needs assessment for refugee emergencies (nare) checklist

needs assessment for refugee emergencies (nare) checklist
NEEDS ASSESSMENT
FOR REFUGEE
EMERGENCIES (NARE)
CHECKLIST
What is the NARE Checklist?
As the lead coordinator in a refugee emergency, UNHCR has a responsibility to coordinate a multi-sectoral needs-based response. The NARE
is principally designed to assist UNHCR operations with initial multi-sectoral assessments when there has been a significant sudden forced
displacement of populations across borders. The NARE can also be used when there is a sudden influx of a population into an existing refugee
operational environment or in an operation where inadequate assessments have been conducted.
NARE highlights information that is derived from pre-crisis and post-crisis secondary data analysis, before the primary data collection begins. For
primary data collection, the NARE suggests data elements that can be derived from facility visits, observations, key informants and focus group
discussions. It promotes the cross-analysis of information derived from multiple methodologies across multiple sectors to ensure a rapid, relatively
complete picture.
How to Use the NARE Checklist
The NARE is a highly customizable initial multi-sectoral needs assessment. The Needs Assessment Team can decide which data collection
methodologies should be used and which topics should be the focus. This means that NARE users are not obligated to do the entire assessment
specified here but can pick and choose from among the methods and themes depending on the time / resources available, the purpose of the
assessment and the types of interventions that will be made. Customize the data collection questions in the columns/rows you have selected
according to your local situation. You can change or omit the questions suggested, or you may wish to add new questions entirely. Please also
consider the contents of the “All Sectors” column and the callouts on population data management, security and logistics.
The following principles of the NARE should be taken into account in all situations:
a. a secondary data review should always be done in order to determine what information already exists;
b. initial needs assessments should be multi-sectoral and coordinated across sectors (detailed sector-specific needs assessments can follow the
initial multi-sectoral assessment); and
c. different types of information are best gathered using different types of data collection methodologies.
A multi-functional team should lead the NARE and collectively prioritize data elements on the checklist based on their operational relevance and
how obtainable the information is. A secondary data review should be conducted first to identify information gaps. High priority data elements
that cannot be obtained from secondary data should be added to data collection forms. One data collection form should be used for each of the
data collection methodologies selected from the checklist. Mixed data collection methodologies should not appear on the same data collection
form.
Data collectors should then be trained on the use of the forms. Focus discussion leaders should be trained on focus group discussion facilitation.
After the data is collected, cleaned and compiled, the multi-functional team should analyze and collectively agree on the interpretation of the
findings. Reports on the findings should be rapidly disseminated to concerned stakeholders.
This initial assessment is intended to be a one-off activity and not an ongoing monitoring system.
Notes
a. The term “refugees” is used throughout the tool, but this may include asylum seekers, stateless persons or other persons of concern.
b. The data will need to be disaggregated by camps / collective centres if they are present.
c. This assessment is intended for use by generalists; however, some of the secondary data sources may need to have sector-specific expertise. This emergency
assessment does not replace in-depth sectoral assessments.
d. The NARE Checklist is principally designed to assist UNHCR operations with initial multi-sectoral assessments when there has been a significant sudden forced
displacement of populations across borders. The NARE could also be partially utilized when there is a sudden influx of a population into an existing refugee
operational environment or in an operation where inadequate assessments have been conducted.
NARE Cross Cutting Protection Issues
Protection
Critical Background (pre-influx)
information collection and analysis
Secondary Data
This information provides information
on context and pre-existing coping
mechanisms and vulnerabilities.
Post-influx secondary data review
This information can come from
other sectors and/or organizations. It
must be done prior to primary data
collection.Information not available
in the secondary data analysis should
be acquired through primary data
collection
Review – Actions required
These are possible actions that may
be informed by the secondary data
analysis.
• What historical political / social dynamics existed within and between groups in the refugee population, including
marginalized and excluded groups?
• What is the legal framework and practice in the country of asylum with respect to refugee protection?
• What community based protection mechanisms exist e.g. coping mechanisms, community watch groups, community
leaders, women’s groups, etc.?
• What is the school enrollment rate prior to displacement in the country of origin (disaggregated by age, sex and, if
possible, grade)?
• Is SGBV a documented problem in the country of origin and/or country of asylum? If so, which forms?
• Who are the main local, national and international protection actors with capacity to respond? If they don’t have the
capacity, what are the areas where they would require more capacity bulding?
• What, if any, national protection coordination mechanisms currently exist?
• What, if any, security concerns exist in present refugee hosting locations? (e.g. landmines, presence of combatants,
risk of cross border incursion, tensions between refugees and host community, etc.)
• Are there any reports of refoulement, including preventing access to territory or harrassment from authorities?
• Are there any restrictions affecting refugees’ land-rights and land access? (e.g. collecting fuel-wood, timber, fodder,
grazing their animals, engaging in agricultural or subsistence activities) If yes, what are they?
• Mitigate immediate security risks to specific groups at risk and wider population
• Establish effective individual registration and documentation systems, including referral pathways for identified
protection cases (e.g. child protection, SGBV, specific needs, etc.)
• Work with communities to strengthen or to foster the creation of community-based protection mechanisms
• Mainstream protection into technical areas, including ensuring distribution and aid mechanisms are appropriate,
accessible and non-discriminatory based on an age, gender and diversity (AGD) approach
• Establish a two-way mass communication mechanism with refugees and host communities in order to inform them
of the availability of services and other key protection information
For more detail, please refer to the Protection in Emergencies Checklist, available on the UNHCR Intranet at Support
Services -> Emergency Management -> Emergency Policies and Tools -> Protection in Emergencies Toolbox.
Community Observation
Primary Data Collection
These questions are intended for
direct observation and are not based
on interviewing. The results from
observation can be cross-analyzed with
information from other sources for
verification purposes.
Community Key Informants
Community representatives can be
consulted to ask questions about the
entire community. Key informant
interviews may help validate or explain
conclusions from observation. To
ensure adequate selection process for
key informant interviews please refer to
ACAPS Technical Brief “Key Informant
Direct Observation Pocket Version”
• Is there a military installation in close proximity to refugee hosting areas?
• Are there signs of combatants among the refugee population (e.g. visible presence of weapons, individuals in
uniform and/or disproportionately large numbers of fighting-age men)?
• Are reception arrangements visibly adequate for new arrivals (e.g. not overcrowded, availability of water and food,
separate toilet facilities etc.)?
• Are significant numbers of women or female-headed households arriving and/or living alone?
• Is there a disproportionately large presence of children? Are there boys and girls arriving / living without adult
caregivers?
• What are the main physical hazards for children (e.g. landmines, uncovered wells, unsafe buildings, distance to
school, etc.)?
• Are all segments of the population (AGD) seen at service provider centers?
• Are service providers’ reception conditions AGD sensitive (female staff, confidential consultation space, accessible to
older persons and persons with disabilities, etc.)?
• Who comes to collect food and CRIs at distributions (women, men, children, minority groups)?
• Are there police, community watch, or other security actors present? Are any of them female?
• Are there any signs or recent deaths or mourning (e.g. religious ceremonies, mourning traditions, new graves)?
• Are there any signs of limitation to freedom of movement for the population (e.g. roadblocks, checkpoints, fences)?
• Are there any population groups not seen in public places (e.g. any age or gender demographic, persons with
disability, ethnic or religious minorities)?
• Are there signs of specific isolation or neglect of some persons or groups? (please specify)
• Are there physical spaces available for establishing key community infrastructure (e.g. child friendly spaces, schools,
community centres)?
• What community based protection mechanisms exist e.g. coping mechanisms, community watch groups, community
support groups, leadership structures, etc.?
• Have there been instances of violence or abuse, including SGBV? If yes, which kind, when, where, targeting whom?
• What, if any, has been the community’s response to these instances of violence /abuse? If none, why not?
• Do victims of crime, including SGBV survivors, have access to judicial recourse? (police post and courts)
• Are there boys and girls arriving / living without adult caregivers?
• What urgent information do members of this community (AGD) need to know to protect themselves?
• Are there any particular groups that face specific risks? Why and what are these risks? What can be done to mitigate
these risks?
• Are there any – or reports thereof – of combatants, ex-combatants or their families in the group /at the site?
• Are children being recruited by armed actors, or reports thereof?
• Is the population of refugees at this site growing, shrinking or staying the same? Why?
• Are families forced to use unsafe practices to meet their basic needs (e.g. survival sex, early marriage, child labour,
etc.)?
• What is the estimated percentage of children with access to schools and other learning opportunities?
• Do schools have SGBV and child protection reporting mechanisms?
• Are schools and other learning environments considered safe by the community? Do they implement safe learning
activities?
NARE Cross Cutting Protection Issues
Focus Group Discussions
Focus group participants are divided
by age, gender and diversity criteria,
but additional group divisions may
based on the hierarchical division
of the group (e.g. economic strata,
displacement status, ethnicity, etc.).
Note: Individual cases and names
should not be mentioned in the course
of the discussion.
Questions listed here are examples only
and need to be contextualized prior
to use.
Primary Data Collection
Household Key Informant
These questions are appropriate to ask
during household interviews. These
questions pertain to the situation of a
particular household.
• What are the reasons that made communities flee to this location?
• Are people leaving this location? If yes, why?
• What are the most important dangers and difficulties that this community is experiencing? Who is most affected
by these problems or dangers? Where are these most likely to occur? What are the community’s capacities and
suggestions to address those?
• What obstacles or problems does the community experience to obtain humanitarian assistance or important
services, such as education and health? What age, gender and diversity groups are more affected by these obstacles
or barriers?
• Do you know of services available to help survivors of violence and abuse (e.g. medical, psychosocial, material, legal,
community-based)? Are these services adequate and appropriate (e.g. enough medicine, presence of female staff,
staff speaking same language)?
• How does the community handle/resolve cases of violence and abuse - do they go to the police? to the court? to the
religious leaders? or to others? Is the response received adequate and appropriate?
• How is the community organized?
• What community based protection mechanisms exist e.g. coping mechanisms, community watch groups, community
support groups, leadership structures, etc.?
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Where did you come from? What route did you take here?
Has your family been registered since your arrival here? If yes, by whom?
What are your family’s top three priority needs?
What were your family’s reasons for flight?
What type(s) of transportation did your family use to travel here?
Are any family members not present? Where they are? Why are they not here?
Do any of your family members have specific needs?
Are you caring for any children that are not your biological children?
Does your family feel safe here? If not, why not? Do you know where you can go to get help if you don’t feel safe?
What would make your family feel safe?
Has your family received any assistance? Were any problems encountered when your family received assistance?
How does your family compliment your assistance?
What is your family’s experience in interacting with the host community?
Were your children enrolled in school prior to displacement? Are they enrolled in school now? If not, why not?
Does your family have identity documentation from your country of origin? If yes, what type of documentation? If
no, why not?
Are family members scared or in psychological distress?
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Police posts
Legal Clinics
Camp perimeter walk
Bathing facilities
Latrines
Places of Detention
Markets
Individual shelters
Local administrative offices or traditional leaders
Schools (formal or informal; host and refugee schools)
Health facilities
Areas where household fuel is collected
Distribution points
Childcare facilities
Places of worship
Community Centres
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Infrastructure / Facilities Visits Visiting these facilities for observations
or key informant interviews may assist
the assessment.
All Sectors - NARE Checklist
All Sectors
Critical Background (pre-influx)
information collection and analysis
Secondary Data
This information provides information
on context and pre-existing coping
mechanisms and vulnerabilities.
Post-influx secondary data review
This information can come from
other sectors and/or organizations. It
must be done prior to primary data
collection.Information not available
in the secondary data analysis should
be acquired through primary data
collection
Review – Actions required
These are possible actions that may
be informed by the secondary data
analysis.
Community Observation
These questions are intended for
direct observation and are not based
on interviewing. The results from
observation can be cross-analyzed with
information from other sources for
verification purposes.
Primary Data Collection
Community Key Informants
Community representatives can be
consulted to ask questions about the
entire community. Key informant
interviews may help validate or explain
conclusions from observation. To
ensure adequate selection process for
key informant interviews please refer to
ACAPS Technical Brief “Key Informant
Direct Observation Pocket Version”
Focus Group Discussions
Focus group participants are divided
by age, gender and diversity criteria,
but additional group divisions may
based on the hierarchical division
of the group (e.g. economic strata,
displacement status, ethnicity, etc.).
Note: Individual cases and names
should not be mentioned in the course
of the discussion.
• Existing contingency plans
• Lessons learned from previous emergencies in this country of asylum or with refugees from this country of origin
• Livelihood groups and patterns as they relate to skills, wealth, urban/rural dynamics, language barriers, ties with
potential host poulation and rights in country of asylum
• Potential service providers (government, NGOs, community groups, and commercial/private)
• Potential for integration into existing services and national or community-based programmes
• Identification of multisectoral partners including host community interlocutors, NGOs and civil society leadership
• Census information
• Maps of existing infrastructure
• Any prior initial assessments concerning current influx (if available)
• Cross-sectoral intervention analysis (what are others doing and what are the activity / resource gaps, including the
government / military)
• Access to markets and land
• Emergency market surveys (availability and prices of construction materials, household items and food since the
emergency)
• Common Multi-Sectoral Secondary Data Sources include:
• Border monitoring
• Intention surveys
• “Who Does What Where” information
• Needs assessments from the country of origin
• Government statistical office reports
• Government emergency response reports
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Share findings of secondary data review with other stakeholders
Coordination of needs assessment data analysis findings with other sectors
Identify information gaps
Develop an intial strategy of intervention
Establish primary data collection systems for minimum emergency indicators (e.g. PHHIV basic indicator report)
Establish population data collection systems (e.g. rapid population estimation, emergency registration, etc.)
Explore opportunities for income generation, including for women at risk.
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What are the community’s power relations? Is any group getting / commandeering more assistance than others?
How are tasks distributed among community members?
What are the community’s coping mechanisms? Are any of these coping mechanisms dangerous or unsustainable?
What are potential livelihood opportunities?
• How do community members find out information about the emergency?
• How are decisions made here that affect the whole community?
• Is this a location where new refugees are arriving, where refugees are leaving or both? If refugees have left, where
are they going to? Why are they leaving?
• Has this community received any humanitarian assistance yet? If yes, what kind of assistance? If yes, are there
unassisted refugees here too?
• What is the impact of the sudden influx on the host population? In what ways can the host community assist
refugees?
• How do members in your community find out information about the emergency response?
• What are the community’s highest priority problems?
• How are people coping with the problems currently?
Questions listed here are examples only
and need to be contextualized prior
to use.
Household Key Informant
• Who in the household collects water and/or firewood? Where?
These questions are appropriate to ask
during household interviews. These
questions pertain to the situation of a
particular household.
Infrastructure / Facilities Visits Visiting these facilities for observations
or key informant interviews may assist
the assessment.
• Local government offices
• Community centres
• Please see infrastructure and facilities mentioned in other sectoral areas
WASH - NARE Checklist
WASH
Secondary Data
Critical Background (pre-influx)
information collection and analysis
This information provides information
on context and pre-existing coping
mechanisms and vulnerabilities.
Post-influx secondary data review
This information can come from
other sectors and/or organizations. It
must be done prior to primary data
collection.Information not available
in the secondary data analysis should
be acquired through primary data
collection
Review – Actions required
These are possible actions that may
be informed by the secondary data
analysis.
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• Assessment of available water sources
• Hygiene practices of community
• Identify male and female community members who can be mobilised to participate in locating and designing safe water and
sanitation locations and policies
• Mapping of safe locations for boreholes, water points etc… • Identify potential site risks (e.g. areas exposed to flooding)
• Emergency (new/rehabilitated) drinking water supplies measures are urgently required if less than 15 lts/pers/day is
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Community Observation
These questions are intended for
direct observation and are not based
on interviewing. The results from
observation can be cross-analyzed with
information from other sources for
verification purposes.
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Primary Data Collection
Community representatives can be
consulted to ask questions about the
entire community. Key informant
interviews may help validate or explain
conclusions from observation. To
ensure adequate selection process for
key informant interviews please refer to
ACAPS Technical Brief “Key Informant
Direct Observation Pocket Version”
Focus Group Discussions
Focus group participants are divided
by age, gender and diversity criteria,
but additional group divisions may
based on the hierarchical division
of the group (e.g. economic strata,
displacement status, ethnicity, etc.).
Note: Individual cases and names
should not be mentioned in the course
of the discussion.
Questions listed here are examples only
and need to be contextualized prior
to use.
Household Key Informant
These questions are appropriate to ask
during household interviews. These
questions pertain to the situation of a
particular household.
Infrastructure / Facilities Visits Visiting these facilities for observations
or key informant interviews may assist
the assessment.
available (particularly if environmental risk factors such as dense population, contaminated water supply, poor hygiene are
high).
Emergency “shock” treatment of the drinking water supply is required if the existing system is still functional, but has likely
been contaminated (as a result of physical damage to its infrastructure, interrupted/intermittent service provision, etc.).
HH water treatment is recommended if the quality of drinking water is poor and most HH understand or can be quickly
taught how to use home water treatment effectively.
The need for adequate HH water transport and storage facilities should be assessed in all cases.
Emergency sanitation (particularly excreta disposal) and hygiene promotion measures are required immediately if people are
settled in high density areas and exposed to poor sanitary conditions and/or probable diarrhoeal outbreaks.
Emergency distribution of WASH NFI is required when acute shortage has been objectively observed.
• Environmental health conditions - look for signs of: a) unsafe hygiene practices (open defecation, medical waste disposal,
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Community Key Informants
Rainfall patterns
Hydrological and Geological map
Identify safe infrastructure availability
Potential water providers and water sources
Availability of WASH stockpiling equipment
etc.); b) contamination due to weak or absence of sanitation infrastructure including for excreta, waste water, solid waste,
drainage and medical waste disposal; and c) disease transmitting vectors (rodents, mosquitoes, etc.).
Existing WASH services - look for evidences of: a) collapsed or poorly performing services; b) strain on capacity of services
(lines, conflicts, etc.) c) access difficulties (distance, security, etc.) and d) vulnerability of services (potential contamination
sources, natural hazards, etc.) e) queuing time at facilities.
Are refugee women and girls, men and boys seen queueing at unsafe hours for water?
Is sex-separation for latrines and bathing areas being respected?
How many gender segregated latrines are there at each existing or potential site for formal and non-formal education
purposes in the displacement or host community area?
Is there access to hand washing and potable water at existing or potential sites?
Are the needs of children considered in the design WASH programmes (e.g. safe access to latrines around home, schools,
CFS, also the size of water containers and safe access to source, distance etc)
Are there sex segregated latrines in schools?
Is there access to handwashing and potable water in schools?
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What are the water sources available at local level
Is there disruption on the current water supply?
What is the quantity of water available (m3/day) through the water system? Is it safe for drinking? If not, why?
Are human and animal excreat properly contained and disposed of? How many and what kind of excreta disposal systems (s)
/facilities are there? Are these funcitonal and accessible to all? If people feel safe to access to it?
• What are the critical issues for the building of WASH infrastructure (high water table, soil type and absorption capacity,
available space, flood prones areas, social factors/habits, land issues, local materials, gender, etc....
• Are you satisfied with the water services provided? Are you satisfied with the sanitation services provided?
• Which locations would you consider as safe (for privacy and safety) to locate communal latrines and bathing facilities within
the camp/settlement? Which locations would you consider as safe to locate water collection points?
• Would you prefer separate latrines and bathing facilities for male and female? Why? What about facilities separated per
families?
• What would be the best strategy to maintain and clean these facilities? Who should be in charge for it? Why?
• I would like to get your suggestions/ideas on this design (show the design or prototype): what do you think about it? would
you do it differently? what would you change to make it more suitable to your needs? What would you add? why?
• How do you normally handle menstrual hygiene? What do you normally use (sanitary disposable pads or re-usable pads)?
What could be the best method to dispose it off considering that the disposal into the pit latrines might drastically influence
the filling rate?
• What is your main concern in practicing the clean up of your compound? How can we improve to make it regular?
• What is the main source of drinking water for members of your household?
• Yesterday, how much water did your household collect? Please show me the containers you used yesterday for collecting
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water (from sunrise to sunset), and how many times for each?
Please show me where you store your drinking water.
What kind of toilet facility does this household use?
How many households share this toilet?
Do you have soap for handwashing? Can you show me (presented within 1 min)?
When do you think are the important times to wash your hands?
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Water systems
Water treament plants
Solid waste management
Community places (schools, health centres, markets)
Sanitation infrastructure (showers, latrines, washing blocks, communal kitchens)
Camp Management and Communal Living - NARE Checklist
Secondary Data
Camp Management and Communal Living
Critical Background (pre-influx)
information collection and analysis
• Government policy regarding encampment of refugees; alternatives available to new arrivals
• Existing displacement sites ; [name, location, current population, availability to accommodate new arrivals, access and protection
This information provides information
on context and pre-existing coping
mechanisms and vulnerabilities.
• New potential sites allocated by the government/local authorities; [name, location, distance from border and major towns/logistics
Post-influx secondary data review
• Number and characteristics of displacement sites. [name, location, capacity, distance from border and major towns/logistics centers,
This information can come from
other sectors and/or organizations. It
must be done prior to primary data
collection.Information not available
in the secondary data analysis should
be acquired through primary data
collection
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Review – Actions required
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These are possible actions that may
be informed by the secondary data
analysis.
Community Observation
These questions are intended for
direct observation and are not based
on interviewing. The results from
observation can be cross-analyzed with
information from other sources for
verification purposes.
Primary Data Collection
Community Key Informants
Community representatives can be
consulted to ask questions about the
entire community. Key informant
interviews may help validate or explain
conclusions from observation. To
ensure adequate selection process for
key informant interviews please refer to
ACAPS Technical Brief “Key Informant
Direct Observation Pocket Version”
concerns].
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centers, access and protection concerns.]
Capacity of the existing/new sites for new influxes
Government focal points for management and administration of camps
Identification of NGOs or other partners with potential camp management capacity
Anticipated cultural living practices, particularly with regards to community power dynamics and communal living arrangements
access and protection concerns]. Distinguish between urban and rural sites.
Movement patterns in and out of displacement sites
Total estimated number of displaced people living in each displacement site
Number and percentage of refugee population that have been registered (household and/or individual level)
Identify host family / host community practices
Refugee assets, including livestock. Capacity to accommodate assets/livestock at sites.
Availability of additional sites for camps, settlements or collective centres
Document “who is doing what where” in camps, collective centres and other communal living arrangements
Basic indicator values (protection, WASH, health, food, nutrition, education)
Develop camp management and coordination strategies (management, reception centre requirements, closure, environmental)
Set up inter-sectoral camp management / coordination body (with relevant actors including government authorities)
Set up monitoring system for service and assistance delivery and coordination
Facilitate different sectors to ensure site management and planning includes community engagement structures, and mitigates
specific risks including SGBV, unaccompanied minors,
• Explore and analyze relationships and interactions between people living inside and outside of sites (both refugee and host
communities)
• Reflect protection considerations in camp management and design, including AGD perspective through participatory engagement
with different groups of persons of concern including women
• Mitigate top physical dangers to boys and girls in the camp/community (e.g. hazards likely to cause injury/death)
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Can refugees move freely within and outside of the site
Is the site fenced or otherwise secured?
How are services and accommodation arranged within the site?
Are there areas at particular risk for security or other hazards?
How are the populations arranged in the camp?
Is there an address system in the camp?
Are law enforcement agents present in the site?
Are there camp management staff regularly present?
Which service providers are regularly present in the site?
What are the locations of distribution points within the camp?
What are the locations of general infrastructure in the camp? What is the infrastructure being used for? What is its condition?
Do the refugees have specific assets (livestock, vehicles, etc.?)
Are there communal or individual facilities for the following: accommodation, kitchens, latrines, showers/ bathing areas?
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What are your community’s main challenges to greater self-reliance within the site?
Are there any obstacles to community participation in self-governance? If yes, what are they?
What are natural or manmade risks to the camp population?
Are there groups at particular risk within the site?
What restrictions do you face on movements in and out of this displacement site?
Is there a threat of forced eviction from this site?
Has a CRI distribution in your displacement site taken place in the last month?
Has a food distribution in your displacement site taken place in the last month?
Focus Group Discussions
• Do you perceive any service or infrastructure gaps within site? If so, what are they? Are some gaps more important than others? If so,
Focus group participants are divided
by age, gender and diversity criteria,
but additional group divisions may
based on the hierarchical division
of the group (e.g. economic strata,
displacement status, ethnicity, etc.).
Note: Individual cases and names
should not be mentioned in the course
of the discussion.
• Do members of the community have access to law enforcement mechanisms? If not, why?
• What community based organisations exist within this site e.g. community watch groups, community support groups, leadership
which ones and why?
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structures, etc?
Are vulnerable people in your location able to access services? If not, which groups, which services and why not?
Do you feel well informed about what is happening in the site?
Do you feel able to participate in camp management activities?
Do you know where to get information about what is happening in regard to services, assistance and protection?
Do you know with whom or where to raise concerns/complaints, including protection problems?
Questions listed here are examples only
and need to be contextualized prior
to use.
Household Key Informant
These questions are appropriate to ask
during household interviews. These
questions pertain to the situation of a
particular household.
Infrastructure / Facilities Visits Visiting these facilities for observations
or key informant interviews may assist
the assessment.
• What is your family’s experience in interacting with other site residents?
• Have you encountered any problems with camp management or law enforcement providers within the site?
Note: See protection questions
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Site management facilities/offices
Police posts
Camp perimeter walk
Distribution areas
Markets
Health services
Waste treatment and disposal
WASH facilities
Community Centers
Settlement Development, Shelter and CRIs - NARE Checklist
Settlement Development, Shelter and CRIs
Secondary Data
Critical Background (pre-influx)
information collection and analysis
This information provides information
on context and pre-existing coping
mechanisms and vulnerabilities.
Climate and cultural practice information that impacts settlement planning, shelter and CRI selection
Building practices of refugees in country of origin (e.g. building types, sizes, construction materials, physical architecture, etc.)
Review of previous market surveys (availability and prices of construction materials and household items before the emergency)
Housing, land and property ownership trends and laws in the country of asylum (e.g. renting, leasing, ownership, compulsory
acquisition)
• Which national government departments are responsible for shelter, settlement planning and public infrastructure facilities?
• What are the national building standards?
• Has the government allocated potential sites to host refugees? If yes, is geological information available for the sites?
Post-influx secondary data review
• Exisiting infrastructure and services surrounding the area where the refugees are located which will influence settlement
This information can come from
other sectors and/or organizations. It
must be done prior to primary data
collection.Information not available
in the secondary data analysis should
be acquired through primary data
collection
• Identify the traditional shelter types of both displaced population and host community (avoid disparity between refugee and host
Review – Actions required
• Multisectoral and participatory settlement planning (infrastructure required, agencies involved, Refugees involved including women
These are possible actions that may
be informed by the secondary data
analysis.
• Provision of safe Emergency Shelter and CRIs in coordination with protection to ensure appropriate and protective shelter for women
Community Observation
• What is the exisiting infrastructure surrounding the displacement location?
• Are there any environmental risks/hazards related to displacement location which should be addressed in settlement development?
These questions are intended for
direct observation and are not based
on interviewing. The results from
observation can be cross-analyzed with
information from other sources for
verification purposes.
Community Key Informants
Primary Data Collection
•
•
•
•
Community representatives can be
consulted to ask questions about the
entire community. Key informant
interviews may help validate or explain
conclusions from observation. To
ensure adequate selection process for
key informant interviews please refer to
ACAPS Technical Brief “Key Informant
Direct Observation Pocket Version”
Focus Group Discussions
Focus group participants are divided
by age, gender and diversity criteria,
but additional group divisions may
based on the hierarchical division
of the group (e.g. economic strata,
displacement status, ethnicity, etc.).
Note: Individual cases and names
should not be mentioned in the course
of the discussion.
development and planning
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community living conditions)
Availability of shelter materials (e.g. natural resources, nearby stockpiles, regional suppliers, etc.)
Identification of persons with specific needs requiring shelter (re)construction assistance or specific shelter (disability and access)
Options to ensure safety of shelter (e.g. types of materials, “fences” around family plots, availability of locks)
Availability of land and facilities for camps / settlements / collective centres
and other specific groups)
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and children and people with special needs.
Address land issues with government
Identify long term or transitional shelter solutions if required (likely)
Provision of shelter and CRI assistance to host families
Design reconstruction and repair methodogies for shelter in places of origin (if applicable)
Ensure minimum space of covered shelter area (3.5 m2 per person) is respected
Adapt shelter to protect refugees from extreme weather conditions (provision of shade nets or winterization kits)
Provide cooking space and access to basic services
Provide training to refugees to enable construction of shelter
(e.g. flooding, landslide, high winds, sandstorms etc.)
What is the average number of persons per shelter?
What is the average shelter size?
How does the shelter respond to excessive rainfall? How does the shelter collect rain water?
Observing from the shelter’s interior, what is the shelter’s quality of space? (Availability of light, quality of materials, temperature,
ventilation, etc.)
• Are there improvised (self-constructed) shelters at the site? If yes, what estimated proportion of shelter are improvised?
• What types and quantities of household belogings are refugees arriving with?
• If the site has received distributed relief items, how are they being used?
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Which local government departments are responsible for shelter, settlement planning and public infrastructure facilities?
What are the top priority problems or concerns with shelter at this settlement?
What local practices exist for shelter construction?
Have shelter materials been distributed by humanitarians at this site? If yes, what was distributed and when was the distribution?
Have CRIs been distributed by humanitarians at this site? If yes, what was distributed and when was the distribution?
Is the land where refugees are located used for any activity by the host community?
What are the shelter construction capacity and skills of the refugees and host community?
What are the local environmental concerns regarding the local sourcing of construction materials?
Which household and livelihood support activities typically take place in or adjacent to the refugee and host shelters? Does the
current settlement layout and shelter design support these activities?
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Are you satisfied with the emergency shelter provided? If not, why?
Are you satisfied with the layout of the settlement? If not, why and how do you suggest it be improved?
Are there any infrastructure gaps in the settlement? (e.g. lighting)
I would like to get your suggestions/ideas on this design (show the shelter design or prototype): What do you think about it? Would
you do it differently? What would you change to make it more suitable to your needs? What would you add? Why? (e.g. partition to
seperate sleeping and living area)
• Which waste collection and disposal systems are currently being applied? Do you have any concerns and how can we improve it?
• Do you feel safe in your shelter? Do you feel safe using the communal facilities?
• What types and quantities of household belogings are refugees arriving with?
Questions listed here are examples only
and need to be contextualized prior
to use.
Household Key Informant
These questions are appropriate to ask
during household interviews. These
questions pertain to the situation of a
particular household.
Infrastructure / Facilities Visits Visiting these facilities for observations
or key informant interviews may assist
the assessment.
•
•
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•
How many people live in this shelter?
How many families live together in this shelter? (note - need definition of family for this question)
Do you cook inside or outside?
Do you feel protected by your shelter (physical and emotional protection from the weather, from theft, threats of violence and SGBV)?
If not, why?
• Did you construct your shelter yourself? Did you recieve any assistance (material, labour force) in constructing your shelter? Have you
modified your shelter? If so, how? Have you built an additional shelter on your plot? If so, for what purpose do you use it?
• Which CRIs have you received? How do you use them? Have you sold any? If so, why?
• Do you pay rent? If yes, how much?
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Individual shelters
Distribution areas
WASH facilities
Communal areas
In urban context, any infrastructure which could be rehabilitated to accomodate refugees or provide services
In settlement context, settlement as a whole along with all related services (schools, health centres, markets) and a perimeter walk
around settlement
Food Security and Nutrition - NARE Checklist
Food Security and Nutrition
Secondary Data
Critical Background (pre-influx)
information collection and analysis
This information provides information
on context and pre-existing coping
mechanisms and vulnerabilities.
Post-influx secondary data review
This information can come from
other sectors and/or organizations. It
must be done prior to primary data
collection.Information not available
in the secondary data analysis should
be acquired through primary data
collection
Review – Actions required
Primary Data Collection
These are possible actions that may
be informed by the secondary data
analysis.
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Existing nutrition survey results (GAM, SAM)
Existing economic/social ties across borders
Are people used to using cash, credit cards or mobile money?
Cultural food habits, including what staple foods (main foods) the population eats
Livelihoods (e.g. trading, pastoralism, agriculture)
Availability of and safety of access to domestic energy resources including cooking fuel
Specific groups at risk of food insecurity and malnutrition incl single-parent households, female-headed households, childheaded households, elderly persons living alone, and UASC
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Results of any rapid health and nutritional screenings
Assessment of infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF)
Amount of food and utensils refugees are arriving with
Food and nutrition assistance already distributed and planned to be distributed
How much food and nutrition assistance is likely to be required (on arrival, in transit and in camp/settlement)
Availability and price of food and related items (e.g. fuel, stoves) in local markets
Availability of and safety of access to domestic energy resources including cooking fuel near displacement sites
Rights to employment in hosting country
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Nutritional screening
Treatment of Moderate Acute Malnutrition and Severe Acute Malnutrition
Consider implementing blanket feeding, if required
General food assistance (vouchers, cash, direct provision)
Monitoring of distributions and usage (Food basket monitoring, Post distribution monitoring)
Rapid Joint Assessment Missions (JAM) with WFP
School Feeding
Community Observation
• What assets are generally available for food, cooking and livelihoods in the community (cooking equipment, food, livestock,
These questions are intended for
direct observation and are not based
on interviewing. The results from
observation can be cross-analyzed with
information from other sources for
verification purposes.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Community Key Informants
• What changes in diet have occurred since the onset of the emergency? (e.g. number of meals, quantity and diversity of food
Community representatives can be
consulted to ask questions about the
entire community. Key informant
interviews may help validate or explain
conclusions from observation. To
ensure adequate selection process for
key informant interviews please refer to
ACAPS Technical Brief “Key Informant
Direct Observation Pocket Version”
• What changes in diet have occurred since the onset of the emergency for children under 5 years old? (e.g. number of meals,
Focus Group Discussions
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•
What coping mechanisms are you using to get enough to eat?
What are the main sources of income in this community?
What are the main sources of food in this community?
What do you spend your money on the most?
What foods are given to infants and young children under 2 years old?
Is bottle feeding practiced widely among infants under 1 year old?
What typically happens at food distribution events? Is any group not able to go to food distrbiution events?
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How long will your family’s current food stocks last?
How long will your family’s current fuel stocks last?
How many meals a day did you typically have before the emergency?
How many meals did you eat yesterday?
How has the variety of food you eat changed since the emergency?
Is the food distributed appropriate? (quality, type, etc.)
Have you sold any of your assets to buy food?
Have you sold any of your food rations? If yes, what did you buy with the money?
Do you feel safe at distribution events?
Do you share your food rations with other families that do not have a ration card?
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Markets
Cooking sites
Hot meal facilities
Food distribution and storage sites
Nutrition Centres
Milling facilties
Focus group participants are divided
by age, gender and diversity criteria,
but additional group divisions may
based on the hierarchical division
of the group (e.g. economic strata,
displacement status, ethnicity, etc.).
Note: Individual cases and names
should not be mentioned in the course
of the discussion.
personal valuables etc.)?
How do women appear to be feeding children under 2 years old?
What are the typical foods the population appears to be eating?
What foods are available on markets? What are the stock levels of each type of food?
Who is buying and who is selling food? (e.g. refugees or hosts? professional traders? small traders?)
Is cooking fuel available to refugees?
Are domestic energy needs being met through existing program or are refugees leaving camp/settlement in search of cooking
fuels?
• How do refugees appear to be using food aid? (e.g milling, selling)
• Do women and girls appear to collect food and CRI distributions? Do women and girls participate in the distribution and
monitoring?
consumed)
quantity and diversity of food consumed)
• How have food prices changed in local markets since the onset of the emergency?
• How have prices for commodities other than food changed in local markets since the onset of the emergency?
• What are the main sources of food for this community? (e.g. agriculture, livestock, trading, humanitarian aid, etc.) Are these
food sources sustainable?
• Does the community have access to agricultural land?
• If the community has livestock, where is it kept?
• What are the staple foods (main foods) the refugees are consuming now?
Questions listed here are examples only
and need to be contextualized prior
to use.
Household Key Informant
These questions are appropriate to ask
during household interviews. These
questions pertain to the situation of a
particular household.
Infrastructure / Facilities Visits Visiting these facilities for observations
or key informant interviews may assist
the assessment.
Public Health and Nutrition - NARE Checklist
Public Health and Nutrition
Secondary Data
Critical Background (pre-influx)
information collection and analysis
• Mapping existing health services
• National statistics from Ministry of Health (asylum and origin) for:
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•
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•
•
•
This information provides information
on context and pre-existing coping
mechanisms and vulnerabilities.
Post-influx secondary data review
This information can come from
other sectors and/or organizations. It
must be done prior to primary data
collection.Information not available
in the secondary data analysis should
be acquired through primary data
collection
Review – Actions required
These are possible actions that may
be informed by the secondary data
analysis.
Community Observation
These questions are intended for
direct observation and are not based
on interviewing. The results from
observation can be cross-analyzed with
information from other sources for
verification purposes.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Primary Data Collection
Community representatives can be
consulted to ask questions about the
entire community. Key informant
interviews may help validate or explain
conclusions from observation. To
ensure adequate selection process for
key informant interviews please refer to
ACAPS Technical Brief “Key Informant
Direct Observation Pocket Version”
Focus Group Discussions
Focus group participants are divided
by age, gender and diversity criteria,
but additional group divisions may
based on the hierarchical division
of the group (e.g. economic strata,
displacement status, ethnicity, etc.).
Note: Individual cases and names
should not be mentioned in the course
of the discussion.
Identify high risk groups (under 5, pregnant and lactating, women of reproductive age, older persons, disabled)
Results of any rapid health and nutritional screenings
Disease outbreak reports
Mapping of locations of primary health care and nutrition facilities and identification of referral hospitals
Availability of health documentation (e.g. vaccination cards, antenatal cards)
Assessment of infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF)
• Rapid Health Assessment (informed by secondary data collected above)
• Prioritised list of public health interventions (e.g. measles and polio vaccination, triage and treatment of medical and surgical
emergencies, early warning and surveillance for outbreak prone diseases, minimum initial service package (MISP, including
clinical care for rape) for reproductive health and HIV continued access to antiretroviral treatment.
• Nutritional screening
• Treatment of Moderate Acute Malnutrition and Severe Acute Malnutrition
• What types of people are present or waiting in line at health facilities? (e.g. proportion of elderly, children, pregnant women)
• Observation of health facilities including:
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• state,
• functionality,
• staff presence,
• equipment,
• supplies,
• patient confidentiality (registration/ records, during consultation etc.)
Are there environmental hazards that can increase the risk of communicable disease transmission? (e.g. standing pools of
water, localised flooding)
Are there many persons with injuries requiring immediate attention?
Is water available at the health facilities?
Are there functioning latrines (for staff and patients) and hand washing facilities?
Does a health information system, disease surveillance/ recording system exist?
Where are graveyards or burial sites? How many fresh graves are there?
Are there visible signs of malnutrition in children under 5?
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What are the key health priorities in your community?
Where do people here seek care when they are ill?
What sources of traditional health care exist here?
Do people in your community pay to access healthcare?
Have you heard reports of people dying from unusual causes?
•
Community Key Informants
Crude and Under 5 mortality rates
Birth rates
Measles vaccination coverage
Morbidity patterns
Legislation on refugee access to primary health care
Existing nutrition survey results (GAM, SAM)
Questions for Health Care provider key informants:
• Does an early warning system exist for epidemic prone diseases?
• Are services provided to survivors of SGBV? If not why not? If yes what forms of SGBV do you treat most often? Which
services are available? Is PEP kit provided? Do you refer survivors to psychosocial counseling?
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What are the key health priorities in your community?
Where do people here seek care when they are ill?
What reasons do women give for visiting health facilities?
What is the level of satisfaction of within the community with services provided (access, payment, type of services)?
Does alternative forms of health care exist (including traditional, herbal, etc.)?
Is bottle feeding practiced widely among infants under 1 year old?
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Where do you seek care when you or your child is sick?
Do you pay to access health services?
Have any members of your household died since the start of the emergency? If yes, what was the cause?
Do your children have health documentation (such as vaccination cards, “road to health” cards, birth certificates, etc.)?
Where do you store and prepare food?
If you have an infant under 1 year old, do you bottle feed?
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Health Centres
Hospitals
Burial sites
Medical waste management site
Nutrition Centres
WASH facilities
Questions listed here are examples only
and need to be contextualized prior
to use.
Household Key Informant
These questions are appropriate to ask
during household interviews. These
questions pertain to the situation of a
particular household.
Infrastructure / Facilities Visits Visiting these facilities for observations
or key informant interviews may assist
the assessment.
Education - NARE Checklist
Education
Critical Background (pre-influx)
information collection and analysis
Secondary Data
This information provides information
on context and pre-existing coping
mechanisms and vulnerabilities.
Post-influx secondary data review
This information can come from
other sectors and/or organizations. It
must be done prior to primary data
collection.Information not available
in the secondary data analysis should
be acquired through primary data
collection
Review – Actions required
These are possible actions that may
be informed by the secondary data
analysis.
Community Observation
These questions are intended for
direct observation and are not based
on interviewing. The results from
observation can be cross-analyzed with
information from other sources for
verification purposes.
Primary Data Collection
Community Key Informants
Community representatives can be
consulted to ask questions about the
entire community. Key informant
interviews may help validate or explain
conclusions from observation. To
ensure adequate selection process for
key informant interviews please refer to
ACAPS Technical Brief “Key Informant
Direct Observation Pocket Version”
Focus Group Discussions
Focus group participants are divided
by age, gender and diversity criteria,
but additional group divisions may
based on the hierarchical division
of the group (e.g. economic strata,
displacement status, ethnicity, etc.).
Note: Individual cases and names
should not be mentioned in the course
of the discussion.
• Which education development actors are active and which education programming areas are they working on?
• Is there a regional agreement in place that ensures that country of origin teaching qualifications are recognised by
the country of asylum?
• Is the Ministry of Education willing to accept refugees in local government schools?
• Where are existing schools and what is their capacity?
• Do education actors (e.g. Education Working Group) have an emergency contingency plan that can be engaged in a
refugee influx?
• Is there an in-country emergency stockpile of school supplies that can be used for a refugee influx? If yes, how many
students does it cover?
• Are there any groups of children who are excluded from school enrolment in the country of origin (e.g. girls, nomad
populations, minorities, etc.)?
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How many school aged children (disaggregated by sex) have arrived?
How many teachers are needed in order to allow for a teacher:student ratio of 1:40?
How many qualified teachers are among the refugee population?
Is the Ministry of Education willing to accept refugee new arrivals in local government schools? Do they have the
capacity to absorb refugee children into existing schools?
• What is the gap between the school supply needs of the newly arrived refugees and the prepositioned stock?
• Are school activities being disrupted by refugees occupying schools for emergency shelter
• Is there a need for language support / instruction to refugees?
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Rapid Joint Assessment Missions (JAM) with WFP
School Feeding MoU with WFP activated
Set up temporary learning spaces
Recruitment / training of teachers
Advocacy/community messaging on value of education
Establish viable partners across sectors
In consultation with protection and shelter, encourage relocation of families sheltered in schools if possible
• Are there many children visibly not in school during school hours (e.g. in the streets, in the markets, at home,
working, etc.)? If yes, what are they doing and what are the general characteristics of the children (e.g. girls, boys,
minorities)?
• Do school facilities appear safe? If no, why not?
• Does the school show signs of being open / operational?
• Are lessons being supervised by teachers at the time of the visit?
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What are the underlying causes and barriers to access for out of school children?
What is the capacity and willingness of host community to integrate refugees?
What is the capacity and willingness of national education structure to absorb refugees?
What kind of support can the refugee community provide? (e.g. repairing damaged schools/facilitites, assuring of
safety of children & teachers, finding teachers, etc.)
• What kind of support can the host community provide? (e.g. provide school facilities, assuring of safety of children &
teachers, etc.)
• Are there groups of children who don’t attend school? If yes, what are the characteristics of those groups? Why are
they not attending school?
• What could be done to improve access to school for these children?
• What support to education is most essential right now in this community?
• What kind of support can the refugee community provide? (e.g. repairing damaged schools/facilitites, assuring of
safety of children & teachers, finding teachers, etc.)
• What kind of support can the host community provide? (e.g. provide school facilities, assuring of safety of children &
teachers, etc.)
Questions listed here are examples only
and need to be contextualized prior
to use.
Household Key Informant
These questions are appropriate to ask
during household interviews. These
questions pertain to the situation of a
particular household.
Infrastructure / Facilities Visits Visiting these facilities for observations
or key informant interviews may assist
the assessment.
• Were your children enroled in school prior to displacement? If not, why not?
• Are all of your children enrolled in school? If not, why not?
• Schools (host community & camp) & WASH facilities etc
• Possible storage facilities / storerooms (for food; teaching & learning resources)
• Possible sites to operate as temporary learning spaces
NARE Cross-Cutting Needs Assessment Issues
Emergency Population
Profile / Registration
• Population figures
• Average family size
• Vulnerability identification (for case management)
• Demographic breakdown of populations (sex and age)
• Population profiling (statistical data for programme planning, including livelihood, religion, etc.)
• Population density in areas of origin and asylum
• Numbers / breakdown (by sex and age) if any at this stage / predominant family composition
• Metadata for population figures should include:
• Other information collected, such as ethnicities, key risks faced (specific needs, etc.)
• Source of the information (Government, UNHCR, other agencies, NGOs, etc.)
• Methods of data collection
• What form of documentation (e.g. ID cards) do refugees carry, if any?
Population Movement
Patterns
• Ongoing population movements and trends in movements, if any
• Rates of arrival
• Numbers / breakdown (by sex and age) if any at this stage / predominant family composition
• Other information collected, such as ethnicities, key risks faced (vulnerabilities, etc.)
• Places of origin
• Any return (or back and forth) movement to (and from) country of origin? (Why and where are they
returning? Family composition of refugees returning? Are they unaccompanied or separated?
• Settlement distance from borders, major towns and conflict zones
Emergency Security
• Security risk assessment is a specialized skill. A security officer (e.g., UNHCR Field Safety Adviser,
UNDSS Field Security Coordination Officer) should be included in the multifunctional assessment
team. In all events, the following factors impacting safety of staff and persons of concern should
always be considered.
• Threats: Such as, extremist violence, armed conflict, civil unrest and crime that may be indirect or
directly targeting both UNHCR and/or people of concern
• Capabilities: Those of local authorities to address any unrest, hospitals and other emergency
responders, accessibility for emergency transport (including evacuation) and to communications.
Also consider community perceptions towards UNHCR, its activities, staff and people of concern.
Emergency Logistics and
Supply
The key stages in the process of sourcing and supplying goods and assets for an emergency is as
follows:
• Assessing emergency needs against UNHCR emergency criteria
• Assessing and evaluating the scale and scope of needs for relief items and asset use for both the
short and longer term
• Identifying available and most appropriate sources for emergency relief items
• Evaluating most efficient and cost effective source or sources for initial and ongoing supplies
• Obtaining necessary approvals and authorisations to deploy or purchase items
• Purchasing, arranging transportation and delivery of goods and assets to the emergency area
Moreover, the following sourcing options should be evaluated in terms of the most effective and
efficient approach toward meeting the immediate needs:
• Local warehouse stocks.
• Goods from the Central Emergency Stockpiles (CES) or any available regional stockpiles.
• Borrowed stocks from government or other aid organisations (which should subsequently be
replaced).
• Local in kind donations or donations resulting from a DER special appeal and (if possible) airlifted as
close as possible to the emergency site.
• Rerouting less urgent international shipments being delivered to other projects or destinations.
• Local purchases.
• International purchases shipped by air.
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