MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide

MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX 2000 Series
Administration Guide
Ascend Communications, Inc.
Part Number: 7820-0627-001
For software version 7.0.0
Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX is a trademark of Ascend Communications, Inc. Other trademarks and trade names
mentioned in this publication belong to their respective owners.
Copyright © November 1998, Ascend Communications, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
This document contains information that is the property of Ascend Communications, Inc. This
document may not be copied, reproduced, reduced to any electronic medium or machine
readable form, or otherwise duplicated, and the information herein may not be used,
disseminated or otherwise disclosed, except with the prior written consent of Ascend
Communications, Inc.
Ascend Customer Service
Ascend Customer Service provides a variety of options for obtaining technical assistance,
information about Ascend products and services, and software upgrades.
Obtaining technical assistance
You can obtain technical assistance by telephone, email, fax, or modem, or over the Internet.
Enabling Ascend to assist you
If you need to contact Ascend for help with a problem, make sure that you have the following
information when you call or that you include it in your correspondence:
•
Product name and model.
•
Software and hardware options.
•
Software version.
•
If supplied by your carrier, Service Profile Identifiers (SPIDs) associated with your
product.
•
Your local telephone company’s switch type and operating mode, such as AT&T 5ESS
Custom or Northern Telecom National ISDN-1.
•
Whether you are routing or bridging with your Ascend product.
•
Type of computer you are using.
•
Description of the problem.
Calling Ascend from within the United States
In the U.S., you can take advantage of Priority Technical Assistance or an Ascend Advantage
Pak service contract, or you can call to request assistance.
Priority Technical Assistance
If you need to talk to an engineer right away, call (900) 555-ASND (2763) to reach Ascend’s
Priority Call queue. The charge of $2.95 per minute does not begin to accrue until you are
connected to an engineer. Average wait times are less than three minutes.
Ascend Advantage Pak
Ascend Advantage Pak is a one-year service contract that includes overnight advance
replacement of failed products, technical support, software maintenance releases, and software
update releases. For more information, call (800) ASCEND-4 (272-3634), or access Ascend’s
Web site at www.ascend.com and select Services and Support, then Advantage Service
Family.
Other telephone numbers
For a menu of Ascend’s services, call (800) ASCEND-4 (272-3634). Or call (510) 769-6001
for an operator.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 iii
Calling Ascend from outside the United States
You can contact Ascend by telephone from outside the United States at one of the following
numbers:
Telephone outside the United States
(510) 769-8027
Austria/Germany/Switzerland
(+33) 492 96 5672
Benelux
(+33) 492 96 5674
France
(+33) 492 96 5673
Italy
(+33) 492 96 5676
Japan
(+81) 3 5325 7397
Middle East/Africa
(+33) 492 96 5679
Scandinavia
(+33) 492 96 5677
Spain/Portugal
(+33) 492 96 5675
UK
(+33) 492 96 5671
For a list of support options in the Asia Pacific Region, you can find additional
support resources at http://apac.ascend.com
Obtaining assistance through correspondence
Ascend maintains two email addresses for technical support questions. One is for customers in
the United States, and the other is for customers in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. If you
prefer to correspond by fax, BBS, or regular mail, please direct your inquiry to Ascend’s U.S.
offices. Following are the ways in which you can reach Ascend Customer Service:
•
Email from within the U.S.—[email protected]
•
Email from Europe, the Middle East, or Asia—[email protected]
•
Fax—(510) 814-2312
•
Customer Support BBS (by modem)—(510) 814-2302
•
Write to Ascend at the following address:
Attn: Customer Service
Ascend Communications, Inc.
One Ascend Plaza
1701 Harbor Bay Parkway
Alameda, CA 94502-3002
Finding information and software on the Internet
Visit Ascend’s Web site at http://www.ascend.com for technical information, product
information, and descriptions of available services.
Visit Ascend’s FTP site at ftp.ascend.com for software upgrades, release notes, and
addenda to this manual.
iv Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Contents
Ascend Customer Service ........................................................................................................ iii
About This Guide ........................................................................... xvii
How to use this guide.......................................................................................................... .. xvii
What you should know ......................................................................................................... xvii
Documentation conventions................................................................................................. xviii
Related RFCs .......................................................................................................................... xix
Information about PPP connections................................................................................. xix
Information about IPX routing ........................................................................................ xix
Information about IP routers............................................................................................ xix
Information about packet filtering .................................................................................... xx
Information about general network security ..................................................................... xx
ITU-T recommendations................................................................................................... xx
Documentation set.................................................................................................................... xx
Related publications ................................................................................................................. xx
Chapter 1
MAX System Administration.......................................................... 1-1
Introduction ............................................................................................................................
Activating administrative permissions...................................................................................
System administration parameters .........................................................................................
Understanding the administrative parameters.................................................................
Name........................................................................................................................
Location and Contact...............................................................................................
Date and Time .........................................................................................................
Term rate and Console.............................................................................................
Remote Mgmt ..........................................................................................................
Dial-in and dial-out parameters ...............................................................................
Log out parameters ..................................................................................................
DS0 minimum and maximum resets .......................................................................
High-bit-error parameters ........................................................................................
No Trunks Alarm.....................................................................................................
Edit and Status .........................................................................................................
Finger requests (RFC 1288) ....................................................................................
Configuring the basic parameters ...................................................................................
Terminal-server command-line interface...............................................................................
Accessing the interface ...................................................................................................
Displaying terminal-server commands ...........................................................................
Returning to the VT100 menus.......................................................................................
Commands for monitoring networks ..............................................................................
Commands for use by terminal-server users...................................................................
SLIP, CSLIP, and PPP.............................................................................................
Menu ........................................................................................................................
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 v
Contents
Specifying raw TCP hosts ....................................................................................... 1-9
Telnet ..................................................................................................................... 1-10
Rlogin command.................................................................................................... 1-12
TCP ........................................................................................................................ 1-13
Open, Resume, and Close...................................................................................... 1-13
Administrative commands ............................................................................................ 1-14
Test ........................................................................................................................ 1-14
Remote................................................................................................................... 1-16
Set .......................................................................................................................... 1-17
Show ...................................................................................................................... 1-18
Kill ......................................................................................................................... 1-24
Show DNIS session command .............................................................................. 1-25
Show DNIS statistics command ............................................................................ 1-26
Clear DNIS statistics ............................................................................................. 1-26
Chapter 2
VT100 Interface DO Commands .................................................... 2-1
Using DO commands ............................................................................................................. 2-1
List of supported commands........................................................................................... 2-1
Example of using DO commands to place and clear a call ............................................ 2-2
DO command reference in alphabetic order .......................................................................... 2-3
Answer (DO 3)................................................................................................................ 2-3
Beg/End BERT (DO 7)................................................................................................... 2-3
Beg/End Rem LB (DO 6) ............................................................................................... 2-4
Beg/End Rem Mgm (DO 8)............................................................................................ 2-5
Close Telnet (DO C) ....................................................................................................... 2-6
Contract BW (DO 5)....................................................................................................... 2-6
Diagnostics (DO D) ........................................................................................................ 2-6
Dial (DO 1) ..................................................................................................................... 2-7
Esc (DO 0) ...................................................................................................................... 2-7
Extend BW (DO 4) ......................................................................................................... 2-7
Hang Up (DO 2) ............................................................................................................. 2-8
Load (DO L) ................................................................................................................... 2-8
Menu Save (DO M) ........................................................................................................ 2-9
Password (DO P) ............................................................................................................ 2-9
Resynchronize (DO R).................................................................................................. 2-10
Save (DO S) .................................................................................................................. 2-10
Termserv (DO E) .......................................................................................................... 2-10
Chapter 3
Diagnostic Commands and Parameters ....................................... 3-1
Sys Diag commands...............................................................................................................
Restore Cfg .....................................................................................................................
Save Cfg..........................................................................................................................
Use MIF ..........................................................................................................................
Sys Reset.........................................................................................................................
Term Serv .......................................................................................................................
Upd Rem Cfg ..................................................................................................................
T1 Line Diag commands........................................................................................................
Line LB1 .........................................................................................................................
Line LB2 .........................................................................................................................
Switch D Chan ................................................................................................................
Clr Err1 ...........................................................................................................................
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Contents
Clr Perf1.......................................................................................................................... 3-6
Clr Err2 ........................................................................................................................... 3-6
Clr Perf2.......................................................................................................................... 3-6
E1 Line Diag commands........................................................................................................ 3-6
Line LB1 ......................................................................................................................... 3-6
Line LB2 ......................................................................................................................... 3-7
BRI/LT Line Diag commands................................................................................................ 3-7
Line LoopBack ............................................................................................................... 3-8
Corrupt CRC ................................................................................................................... 3-9
Uncorrupt CRC ............................................................................................................... 3-9
Rq Corrupt CRC ............................................................................................................. 3-9
Rq Uncorrupt CRC ......................................................................................................... 3-9
Clr NEBE ........................................................................................................................ 3-9
Clr FEBE......................................................................................................................... 3-9
Host/Dual (Host/6) Port Diag command................................................................................ 3-9
Modem Diag parameters ...................................................................................................... 3-10
ModemSlot.................................................................................................................... 3-11
Modem #N (where N=1–8, 1–12, 1-16)........................................................................ 3-11
Chapter 4
VT100 Interface Status Windows................................................... 4-1
Using the MAX status windows ............................................................................................ 4-1
Navigating the status windows ....................................................................................... 4-2
Default status window displays ...................................................................................... 4-2
Line status windows ................................................................................................ 4-3
Session and system status windows......................................................................... 4-3
WAN and Ethernet status windows......................................................................... 4-4
Sys Option and Main Status Menu windows........................................................... 4-4
Specifying which status windows appear ....................................................................... 4-5
Status-window reference in alphabetic order......................................................................... 4-6
BRI/LT window.............................................................................................................. 4-6
Call Status window ......................................................................................................... 4-7
Call Detail Reporting (CDR) window ............................................................................ 4-9
Dyn Stat window (dynamic status) ............................................................................... 4-11
Ether Opt window (Ethernet options) ........................................................................... 4-11
Ether Stat window (Ethernet status) ............................................................................. 4-12
Ethernet window ........................................................................................................... 4-12
FDL N Stats windows................................................................................................... 4-12
Error-register statistics........................................................................................... 4-13
Performance-register statistics............................................................................... 4-13
FR Stat window ............................................................................................................ 4-15
Host/6 (Host/Dual) window.......................................................................................... 4-15
Line Errors window ...................................................................................................... 4-15
Line Stat windows ........................................................................................................ 4-16
Line Status (BRI) window ............................................................................................ 4-18
Message Log windows.................................................................................................. 4-19
AIM port message logs.......................................................................................... 4-20
System message logs ............................................................................................. 4-20
Log messages......................................................................................................... 4-20
Modem window ............................................................................................................ 4-24
Net T1, Net E1 and Net BRI windows ......................................................................... 4-25
Net Options window ..................................................................................................... 4-26
Port Info window .......................................................................................................... 4-26
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 vii
Contents
Port Leads window .......................................................................................................
Port Opts window .........................................................................................................
PortN Stat window ........................................................................................................
Routes window .............................................................................................................
Serial WAN window.....................................................................................................
Session Err window ......................................................................................................
Sessions window...........................................................................................................
Statistics window ..........................................................................................................
Syslog window..............................................................................................................
Level 4 and Level 6 Syslog messages ...................................................................
Level 5 Syslog messages .......................................................................................
Example .................................................................................................................
Disconnect codes and progress codes....................................................................
The backoff queue error message in the Syslog file..............................................
Syslog messages initiated by a SecureConnect Manger firewall ..........................
Sys Options window .....................................................................................................
System Status window ..................................................................................................
WAN Stat window........................................................................................................
Chapter 5
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4-33
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4-41
4-44
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Network Administration ................................................................. 5-1
Administering WAN lines and calls ...................................................................................... 5-1
T1 line diagnostics .......................................................................................................... 5-1
E1 line diagnostics .......................................................................................................... 5-2
BRI/LT diagnostics......................................................................................................... 5-2
Example of performing loopback diagnostics for IDSL ......................................... 5-4
Performing port diagnostics............................................................................................ 5-4
Disabling digital modems and modem slots ................................................................... 5-6
E1 ISDN call information ............................................................................................... 5-7
Incoming call routing state diagram ............................................................................... 5-8
Managing IP routes and sessions ......................................................................................... 5-11
Working with the IP routing table ................................................................................ 5-11
Displaying the routing table .................................................................................. 5-12
Adding an IP route................................................................................................. 5-14
Deleting an IP route ............................................................................................... 5-14
Displaying route statistics ............................................................................................. 5-14
Pinging other IP hosts ................................................................................................... 5-16
Configuring Finger support .......................................................................................... 5-17
Configuring the DNS Fallback Table ........................................................................... 5-17
Displaying IP routing and related information ............................................................. 5-18
Displaying the ARP cache ..................................................................................... 5-18
Displaying ICMP packet statistics......................................................................... 5-19
Displaying interface statistics ................................................................................ 5-19
Displaying IP statistics and addresses ................................................................... 5-21
Displaying UDP statistics and listen table............................................................. 5-22
Displaying TCP statistics and connections............................................................ 5-23
Displaying address pool status .............................................................................. 5-23
Monitoring IPX routes and sessions .................................................................................... 5-24
Verifying the transmission path to NetWare stations ................................................... 5-24
Displaying IPX packet statistics ................................................................................... 5-25
Displaying the IPX service table .................................................................................. 5-25
Displaying the IPX routing table .................................................................................. 5-26
Managing OSPF routes and sessions ................................................................................... 5-26
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Contents
Working with the routing table.....................................................................................
Multipath routing ...................................................................................................
Third-party routing ................................................................................................
How OSPF adds RIP routes...................................................................................
Route preferences ..................................................................................................
Displaying OSPF information ......................................................................................
Displaying the size of the OSPF routing table ......................................................
Displaying OSPF areas ..........................................................................................
Displaying general information about OSPF.........................................................
Displaying information about OSPF interfaces.....................................................
Displaying OSPF Link-State Advertisements (LSAs) ..........................................
Displaying OSPF neighbor information ................................................................
Displaying OSPF routers .......................................................................................
Displaying OSPF External AS advertisements .....................................................
Displaying the OSPF routing table ........................................................................
Displaying summarized OSPF database information ............................................
Managing multicast routing .................................................................................................
Displaying the multicast forwarding table....................................................................
Listing multicast clients ................................................................................................
Displaying multicast activity ........................................................................................
Monitoring Frame Relay connections..................................................................................
Displaying Frame Relay statistics.................................................................................
Displaying link management information ....................................................................
Displaying Data Link Connection Indicator (DLCI)status...........................................
Displaying circuit information......................................................................................
Turning off a circuit without disabling its endpoints....................................................
Monitoring X.25 and PAD connections...............................................................................
Displaying information about PAD sessions ................................................................
Displaying information about X.25 ..............................................................................
Setting up ISDN D-channel X.25 support ...........................................................................
PAD service signals ......................................................................................................
X.25 clear cause codes..................................................................................................
X.25 diagnostic field values..........................................................................................
Chapter 6
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5-49
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SNMP and Syslog Configuration................................................... 6-1
Configuring SNMP ................................................................................................................
Configuring SNMP access security ................................................................................
Enabling SNMP Set commands ..............................................................................
Setting community strings .......................................................................................
Setting up and enforcing address security ...............................................................
Resetting the MAX and verifying reset ...................................................................
Example of SNMP security configuration...............................................................
Setting SNMP traps ........................................................................................................
Understanding the SNMP trap parameters ..............................................................
Example SNMP trap configuration .........................................................................
Ascend enterprise traps ...................................................................................................
Alarm events............................................................................................................
Port state change events...........................................................................................
Security events.........................................................................................................
Supported MIBs ..............................................................................................................
Configuring Syslog ................................................................................................................
Configuring the MAX to send Syslog messages ............................................................
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
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6-3
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 ix
Contents
Syslog message format ................................................................................................... 6-8
Syslog messages and their meanings .............................................................................. 6-8
Establishment of a call............................................................................................. 6-8
Graceful disconnect of a call ................................................................................... 6-9
Unexpected disconnect of a call .............................................................................. 6-9
Additional messages .............................................................................................. 6-10
Disconnect codes and progress codes .................................................................................. 6-12
Disconnect codes and their meanings ........................................................................... 6-12
Progress codes and their meanings ............................................................................... 6-15
Appendix A
Troubleshooting.............................................................................. A-1
Indicator lights ...................................................................................................................... A-1
MAX front panel............................................................................................................ A-1
ISDN cause codes ................................................................................................................. A-3
Common problems and their solutions ................................................................................. A-8
General problems ........................................................................................................... A-8
Calls fail between AIM ports.................................................................................. A-8
DO menus do not allow most operations................................................................ A-9
POST takes more than 30 seconds to complete...................................................... A-9
Configuration problems ................................................................................................. A-9
The MAX cannot dial out on a T1 or E1 line......................................................... A-9
Some channels do not connect.............................................................................. A-10
Data is corrupted on some international calls....................................................... A-10
Only the base channel connects............................................................................ A-10
No Channel Avail error message.......................................................................... A-10
Restored configuration has incorrect RADIUS parameters.................................. A-11
Hardware configuration problems ............................................................................... A-11
Cannot access the VT100 interface ...................................................................... A-11
flt LED is off but no menus are displayed............................................................ A-11
Random characters appear in the VT100 interface............................................... A-12
A Power-On Self Test fails................................................................................... A-12
AIM-port interface problems ....................................................................................... A-12
The MAX reports data errors on all calls ............................................................. A-12
Calls cannot be made, answered, or cleared using control leads.......................... A-13
The codec indicates that there is no connection ................................................... A-13
The codec does not receive data ........................................................................... A-13
The codec cannot establish a call when Data Transmit Ready (DTR) is active... A-14
Calls initiated by control-lead toggling are cleared too soon ............................... A-14
The codec cannot clear a call................................................................................ A-14
ISDN PRI and BRI interface problems........................................................................ A-15
Calls are not dialed or answered reliably.............................................................. A-15
The Net/BRI lines do not dial or answer calls...................................................... A-15
No Logical Link status ......................................................................................... A-15
WAN calling errors occur in outbound Net/BRI calls ......................................... A-16
ISDN PRI and BRI circuit-quality problems ............................................................... A-16
Excessive data errors on calls to AIM ports ......................................................... A-16
Excessive handshaking on calls to AIM ports...................................................... A-17
Inbound data is scrambled during an AIM Static call .......................................... A-17
Problems indicated by the LEDs ................................................................................. A-17
LEDs are not lit for the secondary E1 or T1 line.................................................. A-17
The E1 or T1 line is in a red alarm state............................................................... A-17
A PRI line is in use and a ya LED blinks ............................................................. A-18
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Contents
Problems in accessing the WAN .................................................................................
Only some channels are dialed for AIM or BONDING calls...............................
The MAX never uses some channels ...................................................................
An outgoing call using inband signaling fails to connect to the remote end........
Incoming call routing problems ...................................................................................
Call status drops back to IDLE.............................................................................
Dual-port call status drops back to IDLE .............................................................
AIM or BONDING call status drops back to IDLE .............................................
Bridge/router problems ................................................................................................
The link is of uncertain quality.............................................................................
The MAX hangs up after answering an IP call ....................................................
Appendix B
A-18
A-18
A-18
A-19
A-19
A-19
A-19
A-20
A-20
A-20
A-20
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference.......................................... B-1
Using MAX diagnostic commands ........................................................................................ B-1
Command reference ............................................................................................................... B-2
PPP decoding primer............................................................................................................ B-38
Breaking down the raw data ......................................................................................... B-38
Annotated Traces .......................................................................................................... B-40
Example of a PPP connection attempt................................................................... B-40
Example of MP+ call negotiation .......................................................................... B-42
Relevant RFCs ....................................................................................................... B-44
Appendix C
Upgrading System Software .......................................................... C-1
Definitions and terms ............................................................................................................. C-1
Guidelines for upgrading system software............................................................................. C-2
Guidelines for downgrading system software........................................................................ C-3
Before you begin .................................................................................................................... C-4
Upgrading system software with a standard load .................................................................. C-5
Using TFTP to upgrade to a standard load ..................................................................... C-5
Upgrading system software with a fat or thin load ................................................................ C-6
Recovering from a failed fat load upgrade ..................................................................... C-8
Upgrading system software with an extended load ............................................................... C-9
Upgrading system software from versions earlier than 4.6C to version 5.0A or above ...... C-11
Using the serial port to upgrade to a standard or a thin load ............................................... C-11
Changing to system software that does not support V.90.................................................... C-14
System messages.................................................................................................................. C-15
Appendix D
Machine Interface Format (MIF)..................................................... D-1
What is MIF? ................................................................................................................... .....
How to access MIF .............................................................................................................. .
Use MIF command ........................................................................................................
MIF escape sequence .....................................................................................................
Transfer command .........................................................................................................
MIF addresses .......................................................................................................................
MIF commands .....................................................................................................................
MIF responses................................................................................................................
Loading and saving entities ...........................................................................................
Getting an entity’s current value....................................................................................
Getting the address and value of the next entity ............................................................
Modifying parameter values ..........................................................................................
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MIF traps and asynchronous reports.............................................................................. D-7
Lexical sequence of MIF types ............................................................................................. D-7
Command-line basics.......................................................................................................... D-30
Editor basics ........................................................................................................................ D-31
Appendix E
Example environments................................................................... E-1
IP-routing environment ..........................................................................................................
MAX configuration.........................................................................................................
Pipeline configuration.....................................................................................................
IP-routing and AppleTalk-routing environment ....................................................................
MAX configuration.........................................................................................................
Pipeline configuration.....................................................................................................
E-1
E-2
E-4
E-5
E-6
E-8
Index.......................................................................................... Index-1
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Figures
Figure 4-1
Figure 5-1
Figure 5-2
Figure A-1
Figure E-1
Figure E-2
Status windows .................................................................................................. 4-2
IDSL connection with repeaters......................................................................... 5-4
Example of a local DNS table ......................................................................... 5-18
MAX front-panel LEDs .................................................................................... A-1
Example IP-routed environment ........................................................................ E-2
Example IP-routed environment ........................................................................ E-6
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 xiii
Tables
Table 2-1
Table 4-1
Table 4-2
Table 4-3
Table 4-4
Table 4-5
Table 4-6
Table 4-7
Table 4-8
Table 4-9
Table 4-10
Table 4-11
Table 4-12
Table 4-13
Table 4-14
Table 4-15
Table 4-16
Table 4-17
Table 4-18
Table 4-19
Table 4-20
Table 4-21
Table 5-1
Table 5-2
Table 5-3
Table A-1
Table A-2
Table A-3
Table C-1
Table C-2
Table C-3
DO commands .................................................................................................. 2-1
Call-status characters and messages ................................................................ 4-8
FDL performance registers ............................................................................ 4-14
T1/E1 link-status indicators ........................................................................... 4-16
T1 channel status indicators ........................................................................... 4-17
BRI line-status indicators ............................................................................... 4-18
B1 and B2 channel-status indicators .............................................................. 4-19
Informational log messages ........................................................................... 4-20
Warning log messages ................................................................................... 4-22
Message indicators ......................................................................................... 4-23
Modem-status characters .............................................................................. 4-24
Call-status characters for AIM ports .............................................................. 4-27
RS-366 abbreviations ..................................................................................... 4-28
Serial host port abbreviations ........................................................................ 4-28
Serial WAN port abbreviations ...................................................................... 4-29
Port Opts information .................................................................................... 4-29
Routes-window values ................................................................................... 4-30
Session status characters ................................................................................ 4-32
Ascend disconnect codes ................................................................................ 4-35
Ascend progress codes .................................................................................... 4-38
Syslog message fields for SecureConnect firewalls ........................................ 4-40
Sys Options information ................................................................................. 4-41
PAD service signals ....................................................................................... 5-48
Clear cause codes ........................................................................................... 5-49
X.25 diagnostic field values ........................................................................... 5-50
MAX LEDs....................................................................................................... A-2
ISDN cause codes ........................................................................................... A-3
ISDN cause codes for 1TR6 switch type ........................................................ A-6
Ascend system software versions ..................................................................... C-3
Before upgrading .............................................................................................. C-4
System software messages .............................................................................. C-15
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 xv
About This Guide
How to use this guide
This guide explains how to configure and use the MAX as an Internet Service Provider (ISP)
or telecommuting hub. Following is a chapter-by-chapter description of the topics:
•
Chapter 1, “MAX System Administration” explains how to administer and manage the
MAX.
•
Chapter 2, “VT100 Interface DO Commands” describes each of the VT100 interface DO
commands in alphabetic order.
•
Chapter 3, “Diagnostic Commands and Parameters” lists and explains the diagnostic
commands provided for WAN lines and ports.
•
Chapter 4, “VT100 Interface Status Windows” describes status windows in alphabetic
order.
•
Chapter 5, “Network Administration” discusses how to perform line diagnostic commands
on T1, E1, and BRI lines, how to remove digital modems from service, and how to display
call information. The chapter also discusses administering and managing TCP/IP, OSPF,
multicast, IPX, Frame Relay, and X.25 networks.
•
Chapter 6, “SNMP and Syslog Configuration” explains how to configure SNMP and
Syslog support.
•
Appendix A, “Troubleshooting” discusses common problems and offers possible
solutions.
•
Appendix B, “MAX Diagnostic Command Reference” lists and explains the most helpful
commands available from diagnostic mode on the MAX. The chapter includes a
discussion of decoding Point-to-Point (PPP) packet traces.
•
Appendix C, “Upgrading System Software” explains how to upgrade the MAX system
software.
•
Appendix D, “Machine Interface Format (MIF)” discusses MIF concepts and lists all MIF
commands.
•
Appendix E, “Example environments” describes an IP routing environment and an IP
routing and AppleTalk environment, including examples of MAX configuration.
This guide also includes an index.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 xvii
About This Guide
What you should know
What you should know
This guide is for the person who configures and maintains the MAX. To configure the MAX,
you need to understand the following:
•
Wide area network (WAN) concepts
•
Local area network (LAN) concepts, if applicable
Documentation conventions
Following are all the special characters and typographical conventions used in this manual:
Convention
Meaning
Monospace text Represents text that appears on your computer’s screen, or that could
appear on your computer’s screen.
Boldface
mono-space text
Represents characters that you enter exactly as shown (unless the
characters are also in italics—see Italics, below). If you could
enter the characters but are not specifically instructed to, they do not
appear in boldface.
Italics
Represent variable information. Do not enter the words themselves in
the command. Enter the information they represent. In ordinary text,
italics are used for titles of publications, for some terms that would
otherwise be in quotation marks, and to show emphasis.
[]
Square brackets indicate an optional argument you might add to a
command. To include such an argument, type only the information
inside the brackets. Do not type the brackets unless they are in bold.
|
Separates command choices that are mutually exclusive.
>
Points to the next level in the path to a parameter or menu item. The
item that follows the angle bracket is one of the options that appears
when you select the item that precedes the angle bracket.
Key1-Key2
Represents a combination keystroke. To enter a combination
keystroke, press the first key and hold it down while you press one or
more other keys. Release all the keys at the same time. (For example,
Ctrl-H means hold down the Control key and press the H key.)
Press Enter
Means press the Enter, or Return, key or its equivalent on your
computer.
Note:
Introduces important additional information.
!
Caution:
Warns that a failure to follow the recommended procedure could result
in loss of data or damage to equipment.
Warning:
Warns that a failure to take appropriate safety precautions could result
in physical injury.
Note: In a menu-item path, include a space before and after each “>” character.
xviii
Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
About This Guide
Related RFCs
Related RFCs
RFCs are available on the Web at http://ds.internic.net
Information about PPP connections
For information about PPP connections and authentication, you might want to download one or
more of the following:
•
RFC 2153: PPP Vendor Extensions
•
RFC 2125: The PPP Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (BACP)
•
RFC 1994: PPP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
•
RFC 1990: The PPP Multilink Protocol (MP)
•
RFC 1969: The PPP DES Encryption Protocol (DESE)
•
RFC 1989: PPP Link Quality Monitoring
•
RFC 1974: PPP Stac LZS Compression Protocol
•
RFC 1962: The PPP Compression Control Protocol (CCP)
•
RFC 1877: PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol Extensions for Name Server
Addresses
•
RFC 1662: PPP in HDLC-like Framing
•
RFC 1661: The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
•
RFC 1638: PPP Bridging Control Protocol (BCP)
•
RFC 1332: The PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP)
•
RFC 1552: The PPP Internetwork Packet Exchange Control Protocol (IPXCP)
•
RFC 1378: The PPP AppleTalk Control Protocol (ATCP)
Information about IPX routing
For information about IPX routing, see:
•
RFC 1634: Novell IPX Over Various WAN Media (IPXWAN)
Information about IP routers
RFCs that describe the operation of IP routers include:
•
RFC 2030: Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) Version 4 for IPv4, IPv6 and OSI
•
RFC 2002: IP Mobility Support
•
RFC 1812: Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers
•
RFC 1787: Routing in a Multi-provider Internet
•
RFC 1519: Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR): An Address Assignment and
Aggregation Strategy
•
RFC 1433: Directed ARP
•
RFC 1393: Traceroute Using an IP Option
•
RFC 1256: ICMP Router Discovery Messages
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 xix
About This Guide
Documentation set
Information about packet filtering
RFCs that describe firewalls and packet filters include:
•
RFC 1858: Security Considerations for IP Fragment Filtering
•
RFC 1579: Firewall-Friendly FTP
Information about general network security
RFCs pertinent to network security include:
•
RFC 1704: On Internet Authentication
•
RFC 1636: Report of IAB Workshop on Security in the Internet Architecture
•
RFC 1281: Guidelines for the Secure Operation of the Internet
•
RFC 1244: Site Security Handbook
ITU-T recommendations
ITU-T recommendations (formerly CCITT) are available commercially. You can order them at
http://www.itu.ch/publications/
Documentation set
The MAX 2000 Series documentation set consists of the following manuals:
•
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide (this guide)
•
MAX 2000 Series Hardware Installation Guide
•
MAX 2000 Series Network Configuration Guide
•
MAX Reference Guide
•
MAX Security Supplement
•
MAX RADIUS Configuration Guide
Related publications
This guide and documentation set do not provide a detailed explanation of products,
architectures, or standards developed by other companies or organizations.
Following are some publications that you might find useful:
xx
•
The Guide to T1 Networking, William A. Flanagan.
•
Data Link Protocols, Uyless Black
•
The Basics Book of ISDN, Motorola University Press.
•
ISDN, Gary C. Kessler
•
TCP/IP Illustrated, W. Richard Stevens
•
Firewalls and Internet Security, William R. Cheswick and Steven M. Bellovin
Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
1
MAX System Administration
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Activating administrative permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
System administration parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Terminal-server command-line interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Introduction
The MAX unit’s VT100 interface provides a wide variety of features for monitoring and
administering the unit’s activities.
The initial display of the VT100 interface shows the Main Edit Menu and a group of status
windows. You configure several system administration parameters from the Main Edit Menu.
The status windows display a variety of information about the operation of your MAX. You
also have access to DO commands, which enable you to perform additional tasks. (To perform
any of the administrative tasks, you must activate administrative permissions.)
Also, the VT100 interface provides access to the terminal-server command-line interface,
which features a large assortment of powerful commands. For example, you can view the
MAX unit’s routing tables and statistical information. You can access detailed information
about the unit’s IP routing table, OSPF routing table, and Frame Relay connections. You can
also use the administrative commands Ping, Traceroute, Telnet, and IPXping to establish and
test connectivity. You can manually add, delete or change routes in your IP routing table.
Descriptions of the commands available through the terminal-server command-line interface
form the major part of this chapter.
Note: You can manage the MAX from your workstation by establishing a Telnet session and
logging in with sufficient administrative privileges. You can also use Telnet to manage remote
Ascend units, such as Pipeline or MAX units.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998
1-1
MAX System Administration
Activating administrative permissions
Activating administrative permissions
Before you can use the administrative commands and profiles, you must log in as a superuser
by activating a Security profile that has sufficient permissions (for example, the Full Access
profile.) Proceed as follows:
1
Press Ctrl-D. The DO menu appears:
00-300 Security
DO…
>0=ESC
P=Password
2
Press P (or select P=Password).
3
In the list of Security profiles that opens, select Full Access.
The MAX prompts you for the Full Access password:
00-300 Security
Enter Password:
[]
Press > to accept
4
Type the password assigned to the profile, and press Enter. The default password for the
Full Access login is Ascend.
When you enter the correct password, the MAX displays a message informing you that the
password was accepted and that the MAX is using the new security level:
Message #119
Password accepted.
Using new security level.
If the password you enter is incorrect, the MAX prompts you again for the password.
Note: The first task you should perform after logging in as the superuser is to assign a new
password to the Full Access profile.
System administration parameters
Following are the VT100 system administration parameters (shown with sample settings):
System
Sys Config
Name=gateway-1
Location=east-bay
Contact=thf
Date=2/20/97
Time=10:00:29
Term Rate=9600
Console=Standard
Remote Mgmt=Yes
Parallel Dial=5
Single Answer=Yes
Auto Logout=No
Idle Logout=0
DS0 Min Rst=Off
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX System Administration
System administration parameters
Max DS0 Mins=N/A
High BER=10 ** -3
High BER Alarm=No
No Trunk Alarm=No
Edit=00-000
Status 1=10-100
Status 2=10-200
Status 3=90-100
Status 4=00-200
Status 5=90-300
Status 6=90-400
Status 7=20-100
Status 8=20-200
Ethernet
Mod Config
Log...
Syslog=Yes
Log Host=10.65.212.12
Log Port=514
Log Facility=Local0
Understanding the administrative parameters
This section provides some background information about the administrative options. For more
details about the parameters, see the MAX Reference Guide. For background information about
additional parameters that appear in the System profile, see the Network Configuration Guide
for your MAX.
Name
The Name parameter specifies the system name, which can consist of up to 16 characters.
Keeping the name simple (no special characters) is a good idea because it is used in negotiating
bridged PPP, AIM, and BONDING connections.
Location and Contact
The Location and Contact settings are SNMP readable and settable. The Location parameter
should specify the unit’s location, and the Contact parameter should specify the name of the
person to contact concerning any problems with the unit. You can enter up to 80 characters.
Date and Time
The Date and Time parameters set the system date and time. If you are using Simple Network
Time Protocol (SNTP), the MAX can maintain its date and time by accessing the SNTP server.
(For details, see the Network Configuration Guide for your MAX.)
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 1-3
MAX System Administration
System administration parameters
Term rate and Console
The Term Rate parameter specifies the transmission rate for communications with your
terminal-emulation program. Any rate higher than 9600 can cause transmission errors.
The Console parameter lets you change the configuration interface, for example, (from
Standard to MIF, for example, if you set it to MIF, the Machine Interface Format interface
comes up when you power up the MAX. Limited brings up simplified menus for operation
with the serial host ports (but not for bridging and routing). For details, see Appendix D,
“Machine Interface Format (MIF).”
Also verify that the data rate of your terminal-emulation program is set to 9600 bps or lower.
Remote Mgmt
You can set Remote Mgmt to Yes to enable management of the MAX from a WAN link.
Dial-in and dial-out parameters
The Parallel Dial parameter specifies the number of channels that the MAX can dial
simultaneously over the T1/PRI line, or that the MAX can disconnect simultaneously.
Although you can specify any number of channels, the initial number of channels in a
connection never exceeds the value of the Base Ch Count parameter (in the Connection
profile).
The Single Answer parameter specifies whether the MAX completes the answering and
routing of one call before answering and routing the next call.
Log out parameters
The Auto Logout parameter specifies whether to log out and go back to default privileges upon
loss of DTR from the serial port. Idle Logout specifies the number of minutes an
administrative login can remain inactive before the MAX logs out and hangs up.
DS0 minimum and maximum resets
A DS0 minute is the online usage of a single 56-Kbps or 64-Kbps switched channel for one
minute. For example, a 5-minute, 6-channel call uses 30 DS0 minutes.
The DS0 Min Rst parameter specifies when the MAX should reset accumulated DS0 minutes
to 0 (zero). You can also use this parameter to specify that the MAX should disable the timer
altogether.
The Max DS0 Mins parameter specifies the maximum number of DS0 minutes a call can be
online. When the usage exceeds the maximum specified by the Max DS0 Mins parameter, the
MAX cannot place any more calls, and it takes any existing calls offline.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX System Administration
System administration parameters
High-bit-error parameters
The High BER parameter specifies the maximum bit-error rate for any PRI line. The bit-error
rate consists of the number of bit errors that occur per second. The number that comes after the
double asterisks specifies the power of 10 for the current ratio of error bits to total bits.
The High BER Alarm parameter specifies whether the back-panel alarm relay closes when the
bit-error rate exceeds the value specified by the High BER parameter.
No Trunks Alarm
The No Trunk Alarm parameter specifies whether the back-panel alarm relay closes when all
T1/PRI lines (or trunks) go out of service.
Edit and Status
The Edit and Status parameters customize the status windows in the VT100 interface so that
particular screens appear at startup. For details, see the Reference Guide for your MAX.
Finger requests (RFC 1288)
The MAX supports Finger remote user information protocol (RFC 1288). You can use Finger
to get information about users currently logged into the MAX. The information includes the
host address, name, port, and channel. For security reasons, the MAX does not forward Finger
requests. For complete details of the Finger protocol, see RFC 1288.
Configuring the basic parameters
To configure the system name and other basic parameters in the System profile:
1
Open the System profile.
2
Specify a system name up to 16 characters long, enter the physical location of the MAX
unit, and indicate a person to contact in case of problems. For example:
System
Sys Config
Name=gateway-1
Location=east-bay
Contact=thf
3
If necessary, set the system date and time.
Date=2/20/98
Time=10:00:29
4
Specify the data transfer rate of the MAX control port.
Term Rate=9600
5
Close the System profile.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 1-5
MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
Terminal-server command-line interface
The terminal-server command-line interface can provide commands for monitoring networks,
initiating sessions, and administering the system.
Accessing the interface
You can start a terminal-server command-line session if you have administrative privileges.
(For more information, see “Activating administrative permissions” on page 1-2). You can start
a session using one of the following methods:
•
From the main VT100 menu, select System > Sys Diag > Term Serv, and press Enter.
•
In the Main Edit Menu, press Ctrl-D to open the DO menu, and select E=Termsrv.
•
Enter the following keystroke sequence (Escape key, left bracket, Escape key, zero) in
rapid succession:
Esc [ Esc 0
If you have sufficient privileges to invoke the command line, the MAX displays a
command-line prompt. For example:
** Ascend Terminal Server **
ascend%
Note: If you have a MAX running Multiband simulation, the following terminal server
commands are disabled: Close, Ipxping, Open, Resume, Rlogin, Telnet.
Displaying terminal-server commands
To display the list of terminal-server commands, enter a question mark:
ascend% ?
or the Help command:
ascend% help
The system responds by listing the terminal-server commands, with brief explanations:
?
Displays help information
help
Displays help information
quit
Closes terminal server session
hangup
Closes terminal server session
test
test <number> frame-count.] [ <optional fields>]
local
Go to local mode
remote
remote <station>
set
Set various items. Type ‘set ?’ for help
show
Show various tables. Type ‘show ?’ for help
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MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
clear dnis
statistics
Clears DNIS session statistics
iproute
Manage IP routes. Type ‘iproute ?’ for help
dnstab
Displays help information about the DNS table. Type 'dnstab
?' for help
slip
SLIP command
cslip
Compressed SLIP command
ppp
PPP command
menu
Host menu interface
telnet
telnet [ -a|-b|-t ] <host-name> [ <port-number> ]
tcp
tcp <host-name> <port-number>
ping
ping <host-name>
ipxping
ipxping <host-name>
traceroute
Trace route to host. Type 'traceroute -?' for help
rlogin
rlogin [ -l user -ec ] <host-name> [ -l user ]
open
open < modem-number | slot:modem-on-slot >
resume
resume virtual connect session
close
close virtual connect session
kill
terminate session
Returning to the VT100 menus
The following commands close the terminal-server command-line interface and return the
cursor to the VT100 menus:
quit
hangup
local
Closes terminal server session
Closes terminal server session
Go to local mode
For example:
ascend% quit
When a dial-in user enters the Local command, a Telnet session begins.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 1-7
MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
Commands for monitoring networks
The following commands are specific to IP or IPX routing connections:
iproute
ping
ipxping
traceroute
Manage IP routes. Type ’iproute ?’ for help
ping <host-name>
ipxping <host-name>
Trace route to host. Type ’traceroute -?’ for help
For details about each of the commands, see Chapter 5, “Network Administration.”
Commands for use by terminal-server users
The following commands must be enabled for use in Ethernet > Mod Config > TServ Options.
If they are enabled, login users can initiate a session by invoking the commands in the
terminal- server interface.
slip
cslip
ppp
menu
telnet
rlogin
tcp
open
resume
close
SLIP command
Compressed SLIP command
PPP command
Host menu interface
telnet [ -a|-b|-t ] <host-name> [ <port-number> ]
rlogin [ -l user -ec ] <host-name> [ -l user ]
tcp <hostname> <port-number>
open < modem-number | slot:modem-on-slot >
resume virtual connect session
close virtual connect session
These commands initiate a session with a host or modem, or toggle to a different interface that
displays a menu selection of Telnet hosts.
SLIP, CSLIP, and PPP
The SLIP, CSLIP, and PPP commands initiate Serial Line IP, Compressed SLIP, and PPP
sessions, respectively, from the terminal-server command line.
Menu
The Menu command invokes the terminal server’s menu mode, which lists up to four hosts.
The four hosts can be either Telnet hosts, raw TCP hosts or a mixture of the two types.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
Specifying Telnet hosts
The Menu command invokes the terminal server’s menu mode, which lists up to four Telnet
hosts as configured in the Ethernet > Mod Config > TServ Options subprofile. For example:
Up to 16 lines of up to 80 characters each
will be accepted. Long lines will be truncated.
Additional lines will be ignored
1. host1.abc.com
2. host2.abc.com
3. host3.abc.com
4. host4.abc.com
Enter Selection (1-4, q)
This menu was configured in the Tserv Options menu by setting the Host #N Addr and Host
#N Text parameters to specify the IP addresses and menu names, respectively, of the four
hosts. For example, Host # 1 Addr specifies the IP address of Host1, and Host #1 Text is set to
host.abc.com.
To return to the command-line, press 0. Terminal server security must be set up to allow the
operator to toggle between the command line and menu mode, or the Menu command has no
effect. Enable this function by setting the Toggle Scrn parameter (Ethernet > Mod Config >
Tserv Options) to Yes. (For more information on this parameter, see the MAX Reference
Guide.)
Specifying raw TCP hosts
To specify IP addresses or DNS names of hosts to which you establish a raw TCP connection,
proceed as follows:
1
Open the Ethernet > Mod Config > TServ options menu.
2
Select one of the Host # Addr fields and enter the following:
rawTcp host portnumber
rawTcp is the required string that causes the MAX to establish a raw TCP connection
when the user chooses this host number. This entry is case-sensitive and must be entered
exactly as shown.
host can be the DNS name of the host or the IP address of the host. The total number of
characters, including all three strings and the delimiting spaces, must not exceed 31.
portnumber is the number of the port on which the connection for this host is to be
established.
3
Enter a description of the host in the Host # Text field.
Note: You cannot configure raw TCP hosts if you are using a RADIUS server to provide the
list of hosts.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 1-9
MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
Example of configuration combining Telnet hosts and raw TCP hosts
Suppose you specify the following values in the TServ Options menu:
Remote Conf=No
Host #1 Addr=10.10.10.1
Host #1 Text=Cleveland
Host #2 Addr=
Host #2 Text=
Host #3 Addr=
Host #3 Text=
Host #4 Addr=rawTcp corp-host 7
Host #4 Text=The Office - port 7
Immed Service=None
Immed Host=N/A
Immed Port=N/A
Telnet Host Auth=No
If you then execute the Menu command, the following menu appears:
** Ascend Terminal Server **
1. Cleveland
2. The Office - port 7
Enter Selection (1-2,q)
If you select 2, the MAX establishes raw a CP connection on port 7 to the host named
corp-host.
If a you select 1, the MAX establishes a Telnet connection on port 23, the default Telnet port,
to the host address 10.10.10.1.
Telnet
The Telnet command initiates a login session to a remote host. It uses the following format:
telnet [-a|-b|–t] hostname [port-number]
where
•
-a | -b | -t are optional arguments specifying ASCII, Binary, or Transparent mode,
respectively. If one of the arguments is entered, it overrides the setting of the Telnet Mode
parameter.
In ASCII mode, the MAX uses standard 7-bit mode. In Binary mode, the MAX tries to
negotiate 8-bit mode with the server at the remote end of the connection, so that the user
can send and receive binary files by means of 8-bit file transfer protocols. In transparent
mode, either of the other modes can be used without specifying the node.
•
hostname can be the remote system’s DNS name if you have configured DNS. If you
have not, you must specify the IP address of the remote system.
•
port-number is an optional argument specifying the port to use for the session. The
default is 23, which is the port number of the well-known port for Telnet.
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MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
For example, if your DNS table has an entry for myhost, you can open a telnet session with
that host as follows:
ascend% telnet myhost
If you do not configure DNS, you must specify the host’s IP address instead. There are also
several options in the Ethernet > Mod Config > TServ Options subprofile that affect Telnet; for
example, if you set Def Telnet to Yes, you can just type a hostname to open a Telnet session
with that host:
ascend% myhost
Another way to open a session is to invoke Telnet first, then enter the Open command at the
Telnet prompt. For example:
ascend% telnet
telnet> open myhost
When your screen displays the telnet> prompt, you can enter any of the Telnet commands
described in “Telnet session commands” on page 1-11. You can quit the Telnet session at any
time by entering the Quit command at the Telnet prompt:
telnet> quit
Note: During an open Telnet connection, press Ctrl-] to display the telnet> prompt and
the Telnet command-line interface. Any valid Telnet command returns you to the open session.
Note that Ctrl-] does not function in binary mode Telnet. If you log into the MAX by Telnet,
you might want to change the escape sequence from Ctrl-] to a different setting.
Telnet session commands
The commands in this section can be entered at the Telnet prompt during an open session. To
display the Telnet prompt while logged in to a host, press Ctrl-] (hold down the Control key
and type a right bracket). To display information about Telnet session commands, use the Help
or ? command. For example:
telnet> ?
To open a Telnet connection after invoking Telnet, use the Open command. For example:
telnet> open myhost
To send standard Telnet commands such as Are You There or Suspend Process, use the Send
command. For example:
telnet> send susp
For a list of Send commands and their syntax, enter the Send command with a question mark:
telnet> send ?
To specify special characters for use during the Telnet session, use the Set command. For
example:
telnet> set eof ^D
To display current settings, enter the Set All command:
telnet> set all
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 1-11
MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
To display a list of Set commands, enter the Set command with a question mark:
telnet> set ?
To quit the Telnet session and close the connection, enter the Close or Quit command. For
example:
telnet> close
Telnet error messages
The MAX generates an error message for any condition that causes the Telnet session to fail or
terminate abnormally. The following error messages can appear:
•
no connection: host reset—The destination host reset the connection.
•
no connection: host unreachable—The destination host is unreachable.
•
no connection: net unreachable—The destination network is unreachable.
•
Unit busy. Try again later.—The host already has open the maximum number
of concurrent Telnet sessions.
Rlogin command
The Rlogin command initiates a login session to a remote host. The command has the
following format:
rlogin [-echar] hostname [-1username]
where:
•
-echar sets the escape character to char. For example:
rlogin -e$ 10.2.3.4
The default escape character is a tilde (~).
•
hostname can be the remote system’s DNS name if you have configured DNS. If oyu
have not, you must specify the IP address of the remote system.
•
-lusername specifies that you log into the remote host as username, rather than as
the name with which you logged into the terminal server. (If you logged in through
RADIUS or TACACS, you must be prompted for this option.) If you can specify this
option on the command line, you can enter it either before or after the hostname argument.
For example, the following two lines perform identical functions:
rlogin -l jim 10.2.3.4
rlogin 10.2.3.4 -l jim
To terminate the remote login, choose the Exit command at the remote system’s prompt. Or,
you can press the Enter key, then type the escape character followed by a period.
<CR><ESC-CHAR><PERIOD>
For example, to terminate a remote login that was initiated with the default escape character (a
tilde), press the Enter key, then the ~ key, then the . key.
~.
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Terminal-server command-line interface
TCP
The TCP command initiates a login session to a remote host. The command has the following
format:
tcp hostname [port-number]
where:
•
hostname can be the remote system’s DNS name if you have configured DNS. If oyu
have not, you must specify the IP address of the remote system.
•
port-number specifies the port to use for the session. The port number typically
indicates a custom application that runs on top of the TCP session. For example, port
number 23 starts a Telnet session. However, terminating the Telnet session does not
terminate the raw TCP session.
When the raw TCP session starts running, the MAX displays the word connected. You can
then use the TCP session to transport data by running an application on top of TCP. You can
hang up the device at either end to terminate the raw TCP session. If you are using a remote
terminal-server session, ending the connection also terminates raw TCP.
If a raw TCP connection fails, the MAX returns one of the following error messages:
•
Cannot open session: hostname port-number—You entered an invalid or
unknown value for hostname, you entered an invalid value for port-number, or a
port number was required and you failed to enter it.
•
no connection: host reset— The destination host reset the connection.
•
no connection: host unreachable— The destination host is unreachable.
•
no connection: net unreachable— The destination network is unreachable.
Open, Resume, and Close
If the MAX has digital modems installed and Modem Dialout is enabled in the TServ Options
submenu, a local user can issue AT commands to the modem as if connected locally to the
modem’s asynchronous port. To set up a virtual connection to a modem, enter the Open
command. Use the following format:
open [modem number | slot:modemOnSlot]
For example:
ascend% open 7:1
If you are unsure which slot or item number to specify, the Show Modems command displays
the possible choices. If you enter the Open command without specifying any of the optional
arguments, the MAX opens a virtual connection to the first available modem.
Once you have connected to the modem, you can issue AT commands to the modem and
receive responses from it.
You can temporarily suspend a virtual connection by pressing Ctrl-C three times. This control
sequence causes the MAX to display the terminal-server interface again. To resume a virtual
connection suspended with Ctrl-C, can enter the Resume command at the terminal-server
prompt:
ascend% resume
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 1-13
MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
To terminate a virtual connection, enter the Close command at the terminal-server prompt:
ascend% close
Administrative commands
The following commands (shown as they appear in the Help display) are useful for system
administration:
test
test <number> frame-count> ] [ <optional fields> ]
remote
remote <station>
set
Set various items. Type ’set ?’ for help
show
Show various tables. Type ’show ?’ for help
kill
terminate session
Test
The MAX can use two open channels to run a self-test in which it calls itself, by placing the
call on one channel and receiving it on the other channel. To run the test, execute the TEST
command which has the following format:
test phonenumber [frame-count] [optional fields]
where
•
phonenumber is the phone number of the channel receiving the test call. This can
include the numbers 0 through 9 and the characters ()[]-, but cannot include spaces.
•
[frame-count] The optional frame-count argument is a number from 1 to 65535
specifying the number of frames to send during the test. The default is 100. The
optional fields are the following:
•
[data-svc=data-svc]
where data-svc, is a data service identical to any of the values available for the Data
Svc parameter of the Connection profile. (For a list of valid values, see the Reference
Guide for your MAX.) If you do not specify a value, the default value is the one specified
for the Data Svc parameter.
•
[call-by-call=T1-PRI-service]
where T1-PRI-service, is any value available to the Call-by-Call parameter of the
Connection profile. The Call-by-Call parameter specifies the PRI service that the MAX
uses when placing a PPP call. (For a list of valid values, see the Reference Guide for your
MAX.) If you do not specify a value, the default is as specified for the Call-by-Call
parameter.
•
[primary-number-type=AT&T-switch]
where AT&T-switch, is any value available to the PRI # Type parameter of the
Connection profile. The PRI # Type parameter specifies an AT&T switch. (For a list of
valid values, see the Reference Guide for your MAX.) If you do not specify a value, the
default value is the one specified for the PRI # Type parameter.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
•
[transit-number=IEC]
where IEC, is any value available to the Transit # parameter of the Connection profile.
The Transit # parameter specifies the U.S. Interexchange Carrier (IEC) you use for long
distance calls over a PRI line. (For a list of valid values, see the Reference Guide for your
MAX.) If you do not specify a value, the default is as specified for the Transit # parameter.
Here is a simple example of entering the Test command:
ascend% test 555-1212
You can press Ctrl-C at any time to terminate the test. While the test is running, the MAX
displays the status. For example:
calling...answering...testing...end
200 packets sent, 200 packets received
If you enable trunk groups on the MAX, you can specify the outgoing lines to be used in the
self-test. If you do not, the MAX uses the first available T1 (or E1) line. For example, if you
assign trunk group 7 to line 1 on a Net/BRI module, and your PBX requires a preceding 9 is for
an outgoing call, the following command places the outgoing call on line 1 of the Net/BRI
module:
ascend% test 7-9-555-1212
The MAX generates an error message for any condition that causes the test to terminate before
sending the full number of packets. The following error messages can appear:
Message
Explanation
bad digits in phone number
The phone number you specified contained a character
other than the numbers 0 through 9 and the characters
()[]-
call failed
The MAX did not answer the outgoing call. Can indicate a
wrong phone number or a busy phone number. Use the
Show ISDN command to determine the nature of the
failure
call terminated N1 packets sent
N2 packets received
This message indicates the number of packets sent (N1)
and received (N2).
cannot handshake
The MAX answered the outgoing call, but the two sides
did not properly identify themselves. Can indicate that the
call was routed to the wrong MAX module, or that the
phone number was incorrect.
frame-count must be in the range The number of frames requested exceeded 65535.
1-65535
no phone number
You did not specify a phone number on the command line.
test aborted
The test was terminated (Ctrl-C).
unit busy
You attempted to start another self-test when one was
already in progress. You can run only one self-test at a
time.
unknown items on command-line The command line contained unknown items. Inserting
one or more spaces in the telephone number can generate
this error.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 1-15
MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
Message
Explanation
unknown option option
The command-line contained the option specified by
option, which is invalid.
unknown value value
The command-line contained the value specified by value,
which is invalid
wrong phone number
A device other than the MAX answered the call.
Therefore, the phone number you specified was incorrect
Remote
After an MP+ connection has been established with a remote station (for example, by using the
DO Dial command), you can start a remote management session with that station by entering
the Remote command in the following format:
remote station
For example:
ascend% remote lab17gw
During the remote management session, the user interface of the remote device replaces your
local user interface, as if you had opened a Telnet connection to the device. You can enter Ctrl-\
at any time to terminate the Remote session. Note that either end of an MP+ link can terminate
the session by hanging up all channels of the connection.
The argument to the Remote command is the name of the remote station. It must match the
value of a Station parameter in a Connection profile that allows outgoing MP+ calls, or the
user-id at the start of a RADIUS profile set up for outgoing calls.
Note: A remote management session can time out because the traffic it generates does not
reset the idle timer. Therefore, the Idle parameter in the Connection profile at both the calling
and answering ends of the connection should be disabled during a remote management session,
and restored just before exiting. Remote management works best at higher terminal speeds.
At the beginning of a remote management session, you have privileges set by the default
Security profile at the remote end of the connection. To activate administrative privileges on
the remote station, activate the appropriate remote Security profile by using the DO Password
command (as described in “Activating administrative permissions” on page 1-2).
The MAX generates an error message for any condition that causes the test to terminate before
sending the full number of packets. The following error messages can appear:
Message
Explanation
not authorized
Your current security privileges are insufficient for beginning a remote
management session. To assign yourself the required privileges, log in
with the DO PASSWORD command to a Security profile whose Edit
System parameter is set to Yes.
cannot find profile for The MAX could not locate a local Connection profile containing a
<station>
Station parameter whose value matched <station>.
profile for <station> The local Connection profile containing a Station value equal to
does not specify MPP <station> did not contain Encaps=MPP.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
Message
Explanation
cannot establish
connection for
<station>
The MAX located a local Connection profile containing the proper
Station and Encaps settings, but it could not complete the connection
to the remote station.
<station> did not
negotiate MPP
The remote station did not negotiate an MP+ connection. This error
occurs most often when the remote station does not support MP+, but
does support PPP.
far end does not
support remote
management
The remote station is running a version of MP+ that does not support
remote management.
management session
failed
A temporary condition, such as premature termination of the
connection, caused the management session to fail.
far end rejected
session
The remote station was configured to reject remote management; its
Remote Mgmt parameter was set to No in the System profile.
Set
The Set command takes several arguments. To display them, enter the Set command with a
question mark:
ascend% set ?
set
set
set
set
set
set
?
all
term
password
fr
circuit
Display help information
Display current settings
Sets the telnet/rlogin terminal type
Enable dynamic password serving
Frame Relay datalink control
Frame Relay Circuit control
The Set All command displays current settings. For example:
ascend% set all
term = vt100
dynamic password serving = disabled
To specify a terminal type other than VT100, use the Set Term command.
The Set Password command puts the terminal server in password mode, in which a third-party
ACE or SAFEWORD server at a secure site can display password challenges dynamically in
the terminal-server interface. When the terminal server is in password mode, it passively waits
for password challenges from a remote ACE or SAFEWORD server. The Set Password
command applies only when using security card authentication. Enter the command as follows:
ascend% set password
Entering Password Mode...
[^C to exit] Password Mode>
To return to normal terminal-server operations and thereby disable password mode, press
Ctrl-C.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 1-17
MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
Note that each channel of a connection to a secure site requires a separate password challenge,
so for multichannel connections to a secure site, you must leave the terminal server in
password mode until all channels have been established. The APP Server utility provides an
alternative way to allow users to respond to dynamic password challenges obtained from
hand-held security cards. For details about dynamic password serving, see the MAX Security
Supplement.
The Set FR commands enable you to bring down the nailed connection specified in the named
Frame Relay profile. The connection reestablished within a few seconds. The Set Circuit
commands let you activate or deactivate a Frame Relay circuit. For details, see the Network
Configuration Guide for your MAX.
Show
The Show command takes several arguments. To display them, enter the Show command with
a question mark:
ascend% show ?
show ?
Display help information
show arp
Display the arp cache
show icmp
Display ICMP information
show if
Display Interface info. Type ’show if ?’ for help
show ip
Display IP information. Type ’show ip ?’ for help
show udp
Display UDP information. Type ’show udp ?’ for help
show igmp
Display IGMP information. Type ’show igmp ?’ for help
show mrouting Display MROUTING information. Type ’show mrouting ?’ f ?’
show ospf
Display OSPF information. Type ’show ospf ?’ for help.
show tcp
Display TCP information. Type ’show tcp ?’ for help
show dnstab
Display local DNS table. Type ’show dnstab ?’ for help
show netware
Display IPX information. Type ’show netware ? ’ for help
show isdn
Display ISDN events. Type ’show isdn <line number>’ for help
show fr
Display Frame relay info. Type ’show fr ?’ for help
show pools
Display the assign address pools
show modems
Display status of all modems
show calls
Display status of calls
show pad
Display X25/PAD information
show uptime
Display system uptime
show revision Display system revision
show v.110s
Display status of all v.110 cards
show users
Display concise list of active users
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
show x25
Display status of X.25 stack
show dnis
session
Display active DNIS sessions
show dnis
statistics
Display DNIS statistics
Note: Many of the Show commands are specific to a particular type of usage, such as, IP
routing or OSPF. The chapters of this guide that relate to these types of connection and routing
describe the relevant Show commands.
Show commands related to network information
The following Show commands are related to monitoring protocols and other network-specific
information and are discussed in Chapter 5, “Network Administration”:
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
arp
icmp
if
ip
udp
igmp
mrouting
ospf
tcp
dnstab
netware
fr
pools
pad
x25
Show ISDN
The Show ISDN command enables the MAX to display the last 20 events that have occurred
on the specified ISDN line. Enter the command in the following format:
show isdn line-number
where line-number is the number of the ISDN line. (For details about how lines are
numbered, see the Network Configuration Guide for your MAX.) For example, to display
information about the leftmost built-in WAN port, you would enter the following command:
ascend% show isdn 0
The MAX responds with one or more of the following messages:
PH:
PH:
DL:
DL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
ACTIVATED
DEACTIVATED
TEI ASSIGNED (BRI interfaces only)
TEI REMOVED (BRI interfaces only)
CALL REQUEST
CLEAR REQUEST
ANSWER REQUEST
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 1-19
MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
NL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
CALL
CALL
CALL
CALL
CALL
CALL
CALL
CALL
CALL
CALL
CONNECTED
FAILED/T303 EXPIRY
CLEARED/L1 CHANGE
REJECTED/OTHER DEST
REJECTED/BAD CALL REF
REJECTED/NO VOICE CALLS
REJECTED/INVALID CONTENTS
REJECTED/BAD CHANNEL ID
FAILED/BAD PROGRESS IE
CLEARED WITH CAUSE
In some cases, the message can include a phone number (prefixed by #), a data service
(suffixed by K for Kbps), a channel number, TEI assignment, and cause code. For example, the
following information might appear:
PH:
NL:
NL:
NL:
NL:
ACTIVATED
CALL REQUEST: 64K, #442
CALL CONNECTED: B2, #442
CLEAR REQUEST: B1
CALL CLEARED WITH CAUSE 16 B1 #442
For information about each of the messages that can appear, see the CCITTT Blue Book Q.931
or other ISDN specifications.
Show Modems
To display the status of the MAX unit’s digital modems, enter the Show Modems command.
For example, the following output is from a MAX with a V.34 modem slot card in slot 8:
ascend% show modems
slot:item
8:1
8:2
8:3
8:4
8:5
8:6
8:7
8:8
1-20 Preliminary November 2, 1998
modem
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
status
online
online
online
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
For 8-MOD and 12-MOD K56Flex modem slot cards, the numbering is not sequential, but the
numbering does not affect functionality. For example, if you have an 8-MOD modem card in
slot 8 in a MAX, the Show Modems command in the terminal- server displays the following
output:
ascend% show modems
slot:item
8:0
8:1
8:2
8:3
8:6
8:7
8:10
8:11
modem
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
status
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
As another example, if you have a 12-MOD modem card in slot 8 in a MAX, the Show
Modems command in the terminal-server displays the following output:
ascend% show modems
slot:item
8:0
8:1
8:2
8:3
8:4
8:5
8:6
8:7
8:8
8:9
8:12
8:13
modem
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
status
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
idle
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
slot item
The slot and port number of the modem. For example, 8:1 indicates the
first port on the digital modem card installed in slot 8.
modem
The SNMP interface number of each modem.
status
Modem status, which can be one of the following strings:
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
–
idle—The modem is not in use.
–
awaiting DCD—The call is up and waiting for DCD.
–
awaiting codes—DCD is up, and the call is waiting for
modem result codes.
–
online—The call is up. The modem can now send and
receive data.
–
initializing—The modem is being reset.
Preliminary November 2, 1998 1-21
MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
Show Calls
The Show Calls command displays information about active calls on a German 1TR6 or
Japanese NTT switch type. For example:
ascend% show calls
Call ID
3
4
Called Party ID Calling Party ID InOctets OutOctets
5104563434
4197654321
4191234567
5108888888
0
888888
0
99999
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
CallID
An identifier for the call
CalledPartyID
The telephone number of the answering device (that is, this unit). This ID
is obtained from layer 3 protocol messages during call setup.
CallingPartyID
The telephone number of the caller. This ID is obtained from layer 3
protocol messages during call setup.
InOctets
The total number of octets received by the user from the moment the call
begins until it is cleared.
OutOctets
The total number of octets sent by the user from the moment the call
begins until it is cleared.
Show Uptime
To see how long the MAX has been running, enter the Show Uptime command. For example:
ascend% show uptime
system uptime: up 2 days, 4 hours, 38 minutes, 43 seconds
If the MAX stays up for 1000 consecutive days with no power cycles, the number of days
displayed resets to 0 and begins to increment again.
Show Revision
The Show Revision command displays the software load and version number currently running
on the MAX. For example:
ascend% show revision
techpubs-lab-17 system revision: ebiom.m40 5.0A
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
Show V.110s
To display the status of the MAX unit’s V.110 cards, enter the Show V.110s command:
ascend% show v.110s
slot:item
4:1
4:2
4:3
4:4
4:5
4:6
4:7
4:8
v.110s
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
status
in use
in use
in use
open issued
carrier detected
session closed
idle
in use
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
slot item
The slot and port number of the V.110 port. For example, 8:1 indicates the first
port on the V.110 card installed in slot 8.
v.110s
The SNMP interface number of each V.110 card.
status
V.110 port status, which can be one of the following strings:
–
idle—The V.110 port is not in use.
–
open issued—An open was issued, but the MAX has not synced
up with the far end.
–
carrier detected—A carrier was detected from the remote end.
–
in use—A V.110 session is up.
Show Users
To display the number of active sessions, enter the Show Users command. For example:
ascend% show users
I
O
O
I
O
O
Session
ID
231849873
231849874
214933581
214933582
Line:
Chan
1:1
1:3
1:2
1:6
Slot:
Port
9:1
3:1
9:2
9:3
Tx
Data
56K
28800
56K
56K
Rx
Rate
56K
33600
56K
56K
Service
Type[mpID]
MPP[1]
Termsrv
MPP[1]
MPP[1]
Host
Address
10.10.68.2
N/A
10.10.4.9
MPP Bundle
User
Name
jdoe
Modem 3:1
arwp50
arwp50
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Content
IO
I for an incoming call or O for an outgoing call
Session ID
Unique session-ID. This is the same as Acct-Session-ID in RADIUS.
Line:Chan
Line and channel on which the session is established.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 1-23
MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
Field
Content
Slot: Port
Slot and port of the service being used by the session. Can indicate
the number of a slot containing a modem card, and the modem on that
card. Or can indicate the virtual slot of the MAX unit’s bridge/router,
with the port indicator showing the virtual interfaces to bridge/router
starting with 1 for the first session of a multichannel session.
Tx Data
Transmit data rate in bits per second.
Rx Rate
Receive data rate in bits per second.
Service Type
Type of session, which can be Termsrv or a protocol name.
For MP and MPP (MPT), shows the bundle ID shared by the calls in a
multichannel session. The special values Initial and Login
document the progress of a session. Initial identifies sessions that
do not yet have a protocol assigned. Login identifies Termsrv
sessions during the login process.
Host Address
Network address of the host originating the session.
For some sessions this field is N/A. For outgoing MPP sessions only,
the first connection has a valid network address associated with it. All
other connections in the bundle have the network address listed as
MPP Bundle.
User Name
The station name associated with the session. Initially, the value is
Answer, which is usually replaced with the name of the remote host.
For terminal-server sessions User Name is the login name. Before
completion of login, the field contains the string modem x:y where
x and y are the slot and port, respectively, of the modem servicing the
session.
Kill
The Kill command enables you to disconnect a user who establishes a Telnet connection to the
MAX. You can disconnect the user by specifying the session ID. The resulting disconnect code
is identical to the RADIUS disconnect code, allowing you to track all administrative
disconnects. To terminate a Telnet session, enter the command as follows:
kill session ID
where session ID is the session ID as displayed by the Show Users command described in
the preceding section. The reported disconnect cause is DIS_LOCAL_ADMIN. The active
Security profile must have Edit All Calls set to Yes. If Edit All Calls=No, the following
message appears when you enter the Kill command:
Insufficient security level for that operation.
When the session is properly terminated, a message similar to the following appears:
Session 216747095 killed.
When the session is not terminated, a caution similar to the following appears:
Unable to kill session 216747095.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
Show DNIS session command
To display active DNIS sessions, enter the Show DNIS Session command:
ascend% show dnis session
DNIS#
0. Unspecified
1. 68149
2. 8867764
3. 45566778800
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
GLOBAL
Used/Max
0/999
0/123
0/1
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
MODEM
Used/Max
0/1
0/456
0/1
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
HDLC
Used/Max
0/0
0/1
0/1
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
V110
Used/Max
0/0
0/0
0/1
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
In the output:
•
DNIS#—Displays the last eleven digits of the DNIS number.
•
Used—Specifies the number of active sessions to the specified DNIS number.
•
Max—Specifies the value specified in the Ethernet > Mod Config > DNIS options
submenu.
If Ethernet > Mod Config > DNIS options > DNIS Limitation = No, and you enter the Show
DNIS Sessions command, the MAX displays the following message:
DNIS Inactive
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 1-25
MAX System Administration
Terminal-server command-line interface
Show DNIS statistics command
To display DNIS session statistics, enter the Show DNIS Statistics command:
ascend% show dnis statistics
DNIS#
0. Unspecified
1. 68149
2. 8867764
3. 45566778800
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
GLOBAL
Tot/Accept
10/9
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
MODEM
Tot/Accept
0/0
8/8
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
HDLC
V110
Tot/Accept Tot/Accept
0/0
0/0
4/4
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
0/0
In the output:
•
DNIS#—Displays the last eleven digits of the DNIS number.
•
Tot—Specifies the total number of calls received to the specified DNIS number.
•
Accept—Specifies the total number of calls accepted to the specified DNSI number.
Note: A counter resets when it reaches 10,000, or when you enter the Clear DNIS Statistics
command.
If Ethernet > Mod Config > DNIS options > DNIS Limitation = No, and you enter the Show
DNIS Statistics command, the MAX displays the following message:
DNIS Inactive
Clear DNIS statistics
To clear DNIS session statistics, enter the Clear DNIS Statistics command. The MAX displays
the following message:
Clearing all DNIS Statistics...
1-26 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
2
VT100 Interface DO Commands
Using DO commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
DO command reference in alphabetic order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
This chapter describes the context-sensitive DO commands.
Using DO commands
The DO menu is a context-sensitive list of commands that appears when you press Ctrl-D. The
commands in the DO menu vary, depending on the context in which you invoke it. For
example, if you press Ctrl-D in a Connection profile, the DO menu looks similar to the
following:
DO…
>0=ESC
1=Dial
P=Password
S=Save
E=Termserv
D=Diagnostics
To execute a DO command, press and release the DO key on the palmtop or the Ctrl-D on a
VT-100 system, and then press and release the next key in the sequence (such as 1 to invoke
the Dial command.) On a VT100 terminal, The PF1 function key is equivalent to Ctrl-D.
List of supported commands
Table 2-1 lists all the DO commands. The availability of a particular command depends on
your location in the interface and your permission level.
Table 2-1. DO commands
Command
Description
Answer (DO 3)
Answer an incoming call.
Beg/End BERT (DO 7)
Begin/End a byte-error test.
Beg/End Rem LB (DO 6)
Begin/End a remote loopback.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998
2-1
VT100 Interface DO Commands
Using DO commands
Table 2-1. DO commands (continued)
Command
Description
Beg/End Rem Mgm (DO 8)
Begin/End remote management.
Close TELNET (DO C)
Close the current Telnet session.
Contract BW (DO 5)
Decrease bandwidth.
Diagnostics (DO D)
Access the diagnostic interface.
Dial (DO 1)
Dial the selected or current profile.
ESC (DO 0)
Abort and exit the DO menu.
Extend BW (DO 4)
Increase bandwidth.
Hang Up (DO 2)
Hang up from a call in progress.
Load (DO L)
Load parameter values into the current profile.
Menu Save (DO M) 8
Save the VT100 interface menu layout.
Resynchronize (DO R)
Resynchronize a call in progress.
Save (DO S)
Save parameter values in the specified profile.
Password (DO P) 9
Log into or out of the MAX.
Termmserv (DO E)
Access the terminal-server interface.
Example of using DO commands to place and clear a call
To manually place a call, the Connection profile for that call must be open or selected in the list
of profiles. To clear a call, you can either open the Connection profile for the active connection
or tab over to the status window in which that connection is listed. (as described in Chapter 4,
“VT100 Interface Status Windows.”)
To manually place a call:
1
Open the Connection profile for the destination you want to call.
2
Press Ctrl-D.
The DO menu appears:
DO…
>0=ESC
1=Dial
P=Password
S=Save
E=Termserv
D=Diagnostics
3
Press 1 (or select 1=Dial) to invoke the Dial command.
2-2 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
VT100 Interface DO Commands
DO command reference in alphabetic order
4
Watch the information in the Sessions status window. You should see the number being
called, followed by a message that the network session is up.
To manually clear a call:
1
Open the Connection profile or tab over to the status window that displays information
about the active session you want to clear.
2
Press Ctrl-D.
The DO menu for the active session appears. FOr example:
10-200 1234567890
DO…
>0=ESC
2=Hang Up
P=Password
S=Save
E=Termserv
D=Diagnostics
3
Press 2 (or select 2=Hang Up) to invoke the Hang Up command.
The status-window displays changes when the call has been terminated.
DO command reference in alphabetic order
This section describes the DO commands in detail. The commands are listed in alphabetic
order.
Answer (DO 3)
The Answer (DO3) command answers an incoming call. You can apply the command only
from a menu specific to a serial host port. You cannot answer a call if another call is currently
using the port. The command applies when Answer=Terminal at the serial host port and an
incoming call is ringing at that port. It is not available from the secondary serial host port of a
dual-port pair.
Beg/End BERT (DO 7)
The DO Beg/End BERT command starts and stops a channel-by-channel Byte Error test
(BERT). The test runs over the currently called circuits from end-to-end. It reports the total
number of incorrect bytes errors found, and breaks the errors down according to DS0 channel.
The results are displayed in the Session Err window.
When you select DO Beg/End BERT, the following events occur:
1
The local device sends a known data pattern over the network.
2
The responding end goes into a DS0-by-DS0 loopback mode of operation.
The signal at the remote end of the test is looped back at the application-MAX interface,
rather than at the network-MAX interface.
3
By monitoring the data being received against the transmitted pattern, the local device
counts the errors it receives on each individual DS0 channel.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 2-3
VT100 Interface DO Commands
DO command reference in alphabetic order
If a single byte has two or more errors, it is recorded as a single error.
The call status letter T, for Test, appears in the upper right-hand corner of the display of both
the local and the remote MAX unit to indicate that a BERT is in progress. To resume normal
operation, end the BERT by selecting DO 7 or entering Ctrl-D 7.
Keep in mind the following additional information:
•
A BERT suspends any transfer of user data in either directions.
•
All commands that affect the call are disabled, except the command that ends the BERT.
•
You must be in a port-specific edit menu or status window to execute the DO Beg/End
BERT command.
•
You can run the BERT in only one direction at a time. That is, only one side can be the
requester.
•
To allow the MAX time to complete handshaking, you must wait at least 20 seconds
between toggling the BERT on and off.
•
The DO Beg/End BERT command does not appear if you are not logged in with
operational privileges.
For related information, see the Operations parameter in the MAX Reference Guide, and the
Line Errors, Session Err, Port Info, Call Status, and Statistics sections in Chapter 4, “VT100
Interface Status Windows.”
Beg/End Rem LB (DO 6)
The DO Begin/End Rem LB command begins and ends a loopback at the serial host port at the
remote end of the call.
To begin a remote loopback, select DO Beg/End Rem LB. The call status character L appears
in the upper right-hand corner of the screen at both the local and the remote device. A remote
loopback tests the entire connection from host interface to host interface. The following events
occur:
1
The serial host interface of the local MAX begins the remote loopback test.
2
The data loops at the serial host interface of the remote MAX and comes back to the local
MAX.
This loopback is also known as a remote data loopback, because the loopback occurs at the
DTE/DCE interface. To end a remote loopback, select DO 6 or Ctrl-D 6. Unplugging the
palmtop controller also terminates a remote loopback.
Keep in mind the following additional information:
•
A remote loopback disables data flow from the remote host, but the call remains online.
•
A remote loopback disables Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA).
•
Only switched and nailed-up channels active during the current call are looped back.
•
Drop-and-Insert channels are not looped back.
•
You must be in a port-specific edit menu or status window to use the DO Beg/End LB
command.
•
To allow the MAX time to complete handshaking, you must wait at least 20 seconds
between toggling the remote loopback on or off.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
VT100 Interface DO Commands
DO command reference in alphabetic order
•
When the remote device is a not an Ascend inverse multiplexer, you cannot set up a
remote loopback if the network connection occurs over an ISDN line and the Call profile
includes any of the following settings:
–
Call Type is set to 1 Chnl or 2 Chnl
–
Call Type is set to AIM or BONDING and Call Mgm is set to Static or Mode 1.
•
If the remote device is an ISDN TA (Terminal Adapter), the MAX cannot usually perform
a remote loopback. ISDN TAs cannot recognize the loopback signal. However, most
switching Channel Service Units/Data Service Units (CSU/DSUs) recognize the remote
loopback signal that the MAX sends, and remote loopbacks are usually possible with such
equipment.
•
The MAX uses a proprietary loopback message when the AIM management subchannel is
present (Call Mgm is set to Manual, Dynamic, or Delta in a Call profile).
•
The MAX uses the CCITT V.54 loopback pattern when no management subchannel is
present (Call Type is set to 1 Chnl or 2 Chnl and Call Mgm=Static in a Call profile).
•
If the MAX fails to set up a remote loopback, it establishes a loopback at the local host
interface that tried to establish the call.
•
The DO Beg/End LB command does not appear if you are not logged in with operational
privileges.
For related information, see the Call Mgm, Call Type, and Operations parameters in the MAX
Reference Guide.
Beg/End Rem Mgm (DO 8)
The DO Beg/End Rem Mgm command begins and ends remote management of the device at
the remote end of an Ascend Inverse Multiplexing (AIM) call. When you enter the command,
the VT100 interface displays the following message at the top of its screen:
REMOTE MANAGEMENT VIA port
where, port specifies the serial host port through which you are conducting remote
management. To end an AIM remote management session, enter DO 8 or Ctrl-D 8. You cannot
exit remote management from a port other than the port from which you began remote
management. When the message at the top of the VT100 screen disappears, the screens
associated with the local MAX appear.
Note: Ascend strongly recommends that you use only the VT100 interface to perform remote
management. The palmtop controller provides no indication as to whether you are in remote
management or local management.
Keep in mind the following additional information:
•
During an AIM call, remote management adds 20 Kbps to the 0.2% overhead of the call,
and to that small extent reduces the bandwidth provided to serial host devices using the
connection.
•
The DO Beg/End Rem Mgm command is available for connections with the Call profile’s
Call Type parameter set to FT1-AIM, FT1-B&O, or AIM (but not with Call Mgm set to
Static).
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 2-5
VT100 Interface DO Commands
DO command reference in alphabetic order
•
An error message of Remote Mgmt Denied indicates that you have tried to control a
MAX that is not configured to allow remote management. You cannot remotely manage a
device for which Remote Mgmt=No in the System profile.
•
You cannot begin remote management if you do not have a call on line to the remote
device. Furthermore, you must select the DO Beg/End Rem Mgm command from a menu
specific to that call.
•
The DO Beg/End Rem Mgm command does not appear if you are not logged in with
operational privileges.
For related information, see the Call Mgm, Call Type, Operations, and Remote Mgmt
parameters in the MAX Reference Guide.
Close Telnet (DO C)
The DO Close Telnet command closes the current Telnet session. You must be running a Telnet
session from the MAX unit’s terminal-server interface.
Contract BW (DO 5)
The DO Contract BW command decreases the bandwidth by the amount specified in the Dec
Ch Count parameter of the current Call profile. If the specified amount is not available, the
MAX removes the maximum number of channels possible without clearing the call.
Keep in mind the following additional information:
•
The DO Contract BW command is available only from a menu specific to an online call
with at least two channels.
•
The command is available for inverse-multiplexed calls using switched circuits.
•
The command does not appear if you are not logged in with operational privileges.
For related information, see the Dec Ch Count and Operations parameters in the MAX
Reference Guide.
Diagnostics (DO D)
The DO D command invokes diagnostics mode. The user must have sufficient privileges in the
active Security profile. In diagnostics mode, the VT100 interface displays a command-line
prompt:
>
Use the Help Ascend command to display a list of diagnostic commands:
> help ascend
To exit diagnostics mode and return to the VT100 interface, enter the Quit command:
> quit
2-6 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
VT100 Interface DO Commands
DO command reference in alphabetic order
Dial (DO 1)
The DO Dial command dials a selected Call or Connection profile. Before you dial a Call
profile, the selector (>) must be in one of the following positions:
•
In front of a Call profile in the Directory menu
•
At any parameter within a Call profile
•
In front of or within any port-specific menu, but not at any specific Call profile. (Because
the current Call profile contains the parameters of the last call made from a port, this
option redials that call.)
Dial automatically executes a DO Load to load the selected profile. It overwrites the current
Call profile, including any Call profile parameters you might have edited. However, edited
parameters are not overwritten if the current Call profile is protected by Security profiles.
Before you bring a specific session online, the cursor must be in front of the associated
Connection profile in the Connections menu.
Keep in mind the following additional information:
•
Dial is not available when the link is busy.
•
You cannot place a call from the secondary port of a dual-port pair.
•
The DO Dial command does not appear if you are not logged in with operational
privileges.
•
You cannot dial if you have not selected the correct profile, if Dial # does not appear in the
profile, or if no IP address is set for the profile when IP routing is enabled.
For related information, see the Operations parameter in the MAX Reference Guide.
Esc (DO 0)
The DO ESC command exits the DO menu.
Extend BW (DO 4)
The DO Extend BW command increases the bandwidth by the amount specified in the Inc Ch
Count parameter of the current Call profile. If the specified amount is not available, the MAX
adds the maximum number of channels available to the call.
You must apply this command from a menu specific to an online serial host port. This
command is available only from connections whose bandwidth can be incremented.
Keep in mind the following additional information:
•
The DO Extend BW command is available for AIM and BONDING calls using switched
circuits, but is not available for MP+ or MP calls.
•
The DO Extend BW command does not appear if you are not logged in with operational
privileges.
For related information, see the Inc Ch Count and Operations parameters in the MAX
Reference Guide.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 2-7
VT100 Interface DO Commands
DO command reference in alphabetic order
Hang Up (DO 2)
The DO Hang up command ends an online call. Either the caller or the receiver can terminate
at any time.
Keep in mind the following additional information:
•
The DO Hangup command works only from the caller end of an Nailed/MPP connection
(when Call Type=Nailed/MPP in a Call profile).
•
You must be in a menu specific to an online serial host port or session to use this
command.
•
The DO Hangup command does not appear if you are not logged in with operational
privileges.
For related information, see the Call Type and Operations parameters in the MAX Reference
Guide.
Load (DO L)
The DO Load command loads a saved or edited profile and overwrites the values of the current
profile. For example, suppose you have saved a profile named Memphis in the Directory
location 21-102 and your screen currently displays the following lines:
21-100 Directory
21-1 Factory
21-101 Tucson
>21-102 Memphis
If you execute DO Load, the following display:
Load profile...?
0=Esc (Don’t load)
1=Load profile 102
If you choose the first option by pressing 0 (zero), the MAX aborts the load operation. If you
choose the second option by pressing 1, the following status window appears:
Status #116
profile loaded
as current profile
The Directory menu shows the results of the load operation:
21-100 Directory
21-1** Memphis
21-101 Tucson
>21-102 Memphis
The DO Load command is not available if you are not logged in with operational privileges.
For more information, see the Operations parameter in the MAX Reference Guide.
2-8 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
VT100 Interface DO Commands
DO command reference in alphabetic order
Menu Save (DO M)
The DO Menu Save command saves the entire current VT100 interface layout. The current
layout replaces the default layout.
Keep in mind the following additional information:
•
The DO Menu Save command appears only if the cursor is in front of the Sys Config
menu.
•
The command always places Sys Config in the default Edit display. (To change the default
Edit display, you must configure the Edit parameter in the System profile after using the
DO Menu Save command.)
•
Menu Save does not apply to palmtop controllers, nor does it apply when your VT100 is
plugged into an RPM or palmtop port.
For related information, see the Edit parameter in the MAX Reference Guide.
Password (DO P)
The DO Password command enables you to log into the MAX.
During login, you select and activate a Security profile. The Security profile remains active
until you log out or replace it by activating a different Security profile, or until the MAX
automatically logs you out. The MAX can have several simultaneous user sessions and,
therefore, several simultaneous Security profiles.
To log into the MAX, use the DO P command. You can log in or log out from any menu.
Whenever you select the DO P command, a list of Security profiles appears. Select the desired
profile with the Enter or Right Arrow key, and enter its corresponding password when
prompted. If you enter the correct password for the profile, the security of the MAX is reset to
the Security profile you have selected.
If you select the first Security profile, Default, simply press Enter or Return when prompted for
a password. The password for this profile is always null.
If you are operating the MAX locally and you want to secure the MAX against the next user,
use the DO P command and select the first profile, Default. Typically, the Default profile has
been edited to disable all operations you wish to secure.
The MAX logs you out to the Default profile if any one of the following situations occurs:
•
You end a console session.
•
You exceed the time set by the Idle Logout parameter in the System profile.
•
You are connected to a palmtop control port and you disconnect your terminal.
•
Auto Logout=Yes in the System profile and you are connected to the VT100 control port.
A single Security profile can be used simultaneously by any number of users. If both you and
another user enter the same password, you both get the same Security profile and can perform
the same operations. If each of you uses a different password to log in, each of you gets a
separate Security profile with separate lists of privileges.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 2-9
VT100 Interface DO Commands
DO command reference in alphabetic order
If you edit a Security profile, the changes do not affect anyone who is logged in and using that
profile. However, the next time someone logs in and uses that profile, security for the user will
be limited according to the changes you have made.
For related information, see the Auto Logout and Idle Logout parameters in the MAX
Reference Guide.
Resynchronize (DO R)
The DO Resynchronize command causes the MAX to resynchronize a call in progress between
serial hosts by performing a handshake with the remote end. A handshake is an exchange of
data over the management subchannel. It verifies that the transmission is reliable on both ends
of the call.
Keep in mind the following additional information:
•
You must be in a serial host port edit menu or status window to use this command.
•
Resynchronize is not available for all call management types specified by the Call Mgm
parameter in the Call profile.
•
Resynchronize is not available when the host port is idle or when the host port is the
secondary port of a dual-port pair.
•
Resynchronize does not appear if you are not logged in with operational privileges.
For related information, see the Call Mgm and Operations parameters in the MAX Reference
Guide.
Save (DO S)
The DO Save command saves the current parameter values in a specified profile.
Keep in mind the following additional information:
•
If a profile is protected by a Security profile, you might not be able to overwrite it.
•
Save does not appear if you are not logged in with operational privileges.
For more information, see the Operations parameter in the MAX Reference Guide.
Termserv (DO E)
The DO Termserv command invokes the terminal-server command-line interface. The user
must have sufficient privileges in the active Security profile. In terminal-server mode, the
VT100 interface displays a command-line prompt. By default the prompt is:
ascend%
Enter the Help command to display a list of terminal-server commands:
ascend% help
For examples that use terminal-server commands, see the MAX Reference Guide. To exit
terminal-server mode and return to the VT100 interface, enter the Quit command:
ascend% quit
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Diagnostic Commands and Parameters
3
Sys Diag commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
T1 Line Diag commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
E1 Line Diag commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
BRI/LT Line Diag commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Host/Dual (Host/6) Port Diag command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
Modem Diag parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
This chapter lists the VT100 interface diagnostic commands provided for WAN lines and
ports. To use these commands, you must have sufficient permissions in the active Security
profile.
Sys Diag commands
The MAX provides the following system diagnostic commands which appear in the System >
Sys Diag menu:
System
Sys Diag
Restore Cfg
Save Cfg
Use MIF
Sys Reset
Term Serv
Upd Rem Cfg
To enter a command, highlight the command in the Sys Diag menu and press Enter.
Note: To use these commands, the operator must have sufficient permissions in the active
Security profile.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998
3-1
Diagnostic Commands and Parameters
Sys Diag commands
Restore Cfg
The Restore Cfg command restores a MAX configuration that was saved with the Save Cfg
parameter, or transfers the profiles to another MAX. Because the Save Cfg command does not
save passwords, the Restore Cfg command does not restore them. Follow these instructions to
restore your configuration from backup, proceed as follows:
1
Verify that the Upload and Edit Security permissions are enabled in the active Security
profile.
2
Verify that the Term Rate parameter in the System profile is set to 9600.
3
Verify that your terminal-emulation program has a disk-capture feature and an autotype
feature, and that its data rate is set to 9600 bps.
4
Connect the backup device to the MAX unit’s control port.
5
Highlight Restore Cfg and press Enter.
6
When the Waiting for upload data prompt appears, turn on the autotype
function on your emulator and supply the filename of the saved MAX data.
7
Verify that the configuration data is going to your terminal-emulation screen and is being
restored to the target MAX.
The restore process is complete when the message Upload complete--type any
key to return to menu appears on your emulator’s display.
Save Cfg
The Save Cfg command enables you to save the MAX configuration to a file. It does not save
Security profiles or passwords.
Note: Using the Save Cfg command to save the configuration and then restoring it from the
saved file clears all passwords.
To save your configuration, proceed as follows:
1
Verify that the Download permission is enabled in the active Security profile.
2
Verify that the Term Rate parameter in the System profile is set to 9600.
3
Verify that your terminal-emulation program has a disk-capture feature and an autotype
feature, and that is data rate is set to 9600 bps or lower.
4
Connect the backup device to the MAX unit’s control port.
5
Turn on the autotype function on your emulator, and start the save process by pressing any
key on the emulator.
6
Highlight Save Cfg and press Enter.
7
Verify that configuration data is being echoed to the terminal-emulation screen and that
the captured data is being written to a file on your disk.
The save process is complete when the message Download complete--type any
key to return to menu appears on your emulator’s display. The backup file is an
ASCII file.
8
Turn off the autotype feature.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Diagnostic Commands and Parameters
Sys Diag commands
Use MIF
The Use MIF command opens he Machine Interface Format (MIF) interface. You can also
access MIF by setting Console to MIF in the System profile. You can enter Use MIF to
switch to the MIF interface either on a local workstation or during a Telnet session.
To return to the standard VT100 interface, press Ctrl-C.
Note: The Use MIF command runs MIF only at the control port that makes the request (not
system-wide). Similarly, Ctrl-C restores the standard VT100 interface only at the control port
that makes the request.
Sys Reset
The Sys Reset command restarts the MAX and clears all calls without disconnecting the device
from its power source. The MAX logs out all users and returns user security to its default state.
In addition, the MAX performs Power-On Self Tests (POSTs) when it restarts. The POSTs are
diagnostic tests. A system reset of a MAX causes momentary loss of T1 framing (that is, the
data-encapsulation format), and the T1 line might shut down. In any event, the feedback from
the MAX to the switch is incorrect until T1 framing is reestablished.
To perform a system reset, proceed as follows:
1
Highlight System Reset and press Enter.
The MAX prompts you to confirm that you want to perform the reset.
2
Confirm the reset.
In addition to clearing calls, the MAX performs a series of POSTs. The POST display
appears. If you do not see the POST display, press Ctrl-L. These messages may be
displayed:
OPERATOR RESET: Index: 99
Revision: 5.0a
Date: 03/04/1997.
Time: 22:32:23
MENU Reset from unknown in security profile 1.
SYSTEM IS UP: Index: 100
Revision: 5.0a
Date: 03/04/1997.
Time: 22:33:00
While the yellow flt LED on the front panel remains solidly lit, the MAX checks system
memory, configuration, installed modules, and T1 connections. If the MAX fails any of
these tests, the flt LED remains lit or blinks. The alarm relay remains closed while the
POST is running and opens upon successful completion of the test, at which time the
following message appears:
Power-On Self Test PASSED
Press any key...
3
Press any key to display the Main Edit Menu.
Term Serv
The Term Serv command starts a terminal-server session. The system displays the terminalserver command-line prompt (by default, ascend%). For information about the terminalserver commands, enter a question mark at the prompt. For more details about the terminalserver interface, see the Network Configuration Guide for your MAX.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 3-3
Diagnostic Commands and Parameters
T1 Line Diag commands
Upd Rem Cfg
The Upd Rem Cfg (Upload Remote Configuration) command opens a connection to a
RADIUS server to upload the MAX terminal-server banner, list of Telnet hosts, IP static
routes, IP address pool, and other configuration information from the RADIUS user file. The
MAX retrieves configuration from RADIUS at system startup or by use of this command.
When you highlight Upd Rem Cfg and press Enter, the MAX opens a connection to the
RADIUS server and uploads the configuration information.
When you upload this remote configuration information, keep in mind the following
information:
•
The MAX reads Dialout-Framed-User entries with the password ascend.
•
The Upd Rem Cfg command does not update the terminal-server banner or list of Telnet
hosts if the Remote Conf parameter is set to No.
•
If the Ascend-Authen-Alias attribute is defined in RADIUS, the Upd Rem Cfg command
also updates the MAX system name used when establishing PPP calls.
T1 Line Diag commands
The MAX provides the following T1 line diagnostic commands, which appear in the Net/T1 >
Line Diag menu:
Net/T1
Line Diag
Line LB1
Line LB2
Switch D Chan
Clr Err1
Clr Perf1
Clr Err2
Clr Perf2
To execute one of the commands, select the command and press Enter.
Line LB1
Line LB1 is a Line LoopBack command for Line 1 in a T1 slot. When you start the line
loopback test for a T1 line, a remote device can test the T1 line and the MAX unit’s interface to
the T1 line. All signals received by the MAX are looped back (behind the MAX unit’s CSU
repeater or DSX signal-conditioning module) toward the remote device. The remote device
can determine the quality of the T1 line by comparing the sent signal to the received signal.
Line LoopBack (LLB) occurs behind the MAX unit’s CSU repeater or DSX
signal-conditioning module. Drop-and-Insert channels are also looped back. Do not activate
LLB when a call is active on the line; doing so disrupts the data flow between the codecs
connected to either end of the network line. The MAX responds to both the inband LLB signal
and the Facility Data Link (FDL) LLB message. Therefore, a management device can put the
MAX into LLB. A management device is a unit, on a T1 line, that measures the line’s
performance and can send management signals to other devices on the line.
3-4 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Diagnostic Commands and Parameters
T1 Line Diag commands
To initiate a loopback test on the first T1 line, highlight Line LB1 and press Enter. After
prompting for confirmation, the MAX starts the loopback test and the ya LED lights up. When
you exit the menu option, the MAX automatically deactivates the loopback.
For related information, see the FDL parameter in the MAX Reference Guide and the FDL
Status window in the Administration Guide for your MAX.
Line LB2
Line LB2 is a Line LoopBack command for Line 2 in a T1 slot. When you start the line
loopback test for a T1 line, a remote device can test the T1 line and the MAX unit’s interface to
the T1 line. All signals received by the MAX are looped back (behind the MAX unit’s CSU
repeater or DSX signal-conditioning module) toward the remote device. The remote device
can determine the quality of the T1 line by comparing the sent signal to the received signal.
Line LoopBack (LLB) occurs behind the MAX unit’s CSU repeater or DSX
signal-conditioning module. Drop-and-Insert channels are also looped back. Do not activate
LLB when a call is active on the line. Doing so disrupts the data flow between the codecs
connected to either end of the network line. The MAX responds to both the inband LLB signal
and the Facility Data Link (FDL) LLB message. Therefore, a management device can put the
MAX into LLB. A management device is a unit, on a T1 line, that measures the line’s
performance and can send management signals to other devices on the line.
To initiate a loopback test on the second T1 line, highlight Line LB2 and press Enter. After
prompting for confirmation, the MAX starts the loopback test and the ya LED lights up. When
you exit the menu option, the MAX automatically deactivates the loopback.
For related information, see the FDL parameter in the MAX Reference Guide and the FDL
Status window in the Administration Guide for your MAX.
Switch D Chan
The Switched D Chan command swaps the status of the primary and secondary NFAS D
channels. It applies only to T1 lines using NFAS signaling.
Clr Err1
The Clr Err1 command clears the user error event register of Line 1, but does not clear the
performance registers for the line. To clear all performance registers for Line 1, use Clr Perf1.
To clear all performance registers for Line 2, use Clr Perf2.
Note: Error events have no meaning for D4-framed lines. A D4 line uses the Superframe
format to frame data at the physical layer. This format consists of 12 consecutive frames
separated from one another by framing bits.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 3-5
Diagnostic Commands and Parameters
E1 Line Diag commands
Clr Perf1
The Clr Perf1 command clears all performance registers for Line 1, restarts the current time
period, and begins accumulating new performance data.
For related information, see the FDL parameter in the MAX Reference Guide and the FDL
Status window in the Administration Guide for your MAX.
Clr Err2
The Clr Err2 command clears the user error event register of Line 2, but does not clear the
performance registers for the line. To clear all performance registers for Line 1, use Clr Perf1.
To clear all performance registers for Line 2, use Clr Perf2.
Note: Error events have no meaning for D4 lines. A D4 line uses the Superframe format to
frame data on the physical layer. This format consists of 12 consecutive frames, separated by
framing bits.
For related information, see the FDL parameter in the MAX Reference Guide and the FDL
Status window in the Administration Guide for your MAX.
Clr Perf2
The Clr Perf2 command clears all performance registers for Line 2, restarts the current time
period, and begins accumulating new performance data.
For related information, see the FDL parameter in the MAX Reference Guide and the FDL
Status window in the Administration Guide for your MAX.
E1 Line Diag commands
Diagnostic commands for E1 lines appear in the Net/E1 > Line Diag menu:
Net/E1
Line Diag
Line LB1
Line LB2
To execute one of the commands, select the command and press Enter.
Line LB1
Line LB1 is a Line LoopBack command for Line 1in an E1 slot. When you start the line
loopback test for a E1 line, a remote device can test the E1 line and the MAX unit’s interface to
the E1 line. All signals received by the MAX are looped back (behind the MAX unit’s CSU
repeater or DSX signal-conditioning module) toward the remote device. The remote device
can determine the quality of the E1 line by comparing the sent signal to the received signal.
Line LoopBack (LLB) occurs behind the MAX unit’s CSU repeater or DSX
signal-conditioning module. Drop-and-Insert channels are also looped back. Do not activate
LLB when a call is active on the line. Doing so disrupts the data flow between the codecs
3-6 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Diagnostic Commands and Parameters
BRI/LT Line Diag commands
connected to either end of the network line. The MAX responds to both the inband LLB signal
and the Facility Data Link (FDL) LLB message. Therefore, a management device can put the
MAX into LLB. A management device is a unit, on an E1 line, that measures the line’s
performance and can send management signals to other devices on the line.
To initiate a loopback test on the first E1 line, highlight Line LB1 and press Enter. After
prompting for confirmation, the MAX starts the loopback test and the ya LED lights up. When
you exit the menu option, the MAX automatically deactivates the loopback.
Line LB2
Line LB2 is a Line LoopBack command for Line 2 in an E1 slot. When you start the line
loopback test for an E1 line, a remote device can test the E1 line and the MAX unit’s interface
to the E1 line. All signals received by the MAX are looped back (behind the MAX unit’s CSU
repeater or DSX signal-conditioning module) toward the remote device. The remote device
can determine the quality of the E1 line by comparing the sent signal to the received signal.
LLB occurs behind the MAX unit’s CSU repeater or DSX signal-conditioning module.
Drop-and-Insert channels are also looped back. Do not activate LLB when a call is active on
the line. Doing so disrupts the data flow between the codecs connected to either end of the
network line. The MAX responds to both the inband LLB signal and the Facility Data Link
(FDL) LLB message. Therefore, a management device can put the MAX into LLB. A
management device is a unit, on an E1 line, that measures the line’s performance and can send
management signals to other devices on the line.
To initiate a loopback test on the second E1 line, highlight Line LB2 and press Enter. After
prompting for confirmation, the MAX starts the loopback test and the ya LED lights up. When
you exit the menu option, the MAX automatically deactivates the loopback.
BRI/LT Line Diag commands
Diagnostic commands for BR/LT lines appear in the BRI/LT > Line Diag > Line N menu:
BRI/LT
Line Diag
Line N...
Line LoopBack
Corrupt CRC
UnCorrupt CRC
Rq Corrupt CRC
UnRq Corrupt CRC
Clr NEBE
Clr FEBE
To execute one of the commands, select the command and press Enter.
Note: Maintenance functions supported by the BRI/LT driver use the BRI-U interface’s
Embedded Operations Channel (EOC). The EOC transfers data from the exchange to the
terminal side and vice versa without occupying either the B or the D channel. The EOC is used
to transmit diagnostic function and signaling information, (obtaining the block errors in close
to real time or performing line diagnostics such as loopback or corrupt CRC, for example.)
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 3-7
Diagnostic Commands and Parameters
BRI/LT Line Diag commands
The EOC monitor commands are sent in the M1, M2, and M3 bits of the U superframe. (For
more information about usage of the M1, M2, and M3 bits of the superframe, see ANSI
T1-601, from ANSI 1991.
The remote U-interface/echo canceller provides internal counters for far-end and near-end
block errors. A Near-End Block Error (NEBE) indicates that the error has been detected in the
receive direction. A Far-End Block Error (FEBE) identifies errors in the transmission
direction.
You can use the block error counters to monitor transmission quality at the U interface. A
block error is detected each time when the calculated checksum of the received data does not
correspond to the control checksum transmitted in the successive superframe. One block error
indicates that one U-superframe has not been transmitted correctly. The block error count does
not provide information regarding the number of bit errors in the U superframe, but states only
that the CRC failed in that superframe. About every 4 seconds, a daemon running in the MAX
obtains the remote block error counter values and displays their cumulative value in the blockerror status screens.
The block-error totals are obtained from the remote TA. These cumulative totals are reset when
you clear the block-error buffer(s) from the Line diagnostics submenu, or when you restart the
MAX. The totals reset to zero when they reach 65535.
Note: See the Block Error status display in the BRI/LT status window of the block-error
information displayed.
Line LoopBack
The Line LoopBack command puts the line into loopback mode. When you select the Line
LoopBack command and press Enter, the following screen appears:
Line LoopBack
0=ESC
1=Line X LB
Select 1 to execute the loopback command. Test frames are sent continuously in the D channel
until the command is cancelled. The transmitted frames are each 24 bytes long. The frames
differ in content and should cover every possible bit pattern.
Note: Only one loopback test can be performed at a time on the same line. If another user
attempts to invoke the loopback command for a line that is already in loopback mode, the
following error message appears:
Line LB already.
Cmd ignored.
Because UnRq Corrupt CRC acts similarly when requesting the same command to request that
the remote end cancel the loopback, UnRq Corrupt CRC is unavailable when the MAX exits
loopback mode.
Select the LB Counters status screen to display the number of transmitted frames as opposed to
the number of correctly received frames. The MAX continuously sends frames to the remote
end. When the MAX receives a frame that matches the transmitted frame in size (and the bytes
of the received frame exactly match the bytes in the transmitted frame), it sends out a new
frame and increments the receive counter for that frame. When the MAX receives a frame that
does not match the transmitted frame, it still sends out a new frame, but does not increment the
3-8 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Diagnostic Commands and Parameters
Host/Dual (Host/6) Port Diag command
receive counter for that frame. Also, when the MAX does not receive a frame back, the timeout
between two consecutive transmitted frames is about 4 seconds.
Press ESC to cancel the loopback function. The following message appears:
Line loopback terminated.
Corrupt CRC
The Corrupt CRC command causes the BRI-U interface to transmit inverted CRCs, until you
cancel the command. When the command is issued, the Far-End Block Error counter should be
viewed from the remote TA. The command is used to test the NEBE and FEBE counters, by
simulating transmission errors with artificially corrupted CRCs.
Uncorrupt CRC
The Uncorrupt CRC command cancels a previous Corrupt CRC command.
Rq Corrupt CRC
The Rq Corrupt CRC command requests NT1 to corrupt the CRC to artificially simulate
transmission errors. The command is used to verify that the block error counters are working,
or providing the right information. When you enter the command, check the Near-End Block
Error counter.
Rq Uncorrupt CRC
The Rq Uncorrupt CRC command requests NT1 to return to normal.
Clr NEBE
The Clr NEBE command clears the Near-End Block Error (NEBE) counter.
Clr FEBE
The Clr FEBE command clears the Far-End Block Error (FEBE) counter.
Host/Dual (Host/6) Port Diag command
The Local LB command in the Host/Dual (Host/6) > Port N Menu > Port Diag menu tests the
Ascend Multiplexing (AIM) port. To execute the command, select it and press Enter.
Note: To use the Local LB command, you must have sufficient permissions in the active
Security profile.
The Local LB command activates a local loopback test. In a local loopback test, data
originating at the local site is looped back to its originating port without going out over the
WAN. It is as though a data mirror were held up to the data at the WAN interface, and the data
were reflected back to the originator. The WAN interface is the MAX port that is connected to
a WAN line.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 3-9
Diagnostic Commands and Parameters
Modem Diag parameters
The AIM port on the MAX must be idle when you run the local loopback test. It can have no
calls online.
Highlight Local LB and press Enter. When the local loopback test is in progress, control moves
to the Local LB menu, which presents a set of parameters you can modify. Press Enter to cycle
through the parameters in the Local LB menu, and press the selector (>) or Right Arrow key to
toggle between the settings for each parameter:
•
DSR toggles the host port Data Set Ready (DSR) V.25 signal between active and inactive.
•
RI toggles the host port Ring Indicate (RI) V.25 output signal between active and inactive.
•
CD toggles the host port Carrier Detect (CD) output signal between active and inactive.
•
DLO toggles the host port Data Line Occupied (DLO) RS-366 output signal between
active and inactive.
•
PND toggles the host port Present Next Digit (PND) RS-366 output signal between active
and inactive.
•
ACR toggles the host port Abandon Call and Retry (ACR) output signal between active
and inactive.
•
Inc Ch Count simulates an increase in the number of channels in a call by increasing the
clock rate to the host.
•
Dec Ch Count simulates a decrease in the number of channels in a call by decreasing the
clock rate to the host.
•
Rate toggles the data rate of the simulated channels between 56 Kbps and 64 Kbps.
When the loopback screen shows 56K or 64K channels looped back, think of the channels as
simulated. The Call Status window displays the loopback serial data rate. You can calculate the
data speed by multiplying the number of simulated channels by the data rate. Changes you
make take effect immediately, and remain in effect until you end the local loopback test.
Terminate the test by pressing the Left Arrow key.
When you end the test, all control signals revert to the state they were in when the test began.
Modem Diag parameters
The MAX provides the following modem diagnostic parameters, which appear in the V.34
(K56) Modem > Modem Config menu:
V.34 Modem (or K56 Modem)
Modem Config
ModemSlot=enable slot
Modem #1=enable modem
Modem #2=enable modem
Modem #3=enable modem
Modem #4=enable modem
Modem #5=enable modem
Modem #6=enable modem
Modem #7=enable modem
Modem #8=enable modem
To set one of the parameters, select the parameter and press Enter.
3-10 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Diagnostic Commands and Parameters
Modem Diag parameters
ModemSlot
You can set the ModemSlot parameter to quiesce a digital-modem slot card. That is, you can
disable a digital-modem slot card in the MAX without disrupting existing connections. Active
calls are not torn down. When an active call is dropped, that modem is added to the disabled
modem list and is not available for use. If all modems are on the disabled list, incoming callers
receive a busy signal until the modems have been restored for service. When you re-enable the
quiesced modem slot card, a delay of up to 20 seconds can occur before the modems become
available for service.
You can specify one of the following values:
•
Enable Slot—The default value. Enables any modems on the selected slot card that were
on the disabled list, making them available for service.
•
Dis Slot—All modems that are not active appear in a disabled modem list, indicating that
they are not available for use.
•
Dis Slot+Chan—All modems on the selected slot card are disabled, along with an equal
number of B channels. The B channels appear on a disabled-channel map. The MAX polls
all channels on the map with Out-Of-Service messages until the modems on the associated
slot card return to service.
To quiesce all the available modems on a slot card:
1
Open the Mod Config submenu from the Modem profile and select ModemSlot.
2
Press Enter to disable (quiesce) the slot card, the value is dis slot or
to disable the slot card and the channel, press Enter again, the value will be
dis slot+chan).
For example,
V.34 Modem
Modem Config
ModemSlot=dis slot
Modem #1=NA
Modem #2=NA
..
..
..
3
Close the Modem profile.
Note: Booting the MAX restores the quiesced slot to service.
Modem #N (where N=1–8, 1–12, 1-16)
You can set the Modem #N parameter to quiesce a digital-modem. That is, you can disable a
digital modem without disrupting existing connections. Active calls are not torn down. If you
specify a modem that is currently inactive, the modem is added to the disabled list. If the
modem has a call active, it is not added to the disabled list until it drops the call. If all modems
are on the disabled list, incoming callers receive a busy signal until the modems have been
restored for service. When you re-enable the quiesced modem, a delay of up to 20 seconds can
occur before the modem becomes available for service.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 3-11
Diagnostic Commands and Parameters
Modem Diag parameters
You can specify one of the following values:
•
Enable Modem—The default value. Enables any modems that were on the disabled list,
entering them on the enabled modem list and making them available for service.
•
Dis Modem—Places the modem on the disabled modem list, indicating that it is not
available for use. When the last active connection is dropped, the card becomes available
for maintenance.
•
Dis Modem+Chan—An arbitrary B channel is taken out of service along with the disabled
modem. The B channel appears on a disabled-channel map, and the MAX polls all
channels on the map with Out-Of-Service messages until the associated modem is
re-enabled.
To quiesce a digital modem:
1
Open the Mod Config submenu from the Modem profile and select the Modem #N you
want to disable. (The modem ports on a slot card are numbered starting with #1 for the
leftmost port on the card.)
2
Press Enter to disable (quiesce) the modem, the value is dis modem or
to disable the modem and the channel, press Enter again (the value will be
dis modem+chan).
For example,
V.34 Modem
Modem Config
ModemSlot=enable slot
Modem #1=dis modem
3
Close the Modem profile.
Note: Booting the MAX restores all quiesced lines, slots, and ports to service.
3-12 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
VT100 Interface Status Windows
4
Using the MAX status windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
Status-window reference in alphabetic order. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
This chapter describes the MAX unit’s status windows.
Using the MAX status windows
The right side of the screen in the MAX configuration interface displays eight status windows
(Figure 4-1). The status windows provide a great deal of read-only information about what is
currently happening in the MAX.
This section provides an overview of the information contained in the eight windows that are
displayed by default, and shows you how to replace a default window with a status window of
your choice. Following are the parameters for customizing the display:
System
Sys Config
Status 1=10-100
Status 2=10-200
Status 3=50-100
Status 4=00-200
Status 5=50-300
Status 6=50-400
Status 7=00-100
Status 8=00-000
The Status numbers 1 through 8 refer to the status-window positions, which start with 1 in the
upper left and continue with 2 in the upper right, and so forth. For details about each parameter,
see the MAX Reference Guide.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998
4-1
VT100 Interface Status Windows
Using the MAX status windows
Figure 4-1. Status windows
|--------------------| |--------------------|
|10-100 1234567890
| |10-200 1234567890
|
| L1/LA nnnnnnnnnn
| | L2/RA ..........
|
|
12345678901234
| |
12345678901234
|
|
nnnnnnnnnnnnnn
| |
..............
|
|--------------------| l--------------------|
|50-100 Sessions
| |00-200 15:10:34
|
|> 1 Active
| |>M31 Line
Ch
|
| O slc-lab-236
| | LAN session up
|
|
| | slc-lab-236
|
|--------------------| |--------------------|
|50-300 WAN Stat
| |50-400 Ether Stat
|
|>Rx Pkt:
184318^| |>Rx Pkt:
3486092 |
| Tx Pkt:
159232 | | Tx Pkt:
10056 |
|
CRC:
0v| |
Col:
3530 |
|--------------------| |--------------------|
|00-100 Sys Option
| |Main Status Menu
|
|>Security Prof: 1 ^| |>00-000 System
^|
| Software +7.0b7+
| | 10-000 Net/T1
|
| S/N: 7290003
v| | 20-000 Empty
v|
|------------------| |------------------|
Navigating the status windows
To make a status window active, press the Tab key until that window is highlighted by a thick
border. The Tab key moves the active window in sequence from left to right, top to bottom, and
then returns to the Main Edit window (the menu).
To scroll the selections in the Main Status Menu in a status window, Tab to the window, then
use the Up Arrow or the Down Arrow key to scroll the window. To access a sub-menu, use the
Right Arrow key, and to return to the original menu use the Left Arrow key.
Some of the status windows contain more information than can be displayed in the small
window. A lowercase v in the lower-right corner of a window, indicates that more information
is available. You can scroll through additional information if you make the window active.
Default status window displays
You can set the Status parameters in the System profile to specify which status windows are
displayed when the MAX powers up. For descriptions of all of the codes and information that
can be displayed in each window, see “Status-window reference in alphabetic order” on
page 4-6.
Note: Depending on your MAX configuration, some of these status windows will appear as
defaults and some may not. If a status window does not appear as a default, each of the
descriptions below instruct you how to display the menu from any status window. Obviously if
the status window described is already displayed on your VT100 interface, all you may want to
do is scroll through the submenus to view its contents.
4-2 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
VT100 Interface Status Windows
Using the MAX status windows
Line status windows
Slots 1 and 2 contain the built-in T1 (or E1) lines, with Slot 1 containing the two leftmost lines
(when you look at the unit’s back panel.) To display the Line Status window, tab to status
window, then use the arrow keys to access the Net/T1 > Line N Stat window.
By default, the status of the lines in Slot 1 are shown in the top two status windows. For
example:
|--------------------|
|10-100 1234567890
|
| L1/LA nnnnnnnnnn
|
|
12345678901234
|
|
nnnnnnnnnnnnnn
|
|--------------------|
|--------------------|
|10-200 1234567890
|
| L2/RA ..........
|
|
12345678901234
|
|
..............
|
l--------------------|
Each window displays four lines:
•
The first line shows the menu number and column numbers for channels 1–10.
•
The second line identifies the line (L1 or L2) , displays a a 2-character link-status
indicator, and displays a 1-character channel-status indicator for each channel. For
example:
•
–
LA indicates Link Active (the line is physically connected).
–
n means the channel is nailed.
–
* indicates a current connection.
–
- means the channels is idle but in service.
–
s means the channel is an active D channel (ISDN only).
The third line has column headers for channels 11–24.
The fourth line shows a 1-character channel-status indicator for channels 11–24.
Session and system status windows
The system itself is assigned slot number 0, and the slot number 5 is assigned to the built-in
Ethernet port. By default, the next two status windows show active routing sessions on
Ethernet and up to 32 log messages related to the system itself:
|--------------------|
|50-100 Sessions
|
|> 1 Active
|
| O slc-lab-236
|
|
|
|--------------------|
l--------------------|
|00-200 15:10:34
|
|>M31 Line
Ch
|
| LAN session up
|
| slc-lab-236
|
|--------------------|
The Sessions window shows the number of active bridging/routing and modem (terminal
server) sessions. When this window is active, you can scroll down to see the name, address, or
CLID of each connected device. Each line starts with a 1-character session-status indicator. For
example, O means online. For terminal-server sessions, the modem number is identified.
To display the Sessions window, tab to a status window, then use the arrow keys to access the
Ethernet > Sessions window.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 4-3
VT100 Interface Status Windows
Using the MAX status windows
The system message log provides a log of up to 32 of the most recent system events. To display
the System Message Log window, tab to a status window, then use the arrow keys to access the
System > Message Log window.
Use an arrow key to scroll up (previous messages) or down (later messages). The Delete key
clears all the messages in the log. The message log window is organized as follows:
•
The first line shows the menu number and the time the most recently logged event
occurred.
•
The second line identifies the log entry number (M00-M31) and, if applicable, the line and
channel on which the event occurred.
•
The third line contains the text of the message. For example:
•
–
Call Terminated (An active call disconnected normally.)
–
LAN session up (An incoming connection has been established.)
–
No Connection (The remote device did not answer the call.)
The fourth line contains a message qualifier, such as a name or phone number that
qualifies the message displayed.
WAN and Ethernet status windows
By default, the fifth and sixth status windows show statistics about each active WAN link and
the Ethernet interface. For example:
|--------------------|
|50-300 WAN Stat
|
|>Rx Pkt:
184318^|
| Tx Pkt:
159232 |
|
CRC:
0v|
|--------------------|
|--------------------|
|50-400 Ether Stat
|
|>Rx Pkt:
3486092 |
| Tx Pkt:
10056 |
|
Col:
3530 |
|--------------------|
The WAN Stat window shows the current count of received frames, transmitted frames, and
frames with errors for each active WAN link and for the entire WAN. When this window is
active, you can scroll down to see the statistics for each link. The first line of each per-link
count shows the name, IP address, or MAC address of the remote device. To display the WAN
Stat window, tab to a status window, then use the arrow keys to access the Ethernet > WAN Stat
window.
The Ether Stat window shows the current count of received frames, transmitted frames, and
frames with errors at the Ethernet interface. To display the Ether Stat window, tab to a status
window, then use the arrow keys to access the Ethernet > Ether Stat window.
Sys Option and Main Status Menu windows
The bottom two status windows are usually the Sys Option window, which contains
management information about the MAX, and the Main Status Menu window. For example:
|--------------------|
|00-100 Sys Option
|
|>Security Prof: 1 ^|
| Software +5.0A0+
|
| S/N: 5210003
v|
|--------------------|
4-4 Preliminary November 2, 1998
|--------------------|
|Main Status Menu
|
|>00-000 System
^|
| 10-000 Net/T1
|
| 20-000 Net/T1
v|
|--------------------|
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
VT100 Interface Status Windows
Using the MAX status windows
The Sys Options window shows which Security profile is active, which Ascend software
version is running, the unit’s serial number (S/N). Additionally, it can list a variety of hardware
or software options. It also displays a system uptime value, which is updated every few
seconds to show the number of days, hours, minutes, and seconds the MAX has been
operating. For example:
Up: 12:17:18:26
When the Sys Options window is active, you can use the arrow keys to scroll down and display
the list of system options. Appearing, for example, are the software load name, various
installed-software options (such as Frame Relay, AIM, and BONDING), and the AuthServer
and AcctServer options, which specify the IP addresses of the RADIUS (or TACACS)
authentication server and the RADIUS accounting server.
To display the System Options window, tab to a status window, then use the arrow keys to
access the System > Sys Option window.
The last status window contains the Main Status Menu, a hierarchical menu that contains an
entry for each line or installed card in the MAX. The structure of the Main Status Menu exactly
follows the Main Edit Menu (the top-level configuration menu).
When the window that displays the Main Status Menu is active, the menu works like the Main
Edit Menu. Use the arrow keys to scroll to a particular status menu. Then press the Enter key to
open that menu and the Escape key to close it.
Specifying which status windows appear
You can specify which status windows the VT100 interface displays. The total number of
status windows is always limited to eight, but you can set these parameters to focus on a
selected area of functionality. (For details about the windows you can choose to display and the
information in each one, see “Status-window reference in alphabetic order” on page 4-6.)
To specify which status window appears on the VT100 interface, proceed as follows:
1
From the Main Edit Menu, select System > Sys Config.
2
Arrow-Down to the Status # parameter(s) of the status window(s) you would like to
customize. For example, the MAX displays line-status windows for the T1 (or E1) lines in
Slot 1 as windows 1 and 2 by default. Continue with the steps below to redefine the MAX
to use status windows 3 and 4 to display line-status windows for the T1 (or E1) lines in
Slot 2.
3
For the Status 3 parameter, specify the number identifying the status window menu it will
be changed to.
Note: Every menu and submenu has an identifying number, for example, 20-100, or
20-200. You can scroll through the Main Edit Menu to get the identifying status numbers.
Status 3=20-100
4
For the Status 4 parameter, specify the number identifying the status window menu it will
be changed to.
Status 4=20-200
5
Save and close the System profile.
When the MAX resets, the status windows will appear with the new selections.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 4-5
VT100 Interface Status Windows
Status-window reference in alphabetic order
For more details about slot, line, and port numbers, see the Network Configuration Guide for
your MAX.
Status-window reference in alphabetic order
This section describes in detail the contents of each status window. It lists the windows in
alphabetic order.
BRI/LT window
BRI/LT is a branch of the Main Status Menu that lists windows indicating the status of the
ISDN BRI interfaces. The BRI/LT window appears only if a BRI/LT module is installed. The
BRI/LT window displays the following list:
X0-000 BRI/LT
XO-100 Line Status
X0-200 Line Errors
X0-300 Block Errors
X0-400 LB Counters
X0-500 Net Options
The Line Status window shows the condition of the electrical link to the carrier and the status
of the B1 and B2 channels. (For details, see “Line Status (BRI) window” on page 4-18.)
The Line Errors status window displays the errors recorded on all current channels, in a
channel-by-channel, line-by-line list. (For details, see “Line Errors window” on page 4-15.)
The Block Errors status window shows the errors for Near-End Block Errors (NEBE) and
Far-End Block Errors (FEBE). The numbers displayed are totals accumulated since the last
time the block error buffers were cleared. The FEBE and NEBE error buffers can be cleared
per line and per counter. (You can clear the FEBE buffer for a line without clearing the NEBE
buffer). The totals for each buffer reset to zero after they reach 65535. Restarting the MAX
clears the buffers. For example, when a MAX with eight BRI lines is restarted, the Block
Errors status window has the following contents:
X0-X00 FEBE
1:
0
2:
0
3:
0
4:
0
5:
0
6:
0
7:
0
8:
0
4-6 Preliminary November 2, 1998
NEBE
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
VT100 Interface Status Windows
Status-window reference in alphabetic order
The LB Counters window shows the number of test frames sent and received since the
loopback command was issued. The numbers displayed are totals accumulated since the Line
Loopback Command was issued. When the loopback command is started or restarted, the LB
counters are reset to 0. For example, when a MAX with eight BRI lines is restarted, the LB
Counter status window has the following contents:
X0-XXX XMIT
1:
0
2:
0
3:
0
4:
0
5:
0
6:
0
7:
0
8:
0
RECV
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
The Net Options window lists the interface features with which your MAX has been equipped.
(For details, see “Net Options window” on page 4-26.)
Call Status window
The Call Status window is a read-only window that indicates whether a call is active at a
specific AIM port. If there is an active call, the Call Status window displays its current state.
A Call Status window exists for each host port. It is the first option listed in the PortN Stat
window, and its window number is XN-100, where X is the module number and N is the AIM
port number. For example:
31-000 Port1 Stat
>31-100 Call Status
31-200 Message Log
31-300 Statistics
31-400 Port Opts
31-500 Session Err
31-600 Port Leads
Following is an example, of a Call Status window for the first AIM port on the base system:
31-100 Albuquerque+ C
CALLING/ONLINE
336K
6 channels
Albq. NM
The first line of the Call Status window shows the status window number, the name of the
current Call profile, and a call-status character (described in Table 4-1).
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 4-7
VT100 Interface Status Windows
Status-window reference in alphabetic order
The second line shows the call-status message corresponding to the current state. The message
can change dynamically as you dial, modify, or receive calls. Table 4-1 lists the call status
characters and messages that can appear:
Table 4-1. Call-status characters and messages
Status indicator
Status message
Description
Blank
IDLE
No calls exist and no other MAX operations are
being performed.
A
ANSWERING
An incoming call is being answered.
R
RINGING
An incoming call is on the line, ready to be
answered.
C
CALLING
An outgoing call is being dialed.
O
ONLINE
A call is up on the line.
Blank
/Online
Appended to another message to indicate that the
MAX is currently adding or removing channels.
H
CLEARING
The current call is being cleared.
D
LOCAL LOOP
Local loopback diagnostic tests are in progress.
!
HANDSHAK
The MAX is exchanging information with the
inverse multiplexer at the remote end and verifying
the reliability of the transmission.
!
SETUP ADD
The MAX is preparing to add channels while a call
is online and transmitting data.
!
SETUP REM
The MAX is preparing to remove channels while a
call is online and transmitting data.
!
SETUP HND
The MAX is preparing to handshake for
resynchronization while a call is online and
transmitting data.
L
LOOP MAST
You have selected DO 6 or Control-D 6 to begin a
remote loopback test. While the loopback test is in
progress, the remote end displays the status
message LOOP SLAV.
T
BERT MAST
The MAX has connected with the remote-end
AIM-compatible product and is performing an
automatic Byte Error Rate Test (BERT). Or, you
are performing a manual BERT from the local
MAX.
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VT100 Interface Status Windows
Status-window reference in alphabetic order
Table 4-1. Call-status characters and messages (continued)
Status indicator
Status message
Description
T
BERT SLAVE
Your MAX has received a call and the calling
AIM-compatible product is performing an
automatic BERT. Or, someone using the remote
MAX is performing a manual BERT.
For calls other than FT1-B&O, the third line of the Call Status window shows both the current
data rate in Kbps, and how many channels this data rate represents. If the current call type is
FT1-B&O, the third line of the Call Status window shows how many channels the online data
represents, followed by the number of nailed-up channels the MAX has placed offline because
their quality was poor. For example, the following display shows the call status of an
FT1-B&O call with six channels online and two channels offline:
21-100 Albuquerque+ C
CALLING
336K 6/2 channels
Albq. NM
In some types of calls, you might notice that the data rate to your host is actually somewhat less
than reported on line 3. Line 3 shows the bandwidth the PRI interface provides, but does not
show how much of this bandwidth an AIM or BONDING management subchannel consumes.
(For further information, see the Call profile parameters Call Type and Call Mgm in the MAX
Reference Guide. In addition, see FT1-B&O under the Call Type parameter for information
about how FT1-B&O calls handle channels.)
The last line of the Call Status window contains the name of the AIM port of the remote-end
AIM-compatible product. If the remote-end Port profile is not named, the MAX uses the
remote-end module name taken from the Host-Module profile. If neither the module nor the
port is named, the MAX uses the remote-end system name.
Call Detail Reporting (CDR) window
Call Detail Reporting (CDR) provides a database of information about each call, including
date, time, duration, called number, calling number, call direction, service type, associated
inverse-multiplexing session, and port. Because the network carrier bills for bandwidth on an
as-used basis, and bills each connection in an inverse multiplexed call separately, you might
want to use CDR to understand and manage bandwidth usage and the cost of each inversemultiplexed session.
You can arrange the information to create a wide variety of reports, which can be based on
factors such as individual call costs, inverse-multiplexed WAN-session costs, costs on an
application-by-application basis and bandwidth usage patterns over specified time periods.
With the resulting better understanding of your bandwidth usage patterns, you can make any
necessary adjustments to the ratio of switched to nailed bandwidth between network sites.
Like the MAX message logs, CDR shows the most recent session event. The MAX generates
new CDR messages as events occur. However, unlike a log, the MAX does not store past CDR
events. CDR is primarily a source of data captured by external devices.
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 4-9
VT100 Interface Status Windows
Status-window reference in alphabetic order
To display the Call Detail Reporting (CDR) window, tab to a status window, then use the arrow
keys to access the System > CDR window.
Following is a sample four-line CDR display:
00-400 CDR
93:05:28:10:33:52
OR 025 384KR 02-01
15105551212
The first line displays the status-window number and title.
The second line displays the time at which the event occurred, in the following format:
year:month:day:hour:minute:second
The third line displays the following items of information about the CDR event in the order
shown:
Item
Description
CDR event
description
Consists of one of the following abbreviations:
•
OR—Originated (outgoing call)
•
AN—Answered (incoming call)
•
AP—Assigned to Port or module (incoming call)
•
CL—Cleared
•
OF—Overflowed
All events except OF are associated with calls. OF indicates that the
CDR buffer overflowed because events occurred faster than the MAX
could report them.
CDR event ID
The MAX creates a new event ID for every DS0 channel originating a
connection. The event ID ranges from 0 to 255. Events after 255 start
the count again at 0. In addition, CDR creates a new event ID for every
change in a channel’s status. Because a MAX call can consist of
several channels, the MAX can generate multiple CDRs for every
change in call status.
Data service in use
Indicates the data service, using values nearly identical to those
available to the Data Svc parameter in the Call profile. The only
difference is that the Data Svc values 384K/H0 and 1536K correspond
to the CDR data service values 384K and 1536KR, respectively.
Slot-port address
The address at which event occurred. For example, if the event
occurred on the first port of a Host/6 card installed in slot 3, the
slot-port address is 03-01.
The fourth line displays either the dialed or called-party phone number. If the event description
on line 3 is OR (outgoing call), the number dialed appears. If the event description on line 3 is
AN (incoming call), the called-party number appears. To get the called-party number on
incoming calls, you must have DNIS service from your WAN provider. In some cases, the
called-party number is not delivered, (for example, when the MAX is behind some types of
PBX).
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Status-window reference in alphabetic order
For related information, see the Data Svc parameter in the MAX Reference Guide.
Dyn Stat window (dynamic status)
The Dyn Stat window shows the name, quality, bandwidth, and bandwidth utilization of each
online multichannel PPP connection with dynamic bandwidth management. To display the
Dyn Stat window, tab to a status window, then use the arrow keys to access the Ethernet > Dyn
Stat window.
Following is the Dyn Stat display for an Ethernet module in slot 5:
50-500 Dyn
Qual Good
56K
1
CLU 12%
Stat
00:02:03
channels
ALU 23%
Note: Press the Down Arrow key to see additional online multichannel PPP connections.
The first line of the Dyn Stat window shows the window number and the name of the current
Connection profile. If no connection is currently active, the window name appears instead.
The second line lists the quality of the link and the amount of time the link has been active.
When a link is online more than 96 hours, the MAX reports the duration in number of days.
The link quality can have one of the following values:
•
Good—The current rate of CRC errors is less than 1%.
•
Fair—The current rate of CRC errors is between 1% and 5%.
•
Marg—The current rate of CRC errors is between 5% and 10%.
•
Poor—The current rate of CRC errors is more than 10%.
•
N/A—The link is not online.
The third line of the Dyn Stat window shows the current data rate in Kbps, and how many
channels this data rate represents.
The fourth line displays the following values:
•
CLU—Current Line Utilization. The percentage of bandwidth currently being used by the
call for transmitted data, divided by the total amount of bandwidth available.
•
ALU—Average Line Utilization. ALU is the average amount of available bandwidth used
by the call for transmitted data during the current history period as specified by the Sec
History and Dyn Alg parameters.
Note: The MAX currently does not calculate CLU or ALU for nailed connections through the
serial WAN interface.
Ether Opt window (Ethernet options)
The Ether Opt window lists the type of Ethernet interface specified in the Ethernet I/F
parameter, and its MAC address. To display the Ether Opt window, tab to a status window, then
use the arrow keys to access the Ethernet > Ether Opt window.
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 4-11
VT100 Interface Status Windows
Status-window reference in alphabetic order
Following is an example of an Ether Opt display for an Ethernet module in slot 5:
50-600 Ether Opt
>I/F: COAX
Adrs: 00c07b322bd8
The interface type may be AUI, UTP, or COAX. The MAC address is a 6-byte hexadecimal
address assigned to the Ethernet controller by the manufacturer. For related information, see
the entry for the Ethernet I/F parameter in the MAX Reference Guide.
Ether Stat window (Ethernet status)
The Ether Stat window shows the number of Ethernet frames received and transmitted and the
number of collisions at the Ethernet interface. To display the Ether Stat window, tab to a status
window, then use the arrow keys to access the Ethernet > Ether Stat window.
For example, the following screen shows the Ether Stat display for an Ethernet module in slot
5:
50-400 Ether Stat
>Rx Pkt:
106
Col:
0
Tx Pkt:
118
The screen shows the following fields:
•
Rx Pkt—the number of Ethernet frames received on the Ethernet interface
•
Col—the number of collisions detected at the Ethernet interface
•
Tx Pkt—the number of Ethernet frames transmitted over the Ethernet interface
The counts return to 0 (zero) when the MAX is switched off or reset. Otherwise, the counts
continuously increase, up to the MAXimum allowed by the display.
Ethernet window
The Ethernet window is a branch of the Main Status Menu window. The Ethernet window itself
has branches, which display the status of the Ethernet interface. When you choose Ethernet
from the Main Status Menu window, the following menu appears:
50-000 Ethernet
50-100 Sessions
50-200 Routes
50-300 WAN Stat
FDL N Stats windows
To display the FDL N Stats (Facilities Data Link Status) window, tab to a status window, then
use the arrow keys to access the Net/T1 > FDL N Stats window.
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VT100 Interface Status Windows
Status-window reference in alphabetic order
The MAX has two windows that list the performance registers of the PRI interface: FDL1 Stats
for line 1 and FDL2 Stats for line 2.
Note: The name of this window does not imply that you must have a Facility Data Link for
the MAX to accumulate data. The registers accumulate data whether you have D4 or ESF lines,
and whether or not you have a Facility Data Link.
The FDL Stats windows are the fourth and fifth options listed in the Net/T1 window:
10-000 Net/T1
10-300 Line Errors ^
10-400 FDL1 Stats
>10-500 FDL2 Stats
10-600 Net Options
The following display shows the contents of the FDL2 Stats window:
10-500 FDL2 Stats
>Error Events...
Current Period...
Last 24 Hours...
00:00...
v
Note: Pressing the Down Arrow key displays additional statistics.
Error-register statistics
If you select Error Events, the MAX displays the accumulated error events in the user and
carrier error events registers.
Performance-register statistics
You can display the statistics accumulated during the current 15-minute period (Current
Period), the summed performance data accumulated during the past 24 hours, or the statistics
for any 15-minute period in the previous 24 hours. If you select Last 24 Hours, you can get any
past period’s registers, select an hour from the window, (03:00, for example), and then select
any 15-minute period within that hour. You can select any hour within the last 24.
If you have a D4 (SF) interface, no carrier performance data is recorded.
The performance registers contain both user and carrier Extended Superframe Format (ESF)
statistics. The user performance-registers appear in the middle column after the register names,
and the carrier performance-registers appear in the last column:
10-500 FDL2 Stats
carrier registers
03:45
ES:000005
US:000000
SS:000000
BS 000000
LF:000000
CS:000000
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
user registers
000005
000000
000000
000000
000000
000000
Preliminary November 2, 1998 4-13
VT100 Interface Status Windows
Status-window reference in alphabetic order
Use the Clr Perf1 and Clr Perf2 parameters in the Line Diag menu to reset the user
performance registers but only the carrier can reset the carrier registers. All performance
registers are reset upon power-up or software reset.
Table 4-2 describes the FDL performance registers.
Table 4-2. FDL performance registers
Register name
Description
EE
Displays the number of error events accumulated since the last time
this register was reset. An ESF error event is counted when the
CRC-6 calculations at the receiving end of the T1 span do not match
the CRC-6 calculations at the sending end. This mismatch indicates
that the frame had at least one data error. Error events have no
meaning for D4 lines. Only ESF lines carry the CRC-6 signature
used to check the quality of the PRI line as a whole.
ES
Specifies errored seconds. For ESF lines, this register displays the
number of seconds in the 15-minute period in which there was at
least one error event, or in which two or more framing errors were
detected within a 3 ms interval. For D4 lines, this register displays
the number of seconds in which one or more framing bit errors (FE)
were detected or in which a controlled slip (CS) occurred.
US
Indicates unavailable seconds—the number of seconds in the
15-minute period preceded by at least 10 consecutive severely
errored seconds (SS).
SS
Displays severely errored seconds—the number of seconds, during
the 15-minute period, in which there were at least 320 CRC-6 errors
as detected by the MAX, or in which the T1 line was out of frame.
For D4 lines, this register displays the number of one-second
intervals containing eight or more framing bit errors (FEs) or one or
more SEFs.
BS
Specifies bursty errored seconds—the number of seconds, during the
15-minute period, in which there were at least 2, but not more than
319, CRC-6 errors as detected by the MAX.
LF
Indicates loss of frame seconds— the number of seconds in the
15-minute period in which the T1 line was out of frame.
CS
Displays controlled slip seconds—the number of seconds in the
15-minute period in which a frame was either replicated or deleted.
For related information, see Clr Err1, Clr Err 2, Clr Perf1, and Clr Perf2 in the MAX Reference
Guide.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
VT100 Interface Status Windows
Status-window reference in alphabetic order
FR Stat window
The FR Stat (Frame Relay status) window shows the status of each online link defined in a
Frame Relay profile. To display the FR Stat window, tab to a status window, then use the arrow
keys to access the Ethernet > FR Stat > any active Frame Relay connection window.
For example, the following screen shows an FR profile display for a link using a serial WAN
module is installed in slot B:
B0-500 FR profile
Rx Pxt:
2560
Tx Pxt:
3000
CRC:
003
CprofX
16
Rx Pxt:
2560
Tx Pxt:
3000
The window shows the number of packets received and transmitted on the Frame Relay
connection. It also shows the number of frames received with CRC errors.
Host/6 (Host/Dual) window
The Host/6 (or Host/Dual) status window is a branch of the Main Status Menu window. It
holds a list of windows that show the status of the MAX unit’s AIM host interface and the
status of calls to and from the AIM ports of that interface. To display the Host/Dual status
window, tab to a status window, then use the arrow keys to access the Host/Dual window. To
display the statistics for a port, choose a port from the PortN Stat Menu submenus.
For example, the following screen shows a Host/Dual status window for a module installed in
slot 2:
20-000 Host/Dual
20-100 Host Config
20-200 Port1 Menu
20-300 Port2 Menu
Line Errors window
The Line Errors status window shows errors recorded on all current channels, in a
channel-by-channel, line-by-line list. The display even if the interface is disabled in the Line N
profile.
To display the Line Errors window, tab to a status window, then use the arrow keys to select a
menu item representing a slot configuration (this section assumes a slot configured for T1
lines). After selecting that item, select the Line errors window:
10-000 Net/T1
10-100 Line 1 Stat
10-200 Line 2 Stat
10-300 Line Errors
Then, when you press Enter or the Right Arrow key, the T1 Line Errors window displays the
channel-by-channel errors accumulated during all current calls. The window is divided into
three columns. For example:
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 4-15
VT100 Interface Status Windows
Status-window reference in alphabetic order
10-300 Ln1
1:
0
3:
33
4:
0
Ln2
-
The first column displays the T1 channel number followed by a colon (:). For a BRI line, it lists
the line numbers (1 through 8).
The second column indicates the number of byte errors the MAX has detected on the channel
in Line 1 during the current call. The third column displays the number of byte errors the MAX
has detected on the channel in Line 2 during the current call.
If a channel is not associated with a current call, a hyphen (-) appears instead of a number. Any
channel that would not have a number in either is omitted from the display.
Line Stat windows
The Line Stat windows (Line 1 Stat and Line 2 Stat) show the dynamic status of each WAN
line, the condition of its electrical link to the carrier, and the status of its individual channels.
To display the Line Status window, tab to a status window, then use the arrow keys to access
the Net/T1 > Line N Stat (or Net/E1 >Line N Stat) window.
For example:
10-100 1234567890
L1/LA ---------12345678901234
-------------s
The first line of a Line Stat window shows the window number followed by columns for
channels 1 through 10.
The second line begins with the line number, followed by the link status, which is indicated by
one of the two-character abbreviations listed in Table 4-3. Following the link status is followed
by a single-character that indicates channel status. Table 4-4 lists the channel-status
indicators.) The third line has column headers for the remaining channels. The fourth line
continues where the second line left off, showing the status of the remaining channels.
Table 4-3. T1/E1 link-status indicators
Link status
Mnemonic
Description
LA
Link active
The line is active and physically connected.
RA
Red Alarm/Loss
of Sync
The line is not connected, improperly configured,
experiencing a very high error rate, or is not
supplying adequate synchronization. The Alarm
LED lights when the line is in this state.
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Table 4-3. T1/E1 link-status indicators (continued)
Link status
Mnemonic
Description
YA
Yellow Alarm
The MAX is receiving a Yellow Alarm pattern.
The Yellow Alarm pattern is sent to the MAX to
indicate that the other end of the line cannot
recognize the signals the MAX is transmitting. The
Alarm LED lights when the line is in this state.
DF
D-channel
failure
The D channel for a PRI line is not currently
communicating.
1S
Keep alive (all
ones). Also
known as Blue
Alarm.
A signal is being sent from the T1 PRI network to
the MAX to indicate that the T1 PRI line is
currently inoperative. The Alarm LED lights when
the line is in this state.
DS
Disabled link
The line is physically connected, but you have
disabled the line in the Line N profile.
A single character represents the status of each channel in the line, as described in Table 4-4:
Table 4-4. T1 channel status indicators
Channel
status
Mnemonic
Description
.
Not available
The channel is not available because the line is
disabled, has no physical link, or does not exist, or
because the channel is set to Unused in the Ch N
parameter of the Line N profile.
*
Current
The channel is connected in a current call.
-
Idle
The channel is currently idle (but in service).
d
Dialing
The MAX is dialing from this channel for an
outgoing call.
r
Ringing
The channel is ringing for an incoming call.
m
Maintenance
The channel is in maintenance/backup (ISDN
only).
n
Nailed
The channel is marked Nailed in the Line N
profile.
x
Drop-and-Insert
The channel is configured for Drop-and-Insert for
a DASS 2 E1 line or DPNSS E1 line.
o
Out of Service
The channel is out of service (ISDN only).
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VT100 Interface Status Windows
Status-window reference in alphabetic order
Table 4-4. T1 channel status indicators (continued)
Channel
status
Mnemonic
Description
s
ISDN D channel
The channel is an active D channel (ISDN only).
b
Backup ISDN D
channel
The channel is the backup D channel (ISDN only).
Note: If the MAX is configured for Drop-and-Insert functionality, and a Red Alarm (RA) or
Loss of Synch condition is detected, the failure is conveyed to the device by sending an all
ones (A1S) over line 2. During the time this failure is active, devices connected to line 2 cannot
place calls.
Line Status (BRI) window
The Line Status window shows the dynamic status of each BRI line, the condition of its
electrical link to the carrier, and the status of each line’s individual channels. To display the
Line Status window, tab to a status window, then use the arrow keys to access the Host/BRI (or
Net/BRI) > Line Status window.
For example, the following screen shows a Line Status window for a Net/BRI module installed
in slot 3:
30-100 12345678
Link
PPP-----
B1
B2
***.....
***.....
O
The first line of the Line Status window shows the window number and the column headers for
each of the 8 BRI lines in an expansion module. The second line of the window uses the
one-character abbreviations listed in Table 4-5 to characterize the overall state of the line. The
third and fourth lines show a single-character abbreviations, listed in Table 4-6, that indicate
B1 and B2 channels, respectively.
Table 4-5. BRI line-status indicators
Line status
Mnemonic
Description
.
Not available
The line is not active at this time, but it is
physically connected.
-
Idle
The line is disabled. The Ch N parameter in the
Line N profile is set to Unused.
P
Point-to-point
The line is in a point-to-point active state and is
physically connected.
D
Dual-terminal
The line is in a multipoint active state, initialized in
dual-terminal mode, and is physically connected.
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Table 4-5. BRI line-status indicators (continued)
Line status
Mnemonic
Description
M
Multipoint
The line is in a multipoint active state, initialized in
single-terminal mode, and is physically connected.
X
Not connected
The line is not physically connected and cannot
pass data. In some countries outside the U.S., the
character X might appear even though the line is
physically connected.
The third and fourth lines indicate the state of the B1 and B2 channels, respectively, with the
indicators shown in Table 4-6.
Table 4-6. B1 and B2 channel-status indicators
Channel status
Mnemonic
Description
.
Not available
The channel is not available because the line is
disabled, has no physical link, or does not exist, or
because the channel is set to Unused in the channel
usage parameter of the Line N profile.
*
Current
The channel is connected in a current call.
-
Idle
The channel is currently idle (but in service).
d
Dialing
The MAX is dialing from this channel for an
outgoing call.
r
Ringing
The channel is ringing for an incoming call.
Message Log windows
You can display the Message Log window for an AIM module (such as Host/6 or Host/Dual)
or for the system itself. The contents of the port-specific message log and the contents of the
system message log do not overlap. That is, an event described in the system message log is
not displayed in the message log specific to an AIM port.
Each message log displays up to 32 of the most recent system events the MAX has recorded.
When you select the Message Log option, the most recent message appears. The message logs
update dynamically. Press the Up-Arrow key to display the previous entry. Press the Down
Arrow key to display the next entry.
To display the Message Log window, tab to a status window, then use the arrow keys to access
the Host/Dual > PortN Stat > Messages window.
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AIM port message logs
The Message Log window for an AIM port provides a log of events that occurred at each AIM
port during call dialing and transmission. You access the window by selecting it from the Port
N Stat menu. The following example shows a Message Log entry generated by an incoming
call on an AIM port installed in slot 2:
21-200 12:23:47
O
>M31 Line 1 Ch 13
Moved to primary
1 secondary chans
The first line of the window shows the status window number and the time the event occurred.
The second line identifies the log entry number (M00-M31) and, if applicable, the line and
channel on which the event occurred. The third line contains the text of the message (as
described in “Log messages” on page 4-20). The fourth line of the log changes when an online
FT1-B&O call restores or removes nailed-up channels. The following display shows that one
channel has been restored to an FT1-B&O call:
00-200 12:23:47
O
>M31 Line 1 Ch 13
Moved to primary
1 secondary chans
System message logs
The Message Log window for the system provides a log of system events. You access the
window by selecting it in the System status window. The following example shows a Message
Log entry generated by an incoming call not yet assigned to an AIM port:
00-200 11:23:55
>M31 Line 1 Ch 07
Incoming Call
MBID 022
The first line of the window shows the status window number and the time the event occurred.
The second line identifies the log entry number (M00-M31) and, if applicable, the line and
channel on which the event occurred. The third line contains the text of the message (as
described in “Log messages” ). The fourth line contains connection-specific messages (as
described in Table 4-9 on page 4-23.
Log messages
Table 4-7 shows the informational messages that can appear in the Message Log window:
Table 4-7. Informational log messages
Message
Description
Added Bandwidth
The MAX has added bandwidth to an active call.
Assigned to port
The MAX has assigned an incoming call to an AIM port, a digital
modem, the packet-handling module, or the terminal server.
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Table 4-7. Informational log messages (continued)
Message
Description
Call Terminated
An active call was disconnected normally, although not necessarily
by operator command.
Callback Pending
The MAX is waiting for callback from the remote end.
Ethernet up
The Ethernet interface has been initialized and is running.
Handshake
Complete
The handshake was completed, but no channels were added. Either
an operator entered the DO R command to resynchronize channels,
or an attempt to add channels to an inverse-multiplexing call failed.
Incoming Call
The MAX has answered an incoming call at the T1 PRI network
interface, but has not yet assigned the call to an AIM port or to the IP
router.
Incomplete Add
An attempt to add channels to an inverse-multiplexing call failed.
The MAX added some channels, but fewer than the number
requested. This situation can occur when placing a call. The first
channel connects, but the requested base channel count fails.
LAN session down
Appears before Call Terminated if a PPP, MP+, or Combinet session
is terminated.
LAN session up
Appears after Incoming Call if a PPP, MP+, or Combinet session is
established.
Moved to primary
Some nailed-up channels that the MAX removed from an FT1-B&O
call have been restored because their quality was no longer poor. The
fourth line of the Message Log window indicates the number of
channels restored.
Moved to
secondary
The MAX has detected some poor quality nailed-up channels in an
FT1-B&O call, and has backed up the call on switched channels. The
fourth line of the Message Log window indicates the number of
channels removed.
Outgoing Call
The MAX has dialed a call.
Port use exceeded
Call usage for an AIM port has exceeded the MAXimum specified by
either the MAX DS0 Mins or MAX Call Mins parameter in the Port
profile.
Removed
Bandwidth
The MAX has removed bandwidth from an active call.
Sys use exceeded
Call usage for the entire system has exceeded the MAXimum
specified by the MAX DS0 Mins parameter in the System profile.
RADIUS config
error
The MAX has detected an error in the configuration of a RADIUS
user entry.
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Table 4-7. Informational log messages (continued)
Message
Description
Requested Service
Not Authorized
Appears in the terminal-server interface if the user requests a service
not authorized by the RADIUS server.
Table 4-8 shows the warning messages that can appear in the Message Log windows.
Table 4-8. Warning log messages
Message
Description
Busy
The phone number was busy when the call was dialed.
Call Disconnected
The call has ended unexpectedly.
Call Refused
An incoming call could not be connected to the specified AIM port,
digital modem, packet-handling module, or terminal server because
the resource was busy or otherwise unavailable.
Dual Port req’d
The call could not be placed because one or both ports of the
dual-port pair were not available.
Far End Hung Up
The remote end terminated the call normally.
Incoming Glare
The MAX could not place a call because it saw an incoming glare
signal from the switch. Glare occurs when you attempt to place an
outgoing call and answer an incoming call simultaneously. If you
receive this error message, you have probably selected incorrect
settings in the Line N profile.
Internal Error
Call setup failed because of a lack of system resources. If this type of
error occurs, notify Ascend Customer Service.
LAN security error
Appears after Incoming Call but before Call Terminated if a PPP,
MP+, terminal-server, or Combinet session has failed authentication,
another session by the same name already exists, or the timeout
period for RADIUS/TACACS authentication has been exceeded. For
details, see the entry for the Auth Timeout parameter in the MAX
Reference Guide.
Network Problem
The call setup was faulty because of problems within the WAN or in
the Line N profile configuration. The D channel might be getting an
error message from the switch, or the telco might be experiencing a
problem.
No Chan Other
End
No channel was available on the remote end to establish the call.
No Channel Avail
No channel was available to dial the initial call.
No Connection
The remote end did not answer when the call was dialed.
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Table 4-8. Warning log messages (continued)
Message
Description
No Phone Number
No phone number exists in the Call profile being dialed.
No port DSO Mins
No MAXimum has been specified for the MAX DS0 Mins or MAX
Call Mins parameter in the Port profile.
No System DSO
Mins
No MAXimum has been specified for the MAX DS0 Mins parameter
in the System profile.
Not Enough Chans
A request to dial multiple channels or to increase bandwidth could
not be completed because there were not enough channels available.
Not FT1-B&O
The local MAX attempted to connect an FT1-B&O call to the remote
end, but the call failed because the call type at the remote end was not
FT1-B&O.
Remote Mgmt
Denied
The MAX rejected a request to run the remote MAX by AIM remote
management because the Remote Mgmt parameter in the System
profile at the remote end is set to No.
Request Ignored
The MAX denied a request to manually change bandwidth during a
call because the Call Mgm parameter in the Call profile is set to
Dynamic. With this setting, the MAX allows only automatic
bandwidth changes.
Wrong Sys Version
The remote-end product version was incompatible with the version
of the local MAX. The software version appears on the Sys Options
status window.
Table 4-9 shows connection messages that can appear on the fourth line of the Message Log
windows.
Table 4-9. Message indicators
Indicator
Description
MBID value
Appears with either the Incoming Call or Assigned to Port (line 3)
messages. The first message means an incoming call has been
received and the second message means it has been routed to a MAX
port. If you cannot match the MBID value of an incoming call log to
the MBID value in an assigned-to-port log, the call disconnected,
often because the intended port was busy. MBID also appears in the
System log.
Channels
Number of channels added to or removed from a call. Appears with
the Added Bandwidth, Removed Bandwidth, Moved to Primary, and
Moved to Secondary messages. When line 3 is an Outgoing Call, line
4 displays the phone number dialed. In multichannel calls, line 4
displays the phone number for the first connection. Only the phone
number appears. The parameter name, Phone Number, does not.
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Table 4-9. Message indicators (continued)
Indicator
Description
Cause Code
Indicates a signaling error or event. The code number was sent by the
ISDN network equipment and received by the MAX.
Name
When the message in line 3 is either LAN session up or LAN
session down, line 4 displays the remote end’s name. If the
session is a Combinet bridging link, the MAC address is displayed. If
the session is a PPP link, either the remote end’s system name (as
specified by the Name parameter in the System profile) or IP address
(as specified by the IP Adrs parameter in the Ethernet profile) is
displayed. The IP address is displayed only if the system’s name is
not known.
CLID
When an incoming call is answered and the calling party number is
known, line 4 specifies the calling line ID (CLID). When the CLID
appears, the MBID does not.
Modem window
The Main Status Menu window contains an entry for each modem card. When you select the
modem entry for a card, the Modem Stat (modem status) menu appears in the window. In this
menu, each modem corresponds to a display character. To display the Modem Stat window for
a modem module, tab to a status window, then use the arrow keys to access the V.34 Modem >
Modem Stat window.
Following is an example of a Modem Stat window for an 8-modem card:
30-000 Modem Stat
12345678
-**-*-**
The first line shows the window name. The second line lists the modems by number, and the
third line contains a status indicator. Table 4-10 describes the status indicators.
Table 4-10. Modem-status characters
Indicator
Mnemonic
Description
.
Nothing
Modem is nonexistent.
f
Failed
Modem failed the Power-On Self Test (POST). The
modem is unavailable for use.
-
Not used
The modem is not in use.
a
Waiting to go
active
Modem has been instructed to dial or answer a call, and
the unit is waiting for Received Line Signal Detector
(RLSD) to go active.
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Table 4-10. Modem-status characters (continued)
Indicator
Mnemonic
Description
A
Active
RLSD is already active and the unit is waiting for result
codes to be decoded. This state is entered only if RLSD
precedes the codes.
*
Connected
A call is connected, and the unit is monitoring RLSD.
i
Initializing
Modem is reinitializing after being reset.
q
Open request
Modem is reinitializing after being reset and an open
request is waiting to be processed when reinitialization
is completed.
Q
Open request
for virtual
connection
Modem is reinitializing after being reset and an open
request for virtual connection is waiting to be processed
when reinitialization is completed.
d
Dialing
The first part of the dial string has been sent. This unit
is pausing for the modem to read and process the first
part before sending the second part.
v
Virtual
connection
Virtual connection session is active on modem. No call
is yet active.
o
out of service
in interface
User has disabled the modem from the MAX
configuration interface. The modem is unavailable for
calls.
O
Out of service
User has disabled the modem from the MAX
configuration interface. The modem is unavailable for
calls and a Bchannel is set to OutOfService.
Net T1, Net E1 and Net BRI windows
Net/T1, Net E1and Net/BRI windows are branches of the Main Status Menu window. The
Net/BRI window is available only if a Net/BRI module is installed. To display the Net/BRI
window, tab to a status window, then use the arrow keys to access the Net/BRI window.
Following are the contents of the Net/T1 window for the base system’s T1 PRI interface:
10-000 Net/T1
10-100 Line 1 Stat
>10-200 Line 2 Stat
10-300 Line Errors
Following are the contents of the Net/E1 window for the base system’s E1 PRI interface:
10-000 Net/E1
10-100 Line 1 Stat
>10-200 Line 2 Stat
10-300 Line Errors
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Following are the contents of the Net/BRI window:
40-000 Net/BRI
>40-100 Line Status
40-200 Line Errors
Net Options window
The Net Options window lists the WAN interface features installed on your MAX. To display
the Net Options window, tab to a status window, then use the arrow keys to access the Net/T1 >
Net Options window.
The following screen shows the Net Options window:
Net Options
>T1/PRI Network I/F
2 Network I/F(s)
Type: CSU/CSU
The first line shows the type of physical interface to the WAN or, in the case of Host BRI
modules, to the local BRI lines. The line can specify either T1/PRI Network I/F or BRI
Network I/F.
The second line shows the number of network interfaces associated with the module.
The third line shows whether internal CSUs are installed for the T1 lines. Following are the
values that can appear:
•
Type: DSX/DSX
•
Type: CSU/DSX
•
Type: DSX/CSU
•
Type: CSU/CSU
Port Info window
The Port Info window displays the status of active calls and indicates the bandwidth that
current calls are not using. To display the Port Info window, tab to a status window, then use
the arrow keys to access the Host/Dual > PortN Stat > Statistics window.
Following is an example of a Port Info window:
00-300 Port Info
Avail BW= 128K
DS0 Mins=12
>71 O G 384K
v
The first line specifies the window number and name. The second line indicates the available
bandwidth. The third line displays the current accumulated DS0 minutes for all calls placed
from the MAX.
The fourth line and subsequent lines that follows it display the AIM host-interface status. Each
line includes the following fields, in the order shown:
•
Module and port number.
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•
Call-status indicator (described in Table 4-11).
•
Call-quality indicator (the quality of the link for an active call). Possible values are G
(good), F (fair), M (marginal), N (not applicable), or P (poor). The N value appears before
the call is connected end-to-end.
•
Bandwidth (the approximate bandwidth given to the codec). For an FT1-B&O call, both
specify the offline bandwidth and the online bandwidth of the call are shown. For
example, the following screen shows statistics for an FT1-B&O call on the base system’s
AIM port 2:
00-300 Port Info
Avail BW= 128K
21 O G 384K
>22 O G 128K/ 64K
In the preceding example, the fourth line shows that AIM port 2 has an FT1-B&O call online.
The call is running at 128 Kbps, and an additional 64 Kbps is available but has been removed
from the call. Whenever nailed-up channels in an FT1-B&O call are bad, the MAX removes
them from the call and monitors them for possible restoration. In this example, the MAX has
removed one 64K channel and is monitoring it.
Table 4-11 shows call-status indicators for AIM port calls.
Table 4-11. Call-status characters for AIM ports
Indicator
Mnemonic
Description
Blank
Nothing
No calls exist and no other MAX operations are being
performed.
R
Ringing
An incoming call is ringing on the line, ready to be
answered.
A
Answering
The MAX is answering an incoming call.
C
Calling
The MAX is dialing an outgoing call.
O
Online
A call is up on the line.
H
Hanging up
The MAX is clearing the call.
D
Diagnostics
The MAX is performing a local loopback.
!
Handshaking
Handshaking is in progress.
L
Loopback
A remote loopback is in progress.
S
Setting up
The MAX is setting up handshaking.
T
BERT
A BERT is in progress.
??
Alarm
A WAN network alarm is in effect.
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Port Leads window
The MAX provides a Port Leads status window for checking the state of the input and output
control leads of the associated AIM port. A Port Leads status window exists for each AIM port.
A Port Leads status window also exists for the serial WAN port. By checking the status of an
AIM port’s control leads, you can monitor an automatic dialing or answering process, such as
X.21, V.25 bis, RS-366, or control-lead dialing.
To display the Port Leads window for an AIM module, tab to a status window, then use the
arrow keys to access the Host/Dual > PortN Stat > Port Leads window.
Following is an example of a Port Leads window for the serial WAN port:
B0-100 Port Leads
DSR+ DCD+ RI + DTR+
Note: DCD stands for Data Carrier Detect and is sometimes abbreviated simply as CD.
The first line of the window shows the slot-port address of the AIM port. The remaining lines
show the state of the control leads going into and out of the serial port. A plus symbol (+)
indicates an active control lead. A minus symbol (-) indicates that the lead is inactive. For
RS-366 dialing output and input signals, the MAX uses the abbreviations in Table 4-12.
Table 4-12. RS-366 abbreviations
Output
Input
acr (Abandon Call and
Retry)
dp (Digit Present)
pnd (Present Next Digit)
crq (Call Request)
dlo (Data Line Occupied)
If the port is an RS-366 dialing interface, the lower right-hand corner of the Post Leads
window has a Digit field that displays the last digit dialed.
Table 4-13 lists the abbreviations for dialing output and input signals at the AIM port. The
Clear to Send (CTS) output signal is not monitored in this window. The standard cables
supplied with the MAX tie CD and CTS together.
Table 4-13. Serial host port abbreviations
Output
Input
DSR (Data Set Ready)
DTR (Data Terminal Ready)
CD (Carrier Detect)
RTS (Request to Send)
RI (Ring Indicate)
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Table 4-14 lists the abbreviations used for dialing output and input signals at the serial WAN
port.
Table 4-14. Serial WAN port abbreviations
Output
Input
DSR (Data Set Ready)
DTR (Data Terminal Ready)
CD (Carrier Detect)
RI (Ring Indicate)
Port Opts window
The Port Opts window is a read-only window that displays information about the configuration
options for the MAX unit’s AIM ports. A Port Opts status window exists for each AIM port. To
display the Port Opts window for an AIM module, tab to a status window, then use the arrow
keys to access the Host/Dual > Portn Stat > Port Opts window.
Following is an example of the Port Opts window for the fourth AIM port on a Host/6 card in
slot 7:
71-400 Port Opts
>V.35 Host I/F
The first line of the window shows the slot-port address of the AIM port. The second line
indicates the electrical interface of the port. The MAX senses the type of cable you plugged
into the AIM port and changes its electrical characteristics accordingly. Table 4-15 describes
the values that can appear.
Table 4-15. Port Opts information
Value
Description
V.35 Host I/F
The port is electrically compatible with CCITT V.35.
RS-449 Host I/F
The port is electrically compatible with RS-449/422 and X.21.
Universal Host I/F
The MAX displays this value for every host port of the Host/6
module, regardless of whether a cable is installed at the port. The
port is compatible with V.35, RS-449/422, and X.21.
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PortN Stat window
The PortN Stat window appears in the Host/6 or Host/Dual branch of the Main Edit Menu. It
displays a list of windows, each of which shows the status of an AIM port. For example, if you
select the listing for the first port of an AIM card installed in slot 3, the following window
appears:
31-000 Port1 Stat
31-100 Call Status
31-200 Message Log
31-300 Statistics
>31-400 Port Opts
31-500 Session Err
31-600 Port Leads
Routes window
The Routes window displays the current routing table. To display the Routes window, tab to a
status window, then use the arrow keys to access the Ethernet > Routes window.
A Routes window initially displays the first route in the table. For example:
50-200 Routes
>D: 223.0.100.129
G: 223.0.100.129
LOOP Active
Note: Press the Down Arrow key to display the next route, or the Up Arrow key to display
the previous one.
The second line in a Routes window contains the destination address. The destination can be a
network address or the address of a single station. If the route is the default route, the word
Default replaces the address.
The third line shows the address of the router.
The fourth line can have one of the values listed in Table 4-16.
Table 4-16. Routes-window values
Value
Description
LAN Active
Active route. Has a destination on the local subnet.
WAN Active
Active route. Has a destination off the local subnet.
LOOP Active
Active route. Has this MAX as a router and destination. No data
packets are propagated.
LAN Inactive
Inactive route. Has a destination on the local subnet.
WAN Inactive
Inactive route. Has a destination off the local subnet.
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A route becomes inactive if taken out of service. Whether a dialed-up link in a route has or has
not been connected does not affect the active or inactive status of the route
Serial WAN window
The Serial WAN status window is a branch of the Main Status Menu. It displays the status of
the serial WAN interface. From this window, you can show the Port Leads status display,
which indicates the status of the serial WAN port’s control signals. To display the Serial WAN
window, tab to a status window, then use the arrow keys to access the Serial WAN > Port Leads
window.
Session Err window
The Session Err status window displays the errors encountered during the current call, on a
channel-by-channel, line-by-line basis. A Session Err window exists for each host port. The
second and subsequent rows of this window each reports the accumulated errors on one of the
channels active in the call. Each row has four fields, separated by colons. For example:
21-500
1: 1:
1: 1:
1: 1:
Errors
1:
0
3:
33
4:
0
O
-
The first column in this display shows the T1 line’s slot number. The second column shows the
line number (1 or 2), and the third column 3 shows the channel number on which the error
occurred.
Column 4 shows the number of byte errors detected during the current call. In an online
FT1-B&O call, any channels that the MAX has removed have an asterisk (*) after the error
column.
If a channel is not associated with the current call, its session errors are displayed as a hyphen
(-). Any line in the display that would show dashes in both columns is omitted.
(For related information, see “Line Errors window” on page 4-15.)
Sessions window
The Sessions status window indicates the number of active bridging/routing links or remote
terminal-server sessions. An online link, as configured in the Connection profile, constitutes a
single active session. A session can be PPP or Combinet-encapsulated. The MAX treats each
multichannel MP+ or MP link as a single session. The following screen shows the display
when the Ethernet module is installed in slot 5:
50-100 Sessions
>5 Active
O Headquarters
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The first line specifies the number and name of the window. The second line shows the number
of active sessions. The third and all remaining lines use the following format:
status remote device
where status is a status indicator and remote device is the name, address, or CLID of
the remote device. Table 4-17 lists the session-status characters that can appear.
Table 4-17. Session status characters
Indicator
Mnemonic
Description
Blank
Nothing
No calls exist and no other MAX operations are being
performed.
R
Ringing
An incoming call is ringing on the line, ready to be
answered.
A
Answering
The MAX is answering an incoming call.
C
Calling
The MAX is dialing an outgoing call.
O
Online
A call is up on the line.
H
Hanging up
The MAX is clearing the call.
Note: For remote terminal-server sessions, the third and following lines of the Sessions
window appear in the format Modem slot:position, where slot specifies the slot of the
active digital modem, and position is a number indicating the position of the modem in that
slot.
Statistics window
The Statistics window is an AIM-port-specific window that provides information about line
utilization and synchronization delay while a call is up. A Statistics window exists for each
AIM port. For example, a Statistics window with the following contents would apply to the
first port of an AIM card installed in slot 3:
31-300 Albuquerqu+ O
Qual Good 01:23:44
MAX Rel Delay 10
CLU 80% ALU 77%
The first line of the Statistics window shows the status window number. This number includes
the host port’s number, the name of the current Call profile, and the call-status character.
The second line lists the quality of the call and the call duration. When a call lasts more than 96
hours, the window displays the call duration in number of days. The call quality, or Qual, can
be Good, Fair, Marg (marginal), or Poor. The meaning of each value is as follows:
•
Good—No errors have been detected during the transmission of the call.
•
Fair—Some errors have been detected in transmission.
•
Marg—A significant number of errors have been detected. In this case, reliable
transmission is not guaranteed and resynchronization is recommended.
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•
Poor—The MAX might drop individual channels from the call, or clear the call
automatically.
For FT1-B&O calls, the second line of the Statistics window might not show the call duration.
When an FT1-B&O call has no bad channels, the call duration appears as usual. But if it does,
the number of offline nailed-up channels appears after the call quality. The following screen
shows the Statistics window of an FT1-B&O call with two channels offline:
21-300 Albuquerqu+ O
Qual Good 00:04:01
MAX Rel Delay 10
CLU 80% ALU 77%
The third line displays the MAX Rel Delay value. During a MAX call, different channels can
take different paths through the WAN and can arrive at the destination at different times. This
difference is known as a relative delay. The MAX Rel Delay value indicates the largest amount
of delay between any two channels in the call. The delay is calculated and reported in multiples
of 125 microseconds, and cannot exceed 3000.
The last line displays the following values:
•
CLU—Current line utilization. The percentage of bandwidth currently being used by the
call for transmitted data, divided by the total amount of bandwidth that is available.
•
ALU—Average line utilization. The average amount of available bandwidth used by the
call for transmitted data during the current history period as specified by the Sec History
and Dyn Alg parameters.
CLU and ALU apply only to calls for which Call Mgm=Dynamic and Call Type=FT1-AIM or
FT1-B&O in the Call profile.
(For related information, see the Call Mgm, Call Type, Dyn Alg, and Sec History parameters in
the MAX Reference Guide.)
Syslog window
Syslog is not a MAX status display, but an IP protocol that sends system-status messages to a
host computer, known as the Syslog host. The Log Host parameter in the Ethernet profile
specifies the Syslog host, which saves the system-status messages in a log file. The messages
are derived from two sources—the Message Log display and the CDR display.
Note: See the UNIX man pages about logger(1), syslog(3), syslog.conf(5),
and syslogd(8) for details of the syslog daemon. The Syslog function requires UDP port
514.
Level 4 and Level 6 Syslog messages
The data for Level 4 (warning) and Level 6 Syslog messages is derived from the Message Log
displays. Level 4 and Level 6 messages are presented in the following format:
ASCEND: slot-n port-n | line-n, channel-n, text-1
ASCEND: slot-n port-n | line-n, channel-n, text-2
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The device address (slot, port or line, and channel) is followed by two lines of text, which are
displayed on lines 3 and 4 of the Message Log window. The device address is suppressed when
it is not applicable or unknown.
The line represented by text-2 specifies the system name and IP address or MAC address of
the remote end of a session for the LAN Session Up and LAN Session Down messages in the
line represented by text-1.
Level 5 Syslog messages
The data for Level 5 (notice) Syslog messages is derived from the CDR display, lines 3 and 4.
Level 5 messages are presented in the following format:
ASCEND: call-event-ID event-description slot-N port-N
data-svcK phone-N
•
call-event-ID specifies the event ID in the CDR display.
•
event description is a description of the CDR event.
•
slot N port N address indicates the AIM port, which is suppressed when it is not
applicable or is unknown.
•
data-svcK indicates the data service in use.
•
phone-N is the phone number.
Example
Because the date, type, and name of a syslog message are added by the Syslog host, the MAX
does not include that data in the message format. Following are sample Syslog entries from a
Syslog host:
Oct 21 11:18:07 marcsMAX ASCEND: slot 0 port 0, line 1, channel
1, \
No Connection
Oct 21 11:18:07 marcsMAX ASCEND: slot 4 port 1, Call Terminated
Oct 21 11:19:07 marcsMAX ASCEND: slot 4 port 1, Outgoing Call,
123
In this example, three messages are displayed for the system marcsMAX. Notice that the
back-slash (\) indicates the continuation of a log entry onto the next line.
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Disconnect codes and progress codes
If the Syslog option is set, a Call-Close (CL) message is sent to the Syslog daemon whenever
a connection is closed. Additional information about the user name, Disconnect code, Progress
code, and login host is appended to each CL message. The CL message uses the following
format:
[name,]c=xxxx,p=yyyy,[ip-addr]
where:
•
name is the name of a profile. It can contain up to 64 characters. A name containing more
than 64 characters is truncated, and a plus sign is added to the truncated name. The name
appears for incoming calls only.
•
xxxx is the Disconnect code.
•
yyyy is the connection Progress code.
•
ip-addr is the login host’s IP address for Telnet and raw TCP connections (if applicable).
Table 4-18 lists the Ascend disconnect codes.
Table 4-18. Ascend disconnect codes
Disconnect code
Description
1
Not applied to any call.
2
Unknown disconnect.
3
Call disconnected.
4
CLID authentication failed.
5
RADIUS timeout during authentication.
6
Successful authentication. MAX is configured to call the user back.
7
Pre-T310 Send Disc timer triggered.
9
No modem is available to accept call.
10
Modem never detected Data Carrier Detect (DCD).
11
Modem detected DCD, but modem carrier was lost.
12
MAX failed to successfully detect modem result codes.
13
MAX failed to open a modem for outgoing call.
14
MAX failed to open a modem for outgoing call while ModemDiag
diagnostic command is enabled.
20
User exited normally from the terminal server.
21
Terminal server timed out waiting for user input.
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Table 4-18. Ascend disconnect codes (continued)
Disconnect code
Description
22
Forced disconnect when exiting Telnet session.
23
No IP address available when invoking PPP or SLIP command.
24
Forced disconnect when exiting raw TCP session.
25
Exceeded maximum login attempts.
26
Attempted to start a raw TCP session, but raw TCP is disabled on
MAX.
27
Control-C characters received during login.
28
Terminal-server session cleared ungracefully.
29
User closed a terminal-server virtual connection normally.
30
Terminal-server virtual connect cleared ungracefully.
31
Exit from Rlogin session.
32
Establishment of rlogin session failed because of bad options.
33
MAX lacks resources to process terminal-server request.
35
MP+ session cleared because no null MP packets received. A MAX
sends (and should receive) null MP packets throughout an MP+
session.
40
LCP timed out waiting for a response.
41
LCP negotiations failed, usually because user is configured to send
passwords via PAP, and MAX is configured to only accept passwords
via CHAP (or vice versa).
42
PAP authentication failed.
43
CHAP authentication failed.
44
Authentication failed from remote server.
45
MAX received Terminate Request packet while LCP was in open
state.
46
MAX received Close Request from upper layer, indicating graceful
LCP closure.
47
MAX cleared call because no PPP Network Core Protocols (NCPs)
were successfully negotiated. Typically, there is no agreement on the
type of routing or bridging that is supported for the session.
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Table 4-18. Ascend disconnect codes (continued)
Disconnect code
Description
48
Disconnected MP session. The MAX accepted an added channel, but
cannot determine the call to which to add the new channel.
49
Disconnected MP call because no more channels can be added.
50
Telnet or raw TCP session tables full.
51
MAX has exhausted Telnet or raw TCP resources.
52
For Telnet or raw TCP session, IP address is invalid.
53
For Telnet or raw TCP session, MAX cannot resolve hostname.
54
For Telnet or raw TCP session, MAX received bad or missing port
number.
60
For Telnet or raw TCP session, host reset.
61
For Telnet or raw TCP session, connection was refused.
62
For Telnet or raw TCP session, connection timed out.
63
For Telnet or raw TCP session, connection closed by foreign host.
64
For Telnet or raw TCP session, network unreachable.
65
For Telnet or raw TCP session, host unreachable.
66
For Telnet or raw TCP session, network admin unreachable.
67
For Telnet or raw TCP session, host admin unreachable.
68
For Telnet or raw TCP session, port unreachable.
100
Session timed out.
101
Invalid user.
102
Callback enabled.
105
Session timeout on the basis of encapsulation negotiations.
106
MP session timeout.
115
Instigating call no longer active.
120
Requested protocol is disabled or unsupported.
150
Disconnect requested by RADIUS server.
151
Call disconnected by local administrator.
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Table 4-18. Ascend disconnect codes (continued)
Disconnect code
Description
152
Call disconnected via SNMP.
160
Exceeded maximum number of V.110 retries.
Table 4-19 lists the Ascend progress codes.
Table 4-19. Ascend progress codes
Progress code
Description
1
Not applied to any call.
2
Unknown progress.
10
MAX has detected and accepted call.
30
MAX has assigned modem to call.
31
Modem is awaiting DCD from far-end modem.
32
Modem is awaiting result codes from far-end modem.
40
Terminal-server session started.
41
Raw TCP session started.
42
Immediate Telnet session started.
43
Connection made to raw TCP host.
44
Connection made to Telnet host.
45
Rlogin session started.
46
Connection made with Rlogin session.
47
Terminal-server authentication started.
50
Modem outdial session started.
60
LAN session is up.
61
Opening LCP.
62
Opening CCP.
63
Opening IPNCP.
64
Opening BNCP.
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Table 4-19. Ascend progress codes (continued)
Progress code
Description
65
LCP opened.
66
CCP opened.
67
IPNCP opened.
68
BNCP opened.
69
LCP in Initial state.
70
LCP in Starting state.
71
LCP in Closed state.
72
LCP in Stopped state.
73
LCP in Closing state.
74
LCP in Stopping state.
75
LCP in Req-Sent state.
76
LCP in Ack-Rcvd state.
77
LCP in Ack-Sent state.
80
IPX NCP in Open state.
81
AT NCP in Open state.
82
BACP being opened.
83
BACP is now open.
84
CBCP being opened.
The backoff queue error message in the Syslog file
The MAX keeps accounting records until the accounting server acknowledges them. The
backoff queue stores up to 100 unacknowledged records. If the unit never receives an
acknowledgment to an accounting request, it eventually runs out of memory. To prevent this
situation, the MAX might delete an accounting record and send the following error message to
the Syslog file:
Backoff Q full, discarding user username
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This error generally occurs for one of the following reasons:
•
You enabled RADIUS accounting on the MAX but not on the RADIUS server.
•
The Accounting Port or Accounting Key value is incorrect. The Accounting Key value
must match the value assigned in the RADIUS clients file or in the TACACS+
configuration file.
•
You are using the Livingston server instead of the Ascend server.
Syslog messages initiated by a SecureConnect Manger firewall
Depending on the settings specified in SecureConnect Manager (SCM), the MAX might
generate Syslog messages about packets detected by a firewall. By default, SCM specifies
generation of a Syslog message about every packet blocked by the firewall. All messages
initiated by a firewall are in the following format:
date time router name ASCEND: interface message
•
date is the date the message was logged by Syslog.
•
time is the time the message was logged by Syslog.
•
router name is the router this message was sent from.
•
interface is the name of the interface (ie0, wan0, and so on) unless a call filter logs the
packet as it brings up the link, in which case the word call appears.
•
message format has a number of fields, one or more of which may be present.
The message fields appear in the following order:
protocol local direction remote length frag log tag
Table 4-21 describes the fields.
Table 4-20. Syslog message fields for SecureConnect firewalls
Field
Description
protocol
The four-character (hexadecimal) Ether Type or one of the following
network protocol names: ARP, RARP, IPX, Appletalk. For IP
protocols, the field contains either the IP protocol number (up to
three decimal digits) or one of the following names: IP-IN-IP, TCP,
ICMP, UDP, ESP, AH. In the special case of ICMP, the field also
includes the ICMP Code and Type ([Code]/[Type]/icmp).
local
For non-IP packets, local is the source Ethernet MAC address of
transmitted packets and the destination Ethernet MAC address of
received packets. For a nonbridged WAN connection, the two MAC
addresses are all zeros. For IP protocols, local is the IP source
address of transmitted packets and the IP destination address of
received packets. In the case of TCP or UDP, it also includes the
TCP or UDP port number ([IP-address];[port]).
direction
An arrow (<- or ->) indicating the direction in which the packet was
traveling (receive and send, respectively).
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Table 4-20. Syslog message fields for SecureConnect firewalls
Field
Description
remote
For non-IP protocols, remote has the same format that local has
for non-IP packets, but shows the destination Ethernet MAC address
of transmitted packets and the source Ethernet MAC address of
received packets. For IP protocols, remote has the same format as
local but shows the IP destination address of transmitted packets
and the IP source address of received packets.
length
The length of the packet in octets (8-bit bytes).
frag
Indicates that the packet has a nonzero IP offset or that the IP
More-Fragments bit is set in the IP header.
log
Reports one or more messages based on the packet status or packet
header flags. The packet status messages include:
tag
•
corrupt—the packet is internally inconsistent
•
unreach—the packet was generated by an “unreach=” rule in
the firewall
•
!pass—the packet was blocked by the data firewall
•
bringup—the packet matches the call firewall
•
!bringup—the packet did not match the call firewall
•
syn, fin, rst—TCP flag bits. The syn bit is only
displayed for the initial packet, which has the syn flag set
instead of the ack flag set.
Any user-defined tags specified in the filter template used by SCM
Sys Options window
The Sys Options window provides a read-only list that identifies your MAX and names each
feature that has been installed. The following screen shows the Sys Options window:
00-100 Sys Options
>Security Prof:1
^
Software +1.0+
S/N:42901
Table 4-21 describes the information that the Sys Options window can contain:
Table 4-21. Sys Options information
Option
Description
Security Prof: 1, Security
Prof: 2...
Shows which of the nine Security profiles is active.
Software
Defines the version and revision of the system ROM code.
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 4-41
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Status-window reference in alphabetic order
Table 4-21. Sys Options information (continued)
Option
Description
S/N
Displays the serial number of the MAX. The serial number of
your MAX can also be found on the model number/serial
number label on the MAX unit’s bottom panel.
Up:uptime
Displays the system uptime in the following format:
Up: days:hours:minutes:seconds
For example:
Up: 13:12:18:26
The Days value turns over every 999 days. If the unit stays up
continuously for 1000 days, the initial field resets to a 0 and
begins incrementing again.
MAX 6000
Identifies the Ascend unit.
Note: If you have a MAX running Multiband Simulation, the
name that appears here is Multiband MAX 6000.
Load
Indicates the software load name. Ascend software releases
are distributed in software loads, which vary according to the
functionality and target platform for the binary.
Switched Installed or
Switched Not Inst
Indicates whether the MAX can place calls over switched
circuits.
Frm Rel Installed or
Frm Rel Not Inst
Indicates whether the Frame Relay option is installed.
Sec Acc Installed or
Sec Acc Not Installed
Indicates whether the Secure Connect Firewall option is
installed.
MAX Link Installed or
MAX Link Not Inst
Indicates whether the MAX Link option is installed.
PRI <-> T1 Installed or
PRI <-> T1 Not Inst
Indicates whether the PRI to T1 signaling option is installed.
The option is used for PBX support.
MRate Installed or MRate
Not Installed
Indicates whether the unit supports MultiRate and GloBanD
ISDN data services. Currently, T1 PRI providers in the U.S.
do not support GloBanD.
RS-366 Installed or
RS-366 Not Inst
Indicates whether the EIA RS-366 dialing protocol has been
installed.
Dyn Bnd Installed or Dyn
Bnd Not Inst
Indicates whether Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation
functionality is available.
ISDN Sig Installed or
ISDN Sig Not Inst
Indicates whether or not ISDN signaling is installed.
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Table 4-21. Sys Options information (continued)
Option
Description
AIM Nx56 Installed or
AIM Nx56 Not Inst
Indicates whether Ascend Inverse Multiplexing (AIM)
functionality is available. This functionality includes AIM
remote management and BONDING, a prerequisite for
Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation.
BONDING Installed or
BONDING Not Inst
Indicates whether BONDING functionality is available.
V.25bis Installed or
V.25bis Not Inst
Indicates whether the CCITT V.25 bis dialing and answering
protocol is installed.
X.21 Installed or X.21
Not Inst
Indicates whether the X.21 dialing and answering protocol is
installed.
MAX Dial Installed or
MAX Dial Not Inst
Indicates whether the MAX Dial client software option is
installed.
AuthServer: a.b.c.d
Shows the IP address of the current RADIUS authentication
server for this unit.
AcctServer: a.b.c.d
Shows the IP address of the current RADIUS accounting
server for this unit.
Dual Slot T1
Does not apply to this version of the MAX.
Data Call
Indicates whether the Hybrid Access option is installed.
SerialPortT1-CSU
Indicates whether the nailed T1 (or E1) line is installed. Does
not apply to E1 units.
Note: Although GloBanD (Q.931W) does not appear in the Sys Options window, its presence
can be verified by checking the value of the Switch Type parameter. For more information, see
the MAX Reference Guide.
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System Status window
The System Status window is a branch of the Main Status Menu. It displays the windows that
show the status of the MAX system as a whole.
The System Status window contains the following selections:
00-000 System
00-100 Sys Options
>00-200 Message Log
00-300 Port Info
00-400 CDR
These selections provide information, about the MAX, that pertains to the system as a whole,
and that would not fall under the classification of its T1 PRI or ISDN BRI line interfaces, its
Ethernet interface, or its AIM host interface.
WAN Stat window
The WAN Stat window displays the current count of received frames, transmitted frames, and
frames with errors for each active WAN link. It also indicates the overall count for all data
packets received or transmitted across the WAN.
The following screen shows WAN statistics:
50-300 WAN Stat
>Rx Pkt: 387112
Tx Pkt:
22092
CRC: 0
The first line displays the window number and name of the window. You can press the
Down-Arrow key to get per-link statistics. The first line of a per-link display shows the name,
IP address, or MAC address of the remote device. The per-link count is updated every 30
seconds. The overall count is updated at the end of every active link.
The second and third lines show the number of frames received and transmitted, respectively.
The fourth line indicates the number of CRC errors. A CRC error indicates a frame containing
at least one data error.
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5
Network Administration
Administering WAN lines and calls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Managing IP routes and sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Monitoring IPX routes and sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-24
Managing OSPF routes and sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26
Managing multicast routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-42
Monitoring Frame Relay connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-44
Monitoring X.25 and PAD connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-47
Setting up ISDN D-channel X.25 support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-48
Administering WAN lines and calls
The MAX allows you to manage WAN lines, ports, and modems. This section describes how
to:
•
Perform diagnostics on T1, E1, and BRI lines, and ports
•
Display call information
•
Disable digital modems and modem slots
•
Understand how the MAX routes an incoming call
For reference information about each of the commands described in this section, see the MAX
Reference Guide.
T1 line diagnostics
The MAX provides T1 diagnostic commands you can use to test the configuration of your T1
lines. Access the commands from Net/T1 > Line Diag.
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Administering WAN lines and calls
The Line Diag menu for T1 includes the following commands, which you execute by selecting
the command in the menu and pressing Enter:
Command
Purpose
Line LB1
Respectively, to test Line 1 or Line 2 in a T1 slot, places a call from the
MAX to itself over the WAN to determine the MAX unit’s ability to
initiate and receive calls and to diagnose the soundness of the digital
access line and WAN.
Line LB2
Do not activate these commands when a call is active on the line
because they disrupt data flow between the codecs connected to either
end of the network line.
Switch D Chan
Swaps status of the primary and secondary Non-Facility Associated
Signaling (NFAS) D channels on T1 lines that use NFAS signaling.
Clr Err1
Respectively, clears the user error event register of line 1 or line 2.
Clr Err2
Clr Perf1
Clr Perf2
Respectively, clears all performance registers for line 1 or line 2,
restarts the current time period, and begins accumulating new
performance data.
E1 line diagnostics
The MAX provides E1 diagnostic commands you can use to test the configuration of your E1
lines. Access the commands from Net/E1 > Line Diag.
The Line Diag menu for E1 includes the following commands, which you execute by selecting
the command in the menu and pressing Enter:
Command
Purpose
Line LB1
Respectively, to test Line 1 or Line 2 in an E1 slot, places a call from
the MAX to itself over the WAN to determine the MAX unit’s ability
to initiate and receive calls and to diagnose the soundness of the digital
access line and WAN.
Line LB2
Do not activate these commands when a call is active on the line
because they disrupt data flow between the codecs connected to either
end of the network line.
BRI/LT diagnostics
The MAX provides BRI/LT diagnostic commands you can use to test the configuration of your
BRI/LT lines. Access the commands from BRI/LT> Line Diag > Line N where N is the number
of the line you want to check.
BRI/LT diagnostic commands use the BRI-U interface’s embedded operations channel (EOC).
The EOC transfers diagnostic and signaling data from the exchange to the terminal side and
vice versa without transmitting on either the B or D channels.
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Administering WAN lines and calls
To monitor transmission quality at the U-interface, the MAX uses internal block-error
counters. Block errors encountered in the receive direction are called Near-End Block Errors
(NEBE). Block errors encountered in the transmission direction are called Far-End Block
Errors (FEBE).
A block error is detected each time the calculated checksum of the received data does not
correspond with the control checksum transmitted in the successive superframe. Block error
totals are received from the remote TA. Totals are reset when you restart the MAX or use a
Line Diag command for clearing counters. You can view Block Error status in the BRI/LT
status window while conducting the diagnostic tests.
Before executing diagnostic test commands, you must specify the EOC address to which you
want to apply the command. Set the EOC Address Parameter in the Line Diag menu. The
values permitted include:
•
0 (the default)—Remote ISDN TA device.
•
1 through 6—Number of an ISDN repeater between the MAX and the remote TA. The
number 1 specifies the repeater closest to the MAX.
•
7—Broadcast the command to all nodes on the IDSL connection.
The EOC address reverts to its default value of 0 when you exit from the Line Diag submenu.
The Line Diag menu includes the following commands for running diagnostic tests, which you
access by selecting the command and pressing Enter:
Command
Purpose
Line LoopBack
Sends 24-byte-long test frames continuously on the D channel until
you cancel the command. When you execute the command, by
selecting Line LoopBack and pressing Enter, a submenu appears with
0=Esc and 1=Line N LB. Selecting 1 begins the loopback
command. You can examine the LB Counters status screen to see the
number of transmitted frames. Selecting 0 cancels the command.
Corrupt CRC
BRI-U interface permanently transmits inverted CRCs until the
command is canceled. While the test is conducted, view the far-end
block error status from the remote TA. This tests NEBE and FEBE
signal counters.
Uncorrupt CRC
Cancels the Corrupt CRC command.
RQ Corrupt CRC Requests that NT1 corrupt the CRC to simulate transmission errors.
After issuing the command, you can check the near-end block counter
to verify that it is working.
Rq Uncorrupt
CRC
Requests that the NT1 cancel the RQ Corrupt CRC transmission.
Clr NEBE
Clears the Near-End Block Error counter.
Clr FEBE
Clears the Far-End Block Error counter.
The Line Diag menu also includes a parameter Sealing Current. This parameter enables
sealing, which is the ability of an ISDL card to send 40V current on the line to prevent
corrosion caused by inactivity. To enable sealing, specify Yes. The default value is No sealing.
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Administering WAN lines and calls
Example of performing loopback diagnostics for IDSL
The MAX supports loopback tests from itself to any device on the IDSL connection. For
example, you can loop back the signal from the IDSL card to the remote TA or TE, or from the
IDSL card to any intermediate repeater.
Figure 5-1. IDSL connection with repeaters
MAX with
IDSL card
ISDN
repeater 1
ISDN
repeater 2
ISDN
repeater 3
TE or
ISDN TA
In Figure 5-1, for example, you could set up a loopback test from the MAX to any of the ISDN
repeaters, or from the MAX all the way to the remote ISDN at the end of the connection. This
ability enables you to isolate trouble anywhere in the connection.
To configure a loopback test on the BRI lines provided by the IDSL slot card:
1
Select BRI/LT > Line Diag > Line N, where N is the number of the line you want to loop
back.
2
Specify the EOC Address parameter to specify the device that is the terminating point for
the loopback test. Use one of the following values:
–
0—specifies the remote TA or MAX.
–
1-6—specifies a repeater between the MAX and the remote TA, with 1 representing
that closest to the MAX.
–
7—specifies all devices.
3
Select Line LoopBack and press Enter.
4
In the confirmation dialog box that appears, select 1=Line N LB.
While the line loops back, normal data transfer is disrupted.
5
Press Escape to cancel the loopback.
In a local loopback test, data originating at the local site loops back to its originating port
without going out over the WAN. It is as though a data mirror were held up to the data at the
WAN interface, and the data reflected back to the originator. The WAN interface is the MAX
port that connects to a WAN line.
Performing port diagnostics
After configuring a port, you can perform a loopback test to verify port configuration. You
access the loopback command from the Port Diag menu (Host/Dual (or Host/6) > Port N Menu
> Port Diag menu.
The loopback test sends data originating at the host (the local application) back to the
originating port.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Administering WAN lines and calls
To run a loopback test:
1
Select Local LB and press Enter. The Local LB menu appears:
31-201 Local LB
>
DSR = Active
RI=Inactive
CD=Inactive
DLO=Inactive
PND=Inactive
ACR=Inactive
Inc Ch Count
Dec Ch Count
Rate=64K
2
Use the standard VT100 interface commands to select settings to change. The settings
available include the following:
Parameter
Description
DSR
Toggles the host port’s Data Set Ready V.25 signal between active and
inactive.
RI
Toggles the host port’s Ring Indicate V.25 output signal between active
and inactive.
CD
Toggles the host port’s Carrier Detect output signal between active and
inactive.
DLO
Toggles the host port’s Data Line Occupied RS-366 output signal
between active and inactive.
PND
Toggles the host port’s Present Next Digit RS-366 output signal
between active and inactive.
ACR
Toggles the host port’s Abandon Call and Retry output signal between
active and inactive.
Inc Ch Count
Simulates an increase in the number of channels in a call by increasing
the clock rate to the host.
Dec Ch Count
Simulates a decrease in the number of channels in a call by decreasing
the clock rate to the host.
Rate
Toggles the data rate of the simulated channels between 56 Kbps and
64 Kbps.
3
When you have completed your tests, exit by pressing the Left Arrow key. When you exit,
all control signals revert to the state they were in when the test began.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-5
Network Administration
Administering WAN lines and calls
Disabling digital modems and modem slots
You can temporarily disable digital modems or modem slots without disrupting existing
connections. This action is called quiescing, and it prepares a modem for maintenance.
Quiescing a modem or modem slot does not result in active calls being torn down. Instead,
when active call drops, that modem or modem slot is added to a disabled list and is unavailable
for use. If all modems are disabled, incoming callers receive a busy signal until the modems
have been restored for service. A quiesced modem is available for use approximately 20
seconds after it has been re-enabled.
To quiesce a modem or modem slot, access the V.34 (V.42) Modem > Modem Diag menu.
To quiesce a modem, use the Modem #N command, where N is the modem number from 1 to
12. You can set one of the following values:
Value
Result
enable modem
Enables disabled modems. This is the default value.
disable modem
Places the modem on the disabled list. When an active connection
drops, the card becomes available for maintenance.
enable
modem+chan
Enables the modem and a disabled B channel.
disable
modem+chan
Places the modem and an arbitrary B channel on disabled lists.
To quiesce a modem slot, use the ModemSlot command. You can set one of the following
values:
Value
Result
enable slot
Enables disabled modems on the slot. This is the default value.
disable slot
Places all modems that are not active on the disabled list. When the
active connections drop, the card becomes available for maintenance.
enable
slot+chan
Restores the slot card and channels to use. Modems on the selected
slot that appear on the disabled list are enabled. For each modem
enabled, an out-of-service B channel returns to service.
disable
slot+chan
Disables all modems on the slot, along with an equal number of B
channels.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Administering WAN lines and calls
E1 ISDN call information
If the E1/PRI line or BRI line switch-type is German 1TR6 or Japanese NTT, you can display
information about ISDN calls by invoking the terminal-server command line and entering the
Show Calls command. For example:
ascend% show calls
The command displays statistics about current calls. For example:
Call ID
Called Party ID Calling Party ID InOctets OutOctets
3
4
5104563434
4197654321
4191234567
5108888888
0
888888
0
99999
The Call ID column contains an index number specific to the call.
Called Party ID and Calling Party ID show the telephone number of the answering device and
calling device, respectively.
InOctets and OutOctets show the number of bytes received by the answering device and
transmitted by the calling device, respectively.
Note: When an ISDN call disconnects from either a German 1TR6 switch or a Japanese NTT
switch, the switch sends call billing information to the call originator as part of the call
tear-down process. This information is written to the eventCallCharge (eventEntry 17) SNMP
object in the Ascend Enterprise MIB events group (10). An SNMP manager can then read this
object to determine the cost of the call. The eventCallCharge object is a read-only integer and
is applicable only if eventType is callCleared (3). Otherwise, 0 is returned.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-7
Network Administration
Administering WAN lines and calls
Incoming call routing state diagram
The following pages show detailed state information about inbound call routing in the MAX.
For more information about any of the parameters, see the MAX Reference Guide.
5-8 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Administering WAN lines and calls
Does Sub-Adr=TermSel?
No
Yes
No
Does call have ISDN subaddress?
Do not answer.
Yes
Is call received on a channel whose phone number parameter
Yes
(Ch N #, Pri Num, Sec Num) does not match the called number?
Do not answer.
Phone number matches or called number not provided.
Determine if call is Net-to-Net:
If Sub-Adr=Routing and the called number has an ISDN subaddress that matches
V.110, DM, LAN, or Serial parameters, the call is not net-to-net.
If the called number (without subaddress) matches an Ans N# parameter in an Ethernet
(Mod Config) or V.110 Profile, or any digital modem profile, the call is not net-to-net.
If the called number (without subaddress) matches Ans # in a Net/T1 Line Profile, or
the call service matches Ans Svc in a Net/T1 Line Profile, or the call arrives on a
Leased 1:1 channel (see PBX Type parameter), it is net-to-net PBX.
If the called number (without subaddress) matches Ans N# in a Host/BRI or BRI/LT
Profile or the call is answered on a channel whose slot (Ch N Slot, B1 Slot, B2 Slot)
parameter points to a Host/BRI or BRI/LT module, it is net-to-net BRI.
Is net-to-net
Route to indicated
T1 channel
or BRI line.
Is not net-to-net
Does Sub-Adr=Routing?
No
Yes
Does subaddress match DM?
No
Does subaddress match V.110?
Yes
Yes
Is a digital modem available?
Is V.110 module available?
No
Does subaddress match LAN?
Yes
Is bridge/router module
available?
No
Reject call.
Yes Route call to it.
No
Reject call.
Yes Route call to it.
No
Reject call.
Yes Route call to it.
No
Does subaddress match Serial?
No
Yes
Does called number with/with- Yes If port available,
out subaddr. match Ans N# Port
route call to it;
(Invs-Mux) Profile parameter?
otherwise reject
call.
No
Yes
Is call answered on a channel whose slot (Ch N
If port (I-mux)
Slot, B1 Slot, B2 Slot) and port (Ch n Prt/Grp,
available, route
B1 Prt/Grp, B2 Prt/Grp) parameters point to a
call to it, otherserial host port?
wise reject call.
No
Is a serial host (I-mux) port available? No Reject call.
Yes
Continue next page: “A” Continue next page: “B”
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Route call to it.
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-9
Network Administration
Administering WAN lines and calls
From previous page “A”
Perform the following Ans N# steps
without including
the subaddress in
the match.
From previous page: “B”
Does called number with
subaddress match Ans N# in
the Ethernet (Mod Config)
Yes
Is bridge/router module
Yes
Route call to it.
No
Does called number with
subaddress match Ans N# in
a LAN Modem Profile?
No
Yes
Is a digital modem
available?
No
Yes
Route call to it.
No
Yes
Does called number with
Is a V.110 module
subaddress match Ans N# in
available?
a V.110 Profile?
No
Yes
Does called number with
Is the serial host port
subaddress match Ans N# in
available?
a Port (Invs-Mux) Profile?
No
No
Yes
Route call to it.
No
Yes
Route call to it.
Have the above four Ans N#
No steps been performed without
including the subaddress in
the match?
Yes
Is call answered on a channel whose slot and port
parameters (Ch N Slot, B1 Slot, B2 Slot) (Ch
N Prt/Grp, B1 Prt/Grp, B2 Prt/Grp) point to a
Serial Host Port (Invs-Mux) module, and is the port
Yes
Route call to port.
No
Is call answered on a channel whose slot parame- Yes
Route call to unit’s bridge/
ter (Ch N Slot, B1 Slot, B2 Slot) points to
router.
bridge/router module, and is the bridge/router
available?
No
Is call answered on a channel whose slot parame- Yes Route call to any available
ter (Ch N Slot, B1 Slot, B2 Slot) points to a digdigital modem.
ital modem module and is a modem in any slot
available?
No
Is call answered on a channel whose slot parame- Yes Route call to any available
ter (Ch N Slot, B1 Slot, B2 Slot) points to a
V.110 module.
V.110 module and is a V.110 module available?
No
Continue next page
5-10 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Managing IP routes and sessions
From previous page
Are both true: Excl Routing=No and the slot
parameter (Ch N Slot, B1 Slot, B2 Slot)=0 or null?
Is bearer service of call Voice and are digital
modems installed?
No
Yes
No
Is bearer service of call V.110?
Yes
Reject call.
Route to any available digital
modem. If none available, reject
call.
Route to any V.110 module.
If none available, reject call.
No
If unit is not waiting for a second call of a dual port
pair (Invs-Mux), answer the call on the first available serial host port that is not a secondary port of a
dual-port pair.
If unit is waiting for a second call of a dual port
pair, answer call on that port if it is available.
Managing IP routes and sessions
This section describes how to monitor TCP/IP/UDP and related information in the
terminal-server command-line interface. To invoke the terminal-server interface, select System
> Sys Diag > Term Serv and press Enter. The terminal-server command-line prompt appears:
ascend%.
Working with the IP routing table
The terminal-server IProute commands display the routing table and enable you to add or
delete routes. The changes you make to the routing table by using the IProute command last
only until the MAX unit is reset. To display the IProute commands, enter the IP route
command with a question mark:
ascend% iproute ?
iproute
iproute
iproute
iproute
?
add
delete
show
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Display help information
iproute add <destination/size> <gateway> [ pref ] [ m
iproute delete <destination/size> <gateway> [ proto ]
displays IP routes (same as "show ip routes" command)
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-11
Network Administration
Managing IP routes and sessions
Displaying the routing table
You can use either the IProute Show command or the Show IP Routes command to display the
IP routing table: For example:
ascend% iproute show
Destination
0.0.0.0/0
10.207.76.0/24
10.207.77.0/24
127.0.0.1/32
10.0.0.0/24
10.1.2.0/24
10.1.2.1/32
255.255.255.255/32
Gateway
10.0.0.100
10.207.76.1
10.207.76.1
10.0.0.100
-
IF
wan0
wanidle0
wanidle0
lo0
wan0
ie0
lo0
ie0
Flg
SG
SG
SG
CP
SG
C
CP
CP
Pref
1
100
100
0
100
0
0
0
Met
1
7
8
0
1
0
0
0
Use
0
0
0
0
21387
19775
389
0
Age
20887
20887
20887
20887
20887
20887
20887
20887
The output includes the following information:
Field
Destination
Destination
Target address of a route. To send a packet to this address, the MAX
uses this route. Note that the router uses the most specific route
(having the longest mask) that matches a given destination.
Gateway
Address of the next hop router that can forward packets to the given
destination. Direct routes (without a gateway) do not show a gateway
address in the gateway column.
IF
Name of the interface through which a packet addressed to this
destination is sent.
Flg
5-12 Preliminary November 2, 1998
•
ie0—Ethernet interface
•
lo0— Loopback interface
•
wanN—Each of the active WAN interfaces
•
wanidle0— Inactive interface (the special interface for any
route whose WAN connection is down).
Flag values, including the following:
•
C— A directly connected route, such as Ethernet
•
I—ICMP Redirect dynamic route
•
N—Placed in the table via SNMP MIB II
•
O—Route learned from OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
•
R—Route learned from RIP
•
r—RADIUS route
•
S—Static route
•
?—Route of unknown origin, which indicates an error
•
G—Indirect route via a gateway
•
P—Private route
•
T—Temporary route
•
*—Hidden route that will not be used unless another better route
to the same destination goes down
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Managing IP routes and sessions
Field
Destination
Preference value of the route. Note that all routes that come from
RIP have a preference value of 100, while the preference value of
each individual static route can be set independently.
RIP-style metric for the route, with a valid range of 0-16. Routes
learned from OSPF show a RIP metric of 10. OSPF Cost infinity
routes show a RIP metric of 16.
Count of the number of times the route was referenced since it
was created. (Many of these references are internal, so this is not a
count of the number of packets sent over this route.)
Age of the route in seconds, used for troubleshooting to determine
when routes are changing rapidly or flapping.
Pref
Metric
Use
Age
Continuing the example, the first route shown is the default route with destination 0.0.0.0/0,
defined through the active Connection profile.
0.0.0.0/0
10.0.0.100
wan0
SG
1
1
0
20887
The IP Route profile for the default route specifies a preference of 1, so this route is preferred
over dynamically learned routes. The next route is specified in a Connection profile that is
inactive:
10.207.76.0/24
10.207.76.1
wanidle0 SG
100
7
0
20887
100
8
0
20887
0
0
0
20887
The next route in the table is a static route through an inactive gateway:
10.207.77.0/24
10.207.76.1
wanidle0 SG
The static route is followed by the loopback route:
127.0.0.1/32
-
lo0
CP
The loopback route specifies a special address. Packets sent to this special address will be
handled internally. The C flag indicates a connected route, while the P flag indicates that the
router will not advertise this route.
The next route is specified in a Connection profile that is currently active:
10.0.0.0/24
10.0.0.100
wan0
SG
100
1
21387 20887
These are routes followed by a connection to the Ethernet interface. It is directly connected,
with a preference and metric of zero.
10.1.2.0/24
-
ie0
C
0
0
19775 20887
The last two routes are a private loopback route and a private route to the broadcast address:
10.1.2.1/32
255.255.255.255/32 -
lo0
ie0
CP
CP
0
0
0
0
389
0
20887
20887
The private loopback route shown is a host route with the Ethernet address. It is private, so it
will not be advertised. The private route to the broadcast address is used in cases in which the
router must to broadcast a packet but the route is otherwise unconfigured. It is typically used
when the MAX is trying to locate a server on a client machine to handle challenges for a token
security card.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-13
Network Administration
Managing IP routes and sessions
Adding an IP route
To add to the MAX unit’s routing table a static route that will be lost when the MAX resets,
enter the IProute Add command in the following format:
iproute add destination gateway [metric]
where destination is the destination network address, gateway is the IP address of the
router that can forward packets to that network, and metric is the virtual hop count to the
destination network (default 8). For example, to add a route to the 10.1.2.0 network and all of
its subnets through the IP router located at 10.0.0.3/24 with a metric of 1 (the router is one hop
away), enter the following command:
ascend% iproute add 10.1.2.0 10.0.0.3/24 1
If you try to add a route to a destination that already exists in the routing table, the MAX
replaces the existing route, but only if it has a higher metric than the new route. If you get the
message Warning: a better route appears to exist, the MAX has rejected
your attempt to add a route because the routing table already contained a route, to the same
destination, with a lower metric. Note that RIP updates can change the metric for the route.
Deleting an IP route
To remove a route from the MAX unit’s routing table, enter the IProute Delete command in the
following format:
iproute delete destination gateway
For example:
ascend% iproute delete 10.1.2.0 10.0.0.3/24
Note: RIP updates can add back any route you remove with IProute Delete. Also, after a
system reset, the MAX restores all routes listed in the Static Route profile.
Displaying route statistics
The Traceroute command is useful for locating slow routers or diagnosing IP routing
problems. It traces the route an IP packet follows by launching UDP probe packets with a low
Time-To-Live (TTL) value and then listening for an ICMP time exceeded reply from a router.
The Traceroute command uses the following syntax:
traceroute [-n] [-v] [-m max_ttl][-p port] [-q nqueries]
[-w waittime] host [datasize]
All flags are optional. The only required parameter is the destination hostname or IP address.
The elements of the syntax are as follows:
Syntax element
Description
-n
Print hop addresses numerically rather than symbolically and
numerically (this eliminates a name server address-to-name lookup for
each gateway found on the path).
-v
Verbose output. Lists all received ICMP packets other than Time
Exceeded and ICMP Port Unreachable are listed.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Managing IP routes and sessions
-m max_ttl
Sets the maximum time-to-live (maximum number of hops) for
outgoing probe packets. The default is 30 hops.
-p port
Set the base UDP port number used in probes. Traceroute depends on
having nothing listening on any of the UDP ports from the source to
the destination host (so that an ICMP Port Unreachable message will
be returned to terminate the route tracing). If something is listening on
a port in the default range, you can set the -p option to specify an
unused port range. The default is 33434.
-q nqueries
Set the maximum number of queries for each hop. The default is 3.
-w waittime
Set the time to wait for a response to a query. The default is 3 seconds.
host
The destination host by name or IP address.
datasize
Sets the size of the data field of the UDP probe datagram sent by
Traceroute. The default is 0. This results in a datagram size of 38 bytes
(a UDP packet carrying no data).
For example, to trace the route to the host techpubs:
ascend% traceroute techpubs
traceroute to techpubs (10.65.212.19), 30 hops MAX, 0 byte packets
1 techpubs.eng.ascend.com (10.65.212.19) 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms
Probes start with a TTL of one and increase by one until one of the following conditions
occurs:
•
The MAX receives an ICMP Port Unreachable message.
The UDP port in the probe packets is set to an unlikely value, such as 33434, because the
target host is not intended to process the packets. A “port unreachable” message indicates
that the packets reached the target host and were rejected.
•
The TTL value reaches the maximum value.
By default, the maximum TTL is set to 30. You can specify a different TTL by using the
–m option. For example:
ascend% traceroute -m 60 techpubs
traceroute to techpubs (10.65.212.19), 60 hops MAX, 0 byte packets
1 techpubs.eng.abc.com (10.65.212.19) 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms
Three probes are sent at each TTL setting. The second line of command output shows the
address of the router and round trip time of each probe. If the probe answers come from
different gateways, the address of each responding system is shown. If there is no response
within a three second timeout interval, the command output is an asterisk. The following
annotations can appear after the time field in a response:
•
!H—Host reached.
•
!N—Network unreachable.
•
!P—Protocol unreachable.
•
!S—Source route failed. Might indicate a problem with the associated device.
•
!F—Fragmentation needed. Might indicate a problem with the associated device.
•
!h—Communication with the host is prohibited by filtering.
•
!n—Communication with the network is prohibited by filtering.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-15
Network Administration
Managing IP routes and sessions
•
!c—Communication is otherwise prohibited by filtering.
•
!?—ICMP subcode detected. This event should not occur.
•
!??—Reply received with inappropriate type. This event should not occur.
Pinging other IP hosts
The terminal-server Ping command is useful for verifying that the transmission path is open
between the MAX and another station. It sends an ICMP echo-request packet to the specified
station. If the station receives the packet, it returns an ICMP echo-response packet. The Ping
command has the following syntax:
ping [-q] [-v] [-c count] [-i sec | -I msec] [-s packetsize]
[-x src_address] host
All flags are optional. The only required parameter is the destination hostname or IP address.
The elements of the syntax are as follows:
Syntax element
Description
-q
Quiet mode. The MAX displays only the summary of all Ping
responses it has received.
-v
Verbose output. The MAX displays information from each ping
response that it receives as well as the summary of all Ping responses.
This is the default.
-c count
Specifies the number of Ping requests that the MAX sends to the host.
By default, the MAX sends continual ping requests until you press
Ctrl-C.
-i sec
Specifies the length of time, in seconds, between Ping requests. You
can specify seconds, using the -i option, or milliseconds, using the
-I option, but not both. The default is one second.
-I msec
Specifies the length of time, in milliseconds, between Ping requests.
You can specify milliseconds, using the -I option, or seconds, using
the -i option, but not both.
-s packetsize
Specifies the size of each Ping request packet that the MAX sends to
the host. The default is 64 bytes.
-x srcaddress
Specifies a source IP address that overwrites the default source
address.
host
The destination host by name or IP address.
For example, to Ping the host techpubs:
ascend% ping techpubs
PING techpubs (10.65.212.19): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 10.65.212.19: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=0 ms
64 bytes from 10.65.212.19: icmp_seq=3 ttl=255 time=0 ms
^C
--- techpubs ping statistics --2 packets transmitted, 2 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/MAX = 0/0/0 ms
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Managing IP routes and sessions
You can terminate the Ping exchange at any time by pressing Ctrl-C. When you press Ctrl-C,
the command reports the number of packets sent and received, the percentage of packet loss,
any duplicate or damaged echo-response packets, and round-trip statistics. In some cases,
round-trip times cannot be calculated.
During the Ping exchange, the MAX displays information about the packet exchange,
including the Time-To-Live (TTL) of each ICMP echo-response packet.
Note: The maximum TTL for ICMP Ping is 255, and the maximum TTL for TCP is often 60
or lower, so you might be able to Ping a host but not be able to run a TCP application (such as
Telnet or FTP) to that station. If you Ping a host running a version of Berkeley UNIX earlier
than 4.3BSD-Tahoe, the TTL report is 255 minus the number of routers in the round-trip path.
If you Ping a host running the current version of Berkeley UNIX, the TTL report is 255 minus
the number of routers in the path from the remote system to the station performing the Ping.
The Ping command sends an ICMP Mandatory echo-request datagram, which asks the remote
station “Are you there?” If the echo-request reaches the remote station, the station sends back
an ICMP echo-response datagram, which tells the sender “Yes, I am alive.” This exchange
verifies that the transmission path is open between the MAX and a remote station.
Configuring Finger support
You can configure the MAX to respond to Finger requests, as specified in RFC 1288, The
Finger User Information Protocol.
To enable the MAX to respond to Finger requests:
1
Open the Ethernet > Mod Config.
2
Set Finger to Yes.
3
Exit and save the changes.
Configuring the DNS Fallback Table
The local DNS table provides a list of IP addresses for a specific host name when the remote
DNS server fails to resolve the host name. If the local DNS table contains the host name for the
attempted connection, it provides the list of IP addresses.
You create the DNS table from the Ethernet > Mod Config > DNS menu by entering up to
eight host names. Enter the IP addresses for each host through the terminal-server interface.
You can configure a maximum of 35 IP addresses for each host. If you specify automatic
updating, you only have to enter the first IP address of each host. Additional IP addresses are
added automatically.
Automatic updating replaces the existing address list for a host each time the remote DNS
server succeeds in resolving a connection to a host that is in the table. You specify how many
of the addresses returned by the remote server can be included in the new list.
On the MAX, the table, which you display from the terminal-server interface, provides
additional information for each table entry. The information is in the following two fields,
which are updated when the system matches the table entry with a host name that was not
found by the remote server:
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-17
Network Administration
Managing IP routes and sessions
•
# Reads (the number of reads since entry was created). This field is updated each time a
local name query match is found in the local DNS table.
•
Time of Last Read
You can use the terminal-server command Show Dnstab to check the list of host names and IP
addresses in the table. Figure 5-2 shows an example of a DNS table on a MAX.
Figure 5-2. Example of a local DNS table
Local DNS Table
Name
IP Address
# Reads Time of last read
________________________ _______________ _______ __________________
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2: "server.corp.com."
200.0.0.0
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3: "boomerang"
221.0.0.0
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9:13:33
Displaying IP routing and related information
The following Show commands for monitoring IP routing and related protocols are described
in this section:
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
arp
icmp
if
ip
udp
tcp
pools
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
the Arp Cache
ICMP information
Interface info. Type ’show if ?’ for help.
IP information. Type ’show ip ?’ for help.
UDP information. Type ’show udp ?’ for help.
TCP information. Type ’show tcp ?’ for help.
the assign address pools.
Displaying the ARP cache
To display the ARP cache, enter the Show ARP command. For example:
ascend% show arp
entry
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
typ
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
ip address
10.65.212.199
10.65.212.91
10.65.212.22
10.65.212.3
10.65.212.250
10.65.212.16
10.65.212.227
10.65.212.36
10.65.212.71
10.65.212.5
10.65.212.241
5-18 Preliminary November 2, 1998
ether addr
00C07B605C07
0080C7C4CB80
080020792B4C
0000813DF048
0020AFF80F1D
0020AFEC0AFB
00C07B5F14B6
00C07B5E9AA5
0080C730041F
0003C6010512
0080C72ED212
if rtr pkt
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
insert
857783
857866
857937
857566
857883
857861
857479
857602
857721
857602
857781
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Managing IP routes and sessions
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
DYN
10.65.212.120
10.65.212.156
10.65.212.100
10.65.212.1
10.65.212.102
10.65.212.33
10.65.212.96
10.65.212.121
10.65.212.89
10.65.212.26
10.65.212.6
10.65.212.191
10.65.212.116
10.65.212.87
10.65.212.235
10.65.212.19
0080C7152582
0080A30ECE6D
00C07B60E28D
00000C065D27
08000716C449
00A024AA0283
0080C7301792
0080C79BF681
00A024A9FB99
00A024A8122C
0800207956A2
0080C75BE778
0080C72F66CC
0000813606A0
00C07B76D119
08002075806B
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
857604
857901
857934
857854
857724
857699
857757
857848
857790
857861
857918
857918
857416
857666
857708
857929
The ARP table displays the following information:
•
entry—A unique identifier for each ARP table entry.
•
typ—How the address was learned, dynamically (DYN) or statically (STAT).
•
ip address—The address contained in ARP requests.
•
ether addr—The MAC address of the host with that IP address.
•
if—The interface on which the MAX received the ARP request.
•
rtr—The next-hop router on the specified interface.
Displaying ICMP packet statistics
To display the number of ICMP packets received intact, received with errors, and transmitted,
enter the Show icmp command. For example:
ascend% show icmp
3857661 packet received.
20 packets received with errors.
Input histogram: 15070
2758129 packets transmitted.
0 packets transmitted due to lack of resources.
Output histogram: 15218
The Input and Output histograms show the number of ICMP packets received and transmitted,
respectively.
Displaying interface statistics
To display the supported interface-statistics commands, enter the Show IF command with a
question mark. For example:
ascend% show if ?
show if ?
show if stats
show if totals
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Display help information
Display Interface Statistics
Display Interface Total counts
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-19
Network Administration
Managing IP routes and sessions
To display the status and packet count of each active WAN link and of local and loopback
interfaces, enter the Show IF Stats command. For example:
ascend% show if stats
Interface
Name
ie0
ethernet
wan0
wan1
wan2
wanidle0
lo0
loopback
Status Type
Speed
Up
6
10000000
Down
1
0
Down
1
0
Down
1
0
Up
6
10000000
Up
24
10000000
MTU InPackets Outpacket
1500
107385
85384
1500
0
0
1500
0
0
1500
0
0
1500
0
0
1500
0
0
The output contains the following fields:
Field
Description
Interface
Interface name. For more information, see the Network Configuration
Guide for your MAX.
Name
Name of the profile or a text name for the interface.
Status
Up (the interface is functional) or Down (the interface is not
functional).
Type
Type of application being used on the interface, as specified in RFC
1213 (MIB-2). For example, 23 indicates PPP and 28 indicates SLIP.
Speed
Data rate in bits per second.
MTU
The maximum packet size allowed on the interface. MTU stands for
Maximum Transmission Unit.
InPackets
The number of packets the interface has received.
OutPackets
The number of packets the interface has transmitted.
To display the packet count at each interface, broken down by type of packet, enter the Show If
Totals command. For example:
ascend% show if totals
Name --Octets----Ucast-- -NonUcast- Discard -Error- Unknown -Same IFie0 i:
7813606
85121
22383
0
0
0
0
o: 101529978
85306
149
0
0
0
0
wan0 i:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
o:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
wan1 i:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
o:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
wan2 i:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
o:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
wanidle0 i:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
o:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
lo0 i:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
o:
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5-20 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Managing IP routes and sessions
The output contains the following fields:
Field
Description
Name
Interface name. For more information, see the Network
Configuration Guide for your MAX.
Octets
Total number of bytes processed by the interface.
Ucast
Packets with a unicast destination address.
NonUcast
Packets with a multicast address or a broadcast address.
Discard
Number of packets that the interface could not process.
Error
Number of packets with CRC errors, header errors, or collisions.
Unknown
Number of packets the MAX forwarded across all bridged interfaces
because of unknown or unlearned destinations.
Same IF
Number of bridged packets whose destination is the same as the
source.
Displaying IP statistics and addresses
To display the IP statistics and addresses supported commands, enter the Show IP command
with a question mark:
ascend% show ip ?
show
show
show
show
ip
ip
ip
ip
?
stats
address
routes
Display
Display
Display
Display
help information
IP Statistics
IP Address Assignments
IP Routes
Note: For information about the Show IP Routes command, see “Working with the IP routing
table” on page 5-11.
To display statistics on IP activity, including the number of IP packets the MAX has received
and transmitted, enter the Show IP Stats command. For example:
ascend% show ip stats
107408
0
0
0
0
0
107408
85421
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
packets received.
packets received with header errors.
packets received with address errors.
packets forwarded.
packets received with unknown protocols.
inbound packets discarded.
packets delivered to upper layers.
transmit requests.
discarded transmit packets.
outbound packets with no route.
reassembly timeouts.
reassemblies required.
reassemblies that went OK.
reassemblies that Failed.
packets fragmented OK.
fragmentations that failed.
fragment packets created.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-21
Network Administration
Managing IP routes and sessions
0 route discards due to lack of memory.
64 default ttl.
To display IP interface address information, enter the Show IP Address command. For
example:
ascend% show ip address
Interface
IP Address
Dest Address
Netmask
MTU
Status
ie0
10.2.3.4
N/A
255.255.255.224
1500
Up
wan0
0.0.0.0
N/A
0.0.0.0
1500
Down
wan1
13.1.2.0
13.1.2.128
255.255.255.248
1500
Down
wan2
0.0.0.0
N/A
0.0.0.0
1500
Down
wan3
0.0.0.0
N/A
0.0.0.0
1500
Down
lo0
127.0.0.1
N/A
255.255.255.255
1500
Up
rj0
127.0.0.2
N/A
255.255.255.255
1500
Up
bh0
127.0.0.3
N/A
255.255.255.255
1500
Up
Displaying UDP statistics and listen table
To display the supported UDP-statistics commands, enter the Show UDP command with a
question mark:
ascend% show udp ?
show udp ?
Display help information
show udp stats
Display UDP Statistics
show udp listen
Display UDP Listen Table
To display the number of UDP packets received and transmitted, enter the Show UDP Stats
command. For example:
ascend% show udp stats
22386 packets received.
0 packets received with no ports.
0 packets received with errors.
0 packets dropped
9 packets transmitted.
The Show Udp Listen command displays the socket number, UDP port number and the
number of packets queued for each UDP port on which the MAX is currently listening. The
command’s output also includes the following fields:
Field
Description
InQMax
Maximum number of queued UDP packets on the socket. (See Queue
Depth and Rip Queue Depth parameters.)
InQLen
Current number of queued packets on the socket.
InQDrops
Number of packets discarded because it would cause InQLen to
exceed InQMax.
Total Rx
Total number of packets received on the socket, including InQDrops.
5-22 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Managing IP routes and sessions
For example:
ascend% show udp listen
udp:
Socket Local Port InQLen InQMax
0
1023
0
1
1
520
0
50
2
7
0
32
3
123
0
32
4
1022
0
128
5
161
0
64
InQDrops
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total Rx
0
532
0
0
0
0
Displaying TCP statistics and connections
To display the supported TCP-statistics commands, enter the Show TCP command with a
question mark:
ascend% show tcp ?
show tcp ?
Display help information
show tcp stats
Display TCP Statistics
show tcp connection Display TCP Connection Table
To display the number of TCP packets received and transmitted, enter the Show TCP Stats
command. For example:
ascend% show tcp stats
0
11
1
1
3
85262
85598
559
active opens.
passive opens.
connect attempts failed.
connections were reset.
connections currently established.
segments received.
segments transmitted.
segments re-transmitted.
An active open is a TCP session that the MAX initiated, and a passive open is a TCP session
that the MAX did not initiate.
To display current TCP sessions:
ascend% show tcp connection
Socket
0
1
Local
*.23
10.2.3.23
Remote
*.*
15.5.248.121.15003
State
LISTEN
ESTABLISHED
Displaying address pool status
To view the status of the MAX unit’s IP address pool:
ascend% show pools
Pool #
Base
Count
InUse
1
10.98.1.2
55
27
2
10.5.6.1
128
0
Number of remaining allocated addresses: 0
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-23
Network Administration
Monitoring IPX routes and sessions
If you change an address pool while users are still logged in using the addresses from the
previous pool, Number of remaining allocated addresses reflects how many
users are currently using addresses from the previous pool. Typically, the value is 0 (zero).
Monitoring IPX routes and sessions
Show commands for monitoring IPX connections in the MAX are available at the
terminal-server command-line interface. To open the terminal-server interface select System >
Sys Diag > Term Serv and press Enter.
Verifying the transmission path to NetWare stations
The IPXping command provides network layer verification of the transmission path to
NetWare stations. The command works on the same LAN as the MAX or across a WAN
connection that has IPX Routing enabled. Following is the command’s syntax:
ipxping [-c count] [-i delay] [-s packetsize] hostname
where:
Option
Description
hostname
The IPX address of the host, or if the host is a NetWare server, its
advertised name.
-c count
Stop the test after sending and receiving the number of packets
specified by count.
-i delay
Wait the number of seconds specified by delay before sending the
next packet. The default is for one second.
-s packet-size Send the number of data bytes specified by packet-size.
You can specify hostname as is either the IPX address of the NetWare workstation or the
advertised name of a server. The IPX address consists of the IPX network and node numbers
for a station. For example:
ascend% ipxping CFFF1234:000000000001
If you are using the IPXping command to verify connectivity with an advertised NetWare
server, you can simply enter the symbolic name of the server. For example:
ascend% ipxping server-1
You can terminate the IPXping command at any time by pressing Ctrl-C.
5-24 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Monitoring IPX routes and sessions
During the IPXping exchange, the MAX calculates and reports the following statistics:
PING server-1 (EE000001:000000000001): 12 data bytes
52 bytes from (EE000001:000000000001): ping_id=0 time=0ms
52 bytes from (EE000001:000000000001): ping_id=1 time=0ms
52 bytes from (EE000001:000000000001): ping_id=2 time=0ms
?
--- novl1 Ping statistics --3 packets transmitted, 3 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/MAX = 0/0/0 ms
These statistics include the following information:
•
The IPX address of the source and destination nodes.
•
The byte counts of the request and response packets.
•
The ping ID of the command. (The ping Request # replied to by target host.)
•
The number of milliseconds required to send the IPXping and receive a response.
•
The number of packets transmitted and received.
•
Duplicate or damaged packets, if applicable.
•
Average round-trip times for the ping request and reply. In some cases, round-trip times
cannot be calculated.
To display statistics related to the IPXping command, enter the Show Netware Pings
command. For example:
ascend% show netware pings
InPing Requests/OutPing Replies OutPing Requests/InPing Replies
10
10
18
18
The output shows how many NetWare stations have pinged the MAX (InPing requests and
replies) and how many times the IPXping command has been executed in the MAX (OutPing
requests and replies).
Displaying IPX packet statistics
To display IPX packet statistics, enter the Show Netware Stats command. For example:
ascend% show netware stats
27162 packets received.
25392 packets forwarded.
0 packets dropped exceeding maximum hop count.
0 outbound packets with no route.
The MAX drops packets that exceed the maximum hop count (that have already passed
through too many routers).
Displaying the IPX service table
To display the IPX service table, enter the Show Netware Servers command. For example:
ascend% show netware servers
IPX address
ee000001:000000000001:0040
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
type
0451
server name
server-1
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-25
Network Administration
Managing OSPF routes and sessions
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
IPX address
IPX address of the server. The address uses this format:
network number:node number:socket number
Type of service available (in hexadecimal format). For example, 0451
designates a file server
type
server name
The first 35 characters of the server name.
Displaying the IPX routing table
To display the IPX routing table, enter the Show Netware Networks command:
ascend% show netware networks
network
CFFF0001
next router
00000000000
hops
0
ticks
1
origin
EthernetS
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Descriptions
network
IPX network number.
next router
Address of the next router, or 0 (zero) for a direct or WAN connection.
hops
Hop count to the network.
ticks
Tick count to the network.
origin
Name of the profile used to reach the network.
Note: An S or an H flag might appear next to the origin. S indicates a static route. H indicates
a hidden, or inactive, static route. Hidden static routes occur when the router learns of a better
route.
Managing OSPF routes and sessions
This section describes how to work with Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) information in the
routing table and how to monitor OSPF activity in the terminal-server command-line interface.
To invoke the terminal-server interface, select System > Sys Diag > Term Serv and press Enter.
Working with the routing table
The OSPF routing table includes routes built from the router’s link-state database as well as
those added by external routing protocols such as RIP. You can also add routes statically (for
example, to direct traffic destined for a remote site through one of several possible border
routers). For details about adding static routes (for example, if you want to force the use of one
route over those learned from OSPF, see the Network Configuration Guide for your MAX).
To display the IP routing table with added OSPF information, invoke the terminal server
(System > Sys Diag > Term Serv) and enter the IProute Show command with the -l option:
5-26 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Managing OSPF routes and sessions
ascend% iproute show -l
When you include the -l option, three columns of OSPF-specific fields appear at the routing
table:
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Cost
1
9
10
9
1
3
9
4
5
3
3
3
T
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Tag
0xc0000000
0xc8000000
0xc0000000
0xc8000000
0xc0000000
0xc8000000
0xc8000000
0xc8000000
0xc8000000
0xc8000000
0xc8000000
0xc8000000
Field
Description
Cost
Cost of an OSPF route. The interpretation of this cost depends on the
type of external metric, which is displayed in the next column. If the
MAX is advertising Type-1 metrics, OSPF can use the specified
number as the cost of the route. Type-2 external metrics are an order of
magnitude larger.
T
Link-state advertisement (LSA)-type of the metric to be advertised for
an external route. A 0 (zero) in this column means that the metric is an
external-Type-1 or an OSPF internal route. A 1 means that the route is
an external-Type-2 route.
Tag
Specifies a 32-bit hexadecimal number attached to each external route
to tag it as external to the AS. The number may be used by border
routers to filter this record.
Multipath routing
A MAX running OSPF can alternate between two equal-cost gateways. When OSPF detects
equally good gateways, in terms of routing costs, it puts each equal-cost gateway on an
equal-cost list. The router alternates between the gateways on the list in what is called
equal-cost multipath routing.
For example, if router A has two equal-cost routes to example.com, one via router B and the
other via router C, router A’s routing table might include the following entries:
Destination
10.174.88.0/25
10.174.88.0/25
10.174.88.12/32
10.174.88.13/32
192.168.253.0/24
192.168.253.6/32
223.1.1.0/24
223.5.1.0/24
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Gateway
10.174.88.12
10.174.88.13
10.174.88.12
10.174.88.13
10.174.88.12
10.174.88.12
IF
wan2
wan3
wan2
wan3
ie0
lo0
wan2
wan2
Flg
OGM
OGM
OG
OG
C
CP
OG
OG
Pref
10
10
10
10
0
0
10
10
Met
10
10
10
10
0
0
10
10
Use
52
52
0
0
1
53
0
0
Age
19
19
28
28
49
49
19
19
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-27
Network Administration
Managing OSPF routes and sessions
223.12.9.0/24
10.174.88.12
255.255.255.255/32
-
wan2
ie0
OG
CP
10
0
10
0
0
0
19
49
The M in the Flg column indicates an equal-cost multipath. A Traceroute from router A to
example.com would produce the following display:
ascend% traceroute -q 10 example.com
traceroute to example.com (10.174.88.1), 30 hops max, 0 byte packets
1 C.example.com (10.174.88.13) 20 ms B .example.com (10.174.88.12)
20 ms C.example.com (10.174.88.13) 20 ms B .example.com
(10.174.88.12) 20 ms 20 ms C.example.com (10.174.88.13) 60 ms 20 ms
B .example.com (10.174.88.12) 20 ms C.example.com (10.174.88.13) 20
ms B .example.com (10.174.88.12) 20 ms
2 example.com (10.174.88.1)
20 ms 30 ms 20 ms 30 ms
20 ms
20 ms
20 ms
20 ms
30 ms
20 ms
Notice the alternating replies. The replies are statistically dispatched to router B and router C,
with roughly 50% of the packets sent through each gateway. (For background information
about the routing table and about the Traceroute command, see the Network Configuration
Guide for your MAX.)
Third-party routing
A MAX running OSPF can advertise routes to external destinations on behalf of another gateway (a third-party). This is commonly known as advertising a forwarding address. Depending
on the exact topology of the network, other routers might be able to use this type of link-state
advertisement (LSA) and route directly to the forwarding address without involving the advertising MAX, thereby increasing the total network throughput.
Third-party routing requires that all OSPF routers know how to route to the forwarding
address. This usually means that the forwarding address must be on an Ethernet that has an
OSPF router acting as the forwarding router, or that the designated router is sending LSAs for
that Ethernet to any area that sees the static route’s forwarding-address LSAs. The following
example shows how to configure a static route for OSPF to advertise a third-party gateway:
1
Open a static route in Ethernet > Static Rtes.
2
Set the Gateway to the forwarding address and set Third-Party to Yes.
Ethernet
Static Rtes
Name=third-party
Silent=No
Active=Yes
Dest=10.212.65.0/24
Gateway=101.2.3.4
Metric=3
Preference=100
Private=No
Ospf-Cost=1
LSA-Type=Type1
ASE-tag=c00000000
Third-Party=Yes
3
Close the static route.
5-28 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Managing OSPF routes and sessions
How OSPF adds RIP routes
When the MAX establishes an IP routing connection with a caller that does not support OSPF,
it imports the AS-external route from the Connection profile and adds it to the routing table.
The MAX does not have to run RIP to learn these routes. RIP should be turned off when the
MAX is running OSPF.
To enable OSPF to add the RIP-v2 routes to its routing table, configure RIP-v2 normally in the
Connection profile. OSPF will import all RIP routes as Type-2 Autonomous System Externels
(ASEs). The reason that RIP routes are imported with Type-2 metrics by default is that RIP
metrics are not directly comparable to OSPF metrics. To prevent OSPF from interpreting RIP
metrics, the imported ASE route is assigned a Type-2 metric, which is so large compared to
OSPF costs that the metric can be ignored.
Route preferences
Route preferences provide additional control over which types of routes take precedence over
others. They are necessary in a router that supports multiple routing protocols, largely because
RIP metrics are not comparable with OSPF metrics.
For each IP address and subnet mask pair, the routing table holds one route per protocol. The
routes are assigned preferences as follows:
•
Connected routes, such as Ethernet, have Preference=0.
•
Routes learned from ICMP Redirects have Preference=30.
•
Routes placed in the table by SNMP MIB II have Preference=100.
•
Routes learned from OSPF have a default of Preference=10. You can modify the default in
Ethernet > Mod Config > Route Pref.
•
Routes learned from RIP have a default of Preference=100. You can modify the default in
Ethernet > Mod Config > Route Pref.
•
A statically configured IP Route or Connection profile has a default of Preference=100.
You can modify the default in the Connection or IP Route profile.
When choosing which routes should be put in the routing table, the router first compares the
Preference values, preferring the lowest number. If the Preference values are equal, the router
compares the Metric field and uses the route with the lowest Metric.
If multiple routes exist for a given address and subnet mask pair, the route with the lowest
Preference is best. If two routes have the same Preference, then the lower Metric is better. The
best route by these criteria is that actually used by the router. The others remain latent, or
hidden, in case the best route is removed.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-29
Network Administration
Managing OSPF routes and sessions
To assign a WAN link the same preference as a route learned from OSPF:
1
Open Connections > IP Options.
2
Specify a Preference value of 10 (the default value for OSPF routes). For example:
Ethernet
Connections
IP options…
LAN Adrs=10.9.8.10/22
WAN Alias=0.0.0.0
IF Adrs=0.0.0.0
Metric=5
Preference=10
Private=No
RIP=Off
Pool=0
3
Close the Connection profile.
On Ethernet, the route preferences also include ASE-type and ASE-tag information for routes
learned from RIP. These values affect all RIP information learned across the Ethernet. To
change the route preferences on Ethernet:
1
Open Ethernet > Mod Config > Route Pref.
2
Modify the parameters to adjust Preference values. For example, the following profile
assigns static routes the same Preference value as those learned from OSPF:
Ethernet
Mod Config
Route prefs...
Static Preference=10
Rip Preference=100
RipAseType=Type2
Rip Tag=c8000000
OSPF Preference=10
Or, you might change RIP metrics to Type-1:
Ethernet
Mod Config
Route prefs...
Static Preference=100
Rip Preference=100
RipAseType=Type1
Rip Tag=c8000000
OSPF Preference=10
3
Close the Ethernet profile.
5-30 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Managing OSPF routes and sessions
Displaying OSPF information
The terminal-server command-line interface provides commands for monitoring OSPF in the
MAX. To display the supported commands, enter the Show OSPF command with a question
mark:
ascend% show ospf ?
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
show
ospf
ospf
ospf
ospf
ospf
ospf
ospf
ospf
ospf
ospf
ospf
ospf
ospf
?
size
areas
stats
intf...
internal
lsa ...
lsdb ...
nbrs ...
routers
ext
rtab
database
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
Display
help
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
OSPF
information
size
areas
statistics
summary/detail interface information
internal routes
detail link-state advertisements
link-state DB summary for an area
summary/detail neighbor information
routers
external AS advertisements
routing table
entire database summary
Note: For additional information, see RFC 1583.
Displaying the size of the OSPF routing table
To display the size of the OSPF routing table, enter the Show OSPF Size command. For
example:
ascend% show ospf size
# Router-LSAs:
# Network-LSAs:
# Summary-LSAs:
# Summary Router-LSAs:
# AS External-LSAs (type-5):
# AS External-LSAs (type-7):
#
#
#
#
Intra-area routes:
Inter-area routes:
Type 1 external routes:
Type 2 external routes:
2
0
0
0
1
0
4
0
0
0
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
# Router-LSAs
Number of router link advertisements that are also Type-1 Link State
Advertisements.
# Network-LSAs Number of network link advertisements that are also Type-2 LSAs.
# Summary-LSAs Number of summary link advertisements that are also Type-3 LSAs.
Type-3 LSAs describe routes to networks.
# Summary
Router-LSAs
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Number of summary link advertisements that are also Type-4 LSAs.
Type-4 LSAs describe routes to AS boundary routers.
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-31
Network Administration
Managing OSPF routes and sessions
Field
Description
# AS External- Number of AS external link advertisements which are also Type-5
LSAs (type-5)
LSAs.
# AS External- Number of ASE-7 link advertisements that are also Type-7 LSAs.
LSAs (type-7)
Intra-area
routes
Number of routes with a destination within the area.
Inter-area
routes
Number of routes with a destination outside the area.
Type 1 external Number of external Type-1 routes that are typically in the scope of
routes
OSPF-IGP.
Type 2 external Number of external Type-2 routes that are typically outside the scope
routes
of OSPF-IGP.
Displaying OSPF areas
To display information about OSPF areas, enter the Show OSPF Areas command. For
example:
ascend% show ospf area
Area ID Authentication Area Type #ifcs
0.0.0.0 Simple-passwd
Normal
1
#nets
0
#rtrs
2
#brdrs
0
#intnr
3
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
Area ID
Area number in dotted-decimal format
Authentication Type of authentication, Simple-passwd, MD5, or Null.
Area Type
Type of OSPF area: Normal, Stub, or NSSA
#ifcs
Number of MAX interfaces specified in the area.
#nets
Number of reachable networks in the area.
#rtrs
Number of reachable routers in the area.
#brdrs
Number of reachable area border routers in the area.
#intnr
Number of reachable internal routers in the area.
Displaying general information about OSPF
To display general information about OSPF, enter the Show OSPF Stats command. For
example:
ascend% show ospf stats
OSPF version:
2
OSPF Router ID:
192.192.192.2
AS boundary capability:
Yes
Attached areas:
1
Estimated # ext.(5) routes:
OSPF packets rcvd:
94565
OSPF packets rcvd w/ errs:
Transit nodes allocated:
3058
Transit nodes freed:
5-32 Preliminary November 2, 1998
300
0
3056
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Managing OSPF routes and sessions
LS adv. allocated:
1529
LS adv. freed:
Queue headers alloc:
32
Queue headers avail:
# Dijkstra runs:
4
Incremental summ. updates:
Incremental VL updates:
0
Buffer alloc failures:
Multicast pkts sent:
94595
Unicast pkts sent:
LS adv. aged out:
0
LS adv. flushed:
Incremental ext.(5) updates: 0
Incremental ext.(7) updates:
External (type-5) LSA database Current state:
Normal
Number of LSAs:
1
Number of overflows:
0
1528
32
0
0
5
0
0
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
OSPF version
Version of the OSPF protocols running.
OSPF Router ID IP address assigned to the MAX, typically, the address specified for
the Ethernet interface.
AS boundary
capability
Displays Yes if the MAX functions as an ASBR or No if it does not. f
Attached areas Number of areas to which this MAX attaches.
Estimated #
Maximum number of ASE-5 routes that the MAX can maintain before
ext.(5) routes it goes into an overload state.
OSPF packets
rcvd
Total number of OSPF packets received by the MAX.
OSPF packets
rcvd w/ errs
Total number of OSPF erroneous packets received by the MAX.
Transit nodes
allocated
Allocated transit nodes, which are generated only by Router LSAs
(Type 1) and Network LSAs (Type 2).
Transit nodes
freed
Freed transit nodes, which are generated only by Router LSAs (Type
1) and Network LSAs (Type 2).
LS adv.
allocated
Number of LSAs allocated.
LS adv. freed
Number of LSAs freed.
Queue headers
alloc
Number of queue headers allocated. LSAs can reside in multiple
queues. Queue headers are the elements of the queues that contain the
pointer to the LSA.
Queue headers
avail
Available memory for queue headers. To prevent memory
fragmentation, the MAX allocates memory in blocks and allocates
queue headers from the memory blocks. When the MAX frees all
queue headers from a specific memory block, it returns the block to
the pool of available memory blocks.
# Dijkstra runs Number of times that the MAX has run the Dijkstra algorithm (short
path computation).
Incremental
summ. updates
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Number of summary updates that the MAX runs when small changes
occur that result in generation of Summary LSAs (Type 3) and
Summary Router LSAs (Type 4).
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-33
Network Administration
Managing OSPF routes and sessions
Field
Description
Incremental VL Number of incremental virtual link updates that the MAX performs.
updates
Buffer alloc
failures
Number of buffer allocation problems that the MAX has detected and
from which it has recovered.
Multicast pkts Number of Multicast packets sent by OSPF.
sent
Unicast pkts
sent
Number of unicast packets sent by OSPF.
LS adv. aged
out
Number of LSAs that the MAX has aged and removed from its tables.
LS adv. flushed Number of LSAs that the MAX has flushed.
Incremental
ext.(5)
updates
Number of incremental ASE-5 updates.
Incremental
ext.(7)
updates
Number of incremental ASE-7 updates.
Current state
State of the External (Type-5) LSA database, either Normal or
Overload.
Number of LSAs Number of LSAs in the External (Type-5) LSA database.
Number of
overflows
Number of ASE-5 that exceeded the limit of the database.
Displaying information about OSPF interfaces
Enter the Show OSPF Intf command to display either summarized information about all OSPF
interfaces or specific information about a single interface.
Displaying summarized information
To display summarized information on OSPF interfaces, enter the Show OSPF Intf command.
For example:
ascend% show ospf intf
Ifc Address
194.194.194.2
Phys
phani
Assoc. Area
0.0.0.0
Type
P-P
State
P-P
#nbrs #adjs DInt
1
1
120
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
Ifc Address
Address assigned to the MAX’s Ethernet interface. To identify WAN
links, use the Type and Cost fields.
Phys
Name of the interface or the Connection profile for WAN links.
Assoc. Area
Area in which the interface resides.
Type
Point-to-Point (P-P) or Broadcast (Bcast). WAN links are P-P links.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Managing OSPF routes and sessions
Field
Description
State
State of the link according to RFC 1583. There are many possible
states, and not all states apply to all interfaces.
#nbrs
Number of neighbors of the interface.
#adjs
Number of adjacencies on the interface.
DInt
Number of seconds that the MAX waits for a router update before
removing the router’s entry from its table. The interval is called the
Dead Interval.
Displaying specific information on a specific interface
To display detailed information for a specific interface, enter the Show OSFP Intf command in
the following format:
ascend% show ospf intf (ip address or physical name)
For example:
ascend% sh ospf intf 194.194.194.2
Interface address:
194.194.194.2
Attached area:
0.0.0.0
Physical interface:
phani (wan1)
Interface mask:
255.255.255.255
Interface type:
P-P
State:
(0x8) P-P
Designated Router:
0.0.0.0
Backup DR:
0.0.0.0
Remote Address:
194.194.194.3
DR Priority:
5 Hello interval: 30
Rxmt interval:
Dead interval:
120 TX delay:
1
Poll interval:
Max pkt size:
1500 TOS 0 cost:
10
# Neighbors:
1 # Adjacencies:
1
# Full adjs.:
# Mcast floods: 1856 # Mcast acks: 1855
5
0
1
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
Interface
Address
The IP address specified for the MAX’s Ethernet interface.
Attached Area
Area in which the interface resides.
Physical
interface
Name of the interface or the Connection profile for WAN links.
Interface type Point-to-Point (P-P) or Broadcast (Bcast). WAN links are P-P links.
State
State of the link according to RFC 1583. There are many possible
states, and not all states apply to all interfaces.
Designated
Router
IP address of the designated router for the interface.
Backup DR
IP address of the backup designated router for the interface.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-35
Network Administration
Managing OSPF routes and sessions
Field
Description
Remote Address IP address of the remote end of a Point to Point (WAN) link.
DR Priority
Priority of the designated router.
Hello interval Interval in seconds that the MAX sends Hello packets as defined in
RFC 1583.
Rxmt interval
Retransmission interval as described in RFC 1583.
Dead interval
Number of seconds that the MAX waits for a router update before
removing the router’s entry from its table.
TX delay
Interface transmission delay.
Poll interval
Poll interval of non-broadcast multi-access networks.
Max pkt size
Maximum packet size that the MAX can send to the interface.
TOS 0 Count
Type of Service normal (0) cost.
# neighbors
Number of neighbors.
# adjacencies
Number of adjacencies.
# Full adjs.
Number of fully formed adjacencies.
# Mcast floods Number of multicast floods on the interface.
# Mcast acks
Number of multicast acknowledgments on the interface.
Displaying OSPF Link-State Advertisements (LSAs)
You can enter Show OSPF commands to display a router’s link state database and to expand
the display of a particular LSA.
Displaying the OSPF link-state database
To display the router’s link-state database, enter the Show OSPF LSDB command. For
example:
ascend% show ospf lsdb
Area: 0.0.0.0
Type LS ID
LS originator
RTR 192.192.192.2
192.192.192.2
RTR 192.192.192.3
192.192.192.3
# advertisements:
Checksum total:
5-36 Preliminary November 2, 1998
Seqno
0x800005f8
0x800005f8
2
0xde14
Age
696
163
Xsum
0x6f0b
0x6f09
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Managing OSPF routes and sessions
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
Area
Area ID.
Type
Type of link as defined in RFC 1583:
•
Type 1 (RTR)—Outer-LSAs that describe the collected states of
the router’s interfaces.
•
Type 2 (NET)—Network-LSAs that describe the set of routers
attached to the network.
•
Types 3 and 4 (SUM)—Summary-LSAs that describe
point-to-point routes to networks or AS boundary routers.
•
Type 7 (ASE)—Link advertisements that are flooded only within
an NSSA.
LS ID
Target address of the route.
LS originator
Address of the advertising router.
Seqno
Hexadecimal number that begins with 80000000 and increments by
one for each LSA received.
Age
Age of the route in seconds.
Xsum
Checksum of the LSA.
# advertisements
Total number of entries in the link-state database.
Checksum total Checksum of the link-state database.
Displaying expanded OSPF link-state advertisements
To specify a link-state advertisement to be expanded, first display the database. To specify an
LSA, enter a Show OSPF command in the following format, then specify the LSA to expand:
show ospf lsa area ls-type ls-id ls-orig
The Show OSPF LSA command requires that you include the first four fields of the LSA as
listed in the database. You can select the first four fields and paste them into the command line.
For example, to display an expanded view of the last entry in the link-state database shown in
the preceding section:
ascend% show ospf lsa 0.0.0.0 ase 10.5.2.160 10.5.2.162
LSA
type: ASE ls id: 10.5.2.160 adv rtr: 110.5.2.162 age: 568
seq #: 80000037 cksum: 0xfffa
Net mask: 255.255.255.255 Tos 0 metric: 10 E type: 1
Forwarding Address: 0.0.0.0 Tag: c0000000
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-37
Network Administration
Managing OSPF routes and sessions
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
LSA type
Type of link as defined in RFC 1583 and identified by the type of
LSA:
•
Type 1 (RTR)—Outer-LSAs that describe the collected states of
the router’s interfaces.
•
Type 2 (NET)—Network-LSAs that describe the set of routers
attached to the network.
•
Types 3 and 4 (SUM)—Summary-LSAs that describe
point-to-point routes to networks or AS boundary routers.
•
Type 7 (ASE)—Link advertisements that are flooded only within
an NSSA.
ls id
Target address of the router.
adv rtr
Address of the advertising router.
age
Age of the route in seconds.
seq #
Number that begins with 80000000 and increments by one for each
LSA received.
cksum
Checksum for the LSA.
Net mask
Subnet mask of the LSA.
Tos
Type Of Service for the LSA.
metric
Cost of the link, not of a route. The cost of a route is the sum of all
intervening links, including the cost of the connected route.
E type
External type of the LSA indicating either 1 (Type 1)
or 2 (Type 2).
Forwarding
Address
Forwarding Address of the LSA, described in RFC 1583.
Tag
Tag of the LSA which is described in the OSFP RFC.
Displaying OSPF neighbor information
To display information about OSPF neighbors to the MAX, enter the Show OSPF NBRS command. For example:
ascend% show ospf nbrs
Neighbor ID
Neighbor addr
192.192.192.3
194.194.194.3
State
Full/-
LSrxl DBsum LSreq Prio Ifc
0
0
0
5 phani
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
Neighbor ID
Address assigned to the interface. In the MAX, the IP address is
always the address assigned to the Ethernet interface.
Neighbor addr
IP address of the router used to reach a neighbor. This is often the
same address as the neighbor itself.
5-38 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Managing OSPF routes and sessions
Field
Description
State
State of the link-state database exchange. Full indicates that the
databases are fully aligned between the MAX and its neighbor.
LSrxl
Number of LSAs in the retransmission list.
DBsum
Number of LSAs in the database summary list.
LSreq
Number of LSAs in the request list.
Prio
Designated router election priority assigned to the MAX.
Ifc
Name for the Ethernet or Connection profile name for the WAN.
Displaying OSPF routers
To display OSPF routers, enter the Show OSPF Routers command. For example:
ascend% show ospf routers
DType RType Destination
ASBR
OSPF
192.192.192.3
Area
0.0.0.0
Cost
10
Next hop(s)
194.194.194.3
#
2
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
DType
Internal route type.
RType
Internal router type.
Destination
Router’s IP address.
Area
Area in which the router resides.
Cost
Cost of the router.
Next hop(s)
Next hop in the route to the destination.
#
Number of the interface used to reach the destination.
Displaying OSPF External AS advertisements
To display OSPF External AS advertisements, enter the Show OSPF Ext command. For
example:
ascend% show ospf ext
Type LS ID
LS originator
ASE5 192.192.192.0
192.192.192.2
# advertisements:
1
Checksum total:
0xc24d
Seqno
0x800005f6
Age
751
Xsum
0xc24d
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
Type
Displays ASE5.
LS ID
Target address of the route.
LS originator
Address of the advertising router.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-39
Network Administration
Managing OSPF routes and sessions
Field
Description
Seqno
Hexadecimal number that begins with 80000000 and increments by
one for each LSA received.
Age
Age of the route in seconds.
Xsum
Checksum of the LSA.
# advertisements
Total number of entries in the ASE5 database.
Checksum total Checksum of the ASE5 database.
Displaying the OSPF routing table
To display the OSPF routing table, enter the Show OSPF Rtab command. For example:
ascend% show ospf rtab
DTyp
RType
Destination
Area
RTE
FIX
192.192.192.0/24
RTE
OSPF
194.194.194.2/32
ASBR
NONE
192.192.192.2/32
RTE
OSPF
192.192.192.2/32
0.0.0.0
RTE
OSPF
194.194.194.3/32
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
-
-
Cost Flags
Next hop(s)
#
1
0x82
0.0.0.170
170
20
0x1
194.194.194.3
2
0
0x0
None
-1
0
0x1
0.0.0.170
170
10
0x101
194.194.194.3
2
RTE
NONE
194.194.194.0/24
0
0x2
None
-1
ASBR
OSPF
192.192.192.3/32
0.0.0.0
10
0x100
194.194.194.3
2
RTE
OSPF
192.192.192.3/32
0.0.0.0
10
0x1
194.194.194.3
2
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
DType
Internal route type. DType displays one of the following values: RTE
(generic route), ASBR (AS border route), or BR (area border route).
RType
Internal router type. RType displays one of the following values: FIX
(static route), NONE, DEL (deleted or bogus state), OSPF
(OSPF-computed), OSE1 (type 1 external), or OSE2 (type 2 external).
Destination
Destination address and subnet mask of the route.
Area
Area ID of the route.
Cost
Cost of the route.
Flags
Hexadecimal number representing an internal flag.
Next hop(s)
Next hop in the route to the destination.
#
Number of the interface used to reach the destination.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Managing OSPF routes and sessions
Displaying summarized OSPF database information
To display summarized information about the OSPF database, enter the Show OSPF Database
command. For example:
ascend% show ospf database
Router Link States (Area: 0.0.0.0)
Type LS ID
LS originator
Seqno
Age
Xsum
RTR 192.192.192.2
192.192.192.2
0x800005f8 783 0x6f0b
RTR 192.192.192.3
192.192.192.3
0x800005f8 250 0x6f09
# advertisements:
2
Checksum total:
0xde14
External ASE5 Link States
Type LS ID
LS originator
Seqno
ASE5 192.192.192.0
192.192.192.2
0x800005f6
# advertisements:
1
Checksum total:
0xc24d
Age
783
Xsum
0xc24d
The output includes the following fields:
Type
RTR (Router LSAs), NET (Network LSAs), ASE5 (External ASE5
link advertisements to destinations external to the autonomous
system), or ASE7 (ASE-7 link advertisements that are flooded only
within an NSSA).
LS ID
Target address of the route.
LS originator
Address of the advertising router.
Seqno
Hexadecimal number that begins with 80000000 and increments by
one for each LSA received.
Age
Age of the route in seconds.
Xsum
Checksum of the LSA.
# advertisements
Total number of entries in the database.
Checksum total Checksum of the database.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-41
Network Administration
Managing multicast routing
Managing multicast routing
The terminal-server command-line interface provides commands to support IP multicast
functionality. To display the options, invoke the terminal-server interface (System > Sys Diag
> Term Serv) and enter the Show IGMP and/or show Mrouting command with a question
mark:
ascend% show igmp ?
show
show
show
show
igmp
igmp
igmp
igmp
?
stats
groups
clients
Display
Display
Display
Display
help
IGMP
IGMP
IGMP
information
Statistics
groups Table
clients
ascend% show mrouting ?
show mrouting ?
show mrouting stats
Display help information
Display MROUTING Statistics
Displaying the multicast forwarding table
To display active multicast group addresses and clients (interfaces) registered for each group:
ascend% show igmp groups
IGMP Group address Routing Table Up Time: 0:0:22:17
Hash
Group Address
Members
Expire time
Counts
N/A
Default route
*(Mbone)
......
2224862
10
224.0.2.250
2
0:3:24
3211 :: 0 S5
1
0:3:21
145 :: 0 S5
0(Mbone)
......
31901 :: 0 S5
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
Hash
Index to a hash table that is displayed for debugging purposes only.
The Default route is not an entry in the hash table.
Group Address
IP multicast address used. The Default route is the interface on which
the multicast router resides.
Note: The IP multicast address being monitored is marked with an
asterisk, meaning that this address is joined by local application.
Members
Interface ID on which the membership resides. The number 0
represents the Ethernet interface. Other numbers represent WAN
interfaces, numbered according to when they became active. The
interface labeled Mbone is the one on which the multicast router
resides.
Expire time
Time at which this membership expires. The MAX sends out IGMP
queries every 60 seconds, so the expiration time is usually renewed. If
the expiration time is reached, the entry is removed from the table.
Periods in this field indicates that the membership never expires.
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Network Administration
Managing multicast routing
Field
Description
Counts
Number of packets forwarded to the client, number of packets dropped
because of a lack of resources, and state of the membership (the state
is displayed for debugging purposes).
Listing multicast clients
To display a list of multicast clients, enter the Show IGMP Clients command. For example:
ascend% show igmp clients
IGMP Clients
Client
0(Mbone)
2
1
Version RecvCount
1
0
1
39
1
33310
CLU
0
68
65
ALU
0
67
65
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
Client
Interface ID on which the client resides. The number 0 represents the
Ethernet. Other numbers are WAN interfaces, numbered according to
when they became active. The interface labeled Mbone is the one on
which the multicast router resides.
Version
Version of IGMP being used.
RecvCount
Number of IGMP messages received on that interface.
CLU (CurrentLine
Percentage of bandwidth utilized across this interface. If bandwidth
Utilization) and ALU utilization is high, some IGMP packet types will not be forwarded.
(Average Line
Utilization)
Displaying multicast activity
To display the number of IGMP packet types sent and received, enter the Show IGMP Stats
command. For example:
ascend% show igmp stats
46
0
0
0
46
0
51
47
4
0
packets received.
bad checksum packets received.
bad version packets received.
query packets received.
response packets received.
leave packets received.
packets transmitted.
query packets sent.
response packets sent.
leave packets sent.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-43
Network Administration
Monitoring Frame Relay connections
To display the number of multicast packets received and forwarded, enter the Show Mrouting
Stats commands. For example:
ascend% show mrouting stats
34988 packets received.
57040 packets forwarded.
0 packets in error.
91 packets dropped.
0 packets transmitted.
In many cases, the number of packets forwarded is greater than the number of packets
received, because packets can be duplicated and forwarded across multiple links.
Monitoring Frame Relay connections
The terminal-server command-line interface includes Show FR commands for monitoring
Frame Relay in the MAX. To display the options, invoke the terminal-server interface (System
> Sys Diag > Term Serv) and enter the Show FR command with a question mark:
ascend% show fr ?
show
show
show
show
show
fr
fr
fr
fr
fr
?Display help information
statsDisplay Frame Relay information
lmiDisplay Frame Relay LMI information
dlci [name]Display all DLCI information or just for [name]
circuitsDisplay the FR Circuit table
Displaying Frame Relay statistics
To display Frame Relay statistics, enter the Show FR Stats commands: For example:
ascend% show fr stats
Name
fr1
fr1-temp
fr1-temp-9
Type
DCE
DCE
DCE
Status
Down
Up
Up
Speed
64000
64000
64000
MTU
1532
1532
1532
InFrame
0
0
0
OutFrame
1
1
0
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
Name
Name of the Frame Relay profile associated with the interface.
Type
Type of interface.
Status
Status of the interface. Up means the interface is functional, but is not
necessarily handling an active call. Down means the interface is not
functional.
Speed
Data rate in bits per second.
MTU
Maximum packet size allowed on the interface.
InFrame
Number of frames the interface has received.
OutFrame
Number of frames transmitted.
5-44 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Monitoring Frame Relay connections
Displaying link management information
To display Link Management Information (LMI) for each link activated by a Frame Relay
profile, enter the Show FR LMI command. For example:
ascend% show fr lmi
T1_617D LMI for fr1
Invalid Unnumbered info
Invalid Dummy Call Ref
Invalid Status Message
Invalid Information ID
Num Status Enqs Sent
Num Update Status Rcvd
0
0
0
0
0
0
Invalid Prot Disc
Invalid Msg Type
Invalid Lock Shift
Invalid Report Type
Num Status Msgs Rcvd
Num Status Timeouts
0
0
0
0
0
2779
LMI is not on for fr1-temp
LMI is not on for fr1-temp-9
ANSI T1.617 Annex D local in-channel signaling protocol is the basis for this information.
(For a full definition of each of the fields reported, see Annex D.)
Displaying Data Link Connection Indicator (DLCI)status
To display the status of each Data Link Connection Indicator (DLCI), enter the Show FR LMI
command. For example:
ascend% show fr dlci
DLCIs for fr1
DLCIs for fr1-temp
eng-lab-236-CirDLCI =
17Status = ACTIVE
input pkts0output pkts0
input octets0output octets0
input FECN0input DE0
input BECN0
last time status changed: 03/05/1997
14:44:17
DLCIs for fr1-temp-9
eng-lab-236-Cir-9 DLCI =
16
Status = ACTIVE
input pkts0output pkts0
input octets0output octets0
input FECN0input DE0
input BECN0
last time status changed: 03/05/1997 14:45:07
DLCIs not assigned
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
DLCI
DLCI number.
Status
ACTIVE if the connection is up or INACTIVE if not.
input pkts
Number of frames the interface has received.
output pkts
Number of frames the interface has transmitted.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-45
Network Administration
Monitoring Frame Relay connections
Field
Description
input octets
Number of bytes the interface has received.
output octets
Number of bytes the interface has transmitted.
in FECN pkts
Number of packets received with the Forward Explicit Congestion
Notification (FECN) bit set. This field always contains a 0 (zero),
because congestion management is not currently supported.
in BECN pkts
Number of packets received with the Backward Explicit Congestion
Notification (BECN) bit set. This field always contains a 0 (zero),
because congestion management is not currently supported.
in DE pkts
Number of packets received with the Discard Eligibility (DE) indicator
bit set.
last time
Time at which the DLCI state changed.
status changed
Displaying circuit information
The Show FR Circuits command displays the Frame Relay profile name, the DLCI, and the
status of configured circuits. For example:
ascend% show fr circuits
cir-9 User Setting Up
fr1-temp-916 Up
fr1-temp17
Up
Turning off a circuit without disabling its endpoints
The Set Circuit command enables you to turn off traffic going through a Frame Relay circuit
without disabling the circuit endpoints. This command prevents traffic from traveling between
endpoints, but does not disrupt the state of the DLCI. To display the support options:
ascend% set circuit ?
set circuit ?
Display help information
set circuit active [name] Set the CIRCUIT to active
set circuit inactive [name] Set the CIRCUIT to inactive
To allow data to flow through a circuit, enter the Set Circuit Active command and append the
name of the circuit. parameter. For example:
ascend% set circuit active circuit-1
To turn off data flow without disrupting the state of the DLCIs, enter the Set Circuit Inactive
command and append the name of the circuit. For example:
ascend% set circuit inactive circuit-2
5-46 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Monitoring X.25 and PAD connections
Monitoring X.25 and PAD connections
The terminal server supports two commands for obtaining information about X.25 and PAD
service. To invoke the terminal server, select System > Sys Diag > Term Serv and press Enter.
Displaying information about PAD sessions
To display information about PAD sessions, enter the Show PAD commands. For example:
ascend% show pad
Port
1
2
State
connected
connected
LCN
0
0
BPS
9600
9600
User
rchan
dhersh
Called Addr.
419342855555
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
Port
Port for the X.25 connection.
Stat
State of the connection, which can be one of the following:
Idle—The PAD is open, but no call has been issued.
Calling—A call has been issued and is awaiting acceptance.
Connected—The call is connected and in session.
Clearing—A Clear command has been issued and the transmitter is
awaiting a clear confirmation.
LCN
Logical Channel Number for a PVC. An LCN of 0 means the circuit is
not a PVC (but is a switched virtual circuit).
BPS
Data rate of the connection in bits per second.
User
Connection profile name of the caller.
Called Add
X.121 address of the remote node.
Displaying information about X.25
To display information about X.25 frame and packet layers, enter the Show X25 command.
For example:
ascend% show x25
Frame
1
Packet
1
State
LinkUp
BytesIn
15
State
Ready
BytesIn
0
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
BytesOut
45
BytesOut
0
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-47
Network Administration
Setting up ISDN D-channel X.25 support
The output includes the following fields:
Field
Description
Frame
Frame layer and packet layer, respectively.
Stat
State of the connection at that layer.
For the frame layer, the following states can occur:
•
SABMSent—The MAX has sent an Set Asynchronous Balanced
Mode (SABM) message to establish the operating mode as Link
Access Balanced Protocol (LABP), and the transmitter is waiting
for a an Unnumbered Acknowledge response (UA).
•
DISCSent—The MAX sends a DISC message to disconnect the
frame level, and the transmitter is waiting for a UA.
•
FRMRSent—The MAX sends an FRMR message, indicating that
the MAX received a malformed frame, and the sender is waiting
for a SABM message.
•
LinkUp—The link is up and sending I-frames and S-frames.
•
Disconnected—The MAX requests a disconnect, and the
sender is waiting for a SABM message.
For the packet layer, the following states can occur:
•
Ready—The packet layer is ready to send and receive data.
•
DTERestart—The DTE issues a Restart Request.
•
DCERestart—The DCE issues a Restart Request.
•
BothRestart—The MAX sends Restart Requests to both the
DTE and the DCE.
•
InitState—Indicates the initial state of a call.
BytesIn
Number of bytes the MAX receives from the remote node.
BytesOut
Number of bytes the MAX transmits to the remote node.
Setting up ISDN D-channel X.25 support
PAD service signals
The PAD transmits PAD service signals to the terminal server to acknowledge PAD commands
and to inform the user about the internal state of the PAD. The terminal-server user can
suppress the reception of PAD service signals by setting PAD parameter #6 to 0 (zero).
Figure 5-1 lists the PAD service signals.
Table 5-1. PAD service signals
Service signal
Description
RESET DTE
The remote DTE has reset the virtual circuit.
RESET ERR
A reset has occurred because of a local procedure error.
5-48 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Setting up ISDN D-channel X.25 support
Table 5-1. PAD service signals (continued)
Service signal
Description
RESET NC
A reset has occurred because of network congestion.
COM
A call has been connected.
PAD ID
Precedes a string that identifies the PAD.
ERROR
The terminal-server user used faulty syntax when entering an
X.25/PAD command.
CLR
A virtual circuit has been cleared.
ENGAGED
In response to the Stat command, indicates that a virtual call is
up.
FREE
In response to the Stat command, indicates that a virtual call is
cleared.
PAR with X.3
parameter
reference
numbers and
their current
values
A response to the Set? command.
X.25 clear cause codes
Table 5-2 shows hexadecimal X.25 clear cause codes.
Table 5-2. Clear cause codes
Hex
value
Cause code
01
Number busy
03
Invalid facility request
05
Network congestion
09
Out of order
0B
Access barred
0D
Not obtainable
11
Remote procedure error
13
Local procedure error
15
RPOA out of order
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-49
Network Administration
Setting up ISDN D-channel X.25 support
Table 5-2. Clear cause codes (continued)
Hex
value
Cause code
19
Reverse charging acceptance not subscribed
21
Incompatible destination
29
Fast select acceptance not subscribed
39
Ship absent
C1
Gateway-detected procedure error
C3
Gateway congestion
X.25 diagnostic field values
Table 5-3 shows X.25 diagnostics:
Table 5-3. X.25 diagnostic field values
Hex
value
Dec
value
Diagnostic
0
0
No additional information
1
1
Invalid P(S)
2
2
Invalid P(R)
10
16
Packet type invalid
11
17
State r1
12
18
State r2
13
19
State r3
14
20
State p1
15
21
State p2
16
22
State p3
17
23
State p4
18
24
State p5
19
25
State p6
1A
26
State p7
5-50 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Network Administration
Setting up ISDN D-channel X.25 support
Table 5-3. X.25 diagnostic field values (continued)
Hex
value
Dec
value
Diagnostic
1B
27
State d1
1C
28
State d2
1D
29
State d3
20
32
Packet not allowed
21
33
Unidentifiable packet
22
34
Call on one-way LC
23
35
Invalid packet type on a PVC
25
37
Reject not subscribed to
26
38
Packet too short
27
39
Packet too long
29
41
Restart packet with non-zero LC
2B
43
Unauthorized interrupt confirmation
2C
44
Unauthorized interrupt
2D
45
Unauthorized reject
30
48
Timer expired
31
49
Incoming call (or DTE timer expired for call request)
32
50
Clear indication (or DTE timer expired or
retransmission count surpassed for clear request)
33
51
Reset indication (or DTE timer expired or
retransmission count surpassed for reset request)
34
52
Rstart indication (or DTE timer expired or
retransmission count surpassed for restart request)
40
64
Call setup, call clearing, or registration problem
41
65
Facility/registration code not allowed
42
66
Facility parameter not allowed
43
67
Invalid called address
44
68
Invalid calling address
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 5-51
Network Administration
Setting up ISDN D-channel X.25 support
Table 5-3. X.25 diagnostic field values (continued)
Hex
value
Dec
value
Diagnostic
45
69
Invalid facility/registration length
46
70
Incoming call barred
47
71
No logical channel available
48
72
Call collision
49
73
Duplicate facility requested
4A
74
Nonzero address length
4B
75
Nonzero facility length
4C
76
Facility not provided when expected
5-52 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
SNMP and Syslog Configuration
6
Configuring SNMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Configuring Syslog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Disconnect codes and progress codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
MAX configurations control which classes of events will generate traps to be sent to an SNMP
manager, and which managers have SNMP access to the unit. A configuration includes
community strings to prevent unauthorized access. This chapter shows you how to set up the
unit to work with SNMP.
Configuring SNMP
The MAX supports SNMP on a TCP/IP network. An SNMP management station that uses the
Ascend Enterprise MIB can query the MAX, set some parameters, sound alarms when certain
conditions appear in the MAX, and so forth. An SNMP manager must be running on a host on
the local IP network, and the MAX must be able to find that host, through either a static route
or RIP.
The MAX supports the Ascend Enterprise MIB, MIB II, and some ancillary SNMP features.
The MAX can send management information to an SNMP manager without being polled.
SNMP security uses a community name sent with each request. The MAX supports two
community names, one with read-only access, and the other with read/write access to the MIB.
SNMP has its own password security, which you should set up to prevent reconfiguration of
the MAX from an SNMP station.
Configuring SNMP access security
There are two levels of SNMP security: community strings, which must be known by a
community of SNMP managers to access the box, and address security, which excludes SNMP
access unless it is initiated from a specified IP address. Following are the relevant parameters
(shown with sample settings):
Ethernet
Mod Config
SNMP options...
Read Comm=Ascend
R/W Comm Enable=No
R/W Comm=Secret
Security=Yes
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 6-1
SNMP and Syslog Configuration
Configuring SNMP
RD Mgr1=10.0.0.1
RD Mgr2=10.0.0.2
RD Mgr3=10.0.0.3
RD Mgr4=10.0.0.4
RD Mgr5=10.0.0.5
WR Mgr1=10.0.0.11
WR Mgr2=10.0.0.12
WR Mgr3=10.0.0.13
WR Mgr4=10.0.0.14
WR Mgr5=10.0.0.15
For complete information about each parameter, see the MAX Reference Guide.
Enabling SNMP Set commands
The R/W Comm Enable parameter disables SNMP set commands by default. Before you can
use an SNMP Set command, you must set R/W Comm Enable to Yes.
Note: Even if you enable R/W Comm, you must still know the read-write community string
to use a Set command.
Setting community strings
The Read Comm parameter specifies the SNMP community name for read access (up to 32
characters), and the R/W Comm parameter specifies the SNMP community name for
read/write access.
Setting up and enforcing address security
If the Security parameter is set to No (its default value), any SNMP manager that presents the
right community name will be allowed access. If you set this parameter to Yes, the MAX
checks the source IP address of the SNMP manager and allows access only to those IP
addresses listed in the RD MgrN and WR MgrN parameters, each of which specifies up to five
host addresses.
Resetting the MAX and verifying reset
You can use SNMP (sysReset object) to reset a MAX from an SNMP manager. After the
Reset command is issued, a one-minute timeout (not modifiable) permits the MAX to confirm
the request before the unit is reset.
Information held in the Ascend Events Group is erased and its values are initialized when the
MAX is reset by software or by toggling the power off and on. The SNMP object
sysAbsoluteStartupTime is the time in seconds since January 1, 1990, and is not
modified. To determine whether the MAX has actually reset, you can retrieve
sysAbsoluteStartupTime and compare its value against the previous poll’s value for
Ascend Events Group variables.
6-2 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
SNMP and Syslog Configuration
Configuring SNMP
Example of SNMP security configuration
The following procedure sets the community strings, enforces address security, and prevents
write access:
1
Open Ethernet > Mod Config > SNMP Options.
2
Set R/W Comm Enable to Yes.
3
Specify the Read Comm and R/W Comm parameter strings.
4
Set Security to Yes.
5
Specify up to five host addresses in the RD MgrN parameters. Leave the WR MgrN
parameters set to zero to prevent write access.
6
Close the Ethernet profile.
Following is an example of a profile configured with the preceding procedure.
Ethernet
Mod Config
SNMP options...
Read Comm=Secret-1
R/W Comm Enable=Yes
R/W Comm=Secret-2
Security=Yes
RD Mgr1=10.0.0.1
RD Mgr2=10.0.0.2
RD Mgr3=10.0.0.3
RD Mgr4=10.0.0.4
RD Mgr5=10.0.0.5
WR Mgr1=0.0.0.0
WR Mgr2=0.0.0.0
WR Mgr3=0.0.0.0
WR Mgr4=0.0.0.0
WR Mgr5=0.0.0.0
Setting SNMP traps
A trap is a mechanism for reporting system change in real time (for example, reporting an
incoming call to a serial host port). When a trap is generated by some condition, a traps-PDU
(Protocol Data Unit) is sent across the Ethernet to the SNMP manager.
Following are the parameters related to setting SNMP traps (shown with sample settings):
Ethernet
SNMP Traps
Name=
Alarm=Yes
Port=Yes
Security=Yes
Comm=
Dest=10.2.3.4
For complete information about each parameter and the events that generate traps in the
various classes, see the MAX Reference Guide.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 6-3
SNMP and Syslog Configuration
Configuring SNMP
Understanding the SNMP trap parameters
To specify the SNMP trap profile name, set the Name parameter. Use a name of 31 or fewer
characters.
To specify the community string for communicating with the SNMP manager, set the Comm
parameter to the community name associated with the SNMP PDU.
The Alarm, Port, and Security fields specify whether the MAX traps respectively alarm events,
port events, and/or security events, and sends a trap-PDU to the SNMP manager.
The Dest field specifies the destination address for the trap-status report. If DNS or YP/NIS is
supported, the Dest field can contain the hostname of a system running an SNMP manager. If
the DNS or YP/NIS is not supported, the Dest field must contain the host’s address.
Note: To turn off SNMP traps, set Dest to 0.0.0.0 and delete the value for Comm.
Example SNMP trap configuration
The following procedure creates a profile that specifies a community name, all the trap types,
and the host’s IP address in the Dest parameter.
1
Open an SNMP Traps profile and assign it a name.
2
Specify the community name (for example, Ascend).
3
Set the trap types to Yes.
4
Specify the IP address of the host to which the trap-PDUs will be sent.
5
Close the SNMP Traps profile.
Following is an example of a profile configured with this procedure:
Ethernet
SNMP Traps
Name=security-traps
Alarm=Yes
Port=Yes
Security=Yes
Comm=Ascend
Dest=10.2.3.4
Ascend enterprise traps
This section provides a brief summary of the traps generated by alarm, port, and security
events. For more details, see the Ascend Enterprise MIB. To obtain the Ascend MIB, see
“Supported MIBs” on page 6-7.
6-4 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
SNMP and Syslog Configuration
Configuring SNMP
Alarm events
Alarm events (also called error events) use trap types defined in RFC 1215 and 1315, as well
as an Ascend enterprise trap type. The MAX provides the following trap types:
Alarm event
Signifies that the MAX sending the trap:
coldStart (RFC-1215 Is reinitializing itself and that the configuration of the SNMP manager
trap-type 0)
or the unit might be altered.
warmStart (RFC1215 trap-type 1)
Is reinitializing itself but neither the configuration of the SNMP
manager nor that of the unit will be altered.
linkDown (RFC-1215 Recognizes a failure in one of the communication links represented in
trap-type 2)
the SNMP manager’s configuration.
linkUp (RFC-1215
trap-type 3)
Recognizes that one of the communication links represented in the
SNMP manager's configuration has come up.
frDLCIStatusChange Recognizes that one of the virtual circuits (to which a DLCI number
(RFC-1315 trap-type has been assigned) has changed state. That is, the link has either been
1)
created or invalidated, or has toggled between the active and inactive
states.
eventTableOverwrite Detected that a new event has overwritten an unread event. This trap is
(ascend trap-type 16) sent only for systems that support Ascend's accounting MIB. Once
sent, additional overwrites will not cause another trap to be sent until
at least one table’s worth of new events has occurred.
Port state change events
Port state change event traps are effective on a port-by-port basis for each port pointed to by
ifIndex. The hostPort objects are used to associate a change with ifIndex objects.
The following trap types signify a change in the state of the Ascend Inverse Multiplexer (AIM)
port associated with the passed index.
Trap type
Indicates that the indexed AIM port:
portInactive (ascend
trap-type 0)
Has become inactive.
portDualDelay
(ascend trap-type 1)
Is delaying the dialing of a second to avoid overloading devices that
cannot handle two calls in close succession.
portWaitSerial
(ascend trap-type 2)
Has detected DTR and is waiting for an HDLC controller to come
online. CTS is off (V.25 bis dialing only).
portHaveSerial
(ascend trap-type 3)
Is waiting for V.25 bis commands. CTS is on.
portRinging (ascend
trap-type 4)
Has been notified of an incoming call.
portCollectDigits
(ascend trap-type 5)
Is receiving digits from an RS366 interface (RS-366 dialing only).
portWaiting (ascend
trap-type 6)
Is waiting for connect notification from the WAN after dialing or
answer notification has been issued.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 6-5
SNMP and Syslog Configuration
Configuring SNMP
Trap type
Indicates that the indexed AIM port:
portConnected
(ascend trap-type 7)
Has changed state. This change of state can be from connected to
unconnected or vice versa. If connected to the far end, end-to-end data
can flow but has not yet been enabled.
The following trap report sequence shows that a link is up:
portWaiting (6)
portConnected (7)
portCarrier (8)
The following trap report sequence shows that a link is down:
portConnected (7)
portInactive (0)
portCarrier (ascend
trap-type 8)
Has end-to-end data flow enabled
portLoopback (ascend Has been placed in local loopback mode.
trap-type 9)
portAcrPending
Has set ACR on the RS366 interface, and is waiting for the host device
(ascend trap-type 10) (RS-366 dialing only).
portDTENotReady
Is waiting for DTE to signal a ready condition when performing X.21
(ascend trap-type 11) dialing.
Security events
Security events are used to notify users of security problems and track access to the unit from
the console. The MIB-II event authenticationError is a security event. The other security
events are Ascend-specific. The include:
Security event
Signifies
authenticationFailure The MAX sending the trap is the addressee of a protocol message that
(RFC-1215 trap-type is not properly authenticated.
4)
consoleStateChange The console associated with the passed console index has changed
(ascend trap-type 12) state. To read the console’s state, get ConsoleEntry from the
Ascend enterprise MIB.
portUseExceeded
The serial host port’s use exceeds the maximum set by the Max DS0
(ascend trap-type 13) Mins Port parameter associated with the passed index (namely, the
interface number).
systemUseExceeded The serial host port’s use exceeds the maximum set by the Max DS0
(ascend trap-type 14) Mins System parameter associated with the passed index (namely, the
interface number).
maxTelnetAttempts A user has failed in three consecutive attempts to log into this MAX
(ascend trap-type 15) via Telnet.
6-6 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
SNMP and Syslog Configuration
Configuring Syslog
Supported MIBs
You can download the most up-to-date version of the Ascend Enterprise MIB by logging in as
anonymous to ftp.ascend.com. (No password is required.) In addition to the Ascend
MIB, the MAX also supports objects related to Ascend functionality in the following Internet
standard MIBs:
•
MIB-II implementation (RFC 1213)
•
DS1 MIB implementation (RFC 1406)
•
RS232 MIB implementation (RFC-1317)
•
Frame Relay MIB implementation (RFC-1315)
•
Modem MIB implementation (RFC 1696)
You can download the most recent version of these RFCs by logging in as anonymous to
ftp.ds.internic.net. (No password is required.)
Configuring Syslog
You can configure the MAX to send messages containing call and system events to an IP host
running a syslog daemon.
To configure Syslog support, you must set parameters specifying the IP address of the host
running the Syslog daemon. In addition, there are optional parameters you can set to customize
the way the MAX sends its Syslog messages.
The IP host running the syslog daemon is typically a UNIX host, but can be a Microsoft
Windows workstation or server. If the MAX is on a different network than the IP host, you
must configure the routers so that the MAX can successfully communicate with the IP host.
Note: Do not configure the MAX to send reports to a IP host that can be reached only by
means of a dial-up connection.
Configuring the MAX to send Syslog messages
To configure the MAX to send messages to a syslog daemon:
1
Open the Ethernet > Mod Config > Log menu.
2
Set the Syslog parameter to Yes.
3
Set Log Host to the IP address of the host running the syslog daemon.
4
Set Log Port to the port at which the syslog daemon listens for Syslog messages from
the MAX. The default is 514.
5
Set the Log Facility value to be attached to each Syslog message.
The syslog daemon can receive messages from several devices, and it groups the
messages. If the daemon receives messages from devices that specify the same log facility,
it stores them in the same file.
6
Exit and save the changes.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 6-7
SNMP and Syslog Configuration
Configuring Syslog
To configure the syslog daemon on a UNIX host, you need to modify the host’s
/etc/syslog.conf file. This file specifies a specific action the daemon performs when it
receives messages with a particular Log Facility number. For example, if you set Log Facility
to Local5 in the MAX, and the syslog daemon should store messages from the MAX in the
file /var/log/MAX, add the following line to the /etc/syslog.conf file:
local5.info tab /var/log/MAX
Note: After making changes to the /etc/syslog.conf file, you must direct the UNIX
host to reread the file.
Syslog message format
MAX units generate Syslog messages in the following format:
date time router_name ASCEND: message
where:
•
date is the date the message was logged by the syslog daemon. The MAX does not
datestamp the Syslog messages.
•
time is the time the message was logged by the syslog daemon. The MAX does not
timestamp the syslog messages.
•
router_name is the name of the MAX sending the message.
•
message is the specific activity that caused the MAX to send the Syslog packet.
Syslog messages and their meanings
Syslog messages are recorded during establishment of a call, during graceful or unexpected
disconnection of a call, and during various other events.
In a Syslog message, slot x port y indicates that action occurred in a session with the
module (slot card) located in slot x. Because slot cards support multiple simultaneous sessions,
the MAX assigns the session to a specific port. For modem calls, port indicates a specific
modem on a modem slot card. For digital calls, port typically indicates an HDLC channel on
an Ethernet card or Ether-Data card, although port can indicate a port on a slot card supporting
inverse multiplexing.
Establishment of a call
Following are examples of messages that might be logged during establishment of a call:
slot 0 port 0, line n, channel m, Incoming Call, xxxxxxxxxxx —The MAX has
received a call on channel m of line n. The MAX has assigned it an identification number of
xxxxxxxxxxx. The MAX has not assigned a slot card to the call.
Note: The internally used identification number might be displayed in the format
MBID xxx.
slot x port y, Assigned to port, xxxxxxxxxxx—The MAX has assigned the incoming
call to port y on the module in slot x. The MAX assigns calls on the basis of the bearer service
of the call, the configured call routing, or configured answer number routing.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
SNMP and Syslog Configuration
Configuring Syslog
slot x port y, Call connected, xxxxxxxxxxx—The call has connected.
call n AN slot x port data service —Port y on the module in slot x answers the call.
The MAX has assigned another identifier (call n.) to the session. For data service, 56K
indicates that the call is a 56Kbps call, and VOICE indicates an analog call.
slot x port y, LAN session up, username—The session has successfully completed
authentication, the MAX displays the username, and the connection is complete.
Graceful disconnect of a call
To gracefully disconnect a call, the dial-in caller uses the connection software rather than
simply turning off the computer or unplugging the modem.
The MAX displays the following messages in the order shown:
slot x port y, LAN session down, username —The MAX has cleared the user’s
session. If the user gracefully closes down the PPP connection, the MAX indicates a valid slot
number and port number.
slot x port y, Call terminated—The call that was connected to port y on the module in slot
x terminated. Typically, the dial-in client has terminated the call. The MAX begins clearing the
resources that it had allocated for the call.
call n CL OK—The MAX has freed all the remaining internal resources that were used by the
call.
Unexpected disconnect of a call
When a dial-in user disconnects a session by turning off the computer or unplugging the
modem, the call clears before the MAX clears the PPP session. The MAX displays the
following messages, which are similar to those shown in “Graceful disconnect of a call” on
page 6-9.
call n CL OK u= username c=n p=m—The session for username, identified by call
n, is disconnecting. The MAX supplies disconnect and progress information about the call.
The disconnect code n details why the call disconnected. The progress code m indicates the last
action the MAX logged before the disconnect occurred. For detailed information, see
“Disconnect codes and progress codes” on page 6-12.
Note: If the MAX has not successfully authenticated the user before the call disconnects, u=
username does not appear.
slot x port y, line n, channel m, Call Disconnected—The switch clears the channel on
which the call had been active.
slot x port y, Call Terminated—The call that was connected to port y on the module in
slot x terminated. The dial-in client has terminated the call. The MAX begins clearing the
resources that it had allocated for the call.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 6-9
SNMP and Syslog Configuration
Configuring Syslog
slot 0 port 0, LAN session down, username—The MAX has cleared the user’s session.
Because the user ended the session ungracefully, the call disconnected before the resources
could be completely cleared. The MAX does not require the call to be active while freeing
software resources, and records the slot and port as 0 (zero).
call n CL OK—The MAX has cleared up all the internal resources that were used for the call.
Additional messages
Additional Syslog messages can include the following:
LAN security error, Modem x:y—The MAX received a call on modem y in the module
in slot x. The call has failed either because authentication failed, or because the IP address of
the user did not match the IP address configured in the user’s profile.
Busy—The MAX dialed a phone number that was busy.
No connection—There was no response from the far end unit when the MAX dialed.
No Channel Avail—All channels on the MAX are either supporting active calls or are
disabled.
Not enough Chans—The outgoing call requested more channels than the MAX has
available.
No Chan Other End—The called unit did not have an available channel on which to answer
the call.
Network Problem—The telephone network has reported a protocol error.
Far End Hung Up—The telephone network notified the MAX that the calling unit has
disconnected the call.
Remote Mgmt Denied—A user attempted to initiate a remote management session, which
was denied by the far end unit.
Call Refused—The MAX dialed an outgoing call that was refused by the far end unit, or the
MAX answered an incoming call, then immediately disconnected. The latter event might be
due to of incorrect line provisioning.
Incoming Net-2-Net—The MAX received an incoming Net-2-Net call.
Sys user exceeded—The MAX dropped the call because the call had exceeded the
configured maximum system DS0 minutes.
Port use exceeded—The MAX dropped the call because the call had exceeded the
maximum port DS0 minutes specified in the Port profile.
High Bit Errors—During a Bit Error Rate Test (BERT), the MAX detected a high number of
bit errors.
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SNMP and Syslog Configuration
Configuring Syslog
Normal Bit Errors—During a Bit Error Rate Test (BERT), the MAX detected a normal
number of bit errors.
No Trunk Available—The MAX has no active WAN links.
Trunk Down—A WAN link has gone down.
Trunk Up—A WAN link has become active.
Ethernet Up—The Ethernet interface of the MAX has become active or been reinitialized.
This message is logged when the Ethernet interface first comes up, or on the basis of a change
to the Ethernet interface.
Callback pending—The MAX received a call configured for callback. The initial call
cleared. The MAX is preparing to call back to the user.
IP address 0.0.0.0 not valid for login service—A user attempted to initiate a login
service with an invalid IP address.
TACACS+:No more TCP sockets—The MAX could not initiate a TACACS+ session.
TACACS+:Unexpected TCP close event. Server down?—The MAX received a TCP
Close packet before the TACACS+ TCP session was established.
TACACS+:Resource shortage—The MAX experienced a low memory condition while
processing TACACS+ session.
TACACS+:Shutdown in read—The MAX experienced an unexpected end to a TACACS+
session.
TACACS+:Server timeout—The MAX timed out while waiting to connect to the
TACACS+ server.
TACACS+:Table exhausted—The MAX has no available entries in its TACACS+ entry
table.
TACACS+:Illegal server response—The MAX received an illegal response from the
TACACS+ server.
Backoff Q full, discarding user 10.10.10.1[250725066]—Backoff-queue overflow has
resulted in silent discarding of the oldest entry. When a RADIUS accounting event occurs, the
MAX (the NAS) sends an Accounting-Request message to the RADIUS Accounting server,
which sends back an Accounting-Response message to acknowledge receipt. The NAS is
required to buffer the event until it receives an acknowledgment. The NAS employs a simple
exponential backoff algorithm between reattempts. The backoff algorithm is:
backoff_time = 3 * backof_time
where backoff_time = [1..N]
Once the NAS sends an accounting request, if no response is received from the Accounting
server, the NAS enters backoff mode.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 6-11
SNMP and Syslog Configuration
Disconnect codes and progress codes
If the backoff queue is not empty when an accounting event occurs (a new user logs in or an
existing user logs out), the event goes directly onto the backoff queue.
A maximum of 100 entries is allowed on the backoff queue. If the queue overflows. the oldest
entry is silently discarded, and the MAX sends the Syslog message.
The backoff queue can be cleared by setting Acct = None on the MAX or by resetting
the MAX.
When you see this Syslog message, your Accounting Server is not functioning properly. If
Acct = RADIUS on the MAX, verify that you are using the correct Port number (e.g. 1646)
and that the Acct Key matches the password in the clients file on the RADIUS server. Also, be
aware that the default location for your accounting records is /usr/adm/radacct. You
have to create the radacct directory. RADIUS will automatically create a subdirectory with
the name or IP address of the MAX (depending on your entry in the clients file) and will then
write to the detail file. You can redirect your accounting output by starting RADIUS with
the -a option (for example, radiusd -a /usr/adm/ascendlog).
Disconnect codes and progress codes
When a call disconnects, the MAX typically sends the following message:
call n CL OK u= username c=n p=m
where:
•
n specifies a disconnect code indicating why the call disconnected.
•
m specifies a progress code indicating how far the call had progressed when it
disconnected.
Disconnect codes and their meanings
Following is a list of disconnect codes and their meanings:
Disconnect code
Description
1
Not applied to any call.
2
Unknown disconnect.
3
Call disconnected.
4
CLID authentication failed.
5
RADIUS timeout during authentication.
6
Successful authentication. MAX is configured to call the user back.
7
Pre-T310 Send Disc timer triggered.
9
No modem is available to accept call.
10
Modem never detected Data Carrier Detect (DCD).
11
Modem detected DCD, but modem carrier was lost.
12
MAX failed to successfully detect modem result codes.
13
MAX failed to open a modem for outgoing call.
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SNMP and Syslog Configuration
Disconnect codes and progress codes
Disconnect code
Description
14
MAX failed to open a modem for outgoing call while ModemDiag
diagnostic command is enabled.
20
User exited normally from the terminal server.
21
Terminal server timed out waiting for user input.
22
Forced disconnect when exiting Telnet session.
23
No IP address available when invoking PPP or SLIP command.
24
Forced disconnect when exiting raw TCP session.
25
Exceeded maximum login attempts.
26
Attempted to start a raw TCP session, but raw TCP is disabled on MAX.
27
Control-C characters received during login.
28
Terminal-server session cleared ungracefully.
29
User closed a terminal-server virtual connection normally.
30
Terminal-server virtual connect cleared ungracefully.
31
Exit from Rlogin session.
32
Establishment of rlogin session failed because of bad options.
33
MAX lacks resources to process terminal-server request.
35
MP+ session cleared because no null MP packets received. A MAX sends
(and should receive) null MP packets throughout an MP+ session.
40
LCP timed out waiting for a response.
41
LCP negotiations failed, usually because user is configured to send
passwords via PAP, and MAX is configured to only accept passwords via
CHAP (or vice versa).
42
PAP authentication failed.
43
CHAP authentication failed.
44
Authentication failed from remote server.
45
MAX received Terminate Request packet while LCP was in open state.
46
MAX received Close Request from upper layer, indicating graceful LCP
closure.
47
MAX cleared call because no PPP Network Core Protocols (NCPs) were
successfully negotiated. Typically, there is no agreement on the type of
routing or bridging that is supported for the session.
48
Disconnected MP session. The MAX accepted an added channel, but
cannot determine the call to which to add the new channel.
49
Disconnected MP call because no more channels can be added.
50
Telnet or raw TCP session tables full.
51
MAX has exhausted Telnet or raw TCP resources.
52
For Telnet or raw TCP session, IP address is invalid.
53
For Telnet or raw TCP session, MAX cannot resolve hostname.
54
For Telnet or raw TCP session, MAX received bad or missing port
number.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 6-13
SNMP and Syslog Configuration
Disconnect codes and progress codes
Disconnect code
Description
60
For Telnet or raw TCP session, host reset.
61
For Telnet or raw TCP session, connection was refused.
62
For Telnet or raw TCP session, connection timed out.
63
For Telnet or raw TCP session, connection closed by foreign host.
64
For Telnet or raw TCP session, network unreachable.
65
For Telnet or raw TCP session, host unreachable.
66
For Telnet or raw TCP session, network admin unreachable.
67
For Telnet or raw TCP session, host admin unreachable.
68
For Telnet or raw TCP session, port unreachable.
100
Session timed out.
101
Invalid user.
102
Callback enabled.
105
Session timeout on the basis of encapsulation negotiations.
106
MP session timeout.
115
Instigating call no longer active.
120
Requested protocol is disabled or unsupported.
150
Disconnect requested by RADIUS server.
151
Call disconnected by local administrator.
152
Call disconnected via SNMP.
160
Exceeded maximum number of V.110 retries.
170
Timeout waiting to authenticate far end.
180
User disconnected by executing Do Hangup from VT100 interface.
181
Call cleared by MAX.
185
Signal lost from far end, typically because the far end modem was turned
off.
190
Resource has been quiesced.
195
Maximum duration time reached for call.
201
MAX has low memory.
210
MAX modem card stops working while it has calls outstanding.
220
MAX requires CBCP, but client does not support it.
230
MAX deleted Vrouter.
240
MAX disconnected call on the basis of LQM measurements.
241
MAX cleared backup call.
250
IP FAX call cleared normally.
251
IP FAX call cleared because of low available memory.
252
MAX detected an error for an incoming IP FAX call.
253
MAX detected an error for an outgoing IP FAX call.
254
MAX detected no available modem to support an IP FAX call.
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SNMP and Syslog Configuration
Disconnect codes and progress codes
Disconnect code
Description
255
MAX detected problem opening IP FAX session.
256
MAX detected a problem when performing a TCP function during an IP
FAX call.
257
IP FAX session cleared abnormally.
258
MAX detected problem when parsing telephone number for IP FAX call.
260
MAX detected problem when decoding IP FAX variables.
261
MAX detected problem when decoding IP FAX variables.
262
MAX has no configured IP FAX server.
300
MAX detects X.25 error.
Progress codes and their meanings
Following are the progress codes and their meanings:
Progress code
Description
1
Not applied to any call.
2
Unknown progress.
10
MAX has detected and accepted call.
30
MAX has assigned modem to call.
31
Modem is awaiting DCD from far-end modem.
32
Modem is awaiting result codes from far-end modem.
40
Terminal-server session started.
41
Raw TCP session started.
42
Immediate Telnet session started.
43
Connection made to raw TCP host.
44
Connection made to Telnet host.
45
Rlogin session started.
46
Connection made with Rlogin session.
47
Terminal-server authentication started.
50
Modem outdial session started.
60
LAN session is up.
61
Opening LCP.
62
Opening CCP.
63
Opening IPNCP.
64
Opening BNCP.
65
LCP opened.
66
CCP opened.
67
IPNCP opened.
68
BNCP opened.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 6-15
SNMP and Syslog Configuration
Disconnect codes and progress codes
Progress code
Description
69
LCP in Initial state.
70
LCP in Starting state.
71
LCP in Closed state.
72
LCP in Stopped state.
73
LCP in Closing state.
74
LCP in Stopping state.
75
LCP in Req-Sent state.
76
LCP in Ack-Rcvd state.
77
LCP in Ack-Sent state.
80
IPX NCP in Open state.
81
AT NCP in Open state.
82
BACP being opened.
83
BACP is now open.
84
CBCP being opened.
85
CBCP is now open.
90
MAX has accepted V.110 call.
91
V.110 call in Open state.
92
V.110 call in Carrier state.
93
V.110 call in Reset state.
94
V.110 call in Closed state.
100
MAX determines that call requires callback.
101
Authentication failed.
102
Remote authentication server timed out.
120
Frame Relay link is inactive. Negotiations are in progress.
121
Frame Relay link is active and has end-to-end connectivity.
200
Starting Authentication layer.
201
Authentication layer moving to opening state.
202
Skipping Authentication layer.
203
Authentication layer in opened state.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
A
Troubleshooting
Indicator lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1
ISDN cause codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-3
Common problems and their solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-8
Indicator lights
Lights (LEDs) on the MAX front and back panel indicate the status of the unit.
MAX front panel
Figure A-1 shows the LEDs on the front panel of the MAX:
Figure A-1. MAX front-panel LEDs
The front-panel LEDs indicate the status of the system, the PRI interface, and the data transfer
in active sessions.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 A-1
Troubleshooting
Indicator lights
Table A-1 lists and describes each LED.
Table A-1. MAX LEDs
LED
Description
pwr
On when the MAX power is on.
act
On if there is activity on the Ethernet interface.
ya (for Leased T1/E1,
Line 1)
On when the MAX is receiving a Yellow Alarm pattern,
indicating that the other end of the line cannot recognize
signals transmitted from the MAX.
flt
On in one of two cases—either a hardware self-test is in
progress or there is a hardware failure.
When a hardware self-test is in progress, the LED is on. If
any type of hardware failure occurs, the LED flashes. If the
failure is isolated to an expansion card, the MAX may
continue functioning without the expansion card.
coll
On if there are collisions on the Ethernet.
la (for Leased T1/E1,
Line 1)
On when the link is active and there are no pending alarms or
tests. If a PRI is active and using D-channel signaling, this
LED blinks when the unit is unable to establish layer 2 and 3
protocol communications with the central office switch. This
may indicate a configuration error.
aui
On to indicate the AUI interface has been chosen.
ra (for Leased T1/E1,
Line 1)
On when the MAX is receiving a Red Alarm pattern,
indicating an improper receive signal or no receive signal.
This condition can occur as a result of a high error rate or
improper line configuration. When such a condition arises,
this red LED is on and a Yellow Alarm is transmitted toward
the WAN.
ra-sw (for switched T1,
Line 2)
On when the MAX is receiving a Red Alarm pattern,
indicating an improper receive signal or no receive signal.
This condition can occur as a result of a high error rate or
improper line configuration. When such a condition arises,
this red LED is on and a Yellow Alarm is transmitted toward
the WAN.
utp
On to indicate the UTP interface has been chosen.
ya-sw (for switched T1,
Line 2)
On when the MAX is receiving a Yellow Alarm pattern,
indicating that the other end of the line cannot recognize
signals transmitted from the MAX.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Troubleshooting
ISDN cause codes
Table A-1. MAX LEDs
LED
Description
la-sw (for switched T1,
Line 2)
On when the link is active and there are no pending alarms or
tests. If a PRI is active and using D-channel signaling, this
LED blinks when the unit is unable to establish layer 2 and 3
protocol communications with the central office switch. This
may indicate a configuration error.
link
On when the Ethernet link is active.
ISDN cause codes
ISDN cause codes are numerical diagnostic codes sent from an ISDN switch to a DTE. These
codes provide an indication of why a call failed to be established or why a call terminated. The
cause codes are part of the ISDN D-channel signaling communications supported by the
Signaling System 7 supervisory network (WAN). When you dial an ISDN call from the MAX,
the MAX reports the cause codes in the Message Log status menu. When the MAX clears the
call, a cause code is reported even if inband signaling is in use. If the PRI or BRI switch type is
1TR6 (Germany), see Table A-3.
Table A-2 lists the numeric cause codes and provides a description of each.
Table A-2. ISDN cause codes
Code
Cause
0
Valid cause code not yet received
1
Unallocated (Unassigned) Number. Indicates that the destination requested by
the calling user cannot be reached because, although the number is in a valid
format, it is not currently assigned.
2
No Route To Specified Transit Network. Indicates that the equipment sending
this cause has received a request to route the call through a particular transit
network which it does not recognize. The equipment sending this cause does
not recognize the transit network either because the transit network does not
exist or because that particular transit network, while it does exist, does not
serve the equipment which is sending this cause.
3
No Route To Destination. Indicates that the called party cannot be reached
because the network through which the call has been routed does not serve the
destination desired. This cause is supported on a network dependent basis.
4
Send Special Information Tone (Five One Zero NT). Indicates that the called
party cannot be reached for reasons that are of a long term nature and that the
special information tone should be returned to the calling party.
5
Misdialed Trunk Prefix. Indicates the erroneous inclusion of a trunk prefix in
the called party number. This number is supposed to be stripped from the
dialed number being sent to the network by the customer premises equipment.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 A-3
Troubleshooting
ISDN cause codes
Table A-2. ISDN cause codes (continued)
Code
Cause
6
Channel Unacceptable. Indicates that the channel most recently identified is
not acceptable to the sending party for use in this call.
7
Call awarded, being delivered in an established channel. Indicates that the user
has been awarded the incoming call, and that the incoming call is being
connected to a channel already established to that user for similar calls (e.g.
packet-mode x.25 virtual calls).
8
Preemption. Indicates that the call is being preempted.
9
Preemption - Circuit Reserved For Reuse. Indicates that the call is being
preempted and the circuit is reserved for reuse by the preempting exchange.
10
Prefix 1 dialed but not required
11
More digits received than allowed, but the call is proceeding
16
Normal Call Clearing. Indicates that the call is being cleared because one of the
users involved in the call has requested that the call be cleared.
17
User Busy. Also called Cause Code 16/4. Is used when the called user has
indicated the inability to accept another call. This cause may code may be
generated by the called user or by the network. Please note that the use
equipment is compatible with the call.
18
No User Responding. Also called Cause Code 16/3. Is used when a called party
does not respond to a call establishment message with either an alerting or
connect indication within the prescribed period of time allocated (in Q.931 by
the expiry of either time T303 or T310).
19
No Answer From User (User Alerted).Is used when a user has provided an
alerting indication but has not provided a connect indication within a
prescribed period of time.
Note: This cause is not necessarily generated by the customer premise
equipment, but may be generated by internal network timers.
20
Subscriber Absent. Is used when a mobile station has logged off, radio contact
is not obtained with a mobile station or if a personal telecommunication user is
temporarily not addressable at any user-network interface.
21
Call Rejected. Indicates that the equipment sending this cause does not wish to
accept this call, although it could have accepted the call because the equipment
sending this cause is neither busy nor incompatible. This cause may also be
generated by the network, indicating that the call was cleared due to a
supplementary service constraint. The diagnostic field may contain additional
information about the supplementary service and reason for rejection.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Troubleshooting
ISDN cause codes
Table A-2. ISDN cause codes (continued)
Code
Cause
22
Number Changed. Is returned to a calling party when the called party number
indicated by the calling party is no longer assigned. The new called party
number may optionally be included in the diagnostic field. If the network does
not support this cause, cause no: 1, unallocated (unassigned) will be used
instead.
23
Reverse charging rejected
24
Call suspended
25
Call resumed
26
Non-Selected User Clearing. Indicates that the user has not been awarded the
incoming call.
27
Destination Out Of Order. Indicates that the destination cannot be reached
because the interface to the destination is not functioning correctly. The
signaling message was unable to be delivered because of a hardware failure.
28
Invalid Number Format (Address Incomplete). Indicates that the called party
cannot be reached because the called party number is not in a valid format or is
not complete.
29
Facilities Rejected. Is returned when a facility requested by the user cannot be
provide by the network.
30
Response To Status Enquiry. Included in the STATUS message when the
reason for generating the STATUS message was the prior receipt of a STATUS
ENQUIRY.
31
Normal, Unspecified. Is used to report a normal event only when no other
cause in the normal class applies.
33
Circuit out of order
34
No Circuit/Channel Available. Indicates that there is no appropriate
circuit/channel presently available to handle the call. Note: If you receive this
call, try another data-service, such as dropping from a 64K to 56K data rate.
35
Call Queued. Indicates that the call has been queued for service by the next
available device.
37
Degraded service
38
Network Out Of Order. Indicates that the network is not functioning correctly
and that the conditions are likely to last a relatively long period of time. A call
that is attempted soon afterwards will most likely not connect successfully.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 A-5
Troubleshooting
ISDN cause codes
Table A-2. ISDN cause codes (continued)
Code
Cause
39
Permanent Frame Mode Connection Out-Of-Service. Is included in a STATUS
message to indicate that a permanently established frame mode connection is
out-of-service (e.g. due to equipment or section failure) [see Annex A/Q.933]
40
Permanent Frame Mode Connection Operational. Is included in a STATUS
message to indicate that a permanently established frame mode connection is
operational and capable of carrying user information. [see Annex A/Q.933]
41
Temporary Failure. Indicates that the network is not functioning correctly and
that the condition is not likely to last a very long period of time. A call that is
attempted almost immediately afterwards will most likely connect
successfully.
42
Switching Equipment Congestion. Indicates that the switching equipment
generating this cause is experiencing a period of high traffic.
43
Access Information Discarded. Indicates that the network could not deliver
access information, low layer compatibility, high layer compatibility, or
sub-address as indicated in the diagnostic.
44
Requested Circuit/Channel Not Available. Is returned when the circuit or
channel indicated by the requesting entity cannot be provided by the other side
of the interface.
45
Pre-empted
46
Precedence Call Blocked. Indicates that there are no preemptable circuits or
that the called user is busy with a call of equal or higher preemptable level.
47
Resource Unavailable, Unspecified. Is used to report a resource unavailable
event only when no other cause in the resource unavailable class applies.
49
Quality Of Service Not Available. Is used to report that the requested Quality
of Service cannot be provided (delay canít be supported).
50
Requested facility not subscribed. Indicates that the requested supplementary
service could not be provided due to user oversight. This cause code is often
caused by the CPE being configured for the wrong switch type.
51
Reverse charging not allowed
52
Outgoing calls barred. Indicates that because of call screening provided by the
network, the calling user is not permitted to make a call.
53
Outgoing Calls Barred Within CUG. Indicates that although the calling party is
a member of the CUG for the outgoing CUG call, outgoing calls are not
allowed for this member of the CUG.
54
Incoming calls barred. Indicates that the called user will not accept the call
delivered in the SETUP message.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Troubleshooting
ISDN cause codes
Table A-2. ISDN cause codes (continued)
Code
Cause
55
Incoming Calls Barred Within CUG. Indicates that although the calling party is
a member of the CUG for the incoming CUG call, incoming calls are not
allowed for this member of the CUG.
56
Call waiting not subscribed
57
Bearer Capability Not Authorized. Indicates that the user has requested a
bearer capability which is implemented by their equipment but the user is not
authorized to use.
58
Bearer Capability Not Presently Available. Indicates that the user has requested
a bearer capability which is implemented by the equipment which generated
this cause but which is not available at this time.
62
Inconsistency In Outgoing Information Element. Indicates an inconsistency in
the designated outgoing access information and subscriber class
63
Service Or Option Not Available, Unspecified. Is used to report a service or
option not available event only when no other cause in the service or option not
available class applies.
65
Bearer Capability Not Implemented. Indicates that the equipment sending this
cause does not support the bearer capability requested.
66
Channel Type Not Implemented. Indicates that the equipment sending this
cause does not support the channel type requested
67
Transit network selection not implemented
68
Message not implemented
69
Requested Facility Not Implemented. Indicates that the equipment sending this
cause does not support the requested supplemental service.
70
Only Restricted Digital Information Bearer Capability Is Available. Indicates
that on equipment has requested an unrestricted bearer service but that the
equipment sending the cause only supports the restricted version of the
requested bearer capability.
79
Service Or Option Not Implemented, Unspecified. Is used to report a service r
option not implemented but only when no other cause in this class applies.
81
Invalid Call Reference Value. Indicates that the equipment sending this cause
has received a message with a call reference which is not currently in use on
the user-network interface.
82
Identified Channel Does Not Exist. Indicates that the equipment sending this
cause has received a request to use a channel not activated on the interface for a
call. For example, if the user only subscribed to channels 1 to 12 and channel
13 through 23 is requested by either side, this cause is generated.
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 A-7
Troubleshooting
ISDN cause codes
Table A-2. ISDN cause codes (continued)
Code
Cause
83
A Suspended Call Exists, But This Call Identify Does Not. Indicates that a call
resume has been attempted with a call identity which differs from that in use
for any presently suspended call(s).
84
Call Identity In Use. Indicates that the network has received a call resume
request. The call resume request contained a call identity information element
which presently does not indicate any suspended call within the domain of
interfaces over which calls may be resumed.
85
No Call Suspended. Indicates that the network has received a call resume
request containing a Call identity information element which presently does
not indicate any suspended call within the domain of interfaces over which
calls may be resumed.
86
Call Having The Requested Call Identity Has Been Cleared. Indicates that the
network has received a call resume request. The request contained a call
identity information element which once indicated a suspended call, however,
that the call was cleared while suspended (either a network time-out or remote
user).
87
User Not A Member Of CUG. Indicates that the called user for the incoming
CUG call is not a member of the specified CUG or that the calling user is an
ordinary subscriber calling a CUG subscriber.
88
Incompatible Destination. Iindicates that the equipment sending this cause has
received a request to establish a call which has low layer compatibility, high
layer compatibility, or other compatibility attributes (e.g. data rate) which
cannot be accommodated.
89
Nonexistent abbreviated address entry
90
Non-Existent CUG. Indicates that the specified CUG does not exist.
91
Invalid Transit Network Selection. Indicates that a transit network
identification was received which is of an incorrect format as defined in Annex
C/Q.931
92
Invalid facility parameter
93
Mandatory information element is missing
95
Invalid Message, Unspecified. Is used to report an invalid message event only
when no other cause in the invalid class applies.
96
Mandatory Information Element Is Missing. Indicates that the equipment
sending this cause has received a message which is missing an information
element which must be present in the message before that message can be
processed.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Troubleshooting
ISDN cause codes
Table A-2. ISDN cause codes (continued)
Code
Cause
97
Message Type Non-Existent Or Not Implemented. Indicates that the equipment
sending this cause has received a message with a message type it does not
recognize either because this is a message not defined of defined but not
implemented by the equipment sending this cause.
98
Message Not Compatible With Call State Or Message Type Non-Existent Or
Not Implemented. Indicates that the equipment sending this cause has received
a message such that the procedures do not indicate that this is a permissible
message to receive while in the call state, or a STATUS message was received
indicating an incompatible call state.
99
Information Element / Parameter Non-Existent Or Not Implemented. Indicates
that the equipment sending this cause has received a message which includes
information element(s)/parameter(s) not recognized because the information
element(s)/parameter name(s) are not defined or are defined but not
implemented by the equipment sending the cause. This cause indicates that the
information element(s)/parameter(s) were discarded. However, the information
element is not required to be present in the message in order for the equipment
sending the cause to process the message.
100
Invalid Information Element Contents. Indicates that the equipment sending
this cause has received and information element which it has implemented;
however, one or more fields in the information elements are coded in such a
way which has not been implemented by the equipment sending this cause.
101
Message Not Compatible With Call State. Indicates that a message has been
received which is incompatible with the call state.
102
Recovery On Timer Expiry. Indicates that a procedure has been initiated by the
expiry of a timer in association with Q.931 error handling procedures.
103
Parameter Non-Existent Or Not Implemented - Passed On. Indicates that the
equipment sending this cause has received a message which includes
parameters not recognized because the parameters are not defined or are
defined but not implemented by the equipment sending this cause.
Table A-3 lists the cause codes for the 1TR6 switch type.
Table A-3. ISDN cause codes for 1TR6 switch type
1TR6 Code
Cause
1
Invalid call reference value.
3
Bearer service not implemented. (Service not available in the
A-exchange or at another position in the network, or no application
has been made for the specified service.)
7
Call identity does not exist. (Unknown call identity).
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 A-9
Troubleshooting
ISDN cause codes
Table A-3. ISDN cause codes for 1TR6 switch type (continued)
1TR6 Code
Cause
8
Call identity in use. (Call identity has already been assigned to a
suspended link.)
10
No channel available. (No useful channel available on the subscriber
access line—only local significance.)
16
Requested facility not implemented. (The specified FAC code is
unknown in the A-exchange or at another point in the network.)
17
Request facility not subscribed. (Request facility rejected because the
initiating or remote user does not have appropriate authorization.)
32
Outgoing calls barred. (Outgoing call not possible because of access
restriction that has been installed.)
33
User access busy. (If the total made up of the number of free B
channels and the number of calling procedures without any defined B
channel is equal to four, any new incoming calls will be rejected from
within the network. The calling party receives a DISC with a cause
user access busy, which indicates the first busy instance, and a
busy signal.)
34
Negative CUG comparison. (Link not possible because of negative
CUG comparison.)
35
Nonexistent CUG. (This CUG does not exist.)
37
Communication as semipermanent link not permitted.
48 - 50
Not used. (Link not possible because, for example, RFNR check is
negative.)
53
Destination not obtainable. (Link cannot be established in the
network because of incorrect destination address, services, or
facilities.)
56
Number changed. (Number of B-subscriber has changed.)
57
Out of order. (Remote TE not ready.)
58
No user responding. (No TE has responded to the incoming SETUP
or call has been interrupted, absence assumed—expiry of call
timeout T3AA.)
59
User busy. (B-subscriber busy)
61
Incoming calls barred. (B-subscriber has installed restrictions against
incoming link, or the requested service, not supported by the
B-subscriber)
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Troubleshooting
ISDN cause codes
Table A-3. ISDN cause codes for 1TR6 switch type (continued)
1TR6 Code
Cause
62
Call rejected. (To A-subscriber: Link request actively rejected by
B-subscriber, by sending a DISC in response to an incoming SETUP.
To a TE during the phase in which an incoming call is being
established: The call has already been accepted by another TE on the
bus.)
89
Network congestion. (Bottleneck situation in the network; for
example, all-trunks-busy, no conference set free.)
90
Remote user initiated. (Rejected or cleared down by remote user or
exchange.)
112
Local procedure error. (In REL: Call cleared down as a result of local
errors, for example, invalid messages or parameters, expiry of
timeout. In SUS REJ: The link must not be suspended because
another facility is already active. In RES REJ: No suspended call
available. In FAC REJ: No further facility can be requested because
one facility is already being processed, or the specified facility
cannot be requested in the present call status.)
113
Remote procedure error. (Call cleared down because of error at
remote end.)
114
Remote user suspended. (The call has been placed on hold or
suspended, at the remote end.)
115
Remote user resumed. (Call at remote end is no longer on hold,
suspended, or in the conference status.)
127
User Info discarded locally. (The USER INFO message is rejected
locally. This cause is specified in the CON message.)
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 A-11
Troubleshooting
Common problems and their solutions
Common problems and their solutions
This section lists problems you might encounter and describes ways to resolve them. It
categorizes common problems as general problems, configuration problems, hardware
configuration problems, ISDN interface problems, and problems indicated by the LEDs.
General problems
Calls fail between AIM ports
The following first-level diagnostic commands can help in troubleshooting calls between AIM
ports:
•
For a local loopback toward an application at its AIM-port interface, use the Local LB
command in the Port Diag menu.
•
For a loopback toward an application at its remote-end AIM interface, use the DO
Beg/End Rem LB command.
•
For a channel-by-channel error measurement, use the DO Beg/End BERT command.
•
To resynchronize a multichannel call, use the DO Resynchronize command.
To use a DO command, you must be in a profile or status window specific to an AIM port with
a call online. For information about the Local LB command and about each DO command, see
the MAX Reference Guide.
DO menus do not allow most operations
When the list of DO commands appears, many operations might not be not available if the
right profile has not been selected. Because the MAX can manage a number of calls
simultaneously, you might need to select a specific Connection profile, Port profile, or Call
profile in order to see certain DO commands. For example, to dial from a Call profile or a
Connection profile, you must move to the Call profile (Host/6 > Port N Menu > Directory) or
the Connection profile and press Ctrl-D 1.
Note that you cannot dial if Operations=No for the control port. If a call is already active, DO
2 (Hang Up) appears instead of DO 1 (Dial). If the T1 or E1 line is not available, Trunk Down
appears in the message log and you cannot dial.
POST takes more than 30 seconds to complete
In earlier versions of the software, the MAX downloaded the required code and immediately
commenced with AT POST (which sends the string AT to each modem and waits for the
modem to respond with “OK”). With the current software, the MAX downloads the modem
code, waits for the modems to checksum the downloaded code, and then verifies that the
checksum matches before continuing. If the checksum does not match, the MAX downloads
the code again, up to two more times. If the checksum still does not match after three download
attempts, the MAX fails the entire slot card.
This feature helps to reduce the POST failure rates for the 12MOD cards.The 12MOD digital
modem slot card boots every time the MAX power-cycles, and requires boot-up configuration
data from the MAX. If the first boot-up fails, the MAX makes two further attempts to
download the code for the MAX unit’s 12MOD digital 12-modem slot card.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Troubleshooting
Common problems and their solutions
Configuration problems
The most common problems result from improperly configured profiles.
The MAX cannot dial out on a T1 or E1 line
To verify that the configured profile is correctly configured:
1
Make certain that you have entered the correct phone number to dial.
2
Verify that the Data Svc parameter specifies a WAN service available on your line.
If you request a WAN service that is not available on your line, the WAN rejects your
request to place a call.
3
Check whether the channels using the requested WAN service are busy.
If these channels are busy, an outgoing call might be routed to channels for which you did
not request the specified WAN service. Check the Data Svc, Call-by-Call, and PRI # Type
parameter values in the profile.
4
Determine whether you have correctly set the parameters controlling Dynamic Bandwidth
Allocation.
For detailed information, see the Network Configuration Guide for your MAX.
Some channels do not connect
You might encounter a problem in which the Line Status menu shows that the MAX is calling
multiple channels simultaneously, but only some of the channels connect. In this case, an
international MAX placed the call, or the call was from the U.S. to another country. In some
countries, setting the Parallel Dial parameter in the System profile to a value higher than 1 or 2
violates certain dialing rules, and only some of the channels can connect during call setup. Try
reducing the Parallel Dial parameter value to 2. If the problem persists, try reducing it to 1.
Data is corrupted on some international calls
You might notice that the data appears to be corrupted on single- or multichannel calls dialed
from the U.S. to another country. On some international calls, the data service per channel is
not conveyed by the WAN to the MAX answering the call. You must therefore set Force
56=Yes in the Call profile. If you do not, the MAX incorrectly thinks that the call uses 64-Kbps
channels.
Only the base channel connects
You might encounter a problem in which the first channel of an inverse multiplexing or MP+
call connects, but the call then clears or does not connect on the remaining channels.
The most common error in defining Line N profiles is specifying incorrect phone numbers.
The MAX cannot successfully build inverse multiplexing or MP+ calls if the phone numbers
in the Line N profile of the called unit are incorrect. The phone numbers that you specify in the
Line N profile are the numbers local to your unit. Do not enter the phone numbers of the MAX
you are calling. Enter those numbers in the Call profile, Destination profile, or Connection
profile.
In addition, when you are using E1 or T1 lines, any phone numbers you specify must
correspond to those channels within the circuit that are available for data transmission. For
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 A-13
Troubleshooting
Common problems and their solutions
example, if channels 13-21 are allocated to a particular slot, you must specify the phone
numbers for channels 13-21 in the Line N profile. Switched data channels do not have to be
contiguous within the circuit.
No Channel Avail error message
If the error message No Channel Avail appears in the message log display when the MAX tries
to place a call, check the Line N profile configuration. This message can also indicate that the
lines’ cables have been disconnected or were installed incorrectly.
Restored configuration has incorrect RADIUS parameters
On earlier RADIUS Servers, the submenu consisted of three clients (specific host addresses)
and one Server Key for all three clients. If the MAX supports the new RADIUS Server, the
restoration of the MAX configuration will cause a problem, because the new RADIUS Server
allows up to nine addresses (host or net) and a Server Key for each address. When you restore
configurations with the old Client Address list, the subnet mask assigned to the clients will be
the default subnet mask of the address type given (for example, 128.50.1.1 will get a subnet
mask of 16) and not the previous 32-bit (single host) address. In addition, the Server Key will
not automatically be set. You must set the Server Key manually for each client in the RADIUS
Server submenu.
Hardware configuration problems
If you cannot communicate with the MAX through the VT100 control terminal, you might
have a problem with terminal configuration, the control port cable, or the MAX hardware.
Cannot access the VT100 interface
If no data is displayed on the VT100 interface, verify that the unit completes all of the
Power-On Self Tests. Proceed as follows:
1
Verify that the MAX and your terminal are set at the same speed.
2
Locate the LED labeled flt.
3
Switch on the MAX.
The flt LED should remain off except during the power-on self tests. If you are using the
VT100 interface, press Ctrl-L to refresh the screen.
If the flt LED remains on longer than a minute, there is a MAX hardware failure. A blinking flt
LED also indicates a hardware failure. Should these situations arise, contact Ascend Customer
Service.
flt LED is off but no menus are displayed
If the unit passed its Power-On Self Tests and you still cannot communicate with the VT100
interface, type Ctrl-L to refresh the screen. If you still do not see any data, check the cabling
between the MAX and your terminal as follows:
1
Check the pin-out carefully on the 9-pin cable.
The control terminal plugs into the HHT-VT100 cable or the 9-pin connector labeled
Control on the back of the MAX. If you are connecting to an IBM PC-like 9-pin serial
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Troubleshooting
Common problems and their solutions
connector, a straight-through cable is appropriate. Otherwise, you might need a 9-to-25
pin conversion cable.
2
Check the flow control settings on your VT100 terminal.
If you are not communicating at all with the MAX, see whether you can establish
communication after you have turned off all transmit and receive flow control at your
terminal or terminal emulator.
3
Determine whether you need a null-modem cable converter.
Though generally not needed, occasionally a null-modem cable converter is required for a
few of the large numbers of different cable and terminal configurations that are available.
Random characters appear in the VT100 interface
If random or illegible characters appear on your display, you probably have a communications
settings problem. Specify the following settings:
•
9600 bps data rate
•
8 data bits
•
1 stop bit
•
No flow control
•
No parity
If you have changed the data rate through the Port profile, make certain that your VT100
terminal matches that rate.
A Power-On Self Test fails
If the start-up display indicates a failure in any part of the POST, an internal hardware failure
has occurred with the unit. In this case, contact Ascend Customer Service.
AIM-port interface problems
You can test the AIM port interface in one of two ways:
•
A local loopback test
•
Through true end-to-end communications
Many codecs or other AIM devices support some use of loopback. For example, when the
MAX is in loopback mode and is connected to a codec, users see their own images through the
codec. Likewise, most bridge/router devices recognize and report a diagnostic message when a
packet is sent out and received by the same module. More often than not, the codec must be
configured explicitly to accept the loopback from the communications device.
Local loopback testing is the best aid when troubleshooting the AIM-port interface (the
interface between the codec and the MAX). All of the symptoms and operations described in
this section assume you are working from the local loopback diagnostics menu. Unless
otherwise specified, the AIM-port interfaces in this section can include the Ascend Remote
Port Modules (RPMs).
The first and most critical aspect of the AIM port interface is the cable or cables connecting the
codec to the MAX. If you are unsure about the cabling required, contact Ascend Customer
Service.
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 A-15
Troubleshooting
Common problems and their solutions
The MAX reports data errors on all calls
Data errors on all calls can indicate that you have installed faulty host interface cables or cables
not suited to the application. Information on host interface cabling requirements is found in the
Hardware Installation Guide for your MAX.
Calls cannot be made, answered, or cleared using control leads
If you have purchased or built your own cables, verify that the pin-out is the same as the MAX
pin-out for compatibility. The Hardware Installation Guide for your MAX lists the host
interface pin-outs.
Frequently, a DB-25 breakout box is useful for monitoring control leads and for making quick
changes to the cabling. However, because the host interface is running V.35 or RS-422 signal
levels, you must verify that the breakout box is passive. That is, you must verify that the
breakout box is not regenerating RS-232 level signals.
The codec indicates that there is no connection
The codec expects one or more of its control lines to be active. If no lines are active, toggle the
various outputs available on the local loopback diagnostics menu. If there is still no
connection, verify that you have installed the host cables correctly as described in the
Hardware Installation Guide for your MAX. If the cabling is installed correctly, examine the
host interface cable pin-outs as described in Hardware Installation Guide.
The codec does not receive data
If the codec does not receive data:
1
Verify that the codec is configured to accept a loopback at the communications device.
Frequently, a codec requires certain control lines to be active during data transfer.
Therefore, you might want to toggle the various host interface output lines, especially
Data Set to Ready (DSR) and Carrier Detect (CD), to ensure that they are active.
2
If there is still no data transfer, your cable might not provide one or more control lines
required by the host Refer to the your equipment documentation for a description of the
pins that it requires to be active. The following control lines are generally the most
important ones:
–
Carrier Detect (CD)
–
Clear To Send (CTS)
–
Data Set Ready (DSR)
3
If you are convinced that the control lines are in their correct states, but there is still no
data transfer, you might have a clocking problem. The MAX provides both the transmit
data clocks and the receive data clocks to your equipment through the host interface.The
codec must be configured to accept the clocks from the MAX.
4
Check your cable length.
If the cable length exceeds the recommended distances, you should be using terminal
timing. Alternatively, you might need to install RPMs.
5
Check the data rate.
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Troubleshooting
Common problems and their solutions
You can adjust the data rate from the local loopback diagnostics menu by choosing the
number of channels. Some applications cannot work above or below a certain data rate.
For example, some high performance codecs cannot operate at data of rates less than 384
Kbps. In such cases, adjust the number of channels of data being looped back.
The codec cannot establish a call when Data Transmit Ready (DTR) is active
You might notice that the Port profile is set to establish calls when DTR is active, but the codec
cannot establish a call. If the codec is going to originate the calls directly by using control-lead
dialing, the call origination and clearing mechanisms must be configured for compatibility
between the MAX and the codec. To verify a compatible configuration from the local loopback
diagnostics menu:
1
Disable each of the MAX output control lines except DSR.
To disable an output control line, toggle it to be Inactive (-). At this time, the codec should
indicate that there is no connection.
2
Request an outgoing call from your equipment and monitor the Port Leads status menu of
the active ports in the call.
One or more of the control line inputs should become active and remain active for some
period of time. If the DTR leads input do not change state, your cable is not properly
configured. In this case, you must change the cable so that it routes the appropriate host
output signal to the DTR input of the MAX. The MAX must use the DTR lead to establish
outgoing calls.
3
Once you have made any changes required for verifying that the DTR lead becomes active
when the MAX requests the call, configure the Port profile to expect the DTR input.
In the Port profile, set Dial Call to DTR Active.
Calls initiated by control-lead toggling are cleared too soon
If the MAX clears a call initiated by control-lead toggling before it completely establishes the
call, and the call is cleared almost immediately, the Port profile probably has a configuration
error. To find the source of the problem, proceed as follows:
1
While monitoring the Port Leads status menu of the AIM ports used in the call, place an
outgoing call from the codec.
2
Watch the DTR input carefully while the MAX is establishing the call.
If the DTR input becomes Active (+) and then thereafter returns to Inactive (-), the MAX
is using DTR as a pulse to place the call. Make sure that the Clear parameter in the Port
profile is not set to DTR Inactive. (Set Clear to DTR Inactive only when the application
maintains DTR positive during the call.)
3
While your equipment is still dialing the call, toggle the value of the CD output signal to
indicate to your equipment that the call completed. At this time, watch the control leads
very carefully. Make certain that any control leads that toggle while the call is being
established are not used in the Clear parameter to clear the call. This type of configuration
error is the most likely cause of a call being cleared almost immediately.
The codec cannot clear a call
If a codec-initiated call cannot be cleared, the call cannot be cleared from the codec, the Port
profile probably has a configuration error. To verify the source of the problem, proceed as
follows:
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 A-17
Troubleshooting
Common problems and their solutions
1
While monitoring the Port Leads status menu of the AIM ports used in the call, place an
outgoing call from your equipment.
2
Once the host has requested the outgoing call, toggle the CD output to Active (+). The
codec should recognize that the call is online.
3
Make a request to clear the call from the codec.
4
Watch the control leads very carefully as one or more of the input control lines toggle.
Generally, either DTR or RTS is the line that toggles. Record whether the control lead
input goes to Active (+) or Inactive (-) when the call is cleared; then, check that the value
of the Clear parameter in the Port profile matches the action that the codec takes when the
call is cleared.
ISDN PRI and BRI interface problems
Problems sometimes encountered with ISDN PRI and BRI interfaces include calls not dialed
or answered reliably, Net/BRI lines not dialing or answering calls, apparent logical-link
failures, and WAN calling errors in netbound Net/BRI calls.
Calls are not dialed or answered reliably
If calls are not dialed or answered reliably:
1
Check your cabling.
The first and most critical aspect of the interface is the physical cable connecting the
MAX to the line or terminating equipment. Typically, WAN interface cabling problems
appear immediately after installation. If you are unsure about the cabling required, contact
Ascend Customer Service. The Hardware Installation Guide for your MAX describes the
general PRI and BRI interface requirements and lists cabling pin-outs.
2
If the cabling is not the problem and the MAX is a T1 unit, check that the value of the
Buildout parameter or the Length parameter in the Line profile matches the actual distance
in your configuration.
The MAX displays the Buildout parameter if its interface to the T1 line is equipped with
an internal CSU. Its enumerated values can be 0 DB, 7.5 DB, 15 DB, and 22.5 DB.
Contact your carrier representative to determine which value to choose.
If the line interface is not equipped with an internal CSU, the Length parameter is
displayed. It can specify a cable length, of 1-133, 134-266, 267-399, 400-533, or 534-655
in feet, which should correspond to the distance between the MAX and the WAN interface
equipment, typically a CSU or multiplexer.
Note: T1/PRI ports not equipped with internal CSUs require an external CSU or other
equipment approved for the metallic interface between the MAX and the WAN facility.
The Net/BRI lines do not dial or answer calls
Do not connect the MAX unit’s Net/BRI ports directly to U-interface BRI lines. The MAX
unit’s Net/BRI ports require carrier-approved Network Terminating 1 (NT1) equipment
between the MAX and BRI lines. Note that Net/BRI outbound calls require the use of trunk
groups.
A-18 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Troubleshooting
Common problems and their solutions
No Logical Link status
If you notice that the status of a Net/BRI line in the Line Status display is No Logical Link, you
might or might not have a problem.
In some countries outside the U.S., it is common for no logical link to exist before the MAX
places a call. In the U.S., when you first plug a line into the MAX or switch power on, the
central office switch can take as long as 15 minutes to recognize that the line is now available.
You might have to wait that long for the line state to change to Active (A). The physical link
can exist without a logical link up on the line.
If you wait longer than 15 minutes and the line is still not available:
1
Determine whether all the ISDN telephone cables are wired straight through.
If you are running multipoint (passive bus) on your switch, all of the ISDN telephone
cables must be wired straight through. If any of the cables are wired to cross over, you will
not be able to place calls.
2
Verify that 100% termination is provided on each ISDN line.
3
Determine whether you have correctly specified the Service Profile Identifiers (SPIDs) in
the Line N profile for each line. If the SPIDs are not correctly specified, the line status
might indicate No Logical Link. Check with your system manager or carrier
representative to obtain the SPID or SPIDs for your line. To specify your SPIDs, use the
Pri SPID and Sec SPID parameters in the Line N profile.
WAN calling errors occur in outbound Net/BRI calls
Should you encounter a problem in which the Call Status window immediately indicates a
WAN calling error when the MAX places a call on a Net/BRI module. Proceed as follows:
1
Check the value of the Data Svc parameter in the Call or Connection profile.
Try both the 64K and 56K options for Data Svc, to see whether using a different value
solves the problem.
2
Verify that you are using the correct dialing plan.
Depending on how the BRI lines are configured, you might need to type four, seven, or ten
digits to communicate with the remote end.
Four-digit dialing involves the last four digits of your phone number. For example, if your
phone number is (415) 555-9015, four-digit dialing requires that you enter only the last
four digits: 9015. Seven-digit dialing specifies that you dial the digits 5559015, and
ten-digit dialing requires 4155559015.
If you are sending the incorrect number of digits, the MAX cannot route the call. Ask your
carrier representative for the correct dialing plan, or simply try all of the possibilities.
3
Ask your carrier representative to verify explicitly that the line is capable of supporting
the call types you are requesting.
ISDN PRI and BRI circuit-quality problems
Circuit-quality problems sometimes encountered on ISDN PRI and BRI lines include
excessive data errors or handshaking on calls to AIM ports and scrambling of inbound data
during AIM Static calls.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 A-19
Troubleshooting
Common problems and their solutions
Excessive data errors on calls to AIM ports
If you encounter a problem where the MAX reports excessive data errors on some calls to AIM
ports, run a Byte Error Rate Test (BERT), which counts data errors that occur on each channel
during a call to a AIM port. The BERT checks the data integrity from the MAX at one end of
the call to the MAX at the other end.
If you have verified that the MAX is correctly installed and configured, and you have
previously placed calls without excessive errors, use the DO Beg/End BERT command to run
the BERT. Do not clear the call before running the BERT. You can run a BERT only under the
following conditions:
•
A call is active.
•
The Call Type parameter is set to AIM, FT1-B&O, or FT1-AIM.
•
The Call Mgm parameter is set to Manual, Dynamic, or Delta.
You can also set the Auto BERT parameter in the Call profile to run an automatic BERT. If the
BERT indicates very high errors on some of the channels, clear the call and redial. When
redialed, the call might take a different path, correcting the excessive error problem.
Excessive handshaking on calls to AIM ports
Handshaking is a normal and momentary occurrence during call setup and when the MAX
increases or decreases bandwidth. If there is trouble in the circuits that carry the call, frequent
handshaking can occur. If the trouble is serious enough to degrade the quality of the call, the
MAX disconnects. If handshaking is continuous for over a minute, the problem is probably not
due to the quality of the line, and you should call Ascend Customer Service.
Inbound data is scrambled during an AIM Static call
Because an AIM Static call does not have a management channel, it is possible for data
scrambling to occur because of WAN slips, a type of timing error. Slips are a very infrequent
occurrence. If you encounter such problems, clear the call and redial.
Problems indicated by the LEDs
The LEDs can indicate that a secondary line is disabled, that the line is in a Red Alarm state, or
that the D channel is not communicating with the UAN
LEDs are not lit for the secondary E1 or T1 line
If no LEDs related to the secondary line are illuminated, the line is disabled in the Line N
profile. You can enable the secondary line by modifying the Line N profile.
The E1 or T1 line is in a red alarm state
If an ra LED and the Line Status menu indicate that the line is in a red alarm state, the MAX
cannot establish proper synchronization and frame alignment with the WAN. This behavior is
normal for as long as 30 seconds after a PRI line is first plugged into the MAX.
If the red alarm condition persists for longer than 30 seconds:
A-20 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Troubleshooting
Common problems and their solutions
1
Check the value of the Framing Mode parameter in the Line N profile.
Change the value to the other available option and check to see whether the red alarm
condition goes away within 30 seconds.
2
If the red alarm state persists, check the cabling.
You might have a crossover cable installed when a straight-through cable is required, or
vice versa. If the MAX is connected through bantam plugs, reverse the transmit and
receive plugs. Then allow the MAX to attempt to establish synchronization for an
additional 30 seconds.
3
You can eliminate the cabling as a possible cause by replacing the connection with a
loopback plug. The LED should go off in about 30 seconds.
A PRI line is in use and a ya LED blinks
A blinking ya LED means that the physical configuration of the E1 or T1 line is correct but the
D channel is not communicating with the WAN. To resolve this problem:
1
Verify with your carrier representative that the D channel is channel 16 (E1) or 24 (T1).
2
If the D channel number is correct, check the value of the Line Encoding parameter in the
Line profile. When B8ZS encoding is in use, a non-inverted D channel is established. If
AMI encoding is selected, an inverted D channel is established. Check the line translations
provided by your carrier representative and set the line encoding to match the inversion
requirements.
3
Determine whether your WAN interface or the MAX T1 unit is equipped with a CSU.
If the WAN interface or the MAX is not equipped with a CSU, the ALARM LED blinks.
Check whether you have specified the proper Length or Buildout value in the Line profile.
4
Check whether the D channel is in service.
If no equipment has been plugged into the line for a short period of time (five to ten
minutes), the D channel is taken out of service. You might need to ask your carrier to put
the D channel back into service.
Problems in accessing the WAN
Problems in accessing the WAN can include channels not being dialed or used and outgoing
calls failing to connect.
Only some channels are dialed for AIM or BONDING calls
If the MAX dials only some of the channels when making an AIM or BONDING call, proceed
as follows:
1
Verify that there are enough channels enabled for switched services in the Line N profile
to meet the requirements of the Parallel Dial parameter in the System profile.
Most WAN providers can place a limited number of simultaneous calls from a single E1 or
T1 line. If more concurrent attempts are made than the WAN can support, the WAN
applies a congestion tone (a fast busy signal).
2
Try adding bandwidth once the call is up.
If you can add bandwidth, the solution is to adjust the Parallel Dial parameter in the
System profile. A value of 5 works for almost all WAN providers, although some support
substantially more. If adding bandwidth does not work, the problem is most likely within
the individual channel translations. In this case, call your carrier representative.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 A-21
Troubleshooting
Common problems and their solutions
The MAX never uses some channels
If the MAX never uses some channels, proceed as follows:
1
If you are making AIM or BONDING calls, verify that the affected channels are enabled
for switched services in the Line N profile.
2
If you have an E1 unit, check whether it has been connected recently to a device that does
not support the full 31 channels. If so, the switch might take the unused channels out of
service. This situation can arise on either the local or the remote end.
3
If you have a T1 unit, check whether it has been connected recently to a device that does
not support the full 23 channels. If so, the switch might take the unused channels out of
service. This situation can arise on either the local or the remote end.
4
Verify that the channels enabled in your Line N profile correspond to the channels enabled
in the circuit. If only some of the channels in the circuit are available for data calls, you
must specifically enable those channels in your Line N profile.
5
If you place a call and some channels are always skipped, call your carrier representative.
An outgoing call using inband signaling fails to connect to the remote end
If the T1 or E1 line is configured for inband signaling and outbound calls fail to connect:
1
Make sure that your Line N profile is properly configured for wink-start or idle-start.
The Rob Ctl parameter in the Line N profile determines which of these call-control
mechanisms the MAX uses. Check with your carrier representative to find out which
inband signaling your line supports.
2
If the Line N profile is configured correctly and you still cannot place an outgoing call,
check the service state of the line.
Frequently, if a T1 or E1 line has been unplugged for an extended duration, the switched
services available on the line are taken out of service. Once you install the MAX, you
might need to ask your carrier representative to have the line reactivated. If this is the case,
leave the MAX on all the time, even when you are not using it. Otherwise, you will have
to call your carrier to reactivate the line each time the unit is switched off and on.
3
Ask your carrier representative whether the line is configured for DTMF dialing. The line
must support this type of dialing to recognize digits being dialed.
Incoming call routing problems
Routing problems occur when a call is connected to the answering MAX but cannot be routed
to one of its slots.
Call status drops back to IDLE
You might notice that after the Call Status window reports ANSWERING and
HANDSHAKING, it drops back to IDLE. This condition might not indicate a problem. It can
indicate that the call was initially answered and that when its routing was checked, the target
AIM port was busy or disabled. Handshaking does not occur on calls to the MAX unit’s
internal router, but calls can initially be answered and then quickly cleared during normal
operation, such as during the receipt of an incorrect password.
A-22 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Troubleshooting
Common problems and their solutions
Dual-port call status drops back to IDLE
If you are trying to make a dual-port call, and the Call Status menu reports ANSWERING and
HANDSHAKING, and then drops back to IDLE, check the status of both ports specified in the
Dual Ports, Port 1/2 Dual, Port 3/4 Dual, or Port 5/6 Dual parameter of the answering MAX. If
either port in the pair is busy, the call cannot be routed to that pair.
AIM or BONDING call status drops back to IDLE
If you are trying to make an AIM or BONDING call, and the Call Status window reports
ANSWERING and HANDSHAKING, then drops back to IDLE, check that the routing
parameters are configured correctly. If they are not, an AIM, BONDING, or AIM/DBA call
might be routed to a port that cannot support these types of calls.
Bridge/router problems
Problems with a bridge or router can include the uncertainty of link quality and the MAX
hanging up after answering an IP call.
The link is of uncertain quality
When running File Transfer Protocol (FTP), the data transfer rate appears in bytes per second.
Multiply this rate times 8 to get the bits per second. For example, suppose that you are
connected to Detroit on a 56-Kbps B channel and that FTP indicates a 5.8 Kbyte/s data rate. In
this case, the link is running at 5.8x8=46.8 Kbps, or approximately 83% efficiency. Many
factors can affect efficiency, including the load on the FTP server, the round-trip delay, the
overall traffic between endpoints, and the link quality.
You can check link quality in the WAN Stat status window, or by running a Ping between the
same endpoints. Dropped packets hurt the link’s efficiency, as does round-trip delay. Random
round-trip delay indicates heavy traffic, a condition that also drops the efficiency of the link.
The MAX hangs up after answering an IP call
If the MAX hangs up after answering an IP call, proceed as follows:
1
If you are running PPP, verify that you have entered the proper passwords.
2
Verify that Auth is set to PAP or CHAP.
3
If you are routing IP over PPP, verify that the calling device gives its IP address
Some calling devices supply their names, but not their IP addresses. However, you can
derive an IP address if the calling device is listed in a local Connection profile or on a
RADIUS authentication server. Try enabling PAP or CHAP for the Recv Auth parameter
so that the MAX matches the caller’s name to the Station parameter in a Connection
profile and gets the corresponding LAN Adrs.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 A-23
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
B
This guide provides all available information about the MAX diagnostic commands. The
information is organized for quick reference, and does not include tutorials. All commands are
listed alphabetically.
Under most circumstances, diagnostic commands are not required for correct operation of the
MAX, and in some circumstances might produce undesirable results. Please use the following
information with caution. Contact Ascend Technical Support with any questions or concerns.
Note: Every attempt has been made to confirm that this chapter correctly describes the
functionality and output of the MAX diagnostic commands. But while diagnostic mode can be
a very valuable troubleshooting tool for anyone, its primary focus is on the requirements of
Ascend’s development engineers. For this reason, Ascend does not guarantee the completeness
of the list of commands or of the cataloging of functionality from release to release.
Using MAX diagnostic commands
To be allowed access to diagnostic mode, you must set the Field Service privilege to Yes in the
active Security profile. (If you have any questions about how to activate Security profiles, see
the MAX Security Supplement.)
Use one of the following two methods to access diagnostic mode:
•
From the MAX VT100 interface, display the DO menu by pressing Ctrl-D. Then press D
or select D=Diagnostics.
•
From the MAX VT100 interface, type the following key sequence in rapid succession:
Esc [ Esc =
(Press the Escape key, followed by the Left Bracket key, then the Escape key again,
followed by the Equals key.)
You must press all four keys within one second for the MAX to recognize the escape
sequence.
To display an abbreviated list of the most commonly used commands in diagnostic mode, enter
a question mark:
MAX>?
To display a complete listing, append ascend to the question mark:
MAX>? ascend
To exit diagnostic mode, enter quit.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 B-1
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
Command reference
Because most diagnostic commands are designed to give a developer information about
specific aspects of MAX functionality, you might find it helpful to use commands in
combination to troubleshoot different problems.
For example, when troubleshooting modem-related issues, you might want to use
ModemDrvState, ModemDiag, and MDialout (if modem dial-out is supported on your MAX)
to get all modem-related information for your calls.
Using several commands simultaneously not only gives you a clearer picture of what is
happening, but also shows you a chronological timeline of the events.
Command reference
Following are the MAX diagnostic commands in alphabetic order:
?
Description: Displays an abbreviated list of the most commonly used diagnostic commands
and a brief description of each command. Append the ascend modifier to display the
complete list of commands.
Usage: ? [ ascend ]
Syntax element
Description
ascend
List all commands.
Example:
MAX> ?
? -> List all monitor commands
clr-history -> Clear history log
ConnList -> Display connection list information
ether-display -> ether-display <port #> <n>
fatal-history -> List history log
fclear -> clear configuration from flash
FiltUpdate -> Request update of a connection
frestore -> restore configuration from flash
fsave -> save configuration to flash
help -> List all monitor commands
nslookup -> Perform DNS Lookup
priDisplay -> priDisplay <n>
quit -> Exit from monitor to menus
reset -> Reset unit
tloadcode -> load code from tftp host
trestore -> restore configuration from tftp host
tsave -> save configuration to tftp host
wanDisplay -> wanDisplay <n>
wanDSess -> wandsess <sess <n>> (display per session)
wanNext -> wanNext <n>
B-2 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
AddrPool
wanOpening -> wanOpening <n> (displays packets during
opening/negotiation)
AddrPool
Description: Displays messages related to dynamic address pooling. The command is a
toggle that alternately enables and disables the debug display.
Usage: Enter addrpool at the MAX prompt.
Example: Following are several examples of output displayed from addrpool.
With 18 addresses currently allocated from a pool:
ADDRPOOL: lanAllocate index 0 inuse 18
The address 208.147.145.155 was just allocated:
ADDRPOOL: allocate local pool address [208.147.145.155]
The following message appeared when the address 208.147.145.141 was to be freed because
the user of that address had hung up. The MAX must find the pool to which the pool address
belonged, then free the address so it is available for another user:
ADDRPOOL: found entry by base [208.147.145.141] entry
[208.147.145.129]
ADDRPOOL: free local pool address [208.147.145.141]
The following messages shows that a new pool is created. Under Ethernet > Mod Config >
WAN Options, Pool #1 Start is set to 192.168.8.8, and Pool #1 Count is set to 4:
ADDRPOOL: Deleting addrPool
ADDRPOOL: New Addr pool rc = 0
addrPool index 1 ip [192.168.8.8] count 4
The following message appeared when the Pool #1 Count parameter for an existing pool was
changed from 4 to 3:
ADDRPOOL: Deleting addrPool
ADDRPOOL: New Addr pool rc = 0
addrPool index 1 ip [192.168.8.8] count 3
In the events reported by the following display, a second pool is created. Under Ethernet >
Mod Config > WAN Options, Pool #2 Start is set to 192.168.10.8, and Pool #2 Count is set to
10:
ADDRPOOL: Deleting addrPool
ADDRPOOL: New Addr pool rc = 0
addrPool index 1 ip [192.168.8.8] count 4
ADDRPOOL: New Addr pool rc = 0
addrPool index 1 ip [192.168.8.8] count 4
addrPool index 2 ip [192.168.10.1] count 10
The second pool is then deleted:
ADDRPOOL: Deleting addrPool
ADDRPOOL: New Addr pool rc = 0
addrPool index 1 ip [192.168.8.8] count 4
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 B-3
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
ARPTable
ARPTable
Description: Displays the MAX unit’s Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table. The MAX
uses the ARP table to associate known IP addresses with physical hardware addresses.
Usage: Enter arptable at the command prompt.
Example:
MAX> arptable
ip address
DYN
206.30.33.11
DYN
206.30.33.254
DYN
206.30.33.21
DYN
206.30.33.15
ether addr
00A0244CCE04
00605C4CA220
00059A403B47
00A0247C2A72
if rts pkt
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ref
1
1
1
1
insert
281379
281303
281179
281178
The ARP table displays the following information:
Column
Description
Unnamed first column indicates how the address was learned,
dynamically (DYN) or by specification of a Bridge Address (STA).
ip address
Network address contained in ARP requests.
ether addr
Media Access Control (MAC) address of the host identified by ip
address. Also referred to as the hardware address.
if
Interface on which the MAX received the ARP request.
rts
Routes pointing to the address.
pkt
Number of packets queued.
ref
Number of times that the address was used.
insert
Time at which this entry was inserted into the ARP table.
Avm
Description: Displays a report on the status of the availability of modems in the MAX. Each
time you enter avm, you get a snapshot of current modem states and the recent history for each
modem. The command is particularly helpful in troubleshooting modem connection problems,
for which you must focus on the ability of individual modems to successfully connect with
dial-in users.
A call is noted as successful if modem handshaking (training) and authentication are
successful.
A call is noted as bad if modem handshaking fails at any point in the initial call set-up, or if the
dial-in user does not successfully log in.
The dir parameter indicates the direction of the last call into each modem. It can have the
following settings:
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
BRIDisplay
1—Call direction unknown.
2—Call was outgoing.
3—Call was incoming.
A modem is moved to the suspect list if its first four calls are bad, or if it experiences eight bad
calls in a row. Modems on the suspect list may still be used if all free modems are in use. Any
subsequent successful call to a suspect modem places that modem back on the free list.
Note: A call that has been categorized as bad does not necessarily indicate a modem problem
with the MAX. Poor line quality, software problems with the calling modem, wrong numbers,
and forgotten passwords all can generate calls that appear as bad calls but that have nothing to
do with modems on the MAX.
Usage: Enter avm at the command prompt.
Example: In the following display, an 8-mod modem card is located in slot 8 of the MAX.
Modems 8:5 and 8:6 are in use. Modems 8:2, 8:3, 8:4, 8:7, and 8:8 are idle and available to
accept calls. Modem 1 has been disabled by the V.34 Modem > Modem Diag > Modem #1
parameter.
MAX> avm
Modems on free list:
Modem 8:4, 70 calls, 6 bad,
Modem 8:8, 54 calls, 1 bad,
Modem 8:3, 63 calls, 1 bad,
Modem 8:2, 74 calls, 1 bad,
Modem 8:7, 64 calls, 2 bad,
Modems on suspect list:
Modem 8:1, 57 calls, 0 bad,
Modems on disabled list:
Modems on dead list:
Modems on busy list:
Modem 8:5, 65 calls, 2 bad,
Modem 8:6, 58 calls, 1 bad,
last
last
last
last
last
32
32
32
32
32
calls
calls
calls
calls
calls
=
=
=
=
=
ffdffbfc
ffffffff
fffbffff
ffffffff
ffbfffbf
dir=3
dir=3
dir=3
dir=3
dir=3
last 32 calls = ffffff00 dir=3
last 32 calls = fffffffd dir=3
last 32 calls = ffffffff dir=3
Looking at modem 4 on slot 8 (designated 8:4 ), the eight-digit hexadecimal number has to be
converted to binary to indicate how many of the last 32 calls were successful:
ffdffbfc = 11111111110111111111101111111100
The zeroes show that modem 8:4 has had four unsuccessful calls, including the last two calls.
After the hexadecimal number, dir=3 indicates that the last call was an incoming call.
BRIDisplay
Description: Displays messages related to the D-channel signaling for any BRI slot cards
installed on the MAX. The command is available only if you have loaded a version of MAX
software that supports BRI slot cards.
If you enter the command while traffic through your MAX is heavy, the resulting amount of
output can make it tedious to find the information you are looking for. The screen might even
display the message ----- data lost -----, which just means that not all the output
can be displayed on the screen. You might prefer to use the BRIDisplay command during a
period of low throughput.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 B-5
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
Callback
Usage: bridisplay n
where n is the number of octets to display per frame. Specifying a value of zero disables the
logging of the messages.
Example:
MAX> bridisplay 4
BRI-XMIT-7: : 4 octets @ B04EE520
[0000]: 00 B3 01 01
BRI-RCV-7: : 4 octets @ B0539A80
[0000]: 02 B3 01 01
BRI-XMIT-7: : 4 octets @ B0529560
[0000]: 02 B3 01 01
BRI-RCV-7: : 4 octets @ B05608A0
[0000]: 00 B3 01 01
Callback
Description: Displays messages related to the callback functionality of the MAX. You can
use the command to display, for example, sessions queued for callback. The command is a
toggle that alternately enables and disables the debug display.
With the callback feature enabled, the MAX hangs up after receiving an incoming call that
matches the specifications in the Connection profile. The MAX then uses the Dial # specified
in the Connection profile to call back the device at the remote end of the link.
You can use the callback command to tighten security by ensuring that the MAX connection to
known destinations only. The command can also help you troubleshoot detailed areas of the
callback process.
Usage: Enter callback at the command prompt.
Example: Following are several examples of output displayed by the Callback command.
MAX> callback
CALLBACK debug is now ON
The following message appears as the MAX prepares to call back the remote end:
CALLBACK: processing entry topeka
The MAX then dials the remote end:
CALLBACK: initiate call to topeka
When the call has been made and is being negotiated:
CALLBACK: new state WAITING
If callback failed and will be retried:
CALLBACK: new state FAILED
If callback is never successful, the call is marked for removal from the callback list and the
following message appears:
CALLBACK-FAILED: topeka marked as failed
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
ClockSource
After the remote end is called back, its entry is removed from the Callback list so that the
MAX can reallocate and use the resources. The following message appears:
CALLBACK: deleting entry topeka
To terminate the display:
MAX> callback
CALLBACK debug is now OFF
ClockSource
Description: Displays the source of clocking for the MAX. Clock slips can cause
connectivity problems, particularly for analog users. If you use the Net/T1 > Line Config >
Line # > Clock Source parameter to move the clock source, you can use this diagnostic
command to validate your changes.
Note: You need to reboot the MAX to enable any changes to the Clock Source parameter.
Also, if more than one line has Clock Source set to Yes, remember that the clock source will be
derived from the first line that syncs. If you want to ensure that a particular line is the source,
make sure it has Clock Source set to Yes and that all other lines have Clock Source set to No.
Usage: Enter clocksource at the command prompt.
Example: In the following example, the clock source is taken from the first T1/PRI line,
designated dsl 0. Dsl# indicates the maximum number of possible sources for the clock.
The source can be on Net/T1 slot cards or Net/BRI slot cards. This MAX has three T1/PRI
lines configured, so there are three possible external sources for the clock. LstSel is further
validation that the clock is being derived from Dsl#0. After Now, a 2 indicates that layer 2 is
up for that line and is available as the clock source.
MAX> clocksource
Clock source is dsl 0
Dsl#
01234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789
LstSel a?????????????????????????????????????????????????
Now
222-----------------------------------------------
Clr-History
Description: Clears the fatal-error history log.
Usage: Enter clr-history at the command prompt. To display the log before clearing it,
enter the fatal-history command.
Example:
MAX> fatal-history
OPERATOR RESET: Index: 99 Load: ti.m40 Revision: 5.0A
Date: 02/13/1997.
Time: 04:22:47
DEBUG Reset from unknown in security profile 1.
SYSTEM IS UP: Index: 100 Load: ti.m40 Revision: 5.0A
Date: 02/13/1997.
Time: 04:23:50
MAX> clr-history
The log is now empty:
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 B-7
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
CoreDump
MAX> fatal-history
MAX>
See Also: Fatal-History
CoreDump
Description: Enables or disables the ability of the MAX to send the contents of its memory
(core) to a specified UNIX host. When you use the function, the core file created can be several
megabytes in size. Also, the UNIX host must be running the ascendump daemon, which is
available by contacting Ascend Technical Support.
The CoreDump command is a particularly useful tool for Ascend’s development engineering,
and Technical Support occasionally requests its use to help troubleshoot specific issues.
You can include the now option to instruct the MAX to dump its core immediately. You can
include the enable option to direct the MAX to dump its core when it has logged an entry to
the fatal error log.
!
Caution: This command causes active connections to be disconnected and the MAX to
reboot after its memory (core) has been dumped. Do not use the command unless specifically
requested to do so by an Ascend representative.
Usage: coredump [enable] [disable] [now] ip address
where:
•
enable instructs the MAX to dump its core to the specified IP address when an entry is
logged to the fatal-error log.
•
disable cancels the command if it has been enabled.
•
now instructs the MAX to dump its core immediately to the specified IP address.
Example: Following are examples of entering the CoreDump command, and possible
response messages:
MAX> coredump enable 1.1.1.1
coredump over UDP is enabled locally only with server 1.1.1.1
MAX> coredump disable 1.1.1.1
coredump over UDP is disabled locally only with server 1.1.1.1
MAX> coredump
coredump over UDP is disabled locally only with server 1.1.1.1
MAX> coredump enable 200.200.28.193
coreDump: Sending arp request...
coreDump: Sending arp request...
coreDump: Sending arp request...
coreDump aborted: Can’t find ether address for first hop to
200.200.28.193
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
Ether-Display
Ether-Display
Description: Displays the contents of Ethernet packets.
If you enter the command while traffic through your MAX is heavy, the resulting amount of
output can make it tedious to find the information you are looking for. The screen might even
display the message ----- data lost -----, which just means that not all the output
can be displayed on the screen. You might prefer to use the Ether-Display command during a
period of low throughput.
Usage: ether-display port 0-# n
Syntax element
Description
port 0-#
The range of Ethernet ports on which received or transmitted packets
should be displayed. Use zero only to indicate that Ethernet packets for
all ports should be displayed.
n
The number of octets to display from each Ethernet packet.
Example: To display the first 12 octets of each Ethernet packet for all ports:
MAX> ether-display 0 12
Display the first 12 bytes of ETHER messages
ETHER XMIT: 105 octets @ B07BE920
[0000]: 00 40 C7 5A 64 6C 00 C0 7B 0C 01 59
ETHER RECV: 64 octets @ B077EE70
[0000]: 00 C0 7B 0C 01 59 00 40 C7 5A 64 6C
ETHER XMIT: 219 octets @ B07BE920
[0000]: 00 40 C7 5A 64 6C 00 C0 7B 0C 01 59
ETHER RECV: 64 octets @ B077F4C0
[0000]: 00 C0 7B 0C 01 59 00 40 C7 5A 64 6C
MAX> ether-display 0 0
ETHER message display terminated
Fatal-History
Description: Displays the MAX fatal-error log. Each time the MAX reboots, it logs a
fatal-error message to the fatal-error history log. The fatal-error log also includes Warnings, for
which the MAX did not reset. Development engineers use Warnings for troubleshooting
purposes. A Warning indicates that the MAX detected an error condition but recovered from it.
The number of entries in this log is limited by available flash space, and the errors rotate on a
First-In, First-Out (FIFO) basis. You can use the Clr-History command to clear the log.
Note: If your MAX experiences a fatal-error reset or Warning, contact Ascend Technical
Support immediately.
Definitions of fatal errors:
The following reset is the result of an Assert. This problem can be either hardware or software
related. Contact Ascend Technical Support if you experience an FE1 reset.
FATAL_ASSERT =
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1
Preliminary November 2, 1998 B-9
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
Fatal-History
The following reset results from an out-of-memory condition, sometimes termed a memory
leak:
FATAL_POOLS_NO_BUFFER =
2
Other resets include:
FATAL_PROFILE_BAD =
FATAL_SWITCH_TYPE_BAD =
FATAL_LIF_FATAL =
FATAL_LCD_ERROR =
FATAL_ISAC_TIMEOUT =
FATAL_SCC_SPURIOUS_INT =
3
4
5
6
7
8
The preceding reset is caused by a processor exception error.
FATAL_EXEC_INVALID_SWITCH = 9
FATAL_EXEC_NO_MAIL_DESC =
10
The preceding reset occurs if the MAX tries to allocate a mail message and there are none left.
A reset of this type is usually due to a memory leak.
FATAL_EXEC_NO_MAIL_POOL =
FATAL_EXEC_NO_TASK =
FATAL_EXEC_NO_TIMER =
FATAL_EXEC_NO_TIMER_POOL =
FATAL_EXEC_WAIT_IN_CS =
FATAL_DSP_DEAD =
FATAL_DSP_PROTOCOL_ERROR =
FATAL_DSP_INTERNAL_ERROR =
FATAL_DSP_LOSS_OF_SYNC =
FATAL_DSP_UNUSED =
FATAL_DDD_DEAD =
FATAL_DDD_PROTOCOL_ERROR =
FATAL_X25_BUFFERS =
FATAL_X25_INIT =
FATAL_X25_STACK =
FATAL_ZERO_MEMALLOC =
FATAL_NEG_MEMALLOC =
FATAL_TASK_LOOP =
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
27
28
29
The preceding reset is caused by a software loop.
FATAL_MEMCPY_TOO_LARGE =
FATAL_MEMCPY_NO_MAGIC =
FATAL_MEMCPY_WRONG_MAGIC =
FATAL_MEMCPY_BAD_START =
FATAL_IDEC_TIMEOUT =
FATAL_EXEC_RESTRICTED =
FATAL_STACK_OVERFLOW =
FATAL_OPERATOR_RESET =
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
99
The preceding entry is logged to the fatal-error table when the MAX has been manually reset,
either in diagnostic mode (with the Reset or NVRAMclear commands), through the user
interface, or through MIF.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
Fatal-History
Instead of a standard stack backtrace, the message includes the active Security profile index.
On the MAX the Default profile is number 1, and the Full Access profile is number 9. 0
indicates an unknown security profile.
The reset is logged immediately before the MAX goes down.
FATAL_SYSTEM_UP =
100
As a complement to entry 99, the preceding entry is logged as the MAX is coming up. For a
normal, manual reset, a fatal error 99 should appear, followed by a fatal error 100.
Warning messages
Warnings are not the result of reset conditions. The MAX logs Warnings when it detects a
problem and recovers. Following are the Warnings, in numeric order:
ERROR_BUFFER_IN_USE
ERROR_BUFFER_WRONG_POOL
ERROR_BUFFER_WRONG_HEAP
ERROR_BUFFER_NOT_MEMALLOC
101
102
103
104
Warning 104 can be logged under different conditions (for example, double freeing memory or
a low-memory condition).
ERROR_BUFFER_BAD_MEMALLOC
ERROR_BUFFER_BOGUS_POOL
ERROR_BUFFER_BOGUS_HEAP
105
106
107
Memory management code (or other modules) detected that the buffer header of what should
have been a free buffer had been corrupted by the previous overwrite.
ERROR_BUFFER_NEG_MEMALLOC
108
Warning 108 is logged when a negative length request is made to the memory allocation code.
ERROR_BUFFER_ZERO_MEMALLOC
109
Warning 109 is similar to Warning 108, except that the a zero length request is made to the
memory allocation code.
ERROR_BUFFER_BOUNDARY
ERROR_BUFFER_TOO_BIG
110
111
Warning 111occurs when a software routine has tried to allocate a block of memory greater
than 64KB.
ERROR_BUFFER_NULL
ERROR_BUFFER_SEGCOUNT_ZERO
ERROR_BUFFER_TRAILER_MAGIC
ERROR_BUFFER_TRAILER_BUFFER
ERROR_BUFFER_TRAILER_LENGTH
ERROR_BUFFER_TRAILER_USER_MAGIC
ERROR_BUFFER_WRITE_AFTER_FREE
ERROR_BUFFER_NOT_IN_USE
ERROR_BUFFER_MEMCPY_MAGIC
ERROR_BUFFER_MEMCPY_MAGIC_NEXT
ERROR_BUFFER_MIN
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
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MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
Fatal-History
ERROR_BUFFER_MAX
ERROR_LCD_ALLOC_FAILURE
121
145
Warning 145 occurs when a memory-copy routine was called but the source buffer was much
larger than expected.
ERROR_MEMCPY_TOO_LARGE
ERROR_MEMCPY_NO_MAGIC
ERROR_MEMCPY_WRONG_MAGIC
ERROR_MEMCPY_BAD_START
ERROR_WAN_BUFFER_LEAK
150
151
152
153
154
Warning 154 is caused by an error in the WAN driver.
ERROR_TERMSRV_STATE
ERROR_TERMSRV_SEMA4
ERROR_STAC_TIMEOUT
ERROR_EXEC_FAILURE
160
161
170
175
Warning 175 occurs because the kernel temporarily does not have available memory to spawn
a task.
ERROR_EXEC_RESTRICTED
ERROR_EXEC_NO_MAILBOX
ERROR_EXEC_NO_RESOURCES
ERROR_CHAN_MAP_STUCK
176
177
178
180
Warning 180 is caused by a missing channel on a T1/PRI line.
ERROR_CHAN_DISPLAY_STUCK
ERROR_NEW_CALL_NO_DISC_REQ
181
182
Warning 182 indicates that a Disconnect message to the Central Office (CO) was not sent. The
problem can be caused by conditions on the MAX or at the CO. When the MAX encounters
the condition, it assumes the CO is correct, and answers the call.
ERROR_NEW_CALL_NO_DISC_RESP
ERROR_DISC_REQ_DROPPED
ERROR_SPYDER_BUFFER
ERROR_SPYDER_DESC
ERROR_TCP_SBCONT_TOO_BIG
ERROR_TCP_SEQUENCE_GAP
ERROR_TCP_TOO_MUCH_DATA
ERROR_TCP_TOO_MUCH_WRITE
ERROR_TCP_BAD_OPTIONS
ERROR_OSPF_BASE
183
184
185
186
190
191
192
193
194
200
Usage: Enter fatal-history at the command prompt.
Example:
MAX> fatal-history
OPERATOR RESET: Index: 99 Load: mhpe1bip Revision: 4.6Cp22
Date: 02/24/1997.
Time: 16:08:43
DEBUG Reset from unknown in security profile 1.
OPERATOR RESET: Index: 99 Load: ebiom.m40 Revision: 5.0A
Date: 02/24/1997.
Time: 16:09:35
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MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
FClear
NVRAM was rebuilt
SYSTEM IS UP: Index: 100 Load: ebiom.m40 Revision: 5.0A
Date: 02/24/1997.
Time: 16:10:04
See Also: Clr-History
FClear
Description: Clears Flash memory on the MAX. When the MAX boots, it loads the code and
configuration from Flash memory into Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM). If you
want to return your MAX to its factory-set defaults, you need to perform an FClear.
Usage: Enter fclear at the command prompt.
Example:
MAX> fclear
.
See Also: FSave
FRestore
Description: Restores a configuration from Flash memory and loads it into DRAM on the
MAX.
Note: The MAX performs an FRestore when it boots. You need to execute the command if
you have made changes to the current configuration and want to restore the configuration
stored in Flash memory.
Usage: Enter frestore at the command prompt.
FSave
Description: Stores the current configuration into Flash memory.
Note: When you load code with the TloadCode command, an FSave is performed
automatically before the code is uploaded. When the box boots after the upload, the MAX will
load the configuration stored in Flash rather than be reset to factory default settings.
Usage: Enter fsave at the command prompt.
Example:
MAX> fsave
.........................................
.
MAX>
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 B-13
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
Heartbeat
Heartbeat
Description: Displays information related to multicast heartbeat functionality. The command
is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the debug display.
Usage: Enter heartbeat at the command prompt.
Example: Following are several examples of output displayed by the Heartbeat command.
HB:
HB:
HB:
HB:
HB:
HB:
HB:
HB:
Sending SNMP Alarm count
Checking Number of HeartBeats received
HeartBeats received x
Changing to Alarm Mode, HeartBeats Received x Expected y
HeartBeat group address changed
Heart beat received with invalid UDP port
Heart beat received from invalid source
Received HeartBeat packet
Help
Description: Displays a list of the most commonly used diagnostic commands and a brief
description of each command. You can append the ascend modifier to display the complete
list of commands.
Usage: help [ascend]
Syntax element
Description
ascend
List all commands.
Example:
MAX> help
? -> List all monitor commands
clr-history -> Clear history log
ConnList -> Display connection list information
ether-display -> ether-display <port #> <n>
fatal-history -> List history log
fclear -> clear configuration from flash
FiltUpdate -> Request update of a connection
frestore -> restore configuration from flash
fsave -> save configuration to flash
help -> List all monitor commands
nslookup -> Perform DNS Lookup
priDisplay -> priDisplay <n>
quit -> Exit from monitor to menus
reset -> Reset unit
tloadcode -> load code from tftp host
trestore -> restore configuration from tftp host
tsave -> save configuration to tftp host
wanDisplay -> wanDisplay <n>
wanDSess -> wandsess <sess <n>> (display per session)
wanNext -> wanNext <n>
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MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
IPXripDebug
wanOpening -> wanOpening <n> (displays packets during
opening/negotiation)
See Also: ?
IPXripDebug
Description: Displays incoming and outgoing IPX RIP traffic. The command is a toggle that
alternately enables and disables the debug display.
Usage: Enter ipxripdebug at the command prompt.
Example:
MAX> ipxripdebug
IPX-RIP state display is ON
The following message appears as the MAX sends an IPX RIP packet announcing its route:
IPXRIP: 10000a17 announced 0 routes on interface 1000:
Next, a Pipeline 50 has dialed the MAX. The MAX receives a RIP route from the Pipeline:
IPXRIP: received response from ac1b0001:00c07b5e04c0 (1 nets).
The following message indicates that the MAX is delaying sending a RIP packet in order to
prevent the interpacket arrival time from being closer than busy/slow routers can handle. An
IPX router should never violate the minimum broadcast delay.
IPX-RIP: too soon to send on interface 1000.
The following messages indicate received and sent RIP updates:
IPXRIP:
IPXRIP:
IPXRIP:
IPXRIP:
IPXRIP:
10000a81
received
10000aa6
received
10000abc
announced 0 routes on interface 1000:
response from ac1b0001:00c07b6204c0 (1 nets).
announced 0 routes on interface 1000:
response from ac1b0001:00c07b5504c0 (1 nets).
announced 0 routes on interface 1000:
MdbStr
Description: Modfies the default modem AT command strings used by the modems on the
MAX for both incoming and for outgoing calls. WIth older software, you could not modify the
AT command for modems on the MAX. You could affect the string in minor ways by
modifying the V42/MNP, Max Baud, and MDM Trn Lvl parameters located in Ethernet > Mod
Config > TServe Options.
The MdbStr command also allows you to return the string to its factory default settings.
The modem chip in the MAX supports AT commands of up to 56 characters in length. To fully
support all possible functionality, each AT command is sent as two separate strings. You can
modify one or both strings.
Note: The AT command string initializes the modems it affects. When you change the AT
command string, you are changing the functionality of the modems. Please use the MdbStr
command carefully.
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MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
ModemDiag
Following are the two default strings for the MAX:
•
AT&F0&C1V0W1X4
•
AT%C3\N3S2=255S95=44S91=10+MS=11,1,300,33600A
Usage: mdbstr [0] [1] [2] [AT command string]
Example: You can modify each portion of the AT command string as follows:
Override the existing first string with a new string:
mdbstr 1 AT&F0&C1V1W1
Override the second portion of the AT command string:
mdbstr 2 AT%C3\N3S2=255S95=44S91=10+MS=11,1,300,14400A
Return both strings to their factory default settings:
mdbstr 0
ModemDiag
Description: Displays diagnostic information about each modem as the modem’s call is
cleared. The command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the diagnostic display.
With ModemDiag enabled, at the end of each modem call the command initiates an AT&V1
call and displays the following variables with their current values:
Usage: Enter modemdiag at the command prompt.
Variable
Description
TERMINATION REASON
LINK DISCONNECT—The remote side disconnected the
call.
LOCAL REQUEST—The MAX initiated a disconnect
because of poor line quality.
CARRIER LOSS
GSTN CLEARDOWN—Global Switched telephone
network (GSTN) initiated the disconnect.
NO ERROR CORRECTION
INCOMPATIBLE PROTOCOL
EXCESSIVE RETRANSMISSIONS
DTR LOSS
INACTIVITY TIMEOUT
INCOMPATIBLE SPEEDS
BREAK DISCONNECT
KEY ABORT
LAST TX data rate
Last data rate at which the modem on the MAX was
transmitting.
HIGHEST TX data rate
Highest data rate at which the modem on the MAX was
transmitting.
LAST RX data rate
Last data rate at which the modem on the MAX was
receiving.
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MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
ModemDiag
Variable
Description
HIGHEST RX data rate
Highest data rate at which the modem on the MAX was
receiving.
Error correction PROTOCOL Negotiated error correction protocol.
Data COMPRESSION
Negotiated data compression protocol.
Line QUALITY
Probes are sent by each modem to determine the quality of
the line and the connection. The range for this variable is 0 to
128. The lower the number, the better the perceived line
quality.
Receive LEVEL
Representation of the attenuation (weakening) of the modem
signal, which is measured in decibels. The decibel rating is
translated into a number between 0 and 128 for inclusion in
this report. The lower the number, the lower the attenuation
of the modem signal.
Highest SPX Receive State
Number relating to an internal DSP state machine in the
modem code. Has no practical use for most users.
Highest SPX Transmit State
Number relating to an internal DSP state machine in the
modem code. Has no practical use for most users.
Example:
MAX> modemdiag
TERMINATION REASON..........
LAST TX data rate...........
HIGHEST TX data rate........
LAST RX data rate...........
HIGHEST RX data rate........
Error correction PROTOCOL...
Data COMPRESSION............
Line QUALITY................
Receive LEVEL...............
Highest SPX Receive State...
Highest SPX Transmit State..
LINK DISCONNECT
26400 BPS
26400 BPS
24000 BPS
24000 BPS
LAPM
V42Bis
032
017
67
67
TERMINATION REASON..........
LAST TX data rate...........
HIGHEST TX data rate........
LAST RX data rate...........
HIGHEST RX data rate........
Error correction PROTOCOL...
Data COMPRESSION............
Line QUALITY................
Receive LEVEL...............
Highest SPX Receive State...
Highest SPX Transmit State..
LINK DISCONNECT
28800 BPS
31200 BPS
28800 BPS
28800 BPS
LAPM
V42Bis
032
017
85
87
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MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
MDialout
MDialout
Description: Displays messages related to modem dialout. You can use the command in
conjunction with the diagnostic command ModemDrvState to get detailed information about
outbound modem calls.
The command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the debug display.
Usage: Enter mdialout at the command prompt.
Example: A modem on the MAX prepares to make an outbound modem call, but never
receives a dialtone:
MAX> mdialout
MDIALOUT-2/4: >> CURR state=Await_Off_Hook, NEW event=Event_Off_Hook
MDIALOUT-2/4: connected to DSP!
MDIALOUT-2/4: rqst tone (14) via channelIndex 0
MDIALOUT-2/4: tone generation started.
MDIALOUT-2/4: >> CURR state=Await_Dial_Tone, NEW
event=Event_Dialtone_On
MDIALOUT-2/4: decode timer started.
MDIALOUT-2/4: << NEW state=Await_1st_Digit
MDIALOUT-2/4: enabling tone search, channel index=0, timeslot=0
MDIALOUT-2/4: << NEW state=Await_1st_Digit
MDIALOUT-2/4: >> CURR state=Await_1st_Digit, NEW event=Event_On_Hook
MDIALOUT-2/4: stopping decode timer.
MDIALOUT-2/4: rqst tone (15) via channelIndex 0
MDIALOUT-2/4: disabling tone search, channel index=0
MDIALOUT-2/4: disconnected from DSP.
MDIALOUT-2/4: << NEW state=Await_Off_Hook
MDIALOUT-2/4: >> CURR state=Await_Off_Hook, NEW event=Event_Close_Rqst
MDIALOUT-?/?: << NEW state= <DELETED>
ModemDrvDump
Description: Displays information about the status of each modem.
Usage: Enter modemdrvdump at the command prompt.
Example: Following is a message about modem 0 (the first modem) in the modem card in slot
3 on the MAX. The numbers in brackets indicate number of calls with unexpected open
requests, unexpected Rcode events, unexpected release events and unexpected timeouts:
MODEMDRV-3/0: Unexp Open/Rcode/Rlsd/TimOut=[0,0,0,0]
ModemDrvState
Description: Displays communication to and from the modem driver on the MAX. You can
see which buffers are allocated and which AT command strings are being used to establish
modem connections.
You can also determine whether data is received from the modem in an understandable format.
If line quality is poor, the modem driver attempts to parse incoming data from the modem, but
it might not be successful.
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MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
ModemDrvState
The command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the diagnostic display.
Note: Once a connection is negotiated, the modems exchange a series of numerical result
codes. You can see and decipher these result codes to determine the negotiated connection rate
and error correction/compression protocols. Following is a list of several result codes and their
meanings:
0 - OK
1 - CONNECT (300 bps)
2 - RING
3 - NO CARRIER
4 - ERROR
5 - CONNECT 1200
6 - NO DIALTONE
7 - BUSY
8 - NO ANSWER
9 - CONNECT 0600
10 - CONNECT 2400
11 - ONNECT 4800
12 - CONNECT 9600
13 - CONNECT 7200
14 - CONNECT 12000
15 - CONNECT 14400
16 - CONNECT 19200
17 - CONNECT 38400
18 - CONNECT 57600
22 - CONNECT 1200/75 (Models with v.23
23 - CONNECT 75/1200 (Models with v.23
24 - DELAYED
25 - CONNECT 14400
32 - BLACKLISTED
33 - FAX
34 - FCERROR
35 - DATA
40 - CARRIER 300
43 - CONNECT 16800 (V.34 ONLY)
44 - CARRIER 1200/75 (Models with v.23
45 - CARRIER 75/1200 (Models with v.23
46 - CARRIER 1200
47 - CARRIER 2400
48 - CARRIER 4800
49 - CARRIER 7200
50 - CARRIER 9600
51 - CARRIER 12000
52 - CARRIER 14400
66 - COMPRESSION: CLASS 5 (MNP 5)
67 - COMPRESSION: V.42BIS (BTLZ)
69 - COMPRESSION: NONE
70 - PROTOCOL: NONE
77 - PROTOCOL: LAP-M (V.42)
80 - PROTOCOL: ALT (MNP)
81 - PROTOCOL: ALT - CELLULAR (MNP 10)
85 - CONNECT 19200 (V.34 ONLY)
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
support only)
support only
support only)
support only)
+FC +FCERROR
Preliminary November 2, 1998 B-19
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
ModemDrvState
91 - CONNECT 21600 (V.34 ONLY)
99 - CONNECT 24000 (V.34 ONLY)
103 - CONNECT 26400 (V.34 ONLY)
107 - CONNECT 28800 (V.34 ONLY)
151 - CONNECT 31200 (V.34 ONLY)
155* - CONNECT 33600 (V.34 ONLY)
Usage: Enter modemdrvstate at the command prompt.
Example: A modem call comes into the MAX, and a modem call is cleared from the MAX.
MAX> modemdrvstate
MODEMDRV debug display is ON
Modem 1 on the modem card in slot 3 has been assigned to answer an incoming modem call:
MODEMDRV-3/1: modemOpen modemHandle B04E3898, hdlcHandle
B026809C, orig 0
The modem is idle, so it is available to answer the call:
MODEMDRV-3/1: _processOpen/IDLE
The next two lines show the MAX modem sending the first string. The second line shows that
a buffer needs to be allocated for sending the command out the WAN.
MODEMDRV: Answer String, Part 1 - AT&F0E0
MODEMDRV-3/1: _hdlcBufSentFnc: buffer = 2E12EAE0, status = SENT
Buffers are allocated for data being received from the WAN:
MODEMDRV-3/1: _hdlcBufRcvdFnc:
parseState[n,v]=[0,0], status=
MODEMDRV-3/1: _hdlcBufRcvdFnc:
parseState[n,v]=[0,0], status=
data=2E13ADF0, len=8,
RCVD
data=2E13BA20, len=5,
RCVD
The MAX modem receives OK from the calling modem:
MODEMDRV-3/1: data =OK
The same process is repeated for strings 2 and 3:
MODEMDRV-3/1: _processTimeout/DIAL_STR2
MODEMDRV: Answer String, Part 2 - AT&C1V0W1X4
MODEMDRV-3/1: _hdlcBufSentFnc: buffer = 2E12EAE0, status = SENT
MODEMDRV-3/1: _hdlcBufRcvdFnc: data=2E13C038, len=2,
parseState[n,v]=[0,0], status= RCVD
MODEMDRV-3/1: data = 0
MODEMDRV-3/1: _processTimeout/DIAL_STR3
MODEMDRV: Answer String, Part 3 AT%C3\N3S2=255S95=44S91=10+MS=11,1,300,33600A
Now, result codes are processed to clarify the characteristics of the connection. The MAX
modem sends a result code of 52, or CARRIER 14400, and the MAX modem receives the
same speed from the calling modem:
MODEMDRV-3/1: _hdlcBufSentFnc: buffer = 2E12EAE0, status = SENT
MODEMDRV-3/1: data = 5
MODEMDRV-3/1: _hdlcBufRcvdFnc: data=2E13ADF0, len=2, pars-
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MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
NSLookup
eState[n,v]=[5,0], status= RCVD
MODEMDRV-3/1: data = 2
MODEMDRV-3/1: decode= 52
Result codes 77 and 67 indicate that V.42 error correction and V.42bis error compression,
respectively, have been successfully negotiated.
MODEMDRV-3/1: _hdlcBufRcvdFnc:
parseState[n,v]=[2,0], status=
MODEMDRV-3/1: data = 7
MODEMDRV-3/1: _hdlcBufRcvdFnc:
parseState[n,v]=[5,0], status=
19DEMDRV-3/1: data = 7
MODEMDRV-3/1: decode= 77
MODEMDRV-3/1: decode= 67
data=2E13B408, len=1,
RCVD
data=2E13BA20, len=8,
RCVD
At this point the modem call is up, and the modem driver has completed its task. From here,
the call will be passed to Ethernet resources:
MODEMDRV-3/1: _processRcodeEvent/AWAITING RLSD, mType=5, RLSD=0
MODEMDRV-3/1: _processRlsdChange/AWAITING RLSD = 1
Following is the normal sequence of steps for a modem call that is cleared (by either modem).
Modem 5 on the modem card in slot 7 of the MAX is freed from the previous call and is
reinitialized (so it is available for the next call).
MODEMDRV-7/5: modemClose modemHandle B04E6F38
MODEMDRV-7/5: _closeConnection:ONLINE, event=3
MODEMDRV-7/5: _processTimeout/INIT
NSLookup
Description: Similar to the UNIX nslookup command. When you specify a host name, a
DNS request is forwarded. If the host is found, the corresponding IP address is displayed.
Usage: nslookup host_name
Example:
MAX> nslookup host1
Resolving host host1.
IP address for host drawbridge is 1.1.1.1.
MAX> nslookup 198.4.92.1
Resolving host 198.4.92.1.
MAX> nslookup
Missing host name.
MAX> nslookup nohost
Resolving host nohost.
Unable to resolve nohost!
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 B-21
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
NVRAMClear
NVRAMClear
Description: Clears Nonvolatile Random Access Memory (NVRAM). The current system
configuration is stored in NVRAM.
Note: A copy of the configuration may also be stored in Flash memory. If you clear NVRAM,
the MAX resets and initializes itself with the configuration it detects in Flash memory. To
return your MAX to its factory default settings, you must first use the FClear command to clear
the configuration in Flash then use NVRAMClear.
Usage: Enter nvramclear at the command prompt.
See Also: FClear
PPPDump
Description: Very similar to the WANDisplay diagnostic command. But PPPDump strips out
escape characters that are present for asynchronous PPP users (who are dialing in with
modems). The escape characters are necessary because of the asynchronous nature of the data
stream. Stripping them out simply clarifies the presentation of the data.
If you enter the command while traffic through your MAX is heavy, the resulting amount of
output can make it tedious to find the information you are looking for. The screen might even
display the message ----- data lost -----, which just means that not all the output
can be displayed on the screen. You might prefer to use the PPPDump command during a
period of low throughput.
Usage: pppdump n
where n is the number of octets to display per frame. Specifying a value of 0 (zero) disables
the logging of data.
Example:
Consider the following frames, which were logged by the WANDisplay 64 command:
7E
2A
7E
7D
FF
7D
FF
22
7D
20
7D
7D
23 C0 21 7D 21 7D 21 7D 20 7D 37 7D 22 7D 26 7D 20 7D
7D 20 2D 7D 23 7D 26 3A AA 7E
23 C0 21 7D 21 7D 21 7D 20 23 7D 20 7D 24 7D 20 7D 20
7E
To get the data stream without escape characters, the 0x7D bytes need to be stripped, and the
byte following each 0x7D byte needs to be decremented by 0x20.
With PPPDump, the MAX automatically convert and displays the data as follows:
7E FF 03 C0 21 01 01 00 17 02 06 00 0A 00 00 2D 03 06 3A AA 7E 7E
FF 03 C0 21 01 01 00 23 00 24 00 00 02 7E
See Also: WANDisplay, WANNext, WANOpen
B-22 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
PPPFSM
PPPFSM
Displays changes to the PPP state machine as PPP users connect. The command is a toggle that
alternately enables and disables the diagnostics display.
Usage: Enter pppfsm at the command prompt.
Example: The following display shows the complete establishment of a PPP session.
MAX> pppfsm
PPPFSM state display is ON
PPPFSM-97: Layer 0
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State STARTING
PPPFSM-97: Layer 0
State STARTING
PPPFSM-97: ...New State REQSENT
PPPFSM-97: Layer 1
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: Layer 2
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: Layer 3
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: Layer 4
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: Layer 5
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: Layer 6
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: Layer 7
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: Layer 8
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: Layer 9
State INITIAL
PPPFSM-97: ...New State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: Layer 0
State REQSENT
PPPFSM: irc_new scr 4
PPPFSM-97: ...New State REQSENT
PPPFSM-97: Layer 0
State REQSENT
PPPFSM-97: ...New State ACKRECD
PPPFSM-97: Layer 0
State ACKRECD
PPPFSM-97: ...New State ACKRECD
PPPFSM-97: Layer 0
State ACKRECD
PPPFSM-97: Layer 1
State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: ...New State REQSENT
PPPFSM-97: ...New State OPENED
PPPFSM: PAP Packet
PPPFSM-97: Layer 6
State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: ...New State REQSENT
PPPFSM-97: Layer 4
State CLOSED
PPPFSM-97: ...New State REQSENT
PPPFSM-97: Layer 4
State REQSENT
PPPFSM-97: ...New State REQSENT
PPPFSM: ccp Packet code 1
PPPFSM-97: Layer 6
State REQSENT
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Event OPEN...
Event UP...
Event UP...
Event UP...
Event UP...
Event UP...
Event UP...
Event UP...
Event UP...
Event UP...
Event UP...
Event RCONFREJ...
Event RCONFACK...
Event RCONFREQ...
Event RCONFREQ...
Event OPEN...
Event OPEN...
Event OPEN...
Event RCONFREQ...
Event RCONFREQ...
Preliminary November 2, 1998 B-23
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
PPPIF
PPPFSM-97: ...New State REQSENT
PPPFSM: ccp Packet code 2
PPPFSM-97: Layer 6
State REQSENT
PPPFSM-97: ...New State ACKRECD
PPPFSM-97: Layer 4
State REQSENT
PPPFSM-97: ...New State ACKRECD
Event RCONFACK...
Event RCONFACK...
PPPIF
Description: Displays messages relating to each PPP connection. This command is
particularly useful in troubleshooting negotiation failures. To help in troublshooting PPP
issues, you might want to use PPPIF in conjunction with PPPDump.
Usage: Enter pppif at the command prompt.
Example:
MAX> pppif
PPPIF debug is ON
PPPIF: open: routeid 285, incoming YES
The following message indicates a modem call:
PPPIF-110: ASYNC mode
Link Compression Protocol (LCP) is negotiated:
VJ Header compression is enabled.
PPPIF-110: vj comp on
PAP authentication is configured on the MAX and required for access:
PPPIF-110:
PPPIF-110:
PPPIF-110:
PPPIF-110:
_initAuthentication
auth mode 1
PAP auth, incoming
bypassing async layer
LCP has been successfully negotiated and established. Authentication is next:
PPPIF-110:
PPPIF-110:
PPPIF-110:
PPPIF-110:
PPPIF-110:
PPPIF-110:
PPPIF-110:
PPPIF-110:
Link Is up.
pppMpNegUntimeout last 0 layer 0
pppMpNegUntimeout last 0 layer 0
LCP Opened, local ’Answer’, remote ’’
_openAuthentication
pppMpNegUntimeout last 0 layer 1
Auth Opened
Remote hostName is ’my_name’
PAP Authentication was successful. Compression Control Protocol (CCP) is negotiated next,
along with IP Network Control Protocol (IPNCP):
PPPIF-110: opening CCP
PPPIF-110: pppMpSendNeg Pkt
PPPIF-110: pppMpNegTimeout layer 6
The user is given the address 1.1.1.1 from pool 0:
B-24 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
PPPInfo
PPPIF-110: using address from pool 0
PPPIF-110: Allocated address [1.1.1.1]
PPPIF-110: opening IPNCP:
PPPIF-110: pppMpSendNeg Pkt
PPPIF-110: pppMpNegTimeout layer 4
PPPIF-110: pppMpSendNeg Pkt
PPPIF-110: pppMpSendNeg Pkt
PPPIF-110: pppMpNegUntimeout last 0 layer 6
PPPIF-110: pppMpNegUntimeout last 0 layer 4
PPPIF-110: pppMpSendNeg Pkt
PPPIF-110: pppMpSendNeg Pkt
PPPIF-110: pppMpNegUntimeout last 0 layer 4
PPPIF-110: IPNCP Opened to
PPPIF-110: pppMpSendNeg Pkt
PPPIF-110: pppMpNegUntimeout last 0 layer 6
PPPIF-110: CCP Opened
IPNCP and CCP have been successfully negotiated. The PPP session has been completely
established.
PPPInfo
Description: Displays information about established PPP sessions. Has little practical use
other than as a tool for developmental engineering.
Usage: ppinfo index [all]
Example:
Syntax element
Description
index
Selects a particular PPP information table.
all
Displays information about embedded structures.
Example:
MAX> pppinfo 1
Ncp[LCP]
Ncp[AUTH]
Ncp[CHAP]
Ncp[LQM]
Ncp[IPNCP]
Ncp[BNCP]
Ncp[CCP]
Ncp[IPXNCP]
Ncp[ATNCP]
Ncp[UNKNOWN]
Mode
nOpen pending
LocalAsyncMap
RemoteAsyncMap
Peer Name
Rmt Auth State
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
B02B396C
B02B39BC
B02B3A0C
B02B3A5C
B02B3AAC
B02B3AFC
B02B3B4C
B02B3B9C
B02B3BEC
B02B3C3C
async
0
0
0
N/A
RMT_NONE
Preliminary November 2, 1998 B-25
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
PPTPCM
aibuf
ipcp
vJinfo
localVjInfo
bncpInfo
ipxInfo
remote
Bad FCS
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0
B03E502C
0
0
B03E559C
B03E55DC
no
a
PPTPCM
Description: Displays messages relating to the call management layer of PPTP. Messages
appear as calls are routed to the PPTP server by the MAX. The command is a toggle that
alternately enables and disables the diagnostic display.
Usage: Enter pptpcm at the command prompt.
Example: Following are messages from a successful connection:
PPTPCM: Connecting to host [1.1.1.1]
PPTPCM-[1.1.1.1]: Event = Local-Start-Request
PPTPCM-[1.1.1.1]: Starting local session
In the following message, status = 0 indicates that this was a successful connection:
PPTPCM-[1.1.1.1]:
PPTPCM-[1.1.1.1]:
PPTPCM-[1.1.1.1]:
PPTPCM-[1.1.1.1]:
Started local session; status = 0
_receiveFunc called
Event = Remote-Start-Reply
Session state changed from Local-Start to Up
Following are messages from an unsuccessful connection:
PPTPCM-[2.2.2.2]:
PPTPCM-[2.2.2.2]:
PPTPCM-[0.0.0.0]:
PPTPCM-[0.0.0.0]:
Event = Local-Start-Request
Starting local session
Started local session; status = -4
EC Start failed
PPTPData
Description: Displays the data flowing between the PPTP client and the PPTP server. The
command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the diagnostic display.
Usage: Enter pptpdata at the command prompt.
Example: The first of the following messages indicates that the MAX received a positive
acknowledgement from the NT server:
PPTPDATA-[1.1.1.1]: Received GRE ACK
Also, the MAX received data from the NT server that needs to be forwarded out the WAN port:
PPTPDATA-[1.1.1.1]: _dataFromLan
The MAX receives a packet from the WAN with a good Frame Check Sequence, and sends it
to the PPTP server to be processed:
PPTPDATA-[1.1.1.1]: Good FCS.
B-26 Preliminary November 2, 1998
Sending packet to peer
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
PPTPEC
The following message is a result of an unsuccessful attempt to connect to an NT PPTP server.
PPTPDATA-[2.2.2.2]: pptpDataSessionDown, Session not found
PPTPEC
Description: Displays control link messages between the PPTP client and the PPTP server.
The command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the diagnostics display.
Usage: Enter pptpec at the command prompt.
Example: Following are messages from a successful connection and from an unsuccessful
attempt.
Successsful connection:
PPTPEC-[1.1.1.1]:
PPTPEC-[1.1.1.1]:
PPTPEC-[1.1.1.1]:
PPTPEC-[1.1.1.1]:
PPTPEC-[1.1.1.1]:
PPTPEC-[1.1.1.1]:
PPTPEC-[1.1.1.1]:
pptpECSend called
New state = Running
Event = Send, current state = Running
New state = Running
Receive callback called
Event = Receive, current state = Running
New state = Running
Unsuccessful attempt:
PPTPEC-[2.2.2.2]: pptpECStart calledPPTPEC-[2.2.2.2]: Event = Start, current state = Stopped
PPTPSend
Description: Sends an Echo Request to the specified NT PPTP server.
Usage: pptpsend ip_address_of_PPTP_server
Example:
MAX> pptpsend 1.1.1.1
PPTPCM: Sending Echo Request to host [1.1.1.1]
PRIDisplay
Description: Displays the contents of WAN packets.
If you enter the command while traffic through your MAX is heavy, the resulting amount of
output can make it tedious to find the information you are looking for. The screen might even
display the message ----- data lost -----, which just means that not all the output
can be displayed on the screen. You might prefer to use the PRIDisplay command during a
period of low throughput.
Usage: pridisplay n
where n is the number of octets to display from each WAN packet.
Example: The output from the following PRIDisplay command shows the first 64 bytes from
each packet sent to or received from the WAN:
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 B-27
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
Quit
MAX> pridisplay 64
Display the first 64 bytes of PRI messages
PRI-RCV-0(task: B0479C00, time: 83251.39) 4 octets @ B0539620
[0000]: 02 01 01 61
PRI-XMIT-0(task: B04B3A40, time: 83251.39) 4 octets @ B050C340
[0000]: 02 01 01 49
PRI-RCV-0(task: B0479C00, time: 83261.64) 4 octets @ B052AF60
[0000]: 02 01 01 61
PRI-XMIT-0(task: B04B3A40, time: 83261.65) 4 octets @ B051EFA0
[0000]: 02 01 01 49
PRI-RCV-0(task: B0479C00, time: 83269.98) 27 octets @ B0539620
[0000]: 02 01 48 60 08 02 1A 7B 05 04 03 80 90 A2 18 04
[0010]: E9 82 83 88 70 05 C1 34 39 39 30
pridisplay 0
PRI message display terminated
Quit
Description: Exits diagnostic mode.
Usage: Enter quit at the command prompt.
RadAcct
Description: Displays RADIUS accounting information. The RadAcct command displays
very few messages if RADIUS Accounting is functioning correctly. The command is a toggle
that alternately enables and disables the diagnostic display.
(For troubleshooting RADIUS-related issues, the RADIF command displays more detailed
information.)
Usage: Enter radacct at the command prompt.
Example:
MAX> radacct
RADACCT debug display is ON
A user hangs up and a stop record is generated:
RADACCT-147:stopRadAcct
The following message indicates that there is some load on the network and the sending of a
stop record is delayed. This does not necessarily indicate a problem:
RADACCT-147:_endRadAcct: STOP was delayed
RadIF
Description: Displays RADIUS-related messages. RadIF is a powerful diagnostic command,
because it displays RADIUS messages the MAX receives as well as messages that it sends.
Output from RadIF, in conjunction with running your RADIUS daemon in diagnostic mode
(using the -x option), gives you virtually all the information you need to clarify issues relating
to user authentication.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
RadIF
You can also validate the IP port that you have configured (or think you have configured), and
the user name that is being sent by the client.
The command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the diagnostic display.
Usage: Enter radif at the command prompt.
Example: Following are messages you might see for a successful RADIUS authentication:
RADIF: authenticating <8:my_name> with PAP
RADIF: _radiusRequest: id 41, user name <9:my_name>
RADIF: _radiusRequest: challenge len = <0>
The RADIUS Daemon IP address and authentication port appear:
RADIF: _radiusRequest: socket 5 len 89 ipaddr 01010101 port
65534->1645
RADIF: _radCallback
RADIF: _radCallback, buf = B05BBFA0
The response is sent back from RADIUS. In this case, the user my_name has passed
authentication. Following is a list of the most common responses:
1 - Authentication Request
2 - Positive Acknowledgement
3 - Rejection
4 - Accounting Request
5 - Accounting Response
7 - Password Change Request
8 - Password Change Positive Acknowledgement
9 - Password Change Rejection
11 - Access Challenge
29 - Password - next code
30 - Password New PIN
31 - Password Terminate Session
32 - Password Expired
RADIF: _radCallback, authcode = 2
RADIF: Authentication Ack
After authenticating a user, the RADIUS daemon sends the attributes from the user profile to
the MAX. The MAX creates the user’s Connection profile from these attributes, and RadIF
displays them. For a complete list of attribute numbers, see the MAX RADIUS Configuration
Guide.
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
RADIF:
attribute
attribute
attribute
attribute
attribute
attribute
attribute
attribute
attribute
attribute
attribute
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
6, len 6, 00 00 00 02
7, len 6, 00 00 00 01
8, len 6, ff ff ff fe
9, len 6, ff ff ff 00
11, len 12, 73 74 64 2e
12, len 6, 00 00 05 dc
10, len 6, 00 00 00 00
13, len 6, 00 00 00 01
244, len 6, 00 00 11 94
169, len 6, 00 00 11 94
170, len 6, 00 00 00 02
Preliminary November 2, 1998 B-29
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
RadStats
RADIF: attribute 245, len 6, 00 00 00 00
RADIF: attribute 235, len 6, 00 00 00 01
A RADIUS Accounting Start packet is sent to the RADIUS Accounting Server (using port
1646):
RADIF: _radiusAcctRequest: id 42, user name <9:my_name>
RADIF: _radiusAcctRequest: socket 6 len 82 IP cf9e400b port
1646, ID=42
RADIF: _radCallback
RADIF: _radCallback, buf = B05433C0
RADIF: _radProcAcctRsp: user:<9:my_name>, ID=42
RadStats
Description: Displays a compilation of RADIUS Authentication and Accounting statistics.
Usage: Enter radstats at the command prompt.
Example:
MAX> radstats
RADIUS authen stats:
In the following message, A denotes authentication and O denotes other. There were 612
authentication requests sent and 612 authentication responses received.
0
sent[A,O]=[612,15], rcv[A,O]=[612,8]
602 were authenticated successfully, and 18 were not:
timout[A,O]=[0,6], unexp=0, bad=18, authOK=602
In the next message, the IP address of the RADIUS server is 1.1.1.1, and the curServerFlag
indicates whether or not this RADIUS server is the current authentication server. (You can
have several configured RADIUS servers, but only one is current at any one time.) 0 (zeor)
indicates no. A 1 indicates yes.
IpAddress 1.1.1.1, curServerFlag 1
RADIUS accounting stats:
The next message indicates that the MAX sent 1557 Accounting packets and received 1555
responses (ACKs from the Accounting server). Therefore, the unexp value is 2. This does not
necessarily indicate a problem, but might be the result of the MAX timing out a particular
session before receiving an ACK from the RADIUS server. Momentary traffic load might cause
this condition. The value of bad is the number of packets that were formatted incorrectly by
either the MAX or the RADIUS server.
0
sent=1557, rcv=1555, timout=0, unexp=2, bad=0
In the next message, note that the Accounting server is different from the Authentication
server. The Accounting and Authentication servers do not need to be running on the same host,
although they can be.
IpAddress 2.2.2.2, curServerFlag 1
Local Rad Acct Stats:
B-30 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
Reset
The next two messages can be used to look for traffic congestion problems or badly formatted
Accounting packets. Under typical conditions, you might see a few packets whose
acknowledgments fail.
The first message indicates whether any RADIUS requests have been dropped by the MAX.
With this particular message, no requests were dropped. 1557 were sent successfully:
nSent[OK,fail]=[1557,0], nRcv=1557, nDrop[QFull,Other]=[0,0]
The next message indicates whether any session timeouts resulted from failure to receive a
RADIUS responses were not received, causing a session timeout. The message also indicates
responses that are received by the MAX but that do not match any expected responses. The
MAX keeps a list of sent requests, and expects a response for each request. In the following
message, one response received from the RADIUS server did not match any of the requests
that the MAX had sent out. This might be caused by a corrupted response packet, or by the
MAX timing out the session before the response was received.
nRsp[TimOut,NoMatch]=[0,1], nBackoff[new,norsp]=[0,0]
The following messages display a summarized list of RADIUS server statistics:
Local Rad Serv Stats:
unkClient=0
index 0 #Sent = 0, #SendFail=0 badAuthRcv = 0, badPktRcv = 0
Reset
Description: Resets the MAX, which terminates all active connections and restarts. All users
are logged out and the default security level is reactivated. All active WAN lines are
temporarily shut down because of the loss of signaling or framing information. As the MAX
boots, it runs its Power-On Self Tests (POST).
Usage: Enter reset at the command prompt.
Example: To reset the unit:
MAX> reset
See Also: NVRAM
Revision
Description: Displays the serial number of the box.
Usage: Enter revision at the command prompt.
Example: In the following message, the MAX has a serial number of 6363077.
MAX> revision
revision = 0 1 10 6363077
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 B-31
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
SNTP
SNTP
Description: Displays messages related to Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP). The
command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the diagnostics display.
Usage: Enter sntp at the command prompt.
Example: Following are sample messages displayed with SNTP enabled.
The MAX accepts time from a configured NTP server. The following message appears if the
MAX does not accept a supplied time:
Reject:li= x stratum= y tx= z
The following message indicates that the MAX accepts the time from a specified NTP server:
Server= 0 Time is b6dd82ed d94128e
Because the stored time is off by more than one second, it is adjusted:
SNTP: x Diff1= y Diff2= z
TelnetDebug
Description: Displays messages as Telnet connections are attempted or established. The
Telnet protocol negotiates several options as sessions are established, and TelnetDebug
displays the Telnet option negotiations.
The command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the diagnostic display.
Usage: Enter telnetdebug at the command prompt.
Example: The following session shows the MAX terminal server establishing a successful
Telnet connection with another UNIX host.
MAX> telnetdebug
TELNET debug is now ON
The far-end UNIX host has been contacted:
TELNET-4: TCP connect
For this Telnet session, the MAX will support options 24 and 1. The UNIX host should
respond with either DO or WONT:
TELNET-4: send WILL 24
TELNET-4: recv WILL 1
The UNIX host will support option 1:
TELNET-4: repl DO 1
The MAX receives a request to support option 3:
TELNET-4: recv WILL 3
The MAX will support option 3:
TELNET-4: repl DO 3
The UNIX host will support option 3:
B-32 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
TLoadCode
TELNET-4: recv DO 3
The UNIX host will not support option 24:
TELNET-4: recv DONT 24
The MAX will not support option 24:
TELNET-4: repl WONT 24
The UNIX host will support options 1 and 3:
TELNET-4: recv WILL 1
TELNET-4: recv WILL 3
TLoadCode
Description: Uses Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) to load software from a UNIX host
into the MAX unit’s flash memory. The TFTP host can be accessed from the Ethernet interface
or across the WAN. The MAX needs to be reset to load the the uploaded code, since the MAX
must load the code from Flash memory into DRAM.
Although the MAX might experience a small performance degradation during the file transfer,
it will be fully functional during the file download process.
When you use the TLoadCode command, the current configuration of the MAX is saved to
flash memory . Therefore, manual reconfiguration, which is required when loading software
through the serial connection, should not be necessary.
When you execute the command, a sequence of dots appears on the screen, indicating the
progress of the transfer. Each dot represents the transfer of approximately 512 bytes.
Note: If the TFTP transfer is interrupted or the checksum of the uploaded file is incorrect, the
new code does not load when the MAX is rebooted. The MAX reloads its previous version of
code. Also, if the new code is uploaded at boot time, an FRestore is performed to load the
configuration that is stored in flash memory. The MAX reboots again to properly initialize the
configuration.
Usage: tloadcode name_or_ip_address_of_tftp_server filename
Example:
MAX> tloadcode
usage: loadcode host file
> tloadcode 1.1.1.1 mhpt1.bin
saving config to flash
.................................
.
loading code from 1.1.1.1
file mhpt1.bin...
...............................................................
..........
.......................................................
.............................
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 B-33
MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
TRestore
TRestore
Description: Restores a saved configuration from a TFTP host to Flash memory on the MAX.
You need to manually reboot the MAX to load the restored configuration from Flash memory
into dynamic RAM.
Usage: trestore name_or_ip_address_of_tftp_server filename
Example:
MAX> trestore 1.1.1.1 config.txt
restoring configuration from 1.1.1.1:69
file config.txt...
TSave
Description: Saves the MAX configuration that is stored in flash memory to a TFTP server.
You need to perform the FSave command if you want to save your currently running
configuration. FSave saves the currently running configuration to flash memory.
Usage: tsave name_or_ip_address_of_tftp_server filename
Example:
MAX> tsave 1.1.1.1 config.txt
saving configuration to 1.1.1.1:69
file config.txt...
Update
Description: Modifies optional functionality of the MAX. To enable some options, you must
obtain a set of hash codes (supplied by an Ascend representative) that will enable the
functionality in your MAX. After each string is entered, the word complete appears, indicating
that the MAX accepted the hash code.
If you enter update without a text string modifier, the MAX displays a list of current
configuration information.
Usage: update [text_string]
Example:
MAX> update
Host interfaces: 4
Net interfaces: 4
Port 1 channels: 255
Port 2 channels: 255
Port 3 channels: 255
Port 4 channels: 255
Field features 1: 182
Field features 2: 33
Field features 3: 54
Protocols: 1
MAX> update 5 1023 12321312312312321
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WANDisplay
The following two messages indicate that the text strings were entered incorrectly:
update command: invalid arg 3!
update command: disallowed
The following message indicates that the MAX accepted the update string:
update command: command complete.
WANDisplay
Description: Displays all packets received from or sent to any of the WAN interfaces.
Because WANDisplay ouput shows the raw data the MAX is receiving from and sending to the
remote device, the information can be very helpful in PPP negotiation problems.
If you enter the command while traffic through your MAX is heavy, the resulting amount of
output can make it tedious to find the information you are looking for. The screen might even
display the message ----- data lost -----, which just means that not all the output
can be displayed on the screen.
You might prefer to use the WANDisplay command during a period of low throughput.
Alternatively, depending on the types of information you need to gather, you might use
WANDSess, WANOpen, or WANNext to focus the display.
Usage: wandisplay number_of_octets_to display_from_each_packet
Enter wandisplay 0 to disable the logging of this information.
Example: Following are several examples of WANDisplay output. Note that the bytes are
displayed in hexadecimal format.
MAX> wandisplay 24
Display the first 24 bytes of WAN messages
> RECV-272:: 1 octets @ 5E138F74
[0000]: 0D
RECV-272:: 13 octets @ 5E13958C
[0000]: 0A 41 63 63 65 70 74 3A 20 69 6D 61 67
XMIT-276:: 1011 octets @ 2E12D8A4
[0000]: 7E 21 45 00 03 EE 54 2B 40 00 37 06 BA 09 CF 2B
[0010]: 00 86 D0 93 91 90 1A 0A
MAX> wandisplay 0
WAN message display terminated
See Also: WANDSess, WANOpen, WANNext
WANDSess
Description: Similar to WANDisplay, but WANDSess displays only incoming and outgoing
packets for a specific user. WANDSess is particularly helpful for troubleshooting a MAX with
several simultaneous active connections. The volume of output from commands such as
WANDisplay make them not as effective for troubleshooting issues for particular users.
WANDSess is a filter to let you focus your troubleshooting.
If you enter the command while traffic through your MAX is heavy, the resulting amount of
output can make it tedious to find the information you are looking for. The screen might even
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WANNext
display the message ----- data lost -----, which just means that not all the output
can be displayed on the screen. You might prefer to use the WANDSess command during a
period of low throughput.
Usage: wandsess user_name_or_profile_name number_of
octets_to_display_from each_packet
Enter wandsess user_name_or_profile_name 0 to disable the logging of this
information.
Example:
MAX> wandsess gzoller 24
RECV-gzoller:300:: 1 octets @ 3E13403C
[0000]: 7E 21 45 00 00 3E 15 00 00 00 20 7D 31 C2 D2
RECV-gzoller:300:: 15 octets @ 3E133A24
[0000]: D0 7D B3 7D B1 B3 D0 7D B3 90 02 04 03 00 35
XMIT-gzoller:300:: 84 octets @ 3E12D28C
[0000]: 7E 21 45 00 00 4E C4 63 00 00 1C 7D 31 17 5F D0
[0010]: 93 90 02 D0 93 91 B3 00
Notice that the only difference in output between WANDSess and WANDisplay is that with
WANDSess, the name of the user is displayed in a message. The data is identical in content,
but WANDSess displays no data from any other sessions.
MAX> wandsess gzoller 0
MAX>
WANNext
Description: Similar to WANDisplay, but WANNext displays only incoming and outgoing
packets for the next successfully authenticated user. As with WANDSess, the output is the
same as for WANDisplay but is filtered to include only data from a single user.
If you enter the command while traffic through your MAX is heavy, the resulting amount of
output can make it tedious to find the information you are looking for. The screen might even
display the message ----- data lost -----, which just means that not all the output
can be displayed on the screen. You might prefer to use the WANNext command during a
period of low throughput.
Usage: wannext number_of_octets_to_display_from_each_packet
Enter WANNext 0 to disable the logging of this information.
WANOpening
Description: Similar to WANDisplay, but WANOpening displays only the opening incoming
and outgoing packets for all users during the establishment of their PPP sessions. This
command is particularly helpful if you are troubleshooting connection problems in which users
seem to connect to the MAX, but are disconnected within a few seconds. Again, the output
from WANOpening is very similar to WANDisplay, but displays packets for sessions only until
the connection has been completely negotiated.
If you enter the command while traffic through your MAX is heavy, the resulting amount of
output can make it tedious to find the information you are looking for. The screen might even
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WANToggle
display the message ----- data lost -----, which just means that not all the output
can be displayed on the screen. You might prefer to use the WANOpening command during a
period of low throughput.
Usage: wanopening number_of_octets_to_display_from_each_packet
Enter WANOpening 0 to disable the logging of this information.
WANToggle
Description: Displays messages from the WAN drivers on the MAX, including the state of
calls that have been processed by the MAX unit’s calling routines but not yet sent to the
Ethernet drivers.
If you enter the command while traffic through your MAX is heavy, the resulting amount of
output can make it tedious to find the information you are looking for. The screen might even
display the message ----- data lost -----, which just means that not all the output
can be displayed on the screen. You might prefer to use the WANToggle command during a
period of low throughput.
The command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the diagnostic display.
Usage: Enter wantoggle at the command prompt.
Example: Following is typical output produced by a modem call into the MAX. After the
incoming call is determined to be an analog call, a modem is directed to answer it.
WAN-389:
WAN-389:
WAN-389:
WAN-389:
WAN-389:
WAN-389:
wanOpenAnswer
modem redirected back to wan
Startup frame received
Detected unknown message
Detected ASYNC PPP message
wanRegisterData, I/F 58
The next two messages appear when the call is cleared. The second message does not indicate
a problem. It appears because the modem clears the call a split second before the software
releases its resources. The software does a check on the modem, which has already been
released.
WAN-389: wanCloseSession, I/F 58
WAN-??: no modem assoc w WanInfo
WDDialout
Description: Displays the specific packet that caused the MAX to dial out. The command is
particularly helpful if the MAX is dialing out when it should not. You can use WDDialout
information to design a filter to keep the MAX from dialing out because of a particular packet.
The command is a toggle that alternately enables and disables the diagnostic display.
Usage: Enter wddialout at the command prompt.
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Example: The following message includes a date/time stamp, the phone number being dialed,
and the packet that caused the MAX to dial out:
Date: 01/01/1990.
Time: 00:51:56
Cause an attempt to place call to 18185551234
WD_DIALOUT_DISP: chunk D7BA6 type OLD-STYLE-PADDED.
: 60 octets @ F3050
[0000]: 09 00 07 ff ff ff 00 05 02 e8 14 0d 00 24 aa aa
[0010]: 03 00 00 00 80 f3 00 01 80 9b 06 04 00 01 00 05
[0020]: 02 e8 14 0d 00 ff 00 f7 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ff
[0030]: 8e 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
MAX> wddialout
WANDATA dialout display is OFF
PPP decoding primer
Many of the diagnostic commands display raw data. This section is designed to assist you in
decoding PPP, MP, MP+ and BACP negotiations. The negotiations can be logged with the
PPPDump, WANDisplay, WANDSess, WANNext, or WANOpen diagnostic commands. For
more detailed information than this appendix provides, see specific RFCs. A partial list of
pertinent RFCs appears at the end of this appendix.
Breaking down the raw data
An important concept to keep in mind is that each device negotiates PPP independently, so the
options might be identical for each direction of the session.
During PPP negotiation, frame formats in the various protocols are very similar. They share the
following characteristics:
•
FF 03 which indicates a PPP frame
•
A two-byte Protocol Identifier
•
A one-byte Packet Format ID number
•
A one-byte ID number
•
A two-byte length
•
Options for the protocol
Following are the most common protocols you will see in Ascend diagnostic traces:
Identifier
Description
C0 21
Link Control Protocol (LCP)
C0 23
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)
C2 23
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
80 21
Internet Protocol (IP)
80 29
Appletalk
80 2B
Novell’s Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX)
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Identifier
Description
80 31
Bridging PDU
80 FD
Compression Control Protocol (CCP)
Following are the packet formats:
Packet Format ID
Description
01
Configure Request
02
Configure Acknowledgment
03
Configure Non-Acknowledgment
04
Configure Reject
05
Terminate Request
06
Terminate Acknowledgment
07
Code Reject
08
Protocol Reject
09
Echo Request
0A
Echo Reply
0B
Discard Request
Note: If a packet received from the WAN fails the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC), the
display is similar to the following, where RBAD denotes Received BAD:
RBAD-27:: 8712 octets @ 26CFE8
[0000]: fe dd dd dd dd dd dd dd
[0010]: dd dd dd dd dd dd dd dd
[0020]: dd dd dd dd dd dd dd dd
[0030]: dd dd dd dd dd dd dd dd
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
dd
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Annotated Traces
Following are sample traces you can use as guides to help you decode other traces.
Example of a PPP connection attempt
LCP Configure Request—MP+, MRU of 1524, MRRU of 1524 and End Point Discriminator
using the device’s MAC address:
XMIT-3:: 29 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 01 01 00 19 00 04 00 00 01 04 05 f4
[0010]: 11 04 05 f4 13 09 03 00 c0 7b 4c e0 4c
Following is a second LCP Configure Request from the same device. Everything in the packet
is identical to the previous packet, except the ID number has incremented from 01 to 02:
XMIT-3:: 29 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 01 02 00 19 00 04 00 00 01 04 05 f4
[0010]: 11 04 05 f4 13 09 03 00 c0 7b 4c e0 4c
LCP Configure Request—CHAP authentication, Magic number
RECV-3:: 19 octets @ 2BEB8C
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 01 60 00 0f 03 05 c2 23 05 05 06 4e
[0010]: 36 c9 05
LCP Configure Acknowledgment—The device in the following trace will be authenticated
with CHAP. The Magic number is also acknowledged:
XMIT-3:: 19 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 02 60 00 0f 03 05 c2 23 05 05 06 4e
[0010]: 36 c9 05
LCP Configure Reject—MP+, MRU of 1524, MRRU of 1524 and End Point Discriminator.
This rejection shows two things. First, the remote side does not support MP+ or MP, since
MP+ and the MRRU were rejected. This will have to be a PPP connection. Second, since the
MRU of 1524 was rejected, the default of 1500 is assumed. There must be an MRU, so a
rejection of a given value only calls for use of the default value.
After the trace, the device will need to transmit another LCP Configure Request, removing all
the rejected options:
RECV-3:: 29 octets @ 2BF1A4
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 04 02 00 19 00 04 00 00 01 04 05 f4
[0010]: 11 04 05 f4 13 09 03 00 c0 7b 4c e0 4c
LCP Configure Request—Note that all values that were previously rejected are no longer in
the packet:
XMIT-3:: 8 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 01 04 00 04
LCP Configure Acknowledgment:
RECV-3:: 8 octets @ 2BF7BC
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 02 04 00 04
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MAX Diagnostic Command Reference
PPP decoding primer
At this point, since both sides have transmitted LCP Configure Acknowledgments, LCP is up
and the negotiation moves to the authentication phase. The device receives a CHAP challenge
from the remote end:
RECV-3:: 21 octets @ 2BFDD4
[0000]: ff 03 c2 23 01 01 00 11 04 4e 36 c9 5e 63 6c 63
[0010]: 72 34 30 30 30
The device transmits its encrypted user name and password:
XMIT-3:: 36 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 c2 23 02 01 00 20 10 49 b8 e8 54 76 3c 4a
[0010]: 6f 30 16 4e c0 6b 38 ed b9 4c 26 48 5f 53 65 61
[0020]: 74 74 6c 65
The remote device sends a CHAP Acknowledgment:
RECV-3:: 8 octets @ 2C03EC
[0000]: ff 03 c2 23 03 01 00 04
At this point, the negotiation moves from authentication to negotiation of Network Control
Protocols (NCPs). Ascend supports Bridging Control Protocol (BCP), IPCP, IPXCP, and
ATCP.
IPCP Configure Request—Van Jacobsen Header Compression, IP address of 1.1.1.1:
RECV-3:: 20 octets @ 2C0A04
[0000]: ff 03 80 21 01 e3 00 10 02 06 00 2d 0f 00 03 06
[0010]: 01 01 01 01
BCP Configure Request:
RECV-3:: 8 octets @ 2C101C
[0000]: ff 03 80 31 01 55 00 04
IPCP Configure Request—IP address of 2.2.2.2:
XMIT-3:: 14 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 80 21 01 01 00 0a 03 06 02 02 02 02
IPCP Configure Reject—Van Jacobsen Header Compression. The remote device should send
another IPCP Configure Request and remove the request to perform VJ Header Compression:
XMIT-3:: 14 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 80 21 04 e3 00 0a 02 06 00 2d 0f 00
BCP - Protocol Reject. The local device is not configured to support bridging:
XMIT-3:: 8 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 80 31 08 55 00 04
IPCP Configure Acknowledgment:
RECV-3:: 14 octets @ 2C1634
[0000]: ff 03 80 21 02 01 00 0a 03 06 01 01 01 01
IPCP Configure Request—Note that VJ Header Compression is not requested this time:
RECV-3:: 14 octets @ 2C1C4C
[0000]: ff 03 80 21 01 e4 00 0a 03 06 02 02 02 02
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IPCP Configure Acknowledgment:
XMIT-3:: 14 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 80 21 02 e4 00 0a 03 06 01 01 01 01
At this point, a PPP connection has been successfully negotiated. The caller was successfully
authenticated by means of CHAP, and IPCP was the only successfully configured NCP. IPX,
Appletalk, and bridging will not be supported during this session.
Following are two packets used in determining link quality:
LCP Echo Request packet:
RECV-3:: 16 octets @ 2BEB8C
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 09 01 00 0c 4e 36 c9 05 00 00 00 00
LCP Echo Response:
XMIT-3:: 16 octets @ 2C2E94
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 0a 01 00 0c 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
Example of MP+ call negotiation
LCP Configuration Request—MP+, MRU of 1524, MRRU of 1524, End Point
Discriminator using the device’s MAC address:
XMIT-31:: 29 octets @ D803C
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 01 01 00 19 00 04 00 00 01 04 05 f4
[0010]: 11 04 05 f4 13 09 03 00 c0 7b 5c d3 71
LCP Configure Request—MP+, MRU of 1524, PAP authentication is required. MRRU of
1524, End Point Discriminator using the device’s MAC address:
RECV-31:: 33 octets @ D4FBC
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 01 01 00 1d 00 04 00 00 01 04 05 f4
[0010]: 03 04 c0 23 11 04 05 f4 13 09 03 00 c0 7b 53 f0
[0020]: 7a
LCP Configuration Acknowledgment:
RECV-31:: 29 octets @ D55CC
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 02 01 00 19 00 04 00 00 01 04 05 f4
[0010]: 11 04 05 f4 13 09 03 00 c0 7b 5c d3 71
LCP Configuration Acknowledgment:
XMIT-31:: 33 octets @ D803C
[0000]: ff 03 c0 21 02 01 00 1d 00 04 00 00 01 04 05 f4
[0010]: 03 04 c0 23 11 04 05 f4 13 09 03 00 c0 7b 53 f0
[0020]: 7a
At this point, LCP is up. Next is the authentication phase. The local device agreed to PAP
authentication, so it should transmit its user name and password. Note that they are not
encrypted and can be decoded very easily.
PAP Authentication Request—User name is shown in hexadecimal and must be converted to
ASCII. User name is 0x6a 0x73 0x6d 0x69 0x74 0x68 (jsmith) and password is 0x72 0x65
0x64 (red):
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PPP decoding primer
XMIT-31:: 20 octets @ D803C
[0000]: ff 03 c0 23 01 01 00 10 06 6a 73 6d 69 74 68 03 72
[0010]: 65 64
PAP Authentication Acknowledgment:
RECV-31:: 9 octets @ D5BDC
[0000]: ff 03 c0 23 02 01 00 05 00
Authentication is successful. Final negotiation determines protocols to be supported over the
link.
Note: MP+ was negotiated, and both devices begin sending MP+ packets from this point. The
data portion of the packet is identical to PPP, but there is an eight-byte MP+ header instead of
the two-byte PPP header:
In the following packet, 00 3d is the designation for a Multilink packet. The fifth byte
designates whether this packet is fragmented. The sixth, seventh, and eighth bytes are the
sequence number, which increments by one for each packet sent or received.
Bytes nine through eleven, 80 31 01, designate as a BCP Configure Request received from the
remote device:
RECV-31:: 20 octets @ D61EC
[0000]: ff 03 00 3d c0 00 00 00 80 31 01 01 00 0a 03 03
[0010]: 01 07 03 00
BCP Configure Request sent from this device:
XMIT-31:: 20 octets @ D803C
[0000]: ff 03 00 3d c0 00 00 00 80 31 01 01 00 0a 03 03
[0010]: 01 07 03 00
BCP Configure Acknowledgment:
XMIT-31:: 20 octets @ D864C
[0000]: ff 03 00 3d c0 00 00 01 80 31 02 01 00 0a 03 03
[0010]: 01 07 03 00
BCP Configure Acknowledgment:
RECV-31:: 20 octets @ D67FC
[0000]: ff 03 00 3d c0 00 00 01 80 31 02 01 00 0a 03 03
[0010]: 01 07 03 00
BCP is up and the session begins sending bridged traffic. No routed protocols were negotiated.
The following packets are sent as part of the MP+ protocol. They are sent at one-second
intervals. The packets are used by each unit to validate the existence of the link. This validation
gives the devices a secure way to determine whether the link is still up, even if there is no data
traffic passing between the devices.
RECV-31:: 8 octets @ D5BDC
[0000]: ff 03 00 3d c0 00 00 05
XMIT-31:: 8 octets @ D803C
[0000]: ff 03 00 3d c0 00 00 04
RECV-31:: 8 octets @ D61EC
[0000]: ff 03 00 3d c0 00 00 06
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XMIT-31:: 8 octets @ D803C
[0000]: ff 03 00 3d c0 00 00 05
Relevant RFCs
The following RFCs provide more detail about the protocols used in Ascend diagnostic traces.
Identifier
Title
RFC1378
PPP AppleTalk Control Protocol (ATCP)
RFC1552
PPP Internetwork Packet Exchange Control Protocol (IPXCP)
RFC1638
PPP Bridging Control Protocol (BCP)
RFC1661
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
RFC1934
Ascend’s Multilink Protocol Plus (MP+)
RFC1962
PPP Compression Control Protocol (CCP)
RFC1974
PPP Stac LZS Compression Protocol
RFC1989
PPP Link Quality Monitoring
RFC1990
PPP Multilink Protocol (MP)
RFC1994
PPP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
C
Upgrading System Software
!
Caution: Periodically the procedure for uploading new software to Ascend units changes
significantly. Carefully read the new software loading procedures explained in this section
before upgrading your system.
This appendix explains how to upgrade your system software.
Definitions and terms
This appendix uses the following terms:
Build
The name of the software binary.
For example, ti.m40 is the MAX 4000 T1 IP-only software build. For
the names of all the software builds and the features they provide see
/pub/Software-Releases/Max/Upgrade-Filenames.txt
on the Ascend FTP server.
If possible, you should stay with the same build when upgrading. Loading
a different build can cause your Ascend unit to lose its all or part of its
configuration. If this happens, you must restore your configuration from a
backup.
Standard load
Software versions 4.6Ci18 or earlier and all 4.6Cp releases. You can load
these versions of software through the serial port or by using TFTP.
TFTP is the recommended upgrade method for standard loads.
Fat load
4.6Ci19 to 5.0Aix and all 5.0Ap releases with a file size greater than
960 KB (for MAX units) or 448K (for Pipeline units). Before upgrading to
a fat load for the first time, you must upgrade to a thin load.
You must use TFTP to upgrade to fat loads.
Thin load
4.6Ci19 to 5.0Aix and all 5.0Ap releases with a file size less than 960 KB
(for MAX units) or 448 KB (for Pipeline units).
TFTP is the recommended upgrade method for thin loads.
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 C-1
Upgrading System Software
Guidelines for upgrading system software
Restricted load
6.0.0 or later MAX release denoted by an “r” preceding the build name.
For example, rti.m40 is the restricted load for the MAX 4000 T1 IP-only
software build. Before upgrading to an extended load for the first time, you
must upgrade to a restricted load. Note that after you have upgraded your
system to version 6.0.0 or above, you do not need to use a restricted load to
upgrade.
A restricted load only contains essential system software and is not meant
to be run in a working environment. It does not have full functionality and
is to be used only to upload to an extended load. Restricted loads do allow
you to access the unit via Telnet.
TFTP is the recommended upgrade method for restricted loads.
Pipeline releases do not have restricted loads.
Extended load
6.0.0 or later MAX release denoted by an “f” preceding the build name.
You must use TFTP to upgrade to extended loads. For example, fti.m40
is the extended load for the MAX 4000 T1 IP-only software build.
MAX 6000 and Pipeline releases do not have extended loads.
Guidelines for upgrading system software
!
Caution: Before upgrading, consider the following very important guidelines:
•
Use TFTP to upgrade if possible. TFTP is more reliable and saves the Ascend unit
configuration when you upgrade.
•
You cannot load a fat load or an extended load through the serial port. You must use TFTP.
•
If you are using TFTP to upgrade your software, use the fsave command immediately
after executing the tload command. Failure to do so might cause your Ascend unit to
lose its configuration.
•
If possible, you should always stay with the same build of software when you upgrade. If
you load a different version, your Ascend unit may lose its configuration. If this happens,
you must restore your configuration from a backup.
•
If you are upgrading to a software version 5.0A or 5.0Aix fat load for the first time, you
must be on a load that supports the fat load format. All versions of software 5.0A or above
support fat loads. You should perform the upgrade in two steps:
•
–
Upgrade to a thin load of the same build
–
Upgrade to the fat load
If you are upgrading to a software version 6.0.0 or above, you must be on a load that
supports the extended load format. All versions of software 6.0.0 or above support
extended loads. You should perform the upgrade in two steps:
–
Upgrade to a restricted load of the same build
–
Upgrade to the extended load
•
The MAX 6000 does not have extended or restricted loads.
•
After you have upgraded your system to version 6.0.0 or above, you do not need to use a
restricted load to upgrade.
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Upgrading System Software
Guidelines for downgrading system software
•
You can upgrade to a thin load or a restricted load from any version of software.
•
If you are upgrading from software version 4.6C or earlier to software version 5.0A or
later, see “Upgrading system software from versions earlier than 4.6C to version 5.0A or
above” on page C-11 for important information before you start.
Table C-1 explains where to find the information you need to upgrade your unit.
Table C-1. Ascend system software versions
Version you are upgrading to
Use the instructions in...
Standard load
(4.6Ci18 or earlier and all 4.6Cp
releases)
“Upgrading system software with a standard load” on
page C-5.
Fat or thin load
(4.6Ci19 to 5.0Aix and all 5.0Ap
releases)
“Upgrading system software with a fat or thin load”
on page C-6.
Extended load
(6.0.0 or later)
“Upgrading system software with an extended load”
on page C-9.
Guidelines for downgrading system software
The MAX expects a specific organization of the parameters in a configuration file. When you
upgrade a MAX, you can restore a configuration that was saved on an older release. The MAX
enters default values for parameters if the MAX supports a parameter that is not included in the
configuration file.
When you downgrade to older versions of software, the configuration might not upload
completely, because older software does not support the parameters that might be in
configuration files from newer releases.
You must upload a configuration that was saved from the same version of software to make
sure that the MAX receives a complete configuration. If you upload a configuration from a
newer version of software, you should check all parameter values to verify they are configured
accurately.
If you are downgrading system software, make sure that you have a configuration saved from a
MAX running with the older software and that you have console access to the MAX. Then,
proceed as follows:
1
Use TFTP to load the system software.
2
Enter FCLEAR which clears the MAX unit’s flash memory.
3
Enter NVRAMCLEAR which clears the MAX unit’s main configuration and resets the
MAX.
The MAX restarts and loads the older version of system software.
4
When the MAX is up, manually enter basic information being sure to include at least IP
address, subnet mask, and default gateway to the Ethernet interface.
After entering you must be able to telnet to the MAX.
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 C-3
Upgrading System Software
Before you begin
5
From the MAX unit’s VT100 interface, access the diagnostics monitor by typing the
following characters in rapid succession:
Esc [ Esc =
Or, press Ctrl-D to invoke the DO menu and select D=Diagnostics.
6
At the > prompt, use the TRestore command to restore the configuration as in the
following example:
> trestore tftp-server router1.cfg
This restores the configuration named router1.cfg from the TFTP home directory of
the server named tftp-server. This file must exist and be readable.
7
At the > prompt, enter Exit to return to the VT100 interface.
Before you begin
Make sure you perform all the tasks explained in Table C-2 before upgrading your software.
Table C-2. Before upgrading
Task
Description
If necessary, activate a Security
Profile that allows for field upgrade.
If you are not sure how, see the section about Security Profiles in your
documentation.
Record all of the passwords you want
to retain, and save your Ascend unit’s
current configuration to your
computer’s hard disk.
For security reasons, passwords are not written to configuration files
created through the serial console. A configuration file created using the
Tsave command, however, does contain the system passwords. You can
restore the Tsave configuration file using the serial console. If you chose
to save your configuration using the serial console, you will have to
restore your passwords manually. Restoring passwords is explained in
“Using the serial port to upgrade to a standard or a thin load” on
page C-11.
Obtain the correct file, either by
downloading it from the FTP server or
by requesting it from Ascend technical
support.
To ensure that you load the correct software binary, you should check the
load currently installed on your unit. To do so:
1
Tab over to the 00-100 Sys Options window.
2
Press Enter to open the Sys Options menu.
3
Using the Down-Arrow key (or Ctrl- N), scroll down until you see a
line similar to the following:
Load: tb.m40
4
When upgrading, obtain the file with same name from the Ascend
FTP site.
If your unit does not display the current load or you are unsure about
which load to use, contact technical support.
C-4 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Upgrading System Software
Upgrading system software with a standard load
Table C-2. Before upgrading (continued)
Task
Description
If you are upgrading to a fat load or an
extended load for the first time, you
must also obtain a thin load or a
restricted load of the same build, if
possible.
For example, if you are upgrading a MAX 4000 to 5.0Ai13 fat load (such
as tbim.m40), obtain a thin load of the same build (such as 5.0A
tbim.m40).
If you are upgrading to a MAX 6.0.0 extended load, obtain a 6.0.0
restricted load. Restricted loads are designated with an “r” in the load
name. (For example rtbam.m40 is a restricted load). Note that after
you have upgraded your system to version 6.0.0 or above, you do not
need to use a restricted load to upgrade.
Newer Pipeline 50 or 75 units do not have fat loads and no Pipeline units
have extended or restricted loads. Refer to
/pub/Software-Releases/Pipeline/Upgrade-Filename
s.txt to determine if you have a new Pipeline 50 or 75 unit.
If you are using TFTP, make sure you
load the correct binaries into the TFTP
home directory on the TFTP server.
You must use TFTP to upgrade to a fat load or an extended load.
If you are using the serial port, make
sure you have a reliable terminal
emulation program, such as Procomm
Plus.
If you use the serial port, you can only upgrade to a standard or a thin
load. Upgrading through the serial port is not recommended.
If you use a Windows-based terminal emulator such as Windows
Terminal or HyperTerminal, disable any screen savers or other programs
or applications that could interrupt the file transfer. Failure to do so
might cause the software upload to halt, and can render the Ascend unit
unusable.
Upgrading system software with a standard load
To upgrade system software with a standard load you can use either the serial port or TFTP.
TFTP is the recommended method because it preserves your Ascend unit’s configuration. If
you want to use the serial port to upgrade, see “Using the serial port to upgrade to a standard or
a thin load” on page C-11.
Using TFTP to upgrade to a standard load
To upgrade to a standard load using TFTP, you only have to enter a few commands. But you
must enter them in the correct sequence, or you could lose the Ascend unit’s configuration.
To upgrade to a standard load via TFTP:
1
Obtain the software version you want to upgrade to and place it in the TFTP server home
directory.
2
From the Ascend unit’s VT100 interface, access the diagnostics monitor by typing the
following characters in rapid succession:
Esc [ Esc =
Or, press Ctrl-D to invoke the DO menu and select D=Diagnostics.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 C-5
Upgrading System Software
Upgrading system software with a fat or thin load
3
At the > prompt, use the Tsave command to save your configuration as in the following
example:
> tsave tftp-server router1.cfg
This saves the configuration of your unit to the file named router1.cfg in the TFTP
home directory of the server named tftp-server. This file must already exist and be
writable. Normally, TFTP upgrades save the configuration. Tsave is a precaution.
Caution: The file you save with the Tsave command contains all the passwords in clear
text. You should move this file from the TFTP directory to a secure location after the
upgrade procedure is complete.
!
4
Enter the following command:
tloadcode hostname filename
where hostname is the name or IP address of your TFTP server, and filename is the name
of the system software on the server (relative to the TFTP home directory).
For example, the command:
tloadcode tftp-server t.m40
loads t.m40 into flash from the machine named tftp-server.
Caution: You must use the Fsave command immediately after executing the Tload
command. Failure to do so can cause your Ascend unit to lose its configuration.
!
5
Enter the following command to save your configuration to flash memory:
fsave
6
Enter the following command:
nvramclear
After the Ascend unit clears NVRAM memory, it automatically resets.
This completes the upgrade.
Upgrading system software with a fat or thin load
Upgrading to a fat or thin load is not difficult, but you must be careful to follow the correct
sequence of tasks.
!
Caution: If you are upgrading from software version 4.6C or earlier, see “Upgrading system
software from versions earlier than 4.6C to version 5.0A or above” on page C-11 for important
information before upgrading.
To upgrade your system:
1
Obtain the software version binary you want to upgrade to and place it in the TFTP server
home directory. If you are upgrading to a fat load for the first time, also obtain a thin load
of the same build and place it in the same directory. (See page “Definitions and terms” on
page C-1 for an explanation of fat and thin loads.)
C-6 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Upgrading System Software
Upgrading system software with a fat or thin load
Caution: If possible, you should stay with the same build when upgrading. Loading a
different build can cause your Ascend unit to lose all or part of its configuration. If this
happens, you must restore your configuration from a backup.
!
For example, if you are upgrading a MAX 4000 to 5.0Ai13 fat load (such as tbim.m40),
obtain a thin load of the same build (such as 5.0A tbim.m40).
Note: Newer Pipeline 50 or 75 units do not have fat or thin loads, you only need to load a
single software binary. Refer to
/pub/Software-Releases/Pipeline/Upgrade-Filenames.txt on the
Ascend FTP site to determine if you have a new Pipeline 50 or 75 unit.
2
From the Ascend unit’s VT100 interface, access the diagnostics monitor by typing the
following characters in rapid succession:
Esc [ Esc =
Or, press Ctrl-D to invoke the DO menu and select D=Diagnostics.
3
At the > prompt, use the Tsave command to save your configuration, as in the following
example:
> tsave tftp-server router1.cfg
This saves the configuration of your unit to the file named router1.cfg in the TFTP
home directory of the server named tftp-server. This file must already exist and be
writable. Normally, TFTP upgrades save the configuration. Tsave is a precaution.
Caution: The file you save with the Tsave command contains all the passwords in clear
text. You should move this file from the TFTP directory to a secure location after the
upgrade procedure is complete.
!
4
At the > prompt, enter:
> tloadcode hostname filename
where hostname is the name or IP address of your TFTP server, and filename is the name
of the system software on the server (relative to the TFTP home directory).
Caution: If you are upgrading from a standard load to a fat load, make sure you load a
thin load first.
!
For example, the command:
> tloadcode tftp-server t.m40
loads t.m40 into flash from the machine named tftp-server.
Caution: You must use the Fsave command immediately after executing the Tload
command. Failure to do so may cause your Ascend unit to lose its configuration.
!
5
Enter the following command to save your configuration to flash memory:
fsave
6
Enter the following command:
nvramclear
After the Ascend unit clears NVRAM memory, it automatically resets.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 C-7
Upgrading System Software
Upgrading system software with a fat or thin load
7
If you are upgrading to a thin load, you are done. If you are upgrading to a fat load, repeat
the procedure, this time uploading the fat load binary.
After a successful upgrade, one of the following messages appears.
•
If the load is thin:
UART initialized
thin load: inflate
...........................................................
starting system...
•
If the load is fat:
UART initialized
fat load: inflate
............................................................
starting system...
This completes the upgrade if you have no errors. If the upgrade is not successful, refer to
“Recovering from a failed fat load upgrade” next.
Recovering from a failed fat load upgrade
If a fat load has a CRC (cyclic redundancy check) error, the following message appears:
UART initialized
fat load: bad CRC!!
forcing serial download at 57600 bps
please download a "thin" system...
Immediately after this message appears, the serial console speed is switched to 57600 bps, and
the Ascend unit initiates an Xmodem serial download. To recover from this error and load the
fat system, you must first load a thin system that is fat-load aware. Proceed as follows:
1
Activate your Xmodem software.
2
After you have finished loading the fat-aware thin load, reboot the unit.
3
Use the Tload command to download the fat load.
When you download a fat load, messages similar to the following appear on the
diagnostics monitor screen:
> tload 192.168.1.82 tbam.m40
saving config to flash
........................................
loading code from 192.168.1.82:69
file tbam.m40..
fat load part 1:
..................................................................
......
fat load part 2:
..................................................
The “fat load part n:” messages notify you when the first and second halves of the
download begin.
C-8 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Upgrading System Software
Upgrading system software with an extended load
Upgrading system software with an extended load
Your first upgrade to an extended load requires a preliminary procedure. You must first
upgrade to a restricted load. A restricted load only contains essential system software and is not
meant to be run in a working environment. It does not have full functionality and is to be used
only to upload to an extended load.
After you have upgraded your system to version 6.0.0 or above, you do not need to use a
restricted load to upgrade. Note that the MAX 6000 and Pipeline units do not have extended
loads.
units
Warning: You cannot upgrade to extended loads using an IP over X.25 connection because
restricted loads do not have X.25 support.
!
Caution: If you are upgrading from software version 4.6C or earlier, see “Upgrading system
software from versions earlier than 4.6C to version 5.0A or above” on page C-11 for important
information before upgrading.
To upgrade your system:
1
Obtain the software-version binary you want to upgrade to and place it in the TFTP server
home directory.
Extended loads are denoted by an “f” preceding the build filename.
2
If this is the first time you have upgraded to an extended load, obtain a restricted load of
the same build and place it in the directory.
For example, if you are upgrading a MAX 4000 to an extended load (such as
ftbam.m40), obtain a MAX 4000 restricted load (such as rtbam.m40).
3
From the Ascend unit’s VT100 interface, access the diagnostics monitor by typing the
following characters in rapid succession:
Esc [ Esc =
Or, press Ctrl-D to invoke the DO menu, and select D=Diagnostics.
4
At the > prompt, use the Tsave command to save your configuration, as in the following
example:
> tsave tftp-server router1.cfg
This saves the configuration of your unit to the file named router1.cfg in the TFTP
home directory of the server named tftp-server. This file must already exist and be
writable. Normally, TFTP upgrades save the configuration. Tsave is a precaution.
Caution: The file you save with the Tsave command contains all the passwords in
clear text. You should move this file from the TFTP directory to a secure location after the
upgrade procedure is complete.
!
5
At the > prompt, enter:
tloadcode hostname filename
where hostname is the name or IP address of your TFTP server, and filename is the name
of the system software on the server (relative to the TFTP home directory).
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 C-9
Upgrading System Software
Upgrading system software with an extended load
!
Caution: If you want to upgrade your system for the first time to a software version 6.0.0 or
later, you must first upgrade your system to a restricted load. Failure to do so can cause your
Ascend unit to lose its configuration.
For example, the command:
tloadcode tftp-server rtbam.m40
loads the restricted load rtbam.m40 into flash from the machine named
tftp-server.
!
Caution: You must use the Fsave command immediately after executing the Tload
command. Failure to do so can cause your Ascend unit to lose its configuration.
6
Enter the following command to save your configuration to flash memory:
fsave
7
Enter the following command:
nvramclear
After the Ascend unit clears NVRAM memory, it automatically resets.
If you have downloaded the extended load, the upgrade is complete.
If you have loaded a restricted load, your system boots up in restricted mode. Restricted mode
only allows you to load software. You cannot change or save profiles. While in restricted
mode, the Edit menu displays the following banner:
* * RESTRICTED MODE * * *
If your system boots up in restricted mode, perform the following steps:
1
At the > prompt, enter:
tloadcode hostname filename
where hostname is the name or IP address of your TFTP server, and filename is the name
of the extended load of system software on the server (relative to the TFTP home
directory).
For example, the command:
tloadcode tftp-server ftbam.m40
loads the extended load ftbam.m40 into flash from the machine named
tftp-server.
2
Enter the following command:
nvramclear
After the Ascend unit clears NVRAM memory, it automatically resets.
Your system will then boot up with the new version of software running.
C-10 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Upgrading System Software
Upgrading system software from versions earlier than 4.6C to version 5.0A or above
Upgrading system software from versions earlier than
4.6C to version 5.0A or above
If you are upgrading from software version 4.6C or earlier to version 5.0A or later, perform the
upgrade in the following order:
!
1
Load version 4.6Ci18, following the procedure in “Upgrading system software with a
standard load” on page C-5.
2
Load version 5.0A, following the procedure in “Upgrading system software with a fat or
thin load” on page C-6.
3
Load version 5.0Aix or 6.0.0, following the procedure in “Upgrading system software
with a fat or thin load” on page C-6 (for software versions 5.0Aix) or “Upgrading system
software with an extended load” on page C-9 (for software version 6.0.0).
Caution: Failure to follow this procedure might cause your Ascend unit to lose or corrupt its
configuration, and could render the unit unusable.
Using the serial port to upgrade to a standard or a thin
load
!
Caution: Uploading system software via the serial console overwrites all existing profiles.
Save your current profiles settings to your hard disk before you begin upgrading system
software. After the upgrade, restore your profiles from the backup file you created. Since the
backup file is readable text, you can reenter the settings through the Ascend unit’s user
interface. To avoid having existing profiles overwritten, use TFTP to upgrade your unit.
!
Caution: You cannot upload a fat load or an extended load using the serial port; it must be
done using TFTP.
Upgrading through the serial port consists of the following general steps:
•
Saving your configuration
•
Uploading the software
•
Restoring the configuration
Before you begin
Before upgrading your system through the serial port, make sure you have the following
equipment and software:
•
An IBM compatible PC or Macintosh with a serial port capable of connecting to the
Ascend unit’s Console port.
•
A straight-through serial cable.
•
Data communications software for your PC or Mac with XModem CRC/1K support (for
example, Procomm Plus, HyperTerminal for PCs or ZTerm for the Mac).
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 C-11
Upgrading System Software
Using the serial port to upgrade to a standard or a thin load
!
Caution: If you use a Windows-based terminal emulator such as Windows Terminal or
HyperTerminal, disable any screen savers or other programs or applications that could
interrupt the file transfer. Failure to do so might cause the software upload to halt, and can
render the Ascend unit unusable.
Saving your configuration
Before you start, verify that your terminal emulation program has a disk capture feature. Disk
capture allows your emulator to capture to disk the ASCII characters it receives at its serial
port. You should also verify that the data rate of your terminal emulation program is set to the
same rate as the Term Rate parameter in the System Profile (Sys Config menu).
You can cancel the backup process at any time by pressing Ctrl-C.
To save the Pipeline configuration (except passwords) to disk:
1
Open the Sys Diag menu.
2
Select Save Config, and press Enter.
The following message appears:
Ready to download - type any key to start....
3
Turn on the Capture feature of your communications program, and supply a filename for
the saved profiles. (Consult the documentation for your communications program if you
have any questions about how to turn on the Capture feature.)
4
Press any key to start saving your configured profiles.
Rows of configuration information appear on the screen as the configuration file is
downloaded to your hard disk. When the file has been saved, your communications
program displays a message indicating the download is complete.
5
Turn off the Capture feature of your communications program.
6
Print a copy of your configured profiles for later reference.
You should examine the saved configuration file. Notice that some of the lines begin with
START= and other lines begin with END=. A pair of these START/STOP lines and the block of
data between them constitute a profile. If a parameter in a profile is set to its default value, it
does not appear. In fact, you can have profiles with all parameters at their defaults, in which
case the corresponding START/STOP blocks are empty. Make sure that there are no extra lines
of text or characters either before START= or after END=. If there are, delete them. They could
cause problems when you try to upload the file to the Ascend unit.
Uploading the software
To upload the software:
1
Type the following four-key sequence in rapid succession (press each key in the sequence
shown, one after the other, as quickly as possible):
Esc [ Esc (Press the escape key, the left bracket key, the escape key, and the minus key, in that order,
in rapid succession.) The following string of Xmodem control characters appears:
CKCKCKCK
C-12 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Upgrading System Software
Using the serial port to upgrade to a standard or a thin load
If you do not see these characters, you probably did not press the four-key sequence
quickly enough. Try again. Most people use both hands and keep one finger on the escape
key.
2
Use the Xmodem file-transfer protocol to send the system file to the Ascend unit.
Your communications program normally takes anywhere from 5 to 15 minutes to send the
file to your Ascend unit. The time displayed on the screen does not represent real time. Do
not worry if your communication program displays several “bad batch” messages. This is
normal.
After the upload, the Ascend unit resets. Upon completion of the self-test, the Ascend unit’s
initial menu appears in the Edit window with all parameters set to default values. This
completes the upgrade.
If the upload fails during the transfer, try downloading another copy of the binary image from
the Ascend FTP server and re-loading the code to the Ascend unit. If you still have problems,
contact Ascend technical support for assistance.
Restoring the configuration
Under certain circumstances, the serial-port method might not completely restore your
configuration. You should therefore verify that your configuration was properly restored every
time you use this method. If you have many profiles and passwords, you should consider using
TFTP to upgrade your software. (See “Using TFTP to upgrade to a standard load” on
page C-5.)
To restore the configuration, you must have administrative privileges that include Field Service
(such as the Full Access Profile, for example). You use the Restore Cfg command to restore a
full configuration that you saved by using the Save Cfg command, or to upload more specific
configuration information obtained from Ascend (for example, a single filter stored in a special
configuration file).
To load configuration information through the serial port
1
From the Ascend unit’s VT100 interface, access the diagnostics monitor by typing the
following characters in rapid succession:
Esc [ Esc =
Or, press Ctrl-D to invoke the DO menu, and select D=Diagnostics.
2
At the > prompt, enter the Fclear command:
> fclear
3
At the > prompt, enter the NVRAMClear command:
> nvramclear
This causes the system to reset. When it comes back up, proceed with restoring your
configuration.
4
Enter quit to exit the Diagnostic interface.
5
Open the Sys Diag menu.
6
Select Restore Cfg, and press Enter.
The following message appears:
Waiting for upload data...
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 C-13
Upgrading System Software
Changing to system software that does not support V.90
7
Use the Send ASCII File feature of the communications software to send the configuration
file to the unit. (If you have any questions about how to send an ASCII file, consult the
documentation for your communications program.)
When the restore has been completed, the following message appears:
Restore complete - type any key to return to menu
8
Press any key to return to the configuration menus.
9
Reset the Ascend unit, by selecting System > Sys Diag > Sys Reset and confirming the
reset.
Restoring passwords
For security reasons, passwords are not written to configuration files created through the serial
console. A configuration file created using the Tsave command, however, does contain the
system passwords. You can restore the Tsave configuration file using the serial console.
After upgrading you may have to re-enter all the passwords on your system. If you edit your
saved configuration file, however, and enter passwords in the appropriate fields (by replacing
the word *SECURE* in each instance), these passwords will be restored. But note that if you
do choose to edit your configuration file, you must save it as text only or you will not be able to
load it into your unit.
If you restored a complete configuration, the passwords used in your Security profiles have
been wiped out. To reset them:
1
Press Ctrl-D to invoke the DO menu, select Password, and choose the Full Access profile.
2
When you are prompted to enter the password, press Enter (the null password).
After you have restored your privileges by entering the null password, you should
immediately open the Connection profiles, Security profiles, and Ethernet profile (Mod
Config menu), and reset the passwords to their previous values.
Changing to system software that does not support
V.90
If the software version on the MAX supports Rockwell V.90 code, the default value for the
Ethernet > Mod Config > TServ Options > MDM Modulation parameter is V.90. If you
downgrade to a software version on the MAX that does not support Rockwell V.90 code, you
must set the MDM Modulation parameter to either K56 or V.34. In general, if you downgrade
to older software versions and need to restore a configuration, you must originally have saved
the configuration from a MAX running the older version of code.
C-14 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Upgrading System Software
System messages
System messages
Table C-3 explains the messages that can appear during your upgrade.
Table C-3. System software messages
Message
Explanation
UART initialized
fat load: bad CRC!!
forcing serial download at 57600 bps
please download a "thin" system...
The fat load has a CRC (cyclic redundancy check)
error. Immediately after this message appears, the
serial console speed is switched to 57600 bps, and the
Ascend unit initiates an Xmodem serial download.
Load a thin load that understand the fat load format,
as explained in “Upgrading system software with a fat
or thin load” on page C-6.
File tbam.m40
incompatible fat load
format--discarding downloaded data
You attempted to upgrade to a fat load from a version
of system software that does not understand the fat
load format. You must first load a thin load that is fat
load aware, as explained in “Upgrading system
software with a fat or thin load” on page C-6.
This load has no platform identifier.
Proceed with caution.
This message can occur if you are running software
version 5.0Ai11 or later and you load an earlier
incremental or patch release onto your system. The
message indicates that Tloadcode cannot determine
which platform the code is intended for. If you are
using the correct software version, you can ignore this
message.
This load appears not to support your
network interface.
Indicates you are attempting to load a version of code
intended for a different network interface (for
example, loading MAX 4000 T1 software onto a
MAX 4000 E1 unit).
Download aborted.
to force.
Use ‘tloadcode -f’
This load appears to be for another
platform.
Download aborted.
to force.
Use ‘tloadcode -f’
Indicates you are attempting to load a version of code
onto a platform for which it is not intended (for
example, loading MAX 4000 software onto a MAX
2000). This is not recommended
UART initialized
fat load: inflate
......................................
......................
starting system...
Indicates you have successfully loaded a fat load.
UART initialized
extended load:
inflate essential
.+.+................................
invalid CRC!!
entering restricted mode
starting system...
Indicates the extended load has failed and that your
system is being brought up in restricted mode. You
must reload the software as explained in “Upgrading
system software with an extended load” on page C-9.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 C-15
Upgrading System Software
System messages
Table C-3. System software messages (continued)
Message
Explanation
UART initialized
extended load:
inflate essential
.+.+..................................
.
invalid length!!
entering restricted mode
starting system...
Indicates the extended load has failed and that your
system is being brought up in restricted mode. You
must reload the software as explained in “Upgrading
system software with an extended load” on page C-9.
UART initialized
Indicates you have successfully loaded an extended
load.
extended load:
inflate essential .+.+...............
inflate expendable..............|....
starting system...
UART initialized
thin load: inflate
......................................
.....................
starting system...
C-16 Preliminary November 2, 1998
Indicates you have successfully loaded a thin load.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
D
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
What is MIF?
Machine Interface Format (MIF) is an Ascend-specific language that provides an alternative
configuration interface for Ascend units. You can use a command line or write a MIF program
that sets Ascend parameters, rather than use the configuration menus to change one parameter
after another. MIF programs provide a batch-processing method of changing a configuration or
performing a series of actions.
Following are the primary features of MIF:
•
Command-line driven.
•
Controlling computer does not have to process asynchronous events.
•
Controlling computer can enable asynchronous event reporting
How to access MIF
You can access MIF with the Use MIF command, the MIF escape sequence, or a transfer
command.
Use MIF command
You can start MIF from the VT100 configuration menus by selecting the Use MIF command in
the Sys Diag menu:
00-200 Sys Diag
00-201 Restore Cfg
00-202 Save Cfg
>00-203 Use MIF
00-204 Sys Reset
00-205 Term Serv
00-206 Upd Rem Cfg
The MIF interface replaces the configuration menus. You can then start entering MIF
commands interactively, or download an ASCII file containing a series of MIF commands by
using the appropriate transfer command (such as Send Text) in your VT100 emulation
program.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 D-1
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
MIF addresses
MIF escape sequence
You can start MIF from any location in the configuration menus by typing the following
four-key sequence in rapid succession (press each key in the sequence shown, one after the
other, as quickly as possible):
ESC [ ESC !
Transfer command
You can start MIF by using the appropriate transfer command (such as Send Text) in your
VT100 emulation program, but that the first line in the emulation program must contain the
MIF escape sequence ESC [ ESC !.
MIF addresses
Each profile, parameter, DO menu item, or status window is called an addressable entity. Each
of these entities has a unique address.
A full address specifies a specific entity and consists of the full syntax shown below. A partial
address does not include the name attribute.
Addresses have the following syntax:
slot and port.type.entry.name
For example:
103.DIAL.1.Data Svc
The address syntax includes the following elements:
Syntax element Description
slot
One-digit slot number of the addressed entity (1 in the example). For most
addresses, the slot number of the addressed entity is identical to the first
digit of the menu number in the standard user interface.
port
Two-digit port number of the addressed entity (03 in the preceding
example). For most addresses, the port number of the addressed entity is
identical to the second and third digits of the menu number of the standard
user interface.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
MIF addresses
Syntax element Description
type
This attribute contains the type of the addressed entity. The defined types
are listed below, and are described in detail in “Lexical sequence of MIF
types” on page D-7.
•
ALARM—Line alarm indications
•
BRIDGE—Bridge Adrs profile
•
CONN—Answer and Connection profiles
•
DEST—Destination profiles
•
DIAG—System diagnostics
•
DIAGN—Line diagnostics
•
DIAL—Call profiles
•
DO—DO Command menu
•
ETHERNET—Ethernet profile
•
FILT—Filter profiles
•
FR—Frame Relay profiles
•
HOST2—Host-Interface profile for Host/Dual modules
•
HOST4—Host-Interface profile for Host/Quad modules
•
HOST6—Host-Interface profile for Host/6 modules
•
LINE—Line profiles
•
LMODEM—LAN Modem profiles
•
LOOP—Port diagnostics (loopback)
•
PORT—Port profile
•
ROUTE—Route profiles
•
SEC—Security profiles
•
STAT—Status menu
•
SWAN—Serial WAN profile (currently not supported)
•
SYS—System profile
•
TRAP—SNMP Traps profiles
•
V110—V.110 profiles
entry
Identifies a specific entity, such as a profile. If there is only one entity of a
particular type, as in the case of the Port profile of the DO menu, the
entity’s entry is a zero. When a type includes more than one entity, as in
the case of Line N profiles, 0 (zero) is the current (default) entry, 1 is the
first entry saved after the current entry, and so on. An address without an
entry denotes the factor-default type profile.
name
Identifies the name of the addressed entity.
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 D-3
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
MIF commands
MIF commands
Use the SET command to set the value attribute. Use the GET and NEXT commands to
retrieve current information in the value attribute. Following are the supported MIF commands:
•
LOAD <partial address>
•
SAVE <partial address>
•
GET <full or edit address>
•
NEXT <address>
•
SET <full or edit address>=<value>
For a definition of the edit address, see “Loading and saving entities” on page D-5
MIF responses
The LOAD and SAVE commands respond with a prompt (:) if the command is valid:
:
The GET and NEXT commands return a value in the following syntax:
+ <address>=<value>
For example,
: GET 201.DIAL.16.Call Type
+ 201.DIAL.16.Call Type=AIM
The plus-sign indicates a returned value or an error. Invalid commands return the following
message:
+ ERROR
The SET command also responds with a prompt (:). When it is applied to a status or alarm
entity, however, it creates a trap which is reported in the following syntax:
– <address>=<value>
For example:
: SET 100.ALARM.0.alarm=20
– 100.ALARM.0.alarm=LA
:
The minus-sign indicates an asynchronous report. For more information, see “MIF traps and
asynchronous reports” on page D-7.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
MIF commands
Loading and saving entities
Only entities (such as profiles) that have been loaded into the edit area can be modified.
Because there is only one edit area and it can have only one profile loaded into it at a time,
commands that operate on entities in the edit area can use another version of the address called
the edit address. The edit address has the following format:
<name>
The LOAD commands loads a profile into the edit area. It uses the following syntax:
LOAD <partial address>
For example,
: LOAD 201.PORT.0
When the profile has been loaded into the edit area, you can modify it, using only the SET
command, for example:
: SET Port Name=Chicago #1
When you have finished modifying the profile, save it. The SAVE command copies the profile
in the edit area to the specified address. It uses the following syntax:
SAVE <partial address>
For example,
: SAVE 201.PORT.0
Getting an entity’s current value
If an entity (profile) has not already been loaded into the edit area by using the LOAD
command, the GET command loads the profile and then extracts the requested value.
The GET command returns the value of the addressed attribute. When the addressed attribute
is a parameter in the standard user interface, the value returned by GET is a parameter value.
When the addressed attribute is a status window in the standard user interface, all lines in the
status window are returned.
The GET command uses the following syntax:
GET <full or edit address>
For example, the following GET command uses a full address:
: GET 201.DIAL.16.Call Type
+ 201.DIAL.16.Call Type=AIM
Or, if the profile has already been LOADed into the edit area, use the following syntax:
: LOAD 201.DIAL.16
: GET Call Type
+ 201.DIAL.16.Call Type=AIM
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 D-5
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
MIF commands
Getting the address and value of the next entity
The NEXT command returns the address and value of the attribute with the next address.
Addresses, though composed of both textual and numeric components, are ordered as if each
component was a digit of a decimal number. The sequence is:
<name> within <entry>
<entry> within <type>
<type> within <port>
<port> within <slot>
The NEXT command uses the following syntax:
NEXT <full address>
For example:
: NEXT 000.DIAL.1.Data Svc
+ 000.DIAL.1.Base Ch Count=1
Modifying parameter values
If an entity (profile) has not already been loaded into the edit area by using the LOAD
command, the SET command loads the profile and then replaces the specified value.
The SET command replaces the current value of the entity with the <value> given in the
command. In this context, it uses the following syntax:
SET <edit address>=<value>
When the address refers to a parameter in a profile, the SET command accepts only an edit
address. So, the profile must already be LOADed into the edit area. For example:
: LOAD 201.PORT.0
: SET Port Name=Chicago #1
: SAVE 201.PORT.0
:
Note: The SET command does not replace the parameter’s value until you use the SAVE
command.
To SET an enumerated parameter (such as Yes or No), the <value> must be identical to the
enumerated value in the standard Ascend user interface. However, the specified value is not
case-sensitive. For example, you can use either one of these commands:
: SET 100.DIAGN.0.Clr Err1=Yes
: SET 100.DIAGN.0.Clr Err1=yes
You can also apply the SET command to status and alarm entities, as described in the next
section.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
Lexical sequence of MIF types
MIF traps and asynchronous reports
When you apply the SET command to a status window or an alarm, it enables asynchronous
reports (traps) of the requested status screen or alarms. In this context, the SET command uses
the following syntax:
SET <full address>=<value>
The <value> established in the SET command sets the time period in seconds between status
checks. For example,
: SET 100.ALARM.0.alarm=20
- 100.ALARM.0.alarm=LA
:
Reports are generated only whenever a change is detected in the requested status window
components or whenever an alarm occurs. If the <value> in the SET command is 0,
asynchronous reports are not generated.
Lexical sequence of MIF types
This section lists each MIF type with its allowed values. It uses the conventions and formats
described next.
Types are listed alphabetically. The following format is used:
<address>=<value>
For example, the Remote Mgmt type can be set to Yes or No. It appears in the system profile
(SYS) at the following MIF address:
000.SYS.0.Remote Mgmt
So, it is listed in this section like the following:
000.SYS.0.Remote Mgmt=Yes,No
Comments are set off by parentheses(), as shown below for the Clr Err1 type that can be SET
but not read:
100.DIAGN.0.Clr Err1=Yes (write only)
If the type does not have enumerated values, the type of values it can take are given in italics as
in the following two examples:
000.SYS.0.Name=text
000.SYS.0.Status 1=XN-n00 (menu number for a status screen)
Note: The menu numbering shown in this section reflects the standard MAX whose base
system slot 2 has a Host/Quad module. This differs from the MAX 4000, whose base system
slot 2 has a Net/T1 module. Furthermore, the base system of the MAX 4000 has slot 9 (the
Ethernet module), slot A (an Ether-Data module), and slot B (a Serial WAN module), while
slots 9, A, and B do not exist on the standard MAX.
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 D-7
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
ALARM
The slot and port of most addresses are given explicitly; however, in some cases they are
represented by spp, where s is the slot number and pp is the port number. For example, either
one of the following two commands may be used:
000.SYS.0.Name=text
spp.SYS.0.Name=text
ALARM
For T1/PRI and E1/PRI models:
s00.ALARM.n.alarm= (write)
DS,RA,YA,1S,DF,LA (read)
For BRI models:
100.ALARM.n.alarm= (write)
-,X,.,P,M,D (read) (dash, X, period, P, M ,D)
For Switched-56 models:
100.ALARM.n.alarm= (write)
-,X,.,A (read) (dash, X, period, A)
Note:
•
Do not exceed 32,000 seconds when using SET to write to these addresses
•
s00.ALARM.n...
s = 1 (Multiband Plus and Pipeline 100/400)
s = 1 or slot number of a T1/PRI or E1/PRI module (MAX)
n = the line number minus 1. Namely, n=0 is line #1, n=1 is line #=2, etc.
•
Alarm definitions for T1/PRI lines are as follows:
•
–
DS (Line disabled)
–
RA (Red Alarm, loss of sync)
–
YA (Yellow Alarm)
–
1S (AIS, Blue alarm)
–
DF (No D channel)
–
LA (Link Active)
Alarm definitions for BRI/Switched 56 lines are as follows:
–
– (Line disabled)
–
X (No physical link)
–
P (Link active, BRI point-to-point)
–
M (Link active, BRI multipoint 1)
–
D (Line active, BRI multipoint 2)
–
A (Line active, switched 56)
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
BRIDGE
For example:
Report status of the “100.ALARM.0.alarm” entity every 20 seconds if change occurs:
: SET 100.ALARM.0.alarm=20
- 100.ALARM.0.alarm=LA
:
BRIDGE
s00.BRIDGE.n.Enet Adrs=12-digit hexadecimal string
.Net Adrs=dotted decimal format
.Connection #=2-digit decimal string
Note:
•
This type applies to MAX equipped with the Ethernet module and Pipeline 100/400 only.
It does not apply to Multiband Plus.
•
s00.BRIDGE.n...
s = slot into which the Ethernet card is installed (MAX)
s = 2 (Pipeline 100/400)
n = 0 to 98
CONN
s00.CONN.n.Force 56=Yes,No (n=0)
.Profile Reqd=Yes,No (n=0)
.CLID Auth=Ignore,Prefer,Force (n=0)
.Assign Adrs=Yes,No (n=0)
.Encaps...MPP=Yes,No(n=0)
.Encaps...PPP=Yes,No(n=0)
.Encaps...COMB=Yes,No(n=0)
.Encaps...FR=Yes,No(n=0)
.Encaps...EU-RAW=Yes,No(n=0)
.Encaps...EU-UI=Yes,No(n=0)
.Encaps...TCP-CLEAR=Yes,No(n=0)
.Encaps...V.120=Yes,No(n=0)
.PPP options...Route IP=Yes,No (n=0)
.PPP options...Bridge=Yes,No (n=0)
.PPP options...Recv Auth=PAP,CHAP,Either,None (n=0)
.PPP options...MRU=number (n=0)
.PPP options...LQM=Yes,No (n=0)
.PPP options...LQM Min=number (n=0)
.PPP options...LQM Max=number (n=0)
.PPP options...Link Comp=Stac,None (n=0)
.PPP options...VJ Comp=Yes,No (n=0)
.PPP options...Dyn Alg=Constant,Linear,Quadratic (n=0)
.PPP options...Sec History=number (n=0)
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 D-9
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
CONN
.PPP options...Add Pers=number (n=0)
.PPP options...Sub Pers=number (n=0)
.PPP options...Min Ch Count=number (n=0)
.PPP options...Max Ch Count=number (n=0)
.PPP options...Target Util=number (n=0)
.PPP options...Idle Pct=number (n=0)
.COMB options...Password Reqd=Yes,No (n=0)
.COMB options...Interval=number (n=0)
.COMB options...Compression=Yes,No (n=0)
.Station=text (n=1 to 31)
.Active=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps=MPP,PPP,COMB,FR,EU-RAW,EU-UI,TCP-CLEAR (n=1 to 31)
.PRI # Type=Unknown,Intl,National,Local,Abbrev (n=1 to 31)
.Dial #=phone number (n=1 to 31)
.Calling #=phone number (n=1 to 31)
.Route IP=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Route IPX=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Bridge=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Dial Brdcast=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Send Auth=PAP,PAP-TOKEN,PAP-TOKEN-CHAP,
CACHE-TOKEN, CHAP,None (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Send PW=text (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Aux Send PW=text (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Recv PW=text (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Base Ch Count=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Min Ch Count=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Max Ch Count=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Inc Ch Count=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Dec Ch Count=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...MRU=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...LQM=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...LQM Min=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...LQM Max=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Link Comp=Stac,None (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...VJ Comp=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Dyn Alg=Constant,Linear,Quadratic(n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Sec History=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Add Pers=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Sub Pers=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Target Util=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Idle Pct=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Password Reqd=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Interval=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Compression=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
CONN
.Encaps options...FR Prof=text (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...DLCI=number (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Login Host=text (n=1 to 31)
.Encaps options...Login Port=number or dotted decimal format (n=1 to
31)
.Ip options...LAN Adrs=dotted decimal format/subnet mask (n=1 to 31)
.Ip options...WAN Alias=dotted decimal format (n=1 to 31)
.Ip options...Metric=number (n=1 to 31)
.Ip options...Private=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Ip options...RIP=Off,Send,Recv,Both (n=1 to 31)
.Ip options...Pool=number (n=1 to 31)
.Ipx options...Dial Query=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Ipx options...IPX ENet#=number (n=1 to 31)
.Ipx options...IPX Alias=number (n=1 to 31)
.Ipx options...Handle IPX=None,Client,Server (n=1 to 31)
.Ipx options...Netware t/o=number (n=1 to 31)
.Session options...RIP=Off,Send,Recv,Both (n=0 to 31)
.Session options...Data Filter=number (n=0 to 31)
.Session options...Call Filter=number (n=0 to 31)
.Session options...Idle=number (n=0 to 31)
.Session options...Preempt=number (n=0 to 31)
.Session options...Secondary=text (n=1 to 31) (Pipeline 25/50)
.Session options...Backup=text (n=1 to 31)
.Session options...IP Direct=dotted decimal format
.Session options...FR Direct=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Session options...FR Prof=text (n=1 to 31)
.Session options...FR DLCI=number (n=1 to 31)
.Telco options...AnsOrig=Both,Ans Only,Call Only (n=1 to 31)
.Telco options...Callback=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Telco options...Call Type=Switched, Nailed, Nailed/MP+ (n=1
to 31)
.Telco options...Group=number (n=1 to 31)
.Telco options....FT1 Caller=Yes,No
.Telco options...Data Svc=Voice,56KR,56K,64K,384KR,
384K,1536K,1536KR,128K,192K,256K,320K,448K,
512K,576K,640K,704K,768K,832K,896K,960K,1024K,
1088K,1152K,1216K,1280K,1344K,1408K,1472K (n=1 to 31)
.Telco options...Force 56=Yes,No (n=1 to 31)
.Telco options...Bill #=number (n=1 to 31)
.Telco options...Call-by-Call=number (n=1 to 31)
.Telco options...Transit #=number (n=1 to 31)
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 D-11
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
DEST
Note:
•
This type applies to the MAX equipped with the Ethernet module and the Pipeline
100/400 only. It does not apply to Multiband Plus.
•
s00.CONN.n.PRI # Type is a T1/E1/PRI parameter only
•
s00.CONN.n.Telco Options...Bill # is a BRI, T1/PRI parameter only
•
s00.CONN.n.Telco Options...Call-by-Call is a T1/PRI parameter only
•
s00.CONN.n.Telco Options...Transit # is a T1/PRI or E1/PRI parameter
•
s00.CONN.n...
s = slot into which the Ethernet card is installed (MAX)
s = 2 (Pipeline 100/400)
n = 1 to 31
•
s00.CONN.n.Data Svc for -SW56 models must = 56K.Data Svc for -BRI models can be
Voice,56KR,56K,64K only
DEST
For T1/PRI models only:
000.DEST.n.Name=text
.Option=1st Avail,1st Active,Any
.Dial 1#=phone number
.Call-by-Call 1=number
.Dial 2#=phone number
.Call-by-Call 2=number
.Dial 3#=phone number
.Call-by-Call 3=number
.Dial 4#=phone number
.Call-by-Call 4=number
.Dial 5#=phone number
.Call-by-Call 5=number
.Dial 6#=phone number
.Call-by-Call 6=number
Note:
•
does not apply to Pipeline 100/400
•
000.DEST.n...
n = 1 to 31
•
000.DEST .n.Call-by-Call are PRI parameters only
DIAG
000.DIAG.0.Sys Reset=Yes (write only)
000.DIAG.0.UPD REM CFG=Yes (write only)
Note:
•
The UPD REM CFG command is available only for MAX and Pipeline 100/400.
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MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
DIAGN
For example:
: SET 000.DIAG.0.Sys Reset=No
+ ERROR
: SET 000.DIAG.0.Sys Reset=Yes
(unit resets!)
DIAGN
s00.DIAGN.0.Line LB1=Yes,No
.Line LB2=Yes,No
.Clr Err1=Yes (write only)
.Clr Perf1=Yes (write only)
.Clr Err2=Yes (write only)
.Clr Perf2=Yes (write only)
Note:
•
This type applies to MAX-T1/PRI and Multiband Plus-T1/PRI only. It does not apply to
E1/PRI, BRI, or SW56 models or to Pipeline 100/400.
•
s00.DIAGN.n...
s = 1 (Multiband Plus)
s = 1 or slot number of a T1/PRI or E1/PRI module (MAX)
For example:
: SET 100.DIAGN.0.LB1=No
:
DIAL
spp.DIAL.n.Name=text
.Dial #=phone number
.Call Type=AIM,BONDING,1 Chnl,2 Chnl,FT1,Ft1-AIM,FT1-B&O
.Call Mgm=Manual,Static,Dynamic,Delta,Mode 1,Mode 2
.Data Svc=Voice,56KR,56K,64K,384KR,384K,1536K,1536KR,
128K,192K,256K,320K,448K,512K,576K,640K,704K,
768K,832K,896K,960K,1024K,1088K,1152K,1216K, 1280K,1344K,1408K,1472K
.Force 56K=Yes,No
.Base Ch Count=number
.Inc Ch Count=number
.Dec Ch Count=number
.Call-by-Call=number (T1/PRI only)
.Bill #=number (T1/PRI only)
.Auto-BERT=Off,15 sec,30 sec,60 sec,90 sec,120 sec
.Bit Inversion=Yes,No
.Fail Action=Disc,Reduce,Retry
.PRI # Type=Unknown,Intl,National,Local,Abbrev (T1/PRI only)
.Transit #=number (T1/PRI only)
.Group=number
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Preliminary November 2, 1998 D-13
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
DIAL
.FT1 Caller=Yes,No
.B&O Restore=number (n=30 to 30000)
.Flag Idle=Yes,No
.Dyn Alg=Constant,Linear,Quadratic
.Sec History=number
.Add Pers=number
.Sub Pers=number
.Time Period 1...Activ=Disabled,Enabled,Shutdown
.Time Period 1...Beg Time=hh:mm:ss
.Time Period 1...Min Ch Cnt=number
.Time Period 1...Max Ch Cnt=number
.Time Period 1...Target Util=number
.Time Period 2...Activ=Disabled,Enabled,Shutdown
.Time Period 2...Beg Time=hh:mm:ss
.Time Period 2...Min Ch Cnt=number
.Time Period 2...Max Ch Cnt=number
.Time Period 2...Target Util=number
.Time Period 3...Activ=Disabled,Enabled,Shutdown
.Time Period 3...Beg Time=hh:mm:ss
.Time Period 3...Min Ch Cnt=number
.Time Period 3...Max Ch Cnt=number
.Time Period 3...Target Util=number
.Time Period 4...Activ=Disabled,Enabled,Shutdown
.Time Period 4...Beg Time=hh:mm:ss
.Time Period 4...Min Ch Cnt=number
.Time Period 4...Max Ch Cnt=number
.Time Period 4...Target Util=number
Note:
•
This type applies to MAX and Multiband Plus only. It does not apply to Pipeline 100/400.
•
spp.DIAL.n...(Multiband Plus)
s = 0 or 2
when s=0, pp = 00
when spp=000, n = 0 through 15 (These are shared Call Profiles 17 to 32)
when s=2, pp = 01 through last serial host port
when spp is not 000, n = 0 through 16(If n=0, this is the current Call Profile of serial host
port pp. If n is not 0, these are stored Call Profiles 1 to 31.)
•
spp.DIAL.n...(MAX)
s = 0 or 2 or slot number of a Host/Dual or Host/6 module
when s=0, pp = 00
when spp=000, n = 0 through 15 (These shared Call Profiles 17 to 32)
when s=2 or slot number, pp = 01 through last serial host port
when spp is not 000, n = 0 through 16 (If n=0, this is the current Call Profile of serial host
port pp. If n is not 0, these are stored Call Profiles 1 to 31.)
D-14 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
DO
•
spp.DIAL.n.Data Svc for -SW56 models must = 56K
spp.DIAL.n.Data Svc for -BRI models can be Voice,56KR,56K,64K only
•
s00.DIAL.n.PRI # Type is a T1/E1/PRI parameter only
•
s00.DIAL.n.Bill # is a T1/PRI parameter only
•
s00.DIAL.n.Call-by-Call is a T1/PRI parameter only
•
s00.DIAL.n.Transit # is a T1/PRI only
For example:
: NEXT 000.DIAL.1.Data Svc
+ 000.DIAL.1.Base Ch Count=1
: GET 201.DIAL.16.Call Type
+ 201.DIAL.16.Call Type=AIM
:
DO
spp.DO.0.Dial=Yes,No (read) Yes (write)
.Hang Up=Yes,No (read) Yes (write)
.Answer=Yes,No (read) Yes (write)
.Extend BW=Yes,No (read) Yes (write)
.Contract BW=Yes,No (read) Yes (write)
.Beg/End Rem LB=Yes,No (read) Toggle (write)
.Beg/End BERT=Yes,No (read) Toggle (write)
.Resynchronize=Yes,No (read) Yes (write)
Note:
These commands apply only during certain conditions. For example, spp.DO.0.Hang Up
applies only when the object specified has a call online, while spp.DO.0.Dial applies only to
objects not having a call online.See the MAX Reference Guide for details on each of the DO
commands.
•
spp.DO...(Multiband Plus)
s=2
pp = 01 through last serial host port
•
spp.DO...(Pipeline 100/400)
spp = 200
•
spp.DO...(MAX)
s = 2 or the slot number of a serial host or Ethernet module when s=2 or the slot number of
a serial host module,
pp = 01 through last serial host port when s= the slot number of the Ethernet module, pp =
00
•
The <value> Toggle in a SET (write) command changes the state of the addressed entity
from it current state to another state, i.e., from Yes to No or from No to Yes. The SET
command applied to a DO <address> causes the DO action to be invoked if active.
•
The GET (read) command returns the <value> YES or NO when applied to a DO
<address>.YES is returned if the item can be invoked at the time of the request (is active)
and NO is returned otherwise.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 D-15
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
ETHERNET
•
DO P (password), DO S (save), and DO L (load) are not available.
For example:
: NEXT 201.D0.0.Extend
+ 201.D0.0.Contract=Yes
:
ETHERNET
The following applies to Pipeline 100/400s and Ethernet-equipped MAX units.
s00.ETHERNET.0.Module Name=text (MAX only)
.Ether options...IP Adrs=dotted decimal format/subnet mask
.Ether options...2nd Adrs=dotted decimal format/subnet mask
.Ether options...RIP=Off,Send,Recv,Both
.Ether options...Ignore Def Rt=Yes,No
.Ether options...Proxy Mode=Off,Inactive,Active,Always
.Ether options...Filter=number
.Ether options...IPX Frame=802.3,802.2,SNAP,ENET II
.Ether options...IPX Net#=number
.WAN options...Dial Plan=Trunk Grp,Extended (MAX only)
.WAN options...Ans 1#=Phone number (MAX only)
.WAN options...Ans 2#=Phone number (MAX only)
.WAN options...Ans 3#=Phone number (MAX only)
.WAN options...Ans 4#=Phone number (MAX only)
.WAN options...Pool Start #1=dotted decimal format
.WAN options...Pool Count #1=number
.WAN options...Pool Start #2=dotted decimal format
.WAN options...Pool Count #2=number
.WAN options...Pool Only=Yes,No
.SNMP options...Read Comm=text
.SNMP options...R/W Comm=text
.Tserv options...TS Enabled=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Passwd=text
.Tserv options...Banner=text
.Tserv options...Prompt=text
.Tserv options...Term Type=text
.Tserv options...PPP=Yes,No
.Tserv options...SLIP=Yes,No
.Tserv options...SLIP BOOTP=Yes,No
.Tserv options...V42/MNP=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Telnet=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Def Telnet=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Clear Call=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Binary Mode=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Initial Scrn=Cmd,Menu
D-16 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
ETHERNET
.Tserv options...Toggle Scrn=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Security=None,Partial,Full
.Tserv options...3rd Prompt=text
.Tserv options...Remote Conf=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Host #1 Addr=dotted decimal format
.Tserv options...Host #1 Text=text
.Tserv options...Host #2 Addr=dotted decimal format
.Tserv options...Host #2 Text=text
.Tserv options...Host #3 Addr=dotted decimal format
.Tserv options...Host #3 Text=text
.Tserv options...Host #4 Addr=dotted decimal format
.Tserv options...Host #4 Text=text
.Tserv options...Immed Telnet=Yes,No
.Tserv options...PPP Delay=Yes,No
.Tserv options...7-Even=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Login Case=L/P, l/p, L/p, l/P
.Tserv options...Ppp Info=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Clr Scrn=Yes,No
.Tserv options...Silent=Yes,No
.Bridging=Yes,No
.IPX Routing=Yes,No
.Shared Prof=Yes,No
.Telnet PW=text
.RIP Policy=Splt Hrzn,Poison Rvrs
.RIP Summary=Yes,No
.ICMP Redirects=Accept,Ignore
.DHCP Spoofing=Yes,No (Pipeline 50/25 only)
.Spoof Adr=dotted decimal format/subnet mask (Pipeline 50/25 only)
.Renewal Time=number (Pipeline 50/25 only)
.DNS...Domain Name=text
.DNS...Pri DNS=dotted decimal format
.DNS...Sec DNS=dotted decimal format
.DNS...Pri WINS=dotted decimal format
.DNS...Sec WINS=dotted decimal format
.Acct...Acct= None,RADIUS
.Acct...Acct Host #1=dotted decimal format
.Acct...Acct Host #2=dotted decimal format
.Acct...Acct Host #3=dotted decimal format
.Acct...Acct Port=number
.Acct...Acct Timeout=number
.Acct...Acct Key=number
.Acct...Sess Timer=number
.Auth...Auth= None,TACACS,RADIUS,RADIUS/LOGOUT
.Auth...Auth Host #1=dotted decimal format
.Auth...Auth Host #2=dotted decimal format
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 D-17
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
FILT=<type>
.Auth...Auth Host #3=dotted decimal format
.Auth...Auth Port=number
.Auth...Auth Timeout=number
.Auth...Auth Key=number
.Auth...Auth Pool=Yes,No
.Auth...Auth Req=Yes,No
.Auth...APP Server=Yes,No
.Auth...APP Host=dotted decimal format
.Auth...APP Port=number
.Log...Syslog=Yes,No
.Log...Log Host=dotted decimal format
.Log...Log Facility=Local0,Local1,Local2,Local3,Local4, Local5,Local6,Local 7
.Modem Ringback=Yes,No
The following applies to Ethernet-equipped Multiband Plus-T1/PRI and -E1/PRIs. (Ethernet
IF does not apply to the Multiband Plus.)
300.ETHERNET.0.Ether options...Ethernet IF=AUI,COAX,UTP
.Ether options...IP Adrs=dotted decimal format/subnet mask
.Ether options...Def Rte=dotted decimal format
.Ether options...RIP=Off,Recv
.SNMP options...Read Comm=text
.SNMP options...R/W Comm=text
.Syslog=Yes,No
.Log Host=dotted decimal format
.Log Facility=Local0,Local1,Local2,Local3,Local4,Local5, Local6,Local 7
Note:
•
s00.ETHERNET... (MAX models)
s = any slot into which the Ethernet expansion module is installed.
•
s00.ETHERNET... (Multiband Plus-T1/PRI or -E1/PRI models)
s=3
•
s00.ETHERNET... (Pipeline 100/400 models)
s=2
•
Passwd, PPP, SLIP, Initial Scrn, Toggle Scrn, Security, Remote Conf, Host #N Addr, Host
#N Text in the Tserv Options menu apply to the MAX and Pipeline 100/400 only.
For example:
: GET 200.ETHERNET.0.MODULE NAME
200.ETHERNET.0.MODULE NAME=Tom’s Pipeline
:
FILT=<type>
s00.FILT.n.Name=text
.In Filter 01...Valid=Yes,No
.In Filter 01...Type=Generic,Ip
D-18 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
FILT=<type>
.In Filter 01...Generic...Forward=Yes,No
.In Filter 01...Generic...Offset=number
.In Filter 01...Generic...Length=number
.In Filter 01...Generic...Mask= hexadecimal string
.In Filter 01...Generic...Value= hexadecimal string
.In Filter 01...Generic...Compare= ==, !=
.In Filter 01...Generic...More=Yes,No
.In Filter 01...Ip...Forward=Yes,No
.In Filter 01...Ip...Src Mask=dotted decimal format
.In Filter 01...Ip...Src Adrs=dotted decimal format
.In Filter 01...Ip...Dst Mask=dotted decimal format
.In Filter 01...Ip...Dst Adrs=dotted decimal format
.In Filter 01...Ip...Protocol=number
.In Filter 01...Ip...Src Port Cmp=None,Less,Eql,Gtr,Neq
.In Filter 01...Ip...Src Port #=number
.In Filter 01...Ip...Dst Port Cmp=None,Less,Eql,Gtr,Neq
.In Filter 01...Ip...Dst Port #=number
.In Filter 01...Ip...TCP Estab=Yes,No
.Out Filter 01...Valid=Yes,No
.Out Filter 01...Valid=Yes,No
.Out Filter 01...Type=Generic,Ip
.Out Filter 01...Generic...Forward=Yes,No
.Out Filter 01...Generic...Offset=number
.Out Filter 01...Generic...Length=number
.Out Filter 01...Generic...Mask= hexadecimal string
.Out Filter 01...Generic...Value= hexadecimal string
.Out Filter 01...Generic...Compare= ==, !=
.Out Filter 01...Generic...More=Yes,No
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Forward=Yes,No
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Src Mask=dotted decimal format
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Src Adrs=dotted decimal format
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Dst Mask=dotted decimal format
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Dst Adrs=dotted decimal format
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Protocol=number
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Src Port Cmp=None,Less,Eql,Gtr,Neq
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Src Port #=number
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Dst Port Cmp=None,Less,Eql,Gtr,Neq
.Out Filter 01...Ip...Dst Port #=number
.Out Filter 01...Ip...TCP Estab=Yes,No
(.In/Out Filter 02 thru 12... same as .In/Out Filter 01...)
Note:
•
This type applies to the MAX equipped with an Ethernet module and the Pipeline 100/400
only. It does not apply to the Multiband Plus.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 D-19
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
FR
•
s00.FILT.n...
s = slot into which the Ethernet card is installed (MAX)
s = 0 (Pipeline 100/400)
n = 0 to 15
FR
s00.FR.0.Name=text
.Active=Yes,No
.Call Type=Nailed,Switched
.Nailed Grp=number
.Data Svc=Voice,56KR,56K,64K,384KR,
384K,1536K,1536KR,128K,192K,256K,320K,448K,
512K,576K,640K,704K,768K,832K,896K,960K,1024K,
1088K,1152K,1216K,1280K,1344K,1408K,1472K
.PRI # Type=Unknown,Intl,National,Local,Abbrev
.Dial #=number
.Bill #=number
.Call-by-Call=number
.Transit #=number
.Link Mgmt=T1.617D,None
.N391=number
.N392=number
.N393=number
.T391=number
.N392=number
.MRU=number
Note:
•
This type applies to the MAX equipped with the Ethernet module and the Pipeline
100/400 only. It does not apply to the Multiband Plus.
HOSTN
HOST2 applies to Multiband Plus and MAX only.
s00.HOST2.0.Module Name=text (MAX only)
.Dual Port=No Dual,1&2 Dual
.Palmtop=Full,Restrict
.Palmtop Port #=number
.Palmtop Menus=Standard,Limited,MIF
HOST4 applies to Multiband Plus only.
200.HOST4.0.Dual Port=No Dual,1&3 Dual,2&4 Dual,All Dual
.F Palmtop=Full,Restrict
.F Palmtop Port #=number
.F Palmtop Menus=Standard,Limited,MIF
D-20 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
LINE
.L Palmtop=Full,Restrict
.L Palmtop Port #=number
.L Palmtop Menus=Standard,Limited,MIF
.R Palmtop=Full,Restrict
.R Palmtop Port #=number
.R Palmtop Menus=Standard,Limited,MIF
HOST6 applies to MAX only.
s00.HOST6.0.Module Name=text
.Port 1/2 Dual=Yes,No
.Port 3/4 Dual=Yes,No
.Port 5/6 Dual=Yes,No
Note:
•
This type applies to the MAX and Multiband Plus only. It does not apply to the Pipeline
100/400.
•
s00.HOST2... (MAX)
s = 2 or any slot in which a Host/Dual serial host expansion module is installed.
•
s00.HOST2... (Multiband Plus)
s=2
•
s00.HOST4... (Multiband Plus)
s=2
•
s00.HOST6... (MAX)
s = any slot in which a Host/6 serial host expansion module is installed.
LINE
For models that interface to T1/PRI lines:
s00.LINE.n.Name=text
.2nd Line=Disabled,D&I,Trunk
.2nd Line=Yes,No (E1 Models only)
.Line 1...Sig Mode=Inband,ISDN,PBX T1,ISDN_NFAS
.Line 1...NFAS_ID num=number
.Line 1...Rob Ctl=Wink-Start,Idle-Start,Inc-W-200,Inc-W-400, Loop-Start
.Line 1...Switch Type=AT&T,NTI,GloBanD,Japan,NI-2
.Line 1...Framing Mode=D4,ESF
.Line 1...Encoding=AMI,B8ZS,None
.Line 1...FDL=None,AT&T,ANSI,Sprint (Not Pipeline 100/400)
.Line 1...Length=1-133,134-266,267-399,400-533,534-655
.Line 1...Buildout=0 db,7.5 db,15 db,22.5 db
.Line 1...Clock Source=Yes,No
.Line 1...PBX Type=Voice,Data,Leased 1:1
.Line 1...Delete Digits=number
.Line 1...Add Number=
.Line 1...Call-by-Call=number
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 D-21
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
LINE
.Line 1...Ans #=phone number
.Line 1...Ans Service=Voice,56KR,56K,64K,384KR,384K,
1536K,1536KR,128K,192K,256K,320K,448K,512K,576K,
640K,704K,768K,832K,896K,960K,1024K,1088K,1152K,
1216K,1280K,1344K,1408K,1472K
.Line 1...Ch 1=Unused,Switched,D&I,Nailed,D-channel
.Line 1...Ch 1 #=number
.Line 1...Ch 1 Slot=number (MAX only)
.Line 1...Ch 1 Prt/Grp=number
.Line 1...Ch 1 TrnkGrp=number
(.Line 1...Ch 2 thru Ch 23 same as Ch 1)
.Line 1...Ch 24=Unused,Switched,D&I,Nailed,D-channel, NFAS-Prime,NFAS-Second
.Line 1...Ch 24 #=number
.Line 1...Ch 24 Slot=number (MAX only)
.Line 1...Ch 24 Prt/Grp=number
.Line 1...Ch 24 TrnkGrp=number
(.Line 2... same as Line 1...)
For models that interface to BRI lines:
100.LINE.n.Name=text
.Switch Type=AT&T,NTI,NI1,FRANC,U.K.,JAPAN,BELGI,AUSTR,SWISS,
GERMAN,DUTCH, NET 3
.Line 1...Enabled=Yes,No
.Line 1...LinkType=P_T_P,Multi_P
.Line 1...B1 Usage=Unused,Switched,Nailed
.Line 1...B1 Prt/Grp=number
.Line 1...B2 Usage=Unused,Switched,Nailed
.Line 1...B2 Prt/Grp=number
.Line 1...Pri Num=phone number
.Line 1...Pri SPID=number
.Line 1...Sec Num=phone number
.Line 1...Sec SPID=number
(.Line 2... thru .Line 8... same as Line 1...)
D-22 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
LINE
For models that interface to Switched-56 lines:
100.LINE.n.Name=text
.Line 1...Enabled=Yes,No
.Line 1...Ch Usage=Unused,Switched,Nailed
.Line 1...Phone Num=phone number
.Line 1...Port/Grp=number
(.Line 2... thru .Line 7... same as Line 1...)
For models that interface to E1/PRI lines:
s00.LINE.n.Name=text
.Line 1...Sig Mode=ISDN,None,DPNSS
.Line 1...Switch Type=NTI,French,German,GloBanD,Net 5, Australian,DASS
2,ISDX,ISLX,MERCURY
.Line 1...L2=A END,B END
.Line 1...L3=X END,Y END
.Line 1...NL Value=number
.Line 1...LoopAvoidance=number
.Line 1...Framing Mode=G.703,2DS
.Line 1...Clock Source=Yes,No
.Line 1...Ch 1=Unused,Switched,Nailed
.Line 1...Ch 1 #=number
.Line 1...Ch 1 Slot=number (MAX only)
.Line 1...Ch 1 Prt/Grp=number
.Line 1...Ch 1 TrnkGrp=number
(.Line 1...Ch 2 to Ch 15 and Ch 17 to Ch 31 same as Ch 1)
.Line 1...Ch 16=D-channel
.Line 1...Ch 16 #=N/A
.Line 1...Ch 16 Slot=N/A
.Line 1...Ch 16 Prt/Grp=N/A
.Line 1...Ch 16 TrnkGrp=N/A
(.Line 2... same as Line 1...)
Note:
•
s00.LINE.n... (MAX)
s = 1 or any slot in which a WAN (line) module is installed.
n = 0 through 3, where 0 is the current Line Profile.
•
s00.LINE.n... (Multiband Plus and Pipeline 100/400)
s=1
n = 0 through 3, where 0 is the current Line Profile.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 D-23
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
LMODEM
•
B1 Prt/Grp, B2 Prt/Grp, Ch x Prt/Grp, Port/Grp, =number (software 4.4B and later) or
character (software 4.4 and earlier)
For example:
: LOAD 100.LINE.1
:
LMODEM
LMODEM applies to the Pipeline 100/400 and MAX models with digital modems only.
s00.LMODEM.0.Module Name=text
.Ans 1#=phone number
.Ans 2#=phone number
.Ans 3#=phone number
.Ans 4#=phone number
Note:
•
s00.LMODEM... (MAX)
s = any slot in which a LAN modem (digital modem) module is installed.
•
s00.LMODEM... (Pipeline 100/400)
s=3
LOOP
spp.LOOP.0.Local LB=Yes,No
.DSR=Active,Inactive (read) Toggle (write)
.RI=Active,Inactive (read) Toggle (write)
.CD=Active,Inactive (read) Toggle (write)
.DLO=Active,Inactive (read) Toggle (write)
.PND=Active,Inactive (read) Toggle (write)
.ACR=Active,Inactive (read) Toggle (write)
.Inc Ch Count=Yes (write only)
.Dec Ch Count=Yes (write only)
.Rate=64K,56K (read) Toggle (write)
Note:
•
This type applies to the MAX and Multiband Plus only. It does not apply to the Pipeline
100/400.
•
spp.LOOP... (MAX)
s = 1 or any slot in which a serial host expansion module is installed.
pp = 01 through last serial host port.
•
spp.LOOP... (Multiband Plus)
s=1
pp = 01 through last serial host port.
•
Active/Inactive and 64K/56K are <value>s only for read commands such as GET.
•
Toggle is a <value> only for write commands such as SET.
D-24 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
PORT
•
"SET spp.LOOP.0.Local LB=Yes" must be commanded before any other LOOP
commands, such as RI, CD, etc.
•
The <value> Toggle in a SET command changes the state of the addressed entity from it
current state to another state, i.e., from Active to Inactive or from Inactive to Active.
For example:
: SET 202.LOOP.0.DSR=Toggle
+ ERROR
: SET 202.LOOP.0.Local LB=Yes
: SET 202.LOOP.0.DSR=Toggle
:
PORT
spp.PORT.0.Port Name=text
.Ans 1#=phone number
.Ans 2#=phone number
.Ans 3#=phone number
.Ans 4#=phone number
.Idle=None,Call
.Dial=Terminal,DTR Active,RS-366 Ext1,RS-366 Ext2,V.25bis,
V.25bis-C,X.21 Ext1,X.21 Ext2,X.21 Ext1-P
.Answer=Auto,DTR Active,DTR+Ring,V.25bis,V.25bis-C,Terminal,
X.21,P-Tel Man,None
.Clear=DTR Inactive,DTR Active,RTS Inactive,RTS Active,
Terminal
.Term Timing=Yes,No
.RS-366 Esc=*,#,5,6,7,9,0,00
.Early CD=Answer,Originate,Both,No
.DS0 Min Rst=Monthly,Daily,Off
.Max DS0 Mins=number
.Max Call Mins=number
Note:
•
This type applies to the MAX and Multiband Plus only. It does not apply to the Pipeline
100/400.
•
spp.PORT... (MAX)
s = 1 or any slot in which a serial host expansion module is installed.
pp = 01 through last serial host port.
•
spp.PORT... (Multiband Plus)
s=1
pp = 01 through last serial host port.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 D-25
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
ROUTE
For example:
: LOAD 201.PORT.0
: SET 201.PORT.0.Port Name=Chicago #1
+ ERROR
: SET Port Name=Chicago #1
: SAVE 200.PORT.0
+ ERROR
: SAVE 201.PORT.0
:
ROUTE
s00.ROUTE.n.Name=text
.Active=Yes,No
.Dest=text in dotted decimal format/subnet mask
.Gateway=text in dotted decimal format
.Metric=number
.Private=Yes,No
Note:
•
This type applies to the MAX equipped with the Ethernet module and the Pipeline
100/400 only. It does not apply to the Multiband Plus.
•
s00.ROUTE.n...
s = slot into which the Ethernet card is installed (MAX)
s = 2 (Pipeline 100/400)
n = 0 to 63
•
If n = 0, Name=Default and Dest=0.0.0.0/0
•
MAX Models must have the Ethernet expansion module option
SEC
000.SEC.n.Name=text
.Passwd=*SECURE*
.Operations=Yes,No
.Edit Security=Yes,No
.Edit System=Yes,No
.Edit Line=Yes,No
.Edit All Port=Yes,No
.Edit Own Port=Yes,No
.Edit All Calls=Yes,No
.Edit Com Call=Yes,No
.Edit Own Call=Yes,No
.Edit Cur Call=Yes,No
.Sys Diag=Yes,No
.All Port Diag=Yes,No
.Own Port Diag=Yes,No
D-26 Preliminary November 2, 1998
(Multiband Plus and MAX only)
(Multiband Plus and MAX only)
(Multiband Plus and MAX only)
(Multiband Plus and MAX only)
(Multiband Plus and MAX only)
(Multiband Plus and MAX only)
(Multiband Plus and MAX only)
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
STAT
.Download=Yes,No
.Upload=Yes,No
.Field Service=Yes,No
Note:
•
000.SEC.n...
n = 0 thru 8 (The default security profile is 0.)
•
The command SAVE cannot be applied to a security profile address.
For example:
: SAVE 000.SEC.8
:
STAT
For all models:
000.STAT.0.Sys Options=
n.Message Log= (n =0 thru 31)
0.Port Info=
0.CDR=
For T1/PRI and E1/PRI models only:
s00.STAT.0.Line 1 Stat=
0.Line 2 Stat=
0.Line Errors=
n.FDL1=(n=0 thru 96) (not E1/PRI or Pipeline)
n.FDL2=(n=0 thru 96) (not E1/PRI or Pipeline)
0.Net Options=
(s=1 for Pipeline 100/400 and Multiband Plus. s=1 or any other slot in which a T1/PRI module
is installed in a MAX.)
For BRI and Switched-56 models only:
100.STAT.0.Line 1 Stat=
0.Line Errors=
0.Net Options=
For the MAX and Multiband Plus models only:
spp.STAT.0.Call Status=
n.Message Log= (n=0 through 31)
0.Statistics=
0.Port Opts=
0.Session Err=
0.Port Leads=
s=2 for Multiband Plus. s=2 or any other slot in which a serial host module is installed in a
MAX. pp=01 through the last serial host port.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 D-27
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
SYS
For models with Ethernet interface:
s00.STAT.0.Sessions= (does not apply to Multiband Plus)
0.Routes= (does not apply to Multiband Plus)
0.WAN Stat= (does not apply to Multiband Plus)
0.Ether Stat=
0.Ether Opt=
0.Dyn Stat=
s=2 for Pipeline 100/400. s=3 for Multiband Plus. s=slot of a MAX in which the Ethernet
module is installed.
Note:
•
n can range from 0 through 96 for the FDL Status Screens. If n is 0, the last 24 hours are
reported. 1 through 96 refer to the 15 minute time intervals occurring during the last 24
hours, with 1 being the most recent interval.
•
Do not exceed 32,000 seconds when using SET to write to these addresses
•
The GET command returns a multiple-line <value> when applied to a Status Screen
<address>. Output from a status request is almost identical to the status display using the
native mode user interface. The difference is that displays that would scroll
(000.STAT.0.Sys Option, 100.STAT.0.Line Errors, etc.) have all lines listed. Each line of
the multi-line response is separated by a <CR><LF> pair. Multi-line output is indicated by
starting the value field of the response with a <CR><LF> pair.
•
When you apply SET to CDR, all events that occurred during the time period are
displayed. This is unlike other traps generated by SET. For example, SET 201.STAT.0.Port
Leads=20 compares the Port Info screen at the beginning to the end of the 20 sec. time
period; and if there is a difference, only the current Port Leads is displayed.
For example:
: GET 100.STAT.0.Line Errors
+ 100.STAT.0.Line Errors=
+ 01-005 Ln1 Ln2
+10 +2 10 :
: SET 000.STAT.0.CDR=1
For example:
: GET 600.STAT.0.Line 2 Stat
(Get status of line #2 in the module in slot 6.)
For example:
: GET 202.STAT.0.Call Status
(Get call status of serial host port #2.)
SYS
000.SYS.0.Name=text
.Location=text (Ethernet interface required)
D-28 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
SYS
.Contact=text (Ethernet interface required)
.Date=mm/dd/yy
.Time=hh:mm:sec
.Term Rate=300,1200,2400,4800,9600,19200,38400,57600
.Palmtop Rate=300,1200,2400,4800,9600,19200,38400,57600
.Console=Standard,Limited,MIF
.Remote Mgmt=Yes,No
.Parallel Dial=number
.Single Answer=Yes,No (MAX and Multiband Plus only)
.Sub-Adr=TermSel,Routing,None (T1/E1/BRI models only)
.DM=number (T1/E1/BRI models only)
.LAN=number (T1/E1/BRI models only)
.Serial=number (T1/E1/BRI models only)
.V110=number (MAX models only)
.Use Trunk Grps=Yes,No (T1/PRI only)
.Excl Routing=Yes,No (MAX and Multiband Plus only)
.Auto Logout=Yes,No
.Idle Logout=number
.DS0 Min Rst=Monthly,Daily,Off
.Max DS0 Mins=number
.High BER=10 ** -3,10 ** -4,10 ** -5 (T1/PRI or E1/PRI only)
.High BER Alarm=Yes,No (T1/PRI or E1/PRI only)
.No Trunk Alarm=Yes,No (T1/PRI or E1/PRI only)
.Delay Dual=Yes,No (MAX and Multiband Plus only)
.Edit=XN-n00 (menu number for an edit screen)
.Status 1=XN-n00 (menu number for a status screen)
.Status 2=XN-n00 " "
.Status 3=XN-n00 " "
.Status 4=XN-n00 " "
.Status 5=XN-n00 " "
.Status 6=XN-n00 " "
.Status 7=XN-n00 " "
.Status 8=XN-n00 " "
Note:
•
Palmtop Rate applies only to the MAX and Multiband Plus
•
MAX models 2000 and 4000 do not have Palmtop Ports.
For example:
: GET 000.SYS.0.Name
+ =kansas BRI
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 D-29
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
TRAP
TRAP
s00.TRAP.n.Name=text
n.Alarm=Yes,No
n.Port=Yes,No
n.Security=Yes,No
n.Comm=dotted decimal format
n.Dest=dotted decimal format
Note:
•
This type applies to the MAX equipped with the Ethernet module and the Pipeline
100/400 only. It applies to the Multiband Plus if equipped with Ethernet interface.
•
s00.TRAP.n...
s = slot into which the Ethernet card is installed (MAX)
s = 2 (Pipeline 100/400
s = 3 (Multiband Plus)
n = 0 to 7
V110
V110 applies to MAX models with V.110 modules only.
s00.V110.0.Module Name=text
.Ans 1#=phone number
.Ans 2#=phone number
.Ans 3#=phone number
.Ans 4#=phone number
Note:
•
s00.V110... (MAX)
s = any slot in which a V.110 module is installed.
Command-line basics
This section gives a quick overview of command-line processing in MIF.
•
Command Line Length
The maximum command line is limited to 76 characters. Data entered after the 76th
character is ignored and not echoed to the screen. The line is not terminated until a Line
Termination is entered.
•
Command Echo
All data entered by the user except the line termination character will be echoed back to
the user, character by character.
•
Line Terminations
Lines are terminated by either a Return (ASCII <CR>), or a Line Feed (ASCII <LF>), or
both. When either is first received, the sequence <CR>-<LF> is echoed. An <LF>
following a <CR> does not result in an additional <CR>-<LF> being echoed. The Line
Termination character may be entered at any point on the line; the entire line is accepted.
D-30 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
Editor basics
•
Prompt
The display of a prompt is an explicit acknowledgment that the previous entry has been
processed and that the system is now ready to process the next request.The default prompt
is a colon (:).
•
Output Indicators
To make it easier for a computer program to parse, all output lines are prefixed with either
an output indicator, namely plus (+) or minus (-). There are two indicators used.
The plus indicator (+) is used when the output is a response to a previous command.
Multi-line responses start each line with the output indicator.
The minus indicator (-) is used when the output is the result of an asynchronous event.
Editor basics
When modifying an entity in the edit area, the following line-editing conventions are
supported:
•
Line History
The last 10 lines entered are kept. Whenever a line is entered the oldest kept line is thrown
away. The stack is initialized empty at power up. Previous lines can be selected using the
line selection characters. When a previous line is selected, the newly edited line replaces
the selected line. That line becomes the newest line.
•
Line Selection Characters
There are two line selection characters, one to walk backwards through the Line History
and another to walk forward through the Line History. When the oldest entry is selected
while walking backwards through the line history, the next backward selection selects the
newest line entered. When the newest entry is selected while walking forward through the
line history, the next forward selection selects the oldest line.
The backward line selection character is either a VT100 up arrow (the Escape sequence
ESC-[-A) or the control character ^P. The P is mnemonic for Previous.
The forward line selection character is either a VT100 down arrow (the escape sequence
ESC-[-B) of the control character ^N. The N is mnemonic for Next.
If you enter a Line selection character while editing a line, the current line is replaced by
the current line -- any edits in progress are lost.
The cursor is positioned at the end of the selected line.
•
Cursor movement
The cursor can be moved within a line by entering the Cursor Left character or the Cursor
Right character. The Cursor Left character is ignored when the cursor is at the first
character of a line. The Cursor Right character is ignored when the cursor is one position
to the right of the last character of the line.
The Cursor Left character is either a VT100 left arrow (the escape sequence ESC-[-D) or
the control character ^B. The B is mnemonic for Backward.
The Cursor Right character is either a VT100 right arrow (the escape sequence ESC-[-C)
or the control character ^F. The F is mnemonic for Forward.
•
Line Editing
The current line can be edited until the Line Termination character is entered. Line editing
is always in “insert” mode; the character typed will be entered before the cursor and any
characters starting from the cursor to the end of the line will be shifted right one position.
If the insertion causes the line to exceed the maximum line length the last (rightmost)
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 D-31
Machine Interface Format (MIF)
Editor basics
character is dropped. Cursor movement and line selection commands are processed as
described above. The backspace character deletes the character behind the cursor. When a
backspace is received at the beginning of a line it is ignored.
D-32 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
E
Example environments
This appendix discusses example environments, including graphic representations of the
environment, a conceptual discussion of the environment, and portions of saved configurations
displaying applicable parameters from Ascend units.
Note: Future revisions of this manual will contain additional examples. Please send
suggestions to [email protected]
IP-routing environment
Figure E-1 illustrates the main office and three remote offices of Smith Company. All sites
support IP routing. Twelve dial-in analog circuits are available for employees to dial into the
corporate office while traveling. The remote sites and dial-in users access the Internet by way
of the corporate office.
The corporate site belongs to the 10.10.10.0 network. The remote sites share subnetted
segments of the 20.20.20.0 network. The corporate site maintains a 128k link to the Internet,
and also reserves twelve connections available for employees to dial into while traveling. The
MAX dynamically assigns up to ten dial-in users with IP addresses from a pool that begins
with the address 10.10.10.40.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 E-1
Example environments
IP-routing environment
Internet connection
Primary DNS—30.30.30.1
Secondary DNS—40.40.40.1
Site A
The
Internet
Site A
Network—20.20.20.0 to 63
Subnet mask—255.255.255.192
BRI
BRI
Site B
Corporate
site
PRI
BRI
WAN
BRI
Site C
Corporate site
Network—10.10.10.0
Subnet mask—255.255.255.0
Site B
Network—20.20.20.64 to 158
Subnet mask—255.255.255.192
Analog
Telecommuters
Site C
Network—20.20.20.160 to 191
Subnet mask—255.255.255.192
Figure E-1. Example IP-routed environment
MAX configuration
Following is a section of the saved configuration from the MAX at the corporate site:
START=ROUTE=500=0
Name=Default
Active=Yes
Gateway=30.30.56.18
Metric=1
Private=Yes
END=ROUTE=500=0
START=ROUTE=500=1
Name=SiteA
Dest=20.20.20.0/26
Gateway=20.20.20.1
END=ROUTE=500=1
START=ROUTE=500=2
Name=SiteB-1
Dest=20.20.20.64/26
Gateway=20.20.20.65
END=ROUTE=500=2
START=ROUTE=500=3
Name=SiteB-2
Dest=20.20.20.128/27
Gateway=20.20.20.65
E-2 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Example environments
IP-routing environment
END=ROUTE=500=3
START=ROUTE=500=4
Name=SiteC
Dest=20.20.20.160/27
Gateway=20.20.20.161
END=ROUTE=500=4
START=CONN=500=0
Profile Reqd=Yes
Assign Adrs=Yes
Encaps...ARA=Yes
PPP options...Recv Auth=Either
END=CONN=500=0
START=CONN=500=1
Station=SiteA
Active=Yes
Dial #=918885551212
Ip options...LAN Adrs=20.20.20.1/26
Telco options...AnsOrig=Ans Only
END=CONN=500=1
START=CONN=500=2
Station=SiteB
Active=Yes
PRI # Type=Unknown
Dial #=95551212
Ip options...LAN Adrs=20.20.20.65/26
END=CONN=500=2
START=CONN=500=3
Station=SiteC
Active=Yes
PRI # Type=Unknown
Dial #=913335551212
Ip options...LAN Adrs=20.20.20.161/27
END=CONN=500=3
START=CONN=500=4
Station=mega
Active=Yes
PRI # Type=Unknown
Dial #=95553333
Ip options...LAN Adrs= 30.30.227.33/27
Ip options...WAN Alias=30.30.56.18
Ip options...IF Adrs=30.30.227.58/27
Session options...Idle=0
Telco options...Data Svc=64K
END=CONN=500=4
START=ETHERNET=500=0
Ether options...IP Adrs=10.10.10.230/24
Ether options...Proxy Mode=Active
WAN options...Pool#1 start=10.10.10.40
WAN options...Pool#1 count=10
TServ options...TS Enabled=Yes
TServ options...PPP=Yes
TServ options...Telnet=Yes
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 E-3
Example environments
IP-routing environment
TServ options...Modem Dialout=Yes
TServ options...Immediate Modem=Yes
Telnet PW=*SECURE*
END=ETHERNET=500=0
START=SYSTEM=0=0
Name=corp
END=SYSTEM=0=0
Pipeline configuration
Following is a section of the saved configuration from the Pipeline unit at the Site C:
START=SYSTEM=0=0
Name=SiteC
END=SYSTEM=0=0
START=ROUTE=200=0
Name=Default
Active=Yes
Gateway=10.10.10.230
Metric=1
Private=Yes
END=ROUTE=200=0
START=CONN=200=0
Profile Reqd=Yes
PPP options...Route IP=Yes
PPP options...Route AppleTalk=Yes
PPP options...Bridge=No
PPP options...Recv Auth=Either
END=CONN=200=0
START=CONN=200=1
Station=corp
Active=Yes
Dial #=9915655551212
Route IP=Yes
Bridge=No
Dial brdcast=No
Encaps options...Send Auth=CHAP
Encaps options...Send PW=*SECURE*
Encaps options...Recv PW=*SECURE*
Encaps options...Base Ch Count=2
Encaps options...Min Ch Count=2
Ip options...LAN Adrs=10.10.10.230/24
Session options...Idle=0
Telco options...AnsOrig=Call Only
Telco options...Call Type=Perm/Switched
Telco options...Data Svc=64K
END=CONN=200=1
START=ETHERNET=200=0
Ether options...IP Adrs=20.20.20.161/27
Ether options...RIP=Off
E-4 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Example environments
IP-routing and AppleTalk-routing environment
Ether options...Proxy Mode=Active
END=ETHERNET=200=0
IP-routing and AppleTalk-routing environment
As another example, Smith Company adds AppleTalk devices to the network and sets up an
AppleTalk-routed environment, illustrated in Figure E-2. All sites support IP routing and
AppleTalk routing. Twelve dial-in analog circuits are available for employees to dial into the
corporate office while traveling. The remote sites and dial-in users access the Internet by way
of the corporate office.
For the company’s IP-routed environment, the corporate site belongs to the 10.10.10.0
network. The remote sites share subnetted segments of the 20.20.20.0 network. The corporate
site maintains a 128 kbps link to the Internet, and also reserves twelve connections available
for employees to dial into while traveling. The MAX dynamically assigns up to ten dial-in
users with IP addresses from a pool that begins with the address 207.107.84.40.
Four zones are created for the company’s AppleTalk-routed environment: Corporate, SiteA,
SiteB, and SiteC. Devices that share the Ethernet segment with the MAX unit belongs to
network 100-150. Devices that share the Ethernet segment with the SiteA Pipeline belong to
network 200-210. Devices that share the Ethernet segment with the SiteB Pipeline belong to
network 300-300. Devices that share the Ethernet segment with the SiteC Pipeline belong to
network 700-700.
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 E-5
Example environments
IP-routing and AppleTalk-routing environment
Figure E-2. Example IP-routed environment
Site A
Internet connection
Primary DNS—30.30.30.1
Secondary DNS—40.40.40.1
The
Internet
Site A
Network—20.20.20.0 to 63
Subnet mask—255.255.255.192
AppleTalk network—200-210
Zone list—Corporate, SiteA,
SiteB, SiteC
BRI
BRI
Site B
Corporate
site
PRI
BRI
WAN
BRI
Corporate site
Network—10.10.10.0
Subnet mask—255.255.255.0
AppleTalk network—100-150
Zone list—Corporate, SiteA,
SiteB, SiteC
Site C
Site B
Network—20.20.20.64 to 158
Subnet mask—255.255.255.192
AppleTalk network—300-300
Zone list—Corporate, SiteA,
SiteB, SiteC
Analog
Telecommuters
Site C
Network—20.20.20.160 to 191
Subnet mask—255.255.255.192
AppleTalk network—700-700
Zone list—Corporate, SiteA, SiteB,
SiteC
MAX configuration
Following is a section of the saved configuration from the MAX at the corporate site:
START=ROUTE=500=0
Name=Default
Active=Yes
Gateway=30.30.56.18
Metric=1
Private=Yes
END=ROUTE=500=0
START=ROUTE=500=1
Name=SiteA
Dest=20.20.20.0/26
Gateway=20.20.20.1
END=ROUTE=500=1
START=ROUTE=500=2
Name=SiteB-1
Dest=20.20.20.64/26
Gateway=20.20.20.65
E-6 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Example environments
IP-routing and AppleTalk-routing environment
END=ROUTE=500=2
START=ROUTE=500=3
Name=SiteB-2
Dest=20.20.20.128/27
Gateway=20.20.20.65
END=ROUTE=500=3
START=ROUTE=500=4
Name=SiteC
Dest=20.20.20.160/27
Gateway=20.20.20.161
END=ROUTE=500=4
START=CONN=500=0
Profile Reqd=Yes
Assign Adrs=Yes
Encaps...ARA=Yes
PPP options...Route AppleTalk=Yes
PPP options...Recv Auth=Either
END=CONN=500=0
START=CONN=500=1
Station=SiteA
Active=Yes
Dial #=918885551212
Route AppleTalk=Yes
Bridge=Yes
Ip options...LAN Adrs=20.20.20.1/26
AppleTalk options...Zone Name=SiteA
AppleTalk options...Net Start=200
AppleTalk options...Net End=210
Telco options...AnsOrig=Ans Only
END=CONN=500=1
START=CONN=500=2
Station=SiteB
Active=Yes
PRI # Type=Unknown
Dial #=95551212
Route AppleTalk=Yes
Ip options...LAN Adrs=20.20.20.65/26
AppleTalk options...Zone Name=SiteB
AppleTalk options...Net Start=300
AppleTalk options...Net End=300
END=CONN=500=2
START=CONN=500=3
Station=SiteC
Active=Yes
PRI # Type=Unknown
Dial #=913335551212
Route AppleTalk=Yes
Ip options...LAN Adrs=20.20.20.161/27
AppleTalk options...Zone Name=SiteC
AppleTalk options...Net Start=700
AppleTalk options...Net End=700
END=CONN=500=3
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 E-7
Example environments
IP-routing and AppleTalk-routing environment
START=CONN=500=4
Station=mega
Active=Yes
PRI # Type=Unknown
Dial #=95553333
Ip options...LAN Adrs= 30.30.227.33/27
Ip options...WAN Alias=30.30.56.18
Ip options...IF Adrs=30.30.227.58/27
Session options...Idle=0
Telco options...Data Svc=64K
END=CONN=500=4
START=ETHERNET=500=0
Ether options...IP Adrs=10.10.10.230/24
Ether options...Proxy Mode=Active
WAN options...Pool#1 start=10.10.10.40
WAN options...Pool#1 count=10
TServ options...TS Enabled=Yes
TServ options...PPP=Yes
TServ options...Telnet=Yes
TServ options...Modem Dialout=Yes
TServ options...Immediate Modem=Yes
AppleTalk=Yes
Telnet PW=*SECURE*
AppleTalk...Zone Name=Corporate
AppleTalk...AppleTalk Router=Seed
AppleTalk...Net Start=100
AppleTalk...Net End=150
AppleTalk...Default Xone=Corporate
AppleTalk...Zone Name #1=SiteB
AppleTalk...Zone Name #2=SiteA
AppleTalk...Zone Name #3=SiteC
END=ETHERNET=500=0
START=SYSTEM=0=0
Name=corp
END=SYSTEM=0=0
Pipeline configuration
Following is a section of the saved configuration from the Pipeline unit at the Site C:
START=SYSTEM=0=0
Name=SiteC
END=SYSTEM=0=0
START=ROUTE=200=0
Name=Default
Active=Yes
Gateway=10.10.10.230
Metric=1
Private=Yes
END=ROUTE=200=0
START=CONN=200=0
Profile Reqd=Yes
E-8 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Example environments
IP-routing and AppleTalk-routing environment
PPP options...Route IP=Yes
PPP options...Route AppleTalk=Yes
PPP options...Bridge=No
PPP options...Recv Auth=Either
END=CONN=200=0
START=CONN=200=1
Station=corp
Active=Yes
Dial #=9915655551212
Route IP=Yes
Route AppleTalk=Yes
Bridge=No
Dial brdcast=No
Ip options...LAN Adrs=10.10.10.230/24
AppleTalk options...Zone Name=Corporate
AppleTalk options...Net Start=100
AppleTalk options...Net End=150
Session options...Idle=0
Telco options...AnsOrig=Call Only
Telco options...Call Type=Perm/Switched
Telco options...Data Svc=64K
END=CONN=200=1
START=ETHERNET=200=0
Ether options...IP Adrs=20.20.20.161/27
Ether options...RIP=Off
Ether options...Proxy Mode=Active
AppleTalk=Yes
AppleTalk...Zone Name=SiteC
AppleTalk...AppleTalk Route=Seed
AppleTalk...Net Start=700
AppleTalk...Net End=700
AppleTalk...Default Zone=SiteC
AppleTalk...Zone Name #1=Corporate
AppleTalk...Zone Name #2=SiteA
AppleTalk...Zone Name #3=SiteB
END=ETHERNET=200=0
MAX 2000 Series Administration Guide
Preliminary November 2, 1998 E-9
Index
? command, B-2
1TR6, A-3
1TR6 cause codes, numerical list, A-6
1TR6 switch type, 1-22
7-bit ASCII mode, 1-10
8-bit Binary mode, 1-10
A
Abandon Call and Retry (ACR), 3-10, 4-28
access security, and SNMP, 6-1
accounting server, 6-12
accumulated errors, displaying, 4-31
ACE server, 1-17
ACR. See Abandon Call and Retry
active AIM call, displaying, 4-7
active WAN interfaces, 5-12
Added Bandwidth message, 4-20
adding RIP routes, and OSPF, 5-29
address pool,updating, 3-4
address pooling, diagnostics, B-3
address syntax, attributes of, D-2
address, displaying MAC, 4-11
addresses
edit, D-5
MIF, D-2
of next entity, D-6
AddrPool command, B-3
administrative configuration, example of, 1-5
administrative permissions, 1-1
administrative privileges, 1-1
age, of routes, 5-13
AIM, A-8
port interface problems, solving, A-12
AIM call, displaying active, 4-7
AIM host-interface status, 4-26
AIM module, 4-19
AIM port, 4-19, 4-28, 4-32
AIM port, and loopback test, 3-10
AIM ports, A-16
AIM ports, displaying status of, 4-15
MAX 6000 Series Administration Guide
Alarm, 6-4
alarm events, 6-5
coldStart (RFC-1215 trap-type 0), 6-5
eventTableOverwrite (ascend trap-type 16), 6-5
linkDown (RFC-1215 trap-type 2), 6-5
linkUp (RFC-1215 trap-type 3), 6-5
warmStart (RFC-1215 trap-type 1), 6-5
Alarm LED, 3-5
ALARM MIF type, D-8
alarm relay, 1-5
all ones, 4-17
ALU. See Average Line Utilization
amount of delay, displaying, 4-33
ANSI T1-601, 3-8
Answer, as user, 1-24
APP Server utility, 1-18
ARP cache, 5-18
ARP-directed (RFC 1433), xix
ARPTable command, B-4
Ascend Connect codes, 4-38
Ascend Disconnect codes, 4-35
Ascend enterprise MIB, 6-1
Ascend Events Group, 6-2
ascendump daemon, B-8
ASCII mode, 1-10
assert, B-9
Assigned to port message, 4-20
asynchronous reports, generating, D-7
AT, A-9
AT command strings, B-15
AT commands, 1-13
AT&V1, B-16
authenticationFailure (RFC-1215 trap-type 4), 6-6
Auto Logout parameter, 1-4
automatic updating, of DNS table, 5-17
autotype function, 3-2
Average Line Utilization, 4-11, 4-33
Avm command, B-4
awaiting codes, modem status, 1-21
awaiting DCD, modem status, 1-21
Preliminary November 2, 1998 Index-1
Index
B
B
Backoff Q full, 6-11
Backoff Q full message, explained, 4-39
back-panel alarm relay, 1-5
bandwidth
how to decrease, 2-6
how to increase, 2-7
bandwidth utilization, displaing, 4-11
banner, updating, 3-4
B-channel status, displaying, 4-6
BCP (RFC 1638), xix
BERT, 6-10
BERT, performing a, 2-4
Binary mode, 1-10
Bit Error Rate Test (BERT), 6-11
bit-error rate, 1-5
bits, M1, 3-8
block error status display, 3-8
block error totals, 3-8
block errors, 3-8
block errors, displaying, 4-6
block errors, obaining, 3-7
Blue alarm, 4-17
BRIDGE MIF type, D-9
bridge/router problems, solving, A-20
bridging links, displaying active, 4-31
BRIDisplay command, B-5
BRI/LT diagnostics, 5-2
BRI/LT driver, maintenance functions, 3-7
bundle ID, 1-24
Busy, 4-22
byte errors, 4-31
C
Call Detail Reporting (CDR), 4-9, 4-10, 4-33
defined, 4-9
call disconnect
syslog messages, 6-9
Call Disconnected message, 4-22
call establishment, and syslog messages, 6-8
Call profile
displaying current, 4-7
call quality
displaying, 4-32
Call Refused message, 4-22
Call Request (CRQ), 4-28
call routing state diagram, incoming, 5-8
Index-2 Preliminary November 2, 1998
Call Status window, 4-7
Call Terminated message, 4-4, 4-21
callback, 6-11
callback diagnostics, B-6
Callback Pending message, 4-21
Call-by-Call parameter, 1-14
call-close (CL) message, 4-35
called number, and show calls command, 1-22
called-party number
displaying, 4-10
CalledPartyID, 1-22
CallID, 1-22
CallingPartyID, 1-22
calls
clearing all, 3-3
manually placing/clearing, 2-2
routing, inbound
illustrated, 5-8
canceller, echo, 3-8
cancelling loopback, 3-9
Carrier Detect (CD), 3-10, 4-28, 4-29
carrier registers, 4-14
Cause Code, 4-24
cause codes
disconnect and progress, 4-35
X.25, 5-49
CCITTT Blue Book Q.931, 1-20
CCP (RFC 1962), xix
CD. See Carrier Detect
CDR. See Call Detail Reporting
channel status
displaying, 4-16
channels
displaying call, 4-9
CHAP
RFC 1994, xix
checksum, 3-8, A-9
checksum, control, 3-8
CIDR
RFC 1519, xix
circuit information
displaying, 5-46
set circuit active circuit-1 command, 5-46
set circuit command, 5-46
set circuit inactive circuit-2 command, 5-46
show fr circuits command, 5-46
circuit, turning off Frame Relay, 5-46
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
RFC 1519, xix
clear cause codes, and X.25, 5-49
Clear dnis statistics command, 1-7
MAX 6000 Series Administration Guide
Index
C
CLID, 4-24
CLID, and show calls command, 1-22
clock rate, host, 3-10
ClockSource command, B-7
Close command, 1-7
Clr Err1, 3-5
Clr Err2, 3-6
Clr NEBE, 3-9
Clr Perf1, 3-6
Clr Perf2, 3-6
Clr-History command, B-7
CLU. See Current Line Utilization
codec, A-13, A-14
codes, disconnect and progress, 6-12
coldStart (RFC-1215 trap-type 0), 6-5
Combinet, 4-31
Comm, 6-4
commands, B-28
?, B-2
AddrPool, B-3
ARPTable, B-4
Avm, B-4
BRIDisplay, B-5
ClockSource, B-7
Clr-History, B-7
Coredump, B-8
Ether-Display, B-9
Fatal-History, B-9
FClear, B-13
for MIF support, D-4
FRestore, B-13
FSave, B-13
Heartbeat, B-14
Help, B-14
iproute add, 5-14
iproute delete, 5-14
iproute show, 5-12
ipxping, 5-24
IPXRipDebug, B-14, B-15
MdbStr, B-15
MDialout, B-18
ModemDiag, B-16
ModemDrvDump, B-18
ModemDrvState, B-18
NSLookup, B-21
NVRAMClear, B-22
PPPDump, B-22
PPPFSM, B-23
PPPIF, B-24
PPPInfo, B-25
PPTPCM, B-26
PPTPData, B-26
PPTPEC, B-27
PPTPSend, B-27
MAX 6000 Series Administration Guide
commands (continued)
PRIDisplay, B-27
RadAcct, B-28
RadIF, B-28
RadStats, B-30
Reset, B-31
Revision, B-31
set circuit, 5-46
set circuit active circuit-1, 5-46
set circuit inactive circuit-2, 5-46
show dnstab, 5-18
show fr ?, 5-44
show fr circuits, 5-46
show fr dlci, 5-45
show fr lmi (link management information), 5-45
show fr stats, 5-44
show icmp, 5-19
show igmp ?, 5-42
show igmp clients, 5-43
show igmp groups, 5-42
show igmp stats, 5-43
show ip, 5-19
show ip address, 5-22
show ip routes, 5-12
show ip stats, 5-21
show mrouting ?, 5-42
show mrouting stats, 5-44
show netware networks, 5-26
show netware servers, 5-25, 5-26
show netware stats, 5-25
show pools, 5-23
show udp listen, 5-22
SNTP, B-32
TelnetDebug, B-32
TLoadCode, B-33
TSave, B-34
Update, B-34
WANDisplay, B-35
WANDSess, B-35
WANNext, B-36
WANOpening, B-36
WANToggle, B-37
WDDialout, B-37
commands, AT, 1-13
commands, displaying set, 1-12
commands, displaying terminal-server, 1-6
commands, DO, 1-1
description of, 2-1
DO Answer (DO 3), 2-3
DO Beg/End BERT (DO 7), 2-3
DO Beg/End Rem LB (DO 6), 2-4
DO Beg/End Rem Mgm (DO 8), 2-5
DO Close TELNET (DO C), 2-6
DO Contract BW (DO 5), 2-6
DO Diagnostics (DO D), 2-6
DO Dial (DO 1), 2-7
Preliminary November 2, 1998 Index-3
Index
D
commands, DO (continued)
DO ESC (DO 0), 2-7
DO Hang Up (DO 2), 2-8
DO Load (DO L), 2-8
DO Menu Save (DO M), 2-9
DO Password (DO P), 2-9
DO Resynchronize (DO R), 2-10
DO Save (DO S), 2-10
DO Termserv (DO E), 2-10
Extend BW (DO 4), 2-7
commands, network monitoring, 1-8
community name, 6-4
community strings, setting, 6-2
Compressed SLIP command, 1-7
configuration
checking, 3-3
configuration problems, solving, A-9
configuration, restoring, 3-2, B-13
configuration, storing current into flash, B-13
CONN MIF type, D-9
Connection profile, displaying current, 4-11
connections
Ascend codes for, 4-38
connection-specific messages, 4-20
Console parameter, 1-4
consoleStateChange (ascend trap-type 12), 6-6
contact parameter, 1-3
control checksum, 3-8
control-lead dialing, 4-28
CoreDump command, B-8
Corrupt CRC, 3-9
corrupt CRC, 3-7
cost of OSPF route, 5-27
counter, FEBE, 3-9
counter, NEBE, 3-9
CRC, corrupt, 3-7
CRCs, inverted, 3-9
CSLIP command, 1-7, 1-8
CSU repeater, 3-4
CSU, determining if the MAX has installed, 4-26
Ctrl-C, 1-13
current configuration, storing into flash, B-13
current Connection profile, displaying, 4-11
Current Line Utilization (CLU), 4-11, 4-33
D
D4, 3-5, 4-13
D4-framed lines, and error events, 3-5
Index-4 Preliminary November 2, 1998
daemon, syslog, 4-33, 6-7
Data Carrier Detect, 4-28
Data Line Occupied (DLO), 3-10, 4-28
data rate
displaying, 4-9
loopback, 3-10
Data Set Ready (DSR), 3-10, 4-28, 4-29
Data Svc parameter, 1-14
Data Terminal Ready (DTR), 4-28, 4-29
date
system, setting, 1-3
D-channel failure, 4-17
D-channel signalling, diagnostics, B-5
Dec Ch Count, 3-10
default modem AT string, modifying, B-15
default password, 1-2
delay
synchronization, displaying, 4-32
Dest, 6-4
DEST MIF type, D-12
DIAG MIF type, D-12
DIAGN MIF type, D-13
diagnostic commands
?, B-2
AddrPool, B-3
ARPTable, B-4
Avml, B-4
BRIDisplay, B-5
ClockSource, B-7
Clr-History, B-7
CoreDump, B-8
Ether-Display, B-9
Fatal-History, B-9
FClear, B-13
FRestore, B-13
FSave, B-13
Hearbeat, B-14
Help, B-14
IPXRipDebug, B-14, B-15
MdbStr, B-15
MDialout, B-18
ModemDiag, B-16
ModemDrvDump, B-18
ModemDrvState, B-18
NSLookup, B-21
NVRAMClear, B-22
PPPDump, B-22
PPPFSM, B-23
PPPIF, B-24
PPPInfo, B-25
PPTPCM, B-26
PPTPData, B-26
PPTPEC, B-27
PPTPSend, B-27
MAX 6000 Series Administration Guide
Index
D
diagnostic commands (continued)
PRIDisplay, B-27
Quit, B-28
RadAcct, B-28
RadIF, B-28
RadStats, B-30
Reset, B-31
Revision, B-31
SNTP, B-32
TelnetDebug, B-32
TLoadCode, B-33
TSave, B-34
Update, B-34
WANDisplay, B-35
WANDSess, B-35
WANNext, B-36
WANOpening, B-36
WANToggle, B-37
WDDialout, B-37
diagnostic field values
X.25, 5-50
Diagnostic mode
access to, B-1
diagnostic tests, 3-3
diagnostics
accessing diagnostic interface, 2-6
BRI/LT, 5-2
E1 line, 5-2
IDSL, 5-4
port, 5-4
T1 line, 5-1
X.25, 5-50
diagram, incoming call routing, 5-8
DIAL MIF type, D-13
dialed number
displaying, 4-10
dialing
a Call or Connection Profile, 2-7
manually, 2-2
Digit Present (DP), 4-28
digital modem
disabling, 3-11
digital modem, disabling, 3-11
direct routes, 5-12
Directed ARP (RFC 1433), xix
DIS_LOCAL_ADMIN, 1-24
disable modem value, 3-12
disable modem+chan value, 3-12
Disabled link, 4-17
disabling a modem, 3-11
disconnect cause codes, 4-35
disconnect codes, 6-12
disconnects, Ascend codes for, 4-35
MAX 6000 Series Administration Guide
disk capture feature, 3-2
displaying
IP routing table, 5-12
DLCI, 5-45
DLCI status
displaying, 5-45
DLO. See Data Line Occupied
DNS table, local, 5-17
Dnstab command, 1-7
DO Answer (DO 3), 2-3
DO Beg/End BERT (DO 7), 2-3
DO Beg/End Rem LB (DO 6), 2-4
DO Beg/End Rem Mgm (DO 8), 2-5
DO Close TELNET (DO C), 2-6
DO commands, 1-1
DO Contract BW (DO 5), 2-6
DO Diagnostics (DO D), 2-6
DO Dial (DO 1), 2-7
DO ESC (DO 0), 2-7
DO Extend BW (DO 4), 2-7
DO Hang Up (DO 2), 2-8
DO Load (DO L), 2-8
DO menu, B-1
DO Menu Save (DO M), 2-9
DO menu, exiting, 2-7
DO menus, A-9
DO MIF type, D-15
DO Password command, 1-16
DO Resynchronize (DO R), 2-9
DO Save (DO S), 2-10
DO Termserv (DO E), 2-10
DO Toggle (DO T), 2-10
download permission, and Save Cfg command, 3-2
DS0 Min Rst parameter, 1-4
DS0 minute, 1-4, 6-10
DS1 MIB, 6-7
dsl #, B-7
DSR. See Data Set Ready
DSX signal-conditioning module, 3-4
DTR, loss of, 1-4
Dual Port req’d message, 4-22
Dual-terminal, 4-18
Dyn Stat window, 4-11
dynamic address pooling, diagnostics, B-3
Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM), B-13
Preliminary November 2, 1998 Index-5
Index
E
E
E1 diagnostics, 5-2
echo canceller, 3-8
echo_request packet, 5-16
echo_response packets, 5-17
edit address, described, D-5
Edit parameter, 1-5
editing, basics for entity, D-31
electrical link, displaying condition of, 4-6
embedded operations channel (EOC), 3-7
enable modem value, 3-12
ending a call, 2-8
enterprise MIB, Ascend, 6-1
entities
current value of, D-5
defining, D-2
line-editing conventions for, D-31
loading and saving, D-5
EOC Address, 5-4
EOC. See embedded operations channel
equal-cost gateways, 5-27
error buffers, FEBE and NEBE, 4-6
error events, 6-5
error events, and D4-framed lines, 3-5
error events, displaying, 4-13
error information, 4-20
error log, fatal, B-7, B-9
error message, and self-test, 1-15
error messages
did not negotiate MPP, 1-17
1TR6 switch type cause codes, numerical list, A-6
bad digits in phone number, 1-15
call failed, 1-15
call terminated packets sent packets received, 1-15
cannot establish connection for, 1-17
cannot find profile for, 1-16
cannot handshake, 1-15
Cannot open session, 1-13
DL TEI ASSIGNED, 1-19
DL TEI REMOVED, 1-19
far end does not support remote management, 1-17
far end rejected session, 1-17
frame-count must be in the range 1-65535, 1-15
ISDN cause codes, numerical list, A-3
management session failed, 1-17
NL ANSWER REQUEST, 1-19
NL CALL CLEARED WITH CAUSE, 1-20
NL CALL CLEARED WITH CAUSE 16, 1-20
NL CALL CLEARED/L1 CHANGE, 1-20
NL CALL CONNECTED, 1-20
NL CALL FAILED/BAD PROGRESS IE, 1-20
NL CALL FAILED/T303 EXPIRY, 1-20
Index-6 Preliminary November 2, 1998
error messages (continued)
NL CALL REJECTED/BAD CALL REF, 1-20
NL CALL REJECTED/BAD CHANNEL ID, 1-20
NL CALL REJECTED/INVALID CONTENTS, 1-20
NL CALL REJECTED/NO VOICE CALLS, 1-20
NL CALL REJECTED/OTHER DEST, 1-20
NL CALL REQUEST, 1-19, 1-20
NL CLEAR REQUEST, 1-19, 1-20
no connection
host reset, 1-12
host unreachable, 1-12, 1-13
net unreachable, 1-12, 1-13
no phone number, 1-15
not authorized, 1-16
PH ACTIVATED, 1-19, 1-20
PH DEACTIVATED, 1-19
profile for does not specify MPP, 1-16
telnet, 1-12
test aborted, 1-15
unit busy, 1-15
Unit busy. Try again later., 1-12
unknown items on command-line, 1-15
unknown option, 1-16
unknown value, 1-16
wrong phone number, 1-16
error totals, 3-8
error-register statistics, 4-13
errors
block, 3-8
byte, 4-31
channel-by-channel, 4-15
displaying accumulated, 4-31
displaying frame, 4-4
displaying line, 4-6
obtaining block, 3-7
errors, avoiding transmission, 1-4
errors, displaying block, 4-6
escape character, default rlogin, 1-12
ESF, 4-13
Ether Opt status window, 4-11
Ether Stat window, 4-12
Ether-Data card, 6-8
Ether-Display command, B-9
ethernet frames, displaying number of, 4-12
ethernet interface, 5-12
ethernet interface, displaying, 4-11
ethernet interface, displaying statistics for, 4-4
Ethernet interface, status message, 4-21
ETHERNET MIF type, D-16
ethernet traffic, displaying, B-9
Ethernet up message, 4-21
Ethernet window, 4-12
events, alarm or error, 6-5
MAX 6000 Series Administration Guide
Index
F
events, types of, 4-20
eventTableOverwrite (ascend trap-type 16), 6-5
expiration, multicast membership, 5-42
F
Facilities Data Link (FDL), 4-13
Facility Data Link (FDL), 3-4
Far End Hung Up message, 4-22
far-end block error (FEBE), 3-8
fatal error history log, B-7
fatal error log, B-9
Fatal-History command, B-9
fault led, 3-3
FClear command, B-13
FDL statistics window, 4-13
FDL. See Facilities Data Link
FDL.See Facility Data Link
feature, disk feature, 3-2
features, displaying, 4-5
FEBE counter, clearing, 3-9
FEBE error buffers, 4-6
FEBE. See far-end block error
Field Service privilege, B-1
FILT=<type> MIF type, D-18
finger command, 5-17
Finger requests, responding to, 1-5
Firewall-Friendly FTP (RFC 1579), xx
firewalls (RFC 1579), xx
flash memory, clearing, B-13
forwarding address, advertising, 5-28
FR MIF type, D-20
FR Stat window, 4-15
Frame, 6-7
frame errors, displaying, 4-4
Frame Relay
circuit information
set circuit active circuit-1 command, 5-46
set circuit command, 5-46
set circuit inactive circuit-2 command, 5-46
show fr circuits command, 5-46
DLCI, 5-45
DLCI status
show fr dlci command, 5-45
link management information, show fr lmi, 5-45
monitoring connections, 5-44
statistics, show fr stats command, 5-44
Frame Relay circuit, turning off, 5-46
Frame Relay MIB, 6-7
Frame Relay profile, 1-18
MAX 6000 Series Administration Guide
Frame Relay, monitoring, 5-44
frame-count, 1-14
frames, displaying received, 4-4
frames, displaying transmitted, 4-4
framing bits, 3-5
FRestore command, B-13
FSave command, B-13
FT1-B&O call, 4-20
FT1-B&O calls, 4-33
Full Access profile, 1-2
G
gateways, equal-cost, 5-27
general problems, solving, A-8
German 1TR6, 1-22, 5-7, A-3
glare, 4-22
graceful call disconnect, 6-9
H
Handshake Complete message, 4-21
handshaking, 4-27, B-4
hanging up a call, 2-8
Hangup command, 1-6
hardware address,displaying, 4-11
hardware configuration problems, solving, A-11
hash table, 5-42
HDLC channel, 6-8
Heartbeat command, B-14
Help command, 1-6, B-14
help information, displaying, 1-6
hidden routes, 5-29
High BER alarm parameter, parameters
High BER alarm, 1-5
High BER parameter, 1-5
high-bit-error alarm, setting, 1-5
histograms, input and output , 5-19
historical performance, displaying, 4-13
host port, and Session Err window, 4-31
host ports, displaying status , 4-15
Host/.. Status window, 4-15
Host/6, 4-19
Host/Dual, 4-19
HOSTN MIF type, D-1, D-20, D-24
Preliminary November 2, 1998 Index-7
Index
I
I
ICMP
RFC 1256, xix
statistics, 5-19
ICMP echo_request packet, 5-16
ICMP Router Discovery Messages (RFC 1256), xix
Idle Logout parameter, parameters
Idle Logout, 1-4
Idle parameter, 1-16
idle, modem status, 1-21
IDSL
diagnostics, 5-4
ie0, 5-12
inactive WAN interfaces, 5-12
Inc Ch Count, 3-10
Incoming Call message, 4-21
Incoming call routing state diagram, 5-8
incoming calls
routing problems, solving, A-19
Incoming Glare message, 4-22
Incomplete Add message, 4-21
Index 100, 3-3
Index 99, 3-3
informational log messages, 4-20
initializing, modem status, 1-21
InOctets, 1-22, 5-7
installed modules, checking, 3-3
interface
terminal-server, 1-1
interface, displaying ethernet, 4-11
interfaces, active WAN, 5-12
Internal Error message, 4-22
Internet Control Message Protocol, see ICMP.
displaying statistics on, 5-19
inverse multiplexing, 6-8
inverted CRCs, 3-9
IP activity, displaying statistics, 5-21
IP address pool status, displaying, 5-23
IP address pool, updating, 3-4
IP information, displaying, 5-19
IP Mobility (RFC 2002), xix
IP routing
table, 5-12
IP routing table
fields, 5-12
IP static routes, updating, 3-4
IP Version 4 (RFC 1812) , xix
IPCP (RFC 1332), xix
iproute add command, 5-14
Index-8 Preliminary November 2, 1998
Iproute command, 1-7
iproute delete command, 5-14
iproute show command, 5-12
IPX address, server, 5-26
IPX RIP traffic, displaying, B-15
IPXping, 5-24
Ipxping command, 1-7
ipxping command, 5-24
IPXRipDebug command, B-14, B-15
ISDN
call information, 5-7
cause codes, numerical list, A-3
PRI and BRI circuit-quality problems, solving, A-16
PRI and BRI interface problems, solving, A-15
ISDN calls, displaying information on, 5-7
ISDN D-channel X.25 support, 5-48
ISDN line, monitoring, 1-19
ISDN messages, information on, 1-20
ISDN, show command, 1-19
J
Japan NTT, 5-7
Japan NTT switch type, 1-22
K
K56Flex modem cards, numbering of, 1-21
Keep alive, 4-17
Kill command, 1-7
kill command, 1-24
L
LAN security error message, 4-22
LAN session down message, 4-21
LAN session up message, 4-4, 4-21
latent routes, 5-29
LED, Alarm, 3-5
LEDs, A-1
MAX front panel, illustrated, A-1
problems, solving, A-17
Line, 3-4, 3-6
Line 1 Stat window, 4-16
Line 2 Stat window, 4-16
line diagnosis, functions, 3-7
Line Errors status window, 4-15
line errors, displaying, 4-6
MAX 6000 Series Administration Guide
Index
M
Line LB1, 3-4, 3-6
line loopback test, 3-4
LINE MIF type, D-21
line quality, B-5
Line Status (Net/BRI) window, 4-18
line status, displaying, 4-3
line utilization
displaying, 4-32
lines, displaying status, 4-16
lines, specifying outgoing, 1-15
Link active, 4-16
link quality, displaying, 4-11
link uptime, displaying, 4-11
linkDown (RFC-1215 trap-type 2), 6-5
linkUp (RFC-1215 trap-type 3), 6-5
lmi command (link management information), 5-45
lo0, 5-12
loacation paramater, 1-3
load name in Sys Options window, 4-5
load, displaying, software load, displaying, 1-22
loading a saved or edited profile, 2-8
loading, entities, D-5
Local command, 1-6
local DNS table, 5-17
Local LB, 3-9
Local LB command, A-9
Local LB menu, 3-10
local loopback test, 3-9
local mode, going to, 1-6
local terminal server session, starting, 3-3
locating slow, 5-14
log facility, syslog, 6-7
log messages
working with, 4-1
log window, message, 4-4
log, fatal error, B-7, B-9
logging out of the MAX, 2-9
Logical Link status, A-15
login service, 6-11
LOOP MIF type, D-24
loopback, 3-7, 4-27, 5-4, A-9
loopback command, 3-8
loopback counters, 4-7
loopback function, cancelling, 3-9
loopback interface, 5-12
loopback menu, 3-10
loopback route, 5-13
loopback route, private, 5-13
loopback serial data rate, 3-10
MAX 6000 Series Administration Guide
loopback test, 3-4, 3-5, 3-9
loopback, restrictions, 3-8
Loss of Sync, 4-16
loss of T1 framing, 3-3
LQM, xix
M
M1, M2, and M3 bits, 3-8
MAC address, 4-40, 4-44
MAC address, displaying, 4-11
Machine Interface Format, 3-3
Machine Interface Format (MIF), 1-4
command support for, D-4
lexical sequence for types of, D-7
Machine Interface Format (MIF) commands
for address/value of next entity, D-6
for entity current value, D-5
generating traps/asynchronous reports, D-7
loading/saving entities, D-5
modifying parameter values, D-6
responses to, D-4
Machine Interface Format, see Use MIF
Main Edit menu, 1-1
management, remote, 1-4
Max DS0 Mins parameter, 1-4
MAX LEDs
listed, A-2
Max Rel Delay value, 4-33
MAX reset, using SNMP, 6-2
maxTelnetAttempts (ascend trap-type 15), 6-6
MBID, 4-23
MdbStr command, B-15
mdialout, B-2
MDialout command, B-18
mdoem AT commands, 1-13
membership, multicast, 5-42
memory contents, dumping, B-8
memory, clearing flash, B-13
Menu command, 1-7, 1-8
menu mode, terminal server, 1-9
menu,Main Edit, 1-1
message
Added Bandwidth, 4-20
Message Log display, 4-33
message log window, displaying, 4-4
messages
Assigned to port, 4-20
Backoff Q full, 4-39
Busy, 4-22
Preliminary November 2, 1998 Index-9
Index
M
messages (continued)
Call Disconnected, 4-22
Call Refused, 4-22
Call Terminated, 4-21
Callback Pending, 4-21
Dual Port req’d, 4-22
Ethernet up, 4-21
Far End Hung Up, 4-22
Handshake Complete, 4-21
Incoming Call, 4-21
Incoming Glare, 4-22
Incomplete Add, 4-21
Internal Error, 4-22
LAN security error, 4-22
LAN session down, 4-21
LAN session up, 4-21
Moved to secondary, 4-21
Network Problem, 4-22
No Chan Other End, 4-22
No Channel Avail, 4-22
No Connection, 4-22
No Phone Number, 4-23
No port DS0 Mins, 4-23
No System DS0 Mins, 4-23
Not Enough Chans, 4-23
Not FT1-B&O, 4-23
Outgoing Call, 4-21
Port use exceeded, 4-21
RADIUS config error, 4-21
Remote Mgmt Denied, 4-23
Removed Bandwidth, 4-21
Request Ignored, 4-23
Requested Service Not Authorized, 4-22
Sys use exceeded, 4-21
working with status/log, 4-1
Wrong Sys Version, 4-23
messages, connection-specific, 4-20
messages, information on ISDN, 1-20
messages, syslog, 6-8
messages, warning, B-11
MIB, 6-1
MIB II, 6-1
MIB-II, 6-7
MIBs, supported, 6-7
RFC 1213, 6-7
RFC 1315, 6-7
RFC 1317, 6-7
RFC 1406, 6-7
RFC 1696, 6-7
MIF, 3-3
MIF (Machine Interface Format)
command line processing for, D-30
described, D-1
MIF commands
basics for processing, D-30
Index-10 Preliminary November 2, 1998
MIF types
ALARM, D-8
BRIDGE, D-9
CONN, D-9
DEST, D-12
DIAG, D-12
DIAGN, D-13
DIAL, D-13
DO, D-15
ETHERNET, D-16
FILT=<type>, D-18
FR, D-20
HOSTN, D-1, D-20, D-24
LINE, D-21
LOOP, D-24
PORT, D-25
ROUTE, D-26
SEC, D-26
STAT, D-27
SYS, D-28
TRAP, D-30
V110, D-30
MIF. See Machine Interface Format
MIF. See Machine Interface Format
modem
disabling, 3-11
opening session, 1-7
Modem #n, 3-11
modem AT command strings, B-15
modem AT string, modifying, B-15
modem availability, diagnostics, B-4
modem cards, numbering, 1-21
Modem Diag status window, 4-25
modem dialout, displays, B-18
Modem MIB, 6-7
modem quiescence, 3-11, 3-12
modem sessions, displaying active, 4-3
modem status, 1-21
modem status characters, 4-24
modem status,displaying, 1-20
modem window, 4-24
modem, disabling, 3-11
modemdiag, B-2
ModemDiag command, B-16
ModemDrvDump command, B-18
modemdrvstate, B-2
ModemDrvState command, B-18
ModemSlot, 3-11
Moved to primary message
messages
Moved to primary, 4-21
Moved to secondary message, 4-21
MAX 6000 Series Administration Guide
Index
N
MP (RFC 1990), xix
MPP Bundle, 1-24
Multiband simulation, and disabled commands, 1-6
multicast activity, displaying, 5-43
multicast clients, displaying, 5-43
multicast forwarding table, displaying, 5-42
multicast heartbeat, B-14
multicast routing, 5-42
multipath routing, 5-27
Multipoint, 4-19
O
On Internet Authentication (RFC 1704), xx
online. The call is up, modem status, 1-21
Open command, 1-7
Operator Reset, 3-3
optional features, displaying, 4-5
OSPF route, cost, 5-27
Outgoing Call message, 4-21
outgoing lines, specifying for self-test, 1-15
OutOctets, 1-22, 5-7
output, verbose, 5-16
N
Name Server (RFC 1877), xix
name, system, 1-3
near-end block error (NEBE), 3-8
NEBE counter, clearing, 3-9
NEBE error buffers, 4-6
NEBE. See near-end block error
Net Options status window, 4-26
Net/BRI status, 4-25
Net/T1 status window, 4-25
NetWare stations, 5-24
network monitoring commands, 1-8
Network Problem message, 4-22
network-specific information, show commands to
monitor, 1-19
next-hop router, 5-12
NFAS D channels, 3-5
NFAS D channels, swaps primary/secondary, 3-5
NFAS signaling, 3-5
NIX man pages, 4-33
No Chan Other End message, 4-22
No Channel Avail message, 4-22
No Connection message, 4-4, 4-22
No Phone Number message, 4-23
No port DSO Mins message, 4-23
No System DSO Mins message, 4-23
No Trunk Alarm parameter, 1-5
Not Enough Chans message, 4-23
Not FT1-B&O message, 4-23
NSLookup command, B-21
NT1, returning to normal, 3-9
NTT switch type, 1-22
Number of remaining allocated addresses, 5-24
NVRAMClear command, B-22
MAX 6000 Series Administration Guide
P
packet count, displaying, 5-20
packet filtering
related RFCs, xx
packetsize, 5-16
PAD
service signals, 5-48
PAD connections, 5-47
PAD sessions, displaying, 5-47
Parallel Dial parameter, 1-4
parameters
Auto Logout, 1-4
Call-by-Call, 1-14
Console, 1-4
contact, 1-3
Data Svc, 1-14
DSO Min Rst, 1-4
Edit, 1-5
High BER, 1-5
Idle, 1-16
location, 1-3
Max DSO Mins, 1-4
No Trunk Alarm, 1-5
Parallel Dial, 1-4
PRI # Type, 1-14
Remote Mgmt, 1-4
R/W Comm, 6-2
Security, 6-2
Single Answer, 1-4
Status, 1-5
Term Rate, 1-4
Transit #, 1-15
parameters, modifying values of MIF command, D-6
parameters, system administration, 1-2
password challenges, displaying, 1-17
password mode, disabling, 1-17
password mode, entering, 1-17
Preliminary November 2, 1998 Index-11
Index
Q
password mode, putting the terminal server in, 1-17
password security, SNMP, 6-1
password, default, 1-2
passwords, and Save Cfg command, 3-2
PDU, 6-3
performance registers
clearing line #1 in, 3-6
clearing line #2 in, 3-6
performance-register statistics, 4-13
permissions, administrative, 1-1
permissions,activating administrative, 1-2
phone number
testing, 1-6
ping, 5-16, 5-17
Ping command, 1-7
PND. <emphasis> See Present Next Digit
Point-to-point, 4-18
Point-to-Point Protocol
RFC 1661, xix
pool, updating, 3-4
Port, 6-4
port, 6-8
port diagnostics, 5-4
port diagnostics, performing, 5-4
Port Info status window, 4-26
Port Leads status window, 4-28
PORT MIF type, D-25
port number, UDP, 5-22
Port Opts information, listed, 4-29
Port Opts status window, 4-29
Port state change events, 6-5
port status, displaying V.110, 1-23
Port use exceeded message, 4-21
portAcrPending (ascend trap-type 10), 6-6
portCarrier (ascend trap-type 8), 6-6
portCollectDigits (ascend trap-type 5), 6-5
portConnected (ascend trap-type 7), 6-6
portDTENotReady (ascend trap-type 11), 6-6
portDualDelay (ascend trap-type 1), 6-5
portHaveSerial (ascend trap-type 3), 6-5
portInactive (ascend trap-type 0), 6-5
portLoopback (ascend trap-type 9), 6-6
PortN Stat window, 4-30
portRinging (ascend trap-type 4) , 6-5
portUseExceeded (ascend trap-type 13), 6-6
portWaiting (ascend trap-type 6), 6-5
portWaitSerial (ascend trap-type 2), 6-5
POST, A-9
POST. <emphasis> See power-on self test
Index-12 Preliminary November 2, 1998
POSTs (power-on self tests), 3-3
power-on self test (POST), 3-3
PPP, 4-31
PPP (RFC 1661), xix
PPP Bridging Control Protocol (RFC 1638), xix
PPP Challenge Handshake Athentication Protocol (RFC
1994), xix
PPP command, 1-7, 1-8
PPP Compression Control Protocol (RFC 1962), xix
PPP in HDLC-like Framing (RFC 1662), xix
PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (RFC 1332), xix
PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol Extensions for
Name Server Addresses (RFC 1877), xix
PPP Link Quality Monitoring (RFC 1989), xix
PPP Multilink Protocol (RFC 1990), xix
PPP Stac LZS Compression Protocol (RFC 1974), xix
PPP Vendor Extensions (RFC 2153), xix
PPPDump command, B-22
PPPFSM command, B-23
PPPIF command, B-24
PPPInfo command, B-25
PPTPCM command, B-26
PPTPData command, B-26
PPTPEC command, B-27
PPTPSend command, B-27
preference value, for route, 5-13
preferences, route, 5-29
Present Next Digit (PND), 3-10
PRI # Type parameter, 1-14
PRI interface, displaying stats for, 4-13
PRI, and maximum bit-error rate, 1-5
PRIDisplay command, B-27
private loopback route, 5-13
privileges
administrative, 1-1
assigning required, 1-16
Problems accessing the WAN, solving, A-18
profile,Full Access, 1-2
progress codes, 4-35, 6-12
protocol data unit (PDU), 6-3
protocols
multiple IP routing, 5-12
show commands to monitor, 1-19
Q
Q.931, 1-20
quality of the link, displaying, 4-11
quality, displaying call, 4-32
MAX 6000 Series Administration Guide
Index
R
quality,monitoring transmission, 3-8
queue, backoff, 6-12
queued packets, UDP, 5-22
quiescing a modem, 3-11, 3-12
Quit, B-28
Quit command, 1-6, B-28
R
radacct, 6-12
RadAcct command, B-28
RadIF command, B-28
RADIUS accounting server, 6-12
RADIUS Backoff Q full, 6-11
RADIUS config error message, 4-21
RADIUS configuration,updating, 3-4
RADIUS server
opening connection to, 3-4
radiusd, 6-12
RadStats command, B-30
raw TCP hosts
specifying, 1-9
rawTcp parameter, 1-9
received frames
displaying, 4-4
Red Alarm, 4-16
registers, carrier and user, 4-14
relay, alarm, 1-5
remaining allocated addresses, explained, 5-24
Remote command, 1-6, 1-16
remote command, 1-16
remote login
terminating, 1-12
remote management, 1-4
at remote end of an AIM call, 2-5
session, opening, 1-6
session, starting, 1-16
session, terminating, 1-16
session, timing out, 1-16
Remote Mgmt Denied message, 4-23
Remote Mgmt parameter, 1-4
remote u interface, 3-8
Removed Bandwidth message, 4-21
Report of IAB Workshop (RFC 1636), xx
reports, generating MIF, D-7
Request For Comments, see RFC.
Request Ignored message, 4-23
Request to Send (RTS), 4-28
Requested Service Not Authorized message, 4-22
MAX 6000 Series Administration Guide
required privileges
assigning, 1-16
Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers (RFC 1812), xix
resent Next Digit (PND), 4-28
Reset command, B-31
reset, system, 3-3
reset, using SNMP, 6-2
restarting MAX, 3-3
Restore Cfg, 3-2
Resume command, 1-7
resynchronizing a call in progress, 2-10
Revision command, B-31
RFC
listing of related, xix
RFC 1213, 6-7
RFC 1288, 1-5
RFC 1288, finger command, 5-17
RFC 1315, 6-7
RFC 1317, 6-7
RFC 1406, 6-7
RFC 1696, 6-7
RFCs
IP routing, xix
PPP, xix
RFC 1974, xix
RI. <emphasis> See Ring Indicate
Ring Indicate (RI), 3-10, 4-28, 4-29
RIP routes, how OSPF adds, 5-29
RIP traffic, IPX, B-15
rlogin
terminating session, 1-12
Rlogin command, 1-7
rlogin command, 1-12
rlogin, default escape character, 1-12
round-trip statistics, statistics, round-trip, 5-17
route
adding, 5-14
age, 5-13
calls, inbound (illustrated), 5-8
deleting, 5-14
preferences, displayed, 5-13
route age, 5-13
ROUTE MIF type, D-26
Route preferences, 5-29
route, loopback private, 5-13
routers, 5-14
Routes status window, 4-30
routes, hidden, 5-29
Routing in a Multi-provider Internet (RFC 1787), xix
Preliminary November 2, 1998 Index-13
Index
S
routing links
active, displaying, 4-31
routing state diagram, call routing, 5-8
routing, multipath, 5-27
routing, third-party, 5-28
Rq Corrupt CRC, 3-9
Rq Uncorrupt CRC, 3-9
RS232 MIB, 6-7
RS-366, 4-28
RS-366 output signal, 3-10
RS-422, 4-29
RS-449, 4-29
RS-449 Host I/F, 4-29
R/W Comm, 6-2
R/W Comm parameter, 6-2
S
SAFEWORD server, 1-17
Save Cfg, 3-2
Save Cfg command, and download permission, 3-2
saving, loaded entries, D-5
Sealing Current, 5-3
SEC MIF type, D-26
Secure Access Manger firewall, 4-40
Secure Operation of the Internet (RFC 1281), xx
Security, 6-4
security
events, 6-6
related RFCs, xx
RFC 1245, xx
SNMP, 6-1
security configuration, and SNMP, 6-3
Security Considerations for IP Fragment Filtering
RFC 1858, xx
Security parameter, 6-2
self-test error messages, 1-15
self-test, phone number self-test, 1-14
Send commands, listing, 1-11
serial data rate, loopback, 3-10
serial number, displaying, 4-5
Serial WAN status window, 4-31
server, accounting, 6-12
session
terminal server, starting, 3-3
user, terminating, 1-7
Session Err status window, 4-31
session ID, and kill command, 1-24
Sessions status window, 4-31
Index-14 Preliminary November 2, 1998
sessions, displaying active, 4-3
set all command, settings, displaying current, 1-17
set circuit active circuit-1 command, 5-46
set circuit command, 5-46
set circuit inactive circuit-2 command, 5-46
Set command, 1-6
set command, 1-17
set commands,displaying, 1-12
set fr commands, 1-18
set password command, 1-17
set term command, terminal type, specifying, 1-17
settings, displaying current, 1-11
show, 5-45
show calls command, 1-22
Show command, 1-6
show commands, 1-18
Show dnis session command, 1-19
Show dnis statistics command, 1-19
show dnstab command, 5-18
show fr ? command, 5-44
show fr circuits command, 5-46
show fr dlci command, 5-45
show icmp command, 5-19
show igmp ? command, 5-42
show igmp clients command, 5-43
show igmp groups command, 5-42
show igmp stats command, 5-43
show ip address command, 5-22
show ip command, 5-19
show ip routes command, 5-12
show ip stats command, 5-21
show ISDN command, 1-19
show ISDN output, 1-19
show modems command, 1-13, 1-20
show mrouting ? command, 5-42
show mrouting stats command, 5-44
show netware networks command, 5-26
show netware servers command, 5-25, 5-26
show netware stats command, 5-25
show pad command, 5-47
show revision command, revision, displaying, 1-22
show udp listen command, 5-22
show uptime command, 1-22
show V.110s command, 1-23
show x25 command, 5-47
Signaling System 7, A-3
signaling, NFAS, 3-5
Simple Network Time Protcol (SNTP) (RFC 2030), xix
MAX 6000 Series Administration Guide
Index
T
Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP), 1-3
Single Answer parameter, 1-4
Site Security Handbook (RFC 1244), xx
SLIP command, 1-7, 1-8
slow routers, locating, 5-14
SNMP
configuring access security, 6-1
configuring security, 6-3
enforcing security, 6-2
management, 6-1
resetting the MAX, 6-2
security, 6-1
setting traps, 6-3
trap parameters, 6-4
traps, 6-4
verifying MAX reset, 6-2
SNMP trap, 6-3
SNMP trap configuration, 6-4
SNTP command, B-32
SNTP, RFC 2030, xix
SNTP. See Simple Network Time Protocol
socket number, UDP, 5-22
source of clocking, B-7
Stac LZS compression (RFC 1974), xix
STAT MIF type, D-27
state diagram,incoming call routing, 5-8
static routes,updating, 3-4
Statistics window, 4-32
status display,block error, 3-8
status messages
working with, 4-1
Status parameter, 1-5
status window, 1-1
activating, 4-2, 4-5
customizing appearance of, 4-5
default, 4-1
scrolling information, 4-2
status/log messages. See also error messages
stored configuration
restoring, 3-2
strings, setting community, 6-2
superframe, 3-8
format, 3-5
super-user, 1-2
Switch D Chan, 3-5
switch type
1TR6, A-3
German and Japanese, 5-7
synchronization delay
displaying, 4-32
SYS MIF type, D-28
MAX 6000 Series Administration Guide
Sys Options window, 4-5, 4-41
information listed, 4-41
Sys use exceeded message, 4-21
sysAbsoluteStartupTime, 6-2
Syslog, 4-33
syslog daemon, 4-33, 6-7
syslog messages, meanings, 6-8
syslog, disconnect and progress codes, 6-12
system administration parameters, 1-2
system date
setting, 1-3
System Is Up, 3-3
system memory
checking, 3-3
system name, 1-3
System Reset, 3-3
System Status window, 4-20, 4-44
system time
setting, 1-3
system uptime, 4-42
displaying, 4-5
systemUseExceeded (ascend trap-type 14), 6-6
T
T1 connections
checking, 3-3
T1 diagnostics, 5-1
T1 framing loss, 3-3
T1 line, determining quality, 3-4
TACACS+, 6-11
tag, 5-27
target address, 5-12
TCP command, 1-7, 1-13
TCP packets, displaying statistics, 5-23
Telnet and raw TCP hosts
mixing, 1-8
Telnet command, 1-7
telnet command, 1-10
Telnet commands, sending standard, 1-11
telnet connection, opening, 1-11
telnet error messages, 1-12
Telnet hosts
specifying, 1-9
updating list, 3-4
Telnet session
closing, 1-12
commands, 1-11
Telnet sesssion
terminating, 1-24
Preliminary November 2, 1998 Index-15
Index
U
TelnetDebug command, B-32
Term Rate parameter, 1-4, 3-2
Term Serv, 3-3
terminal server banner
updating, 3-4
terminal server commands
displaying, 1-6
terminal server interface, 1-1, 1-6
terminal server menu mode, 1-9
terminal server session
closing, 1-6
displaying active, 4-31
starting, 1-6, 3-3
test
line loopback, 3-4, 3-5
Test command, 1-6
test command, 1-14
test frames, displaying, 4-7
test, loopback, 3-8
tests, diagnostic, 3-3
third-party routing, 5-28
time
system, setting, 1-3
Time-To-Live (TTL), 5-14
TLoadCode command, B-13, B-33
token security card, 5-13
totals,block error, 3-8
Traceroute (RFC 1393), xix
Traceroute command, 1-7, 5-14
Traceroute Using an IP Option (RFC 1393), xix
training, B-4
Transit # parameter, 1-15
transmission errors
avoiding, 1-4
transmission quality, monitoring, 3-8
transmitted frames, displaying, 4-4
Transparent mode, 1-10
trap, 6-3
TRAP MIF type, D-30
traps, generating MIF, D-7
troubleshooting
1TR6 switch type cause codes, numerical list, A-6
AIM port interface problems , A-12
bridge/router problems, A-20
configuration problems, A-9
general problems, A-8
hardware configuration problems, A-11
incoming call routing problems, A-19
ISDN cause codes, numerical list, A-3
ISDN PRI and BRI circuit-quality problems, A-16
ISDN PRI and BRI interface problems, A-15
Index-16 Preliminary November 2, 1998
troubleshooting (continued)
problems accessing the WAN, A-18
TSave command, B-34
type of service, IPX, 5-26
type, specifying terminal, 1-17
U
u interface, remote, 3-8
UDP packets
displaying statistics, 5-22
Uncorrupt CRC, 3-9
unexpected call disconnect, and syslog messages, 6-9
UNIX, 5-17, 6-7, B-8
UnRq Corrupt CRC, 3-8
Upd Rem Cfg, 3-4
Update command, B-34
updating, of DNS table, 5-17
uptime in status window, 4-5
uptime, displaying, 1-22, 4-5
uptime, displaying link, 4-11
uptime, system, 4-42
Use MIF, 3-3
user error event register, clearing line, 3-5
user performance registers, 4-14
user session
terminating, 1-7
U-superframe, 3-8
utilization
line, displaying, 4-32
V
V.110 cards, displaying status, 1-23
V.110 port status, displaying, 1-23
V.25 bis, 4-28
V.25 output signal, 3-10
V.25 signal, 3-10
V.25bis, 4-43
V.35, 4-29
V.35 Host I/F, 4-29
V110 MIF type, D-30
values
getting entity current, D-5
modifying MIF command parameter, D-6
of next entity, D-6
verbose output, 5-16
MAX 6000 Series Administration Guide
Index
W
virtual connect session
closing, 1-7
resuming, 1-7
virtual connection, suspending of, 1-13
virtual connection, terminating, 1-14
VT100 interface, initial screen, 1-1
VT100 menus
returning to, 1-7
X
X.21, 4-28, 4-29, 4-43
X.25, 5-47
clear cause codes, 5-49
diagnostic field values, 5-50
diagnostics, 5-50
PAD service, monitoring, 5-47
Y
W
WAN interface
active, 5-12
displaying, 4-26
WAN interface, inactive, 5-12
WAN lines, displaying status, 4-16
WAN links, displaying active, 4-4
WAN port, display in information on , 1-19
WAN Stat window, 4-44
WANDisplay command, B-35
WANDSess command, B-35
wanidle0, 5-12
wanN, 5-12
WANNext command, B-36
WANOpening command, B-36
WANToggle command, B-37
warmStart (RFC-1215 trap-type 1), 6-5
warning messages, B-11
WDDialout command, B-37
window
Call Status, 4-7
Dyn Stat, 4-11
Ether Opt status, 4-11
Ether Stat, 4-12
Ethernet, 4-12
FDL statistics, 4-13
FRStat, 4-15
Host/..Status, 4-15
Line 1 Stat, 4-16
Line 2 Stat, 4-16
Line Errors status, 4-15
Line Status (Net/BRI), 4-18
Modem Diag status, 4-25
PortN Stat, 4-30
System Status, 4-44
windows, status See status window, 1-1
Wrong Sys Version message, 4-23
MAX 6000 Series Administration Guide
Yellow Alarm, 4-17
yellow fault led, 3-3
Preliminary November 2, 1998 Index-17
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