(LASER Videography) Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of

(LASER Videography) Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER Videography)
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, LASER (laser), is a mechanism
for emitting light within the electromagnetic radiation region of the spectrum, via the process of
stimulated emission. The emitted laser light is (usually) a spatially coherent, narrow lowdivergence beam, the light can be manipulated with lenses. In laser technology, “coherent light”
denotes a light source that produces (emits) light of in-step waves of identical frequency and
phase. The laser’s beam of coherent light differentiates it from light sources that emit incoherent
light beams, of random phase varying with time and position; whereas the laser light is a narrowwavelength electromagnetic spectrum monochromatic light; yet, there are lasers that emit a
broad spectrum light, or simultaneously, at different wavelengths.
The word laser originally was the upper-case LASER, the acronym from Light Amplification by
Stimulated Emission of Radiation, wherein light broadly denotes electromagnetic radiation of
any frequency, not only the visible spectrum; hence infrared laser, ultraviolet laser, X-ray laser,
et cetera. Because the microwave predecessor of the laser, the maser, was developed first,
devices that emit microwave and radio frequencies are denoted “masers”.
Electromagnetic spectrum of light
(1) Free electron lasers
Dye lasers
Semiconductor lasers
(4) Photonic crystal lasers(5)
Fiber-hosted lasers
Solid-state lasers
(7) Excimer lasers
Chemical lasers
Gas lasers
For LASER videography: For LASER videography we use coupling optics. The coupling
optics do two things. First, they shape the beam so that it enters the specimen from the full
available range of angles, and comes to a focus at a point in the image plane. Second, they allow
beam location and angle to be adjusted by moving lenses and mirrors, rather than the
microscope (in case of microscopy) and laser. Lenses and mirrors can be mounted in optical
positioning equipment that allows fine, stable, continuous adjustment. Since there are six
separate adjustments necessary to make the laser system operate properly, easy, stable
adjustment is important. In fact, the design of the coupling optics is the single most important
factor determining how convenient the laser system will be to use. In addition, since the coupling
optics is far less expensive than the laser and microscope, you can lavish attention on this part of
your system without much increasing the overall cost. The below figures show the lenses used to
shape and focus the beam.
Lens y focuses the beam to a point within the image, so that it will focus to a corresponding point
within the specimen. Lens y can be moved along the beam axis to adjust the focus of the laser so
that it corresponds to the image you see. If it is moved toward the laser, the focus will move
upward in the specimen. The laser light cannot be focused to a point in the image, because no
image is formed. In this case one uses an additional lens (z in the figure) to form an image.
How to form the image and where?
We need to test image formation and need to adjust the LASER light also. It is important that
laser light enter the specimen from the widest possible range of angles, which means that beam
diameter must be at least large enough to illuminate the entire objective. (You can find out if
your beam diameter is large enough by unscrewing the high- power objective from its mount,
then comparing the size of the spot of laser light on a card held under the hole to the opening in
the back of the objective.) Lenses allows the beam diameter to be adjusted. If lens x is moved
slightly towards the laser, the beam will diverge slightly as it leaves the telescope, so that its
diameter will be larger at lens y and the objective. If the beam is larger than the objective, only
the center will enter. Thus as lens x is moved toward the laser, less of the light enters the
objective, so that the illumination becomes weaker, a useful way of adjusting the intensity. It also
improves the uniformity of the illumination, since the center of the beam is the most uniform.
Intensity can also be adjusted by interposing neutral density filters in the beam, or, for very small
changes in intensity, microscope slides.
Of course, unlimited variations on these arrangements are possible. For instance, you can shorten
the light path in Figure 1b by using a concave lens instead of a convex lens (see figure). As in
this, we place a mirror between y and z to bend the light path so that it can be more conveniently
placed on a desktop.
Lens Spatial filter Objective lens
LASER beam
Power supply for the laser beam
Assembly for the Laser light equipment
Fresnel filter to adjust light
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