bir rule i ro k vo es fo insta 2014 klasif olum or m alla 4 edit fika me iii

bir rule i ro k vo es fo insta 2014 klasif olum or m alla 4 edit fika me iii
 LES FOR
R THE CLASSIFICA
ATION AND
RUL
CON
NSTRUC
CTION
N
PAR
RT 1. SE
EAGOIN
NG SHIIPS
VO
OLUM
ME III
RULE
ES FO
OR MACHI
M
INERY
RY
INSTA
I
ALLA
ATION
NS
20144 EDIT
TION
N
BIR
RO KLASIF
K
FIKASI IND
DONE
ESIA
LES FOR
R THE CLASSIFICA
ATION AND
RUL
CON
NSTRUC
CTION
N
PAR
RT 1. SE
EAGOIN
NG SHIIPS
VO
OLUM
ME III
RULE
ES FO
OR MACHI
M
INERY
RY
INSTA
I
ALLA
ATION
NS
20144 EDIT
TION
N
Biro Kllasifikasi In
ndonesia
Jl. Yos Sudarso Noo. 38-40, Taanjung Priokk
Jakarta 14320
www.bkki.co.id
[email protected]
Copyright © 2014
Reproductiion in whole or in
i part by any means,
m
is subject to the permissio
on in writing by Biro Klasifikasii Indonesia Head
d Office
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BKI Rules For Machinery Installations - 2014
Foreword
iii
Foreword
Rules for Machinery Installations Volume III 2014 Edition amends Rules for Machinery Installations Volume III 2013 Edition. Reference sources of the rules are derived from world maritime regulatory
developments, IACS Procedural Requirements, IACS Unified Requirements, and inputs from BKI Branch
Offices and Technical Division BKI Head Office.
Section 1. General Rules and Instruction contains scope of application This Rules.
Section 2. Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor, this section contain requirements for apply to
internal combustion engines used as main propulsion units and auxiliary units (including emergency units)
as well as to air compressors.
Section 3I. Turbomachinery/ Steam Turbines, this section contains scope of requirement for main and
auxiliary steam turbines.
Section 3II. Turbomachinery / GasTurbines and Exhaust Gas Turbochargers, this section contain
requirement for approval of turbochargers fitted on diesel engines and describe the required procedures for
drawing approval, testing, and shop approval.
Section 4. Main Shafting, this section contain of requirement for standard and established types of shafting
for main and auxiliary propulsion as well as for lateral thruster
Section 5. Gears, Coupling, this section contain of requirement for spur, planetary and bevel gears and to all
types of couplings for incorporation in the main propulsion plant or essential auxiliary machinery
Section 6. Propeller, this section contain of requirement for screw-propellers (controllable and fixed pitch).
Section 7I. Steam Boiler, this section contain requirement for " steam boiler" includes all closed vessels and
piping systems
Section 7II. Thermal Oil System, this section contain requirement for thermal oil systems in which organic
liquids (thermal oils) are heated by oil fired burners, exhaust gases or electricity to temperatures below their
initial boiling point at atmospheric pressure.
Section 8. Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers, this section contain requirement for essential pressure
vessels (gauge or vacuum pressure)
Section 9. Oil Berner and Oil Firing Equipment contain requirements for oil burners and oil firing
equipment that are to be used for burning of liquid fuels
Section 10. Storage of Liquid Fuels, Lubricating, Hydraulic and Thermal Oils, this section contain
requirement for the storage of liquid fuels, lubricating, hydraulic and thermal oils as well as to oily residues.
Section 11. Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps contain requirement for pipes and piping systems, including
valves, fittings and pumps, which are necessary for the operation of the main propulsion plant together with
its auxiliaries and equipment.
Section 12. Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment contain requirement for fire protection in the
machinery and boiler spaces of passenger and cargo vessels and to fire extinguishing equipment throughout
the ship.
Section 13. Machinery for Ships with Ice Classes contain requirement for machinery of ships strengthened
for navigation in ice
Section 14. Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units, Lateral Thrust Units, Winches, Hydraulic Control
Systems, Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers contain requirement for the steering gear including all
the equipment used to operate the rudder, the steering station and all transmission elements from the steering
station to the steering gear
Section 15. Special Requirement for Tankers
Section 16. Torsional Vibration
Section 17. Spare Part
BKI Rules For Machinery Installations - 2014
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BKI Rules For Machinery Installations - 2014
Table of Contents
v
Table of Contents
Page
Foreword
Table of Content ……………………………………………………………...……………………………………..
i
Rule Amendment Notice ……………………………………………………..…………………………………….. vi
Section 1
General Rules and Instructions
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
Section 2
Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
N.
O.
Section 3 I
General ……………………………………………………………………………………… 1/16
Documents for Approval …………………………………………………..……………….. 1/16
Ambient Conditions ……………………………………………………………………….. 2/16
Design and Construction of the Machinery Installation …………….......………………….. 8/16
Engine and Boiler Room Equipment ………………………………………....……………. 11/16
Safety Equipment and Protective Measures ………………………………….......………… 13/16
Communication and Signaling Equipment ……………………………………….....……... 14/16
Operationally Important Auxiliary Machinery …………………………………..………… 14/16
General ……………………………………………………………………………………… 1/61
Documents for Approval …………………………………………………………..……….. 3/61
Crankshaft Calculation …………………………………………………………….……….. 6/61
Materials …………………………………………………………………………………….. 7/61
Tests and Trials ……………………………………………………………………………. 12/61
Safety Devices …………………………………………………………………….……….. 21/61
Auxiliary Systems ………………………………………………………………..………. 29/61
Starting Equipment ……………………………………………………………….……… 33/61
Control Equipment ……………………………………………………………...……….. 36/61
Alarm ………………..…………………………………………………………...………… 37/61
Engine Alignment/Seating ……………………………………………………….…….….. 38/61
Approximate Calculation of the Starting Air Supply …………………………………..…. 43/61
Air Compressors
………………………………………………………………………... 43/61
Exhaust Gas Cleaning System ………………...………………………………………….. 47/61
Gas Fuelled Engine ………………………………………………………………………. 50/61
Turbomachinery / Steam Turbines
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
Section 3 II
General …………………………………………………………………………………..… 1/7
Materials …………………………………………………………………………………. 1/7
Design and Construction Principles …………………………………………………........ 2/7
Astern Running, Emergency Operation ………………………………………………........ 3/7
Maneuvering and Safety Equipment ………………………………………...………....... 3/7
Control and Monitoring Equipment ……………………………………………………..... 5/7
Condensers ……………………………………………………………………………….. 5/7
Tests ……………………………………………………………………………………… 5/7
Trials ……………………………………………………………………………………… 6/7
Turbomachinery / Gas Turbines and Exhaust Gas Turbochargers
A.
B.
C.
D.
General …………………………………………………………………….………………. 1/8
Design and Installation ……………………………………………………..…………….. 2/8
Test ………………………………………………………………………….………….... 3/8
Shops Approval ……………………………………………………………….………….. 7/8
BKI Rules for Machinery Installations - 2014
vi
Section 4
Table of Contents
Main Shafting
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Section 5
Gears, Couplings
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
Section 6
General …………………………………………………………………………………….. 1/54
Materials ……………………………………………………………………………………. 4/54
Principles Applicable to Manufacture ………………………………………………...…… 6/54
Design Calculations …………………………………………………………………….…. 8/54
Equipment and Installation ……………………………………………………………...… 40/54
Testing’s of Boilers ……………………………………………………………………….. 48/54
Hot Water Generators ………………………………………………………………...…….. 49/54
Flue Gas Economizer ………………………………………………………………..……. 50/54
Thermal Oil Systems
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
Section 8
General …………………………………………………………………………………….. 1/13
Materials ……………………………………………………………………………………. 1/13
Dimensions and design of propellers ………………………………………………...…… 2/13
Controllable Pitch Propellers …………………………………………………………...…. 8/13
Propeller Mounting ……………………………………………………………………….. 10/13
Balancing and Testing …………………………………………………………………..… 12/13
Steam Boilers
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
Section 7 II
General …………………………………………………………………………………….. 1/19
Materials …………………………………………………………………………………… 1/19
Calculation of the Load-Bearing Capacity of Cylindrical and Bevel Gearing ……........... 2/19
Gear Shafts …………………………………………………………………………………. 11/19
Equipment ………………………………………………………………………………... 12/19
Balancing and Testing …………………………………………………………………..… 13/19
Design and Construction of Couplings ……………………………………………….....… 14/19
Propeller
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
Section 7 I
General ………………………………………………………………………………….…. 1/12
Materials …………………………………………………………………………………. 1/12
Shaft Dimensions ……………………………………………………………………….... 2/12
Design …………………………………………………………………………….………. 4/12
Pressure Tests………………………………………………………………………....…… 12/12
General …………………………………………………………………………………….. 1/9
Heaters …………………………………………………………………………………….. 2/9
Vessels …………………………………………………………………………………….. 5/9
Equipment Items ………………………………………………………………………….. 7/9
Marking …………………………………………………………………………….......….. 7/9
Fire Precautions ………………………………………………………………………..…... 8/9
Testing ………………………………………………………………………………….…... 8/9
Pressure Vessels
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
General …………………………………………………………………………………….. 1/16
Materials …………………………………………………………………………………..... 2/16
Manufacturing Principles ………………………………………………………………..... 5/16
Calculations .............................................................................................................................. 6/16
Equipment and Installation ………………………………………………………………..... 9/16
Tests ………………………………………………………………………………………... 10/16
Gas Cylinders ……………………………………………………………………………... 11/16
BKI Rules for Machinery Installations - 2014
Table of Contents
Section 9
vii
Oil Burners and Oil Firing Equipment
A.
B.
C.
D.
General …………………………………………………………………………………….. 1/6
Requirements Regarding Oil Firing Equipment ………………………………………....... 2/6
Requirement to Oil Burners ………………………………………………………………… 3/6
Testing ……………………………………………………………………………………… 6/6
Section 10 Storage of Liquid Fuels, Lubricating, Hydraulic and Thermal Oils as well as Oily Residues
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
Section 11
General …………………………………………………………………………………... 1/6
Storage of Liquid Fuels …………………………………………………………………. 1/6
Storage of Lubricating and Hydraulic Oils …………………………………………….... 4/6
Storage of Thermal Oils …………………………………………………………………. 4/6
Storage of Oil Residues …………………………………………………………………. 5/6
Storage of Gas Bottles for Domestic Purposes ………………………………………....... 6/6
Piping Systems, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
K.
L.
M.
N.
O.
P.
Q.
R.
S.
T.
U.
Section 12
General …………………………………………………………………………………... 1/71
Materials, Testing ……………………………………………………………………….... 3/71
Calculation of Wall Thickness and Elasticity ………………………………………....… 11/71
Principles for the Construction of Pipes, Valves, Fittings and Pumps …………............... 19/71
Steam Lines ……………………………………………………………………………... 30/71
Boiler Feed Water and Circulating Arrangement, Condensate Recirculation ……......... 31/71
Fuel Oil Systems ……………………………………………………………………….... 33/71
Lubricating Oil Systems ………………………………………………………………..... 38/71
Seawater Cooling Systems …………………………………………………………….... 40/71
Fresh Water Cooling Systems ………………………………………………………....... 43/71
Compressed Air Lines…………………………………………………………………...... 44/71
Exhaust Gas Lines ……………………………………………………………………..... 45/71
Bilge Systems
…………………………………………………………………………. 46/71
Equipment for the Treatment and Storage of Bilge Water, Fuel/Oil Residues …............. 54/71
Ballast Systems ……………………………………………………………………….. 56/71
Thermal Oil Systems …………………………………………………………………...... 59/71
Air, Overflow and Sounding Pipes ……………………………………………………..... 60/71
Drinking Water Systems ………………………………………………………………..... 64/71
Sewage Systems ……………………………………………………………………….... 65/71
Hose Assemblies and Compensators ……………………………………………….......... 67/71
Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
L.
M.
N.
O.
General ………………………………………………………………………………....... 1/77
Fire Protection …………………………………………………………………………... 2/77
Fire Detection……………………………………………………………………………... 6/77
Scope of Fire Extinguishing Equipment ……………………………………………......... 9/77
General Water Fire Extinguishing Equipment (Fire and Deckwash System) ….............. 10/77
Portable and Mobile Fire Extinguisher, Portable Foam Applicators and
Water Fog Applicators ………………………………………………………………….... 20/77
High-Pressure CO2 Fire Extinguishing Systems ……………………………………........ 23/77
Low-Pressure CO2 Fire Extinguishing Systems ……………………………………......... 31/77
Gas Fire-Extinguishing Systems using Gases other than CO2
for Machinery Spaces and Cargo Pump-Rooms ……………………………………........ 33/77
Other Fire Extinguishing Systems …………………………………………………......... 38/77
Foam Fire Extinguishing Systems ……………………………………………………..... 39/77
Pressure Water Spraying Systems ………………………………………………….......... 42/77
Fire Extinguishing Systems for Paint Lockers, Flammable Liquid Lockers,
Galley Range Exhaust Ducts and Deep-Fat Cooking Equipment ………………................ 48/77
Waste Incineration ……………………………………………………………………….. 49/77
Fire Extinguishing Equipment for Helicopter Landing Decks ……………………........... 50/77
BKI Rules for Machinery Installations - 2014
viii
Table of Contents
P.
Q.
Section 13
Machinery For Ships With Ice Classes
A.
B.
C.
D.
Section 14
General ………………………………………………………………………….…………. 1/22
General Requirements for Tankers ………………………………………......…………….. 2/22
Tankers for the Carriage of Oil Cargo ……………………………………....……………. 12/22
Inert Gas Systems for Tankers ………………………………………….……...…………. 16/22
Torsional Vibrations
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
Section 17
Steering Gears ……………………………………………………………………………... 1/28
Rudder Propeller Units …………………………………………………………………….8/28
Lateral Thrust Units ………………………………………………………………………. 10/28
Windlasses …………………………………………………………………………………..11/28
Winches …………………………………………………………………………………... 18/28
Hydraulic Systems ……………………………………………………………………….. 18/28
Fire Door Systems ……………………………………………………………………….... 25/28
Stabilizers …………………………………………………………………………………. 27/28
Special Requirements for Tankers
A.
B.
C.
D.
Section 16
General …………………………………………………………………………………….. 1/29
Necessary Propulsion Power ……………………………………………………………… 1/29
Propulsion Machinery ……………………………………………………………………… 1/29
Necessary Reinforcements For Ice Class ES …………………………………………….... 25/29
Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units, Lateral Thrust Units, Windlasses, Winches,
Hydraulic Control Systems, Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
Section 15
Equipment for the Transport of Dangerous Goods …………………………………......... 51/77
Carriage of Solid Bulk Cargoes ………………………………………………………...... 66/77
Definition …………………………………………………………………………………..1/8
Calculation of Torsional Vibrations ………………………………...…………………….. 1/8
Permissible Torsional Vibration Stresses ……………………………..…………………... 2/8
Torsional Vibration Measurements ……………………………………………………….. 7/8
Prohibited Ranges of Operation ……………………………………………………………7/8
Auxiliary Machinery ……………………………………………………………………… 7/8
Spare Parts
A.
B.
General …………………………………………………………………………………….. 1/8
Volume of Spare Parts …………………………………………………………………….. 1/8
BKI Rules for Machinery Installations - 2014
Rules Amendments Notice x Rules Amendment Notice
These pages contain amendments within the following Sections of the Rules for Machinery Installations,
2014 Edition
These amendments are affective from January 1st 2014
Paragraph
Title/ Subject
Status/ Remarks
Section 11. Piping System, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
D.
Principles for the Construction of Pipes, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
3.1
No Title
3.3
Control
To add requirement and verification reference for
Piping system identification
Section 14. Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units, Lateral Thrust Unit, Windlasses, Winches,
Hydraulic Control System, Fire Door Control System and Stabilizers
B
Rudder Propeller Unit
To add emergency system required for rudder propeller
unit with propulsion power exceeds 2500 Kw
BKI Rules For Machinery Installations - 2014
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BKI Rules For Machinery Installations - 2014
Section 1 - General Rules and Constructions
A-B
1/16
Section1
General Rules and Instructions
A.
General
A-B
1.
The Rules for Machinery Installations apply to the propulsion installations of ships classed byBiro
Klasifikasi Indonesia including all the auxiliary machinery and equipment necessary for the operation and
safety of the ship.
They also apply to machinery which BKI is to confirm as being equivalent to classed machinery.
2.
Apart from the machinery and equipment detailed below, the Rules are also individually
applicable to other machinery and equipment where this is necessary to the safety of the ship or its cargo.
3.
Designs which deviate from the Rules for Machinery Installations may be approved provided that
such designs have been examined by BKI for suitability and have been recognized as equivalent.
4.
Machinery installations which have been developed on novel principles and/or which have not yet
been sufficiently tested in shipboard service require the BKI's special approval.
Such machinery may be marked by the Notation "EXP." affixed to the Character of Classification and be
subjected to intensified survey, if sufficiently reliable proof cannot be provided of its suitability and
equivalence in accordance with 3.
5.
In the instances mentioned in 3. and 4. BKI is entitled to require additional documentation to be
submitted and special trials to be carried out.
6.
In addition to the Rules, BKI reserves the right to impose further requirements in respect of all
types of machinery where this is unavoidable due to new findings or operational experience, or BKI may
permit deviations from the Rules where these are specially warranted.
7.
National Rules or Regulations outside BKI’s Rules remain unaffected.
B.
Documents for Approval
1.
Before the start of manufacture, plans showing the general arrangement of the machinery
installation together with all drawings of parts and installations subject to testing, to the extent specified in
the following Sections are each to be submitted in triplicate1)to BKI. To facilitate a smooth and efficient
approval process. the drawings could be submitted in electronic format.
2.
The drawings shall contain all the data necessary for approval. Where necessary, calculations and
descriptions of the plant are to be submitted.
3.
Once the documents submitted have been approved by BKI they are binding on the execution of
the work. Any subsequent modifications require BKI's approval before being put into
1
) For ships flying Indonesian flag in quadruplicate, one of which intended for the Indonesian Government
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
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C
C.
Section 1 - General Rules and Constructions
Ambient Conditions
C
Operating conditions, general
1.
1.1
The selection, layout and arrangement of all shipboard machinery, equipment and appliances shall
be such as to ensure faultless continuous operation under the ambient conditions specified in Tables 1.1-1.4.
Account is to be taken of the effects on the machinery installation of distortions of the ship's hull.
1.2
Table 1.1 Inclinations
Angle of inclination [°] 2)
Installations, Components
Athwart ship
Main and auxiliary machinery
Ship's safety equipment, e.g. emergency power
installations, emergency fire pumps and their drives
1
Fore-and-aft
static
dynamic
static
dynamic
15
22,5
54)
7,5
22,53)
22,5 3)
10
10
Switchgear, electrical and electronic appliances ) and
remote control systems
1)
Up to an angle of inclination of 45° no undesired switching operations or functional changes may occur.
2)
Athwart ships and fore-and-aft inclinations may occur simultaneously.
3)
On ships for the carriage of liquefied gases and chemicals the emergency power supply must also remain operational with the
ship flooded to a final athwart ships inclination up to a maximum of 30°
4)
Where the length of the ship exceeds 100 m, the fore-and-aft static angle of inclination may be taken as 500/L degrees.
Note:BKI may consider deviations from the angles of inclination defined in Table 1.1 taking into
consideration the type, size and service conditions of the ship.
Table 1.2 Water temperature
Coolant
Temperature [°C]
Seawater
+ 32 1)
Charge air coolant
inlet to charge air
cooler
+ 32 1)
1)
BKI may approve lower water temperatures for ships operating only in special geographical areas.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 1 - General Rules and Constructions
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Table 1.3 Air temperature
at atmosphere pressure = 1000 mbar
and relative humidity = 60%
Installations,
components
Location, arrangement
in enclosed spaces
Machinery and
electrical
installations 1)
on the opendeck
2)
0 to 45 2)
on Machinery components,boilers
in spaces,subject to higheror lower
temperatures
1)
Temperature range[°C]
According to specific local
conditions
-25 to + 45
Electronic appliances shall be designed and tested to ensure trouble free operation even at a constant air temperature of +
55°C.
BKI may approve lower air temperatures for ships designed only for service in particular geographical areas.
Table 1.4 Other ambient conditions
Location
Conditions
Ability to withstand oil vapour and salt laden air
Trouble-free operation within the temperature ranges stated in Table
1.3, and humidity up to 100 % at a reference temperature of 45° C
In all spaces
Tolerance to condensation is assumed
In specially protected control
rooms
80 % relative humidity at a reference
On the open deck
Ability to withstand temporary flooding with seawater and saltladen spray
2.
Vibrations
2.1
General
temperature of 45° C.
2.1.1
Machinery, equipment and hull structures are normally subjected to vibration stresses. Design,
construction and installation must in every case take account of these stresses.
The faultless long-term service of individual components shall not be endangered by vibration stresses.
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Section 1 - General Rules and Constructions
2.1.2
For vibrations generated by an engine or other device the intensity shall not exceed defined limits.
The purpose is to protect the vibration generators, the connected assemblies, peripheral equipment and hull
components form additional, excessive vibration stresses liable to cause premature failures or malfunctions.
2.1.3
The following provisions relate the vibrations in the frequency range from 2 to 300 Hz. The
underlying assumption is that vibrations with oscillation frequencies below 2 Hz can be regarded as rigidbody vibrations while vibrations with oscillation frequencies above 300 Hz normally occur only locally and
may be interpreted as structure-borne noise. Where, in special cases, these assumptions are not valid (e.g.
where the vibration is generated by a gear pump with a tooth meshing frequency in the range above 300 Hz)
the following provisions are to be applied in analogous manner.
2.1.4
Attention has to be paid to vibration stresses over the whole relevant operating range of the
vibration generator.
Where the vibration is generated by an engine, consideration must be extended to the whole available
working speed range and, where appropriate, to the whole power range.
2.1.5
The procedure described below is largely standardized. Basically, a substitution quantity is formed
for the vibration stress or the intensity of the exciter spectrum (see. 2.2.1). This quantity is then compared
with permissible or guaranteed values to check that it is admissible.
2.1.6
The procedure mentioned in 2.1.5 takes only incomplete account of the physical facts. The aim is
to evaluate the true alternating stresses or alternating forces. No simple relationship exists between the
actual loading and the substitution quantities: vibration amplitude vibration velocity and vibration
acceleration at external parts of the frame. Nevertheless this procedure is adopted since it at present appears
to be the only one which can be implemented in a reasonable way. For these reasons it is expressly pointed
out that the magnitude of the substitution quantities applied in relation to the relevant limits enables no
conclusion to be drawn concerning the reliability or loading of components so long as these limits are not
exceeded. It is, in particular, inadmissible to compare the loading of components of different reciprocating
machines by comparing the substitution quantities measured at the engine frame.
2.1.7
For reciprocating machinery, the following statements are only applicable for outputs over 100
kW and speeds below 3000 Rpm.
2.2
Assessment
2.2.1
In assessing the vibration stresses imposed on machinery, equipment and hull structures, the
vibration velocity v is generally used as a criterion for the prevailing vibration stress. The same criterion is
used to evaluate the intensity of the vibration spectrum produced by a vibration exciter (see. 2.1.2).
In the case of a purely sinusoidal oscillation, the effective value of the vibration velocity veff can be
calculated by the formula:
V
= √ · s · ω = √ · v = √ · ω(1)
in which
s
= vibration displacement amplitude
V
= vibration velocity amplitude
ω = angular velocity of vibration.
veff = effective value of vibration velocity
a
= vibration acceleration amplitude
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 1 - General Rules and Constructions
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For any periodic oscillation with individual harmonic components 1,2,...n, the effective value of the
vibration velocity can be calculated by the formula:
V
=
V eff + V eff + … . . V eff (2)
in which veffiis the effective value of the vibration velocity of the i-th harmonic component. Using formula
(1), the individual values of veffi are to be calculated for each harmonic.
Velocity [mm/s]
Depending on the prevailing conditions, the effective value of the vibration velocity is given by formula (1)
for purely sinusoidal oscillations or by formula (2) for any periodic oscillation.
Frequency [Hz]
Fig. 1.1 Areas for the assessment of vibration loads
2.2.2
The assessment of vibration loads is generally based on areas A, B and C, which are enclosed by
the boundary curves shown in Fig. 1.1. The boundary curves of areas A, B, and C are indicated in Table 1.5.
If the vibration to be assessed comprises several harmonic components, the effective value according to2.2.1
must be applied
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C
Section 1 - General Rules and Constructions
Table 1.5 Numerical definition of the area boundaries shown in Fig. 1.1
Areas
s
v
veff
a
[mm]
[mm/s]
[mm/s]
[9,81 m/s2]
A
B
C
A'
B'
<1
< 20
< 14
< 0,7
<1
< 35
< 25
< 1,6
<1
< 63
< 45
<4
<1
< 20
< 14
< 1,3
<1
< 40
< 28
< 2,6
The assessment of this value is to take account of all important harmonic components in the range from 2 to
300 Hz.
2.2.3
Area A can be used for the assessment of all machines, equipment and appliances. Machines,
equipment and appliances for use on board ship shall as a minimum requirement be designed to withstand a
vibration load corresponding to the boundary curve of area A.
Otherwise, with BKI's consent, steps must be taken (vibration damping etc.) to reduce the actual vibration
load to the permissible level.
2.2.4
Because they act as vibration exciters, reciprocating machines must be separately considered. Both
the vibration generated by reciprocating machines and the stresses consequently imparted to directly
connected peripheral equipment (e.g. governors, exhaust gas turbocharger and lubricating oil pumps) and
adjacent machines or plant (e.g. generators, transmission systems and pipes) may, for the purpose of these
Rules and with due regard to the limitations stated in 2.1.6, be assessed using the substitution quantities
presented in 2.2.
2.2.4.1 In every case the manufacturer of reciprocating machines has to guarantee permissible vibration
loads for the important directly connected peripheral equipment. The manufacturer of the reciprocating
machine is responsible to BKI for proving that the vibration loads are within the permissible limits in
accordance with 2.3.
2.2.4.2 Where the vibration loads of reciprocating machines lie within the A' area, separate consideration
or proofs relating to the directly connected peripheral equipment (see. 2.2.4) are not required. The same
applies to machines and plant located in close proximity to the generator (2.2.4).
In these circumstances directly connected peripheral appliances shall in every case be designed for at least
the limit loads of area B' and machines located nearby for the limit loads of area B.
If the permissible vibration loads of individual directly connected peripheral appliances in accordance with
2.2.4.1 lie below the boundary curve of area B, admissibility must be proved by measurement of the
vibration load which actually occurs.
2.2.4.3 If the vibration loads of reciprocating machines lie outside area A' but are still within area B', it
must be proved by measurement that directly connected peripheral appliances are not loaded above the
limits for area C.
In these circumstances directly connected peripheral appliances shall in every case be designed for at least
the limit loads of area C, and machines located nearby for the limit loads of area B.
Proof is required that machines and appliances located in close proximity to the main exciter are not
subjected to higher loads than those defined by the boundary curve of area B.If the permissible vibration
loads of individual directly connected peripheral appliances or machines in accordance with 2.2.4.1 lie
below the stated values, admissibility must be proved by measurement of vibration load which actually
occurs.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 1 - General Rules and Constructions
C
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2.2.4.4 If the vibration loads of reciprocating machines lie outside area B' but are still within area C, it is
necessary to ensure that the vibration loads on the directly connected peripheral appliances still remain
within area C. If this condition cannot be met, the important peripheral appliances must in accordance with
2.3 be demonstrably designed for the higher loads.
Suitable measures (vibration damping etc.) are to be taken to ensure reliable prevention of excessive
vibration loads on adjacent machines and appliances. The permissible loads stated in 2.2.4.3 (area B or a
lower value specified by the manufacturer) continue to apply to these units.
2.2.4.5 For directly connected peripheral appliances, BKI may approve higher values than those specified
in 2.2.4.2, 2.2.4.3 and 2.2.4.4 where these are guaranteed by the manufacturer of the reciprocating machine
in accordance with 2.2.4.1 and are proved in accordance with 2.3.
Analogously, the same applies to adjacent machines and appliances where the relevant manufacturer
guarantees higher values and provides proof of these in accordance with 2.3.
2.2.5
For appliances, equipment and components which, because of their installation in steering gear
compartments or bow thruster compartments, are exposed to higher vibration stresses, the admissibility of
the vibration load may, not withstanding 2.2.3, be assessed according to the limits of area B. The design of
such equipment shall allow for the above mentioned increased loads.
2.3
Proofs
2.3.1
Where in accordance with 2.2.4.1, 2.2.4.4, and 2.2.4.5 BKI is asked to approve higher vibration
load values, all that is normally required for this is the binding guarantee of the admissible values by the
manufacturer or the supplier.
2.3.2
BKI reserves the right to call for detailed proofs (calculations, design documents, measurements,
etc.) in case where this is warranted.
2.3.3
Type approval in accordance with BKI's "Regulations for the Performance of Type Test, Part 2,
Test Requirements for Electrical / Electronic Equipment and Systems" is regarded as proof of admissibility
of the tested vibration load.
2.3.4
BKI may recognize long-term trouble free operation as sufficient proof of the required reliability
and operational dependability.
2.3.5
The manufacturer of the reciprocating machine is in every case responsible to BKI for any proof
which may be required concerning the level of the vibration spectrum generated by reciprocating machinery.
2.4
Measurement
2.4.1
Proof based on measurements is normally required only for reciprocating machines with an output
of more than 100 kW, where the other conditions set out in 2.2.4.2 - 2.2.4.4 are met. Where circumstances
warrant this, BKI may also require proofs based on measurements for smaller outputs.
2.4.2
Measurements are to be performed in every case under realistic service conditions at the point of
installation. During verification, the output supplied by the reciprocating machine shall be not less than 80%
of the rated value. The measurement shall cover the entire available speed range in order to facilitate the
detection of any resonance phenomena.
2.4.3
BKI may accept proofs based on measurements which have not been performed at the point of
installation (e.g. test bed runs) or at the point of installation but under different mounting conditions
provided that the transferability of the results can be proved.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
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C-D
Section 1 - General Rules and Constructions
The results are normally regarded as transferable in the case of flexibly mounted reciprocating machines of
customary design.
If the reciprocating machine is not flexibly mounted, the transferability of the results may still be
acknowledged if the essential conditions for this (similar bed construction, similar installation and pipe
routing etc.) are satisfied
2.4.4
The assessment of the vibration stresses affecting or generated by reciprocating machines normally
relates to the location in which the vibration loads are greatest. Fig. 1.2 indicates the points of measurement
which are normally required for an in line piston engine. The measurement has to be performed in all three
directions. In justified cases exceptions can be made to the inclusion of all the measuring points.
2.4.5
The measurements may be performed with mechanical manually-operated instruments provided
that the instrument setting is appropriate to the measured values bearing in mind the measuring accuracy.
Directionally selective, linear sensors with a frequency range of at least 2 to 300 Hz should normally be
used. Non-linear sensors can also be used provided that the measurements take account of the response
characteristic.
With extremely slow-running reciprocating machines, measurements in the 0,5 to 2 Hz range may also be
required. The results of such measurements within the stated range cannot be evaluated in accordance with
2.2.
2.4.6
The records of the measurements for the points at which the maximum loads occur are to be
submitted to BKI together with a tabular evaluation.
C-D
D.
Design and Construction of the Machinery Installation
1.
Dimensions of components
1.1
All parts are to be capable of withstanding the stresses and loads peculiar to shipboard service, e.g.
those due to movements of the ship, vibrations, intensified corrosive attack, temperature changes and wave
impact, and shall be dimensioned in accordance with the requirements set out in the present Volume.
In the absence of Rules governing the dimensions of parts, the recognized Rules of engineering practice are
to be applied.
1.2 Where connections exist between systems or plant items which are designed for different forces,
pressures and temperatures (stresses), safety devices are to be fitted which prevent the over-stressing of the
system or plant item designed for the lower design parameters. To preclude damage, such systems are to be
fitted with devices affording protection against excessive pressures and temperatures and/or against
overflow.
2.
Materials
All components shall comply with the Rules for Materials (Part 1,Vol.V).
3.
Welding
The fabrication of welded components, the approval of companies and the testing of welders are subject to
the Rules for Welding (Part 1,Vol.VI).
4.
Tests
4.1
Machinery and its component part
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 1 - General Rules and Constructions
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9/16
are subject to constructional and material tests, pressure and leakage tests, and trials. All the tests prescribed
in the following Sections are to be conducted under the supervision of BKI.
In the case of parts produced in series, other methods of testing may be agreed with BKI instead of the tests
prescribed, provided that the former are recognized as equivalent by BKI.
4.2
BKI reserves the right, where necessary, to increase the scope of the tests and also to subject to
testing those parts which are not expressly required to be tested according to the Rules.
D
4.3 Components subject to mandatory testing are to be replaced with tested parts.
4.4
After installation on board of the main and auxiliary machinery, the operational functioning of the
machinery including the associated ancillary equipment is to be verified. All safety equipment is to be
tested, unless adequate testing has already been performed at the manufacturer's works in the presence of the
BKI Surveyor.
In addition, the entire machinery installation is to be tested during sea trials, as far as possible under the
intended service conditions.
4.5
For the requirements during sea trials see Guidance for Sea Trials of Motor Vessels.
C S
Sides for
L
measurement
coupling flange
left side looking
towards
R right side looking towards coupling
flange
Measuring
0
height
1
2 crankshaft height
3 frame top
coupling side (CS)
engine center
opposite side to
coupling (OSC)
Fig. 1.2 Schematic representation of in-line piston engine
5.
Measuring
point over
engine length
bed
base
I
II
III
Corrosion protection
Parts which are exposed to corrosion are to be safeguarded by being manufactured of corrosion-resistant
materials or provided with effective corrosion protection.
6.
Availability of machinery
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D
Section 1 - General Rules and Constructions
6.1
Ship's machinery is to be so arranged and equipped that it can be brought into operation from the
“dead ship” condition with the means available on board.
The “dead ship” condition means that the entire machinery installation including the electrical power supply
is out of operation and auxiliary sources of energy such as starting air, battery-supplied starting current etc.
are not available for restoring the ship's electrical system, restarting auxiliary operation and bringing the
propulsion installation back into operation.
To overcome the “dead ship” condition use may be made of an emergency generator set provided that it is
ensured that the electrical power for emergency services is available at all times. It is assumed that means
are available to start the emergency generator at all times.
6.2
In case of “dead ship” condition it is to be ensured that it will be possible for the propulsion system
and all necessary auxiliary machinery to be restarted within a period of 30 minutes (See Part 1, Vol. IV,
Rules for Electrical Installations, Section 3, C.)
7.
Control and regulating
7.1 Machinery must be so equipped that it can be controlled in accordance with operating requirements in
such a way that the service conditions prescribed by the manufacturer can be met.
7.1.1
For the control equipment of main engine and system essential for operation seeRules for
Electrical Installations (Part 1, Vol. IV), Section 9, B.3.
7.2
In the event of failure or fluctuations of the supply of electrical, pneumatic or hydraulic power to
regulating and control systems or in case of break in a regulating or control circuit, steps shall be taken to
ensure that:
‒
the appliances remain at their present operational setting or, if necessary, are changed to a setting
which will have the minimum adverse effect on operation (fail-safe conditions)
‒
the power output or engine speed of the machinery being controlled or governed is not increased and
‒
no unintentional start-up sequences are initiated.
7.3
Manual operation
Every functionally important, automatically or remote controlled system must also be capable of manual
operation.
8.
Propulsion plant
8.1
Maneuvering equipment
Every engine control platform is to be equipped in such a way that:
‒
the propulsion plant can be adjusted to any setting,
‒
the direction of propulsion can be reversed, and
‒
the propulsion unit or the propeller shaft can be stopped.
8.2
Remote controls
The remote control of the propulsion plant from the bridge is subject of Rules for Automation (Part
1,Vol.VII).
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 1 - General Rules and Constructions
8.3
E
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Multiple-shaft and multi-engine systems
Steps are to be taken to ensure that in the event of the failure of a propulsion engine, operation can be
maintained with the other engines, where appropriate by a simple change-over system.
For multiple-shaft systems, each shaft is to be provided with a locking device by means of which dragging
of the shaft can be prevented.
9.
Turning appliances
9.1 Machinery is to be equipped with the necessary turning appliances.
9.2
The turning appliances are to be of the self locking type. Electric motors are to be fitted with
suitable retaining brakes.
9.3
An automatic interlocking device is to be provided to ensure that the propulsion and auxiliary
prime movers cannot start up while the turning gear is engaged. In case of manual turning installations
warning devices may be provided alternatively
10.
Operating and maintenance instructions
10.1
Manufacturers of machinery, boilers and auxiliary equipment must supply a sufficient number of
operating and maintenance notices and manuals together with the equipment.
In addition, an easily legible board is to be mounted on boiler operating platforms giving the most important
operating instructions for boilers and oil-firing equipment.
11.
Markings, identification of machinery parts
In order to avoid unnecessary operating and switching errors, all parts of the machinery whose function is
not immediately apparent are to be adequately marked and labeled.
12.
Fuels
12.1
The flash point1) of liquid fuels for the operation of boilers and diesel engines may not be
lower than 60 ̊C.
For emergency generating sets, however, use may be made of fuels with a flash point of ≥ 43 ̊C.
12.2
In exceptional cases, for ships intended for operation in limited geographical areas or where
special precautions subject to the BKI's approval are taken, fuels with flash points between 43 ̊C and 60 ̊C
may also be used. This is conditional upon the requirement that the temperatures of the spaces in which
fuelsare stored or used shall invariably be 10 C
̊ below the flash point.
12.3
The use of gaseous fuels taken from the cargo is subject to, Rules for Ships Carrying Liquefied
Gases in Bulk (Part 1,Vol.IX).
13.
Refrigerating installations
Refrigerating installations for which no Refrigerating Installations Certificate is to be issued are subject to
Rules for Refrigerating Installations (Part 1,Vol.VIII), Section 1, C., D., F., J.1, M.1.5 and M.2.3.
E
E.
Engine and Boiler Room Equipment
2)
Based, up to 60 C
̊ , on determination of the flash point in a closed crucible (cup test).
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
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1.
E
Section 1 - General Rules and Constructions
Operating and monitoring equipment
1.1
Instruments, warning and indicating systems and operating appliances are to be clearly displayed
and conveniently sited. Absence of dazzle, particularly on the bridge, is to be ensured.
Operating and monitoring equipment is to be grouped in such a way as to facilitate easy supervision and
control of all important parts of the installation.
The following requirements are to be observed when installing systems and equipment:
‒ protection against humidity and the accumulation of dirt
‒ avoidance of excessive temperature variations
‒ adequate ventilation
In consoles and cabinets containing electrical or hydraulic equipment or lines carrying steam or water the
electrical gear is to be protected from the damage due to leakage. Redundant ventilation systems are to be
provided for air-conditioned machinery and control rooms.
1.2
Pressure gauges
The scales of pressure gauges are to be dimensioned up to the specified test pressure. The maximum
permitted operating pressures are to be marked on the pressure gauges for boilers, pressure vessels, and in
systems protected by safety valves. Pressure gauges must be installed in such a way that they can be
isolated.
Lines leading to pressure gauges must be installed in such a way that the readings cannot be affected by
liquid heads an hydraulic hammer.
2.
Accessibility of machinery and boilers
2.1
Machinery and boiler installations and apparatus are to be accessible for operation and
maintenance.
2.2
In the layout of machinery spaces (design of foundation structures, laying of pipelines and cable
conduits etc.) and the design of machinery and equipment (mountings for filters, coolers etc.), 2.1 is to be
complied with.
3.
Engine control rooms
Engine control rooms are to be provided with at least two exits, one of which can also be used as an escape
route.
4.
Lighting
All operating spaces are to be adequately lit to ensure that control and monitoring instruments can be easily
read. In this connection see Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 11.
5.
Bilge wells/bilges
5.1
Bilge wells and bilges are to be readily accessible, easy to clean and either easily visible or
adequately lit.
5.2
Bilges beneath electrical machines are to be so designed as to prevent bilge water from penetrating
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 1 - General Rules and Constructions
E-F
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into the machinery at all angles of inclination and movements of the ship in service.
5.3
For the following spaces bilge level monitoring is to be provided and limit values being exceeded
are to be indicated at a permanently manned alarm point:
‒
Unmanned machinery rooms of category "A" are to be equipped with at least 2 indicators for bilge
level monitoring.
‒
Other unmanned machinery rooms, such as bow thruster or steering gear compartments
arrangedbelow the load waterline are irrespective of ClassNotation OT to be equipped at least with
one indicator for bilge level monitoring.
6.
Ventilation
The machinery ventilation is to be designed under consideration of ambient conditions as mentioned in
Table 1.3.
7.
Noise abatement
In compliance with the relevant national regulations, care is to be taken to ensure that operation of the ship
is not unacceptably impaired by engine noise.
F.
Safety Equipment and Protective Measures
E-F
Machinery is to be installed and safeguarded in such a way that the risk of accidents is largely ruled out.
Besides national regulations particular attention is to be paid to the following:
1.
Moving parts, flywheels, chain and belt drives, linkages and other components which could
constitute an accident hazard for the operating personnel are to be fitted with guards to prevent contact. The
same applies to hot machine parts, pipes and walls for which no thermal insulation is provided, e.g. pressure
lines to air compressors.
2.
When using hand cranks for starting internal combustion engines, steps are to be taken to ensure
that the crank disengages automatically when the engines start.
Dead-Man’s circuits are to be provided for rotating equipment.
3.
Blowdown and drainage facilities are to be designed in such a way that the discharged medium can
be safely drained off.
4.
In operating spaces, anti-skid floor plates and floor-coverings are to be used.
5.
Service gangways, operating platforms, stairways and other areas open to access during operation
are to be safeguarded by guard rails. The outside edges of platforms and floor areas are to be fitted with
comings unless some other means is adopted to prevent persons and objects from sliding off
.
6.
Glass water level gauges for steam boilers are to be equipped with protection devices.
Devices for blowing through water level gauges must be capable of safe operation and observation.
7.
Safety valves and shut-offs are to be capable of safe operation. Fixed steps, stairs or platforms are
to be fitted where necessary.
8.
Safety valves are to be installed to prevent the occurrence of excessive operating pressures.
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F-G
Section 1 - General Rules and Constructions
9.
Steam and feedwater lines, exhaust gas ducts, boilers and other equipment and pipelines carrying
steam or hot water are to be effectively insulated. Insulating materials must be incombustible. Points at
which combustible liquids or moisture can penetrate into the insulation are to be suitably protected, e.g. by
means of shielding.
F-G
G.
Communication and Signaling Equipment
1.
Voice communication
Means of voice communication are to be provided between the ship's maneuvering station, the engine room
and the steering gear compartment, and these means shall allow fully satisfactory intercommunication
independent of the shipboard power supply under all operating conditions (see also Part 1 Seagoing
Ships,Volume IV, Rules for Electrical Installations, Section 9, C.4.).
2.
Engineer alarm
From the engine room or the engine control room it shall be possible to activate an alarm in the engineers
living quarters (see also Part 1 Seagoing Ships,Volume IV, Rules for Electrical Installations, Section 9, C.5.)
3. Engine telegraph
Machinery operated from the engine is to be equipped with a telegraph.
In the case of multiple-shaft installations, a telegraph shall be provided for each unit.
Local control stations are to be equipped with an emergency telegraph.
4.
Shaft revolution indicator
The speed and direction of rotation of the propeller shafts are to be indicated on the bridge and in the engine
room. In the case of small propulsion units, the indicator may be dispensed with.
Barred speed ranges are to be marked on the shaft revolution indicators, see Section 16.
5.
Design of communication and signaling equipment
Reversing, command transmission and operating controls etc. are to be grouped together at a convenient
point on the control platform.
The current status, “Ahead” or “Astern”, of the reversing control is to be clearly indicated on the propulsion
plant control platform.
Signaling devices are to be clearly perceptible from all parts of the engine room when the machinery is in
full operation.
For details of the design of electrically operated command transmission, signaling and alarm systems, see
Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 9 and Rules for Automation (Part 1,Vol.VII).
G-H
H.
Essential Equipment
1.
Essential for ship operation are all main propulsion plants.
2.
Essential (operationally important) are thefollowing auxiliary machinery and plants, which:
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 1 - General Rules and Constructions
–
are necessary for propulsion and maneuverability of the ship
–
are required for maintaining ship safety
–
serve the safety of human life as well as
–
equipment according to special Characters of Classification and Class Notations
3.
Essential auxiliary machinery and plants are comprising e.g.:
–
generator units
–
steering gear plant
–
fuel oil supply units
–
lubricating oil pumps
–
cooling water/cooling media pumps
–
starting and control air compressor
–
starting installations for auxiliary and main engines
–
charging air blowers
–
exhaust gas turbochargers
–
controllable pitch propeller installation
–
azimuth drives
–
engine room ventilation fans
–
steam, hot and warm water generation plants
–
thermal oil systems
–
oil firing equipment
–
pressure vessels and hear exchangers in essential systems
–
hydraulic pumps
–
fuel oil treatment units
–
fuel oil transfer pumps
–
lubrication oil treatment units
–
bilge and ballast pumps
–
heeling compensation systems
–
fire pumps and firefighting equipment
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
G-H
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H
Section 1 - General Rules and Constructions
–
anchor windlass
–
transverse thrusters
–
ventilation fans for hazardous areas
–
turning gears for main engines
–
bow and stern ramps as well as shell openings
–
bulkhead door closing equipment
H
4.
For ships with equipment according to special Characters of Classification and Notations certain
type-specific plants may be classed as essential equipment.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
A
1/59
Section 2
Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressors
A.
General
1.
Scope
A
The requirements contained in this Section apply to internal combustion engines used as main propulsion
units and auxiliary units (including emergency units) as well as to air compressors.
For the purpose of these requirements, internal combustion engines are:

diesel engines, fuelled with liquid fuel oil

dual-fuel engines, fuelled with liquid fuel oil and/or gaseous fuel

gas engines, fuelled with gaseous fuel
Requirements for dual-fuel engines and gas engines are specified in O.
2.
Ambient conditions
In determining the power of all engines used on board ships with an unlimited range of service, the
following ambient conditions are to be used:
Barometric pressure
1000 mbar
Suction air temperature
45
o
Relative humidity of air
60
%
Seawater temperature
32
o
C
C
The defined seawater temperature has especially to be considered as inlet temperature to coolers for charge
air coolant operating seawater.
3.
Rated power
3.1
Diesel engines are to be designed such that their rated power when running at rated speed according
to the definitions of the engine manufacturer at ambient conditions as defined in 2 can be delivered as a
continuous power. Diesel engines are to be capable of operating continuously within power range ➀ in Fig.
2.1 and intermittently in power range ➁. The extent of the power ranges are to be stated by the engine
manufacturer.
3.2
Continuous power is to be understood as the standard service power which an engine is capable of
delivering continuously, provided that the maintenance prescribed by the engine manufacturer is carried out,
in the maintenance intervals stated by the engine manufacturer.
3.3
The rated power is to be specified in a way that an overload power of 110 % of the rated power can
be demonstrated at the corresponding speed for an uninterrupted period of 1 hour. Deviations from the
overload power value require the agreement of the BKI.
3.4
After running on the test bed, the fuel delivery system of main engines is to be so adjusted that after
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
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2
A
S
Section
2 – Internal Combuustion Enginess and Air Com
mpressor
installation
i
oonboard overrload power cannot
c
be deelivered. The limitation of the fuel dellivery system
m has to be
secured
s
perm
manently.
3.5
3
Subject to the prrescribed con
nditions, diessel engines driving
d
electric generatorrs are to be capable of
overload
o
opeeration even after
a
installattion on boardd.
3.6
3
Subject to the appproval of BKI, diesel enngines for sp
pecial vessells and speciaal applications may be
designed
d
for a continuouss power (fuel stop powerr) which cann
not be exceed
ded.
g. 2.1 Examp
ple of a pow
wer diagram
m
Fig
3.7
3
For m
main enginees, a power diagram
d
(Figg. 2.1) is to be prepared showing thee power ranges within
which
w
the engine is able to
t operate co
ontinuously aand for short periods und
der service coonditions.
4.
4
Fuells
4.1
4
The uuse of liquidd fuels is subjject to the re quirements contained
c
in Section 1, D
D.12.
4.2
4
For fuel treatmennt and supply
y, see Sectioon 11, G.
4.3
4
The uuse of gaseoous fuels is subject
s
to thee requiremen
nts in Rules for
f Ships Caarry Liquified Gases in
Bulk
B
(Part 1,Vol.IX), Secction 16, resp
pectively Guuidelines for The
T Use of Gas
G As Fuel.
4.4
4
Regaarding the use of low sulp
phur fuel thee engine man
nufacturers reecommendatiions with resspect
to
t e.g. fuel chhange-over process,
p
lubriicity, viscosiity and comp
patibility are to be observved
5.
5
Acceessibility of engines
e
Engines
E
are tto be so arraanged in the engine room
m that all thee assembly holes and insppection ports provided
by
b the enginee manufacturrer for inspections and m
maintenance are accessiblle. A changee of componeents, as far
as
a practicablle on board,, shall be po
ossible. Reqquirements reelated to space and connstructions have
h
to be
considered
c
foor the installaation of the engines.
e
BK
KI Rules For M
Machinery Insstallation-2014
4
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
6.
A-B
3/59
Electronic components and systems
6.1
For electronic components and systems which are necessary for the control of internal combustion
engines the following items have to be observed:
6.2
Electronic components and systems have to be type approved according to Regulations for the
Performance of Type Test, Part 2-Test Requirements for Electrical / Electro Electronic Equipment
,Computers
6.3
For computer systems, Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 10 has to be
observed.
6.4
For main propulsion engines one failure of an electronic control system shall not result in a total
loss or sudden change of the propulsion power. In individual cases, BKI may approve other failure
conditions, whereby it is ensured that no increase of ship’s speed occurs.
6.5
The non-critical behavior in case of a failure of an electronic control system has to be proven by a
structured analysis (e.g FMEA), which has to be provided by the system’s manufacturer. This shall include
the effects on persons, environment and technical condition.
6.6
Where the electronic control system incorporates a speed control, F.1.3 and Rules for Electrical
Installations (Part 1, Vol.IV), Section 9, B.8 have to be observed.
7
Local control station
7.1
For the local control station, I. has to be observed.
7.2
The indicators named in I. shall be realized in such a way that one failure can only affect a single
indicator. Where these indicators are an integral part of an electronic control system, means shall be taken to
maintain these indications in case of failure of such a system.
7.3
Where these indicators are realized electrically, the power supply of the instruments and of the
electronic system has to be realized in such a way to ensure the behavior stated in 7.2.
A-B
B.
Documents for Approval
1.
General
For each engine type the drawings and documents listed in Table 2.1 shall, wherever applicable, be
submitted by the engine manufacturer to BKI for approval (A) or reference (R). Where considered
necessary, BKI may request further documents to be submitted. This also applies to the documentation of
design changes according to 4. BKI also receives documents submitted in electronic format.
2.
Engines manufactured under license
For each engine type manufactured under license, the licensee shall submit to BKI, as a minimum
requirement, the following documents:

comparison of all the drawings and documents as per Table 2.1 - where applicable - indicating the
relevant drawings used by the licensee and the licensor.

all drawings of modified components, if available, as per Table 2.1 together with the licensor's
declaration of consent to the modifications,

a complete set of drawings shall be put at the disposal of the head office of BKI as a basis for the
tests and inspections.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
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B
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
3.
Definition of a Diesel engine type
3.1
The type specification of an internal combustion engine is defined by the following data:

manufacturer's type designation

cylinder bore

stroke

method of injection (direct, indirect)

valve and injection operation (by cams or electronically controlled)

fuels which can be used (liquid, dual-fuel, gaseous)

working cycle (4-stroke, 2-stroke)

method of gas exchange (naturally aspirated or supercharged)

rated power per cylinder at rated speed as well as mean effective pressure

method or pressure charging (pulsating pressure system or constant-pressure charging system)

charge air cooling system

cylinder arrangement (in-line, V)
4.
Design modification
B
Following initial approval of an engine type by BKI, only those documents listed in Table 2.1 require to be
resubmitted for examinations which embody important design modifications.
5.
Approval of engine components
The approval of exhaust gas turbochargers, heat exchangers, engine-driven pumps, etc. is to be requested
from BKI by the respective manufacturers.
Table 2.1 Documents for approval
Serial
A/R
No.
Description
Quantity
1
R
Details required on BKI forms when applying for approval of
an internal combustion engine
3
2
R
Engine transverse cross-section
3
3
R
3
R
A
Engine longitudinal section
Bedplate or crankcase
- cast
- welded, with welding details and instructions
Thrust bearing assembly
Thrust bearing bed plate
- cast
- welded, with welding details and instructions
Frame/frame box
- cast
- welded, with welding details and instructions
R
Tie rod
4
R
A
5
R
6
R
A
7
8
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Remarks
(see below)
1
3
3
9
1
3
9
1
3
1
3
1
1,9
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
B
5/59
Table 2.1 Documents for approval (cont.)
Serial
A/R
Description
No.
9
R Cylinder cover/head assembly
10
11
R
A
12
Quantity
Remarks
(see below)
1
3
A
Cylinder liner
Crankshaft for each number of cylinders, with data sheets for
calculation of crankshafts
Crankshaft assembly, for each number of cylinders
13
A
Thrust shaft or intermediate shaft (if integral with engines)
3
14
A
Shaft coupling bolts
3
15
R
Counterweights including fastening bolts
3
16
R
Connecting rod, details
3
17
R
Connecting rod assembly
3
18
R
Crosshead assembly
3
2
19
R
Piston rod assembly
3
2
20
R
Piston assembly
1
21
22
R
A
1
23
24
R
A
25
A
26
A
27
A
28
A
Camshaft drive, assembly
Material specifications of main parts with information on nondestructive material tests and pressure tests
Arrangement of foundation (for main engines only)
Schematic layout or other equivalent documents of starting air
system
Schematic layout or other equivalent documents of fuel oil
system
Schematic layout or other equivalent documents of lubricating
oil system
Schematic layout or other equivalent documents of cooling
water system
Schematic diagram of engine control and safety system
29
A
Schematic diagram of electronic components and systems
1
30
R
Shielding and insulation of exhaust pipes, assembly
1
31
A
Shielding of high-pressure fuel pipes, assembly
3
4
32
A
Arrangement of crankcase explosion relief valves
3
5
33
R
1
7
34
A
3
35
A
Operation and service manuals
Schematic layout or other equivalent documents of hydraulic
system (for valve lift) on the engine
Type test program and type test report
36
A
High pressure parts for fuel oil injection system
3
37
38
A
A
Oil mist detection, monitoring and alarm system
Schematic layout or other equivalent documents of exhaust
and charging air system
3
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
1
3
3
8
3
3
6
3
6
3
6
3
6
3
6
1
3
10
6
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B-C
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
Table 2.1 Documents for approval (cont.)
1
only for one cylinder
2
only necessary if sufficient details are not shown on the transverse cross section and longitudinal
section.
3
if integral with engine and not integrated in the bedplate
4
for all engines
5
only for engines with a bore > 200 mm, or a crankcase volume > 0,6 m3
6
and the system, where this is supplied by the engine manufacturer. If engines incorporate electronic
control system a failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is to be submitted to demonstrate that
failure of an electronic control system will not result in the loss of essential services for the
operation of the engine and that operation of the engines will not be lost or degraded beyond an
acceptable performance criteria of the engine.
7
operation and service manuals are to contain maintenance requirements (servicing and repair)
including details of any special tools and gauges that are to be used with their fitting/settings
together with any test requirements on completion of maintenance.
8
for comparison with BKI requirements for material, NDT and pressure testing as applicable.
9
the weld procedure specification is to include details of pre and post weld heat treatment, welding
consumables and fit-up conditions.
10 the documentation has to contain specifications of pressures, pipe dimensions and materials.
A
for approval
R for reference
B-C
C.
Crankshaft Calculation
1.
Design methods
1.1
Crankshafts are to be designed to withstand the stresses occurring when the engine runs at rated
power and the documentation has to be submitted for approval. Calculations are to be based on Regulations
for the Calculation of Crankshafts for Internal Combustion Engines. Other methods of calculation may be
used provided that they do not result in crankshaft dimensions smaller than those obtained by applying the
aforementioned regulations.
1.2
Outside the end bearings, crankshafts designed according to the regulations specified in 1.1 may be
adapted to the diameter of the adjoining shaft d by a generous fillet r (r ≥ 0,06 ⋅ d) or a taper.
1.3
Design methods for application to crankshafts of special construction and to the crankshafts of
engines of special type are to be agreed with BKI.
2.
Shrink joints of built-up crankshafts
The shrink joints of built-up crankshafts are to be designed in accordance with Regulations for the
Calculation of Crankshaft for Internal Combustion Engines.
3.
Screw joints
3.1
Split crankshafts
Only fitted bolts may be used for assembling split crankshafts.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
3.2
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Power-end flange couplings
The bolts used to connect power-end flange couplings are normally to be designed as fitted bolts in
accordance with Section 4, D.4.
If the use of fitted bolts is not feasible, BKI may agree to the use of an equivalent frictional resistance
transmission. In these cases the corresponding calculations are to be submitted for approval.
4.
Torsional vibration, critical speeds
Section 16 applies.
C–D
D.
Materials
1.
Approved materials
1.1
The mechanical characteristics of materials used for the components of diesel engines shall conform
to Part 1, Seagoing Ships, Volume V, Rules for Materials. The materials approved for the various
components are shown in Table 2.3 together with their minimum required characteristics and material
certificates.
1.2
Materials with properties deviating from those specified may be used only with BKI’s special
approval. BKI requires proof of the suitability of such materials.
2.
Testing of materials
2.1
In the case of individually produced engines, the following parts are to be subjected to material tests
in the presence of BKI’s representative.
1.
Crankshaft
2.
Crankshaft coupling flange for main power transmission (if not forged to crankshaft)
3.
Crankshaft coupling bolts
4.
Pistons or piston crowns made of steel, cast steel or nodular cast iron
5.
Piston rods
6.
Connecting rods including the associated bearing covers
7.
Crossheads
8.
Cylinder liners made of steel or cast steel
9.
Cylinder covers made of steel or cast steel
10.
Welded bedplates:
plates and bearing transverse girders made of forged or cast steel
11.
Welded frames and crankcases
12.
Welded entablature
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
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Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
13.
Tie rods
14.
Bolts and studs for:
- cylinder cover
- crossheads
- main bearings
- connecting rod bearings
15.
Camshaft drive gear wheels and chain wheels made of steel or cast steel.
2.1.1
Material tests are to be performed in accordance with Table 2.2.
Table 2.2 Material tests
Cylinder bore
Parts to be tested (numbered according to the list under D.2.1
above)
≤ 300 mm
1-6-10- 11-12- 13
> 300 ≤ 400 mm
1-6-8-9-10-11-12-13-14
> 400 mm
all parts
2.1.2 In addition, material tests are to be carried out on pipes and parts of the starting air system and other
pressure systems forming part of the engine, See Section 11.
2.1.3
Materials for charge air coolers are to be supplied with manufacturer test reports.
2.2
In the case of individually manufactured engines, non-destructive material tests are to be performed
on the parts listed below in accordance with Tables 2.4 and 2.5:
1.
Steel castings for bedplates, e.g. bearing transverse girders, including their welded joints
2.
Solid forged crankshafts
3.
Cast, rolled or forged parts of fully built crankshafts
4.
Cast or forged parts of semi-built crankshafts
5.
Connecting rods
6.
Piston rods
7.
Piston crowns of steel or cast steel
8.
Tie rods (at each thread over a distance corresponding to twice the threaded length)
9.
Bolts which are subjected to alternating loads, e.g.:
 main bearing bolts
 connecting rod bolts
 crosshead bearing bolts
 cylinder cover bolts
10.
Cylinder covers made of steel or cast steel
11.
Camshaft drive gear wheels made of steel or cast steel.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
9/59
2.2.1 Magnetic particle or dye penetrant tests are to be performed in accordance with Table 2.4 at those
points, to be agreed between BKI’s Surveyor and the manufacturer, where experience shows that defects are
liable to occur.
2.2.2 Ultrasonic tests are to be carried out by the manufacturer in accordance with Table 2.5, and the
corresponding signed manufacturer's certificates are to be submitted.
2.2.3 Welded seams of important engine components may be required to be subjected to approve methods
of testing.
2.2.4 Where there is reason to doubt the soundness of any engine component, non-destructive testing by
approved methods may be required in addition to the tests mentioned above.
2.3
Crankshafts welded together from forged or cast parts are subject to BKI's special approval. Both
the manufacturers and the welding process shall be approved. The materials and the welds are to be tested.
Table 2.3 Approved materials and type of test certificate
BKI's Rules
*
Approved materials
Forged steel Rm ≥ 360 N/mm2
Components
Test Certificates ⋆
A
B
C
Section 3, C.
Crankshafts
X
-
-
Section 3, B.
Connecting rods
Pistons rods
Crossheads
Pistons and piston crowns
Cylinder covers/heads
Camshaft drive wheels
X
X3)
X3)
X3)
X
X3)
X4)
X4)
X4)
X4)
-
Rolled or forged steel rounds
Rm ≥ 360 N/mm2
Section 3, B.
Tie rods
Bolts and studs
X
X1)
X2)
-
Special grade cast steel
Rm ≥ 440 N/mm2 and
Special grade forged steel
Rm ≥ 440 N/mm2
Section 4, C.
Throws and webs of builtup crankshafts
X
-
-
Cast steel
Section 4, B.
Bearing transverse girders
(weldable)
Pistons and piston crowns
Cylinder covers/heads
Camshaft drive wheels
X
-
-
X3)
X1)
X3)
X4)
X2)
X4)
-
Engine blocks
Bedplates
Cylinder blocks
Pistons and piston crowns
Cylinder covers/heads
Flywheels
Valve bodies
X3)
-
X1)
X1)
X1)
X4)
X1)
X1)
X1)
-
Section 3, C.
Nodular cast iron, preferably
ferritic grades
Rm ≥ 370 N/mm2
Section 5, C.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
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Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
Table 2.3 Approved materials and type of test certificate (cont.)
BKI's Rules
*
Approved materials
Lamellar cast iron
Rm ≥ 200 N/mm2
Section 5, C.
Shipbuilding steel, all BKI
grades for plates thickness
≤ 35 mm
Section 1, B.
Shipbuilding steel, BKI grade B
for plates thickness > 35 mm
Structural steel, unalloyed, for
welded assemblies
*
*
1)
2)
3)
4)
Components
Test Certificates ⋆
A
B
C
Engine blocks
Bedplates
Cylinder blocks
Cylinder liners
Cylinder covers/heads
Flywheels
-
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
Welded cylinder blocks
Welded bedplates
Welded frames
Welded housings
X
X
X
X
-
-
Section 1, C.
All details refer to Part 1, Seagoing Ship, Volume V, Rules for Materials, ,
Test certificates are to be issued in accordance with Part 1, Seagoing Ship, Volume V, Rules for
Materials, , Section 1 with the following abbreviations :
A : BKI Material Certificate, B: Manufacturer Inspection Certificate, C : Manufacturer Test Report
only for cylinder bores > 300 mm
for cylinder bores ≤ 300 mm
only for cylinder bores > 400 mm
for cylinder bores ≤ 400 mm
Table 2.4
Magnetic particle tests
Cylinder bore
Parts to be tested (numbered according to the list under D.2.2 )
≤ 400 mm
1-2-3-4-5
> 400 mm
all parts
Table 2.5
Ultrasonic tests
Cylinder bore
Parts to be tested (numbered according to the list under D.2.2 )
≤ 400 mm
1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 7 - 10
> 400 mm
1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 10 - 11
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
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E.
E
1.
Tests and Trials
Approval of engine manufacturer’s work shops
1.1
Every workshop where engines are assembled and tested has to be approved by BKI when:
–
the workshop is newly set up,
–
a new production line is started,
–
a new engine type is introduced, or
–
a new production process is implemented.
1.2
Requirements for approval of engine manufacturer’s workshops:
–
The manufacturer’s works are to be audited by BKI.
–
Manufacturer’s works have to have suitable production and testing facilities, competent staff and a
quality management system, which ensures a uniform production quality of the products according
to the specification.
Note:
-
Manufacturing plants shall be equipped in such a way that all materials and components can be
machined and manufactured to a specified standard. Production facilities and assembly lines,
including machining units, welding processes, special tools, special devices, assembly and testing
rigs as well as lifting and transportation devices shall be suitable for the type and size of engine, its
components, and the purpose intended. Materials and components shall be manufactured in
compliance with all production and quality instructions specified by the manufacturer and
recognised by BKI.
-
Suitable test bed facilities for load tests have to be provided, if required also for dynamic response
testing. All liquids used for testing purposes such as fuel oil, lubrication oil and cooling water shall
be suitable for the purpose intended, e.g. they shall be clean, preheated if necessary and cause no
harm to engine parts.
-
Trained personnel shall be available for production of parts, assembly, testing and partly
dismantling for shipping, if applicable.
-
Storage, reassembly and testing processes for diesel engines at shipyards shall be such that the risk
of damage to the engine or its parts is minimized.
-
Engine manufacturer’s workshops shall have in place a Quality Management System recognized by
BKI.
2.
Manufacturing inspections
2.1
In general, the manufacture of engines with BKI Classification is subject to supervision by BKI.
The scope of supervision should be agreed between the manufacturer and BKI.
2.2
Where engine manufacturers have been approved by BKI as "Suppliers of Mass Produced Engines",
these engines are to be tested in accordance with Regulation for the Tsting of Mass Produced Engines.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
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3.
E
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
Pressure tests
The individual components of internal combustion engines are subject to pressure tests at the pressures
specified in Table 2.6. BKI Certificates are to be issued for the results of the pressure tests.
Table 2.6 Pressure test 1)
Test Pressure, pp [bar] 2)
Component
Cylinder cover, cooling water space3)
7
Cylinder liner, over whole length of cooling water
space5)
7
Cylinder jacket, cooling water space
4 , at least 1,5 ⋅ pe,perm
Exhaust valve, cooling water space
4 , at least 1,5 ⋅ pe,perm
Piston, cooling water space
(after assembly with piston rod, if applicable)
Fuel injection
system
Hydraulic system
7
Pump body, pressure side
1,5 ⋅ pe,perm or pe,perm + 300 (whichever is less)
Valves
1,5 ⋅ pe,perm or pe,perm + 300 (whichever is less)
Pipes
1,5 ⋅ pe,perm or pe,perm + 300 (whichever is less)
High pressure piping for hydraulic
drive of exhaust gas valves
1,5 ⋅ pe,perm
Exhaust gas turbocharger, cooling water space
4 , at least 1,5 ⋅ pe,perm
Exhaust gas line, cooling water space
4 , at least 1,5 ⋅ pe,perm
Coolers, both sides4)
4 , at least 1,5 ⋅ pe,perm
Engine-driven pumps
(oil, water, fuel and bilge pumps)
4 , at least 1,5 ⋅ pe,perm
1,5 ⋅ pe,perm before installation
Starting and control air system
1)
In general, items are to be tested by hydraulic pressure as indicated in the Table. Where design or
testing features may require modification of these test requirements, special consideration will be
given.
2)
pe,perm[bar] = maximum working pressure in the part concerned.
3)
For forged steel cylinder covers test methods other than pressure testing may be accepted, e.g.
suitable non-destructive examination and dimensional control properly recorded.
4)
Charge air cooleras need only be tested on the water side.
5)
For centrifugally cast cylinder liners, the pressure test can be replaced by a crack test.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
4.
Type approval testing (TAT)
4.1
General
E
13/59
Engines for installation on board ship must have been type tested by BKI. For this purpose a type approval
test in accordance with 3.1.2 is to be performed.
4.1.1
Preconditions for type approval testing
Preconditions for type approval testing are that:

the engine to be tested conforms to the specific requirements for the series and has been suitably
optimized,

the inspections and measurements necessary for reliable continuous operation have been performed
during works tests carried out by the engine manufacturer and BKI has been informed of the results
of the major inspections,

BKI has issued the necessary approval of drawings on the basis of the documents to be submitted in
accordance with B.
4.1.2
Scope of type approval testing
The type approval test is subdivided into three stages, namely:

Stage A - Internal tests
Functional tests and collection of operating values including test hours during the internal tests,
which are to be presented to the BKI during the type test.

Stage B - Type test
This test is to be performed in the presence of BKI's representative.

Stage C - Component inspection
After conclusion of the tests, major components are to be presented for inspection.
The operating hours of the engine components to be presented for inspection after type testing in
accordance with 3.4 are to be stated.
4.2
Stage A- Internal tests
Functional tests and the collection of operating data are to be performed during the internal tests. The engine
is to be operated at the load points important for the engine manufacturer and the pertaining operating values
are to be recorded. The load points are to be selected according to the range of application of the engine.
For engines to be operated on heavy fuel oil suitability for this shall be proved in an appropriate form.
4.2.1
Normal operating conditions
The includes the load points 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, 100 % and 110 % of the maximum rated power
a)
along the nominal (theoretical) propeller curve and/or at constant speed for propulsion engines
b)
at rated speed with constant governor setting for generator drive
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
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E
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
The limit points of the permissible operating range as defined by the engine manufacturer are to be tested.
4.2.2
Emergency operation situations
For turbocharged engines the achievable output in case of turbocharger failure is to be determined as
follows:
-
engines with one turbocharger, when rotor is blocked or removed
-
engines with two or more turbochargers, when the damaged turbocharger is shut off.
Note: The engine manufacturer is to state whether the achievable output is continuous. If there is a
time limit. The permissible operating time is to be indicated.
4.3
Stage B - Type test
During the type test all the tests listed below under 3.3.1 to 3.3.3 are to be carried out in the presence of
BKI's Surveyor. The results of individual tests are to be recorded and signed by BKI’s Surveyor.
Deviations from this program, if any, require BKI's agreement.
4.3.1
Load points
Load points at which the engine is to be operated are to conform to the power/speed diagram in Fig. 2.2.
The data to be measured and recorded when testing the engine at various load points shall include all the
parameters necessary for an assessment.
The operating time per load point depends on the engine size and on the time for collection of the operating
values. The measurements shall in every case only be performed after achievement of steady-state condition.
Normally, an operating time of 0,5 hour can be assumed per load point.
At 100 % output (rated power) in accordance with 3.3.1.1 an operating time of 2 hours is required. At least
two sets of readings are to be taken at an interval of 1 hour in each case.
If an engine can continue to operate without its operational safety being affected in the event of a failure of
its independent cylinder lubrication, proof of this shall be included in the type test.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combbustion Engin
nes and Air Co
ompressor
E
➀
Range
R
of conttinuous operration
➁
Range
R
of interrmittent operration
➂
Range
R
of shorrt-time overload operatio
on in special aapplications.
15/599
Fig. 2.22 Power/speeed diagram
Rated power (continuous power)
4.3.1.1 R
The rated power is deffined as 100 % output at 100 % torqu
ue and 100 % speed (rateed speed) corrresponding to
t
load pointt 1.
4.3.1.2 1000 % powerr
The operaation point 100
1 % outpu
ut at maximuum allowablle speed corrresponding tto load poin
nt 2 has to be
b
performedd.
Maximum peermissible to
orque
4.3.1.3 M
The maxiimum permisssible torquee normally rresults at 110
0 % output at
a 100 % speeed correspo
onding to loaad
BKI Rules Foor Machinery Installation-2
2014
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E
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
point 3 or at maximum permissible power (normally 110 %) at a speed according to the nominal propeller
curve corresponding to load point 3.2.1 a.
4.3.1.4 Minimum permissible speed for intermittent operation
The minimum permissible speed for intermittent operation has to be adjusted
-
at 100 % torque corresponding to load point 4
-
at 90 % torque corresponding to load point 5
4.3.1.5 Part-load operation
For part-load operation, the operation 75 %, 50 % and 25 % of the rated power at speeds according to the
nominal propeller curve at load points 6, 7 and 8 and proceeding from the nominal speed at constant
governor setting has to be adjusted corresponding to points 9, 10 and 11.
4.3.2
Emergency operation
The maximum achievable power when operating in accordance with 3.2.2 has to be performed
-
at speed conforming to nominal propeller curve
-
with constant governor setting for rated speed.
4.3.3
Functional tests
Functional tests to be carried out as follows:

ascertainment of lowest engine speed according to the nominal propeller curve

starting tests for non-reversible engines and/or starting and reversing tests for reversible engines

governor test

test of the safety system particularly for over-speed, oil mist and failure of the lubricating oil
pressure.

test of electronic components and systems according to the test program approved by BKI.
–
for electronically controlled diesel engines integration tests to demonstrate that the response of the
complete mechanical, hydraulic and electronic system is as predicted for all intended operational
modes. The scope of these tests shall be proposed by the manufacturer/licensor based on the FMEA
required in Table 2.1 and agreed by BKI.
4.4
Stage C - Component inspection
Immediately after the test run the components of one cylinder for in-line engines and two cylinders for Vengines are to be presented for inspection as follows:

piston, removed and dismantled

crosshead bearing, dismantled

crank bearing and main bearing, dismantled
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor

cylinder liner in the installed condition

cylinder cover/head, valves disassembled

camshaft, camshaft and crankcase with opened covers
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Note: If deemed necessary by BKI, further dismantling of the engine may be required.
4.5
Type approval test report
The results of the type approval test are to be compiled in a report which is to be submitted to BKI.
4.6
Type approval certificate
After successful conclusion of the test and appraisal of the required documents BKI issues a Type Approval
Certificate.
The Type Approval Certificate is valid for a period of 5 years.
Validity may be renewed on application by the engine designer.
4.7.
Type test of mass produced engines
4.7.1 For engines with cylinder bores ≤ 300 mm which are to be manufactured in series the type test shall
be carried out in accordance with "Regulations for Mass Produced Engines".
4.7.2 For the performance of the type test, the engine is to be fitted with all the prescribed items of
equipment. If the engine, when on the test bed, cannot be fully equipped in accordance with the
requirements, the equipment may then be demonstrated on another engine of the same series.
4.8
Power increase
If the rated power (continuous power) of a type tested and operationally proven engine is increased by more
than 10 %, a new type test is required. Approval of the power increase includes examination of the relevant
drawings.
5.
Works trials
5.1
Application
In general, engines are to be subjected to trials on the test bed at the manufacturer's works and under the
BKI's supervision. The scope of these trials shall be as specified below. Exceptions to this require the
agreement of BKI.
5.2
Scope of works trials
During the trials the operating values corresponding to each load point are to be measured and recorded by
the engine manufacturer. All the results are to be compiled in an acceptance protocol to be issued by the
engine manufacturer.
In each case all measurements conducted at the various load points shall be carried out under steady
operating conditions. The readings for 100 % power (rated power at rated speed) are to be taken twice at an
interval of at least 30 minutes.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
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5.2.1
E
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
Main engines for direct propeller drive
The load points have to be adjusted according to a) -c), functional tests have to be performed according to d)
- g).
a)
100 % power (rated power)
at 100 % engine speed (rated engine speed)
for at least 60 minutes after reaching the steady-state conditions
b)
110 % power
at 103 % rated engine speed
for 30 minutes after reaching the steady-state conditions
Note: After the test bed trials the output shall normally be limited to the rated power (100 % power) so that
the engine cannot be overloaded in service (see A.3.4).
c)
90 %, 75 %, 50 % and 25 % power in accordance with the nominal propeller curve.
d)
starting and reversing maneuvers (see H.2.4)
e)
test of governor and independent over-speed protection device
f)
Test of engine shutdown devices.
g)
test of oil mist detection or alternative system, if available
5.2.2
Main engines for electrical propeller drive
The test is to be performed at rated speed with a constant governor setting under conditions of:
a)
100 % power (rated power) :
for at least 60 minutes after reaching the steady-state condition
b)
110 % power:
for 30 minutes after reaching the steady-state condition
Note: After the test bed trials the output of engines driving generators is to be so adjusted that overload
(110 %) power can be supplied in service after installation on board in such a way that the governing
characteristics and the requirements of the generator protection devices can be fulfilled at all times (see
A.3.5)
c)
75 %, 50 % and 25 % power and idle run
d)
start-up tests (see H.2.4)
e)
test of governor and independent over speed protection device
f)
test of engine shutdown devices
g)
test of oil mist detection or alternative system, if available
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
5.2.3
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Auxiliary driving engines and engines driving electrical generators
The scope of tests has to be performed according to 4.2.2.
For testing of diesel generator sets, see also Part 1, Seagoing Ships, Volume IV, Rules for Electrical
Installations, , Section 21.
5.3
Depending on the type of plant concerned, BKI reserves the right to call for a special test schedule.
5.4
In the case of engines driving electrical generators the rated electrical power as specified by the
manufacturer is to be verified as minimum power.
5.5
Integration tests
For electronically controlled diesel engines integration tests shall be conducted to demonstrate that the
response of the complete mechanical, hydraulic and electronic system is as predicted for all intended
operational modes. The scope of these tests shall be proposed by the manufacturer/licensor based on the
FMEA required in Table 2.1 and agreed by BKI.
5.6
Component inspection
After the test run randomly selected components shall be presented for inspection.
The crankshaft web deflection is to be checked.
6.
Shipboard trials (dock and sea trials)
After the conclusion of the running-in programme prescribed by the engine manufacturer engines are to
undergo the trials specified below. See also Guidance for Sea Trial of Motor Vessels.
6.1
Scope of sea trials
6.1.1
Main propulsion engines driving fixed propellers
The tests have to be carried out as follows:
a)
at rated engine speed :
for at least 4 hours and at engine speed corresponding to normal cruise power:
b)
for at least 2 hours
at 103 % rated engine speed for 30 minutes
where the engine adjustment permits (see A.3.4)
c)
determination of the minimum on-load speed
d)
starting and reversing maneuvers (see H.2.4)
e)
in reverse direction of propeller rotation during the sea trials at a minimum speed of 70 % rated
engine speed : 10 minutes
f)
testing of the monitoring and safety systems
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E-F
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
6.1.2
Main propulsion engines driving controllable pitch propellers or reversing gears
6.1.1
applies as appropriate.
Controllable pitch propellers are to be tested with various propeller pitches. Where provision is made for
operating in a combinator mode, the combinator diagram is to be plotted and verified by measurements.
6.1.3
Main engines driving generators for propulsion
The tests are to be performed at rated speed with a constant governor setting under conditions of
a)
100 % power (rated power):
for at least 4 hours and at normal continuous cruise power: for at least 2 hours
b)
110 % power: for 30 minutes
c)
in reverse direction of propeller rotation during the sea trials at a minimum speed of 70 % of the
nominal propeller speed : for 10 minutes
d)
starting maneuvers (see H.2.4)
e)
testing of the monitoring and safety systems
Note: Tests are to be based on the rated powers of the driven generators.
6.1.4
Engines driving auxiliaries and electrical generators
These engines are to be subjected to an operational test for at least four hours. During the test the set
concerned is required to operate at its rated power for an extended period.
It is to be demonstrated that the engine is capable of supplying 110 % of its rated power, and in the case of
shipboard generating sets account shall be taken of the times needed to actuate the generator's overload
protection system.
6.2
The suitability of main and auxiliary engines to burn residual oils or other special fuels is to be
demonstrated if the machinery installation is designed to burn such fuels.
6.3
The scope of the shipboard trials may be extended in consideration of special operating conditions
such as towing, trawling, etc.
6.4
Earthing
It is necessary to ensure that the limits specified for main engines by the engine manufacturers for the
difference in electrical potential (Voltage) between the crankshaft/shafting and the hull are not exceeded in
service. Appropriate earthing devices including limit value monitoring of the permitted voltage potential are
to be provided.
E-F
F.
Safety Devices
1.
Speed control and engine protection against over-speed
1.1
Main and auxiliary engines
1.1.1 Each diesel engine not used to drive an electrical generator shall be equipped with a speed governor
or regulator so adjusted that the engine speed cannot exceed the rated speed by more than 15 %.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
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1.1.2 In addition to the normal governor, each main engine with a rated power of 220 kW or over which
can be declutched in service or which drives a variable-pitch propeller shall be fitted with an independent
over speed protection device so adjusted that the engine speed cannot exceed the rated speed by more than
20 %.
Equivalent equipment may be approved by BKI.
1.2
Engines driving electrical generators
1.2.1 Each diesel engine used to drive an electrical main or emergency generator shall be fitted with a
governor which will prevent transient frequency variations in the electrical network in excess of ± 10 % of
the rated frequency with a recovery time to steady state conditions not exceeding 5 seconds when the
maximum electrical step load is switched on or off.
In the case when a step load equivalent to the rated output of the generator is switched off, a transient speed
variation in excess of 10 % of the rated speed may be acceptable, provided this does not cause the
intervention of the over-speed device as required by 1.1.1.
1.2.2 In addition to the normal governor, each diesel engine with a rated power of 220 kW or over shall
be equipped with an over-speed protection device independent of the normal governor which prevents the
engine speed from exceeding the rated speed by more than 15 %.
1.2.3 The diesel engine shall be suitable and designed for the special requirements of the ship's electrical
system.
F
Where two stages load application is required, the following procedure is to be applied: Sudden loading
from no-load to 50 %, followed by the remaining 50 % of the rated generator power, duly observing the
requirements of 1.2.1 and 1.2.4.
Application of the load in more than two steps (see Fig. 2.3) is acceptable on condition that

the ship’s electrical system is designed for the use of such generator sets

load application in more than two steps is considered in the design of the ship’s electrical system
and is approved when the drawings are reviewed

during shipboard trials the functional test are carried out without objections. Here the loading of the
ship’s electrical net while sequentially connecting essential equipment after breakdown and during
recovery of the net is to be taken into account

the safety of the ship's electrical system in the event of parallel generator operation and failure of a
generator is demonstrated.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
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2
F
S
Section
2 – Internal Combuustion Enginess and Air Com
mpressor
Fig 2.3 Lim
miting curvees for loadin
ng 4-stroke d
diesel enginees step by step from no load to rateed power
as function of the brrake mean effective
e
preessure
1.2.4
1
Speeed must be stabilized
s
and
d in steady-sstate condition within five seconds, inside the permissible
p
range
r
for the permanent speed
s
variationδ .
The
T steady-sttate conditioon is considerred reached when the peermanent speed variation does not exceed ± 1%
of
o the speed aassociated with
w the set po
ower.
1.2.5
1
The characteristiic curves of the governoors of diesel engines of generator
g
setts operating in parallel
must
m not exhhibit deviatioons larger thaan those speccified in the Part 1, Seag
going Ships, Volume IV,, Rules for
Electrical
E
Insstallations, Section 1, F.1.
1.2.6
1
Geneerator sets which
w
are in
nstalled to serve stand--by circuits are to satissfy the corrresponding
requirements
r
s even when the engine iss cold. It is aassumed that the start-up and loading sequence is completed
after
a
about 300 seconds.
1.2.7
1
Emerrgency generator sets shall satisfy thhe above gov
vernor conditions also unnlimited with
h the startup
u and loadinng sequence having to bee concluded iin about 45 seconds.
s
1.2.8
1
The governors off the enginess mentioned in 1.2 shall enable the rated
r
speed tto be adjusteed over the
entire
e
power range with a maximum deviation
d
of 5 %.
1.2.9
1
The rrate of speedd variation of the adjustinng mechanissms shall perrmit satisfacttory synchron
nization in
a sufficientlyy short time. The speed characteristtic should be as linear as
a possible oover the wh
hole power
range.
r
The permanent deeviation from
m the theoretiical linearity
y of the speed
d characterisstic may, in the
t case of
generating
g
seets intended for
f parallel operation,
o
in no range excceed 1 % of the
t rated speeed.
Notes
N
relatin
ng to 1.1 andd 1.2:
a)
a
The rated powerr and the correspondin
c
ng rated speeed relate to
o the condittions under which the
enginnes are operated in the syystem concerrned.
b)
b
An iindependent over speed
d protection device mea
ans a system
m all of whhose compon
nent parts,
incluuding the drivve, function independentl
i
ly of the norm
mal governor.
BK
KI Rules For M
Machinery Insstallation-2014
4
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
1.3
F
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Use of electrical/electronic governors
1.3.1 The governor and the associated actuator must, for controlling the respective engine, be suitable for
the operating conditions laid down in the Construction Rules and for the requirements specified by the
engine manufacturer. For single propulsion drives it has to be ensured that in case of a failure of the
governor or actuator the control of the engine can be taken over by another control device.
The regulating conditions required for each individual application as described in 1.1 and 1.2 are to be
satisfied by the governor system.
Electronic governors and the associated actuators are subject to type testing.
For the power supply, see Part 1. Seagoing Ships, Volume IV, Rules for Electrical Installations, Section 9,
B.8.
1.3.2
Requirements applying to main engines
For propulsion installations, to ensure continuous speed control or immediate resumption of control after a
fault at least one of the following requirements is to be satisfied:
a)
the governor system has an independent back-up system, or
b)
there is a redundant governor assembly for manual change-over with a separately protected power
supply, or
c)
the engine has a manually operated fuel admission control system suitable for maneuvering.
For multiple engine propulsion plants requirements in Section 1, D.8.3 are to be observed.
In the event of a fault in the governor system, the operating condition of the engine shall not become
dangerous, that is, the engine speed and power shall not increase.
Alarms to indicate faults in the governor system are to be fitted.
1.3.3
Requirements applying to auxiliary engines for driving electrical generators
Each auxiliary engine must be equipped with its own governor system.
In the event of a fault of components or functions which are essential for the speed control in the governor
system, the speed demand output shall be set to "0" (i.e the fuel admission in the injection pump shall be set
to "0"). Alarms to indicate faults in the governor system are to be fitted.
1.3.4 The special conditions necessary to start operation from the dead ship condition are to be observed
(see Part 1, Seagoing Ships, Volume IV, Rules for Electrical Installations, Section 3, B.1.9 )
2.
Cylinder overpressure warning device
2.1
All the cylinders of engines with a cylinder bore of > 230 mm are to be fitted with cylinder
overpressure warning devices. The response threshold of these warning devices shall be set at not more than
40 % above the combustion pressure at the rated power.
2.2
A warning device may be dispensed with if it is ensured by an appropriate engine design or by
control functions that an increased cylinder pressure cannot create danger.
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F
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
3.
Crankcase airing and venting
3.1
Crankcase airing
The airing of crankcases is not allowed. For gas engines, see Part 1, Seagoing Ships, Volume IX, Rules for
Ship Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk, Section 16.
3.2
Crankcase venting
3.2.1 Where crankcase venting systems are provided their clear opening is to be dimensioned such as
small as possible.
3.2.2 Where provision has been made for the forced extracting the lubricating oil vapours, e.g. for
monitoring the oil vapour concentration, the negative pressure in the crankcase may not exceed 2,5 mbar.
3.2.3 The vent pipes and oil drain pipes of two or more engines shall not be combined. Exemptions may
be approved if an interaction of the combined systems is inhibited by suitable means.
3.2.4 In case of two-stroke engines the lubricating oil mist from the crankcase shall not be admitted into
the scavenge manifolds respectively the air intake pipes of the engine.
4.
Crankcase safety devices
4.1
Relief valves
4.1.1 Crankcase safety devices have to be type approved in a configuration that represents the installation
arrangements that will be used on an engine according to the requirements defined in Regulations for the
Performance of Type Approvals - Test Requirements for Components and Systems.
4.1.2 Safety valves to safeguard against overpressure in the crankcase are to be fitted to all engines with a
cylinder bore of > 200 mm or a crankcase volume of > 0,6 m3.
All separated spaces within the crankcase e.g. gear or chain casings for camshafts or similar drives, are to be
equipped with additional safety devices if the volume of these spaces exceeds 0,6 m3.
4.1.3 Engines with a cylinder bore of > 200 mm and ≤ 250 mm are to be equipped with at least one relief
valve at each end of the crankcase. If the crankshaft has more than 8 throws, an additional relief valve is to
be fitted near the middle of the crankcase.
Engines with a cylinder bore of >250 mm and ≤ 300 mm are to have at least one relief valve close to each
alternate crank throw, with a minimum number of two.
Engines with a cylinder bore of > 300 mm are to have at least one safety valve close to each crank throw.
4.1.4
Each safety valve shall have a free relief area of at least 45 cm².
The total free relief area of all safety valves fitted to an engine to safeguard against overpressure in the
crankcase shall not be less than 115 cm2 per m3 of crankcase gross volume.
Notes relating to 4.1.2 and 4.1.3
a)
In estimating the gross volume of the crankcase, the volume of the enclosed fixed parts may be
deducted.
b)
A space communicating with the crankcase via a total free cross-sectional area of > 115 cm2/m3 of
volume need not be considered as a separate space.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
c)
F
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Each relief valve required may be replaced by not more than two relief valves of smaller crosssectional area provided that the free cross-sectional area or each relief valve is not less than 45
cm2.
4.1.5 The safety devices are to be of quick acting and self closing devices to relief a crankcase of pressure
at a crankcase explosion. In service they shall be oil tight when closed and have to prevent air inrush into the
crankcase. The gas flow caused by the response of the safety device must be deflected, e.g. by means of a
baffle plate, in such a way as not to endanger persons standing nearby. Is has to be demonstrated that the
baffle plate does not adversely affects the operational effectiveness of the device.
For relief valves the discs are to be made of ductile material capable of withstanding the shock load at the
full open position of the valve.
Relief valves shall be fully opened at a differential pressure in the crankcase not greater than 0,2 bar.
4.1.6 The relief valves are to be provided with a flame arrester than permits crankcase pressure relief and
prevents passage of flame following a crankcase explosion.
4.1.7
Safety devices are to be provided with suitable markings that include the following information:
–
name and address of manufacturer
–
designation and size
–
relief area
–
month/year of manufacture
–
approved installation orientation
4.1.8 Safety devices are to be provided with a manufacturer’s installation and maintenance manual that is
pertinent to the size and type of device as well as on the installation on the engine. A copy of this manual is
to be kept on board of the ship.
4.1.9
Plans showing details and arrangements of safety devices are to be submitted to approval.
4.2
Crankcase doors and sight holes
4.2.1 Crankcase doors and their fittings shall be so dimensioned as not to suffer permanent deformation
due to the overpressure occurring during the response of the safety equipment.
4.2.2 Crankcase doors and hinged inspection ports are to be equipped with appropriate latches to
effectively prevent unintended closing.
4.2.3 A warning notice is to be fitted either on the control stand or, preferably, on a crankcase door on
each side of the engine. The warning notice is to specify that the crankcase doors or sight holes are not to be
opened before a reasonable time, sufficient to permit adequate cooling after stopping the engine.
4.3
Oil mist detection/monitoring and alarm system (Oil mist detector)
4.3.1 Engines with a cylinder diameter > 300 mm or a rated power of 2250 kW and above are to be fitted
with crankcase oil mist detectors or alternative systems.
4.3.2 For multiple engine installations each engine is to be provided with a separate oil mist detector and
a dedicated alarm.
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F
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
4.3.3 Oil mist detectors are to be type approved. The mechanical requirements are defined in Regulation
for the Performance of Type Approvals - Test Requirements for Components and Systems, the electrical
part has to be type approved according to Part 2 – Test Requirements for Electrical/ Electronic Equipment
and Systems.
4.3.4 The oil mist detector is to be installed in accordance with the engine designer’s and the system
manufacturer’s instructions and recommendations.
4.3.5 Function tests are to be performed on the engine set bed at manufacturer’s workshop and on board
under the conditions of "engine at standstill" and "engine running at normal operating conditions" in
accordance with test procedures to be agreed with BKI.
4.3.6
Alarms and shutdowns for the detector are to be in accordance with Table 2.7.
4.3.7
Functional failures at the devices and equipment are to be alarmed.
4.3.8 The oil mist detector has to indicate that the installed lens, which is used in determination of the oil
mist concentration has been partly obscured to a degree that will affect the reliability of the information and
alarm indication.
4.3.9 Where the detector includes the use of programmable electronic systems, the arrangements are in
accordance with the requirements of Part 1, Seagoing Ships, Volume IV, Rules for Electrical Installations,
Section 10.
4.3.10 Where sequential oil mist detection/ monitoring arrangements are provided, the sampling frequency
and time are to be as short as reasonably practicable.
4.3.11 Plans of showing details and arrangements of the oil mist detector are to be submitted for approval.
The following particulars are to be included in the documentation:

schematic layout of engine oil mist detector showing location of engine crankcase sample points and
piping arrangement together with pipe dimensions to detector/monitor.

evidence of study to justify the selected location of sample points and sample extraction rate (if
applicable) in consideration of the crankcase arrangements and geometry and the predicted
crankcase atmosphere where oil mist can accumulate.

maintenance and test manuals

information about type approval of the detection/ monitoring system or functional tests at the
particular engine.
4.3.12 A copy of the documentation supplied with the system such as maintenance and test manuals are to
be provided on board ship.
4.3.13 The readings and the alarm information from the oil mist detector are to be capable of being read
from a safe location away from the engine.
4.3.14 Where alternative methods are provided for the prevention of build-up a potentially explosive
condition within the crankcase (independent of the reason, e.g. oil mist, gas, hot spots, etc.), details are to
be submitted for consideration of BKI. The following information is to be included in the details to be
submitted for approval:

engine particulars - type, power, speed, stroke, bore and crankcase volume
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
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
details of arrangements preventing the build-up of potentially explosive conditions within the
crankcase, e.g. bearing temperature monitoring, oil splash temperature, crankcase pressure
monitoring, recirculation arrangements, crankcase atmosphere monitoring.

evidence that the arrangements are effective in preventing the build-up of potentially explosive
conditions together with details of in service experience.

operating instructions and maintenance and test instructions
4.4
Active safety measures
Where it is proposed to use alternative active technologies to minimize the risk for a potential crankcase
explosion, details of the arrangement and the function description are to be submitted to BKI for approval.
Table 2.7 Alarms and indicators
Propulsion
engines
Description
Auxiliary
engines
Emergency
engines
speed / direction of rotation
I
engine over-speed 5)
A,S
A,S
A,S
lubricating oil pressure at engine inlet
I, L9), S
I, L9), S
I, L9)
lubricating oil temperature at engine inlet
I, H
I 5), H 5)
I 5), H 5)
fuel oil pressure at engine inlet
I
I
fuel oil temperature at engine inlet 1)
I
I
fuel oil leakage from high pressure pipes
A
A
A
cylinder cooling water pressure or flow at engine inlet
I, L
I 4), L 4)
I 4), L 4)
cylinder cooling water temperature at engine outlet
I, H
I, H
I, H
piston coolant pressure at engine inlet
I, L
piston coolant temperature at engine outlet
I, H
charge air pressure at cylinder inlet
I
charge air temperature at charge air cooler inlet
I
charge air temperature at charge air cooler outlet
I, H
starting air pressure
I, L
control air pressure
I, L
exhaust gas temperature 2)
I , H 3)
oil mist concentration in crankcase or alternative
monitoring system 6), 7),8)
I, H
I, H
I, H
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F-G
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
Table 2.7 Alarms and indicators (continued)
1)
for engines running on heavy fuel oil only
2)
where ever the dimensions permit, at each cylinder outlet and at the turbo charger inlet and outlet
3)
at turbo charger outlet only
I : Indicator
4)
cooling water pressure or flow
A : Alarm
5)
only for engine output ≥ 220 kW
H : Alarm for upper limit
6)
for engine having an output > 2250 kW or a cylinder bore > 300mm
L : Alarm for lower limit
7)
alternative methods of monitoring may be approved by BKI
S : Shutdown
8)
an engine shutdown may be provided where necessary
9)
only for an engine output > 37 kW
5.
Safety devices in the starting air system
The following equipment is to be fitted to safeguard the starting air system against explosions due to failure
of starting valves:
5.1
An isolation non-return valve is to be fitted to the starting air line serving each engine.
5.2
Engines with cylinder bores of > 230 mm are to be equipped with flame arrestors as follows:
a)
on directly reversible engines immediately in front of the start-up valve of each cylinder
b)
on non-reversible engines, immediately in front of the intake of the main starting air line to
each engine.
5.3
Equivalent safety devices may be approved by BKI.
6.
Safety devices in the lubricating oil system
Each engine with a rated power of 220 kW or over is to be fitted with devices which automatically shut
down the engine in the event of failure of the lubricating oil supply. This is not valid for engines serving
solely for the drive of emergency generator sets and emergency fire pumps. For these engines an alarm has
to be provided.
7.
Safety devices in scavenge air manifolds
Scavenge air manifolds in open connection to the cylinders are to be fitted with explosion relief valves as
in 4.
F-G
G.
Auxiliary Systems
1.
General
For piping systems and accessory filter arrangements see Section 11 is to be applied, additionally.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
2.
Fuel oil system
2.1
General
G
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2.1.1 Only pipe connections with metal sealing surfaces or equivalent pipe connections of approved
design may be used for fuel injection lines.
2.1.2 Feed and return lines are to be designed in such a way that no unacceptable pressure surges occur in
the fuel supply system. Where necessary, the engines are to be fitted with surge dampers approved by BKI.
2.1.3 All components of the fuel system are to be designed to withstand the maximum peak pressures
which will be expected in the system.
2.1.4 If fuel oil reservoirs or dampers with a limited life cycle are fitted in the fuel oil system the life
cycle together with overhaul instructions is to be specified by the engine manufacturer in the corresponding
manuals.
2.1.5 Oil fuel lines are not to be located immediately above or near units of high temperature, steam
pipelines, exhaust manifolds, silencers or other equipment required to be insulated by 7.1. As far as
practicable, oil fuel lines are to be arranged far apart from hot surfaces, electrical installations or other
potential sources of ignition and are to be screened or otherwise suitably protected to avoid oil spray or oil
leakage onto the sources of ignition. The number of joints in such piping systems are to be kept to a
minimum
2.2
Shielding
G
2.2.1 Regardless of the intended use and location of internal combustion engines, all external fuel
injection lines (high pressure lines between injection pumps and injection valves) are to be shielded by
jacket pipes in such a way that any leaking fuel is

safely collected

drained away unpressurized, and

effectively monitored and alarmed
2.2.2 If pressure variations of > 20 bar occur in fuel feed and return lines, these lines are also to be
shielded.
2.2.3
The high pressure fuel pipe and the outer jacket pipe have to be of permanent assembly
2.2.4 Where, pipe sheaths in the form of hoses are provided as shielding, the hoses shall be demonstrably
suitable for this purpose and approved by BKI.
2.3
Fuel leak drainage
Appropriate design measures are to be introduced to ensure generally that leaking fuel is drained efficiently
and cannot enter into the engine lube oil system.
2.4
Heating, thermal insulation, re-circulation
Fuel lines, including fuel injection lines, to engines which are operated with preheated fuel are to be
insulated against heat losses and, as far as necessary, provided with heating.
Means of fuel re-circulation are also to be provided.
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2.5
G
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
Fuel oil emulsions
For engines operated on emulsions of fuel oil and other liquids it has to be ensured that engine operation can
be resumed after failures to the fuel oil treatment system.
3.
Filter arrangements for fuel oil and lubricating oil systems
3.1
Fuel and lubricating oil filters which are to be mounted directly on the engine are not to be located
above rotating parts or in the immediate proximity of hot components.
3.2
Where the arrangement stated in 3.1 is not feasible, the rotating parts and the hot components are to
be sufficiently shielded.
3.3
Filters have to be so arranged that fluid residues can be collected by adequate means. The same
applies to lubricating oil filters if oil can escape when the filter is opened.
3.4
Change-over filters with two or more chambers are to be equipped with means enabling a safe
pressure release before opening and a proper venting before re-starting of any chamber. Normally, shut-off
devices are to be used. It shall be clearly visible, which chamber is in and which is out of operation.
3.5
Oil filters fitted parallel for the purpose of enabling cleaning without disturbing oil supply to
engines (e.g duplex filters) are to be provided with arrangements that will minimize the possibility of a filter
under pressure being opened by mistake. Filters/filter chambers shall be provided with suitable means for:

venting when put into operation

depressurizing before being opened
Valves or cocks with drain pipes led to a safe location shall be used for this purpose.
3.6
In addition the requirements of Section 8 have to be considered also for filters.
4.
Lubricating oil system
4.1
General requirements relating to lubricating oil systems and to the cleaning, cooling etc. of the
lubricating oil are contained in Section 11, H. For piping arrangement 2.1.5 is to be applied.
4.1.1 Engines which sumps serve as oil reservoirs must be so equipped that the oil level can be
established and, if necessary, topped up during operation. Means must be provided for completely draining
the oil sump.
4.1.2 The combination of the oil drainage lines from the crankcases of two or more engines is not
allowed.
4.1.3
The outlet ends of drain lines from the engine sump shall be below the oil level in the drain tank.
4.2
The equipment of engines fitted with lubricating oil pumps is subject to Section 11, H.3.
4.2.1 Main lubricating oil pumps driven by the engine are to be designed to maintain the supply of
lubricating oil over the entire operating range.
4.2.2 Main engines which drive main lubricating oil pumps are to be equipped with independently driven
stand-by pumps.
4.2.3
In multi-engine installations having separate lubricating oil system approval may be given for the
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
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carriage on board of reserve pumps ready for mounting provided that the arrangement of the main
lubricating oil pumps enables the change to be made with the means available on board.
4.2.4 Lubricating oil systems for cylinder lubrication which are necessary for the operation of the engine
and which are equipped with electronic dosing units have to be approved by BKI.
5.
Cooling system
5.1
For the equipment of engines with cooling water pumps and for the design of cooling water
systems, see Section 11, I. and 11, K.
5.1.1 Main cooling water pumps driven by the engine are to be designed to maintain the supply of cooling
water over the entire operating range.
5.1.2 Main engines which drive main cooling water pumps are to be equipped with independently driven
stand-by pumps or with means for connecting the cooling water system to independently driven stand-by
pumps.
5.1.3 In multi-engine installations having separate fresh cooling water systems approval may be given for
the carriage on board of reserve pumps ready for mounting provided that the arrangement of the main fresh
cooling water pumps enables the change to be made with the means available on board. Shut-off valves shall
be provided enabling the main pumps to be isolated from the fresh cooling water system.
5.2
If cooling air is drawn from the engine room, the design of the cooling system is to be based on a
room temperature of at least 45 ̊C.
The exhaust air of air-cooled engines may not cause any unacceptable heating of the spaces in which the
plant is installed. The exhaust air is normally to be led to the open air through special ducts.
5.3
Where engines are installed in spaces in which oil-firing equipment is operated, Section 9, A.5 is
also to be complied with.
6.
Charge air system
6.1
Exhaust gas turbocharger
6.1.1 The construction and testing of exhaust gas turbocharger are subject to Section 3 II (Turbomachinery/Gas Turbines and Exhaust Gas Turbochargers).
6.1.2 Exhaust gas turbochargers may exhibit no critical speed ranges over the entire operating range of
the engine.
6.1.3 The lubricating oil supply shall also be ensured during start-up and run-down of the exhaust gas
turbochargers.
6.1.4 Even at low engine speeds, main engines shall be supplied with charge air in a manner to ensure
reliable operation.
Where necessary, two-stroke engines are to be equipped with directly or independently driven scavenging
air blowers.
6.1.5 If, in the lower speed range or when used for maneuvering, an engine can be operated only with a
charge air blower driven independently of the engine, a stand-by charge air blower is to be installed or an
equivalent device of approved design.
6.1.6
With main engines emergency operation shall be possible in the event of a turbocharger failure.
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6.2
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Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
Charge air cooling
6.2.1 Means are to be provided for regulating the temperature of the charge air within the temperature
range specified by the engine manufacturer.
6.2.2 The charge air lines of engines with charge air coolers are to be provided with sufficient means of
drainage.
6.3
Fire extinguishing equipment
The charge air receivers of crosshead engines which have open connection to the cylinders are to be
connected to an approved fire extinguishing system (see Table 12.1) which is independent of the engine
room fire extinguishing system.
7.
Exhaust gas lines
7.1
Exhaust gas lines are to be insulated and/or cooled in such a way that the surface temperature cannot
exceed 220 ̊C at any point.
Insulating materials shall be non-combustible.
7.2
General rules relating to exhaust gas lines are contained in Section 11, M.
G-H
H.
Starting equipment
1.
General
1.1
Engine starting equipment shall enable engines to be started up from "dead ship" condition
according to Section 1, D.6.1 using only the means available on board.
1.2
Means are to be provided to ensure that auxiliary and emergency diesel engines can be started after
black-out and "dead-ship" condition. This is to be considered especially for electronically controlled engines
(e.g. common rail).
2.
Starting with compressed air
2.1
Starting air systems for main engines are to be equipped with at least two starting air compressors.
At least one of the air compressors shall be driven independently of the main engine and shall supply at least
50 % of the total capacity required.
2.2
The total capacity of the starting air compressors is to be such that the starting air receivers designed
in accordance with 2.4 or 2.5, as applicable, can be charged from atmospheric pressure to their final pressure
within one hour.
Normally, compressors of equal capacity are to be installed.
This does not apply to an emergency air compressor which may be provided to meet the requirement stated
in 1.
2.3
If the main engine is started with compressed air, the available starting air is to be divided between
at least two starting air receivers of approximately equal size which can be used independently of each other.
2.4
The total capacity of air receivers is to be sufficient to provide, without their being replenished, not
less than 12 consecutive starts alternating between Ahead and Astern of each main engine of the reversible
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
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type, and not less than six starts of each main non-reversible type engine connected to a controllable pitch
propeller or other device enabling the start without opposite torque.
H
2.5
With multi-engine installations the number of start-up operations per engine may, with BKI’s
agreement, be reduced according to the concept of the propulsion plant.
The Guidance for Sea Trials of Motor Vessels may be observed.
2.6
If starting air systems for auxiliaries or for supplying pneumatically operated regulating and
maneuvering equipment or tyfon units are to be fed from the main starting air receivers, due attention is to
be paid to the air consumption of this equipment when calculating the capacity of the main starting air
receivers.
2.7
Other consumers with high air consumption apart from those mentioned in 2.6 may not be
connected to the main starting air system. Separate air supplies are to be provided for these units. Deviations
to this require the agreement of BKI.
2.8
If auxiliary engines are started by compressed air sufficient air capacity for three consecutive starts
of each auxiliary engine is to be provided.
2.9
If starting air systems of different engines are fed by one receiver it is to be ensured that the receiver
air pressure cannot fall below the highest of the different systems minimum starting air pressures.
2.10
Approximate calculation of the starting air supply
For the approximate calculation of the starting air supply the following formula may be used.
2.10.1 Starting air for installations with reversible engines
Assuming an initial pressure of 30 bar and a final pressure of 9 bar in the starting air receivers, the
preliminary calculation of the starting air supply for a reversible main engine may be performed as follows:
J = a ∙ H
∙ z + b ∙ p
D
,
∙ n + 0,9 ∙ V ∙ c
J
[dm3] total capacity of the starting air receivers
D
[mm] cylinder bore
H
[mm] stroke
V
[dm3] swept volume of one cylinder (in the case of double-acting engines, the swept volume of the
upper portion of the cylinder)
P,
[bar]
maximum permissible working pressure of the starting air receiver
z
[–]
number of cylinders
P,
[bar]
mean effective working pressure in cylinder at rated power
The following values of “a” are to be used:

for two-stroke engines: a = 0,4714

for four-stroke engines: a = 0,4190
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H
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
The following values of “b” are to be used:
H

for two-stroke engines: b = 0,059

for four-stroke engines: a = 0,056
The following values of "c" are to be used:
c = 1, where pe,perm = 30 bar
c = 0,0584
1 −e
( ,
,
∙ ,
)
Where Pe,perm > 30 bar, if no pressure-reducing valve is fitted.
e
[-]
Euler’s number (2,718...)
Where Pe,perm > 30 bar, if a pressure-reducing valve is fitted, which reduces the pressure pe,perm to the starting
pressure PA, the value of “c” shown in Fig. 2.7 is to be used.
The following values of nA are to be applied:
n = 0,06 . n + 14
n
= 0,25 . n - 176
n
=
where n ≤ 1000
where n > 1000
[min-1] rated speed
2.10.2 Starting air for installations with non-reversible engines
For each non-reversible main engine driving a controllable pitch propeller or where starting without torque
resistance is possible the calculated starting air supply may be reduced to 0,5 ⋅ J though not less than that
needed for six start-up operations.
3.
Electrical starting equipment
3.1
Where main engines are started electrically, two mutually independent starter batteries are to be
installed. The batteries are to be so arranged that they cannot be connected in parallel with each other. Each
battery shall enable the main engine to be started from cold.
The total capacity of the starter batteries must be sufficient for the execution within 30 minutes, without
recharging the batteries, of the same number of start-up operations as is prescribed in 2.4. or 2.5 for starting
with compressed air.
3.2
If two or more auxiliary engines are started electrically, at least two mutually independent batteries
are to be provided. Where starter batteries for the main engine are fitted, the use of these batteries is
acceptable.
The capacity of the batteries shall be sufficient for at least three start-up operations per engine.
If only one of the auxiliary engines is started electrically, one battery is sufficient.
3.3
The starter batteries shall only be used for starting (and preheating where applicable) and for
monitoring equipment belonging to the engine.
3.4
Steps are to be taken to ensure that the batteries are kept charged and the charge level is monitored.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
4.
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Start-up of emergency generating sets
4.1
Emergency generating sets are to be so designed that they can be started up readily even at a
temperature of 0 ̊C.
If the set can be started only at higher temperatures, or where there is a possibility that lower ambient
temperatures may occur, heating equipment is to be fitted to ensure ready reliable starting.
The operational readiness of the set shall be guaranteed under all weather and seaway conditions. Fire flaps
required in air inlet and outlet openings shall only be closed in case of fire and are to be kept open at all
other times. Warning signs to this effect are to be installed. In the case of automatic fire flap actuation
dependent on the operation of the set warning signs are not required. Air inlet and outlet openings shall not
be fitted with weatherproof covers.
4.2
Each emergency generating set required to be capable of automatic starting is to be equipped with
an automatic starting system approved by BKI, the capacity of which is sufficient for at least three
consecutive starts (compare Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 7, D.6.).
Additionally a second source of energy is to be provided capable of three further starting operations within
30 minutes. This requirement is not applicable if the set can be started manually.
4.3
In order to guarantee the availability of the starting equipment, steps are to be taken to ensure that
a)
electrical and hydraulic starting systems are supplied with energy from the emergency switchboard;
b)
compressed air starting systems are supplied via a non-return valve from the main and auxiliary
compressed air receivers or by an emergency air compressor, the energy for which is provided via
the emergency switchboard; and
c)
the starting, charging and energy storage equipment is located in the emergency generator room.
4.4
Where automatic starting is not specified, reliable manual starting systems may be used, e.g. by
means of hand cranks, spring-loaded starters, hand operated hydraulic starters or starters using ignition
cartridges.
4.5
Where direct manual starting is not possible, starting systems in accordance with 4.2 and 4.3 are to
be provided, in which case the starting operation may be initiated manually.
4.6
The starters of emergency generator sets shall be used only for the purpose of starting the
emergency generator sets.
5.
Start-up of emergency fire extinguisher sets
5.1
Diesel engines driving emergency fire pumps are to be so designed that they can still be reliably
started by hand at a temperature of 0 ̊C.
If the engine can be started only at higher temperatures, or where there is a possibility that lower
temperatures may occur, heating equipment is to be fitted to ensure reliable starting.
5.2
If manual start-up using a hand crank is not possible, the emergency fire-extinguisher set is to be
fitted with a starting device approved by the BKI which enables at least 6 starts to be performed within 30
minutes, two of these being carried out within the first 10 minutes.
H-I
H
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I
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
I.
Control Equipment
1.
General
For unmanned machinery installations, Rules for Automation (Part 1, Vol.VII), is to be observed in addition
to the following requirements.
2.
Main Engines
2.1
Local control station
For local operation without remote control of the propulsion plant a local control station is to be installed
from which
2.1.1
Indicators according to Table 2.7 are to be clearly sited on the local main engine control station.
2.1.2
Temperature indicators are to be provided on the local control station or directly on the engine.
2.1.3 In the case of gear and controllable pitch propeller systems, the local control indicators and control
equipment required for emergency operation are to be installed at the main engines local control station.
2.1.4
Critical speed ranges are to be marked in red on the tachometers.
2.2
Machinery control room/control centre
For remotely operated or controlled machinery installations the indicators listed in Table 2.7 are to be
installed, see Rules for Automation (Part 1,Vol.VII), Section 5.A.
2.3
Bridge/ navigations centre.
2.3.1 The essential operating parameters for the propulsion system are to be provided in the control
station area.
2.3.2
The following stand-alone control equipment is to be installed showing:
‒
speed/direction of rotation of main engine
‒
speed/direction of rotation of shafting
‒
propeller pitch (controllable pitch propeller)
‒
starting air pressure
‒
control air pressure
2.3.3
BKI.
In the case of engines installations up to a total output of 600 kW, simplification can be agreed with
3.
Auxiliary engines
For auxiliary engines and emergency application engines the controls according to Table 2.7 are to be
provided as a minimum.
I
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
J.
Alarms
1.
General
K
37/59
1.1
The following requirements apply to machinery installations which have been designed for
conventional operation without any degree of automation.
1.2
Within the context of these requirements, the word alarm is to be understood as the visual and
audible warning of abnormal operating parameters.
2.
Scope of alarms.
Alarms have to be provided for main, auxiliary and emergency engines according to Table 2.7.
K.
Engine Alignment/Seating
1.
Engines are to be mounted and secured to their shipboard foundations is conformity with
Regulations for the Seating of Propulsion Plants.
2.
The crankshaft alignment is to be checked every time an engine has been aligned on its foundation
by measurement of the crank web deflection and/or other suitable means.
For the purpose of subsequent alignments, note is to be taken of:
J-K

the draught/load condition of the vessel,

the condition of the engine-cold/ preheated/hot.
3.
Where the engine manufacturer has not specified values for the permissible crank web deflection,
assessment is to be based on BKI’s reference values.
4.
Reference values for crank web deflection
4.1.
Irrespective of the crank web deflection figures quoted by the manufacturers of the various engine
types, reference values for assessing the crank web deflection in relation to the deflection length r can be
taken from Fig. 2.4.
Provided that these values are not exceeded, it may be assumed that neither the crankshaft nor the crankshaft
bearings are subjected to any unacceptable additional stresses.
4.2.
Notes on the measurement of crank web deflections
K
Crank web deflections are to be measured at distance
R + dw
2
from the crankpin centre line (see Fig. 2.5)
Crank web deflection △a is only meaningful as measured between opposite crank positions (see Fig. 2.5), i.
e. between 0 - 3 for evaluating vertical alignment and bearing location, and between 2 - 4 for evaluating
lateral bearing displacement when aligning the crankshaft and assessing the bearing wear. For measuring
point 0, which is obstructed by the connecting rod, the mean value of the measurements made at 1' and 1" is
to be applied.
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3
K
S
Section
2 – Internal Combuustion Enginess and Air Com
mpressor
Fig. 2.4 Reference
R
vaalues for cra
ack web defllection
Fig. 2.5
5 Measurem ents of cran
nk web deflection
4.3.
4
Deteermining thee crank web deflection llength
Explanatory
E
notes on:
‒
solidd forged and drop forged crankshafts iin Fig. 2.6, subfigures
s
A, B and C;
‒
semii built cranksshafts, subfig
gure D.
Symbols:
S
R
[mm
m]
crank raddius
H
[mm
m]
stroke (22 R)
[mm
m]
crank pinn diameter
[mm
m]
journal diameter
d
[mm
m]
shrink annnulus diameeter
[mm
m]
axial webb thickness
W
BK
KI Rules For M
Machinery Insstallation-2014
4
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
B
s
[mm]
web width at distance R/2
[mm]
depth of web undercut (on crank pin side)
[mm]
depth of web undercut (on journal side)
[mm]
pin/journal overlap
s=
K
39/59
(d + d )
− R
2
Where there is a negative pin/journal overlap (s < 0), the deflection length rO in accordance with subfigure A
is determined by applying the formula:
r = 0,5(H + d + d ) − W
−1+
− 1 (1)
In case of web undercut, W in formula (1) is to be replaced by:
W ∗ = W − (2)
( )
In the case of semi-built crankshafts in accordance with subfigure D, the value dw in the radicand of formula
(1) is to be replaced by:
d
∗
= (d − d ) + d (3)
In case of web undercut, W* is also to be substituted for W in accordance with formula (2).
Where there is a positive pin/journal overlap (s ≥ 0) according to subfigure C, the value W in formula (1) is
to be replaced by:
W ∗ = (W − T − T ) + 0,5(d + d − H)
(4)
For the conventional designs, where:
B/d
= 1,37 to 1,51
in the case of solid forged crankshafts, and
B/d
=1,51 to 1,63
in the case of semi-built crankshafts, the influence of B in the normal
calculation of ro is already taken into account in the values of Δa in Fig. 2.4
Where the values of B/dW depart from the above (e.g. in the case of discs oval webs etc.) the altered
stiffening effect of B is to be allowed for by a fictitious web thickness W** which is to be calculated by
applying the following equations and is to be substituted for W in formula (1):
W ∗∗ = W ∗
− 0,44
for solid forged crankshafts
W ∗∗ = W ∗
− 0,57
(5)
f
or semi built crankshafts
(6)
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K
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
Fig. 2.6 Types of forged (A, B and C) and semi built (D) crankshafts
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
41/59
Fig. 2.7 The Value of “c” where a pressure-reducing valve is fitted
L.
Approximate Calculation of the Starting Air Supply
These calculations are integrated in H.2.10.
M.
Air Compressors
1.
General
1.1
Scope
These requirements apply to reciprocating compressors of the normal marine types. Where it is intended to
install compressors to which the following requirements and calculation formula cannot be applied, BKI
requires proof of their suitability for shipboard use.
1.2
Documents for approval
Drawings showing longitudinal and transverse cross-sections, the crankshaft and the connecting rod are to
be submitted to BKI in triplicate for each compressor type.
2.
Materials
2.1
Approved materials
In general, the crankshafts and connecting rods of reciprocating compressors shall be made of steel, cast
steel or nodular cast iron. The use of special cast iron alloys is to be agreed with BKI.
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2.2
M
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
Material testing
Material tests are to be performed on crankshafts with a calculated crank pin diameter of > 50 mm. For
crank pin diameters of ≤ 50 mm a Manufacturer Inspection Certificates is sufficient.
3.
M
3.1
Crankshaft dimensions
The diameters of journals and crank pins are to be determined as follows:
d = 0,126 ∙ D ∙ p ∙ C ∙ C ∙ (2 ∙ H + f ∙ L)
Where:
d
D
[mm]
minimum pin/journal diameter
[mml
cylinder bore for single-stage compressors
=D
= cylinder bore of the second stage in two-stage compressors with separate pistons
= 1,4 ⋅ D
for two stage compressors with a stepped piston as in Fig 2.8
−D
for two-stage compressors with a differential piston as in Fig. 2.9
= D
pc
[bar]
design pressure PR, applicable up to 40 bar
H
[mm]
piston stroke
L
[mm]
distance between main bearing centers where one crank is located between two bearings. L
is to be substituted by L = 0,85 . L where two cranks at different angles are located
between two main bearings, or by L = 0,95 . L where 2 or 3 connecting rods are mounted
on one crank.
f
=
1,0, where the cylinders are in line
=
1,2, where the cylinders are at 90̊ for V or W type
=
1,5, where the cylinders area at 60̊ for V or W type
=
1,8, where the cylinders are at 45̊ for V or W type
C
[-]
coefficient according to Table 2.8
z
[-]
number of cylinders
C
[-]
material factor according to Table 2.9 or 2.10.
R
[N/mm²] minimum tensile strength
3.2
Where increased strength is achieved by a favorable configuration of the crankshaft, smaller values
of d may be approved.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combbustion Engin
nes and Air Co
ompressor
Fig. 2.8
Fig. 2.9
ble 2.8 Valuees of C1
Tab
z
1
2
4
6
≥8
C1
1,0
1,1
1,2
1,3
1,4
Table 2.9 V
Values of Cw for steel shafts
1)
Rm
Cw
400
1,03
440
0,94
480
0,91
520
0,85
560
0,79
600
0,77
640
0,74
≥ 680
0,70
1)
720
0,66
≥ 7601)
0,64
Only for drrop-forged crrankshafts
BKI Rules Foor Machinery Installation-2
2014
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M
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
Table 2.10 Values of Cw for nodular cast iron shafts
Rm
Cw
370
1,20
400
1,10
500
1,08
600
0,98
700
0,94
≥ 800
0,90
4.
Construction and equipment
4.1
General
4.1.1
Cooler dimensions are to be based on a seawater temperature of at least 32°C in case of water
cooling, and on an air temperature of at least 45 °C in case of air cooling, unless higher temperatures are
dictated by the temperature conditions according to the ship's trade or by the location of the compressors or
cooling air intakes.
Where fresh water cooling is used, the cooling water inlet temperature shall not exceed 40°C
4.1.2
Unless they are provided with open discharges, the cooling water spaces of compressors and
coolers shall be fitted with safety valves or rupture discs of sufficient cross-sectional area.
4.1.3
M
4.2
High-pressure stage air coolers shall not be located in the compressor cooling water space.
Safety valves and pressure gauges
4.2.1
Every compressor stage shall be equipped with a suitable safety valve which cannot be blocked
and which prevents the maximum permissible working pressure from being exceeded by more than 10 %
even when the delivery line has been shut off. The setting of the safety valve shall be secured to prevent
unauthorized alteration.
4.2.2
Each compressor stage must be fitted with a suitable pressure gauge, the scale of which must
indicate the relevant maximum permissible working pressure.
4.2.3
Where one compressor stage comprises several cylinders which can be shut off individually, each
cylinder shall be equipped with a safety valve and a pressure gauge.
4.3
Air compressors with oil-lubricated pressure spaces
4.3.1
The compressed air temperature, measured directly at the discharge from the individual stages,
may not exceed 160 0C for multi-stage compressors or 200 0C for single-stage compressors. For discharge
pressures of up to 10 bar, temperatures may be higher by 20 0C.
4.3.2
Compressors with a power consumption of more than 20 kW shall be fitted with thermometers at
the individual discharge connections, wherever this is possible. If this is not practicable, they are to be
mounted at the inlet end of the pressure line. The thermometers are to be marked with the maximum
permissible temperatures.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
4.3.3
M-N
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After the final stage, all compressors are to be equipped with a water trap and an aftercooler.
4.3.4
Water traps, aftercoolers and the compressed air spaces between the stages must be provided with
discharge devices at their lowest points.
4.4
Name Plate
Every compressor is to carry a name plate with the following information:
-
manufacturer
-
year of construction
-
effective suction rate [m3/h]
-
discharge pressure [bar]
-
speed [Rpm]
-
power consumption [kW].
5.
Test
5.1
Pressure test
5.1.1
Cylinders and cylinder liners are to be subjected to hydraulic pressure tests at 1,5 times the final
pressure of the stage concerned.
5.1.2
The compressed air chambers of the intercoolers and aftercoolers of air compressors are to be
subjected to hydraulic pressure tests at 1,5 times the final pressure of the stage concerned.
5.2
Final inspections and testing
Compressors are to be subjected to a performance test at the manufacturer's works under supervision of BKI
and are to be presented for final inspection.
N.
M-N
1.
Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems
General
Exhaust gas cleaning systems shall comply with the applicable statutory requirements. In case of sea going
ships requirements stipulated in the MARPOL Convention as well as further IMO Guidelines ,as far as
applicable ,are to be observed. In case of wet exhaust gas cleaning systems (scrubber systems) IMO
Resolution MEPC.184(59) applies.
1.1
Application
The following requirements apply to exhaust gas cleaning systems which reduce the amount of nitrogen
oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx) or particulate matter from the exhaust gases of internal combustion
engines, incinerators or steam boilers.
2.
Approval
Where an exhaust gas cleaning system is installed details of the arrangement and a description of the
functionality are to be submitted to BKI for approval. To facilitate an efficient approval process the
document can submitted electronically or in paper form in triplicate.
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Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
2.1
Documents for approval
N
For approval, drawings showing the main dimensions of the systems shall be submitted including
documentation concerning installation requirements, safety concept addressing design ,operational issues
and operational features . An operation manual shall include instructions for maintenance, verification of
parameters indicating the need for cleaning or replacement and instruction for emergency operation, if
applicable.
2.2
Approval certificate
After successful appraisal of the required documents and successful conclusion of the shipboard test in
presence of a BKI Surveyor ,BKI will issue an Approval Certificate.
3.
Layout
3.1
System layout and installation
Exhaust gas cleaning systems shall be separate for each combustion engine or combustion plant as a matter
of principle. General requirements on the use of combustible materials and on structural fire protection are
to be observed. Thermal expansion of the system and its mechanical connections to both the ship’s structure
and the exhaust pipes has to be considered. The requirements for exhaust gas lines set out in Section 11. M
shall be taken into account. The aftertreatment system is to be equipped with at least one inspection port.
Exhaust gas cleaning systems are to be accessible for inspection and maintenance. An exchange or removal
of internal components shall be possible, where applicable.
3.2
Safety Concept
The safety concept is a document describing hazards associated with the design and operation of the exhaust
gas cleaning system along with suitable measures to control the identified hazards. The safety concept shall
be a self contained document covering the following:
3.3
–
System description with schematic diagrams of the plant layout
–
Hazard analysis for design and operational aspects of the exhaust gas cleaning system. The analysis
shall address inter alia:
–
Fresh water and sea water systems (e.g. high/low temperatures, system clogging, flooding)
–
Process chemicals (e.g. storage, ventilation, high/low temperatures)
–
Exhaust gas piping system (e.g. pressure fluctuations)
–
Fire hazards
–
Material selection
–
Ship motions
–
Control measures for all identified hazards
Bypass
Where an exhaust gas cleaning system is installed with a single main propulsion engine a bypass, controlled
by flap valves or other suitable cut-off devices, is required in order to allow unrestricted engine operation in
case of system failure. The bypass shall be designed for the maximum exhaust gas mass flow at full engine
load.
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In case of an exhaust gas cleaning system installed on an engine of a multi engine plant a bypass system
may be dispensed with.
3.3
Additional pressure loss
The total pressure loss in the exhaust gas system, including the additional pressure loss from the exhaust gas
cleaning system, shall not exceed the maximum allowable exhaust gas back pressure as specified by the
engine manufacturer at any load condition.
3.4
Maximum gas pressure
The maximum pressure in the system of the exhaust pipes as specified by the manufacturer shall not be
exceeded. Care is to be taken in particular where the exhaust gas cleaning system is located upstream of the
turbocharger of the combustion engine (e.g. Selective Catalytic Reduction systems in conjunction with large
bore 2-stroke Diesel engines).
3.5
Oscillation characteristics of the exhaust gas column
The installation and operation of the exhaust gas cleaning system shall not have an adverse effect on the
oscillation characteristics of a combustion engine’s exhaust gas column in order to avoid unsafe engine
operation.
3.6
Deposition of soot
The deposition of soot within or in the proximity of the exhaust gas cleaning system should be avoided.
Where this may lead to additional fire hazards the deposition of soot is not acceptable.
3.7
Vibrations in piping system
The design and installation of the exhaust gas cleaning system including the exhaust gas piping system shall
account for vibrations induced by the ship’s machinery, the pulsation of the exhaust gas or vibrations
transmitted through the ship’s structure in order to prevent mechanical damage to the piping system.
Consideration should be given to the installation of damping systems and/or compensators.
3.8
Monitoring of the operating parameters
The main operating parameters of the exhaust gas cleaning system have to be monitored and should serve as
indicators for possible abnormalities. As a minimum, the following operating parameters shall be monitored:

Gas temperature upstream of the exhaust gas cleaning system

Gas temperature downstream of the exhaust gas cleaning system

Pressure drop across the exhaust gas cleaning system

Engine exhaust gas back pressure
-
Position of flap valves
4.
Materials
All materials of the exhaust gas cleaning system, connecting pipes and chemically reactive agent dosing
units shall be non-combustible. The requirements relating to exhaust gas lines as contained in BKI Guideline
for Gas Fuel Engine are to be observed, as applicable.
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Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
Chemically reactive agents
Reducing agent
For Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) type exhaust gas cleaning systems the reducing agent (Ammonia,
dissolved Ammonia, Urea or the like) has to be stored and pumped in tanks and pipes made of approved
materials for these types of agents, see Section 11.
5.2
Ammonia slip
Where Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) type ex,haust gas cleaning systems are applied excessive slip of
ammonia has to be prevented.
5.3
Washwater criteria
Where the exhaust gases are washed with water, discharged wash water has to comply with criteria as
specified in IMO Resolution MEPC.184(59).
6.
Shipboard testing
The exhaust gas cleaning and bypass system is subject to inspection and functional tests in each case in the
presence of a Surveyor.
O.
Gas-Fuelled Engines
1.
Scope and application
1.1
For internal combustion engines using gas as fuel the following requirements are to be observed.
These requirements are applicable to gas-fuelled engines meeting the following criteria:

engines using natural gas as fuel

engines using gases other than natural gas will be specially considered and additional respectively
adapted requirements may apply

engines burning fuel gas and fuel oil (dual-fuel engines), or single gas fuel engines (operating on
gas-only)

engines with low or high pressure gas supply systems
1.2
Special design features will be considered on a case by case basis, taking into account the basic
engine design and the engine safety concept.
2.
Further Rules and Guidelines
2.1
The basic gas-fuelled engine requirements defined in BKI Guideline for The Use of Gas As Fuel,
are generally to be fulfilled independent of the source of gas (boil-off from cargo or gas fuel from storage
tanks).
2.2
Requirements for internal combustion engines as defined in these are to be followed for gas-fuelled
engines as far as applicable.
2.3
BKI Guideline for The Use of Gas As Fuel apply for gas fuel supplied from gas fuel storage tanks
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2.4
Part 1, Seagoing Ship, Volume IX, Rules for Ships Carrying Liquefied Gasses in Bulk, apply to gas
fuel supplied from liquefied gas carrier cargo boil-off.
O
Note: Use of gas as fuel for ships is currently not covered by international conventions (except boil-off
from cargo covered by the IGC Code). Therefore, acceptance by the flag administration is necessary for
each individual installation. Resolution MSC.285(86) ‘Interim Guidelines on Safety for Natural Gas-Fuelled
Engine Installations in Ships’ gives guidance on safety requirements for these installations. An International
Code of Safety for Gas fuelled Ships (IGF Code) is currently under development at IMO.
3.
Definitions
3.1
Definitions addressing gas as fuel as given in BKI Guideline for The Use of Gas As Fuel.
3.2
Gas admission valve: Valve or injector on the engine which controls gas supply to the engine
according to the engine’s actual gas demand.
3.3
Safety concept: The safety concept is a document describing the safety philosophy with regard to
gas as fuel. It describes how risks associated with this type of fuel are controlled under normal operating
conditions as well as possible failure scenarios and their control measures.
4.
General and operational availability
4.1
The safety, operational reliability, and dependability of a gas-fuelled engine shall be equivalent to
that of a conventional oil-fuelled marine diesel engine.
4.2
The engine shall be capable of safe and reliable operation throughout the entire power range under
all expected operation conditions.
4.3
Composition and minimum methane number of gas fuel supplied to the engine shall be in
accordance with the engine manufacturer’s specification. If gas composition or methane number exceeds
specified limits, no dangerous situation shall arise.
4.4
General requirements regarding redundancy of essential systems (main propulsion, electrical power
generation, etc.) are to be considered. The same basic requirements apply to gas-fuelled engine installations
as for oil-fuelled engine installations.
4.5
Arrangements of the gas-fuelled installation for sustained or restored operation following blackout
and dead ship condition shall be carefully evaluated.
4.6
Overall operational availability of the gas fuelled engine installation shall not be reduced by engine
safety functions, such as automatic shutdown of external gas supply, to a level lower than achieved by oilfuelled engine installations. Furthermore, gas leakages anywhere in the gas storage system, gas supply
system, or gas engine components shall not cause automatic shutdown of other engines in order to maintain
essential functions such as main propulsion power and electrical power generation.
4.7
For single engine main propulsion plants the entire system, including gas supply, machinery space
safety concept, and gas engine design shall be evaluated with regard to operational availability and
redundancies.
4.8
In general, dual-fuel engines suitable for change over to oil fuel mode in case of failure in the gas
supply system are considered to be the only gasfuelled engines practicable for single engine main propulsion
plants.
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5.
Documents to be submitted
O
5.1
In addition to the documents defined in BKI Guideline for The Use of Gas As Fuel. The
documents as listed in Table 2.11 shall be submitted for approval respectively reviews.
Table 2.11 Documents to be submitted for gas-fuelled engines
Item No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
6.
Description
General engine concept with regard to gas as fuel (description)
Engine specification sheet and technical data
Specification of permissible fuel gas properties
Engine safety concept, including system FMEA with regard to gas as fuel
Definition of hazardous areas
General installation manual for the engine type with regard to machinery space layout and
equipment
Fuel gas system for the engine, including double wall piping ssystem and ventilation system
(schematic layout, details, assembly, functional description)
Charge air system (schematic layout, functional description, assembly)
Engine exhaust gas system (schematic layout, assembly)
Explosion relief valves for crankcase, air intake manifold and exhaust
manifold (specification, arrangement, determination of minimum number and
size required, operating parameters of protected manifolds) refer also to
8.3.3.4
Engine control system (schematic layout, functional description, specification) Ignition
System (schematic layout, functional description, specification)
Combustion monitoring system (schematic layout, functional description, specification)
Engine monitoring system (schematic layout, functional description, specification) Engine
alarm and safety system (schematic layout, functional description, specification) Gas
detection system for the engine (schematic layout, functional description)
Electronic components of engine control-, ignition-, alarm-, safety-, monitoring system, etc.
(specification, type approvals)
List of type approved equipment
List of explosion-proof electrical equipment incl. specification of certifications
Testing procedure for gas detection system
Testing procedure for gas tightness
General concept regarding training measures for operating personnel
General requirements
Requirements as specified in BKI Guideline for The Use of Gas As Fuel shall be observed.
6.1
Gas supply concept
6.1.1
Gas-fuelled engines shall either be designed according to Emergency Shut-down concept (ESD) or
Gas Safe Concept (definition and requirements see BKI Guidelines for Gas Fuel Engine
6.1.2 The general design principle (ESD or Gas Safe Concept) will influence the range of acceptable
applications with regard to engine room arrangements, engine room safety concept, redundancy concept,
propulsion plant, etc.
6.2
Requirements for single gas fuel engines
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In general, single gas fuel engines are only considered suitable for electric power generating plants.
6.2.2 The application of single gas fuel engines for mechanical propeller drives requires special evaluation
and consideration.
6.3
Requirements for dual-fuel engines
6.3.1
Dual-fuel engines are to be of the dual-fuel type employing pilot fuel ignition and to be capable of
immediate change-over to oil fuel only.
6.3.2
Only oil fuel is to be used when starting the engine.
6.3.3 Only oil fuel is, in principle, to be used when the operation of an engine is unstable, and/or
during maneuvering and port operations.
6.3.4
In case of shut-off of the gas fuel supply or engine failure related to gas operation, engines are to be
capable of continuous operation by oil fuel only.
6.3.5
In general, engine power and speed shall not be influenced during fuel change-over process. An
automatic system shall provide for a change-over procedure with minimal fluctuations in engine power and
speed.
6.3.6
The change-over process from gas mode to oil mode shall be possible at all operating conditions.
7.
Systems
Requirements as specified in BKI Guideline for The Use of Gas As Fuel shall be observed.
7.1
Cooling water system
7.1.1
Means are to be provided to degas the cooling water system from fuel gas if the possibility is given
that fuel gas can leak directly into the cooling water system.
7.1.2
Suitable gas detectors are to be provided.
7.1.3
Flame arrestors are to be provided at the vent pipes.
7.2
Lubrication oil system
7.2.1
Means are to be provided to degas the lubrication oil system from fuel gas if the possibility is given
that fuel gas can leak directly into the lubrication oil system.
7.2.2
Suitable gas detectors are to be provided.
7.2.3
Flame arrestors are to be provided at the vent pipes.
7.3
Fuel oil system
7.3.1
Means are to be provided to degas the fuel oil system from fuel gas if the possibility is given that fuel
gas can leak directly into the fuel oil system.
7.3.2
Suitable gas detectors are to be provided.
7.3.3
Flame arrestors are to be provided at the vent pipes.
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Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
External gas supply system
7.4.1
The external gas supply system shall be designed such that the required gas conditions and properties
(temperature, pressure, etc.) as specified by the engine maker at engine inlet are adhered to under all possible
operating conditions.
7.4.2
Arrangements are to be made to ensure that no gas in liquid state is supplied to the engine, unless the
engine is designed to operate with gas in liquid state.
7.4.3
In addition to the automatic shut off supply valve a manually operated valve shall be installed in
series in the gas supply line to each engine.
7.5
Gas system on the engine
7.5.1
General requirements
7.5.1.1 Gas piping on an engine shall be designed and installed taking due account of vibrations and
movements during engine operation.
7.5.1.2 In case of rupture of a gas pipe or excessive pressure loss, automatic shutdown of the gas supply
shall be activated.
7.5.2
Low pressure gas supply
7.5.2.1 Flame arresters shall be provided in the gas supply system on the engine as determined by the system
FMEA.
7.5.2.2 Gas admission valves shall be located directly at each cylinder inlet. In general, mixing of fuel gas
with combustion air shall not take place before the cylinder inlet.
7.5.2.3 Gas admission by a common gas admission valve and mixing of gas with combustion air before the
cylinder inlet may be acceptable subject to an acceptable level of risk being determined in the safety concept
and system FMEA.
7.5.3
High pressure gas supply
7.5.3.1 Flame arresters shall be provided at the inlet to the gas supply manifold of dual-fuel engines.
7.5.3.2 The high pressure gas is to be blown directly into the cylinders without prior mixing with combustion
air.
7.5.3.3 High pressure gas pipes on the engine shall be carried out in double wall design with leakage
detection. The outer pipe is to be designed to with stand serious leakage of the inner high pressure pipe. Gas
pressure and temperature is to be considered.
7.5.4
Gas admission valve
7.5.4.1 The gas admission valve shall be controlled by the engine control system according to the actual gas
demand of the engine.
7.5.4.2 Uncontrolled gas admission shall be prevented by design measures or indicated by suitable detection
and alarm systems. Measures to be taken following detection and alarm are to be examined as part of the
system FMEA.
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Ignition system
7.6.1
General requirements
Ignition systems commonly use either electrical spark plugs (single gas fuel engines) or pilot fuel oil injection
(dual fuel engines).
7.6.1.1 The ignition system has to ensure proper ignition of the gas at all operating conditions and must be
able to provide sufficient ignition energy.
7.6.1.2
Before starting the engine, the engine has to be ventilated without injection or supplying any fuel.
7.6.1.3 Before activating the gas admission to the engine, the ignition system has to be checked
automatically to verify correct functioning.
7.6.1.4 Combustion of each cylinder is to be monitored. Misfiring and knocking combustion is to be
detected.
7.6.1.5 Safe and reliable operation of the ignition system shall be demonstrated and documented by a system
FMEA.
7.6.1.6
source.
During stopping of the engine the fuel gas supply shall be shut off automatically before the ignition
7.6.2
Spark ignition
For a spark ignition engine, if ignition has not been detected on each cylinder by the engine monitoring system
within an engine specific time after operation of the gas admission valve, gas supply shall be automatically
shut off and the starting sequence terminated. Any unburned gas mixture is to be purged from the exhaust
system.
7.6.3
Ignition by pilot injection
7.6.3.1 Prior to admission of fuel gas the correct operation of the pilot oil injection system on each cylinder
shall be verified.
7.6.3.2 An engine shall always be started using fuel oil only.
7.7
Electrical systems
7.7.1
Care shall be taken to prevent any possible sources of ignition caused by electrical equipment,
electrical sensors, etc. installed in hazardous areas.
7.7.2
For electrical equipment and sensors in hazardous areas the explosion protection requirements in
Volume IV, Rules for Electrical Installations, are to be observed.
7.7.3
Systems that shall remain operational when the safety system triggers shut off of the gas supply are
to be determined by the system FMEA. Systems to be considered shall include, but not be limited to, the
ventilation system, inert gas system and gas detection system.
7.8
Engine control, monitoring, alarm, and safety systems
7.8.1
General requirements
7.8.1.1 General requirements regarding gas supply and automatic activation of gas supply valves (double
block and bleed valves, master gas valve) to the engine as defined in the BKI Guideline for The Use of Gas
As Fuel shall be observed.
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7.8.1.2 Knocking combustion and misfiring is to be detected and combustion conditions are to be
automatically controlled to prevent knocking and misfiring.
7.8.1.3 The engine operating mode shall always be clearly indicated to the operating personnel.
7.8.1.4
Guidance for the scope of instrumentation for monitoring, alarm, and safety systems is given in
Table 2.12. Depending on engine design, safety concept, and system FMEA examining all possible failure
modes, deviations from Table 2.12 may be agreed.
7.8.2
Gas detection
7.8.2.1
Fuel)
A continuous gas detection system shall be provided (see BKI Guideline for The Use of Gas As
7.8.2.2
The gas detection system shall be in operation as long as fuel gas is supplied to the engine.
7.8.2.3 As guidance, the gas detection system shall cover the spaces of the engine as specified in Table 2.12.
Depending on engine design, safety concept, and system FMEA deviations from Table 2.12 may be agreed.
7.8.2.4 Manual gas detection may be installed in lieu of continuous gas detection for certain spaces if this is
shown to be acceptable by the system FMEA.
7.8.3
Speed control and load acceptance
7.8.3.1 In general, the requirements in F.1 shall be observed.
7.8.3.2 The basic requirements of F.1.2.3 regarding design of the ship’s power management system apply.
7.8.3.3 Exemptions from minimum required step loading capability of engines driving electrical generators
as shown in Fig. 2.3 can be agreed for gas fuelled engines of limited step loading capability.
Comment
Shut off of gas
supply to machinery
space
(master gas valve)1)
Shut off of gas Supply
to individual engine
(double block and
bleed valves) 1)
Indicator, alarm,
shutdown 1)
Table 2.12 Indicative scope of instrumentation for gas-fuelled engines
Gas Suppy
Gas pressure
I, L, H
Gas temperature
I, L, H
Gas admission valve(s) failure
A, S 2)
incl. failure of
sealing oil,
cooling, etc.
X
Pressure of inert gas supply
I, L
Rupture of gas pipe or excessive gas leakage
A, S
X
X
Failure containment or vacuum of shielded
gas piping system
A, S 2)
X
X
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Table 2.12 Indicative scope of instrumentation for gas-fuelled engines (cont.)
Gas detection
Gas concentration in air manifold
H
Gas concentration in crankcase
H
Gas concentration in exhaust manifold
H
3)
H
Gas concentration below each piston
Gas concentration in shielded gas piping system
H,S2)
X
X
Gas concentration in engine room
H,S
X
X
H,S
X
X
H,S
X
X
H,S
X
X
Misfiring, each cylinder
A,S2)
X
Knocking, each cylinder
A,S2)
Crackcase
Pressure
Temperature
4)
Oil mist concentration
Combustion Monitoring
X
2)
Cylinder pressure
Load deviation
Spark ignition system or pilot injection
system failure
Exhaust gas
Exhaust gas temperature turbocharger inlet and
outlet
Exhaust gas temperature, each cylinder
Deviation from exhaust gas mean temperature
H, L, S
X
2)
A,S
X
A,S2)
X
I, H
I,L,H,S2)
2)
X
L,H,S
X
A,S2)
X
Miscellaneous
Failure in gas combustion control system
Failure ventilation of shielded gas piping system
A
Failure exhaust gas ventilation system
A
Engine shutdown
A,S
Gas safe
concept
X
Externally or
manually
activated
I
A
L
H
S
X
:
:
:
:
:
:
1)
In general, shut off of gas supply and engine shutdown shall not be activated at initial trigger level
without pre-alarm.
Automatic shutdown shall be replaced by automatic change-over to fuel oil mode for dual-fuel
engines subject to a continued safe operation
Cross-Head type engines
Temperature of liners and bearings
2)
3)
4)
Indicator
Alarm
Alarm for lower limit
Alarm for upper limit
Shutdown
Activation
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Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
Exhaust gas system and ventilation system
7.9.1 Exhaust gas pipes from gas-fuelled machinery are to be installed separately from each other, taking
into account structural fire protection requirements.
7.9.2
Machinery, including the exhaust gas system, is to be ventilated:
–
prior to each engine start,
–
after starting failure,
–
after each gas operation of gas-fuelled machinery not followed by an oil fuel operation.
7.9.3 Control of the ventilation system shall be included in the automation system. Failures shall be
alarmed.
8.
Safety equipment and safety systems
Basic requirements as specified in the BKI Guideline for The Use of Gas As Fuel shall be observed.
8.1
Safety concept and system FMEA
8.1.1 The safety concept shall describe the safety philosophy with regard to gas as fuel and in particular
address how risks associated with this type of fuel are controlled. The safety concept shall also describe
possible failure scenarios and the associated control measures.
8.1.2
In the system FMEA possible failure modes related to gas as fuel shall be examined and evaluated in
detail with respect to their consequences on the engine and the surrounding systems as well as their likelihood
of occurrence and mitigating measures. Verification tests are to be defined. Aspects to be examined include,
but shall not be limited to:
–
gas leakage, both engine internal and release of gas to the engine room
–
shut off of gas supply (inter alia with respect to systems that shall remain operational, refer 7.7.3)
–
incomplete/ knocking combustion
–
deviation from the specified gas composition
–
malfunction of the ignition system
–
uncontrolled gas admission to engine
–
switch over process from gas to fuel and vice versa for dual fuel engines
–
explosions in crankcase, scavenging air system and exhaust gas system
–
uncontrolled gas air mixing process, if outside cylinder
–
interfaces to other ship systems, e.g. control system, gas supply
8.2
Crankcase safety equipment
8.2.1
Piston failure
Piston failure and abnormal piston blow-by shall be detected and alarmed.
8.2.2
Crankcase
8.2.2.1 Crankcase venting pipes are to be equipped with flame arrestors.
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8.2.2.2 A detailed evaluation regarding the hazard potential of fuel gas accumulation in the crankcase is to be
carried out and included in the safety concept (see 8.1).
8.2.3
Removal of fuel gas from crankcase and inert gas injection
8.2.3.1 Means shall be provided to measure the fuel gas concentration in the crankcase.
8.2.3.2 Suitable measures, such as inert gas injection, shall be provided to remove fuel gas – air mixtures
from the crankcase at engine standstill.
8.2.3.3 Suitable means shall be available to purge inert gas from the crankcase before opening the crankcase
for maintenance.
8.2.3.4 Signs requiring a fuel and inert gas free atmosphere in the crankcase before opening of crankcase
doors shall be placed in conspicuous locations.
Note:
Means for automatic injection of inert gas into the crankcase are recommended, e.g. in case of:
–
engine emergency shutdown
–
oil mist detection as well as bearing and liner temperature alarm
–
fire detection in engine room
8.3
Explosion relief valves
8.3.1
General requirements
8.3.1.1 Explosion relief devices shall close firmly after an explosion event.
8.3.1.2 The outlet of explosion relief devices shall discharge to a safe location remote from any source of
ignition. The arrangement shall minimize the risk of injury to personnel.
8.3.2
Crankcase explosion relief valves
8.3.2.1 For crankcase safety devices (e.g. explosion relief valves, oil mist detection, etc.) the requirements
specified in F.4. are to be observed.
8.3.2.2 Crankcase explosion relief valves are to be provided at each crank throw.
8.3.2.3 The minimum required total relief area of crankcase explosion relief valves is to be evaluated by
engine maker considering explosions of fuel gas – air mixtures and oil mist.
8.3.3
Other explosion relief valves
8.3.3.1 As far as required in the BKI Guideline for The Use of Gas As Fuel explosion relief valves are to be
provided for combustion air inlet manifolds and exhaust manifolds.
8.3.3.2 Explosion relief valve shall generally be approved byBKI for the application on inlet manifolds and
exhaust manifolds of gas-fuelled engines.
8.3.3.3 For the approval of relief valves the following documentation is to be submitted (usually by the maker
of explosion relief valve):
–
drawings of explosion relief valve (sectional drawings, details, assembly, etc.)
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Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
–
specification data sheet of explosion relief valve (incl. specification of operation conditions such as
max. working pressure, max. working temperature, opening pressure, effective relief area, etc.)
–
test reports.
8.3.3.4 In addition to the approval under 8.3.3.3 the arrangement of explosion relief valves shall be approved
for each engine type. The following documents are to be submitted (usually by the engine manufacturer):
–
drawing of arrangement of explosion relief valves (incl. number, type, locations, etc.)
–
drawings of protected component (air inlet manifold, exhaust manifold, etc.) (incl. specification of
max. working pressure, max. working temperature, max. permissible explosion pressure, etc.)
–
evidence for effectiveness of flame arrestor at actual arrangement
–
evidence for effectiveness of pressure relief at explosion (sufficient relief velocity, sufficient relief
pressure)
Note: Evidence can be provided by suitable tests or by theoretical analysis.
9.
Tests
9.1
Type approval test for gas-fuelled engines
9.1.1
Gas-fuelled engines shall be type approved by BKI.
9.1.2 The scope of type approval testing stated in E.4. applies as far as pertinent also to gas-fuelled engines.
Additional or differing requirements reflecting gas specific aspects are listed below. The type test program is to
be agreed with BKI.
9.1.3
Tests:
–
load acceptance test and load cut off
–
fuel change-over procedures (for dual fuel engines)
–
combustion monitoring
–
safety system
–
alarm system
–
monitoring system
–
control system
–
gas detection
–
tightness tests of gas piping and double wall pipes and ducts
–
ignition system
–
automatic gas shut off
–
turbocharger waste gate, by-pass, etc.
–
ventilation system
–
start, stop, emergency stop
–
verification tests resulting from the system FMEA
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 2 – Internal Combustion Engines and Air Compressor
9.2
O
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Works trials
In addition to the requirements of E.5., the following items shall be tested during works trials of gas-fuelled
engines:
–
tightness test of gas system
–
testing of systems for combustion monitoring
–
testing of gas shut off and fuel change-over (dual-fuel engines) procedures
9.3
Shipboard trials
In addition to the requirements of E.6., during shipboard trials the following items shall be tested:
–
tightness test of gas system
–
testing of systems for combustion monitoring
–
testing of gas shut off and fuel change-over (dual-fuel engines) procedures
–
testing of ventilation systems and gas detection systems
10.
Machinery spaces
10.1
Sufficient air exchange and air flow shall be ensured around the engine to prevent accumulation of
explosive, flammable, or toxic gas concentrations.
10.2
Direction of air flow in machinery spaces shall be directed in such way as to avoid flow of any leaking
gas towards potential sources of ignition.
10.3
Machinery spaces shall have sufficient openings to the outside to allow pressure relief from the
machinery space in case of an explosion event inside a gas-fuelled engine installed in the space.
10.4
Sign plates shall be fixed at adequate locations to make notice of gas-fuelled machinery to persons
entering the relevant machinery spaces. Instructions regarding operation as well as behavior in case of gas
leaks and failure of machinery are to be provided at prominent positions in machinery spaces.
11.
Training
Personnel operating gas-fuelled engines aboard a vessel shall be duly trained regarding operation of the
specific engine, gas supply systems, safety and control systems, etc. installed on the vessel.
12.
Spare parts
Spare parts, which are of major importance for the safety and operational reliability of the gas-fuelled engine,
as well as parts with limited lifetime, shall be provided on board in addition to those required in Section 17.
13.
Retrofit
Acceptance criteria and procedure for conversion of existing oil-fuelled diesel engines into gas fuelled or dual
fuel engines are to be individually agreed with BKI.
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BKI Rules For Machinery Installations - 2014
Section 3I – Turbomachinery Steam Turbines
A-B
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Section 3 I
Turbomachinery / Steam Turbines
A-B
A.
3
1.
General
Scope
The following Rule apply to main and auxiliary steam turbines.
BKI reserves the right to authorize deviations from the Rules in the case of low-power turbines.
2.
Documents for approval
For every steam turbine installation, the documents listed below are to be submitted to BKI in triplicate for
approval, to facilitate a smooth and efficient approval process. The drawings could be submitted in
electronic format.
‒
assembly and sectional drawings of the turbines,
‒
detail drawings of rotors, casings, guide blading, blades, valves, bed frames and main condenser (for
gearing, see Section 5),
‒
details of operating characteristics and critical speeds,
‒
proof of a sufficient safety margin in the components subject to the severest loads; for temperatures
up to approximately 400 oC, the relevant strength characteristic is the yield point at elevated
temperatures; for higher temperatures it is the long-term creep strength for 100.000 hours at service
temperature,
‒
details of the welding conditions applicable to welded components and
‒
on request, calculations relating to blade vibration.
For small auxiliary turbines with a steam inlet temperature of up to 250 ̊C it is generally sufficient to submit
sectional drawings of the turbines. Heat flow diagrams for each turbine installation and a set of operating
instructions for at least each turbine type are to be submitted.
B.
Materials
1.
Approved materials
1.1
Rotating components
Turbine rotors, discs and shafts are to be manufactured from forged steel.
The rotors of small turbines may also be cast in special-grade steel. Turbine blades, shrouds, binding and
damping wires are to be made of corrosion-resistant materials.
1.2
Stationary components
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Section 3I – Turbomachinery/ Steam Turbines
The casings of high-pressure turbines and the bodies of maneuvering, quick-closing and throttle valves are
to be made of high-temperature steel or cast steel. Depending upon pressure and temperature, the casings of
intermediate and low-pressure turbines may also be made of nodular or grey cast iron.
Diaphragms (guide vanes) are to be manufactured from steel, cast steel, nodular or grey cast iron depending
on the temperature and load. Welded construction may also be approved for steel or cast steel components.
Grey and nodular cast iron may be used up to a steam temperature of 300oC.
2.
Testing of materials
2.1
The following parts are subject to testing in accordance with Rules for Materials (Part 1, Vol.V):
‒
rotating parts such as rotors, discs, shafts, shrink rings, blades, toothed couplings and other
dynamically loaded components as well as valve spindles and cones.
‒
stationary parts such as casings, guide blading, nozzles and nozzle chests, guide vanes, turbine
casing bolts, bed frames and bearing pedestals.
‒
condenser tubes and tube plates.
In the case of small auxiliary turbines with a steam inlet temperature of up to 250 ̊C, the extent of the tests
may be limited to the disc and shaft materials.
B-C
C.
Design and Construction Principles
1.
Foundations
The foundations of geared turbine installations are to be so designed and constructed that only minor relative
movement can occur between the turbine and the gearing which can be compensated by suitable couplings.
For the design of foundation, Regulations for the Seating of Diesel Engine Installations have to be
considered.
2.
Jointing of mating surfaces
The mating flanges of casings shall form a tight joint without the use of any interposed material.
3.
Bearing lubrication
The lubrication of bearings are not to be impaired by adjacent hot parts or by steam.
For the lubricating oil system, see Section 11, H.
4.
Connections
Pipes are to be connected to the turbine in such a way that no unacceptably high forces or moments can be
transmitted to the turbine.
5.
Drains
Turbines and the associated piping systems are to be equipped with adequate means of drainage.
6.
Turning gear
Main propulsion turbines are to be equipped with turning gear for both directions of rotation. The rotors of
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Section 3I – Turbomachinery Steam Turbines
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auxiliary turbines must at least be capable of being turned by hand.
7.
Measurement of rotor clearances
After assembly of each turbine in the manufacturer's works, the rotor position and the clearances are to be
determined. The clearances are to be specified in the operating instructions.
8.
Vibrations
The range of service speeds of turbine plant is not to give rise to unacceptable bending vibrations or to
vibrations affecting the entire installation1 .)
C-D-E
D.
Astern Running, Emergency Operation
1
Astern power for main propulsion
1.1
The main propulsion machinery is to possess sufficient power for running astern. The astern power
is considered to be sufficient if, given free running astern, it is able to attain astern revolutions
equivalent to at least 70 % of the rated ahead revolutions for a period of at least 30 minutes.
1.2
For main propulsion machinery with reverse gearing, controllable pitch propellers or an electrical
transmission system, astern running is not to cause any overloading of the propulsion machinery.
2.
Arrangements for emergency operation
In single screw ships fitted with cross compound steam turbines, the arrangements are to be such as to
enable safe operation when the steam supply to any one of the turbines is isolated. For this emergency
operation purpose the steam may be led directly to the lower pressure turbine and either the high or medium
pressure part may exhaust directly to the condenser. Adequate arrangements and controls are to be provided
for these operating conditions so that the pressure and temperature of the steam will not exceed those which
the turbines and condenser are designed for, thus enabling a long term safe operation under emergency
conditions.
The necessary pipes and valves for the arrangements are to be readily available and properly marked. A fit
up test of all combinations of pipes and valves is to be presented to BKI prior to the first sea trials.
The permissible operating conditions (power/speeds) when operating without one of the turbines (all
combinations) are to be specified and accessibly documented on board.
The operation of the turbines under emergency conditions is to be assessed by calculations for the potential
influence on shaft alignment and gear teeth loading conditions. Corresponding documentation shall be
submitted to BKI for appraisal.
E.
Maneuvering and Safety Equipment
1.
Maneuvering and control equipment
1.1
The simultaneous admission of steam to the ahead and astern turbines is to be prevented by
interlocks. Brief overlapping of the ahead and astern valves during maneuvering can be allowed.
1.2
1
)
Fluids for operating hydraulic maneuvering equipment, quick-closing and control systems are to
The assessment may be based on ISO 10816-3 “Mechanical vibration - Evaluation of machine vibrations by measurements on
parts” or an equivalent standard.
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E
Section 3I – Turbomachinery/ Steam Turbines
be suitable for all service temperatures and of low flammability.
1.3
Turbines for main propulsion machinery equipped with controllable pitch propellers, disengaging
couplings or an electrical transmission system are to be fitted with a speed governor which, in the event of a
sudden loss of load, prevents the revolutions from increasing to the trip speed.
1.4
The speed increase of turbines driving electric generators - except those for electrical propeller
drive resulting from a change from full load to no-load may not exceed 5 % on the resumption of steady
running conditions. The transient speed increase resulting from a sudden change from full load to no-load
conditions may not exceed 10 % and is to be separated by a sufficient margin from the trip speed.
2.
Safety devices
E
2.1
Main propulsion turbines are to be equipped with quick-closing devices which automatically shut
off the steam supply in case of:
a)
over speed. Excess speeds of more than 15 % above the rated value are to be prevented,
b)
unacceptable axial displacement of the rotor,
c)
an unacceptable increase in the condenser pressure,
d)
an unacceptable increase in the condenser water level and
e)
an unacceptable drop in the lubricating oil pressure.
2.2
In cases a) and b) of 2.1, the quick-closing devices shall to be actuated by the turbine shafts.
2.3
It is to also be possible to trip the quick closing device manually at the turbine and from the control
platform.
2.4
Re-setting of the quick-closing device may be effected only at the turbine or from the control
platform with the control valve in the closed position.
2.5
It is recommended that an alarm system should be fitted which responds to excessive vibration
velocities 1).
2.6
An interlock is to be provided to ensure that the main turbine cannot be started up when the
turning gear is engaged.
2.7
Steam bleeder and pass-in lines are to be fitted with automatic devices which prevent steam from
flowing into the turbine when the main steam admission valve is closed.
2.8
Turbines driving auxiliary machines at least are to be equipped with quick-closing devices for
contingencies 2.1 a) and 2.1 d). An excessive rise in the exhaust steam pressure as to actuate the quickclosing device.
2.9
It shall be possible to start up any turbine only when the quick-closing device is ready for
operation.
3.
Other Requirements
Depending on the degree of automation involved, the extent and design of the equipment is also subject to
the requirements in Rules for Automation (Part 1,Vol.VII).
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 3I – Turbomachinery Steam Turbines
F.
Control and Monitoring Equipment
1.
Arrangement
F-G-H
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The control and monitoring equipment for each main propulsion unit is to be located on the control
platform.
2.
Scope and design of equipment
Depending on the degree of automation involved, scope and design of the equipment is also subject to Rules
for Automation (Part 1,Vol.VII).
3.
Control and indicating instruments
When the turning gear is engaged, this fact is to be indicated visually at the control platform.
Turbine and pipeline drainage valves are either to operate automatically or are to be combined into groups
which can be operated from the control platform.
4.
Equipment for auxiliary turbines
F-G-H
Turbines driving auxiliary machines are to be provided with the necessary equipment on the basis of
paragraphs 2 and 3
G.
Condensers
1.
Design
The condenser is to be so designed that the inlet steam speed does not result in prohibitive stressing of the
condenser tubes. Excessive sagging of the tubes and vibration are to be avoided, e.g. by the incorporation of
tube supporting plates.
The water chambers and steam space are to be provided with openings for inspection and cleaning. Anticorrosion protection is to be provided on the water side.
ln the case of single-plane turbine installations, suitable measures are to be taken to prevent condensate from
flowing back into the low pressure turbine.
2.
Cooling water supply
The supply of cooling water to the condenser is subject to the requirements contained in Section 11, I.
H.
Tests
1.
Testing of turbine rotors
1.1
Thermal stability test
Rotors forged in one piece and welded rotors are to be tested for axial stability by submitting them to a
thermal stability test.
1.2
Balancing
Finished rotors, complete with blades and associated rotating parts and ready for assembly, are to be
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H-I
Section 3I – Turbomachinery/ Steam Turbines
dynamically balanced in the presence of the Surveyor 1 ).
1.3
Cold over speed test
Turbine rotors are to be tested at a speed at least 15 % above the rated speed for not less than three minutes.
BKI may accept mathematical proof of the stresses in the rotating parts at over speed as a substitute for the
over speed test itself provided that the design is such that reliable calculations are possible and the rotor has
been non-destructively tested to ascertain its freedom from defects.
2.
Pressure and tightness tests
2.1
All finished casing components are to be subjected to hydrostatic testing in the presence of the
Surveyor.
The test pressure pp is calculated as follows:
p
= 1,5 p
,
where p
p
≤ 80 bar
,
;p
,
[bar]
maximum allowable working pressure
= pe,perm + 40 bar
where p ,
> 80 bar
For the bodies of quick-closing, maneuvering and control valves, the test pressure is 1,5 times the maximum
allowable working pressure of the boiler (approval pressure). The sealing efficiency of these valves when
closed is to be tested at 1,1 p ,
2.2
Casing parts on the exhaust side of low pressure turbines subjected during operation to the
condenser pressure are to be tested at pp = 1,0 bar.
2.3
Condensers are to be subjected to separate hydrostatic testing on both the steam and the water side.
The test pressure Pp shall be:
p
= 1,0 bar
on the steam side
p
= 1,5 p
on the steam side
I.
Trials
1.
Factory Trials
,
Where steam turbines are subjected to a trial run at the factory, the satisfactory functioning of the
maneuvering, safety and control equipment is to be verified during the trial run, and such verification shall
in any case take place not later than the commissioning of the plant aboard ship.
H-I
2.
Shipboard trials
2.1
Main turbines are to be subjected to a dock trial and thereafter, during a trial voyage, to the
following tests:
‒
operation at rated rpm for at least 6 hours
‒
reversing maneuvers
2
)
The assessment may be based on ISO 1940-1 standard “Mechanical vibration - Balance quality requirements of rigid rotors” an equivalent
standard.
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Section 3I – Turbomachinery Steam Turbines
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‒
during the dock or sea trials, astern revolutions equal to at least 70 % of the rated ahead rpm for
about 20 minutes.
During astern and subsequent forward operation, the steam pressures and temperatures and the relative
expansion are not to reach magnitudes liable to endanger the operational safety of the plant.
2.2
Turbines driving electric generators or auxiliary machines are to be run for at least 4 hours at their
rated power and for 30 minutes at 110 % rated power.
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BKI Rules For Machinery Installations - 2014
Section 3II – Turbomachinery/ Gas Turbines and Exhaust Gas Turbocharges
A
Section 3 II
Turbomachinery / GasTurbines and Exhaust Gas Turbochargers
Gas Turbines
The documents for approval of main and auxiliary gas turbines have to be submitted to BKI Head
Office. The approval will be performed in accordance with BKI Head Office.
Exhaust Gas Turbochargers
A
A.
General
1.
Application
These Rules are applicable for approval of turbochargers fitted on diesel engines and describe the
required procedures for drawing approval, testing, and shop approval.
2.
Definitions
Regarding turbocharger speed conditions, the following definitions are to be applied:
-
maximum permissible speed :
maximum turbocharger speed, independent of application.
-
maximum operational speed :
speed at 110 % diesel engine output
-
operational speed :
speed at 100% diesel engine output.
(Maximum Continuous Rating/ MCR condition).
The maximum operational speed and maximum permissible speed may be equal.
3.
Type approval
In general turbochargers are type approved. A type Certificate valid for 5 years will be issued in
accordance with 3.1.
3.1
Documentation to be submitted
For every turbocharger type, the documents listed below are to be submitted to BKI in triplicate for
type approval, to facilitate a smooth and efficient approval process. the drawings could be
submitted in electronic format.

cross-sectional drawings with main dimensions

drawings of rotating part (shaft, turbine wheel, compressor wheel, blades) and details of
blade fixing

arrangement and flow diagram of lubrication system.
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A-B
Section 3II – Turbomachinery / Gas Turbines and Exhaust Gas Turbochargers

material specifications including their mechanical and chemical properties for the rotating parts
(shaft, turbine wheel, compressor wheel, blades) and the casing including welding details and
welding procedures for the rotating parts.

technical specification for the turbocharger including maximum continuous operating conditions
(maximum permissible values for the rotational speed, exhaust gas and ambient temperature as well
as the permissible values regarding vibration excited by the engine). The maximum permissible
values have to be defined by the manufacturer for a certain turbocharger type but shall be not less
than the 110 % MCR values for the specific application.

operation and maintenance manuals

details (name and address) of the subcontractors for rotating parts and casings

details (name and address) of the licensees, if applicable, who are authorised by the licensor to
produce and deliver turbochargers of a certain type

type test report carried out in accordance with C.8.

test report or verification by calculations of the containment test, carried out according to C.7.
A-B
B.
Design and Installation
1.
General
Turbocaharger is to be designed to operate at least under the conditions given in Section 1, C.
2.
Basic design considerations
Basis of acceptance and subsequent certification of a turbocharger is the drawing approval and the
documented type test as well as the verification of the containment integrity.
The turbocharger rotors need to be designed according to the speed criteria for natural burst. In general the
burst speed of the turbine shall be lower than the burst speed of the compressor in order to avoid an
excessive turbine overspeed after compressor burst due to loss of energy absorption in compressors.
3.
Air inlet
The air inlet of the turbocharger is to be fitted with a filter in order to minimize the entrance of dirt or water.
4.
Hot surfaces
According to SOLAS Rules and Regulations, Chapter II-2, Part B - Prevention of fire and explosions,
Regulation 4, Paragraph 2.3, parts with surface temperatures above 220 ̊C are to be properly insulated in
order to minimize the risk of fire if flammable oils, lubrication oils, or fuel come into contact with these
surfaces.
Pipe connections have to be located or shielded with collars in such a way that leakage oil either spraying or
dripping may not come into contact with hot surfaces of more than 220 ̊C.
Hot components in range of passageways or within the working area of turbocharger shall be insulated or
protected so that touching does not cause burns.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 3II – Turbomachinery/ Gas Turbines and Exhaust Gas Turbocharges
5.
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Bearing lubrication
Bearing lubrication shall not be impaired by exhaust gases or by adjacent hot components.
Leakage oil and oil vapours are to be evacuated in such a way that they do not come into contact with parts
at temperatures equal or above their self-ignition temperature.
For turbochargers which share a common lubrication system with the diesel engine and which have got an
electrical lubrication oil pump supply, it is recommended to install an emergency lubrication oil tank.
A gas flow from turbocharger to adjacent components containing explosive gases, e.g. crankshaft casing
must be prevented by an adequate ventilating system.
B-C
C.
Tests
1.
Material Tests
1.1
General
Material testing is required for casings, shaft, compressor and turbine wheel, including the blades.
The material used for the components of exhaust gas turbochargers shall be suitable for the intended purpose
and shall satisfy the minimum requirements of the approved maker’s specification.
All materials shall be manufactured by sufficiently proven techniques according to state of the art, whereby
it is ensured that the required properties are achieved. Where new technologies are applied, a preliminary
proof of their suitability is to be submitted to BKI. According to the decision of BKI, this may be done in
terms of special tests for procedures and/or by presentation of the work’s own test results as well as by
expertises of independent testing bodies.
The turboghargers casing are to be from ductile materials (minimum 90 % ferritic structure) and properly
heat-treated in order to achieve the required microstructure and ductility as well as to remove residual
stresses. Deviations from the standard heat-treatment have to be approved separately by BKI.
1.2
Condition of supply and heat treatment
Materials are to be supplied in the prescribed heat-treated condition. Where the final heat treatment is to be
performed by the supplier, the actual condition in which the material is supplied shall be clearly stated in the
relevant Certificates. The final verification of material properties for components needs to be adapted and
coordinated according to production procedure. Deviations from the heat treatment procedures have to be
approved by BKI separately.
C
1.3
Chemical composition and mechanical properties
Materials and products have to be statisfy the requirements relating to chemical compositions and
mechanical properties specified in Rules for Material (Part 1,Vol.V) or, where applicable, in the relevant
manufacturers specifications approved for the type in each case.
1.4
Non-destructive testing
Non-destructive testing shall be applied for the wheels, blades and welded joints of rotating parts. Another
equal production control may be accepted for welded joints. The testing shall be performed by the
manufacturer and the results together with details of the test method are to be evaluated according to
recognized quality criteria and documented in a Certificate.
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1.5
C
Section 3II – Turbomachinery / Gas Turbines and Exhaust Gas Turbochargers
Material Certificates
Material Certificates shall contain at least the following information:
-
quantity, type of product, dimensions where applicable, types of material, supply condition and
weight
-
name of supplier together with order and job numbers, if applicable
-
construction number, where known
-
manufacturing process
-
heat numbers and chemical composition
-
supply condition with details of heat treatment
-
identifying marks
-
results of mechanical property tests carried out on material at ambient temperture
Depending on the produced component of turbocharger material test certificates are to be issued by the
manufacture or BKI. The required Certificates are summarized in Table 3 II.1.
Table 3II.1
Material certificates
Turbocharger components
Type of Certificates 1
Shaft
BKI Material Certificate
Rotors (compressor and turbine)
BKI Material Certificate
Blades
BKI Material Certificate
Casing
Manufacturer Test Report
1
) Test Certificates are to be issued in accordance with Rules for Materials,(Part 1, Vol.V) Section 1.
The materials are to conform to specifications approved in connection with the type approval in each case.
Test Certificates are to be issued in accordance with Rules for Materials (Part 1,Vol.V), Section 1.
If the manufacturer is approved according to D.2. as manufacturer of mass produced exhaust gas
turbochargers fitted on diesel engines having a cylinder bore ≤ 300 mm, the material properties of these
parts may be covered by Manufacturer Inspection Certificates and need not to be verified by a BKI
Surveyor.
2.
Testing of components
The following tests as outlined in 3.5. may be carried out and certified by the manufacturer for all exhaust
gas turbochargers. The identification of components subject to testing must be ensured. On request, the
documentation of the test, including those of subcontractors’ tests, are to be provided to the BKI Surveyor
for examination.
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Section 3II – Turbomachinery/ Gas Turbines and Exhaust Gas Turbocharges
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The test as specified in 6. − 8. are to be performed in presence of a BKI Surveyor.
BKI reserve the right to review the proper performance and the results of the test at any time to the
satisfaction of the Surveyor.
3.
Pressure tests
Cooling water spaces as well as the emergency lubrication oil system for gas inlet and gas outlet casings are
to be subjected to a hydrostatic pressure test of pp = 4 bar, but not less than pp = 1.5 x pc (pp : test pressure; pc
: design pressure).
4.
Overspeed test
All wheels (compressor and turbine) have to undergo an overspeed test for 3 minutes at 20% over the
maximum operational speed at room temperature, or 10 % over the maximum permissible speed at
maximum permissible working temperature. If each wheel is individually checked by a BKI approved nondestructive testing method no overspeed test is required. Deviations are to be approved separately by BKI.
5.
Dynamic balancing
Each shaft and bladed wheel as well as the complete rotating assembly has to be dynamically balanced
individually in accordance with the approved quality control procedure. For assessment of the balancing
conditions the DIN ISO 1940 or comparable regulations may be referred to.
6.
Bench test
Each turbocharger must pass a test run.
The test run is to be carried out during 20 minutes with an overload (110 % of the rated diesel engine
output) on the engine for which the turbocharger is intended.
This test run may be replaced by a separate test run of the turbocharger unit for 20 minutes at maximum
operational speed and working temperature.
In case of sufficient verification of the turbocharger’s performance during the test, a subsequent dismantling
is required only in case of abnormalities such as high vibrations or excessive noise or other deviations of
operational parameters such as temperatures, speed, pressures to the expected operational data.
On the other hand turbochargers shall be presented to the BKI Surveyor for inspection based upon an agreed
spot check basis.
If the manufacturer is approved as a manufacturer of mass produced turbochargers according to D.2., the
bench test can be carried out an agreed sample basis. In this case the Surveyor’s attendance at the test is not
required.
7.
Containment test
The turbocharger has to fulfil containment requirements in case of rotor burst. This requires that at rotor
burst no part may penetrate the casing of the turbocharger.
The following requirements are applicable for a type approval of turbocharger.
The minimum speed for the containment test are defined as follows:
Compressor : ≥ 120 % of its maximum permissible speed
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Turbine
C-D
Section 3II – Turbomachinery / Gas Turbines and Exhaust Gas Turbochargers
: ≥ 140 % of its maximum permissible speed or the natural burst speed (whichever is lower)
The containment test has to be performed at working temperature.
The theoretical (design) natural burst speed of compressor and turbine has to be submitted for information.
A numerical prove of sufficient containment integrity of the casing based on calculations by means of
a simulation model may be accepted in lieu of the practical containment test, provided that :
-
the numerical simulation model has been tested and it’s applicability/accuracy has been proven by
direct comparison between calculation results and practical containment test for a reference
application (reference containment test). This proof has to be provided once by the manufacturer
who wants to apply for acceptance of numerical simulation
-
the corresponding numerical simulation for the containment is performed for the same speeds, as
specified for the containment test (see above)
-
the design of the turbocharger regarding the geometry and kinematics is similar to that of one
turbocharger which has passed the containment test. In general totally new designs will call for new
containment tests.
-
the application of the simulation model may give hints that containtment speeds lower as above
specified may be more critical for the casing’s integrity, due to special design features and different
kinematics behaviour. In such cases the integrity properties of containment for the casing shall be
proven for the worst case.
In general a BKI Surveyor or the Head Office has to be involved for the containment test. The
documentation of the physical containment test as well as the report of the simulation results are to be
submitted to BKI within the scope of the approval procedure.
C-D
8.
Type test
The type test is to be carried out on a standard turbocharger. Normally the type test is a one hour hot running
test at maximum permissible speed and maximum permissible temperature. After the test the turbocharger is
to be dismantled and examined.
Manufacturers who have facilities to test the turbocharger on a diesel engine for which the turbocharger is to
be approved, may consider to substitute the hot running test by a one hour test run at overload (110 % of the
rated diesel engine output).
9.
Spare parts
The rotating assembly parts (rotor, wheels and blades) as well as turbocharger casings have to be replaced
by spare parts which are manufactured by BKI approved manufacturers according to the previously
approved drawings and material specifications. The manufacturer must be recognized by the holder of the
original type approval.
D.
Shop Approvals
1.
Materials and Production
The manufacturers of the material as well as the production procedures for the rotating parts and casings
have to be approved by BKI.
2.
Mass produced exhaust gas turbochargers
Manufacturers of mass-produced turbochargers who operate a quality management system and are
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 3II – Turbomachinery/ Gas Turbines and Exhaust Gas Turbocharges
C-D
7/7
manufacturing exhaust gas turbochargers fitted on BKI approved mass produced diesel engines having a
cylinder bore of ≤ 300 mm may apply for the shop approval by BKI Head Office.
Upon satisfactory shop approval, the material tests according to C.1. for these parts may be covered by a
Manufacturer Inspection Certificate and need not to be verified by a Surveyor
In addition the bench test according to C.6 may be carried out on a sample basis and need not to be verified
by a BKI Surveyor
The shop approval is valid for 3 years with annual follow up audits.
No BKI certificate will be issued for mass-produced turbochargers. Mass-produced turbochargers will be
mentioned with the serial number in the final Certificate intended for the diesel engine.
3.
Manufacturing of exhaust gas turbo-chargers under license agreement
Manufacturers who are manufacturing exhaust gas turbochargers under a license agreement must have a
shop approval of BKI Head Office.
The shop recognition can be issued in addition to a valid license agreement if the following requirements are
fulfilled:
-
The manufactured turbochargers have a valid BKI type approval for the licensor
The drawings and the material specification as well as the working procedures comply with the
drawings and specifications approved in connection with the turbocharger approval of the type for the
licensor. Upon satisfactory assessment in combination with a bench test carried out on a sample basis with
BKI Surveyor’s attendance, the drawing approval and tests according to C.7 and C.8. are not required. The
scope of the testing for materials and components has to be fulfilled unchanged according to C.1 to C.6. The
shop recognition is valid for three years with annual follow up audits and can be granted, if required in
combination with an approval as manufacturer of mass-produced turbochargers. The shop recognition
becomes invalid if the license agreement expires. The licensor is obliged to inform the BKI Head Office
about the date of expiry.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
8/8
D
Section 3II – Turbomachinery / Gas Turbines and Exhaust Gas Turbochargers
BKI Surveyor’s attendance, the drawing approval and tests according to C.7 and C.8. are not required. The
scope of the testing for materials and components has to be fulfilled unchanged according to C.1 to C.6. The
shop recognition is valid for three years with annual follow up audits and can be granted, if required in
combination with an approval as manufacturer of mass-produced turbochargers. The shop recognition
becomes invalid if the license agreement expires. The licensor is obliged to inform the BKI Head Office
about the date of expiry.
D
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 4 - Main Shafting
A-B
1/12
Section 4
Main Shafting
A.
General
1.
Scope
A-B
The following Rules apply to standard and established types of shafting for main and auxiliary propulsion as
well as for lateral thrusters. Deviating designs require BKI’s special approval.
BKI reserve the right to call for propeller shaft dimensions in excess of those specified in this Section if the
propeller arrangement results in increased bending stresses.
2.
Documents for approval
General drawings of the entire shafting, from the main engine coupling flange to the propeller, and detail
drawings of the shafts, couplings and other component parts transmitting the propelling engine torque, and
in addition detail drawings and the arrangement of the stern tube seals and the cast resin mount for stern tube
and shafts bearings are to be submitted in triplicate1) for approval. To facilitate a smooth and efficient
approval process. the drawings could be submitted in electronic format.
For the arrangement of the shaft bearings of the propulsion plant an alignment calculation, including
alignment instructions, has to be submitted, see D.5.6. With consent of BKI for shafting with an
intermediate shaft diameter < 200 mm the alignment calculation may be waived.
The documentation shall contain all the data necessary to enable the stresses to be evaluated.
B.
Materials
1.
Approved materials
Propeller, intermediate and thrust shafts together with flange and clamp couplings are to be made of forged
steel; where appropriate, couplings may be made of cast steel. Rolled round steel may be used for plain,
flangeless shafts.
In general, the tensile strength of steels used for shafting (shafts, flange couplings, bolts/fitted bolts) shall be
between 400 N/mm2 and 800 N/mm2. For dynamically loaded parts of the shafting, designed in accordance
to the formulas as given under C. and D, and explicitly for the shafts themselves as well as for
connecting/fitted bolts for flanged connections in general quenched and tempered steels shall be used with a
tensile strength of more than 500 N/mm2.
However, the value of R
not exceed
used for calculation of the material factor C in accordance with formula (2) shall
-
600 N/mm2 for propeller shafts (exceptions need the special consent of BKI).
-
760 N/mm2 for shafts made of carbon or carbon manganese steel except propeller shafts
1
) For ships flying Indonesian flag in quadruplicate, one of which intended for the Indonesian Government.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
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-
B-C
Section 4 - Main Shafting
800 N/mm2 for shafts made of alloy steel except propeller shafts.
Where materials with higher specified or actual tensile strengths than the limitations given above are used,
the shaft dimensions derived from formulae (1) and (2) are not to be reduced accordingly.
Where in special cases wrought copper alloys resistant to seawater are to be used for the shafting, consent of
BKI shall be obtained.
B-C
2.
Testing of materials
All component parts of the shafting which are participating in transmitting the torque from the ship's
propulsion plant are subject to Rules for Materials (Part 1,Vol.V), and Rules for Welding (Part 1,Vol.VI),
are to be tested. This requirement also covers metal propeller shaft liners. Where propeller shafts running in
seawater are to be protected against seawater penetration not by a metal liner but by plastic coatings, the
coating technique used is to be approved by BKI.
C.
Shaft Dimensioning
1.
General
The following requirements apply to propulsion shafts such as intermediate and propeller shafts of
traditional straight forged design and which are driven by rotating machines such as diesel engines, turbines
or electric motors.
For shafts that are integral to equipment, such as for gear boxes (see section 5), podded drives, electrical
motors and/or generators, thrusters, turbines and which in general incorporate particular design features,
additional criteria in relation to acceptable dimensions have to be taken into account. For the shafts in such
equipment, the following requirements may only be applied for shafts subject mainly to torsion and having
traditional design features. Other limitations, such as design for stiffness, high temperatures etc. are to be
considered additionally.
Explicitly it will be emphasized that the following applications are not covered by the requirements in this
Section:
13)
additional strengthening for shafts in ships which are strengthened for navigation in ice (see Section
-
gear shafts (see Section 5)
-
electric motor and generator rotor shafts
-
turbine rotor shafts (see Section 3I, 3II)
-
crankshafts for internal combustion engines (see Section 2)
Additionally, all parts of the shafting are to be designed to comply with the requirements relating to
torsional vibrations, set out in Section 16.
In general dimensioning of the shafting shall be based on the total rated installed power.
Where the geometry of a part is such that it cannot be dimensioned in accordance with these formulae,
special evidence of the mechanical strength of the part concerned is to be furnished to BKI.
Any alternative calculation has to include all relevant loads on the complete dynamic shafting system under
all permissible operating conditions. Consideration has to be given to the dimensions and arrangements of
Section 4 - Main Shafting
3/12
all shaft connections. Moreover, an alternative calculation has to take into account design criteria for
continuous and transient operating loads (dimensioning for fatigue strength) and for peak operating loads
(dimensioning for yield strength). The fatigue strength analysis may be carried out separately for different
load assumptions, for example:
C
Low cycle fatigue criterion (typically < 104), i.e. the primary cycles represented by zero to full load
and back, including reversing torque if applicable. This is addressed by formula (1)
High cycle fatigue criterion (typically > 107), i.e torsional vibration stresses permitted for continuous
operation as well as reverse bending stresses. The limits for torsional vibration stresses are given in Section
16. The influence of reverse bending stresses is addressed by the safety margins inherent in formula (1).
The accumulated fatigue due to torsional vibration when passing through barred speed ranges or other
transient condition with stresses beyond the permitted limits for continuous operation is addressed by the
criterion for transient stresses in Section 16.
2.
Minimum diameter
The minimum shaft diameter is to be determined by applying formula (1).
d ≥ d ≥ F ·k ·
.C
(1)
.
d
[mm] minimum required outer shaft
d
[mm] actual outer shaft diameter
d
[mm] actual diameter of shaft bore.
1 −
P
n
F
diameter
If the bore in the shaft is ≤ 0,4 . da, the expression
may be taken as 1,0
[kW] rated power of propulsion motor, gear box and bearing losses are not to be subtracted
[Rpm]
shaft speed at rated power
[-] factor for type of propulsion installation
a)Propeller shafts
= 100 for all types of installations
b)Intermediate and thrust shafts
= 95 for turbine installations, diesel engine installations with hydraulic slip couplings, electric
propulsion installations
= 100 for all other propulsion installations
C
[-]material factor
560
R m  160
(2)
R
[N/mm2] specified minimum tensile strength of the shaft material (see also B.1)
k
C
[-]factor for the type of shaft
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
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D
Section 4 - Main Shafting
a) Intermediate shafts
= 1,0
for plain sections of intermediate shafts with integral forged coupling flanges or with shrinkfitted keyless coupling flanges. For shafts with high vibratory torques, the diameter in way of
shrink fitted couplings should be slightly increased, e.g. by 1 to 2 %.
=1,10
for intermediate shafts where the coupling flanges are mounted on the ends of the shaft with
the aid of keys. At a distance of at least 0,2 · d from the end of the keyway, such shafts can be
reduced to a diameter calculated with k = 1,0.
=1,10 for intermediate shafts with radial holes which diameter is not exceeding 0,3 · d. Intersections
between radial and eccentric axial holes require a special strength consideration.
=1,15 for intermediate shafts designed as multi-splined shafts where d is the outside diameter of the
splined shaft. Outside the splined section, the shafts can be reduced to a diameter calculated
with k = 1,0.
=1,20 for intermediate shafts with longitudinal slots within the following limitations :
- slot length up to 0,8 . d
- inner diameter up to 0,8 . d
- slot width e up to 0,1 . d
- end rounding at least 0,5 . e
- 1 slot or 2 slots at 180°or 3 slots at 120°
Slots beyond these limitations require a special strength consideration.
b) Thrust shafts
=1,10 for thrust shafts external to engines near the plain bearings on both sides of the thrust collar,
or near the axial bearings where a roller bearing is used.
c) Propeller shafts
k
=1,22 for propeller shafts with flange mounted or keyless taper fitted propellers, applicable to the
shaft part between the forward edge of the aftermost shaft bearing and the forward face of
the propeller hub or shaft flange, but not less than 2,5d.
In case of keyless taper fitting, the method of connection has to be approved by BKI.
k
=1,26 for propeller shafts in the area specified for k= 1,22, if the propeller is keyed to the tapered
propeller shaft.
k
=1,40 for propeller shafts in the area specified for k = 1,22, if the shaft inside the stern tube is
lubricated with grease.
k
=1,15 for propeller shafts between forward end of aftmost bearing and forward end of fore stern
tube seal. The portion of the propeller shaft located forward of the stern tube seal can gradually
be reduced to the size of the intermediate shaft
C
D
Section 4 - Main Shafting
D.
Design
1.
General
D
5/12
Changes in diameter are to be effected by tapering or ample radiusing. Radius are to be at least equal to the
change in diameter
For intermediate and thrust shafts, the radius at forged flanges is to be at least 8 % of the calculated
minimum diameter for a full shaft at the relevant location. For the aft propeller shaft flange, the radius is to
be at least 12,5 % of the calculated minimum diameter for a full shaft at the relevant location.
2.
Shaft tapers and nut threads
Keyways are in general not to be used in installations with a barred speed range.
Keyways in the shaft taper for the propeller are to be designed in a way that the forward end of the groove
makes a gradual transition to the full shaft section. In addition, the forward end of the keyway shall be
spoon-shaped. The edges of the keyway at the surface of the shaft taper for the propeller are not be sharp.
The forward end of the rounded keyway has to lie well within the seating of the propeller boss. Threaded
holes for securing screws for propeller keys shall be located only in the aft half or the keyway, see Fig. 4.1.
In general, tapers for securing flange couplings which are jointed with keys shall have a conicity of between
1: 12 and 1: 20. See Section 6 for details of propeller shaft tapers on the propeller side.
The outside diameter of the threaded end for the propeller retaining nut shall not be less than 60 % of the
calculated big taper diameter.
Fig. 4.1 Design of keyway in propeller shaft
3.
Propeller shaft protection
3.1
Sealing
At the stern tube ends propeller shafts with oil or grease lubrication are to be fitted with seals of proven
efficiency and approved by BKI, see also the requirements applicable to the external sealing of the stern
tube in the context with the propeller shaft survey prescribed in Rules for Classification and Survey (Part
1,Vol.I), Section 3.
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D
Section 4 - Main Shafting
The securing at stern tube, shaft line or propeller (e.g. chrome steel liner) shall guarantee a permanent
tightness. BKI reserves the right to demand corresponding verifications.
For protection of the sealing a rope guard shall be provided.
The propeller boss seating is to be effectively protected against the ingress of seawater. This seal can be
dispensed with if the propeller shaft is made of corrosion-resistant material.
In the case of Class Notation IW, the seal is to be fitted with a device by means of which the bearing
clearance can be measured when the vessel is afloat.
3.2
Shaft liners
3.2.1
Propeller shafts which are not made of corrosion-resistant material and which run in seawater are
to be protected against ingress of seawater by seawater-resistant metal liners or other liners approved by
BKI and by proven seals at the propeller.
3.2.2
Metal liners in accordance with 3.2.1 which run in seawater, are to be made in a single piece. With
the expressed consent of BKI the liner may consist of two or more parts, provided that the abutting edges of
the parts are additionally sealed and protected after fitting by a method approved by BKI to guarantee watertightness. Such possibilities are special coatings. Such joints will be subject to special test to prove their
effectiveness.
3.2.3
Minimum wall thickness of shaft liners
The minimum wall thickness s [mm] of metal shaft liners in accordance with 3.2.1 is to be determined as
follows:
s = 0,03 · d + 7,5
(3)
where:
d
[mm]
shaft diameter under the liner
In the case of continuous liners, the wall thickness between the bearings may be reduced to 0,75 s.
4.
Coupling connections
4.1
The thickness of coupling flanges on the intermediate and thrust shafts and on the forward end of
the propeller shaft is to be equal to at least 20 % of the calculated minimum diameter of a solid shaft at the
relevant location.
Where propellers are attached to a forged flange on the propeller shaft, the flange has to have a thickness of
at least 25 % of the calculated minimum diameter of a solid shaft at the relevant location.
These flanges are not to be thinner than the Rule diameter of the fitted bolts if these are based on the same
tensile strength as that of the shaft material.
In the formulae (4), (5), (6), and (7), the following symbols are used:
A
c
=
=
[mm2] effective area of shrink-fit seating
[-]
coefficient for shrink-fitted joints, depending on the kind of driving unit
= 1,0 for geared diesel engine and turbine drives
Section 4 - Main Shafting
D
7/12
= 1,2 for direct coupled diesel engine drives
C
=
[-]
conicity of shaft ends
= difference in cone diameters/length of cone
d
=
[mm]
shaft diameter in area of clamp type coupling
d
=
[mm]
diameters of fitted bolts
d
=
[mm]
inner throat diameter for necked down bolts
D
=
[mm]
diameter of pitch circle of bolts
f
=
[-]
coefficient for shrink-fitted joints
Q
=
[N]
peripheral force at the mean joint diameter of a shrink fit
n
=
[Rpm] shaft speed
p
=
[N/mm2]
P
=
[kW]
rated power of the driving motor
S
=
[mm]
flange thickness in area of bolt pitch circle
S
=
[-]
safety factor against slipping of shrink fits in the shafting
contact pressure of shrink fits
= 3,0 between motor and gear
= 2,5 for all other applications
T
=
[N]
propeller thrust respectively axial force
number of fitted or necked-down bolts
z
=
[-]
R
=
[N/mm2]
μ
=
[-]
tensile strength of fitted or necked-down bolt material
coefficient of static friction
= 0,15 for hydraulic shrink fits
= 0,18 for dry shrink fits
θ
=
[-]
half conicity of shaft ends
=C/2
4.2
The bolts used to connect flange couplings are normally to be designed as fitted bolts. The
minimum diameter d of fitted bolts at the coupling flange faces is to be determined by applying the formula:
d = 16 ·
.
. . .
[mm]
(4)
4.3
Where, in special circumstances, the use of fitted bolls is not feasible, BKI may agree to the use of
an equivalent frictional transmission.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
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D
Section 4 - Main Shafting
4.4
The minimum thread root diameter d of the connecting bolts used for clamp-type couplings is to
be determined using the formula:
·
d = 12 ·
[mm]
· · ·
(5)
4.5
The shaft of necked-down bolts shall not be less than 0,9 times the thread root diameter. If, besides
the torque, the bolted connection has to transmit considerable additional forces, the bolts shall be reinforced
accordingly.
4.6
Shrink fitted couplings
Where shafts are connected by keyless shrink-fitted couplings (flange or sleeve type), the dimensioning of
these shrink fits shall be chosen in a way that the maximum von Mises equivalent stress in all parts will not
exceed 80 % of the yield strength of the specific materials during operation and 95 % during mounting and
dismounting.
For the calculation of the safety margin of the connection against slippage, the maximum clearance will be
applied. This clearance has to be derived as the difference between the lowest respectively highest diameter
for the bore and the shafts according to the manufacturing drawings. The contact pressure p [N/mm²] in the
shrunk-on joint to achieve the required safety margin may be determined by applying formulae (6) and (7).
p =
·
·
·
·
·
[N/mm²]
(6)
T has to be introduced as positive value if the propeller thrust increases the surface pressure at the taper.
Change of direction of propeller thrust is to be neglected as far as power and thrust are essentially less.
T has to be introduced as negative value if the propeller thrust reduces the surface pressure at the taper, e.g.
for tractor propellers.
=
(7)
For direct coupled propulsion plants with a barred speed range it has to be confirmed by separate calculation
that the vibratory torque in the main resonance is transmitted safely. For this proof the safety against
slipping for the transmission of torque shall be at least S = 1,8 (instead of S = 2,5 ), the coefficient c may
be set to 1,0. For this additional proof the respective influence of the thrust may be disregarded.
5.
Shafting bearings
5.1
Arrangement of shaft bearings
Drawings showing all shaft bearings, like stern tube bearings, intermediate bearings and thrust bearings,
shall be submitted for approval separately, if the design details are not visible on the shafting arrangement
drawings. The permissible bearing loads are to be indicated. The lowest permissible shaft speed also has to
be considered.
Shaft bearings both inside and outside the stern tube are to be so arranged that each bearing is subjected to
positive reaction forces irrespective of the ship’s loading condition when the plant is at operating state
temperature.
By appropriate spacing of the bearings and by the alignment of the shafting in relation to the coupling flange
at the engine or gearing, care is to be taken to ensure that no undue shear forces or bending moments are
exerted on the crankshaft or gear shafts when the plant is at operating state temperature. By spacing the
bearings sufficiently far apart, steps are also to be taken to ensure that the reaction forces of line or gear
Section 4 - Main Shafting
D
9/12
shaft bearings are not significantly affected should the alignment of one or more bearings be altered by hull
deflections or by displacement or wear of the bearings themselves.
Guide values for the maximum permissible distance between bearings lmax [mm] can be determined using
formula (8)
l
d
K . √d[mm]
(8)
[mm] diameter of shaft between bearings
K
= 450 for oil-lubricated
white metal bearings
= 280 for grey cast iron, grease lubricated stern tube bearings
= 280 - 350 for water-lubricated rubber bearings in stern tubes and shaft brackets
(upper values for special designs only)
Where the shaft speed exceeds 350 rpm it is recommended that the maximum bearing spacing is determined
in accordance with formula (9) in order to avoid excessive loads due to bending vibrations. In limiting cases
a bending vibration analysis for the shafting system is recommended.
l
K .
[mm]
(9)
n
[Rpm]
shaft speed
K
= 8400
for oil lubricated white metal bearings
= 5200 for grease lubricated, grey cast iron bearings and for rubber bearings inside stern tubes and
tail shaft brackets.
5.2
Stern tube bearings
5.2.1
Inside the stern tube the propeller shaft shall normally be supported by two bearing points. In short
stern tubes the forward bearing may be dispensed with, in which case at least one free-standing journal
bearing should be provided.
5.2.2
Where the propeller shaft inside the stern tube runs in oil-lubricated white metal bearings or in
synthetic rubber or reinforced resin or plastic materials approved for use in oil-lubricated stern tube
bearings, the lengths of the after and forward stern tube bearings shall be approximately 2 d and 0,8· d
respectively.
The length of the after stern tube bearing may be reduced to 1,5 d where the contact load, which is
calculated from the static load and allowing for the weight of the propeller is less than 0,8 MPa in the case
of shafts supported on white metal bearings and less 0,6 MPa in the case of bearings made of synthetic
materials.
5.2.3
Where the propeller shafts inside the stern tube runs in bearings made of lignum vitae, rubber or
plastic approved for use in water-lubricated stern tube bearings, the length of the after stern tube bearing
shall be approximately 4· d and of the forward stern tube bearing approximately 1,5 d
A reduction of the bearing length may be approved if the bearing is shown by means of bench tests to have
sufficient load-bearing capacity.
5.2.4
Where the propeller shaft runs in grease-lubricated, grey cast iron bushes the lengths of the after
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
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D
Section 4 - Main Shafting
and forward stern tube bearings are to be approximately 2,5· d and 1,0 d respectively.
The peripheral speed of propeller shafts is to not exceed:
−
2,5 to a maximum of 3 m/s for grey cast iron bearings with grease lubrication
−
6 m/s for rubber bearings
−
3 to a maximum of 4 m/s for lignum vitae bearings with water lubrication
5.2.5
If roller bearings are provided, the requirements of 5.3.2 have to be considered.
5.3
Intermediate bearings
5.3.1
Plain bearings
For intermediate bearings shorter bearing lengths or higher specific loads as defined in 5.2 may be agreed
with BKI.
5.3.2
Roller bearings
For the case of application of roller bearings for shaft lines the design is to be adequate for the specific
requirements. For shaft lines significant deflections and inclinations have to be taken into account. Those
shall not have adverse consequences.
For application of roller bearings the required minimum loads as specified by the manufacturer are to be
observed.
The minimum L10a (acc. ISO 281) lifetime has to be suitable with regard to the specified overhaul intervals.
5.4
Bearing lubrication
5.4.1
Lubrication and matching of materials of the plain and roller bearings for the shafting have to meet
the operational demands of seagoing ships.
5.4.2
Lubricating oil or grease is to be introduced into the stern tube in such a way as to ensure a reliable
supply of oil or grease to the forward and after stern tube bearing.
With grease lubrication, the forward and after bearings are each to be provided with a grease connection.
Wherever possible, a grease gun driven by the shaft is to be used to secure a continuous supply of grease.
Where the shaft runs in oil inside the stern tube, a header tank is to be fitted at a sufficient height above the
ship's load line. It shall be possible to check the filling of the tank at any time.
The temperature of the after stern tube bearing (in general near the lower aft edge of the bearing) is to be
indicated. Alternatively, with propeller shafts less than 400 mm in diameter the stern tube oil temperature
may be indicated. In this case the temperature sensor is to be located in the vicinity of the after stern tube
bearing.
5.4.3
In the case of ships with automated machinery, Rules for Automation (Part 1,Vol.VII), is to be
complied with.
5.5
Stern tube connections
Oil-lubricated stern tubes are to be fitted with filling, testing and drainage connections as well as with a vent
pipe.
Section 4 - Main Shafting
D
11/12
Where the propeller shaft runs in seawater, a flushing line is to be fitted in front of the forward stern tube
bearing instead of the filling connection. If required, this flushing line shall also act as forced water
lubrication.
5.6
Condition monitoring of propeller shaft at stern tube
5.6.1
Where the propeller shaft runs within the stern tube in oil the possibility exists to prolong the
intervals between shaft withdrawals. For this purpose the following design measures have to be provided:
−
a device for measurement of the temperature of the aft stern tube bearing (and regular documentation
of measured values), compare 5.4.2
−
a possibility to determine the oil consumption within the stern tube (and regular documentation)
−
an arrangement to measure the wear down of the aft bearing
−
a system to take representative oil samples at the rear end of the stern tube under running conditions
for analysis of oil quality (aging effects and content of H2O, iron, copper, tin, silicon, bearing metal,
etc.) and suitable receptacles to send samples to accredited laboratories. (The samples shall be taken
at least every six months).
−
a written description of the right procedure to take the oil samples
−
−
a test device to evaluate the water content in the lubricating oil on board (to be used once a month)
If roller bearings are provided, additional vibration measurements have to be carried out regularly and
to be documented. The scope of the measurements and of the documentation has to be agreed with
BKI specifically for the plant.
5.6.2
The requirements for the initial survey of this system as well as for the checks at the occasion of
Annual and Class Renewal Surveys are defined in Rules for Classification and Surveys (Part 1,Vol.I),
Section 3, B.1.3.8.
5.6.3
If the requirements according to 5.6.1 and 5.6.2 are fulfilled, the Class Notation CM-PS may be
assigned.
5.7
Cast resin mounting
The mounting of stern tubes and stern tube bearings made of cast resin and also the seating of intermediate
shafts bearings on cast resin parts is to be carried out by BKI approved companies in the presence of a BKI
Surveyor.
Only BKI approved cast resins may be used for seating’s.
The installation instructions issued by the manufacturer of the cast resin have to be observed.
For further details see Regulations for the Seating of Diesel Engines Installations and Guidelines for the
Approval of Reaction Plastics and Composite Material for the seating and Repair of Components.
5.8
Shaft alignment
It has to be verified by alignment calculation that the requirements for shaft, gearbox and engine bearings
are fulfilled in all relevant working conditions of the propulsion plant. At this all essential static, dynamic
and thermal effects have to be taken into account.
The calculation reports to be submitted are to include the complete scope of used input data and have to
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
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D-E
Section 4 - Main Shafting
disclose the resulting shaft deflection, bending stress and bearing loads and have to document the
compliance with the specific requirements of the component manufacturer.
For the execution of the alignment on board an instruction has to be created which lists the permissible gap
and sag values for open flange connections respectively the "Jack-up" loads for measuring the bearing
loads. Before the installation of the propeller shaft the correct alignment of the stern tube bearings is to be
checked.
The final alignment on board has to be checked by suitable methods in a float condition in presence of the
BKI Surveyor.
5.9
Shaft locking devices
A locking device according to Section 1, D.8.3 has to be provided at each shaft line of multiple-shaft
systems.
The locking device is at least to be designed to prevent the locked shaft from rotating while the ship is
operating with the remaining shafts at reduced power. This reduced power has to ensure a ship speed that
maintains the maneuvering capability of the ship in full scope, in general not less than 8 kn.
If the locking device is not designed for the full power/speed of the remaining shafts, this operational
restriction has to be recognizable for the operator by adequate signs.
5.10
Shaft earthing
Shaft earthing has to be provided according to Section 2, E.5.4.
D-E
E.
Pressure Tests
1.
Shaft liners
Prior to fitting, shaft liners are to be subjected to a hydraulic tightness test at 2 bar pressure in the finish
machined condition.
2.
Stern tubes
Prior to fitting, cast stern tube and cast stern tube parts are to be subjected to a hydraulic tightness test at 2
bar pressure in the finished-machined condition. A further tightness test is to be carried out after fitting.
For stern tubes fabricated from welded steel plates, it is sufficient to test for tightness during the pressure
test applied to the hull spaces passed by the stern tube.
Section 5 – Gears, Couplings
A-B
1/18
Section 5
Gears, Couplings
A-B
A.
General
1.
Scope
1.1
These requirements apply to spur, planetary and bevel gears and to all types of couplings for
incorporation in the main propulsion plant or essential auxiliary machinery as specified in Section 1, H. The
design requirements laid down here may also be applied to the gears and couplings of auxiliary machinery
other than that mentioned in Section 1, H.
1.2
Application of these requirements to the auxiliary machinery couplings mentioned in 1.1 may
normally be limited to a general approval of the particular coupling type by BKI. Regarding the design of
elastic couplings for use in generator sets, reference is made to G.2.4.6.
1.3
For the dimensional design of gears and couplings for ships with ice class, see Section 13.
2.
Documents for approval
Assembly and sectional drawings together with the necessary detail drawings and parts lists are to be
submitted to BKI in triplicate for approval. They shall contain all the data necessary to enable the load
calculations to be checked. To facilitate a smooth and efficient approval process. the drawings could be
submitted in electronic format.
B.
Materials
1.
Approved materials
1.1
Shafts, pinions, wheels and wheel rims of gears in the main propulsion plant are preferably to be
made of forged steel. Rolled steel bar may also be used for plain, flangeless shafts. Gear wheel bodies may
be made of grey cast iron1), nodular cast iron or may be fabricated from welded steel plates with steel or cast
steel hubs. For the material of the gearings the requirements according to ISO 6336, part 5 are to be
considered.
1.2
Couplings in the main propulsion plant are to be made of steel, cast steel or nodular cast iron with
a mostly ferritic matrix. Grey cast iron or suitable cast aluminum alloys may also be permitted for lightly
stressed external components of couplings and the rotors and casings of hydraulic slip couplings.
1.3
The gears of essential auxiliary machinery according to Section 1, H, are subject to the same
requirements as those specified in 1.1 as regards the materials used. For gears intended for auxiliary
machinery other than that mentioned in Section 1, H, other materials may also be permitted.
1.4
Flexible coupling bodies for essential auxiliary machinery according to Section 1, H, may
generally be made of grey cast iron, and for the outer coupling bodies a suitable aluminum alloy may also be
used. However, for generator sets use shall only be made of coupling bodies preferably made of nodular cast
iron with a mostly ferritic matrix, of steel or of cast steel, to ensure that the couplings are well able to
withstand the shock torques occasioned by short circuits. BKI reserve the right to impose similar
requirements on the couplings of particular auxiliary drive units.
1
) The peripheral speed of cast iron gear wheels shall generally not exceed 60 m/s, that of cast iron coupling clamps or bowls 40 m/s.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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Section 5 – Gears, Couplings
2.
Testing of materials
B-C
All gear and coupling components which are involved in the transmission of torque and which will be
installed in the main propulsion plant have to be tested in accordance with Rules for Materials (Part 1,
Vol.V), The same applies to the materials used for gear components with major torque transmission function
of gears and couplings in generator drives.
Suitable proof is to be submitted for the materials used for the major components of the couplings and gears
of all other functionally essential auxiliary machines in accordance with Section 1. This proof may take
place by a Manufacturer Inspection Certificate of the steelmaker.
C.
Calculation of the Load-Bearing Capacity of Cylindrical and Bevel Gearing
1.
General
1.1
The sufficient load-bearing capacity of the gear-tooth system of main and auxiliary gears in ship
propulsion systems is to be demonstrated by load bearing capacity calculations according to the international
standards ISO 6336, ISO 9083 or DIN 3990 for spur gear respectively ISO 10300 or DIN 3991 for bevel
gears while maintaining the safety margins stated in Table 5.1 for flank and root stresses.
Table 5.1 Minimum safety margins for flank and root stress
Case
Application
1.1
1.2
1.3
S
Boundary conditions
Gearing
in
ship
propulsion systems and
generator drive systems
S
Modulus m < 16
1,3
Modulus m > 16
0,024 m
0,916
In the case of two
mutually independent
main
propulsion
systems up to an input
torque of 8.000 Nm
1,2
1,55
1,8
+
0,02 m
2.1
Gears in auxiliary drive
systems which are
subjected to dynamic
load
1,2
1,4
2.2
Gears in auxiliary drive
systems
used
for
dynamic
positioning
(Class Notation DP)
1,3
1,8
2.3
Gears in auxiliary drive
systems which are
subjected to static load
1,0
1,0
N < 104
+ 1,48
Note :
If the fatigue bending stress of the tooth roots is increased by special technique approved by BKI,
e.g. by shot peening, for case-hardened toothing with modulus
≤ 10 the minimum safety margin
may be reduced up to 15 % with the consent of BKI
1.2
For gears in the main propulsion plant proof of the sufficient mechanical strength of the roots and
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 5 – Gears, Couplings
C
3/18
flanks of gear teeth in accordance with the formulae contained in this Section is linked to the requirement
that the accuracy of the teeth should ensure sufficiently smooth gear operation combined with satisfactory
exploitation of the dynamic loading capacity of the teeth.
For this purpose, the magnitude of the individual pitch error f and of the total profile error F for peripheral
speeds at the pitch circle up to 25 m/s shall generally conform to at least quality 5 as defined in DIN 3962 or
4 to ISO 1328, and in the case of higher peripheral speeds generally to at least quality 4 as defined in DIN
3962 or 3 to ISO 1328. The total error of the tooth trace f shall conform at least to quality 5 to DIN 3962,
while the parallelism of axis shall at least meet the requirements of quality 5 according to DIN 3964 or 4
according to ISO 1328.
C
Prior to running-in, the surface roughness R of the tooth flanks of gears made by milling or by shaping
shall generally not exceed 10 μm. In the case where the tooth profile is achieved by e.g. grinding or lapping,
the surface roughness should generally not exceed 4 μm. The tooth root radius ρao on the tool reference
profile is to be at least 0,25 m .
BKI reserve the right to call for proof of the manufacturing accuracy of the gear-cutting machines used and
for testing of the method used to harden the gear teeth.
1.3
5.2.
The input data required to carry out load bearing capacity evaluations are summarized in Table
Table 5.2 List of input data for evaluating load bearing capacity
Reg.
No.
Yard /
Newbuild No.
Manufacturer
Type
Application
Cylindrical gear ☐
Bevel gear
☐
Nominal rated
power
P
kW
Ice class
-
No.
of
revolutions
n1
Rpm
No. of planets
-
Application
factor
K
-
Dynamic factor
K
-
K
-
Load
factor
distribution
K
-
− be1)
-
K
-
K
-
Transverse
load
distribution factors
K
-
Face
load
distribution
factors
K
Pini
on
Geometrical data
Number
teeth
of
Normal modul
Z
m /m
Wh
eel
-
1)
Pin
ion
Total data
Addendum
modification coeff.
mm
Normal press.
Angle
α
o
Centre
distance
a
mm
X
X/
1)
1)
Wh
eel
-
Thickness
modification coeff
X
Coefficient of tool tip
radius
ρa0*
-
Addendum
coefficient of tool
h *
-
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4/18
Section 5 – Gears, Couplings
Table 5.2 List of input data for evaluating load bearing capacity (continued)
Σ1
o
Dedendum
coefficient of tool
h *
-
Relative
effective
facewith
b /b1)
-
Utilized dedendum
coefficient of tool
h
*
-
Helix angle
β/β
1)
o
Shaft angle
Protuberance
pr
Protuberance angle
α
Face with
b
mm
Machining allowance
Tip diameter
d
mm
Measure at tool
Root diameter
d
mm
Backlash allowance
/tolerance
Lubrication data
mm
o
q
mm
Bz
mm
-
Quality
2
kin. viscosity
40 ̊C
v
mm /s
Quality acc. to DIN
kin. viscosity
100 ̊C
v
mm2/s
Mean peak to valley
roughness of flank
R
μm
Oil
temperature
ϑoil
̊C
Mean peak to valley
roughness of root
R
μm
Initial
equivalent
misalignment
F
μm
Material data
Normal pitch error
f′
μm
Material type
Profile form error
f′
μm
FZG class
-
Endurance
limit
for
contact stress
σ
Endurance
limit
for
bending stress
σ
N/mm2
N/mm2
Date
Surface
hardness
HV
Core hardness
HV
Heat
treatment
method
-
1)
:
Signature:
Declaration for bevel gear
2.
Symbols, terms and summary of input data
2.1
Indices
1
= pinion
2
= wheel
m
= in the mid of face width
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Q
-
Section 5 – Gears, Couplings
n
= normal plane
t
= transverse plane
o
= tool
2.2
Parameters
a
[mm] centre distance
b
[mm] face width
b
[mm] effective face width (bevel gears)
Bzo
[mm] measure for shift of datum line
D
[mm] standard pitch diameter
d
[mm] tip diameter
d
[mm] root diameter
F
[N] circular force at reference circle
F
[μm] initial equivalent misaligment
f′
[μm] normal pitch error
f′
[μm] profile form error
h *
[-] addendum coefficient of tool
h *
[-] addendum coefficient of tool
h
*
[-] utilized addendum coefficient of tool
K
[-] application factor
K
K
[-] transverse load distribution factor (root stress)
[-] face load distribution factor (root stress)
K
[-] transverse load distribution factor (contact stress)
K
[-] face load distribution factor (contact stress)
K
[-] bearing factor (bevel gears)
K
[-] dynamic factor
K
[-] load distribution factor
m
[mm]
m
[mm] mean normal modul (bevel gears)
normal modul
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Section 5 – Gears, Couplings
n
[Rpm] number of revolutions
N
[Rpm] number of load cycles
P
[kW] transmitted power
pr
[mm] protuberance at tool
Q
[-] toothing quality, acc. to DIN
q
[mm] machining allowance
R
[μm] arithmetic mean roughness
R
[μm] mean peak to valley roughness of root
R
[μm] mean peak to valley roughness of flank
S
[-]
S
[-] safety factor against pittings
T
safety factor against tooth breakage
[Nm] torque
u
[-] gear ratio
x
[-] addendum modification coefficient
X
[-] mean addendum modification coefficient (bevel gears)
X
[-]
thickness modification coefficient (bevel gears)
Y
[-]
tooth form factor (root)
X
[-]
live factor (root)
Y
[-]
Y
Y
[-]
[-]
relative surface condition factor
stress correction factor
Y
[-]
stress correction factor for reference test gears
Y
[-]
size factor for tooth root stress
Yß
[o ]
z
[-]
number of teeth
Z
[-]
elasticity factor
Z
[-]
zone factor (contact stress)
Z
[-]
lubricant factor
relative notch sensitivity factor
helix angle factor for tooth root stress
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 5 – Gears, Couplings
Z
[-]
live factor (contact stress)
Z
[-]
speed factor
Z
[-] roughness factor
Z
[-] work-hardening factor
Z
[-] size factor (contact stress)
Z
[-] helix angle factor (contact stress)
Z
[-] contact ratio factor (contact stress)
α
[o ] normal pressure angle
α
[o ] protuberance angle
ß
[o ]
helix angle
ß
[o ]
mean helix angle ( bevel gears)
ϑoil
[̊C]
oil temperature
ν
[mm2/s]
kinematic viscosity of the oil at 40 ̊C
ν
[mm2/s]
kinematic viscosity of the oil at 100 C
̊
ρaO*

[-]
[o ]
coefficient of tip radius of tool
shaft angle (bevel gears)
σ
[N/mm²] root bending stress
σ
[N/mm²] root stress
σ
[N/mm²]
root stress limit
σ
[N/mm²]
nominal root stress
σ
[N/mm²]
endurance limit for bending stress
σ
[N/mm²] permissible root stress
σ
[N/mm²]
σ
[N/mm²] modified contact stress limit
σ
calculated contact stress
[N/mm²] endurance limit for contact stress
σ
[N/mm²] permissible contact stress
σ
[N/mm²] nominal contact stress
3.
Influence factors for load calculations
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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3.1
Section 5 – Gears, Couplings
Application factor KA
The application factor KA takes into account the increase in rated torque caused by superimposed dynamical
or impact loads. KA is determined for main and auxiliary systems in accordance with Table 5.3.
Table 5.3 Application factors
System type
KA
Main system :
Turbines and electric drive system
1,1
Diesel engine drive systems with fluid clutch
between engine and gears
1,1
Diesel engine drive systems with highly
flexible coupling between engine and gears
1,3
Diesel engine drive system with no flexible
coupling between engine and gears
1,5
Generator drives
1,5
Auxiliary system :
Thruster with electric drive
1,1(20.000 h) 1
Thruster drives with diesel engines
1,3(20.000 h) 1
Windlasses
0,6(300 h) 1
2,0 (20 h) 2
Combined anchor and mooring winches
0,6 (1.000 h) 1
2,0 (20 h) 2
1)
Assumed operating hours
2)
Assumed maximum load for windlasses
For other type of system KA is to be stipulated separately.
3.2
Load distribution factor
The load distribution factor K takes into account deviations in load distribution e.g. in gears with dual or
multiple load distribution or planetary gearing with more than three planet wheels.
The following values apply for planetary gearing:
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 5 – Gears, Couplings
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Gear with :
–
up to 3 planet wheels
K
= 1,0
–
4 planet wheels
K
= 1,2
–
5 planet wheels
K
= 1,3
–
6 planet wheels
K = 1,6
In gears which have no load distribution K = 1,0 is applied.
For all other cases K is to be agreed with BKI.
3.3
Face load distribution factors
and
The face load distribution factors take into account the effects of uneven load distribution over the tooth
flank on the contact stress (K ) and on the root stress (K ).
In the case of flank corrections which have been determined by recognized calculation methods, the K
and K values can be preset. Hereby the special influence of ship operation on the load distribution has to
be taken into account.
3.4
Transverse load distribution factors
and
The transverse load distribution factors K and K take into account the effects of an uneven distribution
of force of several tooth pairs engaging at the same time.
In the case of gears in main propulsion systems with a toothing quality described in 1.2,K = K = 1,0 can
be applied. For other gears the transverse load distribution factors are to be calculated in accordance with
DIN/ISO standards defined in 1.1.
4.
Contact stress
4.1
The calculated contact stress σ shall not exceed the permitted contact stress σ
contact stress).
σ =σ
. K K K K
With σ
K
= Z . Z . Z . Z .
≤σ
.
(Hertzian
(1)
.
4.2`
The permissible contact stress σ shall include a safety margin S as given in Table 5.1 against
the contact stress limit σ which is determined from the material-dependent endurance
limit σ
σ
as shown in Table 5.4 1 allowing for the influence factors Z
,Z ,Z ,Z ,Z ,Z .
=
With σ
2
(2)
=σ
·Z
·Z ·Z ·Z ·Z
·Z .
) With consent of BKI for case hardened steel with proven quality higher endurance limits may be accepted.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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Section 5 – Gears, Couplings
Table 5.4 Endurance limits 2) for contact stress
Material
5.
[N/mm2]
Case-hardening steel, case-hardened
1.500
Nitriding steels, gas nitrided
1.250
Alloyed heat treatable steels, bath or gas nitrided
850 - 1.000
Alloyed heat treatable steels, induction hardened
0,7 HV10+ 800
Alloyed heat treatable steels
1,3 HV10+350
Unalloyed heat treatable steels
0,9 HV10+370
Structural steel
1,0 HB + 200
Cast steel, cast iron with nodular cast graphite
1,0 HB + 150
Tooth root bending stress
5.1
The calculated maximum root bending stress σ
stress σ of the teeth.
of the teeth shall not exceed the permissible root
Tooth root stress is to be calculated separately for pinion and wheel.
σ =σ
·K · K · K · K · K
with σ
=
.
<σ
(3)
.Y . Y . Y 5.2
The permissible root bending stress σ shall have a safety margin S as indicated in Table 5.1
which is determined from the material-dependent fatique strength σ or
against the root stress limit σ
· Y ·
σ in accordance with Table 5.5 2), allowing for the stress correction factors Y · Y · Y
Y
σ
=
(4)
With:
σ
=σ
·Y
·Y
·Y
·Y
· Y
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 5 – Gears, Couplings
C-D
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Table 5.5 Endurance limits 2) for tooth root bending stress
=
·
with
Material
=2
=
·
with
Case hardening steel, case hardened
860-920
Nitriding steels, gas nitride
850
Alloyed heat treatable steels, bath or gas nitrided
740
Alloyed heat treatable steels, induction hardened
700
Alloyed heat treatable steels
0,8 HV10+400
Unalloyed heat treatable steels
0,6 HV10+320
Structural steel
0,8 HB + 180
Cast steel, cast iron with nodular cast graphite
0,8 HB +140
Note:
[N/mm2]
For alternating stressed toothing only 70 % of these values are permissible.
C-D
D.
Gear Shafts
1.
Minimum diameter
The dimensions of shafts of reversing and reduction gears are to be calculated by applying the following
formula :
d ≥ F. k. For =
1 −
.C
.
(5)
≤ 0,4 for the expression
Maybe set to 1,0
D
d
[mm]
required outside diameter of shaft
d
[mm]
diameter of shaft bore for hollow shafts
d
[mm]
actual shaft diameter
P
[kW]
driving power of shaft
n
=
[Rpm] shaft speed
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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F
Section 5 – Gears, Couplings
[-]
factor for the type of drive
=
95 for turbine plants, electrical drives and internal combustion engines with slip
couplings
=
100 for all other types of drive. BKI reserves the right to specify higher F values if
this appears necessary in view of the loading of the plant.
C
[-]
material factor in accordance with Section 4, formula (2). However, for wheel
shafts the value applied for Rm in the formula shall not be higher than 800 N/mm2.
For pinion shafts the actual tensile strength value may generally be substituted for
Rm.
k
[-]
= 1,10 for gear shafts
= 1,15 for gear shafts
in the area of the pinion or wheel body if this is keyed to the shaft and for multiplespline shafts.
Higher values of k may be specified by BKI where increased bending stresses in the
shaft are liable to occur because of the bearing arrangement, the casing design, the
tooth forces, etc.
D-E
E.
Equipment
1.
Oil level indicator
For monitoring the lubricating oil level in main and auxiliary gears, equipment shall be fitted to enable the
oil level to be determined.
2.
Pressure and temperature control
Temperature and pressure gauges are to be fitted to monitor the lubricating oil pressure and the lubricating
oil temperature at the oil cooler outlet before the oil enters the gears. Plain journal bearings arc also to be
fitted with temperature indicators.
Where gears are fitted with anti-friction bearings, a temperature indicator is to be mounted at a suitable
point. For gears rated up to 2000 kW, special arrangements may be agreed with BKI.
Where ships are equipped with automated machinery, the requirements of Rules for Automation (Part
1,Vol.VII), are to be complied with.
3.
Lubricating oil pumps
Lubricating oil pumps driven by the gearing must be mounted in such a way that they are accessible and can
be replaced.
For the pumps to be assigned, see Section 11, H.3.
4.
Gear casings
The casings of gears belonging to the main propulsion plant and to essential auxiliaries are to be fitted with
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 5 – Gears, Couplings
E-F
13/18
removable inspection covers to enable the toothing to be inspected, the thrust bearing clearance to be
measured and the oil sump to be cleaned.
5.
Seating of gears
The seating of gears on steel or cast resin chocks is to conform to “Regulations for the Seating of Diesel
Engine Installations”.
In the case of cast resin seatings, the thrust has to be absorbed by means of stoppers. The same applies to
cast resin seatings of separate thrust bearings
E-F
F.
Balancing and Testing
1.
Balancing
1.1
Gear wheels, pinions, shafts, couplings and, where applicable, high-speed flexible couplings are to
be assembled in a properly balanced condition.
1.2
The generally permissible residual imbalance U per balancing plane of gears for which static or
dynamic balancing is rendered necessary by the method of manufacture and by the operating and loading
conditions can be determined by applying the formula:
, . .
U = .
[kg – mm]
(6)
where:
G
[kg]
mass of body to be balanced
n
[Rpm]
operating speed of component to be balanced.
z
[-]
number of balancing planes
Q
[-]
degree of balance
= 6,3 for gear shafts, pinions and coupling members for engine gears
= 2,5 for torsion shafts and gear couplings, pinions and gear wheels belonging to
turbine transmissions
2.
Testing of gears
2.1
Testing in the manufacturer's works
When the testing of materials and component tests have been carried out, gearing systems for the main
propulsion plant and for essential auxiliaries in accordance with Section 1, are to be presented to BKI for
final inspection and operational testing in the manufacturer's works. For the inspection of welded gear
casing, see Rules for Welding (Part 1,Vol.VI).
The final inspection is to be combined with a trial run lasting several hours under part or full-load
conditions, on which occasion the tooth clearance and contact pattern of the toothing are to be checked. In
the case of a trial at full-load, any necessary running-in of the gears shall have been completed beforehand.
Where no test facilities are available for the operational and on-load testing of large gear trains, these tests
may also be performed on board ship on the occasion of the dock trials.
Tightness tests are to be performed on those components to which such testing is appropriate. Reductions in
the scope of the tests require the consent of BKI.
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Section 5 – Gears, Couplings
2.2
Tests during sea trials
2.2.1
Prior to the start of sea trials, the teeth of the gears belonging to the main propulsion plant are to be
coloured with suitable dye to enable the check of the contact pattern. During the sea trials, the gears are to
be checked at all forward and reverse speeds for their operational efficiency and smooth running as well as
the bearing temperatures and the pureness of the lubricating oil. At the latest on conclusion of the sea trials,
the gearing is to be examined via the inspection openings and the contact pattern checked. If possible the
contact pattern should be checked after conclusion of every load step. Assessment of the contact pattern is to
be based on the guide values for the proportional area of contact in the axial and radial directions of the teeth
given in Table 5.6 and shall take account of the running time and loading of the gears during the sea trial.
Table 5.6 Percentage area of contact
Material / manufacturing
of toothing
Working
tooth
(without tip relief)
depth
Width of tooth (without end
relief)
Heat treated, milled,
Shaped
Average 33 %
70 %
Surface hardened, grinded,
scarped
Average 40 %
80 %
2.2.2
In the case of multi stage gear trains and planetary gears manufactured to a proven high
degree of accuracy, checking of the contact pattern after sea trials may, with the consent of BKI, be
reduced.
2.2.3
For checking the gears of rudder propellers as main propulsion, see Section 14.B.
2.2.4
Further requirements for the sea trials are contained in Guidance for Sea Trials of Motor Vessels.
G.
Design and Construction of Couplings
1.
F-G
1.1
valid:
Tooth couplings
p = For a sufficient load bearing capacity of the tooth flanks of straight-flanked tooth couplings is
,
·
· ·
· · · · p
[N/mm2]
P
[kW]
≤p
(7)
actual contact pressure of the toothflanks
driving power at coupling
KA
[-]
application factor in accordance with C.3.1
z
[-]
number of teeth
n
[Rpm]
h
[mm]
working depth of toothing
b
[mm]
load-bearing tooth width
speed in rev/min
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 5 – Gears, Couplings
d
[mm]
P
[N/mm2]
0,7 . R
for ductile steels
P
[N/mm2]
0,7 . R
for brittle steels
σ
[N/mm2]
permissible contact stress according to C.4.2
F-G
15/18
standard pitch diameter
Where methods of calculation recognized by BKI are used for determining the Hertzian stress on the flanks
of tooth couplings with convex tooth flanks, the permissible Hertzian stresses are equal to 75% of the value
ofσ shown in C.4.2 with influence factors Z to Z set to 1,0 :
P
=
400 - 600 N/mm2 for toothing made of quenched and tempered steel. Higher values
apply for high tensile steels with superior tooth manufacturing and surface finish quality.
=
800 -1.000 N/mm2 for toothing of hardened steel (case or nitrogen). Higher
apply for superior tooth manufacturing and surface finish quality.
values
1.2
The coupling teeth are to be effectively lubricated. For this purpose a constant oil level maintained
in the coupling may generally be regarded as adequate, if
d · n2 < 6 · 109
[mm/min2]
(8)
For higher values of d.n2, couplings in main propulsion plants are to be provided with a forced lubrication
oil system.
1.3
For the dimensional design of the coupling sleeves, flanges and bolts of tooth couplings the
formulae given in Section 4 are to be applied.
2.
Flexible couplings
2.1
Scope
Flexible couplings shall be approved for the loads specified by the manufacturer and for use in main
propulsion plants and essential auxiliary machinery. In general flexible couplings shall be type approved.
Detailed requirements for type approvals of flexible couplings are defined in Guidelines for the Performance
of Type Approvals, Test Requirements for Components and Systems.
2.2
Documentation
The documentation to be submitted shall include:
- assembly drawings
- Detailed drawings including material characterIistics
- definition of main parameters
-
rubber Shore hardness
-
nominal torque T
-
for normal transient conditions like starts/stops, passing through
permissible torque T
resonances, electrical or mechanical engagements, ice impacts, etc
-
permissible torque T
etc
for abnormal impact loads like short circuit, emergency stops,
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
16/18
Section 5 – Gears, Couplings
-
permissible vibratory torque + T
-
permissible power lossP due to heat dissipation
-
permissible rotational speed n
-
dynamic torsional stiffness C
-
relative damping ψ respectively damping characteristics
-
permissible axial, radial and angular displacement
-
permissible permanent twist
- -
design calculations
- -
test reports
2.3
for continuous operation
, radial C
Tests
The specifications mentioned in 2.2 are to be proven and documented by adequate measurements at test
establishments. The test requirements are included in Guidelines for the Performance of Type Approvals,
Test Requirements for Components and Systems.
For single approvals the scope of tests may be reduced by agreement with BKI.
2.4
Design
2.4.1
With regards to casings, flanges and bolts the requirements specified in Section 4, D. are to be
complied with.
2.4.2
The flexible element of rubber coupling shall be so designed that the average shear stress in the
rubber/metal bonding surface relating to T does not exceed a value of 0,5 N/mm2.
2.4.3
For the shear stress within the rubber element due to T
subjected to the Shore hardness according to Table 5.7.
it is recommended not to exceed a value
Higher values can be accepted if appropriate strengths of rubber materials have been documented by means
of relevant test and calculations.
Table 5.7 Limits of shear stress
Shore hardness
[-]
Limit of shear stress
[N/mm2]
40
0,4
50
0,5
60
0,6
70
0,7
For special materials, e.g. silicon, corresponding limit values shall be derived by experiments and
experiences.
2.4.4
Flexible couplings in the main propulsion plant and in power-generating plants shall be so
dimensioned that they are able to withstand for a reasonable time operation with any one engine cylinder out
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 5 – Gears, Couplings
F-G
17/18
of service, see Section 16, C.4.2. Additional dynamic loads for ships with ice class are to be taken into
account according to Section 13, C.
2.4.5
If a flexible coupling is so designed that It exerts an axial thrust on the coupled members of the
driving mechanism, provision shall be made for the absorption of this thrust.
If torsional limit devices are applicable, the functionality shall be verified.
2.4.6
Flexible couplings for diesel generator sets shall be capable of absorbing impact moments due to
electrical short circuits up to a value of 6 times the nominal torque of the plant.
3.
Flange and clamp-type couplings
In the dimensional design of the coupling bodies, flanges and bolts of flange and clamp-type couplings, the
requirements specified in Section 4 are to be complied with.
4.
Clutches
4.1
General
4.1.1
Definition and application
Clutches are couplings which can be engaged and disengaged mechanically, hydraulically or pneumatically.
The following requirements apply for their use in shaft lines and as integrated part of gear boxes. Clutches
intended for trolling operation are subject to special consideration.
Clutches have to be approved by BKI. In general clutches of standard design shall be type approved.
4.1.2
Documentation
For all new types of clutches a complete documentation has to be submitted to BKI for approval in
triplicate. This documentation has to include e.g.:
-
assembly drawings
-
detail drawings of torque transmitting components including material properties
-
documentation of the related system for engaging/disengaging
-
documentation of the following main technical parameters
-
maximum and minimum working pressure for hydraulic or pneumatic system [bar]
-
static and dynamic friction torque [kNm]
-
time diagram for clutching procedure
-
operating manual with definition of the permissible switching frequency
4.2
for special cases calculation of heat balance, if requested by BKI.
Materials
The mechanical characteristics of materials used for the elements of the clutch shall conform to the Rules
for Materials (Part 1, Vol.V).
4.3
Design requirements
4.3.1
Safety factors
For the connections to the shafts on both sides of the clutch and all torque transmitting parts the
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
18/18
Section 5 – Gears, Couplings
requirements of Section 4 have to be considered.
The mechanical part of the clutch may be of multiple disc type. All components shall be designed for static
loads with a friction safety factor between 1,8 and 2,5 in relation to the nominal torque of the driving plant.
A dynamic switchable torque during engaging of 1,3 times the nominal torque of the driving plant has
generally to be considered. In case of combined multiple engine plants the actual torque requirements will
be specially considered.
4.3.2
Ice class
For clutches used for the propulsion of ships with ice class the reinforcement defined in Section 13, C.4.2.4
have to be considered.
4.3.3
The multiple disc package shall be kept free of external axial forces.
4.3.4
Measures for a controlled switching of the coupling and an adequate cooling in all working
conditions have to be provided.
4.3.5
Auxiliary systems for engaging/ disengaging
If hydraulic or pneumatic systems are used to engage/disengage a clutch within the propulsion system of a
ship with a single propulsion plants an emergency operation shall be possible. This may be done by a
redundant power system for engagement/disengagement or in mechanical way, e.g. by installing connecting
bolts. For built-in clutches this would mean that normally the connecting bolts shall be installed on the side
of the driving plant equipped with turning facilities.
The procedure to establish emergency service has to be described in the operating manual of the clutch and
has to be executed in a reasonable time.
4.3.6
Controls and alarms
Local operation of remotely controlled clutches for the propulsion plants shall be possible. The pressure of
the clutch activating medium has to be indicated locally. Alarms according to Rules for Automation (Part
1,Vol.VII), have to be provided.
4.4
Test
4.4.1
Tests at the manufacturer’s work
Magnetic particle or dye penetrant inspection shall be applied for crack detection at surface hardened zones
with increased stress level as well as at shrinkage surfaces. The manufacturer shall issue a Manufacturer
Inspection Certificate.
Clutches for ship propulsion plants, for generator sets and transverse thrusters are to be presented to BKI for
final inspection and, where appropriate, for the performance of functional and tightness tests.
The requirements for a type approval, if requested, will be defined case by case by BKI Head Office.
4.4.2
Tests on board
As part of the sea trials the installed clutches will be tested for correct functioning on board in presence of a
BKI Surveyor, see also Guidance for Sea Trials of Motor Vessels.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 6 - Propeller
A-B
1/12
Section 6
Propeller
A
General
1.
Scope
These Rules apply to screw-propellers (controllable and fixed pitch). Refer to Section 13 for dimensioning
and materials of propellers for vessels with ice class.
A-B
2.
Documents for approval
2.1
Designdrawingsof propellersin mainpropulsion plantshaving an engine output in excess of 300
kWandintransverse thrustunitsofover 500 kW, as well as a general arrangement drawing are to be submitted
to the BKI for approval. The drawings have to include all the details necessary to carry out an examination
in accordance with the following Rules.The drawings could be submitted in electronic format.
2.2
In the case of controllable pitch propeller systems, general and sectional drawings of the complete
controllable pitch propeller system are to be submitted in triplicate in addition to the design drawings for
blade, boss and pitch control mechanisms. Control and hydraulic diagrams are to be submitted with a
functional description manual. In the case of new designs or controllable pitch propeller system which are
being installed for the first time on a vessel with the BKI Class, a description of the controllable pitch
propeller system is also to be submitted.
B.
Materials
1.
Propellers and propeller hubs
Propellers are to be made of seawater-resistant cast copper alloys or cast steel alloys with a minimum tensile
strength of 440 N/mm², according Rulesfor Materials (Part 1,Vol.V). For the purpose of the following
design requirements governing the thickness of the propeller blades, the requisite resistance to seawater of a
cast copper alloy or cast steel alloy is considered to be achieved if the alloy used is capable to withstand a
fatigue test under alternating bending stresses comprising 108 load cycles amounting to about 20 % of the
minimum tensile strength and carried out in a 3 % NaCl solution, and provided that the fatigue strength
under alternating bending stresses in natural seawater can be proven to be not less than about 65 % of the
values established in 3 % NaCl solution. Sufficient fatigue strength under alternating bending stresses has to
be proven by a method recognized by BKI.
2.
Components for controllable pitch and assembled fixed pitch propellers
The materials of the major components of the pitch control mechanism and also the blade and boss retaining
bolts have to comply with the BKI Rules for Materials (Part 1,Vol.V).
The blade retaining bolts of assembled fixed pitch propellers or controllable pitch propellers are to be made
of seawater-resistant materials, so far they are not protected against contact with seawater.
3.
Novel materials
Where propeller materials with not sufficient experience for their reliability are applied, the suitability has to
be proven particularly to BKI.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
B-C
2/12
4.
Section 6 - Propeller
Material testing
The material of propellers, propeller bosses and all essential components involved in the transmission of
torque is to be tested in accordance with Rules for Materials (Part 1,Vol.V). This also applies to components
which are used to control the pitch of the blades and also to propellers in main propulsion systems less than
300 kW power and transverse thrust systems of less than 500 kW power.
B-C
C.
Dimensions and Design of Propellers
1.
Symbols and terms
A
[mm²]
effective area of a shrink fit
B
[mm]
developed blade width of cylindrical sections at radii 0,25 R, 0,35 R and 0,6 R in an
expanded view
cA
[-]
coefficient for shrink joints
= 1,0
for geared diesel engine and turbine plants as well as for electric motor drives
= 1,2
for direct diesel engine drives
CG
[-]
size factor in accordance with formula (2)
CDyn
[-]
dynamic factor in accordance with formula (3)
Cw
[-]
characteristic material value for propeller material as shown in Table 6.1, corresponds to
the minimum tensile strength Rm of the propeller material where sufficient fatigue
strength under alternating bending stresses in according to B.1 is proven.
C
[-]
conicity of shaft ends
=
difference in taper diameter
length of taper
d
[mm]
pitch circle diameter of blade or propeller-fastening bolts
di
[mm]
inner diameter of shaft
dk
[mm]
root diameter of blade or propeller-fastening bolts
D
[mm]
diameter of propeller
= 2R
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
C
Section 6 - Propeller
Table 6.1Characteristic material values Cw
Description1)
Material
1)
Cw
Cu 1
Cast manganese brass
440
Cu 2
Cast manganese nickel brass
440
Cu 3
Cast nickel aluminium bronze
590
Cu 4
Cast manganese aluminium bronze
630
Fe 1
Unalloyed cast steel
440
Fe 2
Low-alloy cast steel
440
Fe 3
Martensitic cast chrome steel 13/1-6
600
Fe 4
Martensitic cast chrome steel 17/4
600
Fe 5
Ferritic-austenitic cast steel 24/8
600
Fe 6
Austenitic cast steel 18/8-11
500
For the chemical composition of the alloys, see Part 1, Seagoing Ships, Volume V,
Rules for Material,and VolumeVI, Rules for welding.
d
[mm]
mean taper diameter
DN
[mm]
mean outer diameter of propeller hub
e
[mm]
blade rake to aft according to Fig. 6.1
=
R  tan ε
ET
[-]
EN
[N/mm2] Modulus of elasticity for hub material
EW
[N/mm2]
thrust stimulating factor in accordance with formula (5)
Modulus of elasticity for shaft material
f,f1,f2, [-]
factors in formulae (2), (4) and (10)
H
[mm]
pressure side pitch of propeller blade at radii0,25 R, 0,35 R and 0,6 R
Hm
[mm]
mean effective pressure side pitch for pitch varying with the radius

 R , B , H 
 R, B 
R, B and H are the corresponding measures of the various sections.
k
[-]
coefficient for various profile shapes in accordance with Table 6.2
KN
[-]
diameter ratio of hub
=
dm
DN
C
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
3/12
C
4/12
4
Sectionn 6 - Propelleer
=
di
KW
[-]
diameeter ratio of shaft
s
LM
[mm
m]
2/3 off the leading--edge part off the blade width
w
at 0,9 R,
R but at leasst 1/4 of the total blade
width at 0,9 R for propellers w
with high skeew blades.
L
[mm
m]
pull-uup length pro
opeller on conne
Lact
[mm
m]
chosen pull-up disstance
dm
Table 6.2 Values off k for various profile sh
hapes
Profile shape
V
Values of k
0,25 R
0,35 R
0,60 R
Segmental pprofiles with circular
arced suctionn side
73
62
44
Segmental pprofiles with parabolic
suction side
77
66
47
80
66
44
Blade profiles as for Waageningen
B Series proopellers
Lmech
[mm]
pull-uup length at t = 35 °C
Ltemp
[mm]
tempeerature-relateed portion off pull-up leng
gth at t <35 °C
n2
[Rpm
m]
propeller speed
Pw
[kWll
nominnal power off drivingenginnes
p
[N/m
mm²] surfacce pressure in
n shrink joint
nt between prropeller and shaft
s
pact
[N/m
mm2]
surfacce pressure in the shrinnk joint at Lact
a
Q
[N]
periphheral force att mean taper diameter
Rp 0,2
[N/m
mm²] 0,2 % proof stress
ReH
[N/m
mm²] yield strengths
Rm
[N/m
mm²] tensilee strengths
S
[-]
safetyy margin agaiinst propelleer slipping on
n cone
=
t
[mm]
2
2,8
maxim
mum blade thickness
t
off developed cylindrical section at raadii 0,25 R((t0,25), 0,35
R(t0,355), 0,6 R(t0,6) and 1,0 R (tt1,0)
BK
KI Rules For M
Machinery Insstallation-2014
4
Section 6 - Propeller
T
[N]
propeller thrust
TM
[Nm]
impact moment
Vs
[kn]
speed of ship
w
[-]
wake fraction
W0,35R [mm3]
section modulus of cylindrical blade’s section at radius 0,35 R
W0,6R
[mm3]
section modulus of cylindrical blade’s section at radius 0,6R.
Z
[-]
total number of bolts used to retain one blade or propeller
z
[-]
number of blades
α
[ o]
pitch angle of profile at radii 0,25 R, 0,35 R and 0,6 R
αA
[-]
 0, 25 = arc tan
1,27  H
D
 0,35 = arc tan
0,91  H
D
 0,60 = arc tan
0,53  H
D
= 1,2
for angle control
= 1,3
for bolt elongation control
= 1,6
for torque control
αN
[1/°C]
coefficient of linear thermal expansion of hub material
αW
[1/°C]
coefficient of linear thermal expansion of shaft material
ε
[ o]
angle between lines of face generatrix and normal

[-]
half-conicity
= [-]
5/12
tightening factor for retaining bolts depending on the method of tightening used (see VDI
2230 or equivalent standards)
Guidance values:
μo
C
C
2
coefficient of static friction
= 0,13
for hydraulic oil shrinkjoints
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
C
6/12
Section 6 - Propeller
= 0,15
for dry fitted shrinkjoints bronze/steel
= 0,18
for dry fitted shrink joints steel/steel
N
[-]
Poisson’s ratio of hub material
W
[-]
Poisson’s ratio of shaft material
ψ
[ o]
skewangleaccordingtoFig. 6.1
 max
[-]
m
σv
[N/mm2]
ratio of maximum to mean stress at pressure side of blades
von Mises' equivalent stress
Fig 6.1 Blade Sections
2.
Calculation of blade thickness
2.1
At radii 0,25 R(t0,25) and 0,6 R(t0,6) the maximum blade thicknesses of solid propellers have at least
to comply with formula (1).
t ≥ Ko k Kl CG Cdyn
Ko = 1 +
k
(1)
e. cos α
n2
+
H
15000
as in Table 6.2
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 6 - Propeller
K =
CG
Pw . 105 . 2.
D
Hm
C
7/12
. cos α + sin α
n2 . B .z . Cw . cos 2 ε
[-]
size factor
f1 +
=
D
1000
12,2
CG has to fulfill the following condition
1,1≥CG≥0,85
f1 = 7,2
for solid propellers
= 6,2
Cdyn
[-]
(2)
for separately cast blades of variable-pitch or built-up propellers
dynamic factor
=
for
(
,
σmax
σm
/
, )
≥1,0
(3)
> 1,5, otherwise
CDyn = 1,0
σmax/σm is generally to be taken from the detailed calculation according to 2.5. If, in exceptional cases, no
such calculation exists, the stress ratio may be calculated approximately according to formula (4)
σmax
σm
= f2  E T + 1
(4)
With:
E = 4,3 . 10-9 .
f2
Vs . n2 .(1-W .) . D3
(5)
T
= 0,4 - 0,6
for single-screw ships, the lower value has to be chosen for stern shapes with a big
propeller tip clearance and no rudder heel, the larger value to sterns with small
clearance and with rudder heel. Intermediate values are to be selected accordingly.
= 0,2
for twin-screw ships
2.2
The blade thicknesses of controllable pitch propellers are to be determined at radii 0,35∙R and0,6∙R
by applying formula (1).
For the controllable pitch propellers of tugs, trawlers as well as special-duty ships with similar operating
profiles, the diameter/pitch ratio D/Hm for the maximum bollard pull has to be used in formula (1).
For other ships, the diameter/pitch ratio D/Hm applicable to open-water navigation at maximum engine
power (MCR = Maximum Continuous Rating)can be used in formula (1).
2.3
The blade thicknesses calculated by applying formula (1) represent the lowest acceptable values
for the finish-machined propellers.
2.4
The fillet radii at the transition from the pressure and suction side of the blades to the propeller
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
8/12
C-D
Section 6 - Propeller
boss shall correspond for three and four-bladed propellers to about 3,5 % of the propeller diameter. For
propellers with a larger number of blades the maximum possible fillet radii shall be aimed at, but these shall
not be chosen less than 40 % of the blade root thickness.
Variable fillet radii which are aiming at a uniform stress distribution, may be applied if an adequate proof of
stress is given case by case. The resulting calculated maximum stress shall not exceed the values, occurring
from a design with constant fillet radius in accordance to the first paragraph of 2.4.
2.5
For special designs such as propellers with skew angle ψ ≥ 25o, tip fin propellers, special profiles
etc. a special strength calculation is to be submitted to BKI.
For re-calculation of the blade stress of these special propeller designs a blade geometry data file and details
on the measured wake field are to be submitted to BKI together with the design documentation. This file
should be sent in plain text format. Supplementary information on the Classification of special designs can
be requested from BKI.
2.6
If the propeller is subjected to an essential wear e.g. by abrasion in tidal flats or dredgers, a wear
addition has to be provided to the thickness determined under 2.1 to achieve an equivalent lifetime. If the
actual thickness in service drops below 50 % at the blade tip or 90 % at other radii of the rule thickness
obtained from 2.1, effective counter measures have to be taken. For unconventional blade geometries as
defined in 2.5, the design thickness as shown on the approved drawing replaces the thickness requested
according to 2.1.
3.
Design of the propeller
The propeller has to be protected against electrochemical corrosionaccording to Rules for Hull (Part
1,Vol.II), Section 38.
C-D
D.
Controllable Pitch Propellers
1.
Hydraulic control equipment
Where the pitch-control mechanism is operated hydraulically, two mutually independent, power-driven
pump sets are to be installed. For propulsion plants up to 200 kW, one power-driven pump set is sufficient
provided that, in addition, a hand-operated pump is provided, capable to control the blade pitch and being
able to move the blades from the ahead to the astern position in an sufficiently short time for safe
manoeuvring.
The selection and arrangement of filters has to ensure an uninterrupted supply with filtered oil, also during
filter cleaning or exchange. In general, main filters are to be arranged on the pressure side directly after the
pump. An additional coarse filtration of the hydraulic oil at the suction side, before the pump, should be
provided.
Section 11, A. to D. is to be applied in an analogous manner to hydraulic pipes and pumps.
2.
Pitch control mechanism
For the pitch control mechanism proof is to be furnished that the individual components when subjected to
impact loads still have a safety factor of 1,5 against the yield strength of the materials used. The impact
moment TM has to be calculated according to formula (6) and the resulting equivalent stresses at the
different components are to be compared with their yield strength.
T = 1,5.
R
,
,
.
. W
,
. 10 (6)
+ 0,75
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 6 - Propeller
D
9/12
W06R can be calculated by applying formula (7a)
W06R
= 0,11 . (Bt2)0,6R
3.
Blade retaining bolts
(7a)
D
3.1
The blade retaining bolts shall be designed in such a way as to safely withstand the forces induced
in the even of plastic deformation at 0,35 R caused by a force acting on the blade at 0,9R. At this occasion
the bolt material shall have a safety margin of 1,5 against the yield strength.
The thread core diameter of the blade retaining boltsshall not be less than:
dk =2,6 .
M0,35R
M0,35R . αA
(8)
d .Z . ReH
= W0,35R .Rp 0,2
W0,35R may be calculated analogously to formula (7a) or (7b).
For nearly elliptically sections at the root area of the blade the following formula may be used instead:
W0,35R
= 0,10 . (B.t 2)0,35R
(7b)
3.2
The blade retaining bolts are to be tightened in a controlled way so that the initial tension on the
bolts is about 60 ÷ 70 % of their yield strength.
The shank of blade retaining bolts may be reduced to a minimum diameter of 0,9 times the root diameter of
the threaded part.
3.3
Blade retaining bolts are to be secured against unintentional loosening.
4.
Indicators
4.1
Controllable pitch propeller systems are to be provided with a direct acting indicator inside the
engine room showing the actual setting of the blades. Further blade position indicators are to be mounted on
the bridge, see also Rules for Automation (Part 1,Vol.VII), and Rules for Electrical Installation (Part
1,Vol.IV), Section 9.
4.2
Hydraulic pitch control systems are to beprovided with means to monitor the oil level. A
pressuregauge for the pitch control oil pressure is to befitted. A suitable indicator for filter clogging must
beprovided. An oil temperature indicator is to be fitted ata suitable position.Where ships are equipped with
automated machinery,the requirements of Rules for Automation (Part 1,Vol.VII),are to be complied with.
5.
Failure of control system
Suitable devices have to prevent that an alteration of the blade pitch setting can lead to an overload or stall
of the propulsion engine.
It has to be ensured that, in the event of failure of the control system, the setting of the blades

does not change or

drifts to a final position slowly enough to allow the emergency control system to be put into
operation.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
E
10/12
6.
Section 6 - Propeller
Emergency control
Controllable pitch propeller plants are to be equipped with means for emergency control to maintain the
function of the controllable pitch propeller in case of failure of the remote control system. It is
recommended to provide a device enabling the propeller blades to be locked in the "ahead" settingposition.
D-E
E.
Propeller Mounting
1.
Cone connection
1.1
Where the cone connection between shaft and propeller is fitted with a key, the propeller is to be
mounted on the tapered shaft in such a way that approximately120% of the mean torque can be transmitted
from the shaft to the propeller by friction.
Keyed connections are in general not to be used in installations with a barred speed range.
1.2
Where the connection between propeller shaft cone and propeller is realised by hydraulic oil
technique without the use of a key, the necessary pull-up distance L on the tapered shaft is to be determined
according to formula (9). Where appropriate, allowance is also to be made for surface smoothing when
calculating L.
L =Lmech + Ltemp
(9)
Lmech is determined according to the formulae of elasticity theory applied to shrink joints for a specific
surface pressure p [N/mm²] at the mean taper diameter found by applying formula (10) and for a water
temperature of 35°C.
 .T + f.(C . Q + T ) − . T
p = A. f
(10)
T has to be introduced as positive value if the propeller thrust increases the surface pressure at the taper.
Change of direction of propeller thrust is to be neglected as far as absorbed power and thrust are essentially
less.
T has to be introduced as negative value if the propeller thrust reduces the surface pressure at the taper, e.g.
for tractor propellers.
f = L
t
=
μ
S
− (10a)
dm
. (αN -αW ).(35-t)
C
[oC]
(11)
temperature at which the propeller is mounted.
Values for αN and αW can be taken from Table 6.3. At least the temperature range between 0 °C and 35 °C
has to be considered
E
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
E
Section 6 - Propeller
Table 6.3
11/12
Material values according to IACS UR K3
Modulus of
elasticity
Material
E [N/mm2]
205000
Steel
 [−]
Coefficient of linear
thermal expansion
 [1/oC]
0.29
12.0  10-6
Poisson’s ratio
Copper based alloys Cu1 and Cu2
105000
0.33
17.5  10-6
Copper based alloys Cu3 and Cu4
115000
0.33
17.5  10-6
Note: for austenitic stainless steel see manufacturer’s specification.
For direct coupled propulsion plants with a barred speed range it has to be confirmed by separate calculation
that the vibratory torque in the main resonance is transmitted safely. For this proof the safety against
slipping for the transmission of torque shall be at least S = 1,8 (instead of S = 2,8), the coefficient cA may
be set to 1,0. For this additional proof the respective influence of the thrust may be disregarded.
1.3
For keyless propeller fittings without intermediate sleeve, the required pull-up distance and
related stresses in the propeller hub and shaft can be calculated as follows.
Joint stiffness factor:
K =
dm 1
1+KN 2
∙
∙
+
C EN 1-KN 2
+
1
1+KW 2
∙
-
EW 1-KW 2 W
Value for EN, EW, N and W can be taken from Table 6.3
Minimum required pull-up distance at mounting temperature 35 oC:
Lmech
= pKel
Minimum required pull-up distance at mounting temperature t [oC]:
L
=Lmech+ Ltemp
Surface pressure at the mean taper diameter at chosen pull-up distance Lact [mm]:
Lact
Pact
=
Kel
Related von Mises’ equivalent stresses:
σ = Pact
1-KN 2
σ =Pact
σ =
Pact ∙2
1-KW 2
∙ 3+KN 4 (hub)
(solid shaft)
(hollow shaft)
1.4
The von Mises' equivalent stress resulting from the maximum surface pressure p and the tangential
stress in the bore of the propeller hub shall not exceed 75 % of the 0,2 % proof stress or yield strength of the
propeller material in the installed condition and 90 % during mounting and dismounting.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
E-F
12/12
Section 6 - Propeller
1.5
The cones of propellers which are mounted on the propeller shaft by means of the hydraulic oil
technique shall not be steeper than 1 :15 and not be less than 1 : 25. For keyed connections the cone shall
not be steeper than 1: 10.
1.6
The propeller nut shall be strongly secured to the propeller shaft.
2.
Flange connections
2.1
Flanged propellers and the hubs of controllable pitch propellers are to be connected by means of
fitted pins and retaining bolts (preferably necked down bolts).
2.2
The diameter of the fitted pins is to be calculated by applying formula (4) given in Section 4,D.4.2.
2.3
The propeller retaining bolts are to be designed in accordance to D.3, however the thread core
diameter shall not be less than
d = 4,4
2.4
M , ∙α
(12)
d∙Z∙R
The propeller retaining bolts have to be secured against unintentional loosening
-F
F.
Balancing and Testing
1.
Balancing
Monobloc propellers ready for mounting as well as the blades of controllable and built up fixed pitch
propellers are required to undergo static balancing. Thereby the mass difference between blades of
controllable or builtup fixed pitch propeller has to be not more than 1,5 %.
2.
Testing
2.1
Fixed pitch propellers, controllable pitch propellers and controllable pitch propeller systems are to
be presented to BKI for final inspection and verification of the dimensions.
BKI reserve the right to require non-destructive tests for detecting surface cracks or casting defects.
In addition, controllable pitch propeller systems shall undergo pressure, tightness and functional tests.
2.2
Casted propeller boss caps, which also serve as corrosion protection, have to be tested for tightness
at the manufacturer’s workshop. BKI reserve the right to require a tightness test of the aft propeller boss
sealing in assembled condition.
2.3
If the propeller is mounted onto the shaft by a hydraulic shrink fit connection, a blue print test
showing at least a 70 % contact area has to be demonstrated to the Surveyor. The blue print pattern shall not
show any larger areas without contact, especially not at the forward cone end. The proof has to be
demonstrated using the original components.
If alternatively a male / female calibre system is used, between the calibres a contact area of at least 80 % of
the cone area has to be demonstrated and certified.After ten applications or five years the blue print proof
has to be renewed.
E-F
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
A
1/54
Section 7I
Steam Boilers
A
A.
General
1.
Scope
1.1
For the purpose of these requirements, the term " steam boiler" includes all closed vessels and piping systems
used for:
‒
generating steam with a pressure above atmospheric (steam generators) -the generated steam is to be used in a
system outside of the steam generators
‒
raising the temperature of water above the boiling point corresponding to atmospheric pressure (hot water
generators, discharge temperature > 120 ̊C) – the generated hot water is to be used in a system outside of the
hot water generators
The term "steam generator" also includes any equipment directly connected to the aforementioned vessels or piping
systems in which the steam is superheated or cooled, external drums, the circulating line and the casings of circulating
pumps serving forced-circulation boilers.
1.2
Steam generators as defined in 1.1 are subject to the requirements set out in B. to F. For hot water generators
the requirements set out in G. apply additionally
Flue gas economizers are subject to the requirements set out in H. In respect of materials, manufacture and design, the
requirements specified in B, C and D apply as appropriate.
1.3
For warm water generators with an allowable discharge temperature of not more than 120 ̊C and steam or hot
water generators which are heated solely by steam or hot liquids Section 8 applies.
2.
Other Rules
2.1
Other applicable Rules
In addition the BKI Rules and Guidelines defined in the following have to be applied,
in similar way :
Section 9
for oil burner and oil firing systems.
Section 11, A to D., E.
and F.
for pipes valves and pumps
Part 1. Seagoing Ships, Volume IV Rules for
Electrical Installations.
for electrical equipment items
Part 1. Seagoing Ships, Volume VII Rules for
Automation (1-1-4)
for automated machinery systems
OT
Part 1. Seagoing Ships, Volume V Rules for
Material, and Volume VI Welding, Part 1 – Metallic
Material
for the manufacturing of steam boiler
Guidelines for the Performance of Type approvals.
(VI-7)
for type approved components. Component requirering
type approval
2.2
Constructions, equipment and operation of steam boiler plants are also required to comply with the applicable
national regulations.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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A
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
A
Documents for approval
3.
3.1
Drawings of all boiler parts subject to pressure, such as shell drums, headers, tube arrangements, manholes
and inspection covers etc., are to be submitted to BKI in triplicate1).
The following documents are to be submitted to BKI based on Section 1. In specific cases and following prior
agreement with BKI they can also be submitted in paper form in triplicate:
–
Drawings of all boiler parts subject to pressure, such as shell, drums, headers, tube arrangements, manholes
and inspection covers, etc.
–
Drawings of the expansion vessel and other pressure vessels for hot water generating plants
–
Equipment and functional diagrams with description of the steam boiler plant
–
Circuit diagrams of the electrical control system, respectively monitoring and safety devices with limiting
values
3.2
These drawings shall contain all the data necessary for strength calculations and design assessment, such as
maximum allowable working pressures, heating surfaces, lowest water level, permissible steam capacity, steam
conditions, superheated steam temperatures, as well as materials to be used and full details of welds.
3.3
Further on document shall contain information concerning the equipment of the steam boiler as well as
description of the boiler plant with the essential boiler data, information about the installation location in relation to the
longitudinal axis of the ship and data about feeding and oil firing equipment.
4.
Definitions
4.1
Steam boiler walls are the walls of the steam and water spaces located between the boiler isolating devices.
The bodies of these isolating devices belong to the boiler walls.
4.2
The maximum allowable working pressure PB is the approved steam pressure in bar (gauge pressure) in the
saturated steam space prior to entry into the superheater. In once-through forced flow boilers, the maximum allowable
working pressure is the pressure at the superheater outlet or, in the case of continuous flow boilers without a
superheater, the steam pressure at the steam generator outlet.
4.3
The heating surface is that part of the boiler walls through which heat is supplied to the system, i.e.:
‒
the area [m2] measured on the side exposed to fire or heating gas, or
‒
in the case of electrical heating, the equivalent heating surface:
H=
P x 860
[m2 ]
1800
where P is the electric power in kW.
4.4
The allowable steam output is the maximum hourly steam quantity which can be produced continuously by
the steam generator operating under the design steam conditions.
5
Lowest water level - highest flue - dropping time
5.1
The lowest water level (LWL) has to be located at least 150 mm above the highest flue also when the ship
heels 4° to either side.
The highest flue (HF) shall remain wetted even when the ship is at the static heeling angles laid down in Section 1,
Table 1.1.
1)
For ships flying Indonesian flag in quadruplicate, one of which intended for the Indonesian Government.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
A
3/54
The height of the water level is crucial to the response of the water level limiters.
5.2
The "dropping time" is the time taken by the water level under conditions of interrupted feed and allowable
steam production, to drop from the lowest water level to the level of the highest flue.
T=
60 ∙ V
D ∙ v'
T
= dropping time [min]
V
= volume of water in steam boiler between the lowest water level and the highest flue [m3]
D
= allowable steam output [kg/h]
v'
= specific volume of water at saturation temperature [m3/kg]
The lowest water level is to be set so that the dropping time is not less than 5 minutes.
5.3
The highest flue (HF)
–
is the highest point on the side of the heating surface which is in contact with the water and which is exposed
to flame radiation and
–
is to be defined by the boiler manufacturer in such a way that, after shut-down of the burner from full- load
condition or reduction of the heat supply from the engine, the flue gas temperature or exhaust gas
temperature respectively is reduced to a value below 400 °C at the level of the highest flue. This shall be
achieved before, under the condition of interrupted feed water supply, the water level has dropped from the
lowest water level to a level 50 mm above HF.
The highest flue on water tube boilers with an upper steam drum is the top edge of the highest gravity tubes.
5.4
The requirements relating the highest flue do not apply to
–
water tube boiler risers up to 102 mm outer diameter
–
once-through forced flow boilers
–
super heaters
–
flues and exhaust gas heated parts in which the temperature of the heating gases does not exceed 400 °C at
maximum continuous power
5.5
The heat accumulated in furnaces and other heated boiler parts may not lead to any inadmissible lowering of
the water level due to subsequent evaporation when the oil burner is switched-off.
This requirement to an inadmissible lowering of the water level is met for example, if it has been demonstrated by
calculation or trial that, after shut-down of the burner from full-load condition or reduction of the heat supply from the
engine, the flue gas temperature or exhaust gas temperature respectively is reduced to a value below 400 °C at the level
of the highest flue, before, under the condition of interrupted feed water supply, the water level has dropped from the
lowest water level LWL to a level 50 mm above the highest flue (HF).
The water level indicators have to be arranged in such a way that the distance 50 mm above HF could be identified.
5.6
The lowest specified water level is to be indicated permanently on the boiler shell by means of a water level
pointer. The location of the pointer is to be included in the documentation for the operator. Reference plates are to be
attached additionally beside or behind the water level gauges pointing at the lowest water level.
6.
Manual operation
6.1
For steam boilers which are operated automatically means for operation and supervision are to be provided
which allow a manual operation with the following minimum requirements by using an additional control level
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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A-B
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
A-B
6.1.1
At boilers with a defined highest flue at their heating surface (e.g. oil fired steam boilers and exhaust gas
boilers with temperature of the exhaust gas > 400 °C) at least the water level limiters and at hot water generators the
temperature limiters have to remain active.
6.1.2
Exhaust gas boilers with temperatures of the exhaust gas < 400 °C may be operated without water level
limiters.
6.1.3
The monitoring of the oil content of the condensate or of the ingress of foreign matters into the feeding
water may not lead to a shutdown of the feeding pumps during manual operation.
6.1.4
The safety equipment not required for manual operation may only be deactivated by means of a keyoperated switch. The actuation of the key-operated switch is to be indicated.
6.1.5
For detailed requirements in respect of manual operation of the oil firing system, see Section 9.
6.2
Manual operation demands constant and direct supervision of the system steam boiler plant
7.
Power of steam propulsion plants
On ships propelled by steam, the plant is to be designed that, should one main boiler fail, sufficient propulsive capacity
will remain to maintain adequate maneuverability and to supply the auxiliary machinery.
8.
Hot water generators
8.1
Once-through hot water generators are generators where the allowable working temperature can be exceeded
when the circulating pumps of the system are stopped.
8.2
Circulating hot water generators guarantee the water flow through the generator by using a separate
circulating pump or by natural flow.
B.
Materials
1.
General requirements
With respect to their workability during manufacture and their characteristics in subsequent operation, materials used
for the manufacture of steam boilers have to satisfy the technical requirements, particularly those relating to hightemperature strength and weldability.
2.
Approved materials
The requirements specified in 1. are recognized as having been complied with if the materials shown in Table 7.1 are
used.
Materials not specified in the BKI Volume V, Rules for Materials, may be used provided that proof is supplied of their
suitability and material properties.
3.
Material testing
3.1
The materials of boiler parts subject to pressure, including flue gas economizer tubes, are to be tested under
supervision of BKI in accordance with Rules for Material and Rules for Welding (see. Table7.1).For these materials an
A-Type Certificate2 is to be issued.
2
See BKI Rules for Materials, Volume V Section I
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
B
5/54
B
Table 7I.1 Approved materials
Material and product form
Limits of application
Material grades in accordance with
Rules for Material
Volume V
Steel plates and steel strips
-
Plates and strips of high-temperature steel,
Section 4, E
Steel pipes
-
Seamless and welded pipes of ferritic
steels, Section 5, B and C
Forgings and formed parts :
a) drums, headers and similar hollow
components without longitudinal
seam
b) covers, flanges, nozzles,
end plates
Forging for boilers,
vessels and pipeline
Section 6, E
-
Formed and pressed parts to Section 9,
A. and B.
-
Fasteners, Section 9,C
High-temperature bolts to
DIN 17 240
≤ 300 ̊C
≤ 40 bar
≤ M30
DIN 267
Parts 3 and 4
or equivalent standards
-
Cast steel for boilers, pressure vessels and
pipelines to Section 7, D.
Nuts and bolts
Steel castings
Nodular cast iron
Lamellar (grey) cast iron :
a) Boiler parts (only for unheated
surfaces and not for heaters in
thermal oil systems)
≤ 300 ̊C
Also GS 38 and GS 45 to DIN 1681 and
GS 16 Mn5 and GS 20 Mn5
to DIN 17 182
≤ 300 ̊C
≤ 40 bar
≤ DN 175 for valves
and fittings
Nodular cast iron to
Section 8, B
≤ 200 ̊C
≤ 10 bar
≤ 200 mm diameter
b)
Valves and fittings
(except valves subject to
dynamic stresses)
≤ 200 ̊C
≤ 10 bar
≤ DN 175
c)
Exhaust gas economizer
≤ 52 bar
smoke gas temperature
≤ 600 ̊C
water outlet temperature
≤ 245 ̊C
≤ 100 bar
smoke gas temperature
≤ 700 ̊C
water outlet temperature
≤ 260 ̊C
Valves and fittings of cast copper
alloys
Grey cast iron to
Section 8, C
Grey cast iron of at least GG-25 grade to
Section 8, C
≤ 225 ̊C
≤ 25 bar
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Cast copper alloys to
Section 5, B
6/54
3.2
B-C
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
B-C
Material testing under supervision of BKI may be waived in the case of
a)
Small boiler parts made of unalloyed steels, such as stay bolts, stays of ≤ 100 mm diameter, reinforcing
plates, handhole and manhole covers, forged flanges up to DN 150 and nozzles up to DN 150 and
b)
Smoke tubes (tubes subject to external pressure).
For the parts mentioned in a) and b), the properties of the materials are to be attested by Manufacturer Inspection
Certificates 2).
3.3
If the design temperature is 450 °C or higher or the design pressure is 32 bar or higher pipes shall be nondestructive tested in accordance with the Rules for Materials (Part 1,Vol.V), Section 5.C.4.7.
3.4
Special agreements may be made regarding the testing of unalloyed steels to recognized standards.
3.5
The materials of valves and fittings are to be tested under supervision of BKI in accordance with the data
specified in Table 7.2. For these materials an A-Type Certificate need to be issued.
3.6
Parts not subject to material testing, such as external supports, lifting brackets, pedestals, etc. are to be
designed for the intended purpose and shall be made of suitable materials.
Table 7I.2
Testing of materials for valves and fittings
Service
temperature [̊C]
Testing required for:
PB [bar]
DN [mm]
> 300
DN > 50
Steel, cast steel,
nodular cast iron
≤ 300
PB x DN > 2.500 2)
or
DN > 250
Copper alloys
≤ 225
PB x DN > 1.500 2)
Type of material 1)
Steel, cast steel
1)
No test is required for grey cast iron.
2)
Testing may be dispensed with if DN is ≤ 50 mm.
C.
Principles Applicable to Manufacture
1.
Manufacturing processes applied to boiler materials
Materials are to be checked for defects during the manufacturing process. Care is to be taken to ensure that different
materials cannot be confused. During the course of manufacture care is likewise required to ensure that marks and
inspection stamps on the materials remain intact or are transferred in accordance with regulations.
Steam boiler parts whose microstructure has been adversely affected by hot or cold forming are to be subjected to heat
treatment and testing in accordance with the Rules for Materials (Part 1, Vol.V), Section 9, A.
2.
Welding
2.1
Steam boiler are to be manufactured by welding.
2.2
All manufacturers who want to perform welding duties for steam boilers have to be approved by BKI. The
approval has to be applied for by the work with information and documentation according to the Rules for Welding
(Part 1,Vol.VI), General requirements, proof of qualification, approval, in due time before start of the welding
activities.
2.3
Valid are the Rules for Welding (Part 1,Vol.VI). Especially Welding in the Various Fields of Application,
Section 2.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
3.
C
7/54
C
Tube expansion
Tube holes are to be carefully drilled and deburred. Sharp edges are to be chamfered. Tube holes should be as close as
possible to the radial direction, particularly in the case of small wall thicknesses.
Tube ends to be expanded are to be cleaned and checked for size and possible defects. Where necessary, tube ends are
to be annealed before being expanded.
Smoke tubes with welded connection between tube and tube plate at the entry of the second path shall be roller
expanded before and after welding.
4.
Stays, stay tubes and stay bolts
4.1
forces.
Stays, stay tubes and stay bolts are to be arranged that they are not subjected to undue bending or shear
Stress concentrations at changes in cross-section, in threads and at welds are to be minimized by suitable component
geometry.
4.2
Stays bars and stay bolts are to be welded by full penetration preferably. Any vibrational stresses are to be
considered for longitudinal stays.
4.3
Stays bars and stay bolts are to be drilled at both ends in such a way that the holes extend at least 25 mm into
the water or steam space. Where the ends have been upset, the continuous shank shall be drilled to a distance of at least
25 mm (see Fig. 7I.22)
4.4
The angle made by gusset stays and the longitudinal axis of the boiler shall not exceed 30º. Stress
concentrations at the welds of gusset stays are to be minimized by suitable component geometry. Welds are to be
executed as full penetration welds. In firetube boilers, gusset stays are to be located at least 200 mm from the firetube.
4.5
Where flat surfaces exposed to flames are stiffened by stay bolts, the distance between centers of the stay
bolts shall not exceed 200 mm.
5.
Stiffeners, straps and lifting eyes
5.1
Where flat end surfaces are stiffened by profile sections or ribs, the latter shall transmit their load directly
(i.e. without welded-on straps) to the boiler shell.
5.2
Doubling plates may not be fitted at pressure parts subject to flame radiation.
Where necessary to protect the walls of the boiler, strengthening plates are to be fitted below supports and lifting
brackets.
6.
Welding of flat unrimmed ends to boiler shells
Flat unrimmed ends (disc ends) on shell boilers are only permitted as socket-welded ends with a shell projection of ≥
15 mm. The end/shell wall thickness ratio sB/sM shall not be greater than 1,8. The end is to be welded to the shell with a
full penetration weld.
7.
Nozzles and flanges
Nozzles and flanges are to be of rugged design and properly, preferably by full penetration to the shell. The wall
thickness of nozzles has to be sufficiently large to safely withstand additional external loads. The wall thickness of
welded-in nozzles shall be appropriate to the wall thickness of the part into which they are welded.
Welding-neck flanges are to be made of forged material with favourable grain orientation.
8.
Cleaning and inspection opening, cut outs and covers.
8.1
Steam boilers are to be provided with openings through which the space inside can be cleaned and inspected.
Especially critical and high-stressed welds, parts subjected to flame radiation and areas of varying water level shall be
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
8/54
C-D
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
sufficiently accessible to inspection. Boiler vessels with an inside diameter of more than 1.200 mm and those
measuring over 800 mm in diameter and 2.000 mm in length are to be provided with means of access. Parts inside
drums shall not obstruct inner inspection or are to be capable of being removed.
8.2
Inspection and access openings are required to have the following minimum dimensions:
Manholes
300 x 400 mm or 400 mm diameter, where the annular height is > 150 mm the opening measure shall
be 320 x 420 mm.
Headholes
220 x 320 mm or 320 mm diameter
Handholes
90 x 120 mm
Sightholes
are required to have a diameter of at least 50 mm; they shall, however, be provided only when the
design of the equipment makes a handhole impracticable.
8.3
The edges of manholes and other openings, e.g. for domes, are to be effectively reinforced if the plate has
been unacceptably weakened by the cutouts. The edges of openings closed with covers are to be reinforced by welded
on edge-stiffeners.
8.4
Cover plates, manhole frames and crossbars are to be made of ductile material (not grey or malleable cast
iron). Grey cast iron (at least GG-20) may be used for hand hole cover crossbars of headers and sectional headers,
provided that the crossbars are not located in the heating gas flow. Unless metal packings are used, cover plates are to
be provided on the external side with a rim or spigot to prevent the packing from being forced out. The gap between
this rim or spigot and the edge of the opening is to be uniform round the periphery and may not exceed 2 mm for
boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure PB of less than 32 bar, or 1 mm where the pressure is 32 bar or
over. The height of the rim or spigot is to be at least 5 mm greater than the thickness of the packing.
8.5
Only continuous rings may be used as packing. The materials used shall be suitable for the given operating
conditions.
9.
Boiler drums, shell sections, headers and firetubes
See the Rules for Welding (Part 1,Vol.VI), Welding in the Various Fields of Application, Section 2.
C-D
D.
Calculation
1.
Design principles
1.1
Range of applicability of design formulae
1.1.1
The following strength calculations represent the minimum requirements for normal operating conditions
with mainly static loading. Special allowance shall be made for additional forces and moments of significant
magnitude, e.g. those resulting from connected piping or from the movement of the ship at sea. These shall be specified
in the documentation.
1.1.2
The wall thicknesses arrived at by applying the formulae are the minimal required. The undersize tolerances
permitted by the Volume V, Rules for Materials, are to be added to the calculated values.
1.2
Design pressure pc
1.2.1
The design pressure is to be at least the maximum allowable working pressure. Additional allowance is to be
made for static pressures of more than 0,5 bar.
1.2.2
In designing once-through forced flow boilers, the pressure to be applied is the maximum working pressure
anticipated in main boiler sections at maximum allowable continuous load.
1.2.3
The design pressure applicable to the superheated steam lines from the boiler is the maximum working
pressure which safety valves prevent from being exceeded.
C-D
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
D
9/54
1.2.4
In the case of boiler parts which are subject in operation to both internal and external pressure, e.g.
attemporators in boiler drums, the design may be based on the differential pressure, provided that it is certain that in
service both pressures will invariably occur simultaneously. However, the design pressure of these parts is to be at least
17 bar. The design is also required to take account of the loads imposed during the hydrostatic pressure test.
D
1.3
Design temperature t
Strength calculations are based on the temperature at the center of the wall thickness of the component in question. The
design temperature is made up of the reference temperature and a temperature allowance in accordance with Table 7I.3.
The minimum value is to be taken as 250 ̊C.
Table 7I.3
Design temperatures
Allowance to be added
Reference
temperature
Saturation
temperature at
m.a.w.p
Superheated steam
temperature
1)
1.4
Unheated
parts
Heated parts, heated
mainly by
contact
radiation
0 ̊C
25 ̊C
50 ̊C
15 ̊C 1)
35 ̊C
50 ̊C
The temperature allowance may be reduced to 7 ̊C provided that
special measures are taken to ensure that the design temperature cannot
be exceeded
Allowable stress
The design of structural components is to be based on the allowable stress σperm [N/mm2]. In each case, the minimum
value produced by the following relations is applicable:
1.4.1
Rolled and forged steels
For design temperatures up to 350 ̊C
Rm,20°
where Rm,20°
2,7
ReH,t
where ReH,
1,6
For design temperature over 350 ̊C
Rm,100000,t
where Rm,100000,t
1,5
ReH,t
where ReH,
1,6
1.4.2
=
=
=
=
guaranteed minimum tensile strength at room
temperature [N/mm2]
guaranteed yield point or minimum o,2 %
proof at design temperature t [N/mm2]
Mean 100000 hour creep strength at design
temperature t [N/mm2]
guaranteed yield point or minimum o,2 %
proof at design temperature t [N/mm2]
Cast materials
a)
Cast Steel
b)
Nodular cast iron
c)
Grey cast iron
Rm,20° ReH,t Rm, 100000,t
;
;
3,2
2,0
2,0
Rm,20° ReH,t
;
4,8
3,0
Rm,20°
11
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
10/54
1.4.3
D
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
Special arrangements may be agreed for high-ductility austenitic steels.
1.4.4
In the case of cylinder shells with cutouts and in contact with water, a nominal stress of 170 N/mm² shall not
be exceeded in view of the protective magnetite layer.
1.4.5
Mechanical characteristics are to be taken from the Rules for Materials (Part 1,Vol.V), or from the Standards
specified therein.
1.5
Allowance for corrosion and wear
The allowance for corrosion and wear is to be c =1 mm. For plate thicknesses of 30 mm and over and for stainless
materials, this allowance may be dispensed with.
1.6
Special cases
Where boiler parts cannot be designed in accordance with the following requirements, the dimensions are to be
designed following a Standard recognized by BKI, e.g. EN 12952, EN 12953 or equivalent. In individual cases, the
dimensions determined by tests, e.g. by strain measurements.
2.
Cylindrical shells under internal pressure
2.1
Scope
The following design requirements apply to drums, shell rings and headers up to a diameter ratio Da/Di of ≤ 1,7.
Diameter ratios of up to Da/Di ≤ 2 may be permitted provided that the wall thickness is ≤ 80 mm.
2.2
Symbols
P
[bar]
design pressure
s
[mm]
wall thickness
D
[mm]
inside diameter
D
[mm]
outside diameter
c
[mm]
allowance for corrosion and wear
d
[mm]
diameter of opening or cutout
hole diameter for expanded tubes and for expanded and seal-welded tubes (see Fig. 7I.1 a and 7I.1
b)
inside tube diameter for welded-in pipe nipples and sockets (Fig. 7I.1 c)
t, tl, t
[mm]
pitch of tube holes (measured at center of wall thickness for circumferential seams)
v
[-]
weakening factor (see. Table 7.4)
for welds :
weld factor
for holes drilled in the shell :
the ratio of the weakened to the unweakened plate section
σ
[N/mm2] allowable stress (see 1.4)
S
[mm]
necessary wall thickness at edge of opening or cutout
S
[mm]
wall thickness of branch pipe
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Sectioon 7I – Steam Boilers
b
[mm]
suppporting lengtth of parent coomponent
l
[mm]
widdth of ligamen
nt between tw
wo branch pipees
ls
[mm]
suppporting lengtth of branch piipe
l's
[mm]
internal projectio
on of branch ppipe
A
[mm2]
areea under pressure
A
[mm²]
suppporting crosss-sectional areea
Fig. 7I.1
7
11/544
Hole d
diameters and
d inside tube diameter
2.3
Calculations
2.3.1
The necessaryy wall thickneess is given byy the expressio
on :
s=
D
D a ∙ pc
+ c
20 ∙ σpperm ∙ v + pc
(1)
In the case off heated drum
ms and headerss with a maximum allowab
ble working prressure of mo
ore than 25 baar,
2.3.2
special atteention is to bee given to therrmal stresses. For heated drrums not locatted in the firstt pass (gas tem
mperature up to
t
1.000 ºC m
max.), speciaal certification
n proof in resspect of therm
mal stresses may
m be waive
ved subject to
o the followinng
provision: Wall thicknesss up to 30 mm
m and adequat
ate cooling of the
t walls by virtue
v
of close tube arrangem
ment.
The descriiption "close tube
t
arrangem
ment" is appliccable if the liigament perpeendicular to thhe direction of
o gas flow annd
parallel to the direction of
o gas flow do
oes not exceedd 50 mm and 100 mm respeectively.
2.3.3
Weakening factor
f
v
The weakeening factor v is shown in Table
T
7.4.
Weakening effects
e
due to
o cutouts or individual branch
b
pipes are to be taaken into account by areea
2.3.4
compensattion in accordaance with the expression:
pc
Ap
1
∙
+
≤ σperm
10
Aσ
2
(2)
upporting crosss-sectional arrea Aσ are defiined in Fig. 7II.2.
The area unnder pressure Ap and the su
m not exceeed:
The valuess of the supporrting lengths may
for the parttent componennt
Di + sA – c) ∙ (sA – c)
b = (D
for the brannch pipe
ls = 1,2
25
D + sS − c ) ∙ (sS – c)
nto the calculaation as havinng a supporting function maay
Where a brranch projectss into the inteerior, the valuee introduced in
BKI
B Rules Foor Machinery Installation - 2014
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12/54
1
D
Section 77I – Steam Boiilers
not
n exceed l 's ≤ 0,5 ∙ ls
Table 7I.44 Weakening factor v
Constrruction
akening factor v
Wea
Seamless sheell rings and
drums
1,0
1
Shell rings and drums Weld factorr, see Volumee VI Rules
dinal weld
for
f Welding,
with longitud
Rows of holees1) in :
tl - d
tl
d
longitudinal direction
circumferentiial direction
1
2∙
tu - d
tu
) The value off v for rows of hholes may not be made greater than 1,0 in the
calculation. For staggered pittches, see Append
dix, Fig. 7.27.
Refer also to
o Figures 7.1 undder paragraph 2.2
Fiig. 7I.2
Op
pening in cylin
ndrical shell
Where
W
materiaals with differrent mechaniccal strengths aare used for th
he parent com
mponent and tthe branch or reinforcing
plate,
p
this factt is to be takenn into account in the calculaation. Howeveer, the allowab
ble stress in thhe reinforcemeent may not
be
b greater thann that for the parent
p
materiaal in the calcullation.
Disc-shaped
D
reeinforcementss are to be fittted on the outtside and shou
uld not be thiccker than the actual parent component
thickness.
t
This thickness is the maximum
m which may bbe allowed fo
or the calculatiion and the wi
width of the reiinforcement
shall
s
be more tthan three tim
mes the actual wall thicknesss.
The
T wall thickkness of the brranch pipe shaall not be moree than twice th
he required wall
w thickness aat the edge off the cutout.
Cutouts
C
exert a mutual effecct if the ligam
ment is
BKII Rules For M
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Sectioon 7I – Steam Boilers
D
13/544
Di + sA − c ) ∙ (sA – c)
l ≤2
i then as show
wn in Fig. 7I.33.
The area coompensation is
Fig. 7I.3
Mutual effeect on opening
gs
i
branch
h pipe projecttions or reinfo
orcement platees
For cutoutss r which exerrt a mutual efffect the reinfoorcement by internal
has also to be taken intoo account.
2.4
Minimum alllowable wall thickness
For weldedd and seamlesss shell rings the
t minimum
m allowable waall thickness is 5 mm. For nnon-ferrous metals,
m
stainlesss
steels and cylinder diam
meters up to 20
00 mm, smalleer wall thickn
nesses may be permitted. Thhe wall thickn
nesses of drum
ms
into whichh tubes are exppanded is to bee such as to prrovide a cylin
ndrical expansiion length of aat least 16 mm
m.
3.
Cylindrical shells and tu
ubes with an
n outside dia
ameter of more than 2000 mm subject to externaal
pressure
3.1
Scope
The follow
wing requirem
ments apply to
o the design oof plain and corrugated
c
cyllindrical shellls and tubes with
w an outsidde
diameter oof more than 200
2 mm which
h are subjecteed to external pressure. Theese will be deesignated in th
he following as
a
firetubes iff they are expoosed to flame radiation.
3.2
Symbols
pc
[bar]
dessign pressure
s
[mm]
waall thickness
d
[mm]
meean diameter of
o plain tube
da
[mm]
outtside diameterr of plain tubee
di
[mm]
minnimum insidee diameter of ccorrugated fireetube
ℓ
[mm]
lenngth of tube orr distance betw
ween two effeective stiffenerrs
h
[mm]
heiight of stiffeniing ring
b
[mm]
thicckness of stifffening ring
u
[%]
outt-of-roundness of tube
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D
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
a
[mm]
greatest deviation from cylindrical shape (see Fig. 7I.5)
σperm
[N/mm²] allowable stress
Et
[N/mm²] modulus of elasticity at design temperature
SK
[-]
safety factor against elastic buckling
v
[-]
transverse elongation factor (0,3 for steel)
c
[mm]
allowance for corrosion and wear
3.3
Calculation
3.3.1
Cylindrical shells and plain firetubes
Calculation of resistance to plastic deformation:
d
1 + 0,1 ∙
2∙ s-c
ℓ
∙
pc ≤ 10 ∙ σperm ∙
d
u
d
1 + 0,03 ∙
∙
s-c
d
1+5∙
ℓ
(3)
Calculation of resistance to elastic buckling:
s-c
da
Et
∙
pc ≤ 20 ∙
Sk
where
Z=
and
n≥2
n2 − 1 ∙ 1 +
n
Z
2 2
s-c
2∙n2 − 1-v
da
2
+
∙
n
−
1
+
n 2
3 ∙ 1 - v2
1+
Z
(4)
π ∙ da
2∙l
n>Z
n (integer) is to be chosen as to reduce pc to its minimum value. n represents the number of buckled folds
occurring round the periphery in the event of failure. n can be estimated by applying the following approximation
formula:
n = 1,63 ∙
da
ℓ
2
∙
da
s-c
In the case of corrugated tubes of Fox or Morrison types, the required wall thickness s is given by the
3.3.2
expression:
s=
pc
di
∙
+ 1 mm
20 σperm
3.4
(5)
Allowable stress
Contrary to 1.4, the values for the allowable stress of firetubes used in the calculations are to be as follows:
-
Plain firetubes, horizontal
ReH,t
2,5
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Sectioon 7I – Steam Boilers
3.5
D
-
Pllain firetubes,, vertical
ReH,t
2,0
-
C
Corrugated fireetubes
ReH,t
2,8
-
Tuubes heated by
b exhaust gasses
W
With a temperaature >4000C
ReH,t
2,0
15/544
Design temperature
Contrary to 1.3, the desiign temperatu
ure to be used for firetubes and
a heated tub
bes is shown in Table 7I.5.
Table 7I.5 Design temperatures for heated co
omponents under
u
externaal pressure
F tubes expo
For
osed to fire (fiiretubes) :
p
plain
tubes
t [oC] = ssaturation
ttemperature
+ 4 . s + 30 oC
ccorrugated
t
tubes
t [oC] = ssaturation
ttemperature
+ 3 . s + 30 oC
but at
a least 250 oC
F tubes heatted by exhaustt gases
For
t [oC] = ssaturation
ttemperature
+ 2 . s + 15 oC
3.6
Stiffening
Apart from the
t firetube and firebox ennd-plates, thee types of stru
ucture shownn in Figure 7..4 can also be
b
3.6.1
ning.
regarded as providing efffective stiffen
For firetubes which consists of a plain ttube and a corrrugated tube for the calcullation of the plain tube 1,5
3.6.2
times of thhe length of the plain part haas to be used.
The plain porrtion of corrug
gated firetube s need not be separately caalculated provvided that its stressed
s
lengthh,
3.6.3
d-plate attachm
ment to the beginning of th
he first corruggation, does not
n exceed 250
measured ffrom the midddle of the end
mm.
Fig.7I.4
3.7
E
Effective stifffening
Safety factorr Sk
d in the calculaation of resistaance to elasticc buckling. Thhis value is applicable wherre
A safety faactor S of 3,00 is to be used
the out-of--roundness is 1,5 % or less. Where the ouut-of-roundneess is more thaan 1,5 % and uup to 2 %, th
he safety factoor
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D
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
S to be applied is 4,0.
3.8
Modulus of elasticity
Table 7I.6 shows the modulus of elasticity for steel in relation to the design temperature.
Table 7I.6 Modulus of elasticity for steel
1
3.9
)
Design temperature
[oC]
Et 1)
[N/mm2]
20
250
300
400
500
600
206.000
186.400
181.500
171.700
161.900
152.100
Intermediate values are to be interpolated
Allowance for corrosion and wear
An allowance of 1 mm for corrosion and wear is to be added to the wall thickness s. In the case of corrugated tubes, s
is the wall thickness of the finished tube.
3.10
Minimum allowable wall thickness and maximum wall thickness
The wall thickness of plain firetubes shall be at least 7 mm, that of corrugated firetubes at least 10 mm. For small
boilers, non-ferrous metals and stainless steels, smaller wall thicknesses are allowable. The maximum wall thickness
shall not exceed 20 mm. Tubes which are heated by flue gases < 1.000 oC may have a maximum wall thickness of up
to 30 mm.
3.11
Maximum unstiffened length
For firetubes, the length l between two stiffeners shall not exceed 6 ∙ d. The greatest unsupported length shall not
exceed 6 m, in the first pass from the front end-plate, 5 m. Stiffenings of the type shown in Figure 7I.4 are to be
avoided in the flame zone, i. e. up to approximately 2 ∙ d behind the lining.
3.12
Out-of-roundness
The out-of-roundness [%]
u=
2 ∙ dmax − dmin
∙ 100
dmax + dmin
for new plain tubes is to be given the value u = 1,5 % in the design formula.
In the case of used firetubes, the out-of-roundness is to be determined by measurements of the diameters according to
Fig. 7.5.
u=
4∙a
∙ 100
d
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
D
Sectioon 7I – Steam Boilers
17/544
Fig.7I.5 Paraameters of ou
ut - of –round
dness
3.13
Firetube spacing
The clear distance betw
ween the firetu
ube and boileer shell at the closest pointt shall be at lleast 100 mm
m. The distancce
between anny two firetubbes shall be at least 120 mm
m.
4.
Dished endpllates under in
nternal and eexternal presssure
4.1
Scope
4.1.1
The followinng requiremen
nts apply to thhe design of unstayed dish
hed endplatess under intern
nal or externaal
pressure (ssee Fig. 7I.6). The following
g requirementts are to be complied with:
The radiuss R of the dishhed end shall not
n exceed thee outside endp
plate diameterr Da, and the kknuckle radius r shall not be
b
less than 0,1 ∙ Da .
The heightt H shall not be
b less than 0,18 ∙ Da .
The heightt of the cylinddrical portion h, with the exxception of heemispherical endplates,
e
shaall be at least 3,5 ∙ s, s beinng
taken as thhe thickness of the unpierrced plate eveen if the end
dplate is proviided with a m
manhole. Thee height of thhe
cylindricall portion need not, howeverr, exceed the vvalues shown in Table 7I.7.
Table 7I.7 H
Height h of cylindrical portion
Wall thickness s
[mm]
h
m]
[mm
s ≤ 50
50
5 < s ≤ 80
80
0 < s ≤ 100
10
00 < s ≤120
s > 120
150
0
120
0
100
0
75
50
0
These requireements also apply
a
to weldeed dished end
dplates. Due account
a
is to be taken of the weakeninng
4.1.2
4
factor of thhe weld (see 4.5).
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1
D
Section 77I – Steam Boiilers
Fig. 7I.6
Parameterrs for unstayeed dished end
dplates
4.2
4
Sym
mbols
P
[barr]
designn pressure
s
[mm
m]
wall thhickness of en
ndplate
D
[mm
m]
outsidee diameter of endplate
H
[mm
m]
height of end-plate curvature
c
R
[mm
m]
inside radius of dish
hed end
h
[mm
m]
height of cylindricall portion
d
[mm
m]
diametter of opening
g measured aalong a line passing throug
gh the centerss of the endpllate and the
openinng. In the casee of openings cconcentric witth the endplate, the maximuum opening diameter.
σ
[N/m
mm2] allowaable stress (seee 1.4)
β
[-]
coefficcient of stress in flange
βo
[-]
coefficcient of stress in spherical ssection
v
[-]
weakeening factor
c
[mm
m]
allowaance for corrossion and wearr
E
[N/m
mm2] modullus of elasticity at design tem
mperature
S
[mm
m]
necesssary wall thick
kness at edge oof opening
S
[mm
m]
wall thhickness of branch pipe
b
[mm
m]
supporrting length off parent compponent
ℓ
[mm
m]
width of ligament between two brranch pipes
ℓs
[mm
m]
supporrting length off branch pipe
BKII Rules For M
Machinery Insttallation - 2014
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
ℓ's
[mm]
internal projection of branch pipe
Ap
[mm²]
area subject to pressure
Aσ
[mm²]
supporting cross-sectional area
S
[-]
safety factor against elastic buckling
S′
[-]
safety factor against elastic buckling at test pressure
4.3
Calculation for internal pressure
4.3.1
The necessary wall thickness is given by the expression:
s=
Da ∙ p c ∙
+c
40 ∙ σperm ∙ v
D
19/54
(6)
The finished wall thickness of the cylindrical portion is to be at least equal to the required wall thickness of a
cylindrical shell without weakening.
4.3.2
Design coefficients β and βo
The design coefficients are shown in Fig. 7.7 in relation to the ratio H/Da and parameters
d / Da ∙ s
and s/Da.
For dished ends of the usual shapes, the height H can be determined as follows:
Shallow dished end (R = Da):
H ≈ 0,1935 x Da + 0,55 s
Deep dished end, ellipsoidal shape (R = 0,8 Da)
H ≈ 0,255 x Da + 0,36 s
The values of β for unpierced endplates also apply to dished ends with openings whose edges are located inside
the spherical section and whose maximum opening diameter is d ≤ 4 ∙ s, or whose edges are adequately reinforced.
The width of the ligament between two adjacent, non-reinforced openings must be to be at least equal to the sum
of the opening radii measured along the line connecting the centers of the openings. Where the width of the
ligament is less than that defined above, the wall thickness is to be dimensioned as though no ligament were
present, or the edges of the openings are to be adequately reinforced.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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D
Section 77I – Steam Boiilers
F 7I.7
Fig.
Va
alues of coeffi
ficient β for th
he design of dished
d
ends
BKII Rules For M
Machinery Insttallation - 2014
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
4.3.3
D
21/54
Reinforcement of openings in the spherical section
Openings in the spherical section are deemed to be adequately reinforced if the following expression relating to the
relevant areas is satisfied.
pc
Ap
1
∙
+
≤ σperm
10 Aσ
2
(7)
The area under pressure Ap and the supporting cross-sectional area Aσ are shown in Fig. 7I.8.
Fig.7I.8
Openings in dished end plates
For calculation of reinforcements and supporting lengths the formulae and prerequisites in 2.3.4 are applicable.
The relationship between respective areas of cutouts exerting a mutual effect is shown in Fig. 7I.9.
The edge of disk-shaped reinforcements is not permitted to extend beyond 0,8 ∙ Da .
In the case of tubular reinforcements, the following wall thickness ratio is applicable:
ss - c
≤ 2
sA − c
4.4
Design calculation for external pressure
4.4.1
The same formulae are to be applied to dished endplates under external pressure as to those subject to
internal pressure. However, the safety factor used to determine the allowable stress in accordance with 1.4.1 is to be
increased by 20 %.
4.4.2
A check is also required to determine whether the spherical section of the endplate is safe against elastic
buckling.
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Section 7I – Steam Boilers
Fig.7I.9 Mutual effect on openings
The following relationship is to be applied:
pc ≤ 3,66 ∙
Et
s-c
∙
Sk
R
(8)
The modulus of elasticity Et for steel can be taken from Table 7.6.
The safety coefficient Sk against elastic buckling and the required safety coefficient Sk' at the test pressure are shown in
Table 7.8.
Table 7I.8 Safety coefficient against elastic buckling
1
4.5
s-c
R
Sk1)
Sk'1)
0,001
5,5
4,0
0,003
4,0
2,9
0,005
3,7
2,7
0,01
3,5
2,6
0,1
3,0
2,2
)
Intermediate values are to be interpolated
Weakening factor
The weakening factor can be taken from Table 7I.4 in 2.3.3. Apart from this, with welded dished ends- except for
hemispherical ends - a value of v = 1 may be applied irrespective of the scope of the test, provided that the welded
seam impinges on the area within the apex defined by 0,6 ∙ Da . (see Fig. 7I.10).
4.6
Minimum allowable wall thickness
The minimum allowable wall thickness for welding neck endplates is 5 mm. smaller minimum wall thicknesses are
allowed for non-ferrous metals and stainless steels.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Sectioon 7I – Steam Boilers
Fig
g.7I.10
5.
Flat surfacess
5.1
Scope
D
23/544
Weelding seam within
w
the apeex area
wing requirem
ments apply to stayed and unnstayed flat, flanged
f
endplaates and to flaat surfaces wh
hich are simply
The follow
supported, bolted, or weelded at their periphery
p
and which are sub
bjected to inteernal or externnal pressure.
5.2
Symbols
pc
[bar]
dessign pressure
s
[mm]
waall thickness
s1
[mm]
waall thickness in
n a stress relieeving groove
s2
[mm]
waall thickness of
o a cylindricaal or square header
h
at the connection
c
to a flat endplatte with a stresss
reliieving groovee
Db
[mm]
insside diameter of a flat, flannged endplate or design diaameter of an oopening to bee provided witth
meeans of closuree
D 1, D 2
[mm]
diaameter of ring plates
Dℓ
[mm]
bollt-hole circle diameter
d
of a pplate subject additionally
a
to
o a bending m
moment
de
[mm]
diaameter of the largest
l
circle w
which can be described on a flat plate innside at least th
hree anchoragge
poiints
da
[mm]
outtside diameterr of expanded tubes
a, b
[mml
cleear supporting
g or design w
widths of recttangular or ellliptical platess, b always designating
d
thhe
shoorter side or ax
xis
tl, t2
[mm]
pitcch of uniform
mly spaced stayys or stay boltts
e1, e2
[mm]
disstances betweeen centers of nnon-uniformly
y spaced stayss and stay boltts
f
[mm2]
crooss-sectional area
a of ligameent
rK
[mm]
innner corner radiius of a flangee, or radius off a stress reliev
ving groove
h
[mm]
innner depth of a flat, welding--neck endplatee
h:
[[mm]
heiight of the cyllindrical portioon of a flangeed endplate or inner depth oof a flat,
welding neckk endplate resp
pectively
C
[-]
dessign coefficien
nt (for unstayeed surfaces seee Table 7I.11 and for stayeed surfaces seee Table 7I.12
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Section 77I – Steam Boiilers
y
[-]
ratio
σperm
[N/m
mm2] allowaable stress (seee 1.4)
c
[mm
m]
5.3
5
Callculation of unstayed
u
surfa
aces
5.3.1
5
Flatt, circular, flannged, endplatees (see Fig.7I..11).
allowaance for corrossion and wearr
The
T required w
wall thicknesss s is given by the expressioon:
s = C ∙ D b − rK ∙
pc
+ c
10 ∙ σperm
Fig 7I.11
7
(9)
Flat, circular, flan
nged end plates
The
T height of tthe cylindricaal portion h shall be at least 3,5 ∙ s.
BKII Rules For M
Machinery Insttallation - 2014
Sectioon 7I – Steam Boilers
5.3.2
Circular plattes
d
Fig.7I..12a-Fig.7.12d
Fig.7I.13
F
Fig.7I.14
Circularr plates with flat
f sealing
Ciircular plate with sealing
g ring
C
Circular weld
ded-in endpla
ates
he expression::
The required wall thicknness s consideering the Figs. 7I.12 – 7I.14 is given by th
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2
D
pc
+c
10 ∙ σperm
s = C ∙ Db ∙
5.3.3
5
Section 77I – Steam Boiilers
Recctangular
a
and
(10)
elliptiical plates.
Fig. 7I.15
Parameters of rectangula
ar and elliptical plates
The
T required w
wall thicknesss s considering
g Fig. 7I.15 is given by thee expression:
s=C∙b ∙ y∙
5.3.4
5
pc
+c
10 ∙ σperm
(11)
Weelding-neck en
ndplates.
For
F welding-nneck endplatess of headers ad
dditional requuirements are to
t be found in 5.5.2.
Fig. 7I.17 Welded-neeck endplatess
with reliev
ving groove
The
T thickness of the plates is
i determined by applying fformula (10) or
o (11) as apprropriate.
F
Fig. 7I.16
W
Welded-neck
endplates
e
In
I the case of endplates witth a stress relieving
r
grooove, the effeective relievin
ng of the we
welded seams has to be
guaranteed.
g
Thhe wall thicknness s1 in the stress
s
relievingg groove shalll therefore sattisfy the follow
wing conditio
ons, see Fig.
7I.17:
7
For
F round enddplates:
s ≤ 0,77 ∙ s2
For
F rectangulaar endplates: s ≤ 0,55 ∙ s2
ular header in [mm]. In addi
dition, provisio
on has to be
Here s2 repreesents the walll thickness off the cylindricaal or rectangu
made
m
to ensure that shear foorces occurrin
ng in the cross--section of thee groove can be
b safely absoorbed.
It
I is therefore nnecessary thatt for round en
ndplates:
Pc
Db
1,3
∙
- rK ∙
10
2
σperm
and
a for rectanggular endplatees
(12)
s1 ≥
S1 ≥
Pc a ∙bb
1,3
∙
∙
10 a +bb σperm
(13)
Radius
R
rK shaall be at least 0,2
0 ∙ s and no
ot less than 5 mm. Wall th
hickness sl is to
o be at least 5 mm.
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Machinery Insttallation - 2014
Sectioon 7I – Steam Boilers
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Where wellding-neck enddplates in accordance with Fig. 7I.16 or Fig. 7I.17 are manufacturedd from plates,, the area of thhe
connectionn to the shell is to be tested for laminationn, e. g. ultraso
onically.
5.4
Design calculation of stay
yed surfaces
5.4.1
For flat surfacces which are uniformly braaced by stay bolts,
b
circular stays or stay ttubes, see Fig. 7I.18.
Fig. 7I.18
y braced platees
Uniformly
Fig. 7I.19
7
Non-u
uniformly brraced
plates
t stayed areeas is given by
y the expressio
on:
The required wall thickkness s inside the
s=C ∙
p ∙ t + t
10 ∙ σ
5.4.2
For flat platess which are no
on-uniformly bbraced by stay
y bolts, circulaar stays and sttay tubes, see Fig. 7I.19.
(14)
+ c
The required wall thicknness s inside th
he stayed areaas is given by the expression
n:
s= C ∙
pc
e1 + e2
∙
+c
2
10 ∙ σpeerm
(15)
5.4.3
For flat plates which are braced
b
by gus set stays, sup
pports or otherr means and fflat plates bettween arrays of
o
tubes, see Fig. 7I.20.
stays and tu
Fig.7II.20 Braced flat plates
The designn calculation is
i to be based on the diameeter de of a circle, or on the length of the shorter side b of a rectanglle
which can be inscribed in the free unstiffened areaa, the least fav
vourable position from the ppoint of view of stress beinng
decisive inn each case.
The required wall thicknness s is given
n by the expresssion:
s = C ∙ de ∙
pc
+c
10 ∙ σperm
(16)
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D
Section 77I – Steam Boiilers
or
o
s=C∙b∙y∙
pc
+c
10 ∙ σperm
(17)
The
T higher of the values dettermined by th
he formulae iss applicable.
5.4.4
5
Flatt annular platees with centrall longitudinal staying, see Fig.
F 7I.21.
F 7I.21
Fig.
Fllat annular pllate with central longitudiinal staying
The
T required w
wall thicknesss s is given by the expressioon:
s = 0,25 ∙ D1 ∙ D2 ∙ rK1 ∙ rK2 ∙
5.5
5
pc
+c
10 ∙ σperm
(1
18)
Req
quirements foor flanges
5.5.1
5
Appplication of thhe above form
mulae to flangeed endplates and
a to flanges as a means off staying is su
ubject to the
provision
p
thatt the corner radii of the flanges should have the following minim
mum values inn relation to the outside
diameter
d
of the endplate (seee Table 7.9).
In
I addition, the flange radii rK (Figs. 7I.11, 7I.20 and 77I.21) shall be equal to at least 1,3 times tthe wall thickness.
5.5.2
5
In thhe case of weelding-neck en
ndplates withoout a stress relieving groovee for headers, tthe flange rad
dius shall be
≥ 1/3 ∙ s, suubject to a miinimum of 8 mm,
m and the inside depth of the endplaate is to be h ≥ s, s for end
dplates with
openings
o
beingg the thicknesss of an unpierrced endplate of the same dimensions,
d
seee Fig. 7I.16.
Tablee 7I.9
Miniimum corner radii of flang
ges
Ou
utside diameteer of
endplate Da
[mm]
Corner radiu
us of
flanges rK
[mm]
Da ≤ 500
500 < Da ≤ 1.4400
400 < Da ≤ 1.6600
1.4
1.6
600 < Da ≤ 1.9900
Da > 1.900
30
35
40
45
50
5.6
5
Alloowable stresss and design temperature
t
5.6.1
5
Thee allowable strress for unheaated flat surfacces is to be determined acco
ording to 1.4.
5.6.2
5
Forr flat surfaces heated by rad
diation, flue orr exhaust gasees the design temperature
t
shhall be defined
d according
to
t Table 7I.5. In this case thhe allowable stress is to be ddetermined by
y ReH,t/2.0
5.7
5
Rattio coefficientt y
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Section 7I – Steam Boilers
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The ratio coefficient y takes account of the increase in stress, as compared with round plates, as a function of the ratio
of the sides b/a of unstayed, rectangular and elliptical plates and of the rectangles inscribed in the free, unstayed areas
of stayed, flat surfaces, see Table 7I.10.
Table 7I.10 Ratio coefficient y
Ratio b/a 1)
Shape
1,0
0,75
0,5
0,25
≤ 0,1
Rectangle
1,10
1,26
1,40
1,52
1,56
Ellipse
1,00
1,15
1,30
---
---
1
5.8
)
Intermediate values are to be interpolated linearly.
Calculation coefficient C
The calculation coefficient C takes account of the type of support, the edge connection and the type of stiffening. The
value of C to be used in the calculation is shown in Tables 7I.11 or 7I.12.
Where different values of C are applicable to parts of a plate due to different kinds of stiffening according to Table
7I.12 coefficient C is to be determined by the arithmetical mean value of the different stiffening.
5.9
Minimum ligament with expanded tubes
The minimum ligament width depends on the expansion technique used. The cross-section f of the ligament between
two tube holes for expanded tubes shall be for:
steel
f = 15 + 3,4 ∙ da
[mm2]
copper
f = 25 + 9,5 ∙ da
[mm2]
Table 7I.11
Values of coefficient C for unstayed flat surfaces
Type of endplate or cover
C
Flat, forged and plates or endplates with machined
recesses for headers and flat, flanged endplates
Encased plates tightly supported and bolted at their
circumference
0,35
Inserted, flat plates welded on both sided
Welding-neck end plates with stress relieving groove
Loosely supported plates, such as man-hole covers; in the
case of closing appliances, in addition to the working
pressure, allowance is also to be made for the additional
force which can be exerted when the bolts are tightened
(the permitted loading of the bolt or bolts distributed over
the cover area).
Inserted, flat plates welded on one side
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
0.40
0,45
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Section 7I – Steam Boilers
Table 7I.11
Values of coefficient C for unstayed flat surfaces (continued)
Plates which are bolted at their circumference and are
thereby subjected to an additional bending moment
according to the ratio :
Dl /Db
= 1,0
0,45
= 1,1
0,50
= 1,2
0,55
= 1,3
0,60
Intermediate values are to be interpolated linearly
Table 7I.12 Values of coefficient C for stayed surfaces
Type of stiffening and/or stays
C
Boiler shell, header or combustion chamber wall, stay
plate or tube area
0,35
Stay bolts in arrays with maximum stay bolt centre
distance of 200 mm
0,40
Round stays and tubes outside tube arrays irrespective of
whether they are welded-in, bolted or expanded
5.10
0,45
Minimum and maximum wall thickness
5.10.1
With expanded tubes, the minimum plate thickness is 12 mm. concerning safeguards against the dislodging
of expanded tubes, see 6.3.2.
5.10.2
The wall thickness of flat endplates should not exceed 30 mm in the radiation heated portion.
5.11
Reinforcement of openings
When calculating the thickness special allowance is to be for cutouts, branches, etc. in flat surfaces which lead to
undue weakening of the plate.
The dimension of the flat surface with cutout is to be calculated following a Standard recognized by BKI, e.g. EN
12953 or equivalent.
6
Stays, stay tubes and stay bolts
6.1
Scope
The following requirements apply to longitudinal stays, gusset stays, stay tubes, stay bolts and stiffening girders of
steel or copper and are subject to the requirements set out in 5.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Sectioon 7I – Steam Boilers
Fig. 7I.22
2
to
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31/544
Fig
g. 7I.24
Parametter for weldin
ng of stays, sttays tubes, an
nd stay bolts.
6.2
Symbols
pc
[bar]
dessign pressure
F
[N]
loaad on a stay, sttay tube or staay bolt
A1
[mm2]
callculated requirred cross-secti
tion area of staays, stay tube and stay bolt
A2
[mm2]
suppported area of
o expanded tuubes
Ap
[mm2]
plaate area supported by one sttay, stay bolt or
o stay tube
da
[mml
outtside diameterr of stay, stay tube bolt or stay bolt
di
[mm]
insside diameter of
o stay tube
lo
[mm]
lenngth of expand
ded section off tube
a1
[mm]
weeld height in direction of loaad
σperm
[N/mm2] alloowable stress
6.3
Calculation
o other boiler parts may bbe taken into consideration
n when calcullating the sizee of stays, staay
The suppoorting action of
tubes and stay bolts. Foor flat end plaates the loadss up to the haalf distance caan be assumeed as to be su
upported by thhe
djacent boiler shell.
s
directly adj
d endplates aree concerned, calculation
c
off the plate Areea (Ap) is to be
b based on thhe
Where the boundary areeas of flanged
g of the endpllate flange.
flat surfacee extending too the beginning
6.3.1
For longitudinnal stays, stay
y tubes or stayy bolts, the neccessary cross-sectional areaa is given by:
A1 =
F
σperm
(19)
m
is addittionally to be applied to prevent the tubees
Where expannded tubes are used, a sufficcient safety margin
6.3.2
o the tube plaate. Such a saffety margin iss deemed to be
b achieved iff the permissib
ble load on thhe
from beingg pulled out of
supportingg area does nott exceed the values
v
specifieed in Table 7I..13.
For the purrpose of the caalculation, thee supporting aarea
is given byy the expressioon :
subject to a maximum of :
A2 = (da - di) ∙ lo
A2 = 0,1 ∙ da ∙ l o
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Section 7I – Steam Boilers
Table 7I.13
Loading of expanded tube connections
Type of
expanded
connection
Permissible load on
supporting area
[N/mm2]
Plain
F
≤ 150
A2
With groove
F
≤ 300
A2
With flange
F
≤ 400
A2
For calculating the supporting area, the length of the expanded section of tube (ℓo) may not be taken as exceeding 40
mm.
6.3.3
Where stays, stay tubes or stay bolts are welded in, the cross-section of the weld subject to shear shall be at
least 1,25 times the required bolt or stay tube cross-section:
da ∙
∙ a1 ≥ 1,25 ∙ A1
(20)
6.3.4
Shape and calculation of gusset stays shall be carried out following a Standard recognized by BKI, e.g. EN
12953-3 or equivalent, but the allowable stress and adjacent parts shall be calculated according to B. and D.
6.4
Allowable stress
The allowable stress is to be determined in accordance with 1.4.1. Deviating from this, however, a value of
ReH, t
1,8
is to be
applied in the area of the weld in the case of stays, stay tubes and stay bolts made of rolled and forged steels.
6.5
Allowances for wall thickness
For the calculation of the necessary cross-section of stays, stay tubes and stay bolts according to formula (19) the
allowance for corrosion and wear is to be considered.
7.
Boiler and superheater tubes
7.1
Scope
The design calculation applies to tubes under internal pressure and, up to an outside tube diameter of 200 mm, also to
tubes subject to external pressure.
7.2
Symbols
pc
[bar]
design pressure
s
[mm]
wall thickness
da
[mm]
outside diameter of tube
σperm
[N/mm2] allowable stress
v
[-]
7.3
Calculation of wall thickness
weld quality rating of longitudinally welded tubes
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
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The necessary wall thickness s is given by the expression:
s=
da ∙ pc
20 ∙ σperm ∙ v + pc
7.4
(21)
Design temperature t
The design temperature is to be determined in accordance with 1.3.
In the case of once through forced flow boilers, the calculation of the tube wall thicknesses is to be based on the
maximum temperature of the expected medium passing through the individual main sections of the boiler under
operating conditions plus the necessary added temperature allowances.
7.5
Allowable stress
The allowable stress is to be determined in accordance with 1.4.1.
For tubes subject to external pressure, a value of
7.6
ReH, t
2,0
is to be applied.
Welding factor v
For longitudinally welded tubes, the value of v to be applied shall correspond to the approval test.
7.7
Wall thickness allowances
In the case of tubes subject to relatively severe mechanical or chemical attack an appropriate wall thickness allowance
shall be agreed which shall be added to the wall thickness calculated by applying formula (21). The permissible minus
tolerance on the wall thickness (see 1.1.2) need only be taken into consideration for tubes which outside diameter
exceeds 76,1 mm.
7.8
Maximum wall thickness of boiler tubes
The wall thickness of intensely heated boiler tubes (e.g. where the temperature of the heating gas exceeds 800 ̊C) shall
not be greater than 6,3 mm. This requirement may be dispensed with in special cases, e.g. for super heater support
tubes.
8.
Plain rectangular tubes and sectional headers
8.1
Symbols
pc
[bar]
design pressure
s
[mm]
wall thickness
2∙m
[mm]
clear width of the rectangular tube parallel to the wall in question
2∙n
[mm]
clear width of the rectangular tube perpendicular to the wall in question
Z
[mm²]
coefficient according to formula (23)
a
[mm]
distance of relevant line of holes from center line of side
t
[mm]
pitch of holes
d
[mm]
hole diameter
v
[-]
weakening factor for rows of holes under tensile stress
v'
[-]
weakening factor for rows of holes under bending stress
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Section 7I – Steam Boilers
r
[mm]
inner radius at corners
σperm
[N/mm²] allowable stress
8.2
Calculation
8.2.1
The wall thickness is to be calculated for the center of the side and for the ligaments between the holes. The
maximum calculated wall thickness shall govern the wall thickness of the entire rectangular tube.
The following method of calculation is based on the assumption that the tube connection stubs have been properly
mounted, so that the wall is adequately stiffened.
8.2.2
s=
The required wall thickness is given by the expression:
pc ∙ n
+
20 ∙ σperm ∙ v
4,5 ∙ Z ∙ pc
10 ∙ σperm ∙ v'
(22)
If there are several different rows of holes, the necessary wall thickness is to be determined for each row.
8.2.3
Z=
8.3
Z is calculated by applying the formula:
1 m3 + n3 1
∙
∙ m2 - a2
3 m+n 2
(23)
Weakening factor v
8.3.1
If there is only one row of holes, or if there are several parallel rows not staggered in relation to each other,
the weakening factors v and v' are to be determined as follows :
v =
t-d
t
v' = v =
v' =
t-d
t
t – 0,6 ∙ m
t
for holes where d < 0,6 ∙ m
for holes where d ≥ 0,6 ∙ m
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Sectioon 7I – Steam Boilers
F
Fig. 7I.27
D
35/544
W
Weakening
factor v for cyllindrical shells with symm
metrically stagggered rows of
o hol
In determininng the values of
o v and v' forr elliptical holes, d is to be taken
t
as the cllear width of the
t holes in thhe
8.3.2
ular tube. How
wever, for thee purpose of deciding
d
whicch formula is to be used foor
longitudinaal direction of the rectangu
determininng v', the valuue of d in thee expressions d < 0,6 ∙ m and d ≥ 0,6 ∙ m is to be thee inner diameeter of the holle
perpendicuular to the longgitudinal axis.
In calculatingg the weakenin
ng factor for sstaggered row
ws of holes, t is to be substittuted in the fo
ormula by t1 foor
8.3.3
Fig. 7.25).
the obliquee ligaments (F
8.3.4
For oblique liigaments, Z iss calculated byy applying thee formula:
Z=
1 m 3 + n3 1
∙
∙ m2 - a2
3 m+n 2
∙ cos α
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3
D
Section 77I – Steam Boiilers
Fig. 7I.25
8.4
8
Length of liggament for sttaggered row
ws of holes
Streess at cornerss
In
I order to avooid undue streesses at cornerrs, the followinng conditions are to be satisfied:
r ≥ 1/2, subjecct to a minimuum of:
-
3 mm for rrectangular tubbes with a clear width of upp to 50 mm.
-
8 mm for rrectangular tubbes with a clear width of 800 mm or over.
Intermediate
I
vvalues are to be
b interpolated
d linearly. Thhe radius shalll be governed by the arithm
metical mean value
v
of the
nominal
n
wall thicknesses on
o both sides of the cornerr. The wall th
hickness at co
orners shall nnot be less than the wall
thickness
t
deterrmined by appplying formula (22).
8.5
8
Min
nimum wall thickness
t
and
d ligament wiidth
8.5.1
8
Thee minimum waall thickness for
f expanded ttubes shall be 14 mm.
8.5.2
8
Thee width of a ligament betw
ween two opeenings or tub
be holes shall not be less tthan 1/4 of the
t distance
between
b
the tuube centers.
9.
9
Straaps and girdeers
9.1
9
Scoope
The
T followingg requirementss apply to steeel girders usedd for stiffening
g of flat platess.
9.2
9
Gen
neral
The
T supportinng girders aree to be propeerly welded too the combusstion chamberr crown conttinously. They
y are to be
arranged
a
in suuch a way that the welds can
n be competenntly executed and the circulation of waterr is not obstru
ucted.
9.3
9
Sym
mbols
pc
[barr]
designn pressure
F
[N]
load caarried by one girder
e
[mm
m]
distancce between ceenter lines of ggirders
l
[mm
m]
free length between girder supporrts
b
[mm
m]
thickness of girder
h
[mm
m]
height of girder
W
[mm
m3]
sectionn modulus of one girder
M
[Nm
mm]
bendinng moment acting on girderr at given load
d
BKII Rules For M
Machinery Insttallation - 2014
Sectioon 7I – Steam Boilers
z
[-]
σperm
[N/mm2] alloowable stress (see 1.4)
9.4
Calculation
D
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coeefficient for seection moduluus
The unsupporrted girder sh
hown in Fig. 7I.26 is to bee treated as a simply suppoorted beam of length l. Thhe
9.4.1
nsideration.
support affforded by the plate materiall may also be ttaken into con
9.4.2
Fig. 7I.226 Unsuppo
orted girder
The required section modu
ulus of a ceilinng girder is giv
ven by:
W=
Mmax
b ∙ h2
≤
1,3 ∙ σperm ∙ Z
6
(24)
odulus takes aaccount of thee increase in the section m
modulus due to the flat platte
The coeffiicient Z for thhe section mo
forming paart of the ceilinng plate. It maay in general bbe taken as Z = 5/3.
ng 8
For the heiight h, a valuee not exceedin
9.4.3
b is to bbe inserted in the formula.
The maximum
m bending mo
oment is givenn by the expression:
F∙l
8
(25)
pc
∙l ∙e
10
(26)
Mmax
=
m
where
F=
10.
Bolts
10.1
Scope
wing requirem
ments relate to
o bolts which,, as force-tran
nsmitting conn
necting elemeents, are subjeected to tensille
The follow
stresses duue to the internnal pressure. Normal
N
operatting condition
ns are assumed
d.
10.2
General
d, the strengthh requirementts for the flanges are considdered to be saatisfied if thesse
Where stanndard pipe flaanges are used
flanges com
mply with a Standard
S
reco
ognized by BK
KI, e.g. EN 1092-1 or equivalent and coonform to thee specificationns
contained therein in reespect of thee materials ussed. The maaximum allow
wable workingg pressure an
nd the servicce
s
have beeen selected in
n accordance to EN 1515-11 and EN 1515
5-2.
temperaturre and the matterials of the screws
meter of less th
han 10 mm aree not allowed.
Bolts with a shank diam
o heating gasses.
Bolts shalll not be located in the path of
m a connectionn.
At least 4 bbolts are to bee used to form
m
as narrow
w as possible.
To achievee small sealingg forces, the sealing materiaal should be made
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2
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D
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
Necked-down bolts should be used for elastic bolted connections, particularly where the bolts are highly stressed, or
are exposed to service temperatures of over 300 ºC, or have to withstand internal pressures of > 40 bar.
All bolts > metric size M 30 are to be necked-down bolts.
Necked-down bolts are bolts with a shank diameter ds = 0,9 ∙ dk (dk being the root diameter). The connection with
necked-down bolts is to be designed in accordance to a Standard recognized by BKI, e.g. DIN 2510 or equivalent. In
the calculation special allowance is to be made for shank diameters < 0,9 ∙ dk.
10.3
Symbols
pc
[bar]
design pressure
p'
[bar]
test pressure
FS
[N]
total load on bolted connection in service
F'S
[N]
total load on bolted connection at test pressure
FSo
[N]
total load on bolted connection in assembled condition with no pressure exerted
FB
[N]
load imposed on bolted connection by the working pressure
FD
[N]
force to close seal under service conditions
FDo
[N]
force to close seal in assembled condition
FZ
[N]
additional force due to loaded condition in connected piping
Db
[mm]
mean sealing or bolt pitch circle diameter
di
[mm]
inside diameter of connected pipe
ds
[mm]
shank diameter of a necked-down bolt
dk
[mm]
root diameter of thread
n
[-]
number of bolts forming connection
σperm
[N/mm2] allowable stress
ϕ
[-]
surface finish coefficient
c
[mm]
additional allowance
k1
[mm]
sealing factor for service condition
ko
[mm]
sealing factor for assembled condition
KD
[N/mm2] sealing material deformation factor
10.4
Calculation
10.4.1
Bolted joints are to be designed for the following load conditions:
a)
Service conditions (design pressure pc and design temperature t),
b)
Load at test pressure (test pressure p', t = 20 C
̊ ) and
c)
Assembled condition at zero pressure (p = 0 bar, t = 20 ̊C).
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The necessary root diameter of a bolt in a bolted joint comprising n bolts is given by:
4 ∙ Fs
dk =
π ∙ σperm ∙ φ ∙n
+c
(27)
10.4.3
The total load on a bolted joint is to be calculated as follows :
a)
for service conditions
F S = FB + FD + FZ
Db 2 ∙ π pc
∙
FB =
4
10
FD = Db ∙ π ∙ k1 ∙
(28)
(29)
pc
∙1,2
10
(30)
(Where the arrangement of the bolts deviates widely from the circular, due allowance is to be made for the
special stresses occurring)
The additional force Fz is to be calculated due to the load condition of connected piping. Fz is 0 in the case of
bolted joints with no connected pipes. Where connecting pipes are installed in a normal manner and the
service temperatures are < 400 ̊C, Fz may be determined, as an approximation, by applying the expression :
Fz ≈
b)
di 2 ∙ π pc
∙
4
10
for the test pressure:
F'S =
pp
pc
∙ FB +
FD
+ FZ
1,2
(31)
For calculating the root diameter of the thread, Fs is to be substituted by Fʹs in formula (27).
c)
for the zero-pressure, assembled condition:
FSo = FDo + FZ
(32)
FDo = Db ∙ π ∙ k0 ∙KD
(33)
calculating the root diameter of the thread, Fs is to be substituted by FSo in formula (27).
In the zero-pressure, assembled condition, the force FDO is to be exerted on the bolts during assembly to effect an
intimate union with the jointing material and to close the gap at the flange bearing surfaces.
If the force exerted on assembly FDo > FS, this value may be replaced by the following where malleable jointing
materials with or without metal elements are used:
(34)
F'Do = 0,2 ∙ FDo + 0,8 ∙ FS ∙ FDo
Factors ko, k1 and KD depend on the type, design and shape of the joint and the kind of fluid. The relevant values are
shown in the Tables 7I.16 and 7I.17.
10.4.4
The bolt design is to be based on the greatest root diameter of the thread determined in accordance with the
three load conditions specified in 10.4.1 a) to 10.4.1 c).
10.5
Design temperature t
The design temperatures of the bolts depend on the type of joint and the insulation. In the absence of special proof as to
temperature, the following design temperatures are to be applied:
loose flange + loose flange
steam temperature - 30 ̊C
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Section 7I – Steam Boilers
fixed flange + loose flange
steam temperature - 25 ̊C
fixed flange + fixed flange
steam temperature -15 ̊C
The temperature reductions allow for the drop in temperature at insulated, bolted connections. For non-insulated bolted
joints, a further temperature reduction is not permitted because of the higher thermal stresses imposed on the entire
bolted joint.
10.6
Allowable stress
The values of the allowable stress σperm are shown in Table 7I.14.
Table 7I.14
Condition
Allowable stress σperm
for necked-down
bolts
for full-shank bolts
ReH, t
1,5
ReH, t
1,6
ReH, 20°
1,1
ReH, 20°
1,2
Service condition
Test pressure and zeropressure assembled
condition
10.7
Quality coefficient ϕ
10.7.1
Full-shank bolts are required to have a surface finish of at least grade mg according to DIN EN ISO 898.
Necked-down bolts are to be machined all over.
10.7.2
In the case of unmachined, plane-parallel bearing surfaces,  = 0,75. Where the bearing surfaces of the
mating parts are machined, a value of  = 1,0 may be used. Bearing surfaces which are not plane-parallel (e.g. on angle
sections) are not permitted.
10.8
Allowance c
The allowance c shall be as shown in Table 7I.15.
Table 7I.15
Condition
For service conditions :
up to M 24
M 27 up to M 45
M 48 and over
Allowances c
c [mm]
3
5 - 0,1 ∙ dk
1
for test pressure
0
for assembled condition
0
E
E.
Equipment and Installation
1.
General
1.1
The following requirements apply to steam boilers which are not constantly and directly monitored during
operation.
1.2
In the case of steam boilers which are monitored constantly and directly during operation, some easing of the
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following requirements may be permitted, while maintaining the operational safety of the vessel.
1.3
In the case of steam boilers which have a maximum water volume of 150 litres, a maximum allowable
working pressure of 10 bar and where the product of water volume and maximum allowable working pressure is less
than 500 [bar x litres], an easing of the following requirements may be permitted.
1.4
With regard to the electrical installation and equipment also the Rules for Electrical Installations (Part
1,Vol.IV), and Rules for Automation (Part 1,Vol.VII), are to be observed.
The equipment of steam boilers is to be suitable for the use on steam boilers and ships
2.
Safety valves
2.1
Each steam boiler generator which has its own steam space is to be equipped with at least two type
approved, spring-loaded safety valves. At least one safety valve is to be set to respond if the maximum allowable
working pressure is exceeded.
In combination, the safety valves are to be capable of discharging the maximum quantity of steam which can be
produced by the steam generator during continuous operation without the maximum allowable working pressure being
exceeded by more than 10 %.
2.2
Each steam generator which has a shut-off but which does not have its own steam space is to have at least
one type approved, spring-loaded safety valve fitted at its outlet. At least one safety valve is to be set to respond if the
maximum allowable working pressure is exceeded. The safety valve or safety valves are to be designed so that the
maximum quantity of steam which can be produced by the steam boiler during continuous operation can be discharged
without the maximum allowable working pressure being exceeded by more than 10 %.
Steam generators with a great water space which are exhaust gas heated and can be shut-off having a heating
2.2.1.
surface up to 50 m2 are to be equipped with one, with a heating surface above 50m3 with at least two, suitable typeapproved, spring-loaded safety valves. The safety valve resp. the safety valves have to be so designed that their
activation is also guaranteed with compact sediments between spindle and bushing. Otherwise their design may be
established in a way that compact sediments in the valve and between spindle and bushing are avoided (e.g. bellow
valves).
2.2.2
As far as steam boilers with a great water space which are exhaust gas heated and can be shut-off are not
equipped with safety valves according to 2.2.1, a burst disc is to be provided in addition to the existing safety valves.
This disc shall exhaust the maximum quantity of steam produced during continuous operation. The activation pressure
of the burst disc shall not exceed 1,25 times the maximum allowable working pressure.
2.3
External steam drums are to be fitted with at least two type approved, spring-loaded safety valves. At least
one safety valve is to be set to respond if the allowable working pressure is exceeded. In combination, the safety valves
shall be capable of discharging the maximum quantity of steam which can be produced in continuous operation by all
connected steam generators without the maximum allowable working pressure of the steam drum being exceeded by
more than 10 %.
2.4
Each hot water generator is to be equipped with at least two type approved, spring-loaded safety valves. At
least one safety valve is to be set to respond if the maximum allowable working pressure is exceeded.
For the size of the safety valves steam blow-off at saturated steam condition corresponding to the set pressure of the
safety valves has to be supposed also for safety valves which are normally under water pressure. In combination, the
safety valves are to be capable of discharging the maximum quantity of steam which corresponds to the allowable
heating power of the hot water generator during continuous operation without the maximum allowable working
pressure being exceeded by more than 10 %.
2.5
The closing pressure of the safety valves shall be not more than 10 % below the response pressure.
2.6
The minimum flow diameter of the safety valves shall be at least 15 mm.
2.7
source.
Servo-controlled safety valves are permitted wherever they are reliably operated without any external energy
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2.8
The safety valves are to be fitted to the saturated steam part or, in the case of steam boilers which do not
have their own steam space, to the highest point of the boiler or in the immediate vicinity respectively. At hot water
generators the safety valves could also be arranged at the discharge line in the immediate vicinity of the generator. At
once-through hot water generators the safety valves are to be located in the immediate vicinity of the connection of the
discharge line to the generator.
2.9
In the case of steam generators which are fitted with superheaters with no shut-off capability, one safety
valves is to be located at the discharge from the superheater. The safety valve at the superheater discharge has to be
designed for at least 25% of the necessary exhaust capacity.
Superheaters with shut-off capability are to be fitted with at least one safety valve designed for the full steam capacity
of the superheater.
When designing the capacity of safety valves, allowance is to be made for the increase in the volume of steam caused
by superheating.
2.10
Steam may not be supplied to the safety valves through pipes in which water may collect.
2.11
Safety valves are to be easily accessible and capable of being released safely during operation.
2.12
Safety valves are to be designed so that no binding or jamming of moving parts is possible even when heated
to different temperatures. Seals which may prevent the operation of the safety valve due to frictional forces are not
permitted.
2.13
Safety valves are to be set in such a way as to prevent unauthorized alteration.
2.14
Pipes or valve housings are to have a drain facility fitted at the lowest point on the blow-offside which has
no shut-off capability.
2.15
Combined blow-off lines from several safety valves shall not unduly impair the blow-off capability. The
discharging media are to be drained away safely.
3.
Water level indicators
3.1
Steam generators which have their own steam chamber are to be fitted with two devices giving a direct
reading of the water level.
3.2
Steam generators which have their own steam space heated by exhaust gases and where the temperature does
not exceed 400 °C, are to be fitted with at least one device giving a direct reading of the water level.
3.3
External steam drums of steam generators which do not have their own steam space are to be fitted with two
devices giving a direct reading of the water level.
3.4
In place of water level indicators, once-through forced flow boilers are to be fitted with two mutually
independent devices which trip an alarm as soon as water flow shortage is detected. An automatic device to shut down
the oil burner may be provided in place of the second warning device.
3.5
Hot water generators are to be equipped with test cock at the highest point of the generator or in the
immediate vicinity.
3.5.1
Additionally a water level indicator shall be provided. This water level indicator is to be located at the hot
water generator or at the discharge line.
3.5.2
This water level indicator at the generator can be dispensed with in hot water generation plants with
membrane expansion vessel if a low pressure limiter is installed (at the membrane expansion vessel or in the ) which
trips in case the water level falls below the specified lowest water level in the membrane expansion vessel.
3.5.3
A low flow limiter is to be installed at once-through hot water generators instead of the water level indicator
(see 8.8.5).
3.6
Cylindrical glass water level gauges are not permitted.
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3.7
The water level indicators are to be fitted so that a reading of the water level is possible when the ship is
heeling and during the motion of the ship when it is at sea. The limit for the lower visual range shall be at least 30 mm
above the highest flue, but at least 30 mm below the lowest water level. The lowest water level shall not be above the
centre of the visual range. The water level indicators have to be illuminated and visible from the boiler control station
respective from the station for control of the water level.
3.8
The connection pipes between steam generator and water level indicators are to have an inner diameter of at
least 20 mm. They shall be run in such a way that there are no sharp bends in order to avoid water and steam traps, and
have to be protected from the effects of the heated gases and against cooling.
Where water level indicators are linked by means of common connection lines or where the connection pipes on the
water side are longer than 750 mm, the connection pipes on the water side are to have an inner diameter of at least 40
mm.
3.9
Water level indicators are to be connected to the water and steam chamber of the boiler by means of easily
accessible, simple to control and quick-acting shut-off devices.
3.10
The devices used for blowing through the water level indicators are to be designed so that they are safe to
operate and so that blow-through can be monitored. The discharging media are to be drained away safely.
3.11
Remote water level indicators and display equipment of a suitable type to give an indirect reading may be
approved as additional display devices.
3.12
The cocks and valves of the water level indicators which cannot be directly reached by hand from floor
plates or a control platform are to have a control facility using pull rods or chain pulls.
4.
Pressure indicators
4.1
At least one pressure gauge directly connected to the steam space is to be fitted on each boiler. The
maximum allowable working pressure is to be marked on the dial by means of a permanent and easily visible red mark.
The indicating range of the pressure gauge shall include the testing pressure.
4.2
At least one additional pressure indicator having a sensor independent from the pressure gauge has to be
located at the machinery control station or at some other appropriate site.
4.3
Where several steam boilers are incorporated on one ship, the steam space of which are linked together, one
pressure gauge is sufficient at the machinery control station or at some other suitable location, in addition to the
pressure gauges on each boiler.
4.4
The pipe to the pressure gauge shall have a water trap and is to be of a blow-off type. A connection for a test
gauge is to be installed close to the pressure gauge. In the case of pressure gauges which are at a lower position the test
connection have to be provided close to the pressure gauge and also close to the connection piece of the pressure gauge
pipe.
4.5
Pressure gauges are to be protected against radiant heat and shall be well illuminated.
5.
Temperature indicators
5.1
A temperature indicator is to be fitted to the flue gas outlets of fired steam boilers.
5.2
gas.
Temperature indicators are to be fitted to the exhaust gas inlet and outlet of steam boilers heated by exhaust
5.3
Temperature indicators are to be fitted at the outlets from superheaters or superheater sections, at the inlet
and outlet of attemporators, and also at the outlet of once-through forced flow boilers, where this is necessary to assess
the behavior of the materials used.
5.4
Temperature indicators are to be installed in the discharge and return line of each hot water generator in such
a way that they indicate the actual outlet and inlet temperature
5.5
The maximum allowable temperature is to be marked at the indicator
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6.
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Section 7I – Steam Boilers
Regulating devices (Controllers)
6.1
With the exception of boilers which are heated by exhaust gas, steam boilers are to be operated with rapidcontrol, automatic oil burners. In main boilers, the control facility is to be capable of safely controlling all rates of
speed and maneuvers so that the steam pressure and the temperature of the super-heated steam stay within safe limits
and the supply of feed water is guaranteed. Auxiliary boilers are subject to the same requirements within the scope of
potential load changes.
6.2
The steam pressure shall be automatically regulated by controlling the supply of heat. The steam pressure of
boilers heated by exhaust gas may also be regulated by condensing the excess steam.
6.3
In the case of steam generators which have a specified minimum water level, the water level is to be
regulated automatically by controlling the supply of feed water.
6.4
In the case of forced-circulation steam generators whose heating surface consists of a steam coil and of
once-through forced flow steam generators, the supply of feed water may be regulated as a function of fuel supply.
6.5
In the case of steam generators which are fitted with superheaters, the temperature of the superheated steam
shall be automatically regulated unless the calculated temperature is higher than the maximum attainable temperature
of the superheater walls.
6.6
The discharge temperature of each hot water generator shall be automatically regulated by controlling the
supply of heat. The control of the discharge temperature of exhaust gas heated hot water generators may also be carried
out by a dumping cooler.
7.
Monitoring devices (Alarms)
The proof of the suitability of alarm transmitters for e.g. pressure, water level, temperature and flow for the
7.1
use at steam boilers and on ships is to be demonstrated by a type approval examination according to the requirements
of BKI Rules listed in A.2.1.
7.2
A warning device is to be fitted which is tripped when the specified maximum water level is exceeded.
7.3
In exhaust-gas heated steam generators, a warning device is to be fitted which is tripped before the
maximum allowable working pressure is reached.
7.4
In exhaust-gas heated steam generators with a specified minimum water level, a warning device suitable for
this purpose is to be fitted which is tripped when the water falls below this level.
7.5
Exhaust gas boilers with finned tubes are to have a temperature monitor fitted in the exhaust gas pipe which
trips an alarm in the event of fire.
7.6
Where there is a possibility of oil or grease getting into the steam or condensate or hot water system, a
suitable automatic and continuously operating unit is to be installed which trips an alarm and cuts off the feed water
supply or the circulation resp. if the concentration at which boiler operation is put at risk is exceeded. The control
device for oil respectively grease ingress may be waived for a dual circulation system.
7.7
Where there is a possibility of acid, lye or seawater getting into the steam, condensate or hot water system, a
suitable automatic and continuously operating unit is to be installed which trips an alarm and cuts off the feed water
supply if the concentration at which boiler operation is put at risk is exceeded. The control device for oil resp. grease
ingress may be waived for a dual circulation system
7.8
It shall be possible to carry out function testing of the monitoring devices, even during operation, if an
equivalent degree of safety is not attained by self-monitoring of the equipment.
7.9
The monitoring devices have to trip visual and audible fault warnings at steam boiler control panel.
8.
Safety devices (Limiters)
8.1
The proof of the suitability of limiters for e.g. pressure, water level, temperature and flow for the use at
steam boilers and on ships is to be demonstrated by a type approval examination according to the requirements of BKI
Rules listed in A.2.1.
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8.2
Fired Steam Generator are to be equipped with a pressure limiters which cuts out and interlocks the oil
burner the maximum allowable working pressure is reached.
8.3
In steam generator on whose heating surfaces a highest flue is specified, two mutually independent water
level limiters have to respond to cut out and interlock the firing system when the water falls below the specified
minimum water level.
The water level limiter shall also be independent of the water level control devices.
8.4
The receptacles for water level limiters located outside the steam boiler are to be connected to the boiler by
means of lines which have a minimum inner diameter of 20 mm. Shut-off devices in these lines shall have a nominal
diameter of at least 20 mm and have to indicate their open or closed position. Where water level limiters are connected
by means of common connection lines, the connection pipes on the water side are to have an inner diameter of at least
40 mm.
Operation of the oil burner shall only be possible when the shut-off devices are open or else, after closure, the shut-off
devices are reopening automatically and in a reliable manner.
Water level limiter receptacles which are located outside the boiler are to be designed in such a way that a compulsory
and periodic blow-through of the receptacles and lines is to be carried out.
8.5
In the case of forced-circulation steam generator with a specified lowest water level, two mutually
independent safety devices are to be fitted in addition to the requisite water level limiters, which will cut out and
interlock the oil burner in the event of any unacceptable reduction in water circulation.
8.6
In the case of forced-circulation steam generator where the heating surface consists of a single coil and oncethrough forced flow steam generator, two mutually independent safety devices are to be fitted in place of the water
level limiters in order to provide a sure means of preventing any excessive heating of the heating surfaces by cutting
out and interlocking the oil burner.
8.7
In steam boilers with superheaters, a temperature limiter is to be fitted which cuts out and interlocks the
heating system if the allowable superheated steam temperature is exceeded. In the case of boiler parts which carry
superheated steam and which have been designed to long-term resistance values, one temperature recording device is
adequate.
8.8
Hot water generators are to be equipped with the following safety equipment
8.8.1
A pressure limiter, which shuts-down and interlocks the oil burner in case the maximum allowable working
pressure is exceeded (high pressure limiter), shall be provided at each hot water generator with membrane expansion
vessel. It has to be defined for each special plant if apart from shutting-down the oil burner the circulating pumps have
to be shut-down also.
8.8.2
A pressure limiter, which shuts-down and interlocks the oil burner in case the system pressure falls below
the system related minimum pressure (low-pressure limiter), shall be provided in systems with external pressure
generation.
8.8.3
A water level limiter, which shuts-down and interlocks the oil burner and the circulating pumps in case the
water level falls below the allowable lowest level, shall be provided at the hot water generator. This water level limiter
is to be installed at the hot water generator or at the discharge line.
The installation of the low water level limiter can be dispensed with for systems with membrane expansion vessel in
case a low pressure limiter is set to a value that trips in case the water level at the membrane expansion vessel falls
below the lowest specified level.
8.8.4
At hot water generators with natural circulation the low water level limiter has to be replaced by a low flow
limiter in case the temperature limiter or low water level limiter could not switch-off the oil burner as early as to
prevent unacceptable evaporation.
8.8.5
At once-through hot water generators a low flow limiter has to be installed instead of the low water level
limiter, which shuts-down and interlocks the oil burner in case the water flow is reduced below the specified lowest
value.
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8.8.6
Each hot water generator is to be equipped with a temperature limiter. The place of installation of the sensor
of the temperature limiter shall be so that in every case the highest temperature at the hot water generator will be
detected under all operating conditions, even when the circulating pumps are stopped.
An immersion pipe has to be provided close to the sensor of the temperature limiter for checking the set temperature.
8.9
The safety devices have to trip visual and audible alarms at the steam boiler control panel.
The electrical devices associated with the limiters are to be designed in accordance with the closed-circuit
8.10
principle so that, even in the event of a power failure, the limiters will cut out and interlock the systems unless an
equivalent degree of safety is achieved by other means.
8.11
To reduce the effects due to sea conditions, water level limiters can be fitted with a delay function provided
that this does not cause a dangerous drop in the water level.
8.12
The electrical interlocking of the oil burner following tripping by the safety devices is only to be cancelled
out at the oil firing system control panel itself.
8.13
If an equivalent degree of safety cannot be achieved by the self-monitoring of the equipment, the functional
testing of the safety devices shall be practicable even during operation. In this case, the operational testing of water
level limiters shall be possible without dropping the surface of the water below the lowest water level.
8.14
For details of additional requirements relating to once-through forced flow steam boilers, see 3.4.
9.
Feed and circulation devices
9.1
noted:
For details of boiler feed and circulation devices see Section 11, F. The following requirements are also to be
9.2
The feed devices are to be fitted to the steam generator in such a way that it cannot be drained lower than 50
mm above the highest flue when the non-return valve is not tight.
9.3
The feed water is to be fed into steam generator in such a way as to prevent damaging effects to the boiler
walls and to heated surfaces.
9.4
A proper treatment and adequate monitoring of the feed and boiler water are to be carried out.
9.5
At hot water generators the discharge line has to be arranged at the highest point of the generator.
9.6
In the hot water return line leading to the generator a check-valve has to be installed. This check valve can
be dispensed with if the return line is connected to the generator at least 50 mm above the highest flue
10.
Shut-off devices
10.1
Each steam boiler shall be capable of being shut-off from all connected pipes. The shut-off devices are to be
installed as close as possible to the boiler walls and are to be operated without risk.
10.2
Where several boilers which have different maximum allowable working pressures give off their steam into
common lines, it has to be ensured that the maximum working pressure allowable for each boiler cannot be exceeded in
any of the boilers.
10.3
Where there are several boilers which are connected by common pipes and the shut-off devices for the
steam, feed and drain lines are welded to the boiler, for safety reasons while the boilers are running, two shut-off
devices in series which are to be protected against unauthorized operation are each to be fitted with an interposed
venting device.
10.4
For plants consisting of boilers without own steam space, which are using an oil fired boiler or a steam drum
for steam separation, the shut-off devices in the circulation lines are to be sealed in the open position.
10.5
position
The shut-off devices in the discharge and return line at the hot water generator are to be sealed in open
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Scum removal, sludge removal, drain and sampling devices
11.1
Steam boilers and external steam drums are to be fitted with devices to allow them to be drained and the
sludge removed. Where necessary, boilers are to be fitted with a scum removal device.
11.2
Drain devices and their connections are to be protected from the effects of the heating gases and capable of
being operated without risk. Self-closing sludge removal valves shall be lockable when closed or alternatively an
additional shut-off device is to be fitted in the pipe.
11.3
Where the scum removal, sludge removal or drain lines from several boilers are combined, a non-return
valve is to be fitted in the individual boiler lines.
11.4
The scum removal, sludge removal, drain or venting lines, plus valves and fittings, are to be designed to
allow for the maximum allowable working pressure of the boiler.
11.5
With the exception of once-through forced flow steam generator, devices for taking samples from the water
contained in the steam generator to be fitted to generator
11.6
Scum removal, sludge removal, drain and sampling devices are to be capable of safe operation. The media
being discharged are to be drained away safely.
12.
Name plate
12.1
A name plate is to be permanently affixed to each steam boiler, displaying the following information:
–
manufacturer’s name and address
–
–
serial number and year of construction
maximum allowable working pressure [bar]
–
allowable steam production [kg/h] or [t/h] for steam generators
–
maximum allowable temperature of superheated steam in °C provided that the steam generator is fitted with a
super-heater with no shutoff capability
–
maximum allowable discharge temperature [°C] for hot water generators
–
maximum allowable heating power [kW or MW] for hot water generators
12.2
The name plate is to be permanently attached to the largest part of the boiler or to the boiler frame so that it
is visible.
13.
Valves and fittings
13.1
Materials
Valves and fittings for boilers are to be made of ductile materials as specified in Table 7I.1 and all their components
shall be able to withstand the loads imposed in operation, in particular thermal loads and possible stresses due to
vibration. Grey cast iron may be used within the limits specified in Table 7I.1, but shall not be employed for valves and
fittings which are subjected to dynamic loads, e.g. safety valves and blow-off valves.
Testing of materials for valves and fittings is to be carried out as specified in Table 7I.2.
13.2
Type of Design
Care is to be taken to ensure that the bodies of shut-off gate valves cannot be subjected to unduly high pressure due to
heating of the enclosed water. Valves with screw-on bonnets are to be safeguarded to prevent unintentional loosening
of the bonnet.
13.3
Pressure and tightness tests
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Section 7I – Steam Boilers
13.3.1
All valves and fittings are to be subjected to a hydrostatic pressure test at 1,5 times the nominal pressure
before they are fitted. Valves and fittings for which no nominal pressure has been specified are to be tested at twice the
maximum allowable working pressure. In this case, the safety factor in respect of the 20 °C yield strength value shall
not fall below 1,1.
13.3.2
The sealing efficiency of the closed valve is to be tested at the nominal pressure or at 1,1 times the
maximum allowable working pressure, as applicable.
Valves and fittings made of castings and subject to operating temperatures over 300 °C are required to undergo one of
the following tightness tests:
‒
tightness test with air (test pressure approximately 0,1 times maximum allowable working pressure; maximum 2
bar)
‒
tightness test with saturated or superheated steam (test pressure shall not exceed the maximum allowable
working pressure)
‒
a tightness test may be dispensed with if the pressure test is performed with petroleum or other liquid displaying
similar properties.
Safety valves are to be subjected to a test of the set pressure. After the test the tightness of the seat is to be
13.3.3
checked at a pressure 0.8 times the set pressure. The setting is to be secured against unauthorized alteration.
13.3.4
Pressure test and tightness test of valves and fittings and the test of the set pressure of safety valves shall be
carried out in the presence of the BKI Surveyor.
14.
Installation of boilers
14.1
Mounting
Boilers are to be installed in the ship with care and have to be secured to ensure that they cannot be displaced by any of
the circumstances arising when the ship is at sea. Means are to be provided to accommodate the thermal expansion of
the boiler in service. Boilers and their seating are to be well accessible from all sides or shall be easily made accessible.
14.2
Fire precautions
See Section 12.
F.
Testing of Steam Boilers
1.
F
Constructional check
After completion, boilers are to undergo a constructional check.
The constructional check includes verification that the steam boiler agrees with the approved drawing and is of
satisfactory construction. For this purpose, all parts of the steam boiler are to be accessible to allow adequate
inspection. If necessary, the constructional check is to be performed at separate stages of manufacture. The following
documents are to be presented: material test Certificates covering the materials used, reports on the non-destructive
testing of welds and, where applicable, the results of tests of workmanship and proof of the heat treatment applied.
2.
Hydrostatic pressure tests
2.1
A hydrostatic pressure test is to be carried out on the boiler before refractory, insulation and casing are fitted.
Where only some of the component parts are sufficiently accessible to allow proper visual inspection, the hydrostatic
pressure test may be performed in stages. Steam Boiler surfaces have to withstand the test pressure without leaking or
suffering permanent deformation.
2.2
The test pressure is generally required to be 1,5 times the maximum allowable working pressure, see A.4.2.
In case the maximum allowable working pressure is less than 2 bar, the test pressure has to be at least 1 bar higher than
the maximum allowable working pressure.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
F-G
49/54
Hot water generators are to be subjected to a minimum test pressure of 4 bar
2.3
In the case of once-through forced flow boilers, the test pressure has to be at least 1,1 times the water inlet
pressure when operating at the maximum allowable working pressure and maximum steam output. In the event of
danger that parts of the boiler might be subjected to stresses exceeding 0,9 of the yield strength, the hydrostatic test
may be performed in separate sections. The maximum allowable working pressure is then deemed to be the pressure
for which the particular part of the boiler has been designed.
2.4
For steam boiler parts subject to internal and external pressures which invariably occur simultaneously in
service, the test pressure depends on the differential pressure. In these circumstances, however, the test pressure should
at least be equal to 1,5 times the design pressure specified in D.1.2.4.
3.
Acceptance test after installation on board
3.1
Functional test of the safety relevant equipment
The function of the safety relevant equipment is to be tested, as far as possible, at the not heated, pressureless steam
boiler.
3.2
Test of safety valves
3.2.1
The actuation pressure of the safety valves is to be proven by a blow-off test or the adjustment Certificate of
the manufacturer is to be presented for the sealed valve.
3.2.2
The sufficient blow-off performance of the safety valves has to be proven by a blow-off test. For oil fired
steam boilers the sufficient blow-off performance may also be demonstrated by calculation.
For steam boiler heated with exhaust gas the blow-off test is to be performed at 100 % MCR (maximum continuous
rating).
For combined steam boilers and combined steam boiler plants with oil fired steam boiler and exhaust gas boiler
without own steam space, it has to be guaranteed, that the maximum allowable working pressure is not exceeded by
more than 10 % for 100 % burner performance and the above mentioned conditions for operation of the exhaust gas
boiler.
3.3
Functional test
The complete equipment of the boiler, including control and monitoring devices, are to be subjected to a functional
test.
4.
Constructional check and hydrostatic pressure test and acceptance test shall be carried out by or in the
presence of the BKI Surveyor.
G.
F-G
Hot Water Generators Plants
1.
General
1.1
The materials, design calculations and manufacturing principles for hot water generators which are heated
by steam or hot liquids are subject to the requirements in Section 8.
1.2
For hot water generation plants forced circulation is to be used. Plants with natural circulation are not
allowed.
1.3
Hot water generation plants are to be designed with external pressure generation (e.g. with membrane
expansion vessel or expansion vessel with nitrogen blanket without membrane). Plants open to the atmosphere or with
internal pressure generation are not allowed.
1.4
The pressure generation has to be carried out in a way as to prevent a steam generation critical for the safety
of the plant.
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G-H
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
1.5
Each hot water generation plant shall have a sufficient volume for expansion, to accommodate the increase
of volume of the water from the hot water generation plant and the heat consuming system resulting from the change of
temperature. The expansion vessel and the connecting lines shall be protected against freezing.
2.
Pre-pressurized expansion vessel
2.1
A low water level limiter is to be provided at the expansion vessel which shuts-down and interlocks the oil
burner and the circulating pumps in case the water level falls below the allowable minimum.
2.2
Shut-off devices in the connecting lines between system and expansion vessel are to be sealed in open
position.
2.3
Hot water generation plants with membrane expansion vessel
2.3.1
The installation of the low water level limiter (see 2.1) at the membrane expansion vessel can be dispensed
with in case the low pressure limiter of the plant is actuated at a value when the water level falls below the allowable
minimum level.
2.3.2
A possibility for checking the correct filling pressure of the gas space shall be provided at the prepressurized
membrane expansion vessels.
2.3.3
A safety valve and a pressure indication shall be provided at membrane expansion vessels where the gas
pressure of the blanket is controlled by a pressure regulator.
2.4
Hot water generation plants with expansion vessel with nitrogen blanket without membrane
2.4.1
The lowest water level (LWL) at the expansion vessel shall be at least 50 mm above the top edge of the pipe
connecting the expansion vessel with the system.
2.4.2
Each pressurized expansion vessel shall be equipped with a pressure indication.
2.4.3
Each pressurized expansion vessel shall be equipped with a safety valve which is set to a pressure below the
set-pressure of the safety valves at the hot water generator. For the dimensioning of the safety valve it is sufficient to
consider the power of the largest hot water generator in the plant. Additional heating appliances are to be considered if
necessary.
2.4.4
The water level shall be controlled by a water level regulator, if it is necessary to drain or to feed water to
the expansion vessel resulting from the change of the water volume of the system. In case of too high or too low water
level an alarm shall be tripped.
2.4.5
In case of a water level above the highest water level specified for the plant the oil burner and the feed water
supply shall be shut-off and interlocked. This trip can be actuated by the sensor of the water level controller.
G-H
3.
Feed water supply
3.1
Each hot water generation plant shall be equipped with at least one feed water supply.
3.2
The flow of the feed water supply shall be such that the loss of water in the whole system can be
compensated.
3.3
The feed water supply shall be able to feed the required flow to the generator at 1.1 times the maximum
allowable working pressure.
4.
Circulating pumps
4.1
Hot water generation plants are to be equipped with at least two circulating pumps. A common stand-by
pump is sufficient for hot water generating plants, if this pump can be connected to any hot water generator of the
plant.
4.2
An alarm shall be tripped in case of a breakdown of one circulating pump. An alarm shall be tripped and a
shutdown and interlock of oil burner at the oil fired hot water generator shall be carried out if the flow falls below the
specified minimum value.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
H.
Flue Gas Economizers
1.
Definition
H
51/54
Flue gas economizers are preheaters arranged in the flue gas duct of boilers used for preheating of feedwater without
any steam being produced in service. They can be disconnected from the water side of the boiler.
The surfaces of the preheater comprise the water space walls located between the shut-off devices plus the casings of
the latter. Drawing water from the economizer is only permissible if the boiler feed system is specially designed for
this purpose.
2.
Materials
See under B.
3.
Calculation
The formulae given under D are to be applied in the calculation. The design pressure is to be at least the maximum
allowable working pressure of the economizer.
The design temperature is the maximum feedwater temperature plus 25 C
̊ for plain tube economizers and plus 35 ̊C for
finned tube economizers.
The feedwater temperature at the economizer outlet shall be 20 ̊C below the saturation temperature corresponding to
the working pressure of the boiler.
4.
Equipment
4.1
Pressure gauges
The inlet side of each economizer is to be provided with a pressure gauge as well as with a connection for a test
pressure gauge. The maximum allowable working pressure of the economizer is to be marked by a red line on the scale
of the pressure gauge.
4.2
Safety valve
Each economizer is to be equipped with a spring-loaded safety valve with an inside diameter of at least 15 mm which is
to be set at that it starts to blow-off if the maximum allowable working pressure is exceeded.
The safety valve is to be designed that, even if shut-off devices between the economizer and the boiler are closed, the
maximum allowable working pressure of the economizer is not exceeded by more than 10 %.
H
4.3
Temperature indicating device
Each economizer is to be equipped with one temperature indicating device. The permissible outlet temperature of the
feedwater is to be marked in red on the temperature meter.
4.4
Shut-off devices
Each economizer is to be equipped with shut-off device at the feedwater inlet and outlet. The boiler feed valve may be
regarded as one of these shut-off devices.
4.5
Discharge and venting equipment
Each economizer is to be provided with means of drainage and with vents for all points where air may gather enabling
it to be satisfactorily vented even when in operation.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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Section 7I – Steam Boilers
Table 7I.16
Gasket factors
Gasket type
Gasket factor 1)
Shape
Description
Material
for liquids
2
Assembly )
2
Soft gaskets
Flat gaskets
according to
DIN EN 15141
for gases and vapours
Service
Assembly2)
ko
ko . KD
k1
ko
ko . KD
k1
[mm]
[N/mm]
[mm]
[mm]
[N/mm]
[mm]
Impregnated
sealing
material
Rubber
-
20 bD
bD
-
-
-
-
bD
0,5 bD
-
2 bD
0,5 bD
Teflon
-
20 bD
1,1 bD
-
25 bD
1,1 bD
It4)
-
15 bD
bD
-
1,3 bD
200
Combined metal and soft gaskets
Spirally
wound
gasket
Metal gaskets
1
)
)
3
)
4
)
2
-
15 bD
bD
-
50 bD
1,3 bD
Al
-
8 bD
0,6 bD
-
30 bD
0,6 bD
Cu, Ms
-
9 bD
0,6 bD
-
35 bD
0,7 bD
Mild steel
-
10 bD
0,6 bD
-
45 bD
1,0 bD
Al
-
10 bD
bD
-
50 bD
1,4 bD
Cu, Ms
-
20 bD
bD
-
60 bD
1,6 bD
Mild steel
-
40 bD
bD
-
70 bD
1,8 bD
-
0,8 bD
-
bD+5
bD
-
bD+5
Diamond
gasket
-
0,8
-
5
1
-
5
Oval
gasket
-
1,6
-
6
2
-
6
Round
gasket
-
1,2
-
6
1,5
-
6
Ring
gasket
-
1,6
-
6
2
-
6
U-shaped
gasket
according to
DIN 2696
Corrugated
gasket to
DIN 2697
-
1,6
-
6
2
-
6
-
0,4√Z
-
9+0,2∙Z
0,5√Z
-
9+0,2∙Z
-
0
-
0
0
-
0
Metalsheated
gasket
2
ℎ
3
Unalloyed
steel
Corrugated
gasket
2
Service
Flat gasket
according to
DIN EN 1514-
Membrane
welded
applicable to flat, machined, sound, sealing surfaces.
where ko cannot be specified, the product ko⋅ KD is given here
a gastight grade is assumed
non asbestos compressed fibre jointing material
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 7I – Steam Boilers
4.6
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53/54
Means for preventing the formation of steam in economizers
Suitable equipment is to be fitted to prevent steam from being generated in the economizer, e.g. when the steam supply
is suddenly stopped. This may take the form of a circulating line from the economizer to a feed water tank to enable the
economizer to be cooled, or of a by-pass enabling the economizer to be completely isolated from the flue gas flow.
5.
Name plate
A name plate giving the following details is to be fitted to every economizer:
‒
manufacturer's name and address
‒
serial number and year of manufacture
‒
maximum allowable working pressure of economizer in bar
6.
Tests
Before they are installed, finished economizers are to be subjected at the maker's works to a constructional check and a
hydrostatic pressure test at 1,5 times the maximum allowable working pressure in the presence of a BKI Surveyor
Table 7I.17
Materials
Deformation factors
Deformation factor KD [
N/mm2]
aluminium, soft
92
copper, soft
185
soft iron
343
steel, St 35
392
alloy steel, 13 Cr Mo 44
441
austenitic steel
491
Note
At room temperature KD is to be substituted by the deformation
factor at 10% compression or alternatively by the tensile
strength Rm.
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Section 7I – Steam Boilers
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BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 7 II – Thermal Oil Systems
A
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Section 7 II
Thermal Oil Systems
A.
General
A
1.
Scope
The following requirements apply to thermal oil systems in which organic liquids (thermal oils) are heated by oil fired
burners, exhaust gases or electricity to temperatures below their initial boiling point at atmospheric pressure.
2.
Other applicable requirements
In addition, the following BKI Rules and Guidelines are to be applied analogously:
Section 7 I, B, C, and D
For materials, fabrication and design of the heaters
Section 8, B, C and D
For materials fabrication and design of the expansion vessel
and the tanks
Section 9, A and B
For oil burners and oil firing systems (additional shutdown
criteria see B.4 and C.4)
Section 10, A, B and D
For thermal oil tanks
Section 11, A. To D, Q and R
For pipes, valves and pumps
Section 12
For fire protection and fire fighting equipment
Part 1. Seagoing Ships, Volume IV, Rules
for Electrical Installations,
For electrical equipment items
Part 1. Seagoing Ships, Volume VII, Rules
for Automation
For automated machinery systems
Guidelines for the Performance of Type
Approvals
For type approved components
3.
Definitions
3.1
The “maximum allowable working pressure” is the maximum pressure which may occur in the individual
parts of the equipment under service conditions.
3.2
The “thermal oil temperature” is the temperature of the thermal oil at the centre of the flow cross-section.
3.3
The “discharge temperature” is the temperature of the thermal oil immediately at the heater outlet.
3.4
The “return temperature” is the temperature of the thermal oil immediately at the heater inlet.
3.5
The “film temperature” is the wall temperature on the thermal oil side. In the case of heated surfaces, this may
differ considerably from the temperature of the thermal oil.
4.
Documents for approval
The following documents are to be submitted to BKI for approval. In specific cases and following prior agreement with
BKI they can also be submitted in paper form in triplicate:
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 7 II – Thermal Oil Systems
A-B
2/8
-
a description of the system stating the discharge and return temperatures, the maximum allowable film
temperature, the total volume of the system and the physical and chemical characteristics of the thermal oil
-
drawings of the heaters, the expansion vessel and other pressure vessels
-
circuit diagrams of the electrical control system, respectively monitoring and safety devices with limiting
values
-
a functional diagram with information about the safety and monitoring device and valves provided (for
information)
If specially requested, mathematical proof of the maximum film temperature in accordance with DIN 4754 is to be
submitted.
5.
Thermal Oils
5.1
The thermal oil has to remain serviceable for at least 1 year at the specified thermal oil temperature. Its
suitability for further use is to be verified at appropriate intervals, but at least once a year.
5.2
Thermal oil may only be used within the limits set by the manufacturer. A safety margin of about 50 C
̊ is to be
maintained between the discharge temperature and the maximum allowable film temperature specified by the
manufacturer.
5.3
Precautions are to be taken to protect the thermal oil from oxidation.
5.4
Copper and copper alloys, which lead due to their catalytic effect to an increased ageing of the thermal oil, are
to be avoided or oils with specific additives are to be used.
6.
Manual operation
6.1
For thermal oil heaters which are operated automatically means for operation and supervision are to be
provided which allow a manual operation with the following minimum requirements by using an additional control
level.
6.1.1
At least the temperature limiter on the oil side and the flow limiter shall remain operative at the oil- fired
heater.
6.1.2
The heater heated by exhaust gas may be operated without temperature and flow monitoring if the allowable
discharge temperature can be kept.
6.1.3
The safety equipment not required for manual operation may only be deactivated by means of a key- operated
switch. The actuation of the key operated switch is to be indicated.
6.1.4
For details of requirements in respect of the manual operation of the oil firing equipment, see Section 9.
6.2
Manual operation demands constant and direct supervision of the system.
B.
Heaters
1.
Acceptable materials
A-B
Heaters of thermal oil systems are to be fabricated from the same materials as boilers as per Section 7 I, B.2.
2.
Testing of materials
The materials of the parts of the heaters which are in contact with the thermal oil are to be tested in accordance with
Section 7 I, B.3.
For coils with a maximum allowable working pressure up to 10 bar and an allowable operating temperature up to
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 7 II – Thermal Oil Systems
B
3/8
300 C
̊ Manufacturer Inspection Certificates 1) are sufficient.
B
3.
Design
3.1
Heaters are to be designed thermodynamically and by construction that neither the surfaces nor the thermal oil
become excessively heated at any point. The flow of the thermal oil must be ensured by forced circulation.
3.2
The surfaces which come into contact with the thermal oil are to be designed for the maximum allowable
working pressure subject to a minimum gauge pressure of 10 bar.
3.3
Heaters heated by exhaust gas are to be designed that damages by resonances resulting from oscillation of the
exhaust gas column cannot occur.
3.4
The exhaust gas intake is to be arranged that the thermal oil cannot penetrate the engine or the turbocharger in
case of a leakage in the heater respectively the cleaning medium during heater cleaning.
3.5
Heaters heated by exhaust gas are to be provided with manholes serving as inspection openings at the exhaust
gas intake and outlet.
3.6
Oil fired heaters are to be provided with inspection openings for examination of the combustion chamber.
3.7
Sensors for the temperature measuring and monitoring devices are to be introduced into the system through
welded-in immersion pipes.
3.8
Heaters are to be fitted with means enabling them to be completely drained.
3.9
For electrically heated heaters the requirements are to be applied analogously to oil fired heaters.
4.
Equipment
4.1
General
4.1.1
The equipment on the heaters has to be suitable for use at thermal oil heaters and on ships. The proof of the
suitability of the limiters and alarm transmitters e.g. temperature, flow and leakage detection is to be demonstrated by a
type approval examination according to the requirements of BKI Rules listed in A.2.
4.1.2
The alarms and the activation of the limiters have to create optical and acoustic fault signal at the thermal oil
system panel.
4.2
Safety valves
Each heater is to be equipped with at least one safety valve having a blow off capacity at least equal to the increase in
volume of the thermal oil at the maximum heating power. During blow off the pressure shall not increase above 10 %
over the maximum allowable working pressure.
4.3
Temperature, pressure and flow indicating devices
4.3.1
Pressure indicating devices are to be fitted at the discharge and return line of both oil fired heaters and heaters
heated by exhaust gas. The maximum allowable working pressure PB is to be indicated on the scale by a red mark
which is permanently fixed and well visible. The indicating range has to include the test pressure.
4.3.2
Temperature indicating devices are to be fitted at the discharge and return line of both oil fire heaters and
heaters heated by exhaust gas.
4.3.3
Temperature indicating devices are also to be fitted in the flue gas or exhaust gas outlet at the heater's
respectively.
4.3.4
The flow of the thermal oil is to be indicated.
4.4
Temperature control
1)
See Part 1. Seagoing Ships, Rules for Materials, Volume V, Section 1.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 7 II – Thermal Oil Systems
B
4/8
4.4.1
For automatic control of the discharge temperature, oil fired heaters are to be equipped with an automatic
rapidly adjustable heat supply in accordance with Section 9.
B
4.4.2
The discharge temperature of heaters heated by exhaust gas is to be controlled by automatic regulation of the
heat input or by recooling the thermal oil in a dumping cooler, but independently from the control of the engine output.
4.5
Temperature monitoring
4.5.1
If the allowable discharge temperature is exceeded, for oil fired heaters the oil burner is to be switched off and
interlocked by temperature limiters.
Parallel-connected heating surfaces are to be monitored individually at the discharge side of each coil. At the oil-fired
heater the oil burner is to be switched off and interlocked by a temperature limiter in case the allowable discharge
temperature is exceeded in at least one coil. An additional supervision of the allowable discharge temperature of the
heater is not necessary.
4.5.2
If the allowable discharge temperature is exceeded for heaters heated by exhaust gas an alarm shall be tripped.
Parallel connected heating surfaces are to be monitored individually at the discharge side of each coil. At the heater
heated by exhaust gas an alarm shall be tripped in case the allowable discharge temperature is exceeded in at least one
coil. An additional supervision of the allowable discharge temperature of the heater is not necessary.
With heaters heated by exhaust gas, individual monitoring of heating surfaces connected in parallel may be dispensed
with if the maximum exhaust gas temperature is lower than the maximum allowable film temperature of the thermal
oil.
4.5.3
If the specified maximum flue gas temperature of the oil fired heaters is exceeded, the firing system is to be
switched off and be interlocked.
4.5.4
Heaters heated by exhaust gases are to be equipped with a temperature switch which, when the maximum
design exhaust gas temperature is exceeded, signals by means of an alarm that the heating surfaces are badly fouled.
4.6
Flow monitoring
4.6.1
Precautions are to be taken to ensure that the maximum allowable film temperature of the thermal oil is not
exceeded.
4.6.2
A flow monitor switched as a limiter is to be provided at the oil fired heater. If the flow rate falls below a
minimum value the firing system has to be switched off and be interlocked.
4.6.3
Start up of the burner is to be prevented by interlocks if the circulating pump is at stand still.
4.6.4
A flow monitor is to be provided at heaters heated by exhaust gas. An alarm is to be triggered in case the flow
rate falls below the minimum value.
4.6.5
An alarm has to be provided for the case that the flow through the heater heated by exhaust gas falls below the
minimum value (e.g. at standstill of the circulating pump, closed shut-off valves), when the engine delivering the
exhaust gas for heating of the heater is to be started.
4.7
Leakage monitoring
4.7.1
Oil fired heaters are to be equipped with a leakage detector which, when actuated, shuts down and interlocks
the oil burner. If the oil fired heater is in “stand-by” the starting of the oil burner has to be blocked if the leakage
detector is actuated.
4.7.2
alarm.
Heaters heated by exhaust gas are to be equipped with a leakage detector which, when actuated, trips an
4.8
Shut-off devices
Heaters are to be fitted with shut-off devices and, if necessary with by-pass valves, which can be operated
4.8.1
from a position outside the immediate area in which the heater is installed.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 7 II – Thermal Oil Systems
B-C
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B-C
4.8.2
The heater has to be capable of being drained and ventilated as well from a position outside the immediate
area in which the heater is installed.
4.9
Fire detection and fire extinguishing system
4.9.1
The temperature switch for fire detection, required according to Section 12, C.4.3 is to be provided
additionally to the temperature switch according to 4.4.5 and shall be set to a temperature 50 to 80 C
̊ higher.
4.9.2
Thermal oil heaters heated by exhaust gas are to be fitted with a permanent system for extinguishing and
cooling in the event of fire, e.g. a pressure water spraying system. For details see Section 12, Table 12.1 and L.2.2.
C.
Vessels
1.
Approved materials
Vessels are to be fabricated from the materials conforming to Section 8, B.3., in the pressure vessel class appropriate to
the thermal oil system.
2.
Testing of materials
The vessel materials are to be tested in accordance with Section 8, B.4
3.
Design
3.1
All vessels, including those open to the atmosphere, are to be designed for a pressure of at least 2 bar, unless
provision has to be made for a higher working pressure. Excepted from this requirement are tanks designed and
dimensioned according to Rules for Hull (Part 1,Vol.II), Section 12.
3.2
An expansion vessel is to be placed at the high level in the system. The space provided for expansion must be
such that the increase in the volume of the thermal oil at the maximum thermal oil temperature can be safely
accommodated. The following are to be regarded as minimum requirements : 1,5 times the increase in volume for
volumes up to 1.000 liters, and 1,3 times the increase for volumes over 1.000 litres. The volume is the total quantity of
thermal oil contained in the equipment up to the lowest liquid level in the expansion vessel.
C
3.3
At the lowest point of the system a drainage tank is to be located, the capacity of which is sufficient to hold
the volume of the largest isolatable system section.
3.4
A separate storage tank is to be provided to compensate any losses. The stock of thermal oil is to be at least
40% of the capacity of the system. Depending on the system design or the ship’s geographical area of service, a smaller
stock may be acceptable.
C
3.5
In exceptional cases, approval may be given for the drainage tank and the storage tank to be combined.
Combined storage/drainage tanks are to be dimensioned that in addition to the stock of thermal oil, there is room for
the contents of the largest isolatable system section.
4.
Equipment of the expansion vessel
4.1
General
4.1.1
The equipment on the expansion vessel has to be suitable for use at thermal oil system and on ships. The proof
of suitability of the level indicator and the limiters and alarm transmitters for e.g. filling level is to be demonstrated by
a type approval examination according to the requirements of the Rules listed in A.2.
4.1.2
The alarms and the activation of the limiters have to create optical and acoustic fault signals at the thermal oil
system control panel.
4.2
Level indication device
4.2.1
level.
The expansion vessel is to be equipped with a liquid gauge with a mark indicating the lowest allowable liquid
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 7 II – Thermal Oil Systems
4.2.2
C
Level gauges made of glass or plastic are not allowed.
4.3
Low level limiter and alarm
C
6/8
4.3.1
A limit switch is to be fitted which shuts down and interlocks the oil burner and switches off the circulating
pumps if the liquid level falls below the allowable minimum.
4.3.2
Additionally an alarm for low liquid level is to be installed, e.g. by means of an adjustable level switch on the
level indicator which gives an early warning of a falling liquid level in the expansion vessel (e.g. in the event of
leakage).
4.3.3
An alarm is also to be provided for the maximum liquid level.
4.4
Quick drainage valve and emergency shut off valve
4.4.1
For rapid drainage in case of danger, a quick drainage valve is to be fitted directly to the vessel with remote
control from outside the space in which the equipment is installed.
4.4.2
Automatic means are to be provided to ensure a sufficient air supply to the expansion vessel when the quick
drainage valve is operated.
4.4.3
Where the expansion vessel is installed outside the engine room, the quick drainage valve may be replaced by
an emergency shut-off device (quick closing valve).
4.4.4
The opening of the quick drainage valve or the actuation of the emergency shut off device shall activate an
alarm. At the same time a non safety related shut-down of the oil burner at the oil fired heater should be carried out.
4.4.5
The dimensions of the drainage and venting pipes are to be applied according to Table 7II.1.
Table 7II.1 Nominal diameter of drainage and venting pipes as well as of expansion and
overflow pipes depending on the performance of the heater.
Performance of heater [kW]
Expansion and overflow pipes
Nominal diameter DN
Drainage and venting pipes
Nominal diameter DN
< 600
25
32
< 900
32
40
< 1.200
40
50
< 2.400
50
65
< 6.000
65
80
4.5
Connection lines
4.5.1
A safety expansion line has to connect the system to the expansion vessel. This shall be installed with a
continuous positive gradient and is to be dimensioned in a way that that a pressure increase rise of more than 10 %
above the maximum allowable working pressure in the system is avoided.
4.5.2
The expansion vessel is to be provided with an overflow line leading to the drainage tank.
4.5.3
The quick drainage line may be routed jointly with the overflow line to the drainage tank.
4.5.4
All parts of the system in which thermal oil can expand due t the absorption of heat from outside are to be
safeguarded against excessive pressure. Any thermal oil emitted is to be safely drained off.
4.5.5
The dimensions of the expansion and overflow pipes are to be applied according to Table 7.18.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 7 II – Thermal Oil Systems
C-D-E
7/8
C-D-E
4.6
Pre-pressurized system
4.6.1
Pre-pressurized systems are to be equipped with an expansion vessel which contents are blanketed with an
inert gas. The inert gas supply to the expansion vessel has to be guaranteed.
4.6.2
The pressure in the expansion vessel is to be indicated and safeguarded against overpressure.
4.6.3
A pressure limiter is to be provided at the expansion vessel which gives an alarm and shuts down and
interlocks the oil burner at a set pressure below the set-pressure of the safety valve.
5.
Equipment of the drainage and storage tank
For the equipment of the drainage and storage tank see Section 11, Q.4.
D.
Equipment Items
1.
Approved materials
1.1
Materials for pipes, valves and pumps see Section 11, B.
1.2
Grey cast iron is unacceptable for equipment items in the hot thermal oil circuit and for safety valves.
2.
Testing of materials
Pipe, valve and pump materials are tested in accordance with Section 11, B.3.
3.
Equipment
3.1
11, Q
Pipes, valves and pumps are governed, in addition to the following specifications, by the provisions of Section
3.2
The outlets of the circulating pumps are to be equipped with pressure gauges.
3.3
It shall be possible to shut down the circulating pumps by an emergency switch which can also be operated
from a position outside the room in which they are installed.
3.4
Devices for safe sampling are to be provided at a suitable location in the thermal oil circuit.
3.5
Means of venting are to be provided at the highest point of the isolatable sections of the thermal oil system
and drainage devices at the lowest points.
Venting and drainage via open funnels are to be avoided.
3.6
For fitting and draining pumps see Section 11, Q.1.2
3.7
Electric equipment items are governed by the Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV).
E.
Marking
1.
Heaters
The following information shall be stated on a durable manufacturer’s name plate permanently attached to the heater:
manufacturer’s name and address
-
serial number
-
year of manufacture
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 7 II – Thermal Oil Systems
-
maximum allowable heating power
-
maximum allowable working pressure
-
maximum allowable discharge temperature
-
minimum flow rate
-
liquid capacity
2.
Vessels
E-F-G
8/8
E-F-G
2.1
Vessels are to be fitted with nameplates bearing the following information :
-
manufacturer’s name and address
-
serial number
-
year of manufacture
-
maximum allowable working pressure
-
maximum allowable working temperature
-
capacity
2.2
For vessels with an open connections to the atmosphere, the maximum allowable working pressure is to be
shown on the nameplate as “0" or “Atm.”, even though a gauge pressure of 2 bar is taken as the design basis in
accordance with C.
F.
Fire Protection
The fire precautions are governed by the provisions of Section 12
G.
Testing
1.
Heaters
The thermal oil heaters are to be subjected to a constructional check and a hydrostatic pressure test, at 1,5 times the
maximum allowable working pressure, at the manufacturer’s works in the presence of the BKI Surveyor.
2.
Thermal oil system
After completion of installation on board, the system including the associated monitoring equipment is to be subjected
to pressure, tightness and functional tests in the presence of the BKI Surveyor.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Secttion 8 – Pressuure Vessels an
nd Heat Exchaangers
A
1/166
Section 8
Prressure Vesssels and Heat
H
Exchan
ngers
A
A.
General
1.
Scope
The followingg requirementts apply to esssential pressurre vessels (gau
uge or vacuum
m pressure) seee Section 1, H.
H
1.1
They also aapply to indeppendent cargo containers iff these are subjjected to interrnal or externaal pressure in service.
Gas cylindders are subjecct to the requirrements in G.
1.2
These requireements do not apply to presssure vessels with
w
-
a maximum allowable work
king pressure of up to 1 bar
b gauge and
d a total capaacity, withoutt deducting thhe
voolume of interrnal fittings, of not more thaan 1.000 l, or
-
a maximum alloowable working pressure o f up to 0,5 barr gauge, or
-
a capacity of < 0,5 l
F 8.1 Scopee of BKI Rulees for pressurre vessels and
Fig.
d heat exchanngers
Ship’s service pressure veessels manufaactured to recognized stand
dards, e.g. preessure vesselss for the wateer
1.3
n subject too these requirrements with respect to thheir wall thicknesses or thhe
supply sysstem and caloorifiers, are not
materials uused.
In the case of hydrophore tanks with a maximum alllowable work
king pressure of up to 7 baar gauge and a
1.4
00 ºC an exam
mination of thee drawings can be dispenseed with.
maximum working tempperatures of 10
For warm waater generatorss with a outleet temperaturee of max. 120 ºC, which arre heated by solid,
s
liquid, or
o
1.5
t drawing aapproval can be dispensed with if the ggenerators aree manufactureed
gaseous fuuels or by exhhaust gases, the
according to a recognizzed Standard or
o Directive. T
c
from the installatioon onboard sh
hips have to be
b
The stresses coming
consideredd.
The pressure vessels and equipment menntioned in 1.3 and 1.4 and 1.5 are demonnstrated to thee BKI Surveyoor
1.6
drostatic presssure test in accordance with
h F.1. For the materials Man
nufacturer Test
for construuctional checkk and for a hyd
BKI
B Rules Foor Machinery Installation - 2014
2
2/16
A-B
Section 8 – Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers
Reports1) are to be presented.
1.7
Hot water generators with outlet temperatures above 120 ºC which are heated by solid, liquid or gaseous
fuels, by exhaust gases or by electrical means, as well as to economizers heated by flue gas are subject to Section 7 I.
A-B
Surface condensers are additionally subject to Section 3 I and 3 II.
For charge air coolers, see Section 2, an examination of the drawing of the drawings can be dispensed with.
For heat exchangers of cooling systems for electrical machinery an examination of the drawings can be dispensed with,
further requirements see the Rules for for Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 20.
Cargo containers and process pressure vessels for the transport of liquefied gases in bulk are additionally subject to
Rules for Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (Part 1,Vol.IX).
For reservoirs in hydraulic systems additionally Section 14, F. is to be applied.
For filters additionally Section 2, G.3. (diesel engines) as well as Section 11, G.7. (fuel oil systems), H.2.3 (lubrication
oil systems) and I.4. (seawater cooling systems) are to be applied.
Pressure vessels and heat exchangers intended for the use in ballast. Bilge, sewage or fresh water systems as well as
pressure vessels for cargo handling are also subject to these rules.
2.
Documents for approval
Drawings of pressure vessels and heat exchangers containing all the data necessary for their safety assessment are to be
submitted to BKI in triplicate 2). In particular, are to be specified :
-
intended use, substance to be contained in the vessels
-
maximum allowable working pressure and temperatures, if necessary, secondary loads, volume of the
individual pressure spaces
-
design details of the pressurized parts
-
materials to be used, welding details, heat treatment
B.
Materials
1.
General requirements
1.1
The materials of parts subjected to pressure are to be suitable for the intended use. Materials for vessels
related to pressure vessel classes I and II according to Table 8.1, have to comply with the Rules for Materials
(Part 1,Vol.V).
1.2
Parts such as gussets, girders, lugs, brackets, etc. welded directly to pressure vessel walls are to be made of
material compatible with the basic material and of guaranteed weldability.
1.3
Welded structures of pressure vessel classes I and II according to Table 8.1 are also subject to the Rules for
Welding (Part 1,Vol.VI).
1.4
For corrosion protection, see C.7.
2.
Pressure vessel classes
2.1
According to operating conditions, pressure vessels and heat exchangers are to be classed in accordance with
Table 8.1.
1)
2)
See Part 1 Seagoing Ship, Rules for Materials, Volume V, Principles Covering the Manufacture and Testing of Materials, Section 1
For ships flying Indonesian flag in quadruplicate, one of which intended for the Indonesian Government.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 8 – Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers
2.2
B
3/16
Pressure vessels filled partly with liquids and partly with air or gases or which are blown out by air or gases
are to be classified as pressure vessels containing air or gas.
B
Table 8.1 Pressure vessel classes
B
Design pressure pc [bar]
Design temperature t [ºC]
Operating medium
Pressure vessel class
I
II
III
see 4.1
See 4.2
See 4.3
All
---
Refrigerants
Group 2
Group 1
---
Steam,
compressed air,
gases
pc > 16
or
t > 300
pc ≤ 16
pc ≤ 7
t ≤ 300
t ≤ 170
Thermal oils
pc > 16
or
t > 300
pc ≤ 16
pc ≤ 7
t ≤ 300
t ≤ 150
Liquid fuels,
lubricating oils,
flammable hydraulic fluids
pc > 16
or
t > 150
pc ≤ 16
pc ≤ 7
t ≤ 150
t ≤ 60
Water,
non-flammable hydraulic fluids
pc > 40
or
t > 300
pc ≤ 40
pc ≤ 16
t ≤ 300
t ≤ 200
Testing of Materials / Test Certificates
Liquefied gases (propane, butane, etc),
toxic and corrosive media
3.
---
Approved materials
The materials specified in Table 8.2 are to be used for the classes stated in 2.
4.
Testing of Materials
4.1
Tests according to Rules for Materials (Part 1,Vol.V), are prescribed for materials belonging to pressure
vessel class I used for :
-
all parts subject to pressure with the exception of small parts such as welded pads, reinforcing discs, branch
pieces and flanges of nominal diameter < DN 50 mm, together with forged or rolled steel valve heads for
compressed air receivers.
-
forged flanges for service temperatures > 300 ºC and for service temperatures ≤ 300 ºC if the product of the
maximum allowable working pressure (gauge) PB [bar] and DN [mm] is > 2.500 or the nominal diameter is >
DN 250.
-
bolts of metric size M 30 and above made of steels with a tensile strength of more than 500 N/mm2 and
alloyed or heat-treated steel bolts of metric size M 16 and above.
-
nuts of metric size M 30 and above made of steels with a tensile strength of more than 600 N/mm2
-
bodies of valves and fittings, see Section 11, B.
The results of the material tests are to be proven by BKI Material Certificate 1).
4.2
For pressure vessel class II parts subject to mandatory testing, proof of material quality may take the form of
Manufacturer Inspection Certificates 1) provided that the test results certified therein comply with the Rules for
Materials (Part 1,Vol.V).
Manufacturer Inspection Certificates may also be recognized for series-manufactured class I vessel components made
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
4/16
B
Section 8 – Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers
of unalloyed steels, e.g. hand- and manhole covers, and for forged flanges and branch pipes where the product of PB
[bar ] DN [mm] < 2.500 and the nominal diameter DN < 250 mm for service temperature < 300 ºC.
Table 8.2 Approved materials
Materials
and
product form
Grades of materials in accordance with the Part 1, Seagoig Ship,
Volume V, Rules for Materials,
Pressure vessel class
I
II
III
Plates for boilers and pressure vessels acc to Section 4, E
Low-temperature steels acc. to Section 4, F
Steel plate,
shapes and bars
Austenitic stainless steels acc. to Section 4, G
Rolled and forged steel
Specially killed steels acc. to
Section 4, C. (with testing of
each rolled plate),
General structural steels acc. to Section 4, C 1)
-
Shipbuilding steels acc. to
Section 4, B.
Seamless and welded ferritic steel pipes acc. to Section 5, B. and C.
Pipes
Low temperature steel pipes acc. to Section 5, D. for design temperatures below -10 ºC
Austenitic stainless steel pipes acc. to Section 5, E.
Forgings acc. to Section 6, E.
Low temperature steel forgings acc. to Section 6, F. for design temperatures below -10 ºC
Forgings
-
Forgings for general plant engineering acc. to Section 6,
B.
Bolts for general plant engineering to recognized standards, e.g. DIN 267 or ISO 898
Bolts and nuts
High-temperature steels for design temperatures > 300 ºC
Low-temperature steels for design temperatures below -10 ºC
Steel casting for boilers, pressure vessels and pipelines, Section 7, D.
High-temperature steel casting for design temperature > 300 ºC
Castings
Cast steel
-
Nodular cast iron
Grey cast iron
Nonferrous
metals
Low temperature steel castings, Section 7, E. for design temperature below - 10 ºC
Pipes and castings of
copper and copper
alloys
Steel casting for general application
Nodular cast iron according to Section 8, B.
Ferritic grades only
Standard grades up to 300 ºC
Special grades up to 350 ºC
-
At least grade GG 20, Section 8, C.
Not permitted for vessels in thermal oil systems
Copper alloys according to Section 11, within following limits :
copper-nickel alloys
up to
300 ºC
high-temperature bronzes
up to
260 ºC
others
up to
200 ºC
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 8 – Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers
B-C
5/16
Table 8.2 Approved materials (continued)
Grades of materials in accordance with the Part 1, Seagoig Ship,
Volume V, Rules for Materials,
Pressure vessel class
Materials
and
product form
Nonferrous
metals
I
1)
Plate, pipes and
castings of
aluminium alloys
II
III
Aluminium alloys according to Section 10, within the following limits :
Design temperature up to 200 ºC
only with the special agreement of BKI
Instead of unalloyed structural steel also hull structural steel according to Section 4, B may be applied
Table 8.3 Requirements to pressure vessel classes
Requirements
PV Class I
PV Class II
PV Class III
Design/Drawing Approval
required
required
Required,
exceptions
see A.1
Welding Shop Approval, see Part 1, Seagoing
Ship, Rules for Welding Section 2
required
required
--
Welding Procedure Test, see Part 1, Seagoing
Ship, Rules for Welding Section 4
required
required
--
BKI Material
Certificates,
see 4.1
Manufacturer
Inspection
Certificates,
see 4.2
Manufacturer
Test Report, see
4.3
BKI approved material manufacturer
required
required
--
Constructional check, see F.1.1
required
required
required
Hydraulic pressure test, see F.1.1
required
required
required
required
required
required
Testing of Materials / Test Certificates
Non destructive testing, see Part 1, Seagoing
Ship, Rules for Welding Section 10
for welding seams radiographic examination depends on
weld factor v
4.3
For all parts which are not subject to testing of materials according to 4.1 and 4.2, alternative proof of the
characteristics of the material is to be provided, e.g. by a Manufacturer Test Reports.
B-C
C.
Manufacturing Principles
1.
Manufacturing processes
Manufacturing processes shall be suitable for the materials.
Materials which grain structure has been adversely affected by hot or cold working are to undergo heat treatment in
accordance with the Part 1, Seagoing Ship, Volume V, Rules for Materials, Section 6, A.
2.
Welding
The execution of welding work, the approval of welding shops and the qualification testing of welders are governed by
the Part 1, Seagoing Ship, Volume VI, Rules for Welding, Section 14.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
6/16
3.
C-D
Section 8 – Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers
End plates
3.1
The flanges of dished ends may not be unduly hindered in their movement by any kind of fixtures, e.g.
fastening plates of stiffeners, etc. Supporting legs may only be attached to dished ends which have been adequately
dimensioned for this purpose.
3.2
Where covers or ends are secured by hinged bolts, the latter are to be safeguarded against slipping off.
4.
Branch pipes
C-D
The wall thickness of branch pipes is to be dimensioned as to enable additional external stresses to be safely absorbed.
The wall thickness of welded-in branch pipes shall be appropriate to the wall thickness of the part into which they are
welded. The walls are to be effectively welded together.
Pipe connections in accordance with Section 11 are to be provided for the attachment of piping.
5.
Tube Plates
Tube holes are to be carefully drilled and deburred. Bearing in mind the tube-expansion procedure and the combination
of materials involved, the ligament width must be such as to ensure the proper execution of the expansion process and
the sufficient anchorage of the tubes. The expanded length should not be less than 12 mm.
6.
Compensation for expansion
The design of vessels and equipment has to take account of possible thermal expansion, e.g. between the shell and
bundle of heating tubes.
7.
Corrosion protection
Vessels and equipment exposed to accelerated corrosion owing to the medium which they contain (e.g. warm seawater)
are to be protected in a suitable manner.
8.
Cleaning and inspection openings
8.1
Vessels and equipment are to be provided with inspection and access openings which should be as large as
possible and conveniently located. For the minimum dimensions of these, see Section 7 I, C.9.
In order to provide access with auxiliary or protective devices, a manhole diameter of at least 600 mm is generally
required. The diameter may be reduced to 500 mm where the pipe socket height to be traversed does not exceed 250
mm.
Vessels over 2,0 m in length are to have inspection openings at each end at least or shall contain a manhole. Vessels
with an inside diameter of more than 800 mm are to be equipped at least with one manhole.
8.2
Manhole openings are to be designed and arranged in such a way that the vessels are accessible without
undue difficulty. The edges of inspection and access openings are to be stiffened where they could be deformed by
tightening the cover-retaining bolts or crossbars.
Special inspection and access openings are not necessary where internal inspection can be carried out by removing or
dismantling parts.
8.3
Inspection openings may be dispensed with where experience has proved the unlikelihood of corrosion or
deposits, e.g. in steam jackets.
Where vessels and equipment contain dangerous substances (e.g. liquefied or toxic gases), the covers of inspection and
access openings shall be secured not by crossbars but by bolted flanges.
9.
Marking
Each pressure vessel is to be provided with a plate or permanent inscription indicating the manufacturer, the serial
number, the year of manufacture, the capacity, the maximum allowable working pressure and in case of service
temperatures of more than 50 ºC or less than -10 ºC the maximum allowable temperature of the pressurized parts. On
smaller items of equipment, an indication of the working pressures is sufficient.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 8 – Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers
D.
Calculations
1.
Principles
D
7/16
1.1
The parts subject to pressure of pressure vessels and equipment are to be designed, as far as they are
applicable, by applying the formulae for steam boilers (Section 7 I, D.) and otherwise in accordance with the general
rules of engineering practice 13. The calculations parameters according to 1.2 to 1.7 are to be used.
C-D
1.2
Design pressure pc
1.2.1
The design pressure pc is generally the maximum allowable working pressure (gauge) PB. In determining the
maximum allowable working pressure, due attention is to be given to hydrostatic pressures if these cause the loads on
the walls to be increased by 5 % or more.
D
1.2.2
In the case of feedwater preheaters located on the delivery side of the boiler feed pump, the maximum
allowable working pressure PB is the maximum delivery pressure of the pump.
1.2.3
For external pressures, the calculation is to be based on a vacuum of 1 bar or on the external pressure at
which the vacuum safety valves are actuated. In the event of simultaneous positive pressure externally and vacuum
internally, or vice versa, the calculation is to assume an external or, respectively, internal pressure increased by 1 bar.
1.2.4
In the case of cargo tanks for liquefied gases, the design pressure is to be determined in accordance with Part
1. Seagoing Ship, Volume IX, Rules for Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk. Vessels and equipment in
refrigerating installations are governed by Part 1, Seagoing Ship, Volume VIII, Rules for Refrigerating Installations,
Section 1, C.
1.3
Allowable stress
The dimensions of components are governed by the allowable stress σperm [N/mm2]. With the exception of cargo
containers and process pressure vessels according to Part 1, Seagoing Ship, Volume IX, Rules for Ships Carrying
Liquefied Gases in Bulk, the smallest value determined from the following expressions is to be applied in this case:
1.3.1
Rolled and forged steels
For design temperatures up to 350 ºC
= min
σ
R
,
2,7
,
R
1,7
,
R ,
1,6
Rm,20̊
[N/mm2]
guaranteed minimum tensile strength [N/mm2] at room temperature (may be dispensed with in
the case of recognized fine-grained steels with ReH ≤ 360)
ReH,20̊
[N/mm2]
guaranteed yield strength or minimum value of the 0,2 % proof stress2) at room temperature]
ReH,t
[N/mm2]
guaranteed yield strength or minimum value of the 0,2 % proof stress3) at design temperatures
above 50 ºC
For design temperatures above 350°C
3
σperm = Rm,100000,t
1,5
σperm = ReH, t
1,6
) The TRB/AD (Regulations of the Working Party on Pressure Vessels)constitute, for example, such rules of engineering practice
4)
1% proof stress in case of austenitic steel
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
8/16
D
Section 8 – Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers
Rm, 100000, t
[N/mm2]
mean value of the 100000 h fatigue strength at design temperature t
ReH, t
[N/mm2]
guaranteed yield strength or minimum value of the 0,2 % proof stress4) at design temperatures
above 50 ºC
1.3.2
a)
Cast materials
Cast steel :
σ
b)
a)
b)
,
R , R ,
,
2,0
2,0
,
R ,
3,0
,
R
= min
,
4,8
Grey cast iron :
σ
1.3.3
,
3,2
Nodular cast iron :
σ
c)
R
= min
=
R
,
11
Non-ferrous metals
Copper and copper wrought alloys
:
σ
Aluminum and aluminum wrought alloys: σ
=
Rm, t
4,0
=
Rm, t
4,0
With non-ferrous metals supplied in varying degrees of hardness it shall be noted that heating, e.g. at soldering or
welding, can cause a reduction in mechanical strength. In these cases, calculations are to be based on the mechanical
strength in the soft-annealed condition.
1.4
Design temperature
1.4.1
The design temperature to be applied is generally the maximum temperature of the medium to be contained.
1.4.2
Where heating is done by firing, exhaust gas or electrical means, Section 7 I, Table 7.3 is to be applied as
appropriate. Where electrical heating is used, Table 7.3 applies only to directly heated surfaces.
1.4.3
With service temperatures below 20ºC, a design temperature of at least 20ºC is to be used in calculations.
1.5
Weakening factor
For the weakening factors v for the calculation of walls or parts of walls, see Section 7 I, Table 7 I. 4.
1.6
Allowance for corrosion and wear
The allowance for corrosion and wear is generally c = 1 mm. It may be dispensed with in the case of plate thicknesses
of 30 mm or more, stainless steels and other corrosion-resistant materials.
1.7
Minimum wall thicknesses
1.7.1
The wall thickness of the shells and end plates shall generally not be less than 3 mm.
1.7.2
Where the walls of vessels are made from pipes of corrosion resistant materials or for vessels and equipment
in class III a minimum wall thickness of 2 mm can be allowed, provided that the walls are not subjected to external
forces.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 8 – Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers
1.8
E
9/16
Other methods applicable to dimensional design
Where walls, or parts of walls, cannot be calculated by applying the formulae given in Section 7 I or in accordance
with the general rules of engineering practice, other methods, e.g bursting pressure test according to recognized
standards or numerical methods (FE-Analysis) are to be used to demonstrate that the allowable stresses are not
exceeded.
E
E.
Equipment and Installation
1.
Shut-off devices
Shut-off devices must be fitted in pressure lines as close as possible to the pressure vessel. Where several pressure
vessels are grouped together, it is not necessary that each vessel should be capable of being shut-off individually and
means need only be provided for shutting off the group. In general, not more than three vessels should be grouped
together. Starting air receivers and other pressure vessels which are opened in service must be capable of being shut-off
individually. Devices incorporated in piping, (e.g. water and oil separators) do not require shut-off devices.
2.
Pressure gauges
2.1
Each pressure vessel which can be shut-off and every group of vessels with a shut-off device is to be
equipped with a pressure gauge, also capable of being shut-off. The measuring range and calibration are to extend to
the test pressure with a red mark to indicate the maximum allowable working pressure.
2.2
Equipment need only be fitted with pressure gauges when this is necessary for its operation.
3.
Safety equipment
3.1
Each pressure vessel which can be shut-off or every group of vessels with a shut-off device is to be equipped
with a spring-loaded safety valve which cannot be shut-off and which closes again reliably after blow-off.
Appliances for controlling pressure and temperature are no substitute for relief valves.
3.2
Safety valves are to be designed and set in such a way that the max. allowable working pressure cannot be
exceeded by more than 10 %. Means shall be provided to prevent the unauthorized alteration of the safety valve setting.
Valve cones are to be capable of being lifted at all times.
3.3
Means of drainage which cannot be shut-off are to be provided at the lowest point on the discharge side of
safety valves for gases, steam and vapours. Media flowing out of safety valves are to be drained off safely, preferably
via a pipe.
3.4
Steam-filled spaces are to be fitted with a safety valve if the steam pressure inside them is liable to exceed
the maximum allowable working pressure. If vacuum will occur by e.g. condensating an appropriate safety device is
necessary.
3.5
Heated spaces which can be shut-off on both the inlet and the outlet side are to be fitted with a safety valve
which will prevent an inadmissible pressure increase should the contents of the space undergo dangerous thermal
expansion or the heating elements fail.
3.6
Pressure water tanks are to be fitted with a safety valve on the water side. A safety valve on the air side may
be dispensed with if the air pressure supplied to the tank cannot exceed its maximum allowable working pressure.
3.7
Calorifiers are to be fitted with a safety valve at the cold water inlet.
3.8
Rupture discs are permitted only with the consent of BKI in applications where their use is specially
justified. They must be designed that the maximum allowable working pressure PB cannot be exceeded by more than
10 %.
Rupture discs are to be provided with a guard to catch the fragments of the rupture element and shall be protected
against damage from outside. The fragments of the rupture element shall not be capable of reducing the necessary
section of the discharge aperture.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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E-F
Section 8 – Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers
3.9
Pressure relief devices can be dispensed with in the case of accumulators in pneumatic and hydraulic control
and regulating systems provided that the pressure which can be supplied to these accumulators cannot exceed the
maximum allowable working pressure and that the pressure-volume product is PB [bar] V [l] ≤ 200.
3.10
Electrically heated equipment has to be equipped with a temperature limiter besides of a temperature
controller.
3.11
Oil-fired warm water generators are to be equipped with limiters for temperature and pressure above a
specified threshold. Additionally a low water level limiter, a limiter for minimum pressure or a low flow limiter is to be
provided. The actuation of the limiters shall shut-down and interlock oil burner.
E
Warm water generators heated by exhaust gases are to be equipped with the corresponding alarms.
3.12
The equipment on pressure vessels has to be suitable for the use on ships. The limiters for e.g. pressure,
temperature and flow are safety devices and have to be type approved and have to be provided with appropriate type
approval certificate. For safety valves the requirements of the BKI Guidelines for Test Requirements for Components
and Systems of Mechanical Engineering have to be fulfilled.
4.
Liquid level indicators and feed equipment for heated pressure vessels
4.1
Heated pressure vessels in which a fall of the liquid level can result in unacceptably high temperatures in the
vessel walls are to be fitted with a device for indicating the level of the liquid.
4.2
Pressure vessels with a fixed minimum liquid level are to be fitted with feed equipment of adequate size.
4.3
Warm water generating plants are to be designed as closed systems with external pressure generation and
membrane expansion vessel. Water shall be circulated by forced circulation.
5.
Sight glasses
Sight glasses in surfaces subject to pressure are allowed only if they are necessary for the operation of the plant and
other means of observation cannot be provided. They shall not be larger than necessary and shall preferably be round.
Sight glasses are to be protected against mechanical damage, e.g. by wire mesh. With combustible, explosive or
poisonous media, sight glasses shall be fitted with closable covers.
6.
Draining and venting
6.1
Pressure vessels and equipment are to be capable of being depressurized and completely emptied or drained.
Particular attention is to be given to the adequate drainage facilities of compressed air vessels.
6.2
Suitable connections for the execution of hydraulic pressure tests and a vent at the uppermost point are to be
provided.
7.
Installation
7.1
When installing and fastening pressure vessels onboard ship care is to be taken to ensure that the loads due
to the contents and the structural weight of the vessel and to movements of the ship and vibrations cannot give rise to
any excessive stress increases in the vessel’s surfaces. Walls in the region of supports and brackets are to be fitted with
reinforcing plates. The corners of the plates have to be rounded adequately to avoid increased welding stress.
Exceptions have to be agreed with BKI.
7.2
Pressure vessels and equipment are to be installed in such a way as to provide for practicable all-round
visual inspection and to facilitate the execution of periodic tests. Where necessary, ladders or steps are to be fitted
inside vessels.
7.3
Wherever possible, horizontally fastened compressed air receivers shall be installed at an angle and parallel
to the fore-and-aft line of the ship. The angle shall be at least 10° (with the valve head at the top.) Where vessels are
installed athwartships, the angle shall be greater.
7.4
Where necessary, compressed air receivers are to be marked on the outside that they can be installed
onboard ship in the position necessary for complete venting and drainage.
E-F
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 8 – Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers
F.
Tests
1.
Pressure tests
F-G
11/16
1.1
After completion, pressure vessels and heat exchangers have to undergo constructional checks and a
hydrostatic pressure tests. No permanent deformation of the walls may result from these tests.
During the hydrostatic pressure test, the loads specified below shall not be exceeded:
for materials with a definite yield point
for materials without a definite yield point
ReH, 20°
1,1
Rm, 20°
2,0
1.2
The test pressure PP for pressure vessels and heat exchangers is generally 1,5 times the maximum allowable
working pressure PB, subject to a minimum of PB + 1 bar respectively 1,5 times of the design pressure PR if this is
higher than PB.
In the case of pressure vessels and equipment which are only subjected to pressure below atmospheric , the test
pressure shall at least match the working pressure. Alternatively a pressure test can be carried out with a 2 bar pressure
in excess of atmospheric pressure.
For the test pressures to be applied to steam condensers, see Section 3 I.
1.3
All pressure vessels and equipment located in the fuel oil pressure lines of boiler firing equipment are to be
tested on the oil side with a test pressure of 1,5 times the maximum allowable working pressure PB, subject to a
minimum of 5 bar. On the steam side, the test is to be performed as specified in 1.2.
1.4
Pressure vessels in water supply systems which correspond to standard DIN 4810 are to be tested at pressure
of 5,2 bar, 7,8 bar or 13,0 bar as specified in the standard
1.5
Air coolers are to be tested on the water side at 1,5 times the maximum allowable working pressure PB,
subject to a minimum of 4 bar.
1.6
Warm water generators are to be subjected to a test pressure in accordance with the Standard or Directive
applied, but at least with 1,3 times the maximum allowable working pressure.
1.7
Pressure tests with media other than water may be agreed to in special cases.
2.
Tightness tests
For vessels and equipment containing dangerous substances (e.g. liquefied gases), BKI reserve the right to call for a
special test of gas tightness.
3.
Testing after installation on board
Following installation onboard ship, a check is to be carried out on the fittings of vessels and equipment and on the
arrangement and setting of safety appliances, and operating tests are to be performed wherever necessary.
F-G
G.
Gas Cylinders
1.
General
1.1
For the purposes of these requirements, gas cylinders are bottles with a capacity of not more than 150 l with
an outside diameter of < 420 mm and a length of < 2.000 mm which are charged with gases in special filling stations
and are thereafter brought on board ship where the pressurized gases are used, see also Section 12.
1.2
These Rules are not valid for gas cylinders with
-
a maximum allowable working pressure of maximum 0,5 bar, or
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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G
Section 8 – Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers
-
a capacity < 0,5 l.
1.3
These Rules are only valid in a limited range for gas cylinders with
-
a maximum allowable working pressure of maximum 200 bar and
-
a capacity > 0,5 l and < 4 l
F-G
For these gas cylinders a drawing approval can be waived. The tests according to 5.2 - 5.5 and the marking according
to 6. respectively a possible recognition according to 7. are to be performed.
2.
Approval procedure
2.1
Documentation
G
Drawings with definition of the planned from of stamp are to be submitted in triplicate.
2.2
Materials
2.2.1
Details of the raw materials to be used (range of chemical analysis, name of manufacturer, scope of
necessary characteristics and form of proof) are to be submitted.
2.2.2
Details of the scheduled heat treatment are to be submitted.
2.2.3
Details of the designated material properties (yield point, tensile strength, impact strength, fracture strain) of
the finished product are to be submitted.
3.
Manufacture
3.1
Gas cylinders are to be manufactured by established methods using suitable materials and have to be
designed that they are well capable to withstand the expected loads.
The following variants are to be distinguished:
-
seamless gas cylinders made of steel
-
welded gas cylinders made of steel
All other variants are subject to special approval by BKI Head Office.
3.2
The manufacturing process for seamless gas cylinders is to be approved by BKI.
3.3
Gas cylinders with the basic body made by welding are for the aforementioned requirements subject of this
Section.
4.
Calculation
4.1
Term used
pc
[bar]
design pressure (specified test pressure)
s
[mm]
wall thickness
c
[mm]
corrosion allowance
= 1 mm, if required
Da
[mm]
outside diameter of gas cylinder
ReH
[N/mm2]
guaranteed upper yield point
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 8 – Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers
Rp0,2
[N/mm2]
guaranteed 0,2 % proof stress
Rm
[N/mm2]
guaranteed minimum tensile strength
Re
[N/mm2]
yield point needed as comparative value for the determination of R
[N/mm2]
13/16
Re = ReH
Re = Rp0,2
Either
or
R
G
in each case the smaller of the following two values:
1) Re
2) -
0,75 Rm for normalized or normalized and tempered cylinders
- 0,90 Rm for quenched and tempered cylinders
perm
[N/mm2]
allowable stress
=
R
4/3
β
[-]
design coefficient for dished ends (see Section 7 I, D.4.)
V
[-]
weakening factor (see Section 7 I ,D.2)
4.2
Test pressure
The specified test pressure for CO2 bottles with a filling factor of 0,66 kg/l is 250 bar gauge. For other gases, the test
pressure may be agreed with BKI. If not agreed otherwise the test pressure is to be at least 1,5 times the maximum
allowable working pressure pe, perm.
4.3
Cylindrical surfaces
s =
4.4
Spherical ends
s =
4.5
Da ∙ pc
+ c
40 σperm ∙ v + pc Ends dished to outside
s =
4.6
Da ∙ pc
+ c
20 σperm ∙ v + pc Da ∙ pc ∙ β
+ c
40 σperm Ends dished to inside
The conditions applicable to dished ends are shown in the Figure 8.1.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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1
G
Section 8 – Pressure V
Vessels and Heat
H Exchangeers
Fig. 8.1 E
End dished to
o inside
4.7
4
Alteernative calculation
a calculation according to EN 1964-1 oor ISO 9809-1
Alternatively
A
1 may be perfformed, providded that the result
r
are at
least equivalennt.
5.
5
Tessting of gas cyylinders
5.1
5
App
proval proced
dure
BKI
B may apprrove accordingg to the follow
wing procedurres:
5.1.1
5
Single test in lotts
After
A
approvaal of the doccumentation by
b BKI Headd Office, the required testts according to 5.3 to 5.5
5 are to be
performed.
p
The
T facilitationns according to
t 5.5.3 are no
ot to be applieed.
5.1.2
5
Typ
pe approval and
a single tesst in lots
After
A
approvaal of the docuumentation by
y BKI Head Office, the fiirst production series servees to test thee specimens
according
a
to 5.3 to 5.5. Afterwards
A
for each produuction lot the required testts according to 5.3 to 5.5
5 are to be
performed.
p
The
T facilitationns according to
t 5.5.3 may apply.
a
5.1.3
5
Typ
pe approval and
a test arran
ngement
After
A
approvall of the docum
mentation by BKI
B Head Offfice, the manu
ufacturer may
y make special
al arrangementts with BKI
concerning
c
thee tests for appproval.
5.2
5
Sam
mpling
5.2.1
5
Norrmalized cylinders
Two
T sample cyylinders from
m each 400 orig
ginating from each melt and
d each heat treeatment are too be taken.
5.2.2
5
Queenched and tempered
t
cyliinders
Two
T sample cyylinders from
m each 200 orig
ginating from each melt and
d each heat treeatment are too be taken.
BKII Rules For M
Machinery Insttallation - 2014
Section 8 – Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers
5.3
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15/16
Testing on all gas cylinders
5.3.1
For all gas cylinders submitted for testing a hydrostatic pressure test with a test pressure according to 4.2 is
to be performed.
5.3.2
All gas cylinders submitted for testing are subjected to a final visual inspection. The gas cylinders have to
meet the requirements defined in the documentation for approval.
As far as an inspection by BKI is to be provided, a check of the weight and volumetric capacity as well as of the
stamped marking is to be performed for 10 % of the gas cylinders by the BKI Surveyor.
5.3.3
The manufacturer has to establish the volumetric capacity and weight of each cylinder.
5.3.4
Cylinders which have been quenched and tempered are to be subjected by the manufacturer to 100%
hardness testing. As far as not otherwise agreed, the hardness values evaluated for one test lot according to 5.2 shall not
be differing by more than 55 HB.
5.4
Testing on the first sample cylinder
5.4.1
From the first sample cylinder according to 5.2 one longitudinal tensile test specimen, three transverse
bending test specimens and a set of ISO V-type notched bar impact test specimens are to be taken in longitudinal or
transverse direction. The notched bar impact test specimens are to be tested at -20 °C. The average impact work shall
be at least 35 Joule.
5.4.2
The cylindrical wall thickness of the first sample cylinder is to be measured in transverse planes at three
levels (neck, middle and base) and the end plate is to be sawn through and the thickness measured.
5.4.3
At the first sample cylinder examination of the inner surface of the neck and bottom portions to detect
possible manufacturing defects.
5.5
Testing on the second sample cylinder
5.5.1
The second sample cylinder is subjected to a bursting test according to 5.5.2.
5.5.2
Bursting Test
5.5.2.1
Test bottles intended to be subjected to a bursting test are to be clearly identified as to the lot from which
they have been taken.
5.5.2.2
The required bursting pressure has to be at least 1,8 times the test pressure pp.
5.5.2.3
The hydrostatic bursting test is to be carried out in two subsequent stages, by means of a testing device
enabling the pressure to be continuously increased up to bursting of the cylinder and the pressure curve to be recorded
as a function of time. The test is to be carried out a room temperature.
5.5.2.4
During the first stage, the pressure has to increase continuously up to the value at which plastic deformation
starts; the pressure increase shall not exceed 5 bar/sec.
Once the point of plastic deformation has been reached (second stage), the pump capacity shall not exceed double the
capacity of the first stage; it has then to be kept constant until bursting of the cylinder.
5.5.2.5
The appearance of the fracture has to be evaluated. It shall not be brittle and no breaking pieces are to be
detached.
5.5.3
For lots of less than 400 pieces of normalized cylinders respectively for lots of less than 200 quenched and
tempered cylinders the bursting pressure is waived for every second lot.
5.6
Presence of the BKI Surveyor
As far as not agreed otherwise (see 5.1.3) the presence of the BKI Surveyor is required for the test according to 5.3.1,
5.3.2, 5.4 and 5.5.2.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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6.
G
Section 8 – Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers
Marking
Each gas cylinder is to be marked with the following:
-
name or trade name of the manufacturer
-
serial number
-
type of gas
-
design strength value [N/mm2]
-
capacity [l]
-
test pressure [bar]
-
empty weight [kg]
-
date of test
-
test stamps
7.
Recognition of equivalent tests
7.1
Recognition for single tests in lots
7.1.1
If the approval of the documents respectively the type approval of an institution recognized by BKI is
submitted, already manufactured gas cylinders checked by single test in lots may be recognized by BKI.
7.1.2
Herewith the complete documentation including manufacturing records is to be made available to BKI Head
Office and has to be evaluated with positive results.
7.1.3
The gas cylinders are to be subjected to an external check and a survey for conformity with the
documentation.
7.2
Recognition for tests with own responsibility
For gas cylinders which have been manufactured under the manufacturer’s own responsibility on the basis of an
approval by an institution outside BKI, an approval procedure according to 5.1.1 has to be performed.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 9 – Oil Burners and Oil Firing Equipment
B
1/6
Section 9
OiOiOil Burners and Oil Firing Equipment
A.
General
1.
Scope
A
1.1
The following requirements apply to oil burners and oil firing equipment that are to be used for burning of
liquid fuels according to Section 1, D.12 installed on main steam boilers, auxiliary steam boilers, thermal oil heaters,
hot water generators as well as inert gas generators according to Section 15, D.6., in the following referred to as heat
generators.
1.2
Where oil burners and oil firing equipment are to be used for burning of different liquid fuels or fuels
divergent to Section 1, D.12 as e.g. low sulphur distillate oils (LSDO), waste oil or oil sludge, the necessary
measures are to be agreed with the Head Office of BKI in each single case.
2.
Applicable Rules
The following BKI Rules and Guidelines are to be applied analogously :
Section 7 I
for steam boilers and hot water generators
Section 7 II
for thermal oil systems
Section 8
for warm water generators and pressure vessels e.g.
preheating equipment)
Section 11 A. to D., Q. and R.
for pumps, pipelines, valves and fittings
Section 12
for fire detection and fire extinguishing equipment
Part 1, Seagoing Ship, Volume IV, Rules for
Electrical Installation.
Part 1, Seagoing Ship, Volume VII, Rules for
Automation.
for automated machinery system (OT)
Guidelines for performance of Type Approvals
for component requiring type approval
3.
Documents for approval
Oil burner for the installation on heat generators have to fulfill the following requirements. The following documents
are to be submitted to BKI for approval.To facilitate a smooth and efficient approval process. the drawings could be
submitted in electronic format.
–
General drawings of the oil burner
–
Piping and equipment diagram of the burner including part list
–
Description of function
–
Electrical diagrams
–
List of equipment regarding electrical control and safety
–
Confirmation by the manufacturer that the oil burner and the oil firing equipment are suitable for the fuels
intended to be used.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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B
Section 9 - General Rules and Constructions
B
B.
Requirements regarding Oil Firing Equipment
1.
General
1.1
Heat generators without constant and direct supervision are to be operated with automatic firing
systems.
1.2.
Oil firing equipment with electrically operated components is also to be capable of being shut-down by
emergency switches located at the operating panel and from a position outside the space in which the equipment is
installed. In analogous manner, means are to be provided for a remote shut down of steam-operated fuel oil
service pumps.
1.3.
Oil firing equipment including the oil burner used with different fuel oils with regard to chemical
composition and physical properties are to be equipped or are to be able to be operated respectively in a manner
that any change-over to another fuel oil ensures in any case a safe automatic operation.
1.4
Manual Operation
1.4.1
For oil burners at heat generators, which are operated automatically, means for operation and
supervision are to be provided which allow a manual operation with the following minimum requirements by
using an additional control level.
1.4.2
Flame monitoring shall remain active.
1.4.3
The safety equipment not required for manual operation may only be set out of function by means of a
key-operated switch. The actuation of the key-operated switch is to be indicated.
1.4.4
Manual operation requires constant and direct supervision of the system.
2.
Equipment of the heat generators and burner arrangements
2.1
Oil burners are to be designed, fitted and adjusted in such a manner as to prevent the flame from
causing damage to the boiler surfaces or tubes which border the combustion space. Boiler parts which might
otherwise suffer damage are to be protected by refractory lining.
The firing system shall be arranged as to prevent the flame from blowing back into the boiler or engine room and
to allow unburned fuel to be safely drained.
2.2
Observation openings are to be provided at suitable points on the heat generator or burner through
which the ignition flame, the main flame and the lining can be observed.
3.
Simultaneous operation of oil burners and internal combustion machinery
The operation of oil burners in spaces containing other plants with high air consumption, e.g. internal combustion
engines or air compressors, is not to be impaired by variations in the air pressure.
4.
Preheating of fuel oil
4.1
The equipment has to enable the heat generators to be started up with the facilities available on board.
4.2
Where only steam-operated preheaters are present, fuel which does not require preheating has to be
available to start up the boilers.
4.3
Any controllable heat source may be used to preheat the fuel oil. Preheating with open flame is not
permitted.
4.4
Fuel oil circulating lines are to be provided to enable the preheating of the fuel oil prior to the start- up of
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 9 – Oil Burners and Oil Firing Equipment
B-C
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the generators.
When a change is made from heavy to light oil, the light oil shall not be passed through the heater or be excessively
heated (alarm system).
4.5
The fuel oil supply temperature is to be selected so as to avoid excessive foaming, the formation of vapour
or gas and also the formation of deposits on the heating surface.
Where fuel oil is preheated in tanks at atmospheric pressure, the requirements in Section 10, B.5. are to be complied
with.
The design and construction of pressurized fuel oil heaters are subject to the requirements in Section 8.
4.6
Temperature or viscosity control shall be done automatically. For monitoring purposes, a thermometer or
viscometer is to be fitted to the fuel oil pressure line in front of the burners.
4.7
Should the fuel oil supply temperature or viscosity deviate above or below the permitted limits, an alarm
system has to signal this fact to the heat generator control panel.
5.
Pumps, pipelines, valves and fittings
By means of a hand-operated quick-closing device mounted at the fuel oil manifold, it shall be possible to isolate the
fuel supply to the burners from the pressurized fuel lines. Depending on design and method of operation, a quickclosing device may also be required directly in front of each burner.
6.
Approved fuels
See Section 1, D.12.
B-C
C.
Requirements to Oil Burners
1.
Safety equipment
1.1
The correct sequence of safety functions when the burner is started up or shut down is to be ensured by
means of a burner control box.
1.2
Two automatic quick-closing devices have to be provided at the fuel oil supply line to the burner.
For the fuel oil supply line to the ignition burner one automatic quick-closing device will be sufficient, if the fuel oil
pump is switched off after ignition of the burner.
1.3
In an emergency it shall be possible to close automatic quick-closing devices from the heat generators
control platform and - where applicable - from the engine control room.
1.4
The automatic quick-closing devices shall not release the oil supply to the burner during start up and have
to interrupt the oil supply during operation (automatic restart possible) if one of the following faults occur :
a)
-
Failure of the required pressure of the atomizing medium (steam and compressed - air automizers)
-
Failure of the oil pressure needed for atomization (oil pressure atomizers)1)
-
Exceeding of the maximum allowable pressure in the return line (burners with return line)
1)
Where there are no oil or air supply monitoring devices or spring-loaded fast closing devices in the pump, the above requirements are considered
to have been met if there is a motor fan-pump assembly in the case of a single shaft motor output or a fan-motor-oil pump assembly in the case
of a double ended shaft motor output. In the latter case, there shall be a positive coupling between the motor and the fan.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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C
Section 9 - General Rules and Constructions
-
Insufficient rotary speed of spinning cup or primary air pressure too low (rotary atomizers)
b)
Failure of combustion air supply1)
c)
C
d)
Failure of control power supply
Failure of induced-draught fan or insufficient opening of exhaust gas register
e)
Burner not in operating position
C
1.5
The fuel oil supply has to be interrupted by closing the automatic quick-closing devices and interlocked by
means of the burner control box if:
-
The flame does not develop within the safety period following start-up (see 1.7)
-
The flame is extinguished during operation and attempt to restart the burner within the safety period is
unsuccessful (see 1.7) or
-
Limit switches are actuated.
1.6
The return line of burners with return lines have also to be provided with an automatic quick closing device.
The device in the return line may be dispensed with if the return line is not under pressure and no oil is able to flow
back when the burner is shut down.
1.7
Every burners is to be equipped with a safety device for flame monitoring suitable for the particular fuel oil
(spectral range of the burner flame is to be observed) in use. This appliance has to comply with the following safety
periods2) on burner start-up or when the flame is extinguished in operation :
-
on start-up 5 seconds
-
in operation 1 second
Where this is justified, longer safety periods may be permitted for burners with an oil throughput of up to 30 kg/h.
Measures are to be taken to ensure that safety period for the main flame is not prolonged by the action of the igniters
(e.g. ignition burners).
1.8
The equipment in the oil firing system has to be suitable for the use in oil firing systems and on ships. The
proof of the suitability of the limiters and alarm transmitters for e.g. burner control box, flame monitoring device,
automatic quick-closing device is to be demonstrated by a type approval examination according to the requirements of
BKI Rules listed in A.2.
1.9
The tripping of the safety and monitoring devices has to be indicated by visual and audible alarms at the
control panel of the heat generator.
1.10
The electrical interlocking of the firing system following tripping by the safety and monitoring devices is
only to be cancelled out at the heat generator or of the firing system respectively.
2.
Design and construction of burners
2.1
The type and design of the burner and its atomizing and air turbulence equipment shall ensure virtually
complete combustion.
2.2
Equipment use, especially pumps and shut off devices, shall be suitable for the particular application and
the oils in use.
2)
The safety period is the maximum permitted time during which fuel oil may be supplied to the combustion space in the absence of a flame.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 9 – Oil Burners and Oil Firing Equipment
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2.3
Burners, which can be retracted or pivoted are to be provided with a catch to hold the burner in the swung
out position. Additionally the requirements according to 1.4 e) are to be observed.
2.4
Steam atomizers have to be fitted with appliances to prevent fuel oil entering the steam system.
2.5
Where an installation comprises several burners supplied with combustion air by a common fan, each
burner is to be fitted with a shut-off device (e.g. a flap). Means are to be provided for retaining the shut-off device in
position shall be indicated.
2.6
Every burner is to be equipped with an igniter. The ignition is to be initiated immediately after purging. In
the case of low-capacity burners of monoblock type (permanently coupled oil pump and fan) ignition may begin with
start-up of the burner unless the latter is located in the roof of the chamber.
2.7
Where burners are blown through after shutdown, provision is to be made for the safe ignition of the
residual oil ejected.
3.
Purging of combustion chamber and flues, exhaust gas ducting
3.1
The combustion chamber and flues are to be adequately purged with air prior burner start up. A warning
sign is to be mounted to this effect.
3.2
A threefold renewal of the total air volume of the combustion chamber and the flue gas ducts up to the
funnel inlet is considered sufficient. Normally purging shall be performed with the total flow of combustion air for at
least 15 seconds. It shall, however, in any case be performed with at least 50 % of the volume of combustion air
needed for the maximum heating power of the firing system.
3.3
Bends and dead corners in the exhaust gas duct are to be avoided.
Dampers in uptakes and funnels should be avoided. Any damper which may be fitted is to be so installed that no oil
supply is possible when the cross-section of the purge lines is reduced below a certain minimum value. The position of
the damper has to be indicated at the boiler control platform.
3.4
Where dampers or similar devices are fitted in the air supply duct, care has to be taken to ensure that air for
purging the combustion chamber is always available unless the oil supply is necessarily interrupted.
3.5
Where an induced-draught fan is fitted, an interlocking system shall prevent start-up of the firing equipment
before the fan has started. A corresponding interlocking system is also to be provided for any flaps which may be
fitted to the funnel opening
4.
Electrical equipment
Electrical equipment and its degree of protection have to comply with the Part 1, Seagoing Ship, Volume IV, Rules for
Electrical Installations.
High voltage igniters have to be sufficiently safe againts unauthorized operation.
5.
Marking
The following information shall be stated on a durable manufacturer’s name plate attached to the burner:
–
manufacturer’s name plate
–
type and size
–
serial number
–
year of manufacture
–
min./max. oil flow
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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C-D
Section 9 - General Rules and Constructions
–
fuel oils to be used
–
degree of protection
D.
Testing
1.
Test at the manufacturer’s shop
C-D
For burners for heat generators the following examinations have to be performed at the manufacturer’s shop and
documented by a BKI approval Certificate:
-
visual inspection and completeness check
-
pressure test of the oil preheated, if available and required according to Section 8
-
pressure test of the burner
-
insulation resistance test
-
high voltage test
-
functional test of the safety related equipment
2.
Tests on board
2.1
After installation a pressure and tightness test of the fuel system including fittings has to be performed, see
Section 11, B.4.
2.2
The system including the switchboard installed at the heat generator on board the vessel has to be function
tested as follows, especially the required purging time has to be identified and manual operation has to be
demonstrated.
-
completeness check for the required components of the equipment
-
functional test of all safety relevant equipment
-
functional test of the burner control box
-
identification of maximum and minimum burner power
-
identification of flame stability on start-up, at maximum and at minimum burner power under consideration
of combustion chamber pressure. Unspecified pressure changes are not permitted.
-
proof regarding required purging of flues and safety times
-
in case the oil burner is operated with different fuel oils the proper change-over to another fuel oil quality and
especially the safe operation of the flame monitoring, the quick closing devices and the preheater, if existing,
are to be checked.
-
proof regarding combustion properties like CO2-, possibly O2-, CO-volumetric content and soot number at
minimum, means and maximum power, in case of statutory requirements
The correct combustion at all settings as well as function of safety equipment has to be verified. A BKI approval
Certificate of the oil burner regarding examination at the manufacturer’s shop is to be presented to BKI during
functional testing.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 10 – Storage of Liquid Fuels, Lubricating, Hydraulic
and Thermal Oils as well as Oily Residues
A-B
1/6
Section 10
Storage of Liquid Fuels, Lubricating, Hydraulic and Thermal Oils
as well as Oily Residues
A.
A-B
1.
General
Scope
The following requirements apply to the storage of liquid fuels, lubricating, hydraulic and thermal oils as well as to oily
residues.
2.
Definitions
Service tanks are settling tanks and daily service tanks which supply consumers directly.
Changeable tanks are tanks which may be used alternatively for liquid fuels or ballast water. Changeable tanks are to
be treated as fuel tanks.
3.
Tank Plan
A tank plan is to be submitted for approval in triplicate. Particulars regarding arrangement, medium and volume of the
tanks are to be included. To facilitate a smooth and efficient approval process. the drawings could be submitted in
electronic format.
B.
Storage of Liquid Fuels
1.
General safety precautions for liquid fuels
Tanks and pipes are to be so located and equipped that fuel may not spread either inside the ship or on deck and may
not be ignited by hot surfaces or electrical equipment. The tanks are to be fitted with air and overflow pipes as
safeguards against overpressure, see Section 11, R.
2.
Distribution, location and capacity of fuel tanks
2.1
Distribution of fuel tanks
2.1.1
The fuel supply is to be stored in several tanks so that, even in the event of damage of one of the tanks, the
fuel supply will not be lost entirely.
On passenger ships and on cargo ships of 400 GT and over, no fuel tanks or tanks for the carriage of flammable liquids
may be arranged forward of the collision bulkhead.
2.1.2
Provision is to be made to ensure that internal combustion engines and boiler plants operating on heavy fuel
can be operated temporarily on fuel which does not need to be preheated. Appropriate tanks are to be provided for this
purpose. This requirement does not apply where cooling water of the main or auxiliary engines is used for preheating
of heavy fuel tanks. Other arrangements are subject to the approval of BKI.
2.1.3
Fuel tanks are to be separated by cofferdams from tanks containing lubricating, hydraulic, thermal or edible
oil as well as from tanks containing boiler feed water, condensate or drinking water. This does not apply to used
lubricating oil which will not be used on board anymore.
2.1.4
On small ships the arrangement of cofferdams according to 2.1.3 may, with the approval of BKI, be
dispensed with, provided that the common boundaries between the tanks are arranged in accordance with Part 1.
Seagoing Ships, Volume II, Rules for Hull, Section 12.A.5.2.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
2/6
2.1.5
B
2.2
B
Section 10 – Storage of Liquid Fuels, Lubricating, Hydraulic
and Thermal Oils as well as Oily Residues
Fuel oil tanks adjacent to lubricating oil circulating tanks are not permitted.
Arrangements of fuel tanks
2.2.1
Fuel tanks may be located above engines, boilers, turbines and other equipment with a high surface
temperature (above 220°C) only if adequate spill trays are provided below such tanks and they are protected against
heat radiation. Surface temperature of the elements without insulation and lagging shall be considered.
2.2.2
Fuel tanks shall be an integral part of the ship's structure. If this is not practicable, the tanks shall be located
adjacent to an engine room bulkhead and the tank top of the double bottom. The arrangement of free standing fuel
tanks inside engine rooms is to be avoided. Tank arrangements which do not conform to the preceding rules require the
approval of BKI.
2.2.3
Tanks adjacent to refrigerated cargo holds are subject to the Rules for Refrigerating Installations (Part
1,Vol.VIII), Section 1, M.
2.2.4
An independent fuel supply is to be provided for the prime movers of the emergency source of electrical
power:

On cargo ships, the fuel capacity is to be sufficient for at least 18 hours. This applies in analogous manner to
the engines driving emergency fire pumps.

On passenger ships, the fuel capacity is to be sufficient for at least 36 hours. A reduction may be approved
for passenger ships employed in short voyages only (in territorial waters), but the capacity is to be sufficient
for at least 12 hours.
On passenger ships, the fuel tank is to be located above the bulkhead deck, and on cargo ships above the uppermost
continuous deck, and in both cases outside the engine and boiler rooms and aft of the collision bulkhead.
By the arrangement and/or heating of the fuel tank, the emergency diesel equipment is to be kept in a state of readiness
even when the outside temperature is low.
2.2.5
Fuel oil service tanks provided for emergency diesel generators which are approved for operation in port for
the main power supply shall be so designed that the capacity required under 2.2.4 is available at any time. An
appropriate low level alarm is to be provided, see Part 1. Seagoing Ships, Rules for Electrical Installations, Section 3,
D.2.6.
2.2.6
Number and capacity of fuel oil service tanks, see Section 11, G.10.
3.
Fuel tank fittings and mountings
3.1
For filling and suction lines see Section 11, G.; for air, overflow and sounding pipes, see Section 11, R.
3.2
Service tanks are to be so arranged that water and residues can deposit despite of ship movement.
Fuel tanks located above the double bottom are to be fitted with water drains with self-closing shut-off valves.
3.3
Tank gauges
3.3.1
The following tank gauges are permitted:

sounding pipes

oil-level indicating devices (type approved)

oil-level gauges with flat glasses and self-closing shut off valves at the connections to the tank and protected
against external damage
3.3.2
For fuel storage tanks the provision of sounding pipes is sufficient. The sounding pipes may be dispensed
with, if the tanks are fitted with oil level indicating devices which have been type approved by BKI.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 10 – Storage of Liquid Fuels, Lubricating, Hydraulic
and Thermal Oils as well as Oily Residues
B
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3.3.3
Fuel oil settling and daily service tanks are to be fitted with oil-level indicating devices or oil-level gauges
according to 3.3.1.
3.3.4
Sight glasses and oil gauges fitted directly on the side of the tank and cylindrical glass oil gauges are not
permitted.
3.3.5
Sounding pipes of fuel tanks may not terminate in accommodation or passenger spaces, nor shall they
terminate in spaces where the risk of ignition of spillage from the sounding pipes consists.
3.3.6
On passenger ships, sounding pipes and oil level indicating devices are permitted only where they do not
require penetration below the tank top and where their failure or over-filling of the tanks cannot result in the release of
fuel.
3.3.7
Sounding pipes should terminate outside machinery spaces. Where this is not possible, the following
requirements are to be met:


oil-level gauges are to be provided in addition to the sounding pipes,
sounding pipes are to be located in a safe distance from ignition hazards or they are to be effectively
screened to prevent that spillage through the sounding pipes may come into contact with a source of ignition,

the sounding pipes are to be fitted with self-closing shut-off devices and self-closing test cooks.
4.
Fastening of appliances and fittings on fuel tanks
4.1
Appliances, mountings and fittings not forming part of the fuel tank equipment may be fitted to tank walls
only by means of intermediate supports. To free-standing tanks only components forming part of the tank equipment
may be fitted.
4.2
Valves and pipe connections are to be attached to doubler flanges welded to the tank wall. Holes for
attachment bolts are not to be drilled in the tank wall. Instead of doubler flanges, thick walled pipe stubs with flange
connections may be welded into the tank walls.
5.
Tank heating system
5.1
Tanks are to be provided with a system for warming up viscous fuels. It has to be possible to control the
heating of each individual tank. Heating coils are to be appropriately subdivided or arranged in groups with their own
shut-off valves. Where necessary, suction pipes are to be provided with trace heating arrangement.
5.2
Fuel oil in storage tanks is not to be heated to temperatures within 10 °C below the flash point of the fuel oil.
In service tanks, settling tanks and any other tanks of supply systems fuel oil may be heated to higher temperatures if
the following arrangements are to be provided:

The length of the vent pipes from such tanks and/or cooling device is sufficient for cooling the vapours to
below 60 °C, or the outlet of the vent pipes is located 3 m away from sources of ignition,

Air pipe heads are fitted with flame screens,

There are no openings from the vapour space of the fuel tanks into machinery spaces, bolted manholes are
acceptable,

Enclosed spaces are not to be located directly above such fuel tanks, except for vented cofferdams,

Electrical equipment fitted in the vapour space has to be of certified type to be intrinsically safe.
5.3
For ships with ice class the tank heating is to be so designed that the fuel oil remains capable of being
pumped under all ambient conditions.
5.4
At tank outlets, heating coils are to be fitted with means of closing. Steam heating coils are to be provided
with means for testing the condensate for oil between tank outlet and closing device. Heating coil
connections in tanks normally are to be welded. The provision of detachable connections is permitted only in
exceptional cases.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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B-C-D
Section 10 – Storage of Liquid Fuels, Lubricating, Hydraulic
and Thermal Oils as well as Oily Residues
Inside tanks, heating coils are to be supported in such a way that they are not subjected to impermissible stresses due to
vibration, particularly at their points of clamping.
5.5
Tanks for fuel which requires preheating are to be fitted with thermometers and, where necessary, with
thermal insulation.
5.6
For the materials, wall thickness and pressure testing of heating coils, see Section 11.
6.
Hydraulic pressure tests
Fuel tanks are to be tested for tightness in accordance with the Part 1. Seagoing Ship, Volume II, Rules Rules for Hull.
7.
Fuels with a flash point of ≤ 60°C
For the storage of liquid fuels with a flash point of ≤ 60°C, see Section 1, D.12.
B-C-D
C.
Storage of Lubricating and Hydraulic Oil
1.
Tank arrangement
For the arrangement of the tanks, B.2.2.1 and analogously Part I. Seagoing Ship, Rules for Hull,
2.
Tank fittings and mountings
2.1
For filling and suction lines of lubricating oil and hydraulic oil tanks, see Section 11, H.2.2
2.2
For tank sounding devices for oil tanks, see B.3.3.1, B.3.3.4 and B.3.3.6.
2.3
For the fastening of appliances and fittings on the tanks, B.4 is to be applied analogously.
2.4
For tank heating systems the requirements of B.5.4 are to be observed.
3.
Capacity and construction of tanks
3.1
Lubricating oil circulation tanks are to be sufficiently dimensioned to ensure that the dwell time is long
enough for settling out of air bubbles, residues etc. With a maximum permissible filling level of about 85 %, the tanks
are to be large enough to hold at least the lubricating oil contained in the entire circulation system including the
contents of gravity tanks.
3.2
Measures, such as the provision of baffles or limber holes consistent with structural strength requirements,
particularly relating to the machinery bed plate, are to be provided to ensure that the entire contents of the tank remains
in circulation. Limber holes are to be located as near to the bottom of the tank as possible. Suction pipe connections are
to be placed as far as practicable away from the oil drain pipe so that neither air nor sludge may be sucked in
irrespective of the heeling angle of the ship likely to be encountered during service.
3.3
Lubricating oil circulating tanks are to be equipped with sufficiently dimensioned vents.
D.
Storage of Thermal Oils
1.
Arrangements of tanks
For the arrangement of the tanks B.2.2.1 and on the Part I. Seagoing Ship, Volume II, Rules for Hull, Section 8, B.5.1
are to be applied analogously.
2.
Tank fittings and mountings
2.1
For tank measuring devices for thermal oil tanks, see B.3.3 and Section 7 - II. Expansion tanks are to be
fitted with type approved level indicating devices.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 10 – Storage of Liquid Fuels, Lubricating, Hydraulic
and Thermal Oils as well as Oily Residues
D-E-F
2.2
For the mounting of appliances and fittings on the tanks, B.4 is to be applied analogously.
2.3
For filling and suction lines from thermal oil tanks, see Section 11, H.2.2.
D-E-F
E.
Storage of Oil Residues
1.
Tank heating system
5/6
To ensure the pumpability of the oil residues a tank heating system in accordance with B.5 is to be provided, if
considered necessary.
Sludge tanks are generally to be fitted with means of heating which are to be so designed that the content of the sludge
tank may be heated up to 60 °C.
2.
Sludge tanks
2.1
Capacity of sludge tanks
The capacity of sludge tanks shall be such that they are able to hold the residues arising from the operation of the ship
having regard to the scheduled duration of a voyage1)2).
2.2
Fittings and mountings of sludge tanks
2.2.1
For tank sounding devices B.3.3.2 and B.3.3.5 are to be applied analogously.
2.2.2
For air pipes, see Section 11, R.
F.
Storage of Gas Bottles for Domestic Purposes
1.
Storage of gas bottles shall be located on open deck or in well ventilated spaces which only having access to
open deck only.
2.
1)
2)
Gaseous fuel systems for domestic purposes shall comply with BKI Guidelines for The Use Of Gas As Fuel
National requirements, if any, are to be observed.
Reference is made to MEPC Circular 235
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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D-E-F
Section 10 – Storage of Liquid Fuels, Lubricating, Hydraulic
and Thermal Oils as well as Oily Residues
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BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
A
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Section 11
Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
A
A.
General
1.
Scope
These requirements apply to pipes and piping systems, including valves, fittings and pumps, which are necessary for the
operation of the main propulsion plant together with its auxiliaries and equipment. They also apply to piping
systems used in the operation of the ship whose failure could directly or indirectly impair the safety of ship or
cargo, and to piping systems which are dealt with in other Sections.
Cargo and process piping on ships for the carriage of liquefied gases in bulk is additionally subject to the provisions of
the Part 1, Seagoing Ships, Volume IX, Rules for Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk.
Cargo piping for the carriage of chemicals in bulk is additionally subject to the provisions of the Part 1, Seagoing
Ships, Volume X, Rules for Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemical in Bulk.
Gas welding equipment is subject to the approval of BKI Head Office and tested in presence of BKI Surveyor
Ventilation systems are subject to rules to the provisions of Regulations for Ventilation Systems on Board Seagoing
Ships.
Closed fuel oil overflow systems are subject to Guidelines for Construction, Equipment and Testing of Closed Fuel
Overflow Systems.
Fuel systems for ships with gas as fuel are subject to BKI “Guidelines for the Use of Gas as Fuel for Ships”
2.
Documents for approval
2.1
The following drawings/documents are to be submitted for approval in triplicate1). To facilitate a smooth and
efficient approval process. the drawings could be submitted in electronic format.
Diagrammatic plans of the following piping systems including all the details necessary for approval
2.1.1
(e.g. lists of valves, fittings and pipes):
–
steam systems (steam, condensate and boiler feed water systems)
–
thermal oil systems
–
fuel systems (bunkering, transfer and supply systems)
–
seawater cooling systems
–
fresh water cooling systems
–
lubricating oil systems
–
starting air, control air and working air systems
–
exhaust gas systems
–
bilge systems
–
ballast systems
–
cross-flooding arrangements
–
air, overflow and sounding pipes including details of filling pipe cross sections
1)
For ships flying Indonesian flag in quadruplicate, one of which intended for Indonesian Government.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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A
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
–
closed overflow systems
–
sanitary systems (potable water, fresh water, seawater, sewage)
–
equipment for the treatment and storage of bilge water and fuel oil residues
A
For remotely controlled valves:
2.1.2
–
diagrammatic piping plans and diagrammatic plans of the arrangement of piping and control stands in the
ship
–
diagrammatic plans and electrical circuit diagrams of the control stations and power units, as well as
drawings of the remotely controlled valves, control stands and the corresponding pressure accumulators
For steam lines with working temperatures > 400°C, the corresponding stress calculations together with
2.1.3
isometric data are to be submitted.
3.
Pipe classes
For the testing of pipes, selection of joints, welding and heat treatment, pipes are subdivided into three classes as
indicated in Table 11.1.
Table 11.1 Classification of pipes into pipe classes
Medium/type of pipeline
Pipe Class
Toxic media
Corrosive media
Inflammable media with service temperature above the flash
point
Inflammable media with a flash point below 60 °C or less
Liquefied gases (LG)
Design pressure PR [bar]
Design temperature t [°C]
I
II
III
All
-
-
All
1)
-
PR > 16
or
t > 300
PR > 16
or
t > 300
PR ≤ 16
and
t ≤ 300
PR ≤ 16
and
t ≤ 300
PR ≤ 7
and
t ≤ 170
PR ≤ 7
and
t ≤ 150
Air, gas
Non-flammable hydraulic fluid
Boiler feed water, condensate
Seawater and freshwater for cooling
Brine in refrigerating plant
PR > 40
or
t > 300
PR ≤ 40
and
t ≤ 300
PR ≤ 16
and
t ≤ 200
Liquid fuels, lubricating oil, flammable hydraulic fluid
PR > 16
or
t > 150
PR ≤ 16
and
t ≤ 150
PR ≤ 7
and
t ≤ 60
-
-
All
All
-
-
Refrigerants
-
All
-
Open-ended pipelines (without shutoff), e.g. drains, venting
pipes, overflow lines and boiler blow down lines
-
-
All
Steam
Thermal oil
Cargo pipelines for oil tankers
Cargo and venting lines for gas and chemical tankers
1)
Classification in Pipe Class II is possible if special safety arrangements are available and structural safety precautions are arranged
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
B.
Materials, Testing
1.
General
B
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B
Materials are to be suitable for the proposed application and comply with the Rules for Materials (Part 1,Vol.V).
In case of especially corrosive media, BKI may impose special requirements on the materials used. For the materials
used for pipes and valves for steam boilers, see Sections 7.I and 7.II.
2.
Materials
2.1
Material manufacturers
Pipes, elbows, fittings, valve casings, flanges and semi-finished products intended to be used in pipe class I and
II are to be manufactured by BKI approved manufacturers.
For the use in pipe class III piping systems an approval according to other recognized standards may be accepted.
2.2
Pipes, valves and fittings of steel
Pipes belonging to Classes I and II are to be either seamless drawn or fabricated by a welding procedure approved
by BKI. In general, carbon and carbon manganese steel pipes, valves and fittings are not to be used for temperatures
above 400 °C. However, they may be used for higher temperatures provided that their metallurgical behavior and
their strength property according to C.2.3 after 100.000 h of operation are in accordance with national or
international regulations or standards and if such values are guaranteed by the steel manufacturer. Otherwise, alloy
steels in accordance with Rules for Materials (Part 1,Vol.V), are to be used.
2.3
Pipes, valves and fittings of copper and copper alloys
Pipes of copper and copper alloys are to be of seamless drawn material or fabricated according to a method
approved by BKI. Copper pipes for Classes I and II must be seamless.
In general, copper and copper alloy pipe lines are not to be used for media having temperatures above the following
limits:
–
copper and aluminium brass
200 °C
–
copper nickel alloys
300 °C
–
high-temperature bronze
260 °C
2.4
Pipes, valves and fittings of nodular cast Iron
Pipes, valves and fittings of nodular cast iron according to the Rules for Materials (Part 1,Vol.V), may be accepted for
bilge, ballast and cargo pipes within double-bottom tanks and cargo tanks and for other purposes approved by BKI. In
special cases (applications corresponding in principle to classes II and III) and subject to BKI special approval, valves
and fittings made of nodular cast iron may be accepted for temperatures up to 350 °C. Nodular ferritic cast iron for
pipes, valves and fittings fitted on the ship's side has to comply with Rules for Materials (Part 1,Vol.V) (see also Rule
22 of the 1966 International Convention on Load Lines)
2.5
Pipes, valves and fittings of lamellar graphite cast iron (grey cast iron)
Pipes, valves and fittings of grey cast iron may be accepted by BKI for Class III. Pipes of grey cast iron may be
used for cargo pipelines within cargo tanks of tankers.
Pipes, valves and fittings of grey cast iron may be used for cargo lines on the weather deck of oil tankers up to a
working pressure of 16 bar.
Ductile materials are to be used for cargo hose connections and distributor headers.
This applies also to the hose connections of fuel and lubricating oil filling lines.
The use of grey cast iron is not allowed:
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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B
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
–
in cargo lines on chemical tankers (see the Part 1, Seagoing Ships, Volume X, Rules for Ships Carrying
Dangerous Chemical in Bulk),
–
for pipes, valves and fittings for media having temperatures above 220 °C and for pipelines subject to
water hammer, severe stresses or vibrations
–
for sea valves and pipes fitted on the ship sides and for valves fitted on the collision bulkhead
–
for valves on fuel and oil tanks subject to static head
–
for relief valves
The use of grey cast iron in cases other than those stated is subject to BKI approval.
2.6
Plastic pipe systems
2.6.1
General
Plastic piping systems are to be type approved by BKI. The requirements are defined in Regulation for The
Performance of Type Test - Test Requirements for Components and Systems.
2.6.2
Range of application
The use of plastic piping systems is approved for piping systems included in pipe class III only. Dependent on
the application and installation location specific means respectively additional flame tests may be required.
Depending on the location of installation and the medium three different levels of fire endurance for plastic pipe systems
are to be distinguished (see IMO Resolution A.753 (18), Appendix 1 and 2):
Fire endurance level 1 (L1)
:
Dry piping having passed the test for duration of a minimum of one hour
without loss of integrity.
Fire endurance level 2 (L2)
:
Dry piping having passed the test for duration of a minimum of 30 minutes
without loss of integrity.
Fire endurance level 3 (L3)
:
Water filled piping having passed the test for duration of a minimum of 30
minutes without loss of integrity in wet condition.
Permitted use of piping depending on fire endurance, location and type of system is given in Table 11.1a.
2.6.3
Quality control during manufacture
2.6.3.1 The manufacturer is to have a quality system that meets ISO 9000 series standards or equivalent. The quality
system is to consist of elements necessary to ensure that pipes and fittings are produced with consistent and uniform
mechanical and physical properties.
2.6.3.2 Each pipe and fitting is to be tested by the manufacturer at a hydrostatic pressure not less than 1,5 times the
nominal pressure. Alternatively, for pipes and fittings not employing hand lay up techniques, the hydrostatic pressure test
may be carried out in accordance with the hydrostatic testing requirements stipulated in the recognized national or
international standard to which the pipe or fittings are manufactured, provided that there is an effective quality system in
place.
2.6.3.3 Piping and fittings are to be permanently marked with identification. Identification is to include pressure
ratings, the design standards that the pipe or fitting is manufactured in accordance with, and the material of which the pipe
or fitting is made.
2.6.3.4 In case the manufacturer does not have an approved quality system complying with ISO 9000 series or
equivalent, pipes and fittings are to be tested in accordance with Regulation for The Performance of Type Test - Test
Requirements for Components and Systems.
2.6.3.5
fitting.
Depending upon the intended application by BKI may require the pressure testing of each pipe and/or
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
Tabel 11.1a
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Fire endurance requirements matrix
Piping system
No.
B
Location
Description
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
Flammable cargoes (Flash point ≤ 60 °C)
1
Cargo lines
NA
NA
L1
NA
NA
0
NA
0
0
NA
L12)
2
Crude oil washing lines
NA
NA
L1
NA
NA
0
NA
0
0
NA
L12)
3
Vent lines
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0
NA
0
0
NA
X
NA
NA
01)
NA
NA
01)
01)
01)
0
NA
0
Inert gas
4
Water seal effluent line
Inert gas
5
Scrubber effluent line
01)
01)
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
01)
0
NA
0
6
Main line
0
0
L1
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0
NA
L16)
7
Distribution lines
NA
NA
L1
NA
NA
0
NA
NA
0
NA
L12)
X
L1
X
X
NA3)
0
010)
0
NA
L1
3)
0
0
0
L1
L1
Flammable liquids (Flash point > 60 °C)
8
Cargo lines
X
9
Fuel oil
X
X
L1
X
X
NA
10
Lubricating
X
X
L1
X
X
NA
NA
NA
0
L1
L1
11
Hydraulic oil
X
X
L1
X
X
0
0
0
0
L1
L1
Seawater
1)
12
Bilge main & branches
L17)
L17)
L1
X
X
NA
0
0
0
NA
L1
13
Fire main & water spray
L1
L1
L1
X
NA
NA
NA
0
0
X
L1
14
Foam system
L1
L1
L1
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0
L1
L1
15
Sprinkler system
L1
L1
L3
X
NA
NA
NA
0
0
L3
L3
0
0
0
L2
L2
16
17
18
19
Ballast
Cooling water, essential
services
Tank cleaning services; fixed
machines
Non-essential systems
10)
L3
L3
L3
L3
X
0
L3
L3
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
0
0
NA
L2
NA
NA
L3
NA
NA
0
NA
0
0
NA
L32)
0
0
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
0
0
Freshwater
20
Cooling water, essential
services
L3
L3
NA
NA
NA
NA
0
0
0
L3
L3
21
Condensate return
L3
L3
L3
0
0
NA
NA
NA
0
0
0
22
Non-essential systems
0
0
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
0
0
Piping system
No.
Location
Description
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
Sanitary / Drains / Scuppers
23
Deck drains (internal)
L14)
L14)
NA
L14)
0
NA
0
0
0
0
0
24
Crude oil washing lines
0
0
NA
0
0
NA
0
0
0
0
0
25
Vent lines
01)8)
01)8)
01)8)
01)8)
01)8)
0
0
0
0
01)8)
0
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
Tabel 11.1a
Piping system
No.
Fire endurance requirements matrix (continued)
Location
Description
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
Sounding / Air
26
Water tanks / dry spaces
0
0
0
0
0
010)
0
0
0
0
0
27
Oil tanks
(Flash point > 60 °C)
0
0
0
0
0
010)
0
0
0
0
0
Miscellanous
28
Control air
L15)
L15)
L15)
L15)
L15)
NA
0
0
0
L15)
L15)
29
Service air
(non-essential)
0
0
0
0
0
NA
0
0
0
0
0
30
Brine
0
0
NA
0
0
NA
NA
NA
0
0
0
31
Auxiliary low pressure
steam (≤ 7 bar)
L2
L2
09)
09)
09)
0
0
0
0
09)
09)
Location definition:
A
Machinery spaces of category A
Machinery spaces of category A as defined in SOLAS Regulation II-2/Reg. 3, 31
B
Other machinery spaces and pump
room
C
D
Cargo pump rooms
Ro-ro cargo holds
E
Other dry cargo holds
F
G
H
Cargo tanks
Fuel oil tanks
Ballast water tanks
Spaces other than category A machinery spaces and cargo pump rooms, containing
propulsion machinery, boilers, steam and internal combustion engines, generators and
major electrical machinery, pumps, oil filling stations, refrigerating, stabilizing,
ventilation and air-conditioning machinery and similar spaces and trunks to such spaces
Spaces containing cargo pumps and entrances and trunks to such spaces
Ro-ro cargo holds are ro-ro cargo spaces and special category as defined in SOLAS Reg.
II-2/Reg. 3, 41, 46
All spaces other than ro-ro cargo holds used for non-liquid cargo and trunks to such
spaces
All spaces used for liquid cargo and trunks to such spaces
All spaces used for fuel oil (excluding cargo tanks) and trunks
All spaces used for ballast water and trunks to such space
I
Cofferdams, Voids etc
J
Accommodation, service
K
Open Decks
Cofferdams and voids are those empty spaces between two bulkheads, separating two
adjacent compartments
Accommodation spaces, service and control station as defined in SOLAS Regulations II2/Reg. 3,1,45
Open Deck as defined in SOLAS RegulationsII-2/Reg. 9,2.3.3.2 (10)
Abbreviations:
L1
Fire endurance test (Appendix 1) in dry conditions, 60 minutes
L2
Fire endurance test (Appendix 1) in dry conditions, 30 minutes
L3
Fire endurance test (Appendix 2) in wet conditions, 30 minutes
0
No fire endurance test required
NA
Not Applicable
X
Metalic materials having a melting point greater than 925 oC
Foot notes :
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
Where non-metallic piping is used, remotely controlled valves are to be provided at ship’s side (valve is to be controlled from
outside space)
Remote Closing valves to be provided at the cargo tanks
When cargo tanks contain flammable liquids with flash point > 60oC, “0” may replace “NA” or “X”
For drains serving only the space concerned , “0” may replace “L1”
When controlling function are not required by statuary requirement, “0” may replace “L1”
For pipes between machinery space and deck watter seal, “0” may replace “L1”
For passenger vessels, “X” is to replace “L1”
Scuppers serving open decks in position 1 and 2, as defined in Regulation 13 of ICCL, should be “X” throughout unless fitted at
the upper deck with the means of closing capable of being operated from a position above the freeboard deck in order to prevent
down flooding.
For essential services, such as fuel oil tank heating and ship’s whistle. “X” is to replace “0”
For tankers where compliance with paragraph 3)f) of Regulation 13F of Annex I of MARPOL 73/78 is required, “NA” is to
replace “0”
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
2.6.4
B
7/70
Installation
2.6.4.1 The selection and spacing of pipe supports are to take into account pipe dimensions, mechanical and
physical properties of the pipe material, mass of pipe and contained fluid, external pressure, operating temperature,
thermal expansion effects, loads due to external forces, thrust forces, water hammer, vibrations, maximum
accelerations to which the system may be subjected. Combination of loads is to be considered.
2.6.4.2
Heavy components such as valves and expansion joints are to be independently supported.
2.6.4.3 When calculating the thermal expansions, account is to be taken of the difference between the operating
temperature of the system and the ambient temperature during installation.
2.6.4.4
Pipes are to be protected during installation and service from mechanical damage where necessary.
2.6.4.5 In piping systems for fluid with conductivity less than 1000 picoSiemens per metre [pS/m] such as
refined products and distillates use is to be made of conductive pipes.
Regardless of the medium, electrically conductive plastic piping is to be used if the piping passes through
hazardous areas. The resistance to earth from any point in the piping system is not to exceed 1x106 Ohm. It is
preferred that pipes and fittings be homogeneously conductive. Pipes and fittings having conductive layers are to
be protected against a possibility of spark damage to the pipe wall. Satisfactory earthing is to be provided.
After completion of the installation, the resistance to earth is to be verified. Earthing connections are to be arranged in
a way accessible for inspection.
2.6.4.6 To meet the fire endurance according to Table 11.1a the pipes and fittings may be provided with flame
protection covers, coatings or isolations. The installation instructions of the manufacturer have to be considered.
The execution of hydrostatic pressure tests has to be established before the installation of these coverings.
2.6.4.7 Pipe penetrations through watertight bulk-heads or decks as well as through fire divisions are to be type
approved by BKI.
If the bulkhead or deck is also a fire division and destruction by fire of plastic pipes may cause the inflow of liquid
from tanks, a metallic shut-off valve is to be fitted at the bulkhead or deck. The operation of this valve is to be
provided from above the freeboard deck.
2.6.5
Testing after installation on board
Piping systems for essential services are to be subjected to a pressure test with a pressure of 1,5 times the design
pressure pc resp. nominal pressure PN, but at minimum to 4 bar.
Piping systems for non-essential services are to be checked for leakage under operational conditions.
For piping required to be electrically conductive, earthing is to be checked and random resistance testing is to be
conducted.
2.7
Aluminium and aluminium alloys
Aluminum and aluminum alloys are to comply with Rules for Materials (Part 1,Vol.V), and may in individual cases,
with the agreement of BKI, be used under the same restrictions as plastic pipes (refer to 2.6 and Table 11.a) and for
temperatures up to 200 °C. They are not acceptable for use in fire extinguishing systems.
2.8
Application of materials
For the pipe classes mentioned in A.3 materials must be applied according to Table 11.2.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
Table 11.2 Approved materials
Non-metallic
materials
Non-ferrous metals
(valves, fittings, pipes)
Castings (valves, fittings, pipes)
Steels
Material or application
Pipe class
I
II
III
Pipes
Steel pipes for high temperatures above
300 °C, pipes made of steel with
high/low temperature toughness at
temperatures below – 10 °C, stainless
steel pipes for chemicals
Pipes for
general
applications
Steel not subject to any
special quality specification,
weldability in accordance
with Rules for Welding
Forgings,
plates, flanges,
steel sections
and
Bars
Steel suitable for the corresponding service and processing conditions
High temperature steel for temperatures above 300 °C
Steel with high/low-temperature toughness for temperatures below –10 °C
Bolts,
Nuts
Bolts for general machinery
constructions, high-temperature steel
for temperatures above 300°C, steel
with high/low temperature toughness
for temperatures below –10 °C
Bolts for general machine construction
Cast steel
High-temperature cast steel for
temperatures above 300 °C, cast steel
with high/low temperature toughness at
temperatures below –10 °C, stainless
castings for aggressive media
Cast steel for general applications
Nodular cast
iron
Only ferritic grades, elongation A5 at least 15 %
Up to 220 °C, grey cast iron
is not permitted for valves
and fittings on ship's side, on
collision bulkhead on fuel
and oil tanks and for relief
valves
Cast iron with
lamellar
graphite
–
Copper,
copper alloys
In cargo lines on chemical tankers only
with special approval, low-temperature
copper-nickel alloys by special
agreement
For seawater and alkaline water only
corrosion resistant copper and copper alloys
Aluminium,
aluminium
alloys
In cargo and processing lines on gas
tankers
Only with the agreement of BKI up to
200 °C, not permitted in fire extinguishing
systems
Plastics
–
–
–
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
On special approval
(see 2.6)
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
3.
B
9/70
Testing of materials
3.1
For piping systems belonging to class I and II, tests in accordance with Rules for Materials (Part 1,Vol.V),
and under BKI supervision are to be carried out in accordance with Table 11.3 for :
–
pipes, bends and fittings
–
valve bodies and flanges
–
valve bodies and flanges > DN 100 in cargo and process pipelines on gas tankers with design temperature
< -55 °C
Welded joints in pipelines of classes I and II are to be tested in accordance with Rules for Ships Carrying
3.2
Liquefied Gas in Bulk (Part 1,Vol.IX).
Table 11.3 Approved materials and types of material Certificates
Type of
Component
Pipes 1),
Pipe elbows,
Fittings
Approved materials
Steel,
Copper, Copper alloys,
Aluminium
Aluminium alloys
Plastics
> 300 °C
Copper,
Copper alloys
> 225 °C
Steel,
Cast steel,
Nodular cast iron,
Grey cast iron
–
Copper,
Copper alloys
≤ 225 °C
Aluminium,
Aluminium alloys
≤ 200 °C
According to Table 11.2
Nominal
diameter
DN
A
B
C
I + II
> 50
≤ 50
X
–
–
X
–
–
III
All
–
–
X
I, II
DN > 100
DN ≤ 100
X
–
–
X
–
–
PB × DN > 2500
or DN > 250
X
–
–
PB × DN ≤ 2500
or DN ≤ 250
–
X
–
All
–
–
X
PB × DN > 1500
X
–
–
PB × DN ≤ 1500
–
X
–
III
All
–
–
X
I, II
–
–
X
–
III
–
–
–
X
I, II
III
I, II
Acc. to
Type
Approval
Certificate
Plastics
Semi-finished
products,
Screws and
other
component
≤ 300 °C
Type of
Certificate2)
Pipe
class
–
Steel,
Cast steel,
Nodular cast iron
Steel,
Cast steel,
Nodular cast iron
Valves 1),
Flanges,
Design
temperature
–
1)
Casings of valves and pipes fitted on ship’s side and bottom and bodies of valves fitted on collision bulkhead are to be
included in pipe class II
2)
Test Certificates acc. to BKI Rules for Materials – Volume V, Section 1-3. with the following abbreviations:
A: BKI Material Certificate, B: Manufacturer Inspection Certificate, C: Manufacturer Test Report
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
4.
Hydraulic tests on pipes
4.1
Definitions
4.1.1
Maximum allowable working pressure, PB [bar], Formula symbol: pe,perm
This is the maximum allowable internal or external working pressure for a component or piping system with
regard to the materials used, piping design requirements, the working temperature and undisturbed operation.
4.1.2
Nominal pressure, PN [bar]
This is the term applied to a selected pressure temperature relation used for the standardization of structural
components. In general, the numerical value of the nominal pressure for a standardized component made of the
material specified in the standard will correspond to the maximum allowable working pressure PB at 20 °C.
4.1.3
Test pressure, PP [bar], Formula symbol: pp
This is the pressure to which components or piping systems are subjected for testing purposes.
4.1.4
Design pressure, PR [bar], Formula symbol: pc
This is the maximum allowable working pressure PB for which a component or piping system is designed with
regard to its mechanical characteristics. In general, the design pressure is the maximum allowable working pressure
at which the safety equipment will interfere (e.g. activation of safety valves, opening of return lines of pumps,
operating of overpressure safety arrangements, opening of relief valves) or at which the pumps will operate against closed
valves.
The design pressure for fuel pipes is to be chosen according to Table 11.4.
Table 11.4 Design pressure for fuel pipes
Max. working
temperature
T ≤ 60 °C
T > 60 °C
PB ≤ 7 bar
3 bar or max. working pressure,
whichever is greater
3 bar or max. working pressure,
whichever is greater
PB > 7 bar
max. working pressure
14 bar or max. working pressure,
whichever is greater
Max. working
pressure
4.2
Pressure test prior to installation on board
4.2.1
All Class I and II pipes as well as steam lines, feed water pressure pipes, compressed air and fuellines
having a design pressure PR greater than 3,5 bar together with their integral fittings, connecting pieces, branches and
bends, after completion of manufacture but before insulation and coating, if this is provided, are to be subjected to a
hydraulic pressure test in the presence of the Surveyor at the following value of pressure:
pp = 1,5 pc
[ bar ]
where pc is the design pressure. For steel pipes and their integral fittings intended to be used in systems with
working temperature above 300 °C the test pressure PP is to be as follows:
pp = 1,5 ∙
σperm (100°)
σ perm (100 )
∙ pc
σ perm (t)
= permissible stress at 100 °C
σperm (t)
= permissible stress at the design temperature t [°C]
However, the test pressure need not exceed:
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
pp = 2 pc
B-C
11/70
[ bar ]
With the approval of BKI, this pressure may be reduced to 1,5 pc where it is necessary to avoid excessive stress in
way of bends, T-pieces and other shaped components.
In no case may the membrane stress exceed 90 % of the yield strength or 0,2 % of the maximum elongation.
4.2.2
Where for technical reasons it is not possible to carry out complete hydraulic pressure tests on all sections
of piping before assembly on board, proposals are to be submitted to BKI for approval for testing pipe connections on
board, particularly in respect of welding seams.
4.2.3
Where the hydraulic pressure test of piping is carried out on board, these tests may be conducted in
conjunction with the tests required under 4.3.
Pressure testing of pipes with less than DN 15 may be omitted at BKI's discretion depending on the
4.2.4
application.
4.3
Test after installation on board
After assembly on board, all pipelines covered by these requirements are to be subjected to a tightness
4.3.1
test in the presence of a BKI Surveyor.
In general, all pipe systems are to be tested for leakage under operational conditions. If necessary, special techniques
other than hydraulic pressure tests are to be applied.
4.3.2
4 bar.
Heating coils in tanks and pipe lines for fuels are to be tested to not less than 1,5 PR but in no case less than
4.4
Pressure testing of valves
The following valves are to be subjected in the manufacturer's works to a hydraulic pressure test in the presence of a
BKI Surveyor:
–
valves of pipe classes I and II to 1,5 PR
–
valves on the ship's side to not less than 5 bar
Shut-off devices of the above type are to be addition ally tested for tightness with the nominal pressure.
Shut-off devices for boilers, see Section 7I, E.13.
5.
Structural tests, heat treatment and non destructive testing
Attention should be given to the workmanship in construction and installation of the piping systems according to the
approved data. For details concerning non-destructive testing following heat treatments, etc, see Rules for Materials
(Part 1,Vol.V).
B-C
C.
Calculation of Wall Thickness and Elasticity
1.
Minimum wall thickness
1.1
The pipe thicknesses stated in Tables 11.5 to 11.8 are the assigned minimum thicknesses, unless due to
stress analysis, see 2, greater thicknesses are necessary.
Provided that the pipes are effectively protected against corrosion, the wall thicknesses of group M and D stated in
Table 11.6 may, with BKI's agreement, be reduced by up to 1 mm, the amount of the reduction is to be in relation to the
wall thickness.
Protective coatings, e.g. hot-dip galvanizing, can be recognized as an effective corrosion protection provided that
the preservation of the protective coating during installation is guaranteed.
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Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
For steel pipes the wall thickness group corresponding to the location is to be as stated in Table 11.5.
C
1.2
The minimum wall thicknesses for austenitic stainless steel pipes are given in Table 11.7.
1.3
11.20a.
For the minimum wall thickness of air, sounding and overflow pipes through weather decks, see R, Table
For CO2 fire extinguishing pipelines, see Section 12, Table 12.6.
1.4
Where the application of mechanical joints results in reduction in pipe wall thickness (bite type rings or other
structural elements) this is to be taken into account in determining the minimum wall thickness.
Table 11.5 Minimum wall thickness groups N, M and D of steel pipes and approved locations
D
Seawater lines
Fuel lines
Lubricating lines
–
D
X
D
N
X
X
X
X
X
M
X
1)
M 2)
M
Weather deck
M
Cargo pump rooms
Condensate and feed water
tanks
X
X
N
Thermal oil lines
–
M
X
X
–
–
N
Steam lines
M
M
Condensate lines
Feedwater lines
Thermal oil tanks
Drinking water tanks
Hydraulic oil tanks
Lubricating oil tanks
X
Cofferdams, tank ships
M
Cargo tanks, tank ships
M
Fresh cooling water tanks
D
Fuel and changeover tanks
M
Accommodation
Ballast lines
Ballast water tanks
Bilge lines
Cargo holds
Cofferdams / void spaces
Piping system
Machinery spaces
Location
M
X
M
X
X
D
M
Hydraulic lines
M
N
M
X
X
1)
See Section 15, B.4.3
2)
Seawater discharge lines, see Section 11, T.
X
Pipelines are not to be installed.
(–)
Pipelines may be installed after special agreement with BKI
N
X
X
N
M
N
N
N
D
M
N
X
X
X
X
Fresh cooling water
lines
Compressed air lines
M
N
N
Drinking water lines
M
–
X
X
X
–
–
N
N
X
N
N
X
X
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
N
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
C
13/70
Table 11.6 Minimum wall thickness for steel pipes
Group N
Group M
Group D
da
s
da
s
da
s
da
s
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
[mm]
10,2
1,6
From 406,4
6,3
From 21,3
3,2
From 406,4
6,3
From 13,5
1,8
From 660,0
7,1
From 38,0
3,6
From 660,0
7,1
From 20,0
2,0
From 762,0
8,0
From 51,0
4,0
From 762,0
8,0
From 48,3
2,3
From 864,0
8,8
From 76,1
4,5
From 864,0
8,8
From 70,0
2,6
From 914,0
10,0
From 117,8
5,0
From 914,0
8,8
From 88,9
2,9
From 193,7
5,4
From 114,3
3,2
From 219,1
5,9
From 133,0
3,6
From 244,5
6,3
From 152,4
4,0
From 660,4
7,1
From 177,8
4,5
From 762,0
8,0
From 244,5
5,0
From 863,6
8,8
From 323,9
5,6
From 914,4
10,0
Table 11.7 Minimum wall thickness for austenitic stainless steel pipes
Pipe outside diameter
da
[mm]
Minimum wall thickness
s
[mm]
Up to 17,2
1,0
Up to 48,3
1,6
Up to 88,9
2,0
Up to 168,3
2,3
Up to 219,1
2,6
Up to 273,0
2,9
Up to 406,0
3,6
Up to 406,0
4,0
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
Table 11.8 Minimum wall thickness for copper and copper alloy pipes
Pipe outside diameter
da
[mm]
2.
Minimum wall thickness
s
[mm]
Copper
Copper Aloy
8 – 10
1,0
0,8
12 – 20
1,2
1,0
25 – 44,5
1,5
1,2
50 – 76,1
2,0
1,5
88,9 – 108
2,5
2,0
133 – 159
3,0
2,5
193,7 – 267
3,5
3,0
273 – 457,2
4,0
3,5
(470)
4,0
3,5
508
4,5
4,0
Calculation of pipe wall thicknesses
2.1
The following formula is to be used for calculating the wall thicknesses of cylindrical pipes and bends
subject to internal pressure:
s = s + c + b[mm](1)
s =
d ∙p
[mm](1a)
20 ∙ σ
∙ v +p
s
[mm]
minimum wall thickness, see 2.7
so
[mm]
calculated thickness
d
[mm]
outer diameter of pipe
pc
[bar]
design pressure2), see B.4.1.4
σperm
[N/mm2]
maximum permissible design stress, see 2.3
b
[mm]
allowance for bends, see 2.2
v
[-]
weld efficiency factor, see 2.5
c
[mm]
corrosion allowance, see 2.6
2.2
For straight cylindrical pipes which are to be bent, an allowance (b) is to be applied for the bending of the
pipes. The value of (b) is to be such that the stress due to the bending of the pipes does not exceed the maximum
permissible design stress (σperm). The allowance (b) can be determined as follows:
2)
For pipes containing fuel heated above 60 °C the design pressure is to be taken not less than 14 bar
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
b = 0,4.
R
C
15/70
d
. s
R
[mm]
Bending radius
2.3
Permissible stress σperm
2.3.1
Steel pipes
The permissible stress σperm to be considered in formula (1a) is to be chosen as the lowest of the following values:
a)
design temperature ≤ 350 °C
= min
σ
R
,
,
A
R
,
,
B
R
, .
B
Rm,20°
=
specified minimum tensile strength at room temperature
ReH,t
=
specified minimum yield stress at design temperature; or
Rpo,2,t
=
minimum value of the 0,2 % proof stress at design temperature
b)
design temperature > 350 °C, whereby it is to be checked whether the calculated values according to a) give
the decisive smaller value
σ
= min
R
,
B
,
R
.
.
B
,
R
,
,(
)
B
Rm,100000,t
=
minimum stress to produce rupture in 100000 hours at the design temperature t
Rp1,100000,t
=
average stress to produce 1% creep in 100000 hours at the design temperature t
Rm,100000,(t+15) =
average stress to produce rupture in 100000 hours at the design temperature t plus 15°C, see 2.4
In the case of pipes which:
–
are covered by a detailed stress analysis acceptable to BKI and
–
are made of material tested by BKI, BKI may, on special application, agree to a safety factor B of 1,6 (for A
and B see Table 11.10).
2.3.2
Pipes made of metallic materials without a definite yield point
Materials without a definite yield point are covered by Table 11.9. For other materials, the maximum permissible stress is
to be stated with BKI agreement, but is to be at least
σ
≤
R
,
5
Rm,t is the minimum tensile strength at the design temperature.
2.3.3
The mechanical characteristics of materials which are not included in the Part 1, Seagoing Ships, Volume V,
Rules of Materials, are to be agreed with BKI, reference to Table 11.10.
Steel pipes without guaranteed properties may be used only up to a working temperature of 120°C where the
permissible stress σperm ≤ 80 N/mm2 will be approved.
2.4
Design temperature
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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C
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
2.4.1
The design temperature is the maximum temperature of the medium inside the pipe. In case of steam pipes,
filling pipes from air compressors and starting air lines to internal combustion engines, the design temperature is to be
at least 200 °C.
Table 11.9 Permissible stress σperm for copper and copper alloys (annealed)
Pipe material
Minimum
tensile
strength
Permissible stress σperm [N/mm2]
[N/mm2]
50oC
75oC
100oC 125oC
150oC
175oC
200oC
225oC
250oC
Copper
215
41
41
40
Aluminium brass
Cu Zn 20 Al
325
78
78
275
68
365
81
275oC 300oC
40
34
27,5
18,5
–
–
–
–
78
78
78
51
24,5
–
–
–
–
68
67
65,5
64
62
59
56
52
48
44
79
77
75
73
71
69
67
65,5
64
62
Cu Ni 5 Fe
Copper
nickel
alloy
Cu Ni 10 Fe
Cu Ni 30 Fe
Table 11.10 Coefficient A,B for determining the permitted stress σperm
Pipe class
A
B
A
B
Unalloyed and alloyed carbon steel
2,7
1,6
2,7
1,8
Rolled and forged stainless steel
2,4
1,6
2,4
1,8
Steel with yield strength1) > 400 N/mm2
3,0
1,7
3,0
1,8
Grey cast iron
-
-
11,0
-
Nodular cast iron
-
-
5,0
3,0
3,2
-
4,0
-
1)
a)
II, III
Material
Cast steel
2.4.2
I
o
Minimum yield strength or minimum 0,2 % proof stress at 20 C
Design temperatures for superheated steam lines are as follows:
pipes behind desuperheaters:
–
with automatic temperature control:
the working temperature3) (design temperature)
–
with manual control:
the working temperature + 15 °C3)
b)
pipes before desuperheaters:
–
3)
the working temperature + 15 °C3)
Transient excesses in the working temperature need not be taken into account when determining the design temperature.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
2.5
C
Weld efficiency factor v
–
For seamless pipes v = 1,0
–
In the case of welded pipes, the value of v is to be taken according to the works acceptance test of BKI.
2.6
17/70
Corrosion allowance c
The corrosion allowance c depends on the application of the pipe, in accordance with Tables 11.11a and 11.11b.
With the agreement of BKI, the corrosion allowance of steel pipes effectively protected against corrosion may be
reduced by not more than 50 %.
With the agreement of BKI, no corrosion allowance need to be applied to pipes made of corrosion-resistant materials
(e.g. austenitic steels and copper alloys) (see Table 11.7 and 11.8).
Table 11.11a
Corrosion allowance c for carbon steel pipes
Type of piping system
Corrosion allowance c
[mm]
Superheated steam lines
0,3
Saturated steam lines
0,8
Steam heating coils inside cargo tanks
2,0
Feedwater lines:
- in closed circuit systems
0,5
- In open circuit systems
1,5
Boiler blowdown lines
1,5
Compressed air lines
1,0
Hydraulic oil lines, Lubricating oil lines
0,3
Fuel lines
1,0
Cargo oil lines
2,0
Refrigerant lines for Group 1 refrigerants
0,3
Refrigerant lines for Group 2 refrigerants
0,5
Seawater lines
3,0
Fresh water lines
0,8
Table 11.11b Corrosion allowance c for non-ferrous metals
Pipe material
Corrosion allowance c
[mm]
Copper, brass and similar alloys
0,8
Copper-tin alloys except those containing lead
Copper-nickel alloys (with Ni > 10%)
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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18/70
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2.7
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
Tolerance allowance t
The negative manufacturing tolerances on the thickness according to the standards of the technical terms of
delivery are to be added to the calculated wall thickness so and specified as the tolerance allowance t.
The value of t may be calculated as follows:
t =
a
. s [mm]
100 − a
a
[%]
negative tolerance on the thickness
so
[mm]
calculated wall thickness according to 2.1
3.
Analysis of elasticity
The forces, moments and stresses caused by impeded thermal expansion and contraction are to be
3.1
calculated and submitted to BKI for approval for the following piping systems:
–
steam pipes with working temperatures above 400 °C
–
pipes with working temperatures below -110 °C.
3.2
Only approved methods of calculation may be applied. The change in elasticity of bends and fittings due to
deformation is to be taken into consideration. Procedure and principles of methods as well as the technical data are to
be submitted for approval. BKI reserve the right to perform confirmatory calculations.
For determining the stresses, the hypothesis of the maximum shear stress is to be considered. The resulting
equivalent stresses due to primary loads, internal pressure and dead weight of the piping system itself (inertia forces)
are not to exceed the maximum permissible stress according to 2.3. The equivalent stresses obtained by adding
together the above mentioned primary forces and the secondary forces due to impeded expansion or contraction
are not to exceed the mean low cycle fatigue value or the meantime yield limit in 100.000 hours, whereby for fittings
such as bends, T-connections, headers, etc. approved stress increase factors are to be considered.
4.
Fittings
Pipe branches may be dimensioned according to the equivalent surface areas method where an appropriate reduction of
the maximum permissible stress as specified in 2.3 is to be proposed. Generally, the maximum permissible stress
is equal to 70 % of the value according to 2.3 for pipes with diameters over 300 mm. Below this figure, a reduction
to 80 % is sufficient. Where detailed stress measuring, calculations or approvals are available, higher stresses can be
permitted.
5.
Calculation of flanges
Flange calculations by a recognized method and using the permitted stress specified in 2.3 are to be submitted if
flanges do not correspond to a recognized standard, if the standards do not provide for conversion to working conditions
or where there is a deviation from the standards.
Flanges in accordance with standards in which the values of the relevant stresses or the material are specified
may be used at higher temperatures up to the following pressure:
p perm 
σ perm
σ perm
standard
 p standard
(t, material)
σperm(t,material)
=
permissible stress according to 2.3 for proposed material at design temperature t
σperm standard
=
permissible stress according to 2.3 for the material at the temperature corresponding to the
strength data specified in the standard
pstandard
=
nominal PN pressure specified in the standard
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
D.
1.
D
19/70
Principles for the Construction of Pipes, Valves, Fittings and Pumps
D
General principles
Piping systems are to be constructed and manufactured on the basis of standards generally used in
1.1
shipbuilding.
For welding and brazed connections as well as similar joining methods the requirements according to Rules
1.2
for Welding (Part 1,Vol.VI), are to be observed.
Welded connections rather than detachable couplings are to be used for pipelines carrying toxic media
1.3
and inflammable liquefied gases as well as for superheated steam pipes with temperatures exceeding 400 °C.
Expansion in piping systems due to heating and shifting of their suspensions caused by deformation of the
1.4
ship are to be compensated by bends, compensators and flexible pipe connections. The arrangement of suitable fixed
points is to be taken into consideration.
1.5
Where pipes are protected against corrosion by special protective coatings, e.g. hot-dip galvanizing, rubber
lining, etc., it is to be ensured that the protective coating will not be damaged during installation.
2.
Pipe connections
2.1
The following pipe connections may be used:
-
full penetration butt welds with/without provision to improve the quality of the root
-
socket welds with suitable fillet weld thickness and where appropriate in accordance with recognized
standards
-
steel flanges may be used in accordance with the permitted pressures and temperatures specified in the relevant
standards
-
mechanical joints (e.g. pipe unions, pipe couplings, press fittings, etc.) of an approved type
For the use of welded pipe connections, see Table 11.12
2.2
Flange connections
2.2.1
Dimensions of flanges and bolting are to comply with recognized standards.
Table 11.12 Pipe connections
Types of connections
Pipe class
Welded butt-joints with special provisions for root
side
I, II, III
Welded butt-joints without special provisions for root
side
II, III
Socket weld brazed connections1)
1)
Outside
diameter
all
III
II
≤ 60,3 mm
For flammable liquids brazed connections are only permitted between pipes and components which are
directly connected to machinery and equipment.
Brazed connections in piping systems conveying flammable media which are arranged in machinery spaces of
category A are in general not permissible, deviations require BKI approval.
2.2.2
Gaskets are to be suitable for the intended media under design pressure and maximum working
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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D
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
temperature conditions and their dimensions and construction is to be in accordance with recognized standards.
2.2.3
Steel flanges may be used as shown in Tables 11.16 and 11.17 in accordance with the permitted pressures
and temperatures specified in the relevant standards.
Flanges made of non-ferrous metals may be used in accordance with the relevant standards and within
2.2.4
the limits laid down in the approvals. Flanges and brazed or welded collars of copper and copper alloys are subject
to the following requirements:
a)
welding neck flanges according to standard up to 200 °C or 300 °C according to the maximum temperatures
indicated in Table 11.9; applicable to all classes of pipe
b)
loose flanges with welding collar; as for a)
c)
plain brazed flanges: only for pipe class III up to a nominal pressure of 16 bar and a temperature of 120 °C
Flange connections for pipe classes I and II with temperatures over 300 °C are to be provided with necked2.2.5
down bolts.
2.3
Welded socket connections
Welded socket connections may be accepted according to Table 11.12. Following conditions are to be observed.
–
The thickness of the sockets is to be in accordance with C.1.1 at least equal to the thickness of the pipe.
–
The clearance between the pipes and the socket is to be as small as possible.
–
The use of welded socket connections in systems of pipe class II may be accepted only under the condition that
in the systems no excessive stress, erosion and corrosion are expected.
2.4
Screwed socket connections
2.4.1
Screwed socket connections with parallel and tapered threads are to comply with requirements of recognized
national or international standards.
2.4.2
Screwed socket connections with parallel threads are permitted for pipes in class III with an outside diameter
≤ 60,3 mm as well as for subordinate systems (e.g. sanitary and hot water heating systems). They are not permitted for
systems for flammable media.
2.4.3
Screwed socket connections with tapered threads are permitted for the following:
–
class I, outside diameter not more than 33,7 mm
–
class II and class III, outside diameter not more than 60,3 mm
Screwed socket connections with tapered threads are not permitted for piping systems conveying toxic or flammable
media or services where fatigue, severe erosion or crevice corrosion is expected to occur.
2.5
Mechanical joints
2.5.1
Type approved mechanical joints 4) may be used as shown in Tables 11.13 to 11.15.
Mechanical joints in bilge and seawater systems within machinery spaces or other spaces of high fire risk,
2.5.2
e.g. car decks as well as in cargo oil pipes inside cargo pump rooms and on deck are to be flame resistant, see Table
11.14.
2.5.3
Mechanical joints are not to be used in piping sections directly connected to sea openings or tanks
containing flammable liquids.
4)
See also "List of Type Tested Appliances and Equipment".
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Secction 11 – Pipiing Systems, Valves
V
and Pu
umps
Table 11.13 Example of mechanical joints
Pipe Union
ns
Welded annd
brazed type
Compresssion Couplinggs
Swage type
Press type
Bite type
Flared typee
Slip-on Jooints
Grip type
Machine ggrooved
Type
BKI
B Rules Foor Machinery Installation - 2014
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2
D
Section
n 11 – Piping Systems, Valv
ves and Pump
ps
Table 11.13 Examp
ple of mechan
nical joints (co
ont.)
Slip
S type
Table 11.14
Ap
pplication of mechanical joints
Pip
pe Unions
Kind of
o connectionss
Compresssion couplinggs6)
Slip
p-on joints
Cargo
C
oil
+
+
+5)
Crude
C
oil washinng
+
+
+5)
Vent
V
+
+
+3)
Water
W
seal efflueent
+
+
+
Scrubber
S
effluennt
+
+
+
Main
M
+
+
+2) 5)
Distributions
D
+
+
+5)
Cargo
C
oil
+
+
+5)
Fuel
F oil
+
+
+2) 3)
Lubricating
L
oil
+
+
+2) 3)
Hydraulic
H
oil
+
+
+2) 3)
Thermal
T
oil
+
+
+2) 3)
Bilge
B
+
+
+1)
Fire
F main and w
water spray
+
+
+3)
Foam
F
+
+
+3)
Sprinkler
S
+
+
+3)
Ballast
B
+
+
+1)
Cooling
C
water
+
+
+1)
Systemss
Flammable
F
fluiids (Flash pointt < 60 °C)
Inert
I
gas
Flammable
F
fluiids (Flash pointt > 60 °C)
Sea
S Water
BKII Rules For M
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Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
D
23/70
Pipe Unions
Kind of connections
Compression couplings6)
Tank cleaning
+
+
+
Non-essential
+
+
+
Cooling water system
+
+
+1)
Condensate return
+
+
+1)
Non-essential system
+
+
+
Deck drains (internal)
+
+
+4)
Sanitary drains
Scuppers and discharge
(overboard)
Sounding / Vent
+
+
+
+
+
-
Water tanks / Dry spaces
+
+
+
+
+
2) 3)
Starting-/ Control air 1)
+
+
-
Service air (non-essential)
+
+
+
Systems
Slip-on joints
Fresh water
Sanitary / Drains / Scuppers
Oil tanks (F.p. > 60 °C)
+
Miscellaneous
Brine
+
+
+
CO2 system 1)
+
+
-
+
Footnotes:
+
-8)
Steam
Abbreviations:
)
+ Application is allowed
)
– Application is not allowed
)
)
)
)
)
)
Inside machinery spaces of category A – only approved flame resistant types 7)
Not inside machinery spaces of category A or accommodation spaces. May be accepted
in other machinery spaces provided the joints are located in easily visible and accessible
positions.
Approved flame resistant types 7)
Above freeboard deck only
In pump rooms and open decks – only approved flame resistant types7)
If compression couplings include any components which readily deteriorate in case of
fire, they are to be of approved fire resistant type 7) as required for slip-on joints.
Flame resistance test according to ISO 19921
Ship type joints as shown in Table 11.13, provided that they are restrained on the pipes.
Only be used for pipes on deck with a nominal pressure up to PN10
Table 11.15 Application of mechanical joints depending upon the class of piping
Types of joints
Classes of piping systems
I
II
III
+
(da ≤ 60,3 mm)
+
(da ≤ 60,3 mm)
+
+
+
+
+
(da ≤ 60,3 mm)
+
(da ≤ 60,3 mm)
+
+
+
Pipe Unions
Welded and brazed type
Compression Couplings
Swage type
Press type
Bite type
Flared type
Slip-on Joints
Machine grooved type
+
+
Grip type
-
+
+
Slip type
-
+
+
Abbreviations:
+ Application is allowed
– Application is not allowed
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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D
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
Table 11.16 Use of flange types
Pipe
class
Toxic, corrosive and
combustible media,
liquefied gases (LG)
Type of
flange
PR [bar]
I
II
III
> 10
≤ 10
-
-
Steam, thermal oils
Temperature
[°C]
A
> 400
1)
A, B
≤ 400
A, B, C
-
A
A, B
A, B
≤ 250
A, B, C, D, E
-
A, B, C, D, E
Type B only for outside diameter da < 150 mm
Type E only for t < 150°C and PR < 16 bar
3)
Type F only for water pipes and open-ended lines
Type of
flange
1)
A, B, C
2)
2.5.4
Type of
flange
> 250
1)
Lubricating
oil, fuel oil
2)
A, B, C, E
A, B, C, E
Other media
Temperature
[°C]
Type of flange
> 400
A
≤ 400
A, B
> 250
A, B, C
≤ 250
A, B, C, D, E
-
A, B, C, D, E, F3)
In addition to the range of application specified in Table 11.14 the use of slip-on joints is not permitted in:
–
bilge lines inside ballast and fuel tanks
–
sea water and ballast lines including air and overflow pipes inside cargo holds and fuel tanks
–
piping system including sounding, vent and overflow pipes conveying flammable liquids as well as inert
gas lines arranged inside machinery spaces of category A or accommodation spaces. Slip-on joints may be
accepted in other machinery spaces provided that they are located in easily visible and accessible
positions.
–
fuel and oil lines including overflow pipes in side cargo holds and ballast tanks
–
fire extinguishing systems which are not permanently water filled
Slip-on joints inside tanks may be permitted only if the pipes and tanks contain a medium of the same nature.
Unrestrained slip on joints may be used only where required for compensation of lateral pipe movement.
3.
Layout, marking and installation
3.1
Piping systems are to be adequately identified according to their purpose based on requirement in Annex A
or recognized standard. Valves are to be permanently and clearly marked.
3.2
Pipe penetrations leading through bulkheads/ decks and tank walls are to be water and oil tight. Bolts
through bulkheads are not permitted. Holes for fastening screws are not to be drilled in the tank walls.
3.3
Sealing systems for pipes penetrating through watertight bulkheads and decks as well as through fire divisions
are to be approved by BKI unless the pipe is welded into the bulkhead/deck (see Part 1. Seagoing Ships, Volume II,
Rules for Hull, Section 29, C.8.) 5).
3.4
Piping close to electrical switchboards are to be so installed or protected that a leakage cannot damage the electrical installation.
3.5
Piping systems are to be so arranged that they can be completely emptied, drained and vented. Piping
systems in which the accumulation of liquids during operation could cause damage are to be equipped with special
drain arrangements.
Pipe lines laid through ballast tanks, which are coated in accordance with Rules for Hull (Part 1,Vol.II),
3.6
Section 35, F. are to be either effectively protected against corrosion from outside or they are to be of low susceptibility
5)
Regulations for the Performance of Type Approval, Volume F , Chapter 3 - Test Requirements for Sealing Systems of Bulkhead and Deck
Penetrations.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Secction 11 – Pipiing Systems, Valves
V
and Pu
umps
D
to corrosionn.
mpatible.
The methood of corrosionn protection off tanks and pippes is to be com
Table 11.177 Types of fla
ange connectio
ons
Type A
Weld
ding neck flan
nge
Loo
ose flange withh welding necck
Type B
d
Slip-on weelding flange – fully welded
Type C
Slip
g flange
p-on welding
Type D
Type E
Type F
Soccket screwed flange
––conical threaads-
Plain flangee
–wellded on both sided-
L
Lap joint flan
nge
––on flanged pipi-
BKI
B Rules Foor Machinery Installation - 2014
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D
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
3.7
The wall thickness of pipes between ship's side and first shut-off device is to be in accordance with
Table 11.20 b, column B. Pipes are to be connected only by welding or flanges.
4.
Shut-off devices
Shut-off devices are to comply with a recognized standard. Valves with screwed-on covers are to be secured
4.1
to prevent unintentional loosening of the cover.
4.2
Hand-operated shut-off devices are to be closed by turning in the clockwise direction
4.3
Valves are to be clearly marked to show whether they are in the open or closed position.
Change-over devices in piping systems in which a possible intermediate position of the device could be
4.4
dangerous in service are not to be used.
4.5
Valves are to be permanently marked. The marking is to comprise at least the following details:
–
material of valve body
–
nominal diameter
–
nominal pressure.
5.
Valves on the shell plating
5.1
For the mounting of valves on the shell plating, see Rules for Hull (Part 1,Vol.II), Section 6, G.
Valves on the shell plating are to be easily accessible. Seawater inlet and outlet valves are to be capable
5.2
of being operated from above the floor plates. Cocks on the shell plating are to be so arranged that the handle can
only be removed when the cocks closed.
Valves with only one flange may be used on the shell plating and on the sea chests only after special
5.3
approval.
5.4
On ships with > 500 GT, in periodically unattended machinery spaces, the controls of sea inlet and discharge
valves are to be sited so as to allow to reach and operate sea inlet and discharge valves in case of influx of water
within 10 minutes6) after triggering of the bilge alarm.
Non return discharge valves need not to be considered.
5.5
For ships contracted for construction on or after 1 January 2013, in periodically unattended machinery spaces,
the controls of any valve serving a sea inlet, a discharge below the waterline or a bilge direct suction system shall be so
placed as to allow adequate time for operation in case of influx of water to the space, having regard to the time likely to be
required in order to reach and operate such controls. If the level to which the space could become flooded with the ship in
the fully loaded condition so requires, arrangements shall be made to operate the controls from a position above such
level.
6.
Remote control of valves
6.1
Scope
These requirements apply to hydraulically, pneumatically or electrically operated valves in piping systems and sanitary
discharge pipes.
6.2
Construction
Remote controlled bilge valves and valves important for the safety of the ship are to be equipped with an
6.2.1
emergency operating arrangement
6)
Various flag state administrations have issued own requirements on this subject
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
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27/70
6.2.2
For the emergency operation of remote controlled valves in cargo piping systems, see Section 15, B.2.3.3.
6.3
Arrangement of valves
6.3.1
The accessibility of the valves for maintenance and repair is to be taken into consideration.
Valves in bilge lines and sanitary pipes are to be always accessible.
6.3.2
Bilge lines
Valves and control lines are to be located as far as possible from the bottom and sides of the ship.
6.3.3
Ballast pipes
The requirements stated in 6.3.2 also apply here to the location of valves and control lines.
Where remote controlled valves are arranged inside the ballast tanks, the valves are to be always located in the tank
adjoining that to which they relate.
6.3.4
Fuel pipes
Remote controlled valves mounted on fuel tanks located above the double bottom are to be capable of being closed
from outside the compartment in which they are installed (see also G.2.1 and H.2.2).
If remote controlled valves are installed inside fuel or oil tanks, 6.3.3 has to be applied accordingly.
6.3.5
Bunkering Lines located inside the damage area according to MARPOL I 12A
Remote controlled shut-off devices in fuel bunker lines on fuel tanks shall automatically close in case the power supply
fails. Suitable arrangements are to be provided which prevent inadmissible pressure raise in the bunker line during
bunkering if the valves close automatically.
Note
To fulfill the above requirements for example the following measures could be taken:
-
Separated bunker and transfer lines (bunkering from tank top)
-
Safety relief valves on the bunker lines leading to an overflow tank
6.3.6
Cargo pipes
For remote controlled valves inside cargo tanks, see Section 15, B.2.3.3.
6.4
Control stands
6.4.1
stand.
The control devices of remote controlled valves of a system are to be arranged together in one control
6.4.2
The control devices are to be clearly and permanently identified and marked.
6.4.3
The status (open or close) of each remote controlled valve is to be indicated at the control stand.
6.4.4
The status of bilge valves "open"/"close" is to be indicated by BKI approved position indicators.
6.4.5
For volumetric position indicators the remote control system shall trigger an alarm in the event of a position
indicator malfunction due to e.g. pipe leakage or blocking of the valve.
6.4.6
The control devices of valves for changeable tanks are to be interlocked to ensure that only the valve
relating to the tank concerned can be operated. The same also applies to the valves of cargo holds and tanks, in which
dry cargo and ballast water are carried alternately.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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D
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
6.4.7
On passenger ships, the control stand for remote controlled bilge valves is to be located outside the
machinery spaces and above the bulkhead deck.
6.5
Power units
Power units are to be equipped with at least two independent sets for supplying power for remote
6.5.1
controlled valves.
6.5.2
The energy required for the closing of valves which are not closed by spring power is to be supplied by a
pressure accumulator.
6.5.3
Pneumatically operated valves may be supplied with air from the general compressed air system.
Where quick-closing valves of fuel tanks are closed pneumatically, a separate pressure accumulator is to be
provided. This is to be of adequate capacity and is to be located outside the engine room. Filling of this accumulator
by a direct connection to the general compressed air system is allowed. A non-return valve is to be arranged in the
filling connection of the pressure accumulator.
The accumulator is to be provided either with a pressure control device with a visual and audible alarm or with a handcompressor as a second filling appliance.
The hand-compressor is to be located outside the engine room.
6.6
After installation on board, the entire system is to be subjected to an operational test.
7.
Pumps
For materials and construction requirements of BKI Regulations for the Design, Construction and Testing
7.1
of Pumps are to be applied.
For the pumps listed below, a performance test is to be carried out in the manufacturer's works under
7.2
BKI supervision.
–
bilge pumps/bilge ejectors
–
ballast pumps
–
cooling sea water pumps
–
cooling fresh water pumps
–
fire pumps including pumps serving fixed fire extinguishing systems (e.g. sprinkler pumps)
–
emergency fire pumps including drive units
–
condensate pumps
–
boiler feed water pumps
–
boiler water circulating pumps
–
lubricating oil pumps
–
fuel oil booster and transfer pumps
–
circulating pumps for thermal oil installations
–
brine pumps
–
refrigerant circulating pumps
–
cargo pumps
–
cooling pumps for fuel injection valves
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Secction 11 – Pipiing Systems, Valves
V
and Pu
umps
D
–
hy
ydraulic pump
ps for controlllable pitch prropellers
–
pu
umps serving water sprayin
ng systems deedicated to co
ooling purposes (drencher ppumps)
29/700
motors, see Section 14.
Other hydrraulic pump/m
8.
Protection off piping system
ms against ovver pressure
wing piping systems
s
are to be fitted w
with safety valv
ves to avoid ex
xcessive overppressures:
The follow
–
piiping systems and valves in
n which liquidds can be encclosed and heated
–
piiping systems which may be exposed to ppressures in excess
e
of the design pressuure
b capable of
o discharginng the mediu
um at a maximum pressurre increase of 10 % of th
he
Safety vaalves are to be
allowable working pressure. Safetty valves aree to be typee approved according
a
to BKI Regulations for th
he
nce of Type Approvals.
A
Safety valves arre to be fitted on the low preessure side of rreducing valvees.
Performan
9.
Piping on shiips with Charracter of Classsification
or
The followin
ng requiremen
nts apply adddition ally to
o ships for which proof off buoyancy in
n the damageed
9.1
condition is provided:
9.1.1
Section.
Passenger sh
hips accordin
ng to Rules for Hull (Paart 1,Vol.II), Section 29, K. as well as N.5 of this
9.1.2
Liquefied gass tankers accorrding to Rule s for Ships Caarrying Liqueffied Gases in Bulk (Part 1,V
Vol.IX).
9.1.3
Chemical tan
nkers accordiing to Rules ffor Ships Carrrying Dangerrous Chemicaal in Bulk (Part 1,Vol.X).
9.1.4
Other cargo ships accordiing to Rules for Hull (Parrt 1,Vol.II), Section
S
36, E..3
Rules for Hu
ull (Part 1,Vol.II), Section 21, D. is to bee additionally
y applied for sscuppers and discharge
d
lines,
9.2
Volume II,, Section 21, E.
E is to be add
ditionally appllied for vent, overflow
o
and sounding pipees.
hips, see N.4.44.
For closed cargo holds onn passenger sh
9.3
A.3.4.
For pipe pen
netrations thrrough watertiight bulkhead
ds, see Rule
es for Hull (P
(Part 1,Vol.III), Section 11
1,
Pipelines withh open ends in
n compartmennts or tanks are
a to be laid out
o so that noo additional co
ompartments or
o
9.4
a damaged condition to bbe considered.
tanks can bbe flooded in any
Where shut-ooff devices aree arranged in ccross flooding lines of ballast tanks, th
the position of
o the valves is
9.5
to be indicaated on the briidge.
9.6
For sewage diischarge pipes, see T.2.
Where it is not possiblee to lay the pipelines ou
utside the asssumed damaage zone, tig
ghtness of th
he
9.7
bulkheads is to be ensurred by applyin
ng the provisioons in 9.7.1 to 9.7.4.
In bilge pipellines, a non-reeturn valve is tto be fitted eitther on the waatertight bulkhhead through which
w
the pip
pe
9.7.1
passes to tthe bilge sucction or at the
e bilge suctionn itself.
In ballast watter and fuel piipelines for fillling and emp
ptying of tanks, a shut-off vvalve is to be fitted either at
9.7.2
t
which
h the pipe leadds to the open end in the tan
nk or directly aat the tank.
the watertigght bulkhead through
The shut-off valves
v
requireed in 9.7.2 aree to be capablee of being opeerated from a control panel located on th
he
9.7.3
navigation
n bridge, wherre it is to be indicated
i
wheen the valvess are in the "c
closed" posittion. This req
quirement doees
not apply tto valves whiich are opened
d at sea only shhortly for supeervised operations.
BKI
B Rules Foor Machinery Installation - 2014
2
30/70
D-E
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
9.7.4
Overflow pipes of tanks in different water-tight compartments which are connected to one common
overflow system are either:
–
to be led, prior to being connected to the system within the relevant compartment, on passenger ships high
enough above the bulkhead deck and on other ships above the most unfavourable damage water line, or
–
a shut-off valve is to be fitted to each overflow pipe. This shut-off valve is to be located at the water tight
bulkhead of the relevant compartment and is to be secured in open position to prevent unintended operation.
The shut-off valves are to be capable of being operated from a control panel located on the navigation
bridge, where it is to be indicated when the valve is in the "closed” position.
If on ships other than passenger ships the bulkhead penetrations for these pipes are arranged high
9.7.5
enough and so near to midship that in no damage condition, including at temporary maximum heeling of the ship, they
will be below the waterline the shut-off valves may be dispensed with.
D-E
E.
Steam Lines
1.
Operation
1.1
Steam lines are to be so laid out and arranged that important consumers can be supplied with steam from
every main boiler as well as from a stand-by boiler or boiler for emergency operation.
1.2
Essential consumers are:
–
all consuming units important for the propulsion, manoeuvrability and safe operation of the ship as well as
the essential auxiliary machines according to Section 1, H.
–
all consuming units necessary to the safety of the ship.
1.3
Every steam consuming unit is to be capable of being shut off from the system.
2.
Calculation of pipelines
2.1
Steam lines and valves are to be constructed for the design pressure (PR) according to B.4.1.4.
2.2
Calculations of pipe thickness and analysis of elasticity in accordance with C. are to be carried out.
Sufficient compensation for thermal expansion is to be proven.
3.
Laying out of steam lines
Steam lines are to be so installed and supported that expected stresses due to thermal expansion,
3.1
external loads and shifting of the supporting structure under both normal and interrupted service conditions will
be safely compensated.
3.2
Steam lines are to be so installed that water pockets will be avoided.
3.3
Means are to be provided for the reliable drainage of the piping system.
3.4
Steam lines are to be effectively insulated to prevent heat losses.
At points where there is a possibility of contact, the surface temperature of the insulated steam lines may
3.4.1
not exceed 80 °C.
3.4.2
Wherever necessary, additional protection arrangements against unintended contact are to be provided.
3.4.3
The surface temperature of steam lines in the pump rooms of tankers may nowhere exceed 220°C, see also
Section 15.
3.5
3.6
Steam heating lines, except for heating purposes, are not to be led through accommodation.
E-F
Sufficiently rigid positions are to be arranged as fixed points for the steam piping systems.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
3.7
F
31/70
It is to be ensured that the steam lines are fitted with sufficient expansion arrangements.
Where a system can be supplied from a system with higher pressure, it is to be provided with reducing
3.8
valves and with relief valves on the low pressure side.
Welded connections in steam lines are subject to the requirements specified in Rules for Welding (Part
3.9
1,Vol.VI).
4.
Steam strainers
Wherever necessary, machines and apparatus in steam systems are to be protected against foreign matter by steam
strainers.
Steam connections to equipment and pipes carrying oil, e.g. steam atomizers or steamout
5.
arrangements, are to be so secured that fuel and oil cannot penetrate into the steam lines.
6.
Inspection of steam lines for expanding
Steam lines for superheated steam at above 500 °C are to be provided with means of inspecting the pipes for expanding.
This can be in the form of measuring sections on straight length of pipes at the superheater outlet preferably. The
length of these measuring sections is to be at least 2∙da.
F.
Boiler Feed Water and Circulating Arrangement, Condensate Recirculation
1.
Feed water pumps
1.1
At least two feed water pumps are to be provided for each boiler installation.
Feed water pumps are to be so arranged or equipped that no backflow of water can occur when the
1.2
pumps are not in operation.
1.3
Feed water pumps are to be used only for feeding boilers.
2.
Capacity of feed water pumps
Where two feed water pumps are provided, the capacity of each is to be equivalent to at least 1,25 times the
2.1
maximum permitted output of all the connected steam generators.
Where more than two feed water pumps are installed, the capacity of all other feed water pumps in the
2.2
event of the failure of the pump with the largest capacity is to comply with the requirements of 2.1.
For continuous flow boilers the capacity of the feed water pumps is to be at least 1,0 times the
2.3
maximum steam output.
Special requirements may be approved for the capacity of the feed water pumps for plants incorporating a
2.4
combination of oil fired and exhaust gas boilers.
3.
Delivery pressure of feed water pumps
Feed water pumps are to be so laid out that the delivery pressure can satisfy the following requirements:
-
The required capacity according to 2. is to be achieved against the maximum allowable working pressure of
the steam producer.
-
In case the safety valve is blowing off the delivery capacity is to be 1,0 times the approved steam output at
1,1 times the allowable working pressure.
The flow resistance in the piping between the feed water pump and the boiler is to be taken into account. In the case
of continuous flow boilers the total resistance of the boiler is to be taken into account.
F
4.
Power supply to feed water pumps for main boilers
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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F
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
4.1
For steam-driven feed water pumps, the supply of all the pumps from only one steam system is allowed
provided that all the steam producers are connected to this steam system. Where feed water pumps are driven
solely by steam, a suitable filling and starting up pump which is to be independent of steam is to be provided.
4.2
For electric drives, a separate lead from the common bus-bar to each pump motor is sufficient.
5.
Feed water lines
Feed water lines may not pass through tanks which do not contain feed water.
5.1
Feed water lines for main boilers
5.1.1
Each main boiler is to be provided with a main and an auxiliary feed water line.
Where 2 adequately sized main boilers are provided the feed water to each of the boilers may be supplied by a single
feed water line.
Each feed water line is to be fitted with a shut-off valve and a check valve at the boiler inlet. Where
5.1.2
the shut-off valve and the check valve are not directly connected in series, the intermediate pipe is to be fitted with a
drain.
Each feed water pump is to be fitted with a shut-off valve on the suction side and a screw-down non5.1.3
return valve on the delivery side. The pipes are to be so arranged that each pump can supply each feed water line.
5.2
Feed water lines for auxiliary steam producers (auxiliary and exhaust gas boilers)
5.2.1
The provision of only one feed water line for auxiliary and exhaust gas boilers is sufficient if the
preheaters and automatic regulating devices are fitted with bypass lines.
5.2.2
inlet.
The requirements in 5.1.2 are to apply as appropriate to the valves required to be fitted to the boiler
Continuous flow boilers need not be fitted with the valves required according to 5.1.2 provided that the
5.2.3
heating of the boiler is automatically switched off should the feed water supply fail and that the feed water pump
supplies only one boiler.
6.
Boiler water circulating systems
Each forced-circulation boiler is to be equipped with two circulating pumps powered independently of
6.1
each other. Failure of the circulating pump in operation is to be signalled by an alarm. The alarm may only be
switched off if a circulating pump is started or when the boiler firing is shut down.
6.2
The provision of only one circulating pump for each boiler is sufficient if:
–
the boilers are heated only by gases whose temperature does not exceed 400 °C or
–
a common stand-by circulating pump is provided which can be connected to any boiler or
–
the burners of oil or gas fired auxiliary boilers are so arranged that they are automatically shut off should the
circulating pump fail and the heat stored in the boiler does not cause any unacceptable evaporation of the
available water in the boiler.
7.
Feed water supply, evaporators
7.1
The feed water supply is to be stored in several tanks.
7.2
One storage tank may be considered sufficient for auxiliary boiler units.
7.3
Two evaporators are to be provided for main steam producer units.
8.
Condensate recirculation
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
33/70
The main condenser is to be equipped with two condensate pumps, each of which is to be able to transfer
8.1
the maximum volume of condensate produced.
8.2
The condensate of all heating systems used to heat oil (fuel, lubricating, cargo oil, etc.) is to be led to
condensate observation tanks. These tanks are to be fitted with air vents.
Heating coils of tanks containing fuel or oil residues, e.g. sludge tanks, leak oil tanks, bilge water tanks,
8.3
etc. are to be provided at the tank outlet with shut-off devices and testing devices See Section 10, B.5.4
F-G
G.
Fuel Oil Systems
1.
Bunker lines
The bunkering of fuel oils is to be effected by means of permanently installed lines either from the open deck or
from bunkering stations located below deck which are to be isolated from other spaces.
Bunker stations are to be so arranged that the bunkering can be performed from both sides of the ship without
danger. This requirement is considered to be fulfilled where the bunkering line is extended to both sides of the ship.
The bunkering lines are to be fitted with blind flanges on deck.
2.
Tank filling and suction lines
2.1
Filling and suction lines from storage, settling and service tanks situated above the double bottom and from
which in case of their damage fuel oil may leak, are to be fitted directly on the tanks with shut-off devices capable of
being closed from a safe position outside the space concerned.
In the case of deep tanks situated in shaft or pipe tunnel or similar spaces, shut-off devices are to be fitted on the
tanks. The control in the event of fire may be affected by means of an additional shut-off device in the pipe outside
the tunnel or similar space. If such additional shut-off device is fitted in the machinery space it is to be operated
from a position outside this space.
2.2
control.
Shut-off devices on fuel oil tanks having a capacity of less than 500  need not be provided with remote
2.3
Filling lines are to extend to the bottom of the tank. Short filling lines directed to the side of the tank may be
admissible.
Storage tank suction lines may also be used as filling lines.
2.4
Valves at the fuel storage tanks shall kept close at sea and may be opened only during fuel transfer operations if
located within h or w as defined in MARPOL 73/78 Annex I 12A. The valves are to be remote controlled from the
navigation bridge, the propulsion machinery control position or an enclosed space which is readily accessible from the
navigation bridge or the propulsion machinery control position without travelling exposed freeboard or superstructure
decks.
Where filling lines are led through the tank top and end below the maximum oil level in the tank, a non2.5
return valve at the tank top is to be arranged.
The inlet connections of suction lines are to be arranged far enough from the drains in the tank so that
2.6
water and impurities which have settled out will not enter the suctions.
2.7
For the release of remotely operated shut-off devices, see Section 12, B.10.
3.
Pipe layout
3.1
oil.
Fuel lines may not pass through tanks containing feed water, drinking water, lubricating oil or thermal
3.2
Fuel lines which pass through ballast tanks are to have an increased wall thickness according to Table
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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G
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
11.5.
G
3.3
Fuel lines are not to be laid directly above or in the vicinity of boilers, turbines or equipment with high
surface temperatures (over 220 °C) or in way of other sources of ignition.
Flanged and screwed socket connections in fuel oil lines are to be screened or otherwise suitably
3.4
protected to avoid, as far as practicable, oil spray or oil leakages onto hot surfaces, into machinery air intakes, or
other sources of ignition.
The number of detachable pipe connections is to be limited. In general, flanged connections according to recognized
standards are to be used.
Flanged and screwed socket connections in fuel oil lines which lay directly above hot surfaces or other
3.4.1
sources of ignition are to be screened and provided with drainage arrangements.
Flanged and screwed socket connections in fuel oil lines with a maximum allowable working pressure
3.4.2
of more than 0,18 N/mm2 and within about 3 m from hot surfaces or other sources of ignition and direct sight of line
are to be screened. Drainage arrangements need not to be provided.
Flanged and screwed socket connections in fuel oil lines with a maximum allowable working pressure
3.4.3
of less than 0,18 N/mm2 and within about 3 m from hot surfaces or other sources of ignition are to be assessed
individually taking into account working pressure, type of coupling and possibility of failure.
Flanged and screwed socket connections in fuel oil lines with a maximum allowable working pressure
3.4.4
of more than 1,6 N/mm2 need normally to be screened.
3.4.5
Pipes running below engine room floor need abnormally not to be screened.
3.5
Shut-off valves in fuel lines in the machinery spaces are to be operable from above the floor plates.
3.6
Glass and plastic components are not permitted in fuel systems. Sight glasses made of glass located in
vertical overflow pipes may be permitted.
3.7
Fuel pumps are to be capable of being isolated from the piping system by shut-off valves.
3.8
For fuel flow-meters a by-pass with shutoff valve shall be provided.
4.
Fuel transfer, feed and booster pumps
4.1
Fuel transfer, feed and booster pumps are to be designed for the intended operating temperature.
4.2
A fuel transfer pump is to be provided. Other service pumps may be used as a stand-by pump provided they
are suitable for this purpose.
4.3
At least two means of oil fuel transfer are to be provided for filling the service tanks.
4.4
Where a feed or booster pump is required to supply fuel to main or auxiliary engines, stand-by pumps
are to be provided. Where pumps are attached to the engines, stand-by pumps may be dispensed with for auxiliary
engines.
Fuel supply units of auxiliary diesel engine are to be designed such that the auxiliary engines start without aid from the
emergency generator within 30 sec after black-out.
Note
To fulfil the above requirements for example the following measures could be a possibility:
–
Air driven MDO service pump
–
MDO gravity tank
–
Buffer tank before each auxiliary diesel engine
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
4.5
For emergency shut-down devices, see Section 12, B.9.
5.
Plants with more than one main engine
G
35/70
For plants with more than one main engine, complete spare feed or booster pumps stored on board may be accepted
instead of stand-by pumps provided that the feed or booster pumps are so arranged that they can be replaced with the
means available on board.
For plants with more than one main engine, see also Section 2, G.
6.
Shut-off devices
6.1
On cargo ships of 500 GT or above and on all passenger ships for plants with more than one engine, shut-off
devices for isolating the fuel supply and over-production/recirculation lines to any engine from a common supply
system are to be provided. These valves are to be operable from a position not rendered inaccessible by a fire on any
of the engines.
6.2
Instead of shut-off devices in the over-production/recirculation lines check valves may be fitted. Where
shut-off devices are fitted, they are to be locked in the operating position.
7.
Filters
7.1
Fuel oil filters are to be fitted in the delivery line of the fuel pumps.
7.2
For ships with Class Notation OT the filter equipment is to satisfy the requirements of Rules for
Automation (Part 1,Vol.VII), Section 2.
7.3
engine.
Mesh size and filter capacity are to be in accordance with the requirements of the manufacturer of the
7.4
Uninterrupted supply of filtered fuel has to be ensured during cleaning of the filtering equipment. In case of
automatic back-flushing filters it is to be ensured that a failure of the automatic back-flushing will not lead to a total
loss of filtration.
Back-flushing intervals of automatic back- flushing filters provided for intermittent back-flushing are to be
7.5
monitored.
Fuel oil filters are to be fitted with differential pressure monitoring. On engines provided for operation
7.6
with gas oil only, differential pressure monitoring may be dispensed with.
Engines for the exclusive operation of emergency generators and emergency fire pumps may be fitted with
7.7
simplex filters.
7.8
Fuel transfer units are to be fitted with a simplex filter on the suction side.
7.9
For filter arrangement, see Section 2, G.3
8.
Purifiers
8.1
Manufacturers of purifiers for cleaning fuel and lubricating oil are to be approved by BKI.
Where a fuel purifier may exceptionally be used to purify lubricating oil the purifier supply and
8.2
discharge lines are to be fitted with a change-over arrangement which prevents the possibility of fuel and lubricating
oils being mixed.
Suitable equipment is also to be provided to prevent such mixing occurring over control and compression lines.
The sludge tanks of purifiers are to be fitted with a level alarm which ensures that the level in the sludge
8.3
tank cannot interfere with the operation of the purifier.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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9.
G
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
Oil firing equipment
Oil firing equipment is to be installed in accordance with Section 9. Pumps, pipelines and fittings are subject to the
following requirements.
9.1
Oil fired main boilers are to be equipped with at least two service pumps and two preheaters. For filters see 7.
Pumps and heaters are to be rated and arranged that the oil firing equipment remains operational even if one unit should
fail. This also applies to oil fired auxiliary boilers and thermal oil heaters unless other means are provided for
maintaining continuous operation at sea even if a single unit fails.
Hose assemblies for the connection of the burner may be used. Hose assemblies are not to be longer
9.2
than required for retracting of the burner for the purpose of routine maintenance. Only hose assemblies from approved
hose assembly manufacturers are to be used.
10.
Service tanks
On cargo ships of 500 GT or above and all passenger ships two fuel oil service tanks for each type of
10.1
fuel used on board necessary for propulsion and essential systems are to be provided. Equivalent arrangements may
be permitted.
Each service tank is to have a capacity of at least 8 h at maximum continuous rating of the propulsion plant
10.2
and normal operation load of the generator plant.
11.
Operation using heavy fuel oils
11.1
Heating of heavy fuel oil
11.1.1
Heavy fuel oil tanks are to be fitted with a heating system.
The capacity of the tank heating system is to be in accordance with the operating requirements and the quality of
fuel oil intended to be used.
With BKI's consent, storage tanks need not be fitted with a heating system provided it can be guaranteed that the
proposed quality of fuel oil can be pumped under all ambient and environmental conditions.
For the tank heating system, see Section 10, B.5.
11.1.2
Heat tracing is to be arranged for pumps, filters and oil fuel lines as required.
11.1.3 Where it is necessary to preheat injection valves of engines running with heavy fuel oil, the injection
valve cooling system is to be provided with additional means of heating.
11.2
Treatment of heavy fuel oil
11.2.1
Settling tanks
Heavy fuel settling tanks or equivalent arrangements with sufficiently dimensioned heating systems are to be
provided.
Settling tanks are to be provided with drains, emptying arrangements and with temperature measuring instruments.
11.2.2
Heavy fuel oil cleaning for diesel engines
For cleaning of heavy fuels, purifiers or purifiers combined with automatic filters are to be provided.
11.2.3
Fuel oil blending and emulsifying equipment
Heavy fuel oil/diesel oil blending and emulsifying equipment requires approval by BKI.
11.3
Service tanks
11.3.1
For the arrangement and equipment of service tanks, see Section 10, B.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
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37/70
11.3.2
The capacity of the service tanks is to be such that, should the treatment plant fail, the supply to all the
connected consumers can be maintained for at least 8 hours.
Where the overflow pipe of the service tank is terminated in the settling tanks, suitable means are to be
11.3.3
provided to ensure that no untreated heavy fuel oil can penetrate into the daily service tank in case of overfilling of a
settling tank.
11.3.4
Daily service tanks are to be provided with drains and with discharge arrangements.
11.4
Change-over arrangement diesel oil/ heavy oil
11.4.1
The change-over arrangement of the fuel supply and return lines is to be so arranged that faulty switching
is excluded and to ensure reliable separation of the fuels.
Change-over valves which allow intermediate positions are not permitted.
The change-over devices are to be accessible and permanently marked. Their respective working position
11.4.2
is to be clearly indicated.
11.4.3
Remote controlled change-over devices are to be provided with limit position indicators at the control
platforms.
11.5
Fuel supply through stand pipes
11.5.1 Where the capacity of stand pipes exceeds 500 l, the outlet pipe is to be fitted with a remote controlled
quick-closing valve operated from outside the engine room. Stand pipes are to be equipped with air/gas vents and
with self-closing connections for emptying and draining. Stand pipes are to be fitted with a local temperature
indicator.
11.5.2
Atmospheric stand pipes (pressureless)
Having regard to the arrangement and the maximum fuel level in the service tanks, the stand pipes are to be so located
and arranged that sufficient free space for degasification is available inside the stand pipes.
11.5.3
Closed stand-pipes (pressurized systems)
Closed stand-pipes are to be designed as pressure vessels and are to be fitted with the following equipment:
–
a non-return valve in the recirculating lines from the engines
–
an automatic degaser or a gas blanket monitor with manual degaser
–
a local gauge for the operating pressure
–
a local temperature indicator
–
a drain/emptying device, which is to be locked in the closed position
11.5.4
Fuel booster units
Booster units shall be protected against pressure peaks, e.g. by using adequate.dampers.
11.6
End preheaters
11.6.1
Two mutually independent end preheaters are to be provided.
The arrangement of only one preheater may be approved where it is ensured that the operation with fuel oil which
does not need preheating can be temporarily maintained.
G
11.6.2
A by-pass with shutoff valve shall be provided.
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G-H
11.7
Viscosity control
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
G-H
11.7.1
Where main and auxiliary engines are operated on heavy fuel oil, automatic viscosity control is to be
provided.
11.7.2
Viscosity regulators are to be fitted with a local temperature indicator.
11.7.3
Local control devices
The following local control devices are to be fitted directly before the engine
–
a gauge for operating pressure
–
an indicator for the operating temperature
11.8
The heavy fuel system is to be effectively insulated as necessary.
H.
Lubricating Oil Systems
1.
General requirements
Lubricating oil systems are to be so constructed to ensure reliable lubrication over the whole range of
1.1
speed and during run-down of the engines and to ensure adequate heat transfer.
1.2
Priming pumps
Where necessary, priming pumps are to be provided for supplying lubricating oil to the engines.
1.3
Emergency lubrication
A suitable emergency lubricating oil supply (e.g. gravity tank) is to be arranged for machinery which may be damaged
in case of interruption of lubricating oil supply.
1.4
Lubricating oil treatment
1.4.1
Equipment necessary for adequate treatment of lubricating oil is to be provided (purifiers, automatic backflushing filters, filters, free-jet centrifuges).
1.4.2
In the case of auxiliary engines running on heavy fuel which are supplied from a common lubricating oil
tank, suitable equipment is to be fitted to ensure that in case of failure of the common lubricating oil treatment system
or ingress of fuel or cooling water into the lubricating oil circuit, the auxiliary engines required to safeguard the power
supply in accordance with Rules for Electrical Installation (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 3 remain fully operational.
2.
Lubricating oil systems
2.1
Lubricating oil circulating tanks and gravity tanks
2.1.1
For the capacity and location see Section 10, C.
2.1.2
For ships where a double bottom is required the minimum distance between shell and circulating tank shall
be not less than 500 mm.
2.1.3
The suction connections of lubricating oil pumps are to be located as far as possible from drain pipes.
2.1.4
Where deep-well pumps are used for main engine lubrication they shall be protected against vibration
through suitable supports.
2.1.5
Gravity tanks are to be fitted with an overflow pipe which leads to the circulating tank. Arrangements are to
be made for observing the flow of excess oil in the overflow pipe.
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2.2
Filling and suction lines
2.2.1
Filling and suction lines of lubricating oil tanks with a capacity of 500 l and more located above the double
bottom and from which in case of their damage lubricating oil may leak, are to be fitted directly on the tanks with shutoff devices according to G.2.1
The remote operation of shut-off valves according to G.2.1 may be dispensed with:
–
for valves which are kept closed during normal operation.
–
where an unintended operation of a quick closing valve would endanger the safe operation of the main
propulsion plant or essential auxiliary machinery.
2.2.2
Where lubricating oil lines are to be led in the vicinity of hot machinery, e.g. superheated steam turbines,
steel pipes which should be in one length and which are protected where necessary are to be used.
2.2.3
For screening arrangements of lubricating oil pipes G.3.4 applies as appropriate.
2.3
Filters
2.3.1
Lubricating oil filters are to be fitted in the delivery line of the lubricating oil pumps.
2.3.2
engine.
Mesh size and filter capacity are to be in accordance with the requirements of the manufacturer of the
Uninterrupted supply of filtered lubricating oil has to be ensured under cleaning conditions of the filter
2.3.3
equipment.
In case of automatic back-flushing filters it is to be ensured that a failure of the automatic back-flushing will not
lead to a total loss of filtration.
Back-flushing intervals of automatic back-flushing filters provided for intermittent back-flushing are to be
2.3.4
monitored.
Main lubricating oil filters are to be fitted with differential pressure monitoring. On engines provided
2.3.5
for operation with gas oil only, differential pressure monitoring may be dispensed with.
Engines for the exclusive operation of emergency generators and emergency fire pumps may be fitted with
2.3.6
simplex filters.
For protection of the lubricating oil pumps simplex filters may be installed on the suction side of the
2.3.7
pumps if they have a minimum mesh size of 100 µ.
2.3.8
For the arrangement of filters, see Section 2, G.3.
2.4
Lubricating oil coolers
It is recommended that turbine and large engine plants be provided with more than one oil cooler.
2.5
Oil level indicators
Machines with their own oil charge are to be provided with a means of determining the oil level from outside during
operation. This requirement also applies to reduction gears, thrust bearings and shaft bearings.
2.6
Purifiers
The requirements in G.8. apply as appropriate.
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Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
3.
Lubricating oil pumps
3.1
Main engines
3.1.1
Main and independent stand-by pumps are to be arranged.
H-I
Main pumps driven by the main engines are to be so designed that the lubricating oil supply is ensured over the whole
range of operation.
3.1.2
For plants with more than one main engine see Section 2, G.4.2.3.
3.2
Main turbine plant
3.2.1
Main and independent stand-by lubricating oil pumps are to be provided.
3.2.2
Emergency lubrication
The lubricating oil supply to the main turbine plant for cooling the bearings during the run-down period is to be assured
in the event of failure of the power supply. By means of suitable arrangements such as gravity tanks the supply of
oil is also to be assured during starting of the emergency lubrication system.
3.3
Main reduction gearing (motor vessels)
3.3.1
Lubricating oil is to be supplied by a main pump and an independent stand-by pump.
3.3.2
Where a reduction gear has been approved by BKI to have adequate self-lubrication at 75 % of the torque
of the propelling engine, a stand-by lubricating oil pump for the reduction gear may be dispensed with up to a powerspeed ratio of
P/n1 [kW/min-1] ≤ 3,0
n1
[min-1] = gear input revolution
The requirements under 3.1.2 are to be applied for multi-propeller plants and plants with more than one
3.3.3
engine analogously.
3.4
Auxiliary machinery
3.4.1
Diesel generators
Where more than one diesel generator is available, stand-by pumps are not required.
Where only one diesel generator is available (e.g. on turbine-driven vessels where the diesel generator is needed for
start-up operations) a complete spare pump is to be carried on board
3.4.2
Auxiliary turbines
Turbogenerators and turbines used for driving essential auxiliaries such as boiler feed water pumps, etc. are to be
equipped with a main pump and an independent auxiliary pump. The auxiliary pump is to be designed to ensure a
sufficient supply of lubricating oil during the start-up and run-down operation.
I.
Seawater Cooling Systems
1.
Sea suctions, sea chests
At least two sea chests are to be provided. Wherever possible, the sea chests are to be arranged as low as
1.1
possible on either side of the ship.
1.2
For service in shallow waters, it is recommended that an additional high seawater intake is provided.
1.3
It is to be ensured that the total seawater supply for the engines can be taken from only one sea chest.
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Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
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Each sea chest is to be provided with an effective vent. The following venting arrangements will be
1.4
approved:
–
an air pipe of at least 32 mm ID which can be shutoff and which extends above the bulkhead deck
–
adequately dimensioned ventilation slots in the shell plating.
Steam or compressed air connections are to be provided for clearing the sea chest gratings. The steam or
1.5
compressed air lines are to be fitted with shut-off valves fitted directly to the sea chests. Compressed air for
blowing through sea chest gratings may exceed 2 bar only if the sea chests are constructed for higher pressures.
Where a sea chest is exclusively arranged as chest cooler the steam or compressed air lines for clearing
1.6
according to 1.5 may, with BKI's agreement, be dispensed with.
2.
Special rules for ships with ice class
For one of the sea chests specified in 1.1 the sea inlet is to be located as near as possible to midship and as
2.1
far aft as possible. The seawater discharge line of the entire engine plant is to be connected to the top of the sea chest.
2.1.1
–
For ships with ice class ES1 to ES4 the sea chest is to be arranged as follows:
In calculating the volume of the sea chest the following value is to be applied as a guide:
about 1 m3 for every 750 kW of the ship's engine output including the output of auxiliary engines.
–
The sea chest is to be of sufficient height to allow ice to accumulate above the inlet pipe.
–
The free area of the strum holes is to be not less than four times the sectional area of the seawater inlet pipe.
2.1.2
As an alternative two smaller sea chests of a design as specified in 2.1.1 may be arranged.
All discharge valves are to be so arranged that the discharge of water at any draught will not be
2.1.3
obstructed by ice.
2.2
chests.
Where necessary, a steam connection or a heating coil is to be arranged for de-icing and thawing the sea
Additionally, cooling water supply to the engine plant may be arranged from ballast tanks with circulating
2.3
cooling.
This system does not replace the requirements stated in 2.1.1.
2.4
For the fire pumps, see Section 12, E.1.3.6.
3.
Sea valves
3.1
Sea valves are to be so arranged that they can be operated from above the floor plates.
3.2
Discharge pipes for seawater cooling systems are to be fitted with a shut-off valve at the shell.
4.
Strainers
The suction lines of the seawater pumps are to be fitted with strainers.
The strainers are to be so arranged that they can be cleaned during service.
Where cooling water is supplied by means of a scoop, strainers in the main seawater cooling line can be dispensed
with.
5.
Seawater cooling pumps
5.1
Diesel engine plants
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5.1.1
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Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
Main propulsion plants are to be provided with main and stand-by cooling water pumps.
The main cooling water pump may be attached to the propulsion plant. It is to be ensured that the
5.1.2
attached pump is of sufficient capacity for the cooling water required by main engines and auxiliary equipment
over the whole speed range of the propulsion plant.
The drive of the stand-by cooling water pump is to be independent of the main engine.
Main and stand-by cooling water pumps are each to be of sufficient capacity to meet the maximum cooling
5.1.3
water requirements of the plant.
Alternatively, three cooling water pumps of the same capacity and delivery head may be arranged, provided
that two of the pumps are sufficient to supply the required cooling water for full load operation of the
plant.
With this arrangement it is permissible for the second pump to be automatically put into operation only in
the higher temperature range by means of a thermostat.
5.1.4
Ballast pumps or other suitable seawater pumps may be used as stand-by cooling water pumps.
5.1.5
Where cooling water is supplied by means of a scoop, the main and stand-by cooling water pumps are to be
of a capacity which will ensure reliable operation of the plant under partial load conditions and astern operation as
required in Section 2, E.5.1.1e). The main cooling water pump is to be automatically started as soon as the speed
falls below that required for the operation of the scoop.
5.2
Steam turbine plants
5.2.1
Steam turbine plants are to be provided with a main and a stand-by cooling water pump.
The main cooling water pump is to be of sufficient capacity to supply the maximum cooling water requirements
of the turbine plant. The capacity of the stand-by cooling water pump is to be such as to ensure reliable operation of
the plant also during astern operation.
5.2.2
Where cooling water is supplied by means of a scoop, the main cooling water pump is to be of sufficient
capacity for the cooling water requirements of the turbine plant under conditions of maximum astern output.
The main cooling water pump is to start automatically as soon as the speed falls below that required for the operation
of the scoop.
5.3
Plants with more than one main engine
For plants with more than one engine and with separate cooling water systems, complete spare pumps stored on
board may be accepted instead of stand-by pumps provided that the main seawater cooling pumps are so arranged that
they can be replaced with the means available on board.
5.4
Cooling water supply for auxiliary engines
Where a common cooling water pump is provided to serve more than one auxiliary engine, an independent
stand-by cooling water pump with the same capacity is to be fitted. Independently operated cooling water
pumps of the main engine plant may be used to supply cooling water to auxiliary engines while at sea, provided that
the capacity of such pumps is sufficient to meet the additional cooling water requirement.
If each auxiliary engine is fitted with an attached cooling water pump, stand-by cooling water pumps need not to be
provided.
6.
Cooling water supply in dry dock
It is recommended that a supply of cooling water, e.g. from a water ballast tank, is to be available so that at least one
diesel generator and, if necessary, the domestic refrigerating plant may run when the ship is in dry dock.
Cargo and container cooling systems are to conform to the requirements stated in Rules for Refrigerating Installations
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
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(Part 1,Vol. VIII), Section I,1.4.
K.
Fresh Water Cooling Systems
1.
General
K
Fresh water cooling systems are to be so arranged that the engines can be sufficiently cooled under all
1.1
operating conditions.
1.2
Depending on the requirements of the engine plant, the following fresh water cooling systems are allowed:
–
a single cooling circuit for the entire plant
–
separate cooling circuits for the main and auxiliary plant
–
several independent cooling circuits for the main engine components which need cooling (e.g. cylinders,
pistons and fuel valves) and for the auxiliary engines
–
separate cooling circuits for various temperature ranges
1.3
The cooling circuits are to be so divided that should one part of the system fail, operation of the auxiliary
systems can be maintained.
Change-over arrangements are to be provided for this purpose if necessary.
1.4
As far as possible, the temperature controls of main and auxiliary engines as well as of different circuits
are to be independent of each other.
Where, in automated engine plants, heat exchangers for fuel or lubricating oil are incorporated in the
1.5
cylinder cooling water circuit of main engines, the entire cooling water system is to be monitored for fuel and oil
leakage.
Common engine cooling water systems for main and auxiliary plants are to be fitted with shut-off valves to
1.6
enable repairs to be performed without taking the entire plant out of service.
2.
Heat exchangers, coolers
2.1
8.
The construction and equipment of heat exchangers and coolers are subject to the requirements of Section
The coolers of cooling water systems, engines and equipment are to be so designed to ensure that the
2.2
specified cooling water temperatures can be maintained under all operating conditions. Cooling water
temperatures are to be adjusted to meet the requirements of engines and equipment.
Heat exchangers for auxiliary equipment in the main cooling water circuit are to be provided with by2.3
passes if in the event of a failure of the heat exchanger it is possible by these means to keep the system in operation.
It is to be ensured that auxiliary machinery can be maintained in operation while repairing the main
2.4
coolers. If necessary, means are to be provided for changing over to other heat exchangers, machinery or equipment
through which a temporary heat transfer can be achieved.
2.5
Shut-off valves are to be provided at the inlet and outlet of all heat exchangers.
2.6
Every heat exchanger and cooler is to be provided with a vent and a drain.
2.7
Keel coolers, box coolers
2.7.1
Arrangement and construction drawings of keel and box coolers are to be submitted for approval.
2.7.2
Permanent vents for fresh water are to be provided at the top of keel coolers and chest coolers.
2.7.3
Keel coolers are to be fitted with pressure gauge connections at the fresh water inlet and outlet.
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Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
Expansion tanks
Expansion tanks are to be arranged at sufficient height for every cooling water circuit.
K-L
Different cooling circuits may only be connected to a common expansion tank if they do not interfere with each
other. Care is to be taken here to ensure that damage to or faults in one system cannot affect the other system.
3.1
Expansion tanks are to be fitted with filling connections, aeration/de-aeration devices, water level
3.2
indicators and drains.
4.
Fresh water cooling pumps
4.1
Main and stand-by cooling water pumps are to be provided for each fresh water cooling system.
Main cooling water pumps may be driven directly by the main or auxiliary engines which they are
4.2
intended to cool provided that a sufficient supply of cooling water is assured under all operating conditions.
4.3
The drives of stand-by cooling water pumps are to be independent of the main engines.
4.4
Stand-by cooling water pumps are to have the same capacity as main cooling water pumps.
4.5
Main engines are to be fitted with at least one main and one stand-by cooling water pump. Where
according to the construction of the engines more than one water cooling circuit is necessary, a stand-by pump is
to be fitted for each main cooling water pump.
For fresh cooling water pumps of essential auxiliary engines the requirements for sea water cooling pumps
4.6
in I.5.4 may be applied.
A stand-by cooling water pump of a cooling water system may be used as a stand-by pump for another
4.7
system provided that the necessary pipe connections are arranged. The shut-off valves in these connections are to
be secured against unintended operation.
Equipment providing emergency cooling from another system can be approved if the plant and the system
4.8
are suitable for this purpose.
4.9
applied.
For plants with more than one main engine the requirements for sea cooling water pumps in I.5.3 may be
5.
Temperature control
Cooling water circuits are to be provided with temperature controls in accordance with the requirements. Control
devices whose failure may impair the functional reliability of the engine are to be equipped for manual operation.
6.
Preheating of cooling water
Means are to be provided for preheating cooling fresh water. Exceptions are to be approved by BKI.
7.
Emergency generating units
Internal combustion engines driving emergency generating units are to be fitted with independent cooling systems.
Such cooling systems are to be made proof against freezing.
L.
Compressed Air Lines
1.
General
1.1
Pressure lines connected to air compressors are to be fitted with non-return valves at the compressor outlet.
1.2
For oil and water separators, see Section 2, M.4.3.
1.3
Starting air lines may not be used as filling lines for air receivers.
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Only type-tested hose assemblies made of metallic materials may be used in starting air lines of diesel
1.4
engines which are permanently kept under pressure.
L-M
The starting air line to each engine is to be fitted with a non-return valve and a drain.
1.5
1.6
Tyfons are to be connected to at least two compressed air receivers.
1.7
A safety valve is to be fitted behind each pressure-reducing valve.
Pressure water tanks and other tanks connected to the compressed air system are to be considered as
1.8
pressure vessels and are to comply with the requirements in Section 8 for the working pressure of the compressed air
system.
1.9
For compressed air connections for blowing through sea chests refer to I.1.5.
1.10
For compressed air supply to pneumatically operated valves and quick-closing valves refer to D.6.
1.11
Requirements for starting engines with compressed air, see Section 2, H.2.
For compressed air operated fire flaps of the engine room, D.6.5 is to be used analogously. The fire closures
1.12
may close automatically, if they are supplied with separated compressed air pipes.
2.
Control air systems
Control air systems for essential consumers are to be provided with the necessary means of air
2.1
treatment.
2.2
Pressure reducing valves in the control air system of main engines are to be redundant.
M.
Exhaust Gas Lines
1.
Pipe layout
Engine exhaust gas pipes are to be installed separately from each other, taking into account the
1.1
structural fire protection. Other designs are to be submitted for approval. The same applies to boiler exhaust gas
pipes.
1.2
Account is to be taken of thermal expansion when laying out and suspending the lines.
1.3
Where exhaust gas lines discharge near water level, provisions are to be taken to prevent water from entering
the engines.
1.4
Openings of exhaust gas pipes of emergency generator diesel engines shall have a height above deck that is
satisfactory to meet the requirements of the LLC 1966as amended 1988, Reg. 19(3).
2.
Silencers
Engine exhaust pipes are to be fitted with effective silencers or other suitable means are to be provided.
3.
Water drains
Exhaust lines and silencers are to be provided with suitable drains of adequate size.
4.
Insulation
For insulation of exhaust gas lines inside machinery spaces, see Section 12, B.4.1.
5.
For special requirements for tankers refer to Section 15, B.9.3.
Engine exhaust gas lines are additionally subject to Section 2, G.7.
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Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
For special requirements for exhaust gas cleaning system see Section 2, N.
N.
Bilge Systems
1.
Bilge lines
1.1
Layout of bilge lines
N
Bilge lines and bilge suctions are to be so arranged that the bilges can be completely drained even
1.1.1
under unfavourable trim conditions.
Bilge suctions are normally to be located on both sides of the ship. For compartments located fore and aft
1.1.2
in the ship, one bilge suction may be considered sufficient provided that it is capable of completely draining the
relevant compartment.
1.1.3
Spaces located forward of the collision bulkhead and aft of the stern tube bulkhead and not connected to
the general bilge system are to be drained by other suitable means of adequate capacity.
1.1.4
The required pipe thickness of bilge lines is to be in accordance with Table 11.5.
1.2
Pipes laid through tanks
1.2.1
Bilge pipes may not be led through tanks for lubricating oil, thermal oil, and drinking water or feed water.
1.2.2
Bilge pipes from spaces not accessible during the voyage if running through fuel tanks located above double
bottom are to be fitted with a non-return valve directly at the point of entry into the tank.
1.3
Bilge suctions and strums
1.3.1
Bilge suctions are to be so arranged as not to impede the cleaning of bilges and bilge wells. They are to be
fitted with easily detachable, corrosion-resistant strums.
Emergency bilge suctions are to be arranged such that they are accessible, with free flow and at a suitable
1.3.2
distance from the tank top or the ship's bottom.
1.3.3
For the size and design of bilge wells see Rules for HulI,(Part 1, Vol.II) Section 8, B.5.3.
Bilge alarms of main and auxiliary machinery spaces, see Section 1, E.5. and Rules for Automation (Part 1,
1.3.4
Vol. VII), Section 6, H.
1.4
Bilge valves
1.4.1
Valves in connecting pipes between the bilge and the seawater and ballast water system, as well as between
the bilge connections of different compartments, are to be so arranged that even in the event of faulty operation or
intermediate positions of the valves, penetration of seawater through the bilge system will be safely prevented.
1.4.2
Bilge discharge pipes are to be fitted with shut-off valves at the ship's shell.
Bilge valves are to be arranged so as to be always accessible irrespective of the ballast and loading
1.4.3
condition of the ship.
1.5
Reverse-flow protection
A screw-down non-return valve or a combination of a non-return valve without positive means of closing
1.5.1
and a shut-off valve are recognized as reverse flow protection.
1.6
Pipe layout
1.6.1
To prevent the ingress of ballast and seawater into the ship through the bilge system two means of reverseflow protection are to be fitted in the bilge connections.
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One of such means of protection is to be fitted in each suction line.
The direct bilge suction and the emergency suction need only one means of reverse-flow protection as
1.6.2
specified in 1.5.1.
Where a direct seawater connection is arranged for attached bilge pumps to protect them against
1.6.3
running dry, the bilge suctions are also to be fitted with two reverse flow protecting devices.
1.6.4
side.
The discharge lines of oily water separators are to be fitted with a reverse flow protecting valve at the ship's
2.
Calculation of pipe diameters
The calculated values according to formulae (4) to (6) are to be rounded up to the next higher nominal
2.1
diameter.
2.2
a)
Dry cargo and passenger ships
Main bilge pipes
d = 1,68 (B + H) ∙ L + 25
b)
[mm]
(4)
d = 2,15 (B + H) ∙  + 25 [mm]
(5)
Branch bilge pipes
dH
[mm]
calculated inside diameter of main bilge pipe
dz
[mm]
calculated inside diameter of branch bilge pipe
L
[m]
length of ship between perpendiculars
B
[m]
moulded breadth of ship
H
[m]
depth of ship to the bulkhead deck
ℓ
[m]
length of the watertight compartment
2.3
Tankers
The diameter of the main bilge pipe in the engine rooms of tankers and bulk cargo/oil carriers is calculated using
the formula:
d = 3,0 (B + H) ∙  + 35
ℓ1
[m]
[mm]
(6)
total length of spaces between cofferdam or pump-room bulkhead and stern tube bulkhead
Other terms as in formulae (4) and (5).
Branch bilge pipes are to be dimensioned in accordance with 2.2 b). For bilge installations for spaces in the cargo
area of tankers and bulk cargo/oil carriers see Section 15.
2.4
Minimum diameter
The inside diameter of main and branch bilge pipes is not to be less than 50 mm. For ships under 25 m length, the
diameter may be reduced to 40 mm.
3.
Bilge pumps
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Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
Capacity of bilge pumps
Each bilge pump must be capable of delivering:
Q
= 5,75 · 10-3 · dH2
[m3/h]
Q
[m3/h]
minimum capacity
dH
[mm]
calculated inside diameter of main bilge pipe
(7)
Where centrifugal pumps are used for bilge pumping, they are to be self-priming or connected to an air
3.2
extracting device.
3.3
One bilge pump with a smaller capacity than that required according to formula (7) is acceptable provided
that the other pump is designed for a correspondingly larger capacity. However, the capacity of the smaller bilge
pump is not to be less than 85 % of the calculated capacity.
3.4
Use of other pumps for bilge pumping
Ballast pumps, stand-by seawater cooling pumps and general service pumps may also be used as
3.4.1
independent bilge pumps provided they are self-priming and of the required capacity according to formula (7).
In the event of failure of one of the required bilge pumps, one pump each is to be available for fire fighting
3.4.2
and bilge pumping.
3.4.3
Fuel and oil pumps are not to be connected to the bilge system.
Bilge ejectors are acceptable as bilge pumping arrangements provided that there is an independent supply of
3.4.4
driving water.
3.5
Number of bilge pumps for cargo ships
Cargo ships are to be provided with two independent mechanically driven bilge pumps. On ships up to 2000 GT, one of
these pumps may be attached to the main engine.
On ships of less than 100 GT, one mechanically driven bilge pump is sufficient. The second independent bilge
pump may be a permanently installed manual bilge pump. The engine-driven bilge pump may be coupled to the main
propulsion plant.
3.6
Number of bilge pumps for passenger ships
At least three bilge pumps are to be provided. One pump may be coupled to the main propulsion plant. Where the
criterion of service numeral according to SOLAS 74 is 307) or more, an additional bilge pump is to be provided.
4.
Bilge pumping for various spaces
4.1
Machinery spaces
On ships of more than 100 GT, the bilges of every main machinery space are to be capable of being pumped
4.1.1
simultaneously as follows:
a)
through the bilge suctions connected to the main bilge system
b)
through one direct suction connected to the largest independent bilge pump
c)
through an emergency bilge suction connected to the sea cooling water pump of the main propulsion plant or
through another suitable emergency bilge system
7)
See SOLAS 1974, Chapter II-1, Part C, Reg. 35-1, 3.2
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4.1.2
If the ship's propulsion plant is located in several spaces, a direct suction in accordance with 4.1.1 b)
is to be provided in each watertight compartment in addition to branch bilge suctions in accordance with 4.1.1 a).
When the direct suctions are in use, it is to be possible to pump simultaneously from the main bilge line by means of
all the other bilge pumps.
The diameter of the direct suction may not be less than that of the main bilge pipe.
4.1.3
On steam ships the diameter of the emergency bilge suction is to be at least 2/3 of the diameter and on motor
ships equal to the diameter of the suction line of the pump chosen according to 4.1.1c). Deviations from this
requirement need the approval of BKI. The emergency bilge suction is to be connected to the cooling water pump
suction line by a reverse-flow protection according to 1.5.1.
This valve is to be provided with a plate with the notice:
Emergency bilge valve!
To be opened in an emergency only!
Emergency bilge valves and cooling water inlet valves are to be capable of being operated from above the floor plates.
Rooms and decks in engine rooms are to be provided with drains to the engine room bilge. A drain pipe
4.1.4
which passes through a watertight bulkhead is to be fitted with a self-closing valve.
4.2
Shaft tunnel
A bilge suction is to be arranged at the aft end of the shaft tunnel. Where the shape of the bottom or the length of
the tunnel requires, an additional bilge suction is to be provided at the forward end. Bilge valves for the shaft tunnel
are to be arranged outside the tunnel in the engine room.
4.3
Cargo holds
4.3.1
Cargo holds are to be normally fitted with bilge suctions fore and aft.
For water ingress protection systems, see Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 18, B.4.1.9.
4.3.2
Cargo holds having a length under 30 m may be provided with only one bilge suction on each side.
4.3.3
On ships with only one cargo hold, bilge wells are to be provided fore and aft.
4.3.4
For cargo holds for the transport of dangerous goods, see Section 12, P.7.
4.3.5
In all Ro/Ro cargo spaces below the bulkhead deck where a pressure water spraying system according to
Section 12, L.2.3 is provided, the following is to be complied with:
-
the drainage system is to have a capacity of not less than 1,25 times of the capacity of both the water
spraying system pumps and required number of fire hose nozzles
-
the valves of the drainage arrangement are to be operable from outside the protected space at a position in
the vicinity of the drencher system controls
-
at least 4 bilge wells shall be located at each side of the protected space, uniformly distributed fore and aft.
The distance between the single bilge wells shall not exceed 40 meters.
-
4.4.8 is to be observed in addition.
For a bilge system the following criteria are to be satisfied:
-
QB = 1,25 Q
-
AM = 0,625 Q and
Sum AB = 0,625 Q
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Where:
QB
[m3/s]
Combined capacity of all bilge pumps
Q
[m3/s]
Combined water flow from the fixed fire extinguishing system and the required fire hoses
AM
[m2]
The sectional area of the main bilge pipe of the protected space
Sum AB
[m2]
Total cross section of the branch bilge pipes for each side
If the drainage arrangement is based on gravity drains the area of the drains and pipes are to be determined according to
4.4.2.
The reservoir tank, shall have a capacity for at least 20 minutes operation at the required drainage capacity of the
affected space.
If in cargo ships these requirements cannot be complied with, the additional weight of water and the influence of
the free surfaces is to be taken into account in the ship's stability information. For this purpose the depth of the
water on each deck shall be calculated by multiplying Q by an operating time of 30 minutes.
4.4
Closed cargo holds above bulkhead decks and above freeboard decks
Cargo holds above bulkhead decks of passenger ships or freeboard decks of cargo ships are to be fitted
4.4.1
with drainage arrangements.
4.4.2
The drainage arrangements are to have a capacity that under consideration of a 5° list of the ship, at least
1,25 times both the capacity of the water spraying systems pumps and required number of fire hose nozzles can be
drained from one side of the deck.
At least 4 drains shall be located at each side of the protected space, uniformly distributed fore and aft. The distance
between the single drains shall not exceed 40 meters.
The minimum required area of scuppers and connected pipes shall be determined by the following formula:
A =
Q
0,5 ∙ 19,62(h − H)
Where:
A
[m2]
Total required sectional area on each side of the deck
Q
[m3/s]
Combined water flow from the fixed fire extinguishing system and the required number of fire
hoses
h
[m]
Elevation head difference between bottom of scupper well or suction level and the overboard
discharge opening or highest approved load line
H
[m]
Summation of head losses corresponding to scupper piping, fitting and valves
Each individual drain should not be less than a NB 125 piping.
If in cargo ships these requirements cannot be complied with, the additional weight of water and the influence of the
free surfaces is to be taken into account in the ship’s stability information. For this purpose the depth of the water on
each deck shall be calculated by multiplying Q by an operating time of 30 minutes.
4.4.3
Closed cargo holds may be drained directly to overboard, only when at a heel of the ship of 5°, the edge of
the bulkhead deck or freeboard deck will not be immersed.
Drains from scuppers to overboard are to be fitted with reverse flow protecting devices according to Rules for
Hull (Part 1, Vol. II), Section 21.
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4.4.4
Where the edge of the deck, when the ship heels 5° is located at or below the summer load line (SLL) the
drainage is to be led to bilge wells or drain tanks with adequate capacity.
4.4.5
The bilge wells or drainage tanks are to be fitted with high level alarms and are to be provided with draining
arrangements with a capacity according to 4.4.2.
4.4.6
It is to be ensured that:
–
bilge well arrangements prevent excessive accumulation of free water
–
water contaminated with petrol or other dangerous substances is not drained to machinery spaces or other
spaces where sources of ignition may be present
–
where the enclosed cargo space is protected by a carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system the deck scuppers
are fitted with means to prevent the escape of the smothering gas.
4.4.7
The operating facilities of the relevant bilge valves have to be located outside the space and as far as
possible near to the operating facilities of the pressure water spraying system for fire fighting.
4.4.8
Means shall be provided to prevent the blockage of drainage arrangements.
The means shall be designed such that the free cross section is at least 6 times the free cross section of the drain.
Individual holes shall not be bigger than 25 mm. Warning signs are to be provided 1500 mm above the drain
opening stating "Drain openings, do not cover or obstruct".
4.4.9
The discharge valves for the scuppers shall be kept open while the ship is at sea
4.5
Spaces which may be used for ballast water, oil or dry cargo
Where dry-cargo holds are also intended for carrying ballast water or oils, the branch bilge pipes from these spaces are
to be connected to the ballast or cargo pipe system only by change-over valves/connections.
The change-over valves are to be so designed that an intermediate positioning does not connect the different piping
systems. Change-over connections are to be such that the pipe not connected to the cargo hold is to be blanked off.
For spaces which are used for dry cargo and ballast water the change-over connection is to be so that the system (bilge
or ballast system) not connected to the cargo hold can be blanked off.
4.6
Refrigerated cargo spaces
Refrigerated cargo spaces and thawing trays are to be provided with drains which cannot be shut off. Each drain pipe
is to be fitted at its discharge end with a trap to prevent the transfer of heat and odours.
4.7
Spaces for transporting livestock
Spaces intended for the transport of livestock are to be additionally fitted with pumps or ejectors for discharging the waste
overboard.
4.8
Spaces above fore and aft peaks
These spaces are to be either connected to the bilge system or are to be drained by means of hand pumps.
Spaces located above the aft peak may be drained to the shaft tunnel or to the engine room bilge, provided the drain
line is fitted with a self-closing valve which is to be located at a highly visible and accessible position. The drain lines
are to have a diameter of at least 40 mm.
4.9
Cofferdams, pipe tunnels and void spaces
Cofferdams, pipe tunnels and void spaces adjoining the ship's shell are to be connected to the bilge system.
For cofferdams, pipe tunnels and void spaces located above the deepest load water line equivalent means may be
accepted by BKI after special agreement.
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Where the aft peak is adjoining the engine room, it may be drained over a self-closing valve to the engine room bilge.
4.10
Drainage systems of spaces between bow doors and inner doors on Ro-Ro ships
A drainage system is to be arranged in the area between bow door and ramp, as well as in the area between the
ramp and inner door where fitted. The system is to be equipped with an audible alarm function to the navigation
bridge for water level in these areas exceeding 0,5 m above the car deck level.
For bow doors and inner doors, see Rules for Hull (Part 1, Vol.II), Section 6, H.7.
4.11
Chain lockers
Chain lockers are to be drained by means of appropriate arrangements.
4.12
Condensate drain tanks of charge air coolers
If condensate from a drain tank of a charge air cooler is to be pumped overboard directly or indirectly, the
4.12.1
discharge line is to be provided with an approved 15 ppm alarm. If the oil content exceeds 15 ppm an alarm is to be
released and the pump is to stop automatically.
The 15 ppm alarm is to be arranged so that the bilge pump will not be stopped during bilge pumping from engine room
to overboard.
4.12.2
Additionally the tank is to be provided with a connection to the oily water separator.
4.13
Dewatering of forward spaces of bulk carriers
4.13.1
On bulk carriers means for dewatering and pumping of ballast tanks forward of the collision bulkhead and
bilges of dry spaces forward of the foremost cargo hold are to be provided.
For chain lockers or spaces with a volume < 0,1 % of the maximum displacement these rules need not to be applied.
4.13.2
The means are to be controlled from the navigation bridge, the propulsion machinery control position or an
enclosed space which is readily accessible from the navigation bridge or the propulsion machinery control position
without travelling exposed freeboard or superstructure decks.
A position which is accessible via an under deck passage, a pipe trunk or other similar means of access is not to be
taken as readily accessible.
4.13.3
Where piping arrangements for dewatering of forward spaces are connected to the ballast system 2 nonreturn valves are to be fitted to prevent water entering dry spaces from the ballast system. One of these non-return
valves is to have positive means of closure. The valve is to be operated from a position as stated in 4.13.2.
4.13.4
Local hand operation from above freeboard deck is required for the valve required in P.1.3.3 is to be
operated from a position as stated in 4.13.2.if all requirements of 4.13 are met
4.13.5
It is to be recognizable by positive indication at the control stand whether valves are fully open or closed. In
case of failure of the valve control system valves are not to move from the demanded position.
4.13.6
Bilge wells are to comply with 1.3.1.
4.13.7
Dewatering and pumping arrangements are to be such that when they are in operation the following is to be
available:
-
The bilge system is to remain ready for use for any compartment.
-
The immediate start of the fire fighting pumps and supply of fire fighting water is to remain available.
-
The system for normal operation of electric power supply, propulsion and steering is to not be affected by
operating the drainage and pumping system.
For water ingress detection systems see Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1, Vol.IV), Section 18.
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The capacity of the dewatering system according 4.13.1 is to be calculated according following formula:
Q = 320 A [m3/h]
A is the free cross sectional area in m2 of the largest air pipe or ventilation opening connecting the exposed deck with
the space for which dewatering is required.
However, vent openings at the aft bulkhead of the forecastle need not to be considered for calculating the capacity of the
drainage facilities
5.
Additional requirements for passenger vessels
5.1
Bilge pipe arrangement and bilge valves
5.1.1
The arrangement of bilge pipes:
-
within 0,2 B from the ship's side measured at the level of the subdivision load line
-
in the double bottom less than 460 mm above the base line or
-
below the horizontal level specified in Rules for Hull (Part 1, Vol.II), Section 29, F.2.
is permitted only if a non-return valve is fitted in the compartment in which the corresponding bilge suction is located.
Valve boxes and valves of the bilge system are to be installed in such a way that each compartment can
5.1.2
be emptied by at least one pump in the event of ingress of water.
Where parts of the bilge arrangement (pump with suction connections) are situated less than 0,2 B from the shell,
damage to one part of the arrangement is not to result in the rest of the bilge arrangement being rendered inoperable.
Where only one common piping system is provided for all pumps, all the shut-off and change-over
5.1.3
valves necessary for bilge pumping are to be arranged for operating from above the bulkhead deck. Where an
emergency bilge pumping system is provided in addition to the main bilge system, this is to be independent of the
latter and is to be so arranged as to permit pumping of any flooded compartment. In this case, only the shut-off and
change-over valves of the emergency system need to be capable of being operated from above the bulkhead deck.
5.1.4
Shut-off and change-over valves which are to be capable of being operated from above the bulkhead deck are
to be clearly marked, accessible and fitted with a position indicator at the control stand of the bilge system.
5.2
Bilge suctions
Bilge pumps in the machinery spaces are to be provided with direct bilge suctions in these spaces, but not more
than two direct suctions need to be provided in any one space.
Bilge pumps located in other spaces are to have direct suctions to the space in which they are installed.
5.3
Arrangement of bilge pumps
Bilge pumps are to be installed in separate watertight compartments which are to be so arranged that they
5.3.1
will probably not be flooded by the same damage.
Ships with a length of 91,5 m or over or having a criterion of service numeral according to SOLAS 74 of 306) or more
are to have at least one bilge pump available in all flooding conditions for which the ship is designed to withstand. This
requirement is satisfied if
-
one of the required pumps is a submersible emergency bilge pump connected to its own bilge system
and powered from a source located above the bulkhead deck or
-
the pumps and their sources of power are distributed over the entire length of the ship the buoyancy of
which in damaged condition is ascertained by calculation for each individual compartment or group of
compartments, at least one pump being available in an undamaged compartment.
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Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
The bilge pumps specified in 3.6 and their energy sources are not to be located forward of the collision
5.3.2
bulkhead.
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5.4
Passenger vessels for limited range of service
The scope of bilge pumping for passenger vessels with limited range of service, e.g. navigation in sheltered waters, can
be agreed with BKI.
6.
Additional requirements for tankers
See Section 15, B.4.
7.
Bilge testing
All bilge arrangements are to be tested under BKI's supervision.
O.
Equipment for the Treatment and Storage of Bilge Water, Fuel/Oil Residues 8)
1.
Oily water separating equipment
Ships of 400 GT and above are to be fitted with an oily water separator or filtering equipment for the
1.1
separation of oil/water mixtures.
1.2
Ships of 10.000 GT and above are to be fitted in addition to the equipment required in 1.1 with a 15 ppm
alarm system.
A sampling device is to be arranged in a vertical section of the discharge line of oily water
1.3
separating equipment/filtering systems.
1.4
By-pass lines are not permitted for oily-water separating equipment/filtering systems.
1.5
Recirculating facilities have to be provided to enable the oil filtering equipment to be tested with the overboard
discharge closed.
2.
Discharge of fuel/oil residues
2.1
A sludge tank is to be provided. For the fittings and mountings of sludge tanks, see Section 10, E.
A self-priming pump is to be provided for sludge discharge to reception facilities. The capacity of the
2.2
pump is to be such that the sludge tank can be emptied in a reasonable time.
2.3
A separate discharge line is to be provided for discharge of fuel/oil residues to reception facilities
2.4
The discharge connection shall have no connection to the bilge system, the oily bilge water tank, the tank top or
the oily water separator.
2.5
The oil residue (sludge) tank may be fitted with manual operated self closing drain valves with visual
monitoring of the settled water (free air space) leading to the oily bilge water tank or bilge well.
Where incinerating plants are used for fuel and oil residues, compliance is required with Section 9 and with
2.6
the Resolution MEPC.76 (40) "Standard Specification for Shipboard Incinerators".
3.
5ppm Oily Bilge Water Separating Systems for Class Notation EP
Irrespective of the installation of a 5ppm oily bilge water separating systems all requirements given in MARPOL Annex 1
8)
With regard to the installation on ships of oily water separators, filter plants, oil collecting tanks, oil discharge lines and a monitoring and
control system or an 15 ppm alarm device in the water outlet of oily water separators, compliance is required with the provisions of the
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, (MARPOL) and the Protocol 1978 as amended.
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Reg. 14 have to be fulfilled and need to be certified accordingly. The 5 ppm oily bilge water separating system may be
part of the installation required by MARPOL.
O
The installation of 5ppm bilge water separating systems is optional, except where required by Class Notation EP
(Environmental Passport) or by local legislation.
The bilge water separating system consists of a bilge water handling system and an oily water separator in combination
with a 5ppm alarm which actuates an automatic stopping device as described in the IMO 107(49).
3.1
Oily bilge water separator
3.1.1
The design and test procedure shall be in compliance with IMO Res. 107(49) under consideration of IMO
MEPC.1/Circ.643. The oil content of the effluent of each test sample shall not exceed 5ppm.
3.1.2
The capacity of the oily bilge water separator is to be specified according to the following table.
Up to 400 GT
401 to 1600 GT
1601 to 4000 GT
4001 to 15000 GT
Above 15000 GT
0,25 m3/h
0,5 m3/h
1,0 m3/h
2,5 m3/h
5 m3/h
3.2
5ppm oil content alarm
3.2.1
The design and test procedure shall be in compliance with IMO Res. 107(49).
3.2.2
Additional calibration tests in the range from 2ppm to 9ppm oil content are to be carried out. Furthermore the
response time is to be taken in case the input is changed from water to oil with a concentration of more than 5ppm9).
3.2.3
An appropriate type test certificate issued by a flag state administrations or other classification societies may be
accepted.
3.3
Oily bilge water tanks
3.3.1
An oily bilge water holding tank shall be provided. This tank should preferably be a deep tank arranged above
the tank top which safeguards the separation of oil and water. Appropriate draining arrangements for the separated oil
shall be provided at the oily bilge water holding tank.
3.3.2
Oil residues (sludge) and oily bilge water tanks shall be independent of each other.
3.3.3
A pre-treatment unit for oil separation shall be provided in accordance with the example of the Annex of the
MEPC.1/Circ.642. The unit shall be placed between daily bilge pump and oily bilge water tank.
3.3.4
On ships using heavy fuel oil the oily bilge water tank shall be provided with heating arrangements.
3.3.5
The capacity of the oily bilge water tank shall be determined as follows:
Main engine rating [KW]
Capacity [m3]
Up to 1000
4
Above 1000 up to 20.000
P/250
Above 20.000
40 + P/500
Where:
P [KW] = main engine power.
3.4
9)
Oil residue (sludge) tanks
Refer to Transport Canada Standard TP 12301E
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3.4.1
For storage of oil residues (sludge), see Section 10, E.
3.4.2
The capacity V [m3] of oil residues (sludge) tanks shall be determined as follows:
V
=
K CD
Where:
K
= 0,015 for ships where heavy fuel oil is used and 0,005 where diesel oil or other fuel which
does not need purification is used.
C
[m3/d]
=
daily fuel oil consumption
D
[d]
=
maximum duration of voyage, normally taken 30 days in absence of data.
3.4.3
Oil residue (sludge) tanks shall be located below the heavy fuel oil purifiers.
3.4.4
Oil residues (sludge) tanks shall be provided with access holes arranged in a way that cleaning of all parts of
the tank is possible.
3.4.5
Oil residues (sludge) tanks shall be fitted with steaming - out lines for cleaning, if feasible.
3.5
Oily bilge water and sludge pumping and discharge
3.5.1
The oily bilge system and the main bilge system shall be separate of each other.
3.5.2
Suction lines of the oily bilge separator shall be provided to the oily bilge water tank. A suction connection to
the oil residues (sludge) tank is not permitted.
3.5.3
The effluent from the 5 ppm bilge separator shall be capable of being recirculated to the oily bilge water tank or
the pre-treatment unit.
3.5.4
The separated dirty water and exhausted control water of fuel purifiers shall be discharged into a particular
tank. This tank shall be located above tank top for the purpose to facilitate the draining without needing a drain pump.
3.5.5
pump.
The oil residues discharge pump shall be suitable for high viscosity oil and shall be a self priming displacement
3.5.6
The oil residues discharge pump shall have a capacity to discharge the calculated capacity of the oil residue
(sludge) tank (see 3.4.2) within 4 hours.
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P.
Ballast Systems
1.
Ballast lines
1.1
Arrangement of piping - general
Suctions in ballast water tanks are to be so arranged that the tanks can be emptied under all practical
1.1.1
conditions
1.1.2
Ships having very wide double bottom tanks are also to be provided with suctions at the outer sides of the
tanks. Where the length of the ballast water tanks exceeds 30 m, BKI may require suctions to be provided in the
forward part of the tanks.
1.2
Pipes passing through tanks
Ballast water pipes are not to pass through drinking water, feed water, thermal oil or lubricating oil tanks.
1.3
Piping systems
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Where a tank is used alternately for ballast water and fuel (change-over tank), the suction in this tank is
1.3.1
to be connected to the respective system by three-way cocks with L-type plugs, cocks with open bottom or changeover piston valves. These are to be arranged so that there is no connection between the ballast water and the fuel
systems when the valve or cock is in an intermediate position. Change-over pipe connections may be used instead of
the above mentioned valves. Each change-over tank is to be individually connected to its respective system. For
remotely controlled valves, see D.6.
P
Where ballast water tanks may be used exceptionally as dry cargo holds, such tanks are also to be
1.3.2
connected to the bilge system. The requirements specified in N.4.5 are applicable.
Where, on cargo ships, pipelines are led through the collision bulkhead below the freeboard deck, a
1.3.3
shut-off valve is to be fitted directly at the collision bulkhead inside the fore peak.
The valve has to be capable of being remotely operated from above the freeboard deck.
Where the fore peak is directly adjacent to a permanently accessible room (e.g. bow thruster room) which is separated
from the cargo space, this shut-off valve may be fitted directly at the collision bulkhead inside this room without
provision for remote control, provided this valve is always well accessible.
1.3.4
Only one pipeline may be led through the collision bulkhead below the freeboard deck. Where the fore-peak is
divided into two compartments, two pipelines may in exceptional cases be passed through the collision bulkhead below
freeboard deck.
1.3.5
Ballast water tanks on ships with ice class ES1 to ES4 which are arranged above the ballast load line are to
be equipped with means to prevent the water from freezing, see Rules for Hull (Part 1, Vol.II), Section 15, A.2.3.
1.4
Anti-heeling arrangements
Anti-heeling arrangements, which may counteract heeling angles of more than 10° according to Rules for HulI
(Part 1,Vol.II), Section 1, E.3, are to be designed as follows:
-
A shut-off device is to be provided in the cross channel between the tanks destined for this purpose before and
after the anti-heeling pump.
-
These shut-off devices and the pump are to be remotely operated. The control devices are to be arranged in
one control stand.
-
At least one of the arranged remote controlled shut-off devices is to automatically shut down in the case of
power supply failure.
-
The position "closed" of the shut-off devices is to be indicated on the control stand by type approved end
position indicators.
-
Additionally, Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1, Vol.IV), Section 7, G. is to be observed.
1.5
Exchange of ballast water
1.5.1
For the “overflow method” separate overflow pipes or by-passes at the air pipe heads have to be provided.
Overflow through the air pipe heads is to be avoided. Closures according to ICLL, but a least blind flanges are to be
provided. The efficiency of the arrangement to by-pass the air pipe heads is to be checked by a functional test
during the sea trials.
For the “Dilution method” the full tank content is to be guaranteed for the duration of the ballast water
1.5.2
exchange. Adequately located level alarms are to be provided (e.g. at abt. 90 % volume at side tanks, at abt. 95 % at
double bottom tanks).
1.6
Ballast water treatment plants
1.6.1
Ballast water treatment plants are to be approved by a flag administration acc. to IMO Resolution
MEPC.174(58), MEPC.169(57) respectively. The obligation to install a ballast water treatment plant depends on the
ballast water capacity and keel laying date of the ship. Refer to International Convention For The Control And
Management of Ship’s Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004 – Regulation B-3.
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1.6.2
Ballast water treatment systems (BWTS) shall in addition to the provisions of 1.6.1 comply with the Rules in
Section 8 and in this Section as well as in the Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1, Vol.IV), Section 9, D.8. The
following documents shall be submitted once for each BWTS type for approval:
–
Drawings and technical specification of piping systems including material specification
–
Drawings of all pressure vessels and apparatus exposed to pressure including material specification
–
Details on electrical and electronic systems
If compliance with BKI Rules has already been ascertained as part of the flag state type approval process in line with
1.6.1, documents for that BWTS type need not be submitted.
On manufacturer’s application, BKI may issue an approval certificate confirming compliance with BKI Rules referenced
above.
P-Q
1.7
Integration and installation of ballast water treatment systems on board
1.7.1
A ship related arrangement drawing and a piping diagram showing the integration of the BWTS into the ship’s
ballast piping system as well as the operating and technical manual shall be submitted for approval. If a BWTS uses active
substances, additional arrangement drawings for operating compartments and storage rooms of these substances shall be
submitted, including details of their equipment.
1.7.2
The rated capacity of BWTS shall not be less than the flow rate of the largest ballast pump. If the treated rated
capacity (TRC) of ballast water specified by the manufacturer may be exceeded operationally, e.g. by parallel operation of
several ballast pumps, appropriate references and restrictions shall be indicated in the ballast water management plan.
1.7.3
Proper installation and correct functioning of the ballast water management system shall be verified and
confirmed by a BKI Surveyor.
2.
Ballast pumps
The number and capacity of the pumps is to satisfy the ship's operational requirements.
3.
Cross-flooding arrangements
3.1
As far as possible, cross-flooding arrangements for equalizing of asymmetrical flooding in case of damage
should operate automatically. Where the arrangement does not operate automatically, any shut-off valves are to be
capable of being operated from the bridge or another central location above the bulkhead deck. The position of each
closing device has to be indicated on the bridge and at the central operating location (see also Rules for Hull (Part
1,Vol.II), Section 28, F. and Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1, Vol.IV), Section 7, H.). The cross-flooding
arrangements are to ensure that in case of flooding equalization is achieved within 10 minutes.
3.2
Cross-flooding arrangements for equalizing of asymmetrical flooding in case of damage are to be submitted
to BKI for approval.
4.
Additional requirements for tankers
See Section 15, B.4.
5.
Operational testing
The ballast arrangement is to be subjected to operational testing under BKI's supervision.
Q.
Thermal Oil Systems
Thermal oil systems are to be installed in accordance with Section 7.II.
The pipelines, pumps and valves belonging to these systems are also subject to the following requirements.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
Q
1.
Pumps
1.1
Q
Two circulating pumps which are to be independent of each other are to be provided.
1.2
A transfer pump is to be installed for filling the expansion tank and for draining the system.
1.3
The pumps are to be so mounted that any oil leakage can be safely disposed of.
1.4
For emergency shut-downs see Section 12, B.9.
2.
Valves
2.1
Only valves made of ductile materials may be used.
2.2
Valves are to be designed for a nominal pressure of PN 16.
2.3
Valves are to be mounted in accessible positions.
2.4
Non-return valves are to be fitted in the pressure lines of the pumps.
2.5
Valves in return pipes are to be secured in the open position.
2.6
Bellow sealed valves are to be preferably used.
3.
Piping
3.1
Pipes in accordance with Table 11.1 or B.2.1 are to be used.
59/70
The material of the sealing joints is to be suitable for permanent operation at the design temperature
3.2
and resistant to the thermal oil.
3.3
Provision is to be made for thermal expansion by an appropriate pipe layout and the use of suitable
compensators.
The pipelines are to be preferably connected by means of welding. The number of detachable pipe
3.4
connections is to be minimized.
3.5
The laying of pipes through accommodation, public or service spaces is not permitted.
3.6
Pipelines passing through cargo holds are to be installed in such a way that they cannot be damaged.
Pipe penetrations through bulkheads and decks are to be insulated against conduction of heat into the
3.7
bulkhead. See also Section 12, B.7.
Means of bleeding (of any air) are to be so arranged that oil/air mixtures will be drained safely. Bleeder
3.8
screws are not permitted.
3.9
For screening arrangements of thermal oil pipes G.3.4 applies as appropriate.
4.
Drainage and storage tanks
Drainage and storage tanks are to be equipped with air pipes and drains. For storage tanks see also
4.1
Section 10, D.
4.2
R.1.3.
The air pipes for the drainage tanks are to terminate above open deck. Air pipe closing devices see
4.3
Drains are to be self-closing if the tanks are located above double bottom.
5.
Pressure testing
See B.4.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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6.
Q-R
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
Tightness and operational testing
After installation, the entire arrangement is to be subjected to tightness and operational testing under the supervision
of BKI Surveyor.
Q-R
R.
Air, Overflow and Sounding Pipes
General
The laying of air, overflow and sounding pipes is permitted only in places where the laying of the corresponding
piping system is also permitted, see Table 11.5.
For special strength requirements regarding foredeck fittings, see Rules for Hull (Part 1,Vol.II), Section 21, E,5.
1.
Air and overflow pipes
1.1
Arrangement
All tanks, void spaces, etc. are to be fitted at their highest position with air pipes or overflow pipes. Air pipes
1.1.1
normally are to terminate at the open deck.
1.1.2
Air and overflow pipes are to be laid vertically.
1.1.3
Air and overflow pipes passing through cargo holds are to be protected against damage.
For the height above deck of air/overflow pipes and the necessity of fitting brackets on air pipes, see
1.1.4
Rules for Hull (Part 1,Vol.II), Section 21, E.
The wall thickness of air pipes on the exposed deck is to be in accordance with Tables 11.20a and 20b.
1.1.5
Air pipes from unheated leakage oil tanks and lubricating oil tanks may terminate at clearly visible positions
in the engine room. Where these tanks form part of the ship's hull, the air pipes are to terminate above the free board
deck, on passenger ships above the bulkhead decks. It is to be ensured that no leaking oil can spread onto heated
surfaces where it may ignite.
1.1.6
Air pipes from lubricating oil tanks and leakage oil tanks which terminate in the engine room are to be
provided with funnels and pipes for safe drainage in the event of possible overflow.
1.1.7
On cargo ships of 500 GT or above and on all passenger ships air pipes of lubricating oil tanks which terminate
on open deck are to be arranged such that in the event of a broken air pipe this does not directly lead to the risk of ingress
of sea or rain water.
1.1.8
Wherever possible, the air pipes of feed water and distillate tanks should not extend into the open deck.
Where these tanks form part of the ship's shell the air pipes are to terminate within the engine room
1.1.9
casing above the freeboard deck, in passenger ships above the bulkhead deck.
1.1.10 Air pipes for cofferdams and void spaces with bilge connections are to be extended above the open
deck respectively on passenger vessels above the bulkhead deck.
1.1.11
On cargo ships of 500 GT or above and on all passenger ships air pipes of fuel service and settling tanks
which terminate on open deck are to be arranged such that in the event of a broken air pipe this does not directly lead to
the risk of ingress of sea or rainwater, see also Section 10, B.5.2.
Where fuel service tanks are fitted with change-over overflow pipes, the change-over devices are to be so
1.1.12
arranged that the overflow is led to one of the storage tanks.
1.1.13
The overflow pipes of changeable tanks must be capable of being separated from the fuel overflow system.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Secction 11 – Pipiing Systems, Valves
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and Pu
umps
R
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1.1.14
Where the aiir and overflo
ow pipes of seeveral tanks situated
s
at thee ship's shell lead to a com
mmon line, thhe
ove the freebooard deck, as far
f as practicaable but at leaast so high abo
ove the deepest
connectionns to this line are to be abo
load waterrline that shouuld a leakage occur in one tank due to damage
d
to thee hull or listinng of the ship
p, fuel or wateer
cannot flow
w into anotherr tank.
R
1.1.15
The air and ovverflow pipes of lubricatingg oil and fuel tanks are not to be led to a common line.
1.1.16
or
1.1.17
For the conneection to a com
mmon line off air and overfflow pipes on ships with thee Character of Classificatioon
seee D.9.
For the cross--sectional areaa of air pipes aand air/overflo
ow pipes, see Table 11.18.
Table 11.18 Cross-secctional areas of air and over-flow pipess
Tank filling
f
system
ms
filling moode
Without overflow
With Ov
verflow
w pipes
Crross-sectional areas of air and overflow
AP
AOP
P
1/3 f per tank
-
-
1,25 f per tank 1)
Explanatoory note :
AP
= aiir pipe
AOP = aiir/overflow piipe
f
= crross-sectionall area of tank filling
f
pipe
1)
1,255 f as the totaal cross-sectional area is suffficient if it caan be proved that the resisttance to flow of the air andd
oveerflow pipes inncluding the air
a pipe closinng devices at th
he proposed flow
f
rate cannnot cause unaccceptably highh
presssure in the taanks in the eveent of overflow
w
1.2
Number of air
a and overflow pipes
The number and arrangem
ment of the aair pipes is to
o be so perfo
ormed that the
he tanks can be
b aerated annd
1.2.1
without exceeeding the tank design pressuure by over or under pressurre.
deaerated w
Tanks which extend from side to side oof the ship aree to be fitted with
w an air/ovverflow pipe at
a each side. At
A
1.2.2
w ends of douuble bottom tanks
t
in the fforward and aft parts of the
t ship, onlyy one air/ oveer-flow pipe is
the narrow
sufficient.
1.3
Air pipe clossing devices
minating abovee the open decck are to be fitted with type approved air ppipe heads.
Air/overfloow pipes term
oats during tan
nk discharge the maximum
m allowable air
a
To preventt blocking off the air pipe head openinggs by their flo
velocity deetermined by the
t manufactu
urer is to be obbserved.
1.4
Overflow sysstems
1.4.1
Ballast waterr tanks
t be provided
d for the system
m concerned that under thee specified opeerating condittions the desiggn
Proof by caalculation is to
pressures oof all the tankss connected to
o the overflow
w system cannot be exceeded.
1.4.2
Fuel oil tank
ks
b met by ov
verflow system
ms of heavy oil tanks are specified inn BKI "Regu
ulation for thhe
The requirrements to be
Constructiion, Equipmennt and Testing
g of Closed Fuuel Overflow Systems".
S
1.4.3
The overflow
w collecting manifolds
m
of fuuel tanks are to
t be led at a sufficient graadient to an ov
verflow tank of
o
BKI
B Rules Foor Machinery Installation - 2014
2
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R
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
sufficient capacity.
The overflow tank is to be fitted with a level alarm which operates when the tank is about 1/3 full.
1.4.4
For the size of the air and overflow pipes, see Table 11.19.
1.4.5
The use of a fuel storage tank as overflow tank is permissible but requires the installation of a high level
alarm and an air pipe with 1,25 times the cross-sectional area of the main bunkering line.
1.5
Determination of the pipe cross-sectional areas
1.5.1
For the cross-sectional areas of air and over-flow pipes, see Tables 11.18 and 11.19.
Air and overflow pipes are to have an outside diameter of at least 60,3 mm.
On ships > 80 m in length in the forward quarter only air/ overflow pipes with an outer diameter ≥ 76,1 mm may be
used, see also Rules for Hull (Part 1, Vol.II), Section 21.
1.5.2
The clear cross-sectional area of air pipes on passenger ships with cross-flooding arrangements is to be so
large that the water can pass from one side of the ship to the other within 15 minutes, see also P.3.
The minimum wall thicknesses of air an overflow pipes are to be in accordance with Table 11.20a
1.6
and 11.20b, whereby A, B and C are the groups for the minimum wall thicknesses.
The pipe materials are to be selected according to B.
1.7
Table 11.19 Cross-sectional areas of air and overflow pipes (closed overflow systems)
Tank filling and
overflow systems
Cross-sectional areas of air and overflow pipes
OP2)
DP
Stand-pipe
1/3 f
-
-
cross-sectional area of standpipe ≥ 1,25 F
Relief valve
1/3 f1)
min. 1,25 F
-
cross-sectional area of relief
valve ≥ 1,25 F
1/3 F at chest
min. 1,25 F
1,25 F
-
Manifold
1/3 F
min. 1,25 F
-
-
Overflow tank
1/3 F
-
-
-
Filling
Overflow chest
Overflow
system
Remarks
AP
Explanatory notes:
AP
OP
DP
f
F
1)
2)
= air pipe
= overflow pipe
= drainage line
= cross-sectional area of tank filling pipe
= cross-sectional area of main filling pipe
1/3 f only for tanks in which an overflow is prevented by structural arrangements.
Determined in accordance with 1.4
2.
Sounding pipes
2.1
General
Sounding pipes are to be provided for tanks, cofferdams and void spaces with bilge connections and for
2.1.1
bilges and bilge wells in spaces which are not accessible at all times.
On application, the provision of sounding pipes for bilge wells in permanently accessible spaces may be dispensed
with.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
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2.1.2
Where tanks are fitted with remote level indicators which are type approved by BKI the arrangement
of sounding pipes can be dispensed with.
2.1.3
bottom.
As far as possible, sounding pipes are to be laid straight and are to extend as near as possible to the
Sounding pipes which terminate below the deepest load waterline are to be fitted with self-closing shut-off
2.1.4
devices. Such sounding pipes are only permissible in spaces which are accessible at all times.
All other sounding pipes are to be extended to the open deck. The sounding pipe openings are always to be
accessible and fitted with watertight closures.
Sounding pipes of tanks are to be provided close to the top of the tank with holes for equalizing the
2.1.5
pressure.
Table 11.20a Classification of minimum wall thickness groups
Location
Air, sounding and
overflow pipes
Drain lines and
scupper pipes
Piping
system or
position of
open pipe
outlets
Tanks
with
same
media
Tanks
with
disparate
media
Air, over- flow
and sounding
pipes
below freeboard deck
or bulkhead deck
C
Scupper pipes
from open
deck
Discharge and
scupper pipes
leading
directly
overboard
Discharge
pipes of pumps
for sanitary
systems
without
shut-off on
ship's side
with
shut-off on
ship's side
-
-
above
freeboard
deck
above
weather
deck
below
weather
deck
-
C
A
-
A
B
-
Cargo
holds
A
A
A
B
A
-
-
-
B
A
Table 11.20b Minimum wall thickness of air, over flow, sounding and sanitary pipes
Outside pipe diameter da [mm]
Minimum wall thickness [mm]
A1)
B1)
C1)
38 – 82,5
4,5
7,1
6,3
88,9
4,5
8
6,3
101,6 – 114,3
4,5
8
7,1
127 – 139,7
4,5
8,8
8
152,4
4,5
10
8,8
5
10
8,8
193,7
5,4
12,5
8,8
219,1
5,9
12,5
8,8
244,5 – 457,2
6,3
12,5
8,8
159 – 177,8
1)
Machinery
spaces
wall thickness groups, see Table 11.20a
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2.1.6
R-S
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
In cargo holds, a sounding pipe is to be fitted to each bilge well.
2.1.7
Where level alarms are arranged in each bilge well of cargo holds, the sounding pipes may be dispensed
with. The level alarms are to be independent from each other and are to be type approved by BKI10).
In cargo holds, fitted with non weather tight hatch covers, 2 level alarms are to be provided in each cargo
2.1.8
hold, irrespective if sounding pipes are fitted. The level alarms are to be independent from each other and are to
be type approved by BKI.
Sounding pipes passing through cargo holds are to be laid in protected spaces or they are to be protected
2.1.9
against damage.
2.2
Sounding pipes for fuel, lubricating oil and thermal oil tanks
Sounding pipes which terminate below the open deck are to be provided with self-closing devices as well
2.2.1
as with self-closing test valves, see also Section 10, B.3.3.7.
Sounding pipes are not to be located in the vicinity of oil firing equipment, machine components with
2.2.2
high surface temperatures or electrical equipment.
2.2.3
Sounding pipes are not to terminate in accommodation or service spaces.
2.2.4
Sounding pipes are not to be used as filling pipes.
2.3
Cross-sections of pipes
2.3.1
Sounding pipes are to have an inside diameter of at least 32 mm.
The diameters of sounding pipes which pass through refrigerated holds at temperatures below 0 °C are to be
2.3.2
increased to an inside diameter of 50 mm.
2.3.3
The minimum wall thicknesses of sounding pipes are to be in accordance with Tables 11.20a and 11.20b.
2.3.4
For pipe materials see B.
R-S
S.
Drinking Water Systems10)
1.
Drinking water tanks
1.1
For the design and arrangement of drinking water tanks, see Rules for Hull (Part 1, Vol.II), Section 12.
On ships with ice class ES1 and higher drinking water tanks located at the ship's side above the ballast
1.2
waterline are to be provided with means for tank heating to prevent freezing.
2.
Drinking water tank connections
2.1
device.
Filling connections are to be located sufficiently high above deck and are to be fitted with a closing
2.1.1
Filling connections are not to be fitted to air pipes.
Air/overflow pipes are to be extended above the open deck and are to be protected against the entry of insects
2.2
by a fine mesh screen.
S-T
Air pipe closing devices, see R.1.3.
2.3
10 )
Sounding pipes are to terminate sufficiently high above deck.
National Regulations, where existing, are to be considered.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
S-T
3.
Drinking water pipe lines
3.1
Drinking water pipe lines are not to be connected to pipe lines carrying other media.
3.2
Drinking water pipe lines are not to be laid through tanks which do not contain drinking water.
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3.3
Drinking water supply to tanks which do not contain drinking water (e.g. expansion tanks of the fresh
water cooling system) is to be made by means of an open funnel or with means of preventing backflow.
4.
Pressure water tanks/ calorifiers
For design, equipment, installation and testing of pressure water tanks and calorifiers, Section 8, A. and E. are to be
observed.
5.
Drinking water pumps
5.1
Separate drinking water pumps are to be provided for drinking water systems.
5.2
The pressure lines of the pumps of drinking water pressure tanks are to be fitted with screw-down
non-return valves.
6.
Drinking water generation
Where the distillate produced by the ship's own evaporator unit is used for the drinking water supply, the
treatment of the distillate has to comply with current regulations of national health authorities.
T.
Sewage Systems
1.
General
Ships of 400 GT and above and ships of less than 400 GT which are certified to carry more than 15 persons
1.1
are to be fitted with the following equipment:
–
a sewage treatment plant approved according to Resolution MEPC. 159(55) or
–
a sewage comminuting and disinfecting system (facilities for the temporary storage of sewage when the ship is
less than 3 nautical miles from the nearest land, to be provided), or
–
a sewage collecting tank
A pipeline for the discharge of sewage to a reception facility is to be arranged. The pipeline is to be
1.2
provided with a standard discharge connection.
2.
Arrangement
2.1
For scuppers and overboard discharges see Rules for Hull (Part 1,Vol.II), Section 21.
The minimum wall thicknesses of sanitary pipes leading directly outboard below free board and
2.2
bulkhead decks are specified in Tables 11.20a and 11.20b.
2.3
For discharge lines above freeboard deck/ bulkhead deck the following pipes may be used:
–
steel pipes according to Table 11.6, Group N
–
pipes having smaller thicknesses when specially protected against corrosion, on special approval
S-T
special types of pipes according to recognized standards, e.g. socket pipes, on special approval
–
For sanitary discharge lines below freeboard deck/bulkhead deck within a watertight compartment, which
2.4
terminate in a sewage tank or in a sanitary treatment plant, pipes according to 2.3 may be used.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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6
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Section
n 11 – Piping Systems, Valv
ves and Pump
ps
2.5
2
Pen
netrations of pipes of smaaller thicknesss, pipes of sp
pecial types and plastic pippes through bu
ulkheads of
type
t
A are to bbe type approvved by BKI.
2.6
2
If sanitary disch
harge pipes arre led throughh cargo holdss, they are to be
b protected aagainst damag
ge by cargo.
2.7
2
Sew
wage tanks an
nd sewage trea
atment system
ms
2.7.1
2
Sew
wage tanks are to be fitted with air pipess leading to th
he open deck. For air pipe cclosing devicees see R.1.3.
2.7.2
2
Sew
wage tanks arre to be fitted
d with a fillingg connection, a rinsing conn
nection and a llevel alarm.
2.7.3
2
Thee discharge lines
l
of sewa
age tanks an
nd sewage treatment tanks are to be fitteed at the ship
ps' side with
screw-down
s
non-return valvves.
When
W
the vallve is not arrranged directlly at the shipp's side, the th
hickness of the
t pipe is too be accordin
ng to Table
11.20b,
1
colum
mn B.
2.7.4
2
A seecond means of reverse-flow
w protection iis to be fitted in the suction
n or delivery lline of the sew
wage pump
from
f
sewage tanks or sew
wage treatmeent plants if, iin the event of
o a 5° heel to
o port or starbboard, the low
west internal
opening
o
of thee discharge syystem is less th
han 200 mm abbove the summ
mer load line111).
The
T second meeans of reversee-flow protecttion may be a ppipe loop hav
ving an overflo
ow height aboove the summ
mer load line
of
o at least 200 mm at a 5° heel.
h
The pipe loop is to be fitted with an
n automatic ventilation
v
dev
evice located at
a 45° below
the
t crest of thee loop.
2.7.5
2
Wh
here at a heeliing of the shiip of 5° at poort or starboarrd, the lowest inside openinng of the sewage system
lies
l on the su
ummer load line
l
or below
w, the dischargge line of thee sewage colle
ecting tank iss to be fitted in addition
to
t the requireed reverse-flo
ow protection
n device accoording to 2.7.4
4 with a gate valve directlly at the shelll plating. In
this
t case the rreverse-flow protection
p
dev
vice need not tto be of screw
w-down type.
2.7.6
2
Balllast and bilge pumps are nott to be used foor emptying seewage tanks.
3.
3
Add
ditional ruless for ships witth Characterr of Classifica
ation
or
3.1
3
Thee sanitary arraangement and their dischargge lines are to be so located that in the eve
vent of damagee of one
compartment
c
nno other comppartments can be flooded.
3.2
3
If thhis condition cannot
c
be fulffilled, e.g. wheen:
-
waterrtight comparrtments are co
onnected withh each other through intern
nal openings oof the sanitary
y discharge
lines,, or
-
sanitaary discharge lines from sev
veral water tigght compartm
ments are led to
o a common ddrain tank, or
-
parts of the sanitarry discharge system
s
are loccated within th
he damage zo
one (see D.9.) and these aree connected
to othher compartmeents over interrnal openings
the
t water tighttness is to be ensured
e
by meeans of remotee controlled sh
hut-off devicees at the wateertight bulkheaads.
The
T operation of the shut-off devices is to
t be possible from an alwaays accessible position abovve the bulk-heead deck on
passenger
p
shipps and above the unsuitable leak water lline on other ships. The po
osition of the shut-off devices is to be
monitored
m
at thhe remote conntrol position.
3.3
3
Whhere the lowestt inside opening of the saniitary discharge system is beelow the bulkhhead deck, a screw-down
s
non-return
n
vallve and a secoond reverse-flo
ow protectionn device are to
o be fitted in the discharge lline of the san
nitary water
treatment
t
arraangement. In this
t case, disccharge lines oof sanitary colllecting tanks are to be fitteed with a gatee valve and
11)
Where saanitary treatment arrangements
a
aree fitted with emerrgency drains to th
he bilge or with openings
o
for chem
micals, these will be considered
as internaal openings in thee sense of these reequirements.
BKII Rules For M
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Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
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two reverse-flow protection devices. Concerning the shut-off devices and reverse-flow protection devices, 2.7.3,
2.7.4 and 2.7.5 are to be applied.
T-U
U.
Hose Assemblies and Compensators
1.
Scope
1.1
The following requirements are applicable for hose assemblies and compensators made of non-metallic and
metallic materials.
Hose assemblies and compensators made of non-metallic and metallic materials may be used according to
1.1.1
their suitability in fuel, lubricating oil, hydraulic oil, bilge, ballast, fresh water cooling, sea water cooling, fire
extinguishing, compressed air, auxiliary steam12) (pipe Class III) exhaust gas and thermal oil systems as well as in
secondary piping systems.
Hose assemblies and compensators made of non-metallic materials are not permitted in permanently
1.2
pressurized starting air lines of Diesel engines. Furthermore it is not permitted to use hose assemblies and compensators
in high pressure fuel injection piping systems of combustion engines.
1.3
Compensators made of non-metallic materials are not approved for the use in cargo lines of tankers.
2.
Definitions
Hose assemblies consist of metallic or non-metallic hoses completed with end fittings ready for installation.
Compensators consist of bellows with end fittings as well as anchors for absorption of axial loads where angular or
lateral flexibility is to be ensured. End fittings may be flanges, welding ends or approved pipe unions.
Burst pressure is the internal static pressure at which a hose assembly or compensator will be destroyed.
2.1
High-pressure hose assemblies made of non-metallic materials
Hose assemblies which are suitable for use in systems with distinct dynamic load characteristics.
2.2
Low-pressure hose assemblies and compensators made of non-metallic materials
Hose assemblies or compensators which are suitable for use in systems with predominant static load characteristics.
2.3
Maximum allowable working pressure respectively nominal pressure of hose assemblies and
compensators made of non metallic materials
2.3.1
The maximum allowable working pressure of high pressure hose assemblies is the maximum dynamic
internal pressure permitted to be imposed on the components.
The maximum allowable working pressure respectively nominal pressure for low pressure hose
2.3.2
assemblies and compensators is the maximum static internal pressure permitted to be imposed on the components.
2.4
Test pressure
For non-metallic high pressure hose assemblies the test pressure is 2 times the maximum allowable
2.4.1
working pressure.
For non-metallic low pressure hose assemblies and compensators the test pressure is 1,5 times the
2.4.2
maximum allowable working pressure respectively the nominal pressure.
2.4.3
For metallic hose assemblies and compensators the test pressure is 1,5 times the maximum allowable
working pressure respectively the nominal pressure.
12)
Metallic hose assemblies and compensators only
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Section 11 – Piping Systems, Valves and Pumps
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2.5
Burst pressure
For non-metallic as well as metallic hose assemblies and compensators the burst pressure is to be at least 4 times
the maximum allowable working pressure or the nominal pressure. Excepted here of are non-metallic hose
assemblies and compensators with a maximum allowable working pressure or nominal pressure of not more than
20 bar. For such components the burst pressure has to be at least 3 times the maximum allowable working
pressure or the nominal pressure.
For hose assemblies and compensators in process and cargo piping for gas and chemical tankers the burst
pressure is required to be at least 5 times the maximum allowable working pressure or nominal pressure.
3.
Requirements
3.1
Hoses and compensators used in the systems mentioned in 1.1.1 are to be of approved type13).
Manufacturers of hose assemblies and compensators14) are to be recognized by BKI. For production of hose
3.2
assemblies and compensators intended to be installed in mass produces engines with a piston diameter up to 300 mm the
procedure specified in the Regulation for Mass Produces Engines may be applied
Hose assemblies and compensators including their couplings are to be suitable for media, pressures and
3.3
temperatures they are designed for.
The selection of hose assemblies and compensators is to be based on the maximum allowable working
3.4
pressure of the system concerned.
Hose assemblies and compensators for the use in fuel, lubricating oil, hydraulic oil, bilge and sea water
3.5
systems are to be flame-resistant12).
4.
Installations
Hose assemblies and compensators are only to be used at locations where they are required for
4.1
compensation of relative movements. They are to be kept as short as possible under consideration of the installation
instructions of the hose manufacturer. The number of hose assemblies and compensators is to be kept to minimum.
The minimum bending radius of installed hose assemblies is not to be less than specified by the
4.2
manufacturers.
4.3
Non-metallic hose assemblies and compensators are to be located at visible and accessible positions.
4.4
In fresh water systems with a working pressure of ≤ 5 bar and in charging and scavenging air lines, hoses may
be fastened to the pipe ends with double clips.
4.5
Non-metallic hose assemblies and compensators are installed in the vicinity of hot components they shall be
provided with type approved heat protection sleeves. In case of flammable fluids the heat-protection sleeve is to be
applied such that in case of a hose or end fitting leakage oil spray on hot surfaces will not occur.
4.6
Hose assemblies and compensators conveying flammable liquids that are in close proximity of heated
surfaces are to be screened or protected analogously to G.3.4.
5.
Test
5.1
Hose assemblies and compensators are to be subjected in the manufacturer's works to a pressure test in
accordance with 2.4 under the supervision of BKI.For testing of hose assemblies and compensators intended to be
installed in mass produced engines with a piston diameter up to 300 mm the procedure specified in the BKI Guidelines
for Mass Produced Engines may be applied.
13)
See Requirement for Mechanical Components and Equipments” and Guidelines for the Performance of Type Approvals - Test Requirements
for Systems.
14)
See Guidelines for the Recognition of Manufacturers of Hose Assemblies and Compensators.
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5.2
For compensators intended to be used in exhaust gas pipes the pressure test according 5.1 may be omitted.
6.
Marking of hose assemblies and compensators
Hose assemblies and compensators are to be permanently marked to ensure traceability to the hose assembly
manufacturer, production date and product type. The scope of marking should be as follows:
-
date of manufacture (month/year)
-
product type according to type approval certificate
-
nominal diameter
-
maximum allowable working pressure or nominal pressure
-
maximum allowable working temperature
Alternatively:
-
BKI Test Certificate Number
-
maximum allowable working pressure
7.
Ship cargo hoses
7.1
Ship cargo hoses for cargo-handling on chemical tankers and gas tankers are to be type approved12).
Mounting of end fittings is to be carried out only by approved manufacturers13).
Ship cargo hoses are to be subjected to final inspection at the manufacturer under supervision of a BKI
7.2
Surveyor as follows:
-
visual inspection
-
hydrostatic pressure test with 1,5 times the maximum allowable working pressure or 1,5 times the nominal
pressure. The nominal pressure is to be at least 10 bar.
-
measuring of the electrical resistance between the end fittings. The resistance is not to exceed 1kΩ and in case
of repeat test not bigger than 1 106 Ω
Cargo hoses on gas tankers are additionally subject to the Rules for Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in
7.3
Bulk (Part 1, Vol.IX), Sections 5 & 7.
7.4
Cargo hoses on chemical tankers are additionally subject to the Rules for Ships Carrying Dangerous
Chemical in Bulk (Part 1, Vo. X), Sections 5 & 7.
7.5
Marking
Ship cargo hose assemblies are to be permanently marked to ensure traceability to the hose assembly manufacturer,
production date and product type. The scope shall be as follows:
–
manufacturer's mark
–
BKI Test Certificate number
–
test pressure
–
month – BKI stamp - year
–
nominal diameter
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Section 12 – Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
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Section 12
Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
A.
General
1.
Scope
A
1.1
The requirements in this Section apply to fire protection in the machinery and boiler spaces of
passenger and cargo vessels and to fire extinguishing equipment throughout the ship.
Fire fighting ships to which the Notation “ FF “ is to be allocated are also subject to the
1.2
Regulations for the Equipment on Fire Fighting Ships.
2.
Documents for approval
Diagrammatic plans, drawings and documents covering the following are to be submitted in triplicate1)
for approval:

water fire extinguishing equipment, including details of the capacities and pressure heads of the
fire pumps and hydraulic calculations of the minimum pressure at the fire hose nozzles specified in
Table 12.3

CO2 fire extinguishing system with arrangement drawing, operating diagram, CO2 room,
tripping devices, alarm diagram, calculation, form BKI, operating instructions.

foam extinguishing system, including drawings of storage tanks for foam concentrate, monitors
and foam applicators and the calculations and details relating to the supply of foam concentrate

pressure water spraying system, automatic, including drawings for pressurized water tank, spray
nozzles and alarms, with calculation

pressure water spraying system, manually operated, including calculations of water demand and
pressure drop, spray nozzles, remote control

for pressure water spraying systems in Ro-Ro decks/special category spaces, also documentary
proof of water drainage system

pressure water spraying system for exhaust gas fired thermal oil heaters, including a drawing of
the heater showing the arrangement of the spray nozzles and a diagram and calculation of the water
supply and drainage

powder fire extinguishing system, including the powder vessels, propellant containers and the
relevant calculations,

fire extinguishing equipment for galley range exhaust ducts and deep-fat cooking equipment

fixed local fire extinguishing arrangement for fuel oil purifiers for heated fuel oil

fixed local application fire-fighting systems for category A machinery spaces

for passenger ships: arrangement of smoke detectors and manually operated call points in
accommodations including service spaces, as well as in machinery spaces and cargo spaces
1
) For Indonesian flag ship in quadruplicate, one for Government
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment

For arrangements to carry dangerous goods in bulk in package form according to Class
Notation
A-B
3.
References to further Rules
3.1
Structural fire protection, Rules for Hull (Part 1, Vol.II), Section 22.
Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk,Rules for Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases inBulk (Part 1,
3.2
Vol.IX).
3.3
Ships Carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk, Rules for Ships Carrying DangerousChemicals in Bulk
(Part 1, Vol.X).
3.4
Pressure vessels Section 8
3.5
Oil fired equipment Section 9
3.6
Fuel and oil storage Section 10
3.7
Pipes, valves, fittings and pumps Section 11
3.8
Machinery for ships with ice class Section 11.I.2
Additional fire protectionand fire extinguishing equipment in automated plant,Rules for Automation
3.9
(Part 1, Vol. VII).
3.10
Electrical plant, Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1, Vol. IV).
3.11
Equipment of fire fighting ships, Regulations for the Equipment on Fire Fighting Ships.
4.
Alternative design and arrangements
The fire safety design and arrangements may differ from the prescriptive regulations of this Section,
provided that the design and arrangements meet the fire safety objectives and functional requirements 2)
B
1.
Fire Protection
Machinery space arrangement
1.1
The arrangement of machinery spaces is to be so that safe storage and handling of flammable liquids is
ensured.
All spaces in which internal combustion engines, oil burners or fuel settling or service tanks are
1.2
located is to be easily accessible and sufficiently ventilated.
Where leakage of flammable liquids mayoccur during operation or routine maintenance work, special
1.3
precautions are to be taken to prevent these liquids from coming into contact with sources of ignition.
1.4
rooms
Materials used in machinery spaces normally is not to have properties increasing the fire potential of these
1.5
Materials used as flooring, bulkhead lining, ceiling or deck in control rooms, machinery spaces or rooms
with oil tanks are to be non-combustible. Where there is a danger that oil may penetrate insulating materials,
these are to be protected against the penetration of oil or oil vapors.
2
)Reference is made to the “Guidelines on Alternative Design and Arrangements for Fire Safety” adopted byIMO by MSC/Circ. 1002.
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Section 12 – Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
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B
1.6
To ensure the application of current installation and construction standards and to safeguard the
observance of precautions for preventing the occurrence of fires during assembly, inspection and maintenance
works, reference is made to the guidelines for measures to prevent fires in engine rooms and cargo pump rooms as
set out in MSC.1/Circ.1321.
2.
Fuel oil purifiers
2.1
Enclosed space
Fuel oil purifiers for heated fuel oil should preferably be installed in a separate room. This room is to be
enclosed by steel divisions, be fitted with a self-closing steel door and be provided with thefollowing:
-
separate mechanical ventilation3)
fire detection and alarm system
fixed fire extinguishing system
This system may form part of the machinery space fire extinguishing system.
In the event of a fire in the machinery space, the fire extinguishing system is to be capable being actuated together
with the fire extinguishing system of the machinery space.
If the fuel oil purifiers are arranged in separate machinery space of Category A ,this space shall be provided with
fixed fire extinguishing systen with independent release
2.2
Open purifier station (area) within the machinery space
If it is impracticable to place the fuel oil purifiers in a separate room, precautions against fire
2.2.1
are to be taken giving particular consideration to arrangement, shielding / containment of leaks and to
adequate ventilation 3).
3.
Arrangement of boiler plants
Boilers are to be located at a sufficient distance from fuel and lubricating oil tanks and from cargo space
bulkheads in order to prevent undue heating of the tank contents or the cargo. Alternatively, the tank
sides or bulkheads are to be insulated.
Where boilers are located in machinery spaces on tween decks and boiler rooms are not separated
fromthe machinery space by watertight bulkheads, the tween decks shall be provided with coamings at
least200 mm in height. This area may be drained to the bilges. The drain tank shall not form part of an
overflow system.
4.
Insulation of piping and equipment with high surface temperatures
4.1
All parts with surface temperatures above 220 EC, e.g. steam, thermal oil and exhaust gas lines, exhaust
gas boilers and silencers, turbochargers etc., are to be effectively insulated with non-combustible materials. The
insulation is to be such that oil or fuel cannot penetrate into the insulating material.
Metal cladding or hard jacketing of the insulation is considered to afford effective protection against such
penetration
Boilers are to be provided with non-combustible insulation which is to be clad with steel sheet or
4.2
the equivalent.
B
3
) See Regulations for Ventilation Systems on Board Seagoing Ships.
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
4.3
Insulation is to be such that it will not crack or deteriorate when subject to vibration.
5.
Fuel and lubricating oil tanks
The requirements of Section 10 are to be observed.
6.
Protection against fuel and oil leakages
6.1
Suitable means of collecting are to be fitted below hydraulic valves and cylinders as well as below
potential leakage points in lubricating oil and fuel oil systems.
Where oil leakages are liable to be frequent, e.g. with oil burners, separators, drains and valves of service tanks,
the collectors are to be drained to an oil drain tank.
Leakage oil drains may not be part of an overflow system.
6.2
The arrangement of piping systems and their components intended for combustible liquids are to be
such that leakage of these liquids cannot come into contact with heated surfaces or other sources of ignition.
Where this cannotbe precluded by structural design, suitable precautionary measures are to be taken.
Tanks, pipelines, filters, pre-heaters etc. containing combustible liquids are not to be placed directly
6.3
above heat sources such as boilers, steam lines, exhaust gas manifolds and silencers or itemsofwhich have to
be insulated in accordance with 4.1 and are also not to be placed above electrical switchgear.
6.4
Fuel injection pipes of diesel engines are to be shielded or so installed that any fuel leaking out can be
safely drained away, see also Section 2, G.2.2 and Section 11. G.3.3
6.5.
All parts of the fuel oil system containing heated oil under pressure exceeding 1,8 bar is, as far as
practicable, to be arranged such that defects and leakage can readily be observed. The machinery spaces in
way of such parts of the fuel oil system are to be adequately illuminated.
7.
Bulkhead penetrations
Pipe penetrations through class A or B divisions are to be capable to withstand the temperature for which the
divisions were designed.
Where steam, exhaust gas and thermal oil lines pass through bulkheads, the bulkhead is to be suitably insulated to
protect it against excessive heating.
8.
Means of closure
Means are to be provided for the airtight sealing of boiler rooms and machinery spaces. The air ducts to these
spaces are to be fitted with fire dampers made of non-combustible material which can be closed from the
deck.Machinery spaceskylights, equipment hatches,doors and other openings are to be so arranged that
they can be closed from outside the rooms.
9.
Emergency stops
Electrically powered fuel pumps, lubricating oil pumps, oil burner plants, purifiers, fan motors, boiler fans,
thermal oil and cargo pumps are to be equipped with emergency stops which, as far as practicable, are to be grouped
together outside the spaces in which the equipment is installed and which are to remain accessible even in
the event of a fire breaking out. Emergency Stops are also to be provided inside the compartments in which
the equipment is installed.
10.
Remotely operated shut-off devices
Steam-driven fuel pumps, boiler fans, cargo pumps, the fuel supply lines to boilers and the outlet pipes of fuel
tanks located above the double bottom are to be fitted with remotely operated shut-off devices.
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Section 12 – Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
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The controls for remote operation of the valve for the emergency generator fuel tank have to be in separate
location from the controls for remote operation of valves for tanks located in machinery spaces.
The location and grouping of the shut-off devices are subject to the appropriate requirements specified in 9.
10.1
Machinery space safety station
It is recommended that the following safety devices to be grouped together in a central, at all times easily
accessible location outside the machinery space:
cut-off switches for engine room ventilation fans, boiler blowers, fuel transfer pumps, purifiers,
thermal oil pumps.
-
means for closing the :
-
quick-closing fuel valves
-
remote-controlled watertight doors and skylight in the machinery space area
actuation of the machinery space fire extinguishing system.
-
On passenger ships, all controls indicated in 8, 9, 10 and 10.1 as well as means of control for permitting release of
smoke from machinery spaces and means of control for closing power-operated doors or actuating release
mechanisms on doors other than power-operated watertight doors in machinery space boundaries, are to be located
at one control position or grouped in as few positions as possible. Such positions are to have a safe access from the
open deck.
When releasing the machinery space fire extinguishing system or opening the door of its release box for test
purposes exclusively, an automatic shut-off of machinery aggregates and auxiliary systems indicated in 9. and 10.
is not permitted, see also Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1, Vol. IV), Section 9, C.
10.2
Passenger ship safety station
On passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, the following safety devices are to be grouped
together in a permanently manned central control station:
the alarm panels of the pressure water spraying system required in accordance with C.2.4 and the fire
detection and alarm system
-
the controls and status indicators for theremotely operated fire doors
lights
the emergency cut-offs of the ventilation fans(except machinery space fans) plus theirstarters and running
As regards the design of the alarm and operating panels see Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV),
Section 9.
11.
Cargo spaces for the carriage of vehicleswith fuel in their tanks and cargo spaces of ro-ro ships
The cargo spaces of passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers are to be provided with
11.1
forced ventilation capable of effecting at least 10 air changes per hour.
11.2
The cargo spaces of passenger ships carrying less than 36 passengers are to be provided with
forced ventilation capable of effecting at least 6 air changes per hour.
11.3
On passenger ships special category spaces4) are to be equipped with forced ventilation capable of
4
) For definition see Table 12.1, Note.4
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
effecting at least 10 air changes per hour.
The cargo spaces of cargo ships and ro-ro ships are to be provided with forced ventilation
11.4
capable of at least 6 air changes per hour, if the electrical equipment is of certified safe type in the entire
space, or at least 10 air changes per hour, if the electrical equipment is of certified safe type up to a height of 450
mm above the deck, see Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1, Vol.IV), Section 16.
11.5
Design
11.5.1
An independent power ventilation system is to be provided for the removal of gases and vapors from
the upper and lower part of the cargo space. This requirements is considered to be met if the ducting is arranged
such that approximately 1/3 of the air volume is removed from the upper part and 2/3 from the lower part.
The ventilation system shall be capable of being run during loading and unloading of vehicles as well
11.5.2
as during the voyage.
11.5.3
The design of the mechanical exhaust ventilators has to comply with Section 15, B.5.3. For the type of
protection of electrical motors and other electrical equipment located in the exhaust air stream, see Rules for
Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 16, H.
Reference is made to the ventilation requirements in Regulations for Ventilation Systems on Board
11.5.4
Seagoing Ship.
11.6
Monitoring
The failure of a fan has to actuate a visual/audible alarm on the bridge.
11.7
Other requirements
11.7.1
Drains from vehicle decks may not be led to machinery spaces or other spaces containing sources of
ignition.
11.7.2
decks.
A fire detection and alarm system according to C is to be provided for the cargo spaces and vehicle
11.7.3
For the fire extinguishing equipment see F.2.6, F.2.7 and Table 12.1.
11.8
Electrical equipment is to comply with the requirements in Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1,
Vol.IV), Section 16.
12.
tanks
Ro-ro spaces in passenger ships not intended for the carriage of vehicles withfuel in their
12.1
For closed ro-ro cargo spaces which are not intended for the carriage of vehicles with fuel in their tanks
nor are special category spaces the requirements as per 11, with the exception of 11.5.3, 11.7.1 and 11.8, as well
as the requirements of Section 11, N.4.4 are to be applied.
For open ro-ro cargo spaces which are not intended for the carriage of vehicles with fuel in their tanks
12.2
nor are special category spaces the requirements applicable to a conventional cargo space are to be observed with
the exception that a sample extraction smoke detection system is not permitted and that additionally the as well
as the requirements of Section 11, N.4.4 are to be applied.
B-C
C.
Fire Detection
1.
General
C
Fire detection and alarm systems and sample extraction smoke detection systems are subject to approval.
For the design of the systems, see Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1, Vol.IV), Section 9.
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2.
Fire detection in passenger ships
2.1
In passengers ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, a fire detection and alarm system in
accordance with Part 1.Seagoing Ships, Volume IV, Rules for Electrical Installations, Section 9, D.is to be provided
in all accommodation- and service spaces and, if considered necessary by BKI, in control stations5).
Spaces where there is no substantial fire risk are excluded from this requirement.
2.2
Instead of a fire detection and alarm system in accordance with 2.1, an approved automatic pressure
water spraying system in accordance with L.1 or an approved equivalent pressure water spraying system 6) may be
provided. In this case, additionally an approved fire detection and alarm system in accordance with Rules
for Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 9, D. is to be installed in corridors, stairways and escape routes
within the accommodation areas. This system is to be designed for smoke detection.
Where in passenger ships a public space comprises three or more decks (atrium) containing
2.3
combustible furnishings, shops, offices or restaurants, the entire vertical fire zone is to be equipped with fire
protection arrangements in accordance with 2.4.
In this case however, deviating from Part 1. Seagoing Ships, Volume IV, Rules for Electrical
Installations, Section 9, D.3.1.11 and L.1.7.2, all decks within this public space may be monitored or
protected by common fire detection - or spraying section.
In passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers, an approved automatic pressure water
2.4
spraying system 6) in accordance with L.1 or an equivalent approved pressure water spraying system is to be
provided in all accommodation and service spaces including corridors and stairways, and in control stations.
All the above-mentioned spaces except for sanitary spaces and galleys are additionally to be monitored for smoke
by means of a fire detection and alarm system in accordance with Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1, Vol.IV),
Section 9.
In spaces having little or no fire risk, e.g. void spaces, public toilets, CO2 room etc., installations of a pressure
water spraying system or a fire detection and alarm system may be omitted.
In control stations, instead of a pressure water spraying system some other suitable fixed fire
extinguishing system may be provided if essential equipment installed in these spaces could be damaged by
water.
2.5
Closed cargo spaces for the carriage of motor vehicles with fuel in their tanks, closed ro-ro cargo
spaces and inaccessible cargo spaces are to be equipped with a fire detection and alarm system or with a
sample extraction smoke detection system.
The conditions of ventilation in the cargo spaces are to be specially taken into account when designing and
installing these systems.
The fire detection and alarm system prescribed for inaccessible cargo spaces may be dispensed with if the ship
only makes journeys of short duration.
Special category spaces (see also Table 12.1) are to be provided with manually operated call points
2.6
such that no part of the space is more than 20 m from a manually operated call point. One manually operated call
point is to be mounted at each exit.
2.7
Special category spaces without a permanent patrol system are to be equipped with fire detection and
alarm system.
C
5
6
)For definition see SOLAS II-2, Reg.3.
)See IMO-Resolution A.800(19)’ “ Revised Guidelines for Approval of Sprinkler Systems Equivalent to that referred to SOLAS
Regulation II- 2/12”
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
The conditions of ventilation are to be especially taken into account in selecting and positioning the detectors.
After installation, the system is to be tested under normal conditions of ventilation.
2.8
The cabin balconies are to be provided with a fire detection and alarm system in accordance with Rules
for Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 9, D., if the furniture and furnishings on such balconies are not of
restricted fire risk7)8).
3.
Fire detection in the accommodation spaces of cargo ships
Depending on the structural fire protection of the accommodation spaces, cargo ships are to be provided with
the following fire detection systems:
3.1
Structural fire protection method IC
A fire detection and alarm system including manually operated alarms is to be provided for corridors,
stairways and escape routes within the accommodation areas. The system is to be designed to detect smoke.
3.2
Structural fire protection method IIC
An automatic pressure water spraying system conforming to L.1.of this Section or an approved equivalent
pressure water spraying system 7) is to be provided for accommodation and service spaces. Corridors,
stairways and escape routes within the accommodation spaces are subject to 3.1 above.
Spaces where there is no fire risk, e.g. void spaces,sanitary spaces, etc., need not be monitored.
3.3
Structural fire protection method IIIC
A fire detection and alarm system including manually operated alarms is to be provided for the entire
accommodation spaces, with the exception of spaces where there is no fire risk.
In corridors, staircases and escape routes, the system must be designed to detect smoke.
4.
Fire detection and alarm systems for machinery spaces
4.1
Machinery spaces of category A9) ships with Class Notation OT or OT-S are to be equipped with a fire
detection and alarm system. The system must be designed to detect smoke.
4.2
Spaces for emergency generators, which are used in port for serving the main source of electrical power,
are to be provided with a fire detection system regardless of the output of the diesel engine.
4.3
Exhaust gas fired thermal oil heaters are to be fitted with a fire alarm on the exhaust gas side.
5.
Fire detection and fire alarm systems for the cargo spaces of cargo ships
5.1
Closed ro-ro cargo spaces are to be equipped with a fire detection and alarm system.
5.2
Closed cargo spaces for the carriage of motor vehicles with fuel in their tanks are to be equipped with
fire detection and alarm system or a sample extraction smoke detection system.
5.3
Cargo spaces for the carriage of dangerous goods as specified in P. are to be equipped with fire
detection and alarm system or a sample extraction smoke detection system. However, closed ro-ro cargo spaces
are subject to 5.1.
7
)Definitions for restricted fire risk are given in SOLAS II-2, regulations 3.40.1, 3.40.2, 3.40.3, 3.40.6 and 3.40.7.
)This requirements applies to passenger ships with keel laying date on or after 1st July, 2008. Passenger shipswith keel laying date before 1st July,
2008 shall comply with this requirement by the first survey after 1st July, 20 9
)For definition see Part 1. Seagoing Ships, Volume II, Rules for Hull, Section 22, D.4.6 [6] (applicable to all ships in the scope of this
8
section)provided for upper and lower cargo hold spaces
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C
5.4
The provision of fire detection and alarm system or a sample extraction smoke detection system in
cargo spaces not mentioned in 5.1 to 5.3 is recommended.
6.
Design of fire detection and fire alarm systems
For the design and installation of fire detection and alarm systems, see Rules for Electrical
6.1
Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 9 and additionally L., automatic pressure water spraying systems.
6.2
Sample extraction smoke detection systems
The main components of a sample extraction smoke detection system are sampling pipes, smoke
6.2.1
accumulators and a control panel, as well as three-way valves, if the system is interconnected to a carbon
dioxide fire extinguishing system.
6.2.2
The sampling pipes shall have an internal diameter of at least 12 mm. Two switchover sample
extraction fans are to be provided. In considering the ventilation conditions in the protected spaces, the suction
capacity of each fan and the size of the sampling pipes shall be adequate to ensure the detection of smoke
within the time criteria required in 6.2.8. Means to monitor the airflow shall be provided in each sampling
line.
The smoke accumulators are to be located as high as possible in the protected space and shall be
6.2.3
soarranged that no part of the overhead deck area is more than 12 m horizontally away from a smoke
accumulator.
At least one additional smoke accumulator has to be provided in the upper part of each exhaust ventilation
duct. An adequate filtering system shall be fitted at the additional accumulator to avoid dust contamination.
Smoke accumulators from more than one monitored space shall not be connected to the same
6.2.4
sampling pipe. The number of smoke accumulators connected to each sampling pipe shall satisfy the
conditions indicated in 6.2.8.
The sampling pipes shall be self-draining and be provided with an arrangement for periodically
6.2.5
purging with compressed air.
6.2.6
In cargo holds where non-gastight tween deck panels (movable stowage platforms) are provided,
separate sampling pipes with smoke accumulators are to be provided for the upper and lower parts of the
cargo holds.
In the case of cargo spaces intended for dangerous cargo steps are to be taken to ensure that the air
6.2.7
drawn in by a sample extraction smoke detection system is discharged directly into the open air.
6.2.8
After installation, the system shall be functinally tested using smoke generating machines or
equivalent as a smoke source. An alarm shall be received at the control panel in not more than 180 secfor
vehicle and ro/ro spaces, and in not more than 300sec for container and general cargo holds, after smoke is
introduced at the most remote smoke accumulator.
D.
Scope of Fire Extinguishing Equipment
1.
General
Any ship is to be equipped with a general water fire extinguishing system in accordance with E and
1.1
with portable and mobile extinguishers as specified under F.
1.2
In addition, depending on their nature, size and the propulsion power installed, spaces subject to a fire
hazard are to be provided with fire extinguishing equipment in accordance with Table 12.1. The design of this
equipment is described in E to P.
C-D
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
Cargo spaces for the carriage of dangerous goods are also required to comply with P. unless otherwise specified,
this equipment is normally to be located outside the spaces and areas to be protected and, in the event of a fire, must
be capable of being actuated from points which are always accessible.
1.3
Approval of fire extinguishing appliances and equipment
Fire fighting appliances such as hoses, nozzles, fire extinguishers, fireman's outfits and fire extinguishing media
are to be approved for use aboard seagoing ships by the competent national authorities
2.
Protection of the cargo area of tankers
2.1
The cargo areas and the cargo pump rooms of tankers are to be equipped with a fixed fire extinguishing
system in accordance with Table 12.1.
2.2
Tankers equipped with a crude oil washing system and tankers of 20 000 tdw and above carrying
flammable liquids with a flash point of 60 °C or less are to be additionally equipped with a fixed inert gas system,
see Section 15. D
3.
Open top container cargo spaces
Fire extinguishing arrangements for open top container cargo spaces have to be agreed upon with BKI10)
4.
Ships with natural gas-fuelled engine installations
Fire safety arrangements for ships provided with natural gas-fuelled engine installations shall be in accordance with
the Guidelines for the Use of Gas as Fuel for Ships
E.
General Water Fire Extinguishing Equipment (Fire and Deckwash System)
1.
Fire pumps
1.1
Number of pumps
1.1.1
Passenger ships of 4.000 GT and over are to be equipped with at least three, and passenger ships of less
than 4.000 GT with at least two fire pump.
In passenger ships of 1.000 GT and over, fire pumps, their sea connections and power sources are to be
distributed throughout the ship in such a way that an outbreak of fire in one compartment cannot put them out of
action simultaneously. Where, on passenger ships of less than 1.000 GT, the main fire pumps are located in one
compartment, an additional emergency fire pump is to be provided outside this compartment.
Cargo ships of 500 GT and over are to be equipped with at least two, and cargo ships of less than
1.1.2
500 GT with at least one fire pump.
1.1.3
On cargo ships of 500 GT and over a fixed emergency fire pump is to be provided if an outbreak of fire
in one compartment can put all the fire pumps out of action.
An emergency fire pump is also to be provided if the main fire pumps are installed in adjacent
compartments, and the division between the compartments is formed by more than one bulkhead
or deck.
1.1.4
On cargo ships, in every machinery space containing ballast, bilge or other water pumps, provision
shall be made for connecting at least one of these pumps to the fire extinguishing system. Such connection may be
dispensed with where none of the pumps is capable of the required capacity or pressure.
D-E
1.2
Minimum capacity and pressure head
10
) See IMO MSC/Circ. 608/Rev.1 "Interim Guidelines for Open Top Containerships"
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The minimum capacity and the number of fire pumps shall be as specified in Table 12.2.
E
1.2.2
Where fire pumps with different capacities are installed, no pumps is to supply less than 80% of the
total required capacity divided by the specified number of fire pumps.
1.2.1
1.2.3
Each fire pumps is to be capable of supplying sufficient water for at least two of the nozzles used on board
the ship.
On ships for the carriage of dangerous goods the requirements of P. are also be complied with.
The capacity of a fire pump is not to be less than 25 m3/h.
On cargo ships of less than 100 GT the fire pump is to be capable of supplying water for at least one
effective jet of water via a 9 mm nozzle.
1.2.4
The total required capacity of the fire pumps excluding emergency fire pumps - need not exceed 180 m3/h
on cargo ships.
1.2.5
For emergency fire pumps, see 1.4.
1.2.6
The pressure head of every fire pump is to beso chosen that the requirement of 2.3.4 is met. On cargo
ships of less than 300 GT, instead of the pressure given in Table 12.3 every nozzle is under the conditions of
2.3.4 be capable of delivering a water jet of at least 12 m length horizontally.
1.3
Drive and arrangement of pumps
1.3.1
Each fire pump is to have a power source independent of the ship's propulsion machinery.
1.3.2
On cargo ships of less than 1.000 GT, one of the fire pumps may be coupled to an engine which is not
exclusively intended to drive this pump.
1.3.3
On cargo ships of less than 300 GT, the fire pump may be coupled to the main engine provided that the
line shafting can be detached from the main engine (e.g. by means of a clutch coupling or reversing gear).
1.3.4
Fire pump and their power source may not be located forward of the collision bulkhead. In cargo ships
,BKI may on request, permit exception to this requirement
1.3.5
Fire pumps and their sea connections are to be located as deep as possible below the ship’s light
waterline.
Where such an arrangement is impracticable, the pumps less than are to be of self-priming type or are to be
connected to a priming system.
1.3.6
Provision is to be made for supplying at least one of the fire pumps in the machinery space with water
from two sea chests.
On ships with ice class, suction from the de-iced seawater cooling system is to be provided for at least one of the
fire pumps.
1.3.7
For emergency fire pumps, see 1.4.
1.3.8
Ballast, bilge and other pumps provided for pumping seawater and having a sufficient capacity may
be used as fire pumps provided that at least one pump is immediately available for fire fighting purposes.
1.3.9
Centrifugal pumps are to be connected to the fire mains by means of screw-down non-return valves or a
combination of a shut-off and a non-return device.
1.3.10
On passenger ships of 1.000 GT and over, the water fire extinguishing equipment in interior
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
locations is to be installed in such a way that at least one jet of water with the prescribed nozzle discharge pressure is
immediately available. The uninterrupted supply of water is to be ensured by the automatic starting of one of the
specified fire pumps.
1.3.11
On passenger ships of less than 1.000 GT, the immediate availability of water for firefighting is to be
safeguarded according to either 1.3.10 or 1.3.12.
1.3.12
On ships with the Class Notation "OT", at least one fire pump is to be provided with remote starting
arrangements from the bridge and from the central fire control station, if there is one.
The associated shut-off valves from the sea water inlet to the fire main are to be capable of being
controlled from the above named positions. Alternatively locally-operated valves may be used; these are to
be permanently kept open and provided with appropriate sign, e.g:
"Valve always to be kept open!"
1.3.13
Where on cargo ships of 500 GT and over and on passenger ships the fire pumps are located in
different compartments, at least one fire pump has to fulfill all requirements of an emergency fire pump specified
in 1.4 (i.e. independent power and water supply, etc.), with the exception of 1.4.1 first sentence being not
applicable.
1.4
Emergency fire pumps
1.4.1
The emergency fire pumps is to be capable of delivering at least 40 % of the total capacity
specified for the main fire pumps, but in any case not less than 25 m3/h for passenger ships of less than 1.000 GT
and for cargo ships of 2.000 GT and over, and in any case not less than 15 m3/h for cargo ships of less than 2000
GT.
The emergency fire pump is to be of self-priming type.
1.4.2
The emergency fire pump must be capable of supplying water to all parts of the ship from two
hydrants simultaneously at the pressure stated in Table 12.3; see also 2.2.1.
1.4.3
All the power and water supply equipment required for the operation of the emergency fire pump must be
independent of the space where the main fire pumps are installed.
The electrical cables to the emergency fire pump may not pass through the machinery spaces containing the main fire
pumps and their source(s) of power and prime mover(s).
If the electrical cables to the emergency fire pump pass through other high fire risk areas, they are to be of a fire
resistant type.
1.4.4
The supply of fuel intended for the operation of the emergency fire pump has to be sufficient for at least 18
hours at nominal load.
The fuel tank intended for the emergency fire pump power supply must contain sufficient fuel to ensure the
operation of the pump for at least the first 6 hours without refilling. This period may be reduced to 3 hours for cargo
ships off less than 5.000 GT.
1.4.5
The space where the emergency fire pump and its power source are installed is not to be directly adjacent
to machinery spaces of category A9) or to the space where the main fire pumps are installed.
Where this is not feasible, the division between the rooms is to be formed by not more than one bulkhead.
Recesses have to be restricted to a minimum, and doors between the spaces are to be designed as airlocks.
The door towards the machinery space shall be of A-60 standard.
The bulkhead is to be constructed in accordance with the insulation requirements for control stations (Part 1. Seagoing
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Ships, Volume II, Rules for Hull, Section 22).
When a single access to the emergency fire pump room is through another space adjoining a machinery space of
category A9) or the spaces containing the main fire pumps, class A-60 boundary is required between that other
space and the machinery space of category A or the spaces containing the main fire pumps
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
Table 12.1 Fixed Fire Extinguishing System
Type of vessel
Spaces and areas to be protected
Cargo ships ≥ 500 GT
Machinery
spaces
with internal
combustion machinery used for the
main propulsion and machinery spaces
containing oil-fired plants (boilers,
incinerators etc.) or oil fuel units
Machinery spaces containing internal
combustion engine not for used
propelling the shp
Machinery spaces containing steam
engines
≥ 375 kW
≥ 375 kW
CO2, high expansion foam or pressure water spraying system 2)
≥ 375 kW
Fixed water-based local application fire fighting systems (FWBLAFFS)
3)
Fixed local fire extinguishing arrangement Low expansion foam-, pressure water
spraying- or dry powder system
Exhaust gas fired thermal oil heaters
acc. to L.2.2
Scavenge trunks of two stroke
engines acc. to Sect. 2, G.6.3
Accommodation, service spaces and
control station , include corridor and
stairways
CO2, high expansion foam or pressure water spraying system 1,2)
CO2, high expansion foam or pressure water spraying system 2)
Fuel oil purifiers in acc. with B.2.
Deep-fat cooking equipment acc. to
M.3.
for all ships
≥ 375 kW
Fire hazard areas of category A
machinery spaces above 500 m3 in
volume acc. to L.3
Paint lockers and flammable liquid
lockers acc. to M.1.
Passenger ships
Pressure water spraying system
CO2 system or other equivalent extinguishing system
CO2, dry powder extinguishing or pressure water spraying system 2)
Automatic or manual fire extinguishing system
-
Automatic sprinkle system; if less than
37 passengers, see C.2.
Galley range exhaust ducks acc. to
CO2 system or other equivalent extinguishing system
M.2.
Incinerator spaces and waste storage
spaces
Helicopter landing deck acc. to O.
Automatic sprinkler system or manually released fire extinguishing system, for
details refer to N.
Low-expansion foam system
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Table 12.1 Fixed Fire Extinguishing System (continued)
Spaces and areas to be protected
Type of vessel
1. Special category spaces on
passenger ships
-
Cargo Spaces
2. For motor vehicles with
fuel in their tanks
For all ships CO2, high-expansion foam system
3.For dangerous good
4. On ro-ro ships
a) closed
b) open
c) not capable of being sealed
5. Cargo spaces not include in
1-4
Cargo area and cargo tanks
Pressure water spraying system
For all ships CO2, fire extinguishing system 5)6)
CO2, inert gas , high expansion foam or
pressure water spraying system
Pressure water spraying system
-
Pressure water spraying system
≥ 2000 GT 6) CO2, or inert gas system
≥ 1000 GT CO2- or inert gas- or highexpansion foam system
Tankers to D.1.4:
Low-expansion foam system and inert
gas system
Chemical tankers acc. to Part 1.
Seagoing Ships Volume X, Section
11:
Low-expansion foam, dry powder,
pressure water spraying and inert gas
system
-
Ships for the carriage of liquefied
gases acc. to Part 1. Seagoing Ships
Volume IX, Section 11 :
Pressure water spraying, dry powder
and inert gas systems.
Cargo pump spaces
Tanker and chemical tankers:
CO2, high expansion foam, pressure
water spraying system 2)
Cargo pump
rooms:
and
compressor
Ships for the carriage of liquefied gases:
CO2, or inert gas system 2)
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
Table 12.1 Fixed Fire Extinguishing System (continued)
1) Also applies to < 500 GT in the case of ships with class notation OT.
2) Approved systems using gases other than CO may be applied. Re.1.
2
3) Applies to passenger ships of 500 GT and above and cargo ships of 2000 GT and above.
4) Special category spaces are closed vehicle decks on passenger ships to which the passengers have access.
5) Pressure water spraying system in Ro-ro spaces not capable of being sealed and special category spaces.
6) May be dispensed with on request where only coal, ore, grain, unseasoned timber, non-combustible cargo or cargo representing a low fire
risk are carried. References is made to MSC/Circ.1146
7) May be dispensed with, if the furniture and furnishing are only of restricted fire risk, see L.4.
Table 12.2
Number and minimum capacity of fire pumps
Passenger ships
Cargo Ships
< 4000 GT
≥ 500 GT
< 500 GT
Number of power-driven fire pumps
2
2
1
Minimum capacity V (m3/h) of one fire pump 1)
2
3,8·10-3·d2H
) 7,65·10-3·d2H
5,75·10-3·d2H
3,8.10-3.d2H
≥ 4000 GT
3
2
1
) 5,1·10-3·d2H
) dH (mm) = theoretical diameter of the bilge main (see Section 11,N. formula 4.)
) Applicable to passenger ships with a criterion numeral of 30 or over in accordance with SOLAS 1974 as amended, Chapter II-1, Part B,
Regulation 6.
2
1.4.7
The sea suction is to be located as deep as possible and together with the pump suction and delivery
pipes of the pump to be arranged outside thespaces containing the main fire pumps.
In exceptional cases consent may be given for locating of short lengths of the suction and delivery pipes in
spaces containing the main fire pumps provided that the piping is enclosed in a substantial steel casing.
Alternatively to the steel casing the piping may be thick-walled according to Section 11. Table 11.20 b, Column
B, but not less than 11 mm, all welded and be insulated equivalent to A-60 standard.
The sea suction may also be located in machinery spaces of category A if otherwise not practicable. In this case
the suction piping is to be as short as possible and the valve is to be operable from a position in the
immediate vicinity of the pump.
The sea valve is to be permanently kept open and provided with an appropriate sign (see 1.3.12)
1.4.8
alternatively, the sea valve is to be operable from a position close to the pump, or close to the pump controls
in the case of remote-controlled pumps.
1.4.9
If the space in which the main fire pumps or their power supply are installed is protected by afixed
pressure water spraying system, the emergency fire pump is to be designed to meet this additional water demand.
1.4.10
The ventilation system of the space in which the emergency fire pump is installed is to be so
designed that smoke cannot be aspirated in the event of a fire in the engine room. Forced ventilation is to be
connected to the emergency power supply.
1.4.11
In the case of a diesel as power source for the emergency fire pump, it is to be capable of being started
by hand cracking down to a temperature of 0 ºC.
If this is impracticable or if lower temperatures are likely to be encountered, consideration is to be given to the
provision of suitable heating arrangements, e.g. room heating or heating of the cooling water or lubricating oil.
If starting by hand-cracking is impracticable an alternative independent means of power starting is to be
provided. This means is to be such as to enable the diesel to be started at least 6 times within the period of 30 min,
and at least twice within the first 10 min.
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2.
Fire mains
2.1
International shore connection
Ships of 500 GT and over are to be provided with at least one connector through which water can be pumped
from the shore into the ship's fire main. The dimensions of the shore connection flange is to be as shown in Fig.12.1
It has to be possible to use the shore connection on either side of the ship
.
Fig. 12.1 International shore connection
2.2
Arrangement of fire mains
2.2.1
On ships for which an emergency fire pump is specified or on which fire pumps are installed in separate
compartments, it is to be possible by means of shut-off valves to isolate the sections of the fire main within
category A machinery spaces 9) where the main fire pumps are located from the rest of the fire main. The shut-off
valves are to be located in a readily accessible position outside the category A machinery spaces.
With the shut-off valves closed, it is to be possible to supply all the hydrants located outside the machinery space
where the main fire pumps are located from a pump which is not sited in this space.Piping in the engine room may
not normally be used for this purpose. However, in exceptional cases short sections of piping may be laid in the
machinery space provided that the integrity is maintained by the enclosure of the piping in a substantial steel
casing.
Alternatively to the steel casing the piping may be thick-walled according to Section 11, Table 11.20b, Column B,
but not less than 11 mm, all welded and be insulated equivalent to A-60 standard.
2.2.2On passenger ships of 4.000 GT and over, the fire main must be constructed as a ring system equipped with
appropriately sited isolating valves.
2.2.3
Fire mains are to be provided with drain valves or cocks.
2.2.4
Branch pipes from the fire mains for hawse flushing are to be capable of being shut off in the vicinity
of the main fire pump(s) or from the open deck. Other branch pipes not serving fire fighting purposes and
which are used only occasionally may be accepted if capable of being shut from the open deck. The shut-off
devices, are to be fitted with warning signs instructing personnel to close them after use.
2.2.5
On tankers, the fire main is to be fitted with isolating valves in a protected position at the poop front and
on the tank deck at intervals of not more than 40 m.
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2.2.6
In piping sections where the possibility of freezing exists during operation of the ship in cold
climates, suitable provisions are to be made for continuously pressurized pipelines.
2.3
Fire main design
2.3.1
The following formula should be used as guidance for the sizing of the fire main :
dF
= 0,8 . dH
dF
= internal diameter of fire main
dH
= theoretical diameter of main. bilge pipe.in accordance with Section 11, N.2.
dFmin
= 50 mm
For pipe thicknesses see Section 11, Table 11.5 (Seawater lines).
2.3.2
On passenger ships the diameter dF need not to exceed dFmax = 175 mm, on cargo ships dFmax= 130 mm
respectively.
2.3.3
The entire fire main is to be designed for the maximum permissible working pressure of the fire pumps
subject to a minimum working pressure of 10 bar.
At no point in the ship the discharge pressure at the nozzles is to be less than the values shown in
2.3.4
Table 12.3 when water is drawn simultaneously from any two adjacent hydrants. On liquefied gas tankers this
requirement is to be met at a minimum pressure at the nozzles of 0,50 N/mm2 (refer to Rules for Ships Carrying
Liquefied Gases in Bulk (Part 1,Vol.IX), Section 11, 11.2.1
Type of vessels
Cargo ships
Tabel 12.3 Pressure at nozzles
GT
< 6.000
≥ 6.000
< 4.000
≥ 4.000
Passenger ships
2.4
Pressure at nozzle[N/mm2]
0,25
0,27
0,30
0,40
Hydrants
2.4.1
Hydrants are to be so positioned that water from two nozzles simultaneously, one of which is to be from
a single length of hose, may reach
-
any part of the ship to which passengers and crew normally have access during the voyage,
-
any part of an empty cargo space,
In ro-ro spaces or vehicle spaces it has to be possible to reach any part with water from two nozzles
simultaneously, each from single length of hose.
In passenger ships any part of accommodation, service and machinery spaces are to be capable of being
reached with water from at least two nozzles, one of which is to be from a single length of hose, when all
watertight doors and all doors in main vertical zone bulkheads are closed.
E
2.4.2
Deck hydrants are to be arranged such that they remain accessible when carrying deck cargo.
Hydrants are to be located near the accesses to spaces. In the case of cargo spaces for the transport of dangerous
goods, the additional requirements of Spare to be observed.
2.4.3
Hydrants in machinery spaces and boiler rooms:
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The number and position of the hydrants are to be in accordance with 2.4.1. On ships of less than 500 GT a single
hydrant is sufficient. Hydrants are to be sited at easily accessible points above the floor plates on each side of the
ship. One of the hydrants is to be located at the lower emergency escape.
Passenger ships are to be additionallyequipped with two hydrants in a space adjoining the lower level
2.4.4
of the machinery space where this space is part of the escape route (e.g. the shaft tunnel).
2.5
Fire hoses
2.5.1
Fire hoses are be made of a non-decomposing material.
2.5.2
Fire hoses are to have a length of at least 10 m, but not more than
- 15 m in machinery spaces
- 20 m in other spaces and open decks
- 25 m for open decks on ships with a maximum breadth in excess of 30 m
Every hose is to be provided with quick acting couplings of an approved type, a nozzle and a coupling
spanner. Fire hoses are to be stowed with nozzles attached in readily accessible positions close to the hydrants.
2.5.3
On passenger ships, a fire hose with nozzle is to be provided for each hydrant required.
On ships carrying more than 36 passengers, the hoses of hydrants located within the superstructure are to be kept
permanently coupled to the hydrant.
2.5.4
Cargo ships of 1.000 GT and over are to be equipped with a fire hose with nozzle for every 30 m of the
ship's length and with one additional hose, but at least five hoses altogether. In addition, for machinery spaces and
boiler rooms a fire hose with nozzle is to be provided for each second hydrant required.
2.5.5
Cargo ships of 500 to 1.000 GT are to be equipped with at least five hoses.
2.5.6
Cargo ships of less than 500 GT are to be equipped with at least three fire hoses.
2.5.7
Ships for the transport of dangerous goods according to P. are to be equipped with 3 additional hoses
and nozzles.
2.6
Nozzles
2.6.1
Only dual purpose spray and jet nozzles with a shut-off are to be provided.
2.6.2
The nozzle sizes are to be 12, 16 and 19 mm or as near thereto as possible.
In accommodation and service spaces, a nozzle size of 12 mm is sufficient.
For machinery spaces and exterior locations, the nozzle size is to be such as to obtain the maximum discharge
possible from two nozzles at the stipulated pressure from the smallest available fire pump; however, a nozzle
size greater than 19 mm need not be used.
F
F.
Portable and Mobile Fire Extinguishers, Portable Foam Applicators and Water Fog Applicators
1.
Extinguishing media and weights of charge
1.1
The extinguishing medium for fire extinguisher is to be suitable for the potential fire classes,
see Table 12.4.
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
Table 12.4 Classification of extinguishing media
Fire class
A
B
C
D
F(K)
-
Fire hazard
Solid combustible materials of organic nature (e.g.wood,
coal, fibre materials, rubber and many plastics)
Flammable liquids (e.g. oils, tars, petrol, greases and oilbased paints)
Flammable gases (e.g.acetylene, propane)
Combustible (e.g.magnesium , sodium, titanium and
lithium)
Cooking oils, greases or fats
Electrical equipment
Extinguishing media
Water, dry powder/ dry chemical ,
foam
Dry powder/dry chemical , foam ,
carbondioxide
Dry powder/dry chemical
Special dry powder or dry chemical
(metal)
Wet chemical solution
Carbondioxide, dry powder/ dry
chemical
Toxic extinguishing media and extinguishing media liable to generate toxic gases may not be used.
CO2 fire extinguisher may not be located in accommodation areas and water fire extinguishers not in machinery
spaces.
1.2
Fire extinguishers are to be approved in accordance with a recognized standard.
For the use in areas with electrical equipment operating at voltages > 1 kV the suitability is to be proven.
1.3
The charge in portable dry powder and gas extinguishers shall be at least 5 kg and the content of foam
and water extinguishers is not to be less than 9 litres.
The total weight of a portable fire extinguisher ready for use is not exceeding 23 kg.
1.4
Mobile extinguisher units are to be designed for a standard dry powder charge of 50 kg or for a foam
solution content of 45 or 136 liters.
It is recommended that only dry powder extinguishers be used.
1.5
For fire extinguishers, capable of being recharged on board, spare charges are to be provided:
-
100 % for the first 10 extinguishers of each type,
-
50 % for the remaining extinguishers of each type, but not more than 60 (fractions tobe rounded off).
For fire extinguishers which cannot be recharged on board, additional portable fire
1.6
extinguishers of same type and capacity are to be provided. The number is to be determined as per 1.5.
1.7
Portable foam applicators
A portable foam applicator unit has to consist of a foam nozzle / branch pipe, either of a self1.7.1
inducing type or in combination with a separate inductor, capable of being connected to the fire main by a fire hose,
together with two portable tanks each containing at least 20 litres approved foam concentrate11).
1.7.2
The nozzle/branch pipe and inductor has to be capable of producing effective foam suitable for
extinguishing an oil fire, at a foam solution flow rate of at least 200 litres/min at the nominal pressure in the fire
main.
2.
Number and location
2.1
General
11
) Refer to IMO MSC/Circ.582/Corr.1 BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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2.1.1One of the portable fire extinguishers is to be located at the access to the individual space it is designated
for.It is recommended that the remaining portable fire extinguishers in public spaces and workshops are located at
or near the main entrances and exits.
If a space is locked when unmanned, portable fire extinguishers required for that space may be kept inside or
outside the space.
If the portable fire extinguisher are not suitable for fire-fighting in electrical installations,
2.1.2
additional extinguishers are to be provided for this purpose. Fire extinguisher are to be marked with the maximum
permissible voltage and with the minimum distance to be maintained when in use.
2.2
Portable fire extinguishers
The minimum number and distribution of portable fire extinguishers shall be selected according to Table 12.5
under consideration of the fire hazards in the respective space 18. The classes of portable fire extinguishers
indicated in that table are given only for reference.
Table 12.5 Minimum numbers and distribution of portable fire extinguishers in the various types of spaces
Machinery sspaces Control station
category A
Services spaces
Accommodation space
Type of spaces
Public spaces
Corridors
Stairways
Lavatories, cabins, offices, pantry
containing no coking appliances
Hospital
Laundry, drying rooms, pantry
containing cooking appliances
Lockers and store rooms (having a
deck area of 4 m2 or more),mail and
baggage rooms, specie rooms,
workshops (not part of machinery
spaces, galleys)
Galleys
Minimum number of extinguisher
1 per 250 m of deck area or fraction
thereof
Travel distance to extinguishers should
not exceed 25 m within each deck and
main vertical zone
0
1
2
A
A or B
12
B
1 class B and 1 additional class F or
K for galleys with deep fat fryers
Type of spaces
Minimum number of extinguisher
Control
station
(other
than
wheelhouse), e.g. battery room
(excluding CO2 room and foam room)
Wheelhouse
1
B,F or K
0
Class(es) of
extinguisher(s)
A or C
2, if the wheelhouse is less than 50
m2 only 1 extinguisher is required 3
No point of space is more than 10 m
walking
distance
from
an
extinguisher 6
2 for each firing space
No point of space is more than 10 m
walking
distance
from
an
extinguisher 6
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
A
1
In accordance with Section 12, M.1
Spaces containing oil-fired boilers
Spaces containing steam turbines or
enclosed steam engines
A
0
Lockers and store rooms (deck area is
less than 4 m2)
Paint lockers and other spaces in
which flammable liquids are stowed
Spaces containing internal combustion
machinery
Class(es) of
extinguisher(s)
A or C
B
B
B
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
Table 12.5 Minimum numbers and distribution of portable fire extinguishers in the various types of spaces
Other spaces
Central control station for propulsion
machinery
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
2.3
Vicinity of the main switchboards
Workshops
Enclosed space with oil-fired inert gas
generators, incinerators and waste
disposal units
Enclosed room with fuel oil purifiers
Periodically unattended machinery
spaces of category A
Workshops forming part of
machineryspaces
Other machinery spaces (auxiliary
spaces, electrical equipment spaces,
auto-telephone exchange rooms, air
conditioning spaces and other similar
spaces)
Weather deck
Ro/ro spaces and vehicle spaces
1, and 1 additional extinguisher
suitablefor electrical fires when main
switchboards are arranged in central
control station
2
1
2
A and/ or C
C
A or B
B
0
1 at each entrance 1
B
1
B or C
17
B or C
04
No point of space is more than 20 m
walking distance from an
extinguisher at each deck level 4,5
04
B
B
Cargo spaces
B
Cargo pump-room and gas
2
B or C
compressor room
Helidecks
In accordance with section 12, O.1
B
A portable fire extinguisher required for a small space may be located outside and near the entrance to
that space
For service spaces, a portable fire extinguisher required for that small space placed outside or near the
entrance to that space may also be considered as part of the requirement for the space in which it is
located.
If the wheelhouse is adjacent with the chartroom and has a door giving direct access to chartroom, no
additional fire extinguisher is required in the chart room. The same applies to safety centres if they are
within the boundaries of the wheelhouse in passenger ships.
Portable fire extinguishers, having a total capacity of not less than 12 kg of dry powder, should be
provided when dangerous goods are carried on the weather deck, in open ro/ro spaces and vehicle
spaces, and in cargo spaces as appropriate, see Section 12, P.9. Two portable fire extinguishers, each
having a suitable capacity, should be provided on weather deck for tankers.
No portable fire extinguisher needs to be provided in cargo holds of containerships if motor vehicles
with fuel in their tank for their own propulsion are carried in open or closed containers.
Portable fire extinguishers required for oil-fired boilers may be counted.
Portable fire extinguishers located not more than 10 m walking distance outside these spaces, e.g. in
corridors, may be taken for meeting this requirement
F
Mobile fire extinguisher, portable foam applicators and water fog application
Machinery and special category spaces are to be provided, depending on their purpose, with mobilefire
extinguishers, portable foam applicator units and water fog applicators as described hereinafter.
Machinery spaces of category A9) containing internal combustion machinery
F-G
The following is to be provided:
2.3.1
portable fire extinguishers which are to be so located that no point in the space is more than 10m
walking distance from an extinguisher
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mobile fire extinguishers of 50 kg dry powder or 45 litres foam which are to be so located that the
extinguisher can be directed onto any part of the fuel and lubricating oil pressure systems, gearing and other
fire hazards
-
at least one portable air foam applicator unit
For smaller spaces on cargo ships (e.g. emergency diesel generator room), above listed equipment may be arranged
outside near the entrance to that spaces.
2.3.2
Machinery spaces of category A9) containing oil fired boilers at least is to be provided:
two mobile 50 kg dry powder or one mobile 135 litres foam extinguisher in each boiler room. The
extinguishers are to be provided with hoses on reels suitable for reaching any part of the boiler room. In case of
domestic boilers of less than 175 kW one portable extinguisher will be sufficient
a receptacle containing at least 0,1 m3 sand or sawdust impregnated with soda or one additional
portable extinguisher alternatively.
-
at least one portable foam applicator unit.
2.3.3
Machinery spaces containing steam turbines or enclosed steam engines
In spaces containing steam turbines or enclosed steam engines having in the aggregate a total output of 375 kW
and over used for main propulsion or other purposes mobile fire extinguishers of 50 kg dry powder or 45 litres
foam shall be provided which are to be so located that the extinguishant can be directed nto any part of the fuel and
lubrication oil pressure system, gearing and any other fire hazard. This requirement is not applicable where the
space is protected by a fixed fire extinguishing system in accordance with Table 12.1
2.3.4
Machinery spaces of category A 10) in passenger ships
In addition to the fire fighting equipment specified in 2.2 and 2.3.1 - 2.3.3, machinery spaces of category
A in passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers are to be provided with at least two water fog
applicators.
2.3.5
Machinery spaces on small ships
On ships of less than 500 GT, the machinery spaces referred to in 2.3.1 to 2.3.4 need not be equipped with mobile fire
extinguisher and a portable foam appli-cator unit, unless a fixed fire extinguishing system is not provided in such
spaces.
2.3.6
Special category spaces on passenger ships and ro/ro spaces
Each space is to be provided with one portable foam applicator unit and three water fog applicators. A total of at
least two portable foam applicators is to be available.
G.
High-Pressure CO2 Fire Extinguishing Systems
1.
Calculation of the necessary quantity of CO2
The calculation of the necessary quantity of CO2 is to be based on a gas volume of 0.56 m3 per kg of CO2.If two or
more individually floodable spaces are connected to the CO2 system, the total CO2 quantity available need not
be more than the largest quantity required for one of these spaces.
G
1.1
Machinery, boiler and cargo pump spaces
The quantity of gas available for spaces containing internal combustion machinery, oil-fired boilers
1.1.1
or other oil-fired equipment, for purifier spaces according to B.2.1 and for cargo pump rooms is to be sufficient to
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
give a minimum volume of free gas equal to the larger of the following:
40 % of the gross volume of the largest space including the casing up to the level atwhich the
horizontal area of the casing isless than 40 % of the horizontal area of thespace concerned taken midway between
thetank top and the lowest part of the casing,
-
35 % of the gross volume of the largest space including the casing.
For cargo ships under 2.000 GT, the percentage specified in 1.1.1 may be reduced to 35 % and 30 %
1.1.2
respectively.
1.1.3
For cargo pump spaces on chemical tankers, and for compartment and cargo pump spaces on liquefied
gas tankers, the volume of free gas available is to be calculated as 45 % of the gross volume of the space.
1.1.4
For machinery spaces without casings (e.g. incinerator or inert gas generator spaces) the volume of
free gas available is to be calculated according to 35 % of the gross volume of the space.
Where two or more spaces containingboilers or internal combustion machinery are not entirely
1.1.5
separated, they are to be considered as a single space for the purpose of determining the quantity of CO2
required.
The volume of starting air receivers, converted to free air volume, is to be added to the gross
1.1.6
volume of the machinery space whencalculating the necessary quantity of extinguishing medium.
Alternatively, a discharge pipe, led from the safety valves to the open air, may be fitted.
1.2
Cargo spaces
In cargo spaces, the quantity of CO2available must be sufficient to fill at least 30 % of the gross
1.2.1
volume of the largest cargo space which is capable of being sealed. Calculation of the gross volume is to be
based on the distance from the double bottom (tank top) to the weather deck including the hatchway and the
vertical boundaries of the cargo space concerned.
1.2.2
If a container cargo hold is fitted with partially weathertight hatchway covers the quantity of CO2
for the cargo space is to be increased in accordance with one of the following formulae, as appropriate:
CO2INC30% = 60.AT.
CO2INC45% = 4.AT.
[kg] Increase of CO2 quantity for cargo spaces not intended for carriage o motor
CO2INC30%
vehicles with fuel in their tanks for their tanks for their own propulsion
[kg] Increase of CO2 quantity for cargo spaces intended for carriage o motor vehicles
CO2INC45%
with fuel in their tanks for their own propulsion
AT
Total maximum area of designrelated gaps at the hatch covers.
B
breadth of cargo space protected by the CO2 system
The non-weathertight gaps are not to exceed 50 mm.
1.2.3
In the case of cargo spaces in ships carrying only coal, ore, grain unseasoned, timber, noncombustible cargo or cargo representing a low fire risk, application may be made to the national authorities for
exemption from this requirement.
1.2.4
For the cargo spaces of ships intended for the transport of motor vehicles with filled fuel tanks and for
closed ro-ro spaces, the available quantity of CO2 is to be sufficient to fill at least 45 % of the gross volume of the
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largest enclosed cargo space.
1.2.5
It is recommended that mail rooms, spaces for bonded stores and baggage rooms be connected to
the CO2 fire extinguishing system.
1.2.6
Where cargo spaces connected to a CO2 system are temporarily used as spaces for the
transport of as cargo tanks, means are to be provided for sealing off the relevant connecting lines during such
periods by the use of spectacle flanges.
1.3
Protection of space against over-/under- pressure
It is to be safeguarded that flooding of space with CO2 cannot cause an unacceptable over or under pressure in
the space concerned. If necessary, suitable means of pressure relief are to be provided.
2.
2.1
CO2 cylinders
Design and equipment
In respect of their material, manufacture, type and testing, CO2 cylinders must comply with the
2.1.1
requirements of Section 8, G.
2.1.2
CO2 cylinders may normally only be filled with liquid CO2 in a ratio of 2 kg CO2 to every 3 literof
cylinder capacity. Subject to the shipping route concerned, special consideration may be given to a higher
filling ratio (3 kg CO2 to every 4 liters capacity).
2.1.3
Cylinder intended for flooding boiler rooms, machinery spaces as well as cargo pump and compressor
rooms are o be equipped with quick-opening valve for group release enabling these spaces to be flooded with 85 %
of the required gas volume within two minutes.
Cylinders intended for the flooding of cargo spaces need only be fitted with individual release valves, except for
cargo spaces for the transport of reefer containers and for the cases addressed in 3.5 which require cylinders with
quick-opening valves for group release.
For cargo spaces for the carriage of motor vehicles with fuel in their tanks and for ro-ro spaces CO2 cylinders with
quick – opening valves suitable for group release are to be provided for flooding of these spaces within 10 minutes
with 2/3 of the prescribed quantity of CO2
Cylinder valves are to be approved by a recognized institution and be fitted with an
2.1.4
overpressure relief device.
2.1.5
Siphons are to be securely connected to the cylinder valve.
2.2
Disposition
CO2 cylinders are to be stored in special spaces, securely anchored and connected to a manifold.
2.2.1
Check valves are to be fitted between individual cylinders and the manifold.
If hoses are used to connect the cylinders to the manifold, they are to be type approved.
2.2.2
At least the cylinders intended for the quick flooding of boiler rooms and machinery spaces are to be
grouped together in one room.
2.2.3
The cylinders for CO2 fire extinguishing systems for scavenge trunks and for similar purposes may be
stored in the machinery space on condition that an evidence by calculation is provided proving that the
concentration of the free CO2 gas (in case of leakages at all cylinders provided) relative to the net volume of the
engine room does not exceed 4 %.
3.
Rooms for CO2 cylinders
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3.1
Rooms for CO2 cylinders may not be located forward of the collision bulkhead and are to, wherever
possible, be situated on the open deck. Access is to be possible from the open deck. CO2 cylinder rooms
below the open deck are to have a stairway or ladder leading directly to the open deck. The CO2 cylinder room is
not to be located more than one deck below the open deck. Direct connections via doors or other openings
between cylinder rooms and machinery spaces or accommodation spaces below the open deck are not permitted. In
addition to the cabins themselves, other spaces provided for use by passengers and crew such as sanitary spaces,
public spaces, stair wells and corridors are also considered to form part of the accommodation space.
The size of the cylinder room and the arrangement of the cylinders are to be conducive to efficient ooperation.
Means are to be provided for:
-
conveying cylinders to the open deck, and
the crew to safely check the quantity of CO2 in the cylinders, independent of the ambient temperatures.
These means are to be soarranged that is not necessary to move thecylinders completely from their fixing
position. This is achieved, for instance, by providing hanging bars above each bottle row for a weighing
device or by using suitable surface indicators.
Cylinder rooms are to be lockable. The doors of cylinder rooms are to open outwards.
Bulkheads and decks including doors another means of closing any opening therein which form the boundaries
between CO2 storage rooms and adjacent enclosed spaces are to be gas tight.
Cylinder rooms are to be exclusively used for installation of CO2 cylinders and associated system
components.
Cylinder rooms are to be protected orinsulated against heat and solar radiation in such a way that
3.2
the room temperature does not exceed 45 EC. The boundary of the cylinder room is to conform to the
insulation valves prescribed for control stations (Part 1. Seagoing Ships, Volume II, Rules for Hull, Section
22).
Cylinder rooms are to be fitted with thermometers for checking the room temperature.
Cylinder rooms are to be provided withadequate ventilation. Spaces where access from the open
3.3
deck is not provided or which are located below deck are to be fitted with mechanical ventilation at not less than 6
air changes per hour. The exhaust duct should be led to the bottom of the space. Other spaces may not be
connected to this ventilation system.
3.4
Cylinder rooms are to be adequately heated if during the ship’s service the nominal room temperature
of 20 oC cannot be maintained at the ambient conditions.
3.5
Where it is necessary for the crew to pass CO2 protected cargo hold(s) to reach the cylinder room,
e.g. if the cylinder room is located forward of CO2 protected cargo hold(s) and the accommodation block is
arranged in the aft area of the ship, remote release controls are to be placed in the accommodation area in
order to facilitate their ready accessibility by the crew. The remote release controls and release lines are to be
of robust construction or so protected spaces. The capability to release different quantities of CO2 into
different cargo holds has to be included in the remote release arrangement.
4.
Piping
4.1
Piping is to be made of weldable materials in accordance with Rules for Materials(Part 1,Vol.V).
4.2
The manifold from the cylinders up to and including the distribution valves are to be designed for
anominal working pressure of PN 100.
Material certificates are to be provided according to the requirements for pipe class I (see Section 11).
Manufacturers' inspection certificates may beaccepted as equivalent provided that by means of the pipe
marking (name of pipe manufacturers, heat number, test mark) unambiguous reference to the certificate can
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be established. The requirements regarding remarking are to be observed when processing the pipes.
4.3
Pipework between distribution valves and nozzles is to be designed for a nominal working
pressure of PN 40. However, for the purpose of material certification this piping may be considered in pipe class
III.
All pipework is to be protected against external corrosion. Distribution lines serving spaces other
4.4
than machinery spaces are to be galvanized internally.
4.5
Welded or flanged pipe connections are to be provided. For pipes with a nominal bore of less than 50
mm, welded compression type couplings may be used.
Threaded joints may be used only inside CO2 protected spaces.
Table 12.6 Design of quick flooding lines
Nominal Diameter DN
[mm]
15
20
25
32
40
50
65
80
90
100
110
125
150
[inches]
½
¾
1
1¼
1½
2
2½
3
3½
4
4½
5
6
Weight of CO2 for machinery and
boiler spaces
[kg]
45
100
135
275
450
1.100
1.500
2.000
3.250
4.750
6.810
9.500
15.250
Weight of CO2 for cargo holds for
motor vehicles
[kg]
400
800
1.200
2.500
3.700
7.200
11.500
20.000
Table 12.7 Minimum steel pipe thicknesses for CO2
Da
[mm]
21,3 – 26,9
From cylinders to distribution valves
s [mm]
3,2
From distribution valves to nozzles
s [mm]
2,6
30,0 – 48,3
4,0
3,2
51,0 – 60,3
4,5
3,6
63,5 – 76,1
5,0
3,6
82,5 – 88,9
5,6
4,0
101,6
6,3
4,0
108,0 – 114,3
7,2
4,5
127,0
8,0
4,5
133,0 – 139,7
8,0
5,0
152,4 – 168,3
8,8
5,6
4.6
Bends or suitable compensators are to be provided to accommodate the thermal expansion of the pipelines.
Hoses for connecting the CO2 cylinders to themanifold are to be type-approved and hose lines are to be
fabricated by manufacturers approved by BKI, see Section 11, U.
4.7
Distribution piping for quick-flooding is to be designed in such that icing due to expansion of the
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extinguishing gas cannot occur. Reference values are shown in Table 12.5. System flow calculations shall be
performed using a recognized calculation technique (e.g. NFPA calculation program).
The minimum nominal bore of flooding lines and of their branches to nozzles in cargo holds is 20
4.8
mm; that of the nozzle connections15 mm.
The minimum pipe thicknesses are shown in Table 12.6.
A compressed air connection with a non-return valve and a shut-off valve is to be fitted at a suitable
4.9
point. The compressed air connection is to be of sufficient size to ensure that, when air is blown through the
system at a pressure of 5 to 7 bar, it is possible to check the outflow of air from all nozzles.
4.10
CO2 pipes may pass through accommodation spaces providing that they are thick-walled according to
Section 11, Table 11.6 Group D (for pipes with an outer diameter of less than 38 mm, the minimum wall thickness is
to be 5,0 mm), joined only by welding and not fitted with drains or other openings within such spaces.
CO2 pipes may not be led through refrigerated spaces.
4.11
In piping sections where valve arrangements introduce sections of closed piping (e.g. manifolds with
distribution valves), such sections are to be fitted with a pressure relief valve and the outlet of the valve is to be led to
the open deck.
4.12
CO2 pipes also used as smoke sampling pipes are to be self-draining.
CO2 pipes passing through ballast water tanks are to be joined only by welding and be thick-walled
4.13
according to Section 11, Table 11.6, Group D (for pipes with an outer diameter of less than 38 mm, the minimum wall
thickness is to be 5,0 mm).
5.
Release devices
5.1
Release of the system is to be actuated manually. Automatic actuation is not acceptable.
5.2
Release of the CO2 cylinders, whether individually or in groups, and opening of the distribution valve
are to be actuated independently of each other. For spaces, for which CO2 cylinders with quick-opening valves for
group release are required (refer to G.2.1.3), two separate controls are to be provided for releasing CO2 into the
protected space. One control is to be used for opening the distribution valve of the piping which conveys CO2
into the protected space and a second control is to be used todischarge CO2 from its storage cylinders. Positive
means are to be provided so that these controls can only be operated in that order.
Remotely operated cylinder actuating devices and distribution valves are to be capable of local
5.3
manual operation.
5.4
The controls for flooding of machinery spaces, closed ro-ro spaces, cargo spaces for the transport of
reefer containers, paint lockers and the like and of cargo pump and compressor spaces are to be readily accessible,
simple to operate and be located close to one of the entrances outside the space to be protected in a lockable case
(release box). A separate release box is to be provided for each space which can be flooded separately, the
space to which it relates being clearly indicated.
The emergency release from the CO2 room has to ensure the group release of the CO2 cylinders for spaces
requiring quick-flooding release (see G.2.1.3).
Small spaces located in close vicinity of the CO2 room, e.g. paint store, may be flooded from the CO2 room, in
which case a separate release box may be dispensed with.
5.5
The key for the release box is to be kept in a clearly visible position next to the release box in a locked
case with a glass panel.
5.6
A distribution valve (normally closed) is to be located in every flooding line outside the space to be
protected in a readily accessible position. If the protection of small space (e.g. galley range exhaust duct)
requires only one cylinder with a maximum content of 6 kg CO2 , an additional shut-off downstream of the
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cylinder valve may be omitted.
Distribution valves are to be protected against unauthorized and unintentional actuation and fitted
5.7
with signs indicating the space to which the associated CO2 lines lead.
5.8
Distribution valves are to be made of a seawater-resistant material. The valve position ‘open’ or
‘closed’ is to be visible.
6.
CO2 discharge nozzles
6.1
The number and arrangement of the nozzles provided is to ensure even distribution of the CO2. The
discharge nozzles shall be made of steel or equivalent material.
6.2
Boiler rooms and machinery spaces
The nozzles are to be arranged preferably in the lower part of the machinery space and in the bilges, taking into
account the room configuration. At least eight nozzles are to be provided, not less than two of which are to be
located in the bilges.
Nozzles are to be provided in the engine- or funnel casing, in case of equipment of fire risk being arranged
there, e.g. oil fired equipment or components of the thermal oil plant.
The number of nozzles may be reduced for small machinery spaces.
6.3
Cargo spaces
Nozzles are to be sited in the upper part of the space.
When the CO2 system is connected with a sample extraction smoke detection system, the nozzles are to be so
arranged that no part of the overhead deck area is more than 12 m horizontally away from a nozzle.
In cargo holds where non-gastight tween deck panels (movable stowage platforms) are provided, the nozzles shall
be located in both the upper and lower parts of the cargo holds.
Demands on sample extraction smoke detection systems are detailed in C.6.2 of this Section and in Rules for
Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV).
7.
Alarm systems
7.1
For machinery spaces, boiler, cargo pump rooms and similar spaces acoustic alarms of horn or siren
sound is to be provided which are to be independent of the discharge CO2. The audible warning is to
be located so as to be audible throughout the protected space with all machinery operating and is to be clearly
distinguishable from all other alarm signals by adjustment of sound pressure or sound patterns.
The pre-discharge alarms are to be automatically actuated a suitable time before flooding occurs. As adequate
is to be considered the period of time necessary to evacuate the space to be flooded but not less than 20
seconds. The system is to be designed such that flooding is not possible before this period of time has elapsed.
The automatic actuation of the CO2 alarm in the protected space may be realized by e.g., opening the door of the
release station.
The alarm has to continue to sound as long as the flooding valves are open.
7.2
Where adjoining and interconnecting spaces (e.g. machinery space, purifier room, machinery control
room) have separate flooding systems, any danger to persons is to be excluded by suitable alarms in the adjoining
spaces.
7.3
Audible and visual warnings (pre-discharge alarms as defined in 7.1) are also to be provided in ro-ro
cargo spaces, spaces for the transport of reefer containers and other spaces where personnel can be expected to
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enter and where the access is therefore facilitated by doors or man way hatches. In conventional cargo spaces and
small spaces, e.g. small compressor rooms, paint stores, etc., alarms may be dispensed with.
The power supply to electrical alarm systems has to be guaranteed in the event of failure of the ship's
7.4
main power supply.
If the alarm is operated pneumatically, a permanent supply of compressed air for the alarm system
7.5
is to be ensured.
7.6
15.
Alarm systems for the cargo area of tankers: Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1, Vol.IV), Section
8.
General arrangement plan
In the wheelhouse and in the CO2 rooms arrangement plans are to be displayed showing the disposition of the entire
CO2 system. The plan shall also indicate how many cylinders are to be released to extinguish fires in individual
spaces.
Clear operating instructions are to be posted at all release stations.
9.
Warning signs
9.1
For CO2 systems the following signs are to be displayed:
9.1.1
At the release stations:
"Do not operate release until personnel have left the space, the ventilation has been shut off and the space has been
sealed."
9.1.2
At the distribution stations and in the CO2 room:
"Before flooding with CO2 shut off ventilation and close air intakes. Open distribution valves first, then the
cylinder valves!"
In the CO2 room and at entrances to spaces which can be flooded:
"WARNING!"
"In case of alarm or release of CO2 leave the space immediately (danger of suffocation).
9.1.3
The space may be re-entered only after thorough ventilating and checking of the atmosphere."
9.1.4
In the CO2 cylinder room:
"This space is to be used only for the storage of CO2 cylinders for the fire extinguishing system. The
temperature of the space is to be monitored."
9.1.5
At the release station for the CO2 system for the cargo pump and gas compressor rooms of tank ships
carrying flammable materials, the warning sign is to bear the additional instruction:
"Release device to be operated only after outbreak of fire in space".
10.
Testing
After installation, the piping is to besubjected to hydraulic pressure test in the presence of a BKI
10.1
Surveyor by using following test pressures:
-
piping between cylinders and distributionvalves to be tested at 150 bar
-
piping passing through accommodation spaces to be tested at 50 bar
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-
all other piping to be tested at 10 bar
The hydrostatic test may also be carried out prior to installation on board in the case of piping which
ismanufactured complete and equipped with all fittings. Joints welded on board have to undergo a hydrostatic test at
the appropriate pressure.
Where water cannot be used as the test medium and the piping cannot be dried prior to putting the system into
service, proposals for alternative test media or test procedures are to be submitted to BKI for approval.
10.2
After assembly on board, a tightness test is to be performed using air or other suitable media. The selected
pressure depends on the method of leak detection used.
10.3
All piping is to be checked for free passage.
10.4
A functional test of the alarm equipment is to be carried out
H.
G-H
Low-Pressure CO2 Fire Extinguishing Systems
1.
Calculation of the necessary quantity of CO2
Calculation of the necessary quantity of CO2 is subject to the provisions set out in G.1.
2.
CO2 containers
2.1
Design and construction
2.1.1
The rated CO2 supply is to be stored inpressure vessels at a pressure of 18 to 22 bar.
2.1.2
With regard to their material, manufacture,construction, equipment and testing, the containers must
comply with the requirements contained in Section 8.
2.1.3
The containers may be filled with liquid CO2 up to a maximum of 95 % of their volumetric capacity
calculated at 18 bar.
The vapor space has to be sufficient to allow for the increase in volume of the liquid phase due to a temperature
rise corresponding to the setting pressure of the relief valves.
2.2
Equipment
2.2.1
Pressure monitoring
The container pressure is to be monitored and an independent visual/audible alarm signaling both high pressure
prior to the attainment of the setting pressure of the relief valves and low pressure at not less than 18 bar is to be
provided.
2.2.2
Monitoring of liquid level
Each container is to be equipped with two level gauges, one of which has to provide permanent
monitoring of the liquid level. A liquid level of 10 % or more below the set level is to trip a visual/audible alarm.
Where more than one space is protected by the CO2 system, a remote indicator is to be provided at all release
stations outside the room in which the container is located. A remote indicator may be dispensed with if, after
release, the discharge of the rated quantity of CO2 is regulated automatically, e.g. by an automatic timer.
2.2.3
Safety relief valves
H
Each container is to be fitted with two safety relief valves with shut-off valves on the inlet side. The shut-off
valves are to be interlocked in such a way that the cross-sectional area of one relief valve is available at all
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H
Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
times.
The setting pressure of the relief valves is to be at least 10 % above the cut-in pressure of the refrigerating
units.
The capacity of each relief valve is to be so that the quantity of gas produced by the action of fire on the container
can be discharged without the pressure in the container exceeding the setting pressure of the relief valves by
more than 20 %. For the calculation see Rules for Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (Part 1,Vol.IX),
Section 8.
The blow-off line is to discharge into the open air.
2.2.4
Insulation
Containers and piping which are normally filled with CO2 are to be insulated in such that after failure of the
refrigeration, when setting pressure of the of the relief valves is not reached before a period of 24 hours, assuming a
container pressure equal to the cut-in pressure of the refrigerating units and ambient temperature of 450 C.
The insulating material has to be at least not readily ignitable and be sufficiently robust. Protection against steam
penetration and damage from outside is to be provided. See also Rules for Refrigerating Installations (Part
1,Vol.VIII), Section 1, L.
3.
Refrigerating plant
At least two complete ,mutually independent, automatically refrigerating sets are to be provided. The
3.1
capacity of the refrigerating sets is to be such that the required CO2 temperature can be maintained under
conditions of continues operation during 24 hours with an ambient temperature of up to 45 ºC and a seawater
temperature of up to 32 ºC.
3.2
The failure of a refrigerating unit is to cause the standby unit to start up automatically. Manual switch
over has to be possible.
3.3
Separate electrical supply is to be provided from the main busbar
At least two circulating pumps are to be available for the cooling water supply. One of these pumps
3.4
can be used as standby pump for other purposes provided that it can be put into operation immediately
without endangering other essential systems.
The supply of cooling water has to be available from two sea chests, wherever possible from
3.5
either side of the ship.
4.
Location and disposition
CO2 containers and the corresponding refrigerating equipment are to be located in special rooms. The disposition
and equipping of the rooms are to comply with the applicable provisions of G.3. The system control devices
and the refrigerating plants are to be located in the same room where the pressure vessels are stored.
5.
Piping, valves and fittings
Unless otherwise specified in 5.1 to 5.3, the requirements in G.4., G5.and G 6.Apply analogously together
with Section 11, B. wherever relevant.
5.1
Safety relief devices are to be provided in each section of pipe that may be isolated by block valves
and in which there could be a build-up of pressure in excess of the design pressure of any of the components.
The flooding lines are to be so designed that, when flooding occurs, the vaporization of CO2 does not
5.2
occur until it leaves the nozzles. The pressure at the nozzles is to be at least 10 bar.
5.3
A filling connection with the necessary means of pressure equalization is to be provided on either
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side of the ship.
6.
Monitoring
Audible and visual alarms are to be given in a central control station for the following variations from the reference
condition:
-
pressure above maximum or below minimum in accordance with 2.2.1,
-
liquid level too low in accordance with 2.2.2,
-
failure of a refrigerating set.
-
This alarm may function as group alarm "Fault in the CO2 fire extinguishing system".
7.
Release
7.1
The automatic release of CO2 flooding is not permitted.
If devices are fitted for automatically gauging the rated quantity of CO2, provision is also to be made for
7.2
manual control.
G.5.2 also applies
If the system serves more than one space, means for control of discharge quantities of CO2 are to be
7.3
provided, e.g. automatic timer or accurate level indicators located at the control positions.
8.
Alarm systems, general arrangement plans and warning signs
Signs giving the following information are to be permanently fixed in the CO2 cylinder room and to the valve
groups for the flooding of individual spaces with CO2:
-
name of space and gross volume [m3]
-
necessary volume of CO2
-
number of nozzles for the space
-
flooding time [min] (i.e. the time the flooding valves have to remain open)
G.7.,G. 8. and G.9. also apply as appropriate
9.
Tests
9.1
After installation, lines between tanks anddistribution valves are to be pressure-tested at a pressure
of at least 1,5 times the pressure setting of the relief valves.
Lines which pass through accommodation spaces are to be tested after installation at a pressure of 50 bar gauge. A
test pressure of 10 bar is required for all other lines. The performance of the test is to conform to G.10.1
9.2
G.10.2 and G.10.3 apply wherever relevant.
H-I
Gas Fire-Extinguishing Systems using Gases other than CO2 for Machinery Spaces and
I.
Cargo Pump-Rooms
I
1.
General
1.1
Suppliers for the design and installation of fire extinguishing systems using extinguishing gases other
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
than CO2 are subject to special approval by BKI.
1.2
System using extinguishing gases other than CO2are to be approved in accordance with a standard
acceptable to BKI12).
1.3
The systems shall be designed to allow evacuation of the protected space prior to discharge. Means shall
be provided for automatically giving audible and visual warning of the release of the fire extinguishing medium
into the protected space. The alarm shall operate for the period of time necessary to evacuate the space, but not less
than 20 sec before the medium is released. Unnecessary exposure, even at concentrations below an adverse effect
level, shall be avoided.
1.3.1
Even at concentrations below an adverse effect level, exposure to gaseous fire extinguishing agents shall
not exceed 5 min. Halocarbon clean agents may be used up to the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level)
calculated on the net volume of the protected space at the maximum expected ambient temperature without
additional safety measures.If a halocarbon clean agent shall be used above its NOAEL, means shall be provided to
limit exposure to no longer than the time specified according to a scientifically accepted physiologically based
pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model 21 or its equivalent which clearly establishes safe exposure limits both in terms of
extinguishing media concentration and human exposure time.
1.3.2
For inert gas systems, means shall be provided to limit exposure to no longer than 5 min for systems
designed to concentrations below 43 % (corresponding to an oxygen concentration of 12 %) or to limit exposure to
no longer than 3 min for systems designed to concentrations between 43 % and 52 % (corresponding to between 12
% and 10 % oxygen) calculated on the net volume of the protected space at the maximum expected ambient
temperature.
1.3.3
In no case shall a halocarbon clean agent be used at concentrations above the LOAEL (Lowest
Observed Adverse Effect Level) nor the ALC (Approximate Lethal Concentration) nor shall an inert gas be used at
gas concentrations above 52 % calculated on the net volume of the protected space at the maximum expected
ambient temperature.
1.4
For systems using halocarbon clean agents, the system is to be designed for a discharge of 95 % of the
design concentration in not more than 10 seconds.
I
For systems using inert gases, the discharge time is to not exceed 120 seconds for 85 % of the design
concentration.
For cargo pump rooms where flammableliquids other than oil or petroleum products are handled,
1.5
the system may be used only if the design concentration for the individual cargo has been established in
accordance with the approval standard 13) and is documented in the approvalCertificate.
2.
Calculation of the supply of extinguishinggas
The supply of extinguishing gas is to be calculated based on the net volume of the protected space, at
2.1
the minimum expected ambient temperature using the design concentration specified in the system’s type
approval Certificate.
The net volume is that part of the gross volume of the space which is accessible to the free
2.2
extinguishing gas including the volumes of the bilge and of the casing. Objects that occupy volume in the protected
space are to be subtracted from the gross volume. This includes, but is not necessarily limited to:
-
internal combustion engines
-
reduction gear
-
boilers
12
) Refer to IMO MSC/Cir.848, “Revised Guidelines for the Approval
of Equivalent Fixed Gas Fire Extinguishing Systems, as Referred to in
SOLAS 74, for Machinery Spaces and Cargo Pump Rooms
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-
heat exchangers
-
tanks and piping trunks
-
exhaust gas pipes, boilers and silencers
The volume of free air contained in air receivers located in a protected space is to be added to the
2.3
net volume unless the discharge from the safety valves is led to the open air.
2.4
In systems with centralized gas storage for the protection of more than one space the quantity of
extinguishing gas available need not be more than the largest quantity required for any one space so
protected.
3.
Gas containers
Containers for the extinguishing gas or apropellant needed for the discharge are to comply in respect
3.1
of their material, construction, manufacture and testing with the relevant BKI Rules on pressure vessels.
3.2
The filling ratio is not to exceed that specified in the system’s type approval documentation.
Means are to be provided for the ship’spersonnel to safely check the quantity of medium in the
3.3
containers. These means are to be so arranged that it is not necessary to move the cylinders completely from their
fixing position. This is achieved, for instance, by providing hanging bars above each bottle row for a weighing
device or by using suitable surface indicators.
4
Storage of containers
4.1
Centralized systems
Gas containers in centralized systems are to be stored in a storage space complying with the requirements for CO2
storage spaces (see G.3), with the exception that storage temperatures up to 55 E C are permitted, unless
otherwise specified in the type approval Certificate
4.2
Modular systems
4.2.1
All systems covered by these requirementsmay be executed as modular systems with gas
containers, and containers with the propellant if any, permitted to be stored within the protected space providing
the conditions of 4.2.2 through 4.2.9 arecomplied with.
4.2.2
Inside a protected space, the gas containersare be to distributed throughout the space with bottles or
groups of bottles located in at least six separate locations. Duplicate power release lines have to be arranged to
release all bottles simultaneously. The release lines are to be so arranged that in the event of damage to any
power release line, five sixth of the fire extinguishing gas can still be discharged. The bottle valves are
considered to be part of the release lines and a single failure has to include also failure of the bottle valve.
For systems that need less than six containers (using the smallest bottles available), the total amount of
extinguishing gas in the bottles is to be such that in the event of a single failure to one of the release lines
(including bottle valve), five sixth of the fire extinguishing gas can still be discharged. This may be achieved by
for instance using more extinguishing gas than required so that if one bottle is not discharging due to a
single fault, the remainingbottles will discharge the minimum five sixth of the required amount of
extinguishing gas. This can be achieved with minimum two bottles. However, the NOAEL value calculated at
the highest expected engine room temperature may not be exceeded when discharging the total amount of
extinguishing gas simultaneously
Systems that cannot comply with the above (for instance where it is intended to locate only one bottle inside the
protected space) are not permitted. Such systems are to be designed with bottle(s) located outside the
protected space, in a dedicated room complying with the requirements for CO2 storage spaces (see G.3.).
4.2.3
Duplicate sources of power located outside the protected space are to be provided for the release of the
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I
Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
system and be immediately available, except that for machinery spaces, one of the sources of power may be
located inside the protected space.
Electric power circuits connecting thecontainers are to be monitored for fault conditions and loss of
4.2.4
power. Visual and audible alarms are to be provided to indicate this.
Pneumatic or hydraulic power circuits connecting the containers are to be duplicated. The sources of
4.2.5
pneumatic or hydraulic pressure are to be monitored for loss of pressure. Visual and audible alarms are to be
provided to indicate this.
Within the protected space, electrical circuits essential for the release of the system are to be heat4.2.6
resistant, e.g. mineral-insulated cable or equivalent.
Piping systems essential for the release of systems designed to be operated hydraulically or pneumatically are to be
of steel.
4.2.7
Not more than two discharge nozzles are to be fitted to any container.
4.2.8
The containers are to be monitored for decrease in pressure due to leakage or discharge. Visual and
audible alarms in the protected space and on the navigating bridge are to be provided to indicate this.
4.2.9
Each container is to be fitted with an overpressure release device which under the action of fire causes
the contents of the container to be automatically discharged into the protected space.
5.
Piping and Nozzles
Piping is to be made of weldable steel materials (Part 1 Seagoing Ship, Volume V, Rules for
5.1
Material, Section 7) and to be designed according to the working pressure of the system.
5.2
Welded or flanged pipe connections are to be provided. For pipes with a nominal I.D. of less than 50
mm threaded welding sockets may be employed. Threaded joints may be used only inside protected spaces.
5.3
Piping terminating in cargo pump rooms is to be made of stainless steel or be galvanized.
Flexible hoses may be used for the connections of containers to a manifold in centralized systems or
5.4
to a rigid discharge pipe in modular systems. Hoses are not to be longer than necessary for this purpose and be
type approved for the use in the intended installation. Hoses for modular systems are to be flame resistant.
Only nozzles approved for use with the system are to be installed. The arrangement of nozzles is to
5.5
comply with the parameters specified in the system’s type approval certificate, giving due consideration to
obstructions. In the vicinity of passages and stairways nozzles are to be arranged such as to avoid personnel
being endangered by the discharging gas.
5.6
The piping system is to be designed to meet the requirements stipulated in 1.4. System
flowcalculations are to be performed using a recognized calculation technique (e.g. NFPA
calculationprogram).
In piping sections where valve arrangement introduce sections of closed piping (manifolds
5.7
with distribution valves), such sections are to be fitted with a pressure relief valve and the outlet of the
valve is to be led to the open deck.
6.
Release arrangements and alarms
6.1
The systems is to be designed for manual release only.
The controls for the release are to be arranged in lockable cabinets (release stations), the key being kept
conspicuously next to the release station in a locked case with a glass panel. Separate release stations are to
be provided for each space which can be flooded separately. The release stations are to be arranged near to the
entrance of the protected space and are to be readily accessible also in case of a fire in the related space. Release
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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I
37/77
stations are to be marked with the name of the space they are serving.
6.2
space.
Centralized systems are to be provided withadditional means of releasing the system from the storage
If the protected space is provided with asystem containing a halocarbon clean agent as fire
6.3
extinguishing agent, the mechanical ventilation of the protected space is to be stopped automatically before the
discharge of the extinguishing gas.
6.4
Audible and visual alarms are to be providedin the protected space and additional visual alarms at each
access to the space.
The alarm is to be actuated automatically by opening of the release station door. For installations
6.5
with a design concentration in excess of the NOAEL (see 1.3), means are to be provided to safeguard that the
discharge of extinguishing gas is not possible before the alarm has been actuated for a period of time necessary
to evacuate the space but not less than 20 seconds.
Audible alarms are to be of horn or siren sound. They are to be located so as to be audible
6.6
throughout the protected space with all machinery operating and be clearly distinguishable from other audible
signals by adjustment of sound pressure or sound patterns.
6.7
Electrical alarm systems are to have power supply from the main and emergency source of power.
For the use of electrical alarm systems in gas dangerous zones refer to the relevant Section of the Part 1,
6.8
Seagoing Ship, Volume IV, Rules for Electrical Installations.
6.9
Where pneumatically operated alarms are used the permanent supply of compressed air is to be safeguard
by suitable arrangements.
7.
Tightness of the protected space
7.1
Apart from being provided with means of closing all ventilation openings and other openings in the
boundaries of the protected space, special consideration is to be given to 7.2 through 7.4.
7.2
A minimum agent holding time of 15 min is to be provided.
The release of the system may produce significant over or underpressurization in the protected
7.3
space which may necessitate the provision of suitable pressure equalizing arrangements.
7.4
Escape routes which may be exposed to leakage from the protected space are not to be rendered
hazardous for the crew during or after the discharge of the extinguishing gas.
Control stations and other locations that require manning during a fire situation are to have provisions to
keep HF and HCl below 5 ppm at that location. The concentrations of other products are to be kept below values
considered hazardous for the required durations of exposure.
8.
Warning signs and operating instructions
8.1
Warning signs are to be provided at eachaccess to andwithin a protected space as appropriate:

“WARNING! This space is protected by a fixed gas fire extinguishing system using.......Do not enter
when alarm is actuated!”

“WARNING! Evacuate immediately upon sounding of the alarm of the gas fire extinguishing
system.”
The release stations for cargo pump rooms are to be provided with additional warning as follows:
-
“Release to be operated only in the event of fire in the pump room. Do not use for inerting
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
purposes!”
8.2
Brief operating instructions are to be posted at the release stations
A comprehensive manualwiththedescription of the system and maintenance instruction is to be provided
8.3
on the ship. The manual is to contain an advice that any modifications to the protected space that alter the net
volume of the space will render the approval for the individual installation invalid. In this case amended
drawings and calculations have to be submitted to BKI for approval.
9
Documents for approval
Prior to commencing of the installation the following documents are to be submitted in triplicate1)to BKI Head
Office for approval:
arrangement drawing of the protected space showing machinery etc. in the space, and thelocation of
nozzles, containers (modular system only) and release lines as applicable list of volumes deducted from the
gross volume
-
calculation of the net volume of the space and required supply of extinguishing gas
-
isometrics and discharge calculations
-
release schematic
-
drawing of the release station and of the arrangement in the ship
-
release instructions for display at the release station;
Drawing of storage space (centralized systems only)
-
alarm system schematic
-
part list
-
shipboard manual
10.
Testing
10.1
Piping up to a shut-off valve if available is subject to hydrostatic testing at 1,5 times the max.
allowable working pressure of the gas container.
Piping between the shut-off valve or the container valve and the nozzles is subject to hydrostatic
10.2
testing at 1,5 times the max. pressure assessed by the discharge calculations.
10.3
Piping passing through spaces other than the protected space is subject to tightness testing after
installation at 10 bar, and 50 bar if passing through accommodation spaces.
I-J
J.
Other Fire Extinguishing Systems
1.
Steam fire extinguishing systems
Steam may be used as extinguishant in limited local applications (e.g. scavenge trunks) if agreed upon with
BKI13).
J-K
2.
Aerosol fire extinguishing systems
13
)Refer to IMO MSC/Circ.848, “ Revised Guideline for Approval of Equivalent Fixed Gas Fire Extinguishing Systems, as refered to in
SOLAS 74, for Machinery Spaces and Cargo Pump Rooms
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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Systems using an aerosol as fire extinguishing medium are to be type approved by BKI in accordance with an
international standard 14)
K.
Foam Fire Extinguishing Systems
1.
Foam concentrates
1.1
Only approved15) foam concentrates may be used.
1.2
Distinction is made between low- and high expansion foam.
In the case of low-expansion foam, produced by adding 3 -6 % foam concentrated, the foam expansion ratio
(i.e. the ratio of the volume of foam produced to the mixture of water and foam concentrate supplied) is not to
exceed 12 : 1
For high - expansion foam, produced by adding 1 - 3 % foam concentrate, the expansion ratio may be 100: 1 up to
1.000:1. Foam concentrate for the production of multi-purpose foam may be used.
Deviations from these expansion ratios require the approval of BKI.
Foam concentrates intended for use in the cargo area of chemical tankers are to be alcohol-resistant if this is
required by the List of Products, Rules for Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemical in Bulk (Part 1,Vol.X), Section
17 and Section 11, 11.3.
Tankers for the carriage of alcohols and other flammable polar liquids are to be provided with alcohol resistant
foam concentrate.
2.
Low-expansion foam systems for tankers (deck foam systems)
2.1
Deck foam systems on chemical tankers are to be designed according to the Rules for Ships Carrying
Dangerous Chemical in Bulk (Part 1,Vol.X), Section 11, 11.3.
2.2
The foam fire extinguishing system is to be so designed that foam is available for the entire cargo deck
area as well as for any cargo tank, the deck of which has ruptured.
2.3
The deck foam system is to be capable of simple and rapid operation. The main control station for the
system is to be suitably located outside the cargo area and adjoining the accommodation areas. In the event of a fire
in the spaces to be protected it has to be easy to reach and to operate.
2.4
Capacity of the fire extinguishing system’s foam pump and supply of foam solution:
The rate of supply of foam solution is to be calculated in accordance with the following formulae. The rate is to be
based on the largest calculated value.
a)
0,6 litres per minute per square meter of the cargo deck area, where cargo deck area means the maximum
breadth of the ship multiplied by the total longitudinal extent of the cargo tank spaces.
V
= 0,6 . ℓc .B
[litre/min] or
J-K
b)
6 litres per minute per square meter of the horizontal sectional area of the single tank having the largest
such area.
14
) Refer to IMO MSC/Circ. 1007, “Guidelines for the Approval of Fixed Aerosol Fire Extinguishing SystemsEquivalent to Fixed Gas Fire
Extinguishing Systems, as referred to in SOLAS 74, for Machinery Spaces.”
15
)
See IMO MSC/Circ.582 and 670
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
V
= 6 .ℓ. b
[litre/min] or
c)
3 litres per minute per square metre of the area to be protected by the largest monitor and lying entirely
forward of the monitor, subject to a minimum of 1.250 litres/minute.
V
= 3 . B . 0,75 ℓ1
[litre/min]
The minimum supply of foam concentrate is to be such that, based on the largest value calculated by applying a), b)
and c), the production of foam is guaranteed for at least 30 minutes on tankers without an inert gas system and for at
least 20 minutes on tankers with an inert gas system.
S min = V .s .t
V
ℓc
B
ℓ
b
Smin
s
t
2.5
[litre]
[litre/min] = rate of supply of foam solution
[m] = length of cargo area
[m] = breadth of ship
[m] = length of largest cargo tank
[m] = breadth of largest cargo tank
[litre] = minimum supply of foam concentrate
[-] = dosing rate (for synthetic foam concentrate normally 0,03)
[m]= throw of monitor
[min] = duration of foam application.
Foam distribution and capacity of monitors
2.5.1
The foam from the fixed foam system is to be discharged through monitors and foam applicators. Each
monitor has to be capable of supplying at least 50 % of the required foam solution. The delivery rate of a monitor may
not be less than 1.250 litres/minute.
On tankers of less than 4.000 tdw, foam applicators may be provided instead of monitors.
2.5.2
The number and position of the monitors is to comply with the requirements specified in 2.1. The capacity
of any monitor in litres per minute of foam solution is to be at least three times the deck area in square meters
protected by that monitor, such area being entirely forward of the monitor.
2.5.3
The distance from the monitor to the farthest extremity of the protected area forward of that monitor
is not to be more than 75 % of the monitor throw in still air conditions.
M = 3 .B . 0,75. [litre/min]
M [litre/min] = delivery rate of one monitor > 0,5 V, but not less than 1.250 litres/min
2.5.4
A monitor and a hose connection for a foam applicator are to be situated to both port and
starboard at the poop front or the accommodation spaces facing the cargo deck. The port and starboard monitors
may be located in the cargo areas provided they are aft of cargo tanks and that they protect the zone below and
aft of each other. In addition, connections for foam applicators are to be sited between the monitors to give
greater flexibility in the fighting of fires.
The capacity of each foam applicator may not be less than 400 litres per minute and the applicator throw may not
be less than 15 m in still air conditions.
2.5.5
On tankers of less than 4.000 tdw, one hose connection each for a foam applicator is to be provided
to port and starboard at the poop front or the accommodation spaces facing the cargo deck. At least four foam
applicators are to be available. The number and disposition of foam hydrants are to be such that foam from at
least two applicators can be directed on to any area of the cargo deck. The capacity of each foam applicator
must be equivalent to at least 25 % of the quantity of foam solution calculated in accordance with 2.4 a) or 2.4
b). The capacity and throw of the foam applicators may not be less than those specified in 2.5.4.
2.5.6
Immediately forward of each monitor, both the foam main and the fire main are to be fitted with shutBKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
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41/77
off valves to enable damaged sections of these lines to be isolated.
2.6
Operation of the foam system at its required capacity is to permit the simultaneous use of the water fire
extinguishing system as per E. over the full length of the ship on deck, in accommodation spaces, control stations,
service spaces and machinery spaces.
A common line for the fire main and deck foam line can only be accepted provided it can be demonstrated that the
fire hose nozzles can be effectively controlled by one person when supplied from the common line at a pressure
needed for operation of the monitors. Additional foam concentrate is to be provided for operation of two of
these nozzles for the same period of time required for the operation of the foam system.
The supply of foam concentrate and the necessary pumps are to be located outside the area to be
2.7
protected.
3.
High-expansion foam systems
3.1
Capacity of the system
3.1.1
The equipment producing the foam is to beof sufficient capacity to enable the largest space being
protected to be filled with foam at the rate of at least 1 m depth per minute without allowance for installed
machinery and equipment.
The supply of foam concentrate is to be sufficient for the largest space being protected to be filled
3.1.2
with foam at least five times. The equipment is to be ready for immediate use at all times.
3.2
Foam distribution
The arrangement of the foam generator delivery ducting is to be such that a fire in the protected space will not
affect the foam generating equipment. If the foam generators are located adjacent to the protected space, foam
delivery ducts are to be installed to allow at least 450 mm of separation between the generators and the protected
space.
The foam delivery ducts are to be constructed of steel having a thickness of not less than 5 mm. In addition, stainless
steel dampers (single or multi-bladed) with a thickness of not less than 3 mm have to be installed at the openings in
the boundary bulkheads or decks between the foam generators and the protected space. The dampers are to be
automatically operated (electrically, pneumatically or hydraulically) by means of remote control of the foam
generator related to them.
The outlets of the ducts are to be arranged in such a way as to ensure uniform distribution of the foam.
Inside the space where the foam is produced, a shut- off device is to be fitted between the foam generators and the
distributions system.
3.3
Foam generators, pumps, supply of foam concentrate
The foam generators, their sources of power supply, stored quantities of foam concentrate and foam liquid pumps as
well as means of controlling the system are to be readily accessible and simple to operate and are to be grouped in
as few locations as possible at positions not likely to be cut off by a fire in the protected space.
If the foam generators are located inside the protected space, they are to be BKI approved.
3.4
Test equipment
Foam generators are to be installed in such a way that they can be tested without foam entering the protected
spaces.
3.5
Inside air foam systems
Foam generators may be provided inside the protected space for generation of high-expansion foam if the foam
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
system is BKI type approved.
4.
Low-expansion foam systems for boiler rooms and machinery spaces
Low-expansion foam systems do not substitute the fire extinguishing systems prescribed in Table 12.1
4.1
Capacity of the system
The system is to be so designed that the largest area over which fuel can spread can be covered within five
minutes with a 150 mm thick blanket of foam.
4.2
Foam distribution
4.2.1
The foam solution is to be conveyed through fixed pipelines and foam distributors to the points at which oil
fires are liable to occur.
Foam distributors and controls are to be arranged in suitable groups and positioned in such a way
4.2.2
that they cannot be cut off by a fire in the protected space.
K-L
L.
Pressure Water Spraying Systems
1.
Automatic pressure water spraying systems (sprinkler systems)16)
1.1
Pressure water tanks
1.1.1
Pressure water tanks are to be fitted with a safety valve connected to the water space of the tank without
means of isolating, with a water level indicator that can be shut off and is protected against damage, and with a
pressure gauge. The requirements specified in Section 8 are also applicable.
1.1.2
The volume of the pressure water tank is to be equivalent to at least twice the specified pump capacity
per minute.
The tank is to contain a standing charge of fresh water equivalent to at least the specified pump capacity per one
minute.
The tank is to be fitted with a connection to enable the entire system to be refilled with fresh water.
1.1.3
Means are to be provided for replenishing the air cushion in the pressure water tank.
Note :Instead of a pressure tank, approved water mist system17) may be provided with an equivalent bottle
battery consisting of water and gas cylinders.
1.2
Pressure water spraying pump
1.2.1
The pressure water spraying pump may only be used for supplying water to the pressure water
spraying system.
In the event of a pressure drop in the system, the pump is to start up automatically before the fresh water
charge in the pressure water tank has been exhausted. Suitable means of testing are to be provided.
1.2.2
The capacity of the pump is to be sufficient to cover an area of at least 280 m2 at the pressure required
for the spray nozzles. At a rate of application of at least 5 litre/m² and per minute, this is equivalent to a minimum
delivery rate of 1.400 litres/min.
L
Note : The minimum flow rate of 5 litre/m2/min is not applicable to approved water mist system 17)
16
) Pressure water spraying systems deviating from theseRules may be used if approved as equivalent by BKI.See also IMO-Resolution A.800(19),
"Revised Guidelines for Approval of Sprinkler Systems Equivalent to that Referred to in SOLAS Regulation II-2/12"
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1.2.3
The pump is to be equipped with a direct sea suction. The shut-off device is to be secured in the open
position. On the discharge side, the pump is to be fitted with a test valve and pipe connection whose cross section
corresponds to the capacity of the pump at the prescribed pressure.
1.3
Location
Pressure water tanks and pumps are to be located outside and a sufficient distance away from the spaces to be
protected, from boiler rooms and from spaces containing oil treatment plant or internal combustion engines.
The pressure water tank is to be installed in a nonfreezing space.
1.4
1.4.1
Water supply
The system is to be completely charged with fresh water when not in operation.
In addition to the water supply as per 1.2 the system is also to be connected to the fire main via a screw -down nonreturn valve.
1.4.2
The system is to be kept permanently under pressure and is to be ready at all times for immediate,
automatic operation. With the test valve at the alarm valve in the fully open position, the pressure at the level of
the highest spray nozzles still is to be at least 1,75 bar.
1.5
Power supply
At least two mutually independent power sources areto be provided for supplying the pump and the automatic
indicating and alarm systems. Each source is to be sufficient to power the system (Part 1. Seagoing Ships,
Volume IV, Rules for Electrical Installations, Section 7)
1.6
Piping, valves and fittings
1.6.1
Lines between sea chest, pump, water tank, shore connection and alarm valve are to comply with the
dimensional requirements set out in Section 11, Table 11.5. Lines are to be effectively protected against
corrosion.
1.6.2
Check valves are to be fitted to ensure that sea-water cannot penetrate into the pressure water tank
nor fresh water be discharged into the sea through pump suction lines.
Each sprinkler section is to be capable of being isolated by one section valve only. The section valves
1.6.3
are to be arranged readily accessible outside the associated section or in cabinets within stairway enclosures, the
location being clearly and permanently indicated. Suitable means are to be provided to prevent the
operation of the section valves by unauthorized persons.
Any stop valves in the system from the sea water inlet up to the section valves are to be secured in operating
position.
1.6.4
A test valve is to be arranged downstream ofeach section valve. The flow of the test valve is to
correspond to the smallest sprinkler in the pertinent section.
Small sections where the possibility of freezing exists during operation of the ship in cold climates
1.6.5
may be of the dry type17).
Saunas are to be fitted with a dry pipe system.
1.7
Sprinklers
1.7.1
The sprinklers are to be grouped intosections. Each section may not comprise more than 200
17
) Definition of “dry pipe system” see IMO Res. A.800(19), Annex, paragraph 2.3
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
sprinklers.
1.7.2
On passengers ships, a sprinkler section may extend only over one main vertical zone or one
watertight compartment and may not include more than two vertically adjacent decks.
1.7.3
The sprinklers are to be so arranged in the upper deck area that a water volume of not less than 5 litre/m2
and per minute is sprayed over the area to be protected.
Note :The minimum flow rate of 5 litre/m2/min is not applicable to approved water mist system 17)
Inside accommodation and service spaces the sprinklers are to be activated within a temperature range from
68 ºC to 79 ºC. This does not apply to spaces with higher temperatures such as drying rooms, galleys or
alike. Here the triggering temperature may be up to 30 ºC above the maximum temperature in the deck head area.
In saunas a release temperature of up to 140 ºC is accepted
1.7.4
The sprinklers are to be made of corrosion resistant material. Sprinklers of galvanized steel are not
allowed.
Spare sprinklers of all types and ratings installed in the ship are to be provided as follows. The
1.7.5
number of spare sprinklers of any type need not exceed the number of sprinklers actually installed.
< 300 sprinklers
-6 spare
300 -1.000 sprinklers
- 12 spare
> 1.000 sprinklers
- 24 spare
1.8
Indicating and alarm systems
1.8.1
Each sprinkler section is to be provided with means for the activation of a visual and audible alarm signal at
one or more indicating panels. At the panels the sprinkler section in which a sprinkler has come into operation is
to be indicated. The indicating panels are to be centralized on the navigation bridge. In addition to this, visible and
audible alarms from the indicating panels are to be located in a position other than on the navigation bridge, so as to
ensure that an alarm is immediately received by the crew.
Designs of alarm systems Rules for Electrical Installations, (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 9.
A gauge indicating the pressure in the system is to be provided at each section valve
1.8.2
according to 1.6.3 as well as at the centralized indication panel(s) on the navigating bridge.
1.9
Stipulating charts and instructions
A list or plan is to be displayed at each indicating panel showing the spaces covered and the location of the zone
in respect of each section.
Suitable instructions for testing and maintenance have to be available.
2.
Manually operated pressure water spraying systems
2.1
Pressure water spraying systems for machinery spaces and cargo pump-rooms
2.1.1
Conventional pressure water-spraying systems
Conventional pressure water-spraying systems for machinery spaces and cargo pump-rooms are to be approved
by BKI on the basis of an internationally recognized standard 18).
18
)Re IMO Circ. 1165,”Revised Guidelines for the Approval of Equivalent Water-Based FireExtinguishing Systems for
Machinery Spaces and Cargo Pump Rooms”. Test approvals alreadyconducted in accordance with guidelines contained in
MSC/Circ. 668/728 remain valid until 10 June 2010.
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2.1.2
Equivalent pressure water-spraying (water-mist) systems
Water-mist systems for machinery spaces and cargo pump-rooms are to be approved by BKI on the basis of an
internationally recognized standard 19).
2.2
Pressure water spraying systems for exhaust gas fired thermal oil heaters
2.2.1
The flow rate of the water spraying system is to be at least 2,5litre/min per m2 of heating surface.
The use of fresh water is preferred. An adequate water supply for at least 20 minutes is to be ensured.
The required volume of water is to be distributed over the heated surfaces by means of suitable
2.2.2
nozzles. A pipe and nozzle system intended for cleaning purposes may be incorporated into the water spraying
system.
The nozzles may be installed below theheated surfaces instead. A prerequisite for his
2.2.3
arrangement is that in the event of a fire in the exhaust gas fired thermal oil heater, the engine is kept
running at reduced load and the exhaust gas continues to flow over the heated surfaces.
2.2.4
The piping system for water supply and distribution is to be a fixed installation.
To protect against uncontrolled water leaks in the exhaust gas fired heater, the supply line is to be fitted with two
shut-off valves with a drain valve between them.
An effective water trap which may drain into the engine room bilge or a suitable tank is to be installed
2.2.5
in the exhaust gas line beneath the exhaust gas fired heater. Suitable measures are to be taken to prevent leakage of
exhaust gases.
All valves and pump starters required for operation of the water spraying system are to be installed
2.2.6
for easy access in one place if possible at a safe distance from the exhaust gas fired heater. Concise operating
instructions are to be permanently displayed at the operating position.
2.3
Pressure water spraying systems for special category spaces and ro-ro cargo spaces 1921)
2.3.1
Only approved full-bore nozzles are to be used
2.3.2
The nozzles are to be arranged in such a way that effective, uniform distribution of the water at 3,5
litre/m2/minute where the deck height is less than 2,5 m and 5 litre/m2/minute where the deck height is 2,5 m
or more.
Note: The minimum flow rates indicated in this paragraphare not applicable to approved water mist systems20)
The system may be divided into sections.Each section is not to be less than 20 m in length and extend
2.3.3
across the full width of the vehicle deck, except in areas which are divided longitudinally by "Type A"
partitions (e.g. machinery, ventilation or stairway trunks).
The distribution valves are to be installed adjacent to the space to be protected at a location easily
2.3.4
accessible and not likely to be cut off by a fire in the protected space. There has to be direct access from the vehicle
deck and from outside.
The room where the distribution valves are located has to be adequately ventilated.
A pressure gauge is to be provided on the valve manifold.
Each distribution valve has to be clearly marked as to the section served.
Instruction for maintenance and operation are to be displayed in the valve (drencher) room.
19
)Pressure water spraying systems deviating from these requirements may be used if approved as equivalent byBKI. See IMO MSC Circ.
914 “Guidelines for theApproval of Alternative Fixed Water-Based FireFighting Systems for Special Category Spaces
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
One or more separate pumps are to be provided, the capacity of which is to be sufficient to supply
2.3.5
the two largest adjoining sections with water simultaneously.
In addition, a connection from the fire main is to be provided. Reverse flow from the water spraying system
into the fire main is to be prevented by means of a screw-down non-return valve. The valve is to be secured in closed
position with a lock.
2.3.6
The water spraying pump is to be capable of being started from the distribution valve group. All the shutoff valves located between the seawater inlet and the distribution valves are to be capable of being opened from the
distribution valve group, unless they are secured in the open position.2.3.7 Drainage and pumping arrangements are
to be designed on compliance with Section 11, N.4.3.5 and N.4.4, as applicable.
The pressure water spraying system has to be fitted with sufficient number of drainage valves.
2.4
Pressure water spraying systems for the cargo area of tankers
These are subject to the Rules for Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk (part 1, Vol.IX), Section 11.3.
3.
Fixed local application fire-fighting systems20)
3.1
The following is to be applied to category A machinery spaces 9) above 500 m3 in gross volume of
passenger ships of 500 GT and above and cargo ships of 2.000 GT and above.
In addition to the main fire extinguishing system, fire hazard areas as listed in.3.3 are to be
3.2
protected by fixed local application fire-fighting systems, which are to be type approved by BKI in
accordance with international regulations21).
On ships with Class Notation OT or OT-S these systems are to have both automatic and manual release
capabilities.
In case of continuously manned machinery spaces, these systems are only required to have manual release
capability.
The fixed local application fire-fighting systems are to protect areas such as the following without
3.3
the need for engine shut-down, personnel evacuation, or sealing of the spaces:
fire hazard portions of internal combustion machinery used for the ship’s main propulsion and power
generation and other purposes
-
oil fired equipment, such as incinerators,boilers, inert gas generators and thermal oil heaters
-
purifiers for heated fuel oil.
The fixed local application fire-fighting systems are to protect such fire risk areas of above plants where fuel oil
spray of a damaged fuel oil line is likely to be ignited on hot surfaces, i.e. normally only the engine top including the
cylinder station, fuel oil injection pumps, turbocharger and exhaust gas manifolds as well as the oil burners need
to be protected. Wherethe fuel oil injection pumps are located in shelteredposition such as under a steel
platform, the pumps need not be protected by the system.
For the fire extinguishing medium, a water-based extinguishing agent is to be used. The pump supplying the
extinguishing medium is to be located outside the protected areas. The system shall be available for
immediate use and capable of continuously supplying the extinguishing medium for at least 20 minutes. The
capacity of the pump is to be based on the protected area demanding the greatest volume of extinguishing medium.
The water supply for local application systems may be fed from the supply to a total flooding water mist system
20
21
) These Requirements applies to ships with keels laying date on or after 1st July,2002
)Refer to IMO circular MSC.1/Circ.1387, "Revised Guidelines for the Approval of Fixed Water-Based Local Application Fire Fighting Systems for Use
in Category A Machinery Spaces", which supersedes circular MSC/Circ.913, except that the evidences from fire and component tests previously
provided in accordance with MSC/Circ.913 remain valid for the approval of new systems..
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(main fire extinguishing system), on condition that adequate water quantity and pressure are available to operate
both systems for the required period of time.
Systems for which automatic activation is required are to be released by means of a suitably
3.4
designed fire detection and alarm system. This system must ensure a selective fire detection of each area to be
protected as well as a fast and reliable activation of the local fire-fighting system.
For details of the design of the fire detection and alarm system, see Rules for Electrical Installations, (Part
1,Vol.IV), Section 9.D.4.
3.5
Grouped visual and audible alarms as well as indication of the activated zone are to be provided in each
protected space, in the engine control room and in the wheelhouse.
Any installation of nozzles on board is to reflect the arrangement successfully tested in accordance
3.6
with MSC/Circ. 913or MSC.1/Circ.1387, respectively.
If a specific arrangement of the nozzles is foreseen, deviating from the one tested, it can be accepted provided such
arrangement additionally passes fire tests based on the scenarios defined in MSC.1/Circ.1387.
3.7
For each internal combustion engine used forthe ship’s main propulsion or power generation, a separate
nozzle section as well as separate means for detecting a fire and release of the system are to be provided.
Where the clear distance between neighboring engines is less than two meter, simultaneous operation of
two adjacent sections has to be ensured and any stored extinguishing medium has to be sufficient for their
simultaneous coverage.
In case four (or more) main engines or main diesel generators are installed in the engine room, an
arrangement in pairs of the nozzle sectioning as well as of the means for fire detection and release of the system
are acceptable, provided the unrestricted maneuverability of the ship can be ensured by the pair of main
engines or main diesel generators not involved
The nozzle sections of the local application systems may form nozzle sections of a total flooding water mist system
(main fire extinguishing system) provided that the additional nozzle sections of the main fire extinguishing system
are capable of being isolated.
3.8
The operation (release) controls are to be located at easily accessible positions inside and outside the
protected space. The controls inside the space are not to be liable to be cut off by a fire in the protected areas.
3.9
Means shall be provided for testing the operation of the system for assuring the required pressure and
flow and for blowing air through the system during testing to check for any possible obstructions.
The piping system is to be sized in accordance with a recognized hydraulic calculation technique
3.10
(e.g. Hazen-Williams method) to ensure availability of flows and pressures required for correct performance
of the system.
3.11
Where automatically operated systems are installed, a warning notice is to be displayed outside each
entry point stating the type of extinguishing medium used and the possibility of automatic release.
3.12
Operating and maintenance instructions as well as spare parts for the system are to be provided as
recommended by the manufacturer. The operating instructions are to be displayed at each operating station.
3.13
Nozzles and piping are not to prevent access to engines or other machinery for routine
maintenance. In machinery spaces fitted with overhead hoists or other moving equipment, nozzles and piping are
not to be located to prevent operation of such equipment.
3.14
The objects to be protected are to be covered with a grid of nozzles subject to the nozzle arrangement
parameters indicated subject to the nozzle arrangement parameters indicated in the type approval Certificate
(maximum horizontal nozzle spacing, minimum and maximum vertical distance from the protected object,
minimum lateral distance from the protected object).
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
Where the width of the protected area does not exceed ½ the maximum horizontal nozzle spacing, a single line
of nozzles may be provided on condition that the distance between the nozzles is not more than ½ the maximum
horizontal nozzle spacing and the end nozzles are either pointing at least at the edge of the protected area or are
located with a lateral distance from the protected object if such a minimum required distance is indicated in the
type approval Certificate.
Where the width and length of the protected area do not exceed½ the maximum horizontal nozzle spacing, a
single nozzle may be provided which is to be located above the protected object at the centre.
If the engine room is protected with a high expansion foam or aerosol fire extinguishing system,
3.15
appropriate operational measures or interlocks shall be provided to prevent the local application systems from
interfering with the effectiveness of these systems.
4
Pressure water-spraying system for cabin balconies of passenger ships
4.1
The cabin balconies of passenger ships are to be provided with an approved pressure water spraying
system22) if the furniture and furnishings on such balconies are not of restricted fire risk 7) 8).
5.
Combined water mist systems for multiarea protection
5.1
In the case of a common pump unit serving local application systems inside machinery spaces and/or
a total flooding system for machinery spaces and/or a sprinkler system for the accommodation areas and/or any
other system, such a combined water mist system for multi-area protection may be accepted provided that the
following conditions are fulfilled:
each sub system is BKI type approved 17), 19), 22)
-
failure of any one component in the power and control system does not result in areduction of total
pump capacity below that required by any of the areas the system is required to protect
a single failure (including pipe rupture) in one protected area does not render the system
inoperable in another protected area
redundant arrangements for power and water supply, which ensure the function ofthe system by
means of separate source ofpower and water inlets, are located indifferent compartments separated by
“A”class divisions.
L-M
Fire Extinguishing Systems for Paint Lockers, Flammable Liquid Lockers, Galley Range
M.
Exhaust Ducts and Deep-Fat Cooking Equipment
1.
Paint lockers and flammable liquid lockers
dry powder, water or
1.1
A fixed fire extinguishing system based on CO2 ,
extinguishing medium and capable of being operated from outside the room is to be provided.
an
equivalent
If CO2 is used, the extinguishing medium supply is to be calculated for a concentration of 40 % relative
1.1.1
to the gross volume of the room concerned.
1.1.2
Dry-powder fire extinguishing systems are to be designed with a least 0,5 kg/m3 of the gross volume
of the room concerned. Steps are to be taken to ensure that the extinguishing medium is evenly distributed.
For pressure water spraying systems, a uniform distribution rate of 5 litre/m2/min relative to the
1.1.3
floor area is to be ensured. The water may be supplied from the fire main
1.2
For lockers of a deck area of less than 4 m2, which do not give access to accommodation spaces, portable
22
) References is made to the performance and testing standard adopted by IMO (at the time of printing this edition not yet published)
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CO2 or dry powder fire extinguisher(s) sized in accordance with 1.1.1 or 1.1.2, which can be discharged
through a port in the boundary of the locker, may be used. The extinguishers are to bestowed adjacent to the
port.
M-N
Alternatively, a port or hose connection may be provided for this purpose to facilitate the use of fire main
water.
In cargo sampling lockers onboard tankers a fixed fire extinguishing system may be dispensed
1.3
with if such spaces are positioned within the cargo area.
2.
Galley range exhaust ducts
2.1
A fixed fire extinguishing system is to be provided for galley range exhaust ducts:
-
on all passenger ships carrying more than 36 passengers
on cargo ships and passenger ships carrying not more than 36 passengers, where theducts pass
through accommodation spaces or spaces containing combustible materials.
The fixed means for extinguishing a fire within the galley range exhaust duct are to be so designed that the
extinguishant is effective over the entire length between the outer fire damper and the fire damper to be fitted in the
lower end of the duct.
Manual actuation is to be provided. The controls are to be installed near the access to the galley,
2.2
together with the emergency cut-off switches for the galley ventilation supply and exhaust fans and the actuating
equipment for the fire dampers.
Automatic actuation of the fire extinguishing system may additionally be provided after clarification with BKI.
3.
Deep-fat cooking equipment 21)
Deep-fact cooking equipment is to be fitted with following arrangements:
BKI23).
an automatic or manual fire extinguishing system tested to an international standard and approved by
a primary and backup thermostat with an alarm to alert the operator in the event of failure of either
thermostat.
system
arrangements for automatically shutting off the electrical power upon activation of the fire extinguishing
an alarm for indicating operation of the fire extinguishing system in the galley where the equipment is
installed
control for manual operation of the fire extinguishing system which are clearly labeled for ready use by
the crew.
N.
Waste Incineration
1.
Incinerator spaces, waste storage spaces or combined incinerator and waste storage spaces are to be
equipped with fixed fire extinguishing and fire detection systems as per Table 12.7.
2.
On passenger ships the sprinklers are to besupplied from the sprinkler system of the ship.
23
) Refer to ISO 15371: 2000 “Fire-extinguishing systems for protection of galley deep-fat cooking equipment”.
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N-O
Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
3.
On cargo ships the sprinkler system may beconnected to the fresh water hydrofore system,
provided the hydrofore pump is capable of meeting the demand of the required number of sprinklers
Table 12.7 Required fire safety systems
Automatic pressure water Fixed fire extinguishing system
spraying system
(CO2, high expansion foam,
(sprinkler), see 2. And 3.
pressure water spraying or
equivalent)
Spaces
Combined incinerator and
waste storage space
Incinerator space
Waste storage space
O.
Fixed fire detection
X
X
X
X
N-O
Fire Extinguishing Equipment for Helicopter Landing Decks
1.
In close proximity to the helideck there is to be provided and stored near the means of access to that
helideck:
-
at least two dry powder extinguishers havinga total capacity of not less than 45 kg
-
CO2 - extinguishers of a total capacity of not less than 18 kg or equivalent
a fixed low-expansion foam system with monitors or foam making branch pipescapable of
delivering foam to all parts of thehelideck in all weather conditions in whichhelicopters can operate. The system is to
becapable of delivering a discharge rate asrequired in Table 12.8 for at least fiveminutes. The foam agent
is to meet the performance standards of ICAO24) and be suitable for use with salt water
-
at least two nozzles of dual-purpose type and hoses sufficient to reach any part of the helideck;
-
two fireman’s outfits in addition to those required by SOLAS 74 or national regulations,
at least the following equipment, stored in a manner that provides for immediate use and protection from
the elements:
-
adjustable wrench
-
blanket, fire resistant
-
hook, grab or salving
-
hacksaw, heavy duty complete with 6 spare blades
-
ladder
-
life line 5 mm diameter x 15 m in length
-
pliers, side cutting
-
set of assorted screwdrivers
-
harness knife complete with sheat
24
) International Civil Aviation Organization – Airport Services Manual, Part 1 - Rescue and Fire Fighting,Chapter 8 - Extinguishing Agent
Characteristics, Paragraph 8.1.5 - Foam Specifications, table 8-1, Level“B” foam.
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-
cutters bolt 600 mm
2
Drainage facilities in way of helidecks are to be constructed of steel and lead directly overboard
independent of any other system and designed so that drainage does not fall on to any part of the vessel.
Table 12.8 Required foam quantity
Category
Helicopter overall length
H1
H2
H3
< 15 m
> 15 m ... < 24 m
> 24 m ... < 35 m
P.
O-P
Equipment for the Transport of Dangerous Goods
1.
General
1.1
Scope
Discharge rate foam solution
litre/min]
250
500
800
1.1.1
The following requirements apply additionally to ships carrying dangerous goods in packaged form. The
requirements are not applicable if such goods are transported only in limited or excepted quantities according to the
IMDG Code, Volume 2, Chapter 3.4 and 3.5.
1.1.2
The requirements depend on the type of cargo space, the dangerous goods class and the special properties of
the goods to be carried. The requirements for the different types of cargo spaces are shown in the following tables:
–
Table 12.10a for conventional cargo spaces
–
Table 12.10b for container cargo spaces
–
Table 12.10c for closed ro-ro spaces
–
Table 12.10d for open ro-ro spaces
–
Table 12.10e for shipborne barges
–
Table 12.10f for weather decks
1.1.3
The requirements of SOLAS, Chapter VI, Part A, SOLAS, Chapter VII, Part A and the IMDG Code are to
be observed.
1.1.4
The requirements for open top container cargo spaces are to be agreed upon with BKI.
1.2
BKI
Diagrammatic plans, drawings and documents covering the following are to be submitted to
1.3
References to other rules
1.3.1
SOLAS, Chapter II-2, Regulation 19, “Car-riage of dangerous goods”
1.3.2
SOLAS, Chapter VI, Part A, “General provisions”
1.3.3
SOLAS, Chapter VII, Part A, “Carriage of dangerous goods in packaged form”
1.3.4
IMO International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code
1.3.5
Medical First Aid Guide for Use in Accidents Involving Dangerous Goods (MFAG)
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
1.3.6
IMO MSC/Circ.608/Rev.1, “Interim Guidelines for Open Top Containerships”
IACS UI SC 109, 110 and 111, “Open top container holds – Water supplies – Ventilation – Bilge
1.3.7
pumping”
P
IEC 60079, “Electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres”
1.3.8
1.4
Certification
On request the “Document of Compliance for the Carriage of Dangerous goods” according to SOLAS,
Chapter II-2, Regulation 19.4 may be issued after successful survey. These vessels will be assigned the
Notation DG.
1.5
Classification of dangerous goods The following classes are specified for goods in packaged form
in the appendix of the Document of Compliance for the Carriage of Dangerous goods.
Class 1.1 to 1.6:
Division 1.1: Substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard.
Division 1.2: Substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard.
Division1.3: Substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor
projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard.
Division 1.4: Substances and articles which present no significant hazard.
Division 1.5: Very insensitive substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard.
Division 1.6: Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard.
Class 1.4S:
Division 1.4, compatibility group S: Substances orarticles so packaged or designed that any hazardous
effects arising from accidental functioning are confined within the package unless the package has been
degraded by fire, in which case all blast or projection effects are limited to the extent that they do not
significantly hinder or prohibit fire fighting or otheremergency response efforts in the immediate vicinityof
the package.
Class 2.1:
Flammable gases.
Class 2.1 except hydrogen gases:
Flammable gases with the exception of hydrogen and mixtures of hydrogen.
Class 2.2:
Non-flammable, non-toxic gases.
Class 2.3 flammable:
Toxic gases with a subsidiary risk class 2.1.
Class 2.3 non-flammable:
Toxic gases without a subsidiary risk class 2.1.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 12 – Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
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Class 3 FP < 23 °C:
Flammable liquids having a flashpoint below 23 °C according to the IMDG Code.
Class 3 23 °C ≤ FP ≤ 60 °C:
Flammable liquids having a flashpoint between 23 °C and 60 °C according to the IMDG Code.
Class 4.1:
Flammable solids, self-reactive substances and solid desensitized explosives.
Class 4.2:
Substances liable to spontaneous combustions.
Class 4.3 liquids:
Liquids which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases.
Class 4.3 solids:
Solids which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases.
Class 5.1:
Oxidizing substances.
Class 5.2:
Organic peroxides.
Class 6.1 liquids FP < 23 °C:
Toxic liquids having a flashpoint below 23 °C according to the IMDG Code.
Class 6.1 liquids 23 °C ≤ FP ≤ 60 °C:
Toxic liquids having a flashpoint between 23 °C and 60 °C according to the IMDG Code.
Class 6.1 liquids:
Toxic liquids having a flashpoint above 60 °C according to the IMDG Code.
Class 6.1 solids:
Toxic solids.
Class 8 liquids FP < 23 °C:
Corrosive liquids having a flashpoint below 23 °C according to the IMDG Code.
Class 8 liquids:
Corrosive liquids having a flashpoint above 60 °C according to the IMDG Code.
Class 8 solids:
Corrosive solids.
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
Class 9:
Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles and environmentally hazardous substances.
Class 9 except goods evolving flammable vapour:
Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles and environmentally hazardous substances, which are not
evolving flammable vapour.
Note
The carriage of dangerous goods of classes 6.2 (infectious substances) and 7 (radioactive materials) is not
covered by the Document of Compliance of Dangerous Goods. For the carriage of class 6.2 the IMDG
Code and for the carriage of class 7 the IMDG Code and the INF Code are to be observed.
2.
Fixed fire extinguishing system
2.1
Fixed gas fireextinguishing system
All cargo holds are to be equipped with a fixed CO2 fire-extinguishing system complying with the requirements of
G. or H.
2.2
Fixed pressure water-spaying system Open ro-ro spaces, ro-ro spaces not capable of being sealed and
special category spaces are to be equipped with a pressure water-spraying system conforming to L.2.3 in lieu of a
fixed CO2 fire-extinguishing system.
Drainage and pumping arrangements are to be designed in compliance with Section 11, N.4.3.5 and N.4.4, as
applicable.
2.3
Stowage on weather deck
The requirements of 2.1 and 2.2 apply even if the dangerous goods are to be stowed exclusively on theweather
deck.
Note: For ships of less than 500 GT the requirement may be dispensed with subject to acceptance by the
Administration.
3.
Water supplies
3.1
Immediate supply of water
Immediate supply of water from the fire main shall be provided by remote starting arrangement for all main fire
pumps from the navigation bridge or by permanent pressurization of the fire main and by automatic start-up of the
main fire pumps.
3.2
Quantity of water and arrangement of hydrants
The capacity of the main fire pumps shall be sufficient for supplying four jets of water simultaneously at the
prescribed pressure (see Table 2.3).
Hydrants are to be arranged on weather deck so that any part of the empty cargo spaces can be reached with four
jets of water not emanating from the same hydrant. Two of the jets shall be supplied by a single length of hose
each, two may be supplied by two coupled hose lengths each.
Hydrants are to be arranged in ro-ro spaces so that any part of the empty cargo spaces can be reached with four jets
of water not emanating from the same hydrant. The four jets shall be supplied by a single length of hose each.For
additional hoses and nozzles see E.2.5.7
3.2
Hydrants
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3.3
Water Cooling
3.3.1
Cargo spaces for transporting Class 1,,.with the exception of class 1.4S are to be fitted with arrangements
for the application of water-spray.
3.3.2
The flow rate of water required is to be determined on the basis of 5 litre/m2 and per minute of the
largest horizontal cross section of the cargo space or a dedicated section of it.
3.3.3
The water may be supplied by means of the main fire pumps if the flow rate of the water delivered in
parallel flow ensures the simultaneous operation of the nozzles specified in 3.2
3.3.4
The required volume of water is to be distributed evenly over the cargo space area from above via a
fixed piping system and full-bore nozzles.
3.3.5
The piping and nozzle system may also be divided into sections and be integrated into the hatch covers.
Connection may be via hoses with quick-acting couplings. Additional hydrants are to be provided on deck for
this purpose.
3.3.6
Drainage and pumping arrangements are to be such as to prevent the build-up of free surfaces:
the drainage system is to have a capacity of not less than 1,25 times of the capacity discharged
during the simultaneous operation of the water spraying system and four fire hose nozzles
-
the valves of the drainage arrangement are to be operable from outside the protected space
The bilge wells are to be of sufficient holdingcapacity and are to be arranged at the sideshell of the
ship at a distance from eachother of not more than 40 m in each watertight compartment.
If this is not possible, the additional weight of water and the influence of the free surfaces are to be taken into
account in the ship’s stability information.
4.
Source of Ignition
The degree of explosion protection for the individual classes is specified in column "Sources of ignition" of
Tables 12.10a to 12.10f. If explosion protection is required the following conditions are to be complied with.
4.1
Electrical equipment
All electrical equipment coming into contact with the hold atmosphere and being essential for the
4.1.1
ship's operation shall be of approved intrinsically safe type or certified safe type corresponding to the degree
of explosion protection as shown in Tables 12.10a to 12.10f.
4.1.2
For the design of the electrical equipment and classification of the dangerous areas, Rules for
Electrical (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 17. 4.1.3 Electrical equipment not being essential for ship's operation need
not to be of certified safe type provided it can be electrically disconnected from the power source, by
appropriate means other than fuses (e.g. by removal of links), at a point external to the space and to be
secured against unintentional reconnection.
4.2
Safety of fans
For fans being essential for the ship's operation the design is governed by Section 15, B.5.3.2 and
4.2.1
B.5.3.3. Otherwise the fans shall be capable of being disconnected from the power source, see 4.1.3.
The fan openings on deck are to be fitted with fixed wire mesh guards with a mesh size not
4.2.2
exceeding 13 mm.
4.2.3
The air outlets are to be placed at a safe distance from possible ignition sources. A spherical radius
of 3 m around the air outlets, within which ignition sources are prohibited, is required.
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
4.3
Other sources of ignition
Other sources of ignition may not be installed in dangerous areas, e.g. steam or thermal oil lines.
5
Detection system
5.1
C.
The cargo spaces are to be equipped with an approved fixed fire detection and alarm system, see
5.2
If a cargo space or the weather deck is intended for class 1 goods the adjacent cargo spaces, with
the exception of open ro-ro spaces, are also to be monitored by a fixed fire detection and alarm system.
6.
Ventilation
6.1
Ducting
The ducting is to be arranged for removal of gases and vapours from the upper and lower part of the cargo hold.
This requirement is considered to be met if the ducting is arranged such that approximately 1/3 of the air volume is
removed from the upper part and 2/3 from the lower part. The position of air inlets and air outlets shall be such as
to prevent short circuiting of the air. Interconnection of the hold atmosphere with other spaces is not permitted. For
the construction and design requirements see BKI Regulation for Ventilation System on Board Seagoing Ships.
6.2
Mechanical ventilation (six air changes/h)
A ventilation system which incorporates powered fans with a capacity of at least six air changes per hour based on
the empty cargo hold is to be provided.
6.3
Mechanical ventilation (two air changes/h)
The ventilation rate according to 6.2 may be reduced to not less than two air changes per hour, provided the goods
are carried in container cargo spaces in closed freight containers.
7.
Bilge pumping
7.1
Inadvertent pumping
The bilge system is to be designed so as to prevent inadvertent pumping of flammable and toxic liquids through
pumps and pipelines in the machinery space.
7.2
Isolating valves
The cargo hold bilge lines are to be provided with isolating valves outside the machinery space or at the point of
exit from the machinery space located close to the bulkhead.
The valves shall be capable of being secured in closed position (e.g. safety locking device).
Remote controlled valves shall be capable of being secured in closed position. In case an ICMS system 36 is
provided, this system shall contain a corresponding safety query on the display.
7.3
Warning signs
Warning signs are to be displayed at the isolating valve or control positions, e.g. “This valve to be kept secured in
closed position during the carriage of dangerous goods in cargo hold nos.and may be operated with the permission
of the master only”.
7.4
Additional bilge system
7.4.1
An additional fixed bilge system with a capacity of at least 10 m3/h per cargo hold is to be ovided. If
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 12 – Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
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more than two cargo holds are connected to a common system, the capacity need not exceed 25 m3/h.
7.4.2
The additional bilge system has to enable any leaked dangerous liquids to be removed from all bilge
wells in the cargo space.
7.4.3
Pumps and pipelines are not to be installed in machinery spaces.
7.4.4
Spaces containing additional bilge pumps are to be provided with independent mechanical ventilation
giving at least six air changes per hour. If this space has access from another enclosed space, the door shall be of
self-closing type. For the design of the electrical equipment, see Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1, Vol.IV),
Section 17, E.2
7.4.5
Section 11, N. applies analogously.
7.4.6
Water-driven ejectors are to be equipped on the suction side with a means of reverse-flow Protection.
7.4.7
If the bilge drainage of the cargo space is arranged by gravity drainage, the drainage is to be either led
directly overboard or to a closed drain tank located outside the machinery spaces.
Drainage from a cargo space into bilge wells in a lower space is only permitted if that space fulfils the same
requirements as the cargo space above.
7.5
Collecting tank
Where tanks are provided for collecting and storage of dangerous goods spillage, their vent pipes shall be led to a
safe position on open deck.
8.
Protective clothing and breathing apparatus
8.1
Full protective clothing
Four sets of protective clothing appropriate to the properties of the cargo are to be provided.
8.2
Self-contained breathing apparatuses
Additional two sets of self-contained breathing apparatuses with spare air cylinders for at least two refills for each
set are to be provided.
9.
Portable fire extinguishers
Additional portable dry powder fire extinguishers containing a total of at least 12 kg of dry powder or equivalent
are to be provided.
10.
Machinery space boundaries
10.1
Bulkheads
Bulkheads between cargo spaces and machinery spaces of category A are to be provided with a fire insulation to A60 standard. Otherwise the cargoes are to be stowed at least 3 m away from the machinery space bulkhead.
10.2
Decks
Decks between cargo and machinery spaces of category A are to be insulated to A-60 standard.
10.3
Insulation for goods of class 1
For goods of class 1, with the exception of class 1.4S, both, the fire insulation of A-60 standard for the bulkhead
between cargo space and machinery space of category A and stowage at least 3 m away from this bulkhead, is
required. Stowage above machinery space of category A is not permitted in any case.
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
-
-
-
-
X6
-
-
X9
-
-
X
X
X
X
X
-
-
X
-
-
-
X
-
-
X
X
X
X
X
-
-
X
X
X
-
X
X
X
X
X
8
Liquids ≤ 23 C
X
X
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
8
Liquids
X
X
-
-
X
-
-
-
X
-
-
X
X
X
6.1
Solids
X
X
-
-
X
X6
-
-
X
-
-
X
X
X
6.1
Liquids > 23oC,≤ 61oC
X
X
-
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
6.1
Liquids ≤ 23oC
X
X
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
6.1
Liquids
X
X
-
-
X
-
-
X
X
-
-
X
X
X
5.2
X
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
X
-
-
X
X
X
5.1
X
X
-
-
X
X6
-
-
X
X
X8
X
X10
X10
4.3
X
X
-
-
X
X
-
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
4.2
X
X
-
-
X
X6
-
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
4.1
X
X
-
X
X6
-
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
X
-
-
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
2.3
X
X
-
X
X
-
-
X
-
X
X
X
X
2.2
X
X
-
X
-
-
-
X
-
X
X
X
X
2.1
X
X
-
X
X
X
X
-
X
-
X
X
X
X
1.4s
X
X
-
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
-
-
-
-
-
X7
X
X
X
Ready availability of the main
Section 12, P.3.1
Hydrants Section 12,P.2.3.2
Arrangements for cooling with
water Section 12,P.3.3
Electrical equipment section 12,P.4
FIire detection Section 12,P.5
Ventilation Section, P.6.1/6.2
Ventilation fans Section 12,P.6.3
Bilge pumpimng Section 12,P.7
Protective clothing and breathing
apparatus Section 12,P.8
Portable dry powder extinguishers
Section 12,P.9
Cargo space//machinery space
insulation Section 12,P.10
Water sprying systems Section
12,P.11
Separation of ro-ro cargo spaces
Section 12,P.12.1
Separation of ro-ro cargo spaces
Section 12,P.12.1
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X4
X
X
X
X
X4
X
X
X
X
X4
X
X
X
X4
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X2
X
X
X3
-
X
-
X
-
Stowage
3
3
8
8
9
-
Dangerous goods classes according 1.1 –
to IMDG-Code
1.6
Table 12.9 Condition for the transport of dangerous goods in packaged form
solids
o
o
Liquids > 23 C,≤ 61 C
o
Liquids > 23oC,≤ 61oC
o
Liquids ≤ 23 C
Additional
requirement
On the weather deck
In shipborne barges
In open ro-ro spaces
In closed ro-ro spaces5
In container cargo spaces
In conventional cargo spaces
X
Compliance with the individual conditions is required if indicated by an “x” in both the cargo space column for the respective
dangerous goods class
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Table 12.9 Condition for the transport of dangerous goods in packaged form (continued)
Footnotes to table 12.7
1
) for classes 4 and 5.1 not applicable to closed freight containers. For classes 2,3, 6.1, 8, 9 when carried in closed freight containers the
ventilation rate may be reduced to two air changes. For purpose of this requirements a portable tank is a closed freight container.
2
) Applicable to decks only.
3
) In closed ro-ro cargo spaces, not capable of being scaled, instead of the gas fire extinguishing system.
4
)These requirements may be waived or reduced where the barges are capable of retaining flammable vapours or alternatively if they are
capable or discharging flammable vapours to a safe space outside the barge carrier compartment by means of ventilation ducts connected to the
barges.
5
) Special category spaces shall be treated as closed ro-ro cargo spaces when dangerous goods are carried.
6
) When “mechanically-ventilated spaces” are required by the IMDG-code.
7
) Stow 3 m horizontally away from machinery space boundaries in all cases.
8
) Refer to the IMDG-code.
9
) As appropriate to goods being carried.
10
) Under the provisions of the IMDG-code, as amended, stowage of class 5.2 dangerous goods under deck or in enclosed ro-ro spaces is
prohibited.
Table 12.10 Conditions for the transport of solid dangerous goods in bulk according
to the classes of dangerous goods.
5.1
6.1
8
Classification according to SOLAS, Chapter
4.1
4.2 4.31)
9
VII
Additional
Requirement
Ready availability of fire main Section 12,P.3.1
Hydrants Section 12, P.3.2
Electrical Equipment Section 12,P.4
Mechanical ventilation Section 12.P.6.44
Ventilation fans Section 12,P.6.3
Natural Ventilation Section 12,P.6.4
Protective clothing and breathing apparatus Section 12,P.8
Cargo space / machinery space insulation Section 12,P.10
X
X
-
X
-
-
X
X
X
-
X
-
-
X
X
X2)
X
X3)
-
-
X3)
-
X2)
X
-
-
-
-
X2)
X2)
X2)
X2,4)
-
-
X2,4)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X2)
-
-
X5)
1
) The additional requirements according to 13 are to be complied
) Only applicable to Seedcake containing solvent extractions, to Ammonium Nitrate and Ammonium Nitrate fertilizers
3
) Only applicable to Ammonium Nitrate and Ammonium Nitrate fertilizers
4
) Only mesh wire guards according to 6.3.3 are required
5
) The requirements of the code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes (BC-Code, IMO Res.A.434(XI),as amended, are
sufficient.
Drainage from a cargo space into bilge wells in a lower space is only permitted if that space fulfils the same requirements as
the cargo space above.
2
11.
Separation of ro-ro cargo spaces
A separation, suitable to minimize the passage of dangerous vapors and liquids, is to be provided
1.1
between a closed ro-ro cargo space and adjacent open ro-ro space.Where such separation is not provided the ro-ro
cargo space is to be considered to be a closed ro-ro cargo space over its entire length and the special requirements
for closed ro-ro spaces apply.
A separation, suitable to minimize the passage of dangerous vapors and liquids, is to be provided
1.2
between a closed ro-ro cargo space and adjacent weather deck. Where such separation is not provided the
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
arrangements of the closed ro-ro cargo space are to be in accordance with those required for the dangerous goods
carried on the adjacent weather deck.
Table 12.10a Requirements for the carriage of dangerous goods in packaged form in conventional
cargo spaces
1.1
to 1.6
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
1.4
S
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
2.1
2.1
P.2.1
except hydrogen
gases
2.2
2.3
flammable 1
2.3
non-flammable 1
3
3
FP < 23 oC
23 oC
C
o
FP
60
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
4.1
P.2.1
4.2
P.2.1
4.3
liquids 1
P.2.1
4.3
solids
P.2.1
5.1
P.2.1
5.2
1
6.1
liquids
FP < 23 oC
6.1
6.1
liquids
23 oC FP
liquids
6.1
solids
P.2.1
8
liquids
FP < 23 oC
P.2.1
8
8
liquids
23 oC FP
liquids
8
solids
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
60 oC
P.2.1
P.2.1
60 oC
P.2.1
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.3
P.4
IIA T5,
IP65
P.4
IIC T4,
IP55
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
P.5.1
P.5.2
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.8
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.8
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.8
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.7
P.6.1
P.6.2 2
P.6.1
P.6.2 2
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.6.1
P.6.2 2
P.8
P.9
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2 4
P.5.1
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.7
P.8
P.9
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.5.1
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.7
P.8
P.9
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.7
P.8
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
Machinery space
boundaries
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.5.1
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
Portable fireextinguisher
P.10.3
P.5.1
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
Personnel Protection
P.5.1
P.5.2
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.6.1
P.6.2 2
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.5.1
P.5.1
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Bilge pumping
Ventilation
Detection system
Source of ignition
Water cooling
Water supplies
Requirements
Fixed gas fireextinguisher system
Class
P.8
P.7
P.8
P.9
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.7
P.8
P.9
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.7
P.8
3
3
P.8
Section 12 – Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
P
61/77
Table 12.10a Requirements for the carriage of dangerous goods in packaged form in conventional cargo
spaces (continued) 9
9
1
2
3
4
evolving flammable
vapors
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.8
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.6.1
P.8
P.3.2
P.6.2 2
Under the provision of the IMDG Code, as amended, stowage of class 2.3, class 4.3 liquids having a flashpoint less than 23 oC
as listed in the IMDG Code an class 5.2 under deck is prohibited
When "mechanically-ventilated spaces" are required by IMGD Code, as amended.
Only applicable to dangerous goods having a subsidiary risk class 6.1.
When "away from source of heat" is required by the IMDG Code, as amended.
Table 12.10b Requirements for the carriage of dangerous goods in packaged form in container cargo
spaces
1.4
S
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
2.1
2.1
P.2.1
except hydrogen
gases
2.2
2.3
flammable 1
2.3
non-flammable 1
3
3
FP < 23 oC
23 oC
C
o
FP
60
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
4.1
P.2.1
4.2
P.2.1
4.3
liquids 1
P.2.1
4.3
solids
P.2.1
5.1
P.2.1
5.2
1
6.1
liquids
FP < 23 oC
6.1
6.1
liquids
23 oC FP
liquids
6.1
solids
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
60 oC
P.2.1
P.2.1
P.4
IIA T5,
IP65
P.4
IIC T4,
IP55
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
P.5.1
P.5.2
P.5.1
P.5.2
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.10.3
P.6.1
P.6.3
P.8
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.6.1
P.6.3
P.8
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.8
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.8
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.8
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2 4
P.5.1
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
P.5.1
P.6.1
P.6.3
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
P.6.1
P.6.3 2,3
P.6.1
P.6.3 2,3
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.6.1
P.6.3 2
P.6.1
P.6.3 2,3
P.8
P.8
P.8
P.8
P.8
P.5.1
P.6.1
P.6.3
P.7
P.8
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.5.1
P.6.1
P.6.3
P.7
P.8
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.7
P.8
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.6.1
P.6.3 2
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
P.7
P.5.1
P.5.1
Machinery space
boundaries
P.3.3
Personnel Protection
P.3.1
P.3.2
Bilge pumping
P.2.1
Ventilation
Water cooling
to 1.6
Detection system
Water supplies
1.1
Source of ignition
Requirements
Fixed gas fireextinguisher system
Class
P.8
62/77
P
Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
8
liquids
FP < 23 oC
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
8
8
liquids
23 oC FP
liquids
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
8
solids
P.2.1
9
evolving flammable
vapourss
P.2.1
o
60 C
P.2.1
9
P.2.1
1
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
P.5.1
P.6.1
P.6.3
P.7
P.8
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.5.1
P.6.1
P.6.3
P.7 4
P.8
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.7 4
P.8
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.8
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.6.1
P.6.3
P.8
P.6.1
P.6.3 2
P.8
Under the provision of the IMDG Code, as amended, stowage of class 2.3, class 4.3 liquids having a flashpoint
less than 23 oC as listed in the IMDG Code an class 5.2 under deck is prohibited
When "mechanically-ventilated spaces" are required by IMGD Code, as amended.
For solid not applicable to closed freight containers.
Only applicable to dangerous goods having a subsidiary risk class 6.1.
When "away from source of heat" is required by the IMDG Code, as amended.
2
3
4
5
Table 12.10c Requirements for the carriage of dangerous goods in packaged form in closed ro-ro
spaces
1.1
to 1.6
P.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
1.4
S
P.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
2.1
2.1
P.2
except hydrogen gases
2.2
2.3
flammable 1
2.3
non-flammable 1
3
FP < 23 oC
3
23 oC
o
C
FP
60
P.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
4.1
P.2
4.2
P.2
4.3
liquids 1
P.2
4.3
solids
P.2
5.1
P.2
5.2
1
6.1
liquids
FP < 23 oC
P.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
6.1
liquids
P.2
P.3.1
P.3.3
P.4
IIA T5,
IP65
P.4
IIC T4,
IP55
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
P.5.1
P.5.2
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.5.1
Separation of ro-ro
space 5
P.11
P.11
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.8
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.11
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.8
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.11
P.8
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.11
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.7
P.6.1
P.6.2 2
P.6.1
P.6.2 2
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.6.1
P.6.2 2
P.8
P.9
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.11
P.8
P.9
P.11
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2 4
P.11
P.11
P.11
P.11
P.11
P.5.1
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.7
P.8
P.9
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.11
P.5.1
P.6.1
P.7
P.8
P.9
P.10.1
P.11
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Machinery space
boundaries
P.10.3
P.5.1
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
Portable fireextinguisher
P.5.1
P.5.2
P.5.1
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
Personnel
Protection
Bilge pumping
Ventilation
Detection system
Source of ignition
Water cooling
Requirements
Fixed gas fireextinguisher
system
Water supplies
Class
Section 12 – Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
P
63/77
6.1
23 oC FP
liquids
60 oC
6.1
solids
P.2
8
liquids
FP < 23 oC
P.2
8
8
liquids
23 oC FP
liquids
8
solids
P.2
9
evolving flammable
vapourss
P.2
P.2
P.2
60 oC
P.2
9
1
2
3
4
5
P.2
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.6.2
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.10.2
P.7
P.6.1
P.6.2 2
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.8
P.11
P.8
P.9
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.11
P.7
P.8
P.9
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.11
P.7
P.8
P.11
P.8
P.11
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.8
P.11
P.6.1
P.8
P.11
P.6.1
P.6.2
3
3
P.5.1
P.3.1
P.11
P.7
P.5.1
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
P.8
P.3.2
P.6.2 2
Under the provision of the IMDG Code, as amended, stowage of class 2.3, class 4.3 liquids having a flashpoint less than 23 oC
as listed in the IMDG Code an class 5.2 under deck is prohibited
When "mechanically-ventilated spaces" are required by IMGD Code, as amended.
Only applicable to dangerous goods having a subsidiary risk class 6.1.
When "away from source of heat" is required by the IMDG Code, as amended.
Only applicable for ship with keel-laying on or after 1 July 1998.
Table 12.10d Requirements for the carriage of dangerous goods in packaged form in open ro-ro spaces
1.1
to 1.6
P.2.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
1.4
S
P.2.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
2.1
2.1
P.2.2
except hydrogen gases
2.2
P.2.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.2.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
2.3
flammable
P.2.2
2.3
non-flammable
P.2.2
3
FP < 23 oC
P.2.2
3
23 oC
FP
60 oC
P.2.2
4.1
P.2.2
4.2
P.2.2
4.3
liquids
P.2.2
4.3
solids
P.2.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.3
P.4
IIA T5,
IP65
Machinery space
boundaries
P.5.2
P.5.2
P.4
IIC T4,
IP55
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
P.10.3
P.8
P.8
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.8
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.8
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.8
P.8
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55 2
P.3.1
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Portable fire-extinguisher
Personnel Protection
Detection system
Source of ignition
Water cooling
Water supplies
Requirements
Fixed gas fire-extinguisher
system
Class
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
64/77
P
Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
5.1
P.2.2
5.2
P.2.2
6.1
liquids
FP < 23 oC
6.1
6.1
liquids
23 oC FP
liquids
6.1
solids
P.2.2
8
liquids
FP < 23 oC
P.2.2
8
8
liquids
23 oC FP
liquids
8
solids
P.2.2
9
evolving flammable
vapourss
P.2.2
9
1
2
P.2.2
P.2.2
60 oC
P.2.2
P.2.2
60 oC
P.2.2
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2 1
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.8
P.9
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.8
P.9
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.8
P.8
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.8
P.8
P.4
IIB T4,
IP55
P.8
P.2.2
P.3.1
P.8
P.3.2
When "away from source of heat" is required by the IMDG Code, as amended.
Applicable to goods having a flashpoint less than 23oC as listed in the IMDG Code, as amended.
Table 12.10e Requirements for the carriage of dangerous goods in packaged form in shipborne barge
1.1
to 1.6
P.2.1
1.4
S
P.2.1
2.1
2.1
P.2.1
except hydrogen gases
2.2
P.2.1
P.2.1
2.3
flammable 1
2.3
non-flammable 1
3
FP < 23 oC
3
23 oC
FP
P.2.1
60 oC
P.2.1
4.1
P.2.1
4.2
P.2.1
4.3
liquids 1
P.2.1
4.3
solids
P.2.1
5.1
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.3
P.4
IIA T5, IP65
Ventilation 2
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.4
IIC T4, IP55
P.4
IIB T4, IP55
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.5.1
P.4
IIB T4, IP55
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Detection system 2
2
Source of ignition
Water cooling
Water supplies
Requirements
Fixed gas fireextinguisher
system
Class
P.5.1
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.5.1
P.6.1
P.6.2 3
P.6.1
P.6.2 3
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.6.1
P.6.2
P.6.1
Section 12 – Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
P
65/77
P.6.2 3
P.3.2
5.2
1
6.1
liquids
FP < 23 oC
liquids
23 oC FP
liquids
6.1
6.1
6.1
8
8
8
8
9
9
1
2
3
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.4
P.5.1
P.6.1
P.3.2
IIB T4, IP55
P.6.2
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.5.1
P.6.1
60 oC
P.3.2
P.6.2
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.5.1
P.3.2
solids
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.5.1
P.6.1
P.3.2
P.6.2 3
liquids
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.4
P.5.1
P.6.1
FP < 23 oC
P.3.2
IIB T4, IP55
P.6.2
liquids
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.5.1
P.6.1
23 oC FP 60 oC
P.3.2
P.6.2
liquids
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.5.1
P.3.2
solids
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.5.1
P.3.2
evolving flammable vapourss
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.4
P.6.1
P.3.2
IIB T4, IP55
P.6.2
P.2.1
P.3.1
P.6.1
P.3.2
P.6.2 3
Under the provision of the IMDG Code, as amended, stowage of class 2.3, class 4.3 liquids having a flashpoint less than 23 oC
listed in the IMDG Code an class 5.2 under deck is prohibited
In the special case where the barge are capable of containing flammable vapors or alternatively if they are capable of
discharging flammable vapors to as safe outside the barge carrier compartment by means of ventilation ducts connected to the
barges, these requirements may be reduced or waived to the satisfaction of the Administration.
When "mechanically-ventilated spaces" are required by IMGD Code, as amended.
Table 12.10f Requirements for the carriage of dangerous goods in packaged form on the weather deck
1.1
to 1.6
P.2.3
1.4
S
P.2.3
2.1
2.1
P.2.3
except hydrogen gases
2.2
P.2.3
P.2.3
2.3
flammable
P.2.3
2.3
non-flammable
P.2.3
3
FP < 23 oC
P.2.3
3
23 oC
FP
60 oC
P.2.3
4.1
P.2.3
4.2
P.2.3
4.3
liquids
P.2.3
4.3
solids
P.2.3
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.5.2
Machinery space boundaries
P.10.3
P.5.2
P.8
P.8
P.8
P.8
P.8
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Portable fire-extinguisher
Personnel Protection
Detection system
Class
Water supplies
Fixed gas fire-extinguisher
system
Requirements
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
66/77
P-Q
Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
5.1
P.2.3
5.2
P.2.3
6.1
6.1
liquids
FP < 23 oC
liquids
23 oC FP
P.2.3
P.2.3
60 oC
6.1
liquids
P.2.3
6.1
solids
P.2.3
8
8
liquids
FP < 23 oC
liquids
23 oC FP
P.2.3
P.2.3
60 oC
8
liquids
P.2.3
8
solids
P.2.3
9
evolving flammable
vapourss
P.2.3
9
1
P.2.3
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.3.1
P.3.2
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.10.1
P.10.2 1
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.8
P.8
P.8
P.9
P.8
P.9
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.10.1
P.10.2
P.8
P.8
P.8
P.8
When "away from source of heat" is required by the IMDG Code, as amended.
P-Q
Q.
Carriage of Solid Bulk Cargoes
1.
General
1.1
Scope
1.1.1
grain.
The following requirements apply additionally to ships carrying solid bulk cargoes other than
The requirements depend on the dangerous goods class and special properties of the cargoes to be
1.1.2
carried. The cargoes of Group B and the applicable provisions are shown in Table 12.11. For cargoes of
Group A and C the requirements of 1.5 are to be observed only.
The requirements of SOLAS, Chapter VI, Part A and B, SOLAS, Chapter VII, Part A-1 and the
1.1.3
IMSBC Code are to be observed.
Note:For the carriage of grain the requirements of the IMO International Code for the Safe Carriage of Grain
in Bulk are to be observed.
1.2
References to other rules
1.2.1
SOLAS, Chapter II-2, Regulation 19, “Carriage of dangerous goods”
1.2.2
SOLAS, Chapter VI, Part A, “General provisions” and Part B, “Special provisions of solid bulk
cargoes”
1.2.3
SOLAS, Chapter VII, Part A-1, “Carriage of dangerous goods in solid form in bulk”
1.2.4
1.2.5
ICLL, Annex B, Annex I, Chapter II, Regulation 19, “Ventilators”, (3)
Q
IMO International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code
1.2.6
IMO International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code
1.2.7
Medical First Aid Guide for Use in Accidents Involving Dangerous Goods (MFAG)
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1.2.8
IMO MSC/Circ.S1146, “List of solid bulk cargoes for which a fixed gas fire-extinguishing system
may be exempted or for which a fixed gas fire extinguishing system is ineffective”
1.2.9
IEC 60079, “Electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres”
1.3
Certification
On request the following Certificates may be issued after successful survey:
The “Document of Compliance for the Carriage of Dangerous Goods” is issued according to
SOLAS, Chapter II-2, Regulation 19.4. These vessels will be assigned the Notation DG.
The “Document of Compliance for the Carriage of Solid Bulk Cargoes” is issued in accordance with
the requirements of the IMSBC Code. These vessels will be assigned the Notation DBC.
Note: For requirements and certification of dangerous goods in packaged form see P.
1.4
Identification and classification
1.4.1
Identification of solid bulk cargoes
1.4.1.1
Bulk Cargo Shipping Name
The Bulk Cargo Shipping Name (BCSN) identifies a solid bulk cargo. The BCSN shall be supplemented with
the United Nations (UN) number when the cargo is dangerous goods according to the IMDG Code.
1.4.1.2
Cargo group
Solid bulk cargoes are subdivided into the following three groups:
Group A consists of cargoes which may liquefy if shipped at a moisture content in excess of their
transportable moisture limit.
Group B consists of cargoes which possess a chemical hazard which could give rise to a dangerous
situation on a ship. For classification of these cargoes see 1.4.2.
Group C consists of cargoes which are neither liable to liquefy (Group A) nor to possess chemical
hazards (Group B).
1.4.2
Classification of solid dangerous goods in bulk
Class 4.1: Flammable solids
Readily combustible solids and solids which may cause fire through friction.
Class 4.2: Substances liable to spontaneous combustion
Materials, other than pyrophoric materials, which, in contact with air without energy supply, are liable to self
heating.
Class 4.3: Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases
Solids which, by interaction with water, are liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable
gases in dangerous quantities.
Class 5.1: Oxidizing substances
Materials that, while in themselves not necessarily combustible, may, generally by yielding oxygen,cause, or
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
contribute to, the combustion of other material.
Class 7: Radioactive material
Materials containing radionuclides where both the activity concentration and the total activity in the
consignment exceed the values specified in 2.7.7.2.1 to 2.7.7.2.6 of the IMDG Code.
Class 9: Miscellaneous dangerous substances
Materials which, during transport, present a danger not covered by other classes.
Class MHB: Materials hazardous only in bulk
Materials which may possess chemical hazards when transported in bulk other than materials classified as
dangerous goods in the IMDG Code.
1.6
Documentation
All vessels intended for the carriage of solid bulk cargoes are to be provided with following documentation:
1.6.1
The IMSBC Code, as amended.
1.6.2
The MFAG. To be provided for cargoes of Group B only.
1.6.3
The approved Loading Manual (see Part 1. Seagoing Ships, BKI Volume IIfor Hull Structures (I-1-1),
Section 5, A.4.).
The approved Stability Information (see Part 1. Seagoing Ships, BKI Volume II Hull Structures (I-11.6.4
1), Section 28, D.).
1.6.5
The Bulk cargo booklet according to SOLAS, Chapter VI, Regulation 7.2.
2.
Fire-extinguishing system
2.1
Fixed gas fire-extinguishing system
All cargo holds of the following ships are to be equipped with a fixed CO2 fire-extinguishing system
complying with the provisions of G. and H., respectively:
Ships intended for the carriage of dangerousgoods in solid form in compliance with SOLAS,
Chapter II-2, Regulation 19
A and C
Ships of 2000 GT and above intended for the carriage of cargoes of class MHB and cargoes ofGroup
Note:
For ships of less than 500 GT the requirement may be dispensed with subject to acceptance by the
Administration.
2.2
Exemption certificate
A ship may be exempted from the requirement of a fixed gas fire-extinguishing system if
2.2.1
constructed and solely intended for the carriage of cargoes as specified MSC/Circ.1146. Such exemption may be
granted only if the ship is fitted with steel hatch covers and effective means of closing all ventilators and other
openings leading to the cargo spaces.
2.2.2
For cargoes according to MSC/Circ.1146, Table 2 a fire-extinguishing system giving equivalent
protection is to be provided.
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For fire-extinguishing systems giving equivalent protection refer to 3.2.
3.
Water supplies
3.1
Immediate supply of water
Immediate supply of water from the fire main shall be provided by remote starting arrangement for all main fire
pumps from the navigation bridge or by permanent pressurization of the fire main and by automatic start-up
for the main fire pumps.
3.2
Quantity of water and arrangement of hydrants
The capacity of the main fire pumps shall be sufficient for supplying four jets of water simultaneously at the
prescribed pressure (see Table 12.3).
Hydrants are to be arranged on weather deck that any part of the empty cargo spaces can be reached with four
jets of water not emanating from the same hydrant. Two of the jets shall be applied by a single length of hose
each, two may be supplied by two coupled hose lengths each.
For additional hoses and nozzles see E.2.5.7.
4.
Sources of ignition
The degree of explosion protection for the individual cargoes is specified in column "Sources of ignition" of
Table 12.11. If explosion protection is required the following condition are to be complied with.
4.1
Electrical equipment
4.1.1
All electrical equipment coming into contact with the hold atmosphere and being essential for the
ship's operation shall be of approved intrinsically safe type or certified safe type corresponding to the degree
explosion protection as shown in Table 12.11.
4.1.2
For the design of the electrical equipment and classification of the dangerous areas, see Rules for
Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV),Section 17.
Electrical equipment not being essential for ship's operation need not to be of certified safe type
4.1.3
provided it can be electrically disconnected from the power source, by appropriate means other than a fuses (e.g.
by removal of links), at a point external to the space and to be secured against unintentional reconnection.
4.2
Safety of fans
For fans being essential for the ship's operation the design is governed by Section 15, B.5.3.2 and
4.2.1
B.5.3.3. Otherwise the fans shall be capable of being disconnected from the power source, see 4.1.3.
4.2.2
13 mm.
The fan openings on deck are to be fitted with fixed wire mesh guards with a mesh size not exceeding
The ventilation outlets are to be placed at a safe distance from possible ignition sources. A spherical
4.2.3
radius of 3 m around the air outlets, within which ignition sources are prohibited, is required.
4.3
Other sources of ignition
Other sources of ignition may not be installed in dangerous areas, e.g. steam or thermal oil lines.
5.
Measurement equipment
Portable equipment required for the carriage of individual cargoes shall be available on board
priortoloading.
5.1
Temperature measurement
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5.1.1
Surface temperature
Means shall be provided for measuring the surface temperature of the cargo. In case of portable temperature
sensors, the arrangement shall enable the measurement without entering the hold.
5.1.2
Cargo temperature
Means shall be provided for measuring the temperature inside the cargo. In case of portable temperature
sensors, the arrangement shall enable the measurement without entering the hold.
5.2
Gas detection
Suitable instruments for measuring the concentration of the following gases are to beprovided:
5.2.1
Ammonia
5.2.2
Carbon monoxide
5.2.3
Hydrogen
5.2.4
Methane
5.2.5
5.2.6
Oxygen (0 - 21 % by volume)
Phosphine and arsine
5.2.7
Toxic gases that may be given off from the particular cargo
5.2.8
Hydrogen cyanide
5.2.9
Oxygen meters for crew entering cargo and adjacent enclosed spaces
5.2.10
Carbon monoxide meters for crew entering cargo and adjacent enclosed spaces
5.3
Acidity of bilge water
Means shall be provided for testing the acidity of the water in the bilge wells.
6.
Ventilation
6.1
Ducting
The ducting is to be arranged such that the space above the cargo can be ventilated and that exchange of air
from outside to inside the entire cargo space is provided. The position of air inlets and air outlets shall be such
as to prevent short circuiting of the air. Interconnection of the hold atmosphere with other spaces is not permitted.
For the construction and design requirements see BKI Regulation Ventilation System On Board Seagoing
Ships_2004
6.2
Natural ventilation
A ventilation system which does not incorporate mechanical fans is sufficient.
6.3
Mechanical ventilation
A ventilation system which incorporates powered fans with an unspecified capacity is to be provided
6.4
Mechanical ventilation (six air changes/h)
A ventilation system which incorporates powered fans with a capacity of at least six air changes per hour
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based on the empty cargo hold is to be provided.
6.5
Continuous ventilation (six air changes/h)
A ventilation system which incorporates at least two powered fans with a capacity of at least three air
changes per hour each based on the empty cargo hold is to be provided.
6.6
Portable fans
If ventilation fans are required portable fans may be used instead of fixed ones. If so, suitable arrangements for
securing the fans safely are to be provided. Electrical connections are to be fixed and expertly laid for the
duration of the installation. Details are to be submitted for approval.
6.7
Additional provisions on ventilation
6.7.1
Spark arresting screens
All ventilation openings on deck are to be fitted with suitable spark arresting screens.
6.7.2
Openings for continuous ventilation
The ventilation openings shall comply with the requirements of the Load Line Convention, for openings not
fitted with means of closure. According to ICLL, Regulation 19(3) the openings shall be arranged at least
4,50 m above deck in position 1 and at least 2,30 m above deck in position 2 (see also BKI Regulation
Ventilation System On Board Seagoing Ships,_2004
6.7.3
Escaping gases
The ventilation outlets shall be arranged at least 10 m away form living quarters on or under deck.
7.
Bilge pumping
7.1
Inadvertent pumping
The bilge system is to be designed so as to prevent inadvertent pumping of flammable and toxic liquids
through pumps and pipelines in the machinery space.
7.2
Isolating valve
The cargo hold bilge lines are to be provided with isolating valves outside the machinery space or at the
point of exit from the machinery space located close to the bulkhead.
The valves have to be capable of being secured in closed position (e.g. safety locking device).
Remote controlled valves have to be capable of being secured in closed position. In case an ICMS system 37is
provided, this system shall contain a corresponding safety query on the display.
7.3
Warning signs
Warning signs are to be displayed at the isolating valve or control positions, e.g. “This valve to be kept
secured in closed position during the carriage of dangerous goods in cargo hold nos. and may be operated with
the permission of the master only.”
8.
Personnel protection
8.1
Full protective clothing
8.1.1
Two sets of full protective clothing appropriate to the properties of the cargo are to be provided.
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8.1.2
Four sets of full protective clothing appropriate to the properties of the cargo are to be provided.
8.2
Self-contained breathing apparatuses
8.2.1
Two sets of self-contained breathing apparatuses with spare air cylinders for at least two refills for each
set are to be provided.
8.2.2
Additional two sets of self-contained breathing apparatuses with spare air cylinders for at least two
refills for each set are to be provided.
9.
No smoking signs
“NO SMOKING” signs shall be posted in the vicinity of cargo holds and in areas adjacent to cargo holds.
10.
Machinery space boundaries
10.1
A-60 insulation
Bulkheads between cargo spaces and machinery spaces of category A are to be provided with a
fireinsulation to A-60 standard. Otherwise the cargoes are to be stowed at least 3 m away from the machinery
space bulkhead.
Note
The 3 m distance can be provided by a grain bulk-head, big bags filled with inert gas or by other means of
separation.
Decks between cargo and machinery spaces of category A are to be insulated to A-60 standard.
10.2
Gastightness
All boundaries between the cargo hold and the machinery space are to be gastight. Cable penetrations are not
permitted.
Prior to loading, the bulkheads to the engine room shall be inspected and approved by the competent
Authority as gastight.
11.
Other boundaries
All boundaries of the cargo holds shall be resistant to fire and passage of water (at least A-0 standard).
12.
Gas sampling points
Two sampling points per cargo hold shall be arranged in the hatch cover or hatch coaming, provided with
threaded stubs and sealing caps according to Fig. 12.2. The sampling points shall be located as high as possible,
e.g. upper part of hatch.
13.
Weathertightness
Hatch covers, closures for all ventilators and other closures for openings leading to the cargo holds shall be
inspected and tested (hose testing or equivalent) to ensure weathertightness.
14.
Fuel tanks
14.1
Tightness
Prior to loading, fuel tanks adjacent to the cargo holds shall be pressuretested for tightness.
14.2
Sources of heat
14.2.
Stowage adjacent to sources of heat, including fuel tanks which may require heating is not
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permitted.
14.2.2
Stowage adjacent to sources of heat and to fuel tanks heated to more than 55 °C is not permitted.
This requirement is considered to be met if the fuel oil temperature is controlled at less than 55 °C. This
temperature shall not exceed for periods greater than 12 hours in any 24-hour period and the maximum
temperature reached shall not exceed 65 °C.
14.2.3
Stowage adjacent to sources of heat and to fuel tanks heated to more than 50 °C is not permitted.
Fig.12.2 Gas Sampling
Table 12.11 Requirements of the carriage of solid dangerous goods in bulk
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Table 12.11
Requirements of the carriage of solid dangerous good in bulk (continued)
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Section 12 – Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
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Section 12 - Fire Protection and Fire Extinguishing Equipment
Table 12.11
Requirements of the carriage of solid dangerous good in bulk (continued)
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Table 12.11
Requirements of the carriage of solid dangerous good in bulk (continued
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Section 13 – Machinery for Ship with ice Class
A-B-C
1/29
Section 13 1SCection3
Machinery for Ships with Ice Classes
A-B-C
A.
General
1.
Notations affixed to the Character of Classification
The machinery of ships strengthened for navigation in ice is designated after the Character of Classification  SM by
the additional Notation ES, ES1, ES2, ES3 or ES4, provided that the requirements contained in this Section and the
relevant structural requirements set out in Rules for Hull (Part 1,Vol.II), Section 15 together with the supplements
thereto are satisfied. The reinforcements necessary for the Class Notation ES may also be applied to the machinery
alone.
B.
Necessary Propulsion Power
The necessary propulsion power shall be as stated in Rules for Hull (Part 1,Vol.II), Section 15.
The rated output of the main engines in accordance with Section 2, A.3. has to be such that they are able to supply in
continuous service the propulsion power necessary for the ice class concerned.
C.
Propulsion Machinery
1.
Scope
These regulations apply to propulsion machinery covering open and ducted type propellers with controllable pitch or
fixed pitch design for the ice classes ES4, ES3, ES2, ES1. Topics not covered by the following regulations have to be
handled according regulations for ships without ice class.
The given loads are the expected ice loads for the whole ship’s service life under normal operational conditions,
including loads resulting from the changing rotational direction of FP propellers. However, these loads do not cover
off-design operational conditions, for example when a stopped propeller is dragged through ice. The regulations also
apply to azimuthing and fixed thrusters for main propulsion, considering loads resulting from propeller-ice interaction. However, the load models of the regulations do not include propeller/ice interaction loads when ice enters
the propeller of a turned azimuthing thruster from the side (radially) or load case when ice block hits on the propeller
hub of a pulling propeller. Ice loads resulting from ice impacts on the body of thrusters have to be estimated, but ice
load formulae are not available.
Bow propellers, Voith Schneider Propellers, jet propulsors and other special designs require a special consideration.
2.
Symbols
C
c .
CP
D
D
m
m
EAR
F
F
kN
chord length of blade section
chord length of blade section at 0.7R propeller radius
controllable pitch
propeller diameter
external diameter of propeller hub (at propeller plane)
limit value for propeller diameter
expanded blade area ratio
maximum backward blade force for ship’s service life
kN
ultimate blade load resulting in plastic bending deformation of the blade
F
kN
maximum forward blade force for the ship’s service life
kN
ice load
kN
maximum ice load for the ship’s service life
m
m
F
(F
)max
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C
FP
Section 13 - Machinery for Ship with ice Class
fixed pitch
C
h0
H
k
LWL
m
M
MCR
n
n
M
m
depth of the propeller centreline from lower ice waterline LWL
thickness of maximum design ice block entering to propeller
M
shape parameter for Weibull distribution
lower ice waterline
slope for SN curve in log/log scale
kNm
blade bending moment
s-1
maximum continuous rating
propeller rotational speed
s-1
nominal propeller rotational speed at MCR in free running condition
N
reference number of impacts per propeller rotational speed per ice class
N
total number of ice loads on propeller blade for the ship’s service life
N
reference number of load for equivalent fatigue stress (108 cycles)
N
number of propeller revolutions during a milling sequence
P.
M
propeller pitch at 0.7R radius
P.
M
propeller pitch at 0.7R radius at MCR in free running condition
Q
Q
kNm
Torque
kNm
maximum engine torque
Q
kNm
maximum torque on the propeller resulting from propeller-ice interaction
Q
kNm
electric motor peak torque
Q
kNm
nominal torque at MCR in free running condition
Q
kNm
maximum response torque along the propeller shaft line
kNm
maximum spindle torque of the blade for the ship’s service life
R
r
T
T
M
M
kN
propeller radius R = D/2
blade section radius
propeller thrust
kN
maximum backward propeller ice thrust for the ship’s service life
T
kN
maximum forward propeller ice thrust for the ship’s service life
T
kN
propeller thrust at MCR in free running condition
T
kN
maximum response thrust along the shaft line
t
Z
α
M
MPa
maximum blade section thickness
number of propeller blades
duration of propeller blade/ice interaction expressed in rotation angle
the reduction factor for fatigue; scatter and test specimen size effect
the reduction factor for fatigue; variable amplitude loading effect
the reduction factor for fatigue; mean stress effect
a reduction factor for fatigue correlating the maximum stress amplitude to the equivalent
fatigue stress for 108 stress cycles
proof yield strength
σ
MPa
mean fatigue strength of the blade material at 108 cycles to failure in sea water
σ
MPa
equivalent fatigue ice load stress amplitude for 108 stress cycles
σ
MPa
characteristic fatigue strength for blade material
σ
MPa
reference stress
Q
deg
γε
γv
γm
ρ
σ
.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 13 – Machinery for Ship with ice Class
σ
=
0.6 ·
σ
MPa
reference stress
σ
σ
σ0.2
+ 0.4 ·
C
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σ
=
0.7 ·
σu or
=
0.6 ·
σ0.2
+ 0.4 ·
σu
whichever is less
σ
MPa
σ
MPa
maximum stress resulting from Fb or Ff
ultimate tensile strength of blade material
(σice)max
(σice)bmax
(σice)fmax
MPa
MPa
MPa
maximum ice load stress amplitude
principal stress caused by maximum backward propeller ice load
principal stress caused by the maximum forward propeller ice load
Table 13.1 Definition of loads
Symbol
Definition
Use of the load in design process
F
The maximum lifetime backward force on a
propeller blade resulting from propeller/ice
interaction, including hydrodynamic loads on
that blade. The direction of the force is
perpendicular to 0.7R chord line. See Fig. 13.1.
Design force for strength calculation of the propeller
blade.
F
The maximum lifetime forward force on a
propeller blade resulting from propeller/ice
interaction, including hydrodynamic loads on
that blade. The direction of the force is
perpendicular to 0.7R chord line. See Fig. 13.1.
Design force for calculation of strength of the propeller
blade.
The maximum lifetime spindle torque on a
propeller blade resulting from propeller/ice
interaction, including hydrodynamic loads on
that blade.
In designing the propeller strength, the spindle torque is
automatically taken into account because the propeller
load is acting on the blade as distributed pressure on the
leading edge or tip area.
T
The maximum lifetime thrust on propeller (all
blades) resulting from propeller/ice interaction.
The direction of the thrust is the propeller shaft
direction and the force is opposite to the
hydrodynamic thrust.
Is used for estimation of the response thrust Tr. Tb can
be used as an estimate of excitation for axial vibration
calculations. However, axial vibration calculations are
not required in the rules.
T
The maximum lifetime thrust on propeller (all
blades) resulting from propeller/ice interaction.
The direction of the thrust is the propeller shaft
direction acting in the direction of hydrodynamic
thrust.
Is used for estimation of the response thrust Tr. Tf can
be used as an estimate of excitation for axial vibration
calculations. However, axial vibration calculations are
not required in the rules.
The maximum ice-induced torque resulting from
propeller/ice interaction on propeller, including
hydrodynamic loads.
Is used for estimation of the response torque (Qr) along
the propulsion shaft line and as excitation for torsional
vibration calculations.
Q
Q
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4
C
Sectio
on 13 - Machinnery for Ship with ice Classs
Tab
ble 13.2 Defin
nition of load
ds (Continued
d)
Symbol
Definition
Use of
o the load inn design process
F
Ultimate blade load resu
ulting from bblade loss
T force that is needed
through plasstic bending. The
to cause totaal failure of th
he blade so thhat plastic
hinge is cauused to the root
r
area. Thee force is
acting on 0.8R. Spindle arrm is to be takken as 2/3
he axis of bladde rotation
of the distannce between th
and leadingg/trailing edg
ge (whicheveer is the
greater) at thhe 0.8R radiuss.
Blade
B
failure load is usedd to dimensio
on the blade
bolts,
b
pitch control mechhanism, prop
peller shaft,
propeller
p
shaft bearing aand trust beearing. The
objective
o
is to
o guarantee tthat total pro
opeller blade
failure
f
should not
n cause dam
mage to other components
c
Design
D
torque for propellerr shaft line com
mponents
Q
Maximum response
r
torque along the propeller
shaft line, taking into account the dynamic
behavior off the shaft liine for ice eexcitation
(torsional vibration)
v
and
d hydrodynam
mic mean
torque on prropeller
Design
D
torque for propellerr shaft line com
mponents
T
Maximum response
r
torque along the propeller
shaft line, taking into account the dynamic
behavior off the shaft liine for ice eexcitation
(axial vibrration) and hydrodynam
mic mean
torque on prropeller
Fig.
F 13.1 Direction of thee backward blade
b
force rresultant Fb taken perpendicular to cchord line att radius
wn with smalll arrows
0,,7R. Ice conttact pressuree at leading eedge is show
BK
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Section 13 – Machinery for Ship with ice Class
3.
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Design ice conditions
In estimating the ice loads of the propeller for ice classes, different types of operation as given in Table 13.3
were taken into account. For the estimation of design ice loads, a maximum ice block size is deter-mined. The
maximum design ice block entering the propeller is a rectangular ice block with the dimensions H ice 2H ice 3H
ice .The thickness of the ice block (Hice) is given in Table 13.4.
Table 13.3
Ice class
Operation of the ship
ES4
Operation in ice channels and in level ice
The ship may proceed by ramming
ES3, ES2, ES1
Operation in ice channels
Table 13.4
Thickness of the
design maximum ice
block entering the
propeller (Hice)
ES4
ES3
ES2
ES1
1,75 m
1,5 m
1,2 m
1,0 m
4.
Materials
4.1
Materials exposed to sea water
Materials of components exposed to sea water, such as propeller blades, propeller hubs, and thruster body, shall have an
elongation of not less than 15 % and shall comply with the respective requirements in, Rules for Materials (Part
1,Vol.V). A Charpy V impact test shall be carried out for materials other than bronze and austenitic steel. An average
impact energy value of 20 J taken from three tests is to be obtained. All tests have to be performed at minus 10 ºC.
4.2
Materials exposed to sea water temperature
Materials exposed to sea water temperature shall be of ductile material and comply with Rules for Materials (Part
1,Vol.V). An average Charpy V impact energy value of 20 J taken from three tests is to be obtained, if no higher
values are required in the Part 1. Seagoing Ships, Rules for Materials. All tests have to be performed at minus 10 ºC.
This requirement applies to components such as blade bolts, CP mechanisms, shaft bolts, strut-pod connecting bolts,
etc. This does not apply to surface hardened components, such as bearings and gear teeth.
5.
Design loads
The given loads are intended for component strength calculations only and are total loads including ice induced loads
and hydrodynamic loads during propeller/ice interaction.
The values of the parameters in the formulae in this section shall be given in the units shown in the symbol list (2.).
If the propeller is not fully submerged when the ship is in ballast condition, the propulsion system shall be designed
according to ice class ES3 for ice classes ES2 and ES1.
In no case it can be accepted that scantling dimensions determined according to the following paragraphs are less
than those determined by applying the Rules without ice strengthening.
5.1
Design loads on propeller blades
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Section 13 - Machinery for Ship with ice Class
Fb is the maximum force experienced during the lifetime of the ship that bends a propeller blade backwards when
the propeller mills an ice block while rotating ahead. Ff is the maximum force experienced during the lifetime of the
ship that bends a propeller blade forwards when the propeller mills an ice block while rotating ahead. Fb and Ff
originate from different propeller/ice interaction phenomena, not acting simultaneously. Hence they are to be applied
to one blade separately.
Maximum backward blade force Fb for propellers
5.1.1
F = K · [n · D]
F = K · [n · D]
,
.
·
.
· D [kN], whenD ≤ D
.
,
·
.
[m] for open propeller
·D ∙H
[kN], whenD
≤D
(1)
(2)
Where:
D
= 0.85 ∙ H
D
= 4 ∙ H
[m] for open propeller
Table 13.5
Open propeller
Ducted propeller
D≤D
27
9.5
D≤D
23
66
n is the nominal rotational speed [1/s] (at MCR in free running condition) for a CP propeller and 85 % of the
nominal rotational speed (at MCR in free running condition) for an FP propeller.
Maximum forward blade force Ff for propellers
5.1.2
F =K ·
· D [kN], whenD ≤ D
F =K ·
· D.
. H
[kN], whenD
(3)
≤D
(4)
Where:
D
=
∙H
[m]
for open and ducted propeller
Table 13.6
5.1.3
Open propeller
Ducted propeller
D≤D
27
9.5
D≤D
23
66
Loaded area on the blade for open propellers
Load cases 1-4 have to be covered, as given in Table 13.7 below, for CP and FP propellers. In order to obtain blade
ice loads for a reversing propeller, load case 5 also has to be covered for FP propellers.
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Secction 13 – Maachinery for Ship with ice Class
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5.1.4
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Loaded area on the blade for ducted prropellers
Load casees 1 and 3 hav
ve to be coverred as given iin Table 13.8 for all propelllers, and an aadditional load
d case (load
case 5) forr an FP propeeller, to coverr ice loads whhen the propelller is reversed..
5.1.5
Maximum bllade spindle to
orque Qsmax foor open and ducted
d
propelllers
hall be determined both ffor the maxim
mum backwaard
The spindlle torque Qsmaax around the axis of the bllade fitting sh
blade forcee Fb and forw
ward blade forcce Ff , which aare applied as in Table 13.7 and Table 133.8. If the abov
ve method givves
a value whhich is less thann the default value
v
given byy the formula below,
b
the deffault value shaall be used.
Default vallue Q smax = 0.255 ⋅ F ⋅ c0.7
[k
kNm]
(55)
Table 13.7 L
Load case forr open propelllers
Force
Loadeed area
Load case 1
Fb
Unifoorm pressure applied
a
on thee back
of thee blade (suction side) to an
n area
from 0,6R to tip an
nd from the leeading
he chord lengtth
edge to 0.2 times th
Load case 2
50 % of Fb
Unifoorm pressure applied
a
on thee back
of thhe blade (sucction side) on the
propeeller tip area outside 0.9R raadius
Load case 3
Ff
Unifoorm pressure applied
a
on the blade
face ((pressure side)) on area from
m 0.6R
to thee tip and from the leading ed
dge to
0.2 tim
mes the chord
d length
Load case 4
50% of Ff
Unifoorm pressure applied
a
on pro
opeller
face (pressure sidee) on the pro
opeller
9R radius
tip areea outside 0.9
Load case 5
60% of Ff or Fb
whichhever is greatter
Unifoorm pressure applied
a
on pro
opeller
face (pressure sidee) to an area from
m the
from 0.6R to the tip and from
trailinng edge to 0.2 times the chord
lengthh
BKI Rules Foor Machinery Installation - 2014
Righht-handed prropeller bladee
seen from behind
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8
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C
Ta
able 13.8 Load
d case for duccted propellers
F
Force
Loaded arrea
Fb
Uniform ppressure appliied on the back
k
of the blaade (suction siide) to an areaa
from 0,6R
R to tip and fro
om the leading
g
edge to 0.2 times the chord length
Load case 3
Ff
Uniform ppressure applied on the blad
de
face (presssure side) on area from 0.6R
R
to the tip aand from the leading
l
edge to
t
0.5 times the chord length
Load case 5
60% of Ff or Fb
whichevver is greater
Uniform ppressure applied on the blad
de
face (presssure side) on area from 0.6R
R
to the tip aand from the leading
l
edge to
t
0.2 times the chord length
Load case 1
Right-hhanded propeeller blade
seeen from beh
hind
c
Where
W
t blade secttion at 0.7R ra
radius and F is
i either Fb or Ff , whicheever has the greater
g
0.7 is tthe length of the
absolute
a
value.
5.1.6
5
Loaad distributioons for fatiguee analysis
The
T Weibull-ttype distributiion (probabillity that Fice exxceeds a portiion of (Fice)max), as given in FFigure 13.2 iss used for the
fatigue
f
design of the blade.
P
(
)
≥(
)
=e
. (
)
(6)
where
w
k is the shape parameeter of the spectrum, Nice is the number of
o load cycles in the spectruum, and Fice iss the random
variable
v
for icce loads on thhe blade, 0 ≤ Fice ≤ (Fice)max
e parameter k = 0.75 shall bbe used for th
he ice force
ax. The shape
distribution
d
off an open prop
peller and the shape parameeter k = 1.0 fo
or that of a du
ucted propelleer blade.
Fig.
F 13.2 The Weibull-typee distribution
n (probabilityy that Fice exceeds a portion of (Fice)max) for fatigue deesign.
BK
KI Rules For M
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Section 13 – Machinery for Ship with ice Class
5.1.7
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Number of ice loads for fatigue analysis
The number of load cycles per propeller blade in the load spectrum shall be determined according to the formula:
N
= k ∙k ∙k ∙k ∙N
∙ n
(7)
Where:
Table 13.9 Reference number of loads for ice classes
Class
N
ES 4
ES 3
ES 2
ES 1
9 · 10
6 · 10
3.4 · 10
2.1 · 10
Table 13.10 Propeller location factor
Position
Centre propeller
Wing propeller
k
1
1.35
Table 13.11 Propeller location factor
type
open
ducted
k
1
1.1
Table 13.12 Propeller location factor
type
Fixed
azimuthing
k
1
1.2
The submersion factor k is determined from the equation
k
=
0.8 – f
When
f<0
=
0.8 – 0.4 · f
When
0≤f≤1
=
0.6 – 0.2 · f
When
1 < f ≤ 2.5
=
0.1
When
F > 2.5
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Section 13 - Machinery for Ship with ice Class
Where the immersion function f is:
f =
/
− 1,
(9)
Where h is the depth of the propeller centreline at the lower ice waterline (LIWL) of the ship
For components that are subject to loads resulting from propeller/ice interaction with all the propeller blades, the number
of load cycles (Nice) is to be multi plied by the number of propeller blades (Z).
5.2
Axial design loads for open and ducted propellers
5.2.1
Maximum ice thrust on propeller Tf and Tb for open and ducted propellers
The maximum forward and backward ice thrusts are:
T f = 1.1 ⋅ F f
[kN]
T b = 1.1 ⋅ F b
[kN]
5.2.2
(10)
(11)
Design thrust along the propulsion shaft line Tr for open and ducted propellers
The design thrust along the propeller shaft line is to be calculated with the formulae below. The greater value of the
forward and backward direction loads shall be taken as the design load for both directions. The factors 2.2 and 1.5 take
into account the dynamic magnification resulting from axial vibration.
In a forward direction
T = T + 2.2 ∙ T [kN]
(12)
In a backward direction
[kN]
T = 1.5 ∙ T
(13)
If the hydrodynamic bollard thrust, T, is not known, T is to be taken as follows:
Table 13.13
Propeller type
T
CP propellers (open)
1.25 · Tn
CP propellers (ducted)
1.1 · Tn
FP propellers driven by turbine or electric motor
Tn
FP propellers driven by diesel engine (open)
0.85 · Tn
FP propellers driven by diesel (ducted)
0.75 · Tn
Here, Tn is the nominal propeller thrust at MCR in free running open water condition.
5.3
Torsional design loads
5.3.1
Design torque along propeller shaft line Qr
If there is not any relevant first blade order torsional resonance within the designed operating rotational speed range
extended 20 % above the maximum and 20 % below the minimum operating speeds, the following estimation of
the maximum torque can be used.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 13 – Machinery for Ship with ice Class
Q =Q
C
· [kNm],
+Q
11/29
(14)
where I is equivalent mass moment of inertia of all parts on engine side of component under consideration and It is
equivalent mass moment of inertia of the whole propulsion system.
All the torques and the inertia moments shall be reduced to the rotation speed of the component being examined.
If the maximum torque, Qemax , is not known, it shall be taken as follows:
Table 13.14
Propeller type
Propellers driven by electric motor
Qmotor
CP propellers not driven by electric motor
Qn
FP propellers driven by turbine
Qn
FP propellers driven by diesel engine
0.75 · Qn
Here, Q motor is the electric motor peak torque.
If there is a first blade order torsional resonance within the designed operating rotational speed range extended 20 %
above the maximum and 20 % below the minimum operating speeds, the design torque (Qr) of the shaft component
shall be determined by means of torsional vibration analysis of the propulsion line.
5.3.2
Design ice torque on propeller Qmax for open and ducted propellers
Qmax is the maximum torque on a propeller resulting from ice/propeller interaction.
Q
=K · 1 −
·
.
Q
=K · 1 −
·
.
D
= 1.8 · H
.
.
· (n · D)
.
· D [kN], whenD ≤ D
· (n · D)
.
·D
.
·H
.
(15)
[kN], whenD ≤ D
(16)
[m] for open and ducted propellers
Table 13.15
Open propeller
Ducted propeller
D ≤ D
10.9
7.7
D ≤ D
20.7
14.6
n is the rotational propeller speed in bollard condition. If not known, n is to be taken as follows:
Table 13.16
Propeller type
Rotational speed n
CP propellers
n
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Section 13 - Machinery for Ship with ice Class
n
FP propellers driven by turbine or electric motor
0.85 · n FP propellers driven by diesel engine
Here, nn is the nominal rotational speed at MCR in free running condition [1/s].
For CP propellers, the propeller pitch, P0.7 shall correspond to MCR in bollard condition. If not known, P0.7 is to be taken
as 0.7 ⋅ P0.7n, where P0.7n is the propeller pitch at MCR in free running condition.
5.3.3
Alternative determination of Qmax
As an alternative, so far detailed data are not available e.g. in an early design stage, the maximum ice torque can be
determined using the following formulae:
Q
=m
· D [kNm]
(17)
Where D is the propeller diameter in [m] and magnification factor mice has to be chosen according to the following
table for open propellers:
Table 13.17
Ice Class
Magnification factor
for FPP
Magnification factor
ES1
24
19
ES2
30
26
ES3
32
30
ES4
42
36
for CPP
The magnification factor for ducted propellers may be reduced by 30 %.
5.3.4
Ice torque excitation Q(φ) for open and ducted propeller
The propeller ice torque excitation for shaft line transient torsional vibration analysis shall be described by a sequence of
blade impacts which are of a half sine shape; see Fig. 13.3.
The torque resulting from a single blade ice impact as a function of the propeller rotation angle is then
Q(φ) = C ∙ Q
∙ sin φ
, whenφ = 0 … α (18)
Q(φ) = 0, whenφ = α … .360
Where the Cq and αi parameters are given in the table below.
propeller rotation angle.
is duration of propeller blade/ice interaction expressed in
Table 13.18
Torque excitation
Propeller/ ice interaction
Case 1
Single ice block
0.75
90
Case 2
Single ice block
1.0
135
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Secction 13 – Maachinery for Ship with ice Class
C
Case 3
Two ice blocks (phhase shift
360/2/Z degg)
C
0.5
13/299
45
mming the torqque of single blades, taking into accounnt the phase shift
s
360 deg//Z.
The total icce torque is obbtained by sum
In addition
n, at the begin
nning and at the
t end of thee milling sequ
uence a linear ramp functionn for 270 deg
grees of rotation
angle shall be used.
d
a millinng sequence shall
s
be obtained with the for
ormula:
The numbeer of propellerr revolutions during
N = 2 ∙ H
(19)
The number of impacts is Z · NQ for first blade ordder excitation
5.3.4
Peak Torquee Qpeak
b taken as thee maximum off Q(φ) (accord
ding 5.3.4) an
nd Qr (accordinng 5.3.1).
The peak ttorque has to be
Fig. 13.3 T
The shape off the propelleer ice torque excitation fo
or 90, and 13
35 degree singgle blade imp
pact sequencces
and 45 deggree double blade
b
impact sequence. (F
Figures apply for propellerrs with 4 bladdes.)
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5.4
C
Section 13 - Machinery for Ship with ice Class
Blade failure load
The ultimate load resulting from blade failure as a result of plastic bending around the blade root shall be calculated
with the formula below. The ultimate load is acting on the blade at the 0.8R radius in the weakest direction of the blade.
For calculation of the extreme spindle torque, the spindle arm is to be taken as 2/3 of the distance between the axis of
blade rotation and the leading/trailing edge (whichever is the greater) at the 0.8R radius.
F
=
∙ ∙ ∙
. ∙
(20)
∙
Where
c, t, and r are, respectively, the length, thickness, and radius of the cylindrical root section of the blade at the weakest
section outside the root filet.
6
Design
6.1
Design principle
The strength of the propulsion line shall be designed according to the pyramid strength principle. This means that the
loss of the propeller blade shall not cause any significant damage to other propeller shaft line components.
6.2
Propeller blade
6.2.1
Calculation of blade stresses
The blade stresses shall be calculated for the design loads given in 5.1. Finite element analysis shall be used for stress
analysis for final approval for all propellers. The following simplified formulae can be used in estimating the blade
stresses for all propellers at the root area (r/R < 0.5).
σ =C ∙
[MPa],
Where
constant C1 is the
(21)
If the actual value is not available, C1 should be taken as 1.6.
M = (0.75 − r / R) · R · F, for relative radius r/R < 0.5
F is the maximum of F and F .
6.2.2
Acceptability criterion
The following criterion for calculated blade stresses has to be fulfilled.
≥ 1.5
(22)
Where
σst is the calculated stress for the design loads. If FEM analysis is used in estimating the stresses, von Mises Stresses
shall be used
6.2.3
Blade tip and edge thickness
. ,
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Section 13 – Machinery for Ship with ice Class
C
15/29
The blade edges and tip have to be designed such that during normal operation, ice contact and ice millin no essential
damage can be expected.
The blade tip thickness has to be greater than
t
= (t
. .
. given by the following formula:
+ 2 ∙ D)
(23)
The tip thickness t . has to be measured at a distance X perpendicular to the contour edge, above 0.975 R. It needs
to be demonstrated that the thickness is smoothly interpolated between lower bound leading edge thickness at 0.975 R,
tip and lower bound trailing edge at 0.975 R. The basic tip thickness t . has to be chosen according to Table 13.19
Table 13.19 Basic tip thickness for propeller blades.
ICE CLASS
t
. [mm]
ES1
ES2
ES3
ES4
8
8.75
9.75
11
X
= MIN (0.025 c0.975; 45) [mm]
X
= distance from the blade edge [mm]
C
.
(24)
= chord length at 0.975 · R [mm]
The blade edge thickness t measured at a distance of xth along the cylindrical section at any radius up to 0.975 R has to
be not less than 50 % of the required tip thickness. This requirement is not applicable to the trailing edge of non
reversible propellers.
6.2.4
Fatigue design of propeller blade
The fatigue design of the propeller blade is based on an estimated load distribution for the service life of the ship and
the S-N curve for the blade material. An equivalent stress that produces the same fatigue damage as the expected load
distribution shall be calculated and the acceptability criterion for fatigue should be fulfilled as given in this Section. The
equivalent stress is normalised for 100 million cycles. If the following criterion is fulfilled fatigue calculations
according to this chapter are not required.
σ
≥ B ∙σ
∙ log (N
)
(25)
where B1, B2 and B3 coefficients for open and ducted propellers are given in the table below.
Table 13.20
σ
OPEN PROPELLER
DUCTED PROPELLER
B
0.00270
0.00184
B
1.007
1.007
B
2.101
2.470
according to Table 13.23, if not known.
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Sectio
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For
F calculationn of equivalennt stress two ty
ypes of S-N cuurves are avaiilable.
1.
1
Two sloope S-N curvee (slopes 4.5 and
a 10), see F
Fig.13.4.
2.
2
One sloope S-N curvee (the slope caan be chosen),, see Fig. 13.5.
Stress amplitude
The
T type of the S-N curve shall
s
be selecteed to correspoond to the matterial propertiees of the bladee. If S-N curve is not
known
k
the twoo slope S-N cuurve shall be used.
u
Stress amplitude
Fiig. 13.4. Con
nstant-slope
e S-N curve
Fig. 13.5. Coonstant-slope S-N curve
Equivalent
E
faatigue stress
The
T equivalennt fatigue streess for 100 million
m
stresss cycles whicch produces the
t same fatiigue damage as the load
distribution
d
is::
σ
= ρ ∙ (σ
σ
)
[M
MPa]
= 0.5 ∙ ((σ
)
(26)
Where
W
(σ
(
)
− (σ
)
) [[MPa]
BK
KI Rules For M
Machinery Insttallation - 2014
(27
7)
Section 13 – Machinery for Ship with ice Class
C
17/29
(σ ) max is the mean value of the principal stress amplitudes resulting from design forward and backward blade
forces (F and F ) at the location being studied.
(σ
)f
is the principal stress resulting from forward load (F )
(σ
)b
is the principal stress resulting from backward load (F )
In calculation of (σ
(σ
)
)
, case 1 and case 3 (or case 2 and case 4) are considered as a pair for (σ
)
, and
, calculations. Case 5 is excluded from the fatigue analysis.
Calculation of ρ parameter for two-slope S-N curve
The parameter ρ relates the maximum ice load to the distribution of ice loads according to the regression formulae.
ρ = C ∙ (σ
)
∙σ
∙ log(N
)
(28)
where
σ =γ ∙ γ ∙ γ ∙ σ
[MPa]
(29)
Where γε is the reduction factor for scatter and test specimen size effect γν is the reduction factor for variable amplitude
loading γm is the reduction factor for mean stress σ
is the mean fatigue strength of the blade material at 108 cycles
to failure in seawater (see Table 13.23).
The following values should be used for the reduction factors if actual values are not available:
γε = 0.67,
γ = 0.75, and γm = 0.75.
The coefficients C , C , C , and C are given in Table 13.19.
Table 13.21
OPEN PROPELLER
DUCTED PROPELLER
C
0.000711
0.000509
C
0.0645
0.0533
C
-0.0565
-0.0459
C
2.22
2.584
Calculation of ρ parameter for constant-slope S-N curve
For materials with a constant-slope S-N curve – see Fig. 13.5 - the ρ factor shall be calculated with the following
formula:
ρ = G
(ln(N
))
(30)
Where
k is the shape parameter of the Weibull distribution k = 1.0 for ducted propellers and k = 0.75 for open propellers. N is
the reference number of load cycles (=100 million)
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Section 13 - Machinery for Ship with ice Class
Values for the G parameter are given in Table 13.22. Linear interpolation may be used to calculate the G value for other
m/k ratios than given in the Table 13.22.
Table 13.22 Value for the G parameter for different m/k ratios
6.2.5
m/k
G
m/k
G
m/k
G
3
6
5.5
287.9
8
40320
3.5
11.6
6
720
8.5
119292
4
24
6.5
1871
9
362880
4.5
52.3
6
5040
9.5
1.133E6
5
120
7.5
14034
10
3.623E6
Acceptability criterion for fatigue
The equivalent fatigue stress at all locations on the blade has to fulfil the following acceptability criterion:
≥ 1.5
(31)
Where
σ =γ ∙ γ ∙ γ ∙ σ
[MPa]
(32)
Symbols according 6.2.4
Table 13.23 Stress
for different
Bronze and brass (a = 0,10)
for different materials
materials types
Stainless steel (a = 0,05)
Mn-Bronze, CU1 (high tensile brass)
72 MPa
Martensitic (12Cr 1Ni)
95 MPa
Mn-Ni-Bronze, CU2 (high tensile
brass)
72 MPa
Martensitic (13Cr 1Ni/13Cr 6Ni)
120 MPa
Ni-Al-Bronze, CU3
110 MPa
Martensitic (16Cr 5Ni)
131 MPa
Mn-Al-Bronze, CU4
80 MPa
Austenitic (19Cr 10Ni)
105 MPa
6.3
Propeller bossing and CP mechanism
The blade bolts, the CP mechanism, the propeller boss, and the fitting of the propeller to the propeller shaft shall be
designed to withstand the maximum and fatigue design loads, as defined in 5. The safety factor against yielding S
shall be greater than 1.3 and that against fatigue S greater than 1.5. In addition, the safety factor for loads resulting
from loss of the propeller blade (F ) through plastic bending as defined in 5.4 S
shall be greater than 1.0 against
yielding.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 13 – Machinery for Ship with ice Class
6.3.1
C
19/29
Propeller blade mounting
The propeller blade has normally to be mounted using shear pin(s) and blade retaining bolts.
The thread core diameter of blade retaining bolts shall not be less than
d
= 41 ∙ ∙
)∙
∙( ,
∙
∙
[mm]
(33)
where
F
= acc. 5.4 [kN]
PCD
= pitch circle diameter of bolt holes [m]
Z
= number of bolts [−]
α
= bolt tightening factor (c.f. Section 6) [−]
α
= yield strength of bolt material [MPa]
6.3.2
CP mechanism
A maximum spindle torque resulting from the blade bending force (F ) applied as defined in 5.4 must not result in
yielding of transmitting components. A reduction of the spindle torque by friction between blade, blade carrier and hub
may be taken into account applying a friction coefficient of μ = 0.1.
6.3.2.1
Blade shear pins
The required minimum diameter of shear pins between blade and blade carrier can be determined according to the
following formula:
d
= 51 ∙ ∙
(34)
∙
Where
Q
= Max (Q
·S ; Q
Q
= Fex · lm [kNm]
·S
) maximum spindle torque enlarged by safety factor
lm
= maximum of 2/3 distance between blade spindle axis and leading and trailing edge respectively [m]
Z
= number of shear pins [−]
PCD
= pitch circle diameter of shear pin holes [m]
α
= yield strength of pin material [MPa]
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Section 13 - Machinery for Ship with ice Class
A reduction of the spindle torque Q due to friction between blade flange and blade carrier caused by blade bolt
clamping force may be taken into account.
6.3.2.2
Actuating pin
The minimum diameter and maximum height of the actuating pin respectively, has to be such that the following
condition is complied with:
σ = 1800 ∙ 1.5 [Mpa]
(35)
Where
d
= diameter of actuating pin [mm]
H
= height of actuating pin [mm]
F
= maximum force at 1/3 the pin height amplified by the respective safety factor
= Max (Q
l
·S ;Q
·S
)/l [kN]
(36)
= distance of actuating pin and spindle axis [m]
Stress raisers have to be considered in the fatigue calculation. A Weibull load distribution has to be applied for the
fatigue analysis based on the spindle torque amplitude resulting from applying formula (5) for F and F . The number
of load cycles shall be taken as given in 5.1.7. For steel castings and forgings normally the highest amplitude with
lowest cycle number will be dimensioning.
6.4
Propulsion shaft line
The shafts and shafting components, such as the thrust and stern tube bearings, couplings, flanges and sealings, shall be
designed to withstand the propeller/ice interaction loads as given in 5. The safety factor is to be at least S = 1.3.
6.4.1
Shafts and shafting components
The ultimate load resulting from total blade failure as defined in 5.4 should not cause yielding in shafts and shaft
components. The loading shall consist of the combined axial, bending, and torsion loads, wherever this is significant.
= 1.0 for bending and torsional stresses. If detailed torsional
The minimum safety factor against yielding is to be S
loads according to 5.3.2 cannot be determined, the alternative torque calculation according 5.3.3 may be applied.
6.5
Detailed requirements in addition to FSICR
6.5.1
Propeller mounting
Where the propeller is mounted on the propeller shaft by the oil injection method, the necessary contact pressure P
[N/mm2] in the area of the mean taper diameter dΘmean is to be determined by formula (37).
Where
P =
. .
∙
∙
[N/mm ]
Where
K = tangential force in the contact area
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
(37)
Section 13 – Machinery for Ship with ice Class
K =
A, Θ
C
[kN]
21/29
(38)
= see Section 6
= mean cone diameter [m]
d
Tr has to be introduced as negative value according to formula (13).
−θ
f =
[-]
(39)
The safety factor has to be at minimum S = 2.0, however S Q
≥ 2.8 · Q max has to be ensured.
Other symbols in accordance with Section 6. Keyed connections may be applied, provided that the peak torque Qpeak is
transmitted via friction. Keyed connections are not permitted for ice class ES4.
6.5.2
Propulsion shafts
The plain shaft diameter at the aft end should comply at minimum with the calculated diameter according to
d
= 140 ∙ F
∙S
∙
+ 5.6 ∙ ∙
∙
[mm]
(40)
Where
d
= inner shaft diameter [mm]
In front of the aft stern tube bearing the diameter may be reduced based on the assumption that the bending moment is
linearly reduced to 20 % at the next bearing and in front of this linearly to zero at third bearing.
6.5.3
Shaft connections
The following safety factors against slipping have to be demonstrated:
S
= 1.5 for the range between main engine and (including) gear box,
S
= 1.3 for the remaining range and plants without gear box
6.5.3.1
Shrink fit
)
A shrink fit calculation may be performed according to formula (37). The respective axial (T ) and torsional (Q
loads, acting at the location of the fit, have to be applied. If no dynamic simulation has been performed, the estimation
for the torque according to paragraph 5.3.1 may be applied.
6.5.3.2
Keyed connections
Keyed connections may be applied, provided that the maximum local response torque Q
and in case of ice class ES4, an emergency repair can be performed without dry-docking.
6.5.3.3
is transmitted via friction
Flange connections
Section 4, D.4. has to be applied accordingly.
a)
Any additional stress raisers such as recesses for bolt heads shall not interfere with the flange fillet.
b)
The flange fillet radius is to be at least 10 % of the shaft diameter.
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Section 13 - Machinery for Ship with ice Class
c)
The diameter of ream fitted (light press fit) bolts shall be chosen so that the peak torque Q
(see 5.3.5) does not
cause shear stresses beyond the yield strength of the bolt material with a safety factor of S = 1.3.
d)
The bolts are to be designed so that blade failure load Fex (see 5.4) in any direction (forward or backwards) does
not cause yielding of bolts or flange opening. Flanged propellers and the hubs of controllable pitch propellers are
to be attached by means of fitted pins and retaining bolts (preferably necked down bolts). The required diameter
d of the fitted pin is to be determined by applying formula (41).
d
= 67
∙
∙
[mm]
∙
(41)
Where
d
= root diameter of shear pin [mm]
PCD
= pitch circle diameter of bolts [m]
z
= number of shear pins [–]
σ
= yield strength of shear pin material [MPa]
The thread core diameter dk of propeller flange bolts shall not be less than
d = 41
∙
.
∙
∙
[mm]
(42)
Where
PCD
= pitch circle diameter of bolts [m]
z
= number of bolts [-]
α
= application factor see Section 6 [-]
σ
= yield strength of bolt material [MPa]
6.6
Azimuth main propulsors
In addition to the above requirements, special consideration shall be given to those loading cases which are
extraordinary for propulsion units when compared with conventional propellers. The estimation of loading cases has
to reflect the way of operation of the ship and the thrusters. In this respect, for example, the loads caused by the
impacts of ice blocks on the propeller hub of a pulling propeller have to be considered. Furthermore, loads resulting from
the thrusters operating at an oblique angle to the flow have to be considered. The steering mechanism, the fitting of the
unit to the ship hull, and the body of the thruster shall be designed to withstand the loss of a blade without damage.
The loss of a blade shall be considered for the propeller blade orientation which causes the maximum load on the
component being studied. Typically, top-down blade orientation places the maximum bending loads on the thruster
body.
Azimuth thrusters shall also be designed for estimated loads caused by thruster body/ice interaction. The thruster has
to withstand the loads obtained when the maximum ice blocks, which are given in 3, strike the thruster body when the
ship is at a typical ice operating speed. In addition, the design situation in which an ice sheet glides along the ship’s
hull and presses against the thruster body should be considered. The thickness of the sheet should be taken as the
thickness of the maximum ice block entering the propeller, as defined in 3.
6.7
Vibrations
The propulsion system shall be designed in such a way that the complete dynamic system is free from harmful torsional,
axial, and bending resonances at a 1st-order blade frequency within the designed running speed range, extended by
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 13 – Machinery for Ship with ice Class
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23/29
20 per cent above and below the maximum and minimum operating rotational speeds. If this condition cannot be
fulfilled, a detailed vibration analysis has to be carried out in order to determine that the acceptable strength of the
components can be achieved.
7.
Alternative design procedure
7.1
Scope
As an alternative to 5 and 6, a comprehensive design study may be carried out to the satisfaction of BKI. The study
has to be based on ice conditions given for different ice classes in 3. It has to include both fatigue and maximum load
design calculations and fulfill the pyramid strength principle, as given in 6.1.
7.2
Loading
Loads on the propeller blade and propulsion system shall be based on an acceptable estimation of hydrodynamic and
ice loads.
7.3
Design levels
The analysis is to indicate that all components transmitting random (occasional) forces, excluding propeller blade, are
not subjected to stress levels in excess of the yield stress of the component material, with a reasonable safety margin.
Cumulative fatigue damage calculations are to indicate a reasonable safety factor. Due account is to be taken of
material properties, stress raisers, and fatigue enhancements.
Vibration analysis is to be carried out and is to indicate that the complete dynamic system is free from harmful
torsional resonances resulting from propeller/ice interaction.
7.4
Blade wear
If the actual thickness in service is below 50 % at the blade tip or 90 % at other radii of the values obtained from 6.2,
respective counter measures have to be taken. Ice strengthening according to 6.2 will not be influenced by an
additional allowance for abrasion.
Note: If the propeller is subjected to substantial wear, e.g. abrasion in tidal flats or in case of dredgers, a wear
allowance should be added to the blade thickness determined in order to achieve an adequate service time with
respect to 7.4.
8.
Gears
8.1
General
Gears in the main propulsion plant of ships with ice classes ES1, ES2, ES3 and ES4 are to be of strengthened
design. Besides the strengthening prescribed here for the design of toothing, gear shafts and of shrink fits, the other
compon
ents of such gears, e.g. clutch couplings, bearings, casings and bolted joints, shall also be designed to withstand the
increased loads encountered when navigating in ice.
8.2
Strengthening Calculation of gear response torque Qrg
Q = Q
+ 0.75 ∙ Q
∙
∙
∙
≥ K ∙ Q [kNm]
Q
= response torque at gear referring to propeller rpm [kNm]
Qn
= nominal torque of propulsion engine at MCR condition referring to propeller rpm [kNm]
Qmax
= maximum ice torque [kNm], see 5.3.2, 5.3.3
IH
= mass moment of inertia of all components rotating at input rpm [kgm2]
IL
= mass moment of inertia of all components rotating at output rpm (including propeller with entrained water)
[kgm2]
KA
(43)
= application factor [-] in accordance with Section 5, Table 5.3
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C
U
Section 13 - Machinery for Ship with ice Class
= gear ratio (input rpm / output rpm) [-]
Ice Class strengthening factor for tooth system
The torque spectrum for the output gear wheel is defined as follows:
with N
1) Q
cycles
2) K ∙ Q with N − N
cycles (if N >
)
Where:
N
= number of ice loads [ ̶ ], see 5.1.7
N
= number of cycles for unlimited operation [ ̶ ] (according ISO 6335 – Pt. 6)
For dimensioning of the tooth system, the following ice class strengthening factor has to be used.
,
K =
K
Q
(44)
= ice class strengthening factor for the tooth system [-]
= equivalent gear torque [kNm] (to be calculated from the gear torque spectrum acc. ISO 6336 -Pt. 6)
,
For pinions and wheels with higher speed, the numbers of load cycles (and the torques) are found by multiplication
(and division resp.) with the gear ratios.
Ice Class strengthening factor for shafts, clutches and couplings
For dimensioning of shafts, clutches and couplings within the gear and between gear and engine the following ice
class strengthening factor has to be used.
K =
≥K 8.2.1
Tooth systems
The calculated safety factors for tooth root and flank stress are to satisfy the requirements stated in Section 5, Table
5.1 when the application factor K is substituted by the calculated ice class strengthening factor K in equation (5.1)
and (5.3).
8.2.2
Gear shafts
d =q ·d
(46)
d
= increased gear shaft diameter [mm]
d
= gear shaft diameter in accordance with Section 5, D.1. [mm]
q = 0.84 K ≥ 1,0
K
8.2.3
(47)
= ice class strengthening factor [-] in accordance with formula (44)
Shrink fits
Shrink fits within the gear are to be designed according 6.5. The necessary pressure p
in accordance with formula (37). Axial forces acting have to be considered.
8.2.4
Clutches
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
[N/mm2] is to be calculated
Section 13 – Machinery for Ship with ice Class
C-D
25/29
For plants with a resulting ice class strengthening factor K ≥ 1.4 the required static and dynamic friction torques
according to Section 5, G.4.3.1 are to be increased by K /1.4.
9.
Flexible couplings
Flexible couplings in the main propulsion installation shall be so designed that, given the load on the coupling due
, they are able to withstand safely brief torque shocks T [Nm] of magnitude:
to torsional vibrations at T
T = K ∙ T
(48)
Where
T ≤T
K
= ice class strengthening factor [-] in accordance with formula (44)
T
= driving torque [Nm]
T
= permissible torque of coupling for normal transient conditions [Nm]
10.
Sea chests, discharge valves and cooling water system
For sea chests and discharge valves Section 11, I.2. have to be observed. The cooling water system is to be designed
such, that sufficient cooling water is provided, while the ship is navigating in ice
11.
Steering gear
The dimensional design of steering gear components is to take account of the rudderstock diameter specified in the
Rules for Hull Structures (Part 1,Vol.II), Sections 14 and 15.
12.
Electric propeller drive
For ships with electrical propeller drive, see Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 13.
13.
Lateral thrusters
Ice strengthening of the machinery part of lateral thrusters is not required as long as the thruster is protected
against ice contact by suitable means, such as grids at the tunnel inlets.
If such protection does not exist, ice strengthening of the dimensions according to the a.m. Rules for main
propulsion plants with ducted propellers may be considered.
Ice strengthening of the grid is to be considered ac-cording to hull requirements.
C-D
D.
Necessary Reinforcements for Ice Class ES
1.
Propeller shafts, intermediate shafts, thrust shafts
1.1
General
The necessary propeller shaft reinforcements in accordance with formula (1), in conjunction with the formulae and
factors specified in Section 4.C.2, apply to the area of the aft stern tube bearing or shaft bracket bearing as far as the
forward load-bearing edge of the propeller or of the aft propeller shaft coupling flange subject to a minimum area of 2,5
d.
The diameter of the adjoining part of the propeller shaft to the point where it leaves the stern tube may be designed with
an ice class reinforcement factor 15 % less than that calculated by formula (2).
The portion of the propeller shaft located forward of the stern tube can be regarded as an intermediate shaft.
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D
Section 13 - Machinery for Ship with ice Class
Intermediate and thrust shafts do not need to be strengthened.
1.2
Reinforcements
d
= C
d
[mm]
increased diameter of propeller, intermediate or thrust shaft
d
[mm]
shaft diameter according to Section 4, C.2.
C
[-]
ice class strengthening factor
= c ∙ 1 + d
(1)
85 ∙ m
P . ∙n
.
≥ 1.0
(2)
Pw
[kW]
main engine power
n
[Rpm] propeller shaft speed
m
[-]
ice class factor according to Table 13.2
c
[-]
= 0,7
for shrink fits in gears
= 0,71
for the propeller shafts of fixed-pitch propellers
= 0,78
for the propeller shafts of controllable pitch propellers
D
In the case of ducted propellers, the values of c can be reduced by 10 %.
Table 13.24 Values of ice class factor m
Ice
class
ES
ES1
ES2
ES3
ES4
8
12
13
16
21
m
2.
Shrunk joints
When designing shrink fits in the shafting system and in gearboxes, the necessary pressure per unit area P . [N/mm2] is
to be calculated in accordance with for Formula (3).
P =
. .
.
.
∙
∙
(3)
T has to be introduced as positive value, if the propeller thrust increases the surface pressure at the taper. Change of
direction of the axial force is to be neglected as far as performance and thrust are essentially less.
T has to be introduced as negative value, if the axial force reduces the surface pressure at the taper, e.g. for tractor
propellers.
f =
− Θ [−]
(4)
For direct coupled propulsion plants with a barred speed range is has to be confirmed by separate calculation that the
vibratory torque in the main resonance is transmitted safety. For this proof the safety against slipping for the
transmission of torque shall be at least S = 2,0 (instead of S = 2,5), the coefficient cA may be set to 1,0. For this
additional proof the respective influence of the thrust may be disregarded.
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Section 13 – Machinery for Ship with ice Class
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27/29
c
=
see Section 4
c
=
0.89 x CEW ≥1,0
c
to be calculated according to 1.2, the higher value of the connected shaft ends has to be taken for the coupling
(5)
Other symbols in accordance with Section 4, D.4.
3.
Propellers
3.1
General
The propellers of ships with ice classes ES must be made of the cast copper alloys or cast steel alloys specified in
Section 6.
3.2
Strengthening
3.2.1
Blade sections
= C
t
t
[mm]
(6)
= increased thickness of blade section
t
= blade section thickness in accordance with Section 6, C.2.
If C
≤C
then
If C
>C
then
t =
C ∙ t
C
t
=t
CEP = ice class strengthening factor
= f ∙ f
1 +
∙ ∙
.
∙
.
≥ 1.0
= 0,62
for solid propellers
= 0,72
for controllable pitch propellers
(7)
In the case of ducted propellers, the values of f may be reduced by 15 %.
z
= number of blades
m
, P , n = see 1.2
C
= [-]
3.2.2
dynamic factor in accordance with Section 6, formula (3)
Blade tips
t
.
=
t
.
[mm] =
t’
∙ (0.002 ∙ D + t`)
(8)
strengthened blade tip
[mm] = increase in thickness
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D
Section 13 - Machinery for Ship with ice Class
= 10 for ice class ES
D
[mm]
propeller diameter
C
[N/mm2]
material factor in accordance with Section 6, C.1, Table 6.1
In the case of ducted propellers, the thickness of the blade tips may be reduced by 15 %.
3.2.3
Leading and trailing edges
The thickness of the leading and trailing edges of solid propellers and the thickness of the leading edge of controllable
pitch propellers must, be equal for ice class ES to at least 35 % of the blade tip t1,0E when measured at a distance of
1,25 x t1,0E from the edge of the blade. For ducted propellers, the strengthening at the leading and trailing edges has to
be based on the non-reduced tip thickness according to formula (8).
3.2.4
Blade Wear
If the actual thickness in service is below 50 % at the blade tip or 90 % at other radii of the values obtained from 3.2,
respective counter measures have to be taken. Ice strengthening factors according to 3.2 will not be influenced by an
additional allowance for abrasion.
Note : If the propeller is subjected to substantial wear, e.g. abrasion in tidal flats or in case of dredgers, a wear
addition should be added to the blade thickness determined should be increased in order to achieve an adequate
service time with respect to 3.2.4
3.2.5
Propeller mounting
Where the propeller is mounted on the propeller shaft by the oil injection method, the necessary pressure per unit area
P [N/mm²] in the area of the mean taper diameter is to be determined by formula (9).
. .
P =
.
.
∙
∙
(9)
T has to be introduced as positive value, if the propeller thrust increases the surface pressure at the taper. Change of
direction of propeller thrust is to be neglected as far as performance and thrust are essentially less.
T has to be introduced as negative value, if the propeller thrust reduces the surface pressure at the taper, e.g. for tractor
propellers.
f =
μ
S
− Θ [−]
(10)
For direct coupled propulsion plants with a barred speed range is has to be confirmed by separate calculation that the
vibratory torque in the main resonance is transmitted safely.
ice class reinforcement factor [−]in accordance with formula (5).
c
Other symbols in accordance with Section 6.
In the case of flanged propellers, the required diameter d
formula (11).
d
,
of the alignment pin is to be determined by applying
(11)
∙
d
[mm]
reinforced root diameter of alignment pin
ds
[mm]
diameter of alignment pin for attaching the propeller in accordance with Section 6, E.2.
C
[-]
ice class reinforcement factor in accordance with formula (2).
4.
Gears
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation - 2014
Section 13 – Machinery for Ship with ice Class
4.1
D
29/29
General
Gears in the main propulsion plant of ships with ice classes are not to be strengthened
5.
Sea chests and discharge valves
Sea chests and discharge valves are to be designed in accordance with Section 11, I.2.
6.
Steering gear
The dimensional design of steering gear components is to take account of the rudderstock diameter specified in Rules
for Hull (Part 1,Vol.II), Section 14 and 15.
7.
Electric propeller drive
For ships with electrical propeller drive, see Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 13.
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BKI Rules For Machinery Installations - 2014
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units,
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
A
1/28
Section 14
Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units, Lateral Thrust Units, Winches,
Hydraulic Control Systems, Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
A
A.
Steering Gears
1.
General
1.1
Scope
The requirements contained in A. apply to the steering gear including all the equipment used to operate the rudder, the
steering station and all transmission elements from the steering station to the steering gear. For the rudder and
manoeuvring arrangement, see the Rulesfor Hull (Part 1, Vol.II), Section 14.
The requirements set out in SOLAS Chapter II-1, Regulation 29 and 30 in their most actual version are integral part of
this rules and are to be applied in their full extent.
1.2
Documents for approval
Assembly and general drawings of all steering gears, diagrams of the hydraulic and electrical equipment together with
detail drawings of all important load-transmitting components are to be submitted to BKI in triplicate for approval.
The drawings and other documents are to contain all the information relating to materials, working pressures, pump
delivery rates, drive motor ratings etc. necessary to enable the documentation to be checked.
2.
Materials
2.1
Approved materials
2.1.1
As a rule, important load-transmitting components of the steering gear are to be made of steel or cast steel
complying with the Rules for Materials (Part 1,Vol.V).
With the consent of BKI, cast iron may be used for certain components.
Pressure vessels in general are to be made of steel, cast steel or nodular cast iron (with a predominantly ferritic matrix).
For welded structures, the Rules for Welding (Part 1,Vol.VI), are to be observed.
2.1.2
Casings with integrated journal and guide bearings on ships with a nozzle rudder and ice classare not to be
made of grey cast iron.
2.1.3
The pipes of hydraulic steering gears are to be made of seamless or longitudinally welded steel tubes. The
use of cold-drawn, annealed tubes is not permitted.
At points where they are exposed todamage, copper pipesfor control lines are to be provided with protective shielding
and are to be safeguarded against hardening due to vibration by the use of suitable fastenings.
2.1.4
High-pressure hose assemblies may be used for short pipe connections subject to compliance with Section
11, U., if this is necessary due to vibrations or flexibly mounted units.
2.1.5
use.
The materials used for pressurized components including the seals are to be suitable for the hydraulic oil in
2.2
Testing of materials
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
2/28
A
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
2.2.1
The materials of important force -transmitting components of the steering gear as well as of the pressurized
casings of hydraulic steering gears are to be tested under the supervision of BKI in accordance with the Rules for
Materials (Part 1,Vol.V).
A
For pressurized oil pipes the requirements according to Section 11, Table 11.3 are to be observed.
For welded pressurized casings, the Rules for Welding (Part 1,Vol.VI), are to be considered.
2.2.2
In the case of small hand-operated main steering gears and small manually operated auxiliary steering gear
BKI may dispense with testing the materials of individual components such as axiometer gear shafts, etc.
3.
Design and equipment
3.1
Number of steering gears
Every ship is to be equipped with at least one main and one auxiliary steering gear. Both steering gears are to be
independent of each other and, wherever possible, act separately upon the rudder stock. BKI may agree to components
being used jointly by the main and auxiliary steering gear.
3.2
Main steering gear
3.2.1
Main steering gears are, with the rudder fully immersed in calm water, to be capable of putting the rudder
from 35° port to 35°starboard and vice versa at the ship's speed for which the rudder has been designed in accordance
with the Rules for Hull(Part 1,Vol.II), Section 14. The time required to put the rudder from 35°port to 30̊ starboard or
vice versa is not to exceed 28 seconds.
The main steering gear is to be as a rule power operated.
Inevery tanker,chemical tanker or gas carrier of 10.000 GT and upwards and in every other ship of 70.000 GT and
upwards, the main steering gear is to comprise two or more identical power units.
3.2.2
Manual operation is acceptable for rudder stock diameters up to 120 mm calculated for torsional loads in
accordance with the Rules for Hull (Part 1,Vol.II), Section 14, C.1. Not more than 25 turns of the handwheel are to be
necessary to put the rudder from one hard over position to the other. Taking account of the efficiency of the system, the
force required to operate the handwheel is generally not to exceed 200 N.
3.2.3
Steering gear trials are performed to verify the performance of the steering gear and to demonstrate its
efficiency refer to ISO 19019-2005, Sea-going vessels and marine technology - Instructions for planning, carrying out
and reporting sea trials, Section 6.1.
3.3
Auxiliary steering gear
3.3.1
Auxiliary steering gears are, with the rudder fully immersed in calm water, to be capable of putting the
rudder from 15° port to 15° starboard or vice versa within 60 seconds at 50 % of the ship's maximum speed, subject to
a minimum of seven knots. Hydraulically operated auxiliary steering gears are to be fitted with their own piping system
independent of that of the main steering gear. The pipe or hose connections of steering gears are to be capable of being
shut off directly at the pressurized casings.
3.3.2
Manual operation of auxiliary steering gear systems is permitted up to a theoretical stock diameter of 230
mm referring to steel with a minimum nominal upper yield stress ReH = 235 N/mm2.
3.4
Power Unit
3.4.1
Where power operated hydraulic main steering gears are equipped with two or more identical power units,
no auxiliary steering gear need be installed provided that the following conditions are fulfilled.
3.4.1.1 On passenger ships, requirements 3.2.1 and 4.1are to be complied with while any one of the power units is
out of operation.
3.4.1.2
On cargo ships, the power units are to be designed in a way that requirements 3.2.1 and 4.1are complied
with while operating with all power units.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units,
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
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The main steering gear of tankers, chemical tankers or gas carriers of 10.000 GT and upwards is to comprise either:
-
two independent and separate power actuating systems (power units(s), hydraulic pipes, power actuator),
each capable of meeting the requirements as set out in 3.2.1 and 4.1, or
-
at least two identical power actuating systems which, acting simultaneously in normal operation, are to be
capable of meeting the requirements as set out in 3.2.1 and 4.1.
3.4.1.3
In the event of failure of a single component of the main steering gear including the piping, excluding the
rudder tiller or similar components as well as the cylinders, rotary vanes and casing, means are to be provided for
quickly regaining control of one steering system.
For tankers, chemical tankers or gas carriers of 10. 000 GT and upwards, steering capability is to be regained within 45
sec after a single failure.
3.4.1.4
In the event of a loss of hydraulic oil, it is to be possible to isolate the damaged system in such a way that
the second control system remains fully operable.
3.5
Rudder angle limitation
The rudder angle in normal service is to be limited by devices fitted to the steering gear (e.g. limit switches) to a rudder
angle of 35̊ on both sides. Deviations from this requirements are permitted only with the consent of BKI.
3.6
End position limitation
For the limitation by means of stoppers of the end positions of tillers and quadrants, see the Rules for Hull (Part
1,Vol.II), Section 14, G.
In the case of hydraulic steering gears without an end position limitation of the tiller and similar components, a
mechanical end position limiting device is to be fitted within the rudder actuator.
3.7
Locking equipment
Steering gear systems are to be equipped with a locking system effective in all rudder positions, see also Rules for Hull
(Part 1,Vol II), Section 14, G.
Where hydraulic plantare fitted with shut-offs directly at the cylinders or rotary vane casings, special locking
equipment may be dispensed with.
For steering gears with cylinder units which may be independently operated these shut-off devices do not have to be
fitted directly on the cylinders.
3.8
Overload protection
3.8.1
Power-operated steering gear systems are to be equipped with overload protection (slip coupling, relief
valves) to ensure that the driving torque is limited to the maximum permissible value.
The overload protection device is to be secured to prevent re-adjustment by unauthorized persons. Means are to be
provided for checking the setting while in service.
The pressurized casings of hydraulic steering gears which also fulfil the function of the locking equipment mentioned
in 3.7 are to be fitted with relief valves unless they are so designed that the pressure generated when the elastic-limit
torque is applied to the rudder stock cannot cause rupture, deformation or other damage of the pressurized casing.
3.8.2
Relief valves have to be provided for protecting any part of the hydraulic system which can be isolated and
in which pressure can be generated from the power source or from external forces.
The relief valves are to be set to a pressure value equal or higher than the maximum working pressure but lower than
the design pressure of the steering gear (definition of maximum working pressure and design pressure in accordance to
4.1).
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A
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
The minimum discharge capacity of the relief valve(s) are not to be less than 1,1 times the total capacity of the pumps,
which can deliver through it (them).
With this setting any higher peak pressure in the system than 1,1 times the setting pressure of the valves is to be
prohibited.
3.9
Controls
3.9.1
Control of the main and auxiliary steering gears is to be exercised from a steering station on the bridge.
Controls are to be mutually independent and so designed that the rudder cannot move unintentionally.
3.9.2
Means are also to be provided for exercising control from the steering gear compartment. The transmission
system is to be independent of that serving the main steering station.
3.9.3
Suitable equipment is to be installed to provide means of communication between the bridge, all steering
stations and the steering gear compartment.
3.9.4
Failures of single control components (e.g. control system for variable displacement pump or flow control
valve) which may lead to loss of steering are to cause an audible and visible alarm on the navigating bridge, if loss of
steering cannot be prevented by other measures.
3.10
Rudder angle indication
3.10.1
The rudder position is to be clearly indicated on the bridge and at all steering stations. Where the steering
gear is operated electrically or hydraulically, the rudder angle is to be indicated by a device (rudder position indicator)
which is actuated either by the rudder stock itself or by parts which are mechanically connected to it. In case of timedependent control of the main and auxiliary steering gear, the midship position of the rudder is to be indicated on the
bridge by some additional means (signal lamp or similar). In general, this indicator is still to be fitted even if the second
control system is a manually operated hydraulic system. See also Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV),
Section 9, C.
3.10.2
The actual rudder position is also to be indicated at the steering gear itself.
An additional rudder angle indicator fitted at the main engine control station is recommended.
3.11
Piping
3.11.1
The pipes of hydraulic steering gear systems are to be installed in such a way as to ensure maximum
protection while remaining readily accessible.
Pipes are to be installed at a sufficient distance from the ship's shell. As far as possible, pipes should not pass through
cargo spaces.
Connections to other hydraulic systems are not permitted.
3.11.2
For the design and dimensions of pipes, valves, fittings, pressure vessels etc., see Section 8 and Section 11,
A., B., C., D. and U.
3.12
Oil level indicators, filters
3.12.1
Tanks within the hydraulic system are to be equipped with oil level indicators.
3.12.2
The lowest permissible oil level is to be monitored. Audible and visual alarms are to be provided for the
navigating bridge and in the machinery space or machinery control room. The alarm on the navigating bridge is to be
an individual alarm.
3.12.3
Arrangements are to be provided to maintain the cleanliness of the hydraulic fluid taking into consideration
the type and design of the hydraulic system.
3.13
Storage tank
In hydraulic operated steering gear systems, an additional permanently installed storage tank is to be fitted which has a
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units,
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
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capacity sufficient to refill at least one of the control systems including the service tank.
This storage tank is to be permanently connected by pipes to the control systems so that the latter can be refilled from a
position inside the steering gear compartment.
3.14
Arrangement
Steering gears are to be so installed in away to be accessible at any time and can be easily maintainable.
3.15
Electrical equipment
For the electrical equipment, Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 7, A. have to be observed.
3.16
Seating
Seating of the steering gear has to be applied according to Regulations for Seating of Diesel Engine Installations. In
case of seating on cast resin the forces according to the elastic limit torque of the rudder shaft as well as the rudder
bearing forces have to be transmitted to the ship’s structure by welded stoppers.
4.
Power and dimensioning
4.1
Power of steering gears
The power of the steering gear has to comply with the requirements set out in 3.2 and 3.3, see also SOLAS Chapter II1, Part C, Regulation 29.
The maximum effective torque for which the steering gear is to be equipped is not to be less than:
=
M
Dt
,
k
[mm]
[Nm]
(1)
theoretical rudder stock diameter, derived from the required hydrodynamic rudder torque for the
ahead running conditions in accordance with the Rules for Hull (Part 1,Vol.II), Section 14, C.1
and Section 15, B.9 and D.3.7.
The working torque of the steering gear is to be larger than the hydrodynamic torque QR of the rudder according to
Rules for Hull (Part 1,Vol.II), Section 14, B. 1.2, B.2.2, B.2.3 and cover the friction moments of the related bearing
arrangement.
The corresponding maximum working pressure is the maximum expected pressure in the system, when the steering
gear is operated to comply with the power requirements as mentioned above.
Frictional losses in the steering gear including piping have to be considered within the determination of the maximum
working pressure.
The design pressure pc for calculation to determine the scantlings of piping and other steering gear components
subjected to internal hydraulic pressure is to be at least 1,25 times the maximum working pressureas defined above
andhas not tobe less than the setting of the relief valves as described under 3.8.2.
In the case of multi-surface rudders controlled by a common steering gear the relevant diameter is to be determined by
applying the formula:
D
=
D +D +⋯
kr
material characteristic
k
=
e
235
R
= 0,75
(2)
where ReH> 235
N/mm
2
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
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A
= 1,0
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
where ReH ≤ 235
N/mm2
ReH
[N/mm²] yield strength of rudder stock material.The applied value forReH is not to be greater than 450
N/mm2 or 0,7 . Rm, whichever is less.
Rm
[N/mm2] tensile strength.
4.2
Design of transmission components
4.2.1
The design calculations for those parts of the steering gear which are not protected against overload are to be
based on the elastic-limit torque of the rudder stock.
The elastic-limit torque to be used is
,
M = 2 ∙
D
k
[mm]
[Nm]
(3)
minimum actual rudder stock diameter. The value used for the actual diameter need not be larger
than 1,145 .Dt
The stresses in the components of the steering gear determined in this way are not to exceed the yield strength of the
materials used. The design of parts of the steering gear with overload protection is to be based on the loads
corresponding to the response threshold of the overload protection.
4.2.2
Tiller and rotary vane hubs made of material with a tensile strength of up to 500 N/mm² have to satisfy the
following conditions in the area where the force is applied, see Figure 13.1:
Height of hub
H ≥1,0 . D
[mm]
Outside diameter
Da ≥1,8 . D
[mm]
In special cases the outside diameter may be reduced to:
Da = 1,7 ∙ D
[mm]
but the height of the hub must then be at least:
H = 1,14 ∙ D
[mm]
4.2.3
Where materials with a tensile strength greater than 500 N/mm² are used, the section of the hub may be
reduced by 10 %.
Fig. 14.1 Hub dimension
4.2.4
Where the force is transmitted by clamped or tapered connections, the elastic-limit torque may be
transmitted by a combination of frictional and positive locking mechanism using adequately pre-tensioned bolts and a
key.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units,
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
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For the elastic limit torque according to formula (3), the thread root diameter of the bolts can be determined by
applying the following formula:
d ≥ 9,76 ∙ D
1
z ∙ k ∙ R
[mm]
(4)
D
[mm]
actual rudder stock diameter.The value used for the actual diameter need not be larger than 1,145
Dt
Z
[-]
total number of bolts
ReH
[N/mm²]
yield strength of the bolt material
4.2.5
Split hubs of clamped joints are to be joined together with at least four bolts.
The key is not to be located at the joint in the clamp.
4.2.6
Where the oil injection method is used to joint the rudder tiller or rotary vanes to the rudder stock, methods
of calculation appropriate to elasticity theory are to be applied. Calculations are to be based on the elastic-limit torque
allowing for a coefficient of friction μo = 0,15 for steel and μo = 0,12 for nodular cast iron. The von Misses equivalent
stress calculated from the specific pressure p and the corresponding tangential load based on the dimensions of the
shrunk joint is not to exceed 80 % of the yield strength of the materials used.
4.2.7
Where circumferential tension components are used to connect the rudder tiller or rotary vanes to the rudder
stock, calculations are to be based on two and a half times the working torque of streering gear (but not more than the
elastic limit torque) allowing for a coefficient of friction of μo = 0,12. The von Misses equivalent stress calculated from
the contact pressure p and the corresponding tangential load based on the dimensions of the shrunk-on connection is
not to exceed 80 % of the yield strength of the materials used.
When morethan one circumferential tension components are used, the torque capacity of the connection istobe
determined byadding the torques of the sole tension components and applying a reduction factor of 0,9.
5
Tests in the manufacturer's works
5.1
Testing of power units
The power units are required to undergo test on a test stand in the manufacturer's works.
5.1.1
For diesel engines, see Section 2.
5.1.2
For electric motors, seeRulesfor Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 21.
5.1.3
For hydraulic pumps and motors, the Regulations for the Design and Testing of Pumps are to be applied
analogously.Where the drive power is 50 kW or more, this testing is to be carried out in the resence of the BKI
Surveyor.
5.2
Pressure and tightness tests
Pressure components are to undergo the pressure test.
The test pressure is pp
pp = 1,5 . pc
pc
[bar]
(5)
design pressure for which a component or piping system is designed with its mechanical
characteristics. For pressures above 200 bar the test pressure need not exceed pc+ 100.
For pressure testing of pipes, their valves and fittings, see Section 11, B.4 and U.5.
Tightness tests are to be performed on components to which this is appropriate.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
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5.3
A-B
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
Final inspection and operational test
Following testing of the individual components and after completion of assembly, the steering gear is required to
undergo final inspection and an operational test. Among other things the overload protection is to be adjusted at this
time.
6.
Shipboard trials
The operational efficiency of the steering gear is to be proved during the sea trials. For this purpose, the Z manoeuvre
corresponding to 3.2.1 and 3.3.1 is to be executed as a minimum requirement.
A-B
B.
Rudder Propeller Units
1.
General
1.1
Scope
The requirements of B. are valid for the rudder propeller as main drive, the ship's manoeuvring station and all
transmission elements from the manoeuvring station to the rudder propeller.
1.2
Documents for approval
Assembly and sectional drawings as well as part drawings of the gears and propellers giving all the data necessary for
the examination are to be submitted to BKI for approval.For propellers, this only applies to an input power exceeding
500 kW.
2.
Materials
2.1
Approved materials
The selection of materials is subject, as and where applicable, to the provisions of A.2.1 and to those of Sections 4, 5
and 6.
2.2
Testing of materials
All important components of the rudder propeller involved in the transmission of torques and bending moments are to
be tested under the supervision of BKI in accordance with Rules for Materials (Part 1,Vol.V).
3.
Design and equipment
3.1
Number of rudder propellers
Each ship is to have at least two rudder propellers. Both units are to be capable of being operated independently of the
other.
3.2
Locking devices
Each rudder propeller is to be provided with a locking device to prevent the unintentional rotation of the propeller and
the slewing mechanism of the unit which is out of operation at a time. The locking device is to be designed to securely
lock the non-operated unit while operating the ship with the maximum power of the remaining rudder propeller units,
however at a ship speed of at least 7 kn.
3.3
Control
3.3.1
Both the drive and the slewing mechanism of each rudder propeller are to be controlled from a manoeuvring
station on the navigating bridge.
The controls are to be mutually independent and so designed that the rudder propeller cannot be turned unintentionally.
An additional combined control for all rudder propellers is permitted.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units,
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
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B
Means have to be provided, fulfilling the same purpose as the steering angle limitation in A.3.5. These may be
dispensed with in case where no danger for the ship is caused by unintentional slewing of the units at full power and
ship speed to any angle.
3.3.2
The failure of a single element within the control and hydraulic system of one unit is not to lead to the
failure of the other units.
3.3.3
An auxiliary steering device is to be provided for each rudder propeller. In case of a failure of the main
steering system the auxiliary steering device is at least to be capable of moving the rudder propeller to midship
position.
Where the propulsion power exceeds 2,500kW per thruster unit, an alternative power supply, sufficient at least to
supply the steering arrangements which complies with the requirements of A.3.3.1 in this section and also its
associated control system and the steering system response indicator, shall be provided automatically, within 45 s,
either from the emergency source of electrical power or from an independent source of power located in the steering
gear compartment.
This independent source of power shall be used only for this purpose. In every ship of 10,000 gross tonnage and
upwards, the alternative power supply shall have a capacity for at least 30 min of continuous operation and in any other
ship for at least 10 min.
3.3.4
Where the hydraulic systems of more than one rudder propeller are combined, it is to be possible in case of a
loss of hydraulic oil to isolate the damaged system in such a way that the other control systems remain fully
operational.
3.4
Position indicators
3.4.1
The position of each rudder propeller is to be clearly discernible on the navigating bridge and at each
manoeuvring station.
3.4.2
The actual position is also to be discernible at the rudder propeller itself.
3.5
Pipes
The pipes of hydraulic control systems are subject to the provisions of A.3.11 wherever relevant.
3.6
Oil level indicators, filters
Oil level indicators and filters are subject to the provisions of A.3.12 wherever relevant.
3.7
Lubrication
3.7.1
The lubricating oil supply is to be ensured by a main pump and an independent standby pump.
3.7.2
In the case of separate lubricating systems in which the main lubricating oil pumps can be replaced with the
means available on board, the standby pump may be replaced by a complete spare pump. This spare pump is to be
carried on board and is to be ready for mounting.
4.
Dimensioning
4.1
Gears
For the design of gears see Section 5.
The slewing gears are in general to be designed as spur or bevel gears.
4.2
Shaft line
For the dimensioning of the propeller shaft, between propeller and gear wheel, see Section 4. For the dimensioning of
the remaining part of this shaft and all other gear shafts see Section 5.
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4.3
B-C
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
Propellers
For the design of propellers, see Section 6.
4.4
Support pipe
The design of the support pipe and its attachment to the ship's hull is to take account of the loads due to the propeller
and nozzle thrust including the dynamic components.
4.5
Pipes
For arrangement and design of pipes, valves, fittings and pressure vessels, see Section 8 and Section 11, A., B., C. D.
and U.
5.
Tests in the manufacturer's works
5.1
Testing of power units
A.5.1 applies wherever relevant.
5.2
Pressure and tightness test
A.5.2 applies wherever relevant.
5.3
Final inspection and operational test
5.3.1
After inspection of the individual components and completion of assembly, rudder propellers are to undergo
a final inspection and operational test. The final inspection is to be combined with a trial run lasting several hours
under part or full-load conditions. A check of the tooth clearance and of the tooth contact pattern is to be carried out.
5.3.2
When no suitable test bed is available for the operational and load testing of large rudder propellers, the tests
mentioned in 5.3.1 can be carried out on the occasion of the dock test.
5.3.3
Limitations on the scope of the test require BKI consent.
6.
Testing on board
6.1
The faultless operation, smooth running and bearing temperatures of the gears and control system are to be
checked during the sea trials under all steaming conditions.
After the conclusion of the sea trials, the toothing is to be examined through the inspection openings and the contact
pattern is to be checked. The tooth contact pattern is to be assessed on the basis of the reference values for the
percentage area of contact given in Section 5, Table 5.6.
6.2
The scope of the check on contact pattern following the sea trials may be limited with the Surveyor's
agreement provided that the checks on contact pattern called for in 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 have been satisfactory.
B-C
C.
Lateral Thrust Units
1.
General
1.1
Scope
The requirements contained in C. apply to the lateral thrust unit, the control station and all the transmission elements
from the control station to the lateral thrust unit.
1.2
Documents for approval
Assembly and sectional drawings for lateral thrust units with an input power of 100 kW and more together with detail
drawings of the gear mechanism and propellers containing all the data necessary for checking are each to be submitted
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units,
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
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to BKI in triplicate for approval. For propellers, this only applies to an input power exceeding 500 kW.
C-D
2.
Materials
Materials are subject, as appropriate, to the provisions of Sections 4 and 5.
Section 6 applies analogously to the materials and the material testing of propellers.
3.
Dimensioning and design
3.1
The design of the relevant components of lateral thrust units is to be in accordance with Sections 4 and 5,
that of the propellers with Section 6.
The pipe connections of hydraulic drive systems are subject to the applicable requirements contained in A.2.1.3 and
A.2.1.4.
Lateral thrust units are to be capable of being operated independently of other connected systems.
Wind milling of the propeller during sea passages has to be taken into account as an additional load case. Otherwise
effective countermeasures have to be introduced to avoid wind milling, e.g. a shaft brake.
In the propeller area, the thrusters tunnel is to be protected against damages caused by cavitationerosion by effective
measures, such as stainless steel plating.
For monitoring the lubricating oil level, equipmentn shall be fitted to enable the oil level to be determined.
For the electrical part of lateral thrust units, see Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 7, B.
3.2
Lateral thrust units for dynamic positioning (DP)
Bearings, sealings, lubrication, hydraulic system and all other aspects of the design must be suitable forcontinuous,
uninterrupted operation.
Gears must comply with the safety margins for DP as specified in Section 5, Table 5.1. The lubricationsystem for the
gearbox must comply with Section 5, E.
For units with controllable pitch propellers, the hydraulic system must comply with Section 6, D.4.2. The selection and
arrangement of filters has to ensure an uninterrupted supply with filtered oil, also during filter cleaning or exchange.
Where ships are equipped with automated machinery, the thruster unit has to comply with the requirements
for main gears and main propellers in Rules for Automation (Part 1,Vol.VII).
4.
Tests in the manufacturer's works
A.5. is applicable as appropriate.
For hydraulic pumps and motors with a drive power of 100 kW or more, the test are to be conducted in the presence of
a BKI Surveyor.
For lateral thrust units with an input power of less than 100 kW final inspection and function tests may be carried out
by the manufacturer, who will then issue the relevant Manufacturer Inspection Certificate.
5.
Shipboard trials
Testing is to be carried out during sea trials during which the operating times are to be established.
D.
Windlasses
1.
D
General
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1.1
D
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
Scope
The requirements contained in D. apply to bower anchor windlasses, stern anchor windlasses, combined anchor and
mooring winches and chain stoppers. For anchors and chains, see Rulesfor Hull (Part 1,Vol.II), Section 18.
1.2
Documents for approval
1.2.1
For each type of anchor windlass and chain stopper, general and sectional drawings, circuit diagrams of the
hydraulic, electrical and steam systems and detail drawings of the main shaft, cable lifter, brake, stopper bar, and chain
pulley and axle are to be submitted in triplicate for approval.
One copy of a description of the anchor windlass including the proposed overload protection and other safety devices is
likewise to be submitted.
1.2.2
Where an anchor windlass is to be approved for several strengths and types of chain cable, the calculation
relating to the maximum braking torque is to be submitted and proof furnished of the power and hauling-in speed in
accordance with 4.1 corresponding to all the relevant types of anchor and chain cable.
1.2.3
One copy of the strength calculation for bolts, chocks and stoppers securing the windlass to the deck is
likewise to be submitted. This calculation is to consider forces acting on the windlass caused by a load specified in 4.2
and 4.3.
2.
Materials
2.1
Approved materials
2.1.1
The provisions contained in A.2.1 are to be applied as appropriate to the choice of materials.
2.1.2
Cable lifters and chain pulleys are generally to be made of cast steel. Nodular cast iron is permitted for stud
link chain cables of
up to 50 mm diameter for grade KI 1
up to 42 mm diameter for grade KI 2
up to 35 mm diameter for grade KI 3.
In special cases, nodular cast iron may also be used for larger chain diameters by arrangement with BKI.
Grey cast iron is permitted for stud link chain cables of
up to 30 mm diameter for grade KI 1
up to 25 mm diameter for grade KI 2
up to 21 mm diameter for grade KI 3
2.2
Testing of materials
2.2.1
The materials for forged, rolled and cast parts which are stressed by the pull of the chain when the cable
lifter is disengaged (e.g. main shaft, cable lifter, housing, frame, brake bands, brake spindles, brake bolts, tension
straps, stopper bar, chain pulley and axle) are to be tested under the supervision of BKI in accordance with Rules for
Materials (Part 1,Vol.V).
In case of housing and frame of anchor windlasses a Manufacturer Inspection Certificate issued by theproducer may be
accepted as proof.
In the case of anchor windlasses for chains up to 14 mm in diameter a Manufacturer Inspection Certificate issued by
the producer may be accepted as proof.
2.2.2
In the case of hydraulic systems, the material used for pipes (see Section 11, Table 11.3) as well as for
pressure vessels is also to be tested.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units,
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
3.
Design and equipment
3.1
Type of drive
D
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3.1.1
Windlasses are normally to be driven by an engine which is independent of other deck machinery. The
piping systems of hydraulic and steam-driven windlass engines may be connected to other hydraulic or steam systems
provided that this is permissible for the latter. The windlasses are, however, to be capable of being operated
independently of other connected systems.
3.1.2
Manual operation as the main driving power can be allowed for anchors weighing up to 250 kg.
3.1.3
In the case of hydraulic drives with a piping system connected to other hydraulic systems a second pump
unit is recommended.
3.1.4
In the case of windlasses with two cable lifters both cable lifters are to be engageable simultaneously.
3.2
Reversing mechanism
Power-driven windlasses are to be reversible. On windlasses for ships with a Range of Service rating up to ”L” and on
those powered by internal combustion engines a reversing mechanism may be dispensed with.
3.3
Overload protection
For the protection of the mechanical parts in the event of the windlass jamming, an overload protection (e.g. slip
coupling, relief valve) is to be fitted to limit the maximum torque of the drive engine (see 4.1.2). The setting of the
overload protection is to be specified (e.g. in the operating instructions).
3.4
Couplings
Windlasses are to be fitted with disengageable couplings between the cable lifter and the drive shaft. In an emergency,
hydraulic or electrically operated couplings are to be capable of being disengaged by hand.
3.5
Braking equipment
Windlasses are to be fitted with cable lifter brakes which are capable of holding a load in accordance with 4.2.3 with
the cable lifter disengaged. In addition, where the gear mechanism is not of self-locking type, a device (e.g. gearing
brake, lowering brake, oil hydraulic brake) is to be fitted to prevent paying out of the chain should the power unit fail
while the cable lifter is engaged.
3.6
Pipes
For the design and dimensions of pipes, valves, fittings, pressure vessels, etc. see Section 8 and Section 11, A., B., C.,
D. and U.
3.7
Cable lifters
Cable lifters are to have at least five snugs.
3.8
Windlass as warping winch
Combined windlasses and warping or mooring winches are not to be subjected to excessive loads even when the
maximum pull is exerted on the warping rope.
3.9
Electrical equipment
For the electrical equipment the Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 7,E.2. have to be observed.
3.10
Hydraulic equipment
For oil level indicators see A.3.12.1. For filters see F.3.2.2.
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Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
4.
Power and dimensioning
4.1
Driving power
4.1.1
Depending on the grade of the chain cable and anchor depth windlasses must be capable of exerting the
following nominal pull Z at a mean speed of at least 0,15 m/s:
Z =d2 (f + 0,218.(h-100)) [N]
d
[mm]
diameter of anchor chain
h
[mm]
anchor depth
f
[-]
nominal full factor
Grade
KI 1
KI 2
KI 3
F
37,5
42,5
47,5
The calculation of nominal pull is to be based on a minimum anchor depth of 100 m.
The pull of stern windlasses with an anchor rope can be determined by reference to the anchor weight and the diameter
of corresponding chain cable.
4.1.2
The nominal output of the power units is to be such that the conditions specified in 4.1.1 can be met for 30
minutes without interruption. In addition, the power units are to be capable of developing a maximum torque equal to a
maximum pull Zmax of
Zmax= 1,5 . Z
[N]
at a reduced speed for at least two minutes.
4.1.3
At the maximum torque specified in 4.1.2, a short-time overload of up to 20 % is allowed in the case of
internal combustion engines.
4.1.4
An additional reduction gear stage may be fitted in order to achieve the maximum torque.
4.1.5
With manually operated windlasses, steps are to be taken to ensure that the anchor can be hoisted at a mean
speed of 0,033 m/s with the pull specified in 4.1.1. This is to be achieved without exceeding a manualforceof 150 N
applied to a crank radius of about 350 mm with the hand crank turned at about 30 rpm.
4.2
Dimensioning of load-transmitting components and chain stoppers
4.2.1
The basic for the design of the load-transmitting components of windlasses and chain stoppers arethe
anchors and chain cables specified in Rules for Hull (Part 1,Vol.II), Section 18.
4.2.2
The cable lifter brake is to be so designed that the anchor and chain can be safely stopped while paying out
the chain cable.
4.2.3
The dimensional design of those parts of the windlass which are subjected to the chain pull when the cable
lifter is disengaged (cable lifter, main shaft, braking equipment, bedframe and deck fastening) is to be based on a
theoretical pull equal to 80 % of the nominal breaking load specified in theRules for Materials (Part 1,Vol.V), for the
chain in question. The design of the main shaft is to take account of the braking forces, and the cable lifter brake is not
to slip when subjected to this load.
4.2.4
The theoretical pull may be reduced to 45 % of the nominal breaking load for the chain provided that a chain
stopper approved by BKI is fitted.
4.2.5
The design of all other windlass components is to be based upon force acting on the cable lifter pitch circle
and equal to the maximum pull specified in 4.1.2.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units,
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
4.2.6
500 N.
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At the theoretical pull specified in 4.2.3 and 4.2.4, the force exerted on the brake hand wheel is not to exceed
4.2.7
The dimensional design of chain stoppers is to be based on a theoretical pull equal to 80 % of the nominal
breaking load of the chain.
4.2.8
The total stresses applied to components are to be below the minimum yield point of the materials used.
4.2.9
The foundations and pedestals of windlasses and chain stoppers are governed by the Rules for Hull (Part
1,Vol.II), Section 10, B. 5.
4.3
Strength requirements to resist green sea forces
4.3.1
For ships of length 80 m or more, where the height of the exposed deck in way of the item is less than 0,1
Lor 22 m above the summer load waterline, whichever is lesser, the attachment of the windlass located within the
forward quarter length of the ship has to resist the green sea forces.
The following pressures and associated areas are to be applied (Fig. 14.2):
-
200 kN/m2 normal to the shaft axis and away from the forward perpendicular, over the projected area in this
direction
-
150 kN/m2 parallel to the shaft axis and acting both inboard and outboard separately, over the multiple of f
times the projected area in this direction
f
= 1 + B/H, but not greater than 2,5
B
[m]
width of windlass measured parallel to the shaft axis
H
[m]
overall height of the windlass.
Where mooring winches are integral with the anchor windlass, they are to be considered as part of the windlass.
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Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
Fig. 14.2 Direction of forces and weight
Fig. 14.3 Sign Convension
4.3.2
Forces in the bolts, chocks and stoppers securing the windlass to the deck, caused by green sea forces
specified in 4.3.1, are to be calculated.
The windlass is supported by N bolt groups, each containing one or more bolts (Fig. 14.3).
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units,
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
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The axial forces Ri in bolt group (or bolt) i, positive in tension, is to be obtained from:
R =
P ∙h ∙ x ∙ A
I
[kN]
R =
P ∙h ∙ y ∙ A
I
[kN]
Ri
=Rxi + Ryi - Rsi[kN]
Px
[kN]
force acting normal to the shaft axis
Py
[kN]
force acting parallel to the shaft axis, either inboard or outboard whichever gives the greater force
in bolt group i
h
[cm]
shaft height above the windlass mounting
xi, yi
[cm]
x and y coordinates of bolt group i from the centroid of all N bolt groups, positive in the direction
opposite to that of the applied force
Ai
[cm2]
cross sectional area of all bolts in group i
Ix
[cm4]
∑ Ai xi2
for N bolt groups
Iy
[cm4]
∑Ai yi2
for N bolt groups
Rsi
[kN]
static reaction at bolt group i, due to weight of windlass
4.3.3
:
Shear forces Fxi and Fyi applied to the bolt group i, and the resultant combined force are to be obtained from
P − αm
N
P − αm
F =
N
F =
F
=
F +F
[kN]
[kN]
[kN]
α
[-]
coefficient of friction, to be taken equal to 0,5
mw
[kN]
weight-force of windlass
N
[-]
number of bolt groups
Axial tensile and compressive forces and lateral forces calculated in 4.3.1, 4.3.2 and 4.3.3 are also to be considered in
the design of the supporting structure.
4.3.4
Tensile axial stresses in the individual bolts in each bolt group i are to be calculated. The horizontal forces
Fxi and Fyi are normally to be reacted by shear chocks.
Where “fitted” bolts are designed to support these shear forces in one or both directions, the von Mises equivalent
stresses in the individual bolts are to be calculated, and compared to the stress under proof load.
Where pourable resins are incorporated in the holding down arrangement, due account is to be taken in the
calculations.
The safety factor against bolt proof strength is not to be less than 2,0.
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D-E-F
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
5.
Tests in the manufacturer's works
5.1
Testing of driving engines
A.5.1 is applicable as appropriate.
5.2
Pressure and tightness tests
A.5.2 is applicable as appropriate.
5.3
Final inspection and operational testing
5.3.1
Following manufacture, windlasses are required to undergo final inspection and operational testing at the
maximum pull. The hauling-in speed is to be verified with continuous application of the nominal pull. During the tests,
particular attention is to be given to the testing and, where necessary, setting of braking and safety equipment.
In the case of anchor windlasses for chain > 14 mm in diameter this test is to be performed in the presence of the BKI
Surveyor.
In the case of anchor windlasses for chains ≤ 14 mm diameter, the Manufacturer's Inspection Certificate will be
accepted.
5.3.2
Where the manufacturing works does not have adequate facilities, the aforementioned tests including the
adjustment of the overload protection can be carried out on board ship. In these cases, functional testing in the
manufacturer's works is to be performed under no-load conditions.
5.3.3
Following manufacture, chain stoppers are required to undergo final inspection and operational testing in the
presence of the BKI Surveyor.
6.
Shipboard trials
The anchor equipment is to be tested during sea trials.
As a minimum requirement, this test is required to demonstrate that the conditions specified in 3.1.4 and 4.2.2 can be
fulfilled.
D-E-F
E.
Winches
1.
Towing winches
The design and testing of towing winches are to comply with Rules for Hull (Part 1,Vol.II), Section 27, C.5.
2.
Winches for cargo handling gear and other lifting equipment
The design and testing of these winches are to comply with Regulations for the Construction and Survey of Cargo
Handling Appliances and Lifting Appliances.
3.
Lifeboat winches
The design and testing of life boat winches are to comply with Regulations for Life Saving - Launching Appliances.
4.
Winches for special equipment
The Regulations for the Construction and Survey of Cargo Handling Appliances and Lifting Appliances are to be
applied, as appropriate, to winches for special equipment such as ramps, hoisting gear and hatch covers.
F.
Hydraulic Systems
1.
General
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units,
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
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1.1
Scope
F
The requirements contained in F. apply to hydraulic systems used, for example, to operate hatch covers, closing
appliances in the ship's shell and bulkheads, and hoists. The requirements are to be applied in analogous manner to the
ship's other hydraulic systems except where covered by the requirements of Section 11.
1.2
Documents for approval
The diagram of the hydraulic system together with drawings of the cylinders containing all the data necessary for
assessing the system, e.g. operating data, descriptions, materials used etc., are to submitted for approval.
1.3
Dimensional design
For the design of pressure vessels, see Section 8; for the dimensions of pipes and hose assemblies, see Section 11.
2.
Materials
2.1
Approved materials
2.1.1
Components fulfilling a major function in the power transmission system normally are to be made of steel or
cast steel in accordance with the Rules for Materials (Part 1,Vol.V). The use of other materials is subject to special
agreement with BKI.
Cylinders are preferably to be made of steel, cast, steel or nodular cast iron (with a predominantly ferritic matrix).
2.1.2
Pipes are to be made of seamless or longitudinally welded steel tubes.
2.1.3
11, B.
The pressure-loaded walls of valves, fittings, pumps, motors etc. are subject to the requirements of Section
2.2
Testing of materials
The following components are to be tested under supervision of BKI in accordance with the Rules for Materials (Part
1,Vol.V) :
a)
Pressure pipes with DN> 50 (see Section 11, Table 11.3)
b)
Cylinders, where the product of the pressure times the diameter:
pe,perm . Di> 20.000
pe,perm
[bar]
Di
[mm] inside diameter of tube
maximum allowable working pressure
c)
For testing the materials of hydraulic accumulators, see Section 8, B.
3.
Hydraulic operating equipment for hatch covers
3.1
Design and construction
3.1.1
Hydraulic operating equipment for hatch covers may be served either by one common power station for all
hatch covers or by several power stations individually assigned to a single hatch cover. Where a common power station
is used, at least two pump units are to be fitted. Where the systems are supplied individually, change-over valves or
fittings are required so that operation can be maintained should one pump unit fail.
3.1.2
Movement of hatch covers is not to be initiated merely by the starting of the pumps. Special control stations
are to be provided for controlling the opening and closing of hatch covers. The controls are to be so designed that, as
soon as they are released, movement of the hatch covers stops immediately.
The hatches should normally be visible from the control stations. Should this, in exceptional cases, be impossible,
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Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
opening and closing of the hatches is to be signalled by an audible alarm. In addition, the control stations must then be
equipped with indicators for monitoring the movement of the hatch covers.
At the control stations, the controls governing the opening and closing operations are to be appropriately marked.
3.1.3
Suitable equipment is to be fitted in, or immediately adjacent to, each power unit (cylinder or similar) used
to operate hatch covers to enable the hatches to be closed slowly in the event of a power failure, e.g. due to a pipe
rupture.
3.2
Pipes
3.2.1
Pipes are to be installed and secured in such a way as to protect them from damage while enabling them to
be properly maintained from outside.
Pipes may be led through tanks in pipe tunnels only. The laying of such pipes through cargo spaces is to be restricted to
the essential minimum. The piping system is to be fitted with relief valves to limit the pressure to the maximum
allowable working pressure.
3.2.2
The piping system is to be fitted with filters for cleaning the hydraulic fluid.
Equipment is to be provided to enable the hydraulic system to be vented.
3.2.3
The accumulator space of the hydraulic accumulator is to have permanent access to the relief valve of the
connected system. The gas chamber of the accumulator may be filled only with inert gases. Gas and operating medium
are to be separated by accumulator bags, diaphragms or similar.
3.2.4
Connection between the hydraulic system used for hatch cover operation and other hydraulic systems is
permitted only with the consent of BKI.
3.2.5
For oil level indicators, see A.3.12.1.
3.2.6
The hydraulic fluids must be suitable for the intended ambient and service temperature.
3.3
Hose assemblies
The construction of hose assemblies is to conform to Section 11, U. The requirement that hose assemblies should be of
flame-resistant construction may be set aside for hose lines in spaces not subject to a fire hazard and in systems not
important to the safety of the ship.
3.4
Emergency operation
It is recommended that devices be fitted which are independent of the main system and which enable hatch covers to be
opened and closed in the event of failure of the main system. Such devices may, for example, take the form of loose
rings enabling hatch covers to be moved by cargo winches, warping winches etc.
4.
Hydraulically operated closing appliances in the ship's shell
4.1
Scope
The following requirements apply to the power equipment of hydraulically operated closing appliances in the ship's
shell such as shell and landing doors which are not normally operated while at sea. For the design and arrangement of
the closures, see the Rules for Hull (Part 1,Vol.II), Section 6, H.
4.2
Design
4.2.1
station.
The movement of shell doors etc. may not be initiated merely by the starting of the pumps at the power
4.2.2
Local control, inaccessible to unauthorized persons, is to be provided for every closing appliance in the
ship's shell. As soon as the controls (pushbuttons, levers or similar) are released, movement of the appliance is to stop
immediately.
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Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units,
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
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4.2.3
Closing appliances in the ship's shell normally are to be visible from the control stations. If the movement
cannot be observed, audible alarms are to be fitted. In addition, the control stations are then to be equipped with
indicators enabling the execution of the movement to be monitored.
4.2.4
Closing appliances in the ship's shell are to be fitted with devices which prevent them from moving into
their end positions at excessive speed. Such devices are not to cause the power unit to be switched off.
As far as is required, mechanical means are to be provided for locking closing appliances in the open position.
4.2.5
Every power unit driving horizontally hinged or vertically operated closing appliances is to be fitted with
throttle valves or similar devices to prevent sudden dropping of the closing appliance.
4.2.6
It is recommended that the driving power be shared between at least two mutually independent pump sets.
4.3
Pipes,hose assemblies
3.2 and 3.3 are to be applied in analogous manner to the pipes and hose lines of hydraulically operated closing
appliances in the ship's shell.
5.
Bulkhead closures
5.1
General
5.1.1
Scope
5.1.1.1
The following requirements apply to the power equipment of hydraulically-operated watertight bulkhead
doors on passenger and cargo vessel.
5.1.1.2
For details of the number, design and arrangement of bulkhead doors, see Part 1, Seagoing Ships, Volume
II, Rules for Hull, Section 11, 29 and 36.
The SOLAS, Chapter II-1, Regulation 15, 16 and 25.9 are not affected by these provisions.
5.1.2
Design
Bulkhead doors are to be power-driven sliding doors moving horizontally. Other designs require the approval of BKI
and the provision of additional safety measures where necessary.
5.1.3
Piping
5.1.3.1
Wherever applicable, the requirements for pipes in hydraulic bulkhead closing systems are governed by the
Rules in 3.2, with the restriction that the use of flexible hoses is not permitted.
5.1.3.2
The hydraulic fluids must be suitable for the intended ambient and service temperatures.
5.1.4
Drive unit
5.1.4.1
A selector switch with the switch positions "local control" and "close all doors" is to be provided at the
central control station on the bridge.
Under normal conditions this switch is to be set to "local control".
In the "local control" position, the doors may be locally opened and closed without automatic closure.
In the "close all doors" position, all doors are closed automatically. They may be reopened by means of the local
control device but are to close again automatically as soon as the local door controls are released.
It is not to be possible to open the closed doors from the bridge.
5.1.4.2
Closed or open bulkhead doors are not to be set in motion automatically in the event of a power failure.
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Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
5.1.4.3
The control system is to be designed in such a way that an individual fault inside the control system,
including the piping, does not have any adverse effect on the operation of other bulkhead doors.
5.1.4.4
The controls for the power drive are to be located at least 1,6 m above the floor on both sides of the
bulkhead close to the door. The controls are to be installed in such a way that a person passing through the door is able
to hold both controls in the open position.
The controls are to return to their original position automatically when released.
5.1.4.5
The direction of movement of the controls is to be clearly marked and must be the same as the direction of
movement of the door.
5.1.4.6
In the event that an individual element fails inside the control system for the power drive, including the
piping but excluding the closing cylinders on the door or similar components, the operational ability of the manuallyoperated control system is not to be impaired.
5.1.4.7
The movement of the power driven bulkhead doors may not be initiated simply by switching on the drive
units but only by actuating additional devices.
5.1.4.8
bridge.
The control and monitoring equipment for the drive units is to be housed in the central control station on the
5.1.5
Manual control
Each door is to have a manual control system which is independent of the power drive.
5.1.6
Indicators
Visual indicators to show whether each bulkhead door is fully open or closed are to be installed at the central control
station on the bridge.
5.1.7
Electrical equipment
For details of electrical equipment, see Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV), Sections 9 and 14, D.
5.2
Passenger vessels
In addition to 5.1, the following requirements are to be taken into consideration in the case of passenger vessels:
5.2.1
Design and location
5.2.1.1
Bulkhead doors together with the power plants and including the piping, electric cables and control
instruments must have a minimum distance of 0,2 x B from the perpendiculars which interset the hull contour line
when the ship is at load draught (B = beam).
5.2.1.2
The bulkhead doors are to be capable of being closed securely using the power drive as well as using the
manual control even when the ship has a permanent heel of 15°.
5.2.1.3
Theforcerequired to close a door is to be calculated based on a static water pressure of at least 1 m above the
door coaming.
5.2.1.4
All power driven doors are to be capable of being closed simultaneously from the bridge with the ship
upright in not more than 60 seconds.
5.2.1.5
The closing speed of each individual door must have a uniform rate. Their closing time with power
operation and with the ship upright may be no more than 40 seconds and no less than 20 seconds from the start of the
motion with the door completely open until it is closed.
5.2.1.6
Power operated bulkhead closing systems may be fitted as an option with a central hydraulic drive for all
doors or with mutually independent hydraulic or electric drives for each individual door.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units,
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
5.2.1.7
Bulkhead closing system is not to be connected to other systems.
5.2.2
Central hydraulic system - power drives
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5.2.2.1
Two mutually independent power pump units are to be installed if possible above the bulkhead or freeboard
deck and outside the machinery spaces.
5.2.2.2
Each pump unit is to be capable of closing all connected bulkhead doors simultaneously.
5.2.2.3
The hydraulic system is to incorporate accumulators with sufficient capacity to operate all connected doors
three times, i.e. close, open and reclose, at the minimum permitted accumulator pressure.
5.2.3
Individual hydraulic drive
5.2.3.1
An independent power pump unit is to be fitted to each door for opening and closing the door.
5.2.3.2
An accumulator is also to be provided with sufficient capacity to operate the door three times, i.e. close,
open and reclose, at the minimum permitted accumulator pressure.
5.2.4
Individual electric drive
5.2.4.1
An independent electric drive unit is to be fitted to each door for opening and closing the door.
5.2.4.2
In the event of a failure of either the main power supply or the emergency power supply, the drive unit is
still to be capable of operating the door three times, i.e. close, open and reclose.
5.2.5
Manual control
5.2.5.1
Manual control is to be capable of being operated at the door from both sides of the bulkhead as well as
from an easily accessible control station located above the bulkhead or freeboard decks and outside the machinery
space.
5.2.5.2
The controls at the door is to allow the door to be opened and closed.
5.2.5.3
The control above the deck is to allow the door to be closed.
5.2.5.4
upright.
The fully open door is to be capable of being closed using manual control within 90 seconds with the ship
5.2.5.5
A means of communication is to be provided between the control stations for remote manual drive above the
bulkhead of freeboard decks and the central control station on the bridge.
5.2.6
Indicators
The indicators described in 5.1.6 are to be installed at the operating stations for manual control above the bulkhead or
freeboard deck for each door.
5.2.7
Alarms
5.2.7.1
While all the doors are being closed from the bridge, an audible alarm is to sound at each door. This alarm is
to start at least 5 seconds - but not more than 10 seconds - before the door start moving and is to continue right
throughout the door movement.
5.2.7.2
When the door is being closed by remote control using the manual control above the bulkhead or freeboard
deck, it is sufficient for the alarm to sound only while the door is actually moving.
5.2.7.3
The installation of an additional, intermittent visual alarm may be required in the passenger areas and in
areas where there is a high level of background noise.
5.2.7.4
With a central hydraulic system, the minimum permitted oil level in the service tank is to be signalled by
means of an independent audible and visual alarm at the central control station on the bridge.
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Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
5.2.7.5
The alarm described in 5.2.7.4 is also to be provided to signal the minimum permitted accumulator pressure
of the central hydraulic system.
5.2.7.6
A decentralized hydraulic system which has individual drive units on each door, the minimum permitted
accumulator pressure is to be signalled by means of a group alarm at the central control station on the bridge.
Visual indicators are also to be fitted at the operating stations for each individual door.
5.3
Cargo vessels
In addition to the specifications laid down in 5.1 the following requirements are to be observed for cargo vessels:
5.3.1
Manual control
5.3.1.1
The manual control is to be capable of being operated at the door from both sides of the bulkhead.
5.3.1.2
The controls are to allow the door to be opened and closed.
5.3.2
Alarms
Whilst all the doors are being closed from the bridge, an audible alarm is to be sounded all the time they are in motion.
6.
Hoists
6.1
Definition
For the purposes of these requirements, hoists include hydraulically operated appliances such as wheelhouse hoists,
lifts, lifting platforms and similar equipment.
6.2
Design
6.2.1
Hoists may be supplied either by a combined power station or individually by several power stations for
each single lifting appliances.
In the case of a combined power supply and hydraulic drives whose piping system is connected to other hydraulic
systems, a second pump unit is to be fitted.
6.2.2
The movement of hoists is not to be capable of being initiated merely by starting the pumps. The movement
of hoists is to be controlled from special operating stations. The controls are to be so arranged that, as soon as they are
released, the movement of the hoist ceases immediately.
6.2.3
Local controls, inaccessible to unauthorized persons, are to be fitted. The movement of hoists normally is to
be visible from the operating stations. If the movement cannot be observed, audible and/or visual warning devices are
to be fitted. In addition, the operating stations are then to be equipped with indicators for monitoring the movement of
the hoist.
6.2.4
Devices are to be fitted which prevent the hoist from reaching its end position at excessive speed. These
devices are not to cause the power unit to be switched off. As far as is necessary, mechanical means are to be provided
for locking the hoist in its end positions.
If the locking devices cannot be observed from the operating station, a visual indicator is to be installed at the operating
station to show the locking status.
6.2.5
3.1.3 is to be applied in analogous manner to those devices which, if the power unit fails or a pipe ruptures,
ensure that the hoist is slowly lowered.
6.3
Pipes, hose assemblies
3.2 and 3.3 apply in analogous manner to the pipes and hose lines of hydraulically operated hoists.
7.
Tests in the manufacturer's works
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units,
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
7.1
F-G
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Testing of power units
The power units are required to undergo testing on a test bed. Manufacturer Test Report for this testing are to be
presented at the final inspection of the hydraulic system.
7.2
Pressure and tightness tests
A.5.2 is applicable in analogous manner.
8.
Shipboard trials
After installation, the equipment is to undergo an operational test.
The operational test of watertight doors has to include the emergency operating system and determination of the
closing times.
F-G
G.
Fire Door Control Systems
1.
General
1.1
Scope
The requirements of G. apply to power operated fire door control systems on passenger vessel. These Rules meet the
requirements for the control systems of fire doors laid down in SOLAS 74, Chapter II-2, Regulation 9.4 as amended.
The following requirements may be applied as appropriate to other fire door control systems
1.2
Documents for approval
The electric and pneumatic diagram together with drawings of the cylinders containing all the data necessary for
assessing the system, e.g. operating data, descriptions, materials used etc., are to be submitted in triplicate for approval.
1.3
Dimensional design
For the design of pressure vessels, see Section 8; for the dimensions of pipes, see Section 11.
2.
Materials
2.1
Approved materials
Cylinders are to be made of corrosion resistant materials.
Stainless steel or copper is to be used for pipes.
The use of other materials requires the special agreement of BKI.
The use of hose assemblies is not permitted.
Insulation material has to be of an approved type.
The quality properties of all critical components for operation and safety is to conform to recognized rules and
standards.
2.2
Material testing
Suitable proof of the quality properties of the materials used is to be furnished. For parts under pressure Certificates
according to Table 11.3, for all other parts Manufacturer Test Reports are required.
BKI Surveyor reserves the right to order supplementary tests of his own to be carried out where he considers that the
circumstances justify this.
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G
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
See Section 8, B. for details on the materials testing of compressed air accumulators.
3.
G
3.1
3.2
3,5°.
Design
Each door is to be capable of being opened and closed by a single person from both sides of the bulkhead.
Fire doors are to be capable of closing automatically even against a permanent heeling angle of the ship of
3.3
The closing time of hinged doors, with the ship upright, may be no more than 40 seconds and no less than 10
seconds from the start of the movement of the door when fully open to its closed position for each individual door.
Theclosing speed of sliding doorsis to be steady and, with the ship upright, may be no more than 0,2 m/s and no less
than 0,1 m/s.
Measures are to be taken to ensure that any persons in the door areas are protected from any excessive danger.
3.4
All doors are to be capable of being closed from the central control station either jointly or in groups. It also
is to be possible to initiate closure at each individual door. The closing switch is to take the form of a locking switch.
3.5
Visual indicators are to be installed at the central control station to show that each fire door is fully closed.
3.6
Power driven doors leading from "special areas" (e.g. car decks, railway decks) in accordance with Chapter
II-2, Regulation 3.46 of SOLAS 74 as amended or from comparable spaces to control stations, stairwells and also to
accommodation and service spaces and which are closed when the ship is at sea do not need to be equipped with
indicators as described in 3.5 and alarms as described in 3.12.
3.7
Operating agents for the control system are to be installed next to each door on both sides of the bulkhead
and by their operation a door which has been closed from the central control station can be reopened. The controls are
to return to their original position when released, thereby causing the door to close again.
In an emergency it is to be possible to use the controls to interrupt immediately the opening of the door and bring about
its immediate closure.
A combination of the controls with the door handle may be permitted.
The controls are to be designed in such a way that an open door can be closed locally. In addition, each door is to be
capable of being locked locally in such a way that it can no longer be opened by remote control.
3.8
The control unit at the door is to be equipped with a device which will vent the pneumatic system or cut off
the electric energy of the door control system, simultaneously shutting off the main supply line and thereby allowing
emergency operation by hand.
3.9
The door is to close automatically should the central power supply fail. The doors may not reopen
automatically when the central supply is restored.
Accumulator systems are to be located in the immediate vicinity of the door being sufficient to allow their supply of air
being sufficient to allow the door to be completely opened and closed at least ten more times, with the ship upright,
using the local controls.
3.10
Measures are to be taken to ensure that the door can still be operated by hand in the event of failure of the
energy supply.
3.11
Should the central energy supply fail in the local control area of a door, the capability of the other doors to
function may not be adversely affected.
3.12
Doors which are closed from the central control station are to be fitted with an audible alarm. Once the door
close command has been given this alarm is to start at least 5 seconds, but not more than 10 seconds before the door
starts to move and continue sounding until the door is completely closed.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units,
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
G-H
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3.13
Fire doors are to be fitted with safety strips such that a closing door reopens as soon as contact is made with
them. Following contact with the safety strip, the opening travel of the door is to be no more than 1 m.
Local door controls, including all components, are to be accessible for maintenance and adjustment.
3.14
3.15
The control system is to be of approved design. Their capability to operate in the event of fire is to be proven
in accordance with the FTP-Code1) and under supervision of BKI.
The control system is to conform to the following minimum requirements.
3.15.1
The door still is to be capable of being operated safely for 60 minutes at a minimum ambient temperature of
200 °C by means of the central energy supply.
3.15.2
The central energy supply for the other doors not affected by fire may not be impaired.
3.15.3
At ambient temperatures in excess of 300 °C the central energy supply is to be shut off automatically and
the local control system is to be de-energized. The residual energy is still to be sufficient to close an open door
completely during this process.
The shut-off device is to be capable of shutting off the energy supply for one hour with a temperature variation
corresponding to the standardized time-temperature curve given in SOLAS 74, Chapter II-2, Regulation 3.
3.16
The pneumatic system is to be protected against overpressure.
3.17
Drainage and venting facilities are to be provided.
3.18
Air filtering and drying facilities are to be provided.
3.19
For details of the electrical equipment, see Rules for Electrical Installations (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 14, D.
4.
Tests in the manufacturer’s works
The complete control system is to be subjected to a type approval test. In addition the required construction according
to 2.and 3. and the operability have to be proven for the complete drive.
5.
Shipboard trials
After installation, the systems are to be subjected to an operating test which also includes emergencyoperation and the
verification of closing times.
G-H
H.
Stabilizers
1.
General
1.1
Scope
The requirements contained in H. apply to stabilizer drive units necessary for the operation and safety of the ship.
1.2
Documents for approval
Assembly and general drawings together with diagrams of the hydraulic and electrical equipment containing all the
data necessary for checking are to be submitted in triplicate for approval.
2.
Design
A.2.1.3 and A.2.1.4 are applicable in analogous manner to the pipe connections of hydraulic drive units.
1)
IMO Res. MSC.61(67)
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H
Section 14–Steering Gears, Rudder Propeller Units
Lateral Thrust Unit, Winches, Hydraulic Control Systems,
Fire Door Control Systems and Stabilizers
3.
Pressure and tightness test
H
A.5.2 is applicable in analogous manner.
4.
Shipboard trials
The operational efficiency of the stabilizer equipment is to be demonstrated during the sea trials.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 15–Special Requirements for Tankers
A
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Section 15
Special Requirements for Tankers
A
A.
General
1.
Scope
1.1
These requirements apply to tankers for the carriage of flammable, toxic, corrosive or otherwise hazardous
liquids. International and national regulations remain unaffected.
1.2
For the purposes of these requirements, tankers are:
a)
ships for the carriage of liquids in tanks which form part of the hull, and
b)
ships with fixed tanks independent of the hull and used for the carriage of liquids.
1.3
In addition to the general requirements for tankers in B:
-
tankers for the carriage of oil cargoes are subject to the provisions of C.
-
tankers for carriage of hazardous chemicals in bulk are subject to the provisions of Rules for Ships Carrying
Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (Part 1, Vol.X).
-
tankers for the carriage of liquefied gases in bulk are subject to the provisions ofRules for Ships Carrying
Liquefied Gases in Bulk (Part 1, Vol.IX).
-
for inert gas plants D.
2.
Definitions
For the purposes of this Section, the cargo area includes cargo tanks, hold spaces for independent cargo tanks, tanks
and spaces adjacent to cargo tanks, cofferdams, cargo pump rooms and the area above these spaces.
For the purposes of this Section, separate piping and venting systems are those which can, when necessary, be isolated
from other piping systems by removing spool pieces or valves and blanking the pipe ends.
For the purposes of this Section, independentpiping and venting systems are those for which no means for the
connection to other systems are provided.
3.
Documents for approval
3.1
According to the type of ship, at least the documents (schematic plans, detail/arrangement drawings)
specified in 3.2 together with all the information necessary for their assessment are to be submitted to BKI in
triplicate1) for approval.To facilitate a smooth and efficient approval process. the drawings could be submitted in
electronic format.
3.2
For ships for the carriage of flammable liquids and chemicals:
-
cargo piping system including the location of cargo pumps and their drivingmachinery
-
gastight shaft penetrations for pumps and fans
-
cargo tank vent system with pressure-vacuum relief valve including flame arrestors and cargo tank vapor
return and collecting pipes
1)
For ships flying Indonesian flag in quadruplicate, one of which intended for the Indonesian Government
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A-B
Section 15–Special Requirements for Tankers
-
cargo tank gauging/sounding devices, level/ overfill alarms and temperature indicating equipment
-
bilge and ballast water lines for the cargo area
-
ventilation equipment for spaces in the cargo area
-
heating and steaming-out lines for cargo tanks
-
fire fighting/extinguishing equipment for the cargo area
-
fixed cargo tank cleaning system
-
remote-controlled valves system including actuating equipment
-
details of the liquid cargoes to be carried
-
details of the materials coming into contact with the cargoes or their vapors
-
pressure drop calculation of the vent system based on the maximum loading/unloading rates
-
gas freeing arrangements for cargo and ballast tanks and cofferdams
-
emergency release system for bow loading piping and SPM arrangements
-
inert gas plant and system for cargo tanks, inerting of ballast tanks
-
mechanically driven fans in the cargo area
-
safety equipment in pump rooms, temperature monitoring of cargo pumpbearings/housing etc.
gas detection system in pump room.
4.
References to further Rules
Part 1, BKI Rules for the Classification and Construction of Seagoing Steel Ships.
4.1
For the ship's hull: Rules for Hull (Part 1, Vol.II), Section 24.
4.2
For pipelines, pumps, valves and fittings: Section 11.
4.3
For fire extinguishing and fire protection: Section 12.
4.4
For electrical equipment: Rulesfor Electrical Installation (Part 1,Vol.IV), Section 15.
4.5
Attention is also drawn to compliance with the provisions of the International Convention for the
Preventionof Pollution from Ships of 1973 and of the relevant Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78) Annex I & II.
A-B
B.
General Requirements for Tankers
1.
Cargo pumps
1.1
Location
1.1.1
Cargo pumps are to be located on deck, in the cargo tanks or in special pump rooms separated from other
ship's spaces by gastight decks and bulkheads. Pump rooms shall be accessible only from the cargo area and shall not
be connected to engine rooms or spaces which contain sources of ignition.
1.1.2
Penetrations of pump room bulkheads by shafts are to be fitted with gastight seals. Provision shall be made
for lubricating the seals from outside the pump room.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 15–Special Requirements for Tankers
B
3/22
Overheating of the seals and the generation of sparks are to be avoided by appropriate design and the choice of suitable
materials.
B
Where steel bellows are used in gastight bulkhead penetrations, they are to be subjected to a pressure test at 5 bar prior
to fitting.
1.2
Equipment and operation
1.2.1
Cargo pumps are to be protected against over pressure by means of relief valves discharging into the suction
line of the pump.
Where at the flow Q=0 the discharge pressure of centrifugal pumps does not exceed the design pressure of the cargo
piping, relief valves may be dispensed with if temperature sensors are fitted in the pump housing which stop the pump
or activate an alarm in the event of overheating.
1.2.2
It shall be possible to control the capacity of the cargo pumps both from the pump room and from a suitable
location outside this room. Means are to be provided for stopping cargo pumps from a position above the tank deck.
1.2.3
At all pump operating positions and cargo handling positions on deck, pressure gauges for monitoring pump
pressures are to be fitted. The maximum permissible working pressure is to be indicated by a red mark on the scale.
1.2.4
The drain pipes of steam-driven pumps and steam lines shall terminate at a sufficient height above the bilge
bottom to prevent the ingress of cargo residues.
1.3
Drive
1.3.1
Drive motors are to be installed outside the cargo area. Exceptions are steam-driven machines where the
steam temperature does not exceed 220oC.
1.3.2
Hydraulic cargo pump driving machinery (e.g. for submerged pumps) may be installed inside the cargo area.
1.3.3
15.
For electric motors used to drive cargo pumps see Rules forElectrical Installations (Part 1, Vol.IV), Section
2.
Cargo Line system
2.1
Line installation
2.1.1
Cargo line systems shall be permanently installed and completely separated from other piping systems. In
general they may not extend beyond the cargo area. For bow and stern cargo lines see C.5, and Rules for Ships
Dangerous Chemical in Bulk (Part 1, Vol.X), Section 3, 3.7.
2.1.2
Cargo lines are to be so installed that any remaining cargo can be drained into the cargo tanks. Filling pipes
for cargo tanks are to extend down to the bottom of the tank.
2.1.3
Expansion bends, expansion bellows and other approved expansion joints are to be fitted as necessary.
2.1.4
Seawater inlets shall be separated from cargo lines e.g. by two stop valves, one of which is to be locked in
the closed position.
2.1.5
Seawater inlet and outlet (sea chest) for ballast and cargo systems are to be arranged separately.
2.2
Design of cargo lines
2.2.1
For the design of cargo lines see Section 11, C. Minimum wall thickness shall be in accordance with Table
11.5, group N. Possible delivery heads of shore based pumps and gravity tanks shall be taken into account.
2.2.2
Welding is the preferred method of connecting cargo lines.
Cargo oil pipes shall not pass through ballast tanks. Exemptions for short lengths of pipe may be approved by BKI on
condition that 4.3.4 is applied analogously.
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
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2.3
B
Section 15–Special Requirements for Tankers
Valves, fittings and equipment
2.3.1
Hose connections are to be made of cast steel or other ductile materials and are to be fitted with shut-off
valves and blind flanges.
2.3.2
Extension rods for stop valves inside cargo tanks are to be fitted with gastight deck penetrations and
open/closed indicators. All other cargo stop valves are to be so designed as to indicate whether they are open or closed.
2.3.3
Emergency operating mechanisms are to be provided for stop valves which are actuated hydraulically or
pneumatically. Hand-operated pumps which are connected to the hydraulic system in such a way that they can be
isolated may be regarded as emergency operating mechanisms.
An emergency operating mechanism controlled from the deck can be dispensed with provided that the cargo tank can
be emptied by another line or the shut-off valve is located in the adjacent tank.
2.3.4
At the positions for monitoring the cargo loading and discharging operations, the cargo lines are to be fitted
with pressure gauges with a red mark denoting the maximum permissible working pressure.
2.3.5
Provision shall be made for the safe draining, gas-freeing and cleaning of the cargo line system.
3.
Tank heating and steaming out lines
3.1
Tank heating
This is subject to the appropriate requirements concerning the heating of fuels, Section 10, B.5.
3.2
Valves and fittings for the tank heating system
Steam lines to the individual heating coils of the cargo tanks are to be fitted with screw-down non-return valves. Means
of testing the condensate for ingress of oil are to be fitted before the stop valves in the heating coil outlets.
3.3
Condensate return
The condensate from the heating system is to be returned to the feedwater system via observation tanks. Condensate
observation tanks are to be arranged and equipped such that cargo residues in the condensate will not constitute a
hazard in engine room or other gas safe spaces. Vent pipes shall be fitted with flame arrester complying with 6 and
shall be led to the open deck in a safe position.
3.4
Tank heating with special heat-transfer media
3.4.1
Thermal oil systems are subject to the requirements in Sections 7 II and 11, Q.
3.4.2
A secondary circuit system is to be provided which is entirely located in the cargo area.
A single-circuit system may be approved if:
-
the expansion vessel mentioned in Section 7 II, C.3 is so arranged that at the minimum liquid level in the
expansion vessel, the pressure in the thermal oil system with the thermal fluid circulating pump inoperative
is at least 0.3 bar higher than the static pressure of the cargo
-
all shut-off valves between the cargo tanks and the expansion vessel can be locked in the open position, and
-
a means of detecting flammable gases in the expansion vessel is provided. The use of a portable unit may be
approved.
3.5
Steaming out lines
Steam lines for steaming out cargo tanks and cargo lines are to be fitted with screw-down non-return valves.
3.6
Tank heating systems on chemical tankers
These are additionally subject to the requirements of Rules for Ships Carrying DangerousChemicals in Bulk (Part 1,
BKI Rules For Machinery Installation-2014
Section 15–Special Requirements for Tankers
B
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Vol.X), Section 7.
4.
Bilge and ballast systems
4.1
Calculation of the bilge pipe diameter
4.1.1
Bilge systems for the cargo area are to be separated from those of other areas.
Bilge systems for the cargo area are to be located in the cargo area.
Bilge systems for machinery spaces are subject to Section 11, N.2.3.
4.1.2
For spaces in the cargo area of combination carriers the bilge system is to be designed in accordance with
Section 11, N.2.2.
4.1.3
For spaces for independent tanks on tankers according to A.1.2. b) the diameters of the main and branch
bilge lines are calculated as follows:
d = 1,68. (B + H)ℓ − (b + h)ℓ
+ 25[mm]
d = 2,15. (B + H)ℓ − (b + h)ℓ + 25[mm]Where:
dH
[mm]
inside diameter of main bilge line
dz
[mm]
inside diameter of branch bilge line
B
[m]
breadth of ship
H
[m]
moulded depth of ship
ℓ2
[m]
total length of cargo area
ℓ
[m]
length of watertight compartment
b
[m]
maximum breadth of cargo tanks
h
[m]
maximum depth of cargo tanks
ℓT2
[m]
total length of all cargo tanks
ℓT
[m]
length of tanks in the watertight compartment.
The capacity of each bilge pump is to be calculated according to Section 11, N.3.1. At least two bilge pumps are to be
provided.
4.1.4
When separate bilge pumps, e.g. ejectors are provided for compartments with independent tanks with
watertight bulkheads the pump capacity is to be evaluated as specified in 4.1.3 and is to be divided according the length
of the individual compartments. For each compartment two bilge pumps are to be fitted of a capacity of not less than 5
m3/h each.
4.1.5
Spaces for independent tanks are to be provided with sounding arrangements.
When ballast or cooling water lines are fitted in spaces for independent tanks bilge level alarms are to be provided.
4.2
Bilge pumping of cargo pump rooms and cofferdams in the cargo area
4.2.1
Bilge pumping equipment is to be located in the cargo area to serve the cargo pump rooms and cofferdams.
A cargo pump may also be used as a bilge pump. On oil tankers used exclusively for the carriage of flammable liquids
with flash points above 60 C
̊ , cargo pump rooms and cofferdams may be connected to the engine room bilge system.
4.2.2
Where a cargo pump is used as bilge pump, measures are to be taken, e.g. by fitting screw-down non-return
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B
Section 15–Special Requirements for Tankers
valves, to ensure that cargo cannot enter the bilge system. Where the bilge line can be pressurized from the cargo
system, an additional non-return valve is to be fitted.
4.2.3
Means shall be provided for pumping the bilges when special circumstances render the pump room
inaccessible. The equipment necessary for this is to be capable of being operated from outside the pump room or from
the pump room casing above the tank deck (freeboard deck).
4.3
Ballast systems in the cargo area
4.3.1
Means for ballasting segregated ballast tanks adjacent to cargo tanks shall be located in the cargo area and
are to be independent of piping systems forward and aft of the cofferdams.
4.3.2
On oil tankers the fore peak tank may be connected to the ballast systems under following conditions :
-
the fore peak tank is considered as gas dangerous space
-
the vent pipe openings are to be located 3 metres away from sources of ignition
-
means are to be provided on the open deck for the measurement of flammable gas concentrations inside the
peak tank.
-
access openings and sounding arrangements to this space are to be located on the open deck. In case where
the fore peak is separated by a cofferdam from the cargo tanks, a bolted manhole may be permitted in an
enclosed space with the following warning notice :
“ This manhole may only be opened after the tank has been proven gas free or all sources of ignition
have been removed respectively electrical equipment in this space which is not of certified safe type
has been isolated “.
4.3.3
On oil tankers an emergency discharge connection through a spool piece to cargo pumps may be provided. A
non-return device in the ballast system shall be provided to prevent the back fl