tools _ Mail Merge). In fact, if you want to share information between
applications, Outlook is ready both to provide information to other programs and to use
information that is provided by other programs.
Much of this two-way data sharing can be thought of as common to many different
programs. It’s often quite easy to share data between programs provided by different
software manufacturers. You don’t have to use Word, Excel, or Access to share information
with Outlook. Of course, because Microsoft would like you to use their products, they’ve
made it just a bit easier to share information between the programs of Microsoft Office than
with other programs.
One way to share information between programs is to use linking or embedding to place an
object from one program into a document in another program. Linking places a link in your
document so that changes in the original object are reflected in your document. Embedding
places a static copy of the object into your document. Linking offers the advantage of smaller
document size and always up-to-date content, but embedding offers the advantage of having
everything combined into a single package.
You might include a chart from an Excel worksheet in an e-mail message to show your team
members how expenses have really increased over the past year. Or you might use a
Microsoft Visio image to illustrate an important point about how your new building proposal
will fit in with the existing structures in the neighborhood.
Here’s a quick example of how you might place an Excel chart into an e-mail message:
1. Create the chart in an Excel worksheet.
2. Select the object that you want to use in your e-mail message. In this case, select the
chart of monthly expense.
3. Select Edit _ Copy to copy the object to the Office Clipboard.
4. Switch back to Outlook. If the taskbar is visible, you can click the Outlook icon on
the taskbar, or you can use Alt+Tab to switch between applications.
5. Click the Mail Button Bar icon and then click the New Mail Message button to
display a new Message form.
6. Choose Format _ Rich Text.
7. Enter the addresses and subject line.
8. Type your message.
9. Select Edit _ Paste Special to display the Paste Special dialog box. You could
simply choose Edit _ Paste, but this won’t enable you to choose the link option.
Note
A link option sends only a link, not actual data.
10. Choose Paste to embed the object.
Chapter 10 ✦
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11. After you have selected how you want to paste the object, you may be able to select
the object type. Generally the types shown at the top of the list will remain the
closest to the object’s original appearance.
12. Click OK to paste the object as shown in Figure 10-1.
Figure 10-1: Inserted objects become a part of your document.
13. Click Send to send the e-mail message.
Note
Don’t use plain text as the message format if you want to place objects into the message. You
can only paste text into a plain text message.
As you use Outlook and the other applications on your computer, it’s a good idea to think
about how you might share information between different applications. Don’t make the all
too common mistake of thinking that information can only be used in documents created in
the application where the data resides. As you see in other examples in this chapter, you can
almost always find a way to reuse data without going through the work of reentering it in a
new program.
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Creating a Mail Merge
A mail merge is the process of creating form letters, mailing labels, envelopes, or a catalog
from a set of related information. There are several ways to create a mail merge document.
You can either use your Outlook Contacts list to create these documents, or you can create
them from lists of information that you have in other applications.
Choosing the source for your data can affect what you can do with mail merge:
✦ If you have all the names and addresses in Contacts, Outlook will be the easiest
program to use because you won’t have to export the information to another
application.
✦ Outlook, however, doesn’t offer some advanced capabilities that you’ll find in other
Office programs. If you need to do things like automatically separating the mail
merge documents into individual zip codes to take advantage of special mailing
rates, you may want to use Excel or Access to do the mail merge.
✦ If you need to produce a very large set of mail merge documents, such as thousands
of form letters, you may want to use Access. This would be especially true if you
have a huge database and need to be able to select a subset of the records for a
particular need.
Getting names from contacts
If you already have the names that you want to use for your mail merge in your Outlook
Contacts folder, creating a mail merge directly from Outlook is a simple process. Before you
begin, however, you should put a little thought into what information the mail merge will use.
When you perform a mail merge, Outlook provides you with two options. You can create a
mail merge using only the selected records, or you can create one from all the contact records
that are shown in the current view. Unless you have applied a filter to the current view,
Outlook includes all your contact records in the view. Although you may want to create a
form letter to send to each of your contacts, it’s more likely that you’ll want to use a subset of
the contact records. Suppose, for example, that you have assigned categories to each of your
contacts. If you want to send a form letter to your relatives, you could create a view that
shows only those contacts in the family category. You can learn more about filtering your
contacts in Chapter 9 of Wiley’s Outlook 2003 Bible.
To create a mail merge using records in your Contacts list, follow these steps:
1. Open the Contacts folder.
2. If you want to use a subset of the records in the mail merge, do one of the following:
• Open a view that filters the records so that only the subset of records is shown.
• Select the records that you want to use. Hold down Ctrl as you select each record
to add it to the selection.
Chapter 10 ✦
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3. Select Tools _ Mail Merge to display the Mail Merge Contacts dialog box, shown
in Figure 10-2.
Figure 10-2: Use the Mail Merge Contacts dialog box to produce a mail merge
from contact records.
4. Select which records to merge:
• Choose All contacts in current view if you have applied a filter to select a subset
of records or if you want to use all your contacts.
• Choose Only selected contacts if you selected the subset of records manually
before beginning the mail merge.
5. Select which fields to include:
• Choose All contact fields if you want the mail merge to include all of the contact
information.
• Choose Contact fields in current view if you want the mail merge to include only
those fields that are displayed in the current view.
6. Choose whether you want to create a new document or use an existing one. To use
an existing document, you can locate the document via the Browse button.
7. Select the Permanent file check box and specify a filename if you want to save the
mail merge data for future use. You might want to choose this option to provide a
permanent record of the contacts that you used for this mail merge. Normally,
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though, you’ll want to perform a new mail merge each time you need the information so that you don’t accidentally use outdated information.
8. Select the type of mail merge document from the drop-down Document type
list box:
• Form letters are documents that include merged information along with additional
text that you specify.
• Mailing labels are documents that contain multiple labels on each sheet. These are
generally printed on peel-off label stock in standard sizes.
• Envelopes are similar to mailing labels, except that the addresses are printed
directly on standard-size envelopes.
• Catalogs are similar to mailing labels, except that they are usually printed on plain
paper and are intended for uses such as membership lists.
9. Choose the destination from the drop-down Merge to list box, shown in Figure 10-3:
• New Document produces a document file that you can further edit as needed
before printing.
• Printer sends the merged document directly to the default system printer.
• E-mail creates e-mail messages and places them in your Outbox.
Figure 10-3: Choose the correct destination for the merged documents.
Chapter 10 ✦
Integrating Outlook with Other Applications
10. If your current view includes any distribution lists, they will not be incorporated in
the mail merge. Click OK to confirm the message regarding this if it appears.
11. After Word opens, click the Insert Merge Field button to display the Insert Merge
Field dialog box as shown in Figure 10-4. Double-click to add fields to the document. If you need to add spaces between fields, click Close, add a space, and reopen
the Insert Merge Field dialog box.
Figure 10-4: Add merge fields to your document.
12. Enter any additional text as necessary to complete your document.
13. Click the Merge to New Document button to display the Merge to New Document
dialog box, shown in Figure 10-5.
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Figure 10-5: Select the number of records you want to use in your merge.
14. Click All, Current Record, or specify the range of contacts you want included in the
mail merge.
15. Click OK to complete your mail merge. Figure 10-6 shows an example of a completed form letter with the contact information substituted for the merge fields. If
you chose to merge to the printer, fax, or e-mail, the completed mail merge documents will be directed to the correct destination rather than to documents.
Figure 10-6: Your completed mail merge replaces the merge fields with the
information from your Contacts list.
Chapter 10 ✦
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16. Print and save your mail merge documents as necessary.
Note
Mail merge documents often contain nasty surprises such as missing or misplaced information.
It’s a good idea to practice using mail merge in advance to make certain that your mail merge
works as you expect. In addition, it’s always a good idea to take a quick look through the
merged documents before you print and mail them. You may find that you need to do some
additional tune-up of the master mail merge document before it is really ready to produce the
documents that you want.
Sending an E-mail from an Application
Outlook’s messaging capabilities make it easy for you to open Outlook and create a new
e-mail message. Although this is certainly not a difficult task, switching between applications
can be a distraction — especially if you’re deep into a project and discover something
important that you need to send out immediately. You’ve probably experienced this; you’re
working on a spreadsheet or a report and decide that you should send off a copy to someone
else. So you switch over to Outlook and click the New Mail Message button, address the
message, and begin to type your message. You then click the Insert File button and realize
that you can’t remember the correct filename. And even if you can remember the name of the
file that you want to send, you aren’t absolutely certain that you saved your latest revisions to
the file. You switch back to the original program, click the Save button, note the filename,
and switch back to your e-mail message. You complete the message and send it off, but
you’re frustrated by all the time that you’ve wasted.
Even if you’ve never thought about it before, you’re probably starting to realize that it might
be just a bit easier if you could send a document as an e-mail message without all that
switching back and forth. Not only would it be less distracting to your train of thought, but
you wouldn’t have to try to remember the name of the file that you want to send, nor just
exactly where you saved it.
You can send an e-mail message directly from any Office application as well as from many
other Windows programs. The process is similar in most applications, so the following
example shows you how to send an Excel worksheet from within Excel.
To send a document directly from an application, follow these steps:
1. Open the document that you want to send. In some programs, you must name the
document by saving it before you can send it as an e-mail message.
2. Select File _ Send To to display the Send To menu, shown in Figure 10-7. Different
applications may have different sets of options on the Send To menu, but most will
include a Mail Recipient option.
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Figure 10-7: You can send a document from within the application that created it.
3. Choose the option you prefer:
• Mail Recipient generally sends the document as a file attachment, but in Office
2003 applications, you can choose to send the document as an HTML page.
• Mail Recipient (for Review) specifies that you want to send this file out for others
to insert comments for review.
• Mail Recipient (as Attachment) specifies that you wish to send the document as a
file attachment to a text message.
• Routing Recipient sends the file to a specified group of people and returns it to
you when everyone has finished adding changes.
• Exchange Folder sends the file to an Exchange Server folder, where it will be
available to all authorized users of that folder.
Chapter 10 ✦
Integrating Outlook with Other Applications
• Online Meeting Participant sends the file to someone who is participating with
you in an online meeting using NetMeeting.
• Fax Service enables you to send the document as a fax using a fax driver or fax
service (such as via the Internet).
4. If you selected Mail Recipient in an Office 2003 application, you’ll next see a
message similar to the one shown in Figure 10-8. Choose the format that best suits
your needs and then click OK.
Figure 10-8: Choose the proper document format.
5. Select the message recipients.
6. Enter any additional text and set any message options as necessary. Figure 10-9
shows the message ready to send.
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Figure 10-9: Complete the message just as you would if you were sending it from
Outlook.
7. Click the Send button to send your message.
What happens after you click the Send button may depend on several factors. If Outlook is
running, the message should be sent to your Outbox. If Outlook is not running, the message
may be sent immediately using Outlook Express, or you may be prompted to select a
messaging profile — depending on the application that you used to create the e-mail message.
To prevent confusion, it’s usually best to make certain Outlook is running before you decide
to send an e-mail message.
Importing and Exporting Data
Your computer is probably worth a fraction of what the data it contains is worth to you. If you
think about all the time and effort that you’ve put into entering information into various
programs, documents, and databases, it’s easy to see how valuable that information may be.
As important as that data may be, it’s not useful if you can’t use the information the way you
need to.
Outlook handles many different types of data. You may have several sources of data that you
would like to use in Outlook, and you may have a number of places where your Outlook data
might also be useful. The key to making all of this data more useful is to import and export
the information so that you can use it where you need it.
Note
Outlook can import more types of data than it can export. If you need to use data from another
program in Outlook, or use Outlook data in another program, you may encounter situations
where neither program seems to support the other’s format. If so, look for another format that
both programs support such as dBase, comma-separated values, or even tab-separated values. If you cannot find a common format, you may be able to use Word, Excel, or Access to
handle the format conversion.
Chapter 10 ✦
Integrating Outlook with Other Applications
Importing information into Outlook
There are several types of information that you may want to import into Outlook. Typically,
though, these fall into a few categories:
✦ Contact information such as e-mail addresses
✦ vCard electronic business cards
✦ iCalendar scheduling information
✦ Messages stored in Personal Folder files
✦ Internet mail account settings, such as from other e-mail programs (Eudora Pro for
example)
✦ Internet mail and addresses, such as from Eudora Pro
To import data into Outlook, follow these steps:
1. Select File _ Import and Export to display the Import and Export Wizard.If you
have the Microsoft Outlook Business Contact Manager installed, you will need to
select File _ Import and Export _ Outlook.
2. Select the type of information that you want to import. If you aren’t sure which
option to choose, select each option and read the description in the lower part of the
dialog box.
3. Click Next to continue.
4. Choose the type of file you wish to import. The choices will vary according to your
selection in step 2.
5. Click Next to continue.
6. Select the name of the file that you want to import.
7. Choose any options for the import. These will vary according to the type of file that
you are importing.
8. Click Next to continue.
9. If you are importing from a Personal Folder file, choose which folders you want to
import. If you are importing data from other types of sources, you probably won’t
have to make this selection.
10. If you want to set up custom field mappings, click the Map Custom Fields button to
display the Map Custom Fields dialog box. Drag values from the left list to the right
list to map the fields as necessary.
11. Click OK.
12. Click the Finish button to import the data.
Other types of data sources will involve different sequences of steps, but the import process
will be similar in all cases. You must choose the type of data, the source file, and how to
handle duplicates.
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Exporting information from Outlook
Just as you can import data into Outlook from several different formats, you can also export
Outlook data into a number of formats. Sometimes, though, the way that Outlook exports
data may leave something to be desired. Fortunately, there are alternatives that may work
better in some cases.
To export data from Outlook, follow these steps:
1. Select File _ Import and Export to display the Import and Export Wizard. If you
have the Microsoft Outlook Business Contact Manager installed, you will need to
select File _ Import and Export _ Outlook
2. Select Export to a file option.
3. Click Next to continue.
4. Choose the type of file you want to create. Most of the format options are best suited
for exporting contact information.
5. Click Next to continue. If this is the first time that you have exported data to a
particular format, you may need to insert your Outlook CD-ROM so that the correct
export filter can be installed.
6. Select the folder that you want to export. If you choose a folder other than Contacts,
you may not be pleased with the results — especially if you hope to save messages.
See “Saving Outlook messages” later in this chapter for a better way to save your
message text.
7. Click Next to continue.
8. Specify a name for the exported data file.
9. Click Next to continue.
10. Verify the actions to be performed, and then click the Finish button to export the
data.
Note
Be sure to open the exported data file to verify the contents before you delete the data within
Outlook. You may discover that the exported data is incomplete or unusable, and it is far better
to determine this while you can still recover the information in Outlook.
Saving Outlook messages
If you look at data that you’ve exported from Outlook, you may be somewhat less than
thrilled with the results. The reason for this is that data you export is generally saved in a
database type of format, and this may not be what you intended — especially if you were
trying to save a message for use in another program.
When you want to save a message, there’s another way to do so that will generally produce
better results than exporting the message. Follow these steps to save a message as a text file:
Chapter 10 ✦
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1. Select the message that you want to save.
2. Select File _ Save As to display the Save As dialog box, shown in Figure 10-10.
Figure 10-10: Save a message rather than exporting it if you want the message
text to appear in a file.
3. Choose the destination for the file.
4. Enter a filename for the message. By default, Outlook will use the message subject
as the filename.
5. Click Save to save the file.
When you save a message as a text file, Outlook includes the message header information at
the top of the text file. This makes it easy for you to see the information such as who sent the
message, the message date, the recipients, and the subject line. Following all of this, you’ll
see the message text.
Tip
Saving a message as text does not save any message attachments. Be sure to save any
important attachments separately.
Summary
Outlook is a capable program, but that doesn’t mean you have to use it in isolation. As you
learned in this chapter, Outlook works well with other programs. You saw that Outlook
integrates with the other programs in Microsoft Office. You also learned how to use
Outlook’s Contacts list to produce form letters using mail merge. You saw that sending e-mail
from within other applications is sometimes easier than switching back to Outlook, and you
learned how to share data between Outlook and other programs.
✦
✦
✦
Comments
and Reviewing
Functions
in Word
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Adding comments to
documents
F
or many people — especially those employed in the
publishing business — Word’s reviewing tools have become
an essential part of our word-processing arsenal. You might
remember a few years ago when word-processed documents
were still being marked up by hand. FedEx made a lot of money
from the publishing business in those days, as editors would
make changes to printed copies of pages and ship them to
authors, who would make their changes and ship them back.
These days, FedEx isn’t doing quite so well off publishers, and
the publishing business has sped up. Everyone working on a file
can now make changes to an electronic version and e-mail it to
the next person. It’s much easier, much quicker, and far less
hassle. This chapter looks at the tools that Word provides to you
for comments and reviews, tools that enable people to add
information to your documents, yet still provide you with the
power to approve or disapprove the changes.
There are two ways for people to make comments or changes to
a document in a collaborative setting. You can place comments in
the document, or you can track changes with the reviewing tools.
✦ Comments are great for when you don’t want to change
the text itself, you simply want to add your own
thoughts to it.
✦ The track changes/reviewing feature is a more advanced
feature that enables two or more people to actually
modify the document, with Word tracking who made
each change.
Marking documents
with revision marks
Comparing and
merging documents
Comparing
documents side by
side
Using Reading
Layout view
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Placing Comments in Documents
Word’s comments feature is a quick and easy way to add ancillary information to a
document. You can use comments to leave reminders for yourself or notes to other people.
Comments do not affect a document’s formatting, and they do not print with the document
(unless you specifically tell them to). Therefore, you can insert comments anywhere
without worrying about them ending up in your final printout by mistake.
To insert a comment, choose Insert_Comment. Word places brackets around the word you
just typed, inserts a tag showing your initials, and either opens the Reviewing pane — if
you are in Normal or Outline view (see Figure 11-1) — or displays a comment balloon in
the right margin if you are in any other view. It also opens the Reviewing toolbar. You can
now type your comment.
Note
Word assigns reviewer initials based on the information in the User Information tab of
the Options dialog box (Tools_Options). The Reviewing pane also shows your name, in
the center of the comment’s title bar. If you want to be identified differently, simply edit
the User Information tab.
Figure 11-1: A comment placed into a document.
Chapter 11 ✦ Comments and Reviewing Functions in Word
259
You can switch between the Reviewing pane — which contains both comments and
information about reviewing changes, which is covered later in this chapter — and your
document-editing area by clicking in either area or by pressing F6. You can adjust the size
of the Reviewing pane by dragging the split bar that separates the two panes on your
screen, and you can close it by double-clicking the split bar.
You can also use the Reviewing toolbar (View_Toolbars_Reviewing) to work with
Comments. This toolbar is intended mainly for use with the Reviewing features, which
you learn about later in the chapter, but it also has a few comment-related features. The
toolbar includes the Insert Comment button and the Delete Comment button. You click the
Insert Button at the point where you want to place a comment; you click inside a comment
and then click the Delete Comment button to remove a comment. The Reviewing Pane
button opens and closes the Reviewing pane. In Figure 11-2, the toolbar has been
expanded. Not all the buttons appear by default. You can add several other comment
buttons, including Previous Comment and Next Comment (used to move between
comments) and Edit Comment.
Tip
To turn the display of comments on and off, you need to click the Show drop-down arrow
on the Reviewing toolbar and select Comments from the list.
Figure 11-2: The Reviewing toolbar.
Working with comments
Comments can be identified in a number of ways, even while the Reviewing pane is closed.
Assuming that you have turned on the display of comments in the Reviewing toolbar
(Show_Comments), comments can be seen in all views. A light pink background is placed
behind the word to which the comment is attached and behind the reviewer’s initials. In
addition, the word being commented on is enclosed in red brackets, and the initials are
enclosed in black brackets. When you click on comment text inside the Reviewing pane,
the corresponding comment tag within the document is shown with a deeper pink and
darker, thicker red brackets.
In some views (Print Layout, Web Layout, Reading Layout, and Print Preview), you see a
comment balloon instead of the pink background and brackets within the text (see Figure
11-3). The balloon appears in the margin to the right of the comment and has a pink
background. Comment balloons are visible in the views just mentioned unless the display
of balloons has been turned off. Click the Show button on the Reviewing toolbar and select
Balloons to see if Word is set to Always Show Balloons or Never Show Balloons. (Note
that you can choose View_Markup to turn off the color behind the comment but leave the
initials in place.)
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Figure 11-3: The comment balloon.
To reopen the Reviewing pane — in which you can read comments — double-click a
comment mark in the document or click Reviewing Pane on the Reviewing toolbar. If you
plan to insert or edit multiple comments, you can leave the Reviewing pane open while you
work on your document.
When you select a comment in the Reviewing pane, Word automatically highlights the
corresponding document text. If you want the comment to refer to more than one word in the
document, select the text before inserting the comment.
Tip
Deleting comments is generally quite easy. Place the cursor immediately after a comment and
press the Backspace key twice. Alternatively, you can right-click inside the comment, or in the
comment text inside the Reviewing pane, and select Delete Comment.
Inserting voice comments
If your computer has sound capabilities — and most do these days — you can use voice
comments to add some personality to your comments. You can even combine text and voice
comments for the same reference area. Just create a standard text comment using the techniques described earlier. Then, with your insertion point directly after the comment mark in
the document window, add the voice comment.
To insert a voice comment, follow these steps:
1. Position your insertion point where you want the voice comment to appear. If you
want the comment to refer to a specific section, select the text before you proceed.
Chapter 11 ✦ Comments and Reviewing Functions in Word
2. Click the Insert Voice button on the Reviewing toolbar. The Reviewing pane opens,
the normal Comment brackets and shading are placed in the document, a
loudspeaker icon is placed inside the Reviewing pane, and Windows Sound
Recorder opens (see Figure 11-4).
3. Click the red Record button in Sound Recorder — the last button at the bottom right
— and begin speaking.
4. Record your words and then click the black-rectangle Stop button in Sound
Recorder when you have finished. You can record up to 60 seconds.
5. Close Sound Recorder.
Figure 11-4: Use Sound Recorder to add a voice comment.
Tip
Before you create sound comments, be sure you know whether the other people looking
at the document also have sound capabilities on their computers. If they don’t, they
won’t be able to listen to your comments.
To listen to a sound comment, simply double-click the loudspeaker icon in the Reviewing
pane. You also can right-click the icon, point to Sound Recorder Document Object in the
shortcut menu, and then choose Play.
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Don’t think, however, that you can use voice comments all over the place — whenever and
wherever you want. Voice comments take up a lot of room. A single short comment may
make the file too large to fit on a floppy disk for instance, or too large to place in an e-mail
message.
Note
If your computer system is pen-equipped, you can also add handwritten pen comments.
Pen comments are treated like drawing objects.
Changing and manipulating comments
Working in the Reviewing pane, you can edit and format comments just like any other text.
Use any of the techniques in the next section to find the comment that you want to edit or
format, and then fire away. You can include most Word elements in a comment; graphics,
frames, and even tables are all fair game. The TC (table of contents entry) and XE (index
entry) fields cannot be inserted in comments, but most things that you can use in a regular
document can also be used in a comment.
You can move, copy, or delete comments just like any other element. Just remember that you
first must select the comment mark before you can move, copy, or delete it. When you
move, copy, or delete comments, Word automatically renumbers the comment marks both in
the document window and in the Reviewing pane.
To move or copy a selected comment to different locations in the same document, or even to
different documents, use any standard cut, copy, or paste technique, including dragging and
dropping with the mouse.
The Replace feature can globally delete all comments in your document. Just choose
Edit_Replace and type ^a in the Find What text box. Leave the Replace With text box
blank, and choose the Replace All button.
If you plan to pass the document back to the original reviewer or to someone else for further
edits, you can answer a comment inserted by someone else. After you view a particular
comment in the ScreenTip to which you want to respond, place the insertion point to the
right of the mark and then click the Insert Comment button on the Reviewing toolbar. Word
then inserts a new comment directly following the current one, and Word also moves the
insertion point to the Reviewing pane, in which you enter your comment. The new comment
with your initials appears right after the original reviewer’s comment, and all comments are
renumbered accordingly. Figure 11-5 shows a new comment inserted in response to an
existing comment. Note the different initials and the renumbering of the other comments. In
addition, comments by different reviewers are displayed in different colors both in the
document and in the Reviewing pane.
Chapter 11 ✦ Comments and Reviewing Functions in Word
Figure 11-5: A response comment.
Reviewing comments
When the Reviewing pane is open, you can view all comments attached to the document
simply by scrolling through the pane, just as you scroll through any other text. By default,
all comments are visible when the Reviewing pane is open.
To review comments sequentially, you can use the Next Comment and Previous Comment
buttons on the Reviewing toolbar. The vertical scroll bars in both the document and
Reviewing pane also contain Next Comment and Previous Comment buttons below the
scroll arrows. The button between Next and Previous is the Select Browse Object button,
with which you can specify the type of object that you want to review. To move through
comments, click the Select Browse Object button and then select Browse by Comment
from the displayed palette.
To search for a specific comment or for comments from specific reviewers, use the Go To
feature, which you can access by choosing Edit_Go To, pressing Ctrl+G, or pressing F5.
Word numbers comments sequentially for all reviewers throughout a document, but
comments by individual reviewers are not numbered separately. As comments are inserted
or deleted, the existing comments are renumbered accordingly.
To search for a specific comment, follow these steps:
1. Choose Edit_Go To, press Ctrl+G, or press F5. The Find and Replace dialog box
appears with the Go To tab displayed.
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2. Select Comment in the Go to What list. Figure 11-6 shows the Go To tab with
Comment selected.
Figure 11-6: The Go To tab of the Find and Replace dialog box with Comment
selected.
3. Do one of the following:
• To find a specific reviewer’s comment, select that reviewer’s name from the Enter
Reviewer’s Name drop-down list. The names of all reviewers who have added
comments to the document appear on this list.
• To find a specific comment, enter the number of that comment (without the
reviewer’s initials) in the Enter Reviewer’s Name text box. Note that when you
enter a number, the Next button in the Go To dialog box is replaced by a Go To
button.
• To find a comment that is positioned relative to your current location, enter a
number preceded by a plus or a minus sign. For example, to find the third
comment following your current position, enter +3 in the text box.
4. If you specified a comment number or a relative position, click the Go To button. If
you specified a reviewer, click the Next or Previous button to jump to the next or the
previous comment for that reviewer.
The insertion point jumps to the specified comment mark in your document window.
You then can view, edit, or delete that comment.
Tip
Note
You also can use Word’s Find feature to search for comment marks without specifying a
particular comment or reviewer. Just choose Edit_Find to open the Find and Replace
dialog box. Type ^a into the Find What box. When you use this feature to find a comment, Word opens the Reviewing pane and then moves the insertion point to the next or
previous comment (depending on your Search rule) inside the Reviewing pane.
If you want to prevent reviewers from changing a document, you can protect the document for comments. That way, the only elements that anyone can add to that document
are comments.
Chapter 11 ✦ Comments and Reviewing Functions in Word
Printing comments
Comments print depending on the manner in which you display them.
✦ Hide the balloons, hide the Reviewing pane, and print. Your document prints
without comments.
✦ Show the balloons and print, and your document prints with the balloons in the right
margin. Note, however, that Word may have to adjust the margins to provide room
for the balloons.
✦ Open the Reviewing pane, click inside the pane, and print. The Reviewing pane
itself is printed, without the rest of the document.
Highlighting text
The Highlight button on the Reviewing or the Formatting toolbar is another tool for online
document revision. The button, and the ScreenTip text that appears when you point at it,
indicates the current color selection.
You can use the Highlight button in several different ways:
✦ Select the text and click the button to color the text background.
✦ Select the text and click the Highlight down-arrow; then choose a color from the
drop-down palette of colors.
✦ Don’t select any text. Click the button or select a color, and the mouse pointer
changes into a pen. Drag the pen across the text you want to color or, if you want to
highlight only a single word, double-click that word. To discontinue highlighting,
click the Highlight button again or press Esc. The highlight gives the effect of
having marked the text with a colored felt pen.
Tip
If you plan to print the document, be sure to use a light color. This way, the text shows
through the highlight.
After you have added your highlighted comments or revisions, you can use the Edit_Find
command to locate each occurrence. Select Highlight in the Format list and then click Find
Next.
To change the color of all the highlighted text in the document, use the Replace option on
the Edit menu. Start by selecting a new highlight color; then choose Edit_Replace, place
the insertion point in the Find What text box, and select Highlight from the Format button
menu. Place the insertion point in the Replace With text box, and again select Highlight
from the Format button menu. Click Replace All, and the old color is replaced with the new.
Tip
The View tab of the Options dialog box (Tools_Options) includes an option for showing
or hiding the highlight both on-screen and when the document prints.
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Using Reviewing Tools
You can use the Track Changes/Reviewing feature to keep track of the changes made to a
document, no matter how many people work on it. Instead of each person actually
changing the original document as he or she edits it, changes are marked as revisions that
can later be accepted and incorporated into the document or rejected and discarded. The
Reviewing toolbar has all of the tools you need for tracking as well as processing changes
to your documents.
Note
You can protect your document to stop reviewers making changes to the document without tracking changes.
Adding revision marks
To have Word mark additions, deletions, and format changes automatically, turn on the
Track Changes option. After you turn on change tracking, any changes that you make are
marked. For example, if you move text, the text in the original location does not disappear,
but it is marked for deletion. Likewise, the text in the new location is marked for insertion. If
you delete text that was added while editing, however, that text actually is deleted. Word
also provides change tracking for changes in formatting as well as in text.
Before you begin marking a document, save a copy of it under a different name. That
way, you can always go back to the original if any problems arise or you need to doublecheck something.
Tip
To turn on change tracking, choose Tools_Track Changes, press Ctrl+Shift+E, or doubleclick the TRK box in the middle of the status bar. The Reviewing toolbar opens
automatically. By default, Final Showing Markup appears in the drop-down list box. But if
you don’t want revision marks to be displayed while you work (they can be very
distracting), select Final. Word will continue marking the changes, you just won’t be able
to see them until you change this setting.
Working in a document that displays all changes can be very confusing. With Final selected,
you can go ahead and make whatever changes you want and forget about tracking . . . with
one caveat. If you turn off the tracking of changes for some reason, you may forget to turn it
back on because you are used to working without seeing the changes marked.
Note
To turn off tracking, double-click the TRK box on the status bar, right-click the TRK box
and select Track Changes, or click the Track Changes button on the toolbar.
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Viewing changes
Now that you’ve made a few changes, how can you see them? Select one of the Display for
Review settings from the drop-down list box on the Reviewing toolbar:
✦ Final Showing Markup: Shows the final document — containing all changes made
— and marks all the changes so you can quickly see them.
✦ Final: Shows the way the final document would appear if you accepted all the
changes. The changes are not marked in any way.
✦ Original Showing Markup: This is very similar to Final Showing Markup, with the
exception that formatting changes are not included. For instance, if you changed a
paragraph from one format to another, the paragraph will be shown with the original,
not the final, formatting.
✦ Original: This shows the document as it appeared before changes were made.
To see the changes you need to select either Final Showing Markup or Original Showing
Markup, which are very similar. In most cases, you’ll probably want to use the former. The
latter is the same with the exception that you will see the paragraph and font formatting that
was in the original document rather than the final.
And what exactly will you see? Something like that shown in Figure 11-7.
✦ Text that has been added is shown underlined.
✦ Deleted text has a strikethrough line through it (although you don’t see it in Page
Layout view, it’s simply removed).
✦ A vertical line is placed in the document margin next to changes.
✦ Changes from various reviewers are shown in different colors (up to eight
reviewers).
✦ Point at a change and pause for a moment, and a box opens describing the change
and telling you who made it and when (choose Tools_Options, click the View tab,
and then click to enable the ScreenTips option in the Show section for this to work).
✦ In Print Layout, Reading Layout, Web Layout, and Print Preview, you’ll see
balloons in the right margin with lines pointing to the changes. The balloon text
explains the change made. For this to work, Show_Balloons_Always Use
Balloons must be selected on the toolbar. You can also choose Show_Balloons_No
Insertion/Deletion Balloons to limit the number of balloons that appear. With this
option selected, you see only balloons describing formatting changes.
✦ Choose Show_Insertions and Deletions to turn off the display of underlining,
strikethrough, and color for insertions and deletions. Show_Formatting turns off the
display of Formatting changes.
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✦ Click the Reviewing Pane button to open the pane. Then scroll through to see a
list of all the changes made in the document, with the name of the reviewer in the
middle of each item’s title bar. The title bar also shows the time and date of
the change.
Figure 11-7: A document with revisions marked.
Reviewing, accepting, and rejecting changes
As you can see, you can view all the changes that have been made, and even tell who made
them. You can read through, figure out which changes you want to keep, and accept or
deny changes. When you accept a change, the revision marking for that item is removed. In
other words, text marked for deletion is cut from the document, text marked as inserted text
is incorporated into the document, and text marked for reformatting is reformatted.
Use the Reviewing toolbar buttons to quickly review changes:
✦ Jump between changes using the Previous and Next buttons.
✦ Accept a selected change by clicking the Accept Change button.
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✦ Click the triangle on the Accept Change button to open a menu, and select Accept
Change, Accept All Changes Shown, or Accept All Changes in Document (to accept
all changes in the document in one fell swoop).
✦ Click the Reject Change button to reject the selected change.
✦ Click the triangle on the Reject Change button to open a menu, and then select
Reject Change, Reject All Changes Shown, or Reject All Changes in Document (to
reject all changes in the document in one fell swoop).
Note
Good news! When you click on Accept Change or Delete Change, the change is accepted or rejected . . . and Word doesn’t move. You can now see the change you’ve just
made, and then click the Next button to move on. That may not sound important, but
some versions of Word automatically jumped to the next change when you accepted or
rejected a change so that you couldn’t see the change being incorporated. (You need to
see the incorporation because it’s hard to anticipate what the final text will look like.)
This jumping to the next change was a huge mistake, and Word has finally returned to
this way of working after several years of experimenting with the other method.
Note also that you can use the right-click pop-up menu to accept or reject revisions.
Customizing revision marks
You can change the options that control how revision marks appear in the document.
Choose Tools_Options and click the Track Changes tab. Alternatively, right-click the TRK
box in the status bar and select Options to open the Track Changes dialog box (see Figure
11-8). Table 11-1 describes the available options in this box.
Figure 11-8: The Track Changes dialog box.
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Table 11-1
The Track Changes Dialog Box
Option
Function
Insertions
Lets you choose how inserted text should be marked: under
lined, shown only with a color, bold, italic, double-underlined, or
shown with a strikethrough. You can also select the color to be
used for the insertion. By default it’s set to By Author, meaning
Word selects a different color for each reviewer.
Deletions
Lets you choose how deleted text should be marked. In addition
to the methods explained earlier, you can also have Word hide
the text or replace the text with a # or ^ symbol.
Formatting
Lets you choose how Formatting changes should be indicated.
Changed Lines
Enables you to tell Word where to place the vertical line
indicating a change — on the left border, the right border, or the
outside border . . . or to omit them altogether.
Comments Color
Enables you to define how Word should color comments —
different colors for each person entering comments or a specific
color for all of them.
Use Balloons Mode
Enables you to define the manner in which balloons are
handled — whether or not to use them at all and whether to
display them for insertions and deletions.
Preferred Width
Lets you define the width of the balloons. Remember that
balloons take up room in the margin, and Word has to “squeeze”
the document to make room.
Measure In
Lets you choose the units used for measuring the balloon width.
Margin
Lets you choose which margin Word should place the balloons in.
Show Lines
Connecting to Text
Lets you choose to have lines drawn from the balloons to
the point in the text that they relate to.
Paper Orientation
Affects how the document prints with balloons displayed. You
can force Word to print the document in landscape orientation,
to print in the mode for which the document is set up, or to
automatically select the most appropriate. (Note that this doesn’t
affect how the document appears in Print Preview, only how it
prints.)
Comparing and merging documents
Here’s a neat trick. Suppose you received a document that has been revised, but without
tracking turned on. Or perhaps you didn’t protect the document, and a reviewer turned
off tracking.
Chapter 11 ✦ Comments and Reviewing Functions in Word
Well, you can add revision marks to a revised version of a document that was edited with
the change tracking feature not enabled. When you use this feature, the original document
is not changed. The revised document is marked for your review instead. Text that appears
in the original document but not in the revised version is marked for deletion, and text that
appears for the first time in the revised document is marked for insertion.
You can use this comparison feature a couple of different ways:
✦ You can use it to compare two documents, and see a new document showing the
differences between the two.
✦ You can use it to merge documents together, adding changes made to a copy — or
multiple copies — back into the original.
Comparing documents
First take a look at how to compare documents. You open a document, select another
document to compare to it, and then Word creates a third document that shows you the
changes. This can be a little confusing at times because it’s hard to figure out where all the
changes came from. Think of it this way: You are creating a new document that shows you
the revisions you would have to make to the second document in order to turn it into the
first document you opened. Here is what you see in the third document that Word creates:
✦ Text that is in the first document but not the second is marked with revision marks
and shown as an addition
✦ Text that is in the second document but not in the first is marked as a deletion
The system, it seems, is designed for comparing a revised document with the original. That
is, you open the revision and then select the original to compare with the revision.
However, you can open in any order you prefer.
To compare two versions of a document, follow these steps:
1. Open a document.
2. Choose Tools_Compare and Merge Documents. Select the document to compare
with.
3. Make sure the Legal Blackline check box is selected — when it is, the button to the
right will show the label Compare.
4. Click the Compare button.
5. If either of the documents has content that is already marked with revision marks,
Word tells you that if you continue it’s going to carry out the process under the
assumption that revision marks should be accepted. Click the Yes button to continue.
6. Word now creates a new document, a copy of the first one you opened, and marks
the differences between the two. Depending on the size of the document, this could
take some time.
7. After you have marked a document using this technique, you can follow the
procedures described earlier for accepting or rejecting the changes.
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What is Legal Blackline? The wrong label! The way this is set up really doesn’t make
sense. If you want to compare documents, you have to select Legal Blackline. If you
want to merge documents, you have to clear the Legal Blackline check box. Legal
Blackline is simply the term given by Microsoft to the compare process, breaking two
basic rules of software development: don’t use multiple terms for the same function or
component, and don’t use ambiguous terms. Why are they using this term? Perhaps
because WordPerfect was, for a long time, the word processor of choice for law firms,
and Microsoft has had a long-term strategy of competing with WordPerfect. In the legal
business, blacklining (not blackline) is the process of marking one document to show
how it differs from another.
Notice also the Find Formatting check box. This check box tells Word to look for not only
content additions and deletions, but changes in formatting. If selected, Word will place a
bar indicating a change next to lines that contain formatting changes. For instance, if a
word is normal text in one version, and bold in another, Word marks it with the revision
bar in the margin.
Merging comments and revisions from multiple reviewers
Chapter 28 of Wiley’s Word 2003 Bible discusses how you can route documents to multiple
reviewers — you can send a single document, passing from one to another — but you can
also send a copy of the document to all the reviewers at once. Word provides a way for you
to merge multiple documents into one, so you can see all the revisions in a single
document. To merge comments and tracked changes, do the following:
1. Open a copy of the original document to which you want to merge the changes.
Note
Make sure that all the revised documents that you want to merge have been marked for
revisions. If changes were not tracked for any document, open that document and compare it to the original. Save the document with the revision marks included, and then
merge it into the original.
2. Choose Tools_Compare and Merge Documents.
3. Select one of the shared documents that has changes you want to merge with the
original file.
4. Clear the Legal Blackline check box. In effect, you are telling Word that you want to
Merge documents, not compare. The button to the right now says Merge.
5. Click the triangle on the right side of the button, and a little menu opens.
6. Select one of the following:
• Merge: Word marks up the second document, showing additions and deletions as
if they had been made directly in the second document; you might think of this as
merging the original document into the new document.
• Merge into Current Document: Word adds the revisions to the original.
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• Merge into New Document: Word creates a new document showing the
revisions. Why would you do this? After all, if you compare the original with a
single modified document, the new document will exactly match the modified
document. But you could merge one revised document into the original,
compare the modified original with another revised document, and end up with
a new document showing the changes between the modified original and the
second revision.
7. Repeat steps 2 through 6 for each revised version of the original document.
Any comments or revisions that were already in the original document remain. Word
uses different colors to distinguish the merged comments and revisions for each of as
many as eight reviewers.
After merging the reviewed copies of the document, you can examine all the comments and
proposed changes and either accept or reject them as discussed before.
Comparing side by side
Word provides another way to compare documents, a tool that helps you visually compare.
Open the two documents you want to compare, and then select Window_Compare Side by
Side With. You should see a list of the documents you have open. Select the one you want
to compare with, and click OK.
Word opens a small toolbar with these three buttons:
✦ Synchronous Scrolling: Click this button to turn synchronous-scrolling mode on
and off.
✦ Reset Window Position: Click this button to place the two documents side by side
on your screen, if they are not in such a position already.
✦ Break Side by Side: Click this button when you’re finished to turn off the Compare
Side by Side mode.
The two documents will probably be placed on your screen side by side — but maybe not. If
not, click the Reset Window Position button. You can switch between different modes as
often as you like. Click one document’s Maximize button (on the window’s title bar) to open
it up; then click Reset Window Position to bring it back to the side-by-side position.
With Synchronous Scrolling mode turned on, you can scroll in one document and the other
document scrolls down, too. So if you have two versions of the same document — an
original and a revised version — you can scroll through the two documents at once, and
view the changes.
Reading Layout View
Word 2003 has a variety of features intended to help users read documents. Microsoft has
been gradually developing a variety of e-book tools and features — such as Microsoft
Reader — over the last few years, and some of these have found their way into Word.
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These changes are in recognition of the fact that people spend a lot of time using Word to
read documents, not just create them. Corporate users often e-mail each other documents,
which recipients may read on-screen. In many cases, however, recipients print the
documents before reading them because reading on-screen is not very comfortable. The ebook tools Microsoft has created are intended to make reading on-screen easier and more
pleasant, making the wasteful practice of printing before reading unnecessary in many cases.
This is all part of a larger strategy of introducing the concept of e-books to the world. For
example, in November 2002 Microsoft released Windows XP Tablet PC Edition, an
operating system designed for use with the new Tablet PCs released by most major PC
manufacturers at the same time.
Note
What’s a Tablet PC? It’s a laptop-sized computer with a touch screen that works with a
pen (stylus) to give you the flexibility of pen and paper for note taking and similar tasks.
Some Tablet PCs look just like laptops . . . until you spin the screen and close it so that
the screen is on the outside. Others don’t even include a keyboard. You can’t open
them, they’re simply rectangular blocks with a screen on one side.
You’ll find the new Reading Layout view a much easier way to read documents than any of
the other views, even the Print Layout view. It’s a great way for someone revising a
document to read through the document on-screen. And the good news is that the reviewer
can still make revisions to the document in Reading Layout view.
The Reading Layout view isn’t intended to match Print Layout view. The purpose isn’t to
show you what the page would look like on paper, so page breaks will be different in
Reading Layout view than what you see if you print the document.
To get to Reading Layout view, click the Read button (on the Standard toolbar), or choose
View_Reading Layout. The Word window changes to display your document in two
pages. Most of the tools around the window are removed — the status bar, the Document
Map and task pane, if they’re open, most of the toolbars, and so on. You are left with a
special Reading Mode toolbar, and a Reading Mode Markup toolbar (which is the same as
the Reviewing toolbar covered earlier). You can replace components if you wish. For
example, click the Document Map button to display the Map again (see Figure 11-9). And
if you prefer, you can view two pages at a time. Simply click the Allow Multiple Pages
button button near the right end of the toolbar.
Chapter 11 ✦ Comments and Reviewing Functions in Word
Figure 11-9: Viewing a document in Reading Layout view.
Note
When you switch a multi-column document to Reading Layout view, you lose the columns — Word displays it in a single-column layout.
Moving around in Reading Layout view
You have a variety of ways to move around in Reading Layout view. Table 11-2 describes
these methods.
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Table 11-2
Moving Around in Reading Layout View
Button or Key Name
Action
Up and Down Arrow keys
Page Up and Page Dn keys
Moves you through the document a screen at a time.
Start of Document button
The last button on the Reading Layout toolbar; this displays
the document’s first page.
The scroll bar
view
Use as normal to move around — of course, in Reading
you’ll move page by page, not line by line.
Thumbnails button
Click this to display thumbnail images of your pages. Use
the scroll bar to move through these images, and click on
an image to go to that page.
Document Map button
Click to display the document map; use as usual. Note that
you can use the Document Map or the Thumbnails, but not
both at the same time.
Find button
Use as usual; you can search for text, go to a specific page
number, and so on.
Changing text size
Reading layout is all about legibility, so if you wish, you can change the text size to make
the document easier to read. Simply click Increase Text Size and Decrease Text Size buttons
on the toolbar. As you do so the text gets bigger or smaller, and Word reformats the
paragraphs on the pages (or screens, as Word refers to them). The bigger the text, the less
text appears on the page, but the page doesn’t actually change size.
Note
You cannot zoom into the document in this layout; the View_Full Screen and View_Zoom
commands are disabled.
Editing in Reading Layout view
You can actually edit in the Reading Layout view, but it’s a little inconvenient. When you
first open Reading Layout view, the cursor is nowhere in the document. The arrow keys
move pages, not the cursor, after all. If you want to edit text, double-click in the text you
want to work with. The cursor is now placed in the text, so you can edit as normal. You can
even use the View menu to add the toolbars you’ll need, if you wish.
To get out of Edit mode and back into normal Reading mode, press the Esc key, or simply
go to another page.
If you do make changes while in Reading Layout view, you may want to look at the effect;
click the Actual Page button near the end of the toolbar to temporarily take you out of
Chapter 11 ✦ Comments and Reviewing Functions in Word
Reading Layout view. While the window controls remain unchanged — you don’t actually
go back to the previous window settings, with all your toolbars, status bar, and so on — the
page is displayed as it would appear on paper. Click the button again to return to full
Reading Layout view.
Note
If you have Wrap to Window turned on while working in Normal view, switch to Reading
Layout, and then switch back to Normal. Wrap to Window is automatically turned off.
You can find Wrap to Window under the View tab of the Options dialog box. The Wrap to
Window option tells Word to make the text use the entire width of the screen in Normal
view.
Summary
Many Word users work in conjunction with others, and Word’s collaboration tools —
comments, reviewing tools, comparison and merge tools, and Reading Layout view — are
truly useful. In this chapter, you learned a number of things:
✦ Place comments into documents using the Insert_Comment command.
✦ Record and place comments into documents using the Insert Voice button on the
Reviewing toolbar.
✦ Text can also be highlighted. Select the text and then click the Highlight button.
✦ Choose Tools_Track Changes to turn on reviewing mode.
✦ The Reviewing toolbar allows you to quickly review the changes made to the
document, and accept or reject those changes.
✦ Use the Tools_Compare and Merge Documents command to see how documents
differ and to merge changes from copies into an original.
✦ Choose View_Reading Layout to open Reading mode.
✦
✦
✦
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Understanding data
sharing
Some Windows applications are designed to work together. The
applications in Microsoft Office are an excellent example of this.
These programs have a common look and feel, and sharing data
among these applications is quite easy. This chapter explores
some ways in which you can make use of other applications while
working with Excel as well as some ways in which you can use
Excel while working with other applications.
In addition, the chapter provides an introduction to the new XML
features introduced in Excel 2003. XML files offer another way
to share data between applications.
Understanding Data Sharing
Besides importing and exporting files, you can transfer data to and
from other Windows applications in several other ways:
✦ Copy and paste, using either the Windows Clipboard or
the Office Clipboard. Copying and pasting information
creates a static copy of the data.
✦ Create a link so that changes in the source data are
reflected in the destination document.
✦ Embed an entire object from one application into another
application’s document.
✦ Use an XML file to store the data.
This chapter discusses these techniques and shows you how to
use them.
Pasting and linking data
Embedding objects in
documents
Working with XML data
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Pasting and Linking Data
This section describes various ways to paste and link data.
Using the Clipboards
Whenever Windows is running, you have access to the Windows Clipboard — an area of
your computer’s memory that acts as a shared holding area for information that you have cut
or copied from an application. The Windows Clipboard works behind the scenes, and you
usually aren’t aware of it. Whenever you select data and then choose either Edit _ Copy or
Edit _ Cut, the application places the selected data on the Windows Clipboard. Excel can
then access the Clipboard data when you choose the Edit _ Paste command (or the Edit _
Paste Special command).
Note
If you copy or cut information while working in an Office application, the application places the
copied information on both the Windows Clipboard and the Office Clipboard. After you copy
information to the Windows Clipboard, it remains on the Windows Clipboard even after you
paste it, so you can use it multiple times. However, because the Windows Clipboard can hold
only one item at a time, when you copy or cut something else, the information previously stored
on the Windows Clipboard is replaced. The Office Clipboard, unlike the Windows Clipboard,
can hold up to 24 separate selections. The Office Clipboard operates in all Office applications;
for example, you can copy two selections from Word and three from Excel and paste any or all
of them in PowerPoint.
Copying information from one Windows application to another is quite easy. The
application that contains the information that you’re copying is called the source
application, and the application to which you’re copying the information is called the
destination application.
The general steps that are required to copy from one application to another are
1. Activate the source document window that contains the information that you want to
copy.
2. Select the information by using the mouse or the keyboard.
3. Select Edit _ Copy.
4. Activate the destination application. If the program isn’t running, you can start it
without affecting the contents of the Clipboards.
5. Move to the appropriate position in the destination application (where you want to
paste the copied material).
6. Select Edit _ Paste from the menu in the destination application. If the Clipboard
contents are not appropriate for pasting, the Paste command is grayed (not available). You can sometimes select the Edit _ Paste Special command, which displays
a dialog box that presents different pasting options.
Chapter 12 ✦
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In Step 3 in the preceding steps, you also can select Edit _ Cut from the source application
menu. This step erases your selection from the source application after placing the selection
on the Clipboard.
Note
If you repeat Step 3 in any Office application, the Office Clipboard task pane appears automatically. If it does not, select Edit _ Office Clipboard.
To see an example of how this works, try copying an Excel chart into a Microsoft Word
report. First, select the chart in Excel by clicking it once. Then copy it to the Clipboard by
choosing Edit _ Copy. Next, activate the Word document into which you want to paste the
copy of the chart and move the insertion point to the place where you want the chart to
appear. When you select Edit _ Paste from the Word menu bar, the chart is pasted from the
Clipboard and appears in your document (see Figure 12-1).
Figure 12-1: An Excel chart has been added to this Word document.
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Windows applications vary in the way that they respond to pasted data. If the Edit _ Paste
command is not available (is grayed on the menu) in the destination application, the application
can’t accept the information from the Clipboard. If you copy a range of data from Excel and
paste it into Word, Word creates a table when you paste the data. Other applications may
respond differently to Excel data.
Note
The copy-and-paste technique is static. In other words, no link exists between the information
that you copy from the source application and the information that you paste into the
destination application. If you’re copying from Excel to a Word document, for example, the
Word document will not reflect any subsequent changes that you make in your Excel
worksheet or charts. Consequently, you have to repeat the copy-and-paste procedure to update
the destination document with the source document changes. The next topic presents a way to
get around this limitation.
Linking data
If you want to share data that may change, the static copy-and-paste procedure described in
the preceding section isn’t your best choice. Instead, you can create a dynamic link between
the data that you copy from one Windows application to another. In this way, if you change
the data in the source document, you don’t also need to make the changes in the destination
document because the link automatically updates the destination document.
Note
Applications vary in how they handle linked data. In some situations, you may need to update
the linked data manually.
When would you want to use this technique? If you generate proposals by using Word, for
example, you may need to refer to pricing information that you store in an Excel worksheet.
If you set up a link between your Word document and the Excel worksheet, you can be sure
that your proposals always quote the latest prices. Not all Windows applications support
dynamic linking, so you must make sure that the application to which you are copying is
capable of handling such a link.
Setting up a link from one Windows application to another varies slightly from application to
application. These are the general steps to take:
1. Copy the information to the Clipboard.
2. Switch to the destination application.
3. Select the appropriate command in the destination application to paste a link. This is
usually Edit _ Paste Special.
4. In the dialog box that appears, specify the type of link that you want to create. (See
the next section, “Copying Excel data to Word,” for an example.)
Chapter 12 ✦
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Keep in mind the following information when you’re using links between two applications:
✦ Not all Windows applications support linking. Furthermore, you can link from, but
not to, some programs.
✦ When you save an Excel file that has a link, you save the most recent values with the
document. When you reopen this document, Excel asks whether you want to update
the links.
✦ Links can be broken rather easily. If you move the source document to another
directory or save it under a different name, for example, the destination document’s
application won’t be able to update the link. In such a case, you’ll need to reestablish the link manually.
✦ You can use the Edit _ Links command to break a link. After breaking a link, the
data remains in the destination document, but it is no longer linked to the source
document.
✦ In Excel, external links are sometimes stored in array formulas. If so you can
modify a link by editing the array formula.
Copying Excel data to Word
One of the most frequently used software combinations is a spreadsheet and a word
processor. This section discusses the types of links that you can create by using Microsoft
Word to create documents that include data from Excel.
Figure 12-2 shows the Paste Special dialog box from Microsoft Word after a range of data
has been copied from Excel. The result that you get depends on whether you select the Paste
or the Paste Link option and on your choice of the type of item to paste. If you select the
Paste Link option, you can check the Display as Icon check box in order to have the
information pasted as an icon. If you do so, you can double-click this icon to activate the
source worksheet.
Figure 12-2: Use the Paste Special dialog box to specify the type of link to create.
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Pasting without a link
Often, you don’t need a link when you copy data. For example, if you’re preparing a report in
your word processor and you simply want to include a range of data from an Excel
worksheet, you probably don’t need to create a link.
If you select one of the choices in the Paste Special dialog box with the Paste option selected,
the data is pasted without creating a link.
Tip
The pasted data looks the same regardless of whether the Paste or Paste Link option is
selected.
Some Excel formatting does not transfer when pasted to Word as formatted text. For example,
Word doesn’t support vertical alignment for table cells (but you can use Word’s paragraph
formatting commands to apply vertical alignment).
Pasting with a link
If you think the data that you’re copying will change, you may want to paste a link. If you
paste the data by using the Paste Link option in the Paste Special dialog box, you can make
changes to the source document, and the changes appear in the destination application (a few
seconds of delay may occur). You can test these changes by displaying both applications onscreen, making changes to the source document, and watching for them to appear in the
destination document.
Embedding Objects in Documents
Using Object Linking and Embedding (OLE), you can also embed an object to share
information between Windows applications. This technique enables you to insert an object
from another program and use that program’s editing tools to manipulate it. The OLE objects
can be such items as these:
✦ Text documents from other products, such as word processors
✦ Drawings or pictures from other products
✦ Information from special OLE server applications, such as Microsoft Equation
✦ Sound files
✦ Video or animation files
Many (but certainly not all) Windows applications support OLE. Embedding is often used for
a document that you will distribute to others. It can eliminate the need to send multiple
document files and help avoid broken link problems.
You can embed an object into your document in either of two ways:
Chapter 12 ✦
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✦ Choose Edit _ Paste Special and then select the “object” choice (if it’s available). If
you do this, select the Paste option rather than the Paste Link option.
✦ Select Insert _ Object.
Caution
Embedding an object can cause a dramatic increase in the size of your document.
Tip
Some applications — such as those in Microsoft Office — allow you to embed an object by
dragging it from one application to another.
The following sections discuss these two methods and provide a few examples using Excel
and Word.
Embedding an Excel range in a Word document
This example embeds in a Word document the Excel range shown in Figure 12-3.
Figure 12-3: This worksheet includes a range that will be embedded in
a Word document.
To start, select A1:C17 and copy the range. Then activate (or start) Word, open the document
in which you want to embed the range, and move the insertion point to the location in the
document where you want the table to appear. Choose Word’s Edit _ Paste Special
command. Select the Paste option (not the Paste Link option) and choose the Microsoft Excel
Worksheet Object format. Click OK, and the range appears in the Word document.
The pasted object is not a standard Word table. For example, you can’t select or format
individual cells in the table. Furthermore, it’s not linked to the Excel source range. If you
change a value in the Excel worksheet, the change does not appear in the embedded object in
the Word document.
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If you double-click the object, however, you notice something unusual: Word’s menus and
toolbars change to those used by Excel. In addition, the embedded object appears with
Excel’s familiar row and column borders. In other words, you can edit this object in place by
using Excel’s commands. Figure 12-4 shows how this looks. To return to Word, just click
anywhere in the Word document.
Figure 12-4: Double-clicking the embedded Excel object enables you to edit it in place.
Note that Word now displays Excel’s menus and toolbars.
Caution
Remember that no link is involved here. If you make changes to the embedded object in Word,
these changes do not appear in the original Excel worksheet. The embedded object is completely independent from the original source.
By using this technique, you have access to all of Excel’s features while you are still in Word.
Chapter 12 ✦
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Sharing Excel Data with Other Applications
You can accomplish the embedding previously described by selecting the range in Excel and
then dragging it to your Word document. In fact, you can use the Windows desktop as an
intermediary storage location. For example, you can drag a range from Excel to the desktop
and create a scrap. Then you can drag this scrap into your Word document. The result is an
embedded Excel object.
Creating a new Excel object in Word
The preceding example embeds a range from an existing Excel worksheet into a Word
document. This section demonstrates how to create a new (empty) Excel object in Word. This
may be useful if you’re creating a report and need to insert a table of values that doesn’t exist
in a worksheet.
Tip
You could insert a normal Word table, but you can take advantage of Excel’s formulas and
functions in an embedded Excel worksheet.
To create a new Excel object in a Word document, choose Insert _ Object in Word. Word
responds with the Object dialog box. The Create New tab lists the types of objects that you
can create. (The contents of the list depend on the applications that you have installed on your
system.) Choose the Microsoft Excel Worksheet option and click OK.
Word inserts an empty Excel worksheet object into the document and activates it for you, as
shown in Figure 12-5. You have full access to Excel commands, so you can enter whatever
you want into the worksheet object. After you finish, click anywhere in the Word document.
You can, of course, double-click this object at any time to make changes or additions.
Figure 12-5: This Word document now contains an empty Excel worksheet object.
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You can change the size of the object while it’s activated by dragging any of the sizing
handles (the little black squares and rectangles) that appear on the borders of the object. You
also can crop the object so that when it isn’t activated, the object displays only cells that
contain information. To crop an object in Word, select the object so that you can see sizing
handles. Then, display Word’s Picture toolbar (right-click any toolbar button and choose
Picture). Click the Cropping tool (it looks like a pair of plus signs), and then drag any sizing
handle on the object.
Note
Even if you crop an Excel worksheet object in Word, double-clicking the object gives you access to all rows and columns in Excel. Cropping changes only the displayed area of the object.
Tip
When you click outside the Excel worksheet object, the worksheet’s scrollbars, tabs, gridlines,
and so on will disappear. Any data that you have added will remain visible, however.
Embedding objects in an Excel worksheet
The preceding examples involve embedding Excel objects in a Word document. The same
procedures can be used to embed other objects into an Excel worksheet.
For example, if you have an Excel workbook that requires a great amount of explanatory text,
you have several choices:
✦ You can enter the text into cells. This, however, is tedious and doesn’t allow much
formatting.
✦ You can use a text box. This is a good alternative, but it doesn’t offer many
formatting features.
✦ You can embed a Word document in your worksheet. This gives you full access to
all of Word’s formatting features.
To embed an empty Word document into an Excel worksheet, choose Excel’s Insert _ Object
command. In the Object dialog box, click the Create New tab and select Microsoft Word
Document from the Object type list.
The result is a blank Word document, activated and ready for you to enter text. Notice that
Word’s menus and toolbars replace Excel’s menus and toolbars. You can resize the document
as you like, and the words wrap accordingly.
You can embed many other types of objects, including audio clips, video clips, MIDI
sequences, and even an entire Microsoft PowerPoint presentation.
Microsoft Office includes several additional applications that you may find useful. For
example, you can embed a Microsoft Equation object in an Excel document to graphically
illustrate a formula that you use in a worksheet.
Tip
Some of the object types listed in the Object dialog box can result in quite useful and interesting
items when inserted into an Excel worksheet. If you’re not sure what an object type is, try
adding the object to a blank Excel workbook to see what is available.
Chapter 12 ✦
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Working with XML Data
This section introduces the new XML features found in Excel 2003. This feature provides
another way to share data with other applications.
New
Feature
This section is relevant only to those who use Excel 2003. If you’re using Excel 2000 or Excel
2002, you’ll find that you can open some XML files in Excel (using the File _ Open command).
But the features described here will not work.
What is XML?
XML is a accepted standard that enables exchange of data between different applications.
XML is a markup language, just as HTML is a markup language.
XML uses tags to define elements within a document. XML tags define the document’s
structural elements and the meaning of those elements. Unlike HTML tags, which specify
how a document looks or is formatted, XML can be used to define the document structure
and content. Consequently, XML separates a document’s content from its presentation.
Following is a very simple XML file that contains data from an e-mail message.
<?xml version=”1.0" encoding=”UTF-8"?>
<message>
<to>Bill Smith</to>
<from>Mark Jackson</from>
<subject>Meeting date</subject>
<body>The meeting will be at 8:00 a.m. on Tuesday</body>
</message>
When the file is viewed in Internet Explorer, the browser displays it as a structured document
(as shown in Figure 12-6).
Figure 12-6: Internet Explorer displays XML files in a structured format.
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Unlike HTML, the XML specification does not specify the tags themselves. Rather, it
provides a standard way to define tags and relationships. Because there are no predefined
tags, XML can be used to model virtually any type of document.
Note
This is an admittedly cursory overview of XML. Fact is, XML can be extremely complex. Many
entire books are devoted to XML.
The two sections that follow consist of simplistic examples to give you a feel for how Excel
handles XML.
Importing XML data by using a map
This example uses the worksheet shown in Figure 12-7. This worksheet uses data in column
B to generate a loan amortization schedule. Assume that a back-end system generates XML
files, and each file contains data for a customer. An example of such a file is shown below:
<?xml version=”1.0"?>
<Customer>
<Name>Joe Smith</Name>
<AcctNo>32374-94</AcctNo>
<LoanAmt>$325,983</LoanAmt>
<IntRate>6.25%</IntRate>
<Term>30</Term>
</Customer>
Figure 12-7: This worksheet uses imported XML data.
This file has five data elements: Name, AcctNo, LoanAmt, IntRate, and Term. Two of the
fields (Prepared and Number of Pmt Periods) are calculated with formulas and are not
considered data elements.
The trick here is to be able to import files, such as this, and have the data sent to the
appropriate cells in the worksheet.
Chapter 12 ✦
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The first step is to add a Map to the workbook. Make sure that XML Source is displayed in
the task pane (select Data _ XML _ XML Source).
To add the Map, follow these steps:
1. Click the Workbook Maps button at the bottom of the task pane. The XML Maps
dialog box appears.
2. Click Add to display the XML Source dialog box.
3. Select one of the customer XML files. The exact file doesn’t matter. This will be
used only to infer the schema.
4. Click OK to dismiss the XML Maps dialog box.
The task pane displays the data elements from the file (as shown in Figure 12-8).
Figure 12-8: The task pane shows the XML data elements.
The next step is to map the data elements to the appropriate worksheet cells.
1. In the task pane, click the Name element and drag it to cell B3.
2. Drag the AcctNo element to cell B5.
3. Drag the LoanAmt element to cell B6.
4. Drag the IntRate element to cell B7.
5. Drag the Term element to cell B8.
Finally, you can import an XML file. Choose Data _ XML _ Import, and select a customer
XML file. You’ll find that the data is fed into the appropriate cells. To calculate another
amortization schedule, just import another XML file.
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Importing XML data to a list
The example in the preceding section used XML files that contained only a single “record.”
XML files often contain multiple records, called repeating elements. Examples include a
customer list or data for all employees in an organization.
You can use Excel’s File _ Open command to open an XML file that contains repeating
elements. After you specify the filename, Excel presents the Open XML dialog box, as shown
in Figure 12-9. This dialog box has three options:
✦ As an XML List: The file opens, and Excel converts the data to a List Range.
✦ As a Read-Only Workbook: The data is imported into the worksheet, but the
workbook is read-only. This is to prevent you from accidentally over-writing the
original file.
✦ Use the XML Source Task Pane: Excel infers the schema for the XML data and
displays it in the task pane. (The data is not actually imported.) You can then map
the elements to cells and import the actual data.
Figure 12-9: The Open XML dialog box.
Figure 12-10 shows an XML file that has been imported to a worksheet.
Chapter 12 ✦
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Figure 12-10: The imported XML data.
When displayed in the task pane, repeating elements use a different icon (a “double folder”).
Nonrepeating elements display a single folder icon.
Note
Exporting XML data from Excel
In order to export data to an XML file, you must add a map to the workbook, and the map
must correspond to your data. Then you can use the Data _ XML _ Export command to
create an XML file.
Contrary to what you may expect, it’s not possible to export an arbitrary range of data in
XML format. For example, if you create a List Range on your worksheet, you can’t export
that List Range to an XML file unless you add an appropriate map to your worksheet first.
And it’s not possible to create (or modify) a map using Excel.
Note
If you use Excel’s File _ Save As command, you’ll notice that one of the options is XML
Spreadsheet. This produces an XML file that uses Microsoft’s XMLSS schema. It will not export
the data to a “normal” XML file.
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PowerPoint
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Sharing your
presentation on a LAN
Posting your
presentation to an
Exchange folder
F
ew people these days create a presentation with no input or
feedback from another living soul. Presentations normally go
through review cycle upon review cycle, and everybody gets to
add his or her two cents about how to make the presentation
slides stronger and more meaningful.
The old way of reviewing was to print out and distribute hard
copies of a presentation and let everyone mark them up by hand.
Then some poor assistant or junior executive would have to
decipher all the handwritten notes (some of them directly
conflicting with others!) and make the changes in PowerPoint.
Fortunately, PowerPoint 2003 offers many more appealing
options for soliciting and receiving feedback on a presentation, as
you learn in this chapter.
Sharing Your Presentation File
on a LAN
If your company has a local area network (LAN), you can copy
the presentation file to a drive that everyone can access and let
whoever is interested in seeing it take a look. Interested people can
then either copy the presentation to their own PCs or view it
directly from the network.
Mailing a presentation
via e-mail
Adding, editing, moving,
and deleting comments
Incorporating changes
from reviewers
Collaborating live using
Windows Messenger
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If not everyone has PowerPoint installed on their PCs, you might also want to place the
PowerPoint Viewer program on the network, so people without PowerPoint can review
the show.
Caution
Make sure you copy the presentation file to the network, rather than moving it there. That way,
if something happens to the networked copy or the whole network server goes down, you still
have access to your presentation. You might even want to rename the copy on the server so
you can tell, at a glance, which is the original version.
Sharing the presentation locally
In a large company, the network includes one or more servers, which are computers that do
nothing except run the network and serve up common files that multiple people need. If your
network includes a server, one of its hard disks is probably the best place to copy your
presentation file. That’s because everyone on the network already has access to the server, so
no special setup is necessary. See your network administrator for details.
However, if your company uses peer-to-peer networking, there may not be a server to which
you can copy the presentation. In that case, you must make one or more folders on your own
hard disk accessible to other network users.
Sharing in Windows 2000 or XP
If you have Windows 2000 or XP (and you probably do, because PowerPoint 2003 won’t run
on earlier Windows versions), here’s what you need to do to share a folder on your PC.
First open the list of network connections:
✦ In Windows 2000, choose Start_Settings_Network and Dial-Up Connections.
✦ In Windows XP, open Network Connections from the Control Panel.
Then right-click the LAN connection and choose Properties, and make sure that File and
Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks is one of the installed services. See Figure 13-1. If it
isn’t, add it with the Install button. Then close all open dialog boxes.
Chapter 13 ✦ Team Collaroration on a Draft PowerPoint Presentation
Figure 13-1: Make sure File and Printer Sharing is installed for the LAN connection.
Next, share the folder:
✦ In Windows 2000, right-click the folder and choose Sharing. Select the Share This
Folder option button, and enter a Share Name. See Figure 13-2. The default is for
others to have full access; if you want to change that, click the Permissions button
and clear the Full Control and Change check boxes. Then close all open dialog boxes.
Figure 13-2: Share a folder in Windows 2000.
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✦ In Windows XP, right-click the folder and choose Sharing and Security. Mark the
Share This Folder on the Network check box. Enter a Share Name for the folder. See
Figure 13-3. If others should be able to make changes, mark the Allow Network
Users to Change My Files check box. Then click OK.
Posting a presentation to an Exchange folder
If your company uses a Microsoft Exchange server to share files, you can easily post a
PowerPoint presentation there. (You can ignore this procedure if your company doesn’t use
Exchange.) To do so, follow these steps:
1. Open the presentation in PowerPoint.
2. Choose File_Send To_Exchange Folder. A list of folders appears.
3. Choose the folder you want to post the presentation to.
4. Click OK.
Figure 13-3: Share a folder in Windows 2000 or XP.
Chapter 13 ✦ Team Collaroration on a Draft PowerPoint Presentation
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Mailing a presentation via e-mail
You can attach a PowerPoint presentation file to an e-mail message, just as you can attach any
other file. If you use Outlook, for example, you can click the Insert File button on the toolbar
to attach a file to an e-mail message you are creating. See Figure 13-4.
Figure 13-4: Most e-mail programs, including Outlook, let you attach files to send along
with e-mail messages.
To send a presentation from PowerPoint, choose File_Send To and then choose Mail
Recipient (For Review) or Mail Recipient (As Attachment).
Both of these commands compose an e-mail message with the presentation file as an
attachment. The differences are as follows:
✦ The For Review command begins composing the message in Outlook with “Please
Review {presentation name}” as the subject, and with a message already filled into
the body. The As Attachment command makes the subject the presentation name by
itself and does not fill in a default body message.
✦ The For Review version of the attachment is a slightly larger file, containing
instructions for collecting the reviewers’ responses for later merging back into the
original file.
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✦ The For Review command opens a new Outlook message with HTML as the
message formatting. The As Attachment command starts the new message in plain
text format.
If you use For Review, you can then click the Attachment Options in the Outlook message
composition window and then click Live Attachments. A copy of the attached file is then saved
in a team workspace. Recipients of the message are made members of that workspace automatically, and they can either open the attachment as their own copy or they can follow a link in
the message to the workspace copy.
Tip
You can set up Outlook so that As Attachment works just like For Review. (It’s questionable
whether you would want to do this, however, as it’s nice to have the flexibility to choose.) In
Outlook, choose Tools_Options, and click the E-mail Options button on the Preferences tab. In
the dialog box that appears, click Advanced E-mail Options. Then in the dialog box that appears
next, mark the Add properties to attachments to enable Reply with Changes checkbox.
Note
Sharing a Presentation in a Document Workspace
A document workspace is a common accessible location where you store files that you want
to make available to other people on a team. As a team you can then make edits to the
documents, review each other’s changes, deal with to-do items, retrieve contact information
for one another, and more.
Document workspaces are based on SharePoint Team Services (STS), a Microsoft server
technology that creates and maintains team spaces. You can log into an STS site from outside
of Office applications, and upload, download, and manage shared files that way, but you can
also do it from within most Microsoft Office applications. (For more information on
SharePoint, see Chapter 17 of this Super Bible eBook.)
To create a new workspace for the document, you must have access to an STS server. If you
do, choose Tools_Shared Workspace and then enter a name for the document workspace and
the address to the server on which you will store it. See Figure 13-5.
Caution
If you get an error about the site being a restricted or non-trusted site, set it up as a trusted site
in the Internet Options (from Internet Explorer, choose Tools_Internet Options).
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Figure 13-5: Create a new shared workspace for a presentation on a SharePoint Team
Services server.
When a document with a shared workspace is open, you can access information about the
workspace from the Shared Workspace task pane, shown in Figure 13-6. Click a tab to see the
Status, Members, Documents, Links, and so on.
Figure 13-6: Information about the shared workspace is available through the Shared
Workspace task pane.
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You can also log into a SharePoint Team Services Web site independently of the application,
and then locate the file you want and click its hyperlink to open it. Notice in Figure 13-6, the
Open Site in Browser hyperlink. This will take you to the site. For example, Figure 13-7
displays the SharePoint Team Services list of shared documents, and the Rondo
Manufacturing presentation can be opened from there.
Tip
When you work with a document from a shared workspace, some extra commands become
available. For example, you’ll find a Check Out command on the File menu that enables you to
“check out” the document so that nobody else can edit it until you are finished. This prevents
two people from making changes to the same document at the same time. You’ll also find a
Versions command on the File menu, from which you can select which version of the presentation to open. The latter works only if you enable version support for the document library from
within the SharePoint Team Services site administration.
Figure 13-7: Shared documents may be accessed from the Web site as well as from
within PowerPoint.
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STS is a powerful application for sharing all kinds of files, not just PowerPoint. There is
much more to it than can be covered in this chapter’s overview of sharing techniques. Explore
its features on your own if you have an STS server available.
Working with Comments
As you are soliciting feedback from reviewers, you might not want them to make changes
directly to the presentation. Instead, you might request that they use the Comments feature to
provide their feedback and leave the actual changes to you.
Comments are like yellow sticky-notes that people reviewing the presentation can add, letting
you know what they think about individual slides. You can see them in Normal view, but they
don’t show up in Slide Show view.
Adding a comment
Here are the steps for adding a comment:
1. Display the slide on which you want to add a comment.
2. Choose Insert_Comment, or click the New Comment button on the Reviewing
toolbar. A yellow box appears with your name in it.
3. Type your comment, as in Figure 13-8. When you are finished typing, click outside
the comment box.
Figure 13-8: Type a comment in the comment box.
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The comment floats on the slide, just like any other object. When you click away from it, it
disappears except for the small box with your initials and the comment number. For example,
in Figure 13-8, it’s FW2. To redisplay the full comment, click the little box. (Double-click if
you want to re-open it and add text.)
Moving, editing, and deleting comments
Figure 13-8 shows the Reviewing toolbar, which appears whenever you display or work with
comments. Figure 13-9 shows it again, with the buttons labeled that pertain to comments. The
other buttons, unavailable in Figure 13-9, are used for reviewing changes, as you will see
later in this chapter.
Figure 13-9: The Reviewing toolbar facilitates working with comments.
You can reposition a comment on the slide by dragging its box around. You might want to
place a comment next to the item to which it pertains.
To edit a comment, double-click it to open it (or select it and click the Edit Comment button
on the Reviewing toolbar) and then make your changes. If you edit someone else’s comment,
the initials change to your own and you become the “owner” of the comment.
To delete a comment, select it and press Delete (or click the Delete Comment button on the
Reviewing toolbar).
You don’t have to delete a comment in order to get it off the screen, however. To temporarily
hide all comments, choose View_Markup or click the Markup button on the Reviewing
toolbar. (Use that same command to turn them back on again.)
Reviewing comments
When you get a presentation back from a reviewer or from multiple reviewers, there will
likely be many comments. (Different users’ comments show up in different colors so you can
more easily distinguish them.)
You can page through the slides one by one, looking for comments, or you can use the Next
Comment and Previous Comment buttons on the Reviewing toolbar to move quickly to the
next or previous slide that contains a comment.
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Incorporating Changes from Reviewers
Suppose you distribute your presentation to several people for review. One way is to use the
File_Send To_E-mail Recipient (For Review), as you learned earlier in the chapter. You can
also simply send it as a normal e-mail attachment to someone, or even distribute it on a disk.
Now you’ve received two copies back from two different people. Each has made some
changes to the presentation. How do you merge all those changes back into your original and
sort them out? You do so using the Reviewing feature.
Merging review revisions
When you receive a revised presentation back via Outlook, and you open it from there, you
might see a message asking whether you want to merge the changes with your original. If you
get that, click Yes.
If you don’t get that message for some reason, you can do the same thing with the Compare
and Merge feature within PowerPoint:
1. Start with the original presentation file open in PowerPoint.
2. Choose Tools_Compare and Merge Presentations. A Choose Files to Merge with
Current Presentation dialog box opens. See Figure 13-10.
3. Select the presentation file(s) to merge and then click Merge.
Figure 13-10: Select one or more presentation files to merge with the original.
Note
If all the revised copies still have the same filename, you will not be able to store them in the
same folder with one another, so you will not be able to select them all in Step 3. Instead choose
one and click Merge, and then repeat Steps 2 and 3 for the next one from a different location.
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Accepting or rejecting revisions
The important thing to know about revisions is that they are not accepted automatically. By
default they do not appear at all, in fact. Your original presentation remains intact. When you
review the revisions, you have the opportunity to individually view and select the revisions
you want to apply. Any you do not choose are discarded.
To accept or reject changes:
1. Display a slide that contains revisions. You can tell because information about the
revision appears in the Revisions Pane.
2. Click the Revision icon on the slide to see a detailed list of the revisions for that
slide.
3. Mark the check boxes for the revisions you want to implement. When you mark one,
its change shows on the current slide. See Figure 13-11.
Figure 13-11: Accept or reject changes in the Revisions task pane.
4. To move to the next slide, click the Next button at the bottom of the Revisions pane
or simply click a different slide in the Slides pane.
Using the Reviewing toolbar for revisions
As you are reviewing the revisions, the Reviewing toolbar is active. Figure 13-12 shows
some of the buttons that come in handy during this phase.
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• Markup: Toggles all markup on/off, including both revision icons and comments.
• Apply: Applies all revisions to either the current slide or to the entire presentation.
(Open its drop-down list to choose which.)
• Unapply: Removes all revisions from either the current slide or from the entire
slide. (Again, open its drop-down list to choose which.)
• End Review: Completes the review process, removing all unapplied revisions.
Don’t do this until you are completely finished reviewing.
• Revisions Pane: Toggles the Revisions Pane on/off.
Figure 13-12: Some buttons on the Reviewing toolbar are active only when working with
revisions.
Finishing a review of revisions
When you have accepted all the revisions that you want, you can exit from the Compare and
Merge mode by clicking the End Review button on the Reviewing toolbar. A warning will
appear; click Yes. Now you’re back to normal, and the Reviewing toolbar disappears.
Live Collaboration with NetMeeting
PowerPoint 2003 supports NetMeeting, an application that you can use to collaborate in realtime with other people online. It includes application sharing, a “whiteboard” for drawing, a
chat feature, and other handy activities.
In the past, Microsoft provided Internet Locator Service (ILS) public servers that you could
use for this, but nowadays Microsoft is encouraging everyone to move to Windows
Messenger instead, so they have discontinued support of public ILS servers. Therefore if you
want to use NetMeeting from PowerPoint, you must access your company’s own ILS server
or a third-party ILS server.
This chapter does not delve into NetMeeting specifics because it’s likely that most people will
use Windows Messenger instead. However, if you are interested in exploring NetMeeting on
your own, choose Tools_Online Collaboration_Meet Now.
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Live Collaboration with Windows Messenger
Windows Messenger is a real-time chat program that comes free with Windows XP. You can
also download it for free from Microsoft for any older 32-bit version of Windows.
Not only does Windows Messenger provide a means of chatting (that is, typing back and
forth in real-time), but it also allows you to share applications over the Internet. That’s where
its usefulness for PowerPoint comes in. If all the meeting participants are Windows
Messenger users, you can employ Windows Messenger to allow everyone to see and work
with your copy of PowerPoint. You can then maintain a separate chat window where you and
the other participants discuss the draft presentation.
Running Windows Messenger
To run Windows Messenger, choose it from the Start_All Programs menu. Some earlier
versions were called MSN Messenger rather than Windows Messenger; it’s the same thing.
To use Windows Messenger, you need a Microsoft .NET Passport. This is simple and free to
obtain. The first time you try to log into Windows Messenger, a wizard will walk you through
the process.
You also should have all the meeting participants added to your Contacts list. To add a
contact, click Add Contact in the Windows Messenger window (see Figure 13-13) and follow
the prompts in the wizard.
Figure 13-13: Add the meeting participants to your Contacts list if needed, so you can
then invite them to share applications with you.
Chapter 13 ✦ Team Collaroration on a Draft PowerPoint Presentation
Tip
Actually having all the participants added to your Contacts list is not an absolute requirement.
When selecting people with whom to share applications, you’ll find an Other tab; click it and you
can enter an e-mail address of a new contact. The new person must be a member of the
Microsoft .NET Messenger service.
Inviting someone to share PowerPoint
First, start PowerPoint and open the presentation you want to collaborate on. Then do the
following to invite someone else to see it:
1. From Windows Messenger, choose Actions_Start Application Sharing. A list
appears of your contacts who are online. See Figure 13-14.
2. Click the contact with whom you want to share and then click OK.
Figure 13-14: Select the online contact with whom you want
to share an application.
A Conversation window appears on your screen. At the same time, a Conversation
window appears on the other person’s PC, with hyperlinks to Accept or Decline your
request. See Figure 13-15. He or she clicks Accept to begin the application sharing.
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Figure 13-15: This is what the other person sees when you request an application
sharing session.
3. A Sharing box appears on your PC’s screen. Click PowerPoint and then click Share.
See Figure 13-16.
Also appearing on your screen at this point are the Sharing Session toolbar and the
conversation window, both also shown in Figure 13-16. You can click the App
Sharing button at any time to reopen the Sharing dialog box. The Close button
closes the application sharing session. The Whiteboard button opens the Whiteboard
application, discussed later in this chapter.
Chapter 13 ✦ Team Collaroration on a Draft PowerPoint Presentation
Figure 13-16: Select the application to share (in this case PowerPoint).
4. Now restore the PowerPoint window and begin working in PowerPoint. The person
at the other end of the sharing connection will see everything you do in a Programs
window. Figure 13-17 shows what they see. If you share more than one application, they see more than one window.
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Figure 13-17: This is what the other person sees while you are sharing an application.
5. Use the whiteboard and the Conversation window as needed to communicate. You
can also give the other person control of PowerPoint temporarily, as described in the
following section.
6. When you are finished, click the Close button on the Sharing Session toolbar to end
the application sharing.
Giving another participant control
Only one person can have control of the meeting at a time. By default, this is the person who
initiated the meeting. The person who has control can change views, show the presentation
in Slide Show view, advance the slides, skip to other slides, and so on. Everyone else can
only watch.
If you are holding a collaborative session, you might want to pass control to another meeting
participant so he or she can make a point or show an example. You can always take control
back later, as the meeting leader.
Chapter 13 ✦ Team Collaroration on a Draft PowerPoint Presentation
To let someone else control the presentation (temporarily), follow these steps:
1. On the Sharing Session toolbar, click the App Sharing button to reopen the Sharing
dialog box (Figure 13-16).
2. Click the application to select it, and then click the Allow Control button. The
Control section changes to the commands shown in Figure 13-18.
Figure 13-18: When you allow control for an application, choices for administering
that control appear.
3. Mark either of the two check boxes as desired:
•
Automatically Accept Requests for Control: This bypasses the confirmation
message that would normally appear on your screen when a participant requests
control.
•
Do Not Disturb with Requests For Control Right Now: This prevents others
from requesting control (temporarily).
4. Click Close. Now you are ready to share control of the application.
Note
To regain control at any time, the meeting leader can press Esc. This doesn’t work for other
meeting participants; they must wait until whoever is in control has ceded it before jumping in.
If you are eager to gain control, you can make a comment to that effect using the Chat window,
described in the following section.
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Taking control as a participant
Someone else can take control on his or her own PC by following these steps:
1. Double-click the PowerPoint screen being displayed, or choose Control_Take
Control. Then wait for the person currently in control to respond to a confirmation
box that appears on his or her screen.
2. Once you are granted control, your mouse pointer begins working in the shared
application box. Make any edits you like.
3. When you are ready to cede control to some other participant, choose
Control_Release Control.
Chatting with other participants
The Conversation window is the main means of communication among participants. It
appears initially when you are setting up the application sharing; it is where the Accept and
Decline hyperlinks appear when you invite someone to application sharing.
You can chat by typing in this same window at any time during the application sharing. See
Figure 13-19. Just type in the bottom box and then press Enter to send your message.
Figure 13-19: Participants communicate through the Chat window.
Caution
Sometimes when you start chatting after sharing applications, Windows Messenger will log you
off and you’ll have to log back on again.
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Using the Whiteboard
The Whiteboard is a simple paint program that participants can use to share conceptual
drawings with one another during the meeting.
To use the whiteboard, click the Whiteboard button on the Sharing Session toolbar. A
Whiteboard window appears. It looks a lot like the Paint program that comes with Windows,
but has some additional features. See Figure 13-20.
Figure 13-20: Use the Whiteboard program to draw conceptual diagrams
during a meeting.
The Whiteboard is its own application, and there isn’t space to cover it fully in this book.
However, it is extremely intuitive to use, and you should not have any trouble with it. Select a
tool from the palette on the left, and if applicable, select a line thickness from the thicknesses
below the tools. Then, select a color from the color palette at the bottom. Finally, drag the
mouse on the drawing area to create lines, shapes, text, or whatever.
For example, Figure 13-20 shows a diagram using three ovals and two straight lines. Text tool
(A) was used to type some descriptions of the ovals.
You can have multiple pages of drawings and notes; to move to the next page, click the right
arrow button in the bottom-right corner.
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Ending an application sharing session
To end a session, you simply click the Close button on the Sharing Session toolbar.
Tip
If you used the Whiteboard during the session, a message appears asking whether you want to
save your Whiteboard contents when you close the session. Click Yes or No. If you choose Yes,
it’ll be saved in Whiteboard (.NMW) format. You can reopen it later through Windows Messenger. From Windows Messenger, choose Actions_Start Whiteboard, and then within Whiteboard
choose File_Open.
The Conversation window remains open after you terminate the sharing session. You can
save the chat text from the Conversation window by choosing File_Save. It’s saved in Text
(.TXT) format.
There’s a lot more you can do with Windows Messenger than has been covered in this brief
overview in this chapter. In addition, Microsoft is always updating that program, so by the
time you read this, Windows Messenger may look slightly different and have more features
than you saw here.
Summary
In this chapter you learned about many different ways of collaborating with other people on a
draft presentation. You learned how to e-mail presentation files, how to incorporate review
feedback with Compare and Merge, and how to hold online meetings with Windows
Messenger where you share control of a single copy of PowerPoint.
✦
✦
✦
Integrating
FrontPage with
Office
Applications
S
uppose you have documents in Word, illustrations in
PowerPoint, a brochure in Publisher, and a table in
Excel, and you need to integrate them all into your Web site.
This chapter shows you how to do just that. Along with
integrating Office content into FrontPage Webs, you can ship
FrontPage content back to Office. For example, you can dump
your FrontPage reports into Excel to analyze your database
of site files, or export collected FrontPage data to a Word
mail-merge file.
Finally, Office 2003 users can directly open spreadsheets and
PivotTables in your site right in Internet Explorer on Windows
computers.
In Figure 14-1, for example, a visitor is calculating values in a
spreadsheet embedded in a Web page.
14
C H A P T E R
.
.
.
.
In This Chapter
Integrating Office
documents and images
into your FrontPage
Web site
Sending data from
FrontPage input forms
to Office applications
Including Office
spreadsheets
in Web pages
Adding Office charts
to Web pages
Connecting PivotTable
Web components
to data sources
Displaying interactive
PivotTables
in Web pages
Integrating FrontPage
with Office XP
.
.
.
.
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Figure 14-1 You can provide interactivity for visitors by using an Office 2003 spreadsheet
Web component.
From Office to FrontPage
All Office 2003 applications have their own distinct methods for converting documents to
Web pages. Excel automatically generates Web sites that look like spreadsheets. Publisher
creates Web site folders full of files, with a separate Web page for each page of a
publication. PowerPoint Web sites look like slideshows; and Word, too, generates Web sites.
That’s all fine for people using those programs who aren’t demanding the capability to finetune their Web page display. However, as a FrontPage-empowered Web designer, you may
want to select elements from Office applications to integrate into a Web site of your own
design.
Importing Web components from Office applications requires an understanding of how they
generate Web sites, where they stash the Web files, and how you can work around some of
the automation routines to import just what you want into your Web site.
Moving from Word to FrontPage
Actually, you can move text from a Word file into a FrontPage Web site in several different
ways. The quickest way is to copy text, although even this option presents several
alternatives that affect how the text format is translated to your Web page.
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Other options include saving the file as a text file or saving it as HTML. Each method has its
advantages and drawbacks, which are explored in this section.
Note
Most methods of integrating Office documents into Webs involve the Import dialog box, which is
discussed in the section “Importing files into Webs.”
Attaching text files to a Web site
If your Web design responsibilities include integrating many documents into a Web site, you
will very likely want to import large blocks of text from Word (or another word processor)
into FrontPage Web pages.
You have many options available for integrating word processing files into a Web site. If
you are presenting documents that don’t need any formatting or Web design features, you
can simply save your documents as text (.txt) files and import them into your Web site.
One drawback of using .txt file format is that when visitors see this text on a Web page, it
will be displayed in long lines, without text wrapping. You can easily import a Word file in
FrontPage.
1. Open a page and choose Insert _ File.
2. From the Files of Type drop-down list, choose Word from the list of file type
options.
3. Select a Word file, as shown in Figure 14-2. FrontPage will convert the Word file as
it is imported.
Figure 14-2 Inserting Word files in your Web site is a no-frills way to make a
document available to visitors.
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How Word creates HTML files
You can save Word files as HTML. Word 2003’s File _ Save as Web Page option converts
an open document to an HTML file (or, in some cases, to several files, including image
files). How good are the results? The resulting files often take some work to restore
formatting and images. Publisher 2003 does a cleaner job of converting document files to
Web pages. If you want to do complex page layout outside of FrontPage, Publisher is a
better choice than Word. However, if you want to convert a 50-page Word document to a
Web site, the Save as HTML option accomplishes the job in a hurry. In addition, you can
touch up the formatting in FrontPage Page view.
If you do save a Word file as HTML, the best way to work with it in FrontPage is to import
the HTML file (created by Word). Even after you import the file, however, FrontPage will
still identify this imported file as a Word file, and when you double-click on the file in
Folder or Navigation view, FrontPage launches Word again. To avoid having your file open
in Word, right-click on the file and choose Open With from the context menu. Then, select
FrontPage (instead of Word) to edit the file in FrontPage.
Word saves complex documents by generating several files. For example, long document
footers generate multiple footer files. Similarly, separate files are generated for embedded
image files. Word creates a new folder when these files are generated to keep them all
together. In that case, when you import a Word file that has been saved to HTML, you
import the entire folder. As you do, FrontPage retains the folder paths between the imported
page and linked images.
Copying and pasting text into Web pages
The easiest way to get word processing documents into FrontPage Web pages is simply to
copy and paste the text. First, copy all or part of a document into the Clipboard. Then, open
a page in FrontPage Page view and select Edit _ Paste Special. The Convert Text dialog
box appears, as shown in Figure 14-3.
Figure 14-3 You have several options for pasting copied text into a Web page.
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The following are the paste options:
✦ One formatted paragraph: Converts the text to one paragraph, replacing paragraph
marks in the copied text with forced line breaks.
✦ Formatted paragraphs: Copies the text, preserving formatting and paragraphs.
Note
The difference between One Formatted Paragraph and Formatted Paragraphs is that the One
Formatted Paragraph option converts the copied text to a single paragraph.
✦ Normal paragraphs: Copies the text, converting it to the Normal style defined for
your Web site. If you assigned a theme with a defined Normal style, or if you
defined a Normal style yourself, those attributes are assigned to the copied text.
✦ Normal paragraphs with line breaks: Converts copied text to Normal style (like
the preceding option), but substitutes forced line breaks for paragraph breaks.
✦ Treat as HTML: Interprets any HTML code within copied text. You are unlikely to
use this option for imported Word text, unless you include HTML tags in your text.
Note
Use the Treat as HTML option when you copy HTML code into a FrontPage Web page.
Creating Web sites from Publisher files
Microsoft Publisher follows its own rules when it generates Web sites. Those sites are fine,
but they don’t integrate well into FrontPage.
When you save a Publisher publication as a Web page, a new folder with multiple files is
created. Publisher creates a new Web page for each page in your publication, and saves all of
them to a folder. Therefore, when you save a Publisher publication as a Web site, you
actually create and save to a folder, not to individual files.
To save your publication as a Web site in Publisher, select File _ Save as Web Page. You
need to do this even if you saved your file prior to converting it to Web pages. The Save as
Web Page dialog box prompts you to select a folder to which your many Web site files will
be saved. The Save as Web Page dialog box prompts you for a file folder, not a filename. Be
careful to save only one single set of Web files in a folder.
Note
Publisher converts all embedded pictures into .gif format and stores them in the folder generated for your saved Web site. Because not all images save well as .gif files, you can
substitute .jpeg files when necessary in FrontPage’s Page view.
What, then, is the best workaround if you have to convert Publisher files into FrontPage
Webs? If you can, obtain the original text and image files and, if necessary, copy and paste
them into FrontPage.
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Sending Excel objects to FrontPage
Excel offers three options for sending spreadsheets and charts to FrontPage Web pages:
✦ Use copy and paste to transfer selected cells or charts to a Web page.
✦ Save selected cells, sheets, or charts as Web pages.
✦ Save an entire worksheet, including all tabs, as a set of Web files.
Copying and pasting works fine for quick transferring of cells into a FrontPage table.
Copying charts works fine — you simply transfer the chart into Page view as a picture that
can be edited or formatted using FrontPage’s picture formatting tools. For example, you can
copy a chart into FrontPage, assign a transparent background, save it as a .gif file, and
make it into an image map with linked hotspots.
CrossReference
For a full discussion of all of FrontPage’s picture-editing features, see Chapter 12 of Wiley’s
FrontPage 2003 Bible.
To preserve cell formatting or to convert your entire spreadsheet (either one tab or all of
them) into a Web site, you can save your spreadsheet to an HTML file.
Copying tables into FrontPage
The quick and easy way to move a table into FrontPage is to copy the cells in Excel and
paste them into an open Web page in FrontPage. Copying and pasting cells preserves most
formatting, including font color, font size, alignment, shading, and border formatting. In
addition, you can always use FrontPage’s own table formatting to restore or add table and
cell formatting. Figure 14-4 shows a table from Excel moved into a FrontPage Web page.
Chapter 14 ✦ Integrating FrontPage with Office Applications
Figure 14-4 Charts copy and paste well in Office 2003 between Excel and FrontPage.
Exporting Excel sheets as HTML pages
You can send either a selected range of cells or an entire workbook to a Web page in Excel
by selecting File _ Save as Web Page from the Excel menu. If you first select the cells that
you want to convert, you can use the Selection Chart radio button in the Save As dialog box,
as shown in Figure 14-5.
Figure 14-5 You can send convert a selected range of cells into a chart with the Select
Chart option.
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In the Save As dialog box, click the Selection: Chart button, choose a filename and
destination folder, and then click Save.
The Add Interactivity checkbox in the Save As dialog box creates a page with an Office
spreadsheet. For an explanation of how these interactive spreadsheets work in a Web page,
see the “Adding Office spreadsheets” section later in this chapter.
Sending charts to FrontPage
You can copy Excel charts into FrontPage Web pages through the Clipboard. The results
improved with Office 2003 — copied charts come into FrontPage as nice, clean embedded
.gif images. When you save your page, you’ll be prompted to save the chart as well.
Another option is to save a selected chart as an HTML page in Excel.
To save a chart as an HTML page, follow these steps:
1. Open the Excel workbook and select the chart that you want to save.
2. Select File _ Save as Web Page. The Save As dialog box appears.
3. Click the Selection: Chart option button in the dialog box.
4. Select a folder in the Save In box to which you want to save your file.
5. Enter a filename for your chart in the File Name box, and click Save.
You can now import the HTML file into your FrontPage Web and use it in Web pages.
Saving Excel workbooks as folders
You can convert an Excel workbook with two or more tabs into a set of Web files. When you
do, Excel simulates a tabbed workbook that can be used to create a familiar format for Web
visitors who are used to looking up information in spreadsheets, as shown in Figure 14-6.
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Figure 14-6 You can use Excel to generate framed Web pages that look like workbooks.
To generate an Excel-based Web folder, follow these steps:
1. Open an Excel workbook with multiple tabs.
2. Select File _ Save as Web Page.
3. Select the Entire Workbook option button.
4. Navigate to the folder to which you want to save the generated Web files. Select
Save to save the entire workbook, or select Publish to save selected elements of the
workbook.
As you save or publish your workbook as a Web “page,” a set of files is generated in a
separate folder, which uses the name of your file followed by an underscore and the word
“files.” For example, if you save a workbook called Scores as a Web page, a folder is created
called Scores_files. That folder includes several files required for a Web site that is
based on your file. In addition, an .htm file is created in the parent directory (the one to
which you saved your file in the Save As dialog box), with the name of the file (for
example, Scores.htm).
When you import this generated Excel Web into FrontPage, you need both the .htm file
generated in the folder that you specify in the Save As dialog box and all the files in the
additional (_files) folder.
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From PowerPoint to FrontPage
PowerPoint in Office 2003 converts slideshows to HTML pages when you select File _
Save as Web Page. As with Excel, a whole batch of files, including HTML and image files,
is generated when you do this conversion. In fact, rather than saving a “file” to a “page,”
you save many files to a folder filled with Web pages and other files.
The folders generated by PowerPoint don’t mesh well with FrontPage Web sites. Basically,
PowerPoint gives you a highly specialized Web site with complex page designs and links.
Use PowerPoint’s Publish as Web Page option, shown in Figure 14-7, if you want a seamless
slideshow on your Web site.
Figure 14-7 PowerPoint can generate Web pages.
Converting slides to Web pages
You don’t have to convert an entire PowerPoint slideshow to a Web site. If you want only a
single slide, you can save that slide as a .gif or .jpg (or .png) image. These picture
files can then be added to a Web page just like any other image from a file.
To save a single slide as an image file, follow these steps:
1. Open the slideshow and the slide that you want to convert to a graphic file.
2. With the slide in view, select File _ Save As. The Save As dialog box opens.
3. From the Save as Type drop-down list, select an image file format, such as .jpeg
or .gif.
Chapter 14 ✦ Integrating FrontPage with Office Applications
4. Navigate to a file folder and enter a filename in the File Name box.
5. Click the Save button.
6. When prompted with a dialog box that asks if you want to export every slide in the
presentation, click No. You will save only the slide that you are viewing.
Integrating a slideshow into FrontPage
A useful Office-to-FrontPage option is converting PowerPoint slideshows into FrontPage
Webs. The result is a JavaScript-driven online slideshow with expanding outlines and a full
set of navigation buttons that enable you to jump around in your slideshow. Figure 14-8
shows a PowerPoint slideshow dumped into FrontPage.
Figure 14-8: PowerPoint can generate automated online slideshows.
To convert a slideshow into a Web-based slideshow, choose File _ Save as Web Page, and
click Publish (not Save).
In the Publish as Web Page dialog box (Office 2003 really means Publish as Web Site dialog
box), select the slides you wish to export to your new Web folder. Additional options enable
you to include (or exclude) speaker notes. The three option buttons in the Browser Support
area allow you to choose the generation of browsers for which you will generate Web pages.
Note
Generally, selecting Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.0 or later won’t harm anything. This option will
embed some features (such as expanding outlines) that are not recognized by older browsers.
Viewers using older browsers, however, will still see the content of your slideshow.
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After you select options in the Publish as Web Page dialog box, click the Publish button.
A set of HTML and image files will be generated. You can import these files into a
FrontPage Web.
Importing files into Webs
Each of the applications in Office 2003 that have been examined thus far can be used to
generate HTML files, and other Web files as well. You can use FrontPage’s Import menu to
integrate these generated Web pages or Web sites into FrontPage.
In many cases, when you import a file from Word, Excel, or PowerPoint, you must convert
the original file into an entire folder full of Web files. The folder will likely include image
files, but may also include scripts necessary to convert a slideshow, for example, into a Web
site. To import an entire folder, you can use the Folder option in the Import dialog box.
To import a file or folder with Office Web files into FrontPage, follow these steps:
1. With a Web already created, select File _ Import. The Import dialog box appears.
2. Click the Add File button to import one or more files, or click the Add Folder button
to import an entire folder with files.
Note
If you import a folder, that folder becomes a folder in your FrontPage Web, and the files within
it are kept together in the folder.
3. You can use the Add File and/or the Add Folder buttons as often as you want, until
you have selected all the files and/or folders that you want to import.
4. After you select your files, click OK in the Import dialog box to copy files to your
Web server or FrontPage Web folder.
If you are creating a new Web site from files generated by an Office 2003 application, you can
select File _ New _ Web and double-click the Import Web Wizard in the New dialog box.
The Import Web Wizard walks you through the process of selecting a folder to import.
You can also use the Import dialog box to add files to a Web generated from imported
files.
The following exercise requires a minimal knowledge of Word and Excel. If you can create
a simple document in Word and a small spreadsheet and graph in Excel, you can test
FrontPage’s ability to integrate these files into a Web site.
Importing Word and Excel files into a Web site
Here are the steps to bring Word and Excel files into your Web site:
1. Create a document in Word with text at the top of the page that says “Welcome to
My Web Site.” Add a line of text with your name.
Chapter 14 ✦ Integrating FrontPage with Office Applications
2. Assign a Heading 1 style to the top line of text, and a Heading 2 style to your name.
3. Add a paragraph of text below your name. Assign formatting to the text, such as
boldface, italic, font styles, and colors. Center all the text.
4. Select File _ Save as Web Page. Create a new folder called Web Files, and name
the file index. Click Save.
5. Create a new Excel workbook. In cell A1, enter Visitors this year. In cells A2, A3,
and A4, enter January, February, and March, respectively. In cells B2, B3, and
B4, enter numbers.
6. Click and drag to select cells A2 through B4 and click the Chart Wizard button in
the toolbar. In the first Chart Wizard dialog box, click Finish to accept the default
chart settings.
7. Leave Excel open. In FrontPage, select File _ New _ Web. Enter a filename for
your Web in the “Specify the location of the new web” box of the New dialog box.
8. Double-click the Import Web Wizard icon in the New dialog box.
9. Select the From a Source Directory of Files option button in the Import Web Wizard
dialog box.
10. Click the Browse button and navigate to the folder in which you saved your Word
file (Index.htm). Click OK in the Browse for Folder dialog box.
11. Click Next. The Add File to Import List dialog box displays all the files in the
folder, as shown in Figure 14-9. Click Next, and then click Finish.
Figure 14-9 Selecting files to import
12. Switch to Navigation view. Your imported Word file has become your home page.
Right-click on it and choose Open With from the context menu, and then select
FrontPage in the Open with Editor dialog box to open the page in Page view.
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Caution
Double-clicking on the icon in Navigation view opens up the document in Word rather than in
FrontPage Page view.
13. Switch back to Excel. Select the chart and choose Edit _ Copy.
14. Switch to FrontPage and, in Page view, click to set the insertion point in your open
Web page. Select Edit _ Paste to insert the cells.
15. Save the Web page. The embedded chart will be saved as an image file.
The copied spreadsheet cells become a table in FrontPage, and the copied chart becomes an
embedded image file.
Adding Office Web Components to Web Pages
You can add spreadsheets, PivotTables, and graphs to FrontPage Web pages as interactive
elements. Visitors who have Office 2003 installed on their systems can come to your Web
site, enter data in a table, make calculations, and watch a graph display their input. Visitors
who don’t have Office 2003 can still download viewers that enable them to interact with
your spreadsheets, charts, and PivotTables.
You can place interactive PivotTables in Web pages. PivotTables summarize information
from spreadsheet or database tables and are somewhat complex. If, however, your visitors
want to synthesize data from a database live at your Web site, you can provide the tools to
do that.
Adding Office spreadsheets
You can use an interactive spreadsheet element that enables visitors to your Web site to
make all kinds of calculations. For example, you can create a worksheet on which a visitor
can calculate the cost of his or her purchase, including sales tax. You can protect some cells
and leave others open for visitor input.
To place a spreadsheet on your Web page, follow these steps:
1. Open a Web page.
2. Select Insert _ Web Component _ Spreadsheets and Charts, and click Office
Spreadsheet.
3. Click Finish to generate the spreadsheet.
4. Click and drag on side or corner handles to resize the spreadsheet, as shown in
Figure 14-10.
Chapter 14 ✦ Integrating FrontPage with Office Applications
Figure 14-10: It’s easy to embed and resize a spreadsheet in FrontPage.
Formatting Embedded Spreadsheets
Formatting, cell protection, and other display and function properties for embedded spreadsheet
components are controlled by a combination of ActiveX control properties and spreadsheet properties. There is no particular rhyme or reason as to which options are controlled where. Some options
can be defined in either dialog box, and some options (such as chart and cell protection) require
attributes from both dialog boxes.
Let’s face it — embedded spreadsheets are not the most frequently used feature of FrontPage, and
Microsoft hasn’t paid the same level of attention to organizing their use that was devoted to more
popular features. However, If you persevere through both spreadsheet and ActiveX control properties, you can indeed create an interactive spreadsheet on your Web page.
The process of formatting an embedded spreadsheet is divided into two sections in this chapter:
defining ActiveX control properties and defining spreadsheet properties.
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Defining ActiveX control properties for a spreadsheet
You can control some of your spreadsheet attributes in the ActiveX Control Properties
dialog box. These properties include alignment (such as left or right), borders, and spacing
around the spreadsheet.
To define ActiveX control properties, follow these steps:
1. Right-click the spreadsheet and choose ActiveX Control Properties. The ActiveX
Control Properties dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 14-11.
Figure 14-11 Use the ActiveX Control Properties dialog box to define how your
spreadsheet will be displayed.
2. Use the dialog box to define any of the following attributes:
• In the Workbook tab, specify the spreadsheet name: A name is required if you
plan to link the spreadsheet to a chart (see “Adding Office charts,” later in this
chapter). You can also name sheets within the worksheet in this area. Use the
checkboxes in the Show/Hide area to display (or hide) scroll bars, a sheet selector
tab area, and a toolbar. Finally, choose one of the radio buttons to set calculations
to automatic or manual (you will probably want your spreadsheet to calculate
formulas automatically).
Note
You aren’t likely to need the options in the Format or Formula tabs of the ActiveX Control
Properties dialog box. You can create formulas and define most formatting in the spreadsheet.
• In the Sheet tab, you can search your spreadsheet or use checkboxes to define
how sheets are displayed.
• The Import tab is used to import an existing XML file, and the Data Source tab is
used to connect your spreadsheet to an existing database.
Chapter 14 ✦ Integrating FrontPage with Office Applications
• The Object Tag tab (“tag” refers to the ActiveX control properties) defines the
width and height, alignment, and spacing around your spreadsheet. The Width
and Height boxes are an alternative way to size the spreadsheet (you can also
resize in Page view by clicking and dragging sizing handles). The relevant
options in the Alignment drop-down list are Left or Right. Use them to let text
flow around the spreadsheet. Border thickness defines the width of a border
around the spreadsheet. The HTML box defines a message, and URL displays if
a visitor’s browser doesn’t support interactive spreadsheets. The default HTML
informs visitors that they need a viewer to use this feature.
• The Advanced tab has some useful features, including the Autofit Spreadsheet
checkbox, which enables you to define your spreadsheet as a fixed percentage of
the browser window’s width.
• The Protection tab enables you to define what editing features are accessible to
visitors, including the capability to enter data in cells. You can modify the
protection you define in the ActiveX Control Properties dialog box in the
Spreadsheet Properties dialog box.
3. After you define properties, click Apply in the dialog box.
An embedded spreadsheet is shown in Figure 14-12.
Figure 14-12: This interactive spreadsheet can be edited both in FrontPage and in a
Web browser.
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Defining spreadsheet properties
You can enter text, values, and formulas the same way that you do in Excel. Many other
Excel functions are also available using the Commands and Options dialog box. Some, but
not all, of these property controls can be made available for visitors. For example, visitors
can be allowed to enter data into cells and change cell formatting, but visitors cannot be
given access to features such as Protection (a feature that defines which cells, if any, a visitor
can change).
Figure 14-13 shows the Commands and Options dialog box as it appears to visitors using
Internet Explorer 5.5 and later.
Figure 14-13: Most of the formatting attributes available in Excel are stashed in the
Commands and Options dialog box, which can be made available to visitors who have
Office 2003 on their computers.
The Format, Formula, Sheet, and Workbook sections of the Commands and Options dialog
box are available in browser windows provided that Commands and Options were enabled
in the Protection tab of the ActiveX Control Properties dialog box. Therefore, these features
are defined not only by the page author (you), but also by visitors who work on the
spreadsheet at your Web page.
A detailed description of all the features of the Commands and Options dialog box would
really require a book about Microsoft Excel, but here is a quick overview of the features
available in each tab:
Chapter 14 ✦ Integrating FrontPage with Office Applications
✦ The Cell Lock/Unlock Cells button in the Format tab enables you to disable
protection from selected cells. This feature is not available for visitors. The rest of
the Format tab has a fairly full-featured Formatting toolbar for defining font type,
style, size, and color. Other boxes in this section refine cell display. Of particular
usefulness is the Number Format drop-down list, which includes currency and date
formats.
✦ The Formula tab is redundant, because formulas are normally defined in cells.
✦ The Sheet, Workbook, Advanced, Import, and Data Source tabs duplicate the same
tab settings in the ActiveX Control Properties dialog box.
For an example of defining a spreadsheet Web component, see the exercise at the end of this
chapter.
Note
For all practical purposes, you must publish your Web to a server with FrontPage 2002 or
FrontPage 2000 extensions to link an embedded spreadsheet to an embedded chart. (There
are no new 2003 extensions.)
FrontPage will manage the process of connecting your data and your chart, as long as you
confine your work to a FrontPage extension site.
Adding Office charts
You can generate Office charts in FrontPage using three sources of data: a spreadsheet on
the Web page, data you enter specifically to be charted, or data from a server database.
The focus here is on Office charts that are linked to embedded spreadsheets in FrontPage.
These charts can interactively display spreadsheet content, enabling visitors who change
data in your spreadsheet to see the new data charted on the Web page.
To link a chart to a spreadsheet, follow these steps:
1. Start by creating an embedded spreadsheet in a Web page (see instructions in the
previous section). Be sure to name the sheet (in the Object Tag tab of the ActiveX
Control Properties dialog box, which you can access by right-clicking on your
selected chart).
2. Next, insert a chart. This can be done right next to the spreadsheet if you wish (as
illustrated in Figure 14-14). To insert the chart, select Insert _ Web Component _
Spreadsheets and Charts _ Office Chart. Click Finish. The Commands and Options
dialog box appears.
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Figure 14-14: An interactive chart can be placed next to a spreadsheet.
3. In Area 1 of the Commands and Options dialog box, you have three options for a
data source for your chart:
• Choose the Data Typed into a Data Sheet option button to enter data to be
charted.
• Click the Data from a Database Table or Query option button to define a
connection to an online database.
• Click the Data from the Following Web Page Item option button to chart data
from an existing embedded spreadsheet. If you choose this option, you can select
from a displayed list of embedded spreadsheets. Use the Range button to define a
graphing range (in the form of A1:D4, for example, to graph cells A1 through
D4). You can name the range (the range name is defined in Excel).
4. Choose a chart type. Click outside the dialog box to display the chart.
Changing chart properties
You can resize a chart by selecting it and using the side or corner handles to change the size.
Other chart properties are defined in the ActiveX Control Properties dialog box.
To change chart properties using the ActiveX Control Properties dialog box, follow
these steps:
Chapter 14 ✦ Integrating FrontPage with Office Applications
1. Right-click in the chart and select ActiveX Control Properties from the context menu.
2. Use the options available in the different tabs of the ActiveX Control Properties
dialog box to change chart format or data. For example, use the Data Range area in
the Data Range tab to redefine the data to chart, as shown in Figure 14-15.
Figure 14-15 You can use the ActiveX Control Properties dialog box to redefine
different elements of a chart.
Note
Available chart options will vary depending on the type of chart and the data source.
Controlling charts using the chart menu
If you elect to display the toolbar (in the Show/Hide tab of the ActiveX Control Properties
dialog box), an active toolbar is associated with an embedded chart. The features you
controlled in the ActiveX Control Properties dialog box are now controlled by toolbar icons,
some of which are made available to visitors.
The chart toolbar’s active elements that are available in the FrontPage toolbar are shown in
Figure 14-16.
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Figure 14-16 Visitors can control calculation, sorting, and formatting.
After you create a linked chart, you — or visitors — can enter data in the spreadsheet and
see it graphed in the chart. Figure 14-17 shows a chart working interactively in a browser.
Figure 14-17 Graphing interactively in a browser
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Presenting a database table in a Web spreadsheet
If you have an Access (or another) database at your Web server, you can present the contents
of a table in that database in a spreadsheet. This first requires that you know how to import
or create a database on your Web site. Very briefly, this can be accomplished by simply
importing an existing database file (Access is the most hassle-free) into your Web using the
File _ Import menu command. Then, click the Add File button in the Import dialog box,
and navigate to your database file. After you select the database and click OK, follow the
prompts to create an online version of your database.
Alternatively, if you want to experiment with connecting a database to a spreadsheet before
you are ready to create an online database, you can use the sample database that comes with
FrontPage.
With a database imported into FrontPage (or using the sample database), follow these steps
to display the content of that database in a Spreadsheet Web component:
1. Open a new page in FrontPage. You will use this page to display the database
records in a database region.
2. Choose Insert _ Database _ Results.
3. If you have an imported (or FrontPage-generated) database, click Use an Existing
Database Connection and choose your installed database from the Use an Existing
Database Connection drop-down list. Alternately, click the Use a Sample Database
Connection (Northwind) radio button.
Note
This step-by-step set of instructions zips past many database options, focusing instead on just
creating a simple database region on which to base a spreadsheet.
4. Click Next. In the Step 2 Wizard dialog box, choose a table from the Record Source
drop-down list. Choose a table to display in your Web page database region.
5. Click Next. Accept the defaults in the Step 3 and Step 4 Wizard dialog boxes by
clicking Next.
6. In the Step 5 Wizard dialog box, choose the Display All Records Together option
button. Click Finish to generate a database region displaying the data from your
database. A database region is shown in Figure 14-18.
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Figure 14-18: This database region presents data that can be displayed in a linked
spreadsheet.
Note
You can generate a database region only if you are connected to a Web server with FrontPage
extensions. In addition, you won’t see the actual data until you preview your page in a Web
browser.
7. Save the page with the database region as an .asp file page, and then use it as a
base for spreadsheet data. Start by choosing File _ Save As, and choose Active
Server Pages from the Save As Type drop-down list in the Save As dialog box. Give
the .asp file a name in the File Name box, and click OK.
Note
In this example, because we started with a blank page, FrontPage assigns an ASP filename
extension by default. However, that doesn’t always happen if the page isn’t blank, so make a
point of assigning ASP file format to this page.
8. Create a new Web page (or open an existing one), and choose Insert _ Web
Component _ Spreadsheets and Charts. Click Office Spreadsheet in the Choose a
Control list of the Insert Web Component dialog box.
9. Click Finish to generate a spreadsheet. In the spreadsheet component, click the
Commands and Options icon to open the Commands and Options dialog box.
Chapter 14 ✦ Integrating FrontPage with Office Applications
10. In the Import tab of the Commands and Options dialog box, choose HTML from the
Data Type drop-down list, and enter the URL for your page (the one you saved in
Step 7), as shown in Figure 14-19.
Figure 14-19 This spreadsheet component has been associated with a Web page
with a database region.
Note
Entering the absolute URL (that is, the entire URL, including http://www) seems to work
best.
11. To continually update the spreadsheet, click the Refresh Data from URL at Run
Time checkbox.
12. Click Import Now. The spreadsheet will display the content of the associated
database region.
Creating Office PivotTables
Of the three interactive Office Web components that you can use in a Web page, PivotTables
are the most complex. PivotTables themselves are fairly complicated. A full discussion of
PivotTables is beyond the scope of this book, but in short, PivotTables summarize data from
a table. Therefore, for example, if you have a list of 500 orders for 12 products and the dates
the orders were placed, a PivotTable could summarize how many orders had been placed for
each of the 12 products. Or, the PivotTable could be used to total how many orders were
placed each day.
Assuming that you and your visitors are comfortable designing and manipulating fields in a
PivotTable, you can create an interactive PivotTable that summarizes data in an Excel file or
Access database table.
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Connecting a PivotTable to an Excel data source
Steve Martin used to do a comedy routine around the theme of “how to make a million
dollars and not pay any taxes.” Part of the joke was that his starting point was “go get a
million dollars,” and then he would fill you in on the rest. The story’s relevance to
connecting a PivotTable to an Excel data source is that PivotTables are a rather complex art,
and an advanced spreadsheet skill. If you’re already comfortable with them, we can show
you how to plug them into a FrontPage Web site.
Even if you are comfortable with PivotTables, connecting a PivotTable to an Excel data
source is not a simple process. The basic process involves first connecting an existing Excel
file to your site as a recognized Web database, and then generating a PivotTable from a
named range in that file.
To generate an interactive online PivotTable from an Excel spreadsheet, follow these steps:
1. Create or open in Excel a worksheet that has the information you want to summarize
in your PivotTable.
2. Select the data and then choose Insert _ Name _ Define.
3. Assign a range name (for example, “Data”). You may want to jot down the range
name, because you’ll need it again in a later step.
4. Save the Excel file and note the filename and folder to which it is saved.
5. In Page view, open the FrontPage Web page in which you will insert the PivotTable.
6. Select Insert _ Web Component _ Spreadsheets and Charts. Choose Office
PivotTable, and click Finish. A blank PivotTable appears in Page view.
7. Click the Commands and Options button (the only active button in the PivotTable
toolbar) to open the Commands and Options dialog box, shown in Figure 14-20.
Figure 14-20: Buried in the PivotTable Commands and Options dialog box are the
elements needed to connect your PivotTable to a data source.
Chapter 14 ✦ Integrating FrontPage with Office Applications
8. Choose the Data Source tab in the Commands and Options dialog box. Click the
Connection radio button, and then click the Edit button. The Select Data Source
dialog box appears, as shown in Figure 14-21.
Figure 14-21 Choosing an Excel file to link to your Web PivotTable
9. Click the New Source button. You are about to connect your Excel file with your
Web site. The Data Connection Wizard opens to walk you through that process.
10. Choose ODBC DSN as your database source. Click Next.
11. Choose Excel files as your data source, and click Next.
12. Navigate to your Excel Workbook in the Select Workbook dialog box. Choose your
Excel file and click Next.
13. The Data Connection Wizard displays available named ranges (also referred to for
these purposes as “tables”) in your selected spreadsheet. Select one of these tables
and click Next.
14. In the final Wizard window, enter a description and keywords to help identify and
locate the PivotTable. These are optional. After you enter a description and
keywords, click Finish. You will be returned to the Select Data Source dialog box,
where your newly defined database connection (to your spreadsheet) is now one of
the connection options. Click Open to connect your selected spreadsheet to the
PivotTable.
15. Your PivotTable is now connected to your spreadsheet, and is ready to have fields
added. Click the Field List icon in the PivotTable toolbar to display field names, as
shown in Figure 14-22.
Note
For a brief step-by-step explanation of how to put fields into a PivotTable, see the section
“Adding fields to a PivotTable” later in this chapter.
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Figure 14-22: Once your PivotTable is connected to a data source, you can
add fields.
16. Drag fields into place in your PivotTable.
17. Save your page. Your PivotTable is now ready to be both accessed by visitors to
your Web site and utilized to synthesize table data, as shown in Figure 14-23.
Figure 14-23 A completed PivotTable in FrontPage
Chapter 14 ✦ Integrating FrontPage with Office Applications
Defining a PivotTable
Here is a quick summary of how to put a PivotTable together:
After your PivotTable control is connected to an Excel data source, you can use the Field List button
in the PivotTable toolbar to add fields to the PivotTable displayed. Every PivotTable requires at least
one Row or Column field and at least one Total or Detail Field.
The basic concept is to summarize data by sorting it into categories. For example, if you wrote
books for a dozen publishers over the past four years, you could produce a PivotTable listing how
many books you wrote for each publisher each year by making Year the column field, Publisher the
Row field, and Books Written the Detail field.
Adding fields to a PivotTable
To add fields to a PivotTable, follow these steps:
1. Click the Field List button in the PivotTable toolbar to display a list of fields in your
database.
2. Drag one of the fields into the Drop Column Fields Here area of the PivotTable, and
drag one field into the Drop Row Fields Here area, as shown in Figure 14-24.
Figure 14-24: Adding fields to a PivotTable
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3. You must have at least one field in the Detail area (in the middle of the PivotTable),
so drag a field from the Field list into the middle of the PivotTable.
Note
The field in the Detail area normally displays values. These values can be summed, counted, or
have other calculations performed on them.
4. You can drag a field into the Drop Filter Fields Here area at the top of the PivotTable
to create a filtering drop-down list that will control what is displayed in the entire
PivotTable. This field is optional and simply provides a higher level of filtering in
addition to the options you already have in the PivotTable.
5. After you define your PivotTable, close the PivotTable Field List dialog box. Note
that each field has a drop-down list associated with it. Use the checkboxes in these
drop-down lists to filter your PivotTable results, as shown in Figure 14-25.
Figure 14-25: Filtering a PivotTable enables you to fine-tune your analysis of data.
Chapter 14 ✦ Integrating FrontPage with Office Applications
6. You can remove fields by right-clicking them and selecting Remove Field from the
context menu.
7. To calculate (count, sum, find maximum or minimum value), right-click a field in
the Detail area and select AutoCalc. Then choose from calculation options such as
sum, count, or average.
8. You can turn subtotaling on or off for fields where it applies by right-clicking on a
field in the PivotTable and selecting or deselecting Subtotal from the context menu.
Formatting and calculating PivotTable data
After you define your PivotTable, save your Web page and preview it in Internet Explorer to
test it. Figure 14-26 shows an interactive PivotTable in Internet Explorer.
Figure 14-26: Visitors can do their own synthesis of your data with a PivotTable in
Internet Explorer — as long as they have Office 2003 installed.
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In FrontPage, you can format, calculate, and sort PivotTable data by using the PivotTable
toolbar, by right-clicking and choosing context menu options, or by using the Commands
and Options button in the PivotTable toolbar to open the Commands and Options dialog
box.
Some, but not all, of these filtering, sorting, formatting, and calculating features are
available for visitors when they work with the PivotTable in a Web site. You can control
table protection using the ActiveX dialog box associated with your PivotTable. This
process is the same as for the ActiveX dialog box associated with a spreadsheet, explored
earlier in this chapter.
Implementing an Office spreadsheet Web component
In this tutorial, you’ll add a spreadsheet to a Web page.
1. Open an existing FrontPage Web or create a new one. Open a Web page in Page
view.
2. Enter the title See How Much of Your Time You Spend Commuting on the page,
and then press Enter.
3. Select Insert _ Web Component _ Spreadsheets and Charts, and choose Office
Spreadsheet. Click Finish.
4. Click in cell A1 of the spreadsheet and type How many hours do you spend
commuting? Press Enter.
5. In cell A3 of the spreadsheet, enter =A2/24.
6. Click the Commands and Options button in the spreadsheet. In the Format tab, select
Percent from the Number Format drop-down list.
7. Click in cell A2. In the Commands and Options dialog box’s Format tab, deselect
the Lock Cells icon.
8. In the Protection tab of the Commands and Options dialog box, select Protect Active
Sheet.
9. Save the file, and preview it in Internet Explorer.
10. While testing the spreadsheet in Internet Explorer, attempt to enter text in cell A1.
Try to enter a number in cell A3. You should see a warning like the one shown on
the bottom of the screen in Figure 14-27.
Chapter 14 ✦ Integrating FrontPage with Office Applications
Figure 14-27: You can lock cells in a spreadsheet so that visitors can enter data
only in cells that you designate to accept input.
From FrontPage to Office 2003
The discussion thus far has focused on how to create Web page content in Office and
transfer it into FrontPage Web pages. You can also collect information in FrontPage and
send it to text or spreadsheet files that are stored at your Web server.
Note
Collecting data from input forms requires some advanced FrontPage skills that are covered in
Chapter 17 of FrontPage 2003 Bible. This section takes only a quick look at input forms from the
perspective of collecting data that can be used in a spreadsheet or text file.
Even before you examine how to create your own custom input forms, you can begin to
experiment with the Feedback Form page template, which contains a pre-made input form.
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Sending data to Word mail-merge files
You can create an input form by using the page template with an input form (using the
Feedback Form page template, for example). With a Web open, select File _ New _ Page,
and double-click one of the templates with an input form. The input forms are filled with
different text and input fields and are surrounded by a dashed line.
To create an input form that sends data to a .doc file, follow these steps:
1. With a form on your page, right-click anywhere in the form (within the dashed lines)
and select Form Properties from the context menu. The Form Properties dialog box
appears.
2. Click the Send To option button and enter a filename with a .doc filename
extension (for example, maillist.doc).
3. After you name the target file (the .doc filename extension is important), click the
Options button in the dialog box and pull down the File Format list. Choose Text
Database Using Tab As a Separator, as shown in Figure 14-28.
Note
Make sure you retain the .doc filename extension. FrontPage will try to change your filename
extension to .txt when you choose the Text Database Using Tab As a Separator format.
Figure 14-28: Sending input to a Word file
4. Click OK.
5. Save your Web page.
You can test your input form by clicking the Preview in Browser button and entering
information in the input form. After you do, click the Submit button.
Chapter 14 ✦ Integrating FrontPage with Office Applications
You will see your .doc file in Folder view (you may have to press the F5 function key to
refresh the Folder view). As data is saved to your .doc file, you can open the file in Word
by double-clicking it. With fields separated by tabs, you can use this file as a mail-merge
data file in Word.
Sending data to Excel
You can save data to files that will open in Excel by using the same procedure previously
outlined for saving to a Word file. The only difference is that your filename should have an
.xls extension (for example, Feedback.xls). When you save tab-delimited text to an
Excel file, you can open that file in Excel by double-clicking it.
Sending reports to Excel
With FrontPage 2003, you can save reports as HTML files and then open them in Excel for
printing, graphing, sorting, or other analysis.
To save a report as an HTML page, view the report (select View _ Reports and choose any
report except for Summary). With the Report in view, choose File _ Save As, and save the
file as an HTML file to any folder on your Web site or your local computer.
Note
When you save your report, use an .htm filename extension.
Excel 2003 will open these HTML files for analysis, as shown in Figure 14-29.
Figure 14-29: Viewing a FrontPage site report in Excel
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Caution
You can save any report as an HTML file except the Site Summary report. Unfortunately, you
can’t even copy and paste the cells from the Site Summary report into a spreadsheet.
Summary
With Office 2003, Microsoft has continued to smooth the integration between FrontPage and
other Office applications. You can easily integrate Word documents, Excel spreadsheets, and
PowerPoint presentations into your FrontPage Web.
You can also use FrontPage to create special components that allow you to put a little bit of
Excel into your Web pages. These components display active, working spreadsheets,
dynamically linked graphs, and even complex pivot tables in a Web browser.
Finally, you can export elements of a FrontPage Web into other Office applications. One
particularly useful example of this is sending FrontPage reports to Excel, where you can
sort, calculate, or even graph information about your Web site.
✦
✦
✦
Exchanging
Access Data
with Office
Applications
15
C H A P T E R
.
.
.
.
In This Chapter
Using Automation to
integrate with Office
Creating Automation
references
Note
A
This chapter originally appears in the Access 2003 Bible, which
includes a CD with applicable sample databases and practice
files. If you had that book and CD, you would use the database
named CHAP33Start.mdb. A word template file named
Thanks.dot, is also included for use in this chapter. You would
need to copy those files to your machine now. There is no
CHAP33End.mdb. Because this chapter relies on the use of Visual Basic code, it and the forms that are driven by it have already been created for you.
s companies standardize their computer practices and
software selections, it is becoming more and more important
to develop total solutions: In other words, solutions that integrate
the many procedures of an organization. Usually, various
procedures are accomplished by using different software packages,
such as Word for letter writing, Exchange and Outlook for mailing
and faxing, Powerpoint for presentations, and Excel for financial
functions. If the organization for which you are developing has
standardized on the Microsoft Office suite, you can leverage your
knowledge of Visual Basic for Applications to program for all of
these products.
Creating an instance of
an Automation object
Getting an existing
object instance
Working with
Automation objects
Closing an instance of
an Automation object
Using Microsoft Word to
create an Automation
example
Using Office’s Macro
Recorder
.
.
.
.
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Automation, formerly called OLE Automation, is a means by which an application can expose
objects, each with its own methods and properties, that other applications can create instances
of and control through code. Not all commercial applications support Automation, but more and
more applications are adopting Automation to replace the outdated DDE interface. Consult with
a specific application’s vendor to find out if it supports or plans to support Automation in the
program.
Note
Using Automation to Integrate with Office
The Microsoft Office applications mentioned in the previous section all support Automation.
Using Automation, you can create objects in your code that represent other applications. By
manipulating these objects (setting properties and calling methods), you can control the
referenced applications as though you were programming directly in them, thus allowing you
to create seamless integrated applications by using Automation.
Creating Automation references
Applications that support Automation provide information about their objects in an object
library. The object library contains information about an application’s properties,
methods, and classes. An application’s class is its internal structure for objects; each class
creates a specific type of object—a form, a report, and so on. To reference an application’s
objects, Visual Basic must determine which specific type of object is being referenced by
an object’s variable in your code. The process of determining the type of an object
variable is called binding. You can use two methods for binding an object—early binding
and late binding.
Early binding an object
Using the References dialog box in the Visual Basic window of Access, you can explicitly
reference an object library. When you explicitly reference an object library, you are
performing early binding. Automation code executes more quickly when you use early
binding.
Note
To access the References dialog box of VBA, you need to activate the Visual Basic window by
either creating a new module or displaying the design of an existing module.
To create a reference, first create a new module or open any existing module in your
application database in the Visual Basic Design screen. After you have a module in Design
view, a new command, References, is available from the Tools menu. Figure 15-1 shows the
References selection on the Tools menu. Select Tools_References to access the References
dialog box. Figure 15-2 shows the References dialog box.
Chapter 15 ✦ Exchanging Access Data with Office Applications
Figure 15-1: The Tools_References menu item is available only after you have a
module in Design or New view in Access. This menu item activates the VBA window.
Figure 15-2: Early binding by setting references is the most efficient way to perform
Automation.
In the References dialog box, you specify all the references that your application needs for
using Automation or for using other Access databases as library databases. To select or
deselect a reference, click its check box.
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Caution
For this chapter, you will need to make sure that several reference libraries are active. You may
not initially have the following four references available (checked):
Microsoft
Microsoft
Microsoft
Microsoft
DAO 3.6 Object Library
ActiveX Data Objects Recordset 2.7 Library
Word 11.0 Object Library
Office 11.0 Object Library
If these libraries aren’t active (or, visible at the top of the list), find them in the selection list box
by scrolling to them, and then check them on.
After you reference an application for Automation, you can explicitly dimension any object
variable in that reference library. The New object coding help feature displays the available
objects as you type, as shown in Figure 15-3. In addition, after you have selected the primary
object and have entered a period (.), the help feature of Access enables you to select from the
available class objects (see Figure 15-4).
Late binding an object
If you don’t explicitly reference an object library by using the References dialog box, you can
set an object’s reference in code by first declaring a variable as an object and then using the
Set command to create the object reference. This process is known as late binding.
To create an object to reference Microsoft Word, for example, you can use the following
code:
Dim WordObj As Object
Set WordObj = New Word.Application
The Set command is discussed in the next section.
Tip
If you create an object for an application that is not referenced, no drop-down help box, such as
the ones shown in Figures 15-3 and 15-4, will display.
Chapter 15 ✦ Exchanging Access Data with Office Applications
Figure 15-3: When an Automation Server is referenced, its objects are immediately
known by Visual Basic.
Figure 15-4: The new drop-down syntax help of Visual Basic makes using referenced
Automation Servers easy.
Figure 15-3 shows the automatic drop-down box that appears immediately after you type the
word new in the Dim statement. At this point, you can select one of the application object
name types displayed (such as word) or enter a new application object name type that you
define. Figure 15-4 shows the new drop-down box that appears when you type a period (.)
after the object type word. This box helps you by displaying all known object types that can
be associated with the particular primary object name. In this case, clicking the Application
object type adds this to the word. portion of the object, thus word.application.
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Creating an instance of an Automation object
To perform an Automation operation, the operating system needs to start the application—if it
isn’t already started—and obtain a reference, or handle, to it. This reference will be used to
access the application. Most applications that support Automation, called Automation
Servers, expose an Application object. The Application object exists at the top of the object
application’s hierarchy and often contains many objects, as well.
Using the New keyword to create a new instance
The simplest (and most efficient) method to create any Automation object is to early bind the
specific Automation Server reference library to the module by activating it, using the
Tools_References menu. After you bind it, you can then create a new instance of the object
by using the New keyword in Visual Basic. In the examples shown in Figure 15-3 and Figure
15-4, the variable MyWordObj is set to a new instance of Word’s Application object. If you
have not bound the Microsoft Word 11.0 Object Library, you will need to do so or you will
receive an error.
Caution
If you don’t create a reference to the Automation Server by using the References dialog box,
Visual Basic doesn’t recognize the object type and generates an error on compile.
Every time you create an instance of an Automation Server by using the New keyword, a new
instance of the application is started. If you don’t want to start a new instance of the
application, use the GetObject function, which is discussed later in this chapter. Not all
Automation Servers support the New keyword. Consult the specific Automation Server’s
documentation to determine whether it supports the New keyword. If the New keyword is not
supported, you need to use the CreateObject function, which is discussed in the
following section, to create an instance of the Automation Server.
Using the CreateObject function to create a new instance
In addition to creating an instance of an object library by using the New keyword, you can
create an instance of an object library by using the CreateObject function. You use the
CreateObject function to create instances of object libraries that do not support the New
keyword. To use the CreateObject function, first declare a variable of the type equal to
the type of object that you want to create. Then use the Set statement in conjunction with the
CreateObject function to set the variable to a new instance of the object library.
For example, Microsoft Binder doesn’t support the New keyword, but it does provide an
object library, so you can reference it by using the References dialog box. To early bind the
object library of Binder, use the CreateObject function, as shown in the following code:
Dim BinderObj As OfficeBinder.Binder
Set BinderObj = CreateObject(“Office.Binder”)
Chapter 15 ✦ Exchanging Access Data with Office Applications
Note
359
In the preceding example, the object library name for Binder is OfficeBinder.Binder,
and the class instance is “Office.Binder.” You can view the names of object libraries
and their available classes by using the Object Browser.
You can create an object instance with the CreateObject function, which is late bound,
by not declaring the object variable as a specific type. For example, the following code
creates an instance of the Binder object by using late binding:
Dim BinderObj As Object
Set BinderObj = CreateObject(“Office.Binder”)
Note
If you have different versions of the same Automation Server on your computer, you can specify
the version to use by adding it to the end of the class information. For example, the following
code uses Office as the Automation Server:
Dim BinderObj As Object
Set BinderObj = CreateObject(“Word.Application.11”)
Tip
Word 97 was the first true Automation Server, and like its predecessor, Word 2003 doesn’t
require you to specify a version when creating instances of Word object libraries; Word is always used, regardless of the other versions of Word on the computer. In fact, you get an error
if you try to specify a version number. Therefore, you can use the following syntax instead:
Set BinderObj = CreateObject(“Word.Application.11”)
Getting an existing object instance
As stated previously in this chapter, using the New keyword or the CreateObject function
creates a new instance of the Automation Server. If you don’t want a new instance of the
server created each time you create an object, use the GetObject function. The format of
the GetObject function is as follows:
Set objectvariable = GetObject([pathname][, class])
The pathname parameter is optional. To use this parameter, you specify a full path and file
name to an existing file for use with the Automation Server.
Note
The specified document is then opened in the server application. Even if you omit the parameter, you must still include the comma (,).
The class parameter is the same parameter that’s used with the CreateObject function.
See Table 15-1 for a list of some class arguments used in Microsoft Office.
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Table 15-1
Class Arguments for Common Office Components
Component
Class Argument
Object Returned
Access
Access.Application
Microsoft Access Application object
Excel
Excel.Application
Microsoft Excel Application object
Excel.Sheet
Microsoft Excel Workbook object
Excel.Chart
Microsoft Excel Chart object
Word.Application
Microsoft Word Application object
Word.Document
Microsoft Word Document object
Word
For example, to work with an existing instance of Microsoft Word, but not a specific Word
document, you can use the following code:
Dim WordObj as Word.Application
Set WordObj = GetObject(, “Word.Application”)
To get an instance of an existing Word document called MyDoc.Doc, on your C: drive, you
can use the following code:
Dim WordObj as Word.Application
Set WordObj = GetObject(“c:\MyDoc.Doc”, “Word.Application”)
Of course, this code is always placed in a new function or sub that you declare in your
module.
Working with Automation objects
After you have a valid instance of an Automation Server, you manipulate the object as though
you were writing code within the application itself, using the exposed objects and their
properties and methods.
For example, when developing directly in Word, you can use the following code to change
the directory that Word uses when opening an existing file:
ChangeFileOpenDirectory “C:\My Documents\”
Note
Consult the development help for the Automation Server for specific information on the objects,
properties, and methods available.
Chapter 15 ✦ Exchanging Access Data with Office Applications
361
Just as in Access, Word is implicitly using its Application object; the command
ChangeFileOpenDirectory is really a method of the Application object. Using
the following code, you create an instance of Word’s Application object and call the
method of the object:
Dim WordObj As New Word.Application
WordObj.ChangeFileOpenDirectory “C:\My Documents\”
Tip
When using Automation, you should avoid setting properties or calling methods that cause the
Automation Server to ask for input from the user via a dialog box. When a dialog box is displayed, the Automation code stops executing until the dialog box is closed. If the server application is minimized or behind other windows, the user may not even be aware that he or she
needs to provide input, and therefore may assume that the application is locked up.
Closing an instance of an Automation object
Automation objects are closed when the Automation object variable goes out of scope. Such a
closing, however, doesn’t necessarily free up all resources that are used by the object, so you
should explicitly close the instance of the Automation object. You can close an Automation
object by doing either of the following:
• Using the Close or Quit method of the object (consult the specific Automation
Server’s documentation for information on which method it supports)
• Setting the object variable to nothing, as follows:
Set WordObj = Nothing
The best way to close an instance of an Automation object is to combine the two techniques,
like this:
WordObj.Quit
Set WordObj = Nothing
An Automation Example Using Word
Perhaps the most common Office application that is used for Automation from a database
application like Access is Word. Using Automation with Word, you can create letters that
are tailored with information from databases. The following section demonstrates an
example of merging information from an Access database to a letter in Word by using
Automation and Word’s Bookmarks. Ordinarily, you create a merge document in Word and
bring field contents in from the records of an Access database. This method relies on using
Word’s MergeField, which is replaced by the contents of the Database field. It normally
requires that you perform this action in Word—thus limiting the scope and capability of the
function. For example, you will merge all records from the table that is being used rather
than a single record.
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The following example uses the Orders form, which calls a module named WordIntegration.
The WordIntegration module contains a function named MergetoWord() that uses the Word
Thanks.dot template file.
Note
When you attempt to run this example, you must make sure that the path for the template in the
Visual Basic code is the actual path in which the Thanks.dot template file resides. This path
may vary from computer to computer.
The items that are discussed in this Word Automation example include the following:
✦ Creating an instance of a Word object
✦ Making the instance of Word visible
✦ Creating a new document based on an existing template
✦ Using bookmarks to insert data
✦ Activating the instance of Word
✦ Moving the cursor in Word
✦ Closing the instance of the Word object without closing Word
This example prints a thank-you letter for an order based on bookmarks in the thank you
letter template (Thanks.dot). Figure 15-5 shows the data for customers; Figure 15-6 shows the
data entry form for orders; Figure 15-7 shows the Thanks.dot template; and Figure 15-8
shows a completed merge letter.
The bookmarks in Figure 15-7 are shown as grayed large I-beams (text insert). The
bookmarks are normally not visible, but you can make them visible by selecting
Tools_Options, selecting the View tab and going to the top section titled Show and then
turning on the Bookmarks option by checking the option (third choice in the first column).
The names won’t be visible—only the bookmark holders (locations) will be visible, as shown
in Figure 15-7. The names and arrows in Figure 15-7 were placed using text boxes to show
where the bookmark names are assigned.
Figure 15-5: Customer data used in the following Automation example is entered on the
Customers form.
Chapter 15 ✦ Exchanging Access Data with Office Applications
Figure 15-6: Each customer can have an unlimited number of orders. Thank-you letters
are printed from the Orders form.
Figure 15-7: The Thanks.dot template contains bookmarks where the merged data is to
be inserted.
Figure 15-8: After a successful merge, all the bookmarks have been replaced with their
respective data.
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Caution
If you click the Print Thank You Letter button in Access while Word is open with an existing
document—which lacks the bookmark names specified in the code—the fields will simply be
added to the text inside Word at the point where the cursor is currently sitting.
When the user clicks the Print Thank You Letter button on the Orders form, Word generates a
thank-you letter with all the pertinent information. The following code shows the
MergetoWord function in its entirety so you can see in-depth how it works.
Public Function MergetoWord()
‘ This method creates a new document in MS Word
‘ using Automation.
On Error Resume Next
Dim rsCust As Recordset, iTemp As Integer
Dim WordObj As Word.Application
Set rsCust = DBEngine(0).Databases(0).OpenRecordset(“Customers”, _
dbOpenTable)
rsCust.Index = “PrimaryKey”
rsCust.Seek “=”, Forms!Orders![CustomerNumber]
If rsCust.NoMatch Then
MsgBox “Invalid customer”, vbOKOnly
Exit Function
End If
DoCmd.Hourglass True
Set WordObj = GetObject(, “Word.Application”)
If Err.Number <> 0 Then
Set WordObj = CreateObject(“Word.Application”)
End If
WordObj.Visible = True
WordObj.Documents.Add
‘ WARNING:
‘ Specify the correct drive and path to the
‘ file named thanks.dot in the line below.
Template:=”G:\Access 11 Book\thanks.dot”,
‘ The above path and drive must be fixed
NewTemplate:=False
WordObj.Selection.Goto what:=wdGoToBookmark, Name:=”FullName”
WordObj.Selection.TypeText rsCust![ContactName]
WordObj.Selection.Goto what:=wdGoToBookmark, Name:=”CompanyName”
WordObj.Selection.TypeText rsCust![CompanyName]
WordObj.Selection.Goto what:=wdGoToBookmark, Name:=”Address1"
WordObj.Selection.TypeText rsCust![Address1]
WordObj.Selection.Goto what:=wdGoToBookmark, Name:=”Address2"
Chapter 15 ✦ Exchanging Access Data with Office Applications
If IsNull(rsCust![Address2]) Then
WordObj.Selection.TypeText “”
Else
WordObj.Selection.TypeText rsCust![Address2]
End If
WordObj.Selection.Goto what:=wdGoToBookmark, Name:=”City”
WordObj.Selection.TypeText rsCust![City]
WordObj.Selection.Goto what:=wdGoToBookmark, Name:=”State”
WordObj.Selection.TypeText rsCust![State]
WordObj.Selection.Goto what:=wdGoToBookmark, Name:=”Zipcode”
WordObj.Selection.TypeText rsCust![Zipcode]
WordObj.Selection.Goto what:=wdGoToBookmark, Name:=”PhoneNumber”
WordObj.Selection.TypeText rsCust![PhoneNumber]
WordObj.Selection.Goto what:=wdGoToBookmark, Name:=”NumOrdered”
WordObj.Selection.TypeText Forms!Orders![Quantity]
WordObj.Selection.Goto what:=wdGoToBookmark, Name:=”ProductOrdered”
If Forms!Orders![Quantity] > 1 Then
WordObj.Selection.TypeText Forms!Orders![Item] & “s”
Else
WordObj.Selection.TypeText Forms!Orders![Item]
End If
WordObj.Selection.Goto what:=wdGoToBookmark, Name:=”FName”
iTemp = InStr(rsCust![ContactName], “ “)
If iTemp > 0 Then
WordObj.Selection.TypeText Left$(rsCust![ContactName],
iTemp _ - 1)
End If
WordObj.Selection.Goto what:=wdGoToBookmark, Name:=”LetterName”
WordObj.Selection.TypeText rsCust![ContactName]
DoEvents
WordObj.Activate
WordObj.Selection.MoveUp wdLine, 6
‘ Set the Word Object to nothing to free resources
Set WordObj = Nothing
DoCmd.Hourglass False
Exit Function
TemplateError:
Set WordObj = Nothing
Exit Function
End Function
Creating an instance of a Word object
The first step in using Automation is to create an instance of an object. The sample creates an
object instance with the following code:
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On Error Resume Next
...
Set WordObj = GetObject(, “Word.Application”)
If Err.Number <> 0 Then
Set WordObj = CreateObject(“Word.Application”)
End If
Obviously, you don’t want a new instance of Word created every time a thank-you letter is
generated, so some special coding is required. This code snippet first attempts to create an
instance by using an active instance (a running copy) of Word. If Word is not a running
application, an error is generated. Because this function has On Error Resume Next for
error trapping, the code doesn’t fail, but instead proceeds to the next statement. If an error is
detected (the Err.Number is not equal to 0), an instance is created by using
CreateObject.
Making the instance of Word visible
When you first create a new instance of Word, it runs invisibly. This approach enables your
application to exploit features of Word without the user even realizing that Word is running.
In this case, however, it is desirable to let the user edit the merged letter, so Word needs to be
made visible by setting the object’s Visible property to True by using this line of code:
WordObj.Visible = True
Caution
If you don’t set the object instance’s Visible property to True, you may create hidden copies of Word that use system resources and never shut down. A hidden copy of Word doesn’t
show up in the Task tray or in the Task Switcher.
Creating a new document based on an existing template
After Word is running, a blank document needs to be created. The following code creates a
new document by using the Thanks.dot template:
WordObj.Documents.Add Template:=”G:\Access 11 Book\thanks.dot”, _
NewTemplate:=False
Note
The path must be corrected in order to point to the Thanks.dot template on your computer.
The Thanks.dot template contains bookmarks (as shown in Figure 15-7) that tell this function
where to insert data. You create bookmarks in Word by highlighting the text that you want to
make a bookmark, selecting Insert_Bookmark, and then entering the bookmark name and
clicking Add.
Chapter 15 ✦ Exchanging Access Data with Office Applications
Using Bookmarks to insert data
Using Automation, you can locate bookmarks in a Word document and replace them with the
text of your choosing. To locate a bookmark, use the Goto method of the Selection
object. After you have located the bookmark, the text comprising the bookmark is selected.
By inserting text (which you can do by using Automation or simply by typing directly into
the document), you replace the bookmark text. To insert text, use the TypeText method of
the Selection object, as shown here:
WordObj.Selection.Goto what:=wdGoToBookmark, Name:=”FullName”
WordObj.Selection.TypeText rsCust![ContactName]
Note
You can’t pass a null to the TypeText method. If the value may possibly be Null, you need
to check ahead and make allowances. The preceding sample code checks the Address2 field
for a Null value and acts accordingly. If you don’t pass text to replace the bookmark—even
just a zero length string (“ ”)—the bookmark text remains in the document.
Activating the instance of Word
To enable the user to enter data in the new document, you must make Word the active
application. If you don’t make Word the active application, the user has to switch to Word
from Access. You make Word the active application by using the Activate method of the
Word object, as follows:
WordObj.Activate
Tip
Depending on the processing that is occurring at the time, Access may take the focus back from
Word. You can help to eliminate this annoyance by preceding the Activate method with a
DoEvents statement. Note, however, that this doesn’t always work.
Moving the cursor in Word
You can move the cursor in Word by using the MoveUp method of the Selection object.
The following example moves the cursor up six lines in the document. The cursor is at the
location of the last bookmark when this code is executed:
WordObj.Selection.MoveUp wdLine, 6
Closing the instance of the Word object
To free up resources that are taken by an instance of an Automation object, you should always
close the instance. In this example, the following code is used to close the object instance:
Set WordObj = Nothing
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This code closes the object instance, but not the instance of Word as a running application. In
this example, the user needs access to the new document, so closing Word would defeat the
purpose of this function. You can, however, automatically print the document and then close
Word. If you do this, you may even choose to not make Word visible during this process. To
close Word, use the Quit method of the Application object, as follows:
WordObj.Quit
Inserting pictures by using Bookmarks
It is possible to perform other unique operations by using Bookmarks. Basically, anything
that you can do within Word, you can do by using Automation. The following code locates a
bookmark that marks where a picture is to be placed and then inserts a .BMP file from disk.
You can use the following code to insert scanned signatures into letters:
WordObj.Selection.Goto what:=wdGoToBookmark, Name:=”Picture”
WordObj.ChangeFileOpenDirectory “D:\GRAPHICS\”
WordObj. ActiveDocument.Shapes.AddPicture Anchor:=Selection.Range,
_ FileName:= _
“D:\GRAPHICS\PICTURE.BMP”, LinkToFile:=False,
SaveWithDocument _
:=True
Using Office’s Macro Recorder
Using Automation is not a difficult process when you understand the fundamentals. Often,
the toughest part of using Automation is knowing the proper objects, properties, and methods
to use. Although the development help system of the Automation Server is a requirement for
fully understanding the language, the easiest way to quickly create Automation for Office
applications like Word is the Macro Recorder.
Most versions of Office applications have a Macro Recorder located on the Tools menu (see
Figure 15-9). When activated, the Macro Recorder records all events, such as menu selections
and button clicks, and creates Visual Basic code from them.
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Figure 15-9: The Macro Recorder in Word is a powerful tool to help you create Automation code.
After selecting Tools_Macro_Record New Macro, you must give your new macro a name
(see Figure 15-10). In addition to a name, you can assign the macro to a toolbar or keyboard
combination and select the template in which to store the macro. If you are creating the macro
simply to create the Visual Basic code, the only thing that you need to be concerned with is
the macro name.
Figure 15-10: Enter a macro name and click OK to begin recording the macro. In this
example, the macro is named “MyMacro.”
After you enter a macro name and click OK, the Macro Recorder begins recording events
and displays a Stop Recording window, and the arrow changes to an open pointer attached to
a cassette, as shown in Figure 15-11. You can stop recording events by clicking the Stop
button (the button with a square on it). To pause recording events, click the other button,
which is the Pause button.
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Figure 15-11: The Macro Recorder records all events until you click the Stop button.
After you have finished recording a macro, you can view the Visual Basic code created from
your events. To view the code of a macro, select Tools_Macro_Macros to display a list of
all saved macros. Then select the macro that you recorded and click the Edit button to display
the Visual Basic editor with the macro’s code. Figure 15-12 shows the Visual Basic editor
with a macro that recorded the creation of a new document using the Normal template and the
insertion of a picture using the Insert_Picture_From File menu item.
In the application for which a macro is created, the Application object is used explicitly.
When you use the code for Automation, you must create an Application object accordingly.
For example, the preceding macro uses the following code to create a new document:
Documents.Add Template:=” Normal.dot”, NewTemplate:= False,
DocumentType:=0
This code implicitly uses the Application object. To use this code for Automation, copy the
code from the Visual Basic editor, paste it into your procedure, and create an object that you
use explicitly, as follows:
Dim WordObj as New Word.Application
WordObj.Documents.Add Template:=” Normal.dot”, NewTemplate:= False,
DocumentType:=0
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Figure 15-12: The Macro Recorder records all events until you click the Stop button.
The Macro Recorder enables you to effortlessly create long and complete Automation code
without ever needing to read the Automation Server’s documentation.
✦
✦
✦
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16
C H A P T E R
.
I
n most business environments, very few things are done solely
by individuals. Projects are planned, discussed, dissected, and
carried out by teams of people working together. If one of the
final products of a project is to be an Office document, it’s helpful
if all members of the team can share information, files, and ideas
online — either via the company’s internal computer network or
(if team members are more far-flung) via the Internet.
Office makes it possible!
Resource Sharing and Security
If your computer is hooked up to a local network of some type,
chances are good you have a choice of saving your files either to
your own computer or to a location somewhere on the network.
Access to various folders on the network is overseen by whoever
looks after the network; it’s quite likely that many people not in
your workgroup have access to a particular folder. However, in
most Office applications you can control who has access to files
you place in network folders. You can also allow or deny access
by network users to your own computer’s hard drive.
Setting file-sharing options
when saving
Whenever you save a Word or Excel document, you have the
option of restricting access to it.
In Word’s standard Save or Save As dialog box, choose
Tools_Security Options. This opens the Security dialog box
shown in Figure 16-1.
.
.
.
In This Chapter
Resource sharing
and security
Collaborating in Word
Sharing Excel
workbooks
Collaborating in
PowerPoint
Sharing Access
databases
Distributing Office
documents
.
.
.
.
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Figure 16-1: The Security dialog box in Word lets you restrict access to any file.
Three levels of file-sharing security are provided here:
✦ Password to open. If you enter a password here, only someone who knows the
password can open the file. (Passwords can be up to 15 characters long and can
contain letters, numbers, and symbols. They are case-sensitive. As you type them
in, only asterisks are displayed.)
Caution
Password protection isn’t as secure as you might think; there are utilities available on the Internet
that claim to be able to crack open protected documents (in fact, a common question in Officerelated newsgroups is “I’ve forgotten my password; how do I get in?”).
✦ Password to modify. If you enter a password here, anyone can open the file, but
only someone who knows the password can modify it. Users who don’t know the
password can open the file only as read-only — and that includes you if you forget
your password, so don’t!
✦ Read-only recommended. If you check this, users opening this file will get a
message suggesting they open it as a read-only file. If they do, they can’t change
the original document; instead, any changes they make must be saved as a new
document, under a different name.
In Excel, you have the same options, but you get to them by choosing Tools_General
Options in the Save or Save As dialog box.
In PowerPoint, you have only the password-protection options; you don’t have the Readonly recommended option. You get to the password-protection options by choosing
Tools_Security Options in the Save or Save As dialog box.
Chapter 16 ✦ Collaborating on a Network
Word offers additional Privacy options: You can choose to remove personal information
(e.g., the document author’s name and the names of people who have added comments)
from the file before it is saved; have Word warn you before printing, saving, or sending a
file that contains tracked changes or comments; and stop Word’s usual practice of generating
random numbers during merge activities to indicate to itself that two documents are related.
Even though those numbers are hidden in the files, they could conceivably be used to show
that two documents were related. Be aware, however, that removing this option will reduce
the accuracy of merging operations.
Protecting documents
In addition, you can fine-tune the level of access you want to allow people to have to a
particular file by applying protection to it.
Protecting documents in Word
To protect a document in Word:
1. Choose Tools_Protect Document (or click the Protect Document button in the
Security Options dialog box from the previous section). This opens the Document
Protection task pane shown in Figure 16-2.
Figure 16-2: Protect Word documents using this task pane.
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2. Under Formatting restrictions, check the checkbox if you want to limit formatting
to a selection of styles, and then click Settings to open the Formatting Restrictions
dialog box (see Figure 16-3).
Figure 16-3: Specify formatting restrictions on a shared document here.
3. Uncheck any styles you don’t want to allow in the document, or click the
Recommended Minimum button to have Office automatically select what it
considers to be a minimum number of styles. Click All to check all styles and None
to uncheck them all.
4. If you want to allow AutoFormat to override these formatting restrictions, check
that box at the bottom of the dialog box, and then click OK.
5. Back in the Document Protection task pane, if you want to allow only certain types of
editing in the document, check the Editing restrictions box. This activates a dropdown list with four options: Tracked changes (all changes are permitted, but they’re
automatically tracked), Comments (no changes are permitted, but comments can be
inserted), Filling in forms (no changes are permitted, but data can be entered into
forms), and No changes (no changes are permitted — the document is read-only).
6. Next, enter any exceptions to the editing rules. If you have established user groups,
they’re listed; otherwise, click More users and enter the user names for those to
whom you want to give greater editing access in the Add Users dialog box that
appears.
7. Finally, back in the Document Protection task pane, click the Yes, start enforcing
protection button if you’re ready to apply the protection settings to your document.
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Protecting documents in Excel
To protect an Excel worksheet or workbook:
1. Choose Tools_Protection.
2. From the submenu, choose which part of your Excel document you want to protect:
a particular worksheet or the workbook. You can also choose to protect and share
your workbook (more on sharing workbooks a little later in this chapter).
3. If you choose Protect Sheet, you’ll see the dialog box shown in Figure 16-4. Here
you can enter a password to unprotect the sheet, and then choose from the long
list provided which actions you’re willing to allow users of the worksheet to
perform.
Figure 16--4: Set protection for Excel worksheets here.
4. If you choose Protect Workbook, you’ll see the dialog box shown in Figure 16-5,
which contains three options:
• Structure prevents users from adding, deleting, moving, hiding, or unhiding
worksheets.
• Windows prevents users from moving, hiding, unhiding, resizing, or closing
workbook windows.
• Password allows you to enter a password that users must have before they can
unprotect the workbook.
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Figure 16-5: Protect elements of your workbook here.
5. Protect and Share Workbook brings up a dialog box with only one box you can
check, to prevent those sharing the workbook from turning off change tracking.
You can enter a password that they’ll have to know before they can do so.
6. Allow Users to Edit Ranges opens the dialog box shown in Figure 16-6. Here you
can apply passwords to specific ranges within your worksheet. Even if the
worksheet as a whole is protected, users who have the password can edit the ranges
you specify. You can also click Permissions to specify which users are allowed to
edit the range without a password, and just so you don’t forget, you can even paste
permissions information into a new workbook so you can refer to it easily.
Figure 16-6: You can make ranges available for editing to those with the correct
password even if the rest of the sheet is protected.
Protecting files in Access and PowerPoint
You’ll learn about protecting Access files in detail later in this chapter. You need to use file
system features to protect PowerPoint files; talk to your system administrator.
Chapter 16 ✦ Collaborating on a Network
Using Information Rights Management tools
In previous versions of Office, the only way to protect sensitive information was to limit
access to it, as described in the preceding sections. That didn’t necessarily prevent the
people who were granted access from copying the information and/or sending it to someone
who wasn’t supposed to have access to it.
Information Rights Management (IRM) is a new feature in Office 2003 that gives you
greater control over files even when they’re no longer on your computer or network. No
matter where the file goes, the permissions you’ve assigned go with it, so that only those
users you’ve approved can read or change it; you can also restrict printing and forwarding.
Note
In order to use IRM, you must have access to a computer running Windows Server 2003, with
Windows Rights Management activated. If you are working in a networked environment, consult your network administrator for details. As of this writing, Microsoft offers a trial Internetbased service for individuals based on the .NET passport system; follow the prompts the first
time you attempt to use the feature to sign up for that service if it’s available (because it’s just a
trial service at this writing, it may not be by the time you read this book). Undoubtedly other
providers of public IRM servers will come forward as well.
Whenever you create a document in Word, Excel, or PowerPoint, you can set IRM policies
for it by choosing File_Permission to open the Permission dialog box (see Figure 16-7).
Figure 16-7: The Permission dialog box allows you to enter the e-mail addresses of
users you’d like to be able to read or change a document’s content.
Check the Restrict permission to this document box to activate the Read and Change
options. Enter the e-mail addresses of users you want to give Read permission to (they can
read the document but can’t change, print, or copy its content) and those you want to give
Change permission to (they can read, edit, and save changes to the document but can’t print
it). Click the Read and/or Change buttons to access e-mail addresses in your Address book.
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To fine-tune permission, click More Options. This opens the dialog box shown in Figure 16-8.
Figure 16-8: Fine-tune the permissions you grant with these controls.
At the top is a list of all the users you’ve given permission to access the document and the
access level they currently have (your name shows up at the top of the list with Full
Control). Highlight the user whose permissions you’d like to fine-tune, and then choose
from the options in the Additional permissions for users area. You can:
✦ Set an expiration date for the user’s permission.
✦ Allow users to print content.
✦ Allow a user with read access to also copy content.
✦ Give specific users permission to read a document, print a document, copy a
document, or edit a document, or any combination of those; you can also set an
expiration date.
✦ Allow users to access the content programmatically — that is, to open the file in the
same program that created it and edit its content.
Under Additional settings, you can enter a link to an e-mail address (or other hyperlink) that
will pop up whenever a document with restricted permission is forwarded to an unauthorized
individual, so that that individual can request permission to view it. If you leave this blank,
unauthorized individuals simply see an error message.
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You can also choose to allow users to view the content in a browser; a Rights-Management
Add-on for Internet Explorer makes this possible. Otherwise, IRM-protected files can be
opened in Office 2003 only.
Tip
If you generally provide the same permissions to many different users, click Set Defaults to
make those permissions the default set.
Note
Network administrators can create permission policies that define who can access documents,
workbooks, and presentations and what editing capabilities (if any) they have. For example, a
company might define a policy called “Confidential” that allows documents to be opened only by
users whose e-mail addresses use the company’s domain name. Once these policies have
been defined, they appear in alphabetical order on a submenu under File_Permission; authors simply choose the one they want to use.
Sharing Excel Workbooks
One of the most common types of Office documents shared on a network is an Excel
workbook because workbooks frequently contain budgetary or sales information that is
constantly being updated by a variety of users. Excel lets multiple users share a workbook so
they can all work on it at the same time; it also lets you combine several workbooks into a
single workbook.
Creating a shared workbook
To create a shared workbook:
1. Choose Tools_Share Workbook. This opens the dialog box shown in Figure 16-9.
Figure 16-9: The Editing tab of the Share Workbook dialog box shows you who
currently has the workbook open.
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2. If you want more than one person to be able to edit the workbook at the same time,
or to combine several workbooks into one shared workbook, check the box at the
top of the dialog box.
3. To fine-tune the way the workbook is shared, click the Advanced tab (see Figure
16-10). In the Track changes section, choose the number of days you want to track
changes — if at all.
Figure 16-10: The Advanced tab lets you choose your method of tracking, updating, and dealing with conflicting changes.
4. In the Update changes section, choose when you want changes made to the
workbook to be updated: whenever the file is saved, or automatically how ever
often you specify. If you choose to automatically update changes, you can choose
to save your changes and see everyone else’s changes at the specified interval, or
just see everyone else’s changes at the specified interval without saving yours.
5. Sometimes two or more users will make conflicting changes to the workbook —
changes that are mutually exclusive. You can decide here how to deal with those
changes either by having Excel ask you which change should take effect or by
replacing any conflicting changes with your own changes every time you save.
6. Click OK.
Here’s one example of a shared workbook being useful: A sales group could share a
common workbook, with each salesperson in the group recording his or her sales as they
occur; that would give the sales manager the ability to monitor their sales, and the progress
of the group as a whole, in “real time.”
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Reviewing changes
Once a workbook is being shared, you can review changes in it by choosing Tools_Track
Changes_Accept or Reject Changes. Choose the changes you want to review in the Select
Changes to Accept or Reject dialog box shown in Figure 16-11. You can filter the changes
you want to look at by using the three fields. The When field lets you look for changes made
on a specific date; the Who field lets you look at changes made by everyone, everyone but
you, only you, or only any other user who has made changes; and the Where field lets you
specify a range of cells in which to look for changes.
Any changes found are brought to your attention in the Accept or Reject Changes dialog box
(see Figure 16-12). You can choose to accept or reject any or all of the changes brought to
your attention.
Tip
Choose Tools_Highlight Changes to highlight any changes made throughout the workbook.
Figure 16-11: Use this dialog box to select the changes you want to review.
Figure 16-12: Changes made to the workbook are brought to your attention here.
You can merge different versions of the same shared workbook into a single workbook by
choosing Tools_Compare and Merge Workbooks. Track Changes must be turned on (and
the workbook must be shared) for this to work.
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Collaborating in PowerPoint
You can send your PowerPoint presentation to others for comment and revision, and then
combine all the reviewed presentations into one for easy review.
Note
The easiest way to send a presentation for review is to choose File_Mail Recipient (for Review). This feature, common to most Office applications, is discussed later in this chapter.
To do so, open the presentation you want to combine reviewed presentation with and choose
Tools_Compare and Merge Presentations. Browse for the presentations you want to merge,
and then click Merge.
PowerPoint opens the Revisions Pane and the Reviewing toolbar to allow you to sort
through all the suggested revisions and decide whether you want to apply them (see
Figure 16-13).
Figure 16-13: PowerPoint’s Revisions Pane shows you all the changes reviewers have
made to your presentation.
PowerPoint points out the suggested revisions in several ways. In the Revisions Pane, you
can see graphical representations of the altered slides, or you can view them as a list. You
can choose whether to look at the changes suggested by all reviewers, or just those made by
specific reviewers. The names of reviewers who made changes to a particular slide appear
above the thumbnail of the slide, color-coded. Click the name of any reviewer whose
changes you want to accept.
Chapter 16 ✦ Collaborating on a Network
You can also call up a shortcut menu by pointing at the thumbnail and then clicking the
downward-pointing arrow that appears beside it. The shortcut menu also lets you apply
changes by the current reviewer, show only that reviewer’s changes, preview animation (in
case there was a change to an animation) and, finally, finish off your review of that
reviewer’s changes by clicking Done With This Reviewer.
The list version of the changes in the Revisions Pane is a little different; it shows a list of
changes to the slide (text edits, new graphics, etc.), and a separate list of Presentation
changes (slide transitions, for instance). The Previous and Next buttons at the bottom of the
task pane take you from slide to slide.
The Reviewing toolbar, also visible in Figure 16-13, is very similar to Word’s Reviewing
toolbar. You can step from item to item, choose to apply or unapply, edit and delete
comments, choose which reviewers’ changes you want to see, end the review, and toggle the
Revisions pane off and on.
Caution
Clicking End Review discards all unreviewed changes in the merged presentation, so don’t
click it until you’re certain you’re done.
You can also toggle markup on and off. The Markup feature shows callouts detailing
changes made to the presentation without obscuring the presentation or affecting its layout
(see Figure 16-14). Accepting a change is as simple as checking it off in the markup callout.
Figure 16-14: PowerPoint’s Markup feature provides a way to see changes in the
context of the slide they’re on.
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Sharing Access Databases
The information in the typical Access database is valuable not only to people working in
Access but also to people working in all other Office applications. Typically, the Access
database changes constantly as changes are made to the data in it; by drawing on it, network
users can ensure that their own Office projects always contain the most up-to-date
information.
If you don’t need any extra security on your Access database, you can share it just as you
can any other file in Office (see the first part of this chapter). If you do need extra security,
however, Access can provide it in several ways: passwords, permissions, user groups and
accounts, and encryption.
Using passwords
A password is the easiest way to protect a database. Every time a user tries to access a
password-protected database, he or she is asked to provide a password. Without it, the
database can’t be opened.
To set a password for a particular Access database:
1. Choose File_Open.
2. In the Open dialog box, find the database you want to assign the password to and
select it.
3. Click the down arrow next to the Open button and choose Open Exclusive. This
ensures that no one else can open the database while you are assigning a password
to it.
4. The database opens. Now choose Tools_Security_Set Database Password.
5. In the Set Database Password dialog box, enter the password once in the Password
field and then enter it again in the Verify field (all you’ll see are asterisks).
Note
Remember, passwords are case-sensitive, are limited to 15 characters, and can contain letters,
numbers, and/or symbols.
6. Click OK.
Once the password is set, it doesn’t matter if you’re the user who created the database and
assigned the password to it: If you forget or lose the password, you can’t open the database
(at least, not without the use of a third-party password-cracking tool like the ones available
at www.lostpassword.com — the existence of which is why a password provides only
low-level security).
To remove the password, open the file exclusively again, and then choose
Tools_Security_Unset Database Password. Enter the password and click OK.
Chapter 16 ✦ Collaborating on a Network
Creating user and group accounts
If a password doesn’t provide enough security, you might want to set up user accounts and
groups, which will require users to supply both an account name and a password before they
can access a database. This is called user-level security.
To set up user and group accounts:
1. Open a database.
2. Choose Tools_Security_User and Group Accounts. This opens the dialog box
shown in Figure 16-15.
Figure 16-15: Add new users and new user group accounts here.
3. By default, Access creates two groups: Admin and Users. Admin users can perform
administrative functions such as adding users and groups; users can access only the
database itself.
4. By default, Access creates an Admin user called, unimaginatively, Admin. Choose
it from the Name drop-down list, and then click the Change Logon Password tab.
Type the password you want to use in the New Password and Verify fields. (Once
you’ve closed the database and Access, the next time you open it you’ll have to log
on using this account name and password.)
5. Click the Users tab.
6. To create a new account, enter the name of the user in the Name box, and then
select the group you want to add him or her to; click the New button.
7. Enter the name of the user and the personal ID — a string of four to 20 characters
of your choice that Access combines with the user’s name to identify that user in
the group.
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8. Click OK to create the new account.
9. To create a new group, click the Groups tab, click the New button, and enter a
name and personal ID for the new group.
10. To delete a user, click the group he or she is a member of in the Available Groups
list; then locate the name in the Name list and click Delete. To delete a group, click
the Groups tab, highlight the group you want to delete, and click Delete.
Securing the database
Access makes securing the database easy by providing a wizard. Choose
Tools_Security_User-Level Security Wizard, and then follow the instructions, providing
information as needed. At one point you’re asked to choose which objects in the database
should be secured. All secured objects will thereafter be accessible only by users in the
Admin group until you grant other users permissions.
The Wizard makes a backup copy of your database and then encrypts the original.
Note
You can’t run this wizard if the database is open in exclusive mode.
Assigning permissions
To assign permissions, choose Tools_Security_User and Group Permissions. This opens
the dialog box shown in Figure 16-16.
Figure 16-16: You can limit the access of certain users or groups of users to specific
databases and objects by setting permissions.
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To assign permissions from this dialog box:
1. Click the Users radio button if you want to assign permissions to individual users,
or the Groups radio button if you want to assign permissions to groups.
2. Select the name of the user or group you want to assign permissions to.
3. Select the object you want to assign permissions for from the list of objects, and
select the object type from the drop-down list.
4. Use the checkboxes to set permissions for that user or group: Check boxes to grant
permission for the action described to be performed; uncheck boxes to deny that
permission.
5. When you’ve set permissions for all the users and groups, click OK. You’ll have to
close and open the database again for the permissions to fully take effect.
6. Click the Change Owner tab to assign ownership for the database or objects in it to
someone other than the Admin user.
Encryption
Encryption makes it impossible to view a database file in any other program except Access,
and even in Access you have to decrypt it first. It’s usually used in conjunction with a
password or user-level security (remember, the User-Level Security wizard encrypts the
database as part of securing it).
To encrypt a database:
1. Choose Tools_Security_Encrypt/Decrypt Database.
2. Locate the database you want to encrypt in the Encrypt/Decrypt Database dialog
box, which looks just like a Save As dialog box.
3. Click OK.
4. Another dialog box opens that looks much like the first; in this one, specify the
name and location of the encrypted file.
5. Click Save.
You can save the encrypted file over the original by specifying the same filename and
location.
To decrypt a file, follow the same procedure, but choose an encrypted file to be decrypted
in Step 2.
Distributing Office Documents
Group collaboration on documents requires the capability to save Office documents
somewhere where they are available to everyone in the group. Office provides plenty of help
to that end; the latest development in this process is SharePoint Team Services (STS).
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Even if your organization isn’t running STS, though, you can readily share documents and
link them together by placing hyperlinks in them.
In Windows, any accessible network site shows up in your file-related dialog boxes and in
My Computer, just like local disks and folders.
In Office dialog boxes such as Open and Save As, click the My Network Places icon to
navigate to computers on the network and their folders (or else click on shortcuts you may
have made to those locations, if you’ve gone that route). Once you’ve opened the right
folder, you can store and retrieve documents on another computer exactly as you do those
on your own PC.
Sharing documents via e-mail
Instead of sharing your documents over a network, you can share them via e-mail. This not
only makes it possible for someone who isn’t on your organization’s network to view the
document, it also enables you to more tightly control who sees the document, and when.
To do so, choose File_Send To and choose an option from the resulting menu:
✦ Choose one of the Mail Recipient options to send the document to a single person, or
to several people at once. The disadvantage is that if you’re sending a document to
several reviewers for comments, they’ll all get their own copy of the file. This means
you’ll have multiple copies of the document returned to you, which can be a nuisance.
✦ To avoid that, choose Routing Recipient to specify a series of recipients who will receive
the document one at a time. This allows each of them to see the comments of previous
reviewers, ensures that only one copy of the document is in circulation, and ensures that
you get only a single copy of the document back, one that contains all the comments
from all of the reviewers. You can also set up routing so that you’re notified by e-mail
each time the document is forwarded to a new recipient, and so that the document is
automatically returned to you when the last reviewer on the list is done with it.
Sending a document (without routing it)
There are three versions of the Send To_Mail Recipient command:
✦ Send To_Mail Recipient sends the document in the body of the e-mail.
✦ Send To_Mail Recipient (for Review) sends the document as an attachment and
fills in the Subject line and body with brief messages asking for the document to be
reviewed.
✦ Send To_Mail Recipient (as Attachment) attaches the document to a blank
message, which you then fill in as you want.
Routing a document
To route a document to a series of recipients, choose File_Send To_Routing Recipient. In
the Routing Slip dialog box (see Figure 16-17), select recipients for the routing list by
choosing Address (Outlook will pop up its security dialog box and ask you for permission to
Chapter 16 ✦ Collaborating on a Network
access the Address book). The order of recipient names in the To list determines the order in
which they receive the document. You can change the order by selecting a name and
clicking the Move buttons at right.
Figure 16-17: Route a document to a series of recipients using this dialog box.
Supply a subject and any text you want in the accompanying message, and then, at the
bottom of the dialog box, specify whether you want the document to be sent to each
recipient in sequence or to all of them at once. The difference between this option and
simply sending out the document using the Send To_Mail Recipient command is that the
Routing Slip option enables you to track the document’s status and, in Word, protect the
document from unauthorized changes.
Check Return when done if you want to get the document back automatically after the last
reviewer is done with it, and check Track status if you want e-mail notification as it reaches
each recipient
In Word, choose from among the following options in the Protect for list:
✦ Comments. This allows recipients to add comments but prevents them from
changing the document’s contents.
✦ Tracked Changes. This toggles the Track Changes command. By default it is on,
so you can see all changes the reviewers make.
✦ Forms. Use this if the document you’re sending around is a form that you want the
recipients to fill in. They can then fill in the form but not alter the form itself.
✦ (none). This allows recipients to change the document as they want, and there’s no
automatic tracking of the alterations they make, although they can turn Track
Changes on manually if they want.
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To send the document to the first recipient immediately, choose Route. If you prefer, however,
you can close the dialog box without sending the document by choosing Add Slip. When
you’ve decided to send the document, choose File_Send To_Next Routing Recipient.
Sending documents that aren’t already open
You don’t have to open an Office document (or any other file, for that matter) to e-mail it to
someone. Start from within an Office Open or Save dialog box — or in My Computer,
Windows Explorer, or Outlook’s own file manager. Right-click the document and choose
Send To_Mail Recipient. Outlook creates an e-mail message containing the document as an
attachment; you enter the message text and address.
Posting documents to Exchange folders
If you prefer not to e-mail your document to a large number of recipients, an alternative is to
place it in an Exchange public folder, where it will be available to anyone who has access.
Of course, this works only if your group is using Exchange Server.
With the document open, choose File_Send To_Exchange Folder. A list of Exchange
public folders appears. Specify the destination folder and click OK.
Sending documents to online meeting participants
If you’re participating in an online meeting, you can send an open document to someone
else participating in the meeting by choosing File_Send To_Online Meeting Participant
and choosing from the list provided the participant to whom you want to send the document.
Summary
In this chapter you learned some of the ins and outs of sharing Office information over a
network. Highlights included the following:
✦ You can add a level of protection to Word and Excel documents when you’re
saving them by specifying passwords for opening and/or modifying the file.
✦ You can add protection to Word and Excel files by choosing Tools_Protect
Document in Word and by choosing Tools_Protection in Excel.
✦ You can create a shared workbook in Excel by choosing Tools_Share Workbook.
✦ PowerPoint lets you merge presentations altered by reviewers with your copy and
then provides a Revisions pane and onscreen markup features to help you accept or
refuse the suggested changes.
✦ Access databases are one of the most commonly shared types of Office files. You
can make them freely available or create very tight security for them by using the
commands under Tools_Security on the menu.
✦ E-mail is another way to share Office documents. You can send documents to
individuals or to a sequential group of recipients for review.
✦
✦
✦
Windows
SharePoint
Services with
Office System
17
C H A P T E R
.
.
.
.
In This Chapter
What are Windows
SharePoint Services?
W
indows SharePoint Services is a Web-based service that
provides a collaboration and information presentation
environment that integrates with Microsoft Office 2003
applications such as Word 2003, Outlook, Excel, PowerPoint,
and Access.
Windows SharePoint Services (WSS) is an evolution of
SharePoint Team Services (STS), which shipped with Microsoft
Office XP. If you have previously used SharePoint Team
Services, you will find the new and improved features offered by
WSS much more helpful. Windows SharePoint Services has the
potential to become an integral and extremely useful part of your
everyday Office experience.
Note
Windows SharePoint Services requires installation on Microsoft
Windows Server 2003, Standard Edition, Enterprise Edition, or
Datacenter Edition. This chapter assumes you have access to a
server running Windows SharePoint Services. If you don’t have
such access, you might still find the information in this chapter
informative. Visit www.microsoft.com/sharepoint/
to locate a SharePoint hosting partner if you don’t have access to
your own SharePoint site.
In this chapter, you learn how to access and use the features of
Windows SharePoint Services to collaborate on your Office 2003
documents. You learn how to create, share, and access Web-based
contacts and calendars. You learn how to work with lists and how
to use the powerful Datasheet list view and calculated columns to
bring the power of Excel to SharePoint lists.
Working with lists on
SharePoint sites
Collaborative
document authoring
Using powerful Excellike Datasheet views
Sharing contacts
and calendars
Conducting an online
meeting with the
Meeting Workspace
.
.
.
.
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Working with SharePoint Sites
and SharePoint Lists
One of the central features of Windows SharePoint Services is its use of lists. Lists include
such items as Announcements, Contacts, Events, Links, and Tasks and Issue Tracking. The
placement of these items on a Windows SharePoint Services Web page is up to the site
designer. You can create, access, and modify lists and add new list items via your Web
browser.
Although you can access and use many of the features of Windows SharePoint Services sites
online using Web browsers such as Netscape, it’s better to use Internet Explorer 6 or later when
working with WSS sites. Support for browsers such as Netscape is improved with WSS, but IE
6 and later offer the highest level of support and compatibility.
Note
Many of the features available with lists on Windows SharePoint Services sites are common
to other Windows SharePoint Services items and views. Document Libraries, for example,
are presented in a list-type view.
Accessing SharePoint Services sites
One of the advantages of Windows SharePoint Services is that SharePoint sites can be
accessed via any Web browser that can access the server that hosts the SharePoint site. In
some cases, site access can be restricted to local network users, whereas, in other cases,
SharePoint sites can be accessed over the Internet from any location that can access the
Internet. The capability to access Windows SharePoint Services sites over the Internet makes
WSS a powerful and flexible collaboration environment.
Note
Although you can, and do, perform many tasks with Windows SharePoint Services sites using
a Web browser, such as Internet Explorer, you can more successfully work with Office 2003
documents on SharePoint sites if the Office 2003 application that is associated with those
documents is also installed.
Access methods depend on your administrator and how the site and server that support the
site are configured. In most cases, in order to access a Windows SharePoint Services site,
you need an account on the server that hosts that site. An exception to this is when the site is
configured for anonymous access. Anonymous users have basic read-only access to
SharePoint sites. If you have any difficulty accessing your Windows SharePoint Services
site, contact your SharePoint administrator or the Windows SharePoint Services
documentation if you are the administrator.
When you first receive an account on a Windows SharePoint Services site, you will
usually receive an e-mail similar to that shown in Figure 17-1. Save the e-mail for
future reference.
Chapter 17 ✦ Windows SharePoint Services with Office System
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Figure 17-1: Your invitation to Windows SharePoint Services
You might also receive a separate e-mail specifying the site group you belong to. Site groups
are dealt with in the section of this chapter entitled “Windows SharePoint Services site
permissions.”
The content of the introductory e-mail you receive might differ depending on whether the email is from a server located on your LAN or on a server on the Internet. The e-mail shown
in Figure 17-1 was generated from a WSS server located on the Internet and contains a
username and randomly generated password in addition to a link to the SharePoint site.
Tip
If you receive a welcome e-mail, such as is shown in Figure 17-1, with a randomly generated
password, take advantage of the Change Password link in the e-mail to change your password
to one you can more easily remember.
Regardless of how you obtain your Windows SharePoint Services V2 login information,
there are three basic pieces of information you will usually need in order to access and work
with SharePoint sites:
✦ The location of the Windows SharePoint Services site. This is in the familiar form
of a URL such as http://Lindy, http://STS.Wigletco.net, or
http://STS.Wigletco.net/mysite/. The form of the URL depends on
the location of the Server hosting the site and the location of the site on that server.
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✦ The username you will use to access and use the Windows SharePoint Services site.
Usernames are usually entered in the format SERVERNAME\username, where
SERVERNAME is the name of the server or domain you are connecting to and
username is, of course, your username.
✦ The password you will use to access and use the Windows SharePoint Services site.
This can be a password generated by SharePoint, or, in some cases, it may be the
password for the account you have on the server that hosts the site or the password
of your domain user account.
To connect to a Windows SharePoint Services site you simply open the URL of the site in
your Web browser. You can do this by entering the URL of the site in the address bar of your
browser or by clicking the link provided in your welcome e-mail.
When accessing a SharePoint site, you might be presented with a login dialog box similar to
that shown in Figure 17-2.
Figure 17-2: Use this dialog box to authenticate your username and password with the
SharePoint server.
If presented with a login prompt, as shown in Figure 17-2, enter your username and password
and then press OK to log on to the site. Refer to the preceding list if you have any difficulties.
If you are not presented with a login prompt similar to that shown in Figure 17-2 when you
attempt to access your site, don’t despair. You might later be presented with the login prompt
or your network might be configured in such a way that you automatically authenticate with
the server.
Note
The login prompt you see when accessing your Windows SharePoint Services site might be
slightly different than the one shown in Figure 17-2, depending on the operating system installed on the machine you are using. The basic login information you need to provide, however,
remains essentially the same.
Chapter 17 ✦ Windows SharePoint Services with Office System
Windows SharePoint Services site permissions
The operations you can perform on Windows SharePoint Services sites depend on the site
group you are a member of. Although most site group names and permissions are
configurable by the site administrator, there are five default site groups. The five default
groups and a description of their rights are shown in Table 17-1. Users can also be given
limited access rights to a particular page, Document Library, list, or item in a list without
being specifically assigned to a group.
Table 17-1
Default SharePoint Site Group Permissions
Note
Group Name
Description
Guest
Users who are given only limited rights to a particular page, Document
Library, list, or item in a list are automatically assigned to the Guest
group. This group cannot be deleted or customized.
Reader
Readers are given basic read-only access. They cannot add content and
cannot personalize main sites. They can, however, create their own toplevel sites using Self-Service Site Creation (SSSC) and can personalize
and customize such sites. When a Reader creates their own site using
SSSC, they become the Administrator and owner of that site without
affecting their Reader group membership for any other site.
Contributor
Has all the rights of a Reader but can also manage list permissions,
manage personal groups and views, personalize Web Part Pages, and
add content to existing lists and Document Libraries. A Contributor can
personalize Web parts. A Contributor cannot create new lists or Document Libraries.
Web designer
Has all the rights of Contributor but can also manage lists, delete items,
define and apply themes and borders, link style sheets, and cancel
checkout. Web designers can create new lists and Document Libraries
and can modify the structure of the site.
Administrator
Has all the rights of other site groups, plus rights to manage site groups
and view usage analysis data. An Administrator has complete control
over the site. The Administrator group cannot be customized or deleted.
In order for a Reader, or any other user with adequate permissions, to be able to create a toplevel site using Self-Service Site Creation (SSSC), the site administrator needs to have first
enabled SSSC. When SSSC is first enabled, a new announcement is automatically made on
the Announcements list of the home page of the root Web site. This announcement contains a
link to the SSSC tool. SSSC sites are usually contained in the sites directory. A site created
using SSSC is like your own personal little SharePoint site of which you are the administrator.
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If, during use of your SharePoint site, you cannot perform the operations you want to,
contact your site administrator and ask for your permissions or group membership to be
changed.
Exploring the Windows SharePoint Services site
Figure 17-3 shows the start page of a typical Windows SharePoint Services site. Your site
might look different but will still contain the same basic elements. The SharePoint main home
page usually contains a Quick Launch Bar and a “main” Web part zone. The Quick Launch
Bar provides quick and easy access to many of the Windows SharePoint Services features.
Figure 17-3: SharePoint sites are presented in the familiar HTML format
in Internet Explorer.
Provided you have adequate permissions, you can customize the site layout to suit your own
personal preferences. You can, for example, minimize existing Web parts or add Web parts
to the main page frame. In Figure 17-3, the drop-down menu for customizing the
Announcements list is expanded, whereas the MSNBC Stock News Web part is minimized.
The Modify this page drop-down menu (shown at the top right in Figure 17-3) is available
on some pages. This allows you to add Web parts and change the design of the main page.
Chapter 17 ✦ Windows SharePoint Services with Office System
Changes you make are stored in the server database. Log on to the site from another
computer and you see your own personalized pages. Users with adequate permissions can
apply changes made to pages to all other users.
Adding items to existing lists
Links, Announcements, Contacts, Events, Tasks, and the Issue Tracking feature are all
examples of SharePoint lists. Lists provide a place to store and present data in a convenient,
standardized format with some level of customization available. You can add and remove
columns in lists and change the order of fields in a list.
The information stored in lists is available for export to many Office 2003 applications.
Figure 17-4 shows the default view for a Contacts list with an item’s drop-down menu
expanded. The drop-down menu shown in Figure 17-4 allows you to view, edit, or delete the
item. By selecting the Alert Me entry in the drop-down menu, you can choose to receive an
e-mail alert when changes are made to the item or the item is deleted. The default list style
and layout for all lists are similar to that shown in Figure 17-4.
Figure 17-4: You can use the drop-down menu available with selected items to work
with that item.
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You will find the Actions submenu, shown in the left pane in Figure 17-4, in the views of
many SharePoint libraries. Use the Alert me link to obtain an e-mail notification when items
are added, changed, or deleted. This is particularly useful for new announcements and to
keep your eye on documents, stored in a Document Library, that are modified by other
users. The Export to spreadsheet link allows you to export the list to Excel. You can use the
Modify settings and columns link to customize the display of the library and control many
aspects of the library (including specific permissions for the library, general library settings,
saving the list as a template, and modifying the list template). Explore what options are
available to you. Note that here the term “library” includes all WSS views that are presented
in a list format.
Tip
To add new items to an existing list, follow these steps:
1. Select the list by clicking its entry in the Quick Launch bar. You are presented
with a view similar to that shown in Figure 17-4. For Events, Announcements,
Links, and other lists shown in a Web part zone, you can select the item header in
the Web part zone to give a view as shown in Figure 17-4 (to work with
Announcements, for example, select Announcements by clicking the bold
Announcements heading).
2. Select the New Item icon. You are presented with a New Item form customized to
the particular type of list you are working with. For Events, Announcements, Links,
and other lists shown in a Web part zone, you can skip Step 1 and go directly to the
New Item form by selecting the relevant Add new link in the Web part zone (refer
to Figure 17-3).
3. Complete the New Item form with relevant data. Fields marked with a red asterisk
are required. You can also attach a file to the new item via the attach file icon.
Note
For security purposes, Windows SharePoint Services, by default, blocks the saving and retrieving of a number of file types. The SharePoint site administrator can configure the types of files
that are blocked. Consult your administrator if you want to work with blocked file types.
4. Select Save and Close.
Note
Picture Libraries are a special type of list with unique features intended to suit the presentation of pictures and to integrate with Microsoft Picture Library. You can apply the same skills
you use to create and work with SharePoint lists to Picture libraries. Unique features of
Picture Libraries include the capability to edit pictures in the library directly with Microsoft
Picture Library; the capability to send pictures from the library directly to Outlook, Word,
Excel, or PowerPoint; the capability to download Full Size, Preview, or Thumbnail versions
of the pictures; and a new View Slide Show feature for a stunning presentation of your
pictures.
Chapter 17 ✦ Windows SharePoint Services with Office System
Creating new Windows SharePoint Services
lists and libraries
Creating new Windows SharePoint Services lists and libraries is easy.
To create a new SharePoint list, follow these steps:
1. Click the bold Lists heading in the Quick Launch bar.
2. In the new Documents and Lists view, click Create List.
3. Choose the type of list you want to create by clicking it. You are presented with six
types of lists to choose from by default: Links, Announcements, Contacts, Events,
Tasks, and Issue Tracking.
4. In the New List Web form, enter a name and description for the list and choose
whether to include the list in the Quick Launch bar. A list description is not
mandatory.
5. Select Create.
New Document Libraries, Form Libraries, Picture Libraries, Discussions, and Surveys can
be created using steps similar to the previous ones. Just replace “Lists” with the type of
library you want to create in the previous steps and choose from the available library
templates for that library type in Step 3.
Note
Libraries of any type can also be created via the Create link in the top bar of the Windows
SharePoint Services home page (see Figure 17-3). The Create link additionally allows you to
create a blank Web page, a Web Part Page, or a WSS Subweb. You can also create a
custom list via the Create link. Custom lists can be created from a basic list that you can add
columns to either using provided templates or in Datasheet view, or can be based on an
existing Excel spreadsheet that already contains the data you want in your list. A Web Part
Page is a special customized SharePoint page, composed from Web parts, that you can
create to consolidate dynamic information into one central location. Datasheet views are
discussed later in this chapter.
Working with Datasheet views and linking lists to Excel
and Access
The Windows SharePoint Services Datasheet view brings the power and familiarity of Excel
to list-type SharePoint libraries. The Datasheet view brings such features as Cut, Copy,
Paste, Fill, and AutoComplete to list-type libraries. Column and row resizing is
implemented, and you can sort and filter data in Datasheet view. Data analysis is available,
and you can chart the list with Excel, export and link the list to Excel, export the list to
Access, or create an Access or Excel PivotTable report from the list all from within
Datasheet view.
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You work with the Datasheet view in much the same way you work with Excel. Cells can be
filled with data, and right-clicking areas of the Datasheet provides context-specific actions
for a single cell, an entire row or column, or the whole list.
To explore the power and some of the features of the lists Datasheet view and the high level
of integration with Excel, this section works through an example.
The example begins by opening Excel and creating a row of header information named
Month, Expenses, and Approved. In the first cell of the Month column, enter January. In the
first cell of the Expenses column, enter a currency such as $2687.43. Leave the first cell of
the Approved column blank. Next, save the Excel spreadsheet with an appropriate name.
You are now ready to create a new list from the Excel spreadsheet. In this example, you’ll
create the list from within Excel and link the WSS list to Excel so that updates made in
either the WSS list or the Excel spreadsheet can be synchronized with the other.
To create a new list from an Excel spreadsheet and link the spreadsheet to the new list,
follow these steps:
1. Open the Excel spreadsheet.
2. Select the cells with data.
3. From the Excel Data menu, select List_Create List.
4. In the new Create List dialog box, ensure the My List Has Headers checkbox is
selected and then press OK.
5. From the Excel Data menu or the List and XML toolbar, select List_Publish List.
If not already visible, the List and XML toolbar can be displayed by right-clicking
a toolbar and selecting it.
6. In the new Publish List to SharePoint - Step 1 of 2 dialog box, enter the location of
the SharePoint server, give the list a name, and enter a description (optional).
7. To ensure that a link is established between Excel and the new list, select the Link
to the new SharePoint list checkbox in the Publish List to SharePoint - Step 1 of 2
dialog box.
8. Select Next. The next Publish List to SharePoint - Step 2 of 2 dialog box gives you
the opportunity to review the data types that SharePoint Team Services V2 will use
for each column.
9. Select Finish.
Your new list can be accessed at any time by opening the original Excel spreadsheet,
selecting the list in Excel, and choosing Data_List_View List on Server from the Excel
main menu or by choosing List_View List on Server from the List and XML toolbar.
Tip
You can also create a new Windows SharePoint Services list from an Excel spreadsheet by
selecting Create from the site Home page and then selecting Import spreadsheet from the
Custom section of the Create Page Web page.
Chapter 17 ✦ Windows SharePoint Services with Office System
Now that you have the basis of your list created on the server, you are ready to work with
the Datasheet view of the list. You can view and edit any list in Datasheet view by selecting
the Edit in Datasheet link in the view of that list if it is provided.
First, let’s take a look at the Fill feature implemented with Datasheets. The Month column in
the Datasheet example is a prime candidate for demonstrating the Fill feature.
To use the Datasheet Fill feature, follow these steps:
1. Open the existing SharePoint list in Datasheet view.
2. Select the cell you want to use as the basis of the Fill and position your mouse at
the lower-right corner of that cell until the mouse pointer turns into a cross.
3. Left-click and drag the mouse cursor vertically down until you have filled the
number of cells you want.
4. Release the mouse button.
Figure 17-5 illustrates the procedure for using the Fill features with this example. Once the
cursor is released, the enclosed cells are filled with incremented months. Cells are incremented
only if SharePoint can predict some sort of pattern to the cells. If SharePoint cannot predict a
pattern, the Fill method duplicates the initial cell over the range of selected cells.
Figure 17-5: Drag and release to apply the fill to the Datasheet’s columns.
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Note
The Datasheet task pane is shown in Figure 17-5. The Office Links section of the task pane
allows you to export and report a list with Excel or Access. Use the Export and Link to Excel
option if you want to export and link an existing list to Excel. The task pane can be toggled on
and off via the Task Pane link in the top bar in Datasheet view or by clicking the Show Task Pane
arrow on the right side of the Datasheet component.
Next, you’ll change the format of the Approved column in the example to display a dropdown menu with two options: Approved and Not Approved. Columns can be formatted in
Windows SharePoint Services in a number of formats. The complete list of formatting that
can be applied to columns is: Single line of text, Multiple lines of text, Choice (menu to
choose from), Number, Currency, Date and Time, Lookup (information already on this site),
Yes/No (checkbox), Hyperlink or Picture, and Calculated (calculation based on other
columns).
Note that the format that can be applied to a column depends on the type of list you are
working with and whether you are modifying an existing column or adding a new column.
To format a list column, follow these steps:
1. Open the list in Internet Explorer.
2. In the Actions submenu in the left pane, select Modify settings and columns by
clicking it.
3. In the new Customize page, in the Columns section, select the column you want to
modify by clicking its link.
4. In the Name and Type section of the new page, select the radio button for the type
of format you want to apply to the column. The page updates to provide options
specific to the type of formatting you want to apply.
5. Make any other changes that are required or appropriate. In the case of the Choice
(menu to choose from) format you enter each of your choices, on a separate line, in
the space provided, and can also choose a default value and whether the choice
appears as a Drop-Down menu, Radio Buttons, or Checkboxes that allow multiple
selections.
6. Press OK to return to the Customize page and then select the Go Back link to return
to the newly formatted list.
You can use the same basic procedure to add an existing column to a list. To add a new
column to a list, in the Columns section of the Customize page (Step 3), select Add a new
column instead of the column you want to modify. Adding a new column consisting of
calculations based on other columns is a particularly powerful feature of WSS.
Figure 17-6 shows the completed example with the drop-down menu of Approved and Not
Approved demonstrated. Additional expenses have been entered in the example to complete
the list.
Chapter 17 ✦ Windows SharePoint Services with Office System
Figure 17-6: A custom choice and calculated column implemented in Datasheet view
Note the additional calculated column, called Daily Average, in the list shown in
Figure 17-6. The Daily Average is simply Expense/30.
Calculated columns are added to lists using the same basic method you use to add any
column. When creating a calculated column, you are required to enter a formula for that
column and select the data type returned by that formula. In the above example, the formula
for the daily average was entered as =[Expenses]/30 and the data type returned was set
to number. The formula was entered by typing = into the Formula text box, selecting
Expense in the Insert Column list, clicking Add to Formula from below the Insert Column
list, and then typing /30 after [Expense] in the Formula text box.
Calculated columns support formulas using data in other columns and any Excel function
with the exception of the following: Now(), Today(), Me(), and Rand(). Select any
cell in a calculated column and the formula used is displayed in the status bar of the
Datasheet view. When you hover your cursor over a cell in a calculated column in Datasheet
view, the formula applied to that column is displayed as a ToolTip. Double-clicking in a cell
in a calculated column in Datasheet view displays the formula for that column, in the cell,
and allows you to edit it right there. The power of Excel is available with SharePoint lists.
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Note also the Totals row in the list (shown in Figure 17-6). Totals can be calculated simply
by selecting the Totals link in the top bar of the Datasheet view. The type of Totals that can
be performed depends on the format of the columns in the list. In the case of the Month
column in this example, all you can do is to count the months or leave that cell blank. For
the Expense column, the Totals options available are None, Average, Count, Maximum,
Minimum, Sum, Standard Deviation, and Variance.
To select the Totals expression to use in a Totals row, select the cell in the Total row where
the Total will appear and select the type of calculation to be used from the drop-down menu
displayed (by pressing the arrow in the left of that cell).
Figure 17-7 shows the options available for the Totals on the Expense column of the Budget
example.
Figure 17-7: You can perform basic statistical analysis on columns using a Totals row.
Tip
To update the value in a calculated cell, simply select another cell.
Chapter 17 ✦ Windows SharePoint Services with Office System
Now that you have an Excel spreadsheet linked to a SharePoint list, you can add data to the
list from within SharePoint or within Excel and easily synchronize those changes.
To synchronize a linked Excel spreadsheet with the SharePoint list it is linked to, follow
these steps:
1. Open the linked Excel spreadsheet with Excel.
2. Select the list in the Excel spreadsheet.
3. From the Data menu in Excel, select List_Synchronize List.
The preceding procedure applies for all Excel spreadsheets that are linked to SharePoint lists
and not just lists created from an Excel spreadsheet.
Tip
When a SharePoint list is created from an Excel list that contains a calculated column, WSS
converts all cells with individual formulas to values. Such converted columns cannot be reformatted into calculated columns in WSS. Calculated columns created in SharePoint, however,
when exported to and linked to Excel or synchronized with Excel retain their formulas for direct
use in Excel. If you want to work with a calculated column in both Excel and SharePoint, you
need to create the calculated column in SharePoint.
You can also synchronize an Access table that is linked to a SharePoint list. An Access table
can be created from and linked to a SharePoint list by using the Create Linked Table in
Access option (found in the Office Links section of the Datasheet task pane). An Access
table can also be created and linked to data stored on a SharePoint server via File_Get
External Data_Link Tables in the Access menu. In this case, you need to select SharePoint
Team Services in the Files of Type drop-down menu in the Link dialog box. Doing so opens
a new dialog box from which you can enter or select the SharePoint site.
To synchronize a linked Access table with its SharePoint list, first select Tools_Database
Utilities_Linked Tables Manager from the open, linked, Access database. Next, in the
Linked Table Manager dialog box, select the linked table or tables to be updated and then
select OK.
Collaborative Document Authoring
Windows SharePoint Services provides two features that facilitate collaborative document
authoring: Document Libraries and Shared Workspaces. Both provide the means in
SharePoint where workers, from any location able to access the SharePoint site, can share
documents in real time.
Document Libraries provide a central location intended to store and present almost any type
of file. The exceptions are those file types blocked by SharePoint and your administrator. A
Shared Workspace further enhances a Document Library by adding its own Tasks, Links,
and Members lists. A Shared Workspace is like its own little SharePoint site that focuses
exclusively on collaborative document authoring. Think of a Document Library like you
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would the presentation area for your finished product, whereas a Shared Workspace is like
the back office where you do the majority of your work and collaboration. Although some
level of collaboration is supported in a Document Library, a Shared Workspace is
specifically tailored to document collaboration and provides a high level of integration with
supported Office 2003 applications.
Exploring Document Libraries and Shared Workspaces
Figure 17-8 shows a typical Document Library containing both an Excel spreadsheet and a
Word document.
Figure 17-8: Use a Document Library to store and present important documents.
A Document Library has a default appearance similar to SharePoint lists. The left bar in
Figure 17-8 contains an Actions submenu that can be used in the same manner as discussed
earlier for lists.
Chapter 17 ✦ Windows SharePoint Services with Office System
The uppermost bar in Figure 17-8 has the following options:
✦ New Document. Allows you to create a new document in the library using the
default template for that library. The default template for a library is usually
specified when a library is first created. Default Document Library templates can be
set to blank Microsoft Word, FrontPage, Excel, PowerPoint, Blank Page (.aspx Web
page), or Web Part Page documents.
✦ Upload Document. Allows you to upload any supported file to the library. You can
upload multiple files in an Explorer-like view by selecting Upload Multiple in the
Upload Document page that appears after selecting this option.
✦ New Folder. Allows you to create a new folder in the Document Library.
✦ Filter. Enables you to filter columns by adding drop-down filter choices next to the
properties column headings.
✦ Edit in Datasheet. Permits editing of editable document properties in Datasheet
view. You can also access the same features of Datasheet view previously
discussed in the section titled “Working with Datasheet views and linking lists to
Excel and Access.”
The list-type layout of a Document Library provides columns of document properties. By
default these include Type, Name, Modified, Modified By, and Checked Out To. You can
add columns of properties by using the Modify Settings and Columns link in the Actions
submenu shown in the left pane in Figure 17-8. Property columns that are added appear in
the Document Information tab of the Shared Workspace task pane in Word, Excel, or
PowerPoint. To display the Shared Workspace task pane in Word, Excel, or PowerPoint,
select View_Task Pane from the application’s menu and use the drop-down menu in the
task pane to select Shared Workspace.
You can display the drop-down menu shown in Figure 17-8 by selecting the cell in the
Name column of the document or file in question and then selecting the arrow at the right
side of that cell. This drop-down menu is the same regardless of whether you are working
with a file in a Document Library or a Shared Workspace.
The drop-down menu, shown in Figure 17-8, provides the following options:
✦ View Properties. Provides a new view with the document properties.
✦ Edit Properties. Allows you to edit editable document properties including the
filename and custom properties.
✦ Edit in. Allows you to open the file for editing in the application associated with it.
You can also open a file for editing by simply clicking it. The Edit in option is
available only for Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint documents.
✦ Delete. Allows you to delete a file if permissions allow.
✦ Check Out. Allows you to “check out” a document. A document can be checked
out from a Document Library in a similar way that a book is checked out from a
regular library. When you check out a document, you provide a long-term lock on
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the file that prevents others from making changes to it while you want to work on
it. This options changes to Check In when a document is already checked out.
✦ Version History. When file versioning is enabled, this allows you to View,
Restore, or Delete specific versions of that file. You can view comments on the
file and enable file versioning for the Document Library that file is in via the
Modify Versioning Settings link that appears in the new page when you select
this option.
Note
Versioning is not enabled by default when new Document Libraries or Shared Workspaces are
created.
• Alert me. You can use this to receive an e-mail alert when the specific document is
changed or deleted or when a Web discussion on the document has changed.
• Discuss. Displays a discussion bar in Internet Explorer where you can comment on
and discuss the document with your colleagues. Inline discussions can be inserted
in HTML documents only. You can create a discussion about any type of document.
• Create Document Workspace. Allows you to create a Document Workspace
“around” a document in an existing Document Library. When working with a
document in a Shared Workspace created from a source file in a Document
Library, this option becomes Publish to Source Location and allows
synchronization between the file copy in the Document Workspace and the
original source file.
Figure 17-9 shows a typical Shared Workspace containing a central Word document and
other supporting files.
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Figure 17-9: A Shared Workspace is specifically suited to collaborative
document authoring.
A Shared Workspace has an appearance similar to a SharePoint site. You can customize the
site and work with the features just as you would with a regular SharePoint home page.
From within the Shared Workspace you can add members, assign tasks, upload related
documents, add hyperlinks contacts and events, and create and participate in discussions and
surveys all from within Internet Explorer.
The high level of integration between a Shared Workspace and Office 2003 also allows you
to perform many of these tasks, and more that aren’t available via the Web interface, from
within the supported Office 2003 application.
Before delving into working with a Shared Workspace from within Office 2003 applications,
the next section takes a look at how to create your own Shared Workspace.
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Creating Shared Workspaces
You can create a Shared Workspace using any of the following methods:
To create a Shared Workspace for an existing document in a Document Library, follow
these steps:
1. Connect to the SharePoint site with Internet Explorer and open the Document
Library containing the document you want to create a workspace from.
2. Hover your mouse over the Name cell in the name column for the document in
question and select Create Document Workspace from the drop-down menu (see
Figure 17-8).
Use this method when you want to retain a copy of the document in a Document Library
while collaborating on it in a Shared Workspace. You can work behind the scenes on a
document using this method and then publish the final, completed document back to the
original Document Library. To publish a document in a Shared Workspace back to its
original Document Library, select Publish to Source Location from the drop-down menu in
the Name column associated with that file in the Shared Workspace. Users can open the
document from the workspace and work with it as if were saved on their machines. Users
will need to open and then save the document to have their own local copy of the document
that is dynamically linked to the copy in the Shared Workspace.
To create a Shared Workspace from an existing document in Word, Excel, or PowerPoint,
follow these steps:
1. Open the file in its associated application.
2. From the Tools menu in Word, Excel, or PowerPoint, select Shared Workspace to
display the Shared Workspace task pane. If a task pane is already visible in the
application, you can simply select Shared Workspace from the drop-down menu at
the top right of that task pane.
3. In the Document Workspace Name section of the Shared Workspace pane, change
the name for the new Document Workspace if you desire. This field will already
contain the name of the open file.
4. In the Location for New Workspace section of the Shared Workspace pane, use the
drop-down menu to select the SharePoint site where the Document Workspace will
be created or enter the location of the SharePoint site.
5. Click the Create button in the Shared Workspace pane.
Use this method when you want to create a Shared Workspace from an existing supported
Office 2003 file type and have your own local copy of the file dynamically linked to the
copy in the Shared Workspace. Other users of the Shared Workspace will need to visit the
workspace and open and save the file to have their own local copies.
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To create a Shared Workspace using Outlook, follow these steps:
1. Create a new e-mail message in Outlook addressed to yourself and others you want
to collaborate with on the document. Users can be added in the To, CC, or BCC
fields.
2. Attach the file you want to use as the basis of the Shared Workspace via the Insert
File paperclip icon in the Outlook toolbar.
3. If the Attachment Options pane is not displayed in Outlook, display it by selecting
the Attachment Options button to the right of the attached file.
4. Select the Shared Attachments option in the Attachment Options pane.
5. In the Create Document Workspace At text box, use the drop-down arrow to select
a SharePoint server to create the workspace on. You can also simply enter the
location of the SharePoint server.
6. Choose the account you want to send the e-mail from and click the Send button in
Outlook to send the e-mail.
Outlook creates a Shared Workspace on the specified server of the same name as the
attached file and sends a hyperlink to the workspace in the sent e-mail. If the attached file
is a Word, Excel, or PowerPoint file, the copy of the file received by the recipient is
linked directly to the newly created Shared Workspace. The recipient can save and work
on the file locally and synchronize changes with the copy stored in the Shared
Workspace. Use this method when you want to create a Shared Workspace and distribute
a copy of the document dynamically linked to the copy in the workspace.
Regardless of which method you use to create a Shared Workspace, the file is available
in the workspace to all users with appropriate access permissions. Users can
simultaneously open and work on a document in a Shared Workspace and update the
copy they are working on with the centrally stored copy in the workspace.
Working with Shared Workspaces inside
Office 2003 applications
Now that you have some familiarity with Document Libraries and Shared Workspaces, and
understand how to create them, you can focus exclusively on document collaboration from
solely within supported Office 2003 applications. Although Document Libraries support
collaboration, this section focuses on using a Shared Workspace. From the applications
covered in this book, Word, Excel, and PowerPoint support the Shared Workspace task pane
with the capability to not only create a Shared Workspace but to also work with the Shared
Workspace from within the Shared Workspace task pane.
Note
Some Office 2003 applications not covered in this book also utilize the Shared Workspace task
pane. The skills you learn here to work with the Shared Workspace task pane can be applied to
any Office 2003 application that implements it.
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Figure 17-10 shows the Shared Workspace task pane, displayed in Word, for a local copy of
a document that is linked to a shared copy in a Shared Workspace.
Figure 17-10: You can create and manage a Shared Workspace using the Shared
Workspace task pane.
Regardless of whether you are collaborating on a Word, Excel, or PowerPoint file, the
options and tabs in the Shared Workspace task pane are the same.
Before taking a closer look at how to work with the Shared Workspace task pane, let’s
consider the updating of linked files saved locally when you open and close them and
discuss how to deal with conflicts between local file copies and those on the server.
The first thing you might notice when opening a local copy of a document linked to a central
copy in a Shared Workspace is that the Office 2003 application will ask you whether you
want to check the Shared Workspace for updates to the document. You can choose from
among any of the following options:
Chapter 17 ✦ Windows SharePoint Services with Office System
✦ Update. Selecting Update immediately checks the Shared Workspace for updates to
the document. If changes are made to the local copy that is in conflict with changes
made to the central copy, you are prompted to review and resolve the conflicts.
Selecting Yes opens the Document Updates pane from which you can choose to
merge copies, open the workspace copy for comparison, or select one copy to
replace the other.
Note
If, at any time, SharePoint detects conflicts between a local copy and the copy in the Shared
Workspace, those conflicts can be resolved via the Document Updates task pane. When conflicts between copies exist, they are reported in the Status tab (the first tab) of the Shared
Workspace pane. The content of and options available in the Document Updates pane depends
on the current status of conflicts between documents. Use of the Document Updates task pane,
when required, is pretty much self-explanatory.
✦ Don’t Update. If you select this option, the document remains linked to the central
copy but many of the Shared Workspace task pane tabs that require a connection
with the server are unpopulated. The Office 2003 application will not then
periodically check the server to determine whether any updates are available. Select
Don’t Update at those times when you want to solely work on a local copy of the
file for a period of time or when the SharePoint site that hosts the file is
inaccessible or access to it is slow. At any time, you can manually check for
updates by pressing the Update button at the bottom of the Shared Workspace task
pane. This will reconnect the local copy to the workspace copy and repopulate
empty tabs in the Shared Workspace pane.
✦ Don’t Ask Again. Selecting this disconnects the file from the Shared Workspace,
thereby removing any link between the local copy of the document and the copy on
the Shared Workspace. Select this only if you are certain you want to unlink the
two copies and not receive any further document updates. If you choose this option
and later want to receive updates to the document, you might need to visit the
Shared Workspace and save a new linked copy of the file to your computer. You
might then need to merge any changes you have made to the local file into the
newly saved and linked file.
When you close the local copy of a linked file, you are presented with only the option to
update the workspace copy with your changes. If conflicts between copies are determined,
you can resolve them using the Document Updates task pane.
You can control how the Office 2003 application checks for updates on opening and closing
the document and the period of automatic update checking via the Options button at the
bottom of the Shared Workspace task pane. Options include the capability to automatically
update on opening and closing (and thereby disable any dialog box prompts) and to globally
turn off automatic updating.
To demonstrate how to use the Shared Workspace task pane, this section works through an
example. In this case, an existing Word document is used. This document can be opened
directly from a Shared Workspace or from a local copy linked to a Shared Workspace.
Remember that the same techniques also apply to Excel and PowerPoint.
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Note
The following operations assume you are working with an open document linked to a Shared
Workspace and that the Shared Workspace task pane is displayed. The document can be
opened directly from the workspace or can be a local copy of the document that is linked to the
workspace. If the Shared Workspace task pane is not displayed, display it via Tools_Shared
Workspace in the application’s main menu.
First, you need to assign members to the Shared Workspace.
To assign members to a Shared Workspace, follow these steps:
1. Select the Members tab in the Shared Workspace task pane.
2. From towards the bottom of the Members tab, select Add New Members to open
the new Add New Members dialog box.
3. In the Choose Members section of the Add New Members dialog box, enter the email address or usernames of the new members separated by a semicolon.
4. In the Choose Site Group section of the Add New Members dialog box, select the
group you want those new members to be assigned to. If you want to assign new
members to different site groups, you need to add those new members individually.
5. Select Next and then, in the new dialog box that opens, select Finish.
Note
If SharePoint cannot properly identify any users you are trying to add with the host server, you
might be presented with the requirement to enter additional information or to correct existing
information after pressing Next in Step 5. If then, after pressing Finish and confirming that you
do indeed have the correct details entered, you are presented with a new dialog box stating that
the usernames are not valid, you should contact your SharePoint administrator to determine
whether the users you are trying to add have access to the SharePoint site.
6. In the next new dialog box that opens, you can choose to send an e-mail to the
newly added members. To send an e-mail to the new members informing them of
their new membership and their workspace’s location, ensure the Send E-Mail
Invitation to the New Members checkbox is checked.
7. Click OK.
The E-Mail All Members option at the bottom of the Members tab of the Shared Workspace
task pane allows you to send an e-mail to all members at once.
Members are grouped into categories in the Members tab of the Shared Workspace task
pane according to whether they are Online or Offline; you are listed separately at the top of
that pane.
Figure 17-11 shows the Members tab of the Shared Workspace task pane with newly added
members.
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Figure 17-11: Use the Members tab to manage and communicate
with workspace members.
You can use the drop-down arrow at the right of the member entry (shown in Figure 17-11
but not expanded) to manage Shared Workspace members. Among the options available,
you can choose to remove the member, edit the member’s group membership, send an
Instant Message to the member (provided that member and you are online), add a member to
Messenger Contacts, edit the member’s user information, schedule a meeting with the
member using Outlook, and add the member to your Outlook Contacts. Additional actions
are available. Explore the Member-entry menu to see which options are available to you.
The online/offline status of members is refreshed when you select the Update button at the
bottom of the Shared Workspace task pane.
Now that you have added members to your Shared Workspace and are aware of how to
manage your members, you’re ready to assign tasks and work with assigned tasks.
To assign a task to a Shared Workspace member, follow these steps:
1. Select the Tasks tab in the Shared Workspace task pane.
2. Select Add New Task from the Tasks tab to open the new Task dialog box.
3. In the Task dialog box, enter a Title, Status, Priority, and a task Description, and
assign the Task as shown in Figure 17-12. Only a Title is compulsory.
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Figure 17-12: Create, use, and assign tasks with the Tasks tab.
4. Select OK.
Completed tasks are displayed with a green tick in the checkbox next to the task in the task
tab of the Shared Workspace pane, whereas tasks not yet started are shown with no fill in
that checkbox. Tasks with any other status are shown with a partly filled checkbox. High
Priority tasks are also marked with a red exclamation mark. You can mark a task as complete
or change the status of a task from complete to incomplete by selecting the checkbox next to
that Task.
You can open the Task dialog box to edit a task simply by double-clicking the task in the
Task tab of the Shared Workspace pane. Alternatively, open the task for editing via the menu
available to the right of the task when that task is selected. This menu also contains options
to delete a task and to create an alert about a task. The capability to create an alert for a task
is also available at the bottom of the Task pane. All options that are available to you when
you create a task are available when you edit the task provided you have adequate
permissions in the Shared Workspace.
Now that you know how to assign tasks, you’re ready to learn how to work with documents
and folders using the Shared Workspace pane.
To add a new document to a Shared Workspace, follow these steps:
1. Select the Documents tab in the Shared Workspace pane.
2. From the bottom of the Documents tab, select Add New Document.
3. In the new Add New Document dialog box, use the Browse button to select a file to
upload. Only single files can be selected. To link the newly uploaded documents to
the local copy of that document ensure the Make Workspace Updates Available
When I Open My Copy checkbox is selected.
4. Press OK.
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To create a new folder, simply select Add New Folder in Step 2, enter the folder name in
the Add New Folder dialog box, and press OK. To view the contents of a folder, click it or
select View Contents from the menu available to the right of that folder. You can also
delete a folder and its contents via the available menu on the right of its entry. Be sure you
don’t delete a folder without first checking that it doesn’t contain important files. To
return to the main view after a folder is in its contents view simply select the folder again.
Documents are added to a folder using the same method as before, but with that folder’s
contents in view.
The menu available to the right of a documents entry in the Documents pane allows you
to delete the document or to obtain an alert when changes are made to the document.
Alerts are also available via the Alert Me About Documents link at the bottom of the
Documents pane. When a document is not the currently open document, the menu to the
left of that document allows you to open the document in its associated application. You
can also open a document in its associated application by clicking its entry in the
Documents pane.
Entries in the Tasks tab are refreshed when you press the Update button at the bottom of the
Shared Workspace pane.
You can easily add links to the Shared Workspace by using the Links tab of the Shared
Workspace pane. Links are added by selecting the Add New Link hyperlink from the bottom
of the Links pane, entering the location, description, and any Notes relevant to the link in the
new Link dialog box, and then pressing OK. From the menu available to the right of the link
in the Links tab, you can choose to edit or delete the link or to receive an alert when that
item is changed.
The Document information tab in the Shared Workspace displays information about the
currently open document. From the Alert me link towards the bottom of the Document
information tab you can choose to receive an e-mail alert when changes are made to the item
or when Web discussions on the item have changed.
The Restrict Permissions link towards the bottom of the Document information tab allows
you to set permissions on the file in the same way that you can via the Permissions button on
the standard toolbar.
You can open, restore, delete, and view comments for versions of the document stored in the
Shared Workspace via the Version History link at the bottom of the Information tab of the
Shared Workspace pane. Versioning can be enabled via the Modify Settings for Document
Versions link in the new Versions Saved For dialog box that opens after selecting the
Version History link. The Version History is also accessible via File_Versions_In a
Document Library from the standard toolbar.
Figure 17-13 shows the Versions Saved For dialog box opened from the Version History link
in the Information tab in the Shared Workspace pane in Word.
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Figure 17-13: Enable and work with versions via the Document Information tab.
To open, restore, delete, or view comments on a document version, simply select that
version in the Versions Saved for dialog box, choose the appropriate action from the options
available on the right, and respond appropriately to any subsequent prompts. Restoring a
document does not delete it but, instead, makes it the current and active available document.
You cannot restore or delete the currently open and active document. Use the Open button to
view the contents of document versions prior to deleting or restoring them unless comments
you have added to the version adequately describe that version.
Comments can be added to a document only when it is checked in. To check in a document
you, naturally, need to have first checked it out. Checking out a document, as covered
previously, provides a long-term lock on the file that prevents others from making changes
to it while you want to work on it. The Check Out and alternate Check In links in the
Document Information tab of the Shared Workspace pane are available only when you are
working with a writeable copy of the file opened directly from the Shared Workspace.
Tip
Check the Status tab (the first tab of the Shared Workspace pane) to determine whether a
document has been checked out and to whom it is checked out.
To check out a document, follow these steps:
1. Open the document from the Shared Workspace by clicking it.
2. If the document opens as a read-only file, select the Save button on the standard
toolbar and select Save in the new Save As dialog box to overwrite the Workspace
copy. This makes the currently open file writeable. This then makes Check Out and
the alternate Check In available in the Document Information tab of the Shared
Workspace task pane. If a Word document was opened from the Workspace in
Reading Layout, for editing purposes, select the Close button on the standard Word
toolbar to change to your preferred editing layout.
3. Select the Check Out link from the bottom of the Document Information pane (see
Figure 17-13).
Chapter 17 ✦ Windows SharePoint Services with Office System
To check a document back in and add comments to it, select the Check In link from the
bottom of the Document Information pane, add your comments in the new Check In
Comments dialog box, and then select OK.
A checked-out document can also be checked in, and comments added, when the file is
closed. When closing a checked-out document that is opened directly from a Shared
Workspace, you are prompted to check in the file, keep the file checked out, or to discard
changes and undo the check out. Respond accordingly to your requirements at that time.
Note
To provide a lock on a copy of a document in a Shared Workspace while you work on a local
copy of that file that is linked to the workspace copy, you need to visit the workspace using
Internet Explorer and check out the document using the menu available to the right of that file.
The file remains synchronized to the workspace copy, but only you can make changes that can
be updated to the workspace copy. When you want to check the file back in, simply visit the
workspace again and use the same menu to, this time, check the file in. Comments can then be
added to the file version in the Check In Web page in Internet Explorer.
SharePoint as a Central Contacts
and Calendar Server
Two of the useful features available with Windows SharePoint Services are the capability to
act as a central server for calendars and contacts. You can maintain a central database of
contacts and events that can be linked directly to Outlook and are accessible by anyone with
access to the Contacts and Events folders on the SharePoint site. These features, although
not as powerful as those available with Microsoft Exchange, provide an alternative to
comparable Exchange features when that server is not available.
Linking a SharePoint Events folder (which is essentially a calendar) to Outlook is
particularly useful when you want to compare events in the SharePoint calendar with
another calendar in your Outlook profile.
Figure 17-14 shows a linked SharePoint calendar opened side by side with an Outlook
calendar. Multiple SharePoint calendars can also be opened side by side for comparison.
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Figure 17-14: View a SharePoint calendar in Outlook
In Figure 17-14, my girlfriend has access to a SharePoint events folder and uses it to remind
me of certain appointments I am “required” to do. You can use this feature for many
imaginable scenarios. Perhaps you want to maintain a SharePoint calendar of company
meetings and events and make that available to all employees from within Outlook.
SharePoint calendars are listed in the Other Calendars section of the Calendar view in the
Outlook Navigation pane. Linked SharePoint calendars are cached for offline use in Outlook
when the SharePoint server is inaccessible. To view a linked SharePoint calendar in
Outlook, simply select its checkbox in Other Calendars. When connected to the SharePoint
server, you can refresh the SharePoint calendar by deselecting and then selecting its entry in
Other Calendars.
Linking a SharePoint Events folder to Outlook (regardless of where it is located on the
SharePoint server), and therefore making its information available in Outlook, is as easy as
opening that Events folder in Internet Explorer, selecting the Link To Outlook link in the top
bar of that folder’s view, and selecting Yes when you receive the prompt from Outlook to
add it.
SharePoint calendars are opened in Outlook as read-only. You need to edit the SharePoint
calendar and add events at the SharePoint site. You can, however, add events from the
SharePoint calendar to your default Outlook from within Outlook. The reverse,
unfortunately, doesn’t apply.
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To add an event from a SharePoint calendar opened in Outlook to your default Outlook
calendar, open the calendars side by side and drag and drop the event from the SharePoint
calendar to the Outlook one. You can drag and drop the event into any time slot you choose.
Tip
You might need to compensate for differing time zones when adding events from the linked
SharePoint calendar to one of your other available non-SharePoint calendars. Check with your
SharePoint administrator to determine the time zone used on the SharePoint server.
To remove a linked Calendars folder from Other Calendars, right-click its entry in Other
Calendars and select Remove from Other Calendars.
Making SharePoint contacts available to Outlook
The integration of SharePoint with Outlook also includes the capability to open a SharePoint
Contacts folder as a read-only Contacts folder in Outlook and the capability to import
Outlook contacts into a SharePoint Contacts folder. This is particularly useful when you
want to maintain a shared, central global address list accessible from Outlook to all who
have access to the SharePoint Contacts folder. You can add contacts from your Outlook
address book to the SharePoint Contacts folder and make them available to all others with
access to the SharePoint Contacts folder. SharePoint Contacts folders that are linked to
Outlook can be made available in the Outlook address book and are also available to
Outlook as an address list for checking purposes when Outlook sends e-mail. Linked
SharePoint contacts are cached in Outlook so the information is available offline or when the
server is not accessible.
SharePoint Contacts folders that are linked to Outlook are opened as read-only, and,
therefore, you have to edit the SharePoint Contacts folder at the SharePoint server. You can
drag and drop the contacts from the linked SharePoint Contacts folder to other nonSharePoint Outlook Contact folders.
To import Outlook contacts into a SharePoint Contacts folder, follow these steps:
1. Connect to the SharePoint site in Internet Explorer.
2. Locate and then open the Contacts folder by clicking its entry. In the case of the
default SharePoint Contacts folder, the link to the folder is found in the Quick
Links section of the main SharePoint Home Page.
3. Select the Import Contacts link in the top bar of the Contacts Web page to open the
Select Users to Import dialog box. This dialog box is a representation of the
Outlook address book.
4. In the Show Names From The drop-down menu of the Select Users to Import
dialog box, select the address list you want to import from.
5. Select the entries you want to import from the main pane in the Select Users to
Import dialog box (a modification of the Outlook address book) and press Add to
add them to the list of contacts to be imported. Use Ctrl+Click to select multiple
entries. Contiguous entries can be selected using Shift+Click. You can resize the
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Select Users to Import dialog box to more easily locate contacts by dragging the
bottom-right corner of that dialog box. You can also begin typing a contact’s name
in the Type Name or Select From List text boxes to assist in locating a contact.
6. Press OK to finalize the import and to add the selected contacts to the SharePoint
Contacts folder.
Note
Outlook contacts with multiple e-mail addresses and fax numbers are listed in the Select
Users to Import dialog box as separate entries (one entry for each e-mail address and one for
each fax number). When these entries are imported into SharePoint and subsequently viewed
as a linked Outlook contacts folder, each e-mail address and fax number is displayed as a
separate contact.
To link a SharePoint Contacts folder to Outlook, simply select Link To Outlook in Step 3
and then select Yes when prompted by Outlook to add the link.
Contacts folders linked to Outlook are available in the Other Contacts section of the
Contacts view in the Outlook navigation pane. Select the linked SharePoint Contacts folder
from Other Contacts to view its entries. Contacts folders in other Contacts can be enabled or
disabled as an Outlook address book via the Outlook Address Book tab in the Properties
dialog box, which becomes available when you right-click on the entry in Other Contacts
and select Properties. Other options in the right-click menu include the capability to remove
the link from Other Contacts.
Conducting an Online Meeting with the
Meeting Workspace
A Meeting Workspace is a special type of workspace designed specifically to centralize all the
information needed to conduct a meeting. The Meeting Workspace can be used to publish the
attendee list, agenda, and documents you plan to discuss prior to the meeting. After the
meeting, you can use the workspace to track tasks and to publish information gathered during
the meeting. You work with Meeting Workspaces using Internet Explorer in much the same
way as you do with other SharePoint sites. The familiarity you have gained using SharePoint
sites in the rest of this chapter can be easily extended a to Meeting Workspace.
Outlook includes the capability to create a Meeting Workspace and simultaneously invite
attendees while checking on their availability to attend the meeting.
To create a schedule and invite attendees to a Meeting Workspace using Outlook, follow
these steps:
1. Select Meeting request from the drop-down menu next to the New button in the
standard Outlook toolbar.
2. In the To field of the Meeting Request form, enter the e-mail addresses of attendees
separated by semicolons. You can use the To button to select attendees from
Outlook address lists.
Chapter 17 ✦ Windows SharePoint Services with Office System
3. In the Subject text box of the Meeting Request form, enter a Subject for the
meeting.
4. Complete the Start Time and End Time for the meeting. You can use the Scheduling
tab in the Meeting request form to check the availability of attendees who have
published Free/Busy times and to auto-pick a time for the meeting.
5. Add any notes about the meeting in the Notes area of the form, give the Meeting a
label, set the Show Time As, and link to any Contacts and Categories as required.
6. In the Outlook Meeting request form, select the Meeting Workspace button to
display the Meeting Workspace task pane. You can choose to use the workspace
setting given in the Create a Workspace section of the Meeting Workspace task
pane or customize the Meeting Workspace. If you choose to use the displayed
settings, skip ahead to Step 11.
7. To customize the Meeting Workspace, select Change Settings in the Create a
Workspace section of the Meeting Workspace task pane. This allows you to
reformat the Meeting Workspace pane as shown in Figure 17-15.
Figure 17-15: Create a custom Meeting Workspace and invite attendees
using Outlook.
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8. In section 1 of the Meeting Workspace pane, Select a Location, you can use the
displayed server or select another server to host the Meeting Workspace. Use the
adjacent drop-down menu to select another server. If the server you want to create
the Meeting Workspace on is not listed, select Other from the drop-down menu and
enter the location of the server in the new Other Workspace Server dialog box.
9. In section 2 of the Meeting Workspace pane, Select a Workspace, you can choose to
create a new workspace or to link to an existing Meeting Workspace. To create a
new workspace, select the Create a New Workspace button. You can choose a
template language for a new workspace from the available templates using the
Select a Template Language drop-down menu. You can choose a template type for
a new workspace from the Select a Template Type drop-down menu. Available
templates include Basic Meeting Workspace, Blank Meeting Workspace, Decision
Meeting Workspace, Social Meeting Workspace, and Multipage Meeting
Workspace.
10. Select OK to refresh the meeting Workspace pane with a similar view as seen in
Step 6.
11. Select Create to create the new workspace. If you chose to link to an existing
workspace, select Link. Outlook will either create a new workspace or link to an
existing workspace depending on your choice in Step 9. The location of the
meeting is automatically entered into the Notes field in the Outlook Meeting
Request form. The Meeting Workspace task pane is updated to provide a link to the
workspace for your own reference and a Remove button from which you can
remove the workspace link.
12. If desired, select an account using the Accounts button in the standard toolbar of
the Meeting Request form and then click the Send button in the standard toolbar of
the Meeting Request form to send the Meeting Request to addressed attendees.
Recipients of the request receive the meeting invitation with a link to the meeting and can
respond to it in the same way that they do to any other Outlook Meeting request.
After the invitation has been sent, the meeting is added to your default Outlook calendar
with a designation of “M” for, of course, Meeting. The Tracking tab on the opened meeting
allows you to track responses to your invitation. Use the hyperlink in the Notes section or in
the Meeting Workspace task pane of the opened Meeting to customize and prepare the
workspace for your meeting.
Summary
In this chapter, you learned how to access a Windows SharePoint Services site and about site
permissions. You learned how to create lists using SharePoint and Excel, how to use the
powerful Datasheet view to present data in an Excel-like view and perform Excel-like
calculations, and how to dynamically link lists to Excel and Access. You learned how to
create and use a Shared Workspace to collaborate on documents from within Office 2003,
and how to add new workspace members and assign tasks using the Shared Workspace pane.
Chapter 17 ✦ Windows SharePoint Services with Office System
You learned how to view and use SharePoint contacts and events in Outlook, and how to
create a Meeting Workspace with Outlook.
✦ SharePoint provides the powerful Datasheet list view that allows you to perform
Excel-like calculations and dynamically link lists to Excel and Access.
✦ You can create and manage a Shared Workspace from within Word, Excel, and
PowerPoint, allowing you to collaborate on documents with anyone who can access
the workspace.
✦ SharePoint provides default Web pages and event, contacts, announcements, tasks,
and shared document components that are highly flexible and customizable to suit
your needs or personal preferences.
✦ SharePoint allows you to share central calendar and contacts databases with any
user who can access the SharePoint site and to access and use those databases
in Outlook.
✦ SharePoint site permissions can restrict user groups to have specific rights on the
SharePoint server.
✦ You can send a meeting request with Outlook and simultaneously create a
specialized Meeting Workspace to help facilitate the meeting.
✦ SharePoint provides a high level of security such that access to the server can be
restricted. You might need to log on to the server to use it.
✦
✦
✦
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P
Beyond Mastery:
Initiative
within Office
T
his part is comprised of chapters that are the special “extras”
that many people know about, but might not be quite as
familiar with as some of the other day-to-day functions. Now that
you’ve read a sampling of the meat-and-potatoes functions in
each application, and then how to more efficiently work with
your coworkers and other applications, these chapters should
enable you to take the initiative and go that next step.
A
R
T
III
.
.
.
.
In This Part
Chapter 18
Getting Organized with
Outlines and Master
Documents in Word
Chapter 19
Processing Outlook
Messages Automatically
Chapter 20
Analyzing Data with
Pivot Tables in Excel
Chapter 21
Designing User
Interactive PowerPoint
Presentations
Chapter 22
Adding Security to
Access Applications
Chapter 23
Adding FrontPage Web
Components
Chapter 24
Advanced Publisher
Techniques
.
.
.
.
Getting
Organized with
Outlines and
Master
Documents
18
C H A P T E R
.
.
.
.
In This Chapter
Creating, editing, and
arranging outlines
Adding numbers to
outline headings
Formatting and
printing outlines
I
n this chapter, you learn how to use outlines to organize your
thoughts and give focus to your ideas. In addition, you learn
how the master document feature, which builds on Word’s
outlining techniques, makes it easy to apply consistent formatting
to long documents by combining small documents into a large
framework.
Using Outlines
The outline feature in Word is intertwined with the heading
styles. When you create an outline, Word automatically assigns
the appropriate heading style to each level of the outline. For
example, a level one heading uses the Heading 1 style, and if you
change the heading to level two, that heading automatically takes
on the Heading 2 style. Conversely, assigning a standard heading
style to text in Normal or Page Layout view automatically
prepares the document for an outline. Therefore, if you use the
standard heading styles as you create the document, you can also
make an outline of the document simply by switching to Outline
view (View_Outline).
CrossReference
You can format heading styles just as you do any style in Word.
For more on working with styles, see Wiley’s Word 2003 Bible,
Chapter 13.
Building and
formatting master
documents
Creating and editing
subdocuments
.
.
.
.
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This marriage of outlines and styles provides considerable flexibility in approaching the
outlining process. You can create an outline from scratch by turning on Outline view and
then assigning levels to your headings and body text as you type. Alternatively, you can
write your document in Normal or Page Layout view and then switch to Outline view to
make it easier to arrange sections and to assign or reassign heading levels. Some people use
Outline view only now and then, as a way to help them rearrange things in large documents
— because you can control the amount of text that is visible on the screen in Outline view,
you can move large chunks of text with minimal effort. Others write virtually everything in
Outline view.
You can use outlines as a brainstorming aid: just type your thoughts without worrying where
they fit into the overall picture. Then, after you have a basic outline in place, you can change
the heading levels and rearrange entire sections of data. Creating an outline has other
benefits as well. For example, you can use an outline to create a table of contents, to number
headings, and even to build a master document.
Understanding Outline View
Whether you want to create an outline from scratch or work with an existing document in
outline format, you must first turn on Outline view. Choose View_Outline, or click the
Outline View button on the left side of the horizontal scroll bar. (Alternatively, you can press
Alt+Ctrl+O to change to Outline view. To return to Normal view, press Alt+Ctrl+N; to
return to Print Layout view, press Alt+Ctrl+P.) Figure 18-1 shows a document in Normal
view. Figure 18-2 shows the same document in Outline view.
Figure 18-1: A document in Normal view. All headings are formatted using Word’s builtin heading styles.
Chapter 18 ✦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents
Figure 18-2: The same document shown in Figure 18-1 but in Outline view.
When you activate Outline view, the Outlining toolbar replaces the horizontal ruler —
Outline view is not a page-layout view, so you don’t need the ruler. In other words, you
can’t define exactly where on the page the text appears in this view. Rather, Outline view
uses the page to show you different hierarchical levels, but indenting sub-levels to the right.
The outline display has nothing to do with the document’s formatting, so don’t try to do any
document formatting you can do in Normal or Print Layout view. In fact, the paragraph
formatting features of Word aren’t even accessible in Outline view.
Note
In some ways, Outline view is similar to the Document Map. There are two major differences, however. Document Map doesn’t require that you use the Heading styles. It
does its best to build an outline based on what it thinks are probably headings. And, of
course, Document Map is a simple feature — it doesn’t have all the tools associated
with Outline view.
Each heading or text paragraph is indented to its respective level and preceded by a plus
sign, a minus sign, or a box. The plus sign indicates that body text, headings, or both are
below the heading. The minus sign indicates that body text or headings are not below the
heading. The small box indicates a body text paragraph.
Creating outlines
To create an outline from scratch or to outline an existing document, switch to Outline view
and then assign outline levels to your headings and paragraphs.
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To create a new outline, follow these steps:
1. Switch to Outline view. Figure 18-3 shows the Outlining toolbar and identifies its
buttons; Table 18-1 describes the buttons on the Outlining toolbar. Note, however,
that the Outlining toolbar also displays Word’s Master Document buttons, which
are explained later in this chapter.
Word assigns the Heading 1 style to the first paragraph where you have positioned
the cursor. If you don’t want the entry to be at the first level, promote or demote the
heading using the techniques described in step 4 before proceeding to step 2.
Figure 18-3: The Outlining toolbar.
2. Type your first heading.
3. Press Enter when you finish with the first heading.
Each time that you press Enter, Word begins a new paragraph at the same level as
the previous heading.
4. To promote or demote a heading, do one of the following:
• To demote a heading (move it to a lower level), click the Demote button on the
Outlining toolbar or press Alt+Shift+right arrow until the heading is at the level
that you want.
• To promote a heading (move it to a higher level), click the Promote button on the
Outlining toolbar or press Alt+Shift+left arrow as many times as necessary.
5. To change to body text, rather than merely a lower-level heading, click the Demote
to Body Text button on the Outlining toolbar or press Ctrl+Shift+N. To change
from body text back to a heading, press Ctrl+Shift+left arrow.
Note
The term Body Text is a little confusing here. The button should really be called Normal
Text. Selecting Demote to Body Text converts the text to the Normal style, not the Body
Text style present in the default Word template.
6. Continue entering text, promoting and demoting it through the levels as desired.
Chapter 18 ✦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents
Table 18-1
Buttons on the Outlining Toolbar
Button
Name
Action
Promote to
Heading 1
Promotes a heading or body text to the Heading 1
level.
Promote
Promotes a heading to the next higher level or
body text to the level of the preceding heading.
Outline Level
drop-down
list box
Displays the outline level of the selected
text. Select a level from the drop-down
to change the text to that level.
Demote
Demotes a heading to the next lower level or body
text to a heading at a level below that of the
preceding heading.
Demote to
Body Text
Demotes a heading to Normal text.
Move Up
Moves the selected heading or body text up the
page to above the previous heading or body text
paragraph. Only visible paragraphs are taken into
account, and moved headings and body text
retain their current levels.
Move Down
Moves the selected heading or body text down the
page to below the next outline item. Only visible
items are taken into account, and moved headings and body text retain their current levels.
Expand
Expands the heading in which the insertion point
is placed to show the level below it, showing the
hidden text.
Collapse
Collapses all of the headings and body text
subordinate to the selected heading, hiding them.
Show Level
Selects a level to view; all levels, starting from
Level 1 down to the selected level will be shown.
Lower levels will be hidden.
Show First
Line Only
Toggles between displaying the full text of each
body text paragraph and displaying only the first
line of each paragraph. (Multi-line headings are
not affected; all lines of a heading are shown even
if you turn on Show First Line Only.)
Continued
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Table 18-1 (continued)
Button
Name
Action
Show Formatting
Toggles between displaying and hiding character
formatting.
Update TOC
Updates the Table of Contents, if you have one in
the document.
Go to TOC
Moves the display to the Table of Contents and
selects it.
Master Document
View
This button, and all those to the right, are related
to master documents, which we look at a little
later in this chapter.
To create an outline from existing text, switch to Outline view and promote or demote
levels as desired using the toolbar. If you haven’t used any of Word’s nine built-in
Heading styles, everything in the document will be shown as body text. As you promote
text to a heading level, Word applies the appropriate style.
Note
Don’t select text while promoting or demoting, simply place the insertion point in the
paragraph. In some cases, if text is selected and you promote Word will apply the Heading style to the selected text, not change the outline level or change the paragraph style.
As you promote and demote headings, you can see the current level by looking at the
Style box on the Formatting toolbar. In addition, if you want to view all of your styles at
once, you can display the style area. Choose Tools_Options, click the View tab, and then
enter a measurement in the Style Area Width box. When the style area is displayed, you
can adjust its width by dragging the vertical line that divides the style area from your
document text. You can also close the style area display by dragging the vertical line to
the left until the style area disappears.
Rearranging your outline
As you create an outline, don’t worry about getting the arrangement and levels exactly
the way that you want them. The beauty of working with outlines is that you can enter
your thoughts as they occur and later rearrange the text in a flash by moving sections up
and down.
Selecting in Outline view
Before you rearrange an outline, you need to understand how selection works in Outline
view. The following list describes selection techniques that apply specifically to outlines:
✦ When you click a plus icon, the heading and all of its subordinate levels are
selected.
Chapter 18 ✦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents
✦ When you click a box symbol, or a minus sign, only that paragraph of body text is
selected.
✦ When you click in the selection bar to the left of a paragraph, only that paragraph is
selected. Therefore, if you click in the selection bar next to a heading with a plus
sign, only that heading (and not any of its subordinate levels) is selected.
✦ You can select multiple headings or paragraphs by dragging up or down the
selection bar.
✦ You can use any standard Word technique for selecting text in an outline paragraph,
but once a selection crosses to a new paragraph, both paragraphs are selected in
their entirety. In other words, you cannot select only a portion of more than one
paragraph in Outline view.
Tip
If your text moves when you try to select it, you may have accidentally dragged a plus or
minus symbol instead of clicking it. In this situation, choose Edit_Undo and try again.
Promoting and demoting outline levels
To promote or demote a heading, place your insertion point anywhere in the heading and
then use one of the following methods:
✦ The Outlining toolbar. Choose the Promote or Demote button to change the
heading level. Choose the Demote to Body Text button to change any heading to
body text.
✦ Keystroke shortcuts. Press Alt+Shift+left arrow to promote a heading to the next
level, or press Alt+Shift+right arrow to demote a heading to the next level. For the
first three heading levels, you can also press Alt+Ctrl+#, with # standing for the
outline level to which you want the text assigned. For example, to change a heading
to level two, press Alt+Ctrl+2.
✦ The mouse. Drag the plus symbol to the left or the right. When you place the
mouse pointer over an outline icon, the pointer changes to a four-headed arrow, and
as you drag, a vertical line appears at each heading level. Release the mouse button
when you reach the desired level.
You can promote or demote multiple headings or body text paragraphs at the same time.
Tip
Here’s a great trick for globally promoting or demoting outline headings. Suppose that
you want to change all level two headings to level three headings. Simply use Word’s
Find and Replace feature. Choose Edit_Replace. Then, with your insertion point in the
Find What text box, choose More_Format_Style and select the Heading 2 style from
the Find What Style list box. In the Replace With text box, select the Heading 3 style
from the Replace With Style list box. Finally, click Replace All. You can also use the
Styles and Formatting task pane, using the Select All button.
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When you use the Outlining toolbar buttons to promote or demote a heading, only the
actual paragraph where your insertion point is located is moved. Unless you select an
entire section by clicking the plus icon or by using any other selection method,
subordinate levels aren’t affected — with the following exceptions:
✦ Body text is always promoted or demoted along with its heading.
✦ Any outline elements that are collapsed under the heading are always moved along
with that heading.
If a heading is collapsed, any structural changes that you make to that heading affect any
subordinate headings or body text paragraphs. This makes it easy to move sections of a
document. Simply collapse your outline to its highest level, and then promote, demote,
and move the headings.
Moving outline headings
Before you move headings, decide whether you want to move only one particular heading or
all of the subheadings and body text associated with that heading. If a heading is collapsed
when you move it, any subordinate text moves with that heading. If the heading is expanded
to show its subordinate levels, however, some movement techniques move only the specified
heading. You can take advantage of this to move whole sections without going through the
process of selecting text. With the outline collapsed, dragging any plus icon will move all of
its associated text.
To move a heading without moving any of its associated subheadings or body text, use the
Move Up or Move Down button on the Outlining toolbar or press the Alt+Shift keys in
combination with an up- or a down-arrow key. Whenever you drag a plus icon, all of the text
associated with that heading is moved.
When you place your mouse pointer on a plus icon, the pointer changes to a four-headed
arrow. Then, as you drag up or down, a horizontal line with a right arrow is displayed.
Release the mouse button when the line is positioned where you want the text to be located.
To move multiple headings, select the headings that you want to move. Then hold down the
Shift key as you drag the last heading icon in your selection. Make sure that you don’t drag
any heading except the last one. Once you click any heading in a selection other than the last
one, your selection is cleared and only the heading where your mouse pointer is at is selected.
Tip
Outline view is a handy way to rearrange table rows. When working in a table, you can
move a row or selected rows to a new location by switching to Outline view and then
dragging them.
Using keyboard shortcuts
When your fingers are already on the keyboard, pressing a keystroke combination is often
easier than lifting your fingers off the keyboard to use the mouse. For example, if you’re
all set to type a body text entry, press Ctrl+ Shift+N rather than choosing the Demote to
Body Text button. Table 18-2 lists some of the most useful keystroke shortcuts for
working with outlines.
Chapter 18 ✦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents
Note
Tab and Shift+Tab are two handy keystroke shortcuts in Outline view. With your insertion
point in a heading, pressing the Tab key demotes that heading to the next level, and
pressing Shift+Tab promotes that heading to the next level (or promotes body text to a
heading). These keystrokes have this effect only in Outline view, however. To promote
or demote a heading in Normal view, use the Alt+Shift+arrow key combinations. To insert an actual tab character in Outline view, press Ctrl+Tab.
Table 18-2
Keystroke Shortcuts in Outlines
To Do This
Use These Keys
Switch to Outline view
Alt+Ctrl+O
Switch to Normal view
Alt+Ctrl+N
Promote a heading or body text
to the next level
Alt+Shift+left arrow (or press Tab)
Demote a heading to the next level
Alt+Shift+right arrow (or press Shift+Tab)
Promote or demote a heading
to a specific level
Alt+Ctrl+1 through Alt+Ctrl+3. Note that
keystrokes are assigned only for the first
three levels.
Demote a heading to body text
Ctrl+Shift+N
Move a paragraph up
Alt+Shift+up arrow
Move a paragraph down
Alt+Shift+down arrow
Show all headings and body text,
or show all headings without body text
Alt+Shift+A
Show only the first line of body text,
or show all body text
Alt+Shift+L
Show or hide character formatting
/ on the numeric keypad
Expand selected headings
Alt+Shift++ on the numeric keypad
Collapse selected headings
Alt+Shift+- on the numeric keypad
Viewing both Outline and Normal view at once
One way to work effectively with outlines is to split the document screen into two panes.
In one pane, you can display your document in Outline view, and in the other pane, you
can display your document in Normal view. This way, you can take advantage of Outline
view to rearrange your text while simultaneously viewing the result of your actions in the
full document.
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To split your document into two equal panes, double-click the split bar (at the top of the
vertical scroll bar) or choose Window_Split. You can also simply drag the split bar to tailor
the size of the panes. To restore the split window to its original condition, double-click the
split bar or choose Window_Remove Split. Figure 18-4 shows an outline in split view.
Figure 18-4: An outline split into two panes.
Printing an outline
When you print from Outline view, only the visible portion of your document is printed. For
example, if your outline is collapsed to level one, only the Level 1 headings are printed. The
Outline symbols don’t appear on a document printout, though.
Before you print from Outline view, expand or collapse your outline to display what you
want to print. To print your document as it should appear in its final form, switch to Normal
or Print Layout view before you print.
Chapter 18 ✦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents
Copying an outline
In Outline view, if you select and copy headings that include collapsed subordinate text, the
collapsed text is also copied. Unfortunately, you cannot copy just the visible headings with
Word. You can, however, quickly list those headings in a table of contents and then omit the
page numbers. For more information about creating a table of contents using the Index and
Tables command (Insert menu), see Chapter 12 of Wiley’s Word 2003 Bible.
After you create a table of contents, click in it and press Ctrl+Shift+F9 to convert the table
of contents to regular text. You can then copy the headings from the table of contents.
Understanding Master Documents
Suppose that you want to add all your data into one colossal document or take several
existing documents and turn them into one larger document. If you do this, you may find
yourself running into a couple problems:
✦ Word begins to function less efficiently when a document is too large. (What’s too
large? There’s no hard-and-fast rule, it all depends on the speed of the computer
you have, the amount of memory, the number of images in the document, the
number of links to external content, and so on.) Certain tasks such as scrolling and
searching can take longer to accomplish, and the possibility of a system error
increases.
✦ Only one person can work on any given file at a time. Therefore, if everything is
crammed into the same file, you lose the capability to have different people
working on a project.
With the master-document feature in Word, however, you can consolidate several
documents into a large framework. This provides the consistency and other advantages of
working with one large document and also keeps the convenience of working with
individual subdocuments. In addition to these advantages, the master document feature
enables you to
✦ Cross-reference items among several documents.
✦ Use the Outline view tools to rearrange items spread among several documents.
✦ Create indexes, tables of contents, and lists that span several documents.
✦ Easily assign consistent page numbering, headers, and other formatting across
multiple documents.
✦ Print multiple documents with one command.
A book is ideally suited to the master document feature. Each chapter can be a
subdocument, and the elements common to the entire book can be contained in the master
document itself.
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Note
In earlier versions of Word, the master-document feature has a reputation for being a little
unstable. With today’s faster computers, master documents may not be as necessary as
before.
The Master Document view
Imagine an outline view that combines multiple documents. That’s Master Document
view. In effect it’s an extension of Outline view, and uses the Outlining toolbar — the
buttons on the right side of the bar that we haven’t looked at yet.
What’s the point? Imagine you have a very large document, perhaps hundreds of pages
long, with lots of pictures. Such a document can get unwieldy — moving around can take
a long time, Word can slow down, and so on. On the other hand, having everything in one
document is rather nice — you can use Outline view to move things around, search the
entire document to find things, create tables of contents and indexes spanning all the
documents, and so on. The answer, the compromise, is the master document. Bring all the
text into one document when you need it there, but work on small portions, in individual
files, when you don’t.
You can create a master document from scratch or combine existing documents into a
master document. Turn on Master Document view by choosing View_Outline. The last
eight buttons on the bar are master-document buttons, but the last seven are not always
displayed. Click the Master Document View button to expand or contract the toolbar; the
button also changes the document display, though until you’ve actually created a master
document you won’t notice any difference.
Note
You might think of the master document as a sort of interactive index inside a normal
document. A master document contains two things: normal document stuff — text and
graphics, tables and text boxes, and so on — and links to other documents. Those links
can be used to pull in the information from the documents to which the master documented is linked.
Figure 18-5 shows the Master Document buttons on the Outlining toolbar, and Table 18-3
identifies and describes those buttons.
Figure 18-5: The Master Document buttons.
Chapter 18 ✦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents
Table 18-3
Master Document Buttons on the Outlining Toolbar
Button
Name
Action
Master Document
View
Switches between Master Document and
Outline views, and expands and contracts
the toolbar.
Expand/Collapse
Subdocument
Expands the master document, by
pulling in data from the subdocuments,
or collapses the document, by removing
the information and displaying the links to
the subdocuments.
Create
Subdocument
Turns selected headings and text into
subdocuments, automatically saving a
new document and creating a link from the
master document to the subdocument.
Remove
Subdocument
Pulls the data from the subdocument
into the master document and breaks
the link to the subdocument — but it
doesn’t actually delete the subdocument
file.
Insert
Subdocument
Enables you to create a link to use an
existing file as a subdocument.
Merge
Subdocument
Combines multiple subdocuments into
one subdocument.
Split
Subdocument
Divides one subdocument into two
subdocuments.
Lock Document
Toggles the entire document or selected
subdocuments to a locked or an unlocked
state. Note that this provides only cursory
protection, however. Any user can unlock
the subdocument simply by choosing the
Lock Document button again.
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Building a master document
There are three main methods of building a master document:
✦ Begin a new document in Master Document view. Create an outline for your master
document, and then use those headings to break the outline into separate
subdocuments.
✦ Break an existing document into subdocuments.
✦ Combine existing documents into a master document by inserting them as
subdocuments. Any existing Word document can be treated as a subdocument.
Master documents, like outlines, use Word’s built-in heading styles (Heading 1 through
Heading 9).
Starting from scratch
To build a master document from scratch in Master Document view, follow these steps:
1. Open a new document.
2. Switch to Master Document view by choosing View_Outline; then click the
Master Document View button on the Outlining toolbar.
3. Create an outline for your master document using any of the techniques covered
previously in this chapter, typing headings to begin each subdocument. Before you
create the outline, however, decide which heading level you want to use to begin
each subdocument.
4. When you’re ready to break portions of the document into subdocuments, select all
of the headings and text that you want to convert. You can expedite this process by
collapsing the outline to the heading level at which you want to begin your
subdocuments before you make your selection.
Note
You cannot convert body text without a heading into a subdocument. The selected text
must have at least one heading.
Word uses the level of the first heading in your selection to determine where each
subdocument begins. For example, if your selection begins with a level two
heading, Word begins a new subdocument at each level two heading in your
selected text area.
5. Click the Create Subdocument button.
Each subdocument is enclosed in a box, and a subdocument icon is displayed in the
upper-left corner of each box, as shown in Figure 18-6.
6. Save the master document.
Chapter 18 ✦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents
Figure 18-6: A master document divided into subdocuments.
When you save a master document, Word creates a new file, in the same directory as the
master document, using a file name based on the first line of text in the file. Note also that
Word adds a body text paragraph between each subdocument. This makes it easy to add
additional text or subdocuments outside the existing subdocument boundaries.
Caution
Because Word automatically assigns subdocument file names, you can end up with
strange results if your headings have similar names or if the file names assigned by
Word would conflict with files already in the destination directory. As a simple demonstration, suppose that your directory contains a document called Chapter 1.doc . Now
suppose that you create a subdocument in which the first heading is titled Chapter 1.
When you save the master document, Word assigns the name Chapter 2.doc to your
subdocument because Chapter 1.doc is already taken. When a naming conflict occurs,
Word uses numbers to differentiate the file names. Therefore, your neatly numbered
headings may not correspond with their subdocument file names. For this reason, you
should check and, if necessary, rename subdocument file names before you close the
master document. For instructions, see the “Renaming or moving a subdocument” section later in this chapter.
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Converting an existing document
To convert an existing document to a master document, open the file and switch to Outline
view. Set up all the headings and levels the way you want them.
Next, select the section that you want to split into subdocuments. Make sure, however,
that the first selected heading is the level at which you want each subdocument to start.
Click the Create Subdocument button, and save the master document. At that point Word
creates the subdocuments, saving them in the same directory.
Inserting existing documents into a master document
You can create master document from a number of existing files. Open the document you
want to become the master document — it could be a new blank document, or an existing
document to which you want to add subdocuments.
Place the insertion point where you want to add a subdocument, and click the Insert
Subdocument button. Find the file you want to insert in the Insert Subdocument dialog
box, and click Open. That’s it; the document link is dropped into the master document.
Note
When you open a subdocument from within its master document, the template and formatting assigned to the master document take precedence over any formatting originally assigned to the subdocument. If you open the subdocument separately, however,
the subdocument reverts to its original formatting.
Working with master documents
After you build a master document, you have several options for working with it. In Outline
view, you can treat the entire document as one large outline, and you can expand, collapse,
promote, and demote sections at will. In Normal view, you can work with the document just
as you would with any other document. You can cut and paste text or graphics between
sections, add formatting, and perform any other document task. You can also open an
individual subdocument and work on it separately by double-clicking the subdocument icon
in the left margin.
Note
When you switch from Outline/Master view to any other view, even Reading view, you’ll
see the document in the condition it was in before you switched. That is, if you had
collapsed the document, you’ll see the links to the subdocuments. If you had expanded
the document, you’ll see all the text from the subdocuments, with a section break before
and after each subdocument.
Be aware that Word inserts section breaks for each subdocument, because this may affect
your formatting decisions. You can apply different formatting (including headers, footers,
margins, paper size, page orientation, and page numbering) for different sections. You can
see the section breaks in Normal view by clicking the Show/Hide button on the Standard
toolbar.
Chapter 18 ✦ Getting Organized with Outlines and Master Documents
Note
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Working with a master document in Normal or Print Layout view is just like working with
any other document. You can apply formatting to the entire document or any part of it. In
addition, because each subdocument is a section, you can apply or modify any sectionlevel formatting, such as page numbering or margins. You can also insert new sections
within the subdocuments for formatting purposes.
If you follow the next two rules, you won’t have any problems formatting master
documents:
✦ If you want the formatting (for example, page numbering) to apply to the entire
document, apply that formatting in the master document rather than in a
subdocument.
✦ If you want the formatting to apply only to one subdocument, place your insertion
point inside the subdocument in which you want to apply the formatting (or open
the subdocument) before you proceed.
Also, remember that if you insert an existing document as a subdocument, that subdocument
retains its original section formatting — except where that formatting would be overridden
by the master document’s template or styles. If you want one header or footer to continue
throughout the entire master document, make sure that your individual subdocuments don’t
contain their own headers or footers. To create different headers or footers for each
subdocument, however, set them up in the individual subdocuments.
Working with the entire master document in Normal or Print Layout view makes it easy to
move text and graphics among the subdocuments using Word’s standard cut-and-paste
techniques, including drag-and-drop. You can also navigate through a large document and
use Word’s Find and Replace feature to make global changes across several documents.
Working with subdocuments
In Master Document view, you can open any subdocument to work on it separately. This
is especially useful if several people are working on a project, because different people
can then open and edit several subdocuments simultaneously. You can also change the
order of the subdocuments, combine subdocuments, nest subdocuments within other
subdocuments, and even break a portion of a subdocument into a new subdocument.
Opening a subdocument
You can open an individual subdocument from within a master document by double-clicking
its subdocument icon in Master Document view. If you make changes to the subdocument,
however, save both the edited subdocument and the master document before closing the
master document. In case someone else may need to work on another part of the master
document while you’re editing the subdocument, close the master document once you open
the subdocument in which you want to work. As long as your subdocument has been
previously saved with the master document, that subdocument retains its link to the master
document even after you close the master document file.
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You can also open a subdocument using the File_Open command, but with this method,
certain changes may not be properly updated in the master document. To ensure that a
subdocument’s links are accurately updated in the master document, open subdocuments
from the master document.
If you opened the subdocument from the master document, closing that subdocument returns
you to the master document. If you opened the subdocument as a normal document or you
opened it from the master document but then closed the master document with the
subdocument still open, closing the subdocument is the same as closing any regular document.
Renaming or moving a subdocument
In order to rename a subdocument or move it to a different directory or drive, open the
subdocument from the master document and use the File_Save As command. Then
resave the master document.
Caution
If you move or rename a subdocument through Windows Explorer or use any method
other than the one just described, the master document loses its link with the
subdocument.
Removing subdocuments
To merge a subdocument into a master document, click the subdocument icon to select the
subdocument and then choose the Remove Subdocument button. When you do this, the
text remains in the master document but is no longer attached to the subdocument.
To remove the subdocument text entirely from the master document, click the
subdocument icon and press Delete. The subdocument text — and the link to it — is then
deleted from the master document.
Neither of these actions deletes the subdocument file from the disk. They only break the
subdocument’s attachment to the master document. To delete the subdocument file from
the disk, you must do so from outside, using Windows Explorer or another standard filedeletion method.
Caution
Don’t delete a subdocument from the disk without first deleting it from the master document. If you delete the subdocument file first, you get an error message the next time
you open the master document. Be very careful when working with master documents
that are entirely on, or have components on, removable disks. Don’t remove the disk
until you’ve closed Word completely. Simply closing the master document may not be
enough in some cases, and removing the disk can damage the files.
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Rearranging the order of subdocuments
Master Document view makes reorganizing your subdocuments a snap. You can also reorganize subdocuments by selecting and moving text in Normal view, but reorganizing
subdocuments in Master Document view is a simple matter of dragging the subdocument icon.
You can also move a subdocument by positioning your insertion point anywhere in the
subdocument. Then hold down the Alt+Shift keys as you press an up- or a down-arrow key.
If you move a subdocument inside the boundaries of another subdocument, the subdocument
that you move becomes part of the destination subdocument. If you want a subdocument to
retain its integrity as a separate subdocument, move it to a location outside any other
subdocument’s boundaries.
Splitting subdocuments
A subdocument may become too large to work with effectively. Alternatively, you may
want more than one person to work on different portions of the subdocument
simultaneously.
To split a subdocument into two separate subdocuments, follow these steps:
1. Open the master document, and switch to Master Document view.
2. Select the entire heading or body text paragraph that will begin the new
subdocument.
3. Click the Split Subdocument button on the Outlining toolbar. The subdocument
then splits just above the selected paragraph.
Merging subdocuments
You can also combine several small files into one subdocument. You may want to do some
editing afterward, however.
To merge multiple subdocuments into one subdocument, make sure that the subdocuments
you’re going to merge are adjacent; then select them and click the Merge Subdocument
button on the Outlining toolbar. When you save the master document, Word assigns the
file name of the first document in your selection to the merged subdocument.
Sharing subdocuments
Word uses the Author information in Summary Info to determine the owner of each
subdocument. If you’re the owner, you have full rights to open and edit the document. If
you didn’t create the document, however, the document is locked, and a small padlock
icon appears just under the subdocument icon. Figure 18-7 shows a master document in
Master Document view with one subdocument locked.
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Figure 18-7: The first subdocument on this screen has been locked using the Lock
Document button. Note the padlock under the subdocument icon.
To lock or unlock a subdocument, select the subdocument and click the Lock Document
button on the Outlining toolbar. Remember, though, that Document option doesn’t provide
real protection. Anyone can unlock the document simply by clicking the Lock Document
button. If you need a higher level of protection, add a password.
Summary
With the outline feature in Word, you can organize your thoughts into headers and then
rearrange them as needed. With the Master Document feature, you can create large
documents by combining subdocuments, which provides you the best of both worlds: the
capability to work with all the files at once without forcing you to deal with one huge file.
In this chapter, you learned how to
✦ Create and work with outlines using the Outlining toolbar, which appears when you
choose View_Outline or click the Outline View button on the horizontal scroll bar.
The outline feature is essential for helping you to organize your thoughts in a
document using headings.
✦ Create and work with master documents by clicking the Master Document View
button on the Outlining toolbar. With the Master Document feature, you can work
efficiently with large documents by organizing them into subdocuments.
✦
✦
✦
Processing
Outlook
Messages
Automatically
19
C H A P T E R
.
.
.
.
In This Chapter
Using rules to filter
your e-mail
Y
ou are probably inundated with e-mail messages each day.
The flood of e-mail only continues to get worse, even
though many states are finally starting to take action to try to
stem the flood from spammers. Even solicited mail can become a
burden unless you know how to process it automatically, moving
it to specific folders or handling it in other ways when it arrives.
Note
The term spam refers to unsolicited and unwanted e-mail. A
spammer is a person or entity that sends out spam.
Outlook provides an excellent set of features that enable you to
process messages automatically, both when they arrive in your
Inbox and when you send messages out. You can use these rules
to move messages to specific folders, generate automatic
responses, filter out unwanted messages, and much more. In this
chapter you will learn how to put Outlook’s rules to work for you,
how to back them up and restore them if needed, and how to use
the Out of Office Assistant to manage your messages in your
Exchange Server mailbox when you are out.
Securing Against HTML Content
Junk mail — or spam, as it is generally called — can be a major
headache for anyone who has an e-mail account. Although most
spam includes instructions on how to unsubscribe to the list that
generated it, unsubscribing often yields questionable results. Some
Backing up rules and
moving them between
computers
Using auto-responders
Filtering out junk mail
and adult content
Using the Out of Office
Assistant with
Exchange Server
.
.
.
.
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spammers simply ignore your requests, while others use the request to validate your e-mail
address so they can continue sending to you. However, others have gone to a more indirect but
more effective method, explained next.
Blocking external HTML content
Many spammers are now using more advanced methods to validate addresses, such as
sending HTML-based messages that contain embedded external links. When you open the
message, your e-mail application attempts to retrieve the external content, and server-side
software then identifies your e-mail address as valid. These embedded URLs are often called
Web beacons.
Outlook 2003 helps reduce spam by blocking external content in HTML messages. This is
the default configuration, but if needed, you can configure Outlook to allow external
content:
1. In Outlook, choose Tools _ Options and then click the Security tab.
2. Click Settings in the Junk E-mail Prevention group to open the External Content
Settings dialog box (Figure 19-1).
Figure 19-1: The External Content Settings dialog box.
3. Choose options based on the following list:
Block external content in HTML e-mail. Select this option to block Web beacons;
clear the option to allow Outlook to retrieve external content.
Except if the external content comes from a Web site in these security zones:
Trusted Zone, Intranet Zone. Allow Outlook to retrieve external cntent only if the
target site is listed in the Trusted Zone or Intranet Zone. You define the sites that belong
in this zone through Internet Explorer’s security settings.
Warn me before downloading blocked content when editing, forwarding, or
replying to e-mail. Have Outlook prompt you that a message contains external content
when you edit, forward, or reply to the message.
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Configuring security zones
Outlook uses the security zones you define in Internet Explorer to decide not only how to
handle messages with external content, but also how to handle messages that contain scripts.
By default, Outlook uses the Restricted Sites zone for handling messages. The default
settings for this zone prevents HTML messages from accomplishing potentially dangerous
or harmful tasks such as running scripts, downloading unsigned ActiveX controls, and
scripting Java applets. Regardless of the zone you select, however, Outlook always
deactivates ActiveX controls and does not run scripts. Even so, there might be other settings
that you want to configure for the security zone. Keep in mind that changing the settings
affects Internet Explorer as well as Outlook.
Tip
Outlook does not take into account any domains you might add to a particular zone. It uses the
settings for the zone, but ignores the domains. For example, if you add sites to the Trusted
Sites zone but configure Outlook to use the Restricted Sites zone, it will use the settings
defined for the Restricted Sites zone even if you receive a message from a domain in the
Trusted Sites zone.
To change zone settings, in Outlook choose Tools _ Options and then click the Security tab.
Choose from the Zone drop-down list the zone you want Outlook to use for processing
HTML-based messages. Click the Zones Settings button if you want to change zone settings,
click OK at the warning message, and configure settings in the resulting Security dialog box
(Figure 19-2).
Figure 19-2: The Security dialog box.
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Select one of the four zones and click Custom Level to open the Security Settings dialog
box. Configure settings as needed and then click OK. Change other zones as needed, click
OK on the Security dialog box to close it, and return to Outlook.
Note
The default settings for Outlook generally provide good protection against unwanted content
and malicious code. For that reason, you should modify the security settings only if you have
a very specific reason to do so. For that reason, and because these settings are more applicable to Internet Explorer than to Outlook, this chapter doesn’t cover zone settings in detail.
Using Rules
Rules are sets of instructions that you create to tell Outlook how to handle certain types of
messages. Rules are sometimes called filters, and they are often used to screen out unwanted
messages. You can set up your own rules to give special handling to important messages and
to send junk mail directly to the Deleted Items folder without it ever appearing in your
Inbox.
You can set up rules for handling both incoming and outgoing e-mail messages. Most of the
time, you’ll only concern yourself with incoming messages. Still, it’s nice to know that you
can automate both if necessary, and there are some important uses for outgoing rules. For
example, you might want to keep a copy of outgoing messages to certain people in a folder
other than Sent Items to make these messages easier to locate. For example, you could create
a folder for several of your most important clients, and store sent messages for those people
in their respective folders.
Although it’s really quite easy to set up rules, Outlook has a few rules that have been set up
and are ready to use immediately. In the following sections, you learn first about setting up
rules of your own and then about how you can use the junk e-mail lists that are built into
Outlook.
Using the Rules Wizard
Outlook provides a Rules Wizard to help you set up your own rules for handling e-mail
messages. This Rules Wizard steps you through the entire process so that creating or
modifying rules is really simple and straightforward.
Creating a rule
To use the Rules Wizard to set up an e-mail message-handling rule, follow these steps:
1. Select Tools _ Rules and Alerts. This will display the Rules and Alerts dialog box
(Figure 19-3).
Chapter 19 ✦ Processing Outlook Messages Automatically
Figure 19-3: The Rules and Alerts dialog box.
2. Click the New Rule button to start the Rules Wizard, and begin creating a new rule.
You can start from a blank rule or use one of several rule templates to create the
rule, as explained in the next step.
3. Select a rule template from the Step 1 box, as shown in Figure 19-4. As you select
different types of rules, the Step 2 box provides a brief description of the rule. If
you choose the option Start from a Blank Rule, you can instead choose Check
Messages When They Arrive or Check Messages After Sending to create a rule that
processes messages either when they arrive or when you send them, respectively.
Figure 19-4: Use the Rules Wizard to create and modify Outlook message rules.
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Tip
Choosing a rule template simply predefines certain rule properties. You can then modify
these properties to customize the rule as needed. If you choose to start from a blank rule,
you must manually select all rule properties. The general process is the same regardless of
which method you choose.
4. Click Next to continue.
5. Scroll through the Which condition(s) do you want to check? list box, and choose
the items that you want to apply to this rule. You can specify multiple conditions.
Keep in mind that all the conditions that you choose must be met before the rule
will be applied. If you were to choose both the where my name is in the To box and
the where my name is in the Cc box conditions, for example, the rule would apply
only if your name were in both the To and the Cc boxes. The more conditions you
specify, the less likely it is that any message will meet the full set of conditions. It’s
generally better to set as few conditions as possible — you can always go back later
and add additional conditions if you discover that the rule is too broad.
6. After you have applied all the necessary conditions to the rule, click each of the
underlined items in the Rule description list box in turn. This will enable you to
edit the item, as shown in Figure 19-5.
Figure 19-5: Click the underlined values to replace each with specific condition
criteria.
Chapter 19 ✦ Processing Outlook Messages Automatically
7. The choices you must make will vary depending on the type of value you are
editing. When you have selected all the items for the selected value, click OK to
continue.
8. If there are additional underlined items, click each in turn and choose the values.
When you have completed your selections, the Rules Wizard dialog box should
look something like Figure 19-6, with no remaining underlined items that need to
be specified.
Figure 19-6: Make certain that you have specified the values for all underlined
items before continuing.
9. Click the Next button to continue.
10. Choose any additional actions for this rule from the What do you want to do with
the message? list box, as shown in Figure 19-7.
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Figure 19-7: Add any additional actions for the rule.
11. Notice that specifying additional actions generally adds additional underlined items
to the Rule description list box. Click the new underlined items to edit them as you
did for the rule conditions. Click OK when you are done specifying the actions.
12. Click the Next button in the wizard to continue.
13. If necessary, select any exceptions to the rule using the options in the Are There
Any Exceptions list box. If you add exceptions, you may need to edit additional
underlined items that appear in the rule description list box.
14. Click the Next button to continue.
15. Enter a descriptive name in the Specify a name for this rule text box (Figure 19-8).
The name you enter should clearly identify the rule — especially if you plan to
specify a number of rules in the future.
Chapter 19 ✦ Processing Outlook Messages Automatically
Figure 19-8: Set final options for the rule.
16. If you want to apply the new rule to existing messages, select the Run this rule now
on messages already in “Inbox” check box. Selecting this option is a good way to
check the operation of your new rule.
17. Make certain the Turn on this rule check box is selected. You can deselect this
checkbox if you don’t want the rule to apply immediately, but you’ll have to
remember to apply the rule later.
18. Select the option Create this rule on all accounts option if you want to apply the
rule to all of your e-mail accounts. This option is available only if you have
multiple accounts.
19. Click the Finish button to complete the creation of your new rule.
20. Click OK to close the Rules Wizard dialog box.
Controlling rule processing order
If you set up a number of rules for handling your messages, you may discover that some of
those rules conflict with each other. As an example, consider what would happen if you set
up a rule that displayed a special message telling you that an important message had arrived
whenever someone marked their message as important. In addition, suppose you decided
that you wanted to forward all incoming messages from a particular person to an assistant
without reading them yourself. If the sender marked all messages as important, which rule
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would apply? The answer is simple — Outlook applies rules starting at the top of the list of
rules as they appear in the Rules Wizard dialog box. To change the order in which the rules
are applied, you can use the Move Up and Move Down buttons in the Rules and Alerts
dialog box.
Keep in mind that more than one rule can apply to the same message. If the rule notifying
you of important messages appears before the rule forwarding the message, both rules would
likely be triggered by messages sent by that person. If you move the forwarding rule up
above the important message notification rule, then the message would be forwarded before
the important message notification rule could be applied.
Running rules manually
In most cases, your rules will fire automatically when messages arrive or depart. In a few
cases, however, you might need to run rules manually, such as when you create a new rule
and want to apply it to messages already in the Inbox. The Rules and Alerts dialog box
enables you to do just that.
1. Create the rule as explained in the previous section.
2. In the Rules and Alerts dialog box (Figure 19-9), click Run Rules Now to display
the Run Rules Now dialog box.
Figure 19-9: The Rules and Alerts dialog box.
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3. Place a check by each rule you want to run; then click Browse to select the folder in
which to run the rules.
4. Choose the Include Subfolders option if you want to run the rules on subfolders of
the specified folder.
5. Select from the Apply Rules To drop-down list the types of messages to which you
want to apply the rules.
6. Click Run Now to run the rules on the specified folders and messages.
7. Click Close when finished.
Modifying and copying rules
It’s likely that you will at some point need to change a rule to fine-tune its behavior or adjust
to changes in the way you receive or send messages. You can easily modify any custom rule
through the Rules and Alerts dialog box. Simply select the rule and then click Change Rule
to display a menu of actions you can assign to the rule. Choose Edit All Rule Settings if you
want to make step-by-step changes to a rule.
The Rules and Alerts dialog box also enables you to copy rules between locations. For
example, you might have two mail servers, each of which enables you to define rules. When
you create a rule, it is assigned to a particular location. To copy it to another, open the Rules
and Alerts dialog box, select the rule, and click Copy in the toolbar to open a simple dialog
box in which you select the target server from a drop-down list. Select the server and then
click OK.
Responding automatically to messages
One reason to use rules is to process messages when they arrive, deleting or moving them as
needed; however, one very useful purpose for rules is to create automatic replies, or autoresponders, for incoming messages that fit certain conditions. For example, perhaps you
have a product for which you want to provide information to your clients. You can create a
message that contains information about the product and then send that message any time
someone sends a message requesting the information.
You can use a couple of methods to generate the reply. You can set up a special e-mail
address in your mail server that points to your mailbox, and when you receive a message for
that address, have Outlook send the appropriate reply. For example, the person might send a
message to [email protected] A rule you define in Outlook checks the
messages as they come in; when it finds one addressed to that address, it replies with the
information.
Another method is to have people send their message with certain identifying text in the
subject. For example, any messages with “Product Info” in the subject field of the incoming
message could trigger the rule.
Setting up an automatic response is fairly easy:
1. Open Outlook and start a new message.
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2. Enter the Subject field, but leave the address fields blank.
3. Add the desired information in the body of the message and then choose File _
Save As.
4. Choose Outlook Template from the Save As Type dialog box.
5. In the Save As dialog box, enter a name for the message, such as Product Info.
Choose the path for the file and then click Save. Close the message form.
Tip
You can place the message anywhere you want, but using the default location will help you
quickly locate the message in the future if you need to edit it.
6. Choose Tools _ Rules and Alerts.
7. Click New Rule to start the Rules Wizard, choose Start from a Blank Rule, and
click Next.
8. Set the condition you want to match (such as With Specific Words in the Subject or
Body), specify the words or other criteria in the bottom pane of the dialog box, and
click Next.
9. Select the action Reply Using a Specific Template, click the underlined A Specific
Template link, and select the Outlook template created in step 5. Click Open.
10. Click Next, set exceptions as needed, and click Finish.
11. Click OK to close the Rules and Alerts dialog box.
Which condition or method you use to identify incoming messages depends in part on your
mail server. If you set up an account specifically for the auto-responder, you can use a
condition that identifies the message by its account or address. If you can’t create a separate
account, the best option is to use the Subject field as the condition trigger.
Note
Unless you are using Exchange Server, which supports server-side rules that can continue to
function even when Outlook is not running, you must leave Outlook running to process incoming messages. You must also configure Outlook to process messages automatically and set
the scheduled time for send/receive.
Importing, exporting, and backing up rules
Outlook 2003, similar to Outlook 2002, stores rules in the PST if you use a PST as your
message store, or stores them in your Exchange Server mailbox. If you have created several
rules, it’s a good idea to back them up so you don’t have to recreate them from scratch if
something happens to your mail store. What’s more, you can move rules from one computer
to another, such as when you get a new computer or you want to share your rules with
someone else.
Chapter 19 ✦ Processing Outlook Messages Automatically
Back up rules to a file
You simply export your rules to a file whenever you want to back them up or copy them to
another computer:
1. In Outlook, choose Tools _ Rules and Alerts.
2. Click Options in the Rules and Alerts dialog box to open the Options dialog box
shown in Figure 19-10.
Figure 19-10: The Options dialog box
3. Click Export Rules to open the Save Exported Rules As dialog box.
4. Enter a file name, choose a path for the file, and click Save. Outlook saves the file
with a RWZ file extension.
Import rules from a file
When you need to import rules from another computer or another profile, you can do so
easily. After you export the rules to a file as explained in the previous section, follow these
steps to import the rules:
1. In Outlook, choose Tools _ Rules and Alerts.
2. Click the Options button to open the Options dialog box.
3. Click Import Rules, locate and select the rule file, and click Open.
4. Click OK to close the Options dialog box, and verify that the rules now appear in
the Rules and Alerts dialog box; then click OK to close the Rules and Alerts
dialog box.
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Filtering junk and adult content mail
Because junk e-mail is such a common problem, Outlook already has rules in place to
handle junk mail. These rules are already in place, but you might need to adjust them to suit
your needs.
Outlook actually defines two classes of junk e-mail messages — junk messages and adult
content messages. In both cases, those classes of messages are defined by keywords that
Outlook looks for in the messages.
Because no simple keyword search can be 100% effective, Outlook can also maintain lists of
people who send junk or adult content e-mail messages. By adding someone to one of these
lists, you are telling Outlook to apply the junk or adult content e-mail message rules to all
messages that you receive from that person — whether those messages include the keywords
or not.
To modify the junk mail settings, follow these steps:
1. Select Tools _ Options, and click the Preferences tab.
2. Click Junk E-mail to open the Junk E-mail Options dialog box.
3. Select one of the four options to set the level of protection. Each option is explained
on the dialog box.
4. Click the Safe Senders tab and select the option Also trust e-mail from my Contacts
if you want Outlook to accept e-mail from senders in your Contacts folder regardless of the message content, subject, or other message properties.
5. Click Add and enter the e-mail address of a sender whose messages you don’t want
Outlook to treat as junk mail. You do not need to add the address if the contact is
already in your Contacts folder and you enabled the option in step 4 to allow
messages from your contacts.
6. Click OK.
Tip
To add someone to the junk or adult content e-mail message lists, select a message from that
person and then choose Actions _ Junk E-mail _ Add Sender To Blocked Senders List. You
can also add addresses to this list from the Blocked Senders tab of the Junk E-mail Options
dialog box.
After you have specifically added someone to the junk e-mail message lists, all messages
they send to you will be handled according to the rules you have specified. To remove
someone from the list, follow these steps:
1. Choose Tools _ Options and click Junk E-Mail on the Preferences tab.
2. Click the Blocked Senders tab.
3. Click the address and click Remove.
4. Click OK.
Chapter 19 ✦ Processing Outlook Messages Automatically
All messages from someone that you add to the junk or adult content e-mail message lists
will be treated the same regardless of their content. If someone only occasionally sends you
offensive or unwanted messages, you may find that it is more effective to use the Rules
Wizard to create a special filter that applies to messages from that person.
Using the Out of Office Assistant
Exchange Server users have one additional means for automatically processing messages:
the Out of Office Assistant. This handy tool helps you automatically responds to messages
when you are out of the office. For example, you might want to have each sender receive a
reply similar to the following when they send you a message:
Thanks for your message. I am out of the office until Monday of next week. I will respond
to your message when I return.
The main reason to use the Out of Office Assistant rather than create a rule in the Rules
Wizard is that the Assistant keeps track of the senders to which it has already sent an out-ofoffice reply. That means that senders only receive one copy of the automatic reply, rather
than a reply for each message they send you. You can’t accomplish this through the Rules
Wizard.
Setting up the Out of Office Assistant isn’t difficult. Follow these steps:
1. In Outlook, choose Tools _ Out of Office Assistant to open the Out of Office
Assistant dialog box (Figure 19-11).
Figure 19-11: The Out of Office Assistant dialog box
2. Click in the field AutoReply only once to each sender with the following text: then
type the text you want sent automatically when you are out of the office.
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3. When you are satisfied with the reply text and ready to turn on the assistant, choose
I am currently Out of the Office, and click OK.
The Out of Office Assistant is a server-side mechanism that continues to fire even when
Outlook is not running; therefore, you can close Outlook, shut down your computer, and the
Exchange Server will still generate automatic replies to incoming messages. When you get
back in the office and are ready to turn off the Out of Office Assistant, open Outlook, choose
Tools _ Out of Office Assistant, select I am currently In the Office, and click OK.
Tip
Turning off the Out of Office Assistant clears the sent list that Exchange Server maintains to
keep track of the people to whom it has sent out-of-office replies.
When you define the general reply and turn on the assistant without taking any other action,
Exchange Server sends the out-of-office reply to all senders alike, but only the first time
they send a message. You can create custom rules to provide additional processing, if
needed. For example, you might want all messages from a particular sender or group of
people to be forwarded to your assistant for handling, or to an external e-mail account to
enable you to process it yourself.
Follow these steps to create custom Out-of-Office Assistant rules:
1. Choose Tools _ Out of Office Assistant.
2. In the Out of Office Assistant dialog box, click Add Rule to open the Edit Rule
dialog box shown in Figure 19-12.
Figure 19-12: The Edit Rule dialog box
Chapter 19 ✦ Processing Outlook Messages Automatically
3. Use the condition controls to specify the condition that identifies the message, just
as you do for rules created with the Rules Wizard.
4. Use the controls under the Perform these actions group to specify what you want
Exchange Server to do with the items.
5. Click OK to save the rule. Outlook automatically names the rule and it appears in
the Out of Office Assistant dialog box, as shown in Figure 19-13.
6. Repeat steps 2 through 5 to create other rules as needed and then click OK to close
the Out of Office Assistant dialog box.
Figure 19-13: A custom rule added to the Out of Office Assistant
Summary
Rules are a very important feature of Outlook that enable you to gain quite a bit of control
over your messages. For example, you can use rules to automatically move messages from
certain people to special folders to help you identify them quickly. Rules also are an
important means for helping you recognize and respond to important messages when they
arrive.
Outlook 2003 incorporates some major changes to the junk e-mail filter found in previous
editions. Outlook’s Junk E-mail Options dialog box helps you identify messages from
certain senders as junk mail so those messages are routed automatically to the Junk E-mail
folder. With just a little bit of configuration, it’s a good bet that the junk filter in Outlook
will be able to do a very good job of separating the good messages from the junk.
Finally, this chapter explained how to use the Out-of-Office Assistant, a component of
Exchange Server that enables your mailbox to automatically respond to messages when you
are out of the office.
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Analyzing Data
with Pivot
Tables in Excel
20
C H A P T E R
.
.
.
.
In This Chapter
T
he pivot table feature is perhaps the most technologically
sophisticated component in Excel. If you haven’t yet
discovered the power of pivot tables, this chapter demonstrates
how easy it is to create powerful data summaries using pivot
tables.
About Pivot Tables
A pivot table is essentially a dynamic summary report generated
from a database. The database can reside in a worksheet or in an
external data file. A pivot table can help transform endless rows
and columns of numbers into a meaningful presentation of the data.
For example, a pivot table can create frequency distributions and
cross-tabulations of several different data dimensions. In addition,
you can display subtotals and any level of detail that you want.
Perhaps the most innovative aspect of a pivot table lies in its
interactivity. After you create a pivot table, you can rearrange the
information in almost any way imaginable and even insert special
formulas that perform new calculations. You even can create post
hoc groupings of summary items (for example, combine Northern
Region totals with Western Region totals).
One minor drawback to using a pivot table is that, unlike a
formula-based summary report, a pivot table does not update
automatically when you change the source data. This does not
pose a serious problem, however, because a single click of the
Refresh toolbar button forces a pivot table to use the latest data.
An introduction
to pivot tables
How to create a
pivot table from
a database
How to group items
in a pivot table
How to create a
calculated field
or a calculated item
in a pivot table
.
.
.
.
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A pivot table example
The best way to understand the concept of a pivot table is to see one. Start with Figure 20-1,
which shows a portion of the data used in creating the pivot table in this chapter.
Figure 20-1: This database is used to create a pivot table.
This database consists of daily new-account information for a three-branch bank. The
database contains 350 records and tracks the following:
✦ The date that each account was opened
✦ The opening amount
✦ The account type (CD, checking, savings, or IRA)
✦ Who opened the account (a teller or a new-account representative)
✦ The branch at which it was opened (Central, Westside, or North County)
✦ Whether a new customer or an existing customer opened the account
The bank accounts database contains a lot of information. But in its current form, the data
does not reveal much. To make the data more useful, you need to summarize it.
Summarizing a database is essentially the process of answering questions about the data.
Following are a few questions that may be of interest to the bank’s management:
✦ What is the total deposit amount for each branch, broken down by account type?
✦ How many accounts were opened at each branch, broken down by account type?
Chapter 20 ✦ Analyzing Data with Pivot Tables in Excel
✦ What’s the dollar distribution of the different account types?
✦ What types of accounts do tellers open most often?
✦ How does the Central branch compare to the other two branches?
✦ Which branch opens the most accounts for new customers?
You could, of course, write formulas to answer these questions. Often, however, a pivot
table is a better choice. Creating a pivot table takes only a few seconds and doesn’t require a
single formula.
Figure 20-2 shows a pivot table created from the database displayed in Figure 20-1. This
pivot table shows the amount of new deposits, broken down by branch and account type.
This particular summary represents one of dozens of summaries that you can produce from
this data.
Figure 20-2: A simple pivot table.
Figure 20-3 shows another pivot table generated from the bank data. This pivot table uses a
page field for the Customer item (refer to Figure 20-1). In this case, the pivot table displays
the data only for existing customers (the user could also select New or All from page field
list). Notice the changes in the orientation of the table; branches appear in rows, and account
types appear in columns. This is another example of the flexibility of a pivot table.
Figure 20-3: A pivot table that uses a page field.
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Data appropriate for a pivot table
Not all data can be used to create a pivot table. The data that you summarize must be in the
form of a database. You can store the database in either a worksheet (sometimes known as a
list) or an external database file. Although Excel can generate a pivot table from any
database, not all databases benefit.
Generally speaking, fields in a database table can consist of two types:
✦ Data: Contains a value or data to be summarized. In Figure 20-1, the Amount field
is a data field.
✦ Category: Describes the data. In Figure 20-1, the Date, AcctType, OpenedBy,
Branch, and Customer fields are category fields because they describe the data in
the Amount field.
A single database table can have any number of data fields and category fields. When you
create a pivot table, you usually want to summarize one or more of the data fields.
Conversely, the values in the category fields appear in the pivot table as rows, columns, or
pages.
Exceptions exist, however, and you may find Excel’s pivot table feature useful even for
databases that don’t contain actual numerical data fields. The database columns A:C in
Figure 20-4, for example, don’t contain any numerical data, but you can create a useful pivot
table that counts the items in fields rather than sums them. The pivot table cross-tabulates
the Month Born field by the Sex field; the intersecting cells show the count for each
combination of month and gender.
Figure 20-4: This database doesn’t have any numerical fields, but you can use it to
generate a pivot table.
Chapter 20 ✦ Analyzing Data with Pivot Tables in Excel
Pivot Table Terminology
Understanding the terminology associated with pivot tables is the first step in mastering this
feature. Refer to the accompanying figure to get your bearings.
✦ Column field: A field that has a column orientation in the pivot table. Each item in the field
occupies a column. In the figure, Customer represents a column field that contains two items
(Existing and New). You can have nested column fields.
✦ Data area: The cells in a pivot table that contain the summary data. Excel offers several
ways to summarize the data (sum, average, count, and so on). In the figure, the Data area
includes C5:E20.
✦ Grand totals: A row or column that displays totals for all cells in a row or column in a pivot
table. You can specify that grand totals be calculated for rows, columns, or both (or neither).
The pivot table in the figure shows grand totals for both rows and columns.
✦ Group: A collection of items treated as a single item. You can group items manually or
automatically (group dates into months, for example). The pivot table in the figure does not
have any defined groups.
✦ Item: An element in a field that appears as a row or column header in a pivot table. In the
figure, Existing and New are items for the Customer field. The Branch field has three items:
Central, North County, and Westside. AcctType has four items: CD, Checking, IRA (Investment Retirement Account), and Savings.
✦ Page field: A field that has a page orientation in the pivot table — similar to a slice of a
three-dimensional cube. You can display only one item (or all items) in a page field at one
time. In the figure, OpenedBy represents a page field that displays the New Accts item.
✦ Refresh: To recalculate the pivot table after making changes to the source data.
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Continued
✦ Row field: A field that has a row orientation in the pivot table. Each item in the field occupies a row. You can have nested row fields. In the figure, Branch and AcctType both represent row fields.
✦ Source data: The data used to create a pivot table. It can reside in a worksheet or an
external database.
✦ Subtotals: A row or column that displays subtotals for detail cells in a row or column in a
pivot table. The pivot table in the figure displays subtotals for each branch.
Creating a Pivot Table
You create a pivot table by using a series of steps presented in the PivotTable and PivotChart
Wizard. You access this wizard by choosing Data _ PivotTable and PivotChart Report.
Then, carry out the steps outlined here.
Note
This discussion assumes that you use Excel 2000 or later. The procedure differs slightly in
earlier versions of Excel.
Step1: Specifying the data location
After you choose Data _ PivotTable and PivotChart Report, you see the dialog box shown
in Figure 20-5.
Figure 20-5: The first of three PivotTable and PivotChart Wizard dialog boxes.
Chapter 20 ✦ Analyzing Data with Pivot Tables in Excel
In this step, you identify the data source. Excel is quite flexible in the data that you can use
for a pivot table. (See the nearby sidebar, “Pivot Table Data Sources.”) This example uses a
worksheet database.
Note
You see different dialog boxes while you work through the wizard, depending on the location of
the data that you want to analyze. The following sections present the wizard’s dialog boxes for
data located in an Excel list or database.
Pivot Table Data Sources
The data used in a pivot table can come from a variety of sources, including Excel databases or
lists, data sources external to Excel, multiple tabled ranges, and other pivot tables. These sources
are described here.
Microsoft Excel List or Database
Usually, the data that you analyze is stored in a worksheet database (also known as a list).
Databases stored in a worksheet have a limit of 65,535 records and 256 fields. Working with a
database of this size isn’t efficient, however (and memory may not even permit it). The first row in
the database should contain field names. No other rules exist. The data can consist of values, text,
or formulas.
External Data Source
If you use the data in an external database for a pivot table, use Query (a separate application) to
retrieve the data. You can use dBASE files, SQL Server data, or other data that your system is set
up to access. Step 2 of the PivotTable and PivotChart Wizard prompts you for the data source.
Note that in Excel 2000 or later, you also can create a pivot table from an OLAP (OnLine Analytical
Processing) database.
Multiple Consolidation Ranges
You also can create a pivot table from multiple tables. This procedure is equivalent to consolidating the information in tables. When you create a pivot table to consolidate information in tables,
you have the added advantage of using all of the pivot table tools while working with the consolidated data.
Another Pivot Table Report or Pivot Chart Report
Excel enables you to create a pivot table from an existing pivot table or pivot chart. Actually, this is
a bit of a misnomer. The pivot table that you create is based on the data that the first pivot table
uses (not the pivot table itself). If the active workbook has no pivot tables, this option is grayed —
meaning you can’t choose it. If you need to create more than one pivot table from the same set of
data, the procedure is more efficient (in terms of memory usage) if you create the first pivot table
and then use that pivot table as the source for subsequent pivot tables.
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Step 2: Specifying the data
To move on to the next step of the wizard, click the Next button. Step 2 of the PivotTable
and PivotChart Wizard prompts you for the data. Remember that the dialog box varies,
depending on your choice in the first dialog box; Figure 20-6 shows the dialog box that
appears when you select an Excel list or database in Step 1.
Figure 20-6: In Step 2, you specify the data range.
If you place the cell pointer anywhere within the worksheet database when you select Data
_ PivotTable Report, Excel identifies the database range automatically in Step 2 of the
PivotTable and PivotChart Wizard.
You can use the Browse button to open a different worksheet and select a range. To move on
to Step 3, click the Next button.
Tip
If the source range for a pivot table is named Database, you can use Excel’s built-in Data Form
to add new data to the range. The named range will extend automatically to include the new
records. In addition, if you create the pivot table from a list (designated by using the Data _ List
_ Create List command), the pivot table will be linked to the list. Therefore, the pivot table will
be accurate if the list shrinks or grows.
Step 3: Completing the pivot table
Figure 20-7 shows the dialog box for the final step of the PivotTable and PivotChart Wizard.
In this step, you specify the location for the pivot table.
Figure 20-7: In Step 3, you specify the pivot table’s location.
Chapter 20 ✦ Analyzing Data with Pivot Tables in Excel
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If you select the New Worksheet option, Excel inserts a new worksheet for the pivot table. If
you select the Existing Worksheet option, the pivot table appears on the current worksheet.
(You can specify the starting cell location.)
At this point, you can click the Options button to select some options that determine how the
table appears. (Refer to the nearby sidebar “Pivot Table Options.”) You can set these options
at any time after you create the pivot table, so you do not need to do so before creating the
pivot table.
You can set up the actual layout of the pivot table by using either of two techniques:
✦ By clicking the Layout button in Step 3 of the PivotTable and PivotChart Wizard.
You then can use a dialog box to lay out the pivot table.
✦ By clicking the Finish button to create a blank pivot table. You then can use the
PivotTable Field List toolbar to lay out the pivot table.
Both of these options are described in the following subsections.
Using a dialog box to lay out a pivot table
When you click the Layout button of the wizard’s last dialog box, you get the dialog box
shown in Figure 20-8. The fields in the database appear as buttons along the right side of the
dialog box. Simply drag the buttons to the appropriate area of the pivot table diagram (which
appears in the center of the dialog box).
Figure 20-8: Specify the table layout.
The pivot table diagram has four areas:
✦ Page: Buttons in this area appear as page items in the pivot table.
✦ Row: Buttons in this area appear as row items in the pivot table.
✦ Data: Buttons in this area indicate the data that is summarized in the pivot table.
✦ Column: Buttons in this area appear as column items in the pivot table.
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You can drag as many field buttons as you want to any of these locations, and you don’t have
to use all the fields. Any fields that you don’t use simply don’t appear in the pivot table.
When you drag a field button to the Data area, the PivotTable and PivotChart Wizard applies
the Sum function if the field contains numeric values; it applies the Count function if the
field contains non-numeric values.
While you set up the pivot table, you can double-click a field button to customize it. You can
specify, for example, to summarize a particular field as a Count or other function. You also
can specify which items in a field to hide or omit. If you drag a field button to an incorrect
location, just drag it off the table diagram to get rid of it. Note that you can customize fields
at any time after you create the pivot table.
Figure 20-9 shows how the dialog box looks after dragging some field buttons to the pivot
table diagram. This pivot table displays the sum of the Amount field, broken down by
AcctType (as rows) and Customer (as columns). In addition, the Branch field appears as a page
field. Click OK to redisplay the PivotTable and PivotChart Wizard — Step 3 of the dialog box.
Figure 20-9: The table layout after dragging field buttons to the pivot table diagram.
Using the PivotTable Field List toolbar to lay out a pivot table
You may prefer to lay out your pivot table directly in the worksheet by using the PivotTable
Field List toolbar. The technique closely resembles the one just described because you still
drag and drop fields. But in this case, you drag fields from the toolbar into the worksheet.
Note
You cannot use this technique with versions prior to Excel 2000. Also, note that Excel 2000
doesn’t have a PivotTable Field List toolbar. Rather, the fields are displayed as buttons on the
PivotTable toolbar.
Complete the first two steps of the PivotTable and PivotChart Wizard. If you want, set options
for the pivot table by using the Options button that appears in the third dialog box of the
wizard. Don’t bother with the Layout button, however. Select a location for the pivot table and
choose Finish. Excel displays a pivot table template similar to the one you see in Figure 20-10.
The template provides you with hints about where to drop various types of fields.
Chapter 20 ✦ Analyzing Data with Pivot Tables in Excel
479
Figure 20-10: Use the PivotTable Field List toolbar to drag and drop fields onto the pivot
table template that Excel displays.
Drag and drop fields from the PivotTable Field List toolbar onto the template. Or select the
field name, choose the location from the drop-down list, and click the Add To button. Excel
continues to update the pivot table as you add or remove fields. For this reason, you’ll find
this method easiest to use if you drag and drop data items last. In other words, set up the
field items and then specify the data to summarize.
If you make a mistake, simply drag the field off the template and drop it on the worksheet —
Excel removes it from the pivot table template. All fields remain on the PivotTable Field
List toolbar, even if you use them.
The finished product
Figure 20-11 shows the result of this example. Notice that the page field displays as a dropdown box. You can choose which item in the page field to display by choosing it from the
list. You also can choose an item called All, which displays all the data.
Figure 20-11: The pivot table created by the PivotTable and PivotChart Wizard.
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Pivot Table Options
Excel provides plenty of options that determine how your pivot table looks and works. To access
these options, click the Options button in the final step of the PivotTable and PivotChart Wizard to
display the PivotTable Options dialog box. You also can access this dialog box after you create the
pivot table. Right-click any cell in the pivot table and then select Table Options from the shortcut
menu. The accompanying figure shows the PivotTable Options dialog box.
Here are its choices:
✦ Name: You can provide a name for the pivot table. Excel provides default names in the form
of PivotTable1, PivotTable2, and so on.
✦ Grand Totals for Columns: Check this box if you want Excel to calculate grand totals for
items displayed in columns.
✦ Grand Totals for Rows: Check this box if you want Excel to calculate grand totals for items
displayed in rows.
✦ AutoFormat Table: Check this box if you want Excel to apply one of its AutoFormats to the
pivot table. The selected AutoFormat sticks with the pivot table, even If you rearrange the
table layout.
✦ Subtotal Hidden Page Items: Check this box if you want Excel to include hidden items in
the page fields in the subtotals.
✦ Merge Labels: Check this box if you want Excel to merge the cells for outer row and column
labels. Doing so may make the table more readable.
✦ Preserve Formatting: Check this box if you want Excel, when it updates the pivot table, to
keep any of the formatting that you applied.
✦ Repeat Item Labels on Each Printed Page: Check this box to set row titles that appear on
each page when you print a pivot table report.
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Continued
✦ Mark Totals with: Available only if you generated the pivot table from an OLAP data source.
If checked, displays an asterisk after every subtotal and grand total to indicate that these
values include any hidden items as well as displayed items.
✦ Page Layout: You can specify the order in which you want the page fields to appear.
✦ Fields per Column: You can specify the number of page fields to show before starting
another row of page fields.
✦ For Error Values, Show: You can specify a value to show for pivot table cells that display
an error.
✦ For Empty Cells, Show: You can specify a value to show for empty pivot table cells.
✦ Set Print Titles: Check this box to set column titles that appear at the top of each page
when you print a PivotTable report.
✦ Save Data with Table Layout: If you check this option, Excel stores an additional copy of
the data (called a pivot table cache), which is stored with the workbook. If this option is not
enabled, then Excel must refresh the pivot table with the file is opened.
✦ Enable Drill to Details: If checked, you can double-click a cell in the data area of the pivot
table to view the records that contributed to the summary value.
✦ Refresh on Open: If checked, the pivot table refreshes whenever you open the workbook.
✦ Refresh Every x Minutes: If you are connected to an external database, you can specify
how often you want the pivot table refreshed while the workbook is open.
✦ Save Password: If you use an external database that requires a password, you can store
the password as part of the query so that you don’t have to reenter it.
✦ Background Query: If checked, Excel runs the external database query in the background
while you continue your work.
✦ Optimize Memory: This option reduces the amount of memory used when you refresh an
external database query.
Grouping Pivot Table Items
One of the more useful features of a pivot table is the ability to combine items into groups.
To group items, select them, right-click, and choose Group and Outline _ Group from the
shortcut menu that appears.
When a field contains dates, Excel can create groups automatically. Figure 20-12 shows a
portion of a simple database table with two fields: Date and Sales. This table has 370 records
and covers dates between June 1, 2001, and October 31, 2002. The goal is to summarize the
sales information by month.
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Figure 20-12: You can use a pivot table to summarize the sales data by month.
Figure 20-13 shows part of a pivot table created from the data. Not surprisingly, it looks
exactly like the input data because the dates have not been grouped. To group the items by
month, right-click the Data heading and select Group and Show Detail _ Group. You’ll see
the Grouping dialog box shown in Figure 20-14.
Note
In versions prior to Excel 2002, the shortcut menu command is Group and Outline _ Group.
•
Figure 20-13: The pivot table, before grouping by month.
Chapter 20 ✦ Analyzing Data with Pivot Tables in Excel
Figure 20-14: Use the Grouping dialog box to group items in a pivot table.
In the list box, select Months and Years, and verify that the starting and ending dates are
correct. Click OK. The Date items in the pivot table are grouped by years and by months (as
shown in Figure 20-15).
Figure 20-15: The pivot table, after grouping by month.
Note
If you select only Months in the Grouping list box, months in different years combine together.
For example, the June item would display sales for both 2001 and 2002.
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Copying a Pivot Table
A pivot table is a special type of object, and you cannot manipulate it as you may expect. For
example, you can’t insert a new row or enter formulas within the pivot table. If you want to manipulate a pivot table in ways not normally permitted, make a copy of it.
To copy a pivot table, select the table and choose Edit _ Copy. Then activate a new worksheet
and choose Edit _ Paste Special. Select the Values option and click OK. The contents of the pivot
table are copied to the new location so you can do whatever you like to them. You also may want
to repeat the Edit _ Paste Special command and select Formats (to copy the formatting from the
pivot table).
This technique is also useful when you want to create a standard chart. If you attempt to create a
chart from a pivot table, Excel always creates a pivot chart that contains field buttons. Sometimes
you may prefer a standard chart.
Note that the copied information is no longer linked to the source data. If the source data changes,
your copied pivot table does not reflect these changes.
Creating a Calculated Field or Calculated Item
After you create a pivot table, you can create two types of calculations for further analysis:
✦ A calculated field: A new field created from other fields in the pivot table. A
calculated field must reside in the Data area of the pivot table. (You can’t use a
calculated field in the Page, Row, or Column areas.)
✦ A calculated item: A calculated item uses the contents of other items within a field
of the pivot table. A calculated item must reside in the Page, Row, or Column area
of a pivot table. (You can’t use a calculated item in the Data area.)
The formulas used to create calculated fields and calculated items are not standard Excel
formulas. In other words, you do not enter the formulas into cells. Rather, you enter these
formulas in a dialog box, and they are stored along with the pivot table data.
The examples in this section use the worksheet database table shown in Figure 20-16. The
table consists of five fields and 48 records. Each record describes monthly sales information
for a particular sales representative. For example, Amy is a sales rep for the North region,
and she sold 239 units in January for total sales of $23,040.
Chapter 20 ✦ Analyzing Data with Pivot Tables in Excel
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Figure 20-16: This data demonstrates calculated fields and calculated items.
Figure 20-17 shows the basic pivot table created from the data. This pivot table shows sales,
broken down by month and sales rep.
Figure 20-17: This pivot table was created from the data in Figure 20-16.
The examples that follow will create
✦ A calculated field, to compute average sales per unit
✦ A calculated item, to summarize the data by quarters
Creating a calculated field in a pivot table
Because a pivot table is a special type of data range, you can’t insert new rows or columns
within the pivot table. This means that you can’t insert formulas to perform calculations with
the data in a pivot table. However, you can create calculated fields for a pivot table. A
calculated field consists of a calculation that can involve other fields.
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A calculated field is basically a way to display new information in a pivot table. It
essentially presents an alternative to creating a new Data field in your source database. A
calculated field cannot be used as a Row, Column, or Page field.
In the sales example, for instance, suppose you want to calculate the average sales amount
per unit. You can compute this value by dividing the Sales field by the Units Sold field. The
result shows a new field (a calculated field) for the pivot table.
Use the following procedure to create a calculated field that consists of the Sales field
divided by the Units Sold field:
1. Move the cell pointer anywhere within the pivot table.
2. Using the PivotTable toolbar, choose PivotTable _ Formulas _ Calculated Field.
Excel displays the Insert Calculated Field dialog box.
3. Enter a descriptive name in the Name field and specify the formula in the Formula
field (see Figure 20-18). The formula can use other fields and worksheet functions.
For this example, the calculated field name is Avg Unit Price, and the formula
appears as the following:
=Sales/’Units Sold’
4. Click Add to add this new field.
5. Click OK to close the Insert Calculated Field dialog box.
Figure 20-18: The Insert Calculated Field dialog box.
Note
You can create the formula manually by typing it or by double-clicking items in the Fields list
box. Double-clicking an item transfers it to the Formula field. Because the Units Sold field
contains a space, Excel adds single quotes around the field name.
After you create the calculated field, Excel adds it to the Data area of the pivot table. You
can treat it just like any other field, with one exception: You can’t move it to the Page, Row,
or Column area. (It must remain in the Data area.)
Chapter 20 ✦ Analyzing Data with Pivot Tables in Excel
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Figure 20-19 shows the pivot table after you’ve added the calculated field. The new field
displays as Sum of Avg Unit Price. (You can change this text, if desired, by editing any of
the cells in which that text appears.) The calculated field also appears on the PivotTable
Field List toolbar, along with the other fields available for use in the pivot table.
Figure 20-19: This pivot table uses a calculated field.
Tip
The formulas that you develop can also use worksheet functions, but the functions cannot refer
to cells or named ranges.
Inserting a calculated item into a pivot table
The preceding section describes how to create a calculated field. Excel also enables you to
create a calculated item for a pivot table field. Keep in mind that a calculated field can be an
alternative to adding a new field to your data source. A calculated item, on the other hand,
uses the contents of items within a single field.
The sales example uses a field named Month, which consists of text strings. You can create a
calculated item (called Qtr-1, for example) that displays the sum of Jan, Feb, and Mar.
You also can do this by grouping the items, but using grouping hides the individual months
and shows only the total of the group. Creating a calculated item for quarterly totals is more
flexible because it shows the total and the individual months.
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To create a calculated item to sum the data for Jan, Feb, and Mar, follow these steps:
1. Move the cell pointer to the Row, Column, or Page area of the pivot table that
contains the item that will be calculated. In this example, the cell pointer should be
in the Month area.
2. Use the PivotTable toolbar, and choose PivotTable _ Formulas _ Calculated Item
from the shortcut menu. Excel displays the Insert Calculated Item dialog box.
3. Enter a name for the new item in the Name field and specify the formula in the
Formula field (see Figure 20-20). The formula can use items in other fields, but it
can’t use worksheet functions. For this example, the new item is named Qtr-1, and
the formula appears as follows:
=Jan+Feb+Mar
4. Click Add.
5. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 to create additional calculated items for Qtr-2
(=Apr+May+Jun), Qtr-3 (=Jul+Aug+Sep), and Qtr-4 (=Oct+Nov+Dec).
6. Click OK to close the dialog box.
Figure 20-20: The Insert Calculated Item dialog box.
Caution
If you use a calculated item in your pivot table, you may need to turn off the Grand Total display
to avoid double counting. In this example the Grand Total includes the calculated item, so each
month is counted twice. To turn off Grand Totals, use the PivotTable Options dialog box (see the
“Pivot Table Options” sidebar, earlier in this chapter).
After you create the items, they appear in the pivot table. Figure 20-21 shows the pivot table
after you’ve added the four calculated items. Notice that the calculated items are added to
the end of the Month items. You can rearrange the items by selecting and dragging. Figure
20-22 shows the pivot table after rearranging the items logically. (Calculated items were
made bold.)
Chapter 20 ✦ Analyzing Data with Pivot Tables in Excel
Figure 20-21: This pivot table uses calculated items for quarterly totals.
Figure 20-22:The pivot table, after rearranging the calculated items.
Note
A calculated item appears in a pivot table only if the field on which it is based also appears. If
you remove or pivot a field from either the Row or Column category into the Data category, the
calculated item does not appear.
It’s also possible to get quarterly summaries by grouping items. Because the month names
are not actual dates, the grouping must be done manually. Figure 20-23 shows the pivot
table after creating four groups. You create the first group by selecting the Jan, Feb, and Mar
items. Then you right-click, and choose Group and Show Detail _ Group from the shortcut
menu. Excel inserted the default name, Group 1 — which you then change to Qtr 1. Next,
right-click the group item and chose Field Settings to display the PivotTable Field dialog
box. In this dialog box, you would specify the Sum function to summarize the grouped data.
Finally, you then repeat this process for the other three quarters.
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Figure 20-23: Grouping items to show quarterly summary information.
Summary
This chapter demonstrated the powerful capabilities of Excel’s pivot tables. Hopefully, you
now have the knowledge and ability to create the kind of reports and calculations that will
make your work easier. Key points from the chapter include:
✦ After you create a pivot table, you can rearrange the information in almost any way
imaginable and even insert special formulas that perform new calculations.
✦ You can create a pivot table from a database by executing the following steps:
Specifying the data location, specifying the data, and specifying how you want to
display the relationship between that data and completing the table.
✦ One of the more useful features of a pivot table is the ability to combine items into
groups. To group items, select them, right-click, and choose Group and Outline _
Group from the shortcut menu that appears.
✦ A calculated field is basically a way to display new information in a pivot table. It
essentially presents an alternative to creating a new Data field in your source
database. A calculated field cannot be used as a Row, Column, or Page field.
✦
✦
✦
Designing
User-Interactive
PowerPoint
Presentations
21
C H A P T E R
.
.
.
.
In This Chapter
Creating user
interaction
Adding hyperlinks
to slides
S
elf-running presentations do their jobs without any
intervention from the audience or from you. If a self-running
presentation runs at a trade show and there is no one to hear it, it
runs nonetheless.
In contrast, user-interactive shows also lack a human facilitator or
speaker, but they rely on an audience’s attention. The audience
presses buttons, clicks a mouse, or clicks graphics or hyperlinks
on-screen to advance the show from one slide to the next, and
they might even be able to control which content is displayed.
(See the “Interactive Presentation Ideas” section at the end of this
chapter for some usage ideas.)
What Is a Hyperlink?
The navigational controls you place in your presentation take
various forms, but are all hyperlinks. A hyperlink object is a bit of
text or a graphic that you (or your audience) can click to jump
somewhere else. When you click a hyperlink, you might jump to
a different slide in the same presentation, to a different
presentation, to another program on your computer, or even to an
Internet Web page.
Note
Most people associate the word hyperlink with the Internet because of their familiarity with the Web and with hyperlinks on Web
pages. However, a hyperlink is simply a link to somewhere else;
it does not necessarily refer to an Internet location.
Placing action
buttons
Distributing
user-interactive
presentations
.
.
.
.
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The most common type of hyperlink is underlined text. Hyperlink text is typically
underlined and a different color than the rest of the text on-screen. In addition, followed
links may be a different color from ones that you have not yet checked out, depending on the
program.
Tip
If you want a hyperlink that never changes its color, place a transparent object over it, such as
a rectangle, and apply the hyperlink to that object rather than the text. The user will think he is
clicking the text, but he will actually be clicking the rectangle. You can also assign a hyperlink to
a whole text box (manual text boxes only, not placeholder text boxes) as opposed to the text
within it.
You are not limited to underlined bits of text for your hyperlinks. You can also use graphics
or any other objects on your slides as hyperlinks. PowerPoint provides some special-purpose
graphics called action buttons that serve very well with hyperlinks. For example, you can
assign a hyperlink to the next slide to the action button that looks like a right arrow, as you
see in Figure 21-1 in the following section.
Navigational Control Choices
Figure 21-1 shows a slide with several types of navigational controls, any of which you can
use in your own slides.
Figure 21-1: Use one or more of the navigational aids shown here.
Chapter 21 ✦ Designing User-Interactive PowerPoint Presentations
✦ Action buttons: These graphics come with PowerPoint. You can set them up so
that clicking them moves to a different slide in the presentation. The ones in Figure
21-1 move forward (to the next slide) and back (to the previous slide).
✦ Hyperlink with helper text: The text “Click here to learn more” in Figure 21-1,
for example, provides built-in instructions for less technically sophisticated users.
The hyperlink could refer to a Web site, as in Figure 21-1, to a hidden slide in the
same presentation, or to any other location.
✦ Hyperlink without helper text: The text “Customer Satisfaction Surveys” in
Figure 21-1 is a hyperlink, but the audience must know enough about computers to
know that clicking those underlined words jumps to the slide containing more
information.
✦ ScreenTip: Pointing at a hyperlink displays a pop-up note listing the address to
which the hyperlink refers. Viewers can jot it down for later exploration if they
don’t want to visit the page right now.
✦ Bare Internet hyperlink: The Internet address in Figure 21-1,
http://www.superiorquality.org, is also a hyperlink — in this case, to
a Web page on the Internet. This kind of hyperlink can be intimidating for beginners who don’t recognize Internet syntax, but it is very good for the advanced
audience member because it lists the address up front. No clicking or pointing is
required to determine the address.
✦ Instructions: If you do not build specific navigation controls into the presentation,
you may want to add instructions on the slide that tell the reader how to move
forward and backward in the presentation. The instruction box at the bottom of
Figure 21-1 does just that.
Choosing Appropriate Controls for Your Audience
Before you dive into building an interactive presentation, you must decide how the audience
will navigate from slide to slide. There is no one best way; the right decision depends on
your audience’s comfort level with computers and with hyperlinks. Consider these points:
✦ Is the audience technically savvy enough to know that they should press a key or
click the mouse to advance the slide, or do you need to provide that instruction?
✦ Does your audience understand that the arrow action buttons mean forward and
back, or do you need to explain that?
✦ Does your audience understand hyperlinks and Web addresses? If they see underlined text, do they know that they can click it to jump elsewhere?
✦ Is it enough to include some instructions on a slide at the beginning of the show, or
do you need to repeat the instructions on every slide?
Think about your intended audience and their needs and come up with a plan. Here are some
sample plans:
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✦ For a beginner-level audience: Begin the presentation with an instructional slide
explaining how to navigate. Place action buttons on the same place on each slide
(using the Slide Master) to help them move forward and backward, and include a
Help action button that they can click to jump to more detailed navigation instructions.
✦ For an intermediate-level audience: Place action buttons on the same place on
each slide, along with a brief note on the first slide (such as the instruction in
Figure 21-1) explaining how to use them.
✦ For an advanced audience: Include other action buttons on the slide that allow the
users to jump around freely in the presentation — go to the beginning, to the end,
to the beginning of certain sections, and so on. Advanced users understand and can
take advantage of a more sophisticated system of action buttons.
Understanding Kiosk Mode
Kiosk mode places the keyboard and mouse in limited functionality mode during the
presentation, to give you more control over the audience’s experience.
Specifically, here’s what happens when you use Kiosk mode:
✦ The keyboard does not work, except for the Esc key (which exits the presentation).
✦ The mouse can be used to click on action buttons and hyperlinks, but clicking in
general does not do anything.
✦ The control buttons do not appear in the bottom left corner of the display, and you
cannot right-click to open their menu. Right-clicking does nothing.
To turn on Kiosk mode, do the following:
1. Choose Slide Show_Set Up Show. The Set Up Show dialog box opens.
2. Click Browsed at a Kiosk (Full Screen).
3. Click OK.
Caution
If you turn on Kiosk mode, you must use action buttons or hyperlinks in your presentation.
Otherwise users will not be able to move from slide to slide.
Using Action Buttons
Action buttons, which you saw in Figure 21-1, are the simplest kind of user-interactivity
controls. They enable your audience members to move from slide to slide in the presentation
with a minimum of fuss. PowerPoint provides many preset action buttons that already have
hyperlinks assigned to them, so all you have to do is place them on your slides.
Chapter 21 ✦ Designing User-Interactive PowerPoint Presentations
The action buttons that come with PowerPoint are shown in Table 21-1, along with their
preset hyperlinks. As you can see, some of them are all ready to go; others require you to
specify to where they jump. Most of the buttons have a default action assigned to them, but
you can change any of these as needed.
Tip
At first glance, there seems little reason to use action buttons that simply move the slide show
forward and backward. After all, isn’t it just as easy to use the keyboard’s Page Up and Page
Down keys, or to click the left mouse button to advance to the next slide? Well, yes, but if you
use Kiosk mode, described in the preceding section, you cannot move from slide to slide using
any of the conventional keyboard or mouse methods. The only thing the mouse can do is click
on action buttons and hyperlinks.
Table 21-1
Action Buttons
Button
Name
Hyperlinks to
None
Nothing, by default. You can add text or fills to the
button to create custom buttons.
Home
First slide in the presentation. (Home is where you
started, and it’s a picture of a house, get it?)
Help
Nothing, by default, but you can point it toward a
slide containing help.
Information
Nothing, by default, but you can point it to a slide
containing information.
Back or Previous
Previous slide in the presentation (not necessarily
the last slide viewed; compare to Return).
Forward or Next
Next slide in the presentation.
Beginning
First slide in the presentation.
End
Last slide in the presentation.
Return
Last slide viewed, regardless of normal order. This
is useful to place on a hidden slide that the
audience will jump to with another link (such as
Help), to help them return to the main presentation when they are finished.
Document
Nothing, by default, but you can set it to run a
program that you specify.
Continued
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Table 21-1 (continued)
Button
Name
Hyperlinks to
Sound
Plays a sound that you specify. If you don’t
choose a sound, it plays the first sound on
PowerPoint’s list of standard sounds (Applause).
Movie
Nothing, by default, but you can set it to play a
movie that you specify.
Setting up action buttons
To place an action button, follow these steps:
1. If you want to place the button on the Slide Master, display it
(View_Master_Slide Master).
Tip
Some action buttons are best placed on the Slide Master, such as Next and Previous; others,
such as Return, are special-use buttons that are best placed on individual slides.
2. Choose Slide Show_Action Buttons. A palette of buttons appears, corresponding
to the buttons you saw in Table 21-1. See Figure 21-2.
Figure 21-2: Choose a button from the Slide Show menu.
Chapter 21 ✦ Designing User-Interactive PowerPoint Presentations
3. Click the button that you want to place. Your mouse pointer turns into a crosshair.
Tip
You can drag the Action Buttons palette off the Slide Show menu, making it into a floating
toolbar.
4. To create a button of a specific size, drag on the slide (or Slide Master) where you
want it to go. Or, to create a button of a default size, simply click once where you
want it. You can resize the button at any time later, the same as you can any object.
Tip
If you are going to place several buttons, and you want them all to be the same size, place them
at the default size to begin with. Then select them all, and resize them as a group. That way
they will all be exactly the same size.
5. The Action Settings dialog box appears. Make sure the Mouse Click tab is on top.
See Figure 21-3.
Figure 21-3: Specify what should happen when you click the action button.
6. Confirm or change the hyperlink set up there:
• If the action button should take the reader to a specific location, make sure the
correct slide appears in the Hyperlink To box. Refer to the right column in Table
21-1 to see the default setting for each action button. Table 21-2 lists the choices
you can make and what they do.
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• If the action button should run a program, choose Run program and enter the
program’s name and path, or click Browse to locate it. For example, you could
open a Web browser window from an action button. The executable file that runs
Internet Explorer is iexplore.exe.
• If the action button should play a sound, click None in the Action on Click
section, make sure the Play Sound check box is marked, and choose the correct
sound from the Play Sound drop-down list (or pick a different sound file by
choosing Other Sound).
Tip
You can also run macros with action buttons. This is not all that common, however, because
most of the macros you record in PowerPoint apply to building a presentation, not showing one.
For example, you might create a macro that formats text a certain way. You would almost never
need to format text while a presentation was being shown to an audience.
7. Click OK. The button has been assigned the action you specified.
8. Add more action buttons as desired by repeating these steps.
9. If you are working in Slide Master view, exit it by clicking the Close button.
10. Test your action buttons in Slide Show view to make sure they jump where you
want them to.
To edit a button’s action, right-click it and choose Action Settings to reopen this dialog box
at any time.
Table 21-2
Hyperlink to Choices in the Action Settings Dialog Box
Drop-Down
Menu Choice
Previous Slide
Next Slide
First Slide
Last Slide
Last Slide Viewed
Result
These choices all do just what their names say. These are the
default actions assigned to certain buttons you learned about in
Table 21-1.
End Show
Sets the button to stop the show when clicked.
Custom Show . . .
Opens a Link to Custom Show dialog box, where you can
choose a custom show to jump to when the button is clicked.
Slide . . .
Opens a Hyperlink to Slide dialog box, where you can choose
any slide in the current presentation to jump to when the button
is clicked.
Continued
Chapter 21 ✦ Designing User-Interactive PowerPoint Presentations
Table 21-2 (continued)
Drop-Down
Menu Choice
URL . . .
Other PowerPoint
Presentation . . .
Other File . . .
Result
Opens a Hyperlink to URL dialog box, where you can enter a
Web address to jump to when the button is clicked.
Opens a Hyperlink to Other PowerPoint Presentation dialog box,
where you can choose another PowerPoint presentation to
display when the button is clicked.
Opens a Hyperlink to Other File dialog box, where you can
choose any file to open when the button is clicked. If the file
requires a certain application, that application will open when
needed. (To run another application without opening a specific
file in it, use the Run Program option in the Action Settings
dialog box instead of Hyperlink To.)
Adding text to an action button
The blank action button you saw in Table 21-1 can be very useful. You can place several of
them on a slide and then type text into them, creating your own set of buttons.
To type text into a blank button, follow these steps:
1. Place a blank action button on the slide.
2. Right-click the action button and choose Add Text. An insertion point appears in it.
(You can also select the button and simply start typing.)
3. Type your text. Format it as desired using the normal text formatting commands
and buttons.
4. When you are finished, click outside of the button to stop.
5. Resize the button, if needed, to contain the text more neatly. You can drag a
button’s side selection handles to make it wider.
6. If you need to edit the text later, simply click the text to move the insertion point
back into it, just as you do with any text box.
Figure 21-4 shows some examples of custom buttons you can create with your own text.
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Figure 21-4: You can create any of these sets of action buttons by typing and formatting
text on blank buttons.
Creating your own action buttons
You can create an action button out of any object on your slide: a drawn shape, a piece of
clip art, a photograph, a text box — anything. To do so, just right-click the object and
choose Action Settings. Then, set it to Hyperlink To, Run Program, or Play Sound, just as
you did for the action buttons in the preceding sections.
Make sure you clearly label the object that you are using as an action button so that the users
will know what they are getting when they click it. You can add text to the object directly
(for example, with an AutoShape), or you can add a text box next to the button that explains
its function.
Adding Text-Based Hyperlinks to Slides
Now that you know that hyperlinks are the key to user interactivity, you will want to add
some to your presentation. You can start with text-based hyperlinks since they’re the easiest.
You can either add them bare or with explanatory text.
Chapter 21 ✦ Designing User-Interactive PowerPoint Presentations
Typing a bare hyperlink
The most basic kind of hyperlink is an Internet address, typed directly into a text box. When
you enter text in any of the following formats, PowerPoint automatically converts it to a
hyperlink:
✦ Web addresses: Anything that begins with http://.
✦ E-mail addresses: Any string of characters with no spaces and an @ sign in the
middle somewhere.
✦ FTP addresses: Anything that begins with ftp://.
Figure 21-5 shows some examples of these “bare” hyperlinks. They are called bare because
you see what’s underneath them — the actual address — right there on the surface. There is
no friendly “click here” text that the link hides behind. For example, the text
[email protected] is a hyperlink that sends e-mail to that address. In contrast, a
link that reads “Click here to send e-mail to me” and contains the same hyperlink address is
not bare, because you do not see the address directly.
Note
If PowerPoint does not automatically create hyperlinks, the feature may be disabled. Choose
Tools_AutoCorrect Options. Click the AutoFormat As You Type tab, and make sure the Internet
and network paths with hyperlinks checkbox is marked.
Figure 21-5: Some examples of bare Internet hyperlinks.
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You do not have to do anything special to create these hyperlinks; when you type them and
press Enter or the space bar, PowerPoint converts them to hyperlinks. You know the
conversion has taken place because the text becomes underlined and different-colored. (The
exact color depends on the color scheme in use.)
Note
FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. It’s a method of transferring files via the Internet. Up
until a few years ago, FTP was a totally separate system from the Web, but nowadays,
most Web browsers have FTP download capabilities built in, so anyone who has
a Web browser can receive files via FTP. However, to send files via FTP, the user must
have a separate FTP program.
Creating text hyperlinks
A text hyperlink is a hyperlink comprised of text, but not just the bare address. For
example, in Figure 21-1, “Click here to learn more” is a text hyperlink. So is “Customer
Satisfaction Surveys.”
You can select already-entered text and make it a hyperlink, or you can enter new text.
Either way, follow these steps:
Note
These steps take you through the process generically; see the sections in “Choosing the Hyperlink
Address” later in the chapter for specific information about various kinds of hyperlinks you can
create.
1. To use existing text, select the text or its text box. Otherwise, just position the
insertion point where you want the hyperlink.
2. Choose Insert_Hyperlink or press Ctrl+K. The Insert Hyperlink dialog box opens.
See Figure 21-6.
Figure 21-6: Insert a hyperlink by typing the text to display and choosing the address of
the slide or other location to jump to.
Chapter 21 ✦ Designing User-Interactive PowerPoint Presentations
3. In the Text to Display field, type or edit the hyperlink text. This text is what will
appear underlined on the slide. Any text you’ve selected will appear in this field by
default; changing the text here changes it on your slide as well.
4. Enter the hyperlink or select it from one of the available lists. (See the following
section, “Choosing the Hyperlink Address,” to learn about your options in this
regard.)
5. (Optional) The default ScreenTip for a hyperlink is its address (URL). If you want
the ScreenTip to show something different when the user points the mouse at the
hyperlink, click the ScreenTip button and enter the text for the ScreenTip. See
Figure 21-7.
Figure 21-7: Enter a custom ScreenTip if desired.
Caution
Internet Explorer supports ScreenTips (in version 4.0 and higher), but other browsers may not.
This is not an issue if you plan to distribute the presentation in PowerPoint format, but if you
plan to convert it to Web pages, it might make a difference.
6. Click OK to close the Set Hyperlink ScreenTip dialog box.
7. Click OK to accept the newly created hyperlink.
Choosing the hyperlink address
You can use the Insert Hyperlink dialog box to create a hyperlink to any address that’s
accessible via the computer where the presentation will run. Although many people think of
a hyperlink as an Internet address, it can actually be a link to any file, application, Internet
location, or slide.
Caution
A hyperlink will not work if the person viewing the presentation does not have access to the
needed files and programs or does not have the needed Internet or network connectivity. A
hyperlink that works fine on your own PC might not work after the presentation has been transferred to the user’s PC.
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Possible addresses to hyperlink to include the following:
✦ Other slides in the current presentation
✦ Slides in other presentations (if you provide access to those presentations)
✦ Documents created in other applications (if the user has those applications installed
and those document files are available)
✦ Graphic files (if the user has access to an application that can display them)
✦ Internet Web pages (if the user has an Internet connection and a Web browser)
✦ E-mail addresses (if the user has an Internet connection and an e-mail program)
✦ FTP site addresses (if the user has an Internet connection and a Web browser or an
FTP program)
Creating a link to a slide in this presentation
The most common kind of link is to another slide in the same presentation. There are lots of
uses for this link type; you might, for example, hide several backup slides that contain extra
information. You can then create hyperlinks on certain key slides that allow the users to
jump to one of those hidden slides to peruse the extra facts.
To create a link to another slide, follow these steps:
1. To use existing text, select the text or its text box. Otherwise, just position the
insertion point where you want the hyperlink.
2. Choose Insert_Hyperlink or press Ctrl+K. The Insert Hyperlink dialog box opens.
3. In the Text to Display field, type or edit the hyperlink text. This text is what will
appear underlined on the slide. Any text you’ve selected will appear in this field by
default; changing text here changes it on your slide as well.
4. Click the Place in This Document button. The dialog box controls change to show a
list of the slides in the presentation. See Figure 21-8.
Figure 21-8: Select the slide that the hyperlink should refer to.
Chapter 21 ✦ Designing User-Interactive PowerPoint Presentations
5. Select the slide you want.
6. (Optional) If you want the presentation to continue from the original spot after
showing this slide, mark the Show and Return check box. If you prefer that the
presentation continue from the new location forward, leave it unmarked.
7. Click OK.
Creating a link to an existing file
You can also create a hyperlink to any file available on your PC’s hard disk or on your
local area network. This can be a PowerPoint file or a data file for any other program,
such as a Word document or an Excel spreadsheet. Or, if you don’t want to open a particular data file, you can hyperlink to the program file itself, so that the other application
simply opens.
For example, perhaps you have some detailed documentation for your product in Adobe
Acrobat format (PDF). This type of document requires the Adobe Acrobat reader. So you
could create a hyperlink with the text “Click here to read the documentation” and link to the
appropriate PDF file. When your audience member clicks that link, Adobe Acrobat Reader
opens and the documentation displays.
To link to a file, follow these steps:
1. To use existing text, select the text or its text box. Otherwise, just position the
insertion point where you want the hyperlink.
2. Choose Insert_Hyperlink or press Ctrl+K. The Insert Hyperlink dialog box opens.
3. In the Text to Display field, type or edit the hyperlink text. This text is what will
appear underlined on the slide.
4. In the Insert Hyperlink dialog box, click the Existing File or Web Page button.
5. Do one of the following:
Click Current Folder to display a file management interface from which you can
select any folder or drive on your system. Then navigate to the location containing
the file and select the file. See Figure 21-9.
OR
Click Recent Files to display a list of the files you have recently opened on this PC
(all types). Then click the file you want from the list.
Note
You are not limited to only the folder on your local drives if you choose Current Folder; you can
open the Look In list and choose My Network Places to browse the network. However, make
sure that the PC on which the presentation will be displayed will also have access to this same
location.
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Figure 21-9: Select any file to hyperlink to.
6. Click OK to return to the Insert Hyperlink dialog box.
7. Click OK to insert the hyperlink.
Tip
Using a hyperlink to an executable file can result in a warning message each time it is clicked if
the file being linked to is executable or is a data file containing macros. To avoid this, first ensure
that macro security is set to Low (Tools_Macro_Security). Then, instead of using a hyperlink,
use an Action Setting and choose Run Program as the action. For the program to run, use the
full path to the application, in quotation marks, followed by a space and then the full path to the
document, also in quotation marks. Because you must enter the full paths to each of these, the
link will probably not work when the presentation is run on a different computer.
Creating a link to a Web or FTP site
If you want to link to a Web or FTP site, as you learned earlier in the chapter, you can
simply type the address directly into any text box. Alternatively, you can use the Insert
Hyperlink command to create the link, as follows:
1. To use existing text, select the text or its text box. Otherwise, just position the
insertion point where you want the hyperlink.
2. Choose Insert_Hyperlink or press Ctrl+K. The Insert Hyperlink dialog box opens.
3. In the Text to Display field, type or edit the hyperlink text. This text is what will
appear underlined on the slide. Any text you’ve selected will appear in this field by
default; changing text here changes it on your slide as well.
4. From the Insert Hyperlink dialog box, click the Existing File or Web Page button.
Chapter 21 ✦ Designing User-Interactive PowerPoint Presentations
5. If you know the exact Web or FTP address that you want to link to, type it in the
Address box. Then click OK. Otherwise, go to Step 6.
6. Click Browsed Pages to display a list of pages you have visited recently (including
pages from PowerPoint’s Help system). See Figure 21-10.
Figure 21-10: You can select recently viewed or recently linked files from the list, or click
Browse the Web to open a Web browser from which to find the desired page.
7. If the address you want appears as a result of Step 6, click it and click OK. Otherwise, go on to Step 8.
8. Click the Browse the Web button to browse for the page you want. Internet Explorer (or your default Web browser) opens.
Note
If the Dial-Up Connection dialog box appears prompting you to connect to the Internet, enter
your username and password, if needed, and then click Connect.
9. In Internet Explorer, navigate to the page that you want to hyperlink to. You can
use your Favorites list or look up the page with a search site such as the one found
at www.google.com.
10. When you have arrived at the page you want, copy the URL from the address bar in
your browser, and then jump back to PowerPoint by clicking its button on your
Windows task bar. Paste the URL in the Address box of the PowerPoint dialog box
using Ctrl+V.
11. Click OK to create the link.
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Creating a link to a new document
Perhaps you want the audience to be able to create a new document by clicking a
hyperlink. For example, perhaps you would like them to be able to provide information
about their experience with your Customer Service department. One way to do this is to
let them create a new document using a program that they have on their system, such as a
word processor.
Caution
Be careful to set up a new document hyperlink to create a new document using a program that
you are sure your audience members will have access to.
To create a link to a new document, follow these steps:
1. To use existing text, select the text or its text box. Otherwise, just position the
insertion point where you want the hyperlink.
2. Choose Insert_Hyperlink or press Ctrl+K. The Insert Hyperlink dialog box opens.
3. In the Text to Display field, type or edit the hyperlink text. This text is what will
appear underlined on the slide.
4. From the Insert Hyperlink dialog box, click Create New Document. The dialog box
controls change, as shown in Figure 21-11.
Figure 21-11: PowerPoint prompts you to enter the new document name and location.
5. Enter the name of the new document that you want to create. The type of document
created depends on the extension you include. For example, to create a Word
document, use the .DOC extension. See Table 21-3 for other extensions.
Caution
If you provide this presentation to multiple users, each one will use the same file name for the
new document. This can be a problem because one file may overwrite another. It might be
easier and less trouble-free to collect information from multiple users using an E-Mail Address
hyperlink (discussed later in this chapter).
Chapter 21 ✦ Designing User-Interactive PowerPoint Presentations
6. If the path where it should be stored is not correct in the Full Path area, click the
Change button. Navigate to the desired location, and click OK to return.
7. Click the Edit the New Document Later option.
8. Click OK.
The most important part about adding a link to create a new file is to make sure that you use
an extension that corresponds to a program that users have on the PCs where they will be
viewing the presentation. When a program is installed, it registers its extension (the threecharacter code after the period in a file’s name) in the Windows Registry, so that any data
files with that extension are associated with that program. For example, when you install
Microsoft Word, it registers the extension .DOC for itself, and PowerPoint registers .PPT for
its own use. Table 21-3 lists some of the more common file types and their registered
extensions on most PCs. Also make sure that the location you specify for the Full Path will
always be accessible whenever the presentation is run.
Table 21-3
Commonly Used Extensions for Popular Programs
Extension
Associated Program
DOC
Microsoft Word, or WordPad if Word is not installed. Use for documents if you are not sure whether your audience has Word, but you
are sure they at least have Windows 95.
WRI
Write, the predecessor to WordPad. WordPad and Word also open
these if Write is not installed. Safest to use for documents if you do
not know which version of Windows your audience will be using.
TXT
Notepad, a plain text editor. Creates text files without any formatting.
Not my first choice for documents unless you specifically need them
to be without formatting.
WPD
WordPerfect, a competitor to Word.
BMP
Microsoft Paint (which comes free with Windows), or some other
more sophisticated graphics program if one is installed.
MDB
Microsoft Access, a database program.
MPP
Microsoft Project, a project management program.
PPT
Microsoft PowerPoint (you know what that is!).
XLS
Microsoft Excel, a spreadsheet program.
Creating a link to an e-mail address
You can also create a link that opens the user’s e-mail program and addresses an e-mail to
a certain recipient. For example, perhaps you would like the user to e-mail feedback to
you about how he liked your presentation or send you requests for more information about
your product.
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Caution
For an e-mail hyperlink to work, the person viewing the presentation must have an e-mail application installed on his or her PC and at least one e-mail account configured for sending e-mail.
This isn’t always a given, but it’s probably more likely than betting that they have a certain
application installed (as in the preceding section).
To create an e-mail hyperlink, follow these steps:
1. To use existing text, select the text or its text box. Otherwise, just position the
insertion point where you want the hyperlink.
2. Choose Insert_Hyperlink or press Ctrl+K. The Insert Hyperlink dialog box opens.
3. In the Text to Display field, type or edit the hyperlink text. This text is what will
appear underlined on the slide.
4. From the Insert Hyperlink dialog box, click the E-mail Address button. The dialog
box changes to show the controls in Figure 21-12.
Figure 21-12: Fill in the recipient and subject of the mail-to link.
5. In the E-mail Address box, enter the e-mail address. PowerPoint automatically adds
mailto: in front of it. (You can also select from one of the addresses on the
Recently Used E-Mail Addresses list if there are any.)
6. In the Subject field, enter the text that you want to be automatically added to the
Subject line of each e-mail.
7. Click OK. The hyperlink appears on the slide.
Chapter 21 ✦ Designing User-Interactive PowerPoint Presentations
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Editing a Hyperlink
If you need to change the displayed text for the hyperlink, simply edit it just as you do any
text on a slide. Move the insertion point into it and press Backspace or Delete to remove
characters; then retype new ones.
If you need to change the link to which the hyperlink points, follow these steps:
1. Right-click the hyperlink.
2. On the shortcut menu that appears, choose Edit Hyperlink. The Edit Hyperlink
dialog box appears. It is exactly the same as the Insert Hyperlink dialog box except
for the name.
3. Make changes to the hyperlink. You can change the displayed text, the address it
points to, or the ScreenTip.
4. Click OK.
Removing a Hyperlink
If you decide not to hyperlink in a particular spot, you can delete the displayed text,
effectively deleting the hyperlink attached to it. But if you want to leave the displayed text
intact and remove the hyperlink only, follow these steps:
1. Right-click the hyperlink.
2. On the shortcut menu that appears, choose Remove Hyperlink.
Creating Graphics-Based Hyperlinks
There are two ways to create a graphics-based hyperlink. Both involve skills that you have
already learned in this chapter. Both work equally well, but you may find that you prefer one
to the other. The Action Settings method is a little bit simpler, but the Insert Hyperlink
method allows you to browse for Web addresses more easily.
Creating a hyperlink with Action Settings
A graphics-based hyperlink is really no more than a graphic with an action setting attached
to it. You set it up just as you did with the action buttons earlier in this chapter:
1. Place the graphic that you want to use for a hyperlink.
2. Right-click it and choose Action Settings.
3. Choose Hyperlink To.
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4. Open the Hyperlink To drop-down list and choose a URL to enter an Internet
address, or choose one of the other options from Table 21-2 to link to some other
location or object.
5. Click OK.
Now the graphic functions just like an action button in the presentation; the audience can
click on it to jump to the specified location.
Creating a hyperlink with the Insert Hyperlink feature
If you would like to take advantage of the superior address-browsing capabilities of the
Insert Hyperlink dialog box when setting up a graphical hyperlink, follow these steps instead
of the preceding ones:
1. Place the graphic that you want to use for a hyperlink.
2. Right-click it and choose Hyperlink. The Insert Hyperlink dialog box appears.
3. Choose the location, as you learned earlier in this chapter for text-based hyperlinks.
The only difference is that the Text to Display box is unavailable because there is
no text.
4. Click OK.
Distributing a User-Interactive Presentation
One of the easiest and best ways to distribute a user-interactive presentation is via CD. You
can also distribute the presentation to people within the same company by placing it on a
shared network drive and then inviting people to access it. Or you can attach the
presentation to an e-mail message and distribute it that way.
Another way is to make the presentation available as a Web page (or series of pages). This is
good for information delivery, and it doesn’t require the audience to have any special
software, but you do lose some of the animation and special effects.
You can also place the PowerPoint file on a Web server and then create a link to it from a
Web page. This lets people run the presentation in PowerPoint itself (or the PowerPoint
Viewer) with all the bells and whistles.
Note
If you are interested in learning how to use the Internet to distribute or present a PowerPoint
Presentation, Wiley’s PowerPoint 2003 Bible covers it in depth in chapter 30.
Interactive Presentation Ideas
You have probably thought of some good ideas for interactive presentations as you worked
through this chapter. Here are some more:
Chapter 21 ✦ Designing User-Interactive PowerPoint Presentations
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✦ Web resource listings: Include a slide that lists Web page addresses that the users
can visit for more information about various topics covered in your presentation.
Or, include Web cross-references throughout the presentation at the bottom of
pertinent slides.
✦ Product information: Create a basic presentation describing your products, with
For More Information buttons for each product. Then, create hidden slides with the
detailed information, and hyperlink those hidden slides to the For More Information
buttons. Don’t forget to put a Return button on each hidden slide so users can easily
return to the main presentation.
✦ Access to custom shows: If you have created custom shows, as described in
Chapter 24, set up action buttons or hyperlinks that jump the users to them on
request. Use the Action Settings dialog box’s Hyperlink To command and choose
Custom Show; then choose the custom show you want to link to.
✦ Quizzes: Create a presentation with a series of multiple-choice questions. Create
custom action buttons for each answer. Depending on which answer the user clicks,
set it up to jump either to a Congratulations, You’re Right! slide or a Sorry, Try
Again slide. From each of those, include a Return button to go on with the quiz.
✦ Troubleshooting information: Ask the users a series of questions and include
action buttons or hyperlinks for the answers. Set it up to jump to a slide that further
narrows down the problem based on their answers, until they finally arrive at a
slide that explains the exact problem and proposes a solution.
✦ Directories: Include a company directory with e-mail hyperlinks for various people
or departments so that anyone reading the presentation can easily make contact.
Summary
In this chapter, you learned how to create action buttons and hyperlinks in your presentation
that can help your audience jump to the information they want in a self-service fashion. Now
you can design great-looking presentations that anyone can work their way through on their
own, without assistance.
✦
✦
✦
Adding Security
to Access
Applications
22
C H A P T E R
.
.
.
.
In This Chapter
Using a database’s
Startup options
A
lthough Access provides the interface to maintain security
options, it is Jet that actually performs security functions.
The Jet security model has changed little since Access 95. Jet’s
security is still a workgroup-based security model; all users in a
workgroup are bound to the same security rules. The rules
enforced for individual users may vary from user to user, based
on the permissions assigned to each user.
Note
This chapter is from the Access 2003 Bible, which includes a CD
with sample applications on it to give you real hands-on experience. If you have that book, you would use the database file
Chap34Start.mdb.
Understanding Jet Security
Jet security is defined at the object level for individuals or groups
of users. The Jet security model is rather complex, but it isn’t too
difficult to understand when broken down into its core
components, which are as follows:
. Workgroups
. Groups
. Users
. Object owners
. Object permissions
Manipulating users
and groups
Securing objects
by using permissions
Using the Access
Security Wizard
Protecting Visual
Basic code
Encrypting
a database
Preventing virus
infections
.
.
.
.
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The two main reasons for employing user-level security are
. To protect sensitive data in the database.
. To prevent users from accidentally breaking an application by changing the objects
(tables, queries, and so on) of the application.
By using passwords and permissions, you can allow or restrict access of an individual or
groups of individuals to the objects (forms, tables, and so on) in your database. This
information, known as a workgroup, is stored in a workgroup information file.
Understanding workgroup files
Jet stores security information for databases in workgroup information files, usually the
default file is named “SYSTEM.MDW.” This workgroup information file is a special Access
database that contains a collection of user names and passwords, user group definitions,
object owner assignments, and object permissions. The SYSTEM.MDW file is often
located, by default, in the C:\Documents and Settings\<user name>\Application
Data\Microsoft\Access\System.MDW folder. When Access opens a database, it reads the
workgroup information file associated with the database. Access reads the file to determine
who is allowed — and at what level — access to the objects in the database and what
permissions they have to those objects.
You can use the same workgroup file for multiple databases. After you enable security for a
database, however, users must use the workgroup information file containing the security
information. If users use a workgroup other than the one used to define security, however,
they are limited to logging into the database as the Admin user — with whatever
permissions the database administrator left for the Admin user.
Tip
When securing a database, one of the first things that you need to do is to remove all permissions for the Admin user. Removing these permissions prevents other users from opening the
database as the Admin user by using another Access workgroup file and obtaining the rights of
the Admin user. Users can still open the database as the Admin user by using a different
workgroup, but they won’t have any object permissions. This measure is discussed later in this
chapter in the section “Working with workgroups.”
Understanding permissions
The permissions in Jet security are defined at the object level; each object, such as a form or
report, has a specific set of permissions. The system administrator defines what permissions
each user or group of users has for each object. Users may belong to multiple groups, and
they always inherit the highest permission setting of any of the groups to which they belong.
For example, every table object has a set of permissions associated with it: Read Design,
Modify Design, Read Data, Update Data, Insert Data, Delete Data, and Administrator. (See
Table 22-1, later in this chapter, for a complete list of permissions and their meanings.) The
database administrator has the ability to assign or remove any or all of these permissions for
Chapter 22 ✦ Adding Security to Access Applications
each user or group of users in the workgroup. Because the permissions are set at the object
level, the administrator may give a user the ability to read data from Table A, as well as
read data from and write data to Table B, but prevent the user from even looking at Table C.
In addition, this complexity allows for unique security situations, such as having numerous
users sharing data on a network, each with a different set of rights for the database objects.
All security maintenance functions are performed from the Tools_Security menu item
(see Figure 22-1).
Figure 22-1: All Jet security functions are performed from the Tools_Security menu.
Understanding security limitations
You need to be aware of the fact that you can’t depend on the Jet security model to be
foolproof. For example, security holes have been discovered and exposed in previous
versions of Access — in effect, unprotecting every database distributed under the
assumption that the code and objects were protected. The amount of resources involved in
developing an application is often huge, and protecting that investment is essential. The
most that you can do for protection is to fully and properly implement the Jet 4.0 security
model and use legally binding licensing agreements for all of your distributed applications.
Unfortunately, the security of your databases is at the mercy of software hackers.
As of the printing of this book, Microsoft has released the Microsoft Jet 4.0 Service Pack 7
update, which provides an updated sandbox mode. Sandbox mode allows Microsoft Office
Access 2003 to block potentially unsafe expressions. In fact, if you do not install this service
pack, some features in Office Access 2003 will not function properly.
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Tip
You should monitor the Microsoft Update service on the Web at h t t p : / /
office.microsoft.com/ProductUpdates/default.aspx to keep your
Windows operating system and Office programs up to date.
We recommend that you use Microsoft Access security to lock up your tables and prevent
access to the design of your forms, reports, queries, and modules. However, if you want to
control data at the form level — for example, suppose that you want to hide controls or
control access to specific form-level controls or data — you have to write your own security
commands. You can also use the operating system (Windows) to prevent access to the
directories.
Choosing a Security Level to Implement
As an Access developer, you must determine the level of security appropriate for your
application — not every database needs user-level security. If your application contains nonsensitive data or is implemented in a fairly low-risk workgroup, you may not need the
powerful permission protection of Jet’s security. For applications that need to be secure, you
need to make the following decisions:
. Which users are allowed to use the database?
. Can individual users be categorized into similar groups?
. Which objects need to be restricted for individual users or groups?
After you have made these determinations, you are ready to begin implementing security
in your application. Access includes a tool to help you implement security — the UserLevel Security Wizard (available from the Tools_Security menu choice). This chapter
teaches you how you can implement security by using Access’s interface; each security
element is discussed in detail. A thorough understanding of the workings of the security
model is essential in developing well-secured applications. (The wizard is discussed later
in this chapter.)
Creating a Database Password
You can use Jet security at its most basic level simply by controlling who can open the
database. You control database access by creating a password for the databases that you
want to protect. When you set a database password for a database, users are prompted to
enter the password each time they attempt to access the database. If they don’t know the
database password, they are not allowed to open the database. When using this form of
security, you are not controlling specific permissions for specific users; you are merely
controlling who can and can’t access the secured database.
Chapter 22 ✦ Adding Security to Access Applications
To create a database password, follow these steps:
1. In Access, open the Chap34Start.mdb database exclusively.
Note
You must open the database exclusively in order to set the database password. To open the
database exclusively, select the Open Exclusive button from the Open pull-down menu in
the lower-right corner of the Open dialog box, as shown in Figure 22-2.
Figure 22-2: Opening a database in exclusive mode.
2. Select Tools_Security_Set Database Password (refer to Figure 22-1).
3. In the Password field, type the password that you want to use to secure the database
(see Figure 22-3). For this example, use the password bible. Access does not display
the password; rather, it shows an asterisk ( * ) for each letter.
Figure 22-3: Creating a database password is the simplest way to secure your database.
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4. In the Verify field, type the password again. This security measure ensures that you
don’t mistype the password (because you can’t see the characters that you type) and
mistakenly prevent everyone, including you, from accessing the database.
For maximum security, when entering a password, you should follow standard password
naming conventions. That is, you should make the password a combination of letters and
numbers that won’t represent any easily known or deduced combination. People often unwisely use a birthday, their name, their address number, or a loved one’s name, which are all
poor choices for passwords because another person could deduce them fairly easily. On the
other hand, you shouldn’t make the password so difficult to remember that you and others
accessing the database will have to write it down to use it. A written password is a useless
password.
Tip
5. Click OK to save the password.
Caution
You can’t synchronize replicated databases that have database passwords. If you plan to use
Jet’s replication features and you need database security, you must use user-level security.
After you save the database password, any user who attempts to open the database must
enter the password. Although this method controls who can access the database, it doesn’t
control what users are allowed to do with the objects and data after they have opened the
database. To control objects, you need to fully implement Jet’s user-level security, which is
discussed in the following section.
Note
After a database has been protected with a database-level password, you must supply the
password when linking to any of its tables. This password is stored in the definition of the link to
the table.
To remove a database password, follow these steps:
1. In Access, open the secure database exclusively. You must open the database
exclusively to be able to remove the database password.
2. Select Tools_Security_Unset Database Password. This menu option replaced the
option labeled Set Database Password before the database password was set.
3. In the Password field, type the password of the database (see Figure 22-4).
4. Click OK to unset the password.
Figure 22-4: You can remove a database password by entering the password in the
Unset Database Password dialog box.
Chapter 22 ✦ Adding Security to Access Applications
If you remove a database password from an Access database, users are no longer required to
enter a password to access the database unless you have enabled user-level security.
Any user who knows the database password has the ability to change or remove the database
password. You can prevent this situation by removing the Administer permissions from the
database for all users except the database administrator. This is discussed in more detail later
in this chapter.
Note
Caution
Microsoft Access stores the database password in an unencrypted form. If you have sensitive
data, this can compromise the security of the password-protected database. In situations where
data security is critical, you should consider defining user-level security to control access to
sensitive data. User-level security is covered in depth later in this chapter.
Using Visual Basic to Set A Password
You also can set a database password using Visual Basic code. The following code changes the
database password of the currently opened database:
Public Sub ChangeDatabasePassword()
On Error GoTo ChangeDatabasePasswordErr
Dim szOldPassword As String, szNewPassword As String
Dim db As Database
Set db = CurrentDb
szOldPassword = “”
szNewPassword = “shazam”
db.NewPassword szOldPassword, szNewPassword
Exit Sub
ChangeDatabasePasswordErr:
MsgBox Err & “: “ & Err.Description
Exit Sub
End Sub
If no database password is set, you pass a zero-length string (“”) as the old password parameter. If
a database password is assigned and you want to remove the password, pass the database
password as the old password parameter and pass a zero-length string (“”) as the new password.
Using the /runtime Option
If you’re not concerned with protecting your application but simply want to prevent users
from mistakenly breaking your application by modifying or deleting objects, you can force
your application to be run in Access’s runtime mode. When a database is opened in Access’
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runtime mode, all the interface elements that allow changes to objects are hidden from the
user. In fact, while in runtime mode, it is impossible for a user to access the Database
window. When using the runtime option, you must ensure that your application has a startup
form that gives users access to whatever objects that you want them to be able to access.
Normally this is the main menu or main switchboard of your application.
You must purchase and install the Microsoft Visual Studio Tools for the Microsoft Office
System to use the /runtime switch. This suite of tools includes a runtime version of Access that
Note
allows you to distribute a royalty-free licensed copy of your Access 2003 applications to users,
whether they have Access on their machine or not.
To assign a form as a startup form, open the database that you want to use, choose Tools_Startup
and select the form that you want to be the startup form from the Display Form/Page drop-down
list. Startup forms are covered more in-depth in the following section.
Tip
To create a shortcut to start your application in Access’s runtime mode, follow these steps,
using the Chap34Start.mdb database:
1. Go to the subdirectory that contains Microsoft Access (MSACCESS.exe).
Note
On most computers, the MSACCESS.EXE file is located in the “C:\Program Files\Microsoft
Office\OFFICE11\” folder.
2. Highlight the Microsoft Access program and select File_Create Shortcut, or rightclick on the program file and select Create Shortcut from the menu-on-demand.
Windows creates a shortcut in the same directory, naming it “Shortcut to
Msaccess.exe.”
3. Right-click the newly created shortcut, select Properties from the menu, and then
click the Shortcut tab when the Properties dialog box opens.
4. In the Target: field, append the following parameters to the path of
MSACCESS.EXE (program): A space, the full path name and filename of the
database to open in runtime mode, another space, and then /runtime.
For example, the following command line starts Access and opens the
Chap34Start.mdb database in runtime mode on our computers:
“C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\OFFICE11\MSAccess.exe”
“C:\Access 2003 Access Auto Auctions\Chap34Start.mdb” /runtime
Note
The path to MSAcess.exe should have already been in the Target: field. Note that Windows
automatically places the path and filename for MSAccess.exe in quotation marks. The /
runtime switch should not be enclosed in quotes. If you enclose the /runtime switch in quotes,
an error occurs when you attempt to execute the shortcut.
Chapter 22 ✦ Adding Security to Access Applications
5. After you have specified the path and filename, placing the /runtime switch at the
end of the Target: field, you can optionally remove the path name in the Start in:
field.
Figure 22-5 shows how the Shortcut properties should look at this point.
Figure 22-5: Modifying the Target: and Start in: fields of the shortcut by using the /
runtime switch of Access 2003.
6. After the fields have been updated, click the Apply button to process the changes
and save the shortcut.
7. Finally, you can rename the shortcut icon to any name that you want and move it
from the current directory to another directory, or even to the desktop. After you
have created the shortcut, you can distribute or re-create the same shortcut for each
user installation.
Tip
If your database has a password associated with it, the user will still be prompted to enter the
password prior to opening the database.
Using a Database’s Startup Options
A slightly less secure alternative to using the /runtime option is to set a database’s startup
options. This alternative is not a complete solution for situations where tight security is
paramount. Figure 22-6 shows the Startup options dialog box. To access the Startup options
dialog box, select Tools_Startup.
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Figure 22-6: Using the Startup options dialog box provides another option for securing
an application.
By making the appropriate specifications in the Startup options dialog box, you can do the
following:
. Assign a title to the application.
. Assign an Application Icon to the application.
. Assign a form or data access page to immediately run when the database is open.
. Prevent the Database window (container) from being displayed.
. Prevent the status bar from being displayed.
. Designate a menu bar to be used on startup of your application.
. Designate a shortcut menu to be used on startup of your application.
. Prevent Access’s built-in menus (full menus) from being displayed.
. Prevent Access’s built-in shortcut menus from being displayed.
. Prevent Access’s built-in toolbars from being displayed.
. Prevent users from modifying toolbars (toolbar/menu changes).
. Prevent users from using Access’s special keys to display the Database window,
display the immediate window, display the VB window, or pause execution.
To designate the frmSwitchboard form as the default form to open whenever the
Chap34Start.mdb database opens, follow these steps:
1. Open the Chap34Start.mdb database and select Tools_Startup to open the Startup
dialog box.
2. Click in the Display Form/Page: field and select the frmSwitchboard form from the
pull-down list (refer to Figure 22-6).
3. Click OK.
Chapter 22 ✦ Adding Security to Access Applications
After you have assigned a form to open automatically, you can also specify that the
Database window or status bar not be displayed to give even greater security to your
application. By selecting these two items, when the user clicks the Close button on the
startup form, the database window (container) will not display. By using a database
password and the Startup options, you can assign minimum security to the database and
your application.
Caution
The user can bypass the Startup options by simply holding down the Shift key while opening
the database. However, if you assign a database password, users will still be required to
enter the password in order to use the database.
Using the Jet User-Level Security Model
Most often when security is required, setting a database password and run-time options is
simply not enough.
When you need more security, you can use Access user profiles that are implemented by the
user-level/object permissions security of Jet 4.0. The Jet Database Engine offers additional
levels of customization and security for your application. When using Jet level security, you
need to complete the following series of functions:
1. Select or create a workgroup database.
2. Define the workgroup database’s security groups.
3. Create the users of the workgroup database.
4. Define permissions for each user and security group.
5. Enable security by setting an Admin user password.
What Is Jet and a User Profile?
When you create a Microsoft Access database (.mdb or .mde), Access uses an internal program to
create and work with the database and its objects. Microsoft calls this internal program the Jet
Database Engine. Its purpose is to retrieve and store data in user and system databases. Some
people refer to the Jet engine as a data manager that the database system is built upon. Jet only
works with Access databases — it doesn’t work with other ODBC databases, such as SQL Server,
Oracle, and others. The current version of Jet is 4.0 (also in Access 2000 and 2002). When you
installed Access, the installation program created several registry settings for the Jet engine. You
can use the Registry Editor to examine and even change these settings for Access. However, we
highly recommend that you do not change the setting in the Microsoft Windows registry.
Using Jet, you can build an Access user profile that is comprised of a special set of Window’s
registry keys, which will override the standard Access and Jet database engine settings.
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Enabling security
Jet database security is always on. Whenever a new workgroup database is created, an
Admin user is automatically created within the workgroup. This Admin user has no
password assigned to it. When the Admin password is blank, Access assumes that any user
attempting to open the database is the Admin user, and that this user is automatically logged
in to the database as the Admin user. To force Access (Jet) to ask for a valid user name and
password to log in to the database (see Figure 22-7), you simply need to create a password
for the Admin user. (Creating passwords is discussed later in this section.) To disable
security, simply clear the Admin user’s password. The security permissions that you have
designed are still in effect, but Access doesn’t ask for a user name and password — it logs
on all users as the Admin user with whatever permissions were assigned to the Admin user.
Be careful about clearing the Admin user’s password when you have modified the
permissions of your users.
Figure 22-7: When security is enabled, Jet forces all users to enter a valid user name
and password to use the secured database.
Tip
Any changes that you make to security won’t take effect until you restart Access. If you have
cleared the Admin password only to find that some or all of the Admin user’s permissions have
been revoked, open the database and create a password for the Admin user. Then exit Access
and restart Access (not the database). When you restart Access, you are prompted to enter a
user name and password.
Working with workgroups
A workgroup is a collection of users, user groups, and object permissions. You can use a
single workgroup file for all of your databases, or you can use different workgroups for
different databases. The method that you use depends on the level of security that you need.
If you give Administrative rights to users of some databases but not to users of other
databases, you need to distribute separate workgroup files with each database. Access
always uses a workgroup file when you open it. By default, this workgroup file is the
SYSTEM.MDW workgroup file. This file comes with Access 2003.
Chapter 22 ✦ Adding Security to Access Applications
Creating a new workgroup
You can create new workgroups or join existing workgroups by using the Workgroup
Administrator program that comes with Access 2003 (see Figure 22-8). To begin creating a
new workgroup, select Tools_Security from the Access menu.
Figure 22-8: Using the Workgroup Administrator to create new workgroups and to join
existing workgroups.
Note
You should completely close down Access after creating new workgroups or joining existing
workgroups. When you use the Workgroup Administrator to join a workgroup, that workgroup is
not actually used until the next time you start Access.
To create a new workgroup file, follow these steps:
1. Start Access (with or without a database), select Tools_Security, and then select
Workgroup Administrator.
2. Select the Create button in the Workgroup Administrator dialog box to display the
Workgroup Owner Information dialog box.
The workgroup that you create is identified by three components: Name, Organization, and
Workgroup ID (see Figure 22-9).
Caution
In order to re-create the workgroup file in the event that it becomes corrupt or deleted, you
need all three pieces of information. For this reason, to ensure that no other user can
create your workgroup and access your secured database, you should supply a unique,
random string for the Workgroup ID. Someone may possibly guess the name and organization used in your workgroup file if he or she knows who you are, but to guess all three
items — especially if you create a random, unique ID — is almost impossible.
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Figure 22-9: Workgroups are identified by these three key pieces of information. A
workgroup can’t be re-created without all three of these items.
3. When you are satisfied with your entries, select OK to display the Workgroup
Information File dialog box.
4. Enter a name for the new workgroup file, and select OK to save it (see Figure 2210). If you enter a filename that already exists, like SYSTEM.MDW, you will
receive a confirmation box requesting that you confirm replacing the existing file.
Figure 22-10: Assigning a filename for the new workgroup.
5. The Workgroup Administrator displays a confirmation dialog box (see Figure 22-11)
containing the information that you entered for the new workgroup and explains the
importance of writing down and storing the information. If you are satisfied with
your entries, select OK to save your workgroup. If you want to change anything,
click the Change button to return to Step 3.
Chapter 22 ✦ Adding Security to Access Applications
Figure 22-11: Confirming the information for the new workgroup.
When you select the OK button in the Confirm Workgroup Information dialog box,
a message displays to inform you that you have created the workgroup information
file correctly.
Tip
In order to ensure that you can recover from the loss of your workgroup file, you should
immediately make a copy of the workgroup file. In addition, you should write down the three
pieces of information that you used to create the workgroup file, exactly as they were entered, in the event that you have to re-create the workgroup file from scratch. Store both the
backup file copy and the written information in a secure place.
Joining an existing workgroup
When you create a new workgroup, Access automatically joins the new workgroup. If you
don’t want to use the new workgroup right away, or if at any time you need to use a
workgroup other than the current workgroup, you can use the Workgroup Administrator to
join another workgroup.
To join an existing workgroup, follow these steps:
1. Activate the Workgroup Administrator program from the Tools_Security menu.
2. The Workgroup Administrator dialog box displays the current workgroup (refer
back to Figure 22-10). Click the Join button to select a workgroup file. If you aren’t
sure of the filename, click the Browse button to display a File dialog box in which to
locate the workgroup file.
3. A prompt displays so that you can confirm or cancel joining the workgroup. Select
OK and then select Exit to close the Workgroup Administrator.
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Working with users
Every time a user opens an Access (Jet) database, Jet must identify the user opening the
database. In Access, security is always enabled — regardless of whether or not you have
explicitly created a workgroup for your database. If you have not defined a workgroup, Jet
assumes that any user who opens the database is the Admin user. When a new workgroup is
created, Access automatically creates a default user named Admin. The Admin user
automatically receives full permissions to all objects in the database. Obviously, when you
secure a database, you don’t want everyone to be able to open the database with full
permissions on all objects, so you must create additional users for the workgroup.
Adding and deleting user accounts
To add, delete, and edit user information, you use the User and Group Accounts dialog box
(see Figure 22-12). To open the User and Group Accounts dialog box, select
Tools_Security_User and Group Accounts … from the Access menu. The Users tab of the
User and Group Accounts dialog box consists of two sections: User and Group Membership.
You use the User section to create and maintain user names and passwords. You use the
Group Membership section to assign users to user groups. Assigning users to groups is
discussed in detail later in this chapter.
Figure 22-12: Creating and maintaining users in the User and Group Accounts dialog
box.
To fully secure your database with users and groups, you should generally follow
these steps:
Chapter 22 ✦ Adding Security to Access Applications
1. Create a new user.
2. Add the new user to the Admins group.
3. Remove the Admin user from the Admins group.
4. Assign all object ownerships to the new user.
When you create a user, you supply the user name and a personal identifier. Jet then
combines these two items and processes them in a special algorithm, producing a unique
security ID (SID). It is this SID that Jet uses to recognize users. In order to re-create a user
in the workgroup, you need to know the user name and the personal ID (PID) that was used
to create the user. Consequently, you should always write down and store all names and
PIDs of users that you create in a safe place.
To create a new user in a workgroup, follow these steps:
1. Open the database Chap34Start.mdb.
2. Select Tools_Security_User and Group Accounts to display the User and Group
Accounts dialog box.
3. Select the New button in the User section to display the New User/Group dialog box
(see Figure 22-13).
Figure 22-13: Jet combines the User Name and Personal ID to create a unique SID for
the user.
4. Enter the name Student1 for the Name, and enter a unique Personal ID of 1234.
(You can enter any appropriate information into these two fields, if you don’t want
to use these example names.) Write this information down and store it in a safe
place; you will need it if you have to re-create the user in the workgroup.
5. Select OK to save the new user.
After you have created the new user, Student1, you can assign Group Memberships and/or a
password for the user. Notice that Student1 is automatically a member of the Users group.
Any new member must at least belong to this group. You can make Student1 a member of
the Admins group by simply selecting the Add button in the Group Membership section.
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Caution
To fully secure your database, you must remove all permissions for the Admin user, found
under the Tools_Security_User and Group Permissions menu. (Defining Group Permissions is covered later in this chapter.) All Admin users share the same SID in all workgroups,
on all machines. If you don’t remove the permissions for the Admin user, an unauthorized user
using a different workgroup can open the database as the Admin user with all permissions of
the Admin user. The Admin user can’t be deleted, so the Admin user account needs to be
adjusted accordingly.
If you want to delete the user Student1 that you just created, follow these steps:
1. Select Tools_Security_User and Group Accounts to display the User and Group
Accounts dialog box.
2. From the User Name drop-down list, select the User Student1.
3. Click the Delete button to delete the selected user.
Creating and changing user passwords
Any user who is a member of the Admins group can remove a password from any user
account. A user who is a not a member of the Admins group can change his or her own
password. However, a user who is not a member of the Admins group cannot change or
create a password for any other user.
Caution
When Access opens and a password has been assigned to any user, the Logon Dialog box
displays (refer back to Figure 22-7).
If no passwords are assigned to any of the users, however, Access will automatically open,
using the Admin user. This means that any additional users that you create in Security will not
be able to set a password. To correct this, you will need to create a password for the Admin
user. Then exit from Access and restart Access, logging on as the user whose password you
want to change.
To create or change the Admin password, follow these steps:
1. Open the database Chap34Start.mdb.
2. Select Tools_Security_User and Group Accounts.
Caution
Make sure that the user name selected is Admin (not Student1 that you created earlier).
3. Click the Change Logon Password tab (see Figure 22-14).
Chapter 22 ✦ Adding Security to Access Applications
Figure 22-14: The Change Logon Password tab of the User and Group Accounts dialog
box. Notice that the name is “Admin” and can’t be changed.
4. Because no password has been assigned to Admin, leave the Old Password field
blank.
Tip
If you are logging on as the Admin user after you have assigned a password, or if a password exists for the user that you logged on as, enter it in the Old Password field. If no
password is assigned to the user, leave the Old Password field blank.
5. Move to the New Password field and enter the new password Admin (or any other
password that you want to assign — remember that Access’s security is casesensitive) in the New Password field. Access won’t show you the word that you are
typing; rather, it shows an asterisk for each character that you type.
6. Move to the Verify field and enter the new password Admin again. (Again,
remember that Access’s security is case-sensitive.) Each character is replaced with
an asterisk.
7. Click the Apply button to save the new password for the Admin user.
8. Click OK to close the User and Group Accounts dialog box.
Tip
Tip
After you have created a password for the user, you will have to exit from Access and restart
Access for the changes to take effect. Simply closing the database and opening it again won’t
activate the security changes (such as assigning a password to Admin) that you made.
The Logon dialog box will not display if no passwords have been set for any users.
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Tip
Users can’t create or change passwords for other users, regardless of their permission settings.
Tip
Any user who is a member of Admins can clear the password of another user, so that user can
log on if he or she has forgotten his or her password.
To change another person’s password, you will have to start Access and open the database
by logging on as the user whose password you want to change.
Working with groups
Groups are collections of users. A user may belong to one or more groups. You use groups
to organize multiple users together who will be granted the same object permission
privileges. You can then define object permissions to the group once, versus having to assign
them individually for each user. When you create a new user, you simply add the user to the
group that has the object permission privileges that the new user should have.
For example, you may have a number of users in a credit department and in a sales
department. If you want to allow all of these users to look at a customer’s credit history but
restrict the sales staff to viewing only basic customer information, you have the following
options:
. Create an individual user account for each user in each department and assign object
permissions for each user.
. Allow all users in the credit department to log on as one user, and allow all users in
the sales department to log on as a different user. You can then restrict the object
permissions for each of these two users.
. Create an individual user account for each user in each department, and create a
group account for each department. You can then make the permissions assignments
for each of the two groups and place each user into his or her respective group to
inherit the group’s permissions.
Although creating a unique user account and assigning specific permissions to each user is a
valid scenario, it is an administrator’s nightmare. If policy dictates that one of the
departments needs to have permissions added or revoked, the change has to be made to each
of the users’ accounts in that department.
The second method is straightforward and simple but presents many problems. If a user
transfers from one department to another, he knows the user names and passwords for both
departments and may be able to retrieve data that he is no longer authorized to view. In
addition, if an employee leaves, the user name and password need to be changed, and each
user of the workgroup has to be made aware of the change. In a multi-user environment,
creating a unique user account for each user and then grouping them accordingly is a much
better solution.
With the third option, the change can be made to the department group once, and all users
inherit the new permission settings.
Chapter 22 ✦ Adding Security to Access Applications
Adding and deleting groups
Just as Access automatically creates an Admin user in all new workgroups, it also
automatically creates two groups: Users and Admins. Every user account in the system
belongs to the Users group; you can’t remove a user from the Users group. The Admins
group is the all-powerful, super-user group. Users of the Admins group have the ability to
add and delete user and group accounts, as well as to assign and remove permissions for any
object for any user or group in the workgroup. In addition, a member of the Admins group
has the ability to remove other user accounts from the Admins group. For this reason, you
need to carefully consider which users you allow to be a member of the Admins group. The
Admins group and the Users group are permanent groups; they can never be deleted.
Access doesn’t enable you to remove all users from the Admins group; one user must belong to
the Admins group at all times (the default is the user named Admin). If you were allowed to
remove all users from the Admins group, you could set up security so tight that you would never
be able to bypass it yourself! In general, when securing a database, you should place only one
user and one backup user in the Admins group.
Tip
Note
Unlike the Admin user’s SID, which is identical in every Access workgroup, the Admins group’s
SIDs are not identical from workgroup to workgroup, so unauthorized users using a workgroup
other than the one that you used to define security can’t access your database as a member of
the Admins group. The Users group’s SIDs are the same throughout all workgroups, however,
so you need to remove all permissions for the Users group. If you don’t remove permissions
from the Users group, any user in any workgroup can open your database with the Users
group’s permissions.
To create a new group named Sales, follow these steps:
1. Open Access and then open the Chap34Start.mdb database and log in with the
Admin user name and Admin password. Then select Tools_Security_User and
Group Accounts to display the User and Group Accounts dialog box.
2. Select the Groups tab.
3. Select the New button to display the New User/Group dialog box (see Figure 22-15).
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Figure 22-15: Jet uses the group name and personal identifier to create a unique SID for
a group, just as it does for user accounts.
4. Just as you do to create users, enter the group name Sales and a personal ID of
Dept405. (If you aren’t following along with this example, you can enter your own
group name and personal ID.) Also, just as before, write down this information and
put it in a safe place because you will need it if you ever need to re-create the group.
5. Select OK to save the new group.
6. After this is complete, you can select OK in the User and Group Accounts dialog
box to save your work.
If, at a later time, you want to delete the Sales group that you just created, follow these steps:
1. Select Tools_Security_User and Group Accounts … to display the User and
Group Accounts dialog box.
2. Select the Groups tab (refer to Figure 22-15).
3. From the drop-down list, select the Sales group to delete.
4. Select the Delete button to delete the selected group.
Assigning and removing group members
Assigning users to and removing users from groups is a simple process. You use the Users
tab on the User and Group Accounts dialog box to add to and remove users from a group.
You may place any user in any group, and a user may belong to more than one group. You
cannot remove a user from the Users group nor can you remove all users from the Admins
group — you must always have at least one user in the Admins group.
To add the user Student1 to the new group Sales, follow these steps:
1. Open Chap34Start. Select Tools_Security_User and Group Accounts to display
the User and Group Accounts dialog box.
Chapter 22 ✦ Adding Security to Access Applications
2. From the User Name drop-down list, select the user Student1 to modify her group
assignments.
3. To assign the user Student1 to the group Sales, select the Sales group in the
Available Groups list and select the Add button (see Figure 22-16). The Sales group
displays in the Member Of list.
Figure 22-16: Assigning users to groups makes controlling object permissions much
easier for the system administrator.
4. Select OK to save the new group assignments.
To remove the user Student1 from the group Sales, follow these steps:
1. Select Tools_Security_User and Group Accounts to display the User and Group
Accounts dialog box.
Caution
Make sure that the user name selected is Student1 (not Admin).
2. Select the group Sales in the Member Of list and select the Remove button. The
Sales group no longer displays in the Member Of list.
3. Select OK to save the new group assignments.
4. Because Jet uses the same SIDs for all Admin user accounts throughout all
workgroups, you always need to remove the Admin user from the Admins group
when securing a database. Figure 22-16 shows that the user Student1 has been added
to the Sales group. Notice that Student1 is a member of two groups: Users and Sales.
Before leaving this section, assign Student1 to the Admins group so that you can use
this example later in this chapter.
The only remaining task is to set the appropriate object permissions for the Users and Sales
groups.
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Securing objects by using permissions
After you have defined your users and groups, you must determine the appropriate object
permissions for each group. Permissions control who can view data, update data, add data,
and work with objects in Design view. Permissions are the heart of the Jet security system
and can be set only by a member of the Admins group, by the owner of the object (see the
next section), or by any user who has Administrator permission for an object.
Setting an object’s owner
Every object in the database has an owner. The owner is a user account in the workgroup
that is designated to always have Administrator rights to the object. Administrator rights
override the permissions defined for the logged-on user or defined for any of the user’s
groups. You can designate one user to be the owner of all the objects in a database, or you
can assign an owner to individual objects.
Access queries require special consideration when assigning owners to objects. When
creating a query, you can set the Run Permissions property of the query to either User’s or
Owner’s (see Figure 22-17). When a password is defined for a workgroup, Run Permissions
is automatically set to User’s. Setting Run Permissions to User’s limits the users of the query
to viewing only the data that their security permissions permit. If you want to enable users to
view or modify data for which they do not have permissions, you can set the Run
Permissions property to Owner’s. When the query is run with the Owner’s permissions
(WITH OWNERACCESS OPTION in an SQL statement), users inherit the permissions of
the owner of the query. These permissions are applicable only to the query and not to the
entire database.
Figure 22-17: Setting a query’s Run Permissions determines which users can run the
query or modify the query.
Chapter 22 ✦ Adding Security to Access Applications
Tip
Note
When a query’s Run Permissions property is set to Owner’s, only the owner can make changes
to the query. If this restriction poses a problem, you may want to set the owner of the query to a
group rather than to a user account. Note that only the owner of an OwnerAccess query can
change the query’s owner.
If you haven’t assigned passwords to Admin or other users, the user is automatically assumed
to be Admin and the query’s Run Permissions property is set to Owner’s.
To change the owner of any object in the database, follow these steps:
1. Select Tools_Security_User and Group Permissions to display the User and Group
Permissions dialog box.
2. Select the Change Owner tab (see Figure 22-18).
Figure 22-18: Transferring ownership of one or more tables from the Admin user to the
Sales group.
3. Select the object (or objects) whose ownership you want to transfer. You can select
the type of objects to display by changing the Object Type field.
4. Select the user or group that you want to make the owner of the selected object. To
select a group name, first select the List: Groups radio button.
5. Select the Change Owner button to change the object’s owner to the selected
user or group.
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Note
Each object in a database has an owner. The database itself also has an owner. You can
view the owner of the database by selecting Database from the Object Type drop-down list.
You can’t change an object’s owner by using Access’s interface. The only way to change a
database’s owner is to log on as the user that you want to make the owner of the database,
create a new database, and then import the original database into the new database by
using the File_Get External Data_Import menu option. When you import a database, the
current user is assigned as the new owner of the database and all of its database objects.
This is essentially what the Security Wizard (discussed later in this chapter) does for you.
Setting object permissions
Object permissions are the heart of Jet security. You can set one or more object
permissions at a time for a user or group. When assigning permissions, you must keep in
mind that some permissions automatically imply other permissions. For example, if you
assign a user Read Data permission for a table, the Read Design permission is also granted
because a table’s design must be available to access the data. A more complex example is
assigning permission for Insert Data — this automatically grants permission for Read Data
and Read Design.
An object’s permission assignments are persistent until one of the following conditions
occurs:
. A member of the Admins group changes the object’s permissions.
. The object is saved with a new name by using the Save As command from the File
menu.
. The object is cut and pasted in the Database window.
. The object is imported or exported.
If any of the preceding actions occurs, all permissions for the manipulated object are lost
and you will need to reassign them. When you perform any of these actions, you are actually
creating a new object. Access assigns default permissions for each object type.
There are two ways that permissions can be granted to a user:
. Explicit permissions are permissions that are granted directly to a user. When you
manually assign a permission to a user, no other user’s permissions are affected.
. Implicit permissions are permissions that are granted to a group. All users belonging to a group inherit the permissions of that group.
Note
Because permissions can be assigned implicitly and because some permissions grant
other permissions (Insert Data, Read Data, and Read Design permissions), users may be
able to grant themselves permissions that they do not currently have. Because of this
possibility, you must plan carefully when assigning permissions to groups of users and to
individual users.
Chapter 22 ✦ Adding Security to Access Applications
To assign or revoke a user’s permissions for an object, follow these steps:
1. Select Tools_Security_User and Group Permissions … to display the User and
Group Permissions dialog box. Select the Permissions tab.
2. In the Object Type drop-down list, select the type of object whose permissions you
want to change.
3. In the User/Group Name list box, select the user or group account that you want to
modify. To see a list of all Groups, click the List: radio button in the Name section.
4. In the Object Name list box, select the object (or objects) that you want to modify.
5. In the Permissions grouping section, select or unselect the permissions check boxes
for the object(s).
6. Select Apply to save the permission assignments.
Remember that Admin user SIDs are identical throughout all workgroups. So after you
assign Administer permissions to a specific user, you need to remove all permissions for the
Admin user in order to secure your database. Figure 22-19 shows the Admin user’s
permissions being revoked for all tables in the database. Notice that all checkboxes have
been cleared for all tables. Clearing the checkboxes prevents an Admin user from doing
anything with table objects. You must repeat the process for each Object type until the
Admin user has no permissions for any object.
Figure 22-19: Removing all permissions for the Admin user is critical
to securing your database.
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Setting default object permissions
You can create default permission assignments for each type of object in a database. These
default permissions are assigned when you create new objects in the database. You set the
default permissions just as you set them for any other object’s permissions. You select the
user or group to assign the default permissions, but you do not select a specific object name.
Instead, select the first item in the Object Name list that is enclosed in <> and begins with
“New.” When you select the Object Type Table, for example, you select <New Tables/
Queries> in the Object Name list. When you assign permissions for users and groups to
these <New> items, the permissions are used as defaults for all new objects of that type.
Caution
When removing default permissions for table objects, make sure that users have the necessary
permissions to create new tables. Otherwise, users will not be able to execute make-table
queries.
Setting database permissions
Just as objects in a database have permissions, the database itself also has its own permissions. Selecting Database from the Object Type drop-down list will display the database
permissions that can be modified (see Figure 22-20). The database permissions enable you
to control who has administrative rights to the entire database, who can open the database
exclusively (locking out other users), and who can open or run the database.
Figure 22-20: Assigning permissions for the entire database.
Securing your database for distribution: A basic approach
If you are securing a database for distribution, setting up detailed security for multiple users
for all the objects in your database may not be important to you. Often, the only concern
with shipping a secured database is protecting your development investment by securing the
design of the application’s objects and code. If you need this type of protection, you can
distribute your application as an .MDE file (see the section “Protecting Visual Basic Code”).
Chapter 22 ✦ Adding Security to Access Applications
Another method is to follow these steps:
1. Create a workgroup to distribute with your database.
2. Remove the Admin user from the Admins group.
3. Remove all permissions for the Users group.
4. Remove all design permissions for the Admin user for all objects in the database.
5. Do not supply a password for the Admin user.
Remember that if you do not specify a password for the Admin user, Access will log on all
users as the Admin user. Because the Admin user has no rights to the design of any object,
users cannot access objects or code in Design view.
Table 22-1 summarizes the permissions that you can assign.
Table 22-1
Summary of Assignable Permissions
Permission
Permits a User To
Applies To
Open/Run
Open a database, form, or report,
or run a macro.
Databases, forms,
reports, and macros
Open Exclusive
Open a database with exclusive access.
Databases only
Read Design
View objects in Design view.
Tables, queries, forms,
macros, and modules
Modify Design
View and change the design of objects,
macros, and modules
Tables, queries, forms,
or delete them.
Administer
For databases, set database password,
replicate a database, and change start-up
properties. For database objects, have full
access to objects and data, including
the ability to assign permissions.
Databases, tables,
queries, forms, reports,
macros, and modules
Read Data
View data.
Tables and queries
Update Data
View and modify but not insert or delete data.
Tables and queries
Insert Data
View and insert but not modify or delete data.
Tables and queries
Delete Data
View and delete but not modify or insert data.
Tables and queries
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Using the Access Security Wizard
Access includes the Security Wizard tool to assist you in securing your database. The
Security Wizard makes it easy for you to select the objects to secure. It then creates a new
database containing secured ver