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МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ
УКРАЇНИ
ТЕРНОПІЛЬСЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ
ТЕХНІЧНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ ІМЕНІ ІВАНА ПУЛЮЯ
Кафедра української та
іноземних мов
ENGLISH
навчальний посібник
з англійської мови для студентів І-ІІ
курсів спеціальності
«Автомобілі і автомобільне господарство»
Тернопіль 2013
1
English: навчальний посібник з англійської мови для студентів І-ІІ курсів
спеціальності «Автомобілі і автомобільне господарство» / Ж. В. Баб’як,
O. І. Боднар, Л. А Джиджора, Л. Й. Петришина. – Тернопіль, ТНТУ
ім. І. Пулюя, 2013. – с. 92
Укладачі:Баб’як Ж. В., Боднар О. І., Джиджора Л. А., Петришина Л. Й.
Відповідальний за випуск: Боднар О. І.
Методичні вказівки розглянуті і затверджені на засіданні кафедри
української та іноземних мов Тернопільського національного технічного
університету імені Івана Пулюя.Протокол № 1 від 5 вересня 2012 р.
Схвалено і рекомендовано до на засіданні методичноїкомісії
факультету по роботі з іноземними студентами Тернопільського
національного технічного університету імені Івана Пулюя.Протокол № 2
від 27 вересня 2013 р.
2
Передмова
Головною метою навчання іноземної мови спеціального вжитку є
оволодіння мовою не лише як інформативним засобом, але й інструментом
спілкування у професійно-орієнтованих комунікативних ситуаціях
майбутньої фахової діяльності.
Запрпонований навчальний посібник складається із ІV розділів.
Розділи І – ІІІ містять автентичні науково-технічні тексти, що призначенні
для аудиторного читання. Комплекс післятекстових вправ спрямований на
розвиток навичок усного мовлення та засвоєння нових лексичних одиниць
і термінів, що використовуються у професійній сфері спілкування. У ІV
розділі подано тексти, які призначені для домашнього читання.
3
Contents
Part I…………………………………………………………………………
Lesson 1. Essential parts of an automobile………………………………..
Unit 2. Types of Waves……………………………………………………...
Unit 3. Speed of Waves……………………………………………………...
Unit 4. Interactions of Waves………………………………………………
Unit 5. Electromagnetic Waves…………………………………………….
Unit 6. Type of Waves………………………………………………………
5
8
10
13
16
19
Part II……………………………………………………………………......
Unit 1. Infrared Rays……………………………………………………….
Unit 2. Visible Light………………………………………………………...
Unit 3. Wave or Particle?...............................................................................
Unit 4. Reflection of Light…………………………………………………
Unit 5. Reflection and Mirrors……………………………………………..
Unit 6. Refraction of Light………………………………………………….
Unit 7. Optical Instruments………………………………………………...
Unit 8. Lasers……………………………………………………………......
Unit 9. Fiber Optics…………………………………………………………
22
22
25
29
31
34
37
40
43
47
Part III……………………………………………………………………….
Unit 1. A Halogen Lamp……………………………………………………
Unit 2. LED Lamp………………………………………………………......
Unit 3. Electroluminescent Wire…………………………………………...
Unit 4. Black Light………………………………………………………….
Unit 5. Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL)……………………………….
Unit 6. Plasma Lamps. ………………………………………………….....
Unit 7. Architectural Lighting Design………………………………….....
52
52
54
57
59
62
65
68
Part IV………………………………………………………………………. 70
Additional reading………………………………………………………….. 70
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Part I
Lesson 1.Essential parts of an automobile.
Vocabulary notes:
simultaneously – одночасно;
internal combustion engine – двигун
внутрішнього згоряння;
combustion
chamber–
камера
згоряння;
to ignite – запалювати;
power stroke– (такт розширення)
робочий хід;
timing– (тут) синхронність;
drivetrain – силова передача
(привідний механізм);
transmission – трансмісія, коробка
передач;
gear differential – диференціал з
шестернями;
tank – паливний бак;
injector– форсунка, інжектор;
exhaust system– вихлопна система
(система випуску відпрацьованих
газів);
frame – рама;
steering system – система рульового
керування;
suspension system– ходова частина;
via– через;
alternator – генератор;
fuel pump– паливний насос;
sparkplug– свічка запалювання;
headlights (headlamps) – фари
головного світла;
dashboard– панель інструментів;
fuse– запобіжник;
body – кузов;
fiberglass – скловолокно;
bonnet (hood Am.E) – капот;
grille– решітка радіатора;
boot (trunk Am.E) lid – кришка
багажника;
drag– аеродинамічний (лобовий)
опір;
tyre (tireAm.E) – шина;
to pinch– затискати;
brake pad– гальмівна колодка
(дискових гальм);
caliper– супорт;
brake shoe – гальмівна колодка
(барабанних гальм);
fuel gauge – покажчик рівня палива;
rotation – оберти;
leak– протікання
Essential parts of an automobile.
Automobiles are made up of many small components that form complex
systems, all of which work together for you to drive the car. The car is a
complex machine with several systems functioning simultaneously. While most
modern cars contain computerized systems that are beyond the understanding of
all but the most specialized technicians, knowing the basic parts of a car and
how they function makes it easier to notice problems, perform basic repairs and
drive more responsibly.
The Engine
Every car is powered by an engine, and most cars use an internal
combustion engine that runs on (petrol) gasoline or diesel. Fuel, along with air,
is drawn into a combustion chamber where it is compressed and ignited by a
spark. The resulting combustion provides a power stroke that, when repeated
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rapidly, powers the car. Engines are often referred to by the number of cylinders
they have, and each cylinder contains its own combustion chamber. A car's
overall power is a function of the size of the engine as well as factors such as the
timing of the combustion and the type of transmission used.
The drive train
The drive train is the system that generally makes your car move. It includes
the engine, which burns fuel to produce the mechanical energy that moves the
car, as well as the transmission, which changes the gear differential to use the
power produced by the engine efficiently. It can also include the fuel system,
consisting of the tank; various filters, fuel injectors or carburetors; the exhaust
system, which removes the engine's waste products; the cooling system, which
prevents the engine from overheating, and the braking system, which stops the
car.
Chassis
The chassis of the car contains the skeletal frame of the car. The most
notable components of the chassis are the steering system, which allows you to
turn the wheels and change direction; the suspension system, which keeps the
wheels on the ground, prevents a bumpy ride and stabilizes the steering; the
frame that supports all the car's parts and keeps them together, and the wheels.
The Electrical System
A car's electrical system is powered by a rechargeable battery that draws its
power from the engine itself. The battery – which is charged by the running
engine via the alternator – is used to start the car, providing the initial motion
of the engine and powering devices such as the fuel pump, starter, car's
computer which micromanages many of the sensitive components, as well as the
engine's spark plugs, headlights, interior and dashboard lights, and stereo
system. Most cars also have additional uses for the electrical system such as
power automatic windows or door locks. All of these electrical items are wired
to the battery with a series of fuses ensuring that the electrical system can
continue to function even if one part fails.
The body
Much engineering goes into designing the car's body, which is composed of
the metal, plastic or fiberglass pieces that cover the hood, roof, doors and sides
of the car. It also includes the bumpers, windows, grille and trunk lid. The
design of the car body must attempt to minimize drag to increase fuel
efficiency, as well as be aesthetically appealing to the driver.
Brakes and Wheels
Various types of wheels and tyres are useful for driving under specific
conditions. All-season tires, for example, have the versatility of being used
throughout the year, even if severe conditions occur. A car's brakes are one of its
most important safety features and generally come in one of two types: disc or
drum. Disc brakes use a disc, which is pinched between brake pads mounted
on calipers to slow the motion of the car. Drum brakes use shoes that push
outward to contact the inside of a spinning cylinder, or drum. Some cars contain
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both types of brakes (one type for the front wheels, another for the rear wheels)
to take advantage of the best each type of braking system has to offer.
Dashboard Instruments
One of the most visible parts of a car is its instrumentation. Most drivers are
aware of the speedometer and fuel gauge, but other dashboard instruments are
equally important. A tachometer, which displays engine speed in rotations per
minute (RPM), indicates how hard the engine is working. An oil pressure gauge
or engine temperature gauge can be useful in diagnosing common problems,
such as a leak of oil or engine coolant respectively. Stopping a car when oil
pressure begins to drop or temperature begins to rise can avoid catastrophic
engine failure.
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.
1. What are the main component parts of an automobile? 2. What is the engine?
3. Explain the operating principle of the engine. 4. What is the drive train and
what parts does it consist of? 5. What are some basic components of the chassis?
6. What is the purpose of the vehicle’s electrical system? 7. What is the
alternator used for? 8. What parts does the car’s body consist of? 9. What types
of brakes are used in the car? 10. What is a dashboard? 11. Name some
dashboard instruments. 12. What do you think is the most important part of the
automobile?
Exercise 2. Translate the following words and word combinations into
Ukrainian.
complex systems, powered by an engine, runs on petrol, spark, combustion
chamber, type of transmission, to use efficiently, the fuel system, overheating,
braking system, wheels, bumpy ride, starter, power automatic windows, trunk
lid, driving under specific conditions, rotations per minute, oil pressure gauge,
engine coolant, catastrophic engine failure
Exercise 3. Translate the following words and word combinations into
English.
працювати одночасно, дизельний двигун, згоряння, ефективно
використовувати, паливна система, запобігати перенагріванню, скелет
автомобіля, змінювати напрям руху, ходова частина, колесо, шина, рама,
економія пального, зменшити аеродинамічний опір, барабанні гальма,
супорт, передні/задні колеса, оберти за хвилину, охолоджувальна рідина,
пошкодження двигуна
Exercise 4. Match the term with its Ukrainian equivalent.
a) двигун внутрішнього згоряння
b) система рульового керування
1) internal combustion engine
2) power stroke
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c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
3) combustion chamber
4) injector
5) suspension system
6) headlights
7) fuse
8) hood
9) fuel gauge
10) steering system
фари головного світла
покажчик рівня палива
запобіжник
капот
форсунка, інжектор
(такт розширення) робочий хід
ходова частина
камера згоряння
Exercise 5. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.
1. A … is the part of an engine in which fuel is burned.
a) combustion
room
b) combustion
chamber
c) combustion
camera
d)
combustion
cylinder
2. In motor vehicles the … adapts the output of the internal combustion engine
to the drive wheels.
a) frame
b) injector
c) transistor
d) transmission
3. A spark … delivers electric current to ignite the mixture of air and fuel in the
combustion chamber.
a) plug
b) bug
c) drag
d) fuse
4. The … system removes the engine's waste products.
a) intake
b) pipe
c) suspension
d) exhaust
5. … system allows a vehicle to follow the desired direction.
a) Brake
b) Steering
c) Suspension
d) Exhaust
6. The car draws its electrical power from …, which is charged by the running
engine via the alternator.
a) battery
b) generator
c) power station
d) hood
7. The … system keeps the wheels on the ground, prevents a bumpy ride and
stabilizes the steering.
a) exhaust
b) steering
c) suspension
d) ignition
8. A … is a lamp attached to the front of a vehicle to light the road ahead.
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a) rear light
b) front light
c) headlight
d) taillight
9. The … of an automobile is the vehicle's main storage compartment located at
the rear part of the vehicle.
a) tank
b) boot
c) bank
d) bonnet
10. A … brake is a wheel brake which slows rotation of the wheel by the friction
caused by pushing brake pads against a brake disc with a set of calipers.
a) drum
b) hand
c) head
d) disc
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Будь-який автомобіль складається з трьох основних частин: двигуна
шасі і кузова. 2. Шасі складається із трансмісії, ходової частини, механізму
керування. 3. До механізмів керування належать рульове керування, що
призначене для зміни напряму руху автомобіля та гальмівна система, яка
призначена для зниження швидкості автомобіля аж до повної його
зупинки.4. У легкових автомобілях двигун може розташовуватися в його
передній або задній частині. 5. Двигун внутрішнього згоряння –
найпоширеніший тип двигуна, що використовується у більшості
транспортних засобів. 6. Паливна суміш потрапляє в камеру згоряння, де
вона стискається та запалюється іскрою. 7. Система охолодження – це
система, що призначена для охолодження двигунів та інших частин
автомобіля і підтримання їх в оптимальному температурному режимі
(operatingtemperature). 8. До найважливіших елементів шасі автомобілів
відносяться трансмісія, рульове керування або механізм керування та
гальмівна система. 9. Механізм керування автомобілем складається з двох
систем: рульового керування і гальмової системи. 10. Електрообладнання
автомобіля (car electrical equipment) служить для запуску двигуна,
внутрішнього освітлення автомобіля, освітлення дороги, звукової і
світлової сигналізації, а також живить електричним струмом контрольновимірювальні прилади і систему запалювання. 11. Кузов кріпиться до рами
автомобіля. 12. Дискові гальма, як правило, ефективніші ніж барабанні.
13. Всесезонні шини – це шини, розроблені спеціально для використання
протягом усього року при різних погодних умовах. 14. Тахометр – це
прилад, що вимірює кількість обертів двигуна за хвилину. 15. Тиск масла –
це важливий показник стану двигуна.
Lesson 2.The Internal Combustion Engine
Vocabulary notes:
Internal combustion engine – двигун camshaft
–
карданний
внутрішнього згоряння;
кулачковий вал;
9
вал,
rotary – обертальний;
reciprocating
–
зворотнопоступальний;
crankcase – картер;
crankshaft – карданний вал;
combustion chamber
згоряння;
flywheel – маховик;
valve – клапан
–
камера
TextA.
Internal combustion is the process of the burning of fuel within the engine. The
fuel burns within the engine and provides forces. These forces provide the
engine power. Internal combustion engines have stationary, rotary and
reciprocating parts. Stationary Engine Parts. The stationary engine parts are
the cylinder block, the crankcase and the cylinder head. The cylinder block is
one of the basic parts of the engine. The process of combustion takes place
within the cylinders. The crankcase is a part of the cylinder. It supports the
crankshaft and the camshaft and keeps the lubricating oil near the engine parts.
The cylinder heads close the cylinders. The cylinders and the cylinder heads
form the combustion chamber. The burning of fuel takes place within the
combustion chambers.
Rotary Engine Parts. Rotary engine parts are the crankshaft, the flywheel and
the camshaft. The crankshaft changes reciprocating motion of pistons to rotary
motion. The camshaft opens the valves of the engine.
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.
1. What process takes place in internal combustion engines? 2. What does the
burning of fuel provide? 3. What are the basic parts of the internal combustion
engine? 4. What are the stationary engine parts? 5. What does the crankcase
support? 6. What is the function of the cylinder heads? 7. What do cylinders and
cylinder heads form? 8. Where does the burning of fuel take place? 9. What are
the rotary engine parts? 10. What is the function of the crankshaft? 11. What
does the camshaft open?
Exercise 2. Give Ukrainian equivalents for the following terms and phrases.
the process of the burning of fuel, within the engine, the engine power, the
cylinder head, the cylinder block, keeps the lubricating oil, the combustion
chamber, the camshaft, the crankshaft, reciprocating motion of pistons, rotary
motion, valves of the engine
Exercise 3. Give English equivalents for the following terms and phrases
using the text.
процес внутрішнього згоряння, нерухомі частини, зворотно-поступальні
частини, блок циліндрів, один із основних деталей двигуна, відбуватися у
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циліндрі, утримувати мастило, камера згоряння, маховик, обертання
(обертальний рух), поршень, відкривати клапани
Exercise 4.Match the term with its Ukrainian equivalent.
1) engine power
2) combustion
3) crankcase
4) crankshaft
5) camshaft
6) to lubricate
7) flywheel
8) piston
9) reciprocating motion
10) valve
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
картер
розподільний вал
клапан
маховик
зворотно-поступальний рух
колінчастий вал
поршень
потужність двигуна
змащувати
згоряння
Exercise 5. Insert the appropriate term.
1. Internal … engines are commonly used in motor vehicles.
a) burning
b) explosion
c) combustion
d) blast
2. The stationary engine parts are the cylinder block, the … and the cylinder
head.
a) piston
b) crankshaft
c) crankcase
d) camshaft
3. The crankcase supports the crankshaft and the …, and keeps the lubricating
oil near the engine parts.
a) flywheel
b) valve
c) crankshaft
d) camshaft
4. The cylinders and the cylinder … form the combustion chamber.
a) block
b) heads
c) pistons
d) valves
5. The camshaft opens the … of the engine.
a) valves
b) pistons
c) heads
d) flywheels
6. Rotary engine parts are the crankshaft, the …and the camshaft.
a) pistons
b) crankcase
c) cylinders
d) flywheel
7. The combustion chamber is formed by the cylinder heads and … .
a) flywheels
b) cylinders
c) valves
d) camshaft
8. A… is used to maintain constant angular velocity (частота обертання) of the
crankshaft in a reciprocating engine.
a) flywheel
b) camshaft
c) valve
d) crankcase
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Exercise 6. Insert the necessary word.
1. The ... changes reciprocating motion of pistons to rotary motion. 2. The ...
opens the valves of the engine. 3. The ... is one of the basic parts of the engine.
4. The cylinder and the ... form the combustion chamber. 5. The ... of fuel
provides forces. 6. The ... keeps the lubricating oil near the engine parts.
(cylinder head, camshaft, burning, crankcase, crankshaft, cylinder block).
Text B. Reciprocating Engine Parts (I)
Terms to remember:
piston – поршень;
lubrication– змащення;
ring – кільце;
intake valve– впускний клапан;
connecting rod– шатун;
exhaust valve– випускний клапан;
piston pin– поршневий палець;
The internal combustion engine has reciprocating parts: pistons, rings,
valves and connecting rods. These parts cause engine vibration. The piston
moves up and down within the cylinder. The piston head receives the force from
the combustion of fuel within the cylinder and transmits it to the piston pin,
connecting rod and crankshaft. The piston has four rings. Three rings are at the
head of the piston and provide good compression. One ring is at the bottom of
the piston. It controls the cylinder lubrication. The piston rings absorb heat
from the piston and transmit it to the cylinder.
The engine has valves. They are intake valves and exhaust valves. Intake
valves allow the fuel to enter the combustion chamber. Exhaust valves allow the
gases to pass from the combustion chamber. So the valves open and close the
combustion chamber where the burning of fuel takes place. A camshaft opens
each valve. The connecting rod links the pistons and the crankshaft. It changes
the reciprocating motion of pistons into the rotary motion of the crankshaft.
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.
1. What are the reciprocating engine parts? 2. Why does the engine vibrate?
3. Where is the piston placed and what function does it carry out? 4. What parts
of the engine provide good compression? 5. What gives an engine the power?
6. What are the two types of valves? 7. What is the function of the
intake/exhaust valve? 8. What links the pistons and the crankshaft?
Exercise 2. Say whether the following statements are true or false.
1. The internal combustion engine has reciprocating parts: pistons, rings, valves
and connecting bars.
2. The reciprocating parts of the engine cause vibration.
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3. The piston moves up and down within the cylinder.
4. The piston has rings.
5. Intake valves don’t allow the fuel to enter the combustion chamber.
6. A crankshaft opens each valve.
7. Exhaust valves allow the gases to pass from the combustion chamber.
8. The valves open and close the combustion chamber where the burning of fuel
takes place.
9. The connecting rod links the pistons and the camshaft.
10. The connecting rod changes the reciprocating motion of pistons into the
rotary motion of the crankshaft.
Exercise 3.Give Ukrainian equivalents for the following terms and phrases.
reciprocating parts, pistons rings, combustion of fuel, piston pin, crankshaft,
provide good compression, the cylinder lubrication, absorb heat from the piston,
allow the fuel to enter the combustion chamber, camshaft, rotary motion of the
crankshaft
Exercise 4. Translate the following terms and word combinations into
English.
шатун, поршень, зворотно-поступальні частини двигуна внутрішнього
згоряння, поршневий палець, колінчастий вал, поршневі кільця,
забезпечувати хорошу компресію, поглинати тепло, впускний/випускний
клапан, камера згоряння, розподільний вал, змінювати зворотнопоступальний рух на обертальний
Exercise 5.Match the term with its Ukrainian equivalent.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
1) connecting rod
2) pin
3) crankshaft
4) to absorb
5) intake valve
6) combustion chamber
7) camshaft
8) reciprocating
9) rotary
10) exhaust valve
колінчастий вал
впускний клапан
камера згоряння
зворотно-поступальний
обертальний
шатун
розподільний вал
випускний клапан
палець
поглинати
Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Поршні, поршневі пальці, клапани, шатуни – це зворотно-поступальні
деталі двигуна внутрішнього згоряння. 2. Зворотно-поступальний рух
деталей спричинює вібрацію двигуна. 3. Поршень рухається у циліндрі.
4. Сила, що виробляється під час згоряння паливної суміші, діє на
13
поршень. 5. Поршень приводить в рух колінчастий вал. 6. У поршня є
кільця, які відповідають за компресію у циліндрі та запобігають
потраплянню масла в камеру згоряння. 7. Двигун внутрішнього згоряння
має впускні та випускні клапани. 8. Через впускний клапан паливна суміш
потрапляє в камеру згоряння. 9. Випускні клапани відповідають за
виведення відпрацьованих газів з камери. 10. Розподільний вал відкриває
клапани. 11. Шатун з’єднує поршень із колінчастим валом. 12. Шатуни
перетворюють зворотно-поступальний рух на обертальний.
Exercise 7. Read and translate the text.
Terms to remember:
gasoline
(petrol)
engine
to absorb –поглинати;
exhaust system – система випуску бензиновий двигун;
відпрацьованих газів, вихлопна mixtureсуміш;
to reduce – зменшувати;
система;
wear – зношуваність;
fuel mixture – паливна суміш;
thermosiphon
system
sparkplug – свічка запалювання;
storage battery – акумуляторна термосифонна система
батарея;
ignition – запалювання;
pump – насос;
–
–
Reciprocating Engine Parts (Part II)
Pistons, rings, valves, connecting rods are reciprocating engine parts. The
piston moves within the cylinder and transmits the forces of the expanding gases
to the piston pin, connecting rod and crankshaft. Piston rings control the wall
lubrication and absorb heat from the piston. The engine valves are of two types:
intake valves and exhaust valves. The valves open and close the combustion
chamber. When the intake valve opens the fuel mixture enters the combustion
chamber. Through the exhaust valves the burned gases pass into the exhaust
system.
The connecting rod links the piston and the crankshaft. Additional engine
parts are components of four separate systems: electrical, fuel, lubricating and
cooling. The electrical system of the engines has a storage battery. The battery
provides voltage and transmits it to the spark plugs for the ignition. Spark
plugs ignite the fuel mixture in the combustion chamber.
The engine has a fuel system. The fuel system of the diesel engine has a
pump. This pump forces the fuel through injectors into the combustion chamber
where the burning of fuel takes place. The gasoline engine has no pump, it has a
carburettor. The carburettor mixes the fuel and air and transmits this mixture to
the combustion chamber. The engines have oil pumps. These pumps provide
engine lubrication. The oil pumps are of three types. Oil filters are between the
pump and other engine parts. The oil filters reduce engine wear. Cooling
14
systems come in two types: thermosiphon and pump. They use water for the
engine cooling.
Exercise 8. Study the picture below and describe the V-engine operating
principle. Ask your classmate to speak about the function of any part of the
engine.
Terms to remember:
air-cleaner compartment (air filter compartment) – корпус для повітряного
фільтра,
throttle position sensor– датчик положення дросельної заслінки,
rocker cover– кришка клапанного механізму,
intake valve– впускний клапан,
sparkplug – свічка запалювання,
piston – поршень,
wristpin – поршневий палець,
connecting rod – шатун,
starter solenoid – соленоїд стартера,
oil pump – масляний насос,
oil intake screen assembly – сітчастий фільтр маслозбірника,
throttle body – корпус дросельної заслінки,
injection valve – інжекторний клапан, нагнітальний клапан,
throttle valve – дросельна заслінка,
intake manifold – впускний колектор,
rocker arm – коромисло,
air cleaner inlet – повітряний забірник,
valve spring – пружина клапана,
15
exhaust valve – випускний клапан,
exhaust manifold – випускний/вихлопний колектор, колектор вихлопної
системи,
pushrod – штовхач (клапана),
valve lifter – кулачок (підйому клапана),
oil pan – піддон картера,
oil drain plug – маслозливна пробка
Lesson 3.The fuel system
Vocabulary notes:
fuel tank – паливний бак;
filler tube – трубка заливної
горловини;
fuel vapor – випари пального;
baffle – перегородка;
sloshing of fuel – коливання,
розгойдування пального;
fuel gauge – показник рівня палива;
outlet line – випускний трубопровід
(канал);
ignition – запалювання;
rigid steel – міцна сталь,
flexible braided steel – гнучка,
плетена сталь,
corrosion-resistant
rubber
–
корозійностійка резина,
particulate contaminates – дисперсні
(механічні) забруднювачі,
clogging – забивання,
to spray – розпилювати,
manifold pressure– тиск у колекторі
The fuel system
The fuel system of an automobile moves fuel from the fuel tank to the
engine where it is mixed with air and introduced into the combustion chambers.
Combustion of the fuel in the cylinders produces the energy that powers the
engine. Modern fuel systems are controlled by complex electronics, but their
basic operation is simple.
Fuel Tank
A vehicle’s fuel, either gasoline or diesel, is held in a storage tank which is
usually located in the rear of passenger cars. Fuel enters the tank via a filler
tube that opens on the exterior of the car, and a system of vents allows fuel
vapor to escape and maintain proper pressure within the tank. Baffles inside the
tank minimize sloshing of fuel when the vehicle is in motion, and a sensor
measures the fuel level and displays it on the fuel gauge inside the cabin. An
outlet line directs fuel to the engine, and in most newer cars, the fuel pump is
located inside the fuel tank.
Fuel Pump and Filter
Fuel is moved from the tank to the engine by the action of a fuel pump. In
most modern cars, the fuel pump is powered electrically and begins to operate
when the ignition switch is activated. Older vehicles may employ a mechanical
pump that is powered by the action of the engine. Fuel is pumped through fuel
lines, made of rigid steel, flexible braided steel or corrosion-resistant rubber,
16
to the engine. One or more fuel filters removes particulate contaminates from
the fuel to avoid clogging the fuel system within the engine.
Carburetor and Fuel Injectors
In older cars, fuel is pumped through a carburetor, a mechanism that mixes
the fuel with air in the proper proportion before introducing it into the cylinder
chambers. Modern cars use a series of electric fuel injectors which spray a fine
mist of fuel into the chambers; fuel injectors operate more reliably and
efficiently than carburetors. Once introduced into the cylinder chamber, fuel is
ignited by a spark, producing the explosion that powers the engine.
Emission Control System
Cars manufactured after 1970 vent fuel vapors from the fuel tank into the
engine, allowing the vapors to be burned before being vented into the air,
thereby reducing the amount of pollutants released into the atmosphere. Modern
cars are also equipped with sensors that monitor the carbon oxide content of
exhaust gases, manifold pressure, the mass of air flowing into the engine and
other parameters in order to adjust the air/fuel mixture to ensure cleaner, more
efficient burning of fuel.
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the function of the vehicle’s fuel system? 2. What is the appropriate
term for the container where fuel is held? 3. What is the filler tube and where
can it be found? 4. What sub-system allows fuel to escape and maintains
pressure within the tank? 5. What parts of the tank prevent fuel from sloshing?
6. What function does the fuel gauge carry out? 7. Where is the fuel pump
located? 8. How is fuel directed to the engine? 9. What is used to remove
particulate contaminates and thus to avoid clogging of the fuel system? 10. What
mechanism mixes air with fuel? 11. What process takes place, once the fuel
mixture is in the combustion chamber?12. Why do modern cars employ
emission control systems?
Exercise 2.Translate the terms and phrases into Ukrainian.
fuel tank, combustion chambers, controlled by complex electronics, system of
vents, maintain proper pressure, fuel level, directs fuel to the engine, fuel pump,
powered electrically, ignition switch, fuel lines, fuel injectors, ignited by a
spark, amount of pollutants, exhaust gases
Exercise 3. Translate the following terms and phrases into English using the
text.
згоряння пального, виробляти енергію, трубка заливної горловини, випари
пального, перегородка, підтримувати відповідний тиск, вимірювати рівень
пального, паливний насос, увімкнути запалювання, паливні трубопроводи,
17
працювати надійно, запалювати паливну суміш іскрою, викидати в
атмосферу, стежити за вмістом оксиду вуглецю, вихлопні гази
Exercise 4. Match the term with its Ukrainian equivalent.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
1) fuel tank
2) filler tube
3) baffle
4) fuel gauge
5) outlet line
6) manifold pressure
7) ignition
8) fuel line
9) fuel injector
10) spark
показник рівня палива
перегородка
тиск у колекторі
паливний трубопровід
трубка заливної горловини
паливна форсунка
іскра
паливний бак
запалювання
випускний трубопровід
Exercise 5. Using the figure describe the operation of the automobile fuel
system. Learn some more terms which you may need to work into your
explanation:
return line – зворотний паливний канал/трубопровід,
strainer – сітчастий фільтр,
surge tank – розширювальний бачок,
fuel pressure regulator – регулятор тиску пального,
fuel pump relay – реле паливного насоса
18
Lesson 4.The Cooling System
Vocabulary notes:
excess – надлишковий,
exhaust pipe – вихлопна труба,
water jacket – водяна сорочка,
radiator cap – кришка радіатора,
cooling fan – вентилятор
охолодження,
belt-driven – з ремінним приводом,
hose– патрубок, рукав,
heater core– радіатор опалення,
expansion tank– розширювальний
бачок,
air-fuel mixture– повітряно-паливна
суміш,
operating temperature – робоча
температура,
oil film – масляна плівка,
subtracting horsepower –
зменшення потужності двигуна,
deposit – нагар, сажа,
exhaust
emissions–
викид
відпрацьованих газів,
liquid
cooling–
рідинне
охолодження
coolant– охолоджувальна рідина,
valve seat – сідло клапана,
pressure– тиск,
leak– протікання
The Cooling System
The purpose of the engine's cooling system is to remove excess heat from
the engine, to keep the engine operating at its most efficient temperature, and to
get the engine up to the correct temperature as soon as possible after starting.
Ideally, the cooling system keeps the engine running at its most efficient
temperature no matter what the operating conditions are.
As fuel is burned in the engine, about one-third of the energy in the fuel is
converted into power. Another third goes out the exhaust pipe unused, and the
remaining third becomes heat energy.
A cooling system of some kind is necessary in any internal combustion
engine. If no cooling system were provided, parts would melt from the heat of
the burning fuel, and the pistons would expand so much they could not move in
the cylinders (called "seize").
The cooling system of a water-cooled engine consists of the engine's water
jacket, a thermostat, a water pump, a radiator and radiator cap, a cooling fan
(electric or belt-driven), hoses, the heater core, and usually an expansion
(overflow) tank.
Fuel burning engines produce enormous amounts of heat; temperatures can
reach up to 4,000 degrees F when the air-fuel mixture burns. However, normal
operating temperature is about 2,000 degrees F. The cooling system removes
about one-third of the heat produced in the combustion chamber.
The exhaust system takes away much of the heat, but parts of the engine,
such as the cylinder walls, pistons, and cylinder head, absorb large amounts of
the heat. If a part of the engine gets too hot, the oil film fails to protect it. This
lack of lubrication can ruin the engine.
19
On the other hand, if an engine runs at too low temperature, it is inefficient,
the oil gets dirty (adding wear and subtracting horsepower), deposits form,
and fuel mileage is poor – not to mention exhaust emissions. For these reasons,
the cooling system is designed to stay out of the action until the engine is
warmed up.
There are two types of cooling systems; liquid cooling and air cooling. Most
auto engines are cooled by the liquid type; air cooling is used more frequently
for airplanes, motorcycles and lawnmowers.
Liquid cooled engines have passages for the liquid, or coolant, through the
cylinder block and head. The coolant must have indirect contact with such
engine parts as the combustion chamber, the cylinder walls, and the valve seats.
Running through the passages in the engine heats the coolant (it absorbs the heat
from the engine parts), and going through the radiator cools it. After getting
"cool" again in the radiator, the coolant comes back through the engine. This
continues as long as the engine is running, with the coolant absorbing and
removing the engine's heat, and the radiator cooling the coolant.
A cooling system pressure tester is used to check the pressure in the cooling
system, which allows the mechanic to determine if the system has any slow
leaks. The leak can then be found and fixed before it causes a major problem.
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the purpose of the engine’s cooling system? 2. What proportion of the
energy produced within the engine is converted into power as fuel is burned?
3. What would happen if the engine has no cooling system? 4. What parts does
the water cooling system consist of? 5. What is the optimal operating
temperature of the engine? 6. How much heat is removed by the cooling system?
7. What are the parts of the engine that absorb heat? 8. How can overheating
affect the oil film? 9. What happens if the engine is running at too low
temperatures? 10. Describe the process of cooling. 11. What device checks the
pressure in the cooling system? 12. What malfunctions can take place if the
coolant leaks?
Exercise 2. Say whether the following statements are true or false.
1. The cooling system keeps the engine running at its most efficient temperature.
2. One third of the heat produced by the burning of fuel is used to produce
power.
3. Without cooling system engine would produce more power.
4. A cooling fan can be electronic or belt-driven.
5. The optimal operating temperature of the engine is about 900 C.
6. The cooling system removes about one-third of the heat produced in the
combustion chamber.
20
7. The cylinder walls, pistons, and cylinder head expel large amounts of the
heat.
8. If any part of the engine becomes too hot, the oil film cannot protect it.
9. If the engine operates at low temperatures, it loses its efficiency, horsepower,
and fuel consumption rises.
10. There are two types of cooling systems: liquid cooling and air cooling.
11. No way should the coolant pass into the combustion chamber, the cylinder
walls, and the valve seats.
12. Coolant doesn’t absorb the heat from the engine parts.
13. A cooling system pressure tester is employed to monitor the pressure in the
fuel system.
14. Leaks in the cooling system can cause severe damages to the engine.
Exercise 3. Translate the following terms and phrases into Ukrainian.
to remove excess heat, most efficient temperature, operating conditions, heat
energy, internal combustion engine, the heat of the burning fuel, water pump,
radiator, combustion chamber, cylinder walls, cylinder head, lack of lubrication,
the cylinder block
Exercise 4. Translate the following terms and phrases into English using the
text.
вихлопна труба, теплова енергія, водяна сорочка, водяний насос,
розширювальний бачок, вентилятор охолодження, патрубок, поршні,
зношуваність, масляна плівка, нагар, робоча температура, охолоджувальна
рідина, сідло клапана, камера згоряння, тиск, протікання
Exercise 5. Match the terms with their Ukrainian equivalents.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
1) exhaust pipe
2) to absorb
3) water jacket
4) radiator cap
5) cooling fan
6) hose
7) heater core
8) expansion tank
9) exhaust emissions
10) valve seat
поглинати
вентилятор охолодження
радіатор опалення
патрубок
сідло клапана
розширювальний бачок
викид відпрацьованих газів
водяна сорочка
кришка радіатора
вихлопна труба
Exercise 6. Insert the appropriate terms.
The water pump pushes1) … through the engine oil cooler and into the
cylinder block. The coolant then flows through the cylinder 2) … and into the
cylinder head(s) where it flows to the hot areas of the cylinder head(s).
21
Additional 3) … that will transfer heat to the coolant are: after coolers, watercooled exhaust manifolds, water-cooled turbo chargers, water-cooled shields and
oil coolers.
After flowing through the cylinder head(s), the coolant goes into the coolant
temperature regulator housing. When the 4) … is cold, the temperature
regulators bypass the radiator and direct the coolant back to the water 5)… . As
the temperature of the bypass coolant flow becomes warmer, the temperature
regulators begin to open and permit some of the coolant to flow to the 6)… .
The regulator opens to 7) … the correct engine temperature. The amount that
the regulator opens and the percent of coolant flow to the radiator depends on
the load on the engine, and the outside air temperature.
The 8) … draws air through the radiator and around the tubes that extend
from the top to the bottom of the radiator. When the hot coolant goes through
the 9) … in the radiator, the flow of air around the tubes lowers the temperature
of the coolant. The coolant then flows back through the water pump.
Coolant 10) … as it is heated. Expansion tanks are used on some
applications to contain the increased volume.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
a) coolant
a) wall
a) systems
a) weather
a) station
a) engine
a) maintain
a) exhaust pipe
a) radiator grill
a)explodes
b) cooling
b) block
b) compounds
b) engine
b) manifold
b) radiator
b) block
b) fan
b) exhaust pipe
b) blows
c) fuel
c) hose
c) components
c) temperature
c) jacket
c) expansion tank
c) use
c) heater core
c) channels
c) expands
d) oil
d) valve
d) complexes
d) radiator
d) pump
d) hose
d) carry
d) valve seat
d) hoses
d) decreases
Exercise 7. Study the picture and describe the operating principle of the
cooling system.
Terms to remember:
pressure-release cap –
drain cock – зливний кран,
overflow
pipe
–
дренажний
трубопровід, відвідна трубка
22
Lesson 5. Automotive Electrical Systems
Vocabulary notes:
galvanic
cell
–
гальванічний
елемент,
lead – свинець,
sulfuric acid – сірчана кислота,
to emit – випромінювати, виділяти,
charge – заряд,
alternator – генератор,
belt system– система ремінного/-их
приводу/-ів,
diode bridge – діодний міст,
rectifier – випрямлював,
to fluctuate – (тут) змінюватися,
connector – клема,
Exercise 1. Read and translate text A. Answer the questions that follows.
Text A. Automobile Electrical System.
The heart of all automotive electrical systems is the battery. This component
is responsible for storing the electricity that will be used to start the engine and
operate all of the electrical accessories contained within the vehicle. Batteries
are commonly referred to as SLI (starting, lighting, ignition) because they are
designed to provide electricity to the starter, lighting, and ignition systems. The
standard battery is made up of six galvanic cells that produce 2.1 volts each for
a total of 12.6 volts.
Most batteries contain lead plates that have been submerged in a mixture of
sulfuric acid and water. The chemical reaction that results from this design
emits electrons that produce an electrical current. The battery can be recharged
by reversing the chemical reaction, but all batteries lose their charge over time
due to normal breakdown. When the battery dies, it is important to check its
voltage using a Volt Ohm Meter. This will give you a better idea of whether or
not the battery is the source of the problem or whether you need to check either
the starter or alternator.
23
Automotive electrical systems require an alternator in order to maintain the
charge in the battery and run the electrical system while the vehicle is in
operation. An alternator is an electromechanical device that transforms
mechanical energy into alternating electrical current.
In the automotive industry, the alternator utilizes a belt system to convert
the mechanical energy produced by the engine into electrical current. Because
the alternating current produced cannot be stored in the battery, it is converted to
direct current by a diode bridge or rectifier. It is worth noting that the
alternator is not in constant operation while the engine is running. In fact, its
operation fluctuates to meet the demands of the vehicle. The primary purpose of
the alternator is to maintain the voltage level of the automobile and it should
really only be operating about half of the time. It is important to understand that
the alternator is stressed by many of the electrical components of a vehicle and a
dead battery may actually be an indication that the alternator is no longer
working.
The starter is one of the most important pieces of automotive electrical
systems because it initiates the combustion process within the cylinders. The
starter is a motor that uses the flywheel to turn the crankshaft. This process
creates compression in the cylinders which in turn allows the engine to operate.
Since the starter is the largest consumer of electricity, it receives current directly
from the battery. This current is regulated by the key-operated switch within the
cab of the vehicle.
Cables and connectors are the vital part of all automotive electrical systems
because they allow the electrical current to flow from one component to the
next. While most people are quick to attribute a malfunction to one of the
primary electrical components mentioned above, they often fail to realize that
the problem could just as easily be the result of a bad connection. In fact, many
problems start as the result of a poor electrical connection. This can be the result
of a connection becoming loose or because corrosion has built-up on the battery.
1. What are some basic components of the car electrical system? 2. How much
voltage does the storage battery produce? 3. How is electricity produced within
the battery? 4. What is an alternator? 5. What is the primary purpose of the
alternator? 6. What function does the starter carry out? 7. Name some of the
reasons for the electrical system malfunctions.
Draw a plan and retell the text according to your plan.
Text B. The Ignition System
Vocabulary notes:
motive force – тягове зусилля;
complete an electrical circuit –
storage battery – акумуляторна замикати електричне коло;
батарея;
primary winding – первинна
24
timed – синхронний;
discharge – електричний розряд;
induction coil – котушка
запалювання;
distributor – переривникрозподільник запалювання;
sparkplug – свічка запалювання;
successive bursts – послідовні
імпульси;
firing order– послідовність роботи
циліндрів;
breaker
point–
контакт
переривника;
distributor
cam–
кулачок
розподільника;
обмотка;
ignition coil – котушка запалювання;
primary circuit – первинний контур;
surge – спалах напруги;
distributor shaft – вал розподільника
запалювання;
reluctor – зубчасте кільце;
solid-state– напівпровідниковий;
coil-on-plug – котушка запалювання,
що розташована на свічці;
coil pack – множинна обмотка;
notch – зубець;
ignition timing – кут випередження
запалювання, фази запалювання,
синхронізація запалювання,
The Ignition System
Ignition system of a gasoline engine produces an electric spark to ignite the
fuel-air mixture; the burning of this mixture in the cylinders produces the
motive force.
The basic components in the ignition system are a storage battery, an
induction coil, a device to produce timed high-voltage discharges from the
induction coil, a distributor, and a set of spark plugs. The storage battery
provides an electric current of low voltage (usually 12 volts) that is converted by
the system to high voltage (some 40,000 volts). The distributor routes the
successive bursts of high-voltage current to each spark plug in the firing order.
In older automobile ignition systems, the high-voltage pulses are produced
by means of breaker points controlled by a revolving distributor cam. When
the points are in contact they complete an electrical circuit through the
primary winding of the ignition coil. When the points are separated by the
cam, the primary circuit is broken, which creates a high-voltage surge in the
secondary windings of the induction coil. Breaker points have been largely
replaced by electronic devices in newer automobiles. Most now use a magnetic
device, called a reluctor, that is operated by the distributor shaft to produce
timed electric signals, which are amplified and used to control the current to the
induction coil. These newer ignition systems are more reliable than the old,
permit better control of the engine, and produce higher-voltage output to the
spark plugs.
During the evolution of solid-state ignition systems there have been many
modifications. Some ignition conversion systems, for example, extend breakerpoint life by using transistors – devices in which a small current in the input (the
breaker-point circuit) controls much larger current in the output (the coil
primary circuit).
25
Many automobile engines now use a distributor-less ignition system, or
direct ignition system, in which a high-voltage pulse is directly applied to coils
that sit on top of the spark plugs (known as coil-on-plug). The major
components of these systems are a coil pack, an ignition module, a crankshaft
reluctor ring, a magnetic sensor, and an electronic control module. The ignition
module controls the primary circuit to the coils, turning them on and off. The
reluctor ring is mounted on the crankshaft so that as the crankshaft rotates the
magnetic sensor is triggered by notches in the reluctor ring. The magnetic
sensor provides position information to the electronic control module, which
governs ignition timing.
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.
1. What does the ignition system produce? 2. What are the basic elements of the
ignition system? 3. What function does the distributor carry? 4. How are the
high-voltage pulses produced in older automobiles? 5. What device is used to
produce timed electric signals in newer motor vehicles? 6. How does the directignition system work? 7. What are the components of the direct-ignition system?
Exercise 2. Translate the following terms and phrases into Ukrainian.
electric spark, to ignite the fuel-air mixture, high-voltage discharges, a set of
spark plugs, storage battery, to route the successive bursts, spark plug, to be
controlled by a revolving distributor cam, secondary windings, to be replaced by
electronic devices, to produce timed electric signals, direct-ignition system,
electronic control module, to govern ignition timing
Exercise 3. Translate the following terms and phrases into Ukrainian.
згоряння суміші, тягове зусилля, котушка запалювання, свічка
запалювання, послідовність роботи циліндрів, низька напруга, замикати
електричне коло, котушка запалювання, вторинна обмотка, синхронні
електричні сигнали, високовольтний вихідний імпульс, система
безпосереднього
запалювання,
магнітний
сенсор,
синхронізація
запалювання
Exercise 4. Match the term with its Ukrainian equivalent.
1) timed
a)
2)
3)
4)
5)
b)
c)
d)
e)
discharge
induction coil
distributor
sparkplug
26
переривник-розподільник
запалювання
контакт переривника
котушка запалювання,
вал розподільника запалювання
кут
випередження
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
6) breaker point
7) ignition timing
8) ignition coil
9) distributor shaft
10) notch
запалювання,
зубець
електричний розряд,
свічка запалювання,
котушка запалювання,
синхронний
Exercise 5. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words.
With the universal adaptation of electrical starting for automobiles, and the
availability of a large battery to provide a constant source of electricity, magneto
systems were abandoned for systems which interrupted current at battery
voltage, used an ignition 1) … (a transformer) to step the voltage up to the needs
of the ignition, and a distributor to route the ensuing pulse to the correct spark 2)
… at the correct time.
The first reliable battery operated 3) … was developed by the Dayton
Engineering Laboratories Co. (Delco) and introduced in the 1910, Cadillac. This
ignition was developed by Charles Kettering and was a wonder of its day. It
consisted of a single coil, points (the switch), a capacitor and a 4) … set up to
allocate the spark from the ignition coil timed to the correct cylinder. The coil
was basically a transformer to 5) … the low (6 or 12 V) voltage supply to the
high ignition voltage required to jump a spark plug gap.
The points allow the coil to be charged magnetically and then, when they are
opened by a cam arrangement, the magnetic field collapses and a large (20 kV
or greater) voltage is 6)… . The capacitor has two functions: 1) it absorbs the
back EMF from the magnetic field in the coil to minimize point contact burning
and maximize point life; and 2) it forms a resonant circuit with the primary coil
of the ignition coil transferring further energy to the secondary side until the
energy is exhausted. The Kettering system became the primary ignition system
for many years in the automotive industry due to its lower cost, higher reliability
and relative simplicity.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
a) switch
a) pulse
a) lubrication
a) distributor
a) direct
a) made
b) spark
b) wire
b) ignition
b) discharger
b) transmit
b) produced
c) coil
c) coil
c) cooling
c) reluctor
c) translate
c) done
d) notch
d) plug
d) suspension
d) coil pack
d) convert
d) fired
Exercise 6. Study the picture and describe the operating principle of the
ignition system.
27
Lesson 6. Transmission
Vocabulary notes:
clutch – зчеплення;
hand lever – ручний важіль;
gearstick – важіль перемикання
передач;
manumatic – автоматична коробка
передач з можливістю ручного
перемикання;
continuously variable transmission –
безступінчаста трансмісія;
gear ratio – передавальне число;
gear – передача;
sequential manual transmission –
секвентальна коробка передач;
flywheel – маховик;
clutch disk – диск зчеплення;
pressure plate – корзина зчеплення,
нажимний диск;
throw-out bearing – вижимний
підшипник зчеплення;
gear pair – зубчаста пара;
output shaft – відомий вал;
epicyclic
gear
–
шестерня
планетарної передачі, планетарна
шестерня;
brake band – стрічкове гальмо;
clutch pack – пакет фрикційних
дисків муфти зчеплення;
reverse gear – задня передача;
power band– діапазон потужності
Automobile Transmission
28
A manual transmission, also known as a manual gearbox, a stick shift, or
standard transmission is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle
applications. It uses a driver-operated clutch engaged and disengaged by a foot
pedal (automobile) or hand lever (motorcycle), for regulating torque transfer
from the engine to the transmission; and a gear stick operated by foot
(motorcycle) or by hand (automobile).
A conventional, 5-speed manual transmission is often the standard
equipment in a base-model car; other options include automated transmissions
such as an automatic transmission (often a manumatic), a semi-automatic
transmission, or a continuously variable transmission (CVT).
Manual transmissions often feature a driver-operated clutch and a movable
gear stick. Most automobile manual transmissions allow the driver to select any
forward gear ratio ("gear") at any time, but some, such as those commonly
mounted on motorcycles and some types of racing cars, only allow the driver to
select the next-higher or next-lower gear. This type of transmission is sometimes
called a sequential manual transmission. The way a manual transmission
works is that the flywheel is attached to the engine, the clutch disk is between
the pressure plate and the flywheel. When running, the clutch disk is spinning
with the flywheel and when pressure is applied to the clutch pedal the throwout bearing is pushed in.Іt makes the pressure plate stop applying pressure to
the clutch disk and making it stop receiving power from the engine, so the gear
can be shifted without any problems and when pressure stops being applied to
the clutch pedal the clutch disk starts receiving power from the engine.
Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by
locking selected gear pairs to the output shaft inside the transmission.
Conversely, most automatic transmissions feature epicyclic (planetary) gearing
controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio. Automatic
transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current gear are called
Manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is often called
an automated transmission rather than an automatic.
Contemporary automobile manual transmissions typically use from four to
six forward gears and one reverse gear, although automobile manual
transmissions have been built with as few as two and as many as eight gears.
Transmission for heavy trucks and other heavy equipment usually have at least 9
gears so the transmission can offer both a wide range of gears and close gear
ratios to keep the engine running in the power band. Some heavy vehicle
transmissions have dozens of gears, but many are duplicates, introduced as an
accident of combining gear sets, or introduced to simplify shifting. Some
manuals are referred to by the number of forward gears they offer (e.g., 5-speed)
as a way of distinguishing between automatic or other available manual
transmissions. Similarly, a 5-speed automatic transmission is referred to as a "5speed automatic."
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.
29
1. What function does a vehicle’s transmission serve? 2. What types of
transmissions do you know? 3. What type of transmission is commonly used on
cars nowadays? 4. What devices do manual transmissions feature? 5. What is a
sequential manual transmission? 6. How does transmission work? 7. In what
type of transmission can a planetary gear set be found? 8. How many gears do
most modern motor vehicles have?
Exercise 2. Translate the following words and word combinations into
Ukrainian.
automatic transmissions, manual gearbox, driver-operated clutch, engaged and
disengaged by a foot pedal, torque transfer, conventional, 5-speed manual
transmission, semi-automatic transmission, gear stick, operated by computer,
forward gears, heavy trucks, planetary gearing, to simplify shifting
Exercise 3. Translate the following words and word combinations into
English using the text.
звичайна п’ятиступенева коробка передач, вибирати передачу, передавати
обертальний момент, 1-ша передача, диск зчеплення обертається з
маховиком, перемикати передачу, педаль зчеплення, задня передача, набір
шестерень, ручна коробка передач, автоматична коробка передач,
секвентальна коробка передач, автоматична коробка передач з можливістю
ручного перемикання, безступінчаста трансмісія, зближені передачі.
Exercise 4. Match the term with its Ukrainian equivalent.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
clutch
hand lever
gear ratio
pressure plate
throw-out bearing
clutch pack
output shaft
gear pair
gearstick
epicyclic gear
планетарна шестерня
ручний важіль
зубчаста пара
зчеплення
вижимний підшипник
важіль перемикання передач
корзина зчеплення
відомий вал
передавальне число
пакет фрикційних дисків муфти
зчеплення
Exercise 5. Read and translate the text.
More terms to remember:
gear train– блок шестерень;
sun gear – центральна шестерня;
locking sequences
блокування;
30
–
послідовність
internal gear teeth – шестерня із
зовнішніми зубцями;
ring gear – вінцева шестерня;
torque
converter
–
гідротрансформатор
обертального
моменту;
planet carrier – опора планетарної
шестерні;
output – ефективна потужність;
power input– підвід потужності;
multi-plate clutch – багатодискове
зчеплення;
pressure build-up –
наростання/збільшення тиску;
kickdown – механізм пониження
передачі;
change-down – перехід на нижчу
передачу;
override system – система ручного
управління;
Text B. How automatic transmissions work.
Most modern automatic gearboxes have a set of gears called a planetary or
epicyclic gear train. A planetary gear set consists of a central gear called the
sun gear, an outer ring with internal gear teeth (also known as the annulus, or
ring gear), and two or three gears known as planet gears that rotate between the
sun and ring gears.
The drive train is coupled to a mechanism known as a torque converter,
which acts as a fluid drive between the engine and transmission. If the sun gear
is locked and the planets driven by the planet carrier, the output is taken from
the ring gear, achieving a speed increase.
If the ring gear is locked and the sun gear is driven, the planet gears transmit
drive through the planet carrier and speed is reduced. With power input going
to the sun gear and with the planet carrier locked, the ring gear is driven, but
transmits drive in reverse. To achieve direct drive without change of speed or
direction of rotation, the sun is locked to the ring gear and the whole unit turns
as one.
The same effect can also be achieved by locking the planet gears to the
planet carrier. Most automatic gearboxes have three forward speeds, and use two
sets of epicyclic gears. The locking sequences of the epicyclic gear train are
achieved by hydraulic pressure operating brake bands or multi-plate clutches.
The bands are tightened round the ring gear to prevent turning, and the clutches
are used to lock the sun gear and planets. The correct sequence of pressure
build-up and release is controlled by a complex arrangement of hydraulic
valves in conjunction with sensors that respond to engine load, road speed and
throttle opening.
A mechanism linked to the throttle - known as a kickdown - is used to effect
a change-down for rapid acceleration. When you press down the accelerator
suddenly to its full extent, a lower gear is selected almost instantly. Most
automatic gearboxes have an override system so that the driver can hold a low
gear as required.
Exercise 6. Render the following terms and phrases into Ukrainian.
31
modern automatic gearboxes, planetary gear, coupled to a mechanism, to
transmit drive, planet carrier, to lock the planet gears, forward speeds, epicyclic
gears, hydraulic valves, throttle, rapid acceleration, press down the accelerator ,
brake bands, direction of rotation
Exercise 7. Translate the following terms and word combinations into
English.
з’єднаний з механізмом, гідравлічний привід (гідромуфта), збільшення
швидкості, передавати тягове зусилля, напрямок обертання, блокувати
планетарні шестерні, гідравлічний тиск, правильна послідовність,
відкриття дросельної заслінки, тиснути на педаль акселератора,
гідротрансформатор обертального моменту, багатодискове зчеплення
Exercise 8. Match the term with its Ukrainian equivalent.
1.
2.
3.
4.
gear train
sun gear
ring gear
output
5. power input
6. locking sequences
7. kickdown
8. change-down
9. torque converter
10.planet carrier
a) перехід на нижчу передачу
b) підвід потужності
c) вінцева шестерня
d) гідротрансформатор обертального
моменту
e) ефективна потужність
f) опора планетарної шестерні
g) блок шестерень
h) центральна шестерня
i) послідовність блокування
j) механізм пониження передачі
Exercise 9. Fill in the blanks with appropriate terms.
Transmission
A machine consists of a power source and a power transmission system,
which provides controlled application of the power. Often transmission refers
simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear 1) … to provide speed and torque
conversions from a rotating power source to another device.
The most common use is in motor 2)… , where the transmission adapts the
output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need
to operate at a relatively high 3) … speed, which is inappropriate for starting,
stopping, and slower travel. The transmission reduces the higher engine speed to
the slower wheel speed, increasing 4) … in the process. Transmissions are also
used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, and anywhere rotational speed and
torque must be adapted.
Often, a transmission has multiple gear 5) … (or simply "gears"), with the
ability to switch between them as speed varies. This switching may be done 6)…
(by the operator), or automatically. Directional (forward and reverse) control
32
may also be provided. Single-ratio transmissions also exist, which simply
change the speed and torque (and sometimes direction) of motor 7)… .
In motor vehicles, the transmission generally is connected to the engine
crankshaft via a 8) … and/or clutch and/or fluid coupling, partly because
internal combustion engines cannot run below a particular speed. The output of
the transmission is transmitted via 9) … to one or more differentials, which in
turn, drive the wheels. While a differential may also provide gear reduction, its
primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an 10) … to rotate at
different speeds (essential to avoid wheel slippage on turns) as it changes the
direction of rotation.
1).
2).
3).
4).
5).
6).
7).
8).
9).
10).
a) planes
a) cycles
a) turning
a) drive
a) ratios
a) electronically
a) exhaust
a) crankcase
a) speed shaft
a) tyre
b) trains
b) boats
b) rotational
b) strength
b) correspondence
b) automatically
b) intake
b) flywheel
b) camshaft
b) steering wheel
c) teeth
c) vehicles
c) revolving
c) power
c) powers
c) manually
c) input
c) camshaft
c) driveshaft
c) axle
d) shafts
d) apparatuses
d) spinning
d) torque
d) ability
d) electrically
d) output
d) rotor
d) crankshaft
d) driveshaft
Lesson 7. The Suspension
Vocabulary notes:
spring – пружина;
shock absorber – амортизатор;
linkage – тяга;
bump
–
нерівність,
лежачий
поліцейський;
rolling – поперечне розхитування;
pitching – поздовжнє розхитування;
tyre – шина;
damper – демпфер/амортизатор (тут
– будь-який пристрій для зменшення
механічних коливань);
anti-roll
bar
–
стабілізатор
поперечної стійкості;
torsionspring – торсіон, пружина
кручення;
body roll (motions) – крени кузова;
mounting point – точка кріплення;
to twist – скручуватися;
leaning – нахил;
33
lever – важіль, плече (важеля);
magnitude
–
величина,
сила,
інтенсивність;
rubber bushing – сайлент блок;
oscillations – коливання;
twin tube design – двотрубна
конструкція/будова;
axle– вісь;
borehole – отвір;
compression valve – клапан ходу
стискання;
pressure tube– внутрішня трубка
амортизатора;
suspension strut – стійка підвіски,
підвіска;
suspension arm – важіль підвіски;
McPherson strut – підвіска макферсон,
підвіска МакФерсона;
single unit – окремий вузол;
rough-road – дорога з поганим
покриттям;
coil spring – спіральна/гвинтова
пружина;
leaf spring – ресора;
torsion bar – торсіонна балка;
air
spring
–
пневматична
ресора/пневматичний амортизатор;
frame – рама;
wishbone – поперечний важіль;
tuning ability – налаштування;
trailing arm – поздовжній важіль;
multi-link– багато важільна (підвіска);
hub – ступиця (колеса);
hub carrier – стійка ступиці;
steering knuckle – поворотний кулак,
поворотна цапфа;
double-wishbone
suspension
–
двоважільна підвіска;
The Suspension.
The suspension includes the system of springs, shock absorbers and
linkages which connect a vehicle to its wheels. The suspension supports the
weight of the vehicle body and also protects the vehicle and any cargo from
damage and wear. The purpose of an automobile's suspension system is twofold: passenger comfort and vehicle control, i.e. the suspension system is the
determining factor for active safety and driving pleasure. Comfort is provided by
isolating the vehicle's passenger cabin from road bumps, vibrations, road noise,
etc. Control is achieved by keeping the car body from excessively rolling and
pitching, and maintaining good contact between the tyre and the road surface.
Apart from the linkages, the fundamental components of any suspension are
springs, dampers and stabilizer (also called anti-roll) bars.
Stabilizers A stabilizer is usually a torsion spring that resists body roll
motions. Its purpose is to prevent the car's body from "rolling" in a sharp turn. A
stabilizer is generally constructed out of a U-shaped piece of steel that connects
to the body at two points. If the left and right wheels move together, the bar just
rotates about its mounting points and does not bend. If the wheels move
relative to each other, the bar is subjected to torsion and forced to twist. Some
high-priced cars have also begun to use "active" anti-roll bars that can be
automatically adjusted by a suspension-control computer. The result is a reduced
leaning of the body in turns while the rough-road ride quality of the vehicle is
significantly improved.
Springs Today's automotive spring systems are based on one of four basic
designs: coil springs, leaf springs (seldom used today), torsion bars, air
springs
Torsion bar systems are most often found in the automobile. Torsion bars
use the twisting properties of a steel bar to provide a coil spring-like
performance. One end of the torsion bar is attached to the frame of the vehicle,
the other end to a wishbone, which acts like a lever that moves perpendicular to
the torsion bar.
34
Air springs consist of a cylindrical air chamber that is positioned between
the wheel and the car body. Air suspension systems, which are typically found
in the premium car segment, use compressed air as a spring.
Air suspension systems The air suspension replaces the conventional steel
spring system. Air suspension systems are able to automatically adapt the
damping and spring characteristics of the suspension according to the
preferences of the driver. Due to their many advantages, air suspensions systems
are more and more specified for future platforms.
Dampers Unless there is a damping structure, mechanical springs would
release the absorbed energy at an uncontrolled rate. In practice, the unwanted
spring motion is dampened by shock absorbers which slow down and reduce the
magnitude of the vibratory motions by absorbing or dissipating the kinetic
energy of the suspension movement. Rubber bushings then absorb the rest of
the vibrations. The sole purpose of the damper in any suspension system is to
control the oscillations of the springs, the weight of the vehicle is supported by
the spring system.
There are many types of shock absorbers, but the most commonly used is the
twin tube design which works with a hydraulic fluid (oil). It can be adapted to
all types of suspension. The upper mount of the shock absorber connects to the
frame of the car (i.e. the sprung weight), while the lower mount connects to the
axle, near the wheel (i.e. the unsprung weight). The energy of the spring is
transferred to the shock absorber through the upper mount into a piston which
sits in the inner (pressure) tube filled with hydraulic fluid. Boreholes through
the piston allow the fluid to leak through a series of compression valves as the
piston moves up and down in the pressure tube.
An automotive suspension strut combines the primary function of a shock
absorber with the ability to support sideways loads not along its axis of
compression, thus eliminating the need for an upper suspension arm. The most
common suspension strut in an automobile is the McPherson strut. Each wheel
is attached to the car body by a McPherson strut which combines a shock
absorber and a spring in a single unit. Such an integrated shock-and-spring
module offers better suspension tuning abilities and a lower vehicle step-in
height(посадочна висота) because of the altered suspension geometry.
Suspension control arms The typical design elements of any modern
suspension system – be it of the McPherson strut, trailing arm, multi-link or
wishbone type - are the suspension control arms. The number of control arms in
a vehicle depends on the type of suspension.
The McPherson suspension system, for example, consists of a wishbone (or
a lower control arm stabilized by a secondary link) which provides a bottom
mounting point for the hub of the wheel. This lower arm system controls both
the lateral and longitudinal location of the wheel. The upper part of the hub
carrier (or steering knuckle) is rigidly fixed to the strut. The strut suspension
includes also a steering arm which connects to the knuckle. The whole assembly
is very simple and, since it eliminates the upper control arm, also allows for
35
more width in the engine compartment. Another common type of a front
independent suspension is the double-wishbone suspension. While there are
several different possible configurations, this design typically uses two
wishbone-shaped arms (вилкоподібні важелі) to locate the wheel. Doublewishbone suspensions allow for more control over the motion of the wheel.
Because of these characteristics, the double-wishbone suspension is common on
the front wheels of larger cars.
Exercise 1.Answer the following questions.
1. What components does the suspension include? 2. What function does the
suspension carry? 3. What is the purpose of car’s suspension? 4. What are the
fundamental parts of the motor vehicle’s suspension? 5. What is a stabilizer and
what function does it carry out? 6. What are the four common designs for the
spring system? Which one is mostly used on modern automobiles? 7. What
components does the air spring system consist of? 8. Which suspension system
can be adapted to the driver’s preference? 9. What devices dampen the
unwanted or excessive spring motion? 10. How does the twin tube shock
absorber work? 11. What is the most common suspension strut used on most
vehicles nowadays? 12. What is a control arm, and what function does it serve?
13. What are the basic components of MacPherson suspension system? 14. What
system of suspension is typical for front wheels of larger cars?
Exercise 2. Translate the following terms and word combinations into
Ukrainian.
supports the weight of the vehicle body, active safety, driving pleasure, road
surface, the fundamental components of any suspension, sharp turn, anti-roll
bars, suspension-control computer, rough-road ride quality, steel bar, attached to
the frame, cylindrical air chamber, compressed air, release the absorbed energy,
vibratory motions, dissipating the kinetic energy, attached to the car body, shock
absorber, integrated shock-and-spring module, control arms, secondary link,
bottom mounting point, upper part, engine compartment
Exercise 3. Translate the following terms and phrases into English using the
text.
пружина, амортизатор, тяги, контакт між шинами та дорожнім покриттям,
основні компоненти;Stabilizers: крен кузова, крутий поворот,
скручуватися, автоматично налаштовувати, їзда по дорогах з поганим
покриттям; Springs: ресора, торсіонна балка, з’єднуватися з рамою,
повітряна камера, колесо; Dampers: вивільняти поглинуту енергію,
небажані пружинні коливання, зменшити силу вібрацій, верхня точка
кріплення, поглинати коливання, найпоширеніший тип підвіски, єдиний
вузол; Suspension control arms: кількість важелів підвіски, поперечний
36
важіль, ступиця, рульовий важіль (сошка), моторний відсік (відсік
двигуна), вилкоподібні важелі
Exercise 4. Match the terms with their Ukrainian equivalents.
a)
a) тяга
1) spring
b) важіль підвіски
2) shock absorber
c) амортизатор
3) suspension arm
d) двотрубна конструкція
4) compression valve
e) двоважільна підвіска
5) twintube design
f) коливання
6) oscillations
g) поздовжній важіль
7) linkage
h) пружина
8) rubber bushing
i) клапан ходу стискання
9) trailing arm
j) сайлент блок
10) double-wishbone suspension
b)
1)
rolling
a)
крени кузова
2)
tyre
b)
спіральна/гвинтова пружина
3)
pitching
c)
шина
4)
body roll (motions)
d)
вісь
5)
anti-roll bar
e)
6)
wishbone
f)
стабілізатор
поперечної
стійкості
торсіон, пружина кручення
7)
torsion spring
g)
поперечний важіль
8)
coil spring
h)
поперечне розхитування
9)
axle
i)
ресора
10)
leaf spring
j)
поздовжнє розхитування
Exercise 5. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words.
A car's suspension system allows for a smooth ride over 1) … roads, while
ensuring the tires remain in contact with the ground and that body 2) … is
minimized. It allows the car to travel smoothly over bumps in the road by 3) …
and dissipating kinetic energy from the point of contact. Furthermore, a
37
suspension system allows the car to turn 4) … without rolling by shifting the
car's center of gravity to maintain balance. A key part of the suspension system
is the 5) … absorber. Its job is to convert kinetic energy into heat that can be
absorbed by the shock's hydraulic 6)… .
Another key component of the suspension is the anti-sway bar (also known
as an anti-roll bar), which connects the two sides of a car's suspension along the
7)… . If one side of the car moves up or down to any extent, the anti-sway bar is
able to 8) … the roll of the car by distributing the movement to the other side of
the car. This means the car won't sway too much in either direction and will
remain more level. The anti-sway bar is of particular use when going around
corners, especially sharp ones.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
a) tough
a) jump
a) releasing
a) corners
a) risk
a) fluid
a) wheel
a) increase
b) rough
b) build
b) emitting
b) sides
b) shock
b) water
b) axle
b) maximize
c) extreme
c) roll
c) producing
c) streets
c) motion
c) metal
c) spring
c) minimize
d) dnagerous
d) break
d) absorbing
d) angles
d) speed
d) body
d) damper
d) widen
Exercise 6.Complete the sentences using the correct word.
1. Suspension is the system of springs, shock absorbers and … that connects a
vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two.
a) shafts
b) flywheels
c) tyres
d) linkages
2. The design of front and … suspension of a car may be different.
a) back
b) rear
c) side
d)upper
3. The job of a car suspension is to maximize the friction between the … and the
road surface, to provide steering stability with good handling and to ensure the
comfort of the passengers.
a) hub
b)car body
c) tyres
d)damper
4. Coil .. .compress and expand to absorb the motion of the wheels.
a) absorbers
b)linkages
c) springs
d)frames
5. Torsion … use the twisting properties of a steel bar to provide coil-spring-like
performance.
a) hubs
b)knuckles
c) axles
d)bars
38
6. When a car wheel encounters a bump in the road and causes the spring to coil
and uncoil, the energy of the spring is transferred to the … through the upper
mount, down through the piston rod and into the piston.
a) shock absorber b)steering wheel
c) bushing
d)suspension
7. Dependent front suspensions have a rigid front … that connects the front
wheels.
a) wheel
b)lever
c) axle
d)borehole
8. The MacPherson … combines a shock absorber and a coil spring into a single
unit.
a) linkage
b)strut
c) tyre
d)leaf spring
9. Rubber bushings … the rest of the vibrations.
a) absorb
b)take over
c) maximize
d)block
10. A stabilizer is usually a torsion spring that resists body … motions.
a) jerk
b)shake
c) dance
d)roll
Lesson 8. Steering
Vocabulary notes:
rack and pinion steering mechanism
– рейковий кермовий механізм;
rack and pinion steering– кермовий
механізм рейкового типу;
steering wheel – кермо;
pinion gear – ведуча шестерня-вал;
rack – зубчаста рейка;
linear gear – зубчаста передача
шестерня-рейка;
to mesh – зчіплюватися;
circular motion – обертальний рух;
linear motion – прямолінійний рух;
transverse axis – поперечна вісь;
steering
torque
–
поворотне
зусилля;
swivel pin – поворотний шкворень;
ball joint – шарнірне з’єднання;
king pin– поворотний шкворень;
stub axle– поворотна цапфа;
tie rod – поперечна рульова тяга;
steering arm – рульова сошка;
feedback – зворотній зв'язок;
lash – зазор, люфт;
recirculating ball mechanism –
гвинтовий механізм;
utility
vehicle
–
вантажопасажирський транспортний
засіб;
steering column – рульова колонка;
worm gear – червячна шестерня;
Pitman arm – з’єднувальна тяга;
steering linkage– рульовий привід;
friction – тертя;
ball
bearing–
шариковий
підшипник;
dead spot– (тут) люфт;
39
Steering
Many modern cars use rack and pinion steering mechanisms, where the
steering wheel turns the pinion gear; the pinion moves the rack, which is a
linear gear that meshes with the pinion, converting circular motion into linear
motion along the transverse axis of the car (side to side motion). This motion
applies steering torque to the swivel pinball joints that replaced previously
used kingpins of the stub axle of the steered wheels via tie rods and a short
lever arm called the steering arm.
The rack and pinion design has the advantages of a large degree of feedback
and direct steering "feel". A disadvantage is that it is not adjustable, so that
when it does wear and develop lash, the only cure is replacement.
Older designs often use the recirculating ball mechanism, which is still
found on trucks and utility vehicles. This is a variation on the older worm and
sector design; the steering column turns a large screw (the "worm gear") which
meshes with a sector of a gear, causing it to rotate about its axis as the worm
gear is turned; an arm attached to the axis of the sector moves the Pitman arm,
which is connected to the steering linkage and thus steers the wheels. The
recirculating ball version of this apparatus reduces the considerable friction by
placing large ball bearings between the teeth of the worm and those of the
screw; at either end of the apparatus the balls exit from between the two pieces
into a channel internal to the box which connects them with the other end of the
apparatus, thus they are "recirculated".
The recirculating ball mechanism has the advantage of a much greater
mechanical advantage, so that it was found on larger, heavier vehicles while the
rack and pinion was originally limited to smaller and lighter ones; due to the
almost universal adoption of power steering, however, this is no longer an
important advantage, leading to the increasing use of rack and pinion on newer
cars. The recirculating ball design also has a perceptible lash, or "dead spot" on
center, where a minute turn of the steering wheel in either direction does not
move the steering apparatus; this is easily adjustable via a screw on the end of
the steering box to account for wear, but it cannot be entirely eliminated because
it will create excessive internal forces at other positions and the mechanism will
wear very rapidly. This design is still in use in trucks and other large vehicles,
where rapidity of steering and direct feel are less important than robustness,
maintainability, and mechanical advantage.
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.
1. What type of the steering mechanism is used in modern cars? 2. How does the
rack and pinion steering work? 3. What converts circular motion into linear
motion? 4. What are some advantages of the rack and pinion design?
Disadvantages? 5. What steering mechanisms are mostly used on trucks?
6. Describe the operating principle of the recirculating ball mechanism. 7. What
40
mechanical device reduces the considerable friction within the recirculating ball
mechanism? 8. What are some advantages and disadvantages of the recirculating
ball mechanism?
Exercise 2. Provide Ukrainian equivalents for the following terms and
phrases.
modern cars, to convert circular motion into linear motion, stub axle, lever arm,
rack and pinion design, replacement, rotate about its axis, steering linkage, to
steer the wheels, mechanical advantage, excessive internal forces, tie rod,
feedback
Exercise 3. Translate the following terms and phrases into English using the
text.
Приводити в рух зубчасту рейку, з’єднуватися з ведучою шестернею,
поворотне зусилля, важіль, великий ступінь зворотного зв’язку,
зношуватися, зменшувати тертя, кермовий механізм з підсилювачем,
допустимий люфт, найменший поворот керма, коробка/редуктор
кермового механізму, експлуатаційна надійність
Exercise 4. Match the terms with their equivalents.
А)
a) прямолінійний рух
1) steering wheel
2) stub axle
b)
зубчаста рейка
3) rack
c)
поворотний шкворень
4) linear motion
d)
шарнірне з’єднання
5) transverse axis
e)
поворотне зусилля
6) steering torque
f)
кермо
7) swivel pin
g)
поперечна рульова тяга
8) ball joint
h)
люфт
9) lash
i)
поперечна вісь
10) tie rod
j)
поворотна цапфа
B)
1) pinion gear
a) шариковий підшипник
2) to mesh
b) рульова колонка
41
3) circular motion
c) червячна шестерня
4) steering arm
d) зчіплюватися
5) steering column
e) обертальний рух
6) worm gear
7) ball bearing
f) зубчаста передача
рейка
g) рульова сошка
8) linear gear
h) ведуча шестерня-вал
шестерня-
Exercise 5. Fill in the blanks with appropriate terms.
Rack-and-pinion 1) … is quickly becoming the most common type of
steering on cars, small trucks and SUVs. It is actually a pretty simple 2)… . A
rack-and-pinion 3) … is enclosed in a metal tube, with each end of the rack
protruding from the tube. A rod, called a tie rod, connects to each end of the
rack.
The 4) … gear is attached to the steering shaft. When you turn the steering
5)… , the gear spins, moving the rack. The tie 6) … at each end of the rack
connects to the steering arm on the spindle.
The rack-and-pinion gearset carries two functions:
It converts the rotational motion of the steering wheel into the 7) …
motion needed to turn the wheels.
It provides a gear reduction, making it easier to 8) … the wheels.
On most cars, it takes three to four complete revolutions of the steering
wheel to make the wheels turn from lock to lock (from far left to far right).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7,
8.
a) driving
a) device
a) wheel
a) pinion
a) tyre
a) shaft
a) circular
a) rotate
b) motion
b) mechanism
b) stub
b) satellite
b) wheel
b) linkage
b) linear
b) turn
c) suspension
c) block
c) gearset
c) planetary
c) lever
c) bar
c) oscillation
c) spin
42
d) steering
d) thing
d) suspension
d) worm
d) shaft
d) rod
d) vibration
d)move
Exercise 6. Look at the picture and describe the car suspension design.
Lesson 9.The Braking System.
Vocabulary notes:
master cylinder – головний циліндр;
slave cylinder – робочий циліндр;
pipe – трубка;
hydraulic circuit – гідравлічна
система;
skid – занос, блокування коліс;
partial
vacuum
–
часткове
розрідження;
inlet manifold – впускний колектор;
servounit – сервомеханізм;
rod – шток, важіль;
to trigger – приводити в дію
Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. Answer the questions that follow.
Text A. The Braking System
Modern cars have brakes on all four wheels, operated by a hydraulic system.
The brakes may be disc type or drum type.
The front brakes play a greater part in stopping the car than the rear ones,
because braking throws the car weight forward on to the front wheels. Many
cars therefore have disc brakes, which are generally more efficient, at the front
and drum brakes at the rear.
All-disc braking systems are used on some expensive or high-performance
cars, and all-drum systems on some older or smaller cars.
Brake hydraulics
43
A hydraulic brake circuit has fluid-filled master and slave cylinders
connected by pipes. When you push the brake pedal it depresses a piston in the
master cylinder, forcing fluid along the pipe. The fluid travels to slave cylinders
at each wheel and fills them, forcing pistons out to apply the brakes. Fluid
pressure distributes itself evenly around the system. The combined surface
'pushing' area of all the slave pistons is much greater than that of the piston in
the master cylinder.
Consequently, the master piston has to travel several inches to move the
slave pistons the fraction of an inch it takes to apply the brakes. This
arrangement allows great force to be exerted by the brakes, in the same way that
a long-handled lever can easily lift a heavy object a short distance.
Most modern cars are fitted with twin hydraulic circuits, with two master
cylinders in tandem, in case one should fail. Sometimes one circuit works for the
front brakes and one for the rear brakes; or each circuit works both for front
brakes and one for the rear brakes; or one circuit works for all four brakes and
the other for the front ones only. Under heavy braking, so much weight may
come off the rear wheels that they lock, possibly causing a dangerous skid. For
this reason, the rear brakes are deliberately made less powerful than the front.
Power-assisted brakes
Many cars also have power assistance to reduce the effort needed to apply
the brakes. Usually the source of power is the pressure difference between the
partial vacuum in the inlet manifold and the outside air. The servo unit that
provides the assistance has a pipe connection to the inlet manifold.
A direct-acting servo is fitted between the brake pedal and the master
cylinder. The brake pedal pushes a rod that in turn pushes the master-cylinder
piston. But the brake pedal also works on a set of air valves, and there is a large
rubber diaphragm connected to the master-cylinder piston. When the brakes are
off, both sides of the diaphragm are exposed to the vacuum from the manifold.
Pressing the brake pedal closes the valve linking the rear side of the
diaphragm to the manifold, and opens a valve that lets in air from outside. The
higher pressure of the outside air forces the diaphragm forward to push on the
master-cylinder piston, and thereby assists the braking effort.
If the pedal is then held, and pressed no further, the air valve admits no more
air from outside, so the pressure on the brakes remains the same. When the pedal
is released, the space behind the diaphragm is reopened to the manifold, so the
pressure drops and the diaphragm falls back. If the vacuum fails because the
engine stops, for example, the brakes still work because there is a normal
mechanical link between the pedal and the master cylinder. But much more
force must be exerted on the brake pedal to apply them. Some cars have an
indirect-acting servo fitted in the hydraulic lines between the master cylinder
and the brakes. Such a unit can be mounted anywhere in the engine
compartment instead of having to be directly in front of the pedal. It, too, relies
on manifold vacuum to provide the boost. Pressing the brake pedal causes
44
hydraulic pressure build up from the master cylinder, a valve opens and that
triggers the vacuum servo.
1. What are the main types of brakes used on motor vehicles? 2. Why is it
important to supply front wheels with disc brakes? 3. Which type of brakes is
more efficient? Why? 4. What elements does a hydraulic brake circuit consist
of? 5. Describe the operating principle of a hydraulic brake system. 6. What
creates pressure in the hydraulic brake system? 7. Why are the rear brakes made
less powerful than the front brakes? 8. What is a power assisted braking system?
9. Describe the operating principle of the power assisted braking system. 10.
What function does the servo unit carry out?
Exercise 2.Find Ukrainian equivalents in the text for the following terms
and phrases.
hydraulic system, front brakes, more efficient, high-performance cars, to force
fluid along the pipe, to apply the brakes, heavy braking, dangerous skid, to
reduce the effort needed to apply the brakes, master-cylinder piston, to open a
valve, to release the pedal, engine compartment, to provide the boost
Exercise 3.Provide English equivalents for the following terms and phrases
using the text.
гальма дискового типу, легковий автомобіль преміум сегменту (високого
класу), головний циліндр, робочий циліндр, тиск рідини рівномірно
розподіляється у всій системі, інтенсивне гальмування, розміщений між
педаллю гальм і основним циліндром, ніпель (повітряний клапан),
механічне з’єднання, моторний відсік, підсилювати, приводити в дію
(запускати) сервомеханізм
Exercise 4. Match the terms with their Ukrainian equivalents.
master cylinder
slave cylinder
pipe
hydraulic circuit
partial vacuum
inlet manifold
servounit
rod
air valve
skid
часткове розрідження
гідравлічна система
ніпель
впускний колектор
робочий циліндр
шток, важіль
занос
сервомеханізм
головний циліндр
трубка
45
Exercise 5. Read and translate the text.
Some more terms to remember:
to straddle – охоплювати;
caliper – супорт;
braking pad – гальмівна колодка;
friction pads – фрикційні накладки;
to clamp – затискати;
dual-circuit brakes – двоконтурна
гальмівна система;
return spring – відтяжна пружина;
rubber
sealing
ring
–
ущільнювальне резинове кільце;
gap– зазор;
wear sensor– датчик зношування;
leads – електропроводи;
to short-circuit – робити коротке
замикання
Text B. Disc brakes
A disc brake has a disc that turns with the wheel. The disc is straddled by a
caliper, in which there are small hydraulic pistons worked by pressure from the
master cylinder.
The pistons press on friction (braking) pads that clamp against the disc
from each side to slow or stop it. The pads are shaped to cover a broad sector of
the disc. There may be more than a single pair of pistons, especially in dualcircuit brakes. The pistons move only a tiny distance to apply the brakes, and
the pads barely clear the disc when the brakes are released. They have no return
springs.
Rubber sealing rings round the pistons are designed to let the pistons slip
forward gradually as the pads wear down, so that the tiny gap remains constant
and the brakes do not need adjustment.
Many later cars have wear sensors embedded in the pads. When the pads
are nearly worn out, the leads are exposed and short-circuited by the metal
disc, illuminating a warning light on the instrument panel.
Exercise 6. Answer the following questions.
1. Where a disc brake is positioned? 2. What components does the disc brake
consist of? 3. How do the disc brakes work? 4. Do braking pads have return
springs? 5. What are rubber sealing rings used for? 6. How can wear sensors be
helpful to a driver?
Exercise 7. Say whether the following statements are true or false.
1. A disc brake employs a disc that spins with the wheel.
2. There are small hydraulic pistons within the caliper.
3. The pistons press the braking pads to slow down or stop the vehicle.
4. Dual-circuit brakes have two pistons.
5. The braking pads have return springs.
46
6. Wear sensors embedded into the pads alert the driver to stop and change the
wheel.
Exercise 8. Provide English equivalents for the following terms and phrases.
охоплений супортом, головний циліндр, фрикційні накладки, двоконтурна
гальмівна система, задіяти гальма, зношуватися, незначний зазор, не
потребувати регулювання, новіші автомобілі, вмонтований у, сигнальна
лампочка, панель інструментів
Exercise 9. Match the terms with their Ukrainian equivalents.
1) caliper
a) датчик зношування
2) braking pad
b) відтяжна пружина
3) to clamp
c) двоконтурна гальмівна система
4) rubber sealing ring
d) затискати
5) wear sensor
e) зазор
6) dual-circuit brakes
f) супорт;
7) return spring
g) ущільнювальне резинове кільце
8) gap
h) гальмівна колодка
Study the picture of a conventional disc brake. Describe the operating
principle of the disc brake system.
47
Exercise 10. Read and translate the text.
Terms to remember:
hollow – пустотілий;
backing plate – опорний щит
гальмівного механізму;
shoe
–
гальмівна
колодка
барабанних гальм;
friction lining – фрикційна накладка;
pivot – палець;
leading shoe – первинна гальмівна
колодка;
leading edge – робоча сторона;
trailing shoe – вторинна гальмівна
колодка;
adjuster – натяжний гвинт;
ratchet – храповий механізм;
to fade– втрачати ефективність;
to be prone to– мати схильність до
Text C. Drum brakes
A drum brake has a hollow drum that turns with the wheel. Its open back is
covered by a stationary backing plate on which there are two curved shoes
carrying friction linings.
The shoes are forced outwards by hydraulic pressure moving pistons in the
brake's wheel cylinders, so pressing the linings against the inside of the drum to
slow or stop it. Each brake shoe has a pivot at one end and a piston at the other.
A leading shoe has the piston at the leading edge relative to the direction in
which the drum turns.
48
The rotation of the drum tends to pull the leading shoe firmly against it when
it makes contact, improving the braking effect.
Some drums have twin leading shoes, each with its own hydraulic cylinder;
others have one leading and one trailing shoe - with the pivot at the front. This
design allows the two shoes to be forced apart from each other by a single
cylinder with a piston in each end. It is simpler but less powerful than the twoleading-shoe system, and is usually restricted to rear brakes.
In either type, return springs pull the shoes back a short way when the brakes
are released. Shoe travel is kept as short as possible by an adjuster. Older
systems have manual adjusters that need to be turned from time to time as the
friction linings wear. Later brakes have automatic adjustment by means of a
ratchet.
Drum brakes may fade if they are applied repeatedly within a short time they heat up and lose their efficiency until they cool down again. Discs, with
their more open construction, are much less prone to fading.
Exercise 11. Translate the following terms and phrases into Ukrainian.
hollow drum, stationary backing plate, curved shoes, hydraulic pressure, braking
effect, twin leading shoes, return springs, pull the shoes back, manual adjusters,
cool down, prone to fading, relative to the direction, hydraulic cylinder
Exercise 12. Provide English equivalents for the following terms and
phrases using the text.
нерухомий опорний щит гальмівного механізму, відносно руху барабана,
спарені первинні гальмівні колодки, ефект гальмування, задні гальма,
відтяжна пружина, хід гальмівної колодки, автоматичне регулювання,
втрачати ефективність, охолоджуватися
Exercise 13. Match the terms with their Ukrainian equivalents.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
hollow
backing plate
shoe
pivot
leading shoe
leading edge
ratchet
trailing shoe
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
гальмівна колодка
палець
храповий механізм
опорний щит гальмівного механізму
первинна гальмівна колодка
вторинна гальмівна колодка
пустотілий
робоча сторона
49
Exercise 14. Study the picture and describe drum brake design and
operating principle.
Part II
Lesson 1.The Anti-lock Braking System
Anti-lock braking system (ABS) – антиблокувальна система гальм;
tractive contact – зчеплення, контакт (напр. з дорожнім покриттям);
threshold braking – оптимальне гальмування;
cadence braking – переривчасте гальмування;
loose surface – рихле (дорожнє) покриття;
wheel lock – блокування колеса;
front-to-rear brake bias – розподіл гальмівного зусилля між передніми і
задніми колесами;
electronic brake force distribution (EBD) – система розподілу гальмівного
зусилля;
emergency brake assist – система контролю під час екстреного
гальмування;
electronic stability control (ESC) – система динамічної стабілізації руху;
rotational speed – кількість обертів (за одиницю часу);
pedal pulsation – пульсація педалі (під час спрацювання антиблокувальної
системи гальм);
hub-mounted sensor – ступичний датчик;
steering wheel angle sensor – датчик кута повороту руля
gyroscopic sensor – гіродатчик;
individual wheel – окреме колесо;
cornering brake control (CBC) – система контролю гальмування в
повороті;
traction control system (TCS) – система регулювання тягового зусилля;
антипробуксовувальна система;
to lose traction – втрачати зчеплення, контакт; пробуксовувати;
50
throttle level – кількість подачі пального
ABS
Anti-lock braking system (ABS) is an automobile safety system that
allows the wheels on a motor vehicle to maintain tractive contact with the road
surface according to driver inputs while braking preventing the wheels from
locking up (ceasing rotation) and avoiding uncontrolled skidding. It is an
automated system that uses the principles of threshold braking and cadence
braking which were practiced by skillful drivers with previous generation
braking systems. It does this at a much faster rate and with better control than a
driver could manage.
ABS generally offers improved vehicle control and decreases stopping
distances on dry and slippery surfaces for many drivers; however, on loose
surfaces like gravel or snow-covered pavement, ABS can significantly increase
braking distance, although still improving vehicle control.
Since initial widespread use in production cars, anti-lock braking systems
have evolved considerably. Recent versions not only prevent wheel lock under
braking, but also electronically control the front-to-rear brake bias. This
function, depending on its specific capabilities and implementation, is known as
electronic brake force distribution (EBD), traction control system, emergency
brake assist, or electronic stability control (ESC).
Typically ABS includes a central electronic control unit (ECU), four
wheel speed sensors, and at least two hydraulic valves within the brake
hydraulics. The ECU constantly monitors the rotational speed of each wheel; if
it detects a wheel rotating significantly slower than the others, a condition
indicative of impending wheel lock, it actuates the valves to reduce hydraulic
pressure to the brake at the affected wheel, thus reducing the braking force on
that wheel; the wheel then turns faster. Conversely, if the ECU detects a wheel
turning significantly faster than the others, brake hydraulic pressure to the wheel
is increased so the braking force is reapplied, slowing down the wheel. This
process is repeated continuously and can be detected by the driver via brake
pedal pulsation. Some anti-lock systems can apply or release braking pressure
15 times per second.
The ECU is programmed to disregard differences in wheel rotative speed
below a critical threshold, because when the car is turning, the two wheels
towards the center of the curve turn slower than the outer two. For this same
reason, a differential is used in virtually all roadgoing vehicles.
If a fault develops in any part of the ABS, a warning light will usually be
illuminated on the vehicle instrument panel, and the ABS will be disabled until
the fault is rectified.
Modern ABS applies individual brake pressure to all four wheels through
a control system of hub-mounted sensors and a dedicated micro-controller.
ABS is offered or comes standard on most road vehicles produced today and is
the foundation for electronic stability control systems, which are rapidly
51
increasing in popularity due to the vast reduction in price of vehicle electronics
over the years.
Modern electronic stability control systems are an evolution of the ABS
concept. Here, a minimum of two additional sensors are added to help the
system work: these are a steering wheel angle sensor, and a gyroscopic sensor.
The theory of operation is simple: when the gyroscopic sensor detects that the
direction taken by the car does not coincide with what the steering wheel sensor
reports, the ESC software will brake the necessary individual wheel(s) (up to
three with the most sophisticated systems), so that the vehicle goes the way the
driver intends. The steering wheel sensor also helps in the operation of
Cornering Brake Control (CBC), since this will tell the ABS that wheels on
the inside of the curve should brake more than wheels on the outside, and by
how much.
ABS equipment may also be used to implement a traction control system
(TCS) on acceleration of the vehicle. If, when accelerating, the tire loses
traction, the ABS controller can detect the situation and take suitable action so
that traction is regained. More sophisticated versions of this can also control
throttle levels and brakes simultaneously.
Exercise 1.Answer the following questions.
1. What is an ABS? 2. What are the underlying operating principles of the antilock braking system? 3. What are the advantages of the ABS? Disadvantages?
4. Name some modern motor car electronic systems that assist or are engaged
with the ABS. 5. What physical and electronic components does the ABS
consist of? 6. How does the anti-lock braking system work? 7. What is an ECU
and how does it operate? 8. Name some of the electronic assistants that are
enabled in pair with the ABS.
Exercise 2.Provide Ukrainian equivalents for the following terms and word
combinations.
automobile safety system, dry and slippery surfaces, skillful drivers, road
surface, uncontrolled skidding, braking distance, four wheel speed sensors,
hydraulic valves, brake hydraulics, vehicle instrument panel, brake pressure,
electronic stability control systems , steering wheel sensor, acceleration of the
vehicle, sophisticated versions
Exercise 3.Find English equivalents for the following words and word
combinations using the text.
оптимальне гальмування, некероване пробуксовування, блокування колеса,
система розподілу гальмівного зусилля, дії водія, система динамічної
стабілізації руху, ступичний датчик, рульове колесо, система
контрольованого гальмування в повороті, дорожнє покриття, керованість
52
автомобіля, швидкість обертання, активувати клапан, панель приборів,
шина, пригальмовувати колесо, диференціал, попереджувальний світловий
сигнал (сигнальна лампа на щитку приборів)
Exercise 4. Match the terms with their equivalents.
to maintain tractive contact
to lock up
to decrease stopping distance
electronic control unit
hydraulic valve
critical threshold
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
7) speed sensors
8) to improve vehicle control
9) traction control system
10) to reduce hydraulic pressure
g)
h)
i)
j)
датчики швидкості
зменшити тиск рідини
критична межа
заблокувати
антипробуксовувальна система
покращити
керованість
автомобіля
підтримувати зчеплення (коліс)
гідравлічний клапан
електронний блок керування
зменшити гальмівний шлях
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
turn
instrument panel
to block
grip
to minimize
to apply
automobile
to check
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
Exercise 5.Find pairs of synonyms.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
vehicle
to lock up
to monitor
curve
dashboard
traction
to implement
to reduce
Exercise 6.Insert the necessary words to complete the text.
Emergency brake assist
Many drivers are not prepared for the relatively high efforts required for
maximum braking, nor are they prepared for the "buzzing" feedback through the
brake pedal during ABS operation. If an 1) …develops, a slow reaction and less
than maximum braking input could result in insufficient time or distance to stop
before an accident occurs.
EBA is designed to 2) …such "panic stops" and apply maximum braking
effort within milliseconds. It interprets braking behaviour by assessing the 3)
…that the brake pedal is activated.
If the system 4) …an emergency, it automatically initiates full braking
faster than any driver can move their foot. Emergency stopping distances can be
shortened, reducing the likelihood of 5) …– especially the common "nose to
tail" incident. An electronic system designed to 6) … emergency braking
53
operation and automatically enhance braking effort, and can 7) …stopping
distances by up to 70 ft (21 m) at 125 mph (201 km/h).
Brake Assist detects circumstances in which emergency braking is
required by 8) …the speed with which the brake pedal is depressed. Some
systems additionally take into account the rate of which the 9) … pedal is
released, pre-tensioning the brakes when a "panic release" of the accelerator
pedal is noted. When panic braking is detected, the Brake Assist system
automatically develops maximum brake 10) …in order to mitigate a drivers
tendency to brake without enough force.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
a) problem
a) inspect
a) moment
a) identifies
a) crises
a) find out
a) reduce
a) calculating
a) brake
a) acceleration
b) accident
b) detect
b) velocity
b) spots
b) disturbances
b) recognise
b) increase
b) computing
b) clutch
b) boost
c) emergency
c) protect
c) frequency
c) marks
c) confrontations
c) value
c) develop
c) decreasing
c) accelerator
c) turbine
d) fault
d) reject
d) rate
d) finds
d) accidents
d) sense
d) slow
d) measuring
d) manual
d) power
Lesson 2. The Electronic Stability Program
Vocabulary notes:
Electronic stability control – система динамічної стабілізації руху;
Electronic stability program – електронна система курсової стійкості,
електронна система стабілізації руху;
oversteer – надмірна керованість, стернування (поворотність);
understeer – недостатня керованість, стернування;
vehicle's cornering performance – проходження віражів, поведінка
автомобіля під час проходження повороту;
vehicle rotation (yaw) – обертання автомобіля навколо вертикальної осі,
відхилення від напрямку руху (рискання);
lateral acceleration – бокове прискорення;
evasive swerve – об'їзний маневр;
hydroplaning – аквапланування;
high-performance driving – екстремальне водіння;
vehicle's handling limits – межа керованості автомобіля;
cornering – проходження поворотів;
over-ride control – примусове відключення функції
54
Text A. The ESP
Electronic stability control (ESC), also referred to as electronic
stability program (ESP) or dynamic stability control (DSC), is a
computerized technology that improves the safety of a vehicle's stability by
detecting and reducing loss of traction (skidding). When ESC detects loss of
steering control, it automatically applies the brakes to help "steer" the vehicle
where the driver intends to go. Braking is automatically applied to wheels
individually, such as the outer front wheel to counter oversteer or the inner rear
wheel to counter understeer. Some ESC systems also reduce engine power until
control is regained. ESC does not improve a vehicle's cornering performance;
instead, it helps to minimize the loss of control. According to Insurance Institute
for Highway Safety and the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration, one-third of fatal accidents could have been prevented by the
technology.
During normal driving, ESC works in the background and continuously
monitors steering and vehicle direction. It compares the driver's intended
direction (determined through the measured steering wheel angle) to the
vehicle's actual direction (determined through measured lateral acceleration,
vehicle rotation (yaw), and individual road wheel speeds).
ESC intervenes only when it detects a probable loss of steering control,
i.e. when the vehicle is not going where the driver is steering. This may happen,
for example, when skidding during emergency evasive swerves, understeer or
oversteer during poorly judged turns on slippery roads, or hydroplaning. ESC
may also intervene in an unwanted way during high-performance driving,
because steering input may not always be directly indicative of the intended
direction of travel (i.e. controlled drifting). ESC estimates the direction of the
skid, and then applies the brakes to individual wheels asymmetrically in order to
create torque about the vehicle's vertical axis, opposing the skid and bringing the
vehicle back in line with the driver's commanded direction. Additionally, the
system may reduce engine power or operate the transmission to slow the vehicle
down.
ESC can work on any surface, from dry pavement to frozen lakes. It reacts
to and corrects skidding much faster and more effectively than the typical
human driver, often before the driver is even aware of any imminent loss of
control. In fact, this led to some concern that ESC could allow drivers to become
overconfident in their vehicle's handling and/or their own driving skills. For this
reason, ESC systems typically inform the driver when they intervene, so that the
driver knows that the vehicle's handling limits have been approached. Most
activate a dashboard indicator light and/or alert tone; some intentionally allow
the vehicle's corrected course to deviate very slightly from the drivercommanded direction, even if it is possible to more precisely match it.
Indeed, all ESC manufacturers emphasize that the system is not a
performance enhancement nor a replacement for safe driving practices, but
55
rather a safety technology to assist the driver in recovering from dangerous
situations. ESC does not increase traction, so it does not enable faster cornering
(although it can facilitate better-controlled cornering). More generally, ESC
works within inherent limits of the vehicle's handling and available traction
between the tires and road. A reckless maneuver can still exceed these limits,
resulting in loss of control. For example, in a severe hydroplaning scenario, the
wheels that ESC would use to correct a skid may not even initially be in contact
with the road, reducing its effectiveness.
Due to the fact that stability control can sometimes be incompatible with
high-performance driving (i.e. when the driver intentionally loses traction as in
drifting), many vehicles have an over-ride control which allows the system to
be partially or fully shut off. In simpler systems, a single button may disable all
features, while more complicated setups may have a multi-position switch or
may never be turned fully off.
Exercise 1.Answer the following questions.
1. What is electronic stability control designed (ESC) for? 2. When is the ESC
enabled? 3. Does ESC improve a vehicle’s cornering performance? 4. How
many fatal accidents could have been prevented with the help of ESC
technology according to Insurance Institute for Highway Safety and the U.S.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration? 5. How does ESC work
during normal driving? 6. In what road circumstances does the electronic
stability control system intervene? 7. Describe the operation of ESC in critical
scenario. 8. Why could ESC make drivers overconfident in vehicle’s driving? 9.
Do you think ESC increase traction or enable faster cornering? 10. What is an
over-ride control?
Exercise 2. Translate the following terms and word combinations into
Ukrainian.
dynamic stability control (DSC), skidding, loss of steering control, inner rear
wheel, understeer, to reduce engine power, vehicle's cornering performance,
wheel angle, yaw, slippery roads, hydroplaning, vehicle's handling limits,
imminent loss of control, dashboard indicator light, alert tone, safety technology,
traction between the tires and road, reckless maneuver, to disable all features
Exercise 3.Find English equivalents for the following words and word
combinations using the text.
бокове прискорення, аквапланування, екстремальне водіння, втрата
керованості, автоматично пригальмовувати, кут повороту колеса, стежити
за керуванням і напрямком руху транспортного засобу, втручатися, занос,
створювати тягове зусилля, зменшити потужність двигуна (обертальний
момент), навички водіння, наблизитись до критичної межі керованості
автомобілем,
попереджувальний
звуковий
сигнал,
покращення
56
характеристик, швидше проходження поворотів, зчеплення шин з дорогою,
необдуманий маневр, багатопозиційний перемикач
Exercise 4. Match the terms with their equivalents.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
loss of steering control
understeer
vehicle direction
lateral acceleration
skidding
transmission
applies the brakes
dashboard indicator light
performance enhancement
to assist the driver
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
бокове прискорення
коробка передач, трансмісія
сигнальна лампа на щитку приборів
допомагати водієві
напрямок руху автомобіля
покращення характеристик
втрата керування
недостатня керованість
гальмувати
занос, пробуксовування
Exercise 5.Find pairs of:
a) synonyms
1) dynamic stability control
2) to reduce
3) vehicle rotation
4) to intervene
5) to swerve
6) to monitor
7) dashboard
8) to deviate
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
to interfere
to minimize
to oversee
to maneuver
instrument panel
electronicstabilityprogram
to differ
yaw
b) antonyms
1) oversteer
2) inner wheel
3) to regain control
4) to reduce
5) to slow down
6) safe driving
7) to activate
8) to shut off
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
to lose control
to accelerate
to disable
dangerous driving
to turn on
understeer
to enhance
outer wheel
Make up sentences with some of the words and phrases.
Text B. Components and design of the ESC.
ESC incorporates yaw rate control into the anti-lock braking system (ABS).
Yaw is a rotation around the vertical axis; i.e. spinning left or right. Anti-lock
57
brakes enable ESC to brake individual wheels. Many ESC systems also
incorporate a traction control system (TCS or ASR (Antriebsschlupfregelung –
нім.)), which senses drive-wheel slip under acceleration and individually brakes
the slipping wheel or wheels and/or reduces excess engine power until control is
regained. However, ESC achieves a different purpose than ABS or traction
control.
The ESC system uses several sensors to determine what the driver wants
(input). Other sensors indicate the actual state of the vehicle (response). The
control algorithm compares driver input to vehicle response and decides, when
necessary, to apply brakes and/or reduce throttle by the amounts calculated
through the state space (простір станів – фіз.,(set of equations used to model
the dynamics of the vehicle)). The ESC controller can also receive data from and
put instructions to other controllers on the vehicle such as an all-wheel drive
system or an active suspension system to improve vehicle stability and
controllability.
The sensors used for ESC have to send data at all times in order to detect
possible vehicle’s misbehaviour as soon as possible. The sensors have to be
resistant to possible forms of interference. The main sensors come as:
Steering wheel angle sensor: determines the driver's intended rotation; i.e.
where the driver wants to steer. This kind of sensor is often based on
AMR-elements (анізотропні магнетоопірні елементи);
Yaw rate sensor: measures the rotation rate of the car; i.e. how much the
car is actually turning. The data from the yaw sensor is compared with the
data from the steering wheel angle sensor to determine regulating action;
Lateral acceleration sensor: often an accelerometer;
Wheel speed sensor: measures the wheel speed.
Other sensors can include:
Longitudinal acceleration sensor: similar to the lateral acceleration sensor
in design, but can offer additional information about road pitch and also
provide another source of vehicle acceleration and speed;
Roll rate sensor: similar to the yaw rate sensor in design but improves the
fidelity of the controller's vehicle model and correct for errors when
estimating vehicle behavior from the other sensors alone.
ESC uses a hydraulic modulator to assure that each wheel receives the
correct brake force. A similar modulator is used in ABS. ABS needs to reduce
pressure during braking, only. ESC additionally needs to increase pressure in
certain situations and an active vacuum brake booster unit may be utilized in
addition to the hydraulic pump to meet these demanding pressure gradients
(баричний градієнт).
The brain of the ESC system is the electronic control unit (ECU). The
various control modules are embedded in it. Often, the same ECU is used for
diverse systems at the same time (ABS, Traction Control System, climate
control, etc.). The input signals are sent through the input-circuit to the digital
controller. The desired vehicle state is determined by the steering wheel angle,
58
its gradient and the wheel speed. Simultaneously, the yaw sensor measures the
actual state. The controller computes the needed brake or acceleration force for
each wheel and operates the valves of the hydraulic modulatorvia the driver
circuits.
Exercise 1.Read and translate the statements below. State whether they are
true or false.
1. Yaw is a rotation of a vehicle around its vertical axis.
2.A great number of ESC systems also incorporate a Traction Control System.
3. The ESC system prevents the vehicle from overturning.
4. If emergency develops the ESC system can apply brakes and/or reduce engine
power.
5. The ESC controller can also receive data from and direct commands to other
controllers on the vehicle such as an all-wheel drive system or an active
suspension system to improve vehicle stability.
6. The ESC sensors must be resistant to all forms of interferences.
7. Yaw rate sensor measures the speed of the car.
8. Wheel speed sensor measures the rotation rate of the car.
9. ESC uses a hydraulic modulator to assure that each wheel receives the correct
brake force.
10. The electric control unit lies in the core of the ESC system.
11. The same electronic control unit is rarely used for diverse systems at the
same time like the ABS, Traction Control System, climate control, etc.
12. ESC uses a hydraulic modulator to assure that each wheel receives the
correct brake force.
Exercise 2.Match the term with its Ukrainian equivalent.
a) зменшити подачу палива/оберти
b) адаптивна підвіска
c) датчик
поздовжнього
прискорення
d) (вакуумний) підсилювач гальм
e) датчик положення керма
f) датчик поперечного нахилу
g) система контролю кутового
прискорення
h) система повного приводу
i) пробуксовування
ведучого
колеса
j) реакція автомобіля
1) yaw rate control
2) drive-wheel slip
3) vehicle’s response
4)
5)
6)
7)
reduce throttle
all-wheel drive system
steering wheel angle sensor
active suspension system
8) vacuum brake booster
9) roll rate sensor
10) longitudinal acceleration sensor
59
Exercise 3. Translate the following words and word combination susing the
text.
обертання навколо вертикальної осі, дії водія, реакція автомобіля,
зменшити
подачу
палива/оберти,
регулятор/контрόлер,
підвіска
автомобіля, повний привід, бокове прискорення, розгін, ухил дороги,
гідромодулятор, вакуумний підсилювач гальм, електронний блок
керування, клапан, сила прискорення.
Ex. 4. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words given after the text.
Active Yaw Control
Active Yaw Control is a dynamic 1) …control system that sustains
longitudinal acceleration and improves lateral stability by controlling torquebias (перерозподіл обертального моменту) between the rear wheels. Active
yaw control increases cornering and traction 2) …using a computer controlled
rear differential. The torque difference between the rear wheels generates a
yawing moment in the proper direction and corrects the yaw-dynamics of the
vehicle in motion. The result is a stable 3) …with improved handling
performance and improved cornering capability. These systems are sometimes
referred to as active differentials or vector drives.
The torque variation is controlled by the ECU and is 4) …to the wheels
through several mechanical components in the differential. The three major
components in the computer controlled differential are the 5) …mechanisms, the
main differential, and the speed increasing/reducing gear train. The clutches are
utilized to control the amount of 6) …being transferred through the
increasing/decreasing gear train, and determine the amount of torque applied to
each of the two7) … . The torque-bias is a function of clutch pressure and the
amount of clutch pressure is 8) …by the processor in the ECU and actuated
using hydraulic or electromagnetic components.
The active yaw control strategy is based on the relative wheel speeds. The
optimum wheel speed difference is determined by the ECU in order to maintain
the 9) …wheel position.
If a vehicle with active yaw control begins to 10) …in a manner inconsistent
with the steering wheel position, torque from the outside wheel will be
transferred to the inside wheel. This torque difference will produce a yawing
motion in the direction necessary to correct the car's rotation.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
a) instability
a) performance
a) cruiser
a) taken
a) grasp
a) moment
b) stability
b) conduct
b) ship
b) applied
b) clinch
b) torque
c) equilibrium
c) action
c) engine
c) put
c) clutch
c) touch
60
d) durability
d) behaviour
d) vehicle
d) conducted
d) grip
d) speed
7.
8.
9.
10.
a) rings
a) determined
a) controlling
a) accelerate
b) tyres
b) defined
b) steering
b) revolve
c) circles
c) refined
c) directing
c) rotate
d) wheels
d) measured
d) managing
d) turn
Lesson 3.The Electronic Valve Timing Control
Vocabulary notes:
Electronic Valve Timing Control – електронна система зміни фаз
газорозподілу;
camshaft – розподільний/кулачковий вал;
lobe– кулачок розподільного валу;
RPM (Revolutions per minute) – оберти за хвилину;
Engine power output – корисна потужність двигуна;
actuator – привід, механізм;
valve timing – фази газорозподілу;
spring-loaded valve – пружинний клапан;
crankshaft – колінчастий вал, колінвал;
electric solenoid– електромагніт;
lifter – штовхач клапана, кулачок;
timing chain – ланцюг газорозподільного механізму;
intake valve – впускний клапан;
exhaust valve – випускний клапан
Electronic Valve Timing Control
The valves in an internal combustion engine open and close to both allow
the fuel-air mixture to enter the cylinder prior to combustion, as well as to allow
the exhaust gases to exit the cylinder after combustion. In most engines, the
valves are opened by lobes connected to the camshaft. The shape of these lobes
determines the lift, timing and duration of each valve opening. In an engine with
fixed valve timing, the timing is not optimal for all engine speeds. For example,
if a camshaft is designed to operate the valves for optimal timing at low RPMs,
then at higher RPMs each cylinder would be deprived of sufficient fuel and air
mixture, limiting the engine power output. Conversely, if optimized for high
RPMs, the vehicle would experience rough idling at low RPMs. There are
several methods for changing the valve timing, such as using multiple camshafts
or eliminating the camshaft altogether; altering the timing of the intake
camshaft; and controlling the valve timing with electronic, hydraulic or
pneumatic actuators. Variable valve timing can significantly increase both the
power and fuel efficiency of an internal combustion engine.
Electronic valve control (EVC) systems attempt to optimize the valve timing
over the entire range of possible engine speeds. Most existing systems
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manipulate the valve timing using a computer controlled actuator attached to the
camshaft. Sometimes two camshafts are used, one to control the intake valves
and the other to control the exhaust valves. The camshaft may have two sets of
lobes, where one set is designed for low and the other for high RPMs. As the
camshaft rotates, the lobes push open the spring-loaded valves, which are then
closed by the force of springs. An electronic control unit (ECU) selects which
set of lobes to use based on the engine speed. Another approach to variable
valve timing employs a cam phasing mechanism to monitor and adjust the
rotation of the camshaft relative to the rotation of the crankshaft.
There are other mechanical/electrical methods that come one step closer to
eliminating the camshaft altogether. Three of these methods are electropneumatic valves (EPV), electro-hydraulic valves (EHV), and electromagnetic
valves (EMV). EPV and EHV use electric solenoids to control the flow of
compressed air or hydraulic fluid to the valves at the appropriate time. Existing
EPV and EHV systems generally eliminate the spring mechanism but still
employ the cam. EPV systems are commonly found on Formula One engines
and EHV systems are being employed by the engines on all new BMW vehicles.
Electromagnetic valves control the valve opening directly with a solenoid and
thus eliminates camshafts as well as many other related components including
lifters and timing chains. Engines of this design as under currently undergoing
development have only made it into prototype stages. Engines with EMV
systems and are commonly referred to as "camless engines". EMV systems have
yet to come to market because of the expense as well as the power required to
operate the actuator. EMV systems as opposed to other variable valve timing
systems allow for nearly infinite combinations of duration, lift, and phase of
both the intake and exhaust valves allowing for greatly improved control over
engine performance characteristics reducing emissions, increasing low end
torque and increasing peak horsepower.
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.
1. What are the two types of valves used in the internal combustion engine?
2. What parts of the camshaft are valves opened by? 3. What is fixed valve
timing, variable valve timing? Which is better option for a vehicle driving
performance and why? 4. What is an electronic valve control system? 5. What
solutions are typically used in electronic valve control systems to optimize the
valve timing? 6. What is a cam phasing mechanism used for? 7. What are some
methods to partially eliminate the camshaft/s? 8. Why could the EMV systems
be a revolutionary solution to variable valve timing?
Exercise 2.Translate the following words and word combinations into
Ukrainian.
combustion, exhaust gases, fixed valve timing, camshaft, optimal timing, low
RPMs, high RPMs, engine power output, rough idling, pneumatic actuator, fuel
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efficiency, engine speed, intake valves, exhaust valves, rotation of the camshaft
relative to the rotation of the crankshaft, electric solenoid, lifter, timing chain,
engine performance characteristics, to reduce emissions, low end torque, peak
horsepower
Exercise 3. Translate the following words and word combinations into
English using the text.
двигун внутрішнього згорання, пальна суміш, електронна система зміни
фаз газорозподілу, нерівномірний холостий хід, розподільний вал
впускних клапанів, пневматичний привід, обертатися, колінчастий вал,
ланцюг газорозподільного механізму, максимальний обертальний момент
при низьких обертах двигуна, економія палива, пружинний клапан,
штовхач клапана, електронний блок керування, відносно обертів
колінчастого валу, впускний клапан, випускний клапан
Exercise 4.Match the terms with their Ukrainian Equivalents.
1) fuel-air mixture
2) crankshaft
3) actuator
4) electric solenoid
5) low RPM
6) fuel efficiency
7) timing chain
8) engine
characteristics
9) valve timing
10) electronic actuator
a) фази газорозподілу
b) низькі оберти
c) ланцюг газорозподільного
механізму
d) колінчастий вал
e) експлуатаційні характеристики
двигуна
f) електромагніт
g) електронний механізм
performance h) економія палива
i) пальна суміш
j) привід, механізм
Exercise 5.Insert the necessary words to complete the sentences.
1. In a … engine, the valve timing is the precise timing of the opening and
closing of the valves.
a) electric
b) piston
c) jet
d) rotor
2. In four-stroke cycle engines and some two-stroke cycle engines, the valve
timing is controlled by the … .
a) crankshaft
b) piston
c) driver
d) camshaft
3. The … valve is opened before the exhaust gases have completely left the
cylinder.
a) exhaust
b) intake
c) drive
d) ignition
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4. VTEC (Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control) was initially
designed to increase the power … of an engine to 100 HP/litre.
a) output
b) input
c) production
d) development
5. VTEC is an electronic and mechanical system in some Honda engines that
allows the engine to have … camshafts.
a) single
b) triangle
c) turbo-charged
d) multiple
6. As the camshaft spins, the … open and close the intake and exhaust valves in
time with the motion of the piston.
a) actuators
b) lobes
c) switch
d) crankshaft
7. In single and double overhead cam engines cams are driven by the … via a
belt or chain (called the timing belt or timing chain).
a) piston
b) valve
c) pushrod
d) crankshaft
8. The motion of the camshaft controls the action of the engine valves, which
then regulates the amount of the air/fuel mixture that … the engine.
a) powers
b) deforces
c) forces
d) charges
9. The valves within an internal combustion engine are used to control the flow
of the intake and exhaust gases into and out of the combustion… .
a) room
b) tank
c) chamber
d) camera
10. The camshaft is driven by the crankshaft through … belts, gears or chains.
a) time
b) timing
c) timed
d) timeless
Lesson 4. Cylinder Deactivation Systems
Vocabulary notes:
peak performance– максимальні експлуатаційні характеристики;
combustion pressure – тиск в камері згоряння;
to disable the cylinder – деактивувати циліндр;
engine displacement – робочий об’єм двигуна;
throttle valve – дросельна заслінка;
hydraulic lifter – гідрокомпенсатор;
line-up – модельний ряд;
rocker arm – коромисло клапана;
pushrod– штовхач/штанга клапана;
to push/put into a backburner – відкласти в довгий ящик;
variable compression – зміна ступеня стиснення;
pushrod engines – двигуни з нижнім розташуванням розподільного вала;
64
overhead cam engines – двигуни з верхнім розташуванням розподільного
вала
Cylinder Deactivation Systems
Cylinder deactivation systems selectively disable some of the cylinders in an
internal combustion engine to improve fuel economy when the full power of the
engine is not required. When power requirements from the engine are low, the
engine does not run at its peak performance level. The throttle air intake is
minimal and the intake of air to the cylinders is more difficult. Not only is more
force required to overcome the internal vacuum, but the cylinders are not
completely filled with air. With less air in the cylinder, the combustion pressure
is reduced. This situation is commonly referred to as pumping loss and can
significantly reduce the efficiency of the engine.
Cylinder deactivation effectively decreases the displacement of the engine.
As a result, for a given load on the engine, the throttle valve is more open
allowing better air flow. Allowing the cylinder pressure to be closer to the
optimal level increases the efficiency of the engine.
Cylinder Deactivation History
The first production cars to implement cylinder deactivation for increased
fuel efficiency were from the 1981 Cadillac lineup. GM, in conjunction with
Eaton Corporation, designed a six liter engine that had the ability to change from
eight to six to four cylinders. Controlling the deactivation of the cylinders was a
microprocessor that determined, based on throttle input, which and how many of
the cylinders to shut off.
The microprocessor then controlled a solenoid that moved the desired
cylinder's valve rocker arms. The arms were moved to a position where the
pushrod would not actuate the valves forcing them to remain closed. The
microprocessor would also stop the fuel delivery and spark to the deactivated
cylinder.
Soon after, Mitsubishi implemented their own type of cylinder deactivation,
known as modulated displacement. Based on the same principles as Cadillac's
design, Mitsubishi designed a four cylinder engine that was capable of
deactivating two of its cylinders. Both designs were not well received by the
public and cylinder deactivation was pushed to a back burner. Now, companies
including Mercedes-Benz (and DCX), GM, and Honda have brought back the
idea of cylinder deactivation along with new ideas that include variable valve
timing and variable compression.
Cylinder Deactivation Today
Engines today have two main designs: the pushrod design and overhead cam
design. For both designs, the function of cylinder deactivation is to close both
the intake and exhaust valves and stop the fuel injection into the deactivated
cylinder. Control over all components of cylinder deactivation comes from the
engine control module (ECM). The ECM acquires information from many
sensors to decide when to initiate cylinder deactivation.
65
In pushrod engines, similar to the Cadillac V8 - 6 - 4, the valve rocker or
lifter arms are either moved or not allowed to function. Both options are
actuated by solenoids to control either the hydraulic lifters or mechanical lifter
arms. This control stops the actuation of both the intake and exhaust valves.
On the overhead cam engines, a solenoid regulates the oil pressure to allow
separate movement of the two rockers for a single valve. In a standard overhead
cam engine, one set of rocker arms controls one valve with the input from the
camshaft. Therefore, when cylinder deactivation takes place, the connection
between the two hydraulically locked arms are separated.
The U.S. Dept. of Energy estimates that cylinder deactivation systems
improve fuel efficiency by about 7.5%. This technology has quickly grown in
popularity. Honda has its own system for certain V6 powered Odysseys,
Accords, and Pilots. GM has introduced cylinder deactivation on the V6 engines
of the Chevrolet Uplander and Impala.
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the main function of the cylinder deactivation system? 2. When does
the engine run at its peak performance level? 3. When does the decompression
in the cylinder occur? 4. What may optimize the efficiency of the 6 -12 cylinder
engine? 5. What automobile companies were the first to introduce the cylinder
deactivation system? 6. What company introduced a modulated displacement as
a new type of cylinder deactivation? 7. What are the two types of camshaft
arrangement in the internal combustion engine? 8. How does the cylinder
deactivation system work in pushrod engines? Overhead engines? 9. What can
be the fuel efficiency provided the cylinder deactivation system is enabled?
Exercise 2.Translate the following words and word combinations into
Ukrainian using the text.
peak performance, to disable some of the cylinders, throttle air intake, to
overcome the internal vacuum, the combustion pressure, pumping loss, the
throttle valve, efficiency of the engine, fuel efficiency, six liter engine, throttle
input, fuel delivery
Exercise 3. Translate the following words and word combinations into
English.
максимальні експлуатаційні характеристики двигуна, внутрішнє
розрідження, тиск у циліндрі, коромисло клапана, 6-ти циліндровий
двигун, кількість подачі палива (циклова подача), штовхач/штанга клапана,
модельний ряд, впускний/випускний клапан, ступінь стиснення,
впорскування палива, двигун з нижнім/верхнім розташуванням
розподільного вала
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Exercise 4. Match the term with its Ukrainian equivalent.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
1) throttle valve
2) combustion pressure
3) engine displacement
4) rocker arm
5) pushrod
6) fuel efficiency
7) throttle input
8) fuel injection
9) spark
10) valve
11) lineup
робочий об’єм двигуна
іскра запалювання
коромисло клапана
впорскування палива
штовхач/штанга клапана
клапан
модельний ряд
економія палива
циклова подача палива
дросельна заслінка
тиск в камері згоряння
Exercise 5. Insert the necessary words to complete the sentences.
1. Cylinder deactivation is used to reduce the fuel … and emissions of an
internal combustion engine.
a) resolution
b) consumption
c) efficiency
d) economy
2. Cylinder deactivation is achieved by keeping the intake and exhaust … closed
for a particular cylinder.
a) stroke
b) fuel
c) manifolds
d) valves
3. Cylinder deactivation is applied to relatively large … engines that are
particularly inefficient at light load.
a) atmospheric
b) displacement
c) supercharged
d) cylinder
4. There are currently two main types of cylinder … used today, depending on
the type of engine.
a) displacement
b) detonation
c) deactivation
d) disintegration
5. When a cylinder is deactivated, solenoid-controlled oil pressure releases a
locking pin between the two … arms.
a) rocker
b) fore
c) breaker
d) variable
6. After the price of oil surged in 2008, consumers were looking for a more fuel
… car without sacrificing peak power.
a) effective
b) consuming
c) reducing
d) efficient
7. An overhead engine uses … to actuate rocker arms above the cylinder head.
a) pushrods
b) pistons
c) pins
d) bars
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8. In a fuel-injected engine, the throttle … is placed on the entrance of the intake
manifold, or housed in the throttle body.
a) hose
b) cap
c) valve
d) bar
9. The function of cylinder deactivation is to close both the intake and exhaust
valves and stop the … injection into the deactivated cylinder.
a) air
b) fuel
c) direct
d) common rail
10. A hydraulic … is operated either by a rocker mechanism, or in the case of
one or more overhead camshafts, directly by the camshaft.
a) elevator
b) lifter
c) brake
d) pump
Exercise 6.Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words.
In a nutshell, cylinder deactivation is simply keeping the intake and exhaust
1) … closed through all cycles for a particular set of cylinders in the engine.
Depending on the design of the engine, valve actuation is controlled by one of
two common methods:
For pushrod designs the hydraulic valve 2) … are collapsed by using
solenoids to alter the oil pressure delivered to the lifters. In their collapsed state,
the lifters are unable to elevate their companion 3) … under the valve rocker
arms. The valves cannot be 4) … and remain closed.
For overhead cam designs, generally a pair of locked-together rocker arms
is employed for each valve. One rocker follows the 5) … profile while the other
actuates the valve. When a cylinder is deactivated, solenoid controlled oil
pressure releases a locking pin between the two rocker arms. While one arm still
follows the camshaft, the unlocked arm remains 6) … and unable to activate the
valve.
By forcing the engine valves to remain closed, an effective “spring” of air is
created inside the deactivated cylinders. Trapped 7) … gasses (from previous
cycles before the cylinders were deactivated) are compressed as the pistons
travel on their upstroke and then decompressed and push back on the pistons as
they return on their down stroke. Because the deactivated cylinders are out of
phase, (some pistons traveling up while others are traveling down), the overall
effect is equalized.
To complete the process, fuel delivery for each deactivated cylinder is cutoff by electronically disabling the appropriate fuel injection8)… . The transition
between normal operation and deactivation is smoothed by subtle changes in
ignition and camshaft 9) … as well as throttle position all managed by
sophisticated electronic control systems. In a well-designed and executed
system, the switching back-and-forth between both modes is seamless – you
really don’t feel any difference and have to consult the 10) … gauges to know
that it's happened.
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
a) strokes
a) devices
a) pushrods
a) introduced
a) cam
a) speechless
a) input
a) plugs
a) timing
a) trash
b) valves
b) elevators
b) pins
b) involved
b) crank
b) motionless
b) intake
b) nozzles
b) steering
b) hash
c) manifolds
c) openers
c) stiffs
c) deactivated
c) come
c) still
c) exhaust
c) tanks
c) directing
c) dash
d) lines
d) lifters
d) pistons
d) actuated
d) can
d) static
d) output
d) openings
d) managing
d) brush
Lesson 5. Electric Power Steering
Vocabulary notes:
torque – обертальний момент;
electric power steering – електропідсилювач керма (система підсилення
керування з електричним підсилювачем);
hydraulic power steering – гідро підсилювач керма;(система підсилення
керування з гідравлічним підсилювачем);
hose – шланг, патрубок, рукав;
drive belt – ремінь приводу;
pulley – шків;
variable power assist– підсилювач (керма) зі змінним коефіцієнтом
підсилення;
steering gear – шестерня рульового механізму, рульовий механізм;
forms of EPS: 1) column assist type (C-EPS); 2) pinion assist type (P-EPS);
3) direct drive type (D-EPS); 4) rack assist type (R-EPS) – варіанти
конструкції електропідсилювача керма: 1) з розташуванням приводу на
кермовій колонці; 2) рейкового типу; 3) безпосереднього типу; 4) з
розташуванням приводу на кермовій рейці;
power assist unit – підсилювач;
pinion shaft – вал зубчатого колеса (шестерні конічного типу);
fail-safe mechanism – запобіжний механізм;
steer-by-wire – сервопривід;
Electric Power Steering
Power steering systems supplement the torque that the driver applies to the
steering wheel. Traditional power steering systems are hydraulic systems, but
electric power steering (EPS) is becoming much more common. EPS eliminates
many HPS components such as the pump, hoses, fluid, drive belt, and pulley.
For this reason electric steering systems tend to be smaller and lighter than
hydraulic systems.
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EPS systems have variable power assist, which provides more assistance as
the speed of a vehicle decreases and less assistance at higher speeds. They do
not need any significant power to operate when no steering assistance is
required. For this reason, they are more energy efficient than hydraulic systems.
How the system works
The EPS electronic control unit (ECU) calculates the assisting power needed
based on the torque being applied to the steering wheel by the driver, the
steering wheel position and the vehicle’s speed. The EPS motor rotates a
steering gear with an applied force that reduces the torque required from the
driver.
There are four forms of EPS based on the position of the assist motor. They
are the column assist type (C-EPS), the pinion assist type (P-EPS), the direct
drive type (D-EPS) and the rack assist type (R-EPS). The C-EPS type has a
power assist unit, torque sensor, and controller all connected to the steering
column. In the P-EPS system , the power assist unit is connected to the steering
gear's pinion shaft. This type of system works well in small cars. The D-EPS
system has low inertia and friction because the steering gear and assist unit are a
single unit. The R-EPS type has the assist unit connected to the steering gear. REPS systems can be used on mid- to full-sized vehicles due to their very
relatively low inertia from high reduction gear ratios.
Unlike a hydraulic power steering system that continuously drives a
hydraulic pump, the efficiency advantage of an EPS system is that it powers the
EPS motor only when necessary. This results in reduced vehicle fuel
consumption compared to the same vehicle with an HPS system. These systems
can be tuned by simply modifying the software controlling the ECU. This
provides a unique and cost effective opportunity to adjust the steering "feel" to
suit the automotive model class. Additional advantages of EPS is its ability to
compensate for one-sided forces such as a flat tire. It is also capable of steering
in emergency maneuvers in conjunction with the electronic stability control.
In current-day systems, there is always a mechanical connection between the
steering wheel and the steering gear. For safety reasons, it is important that a
failure in the electronics never result in a situation where the motor prevents the
driver from steering the vehicle. EPS systems incorporate fail-safe mechanisms
that disconnect power from the motor in the event that a problem with the ECU
is detected.
The next step in electronic steering is to remove the remaining mechanical
components and to convert to pure electronic steering, which is referred to as
steer-by-wire (SBW). This functions by transmitting digital signals to one or
more remote electric motors instead of a rack and pinion assembly, which inturn steers the vehicle. The 2014 Infinity Q50 is the first commercial vehicle to
implement SBW. Although there is normally no direct mechanical linkage, the
Q50 has a mechanical back-up. Under a failure, a clutch engages to restore the
driver's mechanical control. As with throttle control systems, it is likely that
70
SBW will become the standard once the electronic controls prove to be safer and
more reliable than the current hybrid systems.
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.
1. What are the two types of power steering? Which system is smaller, lighter
and more energy efficient? 2. How does the EPS system work? 3. What are the
forms of EPS based on the position of the assist motor? 4. What are the
operating principles of column assist type, direct drive type, rack assist type of
electric power steering? 5. How is the EPS system different from the HPS
system? 6. What are some other advantages of EPS over HPS? 7. Does a driver
lose control of a vehicle should any failure in electronics occur? 8. What is
steer-by-wire option? Do you think it is advantageous? Why?
Exercise 2. Sate whether the following sentences are true or false.
1. Power steering systems boost the torque that the driver applies to the steering
wheel.
2. EPS systems are considered to be traditional ones.
3. EPS systems do not need any significant power to operate when no steering
assistance is required.
4. There are four forms of EPS based on the position of the assist motor.
5. In the P-EPS system, the power assist unit is connected to the steering gear's
pinion steering column.
6. The D-EPS system has low inertia and friction because the steering gear and
assist unit are a single unit.
7. R-EPS systems can be used on mid- to full-sized vehicles.
8. In current-day systems there is not a mechanical connection between the
steering wheel and the steering gear.
9. For safety reasons the EPS systems incorporate fail-safe mechanisms that
disconnect power from the motor in the event that a problem with the ECU is
detected.
10. Introduction of steer-by-wire option will eliminate the mechanical
components within steering mechanism.
11. SBW will become the standard as soon as the electronic controls become
safer and more reliable than the current hybrid systems.
Exercise 3. Translate the following words and word combinations into
Ukrainian.
power steering systems, steering wheel, hose, fluid, drive belt, pulley, variable
power assist, energy efficient, electronic control unit, steering wheel position,
steering gear, torque sensor, steering column, single unit, vehicle fuel
consumption, emergency maneuvers, mechanical connection, failure in the
electronics, to result in, to transmit digital signals, commercial vehicle
71
Exercise 4. Find English equivalents for the following terms in the text.
гідравлічний підсилювач керма, ремінь приводу, шків, енергоефективний
(економний), підсилювач зі змінним коефіцієнтом підсилення, датчик
обертового моменту, високий ступінь силового зусилля, гідравлічний
насос, спущена шина, сервопривід, запобіжний механізм,вал зубчатого
колеса, передавати сигнал, механічне щеплення важільного типу
Exercise 5.Match the terms with their Ukrainian equivalents.
1) drive belt
2) steering gear
3) power assist unit
4) fail-safe mechanism
5) steer-by-wire
6) fluid
7) to reduce the torque
8) steering column
9) controller
10) friction
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
шестерня рульового механізму
сервопривід
рульова колонка
регулятор
зменшити обертове зусилля
тертя
ремінь приводу
запобіжний механізм
(робоча) рідина
підсилювач
Exercise 6.Insert the necessary words to complete the sentences.
1. The steering … is the part of the steering system that is manipulated by the
driver.
a) gear
b) wheel
c) shaft
d) controller
2. Modern vehicles are fitted with a steering … which is an anti-theft device.
a) lock
b) timer
c) dog
d) actuator
3. Power steering provides some … of forces acting on the front wheels to give
an ongoing sense of how the wheels are interacting with the road.
a) feel
b) backup
c) reaction
d) feedback
4. The power-steering system … still permits the vehicle to be steered using
manual effort alone.
a) failure
b) break
c) corruption
d) collision
5. Many modern cars use rack and … steering mechanisms.
a) beam
b) pinion
c) bar
d) crankshaft
6. A hydraulic power steering (HPS) uses hydraulic pressure supplied by an
engine-driven … to assist the motion of turning the steering wheel.
a) pump
b) servomechanism
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c) belt
d) pulley
7. Four-wheel steering is a system employed by some vehicles to improve
steering… , increase vehicle stability while maneuvering at high speed, or to
decrease turning radius at low speed.
a) response
b) feedback
c) answer
d) reaction
8. In EPS the amount of … is easily tunable to the vehicle type, road speed, and
even driver preference.
a) addition
b) help
c) torque
d) assistance
9. Sensors detect the position and torque of the steering… , and a computer
module applies assistive torque via the motor, which connects to either the
steering gear or steering column.
a) rack
b) column
c) spoke
d) assistance
10. The aim of steer-by-… technology is to completely do without as many
mechanical components (steering shaft, column, gear reduction mechanism, etc.)
as possible.
a) rack
b) column
c) wire
d) sense
Exercise 7. Fill in the blanks with appropriate terms.
Passive rear wheel steering
Many modern vehicles have passive rear steering. On many vehicles, when1)…
, the rear wheels tend to steer slightly to the outside of a turn, which can reduce
stability. The passive steering system uses lateral forces generated in a turn
(through suspension geometry) and the bushings to correct this tendency and 2)
… the wheels slightly to the inside of the corner. This 3) … the stability of the
car, through the turn. This effect is called compliance understeer and it is present
on all suspensions. Typical methods of achieving compliance understeer are to
use a Watt's Linkage on a live rear axle, or the use of toe control bushings on a
twist beam suspension. On an independent 4) … suspension it is normally
achieved by changing the rates of the rubber bushings in the suspension. Some
suspensions typically have compliance oversteer due to geometry, such as
Hotchkiss live axles or a semi-trailing arm but may be mitigated by revisions to
the pivot points of the leaf spring or trailing5)… .
Passive rear wheel steering is not a new concept, as it has been in use for many
years, although not always recognised as such.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
a) cornering
a) rotate
a) decreases
a)back
a)bar
b) overtaking
b) brake
b) corrupts
b) front
b) couple
c) swerving
c) steer
c) approves
c) side
c) rack
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d) accelerating
d) curve
d) improves
d) rear
d)arm
Lesson 6. The Hill Hold Control
Vocabulary notes:
Hill Hold Control – система контролю утримання автомобіля на схилі;
steep incline – крутий схил;
brake pedal travel sensor – датчик ходу гальмівної педалі;
master cylinder pressure sensor – датчик тиску в головному циліндрі;
gradient of the incline – крутизна схилу;
exit criteria of the system– критерій деактивації системи;
entrance criteria – критерій активації;
two-position clutch switch – двопозиційний перемикач зчеплення;
longitudinal acceleration sensor – датчик поздовжнього прискорення;
rolling – скочування;
gear engagement – включення передачі;
The Hill Hold Control
When starting a vehicle from a stationary position on a steep incline, a
driver has to coordinate the application and release of the clutch, brake and
accelerator pedals in a manual transmission car. This unsafe situation can be a
frustrating experience. Hill hold control systems assist the driver in these
situations by keeping the brakes activated until torque from the engine is applied
to wheels.
There are basically three types of hill-hold systems used in vehicles today.
Basic-Level System:
The sensors used in the most basic hill-hold systems are a brake pedal
travel sensor, a master cylinder pressure sensor, wheel speed sensors and
throttle position sensor. Hill hold takes place after the vehicle comes to a
complete stop with the driver’s foot on the brake which is determined by the
brake pedal travel sensor. The required torque to be applied for the hill hold
function is calculated based on the amount of torque required to keep the vehicle
stationary. The torque applied is a function of the pressure applied to the brakes,
which is determined by the master cylinder pressure sensor. When the brake
pedal is released, Hill Hold Control is activated maintaining the appropriate
brake pressure until the throttle is applied.
The limitation of the basic-level system is that it’s independent on the
gradient of the incline. Therefore, if the conditions required to activate Hill
Hold Control (entrance criteria) are satisfied, then the system will be activated
whether the surface has a positive, negative or zero gradient. The ‘exit criteria’
of the system is based only on throttle position.
Medium-Level System
This is a balance between a basic-level system and an up-level system. The
sensors used in this system are a brake pedal travel sensor, two-position clutch
74
switch (for manual transmission vehicles), longitudinal acceleration sensor
and wheel speed sensor. The system also requires inputs when the driver
activates reverse gear as well as the throttle position, both of which are obtained
from the vehicle.
The entrance criteria of a mid-level system is different when the vehicle is
on an incline and when it’s on a decline. In the case, when a vehicle is on an
incline, 4 conditions must be satisfied:
1. The vehicle must come to a complete stop;
2. The incline must be sufficiently steep to require the use of hill hold
control as determined by the longitudinal acceleration sensor;
3. The clutch must be completely depressed or close to full travel
(manual transmissions only).
When on a decline, an additional condition is required. The reverse gear
must be engaged. This indicates to the system that the driver is trying to back up
a hill without rolling forward. The exit criteria or deactivation of hill hold
control is based on either of two independent conditions. The first is an
indication that the driver wants to move the vehicle. This may be indicated by
the following:
1. The clutch pedal being released to the point of gear engagement
(which is detected by the second clutch switch);
2. An appropriate amount of throttle being applied for the vehicle to
start moving (a higher amount of throttle must be applied when the
vehicle is moving up a steeper incline).
The second is the brake being applied in any of the following conditions:
1. When the vehicle is stopped on a positive incline and the clutch is
released (indicating neutral is engaged);
2. The clutch is pressed and reverse gear is engaged while the vehicle
is stopped on an incline;
3. The vehicle is stopped on a decline and the clutch is released.
If the brake is applied in any of the above conditions, it means that the driver
wants to let the vehicle roll in the direction of the slope. Hill hold control is
deactivated by reducing the torque applied on the wheels to stop the car at a rate
proportional to the slope. This gives the mid-level system a very natural feel.
Up-Level System
The up-level system is similar to the mid-level system, except that it has the
following extra features:
1. A clutch travel sensor for determining the speed with the clutch
pedal is pressed or released (to allow the system apply and release the
brakes accordingly);
2. An additional hill-descent feature that enables the system to reverse
the vehicle when going downhill.
Different manufacturers implement hill hold in different ways. Subaru has a
mechanical version of hill hold control on their cars. Bosch has an electronic
75
control that activates the brakes for 2 seconds to give the driver time to start the
vehicle.
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.
1. What is the Hill Hold Control System used for? 2. What types of hill-hold
systems are used in vehicles today? 3. What sensors are used in the most basic
hill-hold systems? 4. When is the hill-hold control system activated? 5. Is the
system dependent on the gradient of the incline? 6. When is the hill-hold system
deactivated? 7. What sensors does the medium-level hill-hold system include?
8. What conditions must be met for the medium-level system to be activated?
9. When is the medium-level system disengaged? 10. What is the up-level hillhold system different from medium-level one?
Exercise 2. Say whether the following statements are true or false.
1. There are four types of hill-hold systems used in vehicles today.
2. The sensors used in the most basic hill-hold systems are a brake pedal travel
sensor, a master cylinder pressure sensor, wheel speed sensors and a throttle
position sensor.
3. The limitation of the basic-level system is that it’s dependent on the gradient
of the incline.
4. The ‘exit criteria’ of the basic-level system is based only on throttle position.
5. To activate the middle level system a driver has to stop the vehicle, make sure
that the slope is steep enough and depress the clutch pedal.
6. The up-level system is similar to the mid-level system but it has two extra
features.
7. Different manufacturers implement the hill hold control system in different
ways.
Exercise 3. Translate the following words and word combinations into
Ukrainian.
stationary position, release of the clutch pedal, wheel speed sensors, brake pedal
travel sensor, pressure applied to the brakes, master cylinder, manual
transmission, reverse gear, to back up a hill, rolling forward, slope, hill-descent
feature, to start the vehicle.
Exercise 4. Translate the following words and word combinations into
English using the text.
крутий спуск, задня передача, педаль акселератора, датчик ходу гальмівної
педалі, датчик тиску в головному циліндрі, крутизна схилу, автомобілі з
механічною коробкою передач, датчик швидкості обертання колеса, задня
передача, деактивація системи, скотитися, додаткові опції, задіяти гальма.
Exercise 5.Match the terms with their Ukrainian equivalents.
a) двопозиційний перемикач
1. rolling
76
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
2. reverse gear
3. to keep the vehicle stationary
4. master cylinder
5. two-position clutch switch
6. to back up
7. gear engagement
8. to release the clutch pedal
9. steep slope
10. brake pedal travel sensor
зчеплення
відпустити педаль зчеплення
скочування
включення передачі
рухатись заднім ходом
крутий схил
головний циліндр
задня передача
датчик ходу гальмівної педалі
утримувати
автомобіль
в
нерухомому положенні
Exercise 6. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words.
1. Hill Descent Control is an electronically controlled feature that assists drivers
during certain off road manoeuvres by controlling the speed at which a vehicle
proceeds down … hills.
a) flat
b) steep
c) step
d) mountainous
2. The driver can speed up or slow down the vehicle with the … pedal or brake
pedal respectively.
a) reverse
b) hand
c) clutch
d) throttle
3. Hill Descent Control works in sync with the vehicle’s Anti-lock Braking
System (ABS) and Traction Control System (TCS) to ensure that no individual
wheel loses … on loose or slippery surfaces and prevents the wheels from
locking if you jam the brakes.
a) friction
b) traction
c) control
d) tyre
4. The job of the wheel speed sensor is to constantly monitor and report the …
speed of each tire to the ABS control module.
a) rotational
b) torque
c) acceleration
d) rolling
5. … transmissions often feature a driver-operated clutch and a movable gear
stick.
a) Automatic
b) Manual
c) Variable
d) Semi-automatic
6. The term … refers to any mechanism by which the power or speed of an
engine is regulated.
a) energy
b) torque
c) throttle
d) booster
7. Sensors may … when a vehicle is following too closely and slow down the
vehicle, straighten up seat backs, and tighten seat belts, avoiding and/or
preparing for a crash.
77
a) detect
b) calculate
c) evaluate
d) investigate
8. The term 4×4 was in use to describe North American military …-wheel-drive
vehicles as early as the 1940s.
a) two
b) five
c) four
d) single
9. The more weight presses on a tire, the more … it has.
a) traction
b) torque
c) speed
d) acceleration
10. Accelerator pedal is a pedal that controls the … valve.
a) throttle
b) torque
c) intake
d) exhaust
Lesson 7. Four-wheel-drive System
Vocabulary notes:
drivetrain – трансмісія, силова передача;
simultaneously – одночасно;
off-road vehicle – позашляховик;
transfer case– роздавальна коробка
locking hub – ступиця
drive shaft – карданний вал
to spin – крутитися, обертатися;
traction– тягове зусилля
viscous coupling – віскомуфта
front-axle – передня вісь, передній міст;
gear set – редуктор
concrete – бетон
jerky turn – різкий поворот
drivetrain – трансмісія, редукторна передача, привід на ведучі колеса;
low range – понижена передача, нижчий діапазон передач;
gear ratio – передавальне число;
output speed – швидкість на відомому валу;
hub – ступиця;
half-shaft –піввісь;
wear and tear– зношення, спрацювання;
sliding collar– муфта вільного ходу; повзаюча обойма (шестерні);
Four-wheel-drive System
Four-wheel drive, all-wheel drive, AWD, 4WD, or 4×4 ("four by four") is a
four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive
torque from the engine simultaneously.
While many people typically associate the term 4x4 with off-road vehicles
and Sport utility vehicles, powering all four wheels provides better control than
78
normal road cars on many surfaces and is an important part in the sport of
rallying.
The main parts of any four-wheel-drive system are the two differentials
(front and rear) and the transfer case. In addition, part-time systems have
locking hubs and both types of systems may have advanced electronics that
help them make even better use of the available traction.
Differentials A car has two differentials, one located between the two front
wheels and one between the two rear wheels. They send the torque from the
driveshaft or transmission to the drive wheels. They also allow the left and right
wheels to spin at different speeds when you go around a turn.
When you go around a turn, the inside wheels follow a different path than
the outside wheels, and the front wheels follow a different path than the rear
wheels, so each of the wheels is spinning at a different speed. The differentials
enable the speed difference between the inside and outside wheels.
There are several different kinds of differentials used in cars and trucks. The
types of differentials used can have a significant effect on how well the vehicle
utilizes available traction.
Transfer Case This is the device that splits the power between the front and
rear axles on a four-wheel-drive car.
While the differentials handle the speed difference between the inside and
outside wheels, the transfer case in an all-wheel-drive system contains a device
that allows for a speed difference between the front and rear wheels. This could
be a viscous coupling, center differential or other type of gearset. These devices
allow an all-wheel-drive system to function properly on any surface.
The transfer case on a part-time four-wheel-drive system locks the frontaxle driveshaft to the rear-axle driveshaft, so the wheels are forced to spin at the
same speed. This requires that the tires slip when the car goes around a turn.
Part-time systems should only be used in low-traction situations in which it is
relatively easy for the tires to slip. On dry concrete, it is not easy for the tires to
slip, so the four-wheel drive should be disengaged in order to avoid jerky turns
and extra wear on the tires and drivetrain.
Some transfer cases, more commonly those in part-time systems, also
contain an additional set of gears that give the vehicle a low range. This extra
gear ratio gives the vehicle extra torque and a super-slow output speed. In first
gear in low range, the vehicle might have a top speed of about 5 mph (8 kph),
but incredible torque is produced at the wheels. This allows drivers to slowly
and smoothly creep up very steep hills.
Locking Hubs
Each wheel in a car is bolted to a hub. Part-time four-wheel-drive trucks
usually have locking hubs on the front wheels. When four-wheel drive is not
engaged, the locking hubs are used to disconnect the front wheels from the front
differential, half-shafts (the shafts that connect the differential to the hub) and
driveshaft. This allows the differential, half-shafts and driveshaft to stop
79
spinning when the car is in two-wheel drive, saving wear and tear on those
parts and improving fuel-economy.
Manual locking hubs used to be quite common. To engage four-wheel drive,
the driver actually had to get out of the truck and turn a knob on the front wheels
until the hubs locked. Newer systems have automatic locking hubs that are
engaged when the driver switches into four-wheel drive. This type of system can
usually be engaged while the vehicle is moving.
Whether manual or automatic, these systems generally use a sliding collar
that locks the front half-shafts to the hub.
Advanced Electronics
On many modern four-wheel and all-wheel-drive vehicles, advanced
electronics play a key role. Some cars use the ABS system to selectively apply
the brakes to wheels that start to skid – this is called brake-traction control.
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.
1. What is an All-Wheel Drive vehicle? 2. What are the main parts of any fourwheel-drive system? 3. How many differentials does a typical personal car
have? 4. What function do differentials carry out? 5. Does a differential allow
the individual wheels to spin at different speed? 6. What is a transfer case? 7.
What are some devices within the transfer case of a four-drive vehicle that allow
wheels to spin at different speed and to function properly on any road surfaces?
8 What device allows drivers to slowly and smoothly creep up very steep hills?
9. What are locking hubs used for? 10. What is a brake-traction control?
Exercise 2. Say whether the following statements are true or false.
1. Four-wheel drive is a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all
four wheels to receive torque from the engine at the same time.
2. The main parts of any four-wheel-drive system are the three differentials and
the transfer case.
3. The differentials transmit the torque from the driveshaft or transmission to the
drive wheels.
4. The types of differentials used in a car can have a significant effect on how
well the vehicle utilizes available traction.
5. A transfer case is the device that splits the power between the front and rear
axles on a two-wheel-drive car.
6. The transfer case on a part-time four-wheel-drive system locks the front-axle
driveshaft to the rear-axle driveshaft, so the wheels are forced to spin
simultaneously.
7. Some transfer cases also contain an additional set of gears that give the
vehicle a low range.
8. Each wheel in a car is bolted to a driveshaft.
80
9. When four-wheel drive is not engaged, the locking hubs are used to
disconnect the front wheels from the front differential, half-shafts and
driveshaft.
10. With manual locking hubs the driver actually had to get out of the truck and
turn a knob on the front wheels to engage four-wheel drive.
11. All-wheel-drive system can usually be engaged while the vehicle is moving.
12.Some cars use the ABS system to selectively apply the brakes to wheels that
start to skid
Exercise 3. Translate the following words and phrases into Ukrainian.
four-wheeled vehicle, to receive torque, advanced electronics, better use of the
available traction, rear wheels, drive wheels, to go around a turn, truck, gearset,
to function properly on any surface, rear-axle driveshaft, to avoid jerky turns,
extra wear, additional set of gears, gear ratio, to disconnect the front wheels
from the front differential, to turn a knob
Exercise 4. Translate the following words and phrases into English.
Повний привід, трансмісія, обертовий момент, тягове зусилля, ведучі
колеса, вантажівка, передня/задня вісь, напів-вісь, центральний
диференціал, кардан, понижена передача, передаточне число, ступиця;
повний привід, що підключається; активувати систему, постійний повний
привід
Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Повний привід – це конструкція трансмісії автомобіля, коли
обертальний момент, що створюється двигуном, передається на всі колеса.
2. Повний привід покращує керованість автомобіля на усіх видах
дорожнього покриття, а також дозволяє ефективніше використовувати
тягове зусилля. 3. Роздавальна коробка служить для розподілу
обертального моменту між ведучими мостами і включення-виключення
переднього ведучого моста. 4. Карданний вал застосовується для передачі
обертального моменту від коробки передач (роздавальної коробки) до
ведучих мостів. 5. Віскомуфта – це механізм, що використовується для
автоматичного блокування диференціалу. 6. Піввісь – це вал, що передає
обертальний момент ведучим колесам. 7. Як правило понижена передача
має низьке передавальне число, що дозволяє транспортному засобу
максимально використовувати обертальний момент двигуна.
Exercise6.Match the terms with their equivalents.
a) передній міст
1) drivetrain
81
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
2) simultaneously
3) off-road vehicle
4) driveshaft
5) front-axle
6) gear ratio
7) output speed
8) rear axle
9) half-shaft
10) low range
понижена передача
передавальне число
привід на ведучі колеса
швидкість на відомому валу
піввісь
карданний вал
задній міст
одночасно
позашляховик
Exercise 7. Insert the appropriate words into the text.
Difference between 4WD and AWD
4WD is selected manually and is commonly used on Pickup 1)… .Under normal
driving conditions a 4WD vehicle is 2) … by2WD (two-wheel drive); i.e. the 3)
… is being transferred from the engine to the transmission, 4)… , differential,
and to the rear wheels. The front wheels of the vehicle are just being pushed
along by the 5) … wheels which are being driven. When you manually press
4WD button, it activates a mechanism called a transfer 6)… . It allows traction
to be 7) … from the engine to the transmission through its own driveshaft and to
the front wheels. In 4WD the front wheels are now being driven just the same as
the rear wheels are. In an AWD vehicle it operates under the same basic
principles as the 4WD system, but with the AWD system all 8) … wheels are
driven all the time without you having to activate it.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
a) carts
a) activated
a) traction
a) driveshaft
a) front
a) case
a) imported
a) two
b) tricks
b) shifted
b) might
b) crankcase
b) rear
b) box
b) passed
b) four
c) trucks
c) driven
c) energy
c) camshaft
c) back
c) gear
c) transported
c) rear
d) tracks
d) moved
d) torque
d) take-off shaft
d) side
d) bearing
d) transferred
d) front
Lesson8. The Navigation Systems
Vocabulary notes:
destination– пункт призначення, кінцевий пункт маршруту;
Global Positioning System (GPS) – система глобального позиціонування,
супутникова система навігації,
foliage – листяний покрив;
proximity beacons – радіочастотний маяк;
intersection– перехрестя;
short range radio signal – низькочастотний сигнал;
82
top view – вид зверху;
emergency notifications – інформування про аварійні ситуації
visible – видимий;
pre-stored map– попередньо-запрограмовані карти;
a locus of points– геометричне місце точок;
incoming signals – вхідні сигнали
Navigation Systems
Navigation systems help the driver of a vehicle to locate a particular
destination and identify the best route for getting to that destination. Most
automotive navigation systems use Global Positioning System (GPS) signals
and electronic maps to identify the vehicle's current position relative to the
desired destination. Portable navigation systems powered through the cigarette
lighter or batteries, can be easily moved from one vehicle to another. Built-in
navigation systems have the advantage that they can access information about
the vehicle's speed and direction to help navigate in situations where a GPS
signal is temporarily blocked by buildings, traffic, foliage, etc.
Although the vast majority of automotive navigation systems rely on GPS
signals, proximity beacons provide another form of radio-positioning.
Proximity beacons are devices installed at key intersections and other strategic
roadside locations that communicate their location along-with other information
to receivers in passing vehicles via very short range radio, microwave or
infrared signals. The reception of a proximity beacon signal provides an
occasional basis for confirming vehicle position.
Vehicle navigation systems generally offer the option of a top view (or
bird's eye view) that shows the position of the vehicle on a traditional map; or a
forward view that shows the road ahead as it would be viewed by the driver.
Some navigation systems are integrated with real-time traffic information
and emergency notifications that are transmitted to the vehicle wirelessly (e.g.
at cell phone or FM radio frequencies).
The Global Positioning System
For instance the U.S. military has 27 satellites orbiting the earth, 24 that are
used for the GPS system and 3 as back-ups in case of a failure. They travel
around the earth twice every day and are arranged in such a way that at least 4
satellites are visible from any point on the earth at any time. To use GPS, a
vehicle must have a GPS receiver. The GPS receiver has a pre-stored map or
almanac of the position of each satellite (which is updated based on information
sent out by the satellite). The GPS receiver finds its distance from one satellite.
Now, the receiver might be at any point on the surface of a sphere (say, Sphere
A) with a radius equal to the distance from this satellite. Now, if the receiver
measures its distance from a second satellite, it obtains another sphere (say,
Sphere B) of probable positions. Sphere A and Sphere B will intersect to form a
locus of points that would be a circle. So, we now have a circle of probable
positions. Now, the receiver does the same with a third satellite. The result is 3
83
spheres that will give only 2 possible locations of the GPS receiver. Only one of
these two positions can be on earth.
The GPS satellite communicates with satellites by high-frequency, lowpower radio signals. Radio signals travel at the speed of light and the GPS
receiver measures the distance between itself and the satellite by finding the
time taken for a radio signal to travel between the satellite and itself. However,
to be able to measure this, the satellite and the receiver require extremely
accurate clocks. The satellites have an atomic clock; most commercial receivers
employ an ordinary quartz clock. The receiver measures incoming signals from
4 or more satellites, which is more information than necessary just to establish
position. The additional information is used to update the receiver's quartz clock
to maximize the accuracy of its position calculations.
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.
1. How do navigation systems assist drivers nowadays? 2. What advantages do
built-in navigation systems have over portable ones? 3. What do most navigation
systems rely on? 4. What wave ranges do proximity beacons use for sending
signals? 5. What types of view are offered by car navigation systems? Which is
more preferable to you personally? 6. Explain in a just few words how a GPS
work. 7. What devices does one need to locate any object on the earth? 8. What
is a GPS receiver? 9. What purpose is an atomic clock used in a satellite for?
Exercise. 2. Say whether the following statements are true or false.
1. Navigation systems assist the driver of a vehicle to locate a particular
destination and chose the best route for getting to that destination.
2. Most automotive navigation systems use Global Prognostication System
(GPS) signals and electronic maps to figure out the vehicle's current position
relative to the desired destination.
3. GPS signal may be temporarily blocked or screened by buildings, heavy
traffic, tall trees etc.
4. Proximity beacons is another form of radio-positioning.
5. Some navigation systems are integrated with real-time traffic information and
emergency notifications that are transmitted to the vehicle wirelessly.
6. To use GPS, a vehicle must have a GPS receiver.
7. The GPS satellite communicates with satellites by high-frequency, low-power
radio signals.
8. Radio signals travel at the speed of sound and the GPS receiver measures the
distance between itself and the satellite.
9. The satellites employ an atomic alarm clock and most commercial receivers
use an ordinary Swiss sand clock.
10. The receiver takes incoming signals from 4 or more satellites which is more
information than necessary to establish its position on the earth.
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Exercise 3. Translate the following words and phrases into Ukrainian.
to locate a particular destination, to identify the best route, automotive
navigation systems, to identify the vehicle's current position relative to the
desired destination, built-in navigation systems, can access information,
temporarily blocked, the vast majority of automotive navigation systems,
proximity beacons, radio-positioning, strategic roadside locations, real-time
traffic information, 27 satellites orbiting the earth, to travel at the speed of light,
extremely accurate clocks, incoming signals
Exercise 4.Translate the following words and phrases into English.
визначити місцеперебування, найкращий маршрут, портативні системи,
отримувати доступ до інформації, низькочастотний сигнал, перетинатися,
геометричне місце точок, високочастотні радіосигнали, надточний
годинник, вхідний сигнал, додаткова інформація
Exercise 5. Match English words and word combinations with their
Ukrainian equivalents.
a) супутникова система навігації
b) інформування
про
аварійні
ситуації
c) вхідний сигнал
d) видимий
e) пункт призначення
f) вихідний сигнал
g) точність
h) радіочастотний маяк
1) destination
2) GPS
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
proximity beacons
accuracy
emergency notification
incoming signal
outgoing signal
visible
Exercise 6. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words.
An automotive navigation system is a satellite navigation system designed
for use in1)… . It typically uses a GPS navigation 2) … to acquire position data
to locate the user on a road in the unit's map database. Using the road database,
the unit can give directions to other locations along roads also in its database.
Many systems can give information on nearby points of interest (POIs), such
as restaurants, cash machines and gas stations. Some navigation devices use this
3) … to store the location of known speed traps or speed cameras, and can alert
the driver in much the same way as a radar detector. GPS may also be integrated
into actual radar detection devices to enhance accuracy, and in some cases,
implement a logic system where the system only 4) … if the driver is traveling
above the speed limit or in the direction to be 'caught.' Unlike radar5)… , GPSbased speed trap warnings are currently legal in many countries.
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Some systems feature internet connectivity, either via Bluetooth to a mobile
phone (in this case the device can also typically be used for hands-free calling),
or with a built in GSM SIM card. This connectivity can be used to6) … traffic
information, to find fuel prices, as well as to search for local distances.
The radio dispatching of taxicabs have been phased out in several countries
in favor of GPS technology plus some form of mobile networking with onboard
computers. The central dispatch computer keeps 7) … of all vehicles in its fleet,
and automatically selects the nearest cab to respond to a passenger8)… .
Advanced car security vehicle tracking systems can relay the vehicle's
location via cellular phone services in case of loss or9)… . The technology can
also be used to manage fleet vehicles known as automatic vehicle location.
In Taipei, GPS receivers have several 10) … on city buses. They enable
automatic station approach announcements, provides ETA (Electronic Travel
Aid) information for passengers waiting at bus stops or using mobile devices.
Finally, GPS data is recorded along with video surveillance footage, which is
helpful when investigating traffic incidents.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
a) ships
a) instrument
a) future
a) wakes up
a) grabbers
a) upgrade
a) track
a) ask
a) robbery
a) deviations
b) automobiles
b) gauge
b) disadvantage
b) alerts
b) detectors
b) downdate
b) monitor
b) recall
b) theft
b) informations
c) locomotives
c) box
c) feature
c) alarms
c) trappers
c) update
c) eyes
c) request
c) burglary
c) investigations
d) mobile phones
d) device
d) thing
d) gets up
d) investigators
d) upstream
d) search
d) offer
d) blackmail
d) applications
Part III
Texts for home reading
Principles of Engine Operation
Engines operate on cycles. There are four strokes of the piston in one cycle
of engine operation. There are two outward strokes toward the crankshaft and
two inward strokes away from the crankshaft. When the piston is at the end of
the stroke away from the crankshaft (inward stroke) this is top dead centre
(TDC). When the piston is at the end of the outward stroke (toward the
crankshaft) this is bottom dead centre (BDC). The piston movement from TDC
to BDC is an engine stroke. The four strokes in a cycle of the internal
combustion engine are: intake, compression, power and exhaust.
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Intake. During the intake stroke the piston moves to BDC and the intake
valve opens. This movement of the piston draws a mixture of air and fuel into
the cylinder(in a diesel this movement of the piston draws in air only)
Compression. When the piston reaches BDC it moves toward the cylinder
head (inward motion). The valves do not open and the piston compresses the
fuel mixture between the piston and the cylinder head (in a diesel the piston
compresses air only).
Power. When the piston reaches TDC, an electric spark ignites the fuel
mixture in the combustion chamber of the gasoline engine (in a diesel engine the
heat of the highly compressed air ignites the fuel).When the air-fuel mixture
burns it moves the piston with great force. There are higher pressures in the
diesel engines and because of these pressures the diesel engines have heavier
piston pins, connecting rods and crankshafts than the gasoline engines.
Exhaust. The exhaust stroke takes place when the piston moves up. The
exhaust valve opens and the piston forces out the gases. The new cycle will
begin in the cylinder. Because of the four strokes we call this engine a four
stroke cycle engine. The four-stroke-cycle engine with spark ignition is the most
common type of the internal combustion engine.
The Thermostat
An additional device usually used in the cooling system is a thermostat. It
controls the temperature of the water near cylinders. It is useful when an engine
is started up or when it has to idle (run slowly) for a long time.
The thermostat is an automatic valve located in the pipe. Connecting the
cylinder head to the top of the radiator the thermostat reduces the flow of water
to the radiator, and so a necessary working temperature is reached in the
cylinder block. When the engine is cold the thermostat prevents circulation
through the radiator. When the engine cooling water reaches a temperature of
about75 °C, the thermostat valve opens and the water can flow into the radiator
for cooling.
The flow of water may be stopped or has limited movement (according to
the temperature of the water).As the volume of water within the cylinder block
is less than that within the whole cooling system, it causes the rapid warmingup1 of the water. The water in the cylinder block is circulated by means of the
water pump. When the thermostat is closed there is a by-pass in the system
allowing this internal circulation. On some engines the thermostat opens and
closes this by-pass. This internal circulation prevents engine damage.
The thermostat is an important unit in the cooling system and it should be
checked at least once a year. A faulty thermostat must be replaced with a new
one. A cold or overheated engine cannot work properly. The necessary working
temperature of an engine is about 90 °C.
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The Fall of the Carburetor
For most of the existence of the internal combustion engine, the carburetor
has been the device that supplied fuel to the engine. On many other machines,
such as lawnmowers and chainsaws, it still is. But as the automobile evolved,
the carburetor got more and more complicated trying to handle all of the
operating requirements. For instance, to handle some of these tasks, carburetors
had five different circuits:
Main circuit - Provides just enough fuel for fuel-efficient cruising;
Idle circuit - Provides just enough fuel to keep the engine idling;
Accelerator pump - Provides an extra burst of fuel when the accelerator
pedal is first depressed, reducing hesitation before the engine speeds up;
Power enrichment circuit - Provides extra fuel when the car is going up a
hill or towing a trailer;
Choke - Provides extra fuel when the engine is cold so that it will start
In order to meet stricter emissions requirements, catalytic converters were
introduced. Very careful control of the air-to-fuel ratio was required for the
catalytic converter to be effective. Oxygen sensors monitor the amount of
oxygen in the exhaust, and the engine control unit (ECU) uses this information
to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio in real-time. This is called closed loop control -- it
was not feasible to achieve this control with carburetors. There was a brief
period of electrically controlled carburetors before fuel injection systems took
over, but these electrical cars were even more complicated than the purely
mechanical ones.
At first, carburetors were replaced with throttle body fuel injection systems
(also known as single point or central fuel injection systems) that incorporated
electrically controlled fuel-injector valves into the throttle body. These were
almost a bolt-in replacement for the carburetor, so the automakers didn't have to
make any drastic changes to their engine designs.
Gradually, as new engines were designed, throttle body fuel injection was
replaced by multi-port fuel injection (also known as port, multi-point or
sequential fuel injection). These systems have a fuel injector for each cylinder,
usually located so that they spray right at the intake valve. These systems
provide more accurate fuel metering and quicker response.
Turbochargers
A turbocharger, or turbo (colloquialism), from the Greek "τύρβη"
("turbulance") is a forced induction device used to allow more power to be
produced by an engine of a given size. A turbocharged engine can be more
powerful and efficient than a naturally aspirated engine because the turbine
forces more air, and proportionately more fuel, into the combustion chamber
than atmospheric pressure alone.
Turbochargers were originally known as turbo superchargers when all forced
induction devices were classified as superchargers; nowadays the term
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"supercharger" is usually applied to only mechanically driven forced induction
devices. The key difference between a turbocharger and a conventional
supercharger is that the latter is mechanically driven from the engine, often from
a belt connected to the crankshaft, whereas a turbocharger is powered by a
turbine that is driven by the engine's exhaust gas. Compared to a mechanicallydriven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient but less responsive.
Twin charger refers to an engine which has both a supercharger and a
turbocharger.
In most piston engines, intake gases are "pulled" into the engine by the
downward stroke of the piston (which creates a low-pressure area), similar to
drawing liquid using a syringe. The amount of air which is actually inhaled,
compared with the theoretical amount if the engine could maintain atmospheric
pressure, is called volumetric efficiency. The objective of a turbocharger is to
improve an engine's volumetric efficiency by increasing density of the intake
gas (usually air).
The turbocharger's compressor draws in ambient air and compresses it
before it enters into the intake manifold at increased pressure. This results in a
greater mass of air entering the cylinders on each intake stroke. The power
needed to spin the centrifugal compressor is derived from the kinetic energy of
the engine's exhaust gases.
A turbocharger may also be used to increase fuel efficiency without
increasing power. This is achieved by recovering waste energy in the exhaust
and feeding it back into the engine intake. By using this otherwise wasted
energy to increase the mass of air, it becomes easier to ensure that all fuel is
burned before being vented at the start of the exhaust stage.
The control of turbochargers is very complex and has changed dramatically
over the 100-plus years of its use. Modern turbochargers can use wastegates,
blow-off valves and variable geometry, as discussed in later sections.
The reduced density of intake air is often compounded by the loss of
atmospheric density seen with elevated altitudes. Thus, a natural use of the
turbocharger is with aircraft engines. As an aircraft climbs to higher altitudes,
the pressure of the surrounding air quickly falls off. At 5,486 metres (17,999 ft),
the air is at half the pressure of sea level, which means that the engine will
produce less than half-power at this altitude.
Wankel Engine.
The Wankel engine is a type of internal combustion engine using an
eccentric rotary design to convert pressure into rotating motion. Over the
commonly used reciprocating piston designs the Wankel engine delivers
advantages of: simplicity, smoothness, compactness, high revolutions per
minute and a high power to weight ratio. The engine is commonly referred to as
a rotary engine, though this name applies also to other completely different
designs. Its four-stroke cycle occurs in a moving combustion chamber between
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the inside of an oval-like epitrochoid-shaped housing and a rotor that is similar
in shape to a Reuleaux triangle with sides that are somewhat flatter.
The engine was invented by German engineer Felix Wankel. He received his
first patent for the engine in 1929, began development in the early 1950s at NSU
and completed a working prototype in 1957. NSU subsequently licensed the
design to companies around the world, who have continually improved the
design.
Thanks to the compact design and unique advantages, over the most
common internal combustion engine in use employing reciprocating pistons,
Wankel rotary engines have been installed in a variety of vehicles and devices
including: automobiles, motorcycles, racing cars, aircraft, go-karts, jet skis,
snowmobiles, chain saws, and auxiliary power units.
In the Wankel engine, the four strokes of a typical Otto cycle occur in the
space between a three-sided symmetric rotor and the inside of a housing. In each
rotor of the Wankel engine, the oval-like epitrochoid-shaped housing surrounds
a rotor which is triangular with bow-shaped flanks (often confused with a
Reuleaux triangle, a three-pointed curve of constant width, but with the bulge in
the middle of each side a bit more flattened). The theoretical shape of the rotor
between the fixed corners is the result of a minimization of the volume of the
geometric combustion chamber and a maximization of the compression ratio,
respectively. The symmetric curve connecting two arbitrary apexes of the rotor
is maximized in the direction of the inner housing shape with the constraint that
it not touch the housing at any angle of rotation (an arc is not a solution of this
optimization problem).
The central drive shaft, called the eccentric shaft or E-shaft, passes through
the center of the rotor and is supported by fixed bearings. The rotors ride on
eccentrics (analogous to crankpins) integral to the eccentric shaft (analogous to a
crankshaft). The rotors both rotate around the eccentrics and make orbital
revolutions around the eccentric shaft. Seals at the corners of the rotor seal
against the periphery of the housing, dividing it into three moving combustion
chambers. The rotation of each rotor on its own axis is caused and controlled by
a pair of synchronizing gears. A fixed gear mounted on one side of the rotor
housing engages a ring gear attached to the rotor and ensures the rotor moves
exactly 1/3 turn for each turn of the eccentric shaft. The power output of the
engine is not transmitted through the synchronizing gears. The force of gas
pressure on the rotor (to a first approximation) goes directly to the center of the
eccentric, part of the output shaft.
The best way to visualize the action of the engine in the animation at left is
to look not at the rotor itself, but the cavity created between it and the housing.
The Wankel engine is actually a variable-volume progressing-cavity system.
Thus there are 3 cavities per housing, all repeating the same cycle. Note as well
that points A and B on the rotor and e-shaft turn at different speeds—Point B
circles 3 times as often as point A does, so that one full orbit of the rotor equates
to 3 turns of the e-shaft.
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As the rotor rotates and orbitally revolves, each side of the rotor is brought
closer to and then away from the wall of the housing, compressing and
expanding the combustion chamber like the strokes of a piston in a reciprocating
engine. The power vector of the combustion stage goes through the center of the
offset lobe.
While a four-stroke piston engine makes one combustion stroke per cylinder
for every two rotations of the crankshaft (that is, one-half power stroke per
crankshaft rotation per cylinder), each combustion chamber in the Wankel
generates one combustion stroke per driveshaft rotation, i.e. one power stroke
per rotor orbital revolution and three power strokes per rotor rotation. Thus,
power output of a Wankel engine is generally higher than that of a four-stroke
piston engine of similar engine displacement in a similar state of tune; and
higher than that of a four-stroke piston engine of similar physical dimensions
and weight.
Wankel engines also generally have a much higher redline than a
reciprocating engine of similar power output. This is in part because the
smoothness inherent in circular motion, but especially because they do not have
highly stressed parts such as a crankshaft or connecting rods. Eccentric shafts do
not have the stress-raising internal corners of crankshafts. The redline of a rotary
engine is limited by tooth load on the synchronizing gears. Hardened steel gears
are used for extended operation above 7000 or 8000 rpm. Mazda Wankel
engines in auto racing are operated above 10,000 rpm. In aircraft they are used
conservatively, up to 6500 or 7500 rpm. However, as gas pressure participates in
seal efficiency, racing a Wankel engine at high rpm under no load conditions
can destroy the engine.
National agencies that tax automobiles according to displacement and
regulatory bodies in automobile racing variously consider the Wankel engine to
be equivalent to a four-stroke engine of 1.5 to 2 times the displacement; some
racing series ban it altogether.
Engine Lubrication System Technology
There are basically two types of oil systems in vehicles, both of which sound
like types of walruses or something: wet sump and dry sump.
Most cars use a wet sump system. (The more you say it, the weirder it
sounds. Wet sump.) That means the oil pan is at the bottom of the engine, and
the oil is stored there. Remember Oliver the oil molecule's lounge? It's kind of
like he has a table next to the dance floor at the club. And in this strange
metaphor, the dancers are pistons and bearings.
The advantage of a wet sump system is its simplicity. The oil is close to
where it will be used, there aren't too many parts to engineer or repair, and it's
relatively cheap to build into a car.
Some cars, especially high-performance cars, use a dry sump system. That
means the sump isn't underneath the engine -- in fact, it can be located anywhere
within the engine compartment. After Oliver does his job in the engine, he
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doesn't just drip into the lounge. He goes to the VIP room away from the dance
floor.
A dry sump system gets you a couple of bonuses: First, it means the engine
can sit a little lower, which gives the car a lower center of gravity and improves
stability at speed. Second, it keeps extra oil from soaking the crankshaft, which
can lower horsepower. And, since the sump can be located anywhere, it can also
be any size and shape.
Two-stroke engines, by the way, use a completely different type of
technology. Scooters, lawn mowers and other two-stroke machines have the oil
mixed right in with the gasoline. When the gasoline evaporates in the
combustion process, the oil is left behind to do its slick business.
Sometimes you have to do this yourself, measuring the correct amounts
before filling the tank. But sometimes, as in most motor scooters, there's an
injection system that takes oil from the reservoir and mixes it with the gasoline
for you in just the right proportions.
Electrical system
The electrical system comprises a storage battery, generator, starting
(cranking) motor, lighting system, ignition system, and various accessories and
controls. Originally, the electrical system of the automobile was limited to the
ignition equipment. With the advent of the electric starter on a 1912 Cadillac
model, electric lights and horns began to replace the kerosene and acetylene
lights and the bulb horns. Electrification was rapid and complete, and, by 1930,
6-volt systems were standard everywhere.
Increased engine speeds and higher cylinder pressures made it increasingly
difficult to meet high ignition voltage requirements. The larger engines required
higher cranking torque. Additional electrically operated features—such as
radios, window regulators, and multi-speed windshield wipers—also added to
system requirements. To meet these needs, 12-volt systems replaced the 6-volt
systems in the late 1950s around the world.
The ignition system provides the spark to ignite the air-fuel mixture in the
cylinders of the engine. The system consists of the spark plugs, coil, distributor,
and battery. In order to jump the gap between the electrodes of the spark plugs,
the 12-volt potential of the electrical system must be stepped up to about 20,000
volts. This is done by a circuit that starts with the battery, one side of which is
grounded on the chassis and leads through the ignition switch to the primary
winding of the ignition coil and back to the ground through an interrupter
switch. Interrupting the primary circuit induces a high voltage across the
secondary terminal of the coil. The high-voltage secondary terminal of the coil
leads to a distributor that acts as a rotary switch, alternately connecting the coil
to each of the wires leading to the spark plugs.
Solid-state or transistorized ignition systems were introduced in the 1970s.
These distributor systems provided increased durability by eliminating the
frictional contacts between breaker points and distributor cams. The breaker
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point was replaced by a revolving magnetic-pulse generator in which
alternating-current pulses trigger the high voltage needed for ignition by means
of an amplifier electronic circuit. Changes in engine ignition timing are made by
vacuum or electronic control unit (microprocessor) connections to the
distributor.
The source of energy for the various electrical devices of the automobile is a
generator, or alternator, that is belt-driven from the engine crankshaft. The
design is usually an alternating-current type with built-in rectifiers and a voltage
regulator to match the generator output to the electric load and also to the
charging requirements of the battery, regardless of engine speed.
A lead-acid battery serves as a reservoir to store excess output of the
generator. This provides energy for the starting motor and power for operating
other electric devices when the engine is not running or when the generator
speed is not sufficiently high for the load.
The starting motor drives a small spur gear so arranged that it automatically
moves into mesh with gear teeth on the rim of the flywheel as the starting-motor
armature begins to turn. When the engine starts, the gear is disengaged, thus
preventing damage to the starting motor from overspeeding. The starting motor
is designed for high current consumption and delivers considerable power for its
size for a limited time.
Headlights must satisfactorily illuminate the highway ahead of the
automobile for driving at night or in inclement weather without temporarily
blinding approaching drivers. This was achieved in modern cars with doublefilament bulbs with a high and a low beam, called sealed-beam units. Introduced
in 1940, these bulbs found widespread use following World War II. Such units
could have only one filament at the focal point of the reflector. Because of the
greater illumination required for high-speed driving with the high beam, the
lower beam filament was placed off centre, with a resulting decrease in lighting
effectiveness. Separate lamps for these functions can also be used to improve
illumination effectiveness.
Dimming is automatically achieved on some cars by means of a photocellcontrolled switch in the lamp circuit that is triggered by the lights of an
oncoming car. Lamp clusters behind aerodynamic plastic covers permitted
significant front-end drag reduction and improved fuel economy. In this
arrangement, steerable headlights became possible with an electric motor to
swivel the lamp assembly in response to steering wheel position. The regulations
of various governments dictate brightness and field of view requirements for
vehicle lights.
Signal lamps and other special-purpose lights have increased in usage since
the 1960s. Amber-coloured front and red rear signal lights are flashed as a turn
indication; all these lights are flashed simultaneously in the “flasher” (hazard)
system for use when a car is parked along a roadway or is traveling at a low
speed on a high-speed highway. Marker lights that are visible from the front,
side, and rear also are widely required by law. Red-coloured rear signals are
93
used to denote braking, and cornering lamps, in connection with turning, provide
extra illumination in the direction of an intended turn. Backup lights provide
illumination to the rear and warn anyone behind the vehicle when the driver is
backing up. High-voltage light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are under development
for various signal and lighting applications.
Suspension Types
Dependent Rear Suspensions
If a solid axle connects the rear wheels of a car, then the suspension is
usually quite simple -- based either on a leaf spring or a coil spring. In the
former design, the leaf springs clamp directly to the drive axle. The ends of the
leaf springs attach directly to the frame, and the shock absorber is attached at the
clamp that holds the spring to the axle. For many years, American car
manufacturers preferred this design because of its simplicity.
The same basic design can be achieved with coil springs replacing the
leaves. In this case, the spring and shock absorber can be mounted as a single
unit or as separate components. When they're separate, the springs can be much
smaller, which reduces the amount of space the suspension takes up.
Independent Rear Suspensions
If both the front and back suspensions are independent, then all of the
wheels are mounted and sprung individually, resulting in what car
advertisements tout as "four-wheel independent suspension." Any suspension
that can be used on the front of the car can be used on the rear, and versions of
the front independent systems described in the previous section can be found on
the rear axles. Of course, in the rear of the car, the steering rack -- the assembly
that includes the pinion gear wheel and enables the wheels to turn from side to
side -- is absent. This means that rear independent suspensions can be simplified
versions of front ones, although the basic principles remain the same.
Specialized Suspensions: Formula One Racers.
The Formula One racing car represents the pinnacle of automobile
innovation and e-volution. Lightweight, composite bodies, powerful V10
engines and advanced aerodynamics have led to faster, safer and more reliable
cars.
To elevate driver skill as the key differentiating factor in a race, stringent
rules and requirements govern Formula One racecar design. For example, the
rules regulating suspension design say that all Formula One racers must be
conventionally sprung, but they don't allow computer-controlled, active
suspensions. To accommodate this, the cars feature multi-link suspensions,
which use a multi-rod mechanism equivalent to a double-wishbone system.
Recall that a double-wishbone design uses two wishbone-shaped control
arms to guide each wheel's up-and-down motion. Each arm has three mounting
positions -- two at the frame and one at the wheel hub -- and each joint is hinged
94
to guide the wheel's motion. In all cars, the primary benefit of a doublewishbone suspension is control. The geometry of the arms and the elasticity of
the joints give engineers ultimate control over the angle of the wheel and other
vehicle dynamics, such as lift, squat and dive. Unlike road cars, however, the
shock absorbers and coil springs of a Formula One racecar don't mount directly
to the control arms. Instead, they are oriented along the length of the car and are
controlled remotely through a series of pushrods and bell cranks. In such an
arrangement, the pushrods and bell cranks translate the up-and-down motions of
the wheel to the back-and-forth movement of the spring-and-damper apparatus.
The Future of Power Steering
Since the power-steering pump on most cars today runs constantly, pumping
fluid all the time, it wastes horsepower. This wasted power translates into
wasted fuel.
You can expect to see several innovations that will improve fuel economy.
One of the coolest ideas on the drawing board is the "steer-by-wire" or "driveby-wire" system. These systems would completely eliminate the mechanical
connection between the steering wheel and the steering, replacing it with a
purely electronic control system. Essentially, the steering wheel would work like
the one you can buy for your home computer to play games. It would contain
sensors that tell the car what the driver is doing with the wheel, and have some
motors in it to provide the driver with feedback on what the car is doing. The
output of these sensors would be used to control a motorized steering system.
This would free up space in the engine compartment by eliminating the steering
shaft. It would also reduce vibration inside the car.
General Motors has introduced a concept car, the Hy-wire, that features this
type of driving system. One of the most exciting things about the drive-by-wire
system in the GM Hy-wire is that you can fine-tune vehicle handling without
changing anything in the car's mechanical components -- all it takes to adjust the
steering is some new computer software. In future drive-by-wire vehicles, you
will most likely be able to configure the controls exactly to your liking by
pressing a few buttons, just like you might adjust the seat position in a car today.
It would also be possible in this sort of system to store distinct control
preferences for each driver in the family.
In the past fifty years, car steering systems haven't changed much. But in the
next decade, we'll see advances in car steering that will result in more efficient
cars and a more comfortable ride.
Traction Control System (TCS)
A Traction Control System (TCS), in German known as
Antriebsschlupfregelung (ASR), is typically (but not necessarily) a secondary
function of the anti-lock braking system (ABS) on production motor vehicles,
designed to prevent loss of traction of driven road wheels. When invoked it
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therefore enhances driver control as throttle input applied is mismatched to road
surface conditions (due to varying factors) being unable to manage applied
torque.
Intervention consists of one or more of the following:
Reduces or suppress spark sequence to one or more cylinders;
Reduce fuel supply to one or more cylinders;
Brake force applied at one or more wheels;
Close the throttle, if the vehicle is fitted with drive by wire throttle;
In turbo-charged vehicles, a boost control solenoid can be actuated to
reduce boost and therefore engine power.
Typically, traction control systems share the electro-hydraulic brake actuator
(but does not use the conventional master cylinder and servo), and wheel speed
sensors with the anti-lock braking system.
The basic idea behind the need of a traction control system is the difference
between traction of different wheels evidencing apparent loss of road grip that
compromise steering control and stability of vehicles. Difference in slip may
occur due to turning of a vehicle or differently varying road conditions for
different wheels. At high speeds, when a car tends to turn, its outer and inner
wheels are subjected to different speed of rotation that is conventionally
controlled by using a differential. A further enhancement of the differential is to
employ an active differential that can vary the amount of power being delivered
to outer and inner wheels according to the need (for example, if, while turning
right, outward slip (equivalently saying, 'yaw') is sensed, active differential may
deliver more power to the outer wheel, so as to minimize the yaw (that is
basically the degree to which the front and rear wheels of a car are out of line.)
Active-differential, in turn, is controlled by an assembly of electromechanical
sensors collaborating with a traction control unit.
When the traction control computer (often incorporated into another control
unit, like the anti-lock braking system module) detects one or more driven
wheels spinning significantly faster than another, it invokes the ABS electronic
control unit to apply brake friction to wheels spinning with lessened traction.
Braking action on slipping wheel(s) will cause power transfer to wheel axle(s)
with traction due to the mechanical action within a differential. All-wheel drive
AWD vehicles often have an electronically controlled coupling system in the
transfer case or transaxle engaged (active part-time AWD), or locked-up tighter
(in a true full-time set up driving all wheels with some power all the time) to
supply non-slipping wheels with (more) torque.This often occurs in conjunction
with the powertrain computer reducing available engine torque by electronically
limiting throttle application and/or fuel delivery, retarding ignition spark,
completely shutting down engine cylinders, and a number of other methods,
depending on the vehicle and how much technology is used to control the engine
and transmission. There are instances when traction control is undesirable, such
as trying to get a vehicle unstuck in snow or mud. Allowing one wheel to spin
can propel a vehicle forward enough to get it unstuck, whereas both wheels
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applying a limited amount of power can't get the same effect. Many vehicles
have a traction control shut off switch for just such circumstances.
Traction control is not just used for improving acceleration under slippery
conditions. It can also help a driver to corner more safely. If too much throttle is
applied during cornering, the drive wheels will lose traction and slide sideways.
This occurs as understeer in front wheel drive vehicles and oversteer in rear
wheel drive vehicles. Traction control can prevent this from happening by
limiting power to the wheels. It cannot increase the limits of grip available and
is used only to decrease the effect of driver error or compensate for a driver's
inability to react quickly enough to wheel slip.
Automobile manufacturers state in vehicle manuals that traction control
systems should not encourage dangerous driving or encourage driving in
conditions beyond the drivers' control.
Airbag Deployment Systems
Airbags are passive safety devices that are mandatory on all vehicles sold in
the United States. Airbags are a critical part of the Supplemental Restraint
System (SRS) in most vehicles. The objective of the airbag, which is deployed
when the vehicle suddenly decelerates (as in a collision), is to prevent the
vehicle occupants from hitting any rigid surfaces and cushion the forces on their
heads and upper or lower bodies. Airbags are typically made of nylon fabric and
are hidden behind panels at various locations in the vehicle, including the
steering wheel.
Depending on the crash severity, the rate at which the airbags are deployed
is decided by the airbag control unit. In event of a crash, the crash sensor (an
accelerometer) sends a signal to the airbag control unit. This control unit triggers
the inflation device, which generates nitrogen gas by igniting a mixture of
sodium azide (NaN3) and potassium nitrate (KNO3). From crash detection to
complete deployment of the airbag, takes about 0.05 seconds. The airbag speed
is about 200 mph, which itself can be harmful in certain cases, this has given
rise to adaptive airbag systems that employ multiple inflators to produce either
low-level or high-level deployments. These systems can adjust the airbag
pressure depending on factors such as seat position, size of passenger, crash
severity and seat belt use.
In the front passenger seat, most systems use a weight sensor to determine if
the seat is unoccupied in which case deployment of the passenger air bag will be
inhibited. The weight sensor can also discriminate between children and adults
who may be occupying the seat. The U.S. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
Standard 208 requires airbag deployment systems to detect whether a child is
seated in the front passenger seat. Typically, air bag deployment will be
suppressed if a sensor identifies a low-weight condition. Additionally some
systems can detect child's safety seats that are equipped with special sensors as
defined by the technical specification ISO/TS 22239.
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In 2010, 20% of all new vehicles sold in the U.S. were required to have side
impact protection. This target increases 20% each year and will be 100% in
2014. Side-curtain airbags are likely to play a major role in helping vehicles to
meet these requirements. The required response time for side-impact airbags is
0.005 to 0.010 seconds. Some car makers install pressure sensors in the door
cavities that instantly detect deformations caused by side impact collisions.
In 2013, Volvo was the first automotive manufacturer to introduce a
Pedestrian Airbag System in its V40 model. It uses a pedestrian contact sensing
system. When impact with a pedestrian is sensed, the hood opens from the back
and an airbag is inflated over the windshield-wiper area.
Variable Valve Timing
There are a couple of novel ways by which carmakers vary the valve timing.
One system used on some Honda engines is called VTEC.
VTEC (Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control) is an electronic
and mechanical system in some Honda engines that allows the engine to have
multiple camshafts. VTEC engines have an extra intake cam with its own
rocker, which follows this cam. The profile on this cam keeps the intake valve
open longer than the other cam profile. At low engine speeds, this rocker is not
connected to any valves. At high engine speeds, a piston locks the extra rocker
to the two rockers that control the two intake valves.
Some cars use a device that can advance the valve timing. This does not
keep the valves open longer; instead, it opens them later and closes them later.
This is done by rotating the camshaft ahead a few degrees. If the intake valves
normally open at 10 degrees before top dead center (TDC) and close at 190
degrees after TDC, the total duration is 200 degrees. The opening and closing
times can be shifted using a mechanism that rotates the cam ahead a little as it
spins. So the valve might open at 10 degrees after TDC and close at 210 degrees
after TDC. Closing the valve 20 degrees later is good, but it would be better to
be able to increase the duration that the intake valve is open.
Ferrari has a really neat way of doing this. The camshafts on some Ferrari
engines are cut with a three-dimensional profile that varies along the length of
the cam lobe. At one end of the cam lobe is the least aggressive cam profile, and
at the other end is the most aggressive. The shape of the cam smoothly blends
these two profiles together. A mechanism can slide the whole camshaft laterally
so that the valve engages different parts of the cam. The shaft still spins just like
a regular camshaft -- but by gradually sliding the camshaft laterally as the
engine speed and load increase, the valve timing can be optimized.
Several engine manufacturers are experimenting with systems that would
allow infinite variability in valve timing. For example, imagine that each valve
had a solenoid on it that could open and close the valve using computer control
rather than relying on a camshaft. With this type of system, you would get
maximum engine performance at every RPM. Something to look forward to in
the future...
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Cylinder Deactivation Reborn
The idea of cylinder deactivation is becoming increasing popular as car
manufacturers strive to reduce fuel consumption. Cylinder deactivation
effectively creates a variable displacement engine, which means you can enjoy
the on-demand power of a large capacity engine together with the fuel economy
of a smaller engine.
Cylinder deactivation is used to reduce the fuel consumption and emissions
of an engine during light load operation.
In typical light load driving you use only around 30 percent of an engine’s
maximum power. In these conditions, the throttle valve is nearly closed and the
engine needs to work to draw air. This causes an inefficiency known as pumping
loss.
Mercedes says that some large capacity engines need to be throttled so much
at light load that the cylinder pressure at Top Dead Centre is approximately half
that of a small 4 cylinder engine. Low cylinder pressure means low fuel
efficiency.
The use of cylinder deactivation at light load means the throttle valve can be
opened further to provide the same power output. This reduces pumping losses
and increases pressure in each cylinder. Fuel consumption can be improved by
around 20 percent in highway conditions.
So how is cylinder deactivation achieved?
Well, put simply, it involves keeping the intake and exhaust valves closed
for a particular cylinder. We will examine ways to keep the valves closed as we
look at each manufacturer’s system. By keeping the intake and exhaust valves
closed, it creates an ‘air spring’ in the combustion chamber – the trapped
exhaust gasses (kept from the previous charge burn) are compressed during the
piston’s upstroke and push down on the piston during its down stroke. The
compression and decompression of the trapped exhaust gasses have an
equalising effect – overall, there is virtually no extra load on the engine.
In the latest breed of cylinder deactivation systems, the engine management
system is also used to cut fuel delivery to the disabled cylinders. The transition
between normal engine operation and cylinder deactivation is also smoothed
using changes in ignition timing, cam timing and throttle position (thanks to
electronic throttle control).
In most instances, cylinder deactivation is applied to relatively large
displacement engines that are particularly inefficient at light load. In the case of
a V12, up to 6 cylinders can be disabled.
The VTEC engine.
VTEC (Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control) is a valve train
system developed by Honda to improve the volumetric efficiency of a fourstroke internal combustion engine. The VTEC system uses two camshaft
profiles and hydraulically selects between profiles. It was invented by Honda
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engineer Ikuo Kajitani, and was the first system of its kind.[citation needed]
Different types of variable valve timing and lift control systems have also been
produced by other manufacturers (MIVEC from Mitsubishi, AVCS from
Subaru, VVT-i/VVTL-i from Toyota, VANOS from BMW, VarioCam Plus
from Porsche, NeoVVL from Nissan, etc.).
VTEC was initially designed to increase the power output of an engine to
100 HP/litre or more while maintaining practicality for use in mass production
vehicles. Some later variations of the system were designed solely to provide
improvements in fuel efficiency.
Japan levies a tax based on engine displacement, and Japanese auto
manufacturers have correspondingly focused their research and development
efforts toward improving the performance of smaller engine designs through
means other than displacement increases. One method for increasing
performance into a static displacement includes forced induction, as with models
such as the Toyota Supra and Nissan 300ZX which used turbocharger
applications and the Toyota MR2 which used a supercharger for some model
years. Another approach is the rotary engine used in the Mazda RX-7 and RX-8.
A third option is to change the cam timing profile, of which Honda VTEC was
the first successful commercial design for altering the profile in real-time.
The VTEC system provides the engine with multiple camshaft profiles
optimized for both low and high RPM operations. In basic form, the single cam
profile of a conventional engine is replaced with two profiles: one optimized for
low-RPM stability and fuel efficiency, and the other designed to maximize highRPM power output. The switching operation between the two cam lobes is
controlled by the ECU which takes account of engine oil pressure, engine
temperature, vehicle speed, engine speed and throttle position. Using these
inputs, the ECU is programmed to switch from the low lift to the high lift cam
lobes when the conditions mean that engine output will be improved. At the
switch point a solenoid is actuated which allows oil pressure from a spool valve
to operate a locking pin which binds the high RPM cam follower to the low
RPM ones. From this point on, the valves open and close according to the highlift profile, which opens the valve further and for a longer time. The switch-over
point is variable, between a minimum and maximum point, and is determined by
engine load. The switch-down back from high to low RPM cams is set to occur
at a lower engine speed than the switch-up (representing a hysteresis cycle) to
avoid a situation in which the engine is asked to operate continuously at or
around the switch-over point.
The older approach to timing adjustments is to produce a camshaft with a
valve timing profile that is better suited to high-RPM operation. The
improvements in high-RPM performance occur in trade for a power and
efficiency loss at lower RPM ranges, which is where most street-driven
automobiles operate a majority of the time. Correspondingly, VTEC attempts to
combine high-RPM performance with low-RPM stability.
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Transmission Control
The Transmission Control Module (TCM) is a device that controls modern
automatic transmissions based on various inputs. The basic function of this unit
is to receive signals from various sensors as well as data provided by engine
control module (ECM), process this input, calculate how and when to shift gears
in the transmission and generate the output signals required to drive the
actuators that accomplish this shifting. The software controlling the TCM is
designed to optimize vehicle performance, shift quality and fuel efficiency.
The electronic sensors monitor the gear position selection, vehicle speed,
throttle position and a number of other parameters. Based on this data, the
control unit adjusts the current supplied to solenoids in the transmission that
control the position of various valves and gears.
The gear position selector switch communicates to the TCM which gear has
been selected by the operator. The crankshaft position sensor provides
information to the TCM to determine the existing rotational speed of the engine.
This information helps the TCM to determine when to change gears. The
Throttle position sensor tells the TCM how far the throttle is open which
indirectly indicates the engine load. This input is used to determine the best time
to change a gear. The turbine speed sensor determines the speed of the torque
converter. The TCM uses this information to find the slippage across the torque
converter, which helps it decide when to activate the torque converter lock-up
clutch. The torque converter lock-up clutch increases the efficiency of the
transmission by eliminating the hydraulic and pumping losses associated with
the torque converter when cruising on the highway. The transmission fluid
temperature sensor is used to ensure that the automatic transmission fluid is at
the correct temperature. If the automatic transmission fluid is hot, then the
transmission is downshifted. The brake pedal position sensor helps to ensure that
the driver has applied the brake before shifting into park or reverse. The TCM
may also downshift the transmission if the vehicle is going downhill in order to
utilize the compression braking of the engine. Inputs from the traction control
system instruct the transmission to downshift when one or more tires are losing
traction.
Thanks to electronic transmission controls, modern automatic transmissions
are much more fuel efficient than their purely mechanical/hydraulic
predecessors. They also exhibit smoother shifting, reduced engine emissions,
greater reliability and improved vehicle handling.
On some vehicles, the functions of the TCM and ECM are combined in a
single module called the Powertrain Control Module or PCM.
Cruise control
Cruise control is a system that automatically controls the speed of an
automobile. The driver sets the speed and the system takes over the throttle of
the car to maintain the speed. The system thereby improves driver comfort in
steady traffic conditions. In congested traffic conditions, where speeds vary
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widely, these systems are no longer effective. Most cruise control systems do
not allow the use of cruise control below a certain speed.
In modern designs, the cruise control may need to be turned on before use —
in some designs it is always "on" but not always enabled (not very common),
others have a separate "on/off" switch, while still others just have an "on" switch
that must be pressed after the vehicle has been started. Most designs have
buttons for "set", "resume", "accelerate", and "coast" functions. Some also have
a "cancel" button. Alternatively, depressing the brake or clutch pedal will
disable the system so the driver can change the speed without resistance from
the system. The system is operated with controls easily within the driver's reach,
usually with two or more buttons on the steering wheel spokes or on the edge of
the hub like those on Honda vehicles, on the turn signal stalk like in many older
General Motors vehicles or on a dedicated stalk like those found in, particularly,
Toyota and Lexus. Earlier designs used a dial to set speed choice.
The driver must bring the vehicle up to speed manually and use a button to
set the cruise control to the current speed. The cruise control takes its speed
signal from a rotating driveshaft, speedometer cable, wheel speed sensor from
the engine's RPM, or from internal speed pulses produced electronically by the
vehicle. Most systems do not allow the use of the cruise control below a certain
speed (normally around 40 km/h (25 mph)). The vehicle will maintain the
desired speed by pulling the throttle cable with a solenoid, a vacuum driven
servomechanism, or by using the electronic systems built into the vehicle (fully
electronic) if it uses a 'drive-by-wire' system.
All cruise control systems must be capable of being turned off both
explicitly and automatically when the driver depresses the brake, and often also
the clutch. Cruise control often includes a memory feature to resume the set
speed after braking, and a coast feature to reduce the set speed without braking.
When the cruise control is engaged, the throttle can still be used to accelerate the
car, but once the pedal is released the car will then slow down until it reaches
the previously set speed.
On the latest vehicles fitted with electronic throttle control, cruise control
can be easily integrated into the vehicle's engine management system. Modern
"adaptive" systems (see below) include the ability to automatically reduce speed
when the distance to a car in front, or the speed limit, decreases. This is an
advantage for those driving in unfamiliar areas.
The cruise control systems of some vehicles incorporate a "speed limiter"
function, which will not allow the vehicle to accelerate beyond a pre-set
maximum; this can usually be overridden by fully depressing the accelerator
pedal. (Most systems will prevent the vehicle accelerating beyond the chosen
speed, but will not apply the brakes in the event of overspeeding downhill.)
On vehicles with a manual transmission, cruise control is less flexible
because the act of depressing the clutch pedal and shifting gears usually
disengages the cruise control. The "resume" feature has to be used each time
after selecting the new gear and releasing the clutch. Therefore cruise control is
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of most benefit at motorway/highway speeds when top gear is used virtually all
the time.
Idle Stop-Start Systems
The Idle Stop-Start System is a low cost method for increasing fuel economy
and decreasing emissions. The system turns off an internal combustion engine
when the vehicle stops at a stop light or during stop and go traffic where the
vehicle would normally idle for a minimum of three to five seconds, then the
engine is restarted when the driver is ready to proceed. An electronic control
unit determines an appropriate time to turn off the engine based on data from
various sensors. An auto start/stop system can reduce CO2 emissions by up to
3.5%. The system is currently available on most hybrid vehicles and on BMW's
EfficientDynamics vehicles.
In hybrid vehicles, the system works very efficiently due to the availability
of the large rechargeable battery used to assist in powering the engine. The
picture below demonstrates how the system works on a full hybrid 2007 Toyota
Prius. When the vehicle comes to a complete stop at a stop; the engine is turned
off. Notice how the energy monitoring computer shows no flow of energy.
When the brake pedal is released, the electric power from the battery is used to
start the engine and assist in the initial acceleration. The yellow arrows show the
flow of the electric energy to the wheels. When engine power is required, the
engine is quickly started and assists the electric motor in powering the vehicle.
The concept is simple; however numerous parameters must be monitored
and controlled in order to ensure the driver's comfort whenever the engine turns
off. The system must monitor the state of charge (SOC) of the battery, so that
the engine can be started again. Also, the air conditioning system must be shut
down when the engine is off or being started. The system monitors the cabin
climate to ensure the driver's thermal comfort. If the cabin temperature has not
reached the operator's set value the auto start/stop system will not initiate. In
addition, the engine temperature is monitored to avoid cold starts. This ensures
complete combustion and optimal operation of the catalytic converter, thus
reducing emissions.
Automatic Braking Systems
A study conducted by the German Association of Insurance revealed that
50% of rear-end collisions occur without any braking and as much as 70%
percent occur with braking that is insufficient to stop the vehicle in time.
Furthermore, nearly 75% of all accidents that result in injuries happen within
city limits at speeds below 20 mph. Active braking systems are well suited for
avoiding or minimizing the damage caused by accidents under these conditions.
Active braking systems monitor conditions ahead of the vehicle. If a crash
appears to be imminent, these systems will automatically apply an appropriate
braking pressure. Continental’s Emergency Brake Assist system, for example,
uses three laser beams level with the rear-view mirror to scan the road for
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obstacles up to eight meters ahead. The system is capable of preventing
collisions if the speed differential between the two vehicles is less than 10 mph.
At speeds greater than 10 mph, the system can reduce the severity of impact.
The Volvo XC60 implements a dual-mode detection technology from
Continental that is capable of detecting pedestrians as well as other vehicles and
applying full brake pressure at 2 to 18 mph. The system uses an infrared laser
located behind the rear-view mirror and high resolution cameras for image
detection. The combination of the two sensing technologies enables the system
to more accurately assess the situation to further aid in accident prevention. The
Highway Loss Data Institute found that Volvo XC60s equipped with this feature
had 27% fewer claims, and were involved in fewer claims valuing up to $6,999
compared to other midsize luxury SUVs. This shows that the system appears to
be effective at reducing the number of low speed collisions.
Most of the automatic braking systems do not brake until the last minute,
after warning the driver using acoustic as well as visual warning. This braking is
usually activated later than a normal driver who is concentrating on the road
would brake. Hence the system is less likely to interfere with normal driving and
drivers are less likely to become dependent on the system for braking.
Blind Spot Detection
A person seated in the driver's seat of a typical car or truck depends on the
rear view mirror and two side mirrors to see vehicles approaching from behind.
However, vehicles or other objects on either side and slightly behind a car may
be in an area that is outside the field of view of the these mirrors. This region is
called the vehicle's blind spot. Driver's education classes emphasize the
importance of checking for vehicles in the blind spot before attempting to make
a lane change. Nevertheless, hundreds of thousands of collisions occur every
year during lane changes.
Blind spot detectors use radar or image sensors to monitor a vehicle's blind
spots and alert the driver when other vehicles are present. The alert indication is
normally a yellow or red light located in or near the side mirrors that illuminates
when a vehicle enters the blind spot associated with that particular side of the
vehicle. Some models will provide an additional haptic warning that vibrates the
driver's seat and/or steering wheel should he use the turn signals to indicate his
intention to change lanes even though there is a vehicle in his blind spot.
With the 2011 model year, Infiniti introduced two models offering a feature
called "Blind Spot Intervention". In addition to warning the driver about a
vehicle in the blind spot, this system actually helps to prevent the car from
changing lanes when a collision is likely to occur. The system applies mild
braking to the wheels on the opposite side of the vehicle to pull the vehicle back
to its original lane when it determines that changing lanes is likely to cause a
collision with a vehicle in the blind spot.
Other Blind Spot Detection Methods. Bosch's "Side View Assist" uses
ultrasonic sensors for blind spot detection.
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Multi-radius mirrors having a 40-degree field of view have been a popular
option for consumers in Europe and Japan for more than 20 years. But in the
US, this cannot be the solution, since government regulations permit only flat
mirrors, having a 15-degree field of view.
A different blind-spot detection device has been developed by Advanced
Technology Products of Toronto, Ontario. The system uses a patented passive
infrared sensor technology, which the company claims can sense thermal energy
radiating from the tires of a moving vehicle. This temperature difference is used
to trigger a flashing red light to warn the driver of the hazard.
Michigan-based Magna Donnelly Corp. has developed panoramic vision
displays involving three cameras, which can give an image of both sides and of
the back of the vehicle, covering a 70-degree field of view with almost no blind
spots. The three cameras replace the exterior and interior rear-view mirrors.
Navigation Systems
Navigation systems help the driver of a vehicle to locate a particular
destination and identify the best route for getting to that destination. Most
automotive navigation systems use Global Positioning System (GPS) signals
and electronic maps to identify the vehicle's current position relative to the
desired destination. Portable navigation systems powered through the cigarette
lighter or batteries, can be easily moved from vehicle to another. Built-in
navigation systems have the advantage that they can access information about
the vehicle's speed and direction to help navigate in situations where a GPS
signal is temporarily blocked by buildings, traffic, foliage, etc.
Although the vast majority of automotive navigation systems rely on GPS
signals, proximity beacons provide another form of radio-positioning. Proximity
beacons are devices installed at key intersections and other strategic roadside
locations that communicate their location along-with other information to
receivers in passing vehicles via very short range radio, microwave or infrared
signals. The reception of a proximity beacon signal provides an occasional basis
for confirming vehicle position. One such system is described here.
Vehicle navigation systems generally offer the option of a top view (or bird's
eye view) that shows the position of the vehicle on a traditional map; or a
forward view that shows the road ahead as it would be viewed by the driver.
Some navigation systems are integrated with real-time traffic information
and emergency notifications that are transmitted to the vehicle wirelessly (e.g. at
cell phone or FM radio frequencies).
The Global Positioning System
The U.S. military has 27 satellites orbiting the earth, 24 that are used for the
GPS system and 3 as back-ups in case of a failure. They travel around the earth
twice everyday and are arranged in such a way that at least 4 satellites are
visible from any point on the earth at any time. To use GPS, a vehicle must have
a GPS receiver. The GPS receiver has a pre-stored map or almanac of the
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position of each satellite (which is updated based on information sent out by the
satellite). The GPS receiver finds its distance from one satellite. Now, the
receiver might be at any point on the surface of a sphere (say, Sphere A) with a
radius equal to the distance from this satellite. Now, if the receiver measures its
distance from a second satellite, it obtains another sphere (say, Sphere B) of
probable positions. Sphere A and Sphere B will intersect to form a locus of
points that would be a circle. So, we now have a circle of probable positions.
Now, the receiver does the same with a third satellite. The result is 3 spheres
that will give only 2 possible locations of the GPS receiver. Only one of these
two positions can be on earth.
The GPS satellite communicates with satellites by high-frequency, lowpower radio signals. Radio signals travel at the speed of light and the GPS
receiver measures the distance between itself and the satellite by finding the
time taken for a radio signal to travel between the satellite and itself. However,
to be able to measure this, the satellite and the receiver require extremely
accurate clocks. The satellites have an atomic clock; most commercial receivers
employ an ordinary quartz clock. The receiver measures incoming signals from
4 or more satellites, which is more information than necessary just to establish
position. The additional information is used to update the receiver's quartz clock
to maximize the accuracy of its position calculations.
"Sure-footed all-wheel-drive handling."
That's the kind of lingo you're likely to hear in car ads and marketing
material, and it has prompted me to shout at televisions, print ads, and the
occasional car-company rep: All-wheel drive doesn't help handling!
It's disingenuous to say or infer that AWD enhances cornering prowess, or
that it'll help a driver avoid a fallen tree or dodge Bambi. When it comes to
handling, all-wheel drive is overrated (not to mention heavy and gas-sucking),
especially in foul weather.
"I'd rather have a Camry on four new snow tires than the best all-wheeldrive vehicle on all-season tires," said one tester who requested anonymity.
Before you start flaming, I'm not anti-AWD. Rather, I'm just incensed by
those who fudge its ability beyond all recognition. AWD is great at aiding
accelerating on slick surfaces and keeping a vehicle moving on snowy roads.
Rally racers like AWD because it helps their over-powered cars accelerate on
gravel and dirt paths. I co-drove an AWD car to victory in a 24-hour race, and in
the rain I enjoyed how the car accelerated off the corners.
However, my experience—hard-earned from wrecking more than one AWD
vehicle during snow-handling tests for a tire company—is that AWD is counterproductive when the roads are slick. At the same time AWD doesn't improve
your handling, it does offer an overly optimistic sense of available traction, and
it provides the potential to be going so much faster when you need to stop. (Note
to those from warm climes: Snowbanks are not puffy and cushiony.) The laws of
physics mean a vehicle's cornering power is the job of the tires and suspension.
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"In the snow, it is all about the tires," says automotive engineer Neil
Hannemann, whose resume includes helping to develop the original Dodge
Viper, creating a proof-of-concept vehicle for the original all-wheel-drive
Chrysler minivan, and driving ice racers on frozen lakes. Having power to four
wheels rather than two sounds like it would help the car handle, which is why
you see those ads that infuriate me. But good tires beat AWD.
Some disagree, saying AWD helps bad-weather handling because it quells
power on oversteer, the fishtailing rear-drive cars experience when a ham-footed
driver is too rough on the accelerator. It is true that AWD is excellent at
preventing the tail from stepping out under power. But this is not "improving
handling." It's really aiding acceleration.
And it's true that some advanced AWD systems now on the market help the
car turn a little bit if the driver is assertively pushing the accelerator; they do it
by dragging the inside wheel and diverting more force to the outside wheel. But
my experience, and that of the test drivers I consulted, found little more than a
small benefit. Once the tires' grip limit is reached, no more can be created. (For
nitpickers and engineers: Yes, more aerodynamic downforce will increase grip,
but I'm talking about road-going vehicles at highway-legal speeds, where that
kind of performance edge isn't really applicable.)
There are more advanced AWD systems on the horizon. These torquevectoring differentials are advanced versions of the current systems that cause
one or more tires to turn faster or slower. The goal of these systems is to harness
the grip all four tires have to offer.
Even so, we're talking about minor improvements. If you're looking for the
peace of mind in knowing that you'll be able to get home if an unexpected
snowstorm hits, AWD may be a good choice for you. However, if you think that
AWD will help your car better grip slippery corners or dodge an indecisive
squirrel, you're sadly mistaken. A good set of snow tires is a better investment if
you live where it snows frequently or if the highway department is poor at
plowing roads.
Transmission
In a front-engined rear-wheel-drive car, power is transmitted from the engine
through the clutch and the gearbox to the rear axle by means of a tubular
propeller shaft.The rear axle must be able to move up and down on the
suspension according to variations of the road surface.The movement causes the
angle of the propeller shaft, and the distance between the gearbox and the rear
axle, to change constantly.
To allow for the constant movement, splines on the front end of the propeller
shaft slide in and out of the gearbox as the distance changes; the shaft also has
universal joints at each end, and sometimes in the middle.The universal joints
allow the propeller shaft to be flexible, while constantly transmitting power.The
last part of the transmission is the final drive, which incorporates the differential
and is sometimes called the differential.The differential has three functions: to
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turn the direction of drive through 90 degrees to the rear wheels; to allow either
rear wheel to turn faster than the other when cornering; and to effect a final gear
reduction.
A pinion gear inside the differential is driven by the propeller shaft and has
its gears bevelled - cut at an angle. It meshes with a bevelled crown wheel so
that the two gears form a 90 degree angle.The crown wheel usually has about
four times as many teeth as the pinion gear, causing the wheels to turn at a
quarter the propeller-shaft speed.The drive is transmitted from the differential to
the rear wheels by means of half shafts, or drive shafts.
At the differential end of each half shaft, a bevelled pinion gear is connected
to the crown wheel by means of an intermediate set of bevel pinions.
Driving through the front wheels
Front-wheel-drive cars use the same transmission principles as rearwheeldrive cars, but the mechanical components vary in design according to the
engine and gearbox layout.
Transverse engines are normally mounted directly above the gearbox, and
power is transmitted through the clutch to the gearbox by a train of gears.In-line
engines are mated directly to the gearbox, and drive passes through the clutch in
the normal manner.In both cases, drive passes from the gearbox to a final-drive
unit.In a transverse-mounted engine, the final-drive unit is usually located in the
gearbox. In an in-line engine, it is usually mounted between the engine and the
gearbox.
Power is taken from the final-drive unit to the wheels by short drive shafts.
To cope with suspension and steering movement in the wheels, the drive shafts
use a highly developed type of universal joint called a constant-velocity (CV)
joint.A CV joint uses grooves with steel ball bearings in them instead of the
`spider' found in a universal joint, and transmits power at a constant speed,
regardless of the angle and the distance between the final-drive unit and the
wheels.
Some cars, such as earlier Minis, also have drive-shaft couplings which are
'spider' joints, and do the same job as universal joints in rear-wheel-drive cars,
allowing up-and-down movement of the suspension. They are usually made of
rubber bonded to metal.
Rear engine driving rear wheels
Some cars, such as VW Beetles and smaller Fiats, have rear-mounted
engines and gearboxes, driving the rear wheels.Power is transmitted through the
clutch to the gearbox, passing to the wheels through drive shafts.The layout is
similar to some frontwheel-drive cars, except that no allowance need be made
for steering movement of the wheels.Sometimes the shafts are connected to the
flanges at the gearbox by `doughnut' couplings.The shafts and flanges are bolted
on either side of the couplings, and drive is transmitted through the flexible
rubber.
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Quiz
1. Almost all cars convert gasoline into motion with a _____-stroke combustion
cycle.
a) two
b) three
c) four
d) six
2. In a multi-cylinder car engine, what are the three ways in which the cylinders
can be arranged?
a) Inline, V and
b) Stacked, Z and c) Flat, T and
d) Opposite, S and
flat
inline
parallel
flat
3. The "big three" engine problems are: lack of spark, lack of compression and
________.
a)
cracked b) bad fuel mix
c) oil leak
d) misfiring
cylinder
pistons
4. What's one component a gasoline engine has that a diesel engine doesn't?
a) turbine
b) intercooler
c) alternator
d) spark plugs
5. What's the system that opens and closes a car's valves?
a) rotor
b) camshaft
c) carburetor
6. What are the two components of a car's cooling system?
a) carburetor and b) coil and
c) radiator and
water pump
radiator
water pump
7. What engine component is absent in a fuel-injected car?
a) muffler
b)turbocharger
c) carburetor
8. The catalytic converter is part of which engine system?
a) Air-intake
b)Valve train
c) Cooling
d) timing belt
d) oil and turbine
d) muffler
d) Emission
control
9. The three most important factors in car aerodynamics are drag, lift and
__________.
a) down force
b)up force
c) side force
d) roll force
10. What's the drag coefficient of most cars today?
a) down force
b)up force
c) side force
11. What does ABS stand for?
a) Anti-hijack braking system;
b) American braking system;
c) Awesome braking system;
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d) roll force
d) Anti-lock braking system
12. Where are drum brakes typically located?
a) front brakes
b)rear brakes
c) truck brakes
only
d) fork lift brakes
13. What prevents or reduces injury to passengers?
a) ABS
b)ESP
c) Traction control d) Rigid frames
14. What's the primary advantage of anti-lock braking systems (ABS)?
a) They allow you to stop easier;
b) They allow you to steer while braking;
c) They prevent locking;
d) None of the above
15. What kind of gas inflates an airbag?
a) Hydrogen
b)Nitrogen
c) Helium
d) Oxygen
16. Which type of engine has the highest compression ratio?
a) Infinite
b)Petrol
c) Steam
d) Diesel
17. A bump or imperfection on the roadway causes the vehicle's wheel to move
up and down perpendicular to the road surface. What is this motion called?
a) Horizontal acceleration;
b) Lateral acceleration;
c) Vertical acceleration;
d) Roll acceleration
18. What is the most common type of spring used in modern car suspensions?
a) Leaf springs
b)Coil springs
c) Air springs
d) Water springs
19. What term describes the ability of a vehicle to travel a curved path?
a) Acceleration
b)Road holding
c) Angling
d) Cornering
20. What is loosely defined as the mass between the road and the suspension
springs?
a) Unsprung mass b)Sprung mass
c) Spring mass
d) Leaf mass
21. A car engine's job is to:
a) Convert fuel into heat;
b) Convert fuel into motion;
c) Convert fuel into exhaust;
d) Convert fuel into flame
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22. A car uses a four-stroke engine. The four strokes are:
a) Compression, decompression and b) Injection, burning, decompression,
exhaust
exhaust
c) Injection, rotation, ignition and d) Intake, compression, ignition and
exhaust
exhaust
23. A crankshaft's job in an engine is to:
a) Deliver fuel to the cylinders
b) Change linear motion
rotational motion
c) Deliver a person from point A to d) Keep cylinder heads in place
point B
into
24. In a car engine's cylinder, valves let fuel in and exhaust out. The ______
moves these valves.
a) camshaft
b)timing belt
c) distributor
d) silencer
25. A turbocharger is:
a) A set of gears that makes the wheels
turn faster
c) A pair exhaust pipes that thrust the
vehicle ahead
b) A turbine that compresses the air
traveling into the engine
d) An injector that delivers fuel to the
engine faster
26. What are the key parts of the camshaft?
a)Pistons
b)Lobes
c) Cylinders
d) Valves
27. Which of these is not a type of camshaft?
a) Pushrod
b)A single overhead crank
c) A single overhead cam
d) Platinum overhead cam
28. In single and double overhead cam engines, what keeps the cams rotating?
a)Timing belt
b)Timing chain
c) Crankshaft
d) Wheels
29. How do pushrod engines differ from overhead engines?
a) Pushrod valves are located in the b)The valves are spring loaded.
head.
c) The camshaft is located inside the d) The valves are positioned upside
engine block.
down
30. Why is the camshaft important to engine performance?
a) It regulates the amount of fuel and b)It monitors the pistons.
air that enters the engine.
c) It controls the action of the engine d) It rotates the crankshaft
valves.
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31. What's the most persistent flaw in camshaft design?
a) Corrosion
b) Imperfect timing
c)Valve clogging
d) Metal fatigue
32.To make the best use of the fuel, the spark should occur before the piston
reaches the top of the _______ stroke.
a)exhaust
b)intake
c) compression
d) power
33. A manual transmission is connected to the engine through the: _______ .
a)differential
b)clutch
c) belt
d) gear stick
34. What connects the gears to the drive shaft in a manual transmission?
a)layshaft
b)clutch
c) belt
d) collar
35. In a manual transmission, how does the collar engage a gear?
a) with magnets
b) with dog teeth
c) with electronics
d) with hydraulics
36. What do manual transmissions in modern passenger cars use to eliminate the
need for double-clutching?
a)elite motor oil
b)synchronizers
c)equalizers
d) flywheel
37. What two things do automatic transmissions lack that manual transmissions
have?
a) clutch pedal and gears
b) clutch pedal and gear shift
c) clutch pedal and steering wheel
d) clutch pedal and gear stick
38. What creates the different gear ratios in an automatic transmission?
a) a series of four gears
b) planetary gearset
c) a series of two gears
d) planetary hydraulics
39. When the piston reaches a point just before top dead center, the … ignites
the fuel mixture.
a) alternator
b)spark plug
c) valve
d) flywheel
40. The connecting rod connects the piston to the… .
a)crankcase
b)camshaft
c) valve
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d) crankshaft
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