LineoxTM Enterprise Linux 3.0

LineoxTM Enterprise Linux 3.0
Lineox
TM
Enterprise Linux 3.0
Installation Guide
Lineox, Inc.
2
Copyright c 2004, publisher Lineox, Inc. www.lineox.com
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Table of Contents
Introduction to Linux for New Users
............................................ 5
The features, uses and future trends of Linux.
GNU Parted Essentials
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
If unpartitioned disk space is not available for the Lineox Enterprise Linux installation, it can
easily be created with Parted.
Lineox Enterprise Linux Installation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Lineox Enterprise Linux 3.0 installation instructions.
OpenOffice Installation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
OpenOffice is a MS-Office file format compatible Open Source office suite.
Introduction to Linux for DOS users
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
A reference of commands that are similar between Linux and DOS.
X Window System
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
The X Window System or X for short is the most popular graphical user environment for Linux.
This chapter introduces its features and how it can be configured to user preferences.
Lineox LIFF – Documentation Server
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
How to install Lineox LIFF.
Index
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Please Register
Linux users are encouraged to register themselves at http://counter.li.org. Voluntary registration
is a plea to hardware and software vendors to provide support for Linux. Too many vendors still
regard Linux usage too small to warrant support. Registered user count is a weighty argument
when commercial companies consider providing Linux support for their products.
Introduction to Linux for New
Users
This chapter introduces the most important features of Linux.
Future and Expectations
Linux has won over new users throughout its existence, but 1998 saw a distinctive rise in its
popularity, when Netscape announced support for it. This was followed by many more announcements of support. In particular, database vendors have been among the early adaptors of
Linux. Oracle and DB2 by IBM are the most popular "heavy" databases and have been available
for Linux for several years.
Many Linux companies have been hurt by the deteriorating market situation, but it seems only
to have made Linux a part of the regular agenda for the larger companies. Linux provides an
easy way of saving money. Linux is also no longer such a novelty, and has become a part of the
big picture.
Measuring Linux usage is much harder than commercial software usage. Linux users are able
to register at http://counter.li.org. Anyone can download Linux from the Internet,
which makes registration purely voluntary.
6
Introduction to Linux for New Users
Linux usage trends according to the Linux counter. Starting november 2001 passive
users, who haven’t logged in to the counter in two years, began to be removed from
the user count. The lower graph represents active users.
Commercial market research companies have followed Linux usage for some years. In 1998,
IDC estimated that Linux penetration on the server market grew 212 percent, and in 1999, Linux
had a 25 percent share of server operating system shipments. Again, according to IDC, in Q3
2003 Linux server sales grew 49.8% compared to the previous year, while Windows server sales
grew only 10.3%
Recently the data gathered by market research companies has become more unreliable because
fast Internet connections have become so common. For example in Finland in year 2000 the
sales of traditional Linux boxed set distributions reached at least 10 000, but in year 2003 they
sold only few hundred if even that. However, in 2003 in Finland, the sales of Linux books
containing a Linux distribution, in most cases Spectra Linux 1.2, the predecessor of Lineox
Enterprise Linux, were between 2 000 and 3 000. One good reason for this is lower VAT for
books in most EU countries. In Finland VAT for books is 8% compared to 22% for software
products, in Sweden 6% and 25%, and in Luxembourg 3% and 15%. IDC claims that during
2000 the sales of Linux distributions reached 1.5 million and about half of them were Red Hat
(it’s market share year 1999 was 46.7%). Red Hat has announced that it has sold 20 000 copies
of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 within one year and one can assume that version 3.0 will sell
approximately as much. With “normal” Red Hat versions replaced by Fedora, the Enterprise
versions are the only boxed sets Red Hat continues to sell and the total boxed set annual sales
must have sunken below 100 000 copies. The obvious reason for this are faster, cheaper and
more common Internet connections. More and more users download Linux from the net for
“free”.
The number of Linux registrations has shown rapid growth, as can be seen in the figure above.
Users typically register only after using the operating system for some time. This delay in
Introduction to Linux for New Users
registration has been estimated to be about one year. The estimate is supported by the sharp rise
in registrations about a year after Netscape announced Linux support in the spring of 1998.
Shares of WWW servers on Internet. SunONE is the former Netscape WWW server
family.
One source for a Linux usage count can be found at
http://www.leb.net/hzo/ioscount/index.html. The latest survey from April
1999 found that Linux had the greatest share of European Internet servers with 28.5 percent.
Another source of information, which is not directly Linux related is
http://www.netcraft.com/survey/, which measures WWW server shares on the Internet. Apache, which usually runs on top of a Linux system, has had a share of around 60
percent. IIS, which only runs on Windows, has dragged along with a share of about 20 percent.
The success of Apache gives one explanation for the success of Linux.
Future Developments
Predicting the future is always difficult, but the numbers of Linux registrations suggests that
usage doubles in four years. If also inactive users are taken in the count, the doubling happens
in only 18 months. A more daring prediction estimates that the growth of usage will accelerate
as has previously been the case.
Recent growth has mainly been server related. A free and feature rich desktop environment has
been available for Linux for only five years. Programs intended for ordinary users are somewhat
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Introduction to Linux for New Users
scarce, but the freely available OpenOffice and KOffice Office Suite application packages should
cover the needs of most users. The Linux community is attaining the software needed for rapid
usage growth in the desktop environment.
Recent times have seen the success of Linux on embedded systems. The users of these systems
may not even be aware that their wrist watch, mobile phone, or MP3 player runs Linux. The
enthusiasm of manufacturers has been so sudden that it is still too early to tell how large a share
Linux will take of the embedded market, but it looks like a good contender.
Many industry branches have taken a keen interest in Linux. The biggest success story of Linux
have been Hollywood movie effect studios of which almost all have began to use Linux in
their massive rendering server farms. Telephone companies have formed a group to support
carrier grade Linux and big Japanese consumer electronics companies like Matsushita and Sony
are developing Linux to be the future standard embedded operating system of more and more
intelligent appliances and entertainment devices.
For the reader to better understand the reasons behind the success of Linux, we will take a look
at its architecture and features.
Architecture and Features
Linux is multi-user, multitasking and multiprocessing operating system, which complies with
POSIX and many other UNIX specifications. It operates on Intel 80386SX or better processors.
Many other processor architectures are also supported, most notably HP (formerly Compaq and
DEC) Alpha, PowerPC, SPARC and ARM. However, the new 64 bit processors from Intel and
AMD, Itanium and Opteron, have gathered a fast improving Linux support.
A multi-user operating system allows several users to use the same system at the same time. This
feature was previously utilized on UNIX systems with terminals. Terminals have mostly become
history, but WWW and other clients utilize the same infrastructure for securely accommodating
multiple users on one system. A multi-user infrastructure also offers a good base for remote use
and consolidation.
Multitasking means that one user can start multiple programs, which appear to run concurrently.
Multitasking is further divided to pre-emptive and co-operative multitasking. The former is
often referred to as "real" multitasking and is implemented in Linux, Windows NT/2000/XP and
different versions of UNIX. The second is based on the "good will" of programs to release their
control of the CPU to other programs. It is used, for example, in Windows 3.x and MacIntosh
System 7.x. Windows 9x uses something between the two. It contains 16-bit parts that are not
pre-emptive and 32-bit parts that pre-empt. Windows 95 had about half and half of 16-bit and
32-bit components and could be called a semi-pre-emptive system.
Linux has had the ability to utilize multiple processors since version 2.0. This is called multiprocessing and the most popular implementation of it is Symmetric MultiProcessing (SMP).
Introduction to Linux for New Users
Linux multitasks pre-emptively. Pre-emptive multitasking is a better and more stable solution
because the operating system has full control of the hardware all the time. Co-operative multitasking means that programs must voluntarily release control of the system after their time slice.
Badly behaving programs can break this "contract" and inhibit multitasking or even crash the
system.
Linux has been written from scratch, without licensed material from other Unix systems. However, most programs intended for other Unix systems can be used under Linux, some even
without recompiling with compatibility layers. Linux can be considered a UNIX clone. Architecturally, it is most similar to BSD versions of Unix, but it also has many features in common
with System V. One such feature is Inter Process Communication (IPC).
UNIX has been popular on workstations (on engineering and other "heavy duty" computers),
powerful computers and recently also on personal systems. UNIX is especially popular in universities and among hackers, because it has been considered the most technically advanced
operating system.
Even though UNIX has remained foreign to ordinary computer users, it has influenced other
operating systems to a great degree. In some ways, UNIX has been a reference system and
other systems have borrowed many features from it. The latest example of this is the UNIX
networking protocol suite TCP/IP, which has been adapted to virtually all other systems because
of its use on the Internet.
Compared to other Unix type systems, Linux is very competitive. One reason for this is that
several Unix suppliers have begun to support Linux. For example IBM has ported JFS file
system from its AIX variant of Unix and SGI has done the same for XFS file system. This has
resulted in Linux becoming a kind of super Unix containing the best features of several Unices
in addition to features developed specifically to Linux.
Version 2 of the Linux kernel introduced two important features for server use. The first was
SMP or support for multiple processors, which enables the parallel execution of programs. In
this version, SMP support was quite coarse, which meant that kernel tasks did not easily scale
to multiple processors.
Another important feature for server use was support for Redundant Array of Independent Disks
(RAID). It offers better performance, fault tolerance, and the ability to use very large partitions.
SMP and RAID have been further improved in version 2.2 of the kernel series and are considered
ready for production use. An interesting byproduct of SMP or APIC, which it requires, is support
for IRQ lines higher than 15. If APIC is available, PCI card IRQ lines start from IRQ16.
In 2.4-series of Linux kernel, the most important new features for server use were journalling
filesystems and logical volume management (LVM).
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Introduction to Linux for New Users
Philosophy and Development of Linux
Linux has been created by hobbyists. They are often called hackers and the original meaning
of this word is well suited to Linux developers. The later association of the word to criminal
activity is unfortunate and bears no resemblance to the original meaning.
The Linux kernel source is protected by the GNU General Public License (GPL). In short, this
means that the program is protected by copyright, but that protection is used only to ensure free
distribution of the program. All GPL programs are freely available as source code. Anyone is
permitted to make changes to the source, but the modified code may not be distributed without
source code.
Commercial distribution is encouraged and made viable by allowing charges for distribution
and media. For example, when purchasing a Linux CD-ROM, the user pays for the disk and the
distribution costs, while the contents are free and freely distributable and copyable.
GPL might look strange at first glance, but it has worked well. Hackers form a loose community,
which benefits from work done together. A commercial operating system cannot be fixed to fit
a particular need. However, Linux can be modified to accomplish a specific task with relatively
little effort, which could not be solved with a commercial operating system. Such situations
and needs have drawn the interest of some commercial companies and researchers to Linux
development. Changes and additions that solve a problem for one person may also be beneficial
to others and their inclusion in an "official" version ensures compatibility with future changes in
other parts of the code.
For students, Linux is often the only alternative because of its price. Studying, working with,
and developing high quality code is also one of the best ways to learn programming.
Linux development work is mainly accomplished on the Internet. No "official" or rigid organization exists to control development. Quality and version control is loose in a manner that would
never be acceptable in commercial operating system development. However, a free operating
system has plenty of eager testers and the Internet enables developers to get rapid feedback on
their work and they can also respond with fixed versions to be retested.
Strict areas of responsibility exist in commercial software development. Changes and new features require very good arguments or certified problem reports. A programmer responsible for
one area might not even have rights to see the source code for other areas. Commercial software
development is often very bureaucratic and rigid.
The open and almost anarchistic development style of Linux has made development incredibly
dynamic. The first "official" Linux release was version 0.02, which was made public in October
1991. Version 1.0 was published two and half years later and was considered to be complete
and fit for production use. Bearing in mind that Linux was completely new code, it is obvious
that the speed of development is faster than what commercial companies can achieve. For example, Windows 95 is only a modified version of Windows 3.11, but its development time was
approximately the same.
Introduction to Linux for New Users
One important contributor to Linux development is the GNU project. GNU is much older than
Linux and can therefore provide a wide selection of programs for Linux.
Main Features of Linux
Memory Management
The Linux operating system requires a 386SX or better processor. A 386SX processor is capable
of addressing only 16 MB of memory, while 386DX and more recent processor types of the x86
family can address 4 GB of memory. Linux can use 2 GB of memory and with proper hardware
support even 64 GB (a new feature in the 2.4 kernel series).
When physical memory runs out, virtual memory is utilized. Virtual memory uses the hard disk
and is therefore much slower, but this is transparent to programs. Linux can use virtual memory
in areas of up to 2 GB in size. In kernel series 2.0, virtual memory areas had a 128 MB size
limitation and the total area count was limited to eight for a total of 1 GB. The limitation could
be raised to 16, totaling 2 GB, by editing the source code.
A virtual memory area must be created separately and Linux is unable to adjust its size. However, the root user can add or remove virtual memory areas at any time. If virtual memory areas
reside on separate disks, they can be used almost concurrently, which speeds up the system. The
priority of virtual memory areas can be adjusted, enabling the use of older and slower disks with
a low priority setting as a last resort.
Linux uses RAM dynamically to cache disk data. If plenty of free memory is available, it can be
used as a cache. If programs require more memory, the cache size can be decreased. A dynamic
cache makes memory use more efficient.
Cache memory can also be marked as normal memory and vice versa, so there is no need for
copying memory. This also saves memory, because data is not duplicated in memory.
The shared libraries used by many programs are an additional memory saving feature. The
program code in libraries is loaded only once into memory even if several programs use it. This
also applies to disk usage. A somewhat similar technique is used when a program has multiple
instances. All instances use one copy of program code. The code does not change while the
program runs, so sharing the same code between instances does not cause problems. However,
each program instance must have a private area for storing data that changes.
Linux accesses memory in 4 kB slices, which are called pages. This enables loading code on
demand and eases virtual memory implementation. On demand code loading results in smaller
memory usage because only the code blocks that are used, must be read into memory. If memory
usage is high, infrequently used areas are moved to virtual memory on disk and more frequently
used areas remain in memory. Swapping entire programs or program modules to disk would be
considerably more inefficient.
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Introduction to Linux for New Users
Filesystems
There are many advanced filesystems available for Linux. The most popular is ext2 with a 4096
GB partition size limit, up to 255 character filenames and the features required by UNIX, such as
access rights and links. Disk usage is allocated in 4 kB blocks making waste caused by partially
used last allocation unit of each file very small. Lineox Enterprise Linux includes support for
ext3, which is ext2 enhanced with journaling capabilities, and it is the default filesystem used in
Lineox Enterprise Linux 3.0.
Another important filesystem is ISO9660 for CD-ROM use, which can be enhanced with Rock
Ridge Extensions. Rock Ridge Extensions add customary UNIX features to ISO9660 enabling
for example running Linux directly from a CD-ROM. Joliet extensions, which add long filename
support on CD-ROMs to Windows, is also supported.
Users of Windows should be pleased with FAT support. Disk compression is not directly supported, but compressed volumes can be accessed with a separate program. They can also be
used in a DOS emulator called dosemu. Linux can read and write to HPFS, which is used in
OS/2 and early versions of Windows NT. Read only support is provided for NTFS, but it is not
included in the standard or Lineox Enterprise Linux kernel.
Journaling filesystems have been developed for large hard drives and partitions. They have
enhanced fault tolerance features considerably and decrease the filesystem checking time to
mere seconds during boot up after being closed uncleanly due to a crash.
On local networks, Linux can use NFS to access filesystems on other computers.
With Samba, mars-nwe and netatalk, Linux can serve networks with NETBIOS, IPX, and Appletalk protocols. Usually they are referred as Windows, Netware and Apple networks. Linux
can also be a client on these networks.
Linux does not use drive letters. DOS, OS/2, and Windows can use 24 drive letters and they
cause all kinds of confusion and sometimes 24 is simply not enough. Linux allows mounting
filesystems to the root filesystem at any time and to any directory. There is no need to remember
drive letters and in practice only the hardware limits the number of disks and partitions (Linux
does set some limits, like currently only 20 IDE drives and only 14 usable partitions on each
SCSI disk).
Virtual Consoles and Remote Access
A multi-user operating system would be wasted in personal use without virtual consoles. Users
may log on to virtual consoles using different user names, and switch between the virtual consoles by simply pressing two keys (Alt-F<console number>).
This feature was designed to make utilizing multitasking easier. Users can work using multiple
virtual consoles and programs run concurrently.
Introduction to Linux for New Users
Remote access is possible through a network, serial cable or modem. A terminal may be, for
example, any old PC. The X Window System has been designed for remote access, but the
requirements on the terminal are higher than with text mode. Adding to the cost are the relatively
high prices of X server programs for other operating systems. Linux is a good choice for a PC
acting as an X terminal, because it is cheap and stable.
Remote access is a very modest term to describe the possibilities Linux offers. A user is able
to access an unused computer on the network, start a program on that computer and watch the
results on his own display. In fact, program execution can be distributed among multiple computers creating a computing cluster. Unfortunately, distribution of individual programs usually
involves rewriting them to use libraries which support load distribution and using algorithms,
which can be broken into multiple distributable parts.
One interesting solution to utilize the unused resources of networked computers is openMosix.
It requires only that all computers sharing resources have the same version of Linux kernel with
openMosix extension. OpenMosix cluster can relocate processes needing processing power or
RAM to a computer which has most free resources. Relocating a process is however relatively
slow and heavy task, so openMosix is best suited for speeding up multiple simultaneously running long CPU intensive jobs.
OpenMosix kernels can be found on Lineox Enterprise Linux installation DVD in the kernels/openMosix directory.
X Window System – Graphical User Interface
Linux is command line based, but a graphical user interface can be launched in the same way
Windows runs on top of DOS. The most popular graphical user interface for UNIX is called the
X Window System. The Linux implementation of the X Window System is called XFree86.
X Window only offers basic features, which makes a window manager a necessity. There are
several different window managers to choose from. However, desktop environments like KDE
and GNOME have gained considerable popularity recently, as they offer added functionality.
Hardware Support
Linux requires a 386SX or better processor. A floating point unit is not required, but if one is
available, it will speed up floating point operations.
All extension buses are supported, except for most recent ones like USB 2.0 and firewire which
are more properly supported in the new 2.6.x kernel series.
Most of the popular extension cards are supported and rarer ones might be partially supported.
For example, display cards almost certainly work at a VGA level. There have been cases where a
card manufacturer does not allow the distribution of source code considered "secret" along with
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Introduction to Linux for New Users
Linux sources. An early example of this were Diamond display cards, but that has changed and
many vendors consider they would loose more because of secrecy due to the great popularity of
Linux.
Linux requires a minimum of 2 MB of RAM to function. To avoid constant swapping, 4 MB
is recommended even for the most basic text mode use and the installation programs of recent
Linux distributions require 64 MB or more. For a graphical user interface, 64 MB is a practical
minimum. The efficient use of RAM in Linux makes the amount of memory important. Doubling the amount of memory often has a greater effect than doubling the speed of the CPU. With
current RAM prices, one could say that 256 MB is the recommended minimum for a comfortable
Linux use.
A minimal Linux installation can fit on a diskette with compression techniques. However, normal distributions require more space. A minimal installation of Lineox Enterprise Linux requires
255 MB of disk space. If the X Window System is added, a gigabyte will be required. Naming
one figure as a disk space requirement is very hard because different people need and use a different range of programs. A full installation of Lineox Enterprise Linux takes up to 4.5 GB of
disk space to which the user will probably want to add some additional programs.
Linux Version Numbering
The first versions of Linux were numbered sequentially, but beginning with version 1.0 there
have been separate production and development branches. Production versions use an even second digit, while development versions use an odd second digit. The current production version
is 2.4.x and the development version is 2.5.x (2.6.0 was released in december 2003, but it can’t
be yet considered well tested and there is not yet a new development branch).
Development versions contain features that are meant to be tested. Using them is recommended
only for people who are familiar with Linux and take part in Linux development and testing.
Production versions are extremely stable. Hardware support is already very good, and a need
to use a development version, because of lack of support in the production version, is very rare.
Production versions often have uptime figures of up to hundreds of days.
The Linux system in this package uses a production version of the kernel. You might see a newer
kernel mentioned, but there is rarely a real need to upgrade to it. This is especially true about
development kernels. Even upgrading to a newer production release is very rarely justifiable.
Upgrading often involves more than a simple kernel upgrade and the benefits are relatively small.
A sensible upgrade frequency might be to upgrade to every other release of the distribution.
The age of hardware can also be a good reason not to upgrade. For example one double Pentium
computer assembled in 1997 works well with Linux kernel 2.4.1, but has problems with APIC
and high IRQ support of newer kernels.
Introduction to Linux for New Users
Linux Development Trends
Linux has been developed very rapidly and no slow down is in sight. To get a glimpse of the
future, we present a tight resume of new and nearly completed features found in the most recent
2.4 series kernels.
New Features for Servers
Linux is already the most popular operating system for web servers. A simple WWW server is
included in the new kernel, which can serve static web pages much faster than a normal web
server.
LVM (Logical Volume Management) aims to remove the limits of partitions. Fortunately, Linux
has never used drive letters, but LVM will also remove partition boundaries. If a partition becomes full, it can be enlarged either by shrinking the others or by adding a new hard disk to a
logical volume group. All this can be done without cumbersome backups or tricky and error
prone file copying to another partition. In summary, LVM has made partitions stretchable.
Journalling filesystems offer both better data security and faster crash recovery (Linux offers no
protection against breaks in the electric supply and it does crash especially on flaky hardware).
The downside of journalling is filesystem slow-down in normal use, but at least ReiserFS has
a faster structure than the conventional ext2. Because of the stability of Linux, ext2 has been
very reliable, but when the checking time of large filesystems after a dirty close grows to hours,
a journalling filesystem is a sensible compromise because the system can be back on line in
a matter of minutes. Tight competition is expected between journalling filesystems, as four
already exist: ext3, ReiserFS, JFS, and XFS.
Clustering and fail-over techniques are intended for really large systems. Beowulf clusters and
other similar systems have raised Linux into the top 500 list of the worlds fastest computers
(www.top500.org), and giants like HP and IBM are among others developing clustering
technology for Linux. Currently the fastest Linux cluster is on the fouth place in the top 500
list (Tungsten cluster, NCSA). The price of Beowulf clusters is estimated to be one tenth of
traditional super computers, so Linux clusters should be quite popular especially with backing
from giants like IBM and HP.
Linux kernel series 2.6.x
Linux kernel version 2.6.0 was released december 2003. It can be found on Lineox Enterprise
Linux installation disk from the subdirectory kernels/2.6.0. The module handling has
changed considerably from previous versions and therefore also all the support program packages found in the same subdirectory must be installed or updated.
2.6.x series has lots of small changes and improvements, but the biggest ones can be summarized
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Introduction to Linux for New Users
as:
Scalability in general has been improved. This means enhancements from more fine
grained locks to enable more processors to work simultaneously, to NUMA (non-uniform
memory access) architechture support, to larger memory (64 GB on IA32 architechture
and much, much more on 64-bit processors), and to 16-terabyte filesystem support. 2.6.x
is said to support 16-way processor systems, but is has been also tested with 32-way
systems.
Security has been improved especially by addition of IPsec into kernel. Individual
applications no longer need to encrypt data sent across network, it is done automatically
on the protocol level.
Sound system is now ALSA instead of old and limited OSS. ALSA can also be added
to 2.4.x series kernels, but it is a rather complicated procedure.
File systems have seen a lot of improvements during the 2.4.x series development and
at last also XFS was admitted to official 2.4 kernel almost simultaneously as 2.6.0 was
released. Ext3 and JFS have now ACL and EA support. XFS has had ACL support from
the beginning and ReiserFS is the only journalling file system without it. New ReiserFS 4
is being developed and it will feature some kind of ACL support. NTFS module has been
rewritten and now it is so reliable that enabling writing by default is under consideration.
NFSv4 support enables using more reliable TCP protocol in addition to the traditional
and faster UDP. Also NFS as root file system is now supported.
Currently the differences between 2.4 and 2.6 series kernels are very small featurewise. All
device drivers are usually available to older series if they don’t require big architectural changes
and most vendors providing custom kernels backport drivers anyway. The big differences are
mostly architechture related and those can affect performance especially on bigger systems considerably. In the long run, the differences will grow as 2.4 series is now in maintenance mode
and new features are not admitted to the official kernel. There are also several improvements
on the algorihm and architecture level, which are hard to explain without going quite deep into
programming techniques. The new kernel is simply put much smarter, faster, responsive, and
can handle different loads more easily.
GNU Parted Essentials
Parted is able to resize FAT16, FAT32, and ext2/3 partitions nondestructively. It
can also be used to move and copy partitions. Boot your PC to rescue mode with
the Lineox Enterprise Linux installation disk to run Parted.
Using the Installation Disk as System Administration and Rescue
Disk
Parted is also available as a bootable floppy image from its home page, but the Lineox Enterprise
Linux installation disk has a Lineox Enterprise Linux kernel with additional features, such as:
Linux kernel version 2.4.21
Modules for multiple SCSI adapters.
Modules for multiple filesystems.
Modules for multiple UDMA/66/100/133 adapters and chipsets.
many other system maintenance and recovery tools.
When you boot your PC with Lineox Enterprise Linux DVD or installation boot floppy, the first
phase is starting a boot loader. It displays some instructions and you can get more information
about rescue mode with F5 key. In most cases, just enter “linux rescue” at the boot: prompt,
press Enter and wait while the rest of the system boots.
18
GNU Parted Essentials
Features of Parted
Filesystem Support
Filesystem
Detects
ext2/3
*
fat
*
linux-swap
*
HFS
*
NTFS
*
ReiserFS
*
Creates
*
*
*
Resizes
*1
*4
*
Copies
*2
*4
*
Checks
*3
*
*
Notes:
1. The beginning of an ext2/3 partition cannot be moved.
2. The target partition must be as large or larger for copying.
3. Check refers to only reporting the success of resize and copy operations.
4. The size of the new partition, after resizing or copying, is restricted by the cluster size for
fat (mainly affects FAT16). Its effect can be considerable, as the cluster size cannot be
chosen (a bug in Windows). In practice, a partition can be decreased (because Parted can
shrink the cluster size), but not increased in size. If FAT32 can be used, the partition can
be resized freely. To summarize, a partition can always be decreased in size. If FAT32
cannot be used, partitions may not be enlargeable.
Moving the beginning of ext2/3 partitions is possible, if the partition can first be copied to
another location, but this requires three separate operations. The partition must first be resized,
then copied, and the original must be removed. Parted does not directly support copying ext2/3
filesystems, but this can be done using other tools found in the rescue mode system.
Using Parted
Full user documentation is located after Lineox Enterprise Linux installation in the
/usr/share/doc/parted- version /USER file. If something more advanced than
simple space freeing for Lineox Enterprise Linux is contemplated, the full documentation should
be consulted. This chapter only discusses a relatively simple case of shrinking a FAT or ext2/3
partition.
GNU Parted Essentials
19
Starting Parted
Parted runs as an interactive and command line option based tool. It can be used to automate
operations, for example, when there are multiple similar PCs using the same hard disks. We will
only discuss interactive operation.
Parted is started with a device file as a parameter. The device file must be a hard disk, such as
/dev/hda (the first IDE drive (primary master)) or /dev/hdb (the second IDE drive (primary
slave)). For SCSI disks, the device files are /dev/sda, /dev/sdb, /dev/sdc etc.
If you are uncertain about device file names, you can scroll kernel boot up messages with Shift Page Up and Shift - Page Down . You should see lines similar to the following:
hda:
hdc:
...
hda:
hdc:
IBM-DJNA-352030, ATA DISK drive
QUANTUM FIREBALL ST6.4A, ATA DISK drive
39876480 sectors (20417 MB) w/1966KiB Cache, CHS=39560/16/63
12594960 sectors (6449 MB) w/81KiB Cache, CHS=13328/15/63
We will use the 20GB IBM drive /dev/hda from the listing above as an example.
Essential Parted Commands
print Prints the partition table.
Example:
(parted) print
Disk geometry for /dev/hda: 0.000-19470.937 megabytes
Disk label type: msdos
Minor
Start
End
Type
Filesystem Flags
1
0.031
20.179 primary
ext2
boot
2
20.180 19470.937 extended
5
20.210 19470.937 logical
ext2
Parted uses MB as a unit, but also shows decimal fractions.
resize Resize the partition size.
Syntax: resize MINOR START END, where MINOR is the partition number (same as Minor column in print output), START is the location of the partition start from the beginning
of the disk (same as Start in print output), and END is the desired end location of the new
partition.
20
GNU Parted Essentials
Notes:
resize never changes the partition number.
Extended partitions can be resized, but the logical partitions they contain must be able
to fit the size of the extended partition. In our example, the logical partition should be
decreased in size before the extended partition can be made smaller.
Note that defragmenting before resizing is not necessary, as it would be a waste of time.
Supported filesystems:
ext2/3 limitation: the new start must be the same as in the old partition. Copy this field
from the print command output.
FAT16 and FAT32
linux-swap
Example:
(parted) resize 5 20.210 10000
This would shrink the nearly 20GB partition in our example disk in half. This is more than
Lineox Enterprise Linux requires, and is all that needs to be done in this case. The extended
partition contains free space for new partitions, but they can be left for the Lineox Enterprise
Linux installation program to create. New partitions must be logical in this case, but this should
not cause any inconvenience.
When Enter is pressed and Parted begins its work, the hard disk works hard for approximately
an hour (this depends greatly on the speed and size of the hard disk). The author takes no
responsibility of possible damages, and the programmer of Parted states that if something gets
broken, the user can keep all the pieces. Thus, backups are highly recommended.
Resizing partitions is quite safe. Partitions are never removed and Parted complains if the task
has a high risk of failure. The author has resized partitions without backups with no problems.
Some Parted commands are dangerous, which is why the full user documentation should be
read.
quit Quits the program.
GNU Parted Essentials
21
Boot Loaders
The boot loader loads the operating system kernel into main memory. This is usually a simple
operation, and the smallest boot loaders are only 448 bytes long. Resizing a partition moves a
lot of files. The majority of boot loaders do not understand filesystems, they simply remember
the physical location of a kernel file. If Parted has moved the kernel, the boot loader must be
reinstalled.
LILO
LILO must be reinstalled if the Linux kernel is moved. LILO can be reinstalled after running
Parted with the following commands (assumes /dev/hda1 is the root partition):
# mount /dev/hda1 /mnt
# chroot /mnt /sbin/lilo -v
# umount /dev/hda1
Windows Boot Loaders
All Windows boot loaders must be reinstalled if the partition type is changed (FAT16 –
FAT32). Parted warns about this before resizing. If no warnings are issued, nothing needs to be
done.
If the Windows boot loader must be installed, the PC must first be booted with the corresponding
Windows boot floppy or CD-ROM. Parted user documentation contains more information on the
matter.
22
GNU Parted Essentials
Lineox Linux Installation
Lineox Enterprise Linux is very easy to install. This chapter walks you trough
the different installation options and discusses the numerous advanced features of
Lineox Enterprise Linux.
Thanks for your interest in Lineox Enterprise Linux! From a feature and price viewpoint, we
believe this is the best available Linux package. We hope that you will like our offering as much
as we enjoyed making it.
What is Lineox Enterprise Linux?
Lineox Enterprise Linux is a distribution based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Our purpose is to
maintain compatibility while adding enhancements.
Main Goals of Lineox Enterprise Linux
Lineox Enterprise Linux is based on some clear objectives:
Full Red Hat compatibity.
Enhanced Finnish language support.
Integrates all Red Hat bug fixes and updates.
Includes all essential documentation on the CD-ROM (CD-ROM image file on DVD).
Printed documentation concentrates on installation.
Adds all available installation and use related enhancements.
24
Lineox Enterprise Linux installation
Low price.
Using Red Hat Linux as a base means that Lineox Enterprise Linux has been tested, and to a
large degree, assembled by Red Hat Software. We can therefore focus our resources on enhancing Red Hat and creating the best Linux package.
Red Hat has the widest available program selection. Being compatible with Red Hat means that
these programs will also work with Lineox Enterprise Linux.
Finnish language support is important because Lineox Enterprise Linux will be included in
at least two Finnish books and they are expected to cover for approximately 90% of Linux
distributions sold in Finland in 2004.
Lineox Enterprise Linux Enhancements Not Found in Red Hat Enterprise Linux
The most noticeable enhancement is usage of DVD-ROM format instead of CD-ROM. This
enabled adding all desired programs without a fear of running out of space or a rise in production
costs. It also makes installation faster and easier without the need for multiple disk changes
during the installation.
Maybe the most important enhancement is the documentation included in LIFF and the speed
and ease the relevant documentation can be found from it. LIFF contains all the documentation
of all the programs found in Lineox Enterprise Linux, all Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3.0 books,
the entire Linux Documentation Project guide collection and HOWTOs and more. LIFF will be
introduced more thorougly starting from page 105.
The next important enhancement has to do with Red Hat policy changes. Earlier Red Hat provided bug and security fixes for normal and download versions of Red Hat years after they were
released. This is no longer true and now Red Hat supports only very expensive Enterprise series
products five years after releasing them. The “normal” Red Hat versions have been replaced by
Fedora Project and products with only “community” support. The support time runs out soon
for Red Hat 9 which is the last and only currently supported “normal” Red Hat Linux version.
Because Red Hat has promised to support Enterprise versions five years after release, it was
natural choice to choose them as a base for Lineox Enterprise Linux. Red Hat has to release
source code for all updates of GPL licenced programs and Lineox can easily compile them and
release binary versions. In fact not all Red Hat Enterprise Linux packages are released under
GPL or other OSS compatible licences, but all the program packages are.
An other policy related change is that Red Hat doesn’t release binary packages and CD-ROM
image files of Enterprise series in the Internet like it has released “normal” Red Hat versions.
However Red Hat has to release source packages and Lineox has the know-how needed to produce binary packages and build an installation disk which corresponds to the Red Hat product.
One important argument supporting high price of Red Hat Enterprise Linux products is bundled
support options. They include for example installation and configuration support and access
Lineox Enterprise Linux installation
to Red Hat Network. However, many users find this support superfluous and they will hardly
be available for example in Finnish in the near future. These customers would be better server
with a possibility to use some local support company and a cheaper product with no attached
support. Lineox offers this in a cheap product which has no formal support, but which through
high compatibility can be easily supported.
One could argue that Lineox Enterprise Linux has the advantage of combining all the features
the various Red Hat Enterprise Linux versions (AS, ES, and WS) have. The fact however is
that they all contain the same set of programs and the only difference is in the pre-selection of
packages. Lineox Enterprise Linux has no similar default pre-selection and user has to select
installation type (Workstation, Server, etc.).
Lineox Enterprise Linux has all the programs found in Red Hat Cluster Suite and Developer
Suite. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 AS included the earlier versions of the Cluster Suite programs, but now they are sold separately. Therefore you can’t compare Lineox Enterprise Linux
only to Red Hat Linux Enterprise Linux, you have to include also separately sold products by
Red Hat.
As the last remarkable enhancement apt-get must be named. Lineox Enterprise Linux installation DVD-ROM has databases for apt-get, so package dependencies are resolved automatically.
Quick Guide
Those who have previously installed Red Hat Linux or some Red Hat based Linux distribution
and wish to begin installation, can boot with the DVD-ROM and simply follow the instructions
presented on screen.
Upgrading from an Older Version of Red Hat
Lineox Enterprise Linux 3.0 can be used to upgrade Red Hat Linux. The upgrade installs a modular 2.4.x Linux kernel and new versions of previously installed packages (additional packages
can also be selected). The upgrade will save existing configuration files with an rpmsave extension. For example, sendmail.cf will become sendmail.cf.rpmsave. The upgrade
will also write a log file called /tmp/upgrade.log, which logs the actions of the installation program. As programs evolve, their configuration file formats change, and the original
files should be compared to the new ones and their documentation read before user settings are
transferred to the new configuration files.
25
26
Lineox Enterprise Linux installation
New Features in Lineox Enterprise Linux 3.0
This section introduces the new features of Lineox Enterprise Linux 3.0.
The most important new features in Lineox Enterprise Linux can be listed briefly as follows:
Lineox LIFF – documentation collection and server.
Lots of new programs – a DVD which equals six full packed CD-ROM’s.
Thanks to apt-get and its graphical front-end, synaptic, package dependencies are
resolved autamatically.
Red Hat Cluster Suite based load balancing and high availability features.
Linux kernel 2.4.21 and separately installable 2.6.0 and 2.4.22-openMosix kernels.
KDE 3.1.3
XFree86 4.3.0.
Gnome 2.2.2
Let us look at some of these in more detail.
XFree86 4.3.0
XFree86 forms the basis of the graphical user interface in Lineox Enterprise Linux. It can be
compared to a collection of display drivers, but it does much more.
The most important addition in this release is support for more display cards, but the new architecture in the 4.x series is more important in the long run as it makes adding support for new
cards easier than before.
Version 4.0.2 had support for the following new cards and display chip sets: ATI Radeon, Number Nine, S3 Savage, Silicon Motion, and Ark Logic. Version 4.1.0 added support for Matrox
G450, Trident CyberBladeXP and CyberBladeXPm, and NVidia GeForce 3. Version 4.2.0 added
support for Trident *BladeXP, Trident TGUI, 3DLabs Permedia4, GLINT R4 and Gamma 2
chipsets, Intel i830, ATI Radeon 7500 (2D and 3D), Radeon 8500 (2D only), and Rage128ProII,
Matrox G550, NVIDIA nForce, and enhancements in several older drivers. Version 4.3.0 added
support for ATI Radeon 9x00, Intel 845G, 852GM, 855GM, and 865G, National Semiconductor
SC1x00, GX1, and GX2, NVIDIA nForce2, GeForce 4, and GeForce FX, and enhancements in
several older drivers.
Lineox Enterprise Linux installation
What? No source code!
If they are required, they can be retrieved from the Internet or ordered from the publisher.
The decision to exclude source codes gave more room for programs. We believe most users
will appreciate this decision. If the source codes are needed, the most recent versions can be
downloaded from the Internet. Even users who have a habit of compiling their programs, usually
only compile the most important ones. Furhermore, they usually need some special version or
want some patches and would get them from Internet anyway.
Compatibility of Lineox Enterprise Linux 3.0 with Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 3.0
This section deals with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3.0 compatibility.
Removed Packages
rhn-applet was removed because subscription to Red Hat Network is not included in Lineox
Enterprise Linux 3.0. Lineox may however provide similar service at a later date. Lineox
Enterprise Linux users may also use apt-get to upgrade program packages.
Added Packages
apt-get and synaptic apt-get is an advanced package management system, which resolves pacakage dependencies automatically and synaptic is its graphical front-end.
Changed Packages
Lineox Enterprise Linux includes changed packages and packages that have only additional
translations.
The following packages have Finnish translations added:
redhat-config-bind
redhat-config-httpd
redhat-config-network
redhat-config-proc
redhat-config-nfs
redhat-config-rootpassword
redhat-config-samba
27
28
Preparing for the Installation
redhat-config-securitylevel
redhat-config-soundcard
redhat-config-users
redhat-config-xfree86
redhat-config-cluster
authconfig
initscripts
synaptic
The following packages differ from original Red Hat packages:
anaconda, anaconda-images, anaconda-help – The Lineox Enterprise Linux installation program contains many small changes. The images have been changed, finnish translation
has been added and default path of packages has been changed.
xinitrc – KDE is the default instead of GNOME.
httpd, indexhtml, and redhat-logos – Graphics and web page files have been replaced.
Upgrade and Bug Fix Packages Issued by Red Hat Software
Lineox Enterprise Linux has numerous packages replaced by upgrade and bug fix packages
issued by Red Hat Software. Some are security related and others fix other bugs found in the
original packages.
Date
Name
Synopsis
2003-12-04 RHSA-2003:399 New rsync packages fix remote security vulnerability
2003-12-02 RHBA-2003:308 Updated kernel resolves 32-bit address space issue on AMD64
2003-11-13 RHSA-2003:334 Updated glibc packages provide security and bug fixes
2003-11-12 RHSA-2003:315 Updated quagga packages fix local security vulnerability
2003-11-12 RHSA-2003:317 Updated iproute packages fix local security vulnerability
2003-11-12 RHSA-2003:324 Updated Ethereal packages fix security issues
Preparing for the Installation
Lineox Enterprise Linux can be installed using either a GUI (graphical user interface) based
installer or a text-mode installer. In this guide, we will cover the GUI based installation, which
Preparing for the Installation
is the default choice and suitable for Linux newcomers and experienced users alike. With this
installation method, you can use the mouse to make most of the choices (using a keyboard is,
naturally, also allowed), and you will see context-sensitive instructions on screen, easing your
decisions during the installation.
In some cases, the installation must be carried out using the text-mode installer. This is necessary
if,
the computer’s RAM size is limited (about 200 MB is needed by the graphical installer;
the exact requirement depends on the installation options)
the GUI based installer is not capable of providing a suitable video mode for your display
equipment
there is no mouse attached the your computer.
This manual does not cover the details of the text-mode installation process. However, you
probably will manage through a text-mode installation by following this guide since it consists
of the same steps.
Planning How to Allocate or Arrange Disk Space
If there is no data you wish to preserve on your hard drive(s) and you are not interested in
becoming familiar with all the technical details, you can safely use automatic partitioning — in
this case, skip ahead to section titled ”Deciding What Installation Method to Use”. Otherwise,
please keep on reading. (This does not imply you cannot use the automatic partitioning function.
However, it is important that you understand the choices so that you will not accidentally remove
useful data.)
Lineox Enterprise Linux will need at least one disk partition, i.e. a specific region of the hard
disk, dedicated to it. More commonly, however, Linux is given 2 to 5 partitions. Before starting
the installation, the computer’s hard disk drive(s) should be checked for enough space to be
allocated to Linux partitions. Let us start with pondering how much space is needed. The
installer will provide you with four possible installation types:
Personal desktop — creates a system suitable for general home and office use, including
the Gnome or KDE graphical desktop. Requires about 1.8 GB (gigabytes) of disk space.
Workstation — contains the software of personal desktop and also tools for software development. Even if you have little experience in programming, this might be a good
choice since Linux programs are often distributed as source code on the Internet, and
you would have the most common compilers and libraries needed to build them installed.
Requires about 2.2 GB of disk space.
29
30
Preparing for the Installation
Server — installs a system primarily aimed at server use. Requires at least 850 MB of
disk space.
Custom installation — the disk space requirements depend on which software packages
you want to install. A minimum installation needs 475 MB of disk space. If you select all
the available packages you will need 5 GB of disk space.
Please note that these figures are only accurate if you will not alter the installation type specific
package list. (Lineox Enterprise Linux consists of software packages; a single package can
contain a program, a library, or fonts, for example.) You will be able to add and remove packages
from the package list, altering the disk space requirements of the operating system.
In addition, you should probably have some free space for programs installed at a later time, for
digicam photos, mp3 pieces, databases... That is to say, you would be wise to add at least half a
gigabyte to the previous figures.
In a simple scheme, most (or all) of the operating system data will be placed on a so-called root
partition or the ”/” partition, meaning its size will have to match the space requirements stated
earlier. In addition, you should have a swap partition for virtual memory.
The usual recommendation for swap partition size is one to two times the size of the computer’s
physical RAM memory. A smaller swap partition may suffice if you have a good amount of
RAM; this depends on the programs you intend to use and the number of programs running
simultaneously. The ultimate rule is that all the running processes must fit in the total memory
area (physical RAM + swap space) at all times.
Where can the required space be attained? To perform the installation, the computer’s hard
disk(s) must contain either
A) unpartitioned space, i.e. space not allocated to any partitions (such as Windows’ or other
operating systems’ partitions), or
B) partitions that are no longer needed and can be replaced with Linux partitions.
The current partition arrangement can be examined using the Linux or MS-DOS fdisk command, the Parted tool on the Lineox Enterprise Linux installation DVD, or some other partitioning program. The Lineox Enterprise Linux installer can also be started, where the partitioning
stage will show the existing partitions (you may safely interrupt the installation process after
examining the situation if you would like to make some arrangements before the actual installation).
After you are familiar with the disk space requirements and your hard disks’ current state, you
can hopefully devise a compromise based on this information. We present some example situations and solutions below to help in your planning.
The computer has a new, unpartitioned 120 GB hard drive: No measures are needed before
installation. You can create Linux partitions on the hard drive using the install program.
Preparing for the Installation
31
The computer has Microsoft Windows installed and there is one hard drive containing a
4 GB C: drive, a 4 GB D: drive, and no unpartitioned space: If the data contained on
the D: drive can be moved into C: or a CD, for example, the D: drive can be removed
(it is actually a partition but is called a ”drive” in the MS-DOS/Windows environment)
using the Lineox Enterprise Linux installer and Linux partitions can be created in the
freed space.
Windows installed with a 8 GB C: drive and no unpartitioned space: Arrange some free
space on the C: drive and reduce its size using the Parted tool that comes with Lineox
Enterprise Linux (see instructions on the previous chapter). After this you will have unpartitioned space and can begin the installation process.
Caution
Please make a backup of all important data on your hard drives before starting the
installer or making partition changes! If you accidentally remove wrong partitions
you will lose all the data they contain.
Deciding What Installation Method to Use
Lineox Enterprise Linux can be installed in several ways: the files needed during the installation
process can be retrieved from a DVD-ROM, an NFS server, an FTP server or an HTTP server.
Installing from a DVD-ROM image file on hard disk is not available in this version.
Depending on your computer and the method you will use, you might need additional floppy
disks. The Lineox Enterprise Linux installation DVD contains the software and files needed to
create them. The diskettes can be created using a Linux or an MS-DOS/Windows system.
In the next list you can check whether an install diskette is necessary:
DVD installation: If you are using a relatively new computer, its BIOS probably enables
booting the system directly from DVD-ROM. If this is the case, you will not need a boot
disk and you can skip to the section titled ”Collecting Information About Your Hardware”.
If booting directly from the DVD-ROM does not seem to work, you should create a boot
diskette from the bootdisk.img file.
NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation: You will need a boot diskette created from the bootdisk.img file and a network driver diskette from the drvnet.img file.
32
Preparing for the Installation
Note: In some cases, more driver diskettes are needed. If devices connected in PCMCIA slots
(such as a DVD drive or a network card) will be needed during the installation process, create a
pcmcia driver disk from the pcmciadd.img file. The installation DVD also contains a block
device driver disk, drvblock.img, needed for e.g. some SCSI devices.
Creating Installation Diskettes Using MS-DOS
As an example, we will create a boot diskette suitable for the DVD-ROM installation method.
You can replace bootdisk.img with the name of the diskette you need according to the
previous list. The diskette is created as follows:
1. Boot the computer into MS-DOS or open an MS-DOS window using Windows.
2. Insert the Lineox Enterprise Linux installation DVD.
3. Insert a formatted disk into the floppy disk drive.
4. Type the following commands (replace the letter d with your DVD drive letter if its drive
letter is not D:):
C:\> d:
D:\> cd \dosutils
D:\dosutils> rawrite
Enter disk image source file name:
..\images\bootdisk.img
Enter target diskette drive: a:
Please insert a formatted diskette into
drive A: and press --ENTER-- :
5. When the MS-DOS prompt reappears, the diskette is ready. (You can type exit to close
an MS-DOS window.)
Creating Installation Diskettes Using Linux
As an example, we will create a boot diskette suitable for the DVD installation method. If you
need to create some other boot diskette you can replace bootdisk.img with the name of the
disk in question.
1. Insert a formatted disk into floppy disk drive, but do not mount the disk to the filesystem
using the mount command.
Preparing for the Installation
2. Move to the images directory on the DVD (the DVD must be mounted using, e.g. the
mount command).
3. Type the following command:
dd if=bootdisk.img of=/dev/fd0 bs=1440k
Collecting Information About Your Hardware
It is recommended that you write down or print information about your computer and peripherals
before beginning installation — the installer is able to identify many devices automatically, but
not necessarily all your devices. Devices can also be configured after installation, but it is most
effortless to do it once during the installation process.
Collect the following information:
type of the CD/DVD drive (IDE, SCSI, etc.)
make, model and interface (PS/2, USB, or serial) of your mouse
hard disks’ size ja type (IDE or SCSI)
make and model of your printer
make and model of your monitor
make, model and video RAM of your graphics card
amount of RAM on your computer
make and model of the SCSI adapter (if present)
make and model of the network adapter (if present)
make and model of the sound card
For some older devices you might also need information about the IRQ lines and I/O addresses
they use. If your computer has Windows installed, you can find most of the previously mentioned information by selecting ”System” in the Control Panel.
Information about devices supported in Red Hat Linux and Lineox Enterprise Linux is available
at http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/. Also ask the manufacturer for drivers and
Linux compatibility information.
33
34
The Installation
Acquiring Information About Network Settings
If your computer is connected to a LAN (local area network), you will need the following
information (these parameters can also be retrieved automatically if there is a DHCP server on
your network):
host IP address (four numbers separated by dots)
IP address of the primary (and possibly secondary and tertiary) DNS server
hostname of the computer
domain name
netmask
gateway IP address
The Installation
If you have read the ”Preparing for the Installation” section, written down some information
about your hardware, and decided what kind of changes you will make to your hard drive partitions, you have the necessary information for the installation.
Be sure to backup all important data on your hard drives before beginning the installation!
Booting the Installer
The installer can be started in several different ways. The method is chosen according to where
the installation files are located:
DVD installation: You can start the installer using the installation DVD or a boot diskette.
NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation: The installer is started using a boot diskette. Usually,
you will also need a network driver diskette.
Booting from the DVD-ROM — Method 1
You can boot your computer and launch the installer directly from the Lineox Enterprise Linux
DVD if your computer’s BIOS supports this. This is true with many Pentium class and newer
computers. In this case, you might have to change your BIOS settings so that a field named
The Installation
boot sequence (or something similar) includes a reference to the DVD drive (usually CD-ROM)
before the hard drive (HDD or C:).
You can usually enter BIOS setup by pressing the Del or F2 key immediately after the computer
is turned on and the first messages have appeared on the screen. After making the changes, save
the settings, insert the installation DVD, and reboot. Now the installer should start automatically.
If it is not possible to add a CD/DVD reference to the boot sequence field you have to start up
the installer some other way.
Booting from the DVD-ROM — Method 2
If MS-DOS or Microsoft Windows is installed on your system, you can start the installer from
the DVD using MS-DOS. However, Windows must not be running: you need to boot directly
to MS-DOS mode. One way to do this is to press the F8 key immediately after Windows 95/98
boot begins and select the Command prompt only option in the menu that appears. Another
way is to select Restart in MS-DOS mode in the Windows shutdown dialog.
Type the following commands when you have entered MS-DOS mode, and the installer will
start:
C:\> d:
D:\> cd \dosutils
D:\dosutils> autoboot.bat
Please replace the letter d with the appropriate drive letter if your DVD drive letter is not D:.
Booting from a Boot Diskette
If you decided to use a boot diskette, insert the diskette you have created into drive and boot the
computer, and the installer will start. (You can find boot disk creation instructions on page 32.)
Beginning the Installation
After booting the computer, a boot: prompt will appear on screen. Sometimes it is necessary
to enter hardware-related options at this prompt. In most cases, options are not necessary, so
you can first try to install without them. The installer will start automatically if you will not type
anything within one minute or if you just press Enter.
You can also use the boot: prompt to start rescue mode with the command linux rescue.
The rescue mode is useful if your system files become damaged or if you happen to make
incorrect settings so that you can no longer boot to Lineox Enterprise Linux.
35
36
The Installation
The installer must be restarted if it cannot find devices that are needed during installation. In
this case, you can type linux expert at the boot: prompt, meaning the install will use
expert mode. You can also type other options for the Linux kernel at the boot: prompt. If
options are needed, please write them down and enter the same options later in the boot loader
configuration (which is discussed on page 50).
Note
Enter this option in the Syslinux prompt if you wish to perform the installation in
text mode:
boot: text
Text-mode installation advances in nearly the same way as the GUI installation. You
can follow this guide even if you use the text-mode installer.
Note
Lineox Enterprise Linux does not try to load modules for ISA bus SCSI adapters
by default. If you have ISA cards that the installation program does not detect,
restart your PC and installation to the first screen where you enter linux isa at
the boot: prompt.
Virtual Consoles
During the installation, you can watch, in addition to the installer screen, virtual consoles that
present various details about the process. A list of the virtual consoles and the key combinations
you can use to change your view is given below.
Ctrl + Alt + F1 — install program
Ctrl + Alt + F2 — shell
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37
Ctrl + Alt + F3 — install log
Ctrl + Alt + F4 — system log
Ctrl + Alt + F5 — other information
Ctrl + Alt + F7 — graphical display
Choosing the Installation Method
You will not see this stage if you started the installation directly from the DVD-ROM (in this
case, please skip forward to ”The Welcome Screen” on page 38). Otherwise you will be asked
which installation method you would like to use. The options are:
Local CD-ROM — Installation is performed using the Lineox Enterprise Linux install
DVD.
Hard drive — This method does not work in this version.
NFS directory — The installation files are located on an NFS server.
FTP — The installation files are located on an FTP server.
HTTP — The installation files are located on an HTTP server.
In this guide, we will focus on DVD installations.
DVD Installation
If you select DVD installation, you are asked to insert the installation DVD. After doing so and
pressing OK, the installer tries to find out if the computer has an IDE (ATAPI) DVD drive. If
such a drive is not found, the program will offer two alternatives:
SCSI — the DVD drive is connected to an SCSI adapter.
Other — the DVD drive is connected to the computer in some other way than by means
of an IDE or SCSI interface.
When you select the drive type, you will see a list of available drivers. Pick an appropriate
SCSI or CD/DVD driver from the list. You can also give the driver some parameters, which are
sometimes necessary.
If your computer has a DVD drive connected to an IDE interface, but the installer cannot find
it automatically, you must restart the installer and type linux hdx=cdrom at the boot:
prompt. Replace x with one of the following letters based on how the drive is attached to the
system.
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The Installation
a — primary IDE interface, master
b — primary IDE interface, slave
c — secondary IDE interface, master
d — secondary IDE interface, slave
The Welcome Screen
You are now welcomed to Lineox Enterprise Linux (see the figure). Please read the instructions
on the left side of the screen and press Next.
The welcome screen.
Selecting the Language
Use the mouse to choose the language you would like to use during the installation (see the
figure). This choice does not restrict the multilinguality of the operating system: you can decide,
which languages are installed in your system later.
The Installation
39
If necessary, the system default language can be changed after installation using the command
redhat-config-language.
Language selection.
Note
You can also use the keyboard: jump from one field to the next by using the tab key
and make selections using cursor keys, spacebar, and Enter.
Keyboard Configuration
The keyboard configuration window is presented next (see the figure). Select the model of the
keyboard you are using from the list.
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The Installation
Keyboard configuration screen.
Keyboard settings can be changed after installation using the redhat-config-keyboard
command.
When done, click the Next button.
Mouse Configuration
You are given a list containing various mice (see the figure). Try to find the manufacturer and
model of your mouse. There are serial, USB, and PS/2 mouses in the list. You can click on the
triangles to expand the list.
The Installation
Mouse configuration screen.
If your mouse has a four-cornered connector with nine holes, you have a serial mouse. In this
case, you also need to select the port it is connected to. PS/2 mice have round connectors and
USB mice have flat, rectangular connectors.
If you cannot find your mouse in the list, you can select a compatible mouse (if you are sure
about compatibility) or a generic type that has as many buttons and the same connector as your
mouse.
For two-button mice, it is recommended that you use the emulate 3 buttons feature. This means
that you can create a middle button click by pressing both mouse buttons at the same time. This
is particularly useful in the X Window System.
Mouse settings can be changed after installation with the redhat-config-mouse command.
Installation or Upgrade?
If you already have Lineox Enterprise Linux or Red Hat Linux (version 6.2 or newer) installed,
you may choose between a new installation or an upgrade (see the figure). We recommend a
new installation to create the most reliable and sound system.
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The Installation
An upgrade means that a version 2.4.x kernel will be installed on your system and its packages will be upgraded with new versions. The old configuration files will be saved but a suffix
.rpmsave will be added to their filenames. Old configuration files can be reapplied after
checking that they are compatible with the new versions. A log file /tmp/upgrade.log will
be written of the upgrade.
The installer does not automatically recognize all of the previously mentioned operating systems
as upgradeable; if you know what you are doing you can disable version checks by typing
linux upgradeany at the boot prompt.
Choosing an installation or an upgrade.
Installation types
An installation means creating a new operating system and requires formatting the designated
system partitions (you may leave other existing partitions, such as a /home partition, as they are
if you wish). There are four possible installation classes: personal desktop, workstation, server,
and custom.
We will now present the different installation classes.
The Installation
Installation type selection
Personal Desktop Installation Details
This installation type creates a system suitable for general home and office use. It includes a
graphical Gnome or KDE desktop environment, Open Office software suite, a web browser,
email and multimedia applications, and games. A personal desktop requires at least 1.8 GB of
disk space.
If you select the personal desktop and will use automatic partitioning, it will create these partitions on your hard drive:
A boot partition (/boot) that has a size of about 100 MB.
A swap partition having a size of 1 to 2 times the computer’s RAM amount. The exact
size depends on the quantity of available disk space.
A root partition (/). Its size will depend on the amount of available disk space.
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The Installation
Workstation Installation Details
The workstation install resembles the personal desktop. It installs a graphical Gnome or KDE
desktop with lots of applications and also packages needed for software development and administration. With default package selections, a workstation install will require about 2.2 GB of
space.
In workstation installations, xinetd (the extended Internet services daemon) is not included in the
system. This improves system security, but also means that many types of connections including
ftp and telnet cannot be initiated from the outside world to your computer. This does not usually
restrict your network use, since connections initiated by your computer are still allowed. Xinetd
can naturally be installed at a later time if needed.
The following partitions will be created on your hard disk, if you choose workstation installation
and decide to use the automatic partitioning function:
A boot partition (/boot) that has a size of about 100 MB.
A swap partition having a size of 1 to 2 times the computer’s RAM amount. The exact
size depends on the quantity of available disk space.
A root partition (/). Its size will depend on the amount of available disk space.
Server Installation Details
A server installation will also make some selections on your behalf and will create a typical
server system. At least 850 MB of disk space will be needed. A server installation will create
the following partitions on your hard disk if you choose to use automatic partitioning:
A boot partition (/boot) that has a size of about 100 MB.
A swap partition having a size of 1 to 2 times the computer’s RAM amount. The exact
size depends on the quantity of available disk space.
A root partition (/). Its size will depend on the amount of available disk space.
Custom Installation Details
In a custom installation, the user can control all the relevant details yourself. 475 MB is needed
for a minimum custom installation and 5 GB to install all the software packages. At least 1 GB
should be allocated for your system, if a graphical user environment is to be used.
If automatic partitioning is used, the following partitions will be created:
The Installation
A boot partition (/boot) of about 100 MB.
A swap partition with a size of 1 to 2 times the computer’s RAM amount. The exact size
depends on available disk space.
A root partition (/). Its size will depend on the amount of available disk space.
Choosing the Partitioning Method
At this stage of the installation, the user will be enquired about how Lineox Enterprise Linux
partitions should be created (see the figure). The alternatives are automatic partitioning and
Disk Druid.
Choosing the partitioning method.
The automatic partitioning function has become more flexible and can be recommended not
only for newcomers but also for seasoned users, since it will ask the user whether they would
like to preserve the Linux partitions or all existing partitions. The partitioning plan can also be
examined and altered before accepting it. However, automatic partitioning is not particularly
suitable for situations where the user would like to preserve some, but not all, existing Linux or
Windows partitions.
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The Installation
Alternatively, you may create the necessary Linux partitions manually using the Disk Druid.
Using Automatic Partitioning
This is an important step, if your hard disks contain data worth saving (see the figure). You can
let automatic partitioning delete all Linux partitions (meaning all installed Linux operating systems will be permanently deleted) or all partitions (meaning none of your data will be reachable
again). Your third option is to retain existing partitions; this requires that there is unpartitioned
space on disk for the installer to add Linux partitions.
Automatic partitioning options.
If you check the Review button, you are allowed to examine and, if you so desire, make changes
to the automatic partitioning plan using the Disk Druid tool, which is discussed in detail in the
next section. Trusting users may now skip forward to boot loader selection on page 50.
Manual Partitioning
A manual partitioning is performed using the Disk Druid tool. It can be used to add and delete
disk partitions and to define their mount points.
The Installation
There is a rectangle in the upper part of the screen showing a summary of your hard disk and its
partitions. The left edge of the rectangle represents the first cylinder and the right edge the last
cylinder of the hard disk. An area saying Free means unpartitioned space. When you select a
partition in the lower part of the screen, Disk Druid will show where the partition is located on
disk.
Disk Druid.
The partition display at the bottom of the screen includes the following columns:
Device
The device name of the hard disk or partition. In Linux, disks and partitions are referred
to with these device names. Device names starting with hd or sd and ending with a letter
refer to a physical disk drive as a whole. Partitions are named by adding a number after
this pattern. For example, hda means the first IDE drive and hda1 is the first partition
on it. Partitions 1, 2, 3, or 4 are primary partitions. A single disk may contain up
to four primary partitions. If more than four partitions are needed, an extended primary
partition must be created. After an extended partition is available, more partitions — so
called logical partitions — can be created inside it. The logical partitions have a number
of 5 or greater at the end of their device names.
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Mount Point
The mount point indicates where (in which directory) the partition will be mounted in
your Linux system’s directory tree. After mounting, the data contained in the partition
can be accessed through this directory.
Type
Type of the filesystem that a partition contains. It is recommended that new Linux partitions use ext3. However, the swap partition must have swap as its partition type.
Format
Indicates if the partition is selected to be formatted. System partitions, such as /, /boot,
/usr, /var and /tmp should be formatted. You may leave your old /home and
/usr/local partitions as they are, if you wish the retain their files.
Size (MB)
The size of the partition in megabytes.
Start and End
The cylinders where the partition starts and ends.
At least the following partitions should be created:
A / partition a.k.a. a root partition (which will contain the root directory). Creating a
root partition is compulsory, as all other partitions will be mounted in it. All the files
and directories of the system are written on the root partition if you will not create other
partitions.
A /boot partition (about 100 MB), where the Linux kernel and other files needed during
the boot process will be written. In some computers, the partition used to load the operating system must not exceed cylinder 1023, otherwise the BIOS is not able to boot the
system. You can circumvent this restriction by creating a small /boot partition that does
not exceed this limit. After that, the other partitions can be placed freely. Newer computers usually do not have this restriction, but you can still make a /boot partition to be
sure.
A swap partition that should be at least as large as the computer’s RAM amount.
If a partition you have requested cannot be created, you will be warned about this and given a
reason for the unsuccesful operation. The most common reason is lack of free, unpartitioned
disk space. In this case, you need to reduce the partition size, request the partition be created on
another hard disk or delete other partitions first (meaning their data will be erased).
Disk Druid has the following function buttons:
The Installation
New: This button is used to request Disk Druid to allocate a new partition on to a disk.
Edit: Edit the properties of a selected (highlighted) partition. All properties, such as the
start and end cylinders, cannot be altered if the partition already exists on disk. If you
cannot make all the desired changes, you need to delete the partition first and then create
a new one.
Delete: This button deletes the selected (highlighted) partition.
Reset: This button cancels all the changes you have made in the partition arrangement.
Make RAID: This feature can be used, if software based RAID (Redundant Array of
Independent Disks) is required. At least two partitions of the same size must first be
created to be assigned to the array; a RAID device is then created by pressing this button.
LVM: Use this button to utilize logical volume management. LVM enables flexible handling and resizing of partitions.
Adding a partition.
When a new partition is being added on disk, a box (see the figure above) will be presented with
the following fields and options:
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Mount Point: The directory in which the partition will be mounted. If a partition is to
become the root partition, enter a slash character (/). If the partition will be the /boot
partition, type /boot in this field, and so on.
Filesystem Type: The type of filesystem that will be created on this partition. New Linux
partitions should have ext3 as their type. For Linux swap partitions, the type must be
swap.
Allowable Drives: The disk(s) where Disk Druid is allowed to place the partition in
question.
Size (MB): The minimum size of the partition in megabytes.
Additional Size Options: The user can specify whether the partition size is to be increased if unpartitioned space will be available after creating all the requested partitions.
If several partitions are chosen as enlargeable, the possibly remaining space will be shared
between them.
Force to be a primary partition: If this box is checked, the partition will be made
primary. Otherwise, it can be created either as a primary or a logical partition.
When an existing partition is edited, the user may choose whether it is to be formatted and its
type after formatting. Any new partitions will always be formatted. It is recommended that old
ext2 partitions are updated to ext3. ext3 is a journaling filesystem, which speeds up filesystem
checks significantly after power failures, for example.
Boot Loader Configuration
Usually, it is most convenient to boot Lineox Enterprise Linux using a boot loader that is written
on to the hard disk. GRUB (Grand Unified Bootloader) is the default loader to use. The traditional LILO (Linux Loader) can also be used, or you can choose to live without a boot loader,
in which case you need to use a boot diskette to start Lineox Enterprise Linux. This choice can
be made by clicking the Change boot loader button.
The Installation
Choosing the boot loader.
If you would like to boot into other operating systems, too, they can be added to the boot menu
with the Add button. Enter a name for the choice and the partition where the operating system
will be loaded from. Device names of Linux partitions were discussed earlier in the section
Manual Partitioning. The system marked as default will be started automatically after a short
pause if the user will not make a selection in the boot loader menu when the computer is powered
on.
If you are going to use GRUB, you can set a password in it if you like. This is recommended
if you want to protect the computer and its information from people that have physical access
to the machine. A GRUB password prevents entering extra options to the Linux kernel (so
that a visitor can not change the root password, for example). In this case, you should also
password-protect the BIOS to prevent using a boot diskette which also enables tampering with
your system.
Check the Configure advanced boot loader options box to choose the boot loader install location and its standard parameters (see the figure).
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Advanced boot loader options
The boot loader can be installed in two different places on the hard disk: the master boot record
(MBR) or the first sector of the boot partition. It should be installed in MBR unless it already
contains some other boot loader. If Windows 95/98 is installed, and a dual-boot system is to be
created, the MBR option is suitable.
If MBR already contains a boot loader, the loader can be installed in the first sector of the Linux
boot partition. In this case, the partition where the Linux loader will be installed must be added
to the menu of the existing boot loader. This option should be used when creating a dual-boot
system with Windows NT and Linux. More information about this setup can be found in the
following document: http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Linux+WinNT.html
Force LBA32 is needed if the boot partition is located partially or entirely after cylinder 1023
and the BIOS supports booting from such a partition, but the boot loader does not detect it
automatically.
Parameters entered in the General kernel parameters field will be forwarded to the Linux
kernel at boot up. This means that these parameters do not have to be entered at the boot loader
prompt. If additional parameters are necessary, they should be entered in this field. Otherwise,
the field may be left blank. In some cases, the installer will add some necessary parameters on
the users behalf.
The Installation
About SMP Motherboards
If the installer detects an SMP motherboard, it will create two entries in the boot loader menu. If
GRUB is used, these entries will be named Lineox Enterprise Linux (<kernel version>-smp),
which contains multiple processor support and is the default choice, and Lineox Enterprise
Linux (<kernel version>), which is in reserve and only uses a single processor.
If LILO is selected as the boot loader, these boot labels will be linux and linux-up. In case of
trouble, the linux-up alternative can be selected, which only uses one processor.
Network Settings
If the installer has detected a network card in the computer, the network settings can now be set
(see the figure). If more than one network card is detected, separate tabs for different cards and
their parameters are presented.
Network configuration screen.
The DHCP service is enabled by default in the network settings. If this service is available in
your network, the only thing you might have to edit is the host name. If DHCP service is not
available, click the Edit button to see the screen below.
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Network interface settings.
The Active on boot setting should be self-explanatory. The DHCP service enables configuring
network parameters automatically, but is not available on all networks.
If DHCP service is not available in your network, uncheck Configure using DHCP to enter the
computer’s IP address and netmask yourself. After that, click OK and you will be able to enter
additional network settings (see the figure below).
Network configuration screen when DHCP is disabled.
As you can see, this is the same screen as on page 53, except that entering Miscellaneous
Settings is allowed.
The Installation
Enter the necessary parameters; consult your network administrator if in doubt. Network parameters can also be set or changed after installation using the command redhat-confignetwork.
Firewall Configuration
A firewall improves the security of a networked computer. It can be used to block certain types
of connections from the Internet, for example, to your computer and to only allow connections
you need, thus reducing the number of possible routes of intrusion. A firewall does not, as
such, guarantee data security — the allowed services must be configured properly and the server
software must be updated if security vulnerabilities are found.
Firewall configuration screen.
The No firewall setting is mainly suitable for unnetworked computers or computers on a trusted
network and not used for Internet access.
Enable firewall is the recommended setting. It will allow only those incoming connections that
you specify. You will be able to freely initiate connections to other computers. The necessary
incoming connections can be allowed through the firewall by checking them on the list or by
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The Installation
entering them in the Other ports field in the format ”port:protocol”. If you type in several
services, use commas between them.
Additionally, you may allow all connections through a certain network interface. This can be
useful if the computer has two or more network cards and one of them is connected to a safe
network.
You can change firewall settings after installation using the command redhat-configsecuritylevel.
Language Selection
This screen (see figure) is used to select the default language of the system. The messages of
various applications will be shown in the default language unless the user changes the language,
for instance, during a log on or by changing the value of the LANG variable. Different users
will be able to select their preferred language settings. In addition to the default language, you
should install any languages that might be of later use.
Language selection screen.
The Installation
Time Zone Selection
The time zone selection screen (see the figure) contains two tabs: Location and UTC Offset.
The time zone can be selected using either one of these tabs.
The Location tab is used to choose a time zone based on the computer’s location — either using
the map or the list below the map. The yellow dots on the map represent cities. The map view
can be changed using the list box above it. The possible views are World, North America, South
America, Indian Rim, Europe, Africa, and Asia. After selecting a city, a red mark will appear
on it.
Time zone selection screen.
The UTC Offset tab is used to select the time difference between the local time zone and UTC
time (which is practically the same as the older GMT standard) and whether daylight saving
time is currently in use.
Please select the System clock uses UTC if this is the case or if you would like to set your
system clock to UTC time after installation.
The time zone can be reconfigured after installation using the redhat-config-time command.
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Choosing the Root User Password
The root user password must be at least six characters long. The system will interpret lower and
upper case letters as different characters — using both cases makes guessing the password more
difficult.
A password should not be any word found in a dictionary. A birthday or a pet’s name also make
weak passwords. A good password could be a word combination consisting of lower and upper
case letters and numbers, for example. Write the root password down and keep it in a safe place.
Enter the root password in the two fields on the screen. The password will not be shown on
screen.
Entering the root password.
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Note
The root account should only be used for tasks requiring root user privileges —
system administration and configuration. You should create another account for everyday use. This way you cannot accidentally harm the system and the applications
you run are not granted too many privileges. You will be offered a chance to create
a normal user account right after installation.
Examining the Default Package List
This screen (see the figure) shows the package groups that belong to the install type you selected
by default. You can either accept the default list or customize it, meaning you will be able to
add and remove package groups as well as single software packages contained in them.
The default package list.
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Package Selection
Those who decided to edit the package list will see the screen below. In this screen, you can
select package groups containing several packages relating to a certain subject. The number of
optional package groups depends on the installation class you selected at the beginning of the
installation process. Check all the package groups you would like to install. At the bottom of
the screen you will see how much space will be needed by the groups you have selected.
If you would like to have a user-friendly system, we recommend installing Gnome or KDE (or
both). Gnome and KDE are popular graphical environments, containing a desktop, an application panel, a file manager, a text editor, and lots of other useful applications. They differ
somewhat in look and feel; on the other hand, both can be extensively customized with themes
and preferences according to one’s taste. If several desktop environments or window managers
are installed, users will be able to choose their preferred one when logging in.
Package group selection screen.
Individual packages can be selected by clicking the Details link next to a group (see the figure).
Some base packages are required and cannot be deselected.
RPM packages can be added or removed from the system after installation using the text-mode
rpm command or the graphical redhat-config-packages tool.
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Selecting individual packages.
About to Install
Warning
You will now be presented with the About to Install screen (see the figure). So far,
no changes have been made and no data has been written on your hard disks and
it is your last chance to cancel the installation. The installation can be cancelled
by pressing the Reset switch on the computer or by pressing the Ctrl-Alt-Del keys
simultaneously, which causes the machine to reboot.
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About to Install.
To begin the installation, press Next.
During the installation process, you will see a screen (see the figure) showing the installation
progress.
The Installation
Installation progress display.
Display Card Configuration
If you have selected the X Windows System to be installed, the installer will now try to detect
your display card or adapter (see the figure).
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Display card configuration.
On the screen you can see the card and video memory size that the installer has detected. You
can accept them by clicking Next.
If the automatic probing fails, the display card must be selected from the list. If it is not in the
list, a generic type can be tried. However, this will usually mean that all the features of the
adapter cannot be utilized. One option is to Skip X Configuration and configure X after the
installation. Display settings can be changed after installation using the redhat-configxfree86 command.
Pressing the Restore original values button will bring back the values suggested by the automatic detection.
Monitor Configuration
Next, we will select the monitor you are using. The installer may be able to detect the model
automatically — in this case, you will see the model highlighted in the list. You can click Next,
if satisfied with the suggestion.
You should not select a model other than the one you are using, if it cannot be found in the list,
as doing so may cause harm to the monitor. Instead, a generic type should be chosen whose
The Installation
specifications match or are less demanding than those of the device in use. Adjust the horizontal
and vertical sync rates if necessary.
Monitor configuration screen.
Customizing the Graphics Configuration
In this screen, we will finalize X Window System configuration. The available color depths and
screen resolutions depend on the display adapter and monitor.
If you selected both GNOME and KDE to be installed, the default environment can be selected.
Using graphical log on means the X Window System is started automatically when you boot
Lineox Enterprise Linux (good for most users). Text-mode logon will be possible regardless of
this choice (you can change to text-mode virtual consoles by pressing Ctrl-Alt-F1, Ctrl-Alt-F2,
etc., and back to graphical mode using combination Ctrl-Alt-F7).
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Customizing the graphics configuration.
Completing the Installation
The installation is now complete and you will be presented with a congratulations screen (see
the figure).
Remove the DVD and any diskettes from your drives and click Exit to reboot your computer.
Remember to restore your old BIOS settings if you changed them earlier so that the computer
uses hard drive to boot.
The Installation
Installation complete.
If you installed GRUB or LILO on your hard disk, you should see its boot menu after booting.
If you press Enter or wait a moment, GRUB/LILO will boot the default operating system.
You can select a different operating system using the cursor keys and Enter.
When Lineox Enterprise Linux is booting, you will see several messages presenting information
related to your hardware and the system services that are being started. After the boot process is
complete, you will see a login: prompt where you can enter your login (the name of the user
account) and password.
Removing Lineox Enterprise Linux
Removing Lineox Enterprise Linux usually requires two operations. If LILO or GRUB is installed to MBR, you have to either restore the old MBR boot block or install a new one. The
other task is removing Linux partitions. LILO can be removed with Linux using the following
command:
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/sbin/lilo -u
This restores the MBR boot block preceding LILO installation. In DOS and Windows, you
can use the fdisk program, which overwrites the LILO or GRUB MBR boot block with the
following command:
fdisk /mbr
In OS/2, you must use /newmbr instead of /mbr.
The greatest problem in removing Linux partitions is the feature poor fdisk included with
DOS. It will not remove partitions it does not recognize. The solution is to use any other partitioning program. If you boot the Lineox Enterprise Linux installation program, you can use
either the Disk Druid or the Linux fdisk to remove Linux partitions. After removing them,
you can boot again with the Ctrl - Alt - Del keys instead of continuing installation.
After Installation
After installation, Lineox Enterprise Linux boots either directly to the graphical log on screen
or to text mode depending on choices made during installation. You can start the graphical
environment from text mode with the following command:
startx
However, this requires that the X Window System is installed and configured. Configuration can
be done with the following command:
redhat-config-xfree86
When Lineox Enterprise Linux boots first time to graphical log on, it starts first a program which
does some initial settings. It can be started again later with command firstboot.
The first screen contains only a welcome greeting and the second allows you to set date and
time.
The Installation
Setting time and date
The third screen allows you to create a normal user account. This is recommended because as a
root user you can by accident delete some important system files for example. As a normal user
there is no such danger.
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Creating a normal user account
If your PC contains a sound card, it can be configured next.
The Installation
Soundcard configuration
The next screen offers a possibility to install more programs from the installation disk. You can
start the same program later with command redhat-config-packages, but you can install
only base OS programs with it. With apt-get and synaptic you can install programs from
a larger selection and these programs are introduced later, so we skip introduction of redhatconfig-packages.
Lineox Enterprise Linux uses KDE as the default graphical desktop environment. When any
user (each user has personal settings) starts it for the first time, the KDE configuration program
starts automatically.
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Choosing the language used in KDE.
After the language selection, system behaviour is selected.
The Installation
You can see how system behavior is affected by the settings in the Description box,
as its contents change if you change the selection. Bluecurve is a theme made by
Red Hat and it has the advantage of being available also for Gnome, so both desktop
environments can be set to behave similarly. KDE default is also recommendable
because KDE is the most popular desktop environment and its default bahaviour is
familiar to most Linux and KDE users.
The next step is to select the level of effects.
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If you want to see the effects that are used, click on the Show Details button.
The Installation
Themes define window colors, background images, and other look-and-feel settings. KDE default theme Keramic is set as a default if you chose KDE as system
behaviour earlier.
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More settings are available in the KDE Control Center. Here you can already see
the effects of Keramic theme.
Installing, upgrading and removing programs
Lineox Enterprise Linux 3.0 uses apt-get as a packet manager. It resolves packet dependencies automatically. If you for example want to install package foo, which needs package bar to
function and it is not installed, apt-get reports this and offers to install also bar. apt-get is
command line program, but there is a graphical front-end to it called synaptic.
apt-get can also retrieve packages from the Internet from so called repositories. Lineox
Enterprise Linux contains a version of apt-get, which has already some repositories defined.
Lineox Enterprise Linux DVD disk must however be added manually before it can be used as a
source of program packages.
The Installation
Adding Lineox Enterprise Linux DVD disk to synaptic
synaptic recognizes CD and DVD disks from each other and asks you to give a
name to a newly added disk
Lineox Enterprise Linux 3.0 DVD disk has three subdirectories, which contain packages aptget can install. The subdirectory, which is seen below with name os, contains all the packages
of Lineox Enterprise Linux, the subdirectory extras contains packages for Red Hat Enterprise
Linux and Red Hat 9 made by third parties, and the subdirectory fedora contains packages
made for Fedora Project core 1. They all can be installed to Lineox Enterprise Linux 3.0, but
fedora packages should be treated with caution and you may wish to remove it from the line
called Section(s).
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The Installation
Repositories defined for synaptic
The Installation
79
You can get synaptic to show for example only not installed packages by clicking at the drop down menu called Show and by choosing a appropriate filter
Adding a swap file
If you didn’t add a swap partition during installation or made it too small, you may want to add
a swap file. You can get a report of current memory usage with command:
free
total
Mem:
1032732
-/+ buffers/cache:
Swap:
2096120
used
1016960
473152
499356
free
15772
559580
1596764
shared
0
buffers
124908
cached
418900
You can see from the output above that this machine has 1GB real memory and 2GB of virtual
memory. If there is very little free RAM as shown on the second number row (above there is
over 0.5GB free RAM, which is plenty) and the last number on the last row is also small, you
should make more swap space.
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The Installation
Swap partition is faster than swap file, but making it can be hard because you usually have to
change partitioning. Therefore it is often more convinient to make a swap file. The upper size
limit of swap file is 2GB, but you can make more than one of them. Below is an example where
a second 2GB swap file is created, set up and taken in use.
[[email protected] cpps]# dd if=/dev/zero of=/usr/src/swap1 bs=1M count=2047
2047+0 records in
2047+0 records out
[[email protected] cpps]# mkswap /usr/src/swap1
Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 2096124K
[[email protected] cpps]# swapon /usr/src/swap1
[[email protected] cpps]# free
total
used
free
shared
buffers
cached
Mem:
1032732
1017264
15468
0
11424
571644
-/+ buffers/cache:
434196
598536
Swap:
4192240
511760
3680480
dd first creates a file /usr/src/swap1 by writing zeroes (/dev/zero) to it in 1MB blocks
(bs=) 2047 times (count=). mkswap marks the file as a swap file and finally swapon adds it
as virtual memory to system use.
In order to add swap file automatically while the system boots, you should add a line like the
following to your /etc/fstab file:
/usr/src/swap1
swap
swap
OpenOffice Installation
OpenOffice is a versatile office program suite, which is compatible with MS-Office
file formats. OpenOffice is an Open Source program and it is localized to many
languages.
Lineox Enterprise Linux 3.0 DVD-ROM contains a subdirectory OpenOffice, which contains OpenOffice 1.1.0 in six different languages. There are also samples and templates in
Samples_Templates and dictionaries and hyphenation programs in dictionaries subdirectory.
The installation of OpenOffice is made easy by scripts and desktop entries on the DVD-ROM.
Lineox Enterprise Linux 3.0 has OpenOffice 1.0.2 in base distribution and OpenOffice 1.1.0
installation scripts will first erase it.
OpenOffice is a complete office program suite. It has all the basic applications needed in office
work. The most important parts are:
OpenOffice Writer – word processing application
OpenOffice Calc – spreadsheet application
OpenOffice Impress – presentations application
OpenOffice Draw – drawing application
OpenOffice Math – formula editor application
Installation methods
OpenOffice can be installed for one or multiple users. The former requires network installation,
and after that each user must perform user specific installation. User specific installation needs
little over 2 MB of hard disk space, and full installation requires approximately 220 MB.
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OpenOffice Installation
Single user installation offers no advantages over the network installation. That is why we only
look at the network installation.
Installation from desktop
If you are using KDE or Gnome, the installation is simple. When you click at the CD-ROM icon
on the desktop, it is mounted and Konqueror or Nautilus opens. Click on OpenOffice folder and
you will see the desktop files used to start the installation.
Konqueror showing OpenOffice directory in detailed list view mode
All OpenOffice language versions can be installed simply by clicking the appropriate desktop
file. If you don’t use KDE or Gnome, there is also a possibility to start the installation from the
command line.
Installation from the command line
cd first to OpenOffice subdirectory and give one of the following commands:
sh scripts/OpenOffice-fi.sh – Finnish OpenOffice 1.1.0
sh scripts/OpenOffice-en.sh – English OpenOffice 1.1.0
OpenOffice Installation
sh scripts/OpenOffice-sv.sh – Swedish OpenOffice 1.1.0
sh scripts/OpenOffice-de.sh – German OpenOffice 1.1.0
sh scripts/OpenOffice-fr.sh – French OpenOffice 1.1.0
sh scripts/OpenOffice-es.sh – Spanish OpenOffice 1.1.0
User specific installation
Every user must perform user specific OpenOffice installation. This requires less than 3 MB of
hard disk space. The target directory will, however, grow when files are saved there.
Before you start the user specific installation, you must change user ID, because the network
installation was done as the root user. If you originally logged in as a normal user, you need
only to issue command exit in the terminal session where you installed OpenOffice, or open a
new terminal session.
If you insist using OpenOffice as the root user, it is also possible.
So, you now have the user ID you intend to use OpenOffice with, write the following command
to start user specific OpenOffice installation.
/usr/local/OpenOffice.org1.1.0/program/setup
You can also start user specific installation from KDE/Gnome menu using route Office -> More
Office Applications -> OpenOffice.org Repair.
When OpenOffice asks for personal information, you should enter them correctly because they
will be used automatically in many places. For example, your name will be inserted as the
creator of all new documents.
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OpenOffice Installation
Personal information entry form
As with the network installation, the first important choice is the selection of installation type.
This could be considered as a bug in the installation program. There is no sense in selecting local
installation as the program files would then be installed twice on the local hard disk. Therefore,
you should select "Standard Workstation Installation".
OpenOffice Installation
User specific installation
OpenOffice removal, adding and removing components
OpenOffice can be removed with the same program it was installed with.
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OpenOffice Installation
Removing or repairing user specific installation
Note that you should be logged in as the user whose installation you want to remove or repair. If
you want to add or remove OpenOffice components, give the following command as root user:
./OpenOffice.org1.1.0/setup /net
Removing network installation or adding and removing components
Introduction to Linux for DOS
users
DOS command line experience can be translated almost directly to the Linux command line. Part of the commands have the same name, only written in lower case
in Linux. To quickly get you started, we will take a look at the similarities and
differences between the two systems.
Linux Commands that Correspond to DOS Commands
The "logic" behind these commands is
quite similar because Linux does not use
drive letters.
ATTRIB – chmod
The list below does not try to present the exact
similar commands, but ones that produce similar results. DOS and Linux differ so much, that
often exact similarity would not make sense.
In Linux, the access rights to files or
what you might think of as attributes, are
set separately for the file’s owner, group,
and others. The owner can be changed
with chown and the group with chgrp.
The list has the DOS command first and then
the closest corresponding Linux command.
The description tries to briefly explain the BACKUP – tar
Linux way of doing things and often refers to
tar can be confusing at first because
other similar Linux commands.
it has so many options, and you might
initially prefer a more familiar program
such as zip or gzip. cpio and dump
are also suitable for backing up data.
ASSIGN – mount
CALL – sh script
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Introduction to Linux for DOS users
Scripts can also be run directly, as with DISKCOMP – cmp
any executable, by appending the "magiIf you have only one diskette drive, you
cal" #!/bin/sh incantation as the first
must first create a temporary file with dd
line of the script and giving it execution
or some other command. You can also
rights.
compare data with diff.
CD – cd In Linux, this command takes you
to the home directory, without the need
for additional parameters. Always use
a space between the command and any
parameters (cd.. will not work).
DISKCOPY – dd
CHCP – consolechars
DO – do
CHKDSK – fsck
ECHO – echo
If you have only one diskette drive, you
must first create a temporary file, which
you can then copy to multiple diskettes,
if you like.
fsck is a front-end script, which checks EDIT – pico
the filesystem type first and then calls
Also vi, emacs, joe, jed, etc.
the appropriate program to do the real
work. Note that the filesystem checked ERASE – rm
must not be mounted (for more informaEXIT – exit
tion, see the umount and mount comAlso logout, Ctrl - D .
mands).
CLS – clear
FC – diff
Also cmp
COMP – cmp
Also diff.
COPY – cp
cp is much more versatile, "xcopy on
steroids".
DATE – date
DEL – rm
DELTREE – rm -R directory
FIND – grep
FOR – for
FORMAT – fdformat
Linux separates low-level formatting of
diskettes and the filesystem creation on
them. Low-level formatting is only
needed once and most new diskettes are
factory formatted. Filesystems can be
created with the mkfs command.
GOSUB – Call a defined function by name
DIR – ls
Also find and locate, if you are
searching for files.
GOTO – Not available
HELP – man and info
Introduction to Linux for DOS users
IF – if
89
SET – set, export
Often used with the test program. test if often written as [ SHIFT – shift
condition ] ([ is a synonym for
test).
SORT – sort
KEYB – loadkeys
LOADHIGH – Unnecessary
MD – mkdir
MEM – free, top, and procinfo
MKDIR – mkdir
MORE – more
less is similar, but with more features.
MOVE – mv
PATH – PATH=
PAUSE – Not available
With dialog, you can do similar
things and even build menus. Use
sleep for delay.
SUBST – mount, ln
These work differently because of the
lack of drive letters in Linux and the possibility of using links in Linux.
SYS – lilo
You must also have kernel installed and may have to edit the
/etc/lilo.conf file. You can make
a boot diskette with the mkbootdisk
command.
TIME – date
TREE – ls -R, du
PRINT – lpr
TYPE – cat
PROMPT – PS1=
UNDELETE – Not available
Additional lines have prompts PS2 and
PS4.
VER – uname
QUIT – exit
RD – rmdir
REM – #
REN – mv
RESTORE – tar, cpio, restore
Each suits different archive types.
RMDIR – rmdir
VERIFY – Not available
XCOPY – cp
You can find more information on all the
listed commands with man <command> or
<command> - -help, which gives a short
listing and possibly descriptions of available
options.
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Introduction to Linux for DOS users
Differences in Paths and
Wild Card Characters
Linux uses "/" to separate directories when
DOS uses "\". Another important difference is case sensitivity, which DOS lacks. A
third difference is missing drive letters. DOS
has a default directory for each drive letter,
which can sometimes be confusing, for example, while copying, when files end up in surprising places. Linux has no such confusing
feature.
What many find confusing in Linux is the way
the shell (command interpreter) expands wild
card characters (*, ?, etc) when in DOS each
program does it by itself. Logically, the Linux
way is better, because wild card characters are
always handled the same way and the code to
implement it only needs to be on the disk once.
If you need to pass wild card characters as
they are to a program, they can be escaped
(protected) with ”\” (only escapes one following character) or by enclosing them between
double quotes (weaker effect) or single quotes
(stronger protection).
X Window System
The X Window System or X for short is the most popular graphical environment
used in Linux.
The X Window System was originally developed at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) in the mid 80’s. Its architecture and structure was very ambitious from the start and it still
has some advanced features lacking in other graphical environments. To use X effectively, it is
important to understand its structure. Thus, we will first take a look at the architecture of X.
Architecture of the X Window System
Server – Client Model
X is based on a server-client model. The server offers display and input handling services to
clients. Once you understand this definition, you will know why the server and the client have
reversed roles in the context of X. Ordinary X programs are clients and use the services the
X server provides. The client and server can also connect through a network and a program
window can be shown on a computer acting as an X terminal and run on a server.
X terminals were previously quite common. They had a keyboard, a display and a central
unit with a display card, a network interface and enough processing power to run the X server.
Programs were run on a server. At first it may seem odd that a server program is run on a
terminal and applications are run on a server, but this simply follows the definition.
More important than definitions is that the server and the client can communicate through a
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X Window System
network. One X server can serve several client programs from many application servers.
While talking about networks, we cannot avoid protocols. The X server and X client use the
X protocol, which can be transferred on many different networks. The most typical is a local
connection, where both client and server are on the same computer. This is followed by TCP/IP,
which is used to connect Linux and UNIX computers.
Note that the server and the client can use different operating systems. The freely available
XFree86, which is used on Linux, is available for other Unix versions and OS/2. On Windows,
commercial products are required.
Summary
The X server provides display and input (keyboard and mouse) handling services for
X programs. X programs can run on other computers and even on other operating
systems than where their output is displayed.
Security
When X programs are run through a network, security must be taken care of. A common form
of security breach, while using X applications remotely, is a program without a window that
grabs all keyboard input and searches it for passwords. Thus, by default, the X server does not
allow X programs to connect from other computers.
The simplest way to allow remote X programs is to type the "xhost +" command, open a connection to the remote host using telnet, set the DISPLAY environment variable to the computer’s
IP number or host name and start an X application. This is a very insecure method because it
allows any remote host to run X applications on the local host.
The easiest secure way to use X applications remotely is to use ssh. An additional advantage
of this is encrypted network traffic. If traditional X authentication is used, breaches are still
possible by grabbing IP packages from the network and searching them for plain text passwords.
Using ssh is very simple. Ssh automatically takes care of authentication and setting environment
variables. You simply open a connection with ssh, like you would do with telnet, log on, and
you can start remote X applications directly.
X Window System
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Summary
ssh should always be used to run X applications remotely. This is as easy as running
applications locally and is also secure.
Multiple Instances of X on Multiple Displays
X Times X
The X Window System is very versatile. Its designers were not content with one user being able
to start applications on multiple computers and multiple operating systems. They wanted more
options also on the local computer.
Multiple instances of X can be started at once. The advantage of this is that the instances
can have different settings, such as the amount of colors or the window manager. Some X
applications need a specific number of colors to function properly, but this is fortunately very
rare. However, it is nice to be able to start X with a different number of colors, if there is
need for it. The following example commands start X with 256, 65536, and 16777216 colors,
respectively.
startx -startx -startx --
-bpp 8 &
-bpp 16 :1 &
-bpp 24 :2 &
We have assumed in the example, that X was not yet running. If it was, we should have added
":1" to the first command line and raised the sequence number in the others. The sequence or
instance number is 0 by default and does not need to be specified, e.g. when you start X for the
first time. After that, you must specify the instance number.
The "- -" in the command lines is used to tell front-end scripts that they should not handle the
following parameters and should pass them to the X server proper. "-bpp nn" specifies the
number of colors. The value is an exponent value of two or the number of bits and "-bpp 8"
means , i.e. 256 colors.
If you already tried the example, you might have become stuck after the first line. Once the first
command is issued, X is started and the virtual console changes. You must return to the previous
virtual console with the Ctrl - Alt - Fn key combination, where n stands for the number of the
virtual console (usually 1 – 6). By default, Lineox Enterprise Linux opens six virtual consoles
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X Window System
and the first instance of X starts in virtual console 7, which can be switched to with Ctrl - Alt F7 . The second instance of X starts to virtual console 8 etc.
Keyboard combinations for changing between virtual consoles. The first six virtual
consoles are normally reserved for the text mode and X consoles begin from the
seventh.
You can also start X from a terminal window in X. The trick is to get to a command line where
the command can be given.
Note
While in text mode, you can change consoles with Alt - Fn , but in X you have to
also use the Ctrl key. You can also use three keys in text mode. Therefore, the
easiest rule of thumb is Ctrl - Alt - Fn .
Multi Head Support
Multi head support means that you can configure multiple displays to act as one. Common
implementations are two or even four display combinations. Programs see a dual display system
resolution as 2560x1024, when each display is configured with a 1280x1024 resolution. This
configuration of multi head is called Xinerama. There is also a configuration option to treat each
display separately.
A while ago, multi head support for Linux was only available with commercial X servers, but
with version 4.0, XFree86 also added support for it.
X Window System
95
Configuration utility for Matrox DualHead display cards available from Matrox
web site (see www.matrox.com).
Virtual Resolution
Some users find this feature distractive and it is not widely used. Virtual resolution is limited by
video memory: 256 colors need 8 bits or a byte for each pixel; 65536 need 16 bits or two bytes,
and 16 million colors need three bytes. With this knowledge, it is easy to calculate the greatest
possible virtual resolution. For example, if we have 4 MB of display memory and use 65536
colors (two bytes), the largest possible commonly used resolution is 1600x1280 (1600x1280x2
= 4 096 000 bytes).
Virtual resolution can be thought of as a large screen, which the user has a window into; Some
areas of visible program windows may be hidden, and the user has to search for elements they
are accustomed to seeing, such as KDE’s launcher bar.
The visible part of the desktop can be "scrolled" by taking the mouse pointer to the edge of
the display. Scrolling is often bound to key combinations, like Ctrl or Alt and arrow keys.
However, this depends on the window manager.
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X Window System
Summary
The versatility of X can best be described by introducing parameters of a typical X program.
The command:
xeyes
-display 192.168.60.214:1.1 &
Would start the xeyes program, open its window on host 192.168.60.214, the second X instance,
and on the second display (0 is the primary display). As an another example let us take a case
where we want to start a program locally, but we are currently running in X, which has 256 colors
and our program functions better with 24 bit colors. We have X running with 24 bit colors with
instance number 2 and we have only one display. Thus, the suitable command would be:
xeyes
-display :2 &
After issuing the command, nothing seems to happen, but when we switch to the third instance
of X with Ctrl - Alt - F9 , we will see the program.
X as a Part of the Graphical User Interface
As we have demonstrated, X is very versatile. However, X only forms part of the graphical
user interface. It has been likened to a mere display driver. All that "raw" X is able to display
is a gray background, an X shaped mouse cursor and program windows that must be opened
separately, which are simple rectangles. There are no menus or other decorations. This leads to
our following topic. . .
Window Managers
Window managers implement the elements of the user interface of X. Without a window manager you cannot even move a window or resize it. Let us assume that you have X running and
you give the following command:
X :1 &
This will start another instance of X, switch you to virtual console 8 and present an X shaped
mouse cursor on a gray background. There is nothing you can do here. You can switch back
with Ctrl - Alt - F7 . You can now write the following command:
xterm -display :1 &
X Window System
97
It opens one program window in the spartan environment we just visited. Take a look at it with
Ctrl - Alt - F8 . You will see a black rectangle, where you can type commands. But you cannot
move or resize the window. The experiment is over and you can close the spartan environment
with Ctrl - Alt - Backspace .
Basic window Elements
All computer users know how window edges behave. You can grab a window from its corner and
resize it both vertically and horizontally. The title bar has buttons for minimizing and closing
the window. These features and the elements representing them are also used in most window
managers available for X. More surprising is that you can usually also modify these elements.
The picture below presents the elements used to draw window frames in KDE’s Industrial theme.
A theme is a collection of elements and settings, which influence the look and feel of the whole
desktop environment. The fact that the drawing elements are in separate image files makes
creating themes easy and, in this case, also makes explaining window decorations easy.
Window decorations of the Industrial theme. Note that the decorations used in the
xv program window are the same as within the window.
More Window Manager Features
There are a varying amount of features in window managers, but usually advanced features are
found in separate modules. In desktop environments, they are usually separate programs. The
most common additional features found in window managers are:
Virtual desktops
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X Window System
Start menu
Keyboard bindings
The last two are absent or very modest in window managers that are used in desktop environments like KDE and GNOME. These functions are handled by a separate program in them.
Virtual Desktops
With virtual desktops, you get multiple virtual resolution sized workareas. For example, KDE
has four desktops by default and the value can be raised to 16. The user can group windows
in certain desktops according to a project or type. Windows can easily be moved between
desktops and changing the desktop is easy. For example, in KDE you get to desktop 1 with
Ctrl - F1 , to desktop 2 with Ctrl - F2 , etc. Another way to move between desktops is to use
active desktop edges. When you move the mouse cursor to the desktop edge, you are moved to
the adjoining desktop. This feature is often disabled, because it confuses new users and not even
all experienced users like it.
Typical Additional Modules for Window Managers
Pager The Pager is an utility for managing virtual desktops. It has a window representing all
or part of the virtual desktops and their windows in miniature size. You can move these mini
windows from a desktop to another or within a desktop to another location. The real windows
are moved to match the location of the mini windows. You can also conveniently move to
another desktop and window by clicking in the pager.
The Pager application for KDE shows all six virtual desktops in miniature size.
Goodstuff Goodstuff is a simple launchpad with rectangular buttons for starting programs.
An icon file can be specified for each button. For example, the traditional FVWM has a goodstuff
module; you can use a program called tkgoodstuff in others and KGoodstuff in KDE.
X Window System
Goodstuff module for FVWM.
Several other modules exist, but the functionality they bring is built-in in KDE and GNOME and
they provide no surprising or special additional features. Thus, we will skip introducing them.
More About Window Managers
A comprehensive presentation about different window managers can be found at
http://www.PLiG.org/xwinman/. The following window managers are available for
Linux: TWM, VTWM, FVWM, FVWM-95, AfterStep, CDE (dtwm), AmiWM, OLWM,
OLVWM, GWM, MWM1, CTWM, Enlightenment, WM2, Window Maker, KDE (KWM),
ICEWM, and SCWM. The site also contains a window manager feature set comparison chart.
However, features are not what all users are after. Often the most important selection criteria are
lightness or small memory requirement, just the right collection of features and stability. Users
who appreciate features and do not mind spending memory, usually use full blown desktop
environments.
Desktop Environments
Traditional window managers for X basically only implement window management and various
ways to start programs from menus or otherwise. The usual requirements of desktop environments are better inter process communication than the basic clipboard, a unified user interface
for programs and common settings affecting all applications, in a word, a unified look and feel.
Traditionally, X programs have been quite a varying bunch especially regarding the user interface. Users have been obliged to learn almost all of them without benefit from previous
experience. Programs included in desktop environments use common key bindings, their menu
structure is unified, and their look and feel is as unified as possible.
Inter process communication is used, for example, in implementing drag and drop. To make
this easy, the desktop is in fact usually a file browser window. When you open additional file
browser windows, you can easily move or copy files from window or directory to another.
Another very visible element, besides the file browser, is the panel. In KDE, the kicker is both
a start menu for programs and a task switcher to move between applications. In earlier versions
of KDE, the latter was called the taskbar. Buttons are also included for switching desktops and a
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X Window System
space for dragging applications to create active icons is available. A good example of an active
icon is the clock, which is included in KDE’s panel by default.
KDE has been fully functional and stable for a long time. This has given its developers time
to start another, even more ambitious project called KOffice. It is an office program suite with
support for embedded elements like tables, diagrams, formulas, etc. in a document created with
it, even if the application in use cannot manipulate those elements. Applications in KOffice ask
for help from other applications to manipulate elements they cannot handle themselves. Thus, it
is not as important anymore, which application you use to create a document, because you can
add any elements to it that can be created with an application in KOffice. This is more advanced
inter process communication than is implemented in Linux desktop environments.
Desktop Environments for Linux
CDE CDE (Common Desktop Environment) is the oldest desktop environment. However, it
has not been particularly popular among Linux users because it is a commercial product. Some
Unix versions, like AIX, use it by default.
KDE KDE (K Desktop Environment) is the oldest of the free desktop environments for Linux.
Its development began in Germany and it still is more European than GNOME. This partly
explains the fact that KDE is localized to 32 languages. An interesting detail is that KDE is
localized to Icelandic and Bretonese, but Microsoft Windows has not been localized to these
languages.
Note
You can find plenty of additional information about KDE at www.kde.org.
GNOME GNOME was conceived partly as a protest against the restrictive license of the Qt
library, which is used in KDE. Another important reason must be that the library used as a
basis for GNOME, GTK, is made primarily for the C language, while Qt is C++ based. So,
veteran programmers can use C to make GNOME programs and those familiar with modern
languages can use C++ for KDE programs. GNOME has been more customizable than KDE,
but now that KDE theme management is available, the difference is negligible. Looking from
Europe, the greatest aspect missing in GNOME was good and comprehensive localization, but
the difference in this area between KDE and GNOME is now very small.
X Window System
101
Note
You can find plenty of additional information about GNOME at www.gnome.org.
XFce XFce is the most recent contender among desktop environments. It has not been widely
sighted in Linux distributions and one wonders whether there is need for yet another free desktop
environment, but maybe it will find its place among the already wide selection available for
Linux.
XFce is designed to be a light desktop environment for Unix systems. It is reminiscent of the
commercial CDE and is based on the GTK+ library.
One of the strong points of XFce is easy configuration, which is done entirely with the mouse.
The latest version includes drag and drop, session management, localizations, support for special
characters and more.
Note
You can find plenty of additional information about XFce at www.xfce.org.
Starting X
Graphical Log On
Linux is a multi-user operating system and users must identify themselves when logging on. In
text mode, the logon program asks for a user id and password. In graphical mode, this task
has traditionally been assigned to xdm, but KDE uses kdm and GNOME uses gdm. There is not
that much difference between them. The new kdm and gdm offer more choices, for example, in
choosing a window manager and language.
Graphical log on means that Linux boots to run level 5. Normal text mode is run level 3. If your
computer boots to run level 3, you can test graphical log on with the telinit 5 command,
which changes the run level to 5.
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X Window System
The graphical log on program does not limit the choice of window manager or desktop environment. It simply authenticates the user, starts the selected environment, and exits.
startx – Front-end Script for Starting X
If your computer does not boot directly to graphical mode, you can still start X. Usually this is
done with the startx command.
Starting X is actually a rather complicated task handled by several scripts. To further complicate
matters, these scripts differ slightly between Linux distributions. We already demonstrated how
you can pass parameters directly to X. Another way to pass additional parameters is to add them
to the .xinitrc file, which resides in the users home directory.
Alternatives to X
X is not the only graphical environment for Linux. Svgalib is much used in games, it suits
them well and as you might suspect, it is considered to be a security problem. The current
Linux kernel has a framebuffer device and GGI interface, which should replace Svgalib. The
framebuffer device is used by, for example, Berlin and new versions of Qt.
Fresco (earlier name was Berlin) (www.fresco.org) is a very interesting project. Currently, its
main problem is that X apps cannot be run on it and it is also otherwise suitable only for developers. The other problem is that it seems to be progressing very slowly and there has been very
little development in three years. However, it is based on many interesting technologies such as
CORBA and OpenGL.
X Window System
The choice of applications for Berlin is small, but is sure looks good.
The current version of Qt supports the framebuffer device enabling you to run KDE apps without
X. In normal use this is not feasible, because most users want to also run X applications. In
special cases like when you need to run a single application or when you install Linux, it might
be sensible to exclude X to decrease memory consumption.
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X Window System
Lineox LIFF – Documentation
Server
Lineox LIFF is completely new kind of ”documentation CD”, but it is much more
than that. Ideally, it should be installed as an add-on to a web server. After that,
you can do very fast searches that span the entire 900 MB of documentation Lineox
LIFF contains. This chapter introduces Lineox LIFF and we take a look at its installation and use.
Lineox LIFF introduction
Lineox LIFF is a totally new kind of product, there has been nothing similar available before.
However, Lineox LIFF uses many familiar techniques, and it is the combination of these techniques which is new.
Lineox LIFF is a kind of documentation CD. Most of the documentation files can be viewed
with a web browser and there is a HTML based menu system on the CD. The menu system
categorizes the available documents to allow easy manual browsing.
When Lineox LIFF is installed as a web server add-on, it offers even more features. A web
server installation enables fast searches using pre-made index files. This is similar to using
search engines on the Internet, such as Google, AltaVista, and the like. With Lineox LIFF you
can, however, limit your searches to categories of your interest and you do not need a connection
to the Internet.
The documentation on Lineox LIFF consists of documentation of Lineox Linux programs, man
and info pages converted to HTML format, Linux Documentation Project guides, HOWTO and
mini-HOWTO documents. Altogether there are about 72,500 documentation files which take
about 900 MB space on hard disk.
The total size of files on the Lineox LIFF CD is about 1.8 GB. This would, of course, be impos-
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Lineox LIFF – Documentation Server
sible without transparent compression. All the files can be viewed and otherwise used as normal
files if you have a recent enough Linux kernel. There have been some older patched kernels, but
in the official Linux kernel transparent CD-ROM file system support appeared first in version
2.4.14.
Using Lineox LIFF without installation
On Lineox Enterprise Linux 3.0 installation DVD-ROM LIFF is as a CD-ROM image file. The
easiest way to access it is to run LIFFmount script from the root directory of installation DVDROM. It mounts the image file to directory /mnt/LIFF, which then can be used like a mounted
CD-ROM.
To get yourself acquainted with Lineox LIFF, start with opening index.html from the CD-ROM
root directory. You can find a link called ”browse documents” there.
Lineox LIFF main menu frame is on the left, the selected documentation category
Lineox LIFF – Documentation Server
frame is on the right, and an info frame is below it.
Some important document categories in Lineox LIFF
While most of the Lineox LIFF document categories relate to Lineox Linux program categories,
there are some other major categories as well:
HTML/HOWTO – HOWTO documents from Linux Documentation Project (LDP)
HTML/info2html – info pages converted to HTML format
HTML/LDP – LDP guides. These are more complete that HOWTO documents.
HTML/man2html – man pages converted to HTML format
HTML/Mandrake_Manuals – Mandrake guides in HTML format
HTML/Red_Hat_Manuals – Red Hat guides in HTML format
Lineox LIFF installation and uninstallation
There are three ways Lineox LIFF can be installed.
The three installation modes are:
CD-ROM installation – this mode just makes links to the CD-ROM. This is a very fast
way to install, but using Lineox LIFF will be slow because all file accesses get directed to
the CD-ROM, which is a slower media than hard disk. Use this mode if you just want to
try out the fully featured Lineox LIFF. Later, you can run the installer again and choose a
hard disk installation; CD-ROM installation does not limit your future choices.
Because LIFF is included as an image file on Lineox Enterprise Linux installation disk,
this installation type requires that the DVD-ROM and LIFF image file are mounted manually before LIFF installation with commands:
umount /mnt/cdrom
mkdir /mnt/LEL
mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/LEL
mount /mnt/LEL/LIFF.iso /mnt/cdrom -o loop
If you want to use this installation type for a longer time, you should add the appropriate
lines to /etc/fstab file.
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Lineox LIFF – Documentation Server
Hard disk installation – this mode results in much faster operation, but the installation
itself can take some time, as there is about 1.8 GB of files on the Lineox LIFF CD-ROM.
Most files are fairly small in size, and there are over 75,000 files altogether.
CD-ROM image – this mode combines the speed advantage of hard disk installation and
space saving of compressed CD-ROM filesystem. This mode copies the whole CD-ROM
to hard disk as an image file, which is then mounted using loop device.
How fast is this type of installation? It depends on the relative speeds of your CPU and
hard disk. If the disk is slow compared to the processor, the time saved reading a smaller
compressed file is longer than it takes for the CPU to uncompress the file. As a rule of
thumb, it can be said that a typical 200 MHz or faster computer has a relatively faster CPU
than hard disk, and hard disks are getting relatively slower all the time.
Is speed very important then? It is if you chose an ordinary CD-ROM installation. With an
approximately 50x speed CD-ROM drive a search can take about half a minute. However,
search speed is only about 5 seconds on a 200 MHz computer when Lineox LIFF is
installed on hard disk.
Lineox LIFF installation options.
Lineox LIFF installation
Lineox LIFF installation starts by running LIFFinstall from the root directory of Lineox
Enterprise Linux DVD-ROM. It mounts LIFF CD-ROM image and starts LIFFinstall from
Lineox LIFF – Documentation Server
109
CD-ROM root directory. The purpose of this is that the user always starts LIFFinstall from
the root directory of DVD-ROM or CD-ROM and the type of media has no real effect.
Lineox LIFF installation is very simple. The user interface is handled by dialog in text mode
(use the - -text parameter to force text mode) and by Xdialog in graphical mode. If Xdialog is
not installed, you get the text mode, but you need not worry: it is just as easy to use and there is
no difference in operation between the text and graphical modes.
More important and possible momentary showstoppers are packages that LIFFinstall requires.
They are:
dialog or Xdialog
apache or httpd
htdig
htdig-web
If any of the required packages are missing, LIFFinstall provides a report on the missing packages, but continues.
In the best case, LIFFinstall asks only about the installation type. Choose CD-ROM, hard disk,
or CD-ROM image installation. If you have a fresh Lineox Linux installation, LIFFinstall asks
also if it can modify the Apache configuration file. Choose OK and the Lineox LIFF installation
is complete.
Note
Lineox LIFF installation program makes a directory alias docs for real directory
/usr/share/doc in the Apache configuration file. This is more secure way
than using FollowSymLinks option, which could compromise the safety of your
data. This setting would be very convenient, but it can expose unwanted directories
and files outside your web server directory tree to the outside world.
Lineox LIFF uninstallation
There is no need to uninstall Lineox LIFF if you want to replace CD-ROM installation with
hard disk installation, you just start Lineox LIFF installation program and choose hard disk
installation.
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Lineox LIFF – Documentation Server
If you want to remove your Lineox LIFF installation, the installation program offers uncompleted and not fully tested option to uninstall LIFF. It does work, but it doesn’t always remove
all the files LIFF installs.
The LIFF installation writes a log file with name /root/LIFFinstall.log. LIFF uninstall
reads it and tries to undo all what the installation did. Because the installation log should contain
all the necessary information about what the installation did do, a new and better version of
installation program could do a better work uninstalling all the LIFF files. Please check the
Lineox web site for a more recent version of installation program, if you want to uninstall LIFF.
Using Lineox LIFF
After installation you can use the Lineox LIFF search feature. You can limit the search scope
to any category available or only to the selected document packages in the selected category.
Selecting “Search” from the main menu is the easiest choice if you do not want to limit the
search scope.
If you have opened any of the documentation categories (except “All”) the checkbox “Include all
in this list in the search” is checked and the search scope is the currently selected documentation
category. If you want to further limit the search scope, uncheck it and check instead the documentation packages you want to limit your search to. If you want an unlimited search, uncheck
all the checkboxes.
In general, using Lineox LIFF is very easy and there is also online help available.
Index
A
apt-get . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
assign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
ATAPI DVD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
attrib . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
automatic partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
B
backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
BIOS settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
boot disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
boot options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
boot partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43, 44
booting the installer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
C
call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
cat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
cd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
changing partition size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
changing settings
KDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
chcp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
checking the DVD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
chkdsk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
chmod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
clear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
cls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
cmp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
comp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
consolechars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
cp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88, 89
cpio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
custom install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
D
date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88, 89
date, setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
dd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
dd command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
del . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
deltree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
device names of disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
device support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
DHCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
diff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
dir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Disk Druid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
disk partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
disk space requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
diskcomp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
diskcopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
display settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
DOS commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
du . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
DVD install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
E
echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
erase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88, 89
expert mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
F
fc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
fdformat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
features, new in Lineox Enterprise Linux 3.0 . . . . . . 26
find . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
firstboot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
free . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
fsck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
112
INDEX
G
ls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88, 89
H
man . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
manual partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45, 46
md. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
mem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
mkdir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
mount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87, 89
mount points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
mouse configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
move . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
mv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
GMT time zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
GNOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
gosub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
goto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
grep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
GRUB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
hardware
collecting information about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
I
IDE DVD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
if . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
install disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
install method
choosing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
install methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
install types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
beginning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
completing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
preparing for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
installation quick guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
installing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
installing programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
redhat-config-packages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
K
KDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
changing settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 41
keyb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
keyboard configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
kpersonalizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
L
language selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
less . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
lilo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
LILO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21, 50
Lineox LIFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
ln . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
loadhigh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
loadkeys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
lpr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
M
N
network settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34, 53
new features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
O
OpenOffice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
P
package groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
selecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
parted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 45
automatic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
password selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
pause . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
personal desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
pico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
procinfo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Q
quit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
R
rawrite tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
rd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
redhat-config-packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
redhat-config-xfree86 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
rem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
INDEX
113
removing
Lineox Enterprise Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
ren. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
rescue mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
rm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
rmdir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
root partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 43, 44, 48
root password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
rpm packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
S
SCSI DVD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
server install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
settings
date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
XFree86 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
SMP motherboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
software packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44, 59, 60
sort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
soundcard configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
subst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
supported devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
swap partition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 43, 44, 48
synaptic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
sys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
T
tar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87, 89
text-mode install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
time zone setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
time, setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
top. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
U
uname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
undelete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
upgrading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 41
user account, creating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
UTC time zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
V
ver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
verify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
video modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
virtual consoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
W
welcome screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
workstation install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
X
X Window System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
xcopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88, 89
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