EMI Test Receiver
Operating Manual
➢
EMI Test Receiver
R&S® ESU8
1302.6005.08
R&S® ESU26
1302.6005.26
R&S® ESU40
1302.6005.40
Printed in Germany
Test and Measurement Division
1302.6163.12-01-
Dear Customer,
throughout this operating manual, the abbreviation ESU is used for your EMI Test Receiver R&S ESU.
R&S® is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Trade names are trademarks of the owners
1302.6163.12
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R&S ESU
Tabbed Divider Overview
Tabbed Divider Overview
Safety Instructions are provided on the CD-ROM
Tabbed Divider
Documentation Overview
Chapter 1: Putting into Operation
Chapter 2: Getting Started
Chapter 3: Manual Control
Chapter 4: Instrument Functions
Chapter 5: Remote Control – Basics
Chapter 6: Remote Control – Description of Commands
Chapter 7: Remote Control – Programming Examples
Chapter 8: Maintenance and Instrument Interfaces
Chapter 9: Error Messages
Index
1302.6163.12
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Tabbed Divider Overview
R&S ESU
Documentation Overview
Quick Start Guide R&S ESU
This manual is delivered with the instrument in printed form and in PDF format on the CD. It provides the
information needed to set up and start working with the instrument. Basic operations and basic
measurements are described. Also a brief introduction to remote control is given. More detailed
descriptions are provided in the Operating Manual. The Quick Start Guide includes general information
(e.g. Safety Instructions) and the following chapters:
Chapter 1
Front and Rear Panel
Chapter 2
Preparing for Use
Chapter 3
Firmware-Update and Installation of Firmware Options
Chapter 4
Basic Operation
Chapter 5
Basic Measurement Examples
Chapter 6
Brief Introduction to Remote Control
Appendix A
Printer Interface
Appendix B
LAN Interface
Appendix C
External Generator Control
Operating Manual R&S ESU
This manual is a supplement to the Quick Start Guide and is available in PDF format on the CD delivered
with the instrument. To retain the familiar structure that applies to all operating manuals of
Rohde&Schwarz Test & Measurement instruments, the chapters 1 and 3 exist, but only in form of
references to the corresponding Quick Start Guide chapters.
The manual describes the following models and options of EMI Test Receiver R&S ESU. Options that are
not listed are described in a separate manual. These manuals are provided on the CD ROM.
The operating manual is subdivided into the following chapters:
Chapter 1
Putting into Operation
see Quick Start Guide chapters 1 and 2
Chapter 2
Getting Started
gives an introduction to advanced measurement tasks of the R&S ESU which are
explained step by step.
Chapter 3
Manual Control
see Quick Start Guide chapter 4
Chapter 4
Instrument Functions
Chapter 5
Remote Control - Basics
describes the basics for programming the R&S ESU, command processing and the
status reporting system.
Chapter 6
Remote Control - Description of Commands
Chapter 7
Remote Control - Programming Examples
contains program examples for a number of typical applications of the R&S ESU.
1302.6163.12
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R&S ESU
Tabbed Divider Overview
Chapter 8
Maintenance and Instrument Interfaces
describes preventive maintenance and the characteristics of the instrument’s
interfaces.
Chapter 9
Error Messages
gives a list of error messages that the R&S ESU may generate.
Index
contains an index for the chapters 1 to 9 of the operating manual.
Service Manual - Instrument
This manual is available in PDF format on the CD delivered with the instrument. It informs on how to check
compliance with rated specifications, on instrument function, repair, troubleshooting and fault elimination.
It contains all information required for repairing the R&S ESU by the replacement of modules. The manual
includes the following chapters:
Chapter 1
Performance Test
Chapter 2
Adjustment
Chapter 3
Repair
Chapter 4
Software Update / Installing Options
Chapter 5
Documents
1302.6163.12
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Tabbed Divider Overview
1302.6163.12
R&S ESU
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Before putting the product into operation for
the first time, make sure to read the following
Safety Instructions
Rohde & Schwarz makes every effort to keep the safety standard of its products up to date and to offer
its customers the highest possible degree of safety. Our products and the auxiliary equipment required
for them are designed and tested in accordance with the relevant safety standards. Compliance with
these standards is continuously monitored by our quality assurance system. This product has been
designed and tested in accordance with the EC Certificate of Conformity and has left the manufacturer’s
plant in a condition fully complying with safety standards. To maintain this condition and to ensure safe
operation, observe all instructions and warnings provided in this manual. If you have any questions
regarding these safety instructions, Rohde & Schwarz will be happy to answer them.
Furthermore, it is your responsibility to use the product in an appropriate manner. This product is
designed for use solely in industrial and laboratory environments or in the field and must not be used in
any way that may cause personal injury or property damage. You are responsible if the product is used
for an intention other than its designated purpose or in disregard of the manufacturer's instructions. The
manufacturer shall assume no responsibility for such use of the product.
The product is used for its designated purpose if it is used in accordance with its operating manual and
within its performance limits (see data sheet, documentation, the following safety instructions). Using
the products requires technical skills and knowledge of English. It is therefore essential that the
products be used exclusively by skilled and specialized staff or thoroughly trained personnel with the
required skills. If personal safety gear is required for using Rohde & Schwarz products, this will be
indicated at the appropriate place in the product documentation.
Symbols and safety labels
Observe
operating
instructions
Weight
indication for
units >18 kg
Supply
voltage
ON/OFF
1171.0000.42-02.00
Danger of
electric
shock
Standby
indication
Direct
current
(DC)
Warning!
Hot
surface
PE terminal
Alternating
current (AC)
Ground
Direct/alternating
current (DC/AC)
Ground
terminal
Attention!
Electrostatic
sensitive
devices
Device fully
protected by
double/reinforced
insulation
Sheet 1
Safety Instructions
Observing the safety instructions will help prevent personal injury or damage of any kind caused by
dangerous situations. Therefore, carefully read through and adhere to the following safety instructions
before putting the product into operation. It is also absolutely essential to observe the additional safety
instructions on personal safety that appear in other parts of the documentation. In these safety
instructions, the word "product" refers to all merchandise sold and distributed by Rohde & Schwarz,
including instruments, systems and all accessories.
Tags and their meaning
DANGER
This tag indicates a safety hazard with a high potential of risk for the
user that can result in death or serious injuries.
WARNING
This tag indicates a safety hazard with a medium potential of risk for the
user that can result in death or serious injuries.
CAUTION
This tag indicates a safety hazard with a low potential of risk for the user
that can result in slight or minor injuries.
ATTENTION
This tag indicates the possibility of incorrect use that can cause damage
to the product.
NOTE
This tag indicates a situation where the user should pay special attention
to operating the product but which does not lead to damage.
These tags are in accordance with the standard definition for civil applications in the European
Economic Area. Definitions that deviate from the standard definition may also exist. It is therefore
essential to make sure that the tags described here are always used only in connection with the
associated documentation and the associated product. The use of tags in connection with unassociated
products or unassociated documentation can result in misinterpretations and thus contribute to personal
injury or material damage.
Basic safety instructions
1. The product may be operated only under
the operating conditions and in the
positions specified by the manufacturer. Its
ventilation must not be obstructed during
operation. Unless otherwise specified, the
following requirements apply to
Rohde & Schwarz products:
prescribed operating position is always with
the housing floor facing down, IP protection
2X, pollution severity 2, overvoltage
category 2, use only in enclosed spaces,
max. operation altitude max. 2000 m.
Unless specified otherwise in the data
sheet, a tolerance of ±10% shall apply to
the nominal voltage and of ±5% to the
nominal frequency.
2. Applicable local or national safety
regulations and rules for the prevention of
accidents must be observed in all work
performed. The product may be opened
only by authorized, specially trained
personnel. Prior to performing any work on
the product or opening the product, the
1171.0000.42-02.00
product must be disconnected from the
supply network. Any adjustments,
replacements of parts, maintenance or
repair must be carried out only by technical
personnel authorized by Rohde & Schwarz.
Only original parts may be used for
replacing parts relevant to safety (e.g.
power switches, power transformers,
fuses). A safety test must always be
performed after parts relevant to safety
have been replaced (visual inspection, PE
conductor test, insulation resistance
measurement, leakage current
measurement, functional test).
3. As with all industrially manufactured goods,
the use of substances that induce an
allergic reaction (allergens, e.g. nickel)
such as aluminum cannot be generally
excluded. If you develop an allergic
reaction (such as a skin rash, frequent
sneezing, red eyes or respiratory
difficulties), consult a physician immediately
to determine the cause.
Sheet 2
Safety Instructions
4. If products/components are mechanically
and/or thermically processed in a manner
that goes beyond their intended use,
hazardous substances (heavy-metal dust
such as lead, beryllium, nickel) may be
released. For this reason, the product may
only be disassembled, e.g. for disposal
purposes, by specially trained personnel.
Improper disassembly may be hazardous to
your health. National waste disposal
regulations must be observed.
5. If handling the product yields hazardous
substances or fuels that must be disposed
of in a special way, e.g. coolants or engine
oils that must be replenished regularly, the
safety instructions of the manufacturer of
the hazardous substances or fuels and the
applicable regional waste disposal
regulations must be observed. Also
observe the relevant safety instructions in
the product documentation.
6. Depending on the function, certain products
such as RF radio equipment can produce
an elevated level of electromagnetic
radiation. Considering that unborn life
requires increased protection, pregnant
women should be protected by appropriate
measures. Persons with pacemakers may
also be endangered by electromagnetic
radiation. The employer is required to
assess workplaces where there is a special
risk of exposure to radiation and, if
necessary, take measures to avert the
danger.
7. Operating the products requires special
training and intense concentration. Make
certain that persons who use the products
are physically, mentally and emotionally fit
enough to handle operating the products;
otherwise injuries or material damage may
occur. It is the responsibility of the
employer to select suitable personnel for
operating the products.
8. Prior to switching on the product, it must be
ensured that the nominal voltage setting on
the product matches the nominal voltage of
the AC supply network. If a different voltage
is to be set, the power fuse of the product
may have to be changed accordingly.
9. In the case of products of safety class I with
movable power cord and connector,
operation is permitted only on sockets with
earthing contact and protective earth
connection.
1171.0000.42-02.00
10. Intentionally breaking the protective earth
connection either in the feed line or in the
product itself is not permitted. Doing so can
result in the danger of an electric shock
from the product. If extension cords or
connector strips are implemented, they
must be checked on a regular basis to
ensure that they are safe to use.
11. If the product has no power switch for
disconnection from the AC supply, the plug
of the connecting cable is regarded as the
disconnecting device. In such cases, it
must be ensured that the power plug is
easily reachable and accessible at all times
(length of connecting cable approx. 2 m).
Functional or electronic switches are not
suitable for providing disconnection from
the AC supply. If products without power
switches are integrated in racks or systems,
a disconnecting device must be provided at
the system level.
12. Never use the product if the power cable is
damaged. By taking appropriate safety
measures and carefully laying the power
cable, ensure that the cable cannot be
damaged and that no one can be hurt by
e.g. tripping over the cable or suffering an
electric shock.
13. The product may be operated only from
TN/TT supply networks fused with max.
16 A.
14. Do not insert the plug into sockets that are
dusty or dirty. Insert the plug firmly and all
the way into the socket. Otherwise this can
result in sparks, fire and/or injuries.
15. Do not overload any sockets, extension
cords or connector strips; doing so can
cause fire or electric shocks.
16. For measurements in circuits with voltages
Vrms > 30 V, suitable measures (e.g.
appropriate measuring equipment, fusing,
current limiting, electrical separation,
insulation) should be taken to avoid any
hazards.
17. Ensure that the connections with
information technology equipment comply
with IEC 950/EN 60950.
18. Never remove the cover or part of the
housing while you are operating the
product. This will expose circuits and
components and can lead to injuries, fire or
damage to the product.
Sheet 3
Safety Instructions
19. If a product is to be permanently installed,
the connection between the PE terminal on
site and the product's PE conductor must
be made first before any other connection
is made. The product may be installed and
connected only by a skilled electrician.
20. For permanently installed equipment
without built-in fuses, circuit breakers or
similar protective devices, the supply circuit
must be fused in such a way that suitable
protection is provided for users and
products.
21. Do not insert any objects into the openings
in the housing that are not designed for this
purpose. Never pour any liquids onto or into
the housing. This can cause short circuits
inside the product and/or electric shocks,
fire or injuries.
22. Use suitable overvoltage protection to
ensure that no overvoltage (such as that
caused by a thunderstorm) can reach the
product. Otherwise the operating personnel
will be endangered by electric shocks.
23. Rohde & Schwarz products are not
protected against penetration of water,
unless otherwise specified (see also safety
instruction 1.). If this is not taken into
account, there exists the danger of electric
shock or damage to the product, which can
also lead to personal injury.
24. Never use the product under conditions in
which condensation has formed or can form
in or on the product, e.g. if the product was
moved from a cold to a warm environment.
25. Do not close any slots or openings on the
product, since they are necessary for
ventilation and prevent the product from
overheating. Do not place the product on
soft surfaces such as sofas or rugs or
inside a closed housing, unless this is well
ventilated.
26. Do not place the product on heatgenerating devices such as radiators or fan
heaters. The temperature of the
environment must not exceed the maximum
temperature specified in the data sheet.
27. Batteries and storage batteries must not be
exposed to high temperatures or fire. Keep
batteries and storage batteries away from
children. If batteries or storage batteries are
improperly replaced, this can cause an
explosion (warning: lithium cells). Replace
the battery or storage battery only with the
1171.0000.42-02.00
matching Rohde & Schwarz type (see
spare parts list). Batteries and storage
batteries are hazardous waste. Dispose of
them only in specially marked containers.
Observe local regulations regarding waste
disposal. Do not short-circuit batteries or
storage batteries.
28. Please be aware that in the event of a fire,
toxic substances (gases, liquids etc.) that
may be hazardous to your health may
escape from the product.
29. Please be aware of the weight of the
product. Be careful when moving it;
otherwise you may injure your back or other
parts of your body.
30. Do not place the product on surfaces,
vehicles, cabinets or tables that for reasons
of weight or stability are unsuitable for this
purpose. Always follow the manufacturer's
installation instructions when installing the
product and fastening it to objects or
structures (e.g. walls and shelves).
31. Handles on the products are designed
exclusively for personnel to hold or carry
the product. It is therefore not permissible
to use handles for fastening the product to
or on means of transport such as cranes,
fork lifts, wagons, etc. The user is
responsible for securely fastening the
products to or on the means of transport
and for observing the safety regulations of
the manufacturer of the means of transport.
Noncompliance can result in personal injury
or material damage.
32. If you use the product in a vehicle, it is the
sole responsibility of the driver to drive the
vehicle safely. Adequately secure the
product in the vehicle to prevent injuries or
other damage in the event of an accident.
Never use the product in a moving vehicle if
doing so could distract the driver of the
vehicle. The driver is always responsible for
the safety of the vehicle; the manufacturer
assumes no responsibility for accidents or
collisions.
33. If a laser product (e.g. a CD/DVD drive) is
integrated in a Rohde & Schwarz product,
do not use any other settings or functions
than those described in the documentation.
Otherwise this may be hazardous to your
health, since the laser beam can cause
irreversible damage to your eyes. Never try
to take such products apart, and never look
into the laser beam.
Sheet 4
Por favor lea imprescindiblemente antes de
la primera puesta en funcionamiento las
siguientes informaciones de seguridad
Informaciones de seguridad
Es el principio de Rohde & Schwarz de tener a sus productos siempre al día con los estandards de
seguridad y de ofrecer a sus clientes el máximo grado de seguridad. Nuestros productos y todos los
equipos adicionales son siempre fabricados y examinados según las normas de seguridad vigentes.
Nuestra sección de gestión de la seguridad de calidad controla constantemente que sean cumplidas
estas normas. Este producto ha sido fabricado y examinado según el comprobante de conformidad
adjunto según las normas de la CE y ha salido de nuestra planta en estado impecable según los
estandards técnicos de seguridad. Para poder preservar este estado y garantizar un funcionamiento
libre de peligros, deberá el usuario atenerse a todas las informaciones, informaciones de seguridad y
notas de alerta. Rohde&Schwarz está siempre a su disposición en caso de que tengan preguntas
referentes a estas informaciones de seguridad.
Además queda en la responsabilidad del usuario utilizar el producto en la forma debida. Este producto
solamente fue elaborado para ser utilizado en la indústria y el laboratorio o para fines de campo y de
ninguna manera deberá ser utilizado de modo que alguna persona/cosa pueda ser dañada. El uso del
producto fuera de sus fines definidos o despreciando las informaciones de seguridad del fabricante
queda en la responsabilidad del usuario. El fabricante no se hace en ninguna forma responsable de
consecuencias a causa del maluso del producto.
Se parte del uso correcto del producto para los fines definidos si el producto es utilizado dentro de las
instrucciones del correspondiente manual del uso y dentro del margen de rendimiento definido (ver
hoja de datos, documentación, informaciones de seguridad que siguen). El uso de los productos hace
necesarios conocimientos profundos y el conocimiento del idioma inglés. Por eso se deberá tener en
cuenta de exclusivamente autorizar para el uso de los productos a personas péritas o debidamente
minuciosamente instruidas con los conocimientos citados. Si fuera necesaria indumentaria de
seguridad para el uso de productos de R&S, encontrará la información debida en la documentación del
producto en el capítulo correspondiente.
Símbolos y definiciones de seguridad
Ver manual
de
instrucciones
del uso
Informaciones
para
maquinaria
con uns peso
de > 18kg
potencia EN
MARCHA/PARADA
1171.0000.42-02.00
Peligro de
golpe de
corriente
Indicación
Stand-by
¡Advertencia!
Superficie
caliente
Corriente
continua
DC
Conexión a
conductor
protector
Corriente
alterna AC
Conexión
a tierra
Corriente
continua/alterna
DC/AC
Conexión
a masa
conductora
¡Cuidado!
Elementos de
construción
con peligro de
carga
electroestática
El aparato está
protegido en su
totalidad por un
aislamiento de
doble refuerzo
página 1
Informaciones de seguridad
Tener en cuenta las informaciones de seguridad sirve para tratar de evitar daños y peligros de toda
clase. Es necesario de que se lean las siguientes informaciones de seguridad concienzudamente y se
tengan en cuenta debidamente antes de la puesta en funcionamiento del producto. También deberán
ser tenidas en cuenta las informaciones para la protección de personas que encontrarán en otro
capítulo de esta documentación y que también son obligatorias de seguir. En las informaciones de
seguridad actuales hemos juntado todos los objetos vendidos por Rohde&Schwarz bajo la
denominación de „producto“, entre ellos también aparatos, instalaciones así como toda clase de
accesorios.
Palabras de señal y su significado
PELIGRO
Indica un punto de peligro con gran potencial de riesgo para el
ususario.Punto de peligro que puede llevar hasta la muerte o graves
heridas.
ADVERTENCIA
Indica un punto de peligro con un protencial de riesgo mediano para el
usuario. Punto de peligro que puede llevar hasta la muerte o graves
heridas .
ATENCIÓN
Indica un punto de peligro con un protencial de riesgo pequeño para el
usuario. Punto de peligro que puede llevar hasta heridas leves o
pequeñas
CUIDADO
Indica la posibilidad de utilizar mal el producto y a consecuencia
dañarlo.
INFORMACIÓN
Indica una situación en la que deberían seguirse las instrucciones en el
uso del producto, pero que no consecuentemente deben de llevar a un
daño del mismo.
Las palabras de señal corresponden a la definición habitual para aplicaciones civiles en el ámbito de la
comunidad económica europea. Pueden existir definiciones diferentes a esta definición. Por eso se
debera tener en cuenta que las palabras de señal aquí descritas sean utilizadas siempre solamente en
combinación con la correspondiente documentación y solamente en combinación con el producto
correspondiente. La utilización de las palabras de señal en combinación con productos o
documentaciones que no les correspondan puede llevar a malinterpretaciones y tener por
consecuencia daños en personas u objetos.
Informaciones de seguridad elementales
1. El producto solamente debe ser utilizado
según lo indicado por el fabricante referente
a la situación y posición de funcionamiento
sin que se obstruya la ventilación. Si no se
convino de otra manera, es para los
productos R&S válido lo que sigue:
como posición de funcionamiento se define
principialmente la posición con el suelo de la
caja para abajo , modo de protección IP 2X,
grado de suciedad 2, categoría de
sobrecarga eléctrica 2, utilizar solamente en
estancias interiores, utilización hasta 2000 m
sobre el nivel del mar.
A menos que se especifique otra cosa en la
hoja de datos, se aplicará una tolerancia de
±10% sobre el voltaje nominal y de ±5%
sobre la frecuencia nominal.
1171.0000.42-02.00
2. En todos los trabajos deberán ser tenidas en
cuenta las normas locales de seguridad de
trabajo y de prevención de accidentes. El
producto solamente debe de ser abierto por
personal périto autorizado. Antes de efectuar
trabajos en el producto o abrirlo deberá este
ser desconectado de la corriente. El ajuste,
el cambio de partes, la manutención y la
reparación deberán ser solamente
efectuadas por electricistas autorizados por
R&S. Si se reponen partes con importancia
para los aspectos de seguridad (por ejemplo
el enchufe, los transformadores o los
fusibles), solamente podrán ser sustituidos
por partes originales. Despues de cada
recambio de partes elementales para la
seguridad deberá ser efectuado un control de
página 2
Informaciones de seguridad
seguridad (control a primera vista, control de
conductor protector, medición de resistencia
de aislamiento, medición de medición de la
corriente
conductora,
control
de
funcionamiento).
3. Como en todo producto de fabricación
industrial no puede ser excluido en general
de que se produzcan al usarlo elementos
que puedan generar alergias, los llamados
elementos alergénicos (por ejemplo el
níquel). Si se producieran en el trato con
productos R&S reacciones alérgicas, como
por ejemplo urticaria, estornudos frecuentes,
irritación de la conjuntiva o dificultades al
respirar, se deberá consultar inmediatamente
a un médico para averigurar los motivos de
estas reacciones.
4. Si productos / elementos de construcción son
tratados fuera del funcionamiento definido de
forma mecánica o térmica, pueden generarse
elementos peligrosos (polvos de sustancia
de metales pesados como por ejemplo
plomo, berilio, níquel). La partición elemental
del producto, como por ejemplo sucede en el
tratamiento de materias residuales, debe de
ser efectuada solamente por personal
especializado para estos tratamientos. La
partición elemental efectuada
inadecuadamente puede generar daños para
la salud. Se deben tener en cuenta las
directivas nacionales referentes al
tratamiento de materias residuales.
5. En el caso de que se produjeran agentes de
peligro o combustibles en la aplicación del
producto que debieran de ser transferidos a
un tratamiento de materias residuales, como
por ejemplo agentes refrigerantes que deben
ser repuestos en periodos definidos, o
aceites para motores, deberan ser tenidas en
cuenta las prescripciones de seguridad del
fabricante de estos agentes de peligro o
combustibles y las regulaciones regionales
para el tratamiento de materias residuales.
Cuiden también de tener en cuenta en caso
dado las prescripciones de seguridad
especiales en la descripción del producto.
6. Ciertos productos, como por ejemplo las
instalaciones de radiación HF, pueden a
causa de su función natural, emitir una
radiación electromagnética aumentada. En
vista a la protección de la vida en desarrollo
deberían ser protegidas personas
embarazadas debidamente. También las
personas con un bypass pueden correr
1171.0000.42-02.00
peligro a causa de la radiación
electromagnética. El empresario está
comprometido a valorar y señalar areas de
trabajo en las que se corra un riesgo de
exposición a radiaciones aumentadas de
riesgo aumentado para evitar riesgos.
7. La utilización de los productos requiere
instrucciones especiales y una alta
concentración en el manejo. Debe de
ponerse por seguro de que las personas que
manejen los productos estén a la altura de
los requerimientos necesarios referente a
sus aptitudes físicas, psíquicas y
emocionales, ya que de otra manera no se
pueden excluir lesiones o daños de objetos.
El empresario lleva la responsabilidad de
seleccionar el personal usuario apto para el
manejo de los productos.
8. Antes de la puesta en marcha del producto
se deberá tener por seguro de que la tensión
preseleccionada en el producto equivalga a
la del la red de distribución. Si es necesario
cambiar la preselección de la tensión
también se deberán en caso dabo cambiar
los fusibles correspondientes del prodcuto.
9. Productos de la clase de seguridad I con
alimentación móvil y enchufe individual de
producto solamente deberán ser conectados
para el funcionamiento a tomas de corriente
de contacto de seguridad y con conductor
protector conectado.
10. Queda prohibida toda clase de interrupción
intencionada del conductor protector, tanto
en la toma de corriente como en el mismo
producto ya que puede tener como
consecuencia el peligro de golpe de corriente
por el producto. Si se utilizaran cables o
enchufes de extensión se deberá poner al
seguro, que es controlado su estado técnico
de seguridad.
11. Si el producto no está equipado con un
interruptor para desconectarlo de la red, se
deberá considerar el enchufe del cable de
distribución como interruptor. En estos casos
deberá asegurar de que el enchufe sea de
fácil acceso y nabejo (medida del cable de
distribución aproximadamente 2 m). Los
interruptores de función o electrónicos no
son aptos para el corte de la red eléctrica. Si
los productos sin interruptor están integrados
en construciones o instalaciones, se deberá
instalar el interruptor al nivel de la
instalación.
página 3
Informaciones de seguridad
12. No utilice nunca el producto si está dañado el
cable eléctrico. Asegure a través de las
medidas de protección y de instalación
adecuadas de que el cable de eléctrico no
pueda ser dañado o de que nadie pueda ser
dañado por él, por ejemplo al tropezar o por
un golpe de corriente.
20. En caso de que los productos que son
instalados fijamente en un lugar sean sin
protector implementado, autointerruptor o
similares objetos de protección, deberá la
toma de corriente estar protegida de manera
que los productos o los usuarios estén
suficientemente protegidos.
13. Solamente está permitido el funcionamiento
en redes de distribución TN/TT aseguradas
con fusibles de como máximo 16 A.
21. Por favor, no introduzca ningún objeto que
no esté destinado a ello en los orificios de la
caja del aparato. No vierta nunca ninguna
clase de líquidos sobre o en la caja. Esto
puede producir corto circuitos en el producto
y/o puede causar golpes de corriente, fuego
o heridas.
14. Nunca conecte el enchufe en tomas de
corriente sucias o llenas de polvo. Introduzca
el enchufe por completo y fuertemente en la
toma de corriente. Si no tiene en
consideración estas indicaciones se arriesga
a que se originen chispas, fuego y/o heridas.
15. No sobrecargue las tomas de corriente, los
cables de extensión o los enchufes de
extensión ya que esto pudiera causar fuego
o golpes de corriente.
16. En las mediciones en circuitos de corriente
con una tensión de entrada de Ueff > 30 V se
deberá tomar las precauciones debidas para
impedir cualquier peligro (por ejemplo
medios de medición adecuados, seguros,
limitación de tensión, corte protector,
aislamiento etc.).
17. En caso de conexión con aparatos de la
técnica informática se deberá tener en
cuenta que estos cumplan los requisitos de
la EC950/EN60950.
18. Nunca abra la tapa o parte de ella si el
producto está en funcionamiento. Esto pone
a descubierto los cables y componentes
eléctricos y puede causar heridas, fuego o
daños en el producto.
19. Si un producto es instalado fijamente en un
lugar, se deberá primero conectar el
conductor protector fijo con el conductor
protector del aparato antes de hacer
cualquier otra conexión. La instalación y la
conexión deberán ser efecutadas por un
electricista especializado.
1171.0000.42-02.00
22. Asegúrese con la protección adecuada de
que no pueda originarse en el producto una
sobrecarga por ejemplo a causa de una
tormenta. Si no se verá el personal que lo
utilice expuesto al peligro de un golpe de
corriente.
23. Los productos R&S no están protegidos
contra el agua si no es que exista otra
indicación, ver también punto 1. Si no se
tiene en cuenta esto se arriesga el peligro de
golpe de corriente o de daños en el producto
lo cual también puede llevar al peligro de
personas.
24. No utilice el producto bajo condiciones en las
que pueda producirse y se hayan producido
líquidos de condensación en o dentro del
producto como por ejemplo cuando se
desplaza el producto de un lugar frío a un
lugar caliente.
25. Por favor no cierre ninguna ranura u orificio
del producto, ya que estas son necesarias
para la ventilación e impiden que el producto
se caliente demasiado. No pongan el
producto encima de materiales blandos como
por ejemplo sofás o alfombras o dentro de
una caja cerrada, si esta no está
suficientemente ventilada.
26. No ponga el producto sobre aparatos que
produzcan calor, como por ejemplo
radiadores o calentadores. La temperatura
ambiental no debe superar la temperatura
máxima especificada en la hoja de datos.
página 4
Informaciones de seguridad
27. Baterías y acumuladores no deben de ser
expuestos a temperaturas altas o al fuego.
Guardar baterías y acumuladores fuera del
alcance de los niños. Si las baterías o los
acumuladores no son cambiados con la
debida atención existirá peligro de explosión
(atención celulas de Litio). Cambiar las
baterías o los acumuladores solamente por
los del tipo R&S correspondiente (ver lista de
piezas de recambio). Baterías y
acumuladores son deshechos problemáticos.
Por favor tirenlos en los recipientes
especiales para este fín. Por favor tengan en
cuenta las prescripciones nacionales de cada
país referente al tratamiento de deshechos.
Nunca sometan las baterías o acumuladores
a un corto circuito.
28. Tengan en consideración de que en caso de
un incendio pueden escaparse gases tóxicos
del producto, que pueden causar daños a la
salud.
29. Por favor tengan en cuenta que en caso de
un incendio pueden desprenderse del
producto agentes venenosos (gases, líquidos
etc.) que pueden generar daños a la salud.
30. No sitúe el producto encima de superficies,
vehículos, estantes o mesas, que por sus
características de peso o de estabilidad no
sean aptas para él. Siga siempre las
instrucciones de instalación del fabricante
cuando instale y asegure el producto en
objetos o estructuras (por ejemplo paredes y
estantes).
1171.0000.42-02.00
31. Las asas instaladas en los productos sirven
solamente de ayuda para el manejo que
solamente está previsto para personas. Por
eso no está permitido utilizar las asas para la
sujecion en o sobre medios de transporte
como por ejemplo grúas, carretillas
elevadoras de horquilla, carros etc. El
usuario es responsable de que los productos
sean sujetados de forma segura a los medios
de transporte y de que las prescripciones de
seguridad del fabricante de los medios de
transporte sean tenidas en cuenta. En caso
de que no se tengan en cuenta pueden
causarse daños en personas y objetos.
32. Si llega a utilizar el producto dentro de un
vehículo, queda en la responsabilidad
absoluta del conductor que conducir el
vehículo de manera segura. Asegure el
producto dentro del vehículo debidamente
para evitar en caso de un accidente las
lesiones u otra clase de daños. No utilice
nunca el producto dentro de un vehículo en
movimiento si esto pudiera distraer al
conductor. Siempre queda en la
responsabilidad absoluta del conductor la
seguridad del vehículo y el fabricante no
asumirá ninguna clase de responsabilidad
por accidentes o colisiones.
33. Dado el caso de que esté integrado un
producto de laser en un producto R&S (por
ejemplo CD/DVD-ROM) no utilice otras
instalaciones o funciones que las descritas
en la documentación. De otra manera pondrá
en peligro su salud, ya que el rayo laser
puede dañar irreversiblemente sus ojos.
Nunca trate de descomponer estos
productos. Nunca mire dentro del rayo laser.
página 5
Certified Quality System
DIN EN ISO 9001 : 2000
DIN EN
9100 : 2003
DIN EN ISO 14001 : 1996
DQS REG. NO 001954 QM/ST UM
QUALITÄTSZERTIFIKAT
CERTIFICATE OF QUALITY
CERTIFICAT DE QUALITÉ
Sehr geehrter Kunde,
Sie haben sich für den Kauf eines
Rohde & Schwarz-Produktes entschieden. Hiermit erhalten Sie ein nach
modernsten Fertigungsmethoden
hergestelltes Produkt. Es wurde nach
den Regeln unseres Managementsystems entwickelt, gefertigt und
geprüft.
Das Rohde & Schwarz Managementsystem ist zertifiziert nach:
Dear Customer,
you have decided to buy a Rohde &
Schwarz product. You are thus assured of receiving a product that is
manufactured using the most modern
methods available. This product was
developed, manufactured and tested
in compliance with our quality management system standards.
The Rohde & Schwarz quality management system is certified according to:
Cher Client,
vous avez choisi d‘acheter un produit
Rohde & Schwarz. Vous disposez
donc d‘un produit fabriqué d‘après
les méthodes les plus avancées. Le
développement, la fabrication et les
tests respectent nos normes de gestion qualité.
Le système de gestion qualité de
Rohde & Schwarz a été homologué
conformément aux normes:
DIN EN ISO 9001:2000
DIN EN 9100:2003
DIN EN ISO 14001:1996
DIN EN ISO 9001:2000
DIN EN 9100:2003
DIN EN ISO 14001:1996
DIN EN ISO 9001:2000
DIN EN 9100:2003
DIN EN ISO 14001:1996
EC Certificate of Conformity
Certificate No.: 2006-17
This is to certify that:
Equipment type
Stock No.
Designation
ESU8
ESU26
ESU40
1302.6005.08
1302.6005.26
1302.6005.40
EMI Test Receiver
complies with the provisions of the Directive of the Council of the European Union on the
approximation of the laws of the Member States
- relating to electrical equipment for use within defined voltage limits
(73/23/EEC revised by 93/68/EEC)
- relating to electromagnetic compatibility
(89/336/EEC revised by 91/263/EEC, 92/31/EEC, 93/68/EEC)
Conformity is proven by compliance with the following standards:
EN 61010-1 : 2001
EN 55011 : 1998 + A1 : 1999 + A2 : 2002, Klasse B
EN 61326 : 1997 + A1 : 1998 + A2 : 2001 + A3 : 2003
For the assessment of electromagnetic compatibility, the limits of radio interference for Class
B equipment as well as the immunity to interference for operation in industry have been used
as a basis.
Affixing the EC conformity mark as from 2006
ROHDE & SCHWARZ GmbH & Co. KG
Mühldorfstr. 15, D-81671 München
Munich, 2006-04-27
1302.6005.01
Central Quality Management MF-QZ / Radde
CE
E-2
Customer Support
Technical support – where and when you need it
For quick, expert help with any Rohde & Schwarz equipment, contact one of our
Customer Support Centers. A team of highly qualified engineers provides telephone
support and will work with you to find a solution to your query on any aspect of the
operation, programming or applications of Rohde & Schwarz equipment.
Up-to-date information and upgrades
To keep your Rohde & Schwarz equipment always up-to-date,
please subscribe to our electronic newsletter at
http://www.rohde-schwarz.com/www/response.nsf/newsletterpreselection
or request the desired information and upgrades via email from your Customer Support
Center (addresses see below).
Feedback
We want to know if we are meeting your support needs. If you have any comments
please email us and let us know [email protected]
USA & Canada
East Asia
Rest of the World
Monday to Friday (except US public holidays)
8:00 AM – 8:00 PM Eastern Standard Time (EST)
Tel. from USA
From outside USA
Fax
888-test-rsa (888-837-8772) (opt 2)
+1 410 910 7800 (opt 2)
+1 410 910 7801
E-mail
[email protected]
Monday to Friday (except Singaporean public holidays)
8:30 AM – 6:00 PM Singapore Time (SGT)
Tel.
Fax
+65 6 513 0488
+65 6 846 1090
E-mail
[email protected]
Monday to Friday (except German public holidays)
08:00 – 17:00 Central European Time (CET)
Tel. from Europe
+49 (0) 180 512 42 42
From outside Europe +49 89 4129 13776
Fax
+49 (0) 89 41 29 637 78
E-mail
[email protected]
1007.8684.14-04.00
12
Address List
Headquarters, Plants and Subsidiaries
Locations Worldwide
Headquarters
Please refer to our homepage: www.rohde-schwarz.com
◆ Sales Locations
◆ Service Locations
◆ National Websites
ROHDE&SCHWARZ GmbH & Co. KG
Mühldorfstraße 15 · D-81671 München
P.O.Box 80 14 69 · D-81614 München
Phone +49 (89) 41 29-0
Fax +49 (89) 41 29-121 64
[email protected]
Plants
ROHDE&SCHWARZ Messgerätebau GmbH
Riedbachstraße 58 · D-87700 Memmingen
P.O.Box 16 52 · D-87686 Memmingen
Phone +49 (83 31) 1 08-0
+49 (83 31) 1 08-1124
[email protected]
ROHDE&SCHWARZ GmbH & Co. KG
Werk Teisnach
Kaikenrieder Straße 27 · D-94244 Teisnach
P.O.Box 11 49 · D-94240 Teisnach
Phone +49 (99 23) 8 50-0
Fax +49 (99 23) 8 50-174
inf[email protected]
ROHDE&SCHWARZ závod
Vimperk, s.r.o.
Location Spidrova 49
CZ-38501 Vimperk
ROHDE&SCHWARZ GmbH & Co. KG
Dienstleistungszentrum Köln
Graf-Zeppelin-Straße 18 · D-51147 Köln
P.O.Box 98 02 60 · D-51130 Köln
Phone +420 (388) 45 21 09
Fax +420 (388) 45 21 13
Phone +49 (22 03) 49-0
Fax +49 (22 03) 49 51-229
[email protected]
[email protected]
Subsidiaries
R&S BICK Mobilfunk GmbH
Fritz-Hahne-Str. 7 · D-31848 Bad Münder
P.O.Box 20 02 · D-31844 Bad Münder
Phone +49 (50 42) 9 98-0
Fax +49 (50 42) 9 98-105
[email protected]
ROHDE&SCHWARZ FTK GmbH
Wendenschloßstraße 168, Haus 28
D-12557 Berlin
Phone +49 (30) 658 91-122
Fax +49 (30) 655 50-221
[email protected]
ROHDE&SCHWARZ SIT GmbH
Am Studio 3
D-12489 Berlin
Phone +49 (30) 658 84-0
Fax +49 (30) 658 84-183
[email protected]
R&S Systems GmbH
Graf-Zeppelin-Straße 18
D-51147 Köln
GEDIS GmbH
Sophienblatt 100
D-24114 Kiel
HAMEG Instruments GmbH
Industriestraße 6
D-63533 Mainhausen
Phone +49 (22 03) 49-5 23 25
Fax +49 (22 03) 49-5 23 36
[email protected]
Phone +49 (431) 600 51-0
Fax +49 (431) 600 51-11
[email protected]
Phone +49 (61 82) 800-0
Fax +49 (61 82) 800-100
[email protected]
12
R&S ESU
1
Putting into Operation
Putting into Operation
For details refer to the Quick Start Guide chapters 1, "Front and Rear Panel", and 2, "Preparing for Use".
1302.6163.12
1.1
E-1
Putting into Operation
1302.6163.12
R&S ESU
1.2
E-1
R&S ESU
2
Getting Started
Getting Started
For details refer to the Quick Start Guide chapter 5, "Basic Measurement Examples".
1302.6163.12
2.1
E-1
Getting Started
1302.6163.12
R&S ESU
2.2
E-1
R&S ESU
3
Manual Control
Manual Control
For details refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 4, "Basic Operation".
1302.6163.12
3.1
E-1
Manual Control
1302.6163.12
R&S ESU
3.2
E-1
R&S ESU
4
Instrument Functions
Instrument Functions
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6
ESU Initial Configuration – PRESET Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7
Mode Selection – Hotkey Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.10
Return to manual control – LOCAL Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11
Receiver Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.12
Operation on a Discrete Frequency – FREQ Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.14
Level Display and RF Input Configuration – AMPT Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.16
Preamplifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.17
Setting the IF Bandwidth – BW Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.20
List of Available Channel Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.22
Selection of the Measurement Function – MEAS Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.24
Selecting the Detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.25
Setting the Measurement Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.28
AF Demodulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.30
Data Reduction and Peak List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.32
Automatic Final Measurement with Threshold Scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.43
Selection of Detectors for Final Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.49
Automatic Control of Line Impedance Stabilization Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.50
Frequency Scan and Time Domain Scan – SWEEP Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.55
Stepped Scan in the Frequency Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.55
Time Domain Scan in the Frequency Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.56
Scan on a Fixed Frequency in the Time Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.57
Display of Measurement Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.59
Entry of Scan Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.59
Running a Scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.66
Triggering the Scan – TRIG Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.68
Marker Functions – MKR Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.70
Change of Settings via Markers – MKR-> Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.72
Marker Functions – MKR FCTN Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.77
Selection and Setting of Traces – TRACE Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.78
Selection of Trace Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.78
IF Spectrum Analysis Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.85
Level Display and RF Input Configuration – AMPT Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.89
Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.91
Marker Functions – MKR FCTN Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.95
Activating the Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.96
Selecting the Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.96
Change of Settings via Markers – MKR-> Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.97
1302.6163.12
4.1
E-1
Instrument Functions
R&S ESU
Selection and Setting of Traces – TRACE Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.104
Selection of Trace Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.105
Spectrum Analysis Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.111
Frequency and Span Selection – FREQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.112
Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.117
Level Display Setting and RF Input Configuration – AMPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.119
Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.123
Filter Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.129
List of Available Channel Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.131
Sweep Settings – SWEEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.133
Triggering the Sweep – TRIG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.136
Selection and Setting of Traces – TRACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.144
Selection of Trace Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.144
Selection of Detector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.152
Mathematical Functions for Traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.157
Recording the Correction Data – CAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.159
Markers and Delta Markers – MKR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.162
Frequency Measurement with the Frequency Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.166
Marker Functions – MKR FCTN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.170
Activating the Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.171
Measurement of Noise Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.171
Phase Noise Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.173
Measurement of the Filter or Signal Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.176
Measurement of a Peak List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.176
AF Demodulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.179
Selecting the Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.180
Change of Settings via Markers – MKR-> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.181
Power Measurements – MEAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.189
Power Measurement in Time Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.190
Channel and Adjacent-Channel Power Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.196
Setting the Channel Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.205
Measurement of Signal Amplitude Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.219
Measurement of Carrier/Noise Ratio C/N and C/No . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.226
Measurement of the AM Modulation Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.229
Measurement of the Third Order Intercept (TOI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.230
Harmonic Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.233
Measuring Spurious Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.235
Basic Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.242
Setup of Limit Lines and Display Lines – LINES Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.242
Selection of Limit Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.244
Entry and Editing of Limit Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.247
Display Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.252
1302.6163.12
4.2
E-1
R&S ESU
Instrument Functions
Configuration of Screen Display – DISP Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.255
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.263
External Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.264
Control of V-Networks (LISNs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.265
Preamplification and Preselection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.266
Transducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.268
Programming the Interface Configuration and Time Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.279
System Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.291
Service Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.295
Firmware Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.298
External Noise Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.298
Saving and Recalling Data Sets – FILE Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.299
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.299
Storing a Device Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.301
Loading a Data Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.302
Automatic Loading of a Data Set during Booting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.303
Copying Data Sets to Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.304
Entering Text with the Help Line Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.304
Description of the Individual Softkeys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.306
Operating Concept of File Managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.314
Measurement Documentation – HCOPY Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.319
Selecting Printer, Clipboard and File Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.323
File Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.323
Clipboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.324
Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.324
Selecting Alternative Printer Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.326
Selecting Printer Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.326
Configuring the Test Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.329
Installation of Plug&Play Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.334
Installation of Non-Plug&Play Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.335
Local Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.337
Network Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.343
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.347
Tracking Generator Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.348
Transmission Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.351
Calibration of Transmission Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.351
Normalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.353
Reflection Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.357
Calibration of Reflection Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.357
Calibration Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.358
Frequency-Converting Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.360
External Modulation of the Tracking Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.361
Power Offset of the Tracking Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.364
1302.6163.12
4.3
E-1
Instrument Functions
R&S ESU
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.366
External Generator Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.368
Transmission Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.369
Calibration of Transmission Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.369
Normalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.371
Reflection Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.375
Calibration of Reflection Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.375
Calibration Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.376
Frequency-Converting Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.378
Configuration of an External Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.379
List of Generator Types Supported by the ESU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.383
LAN Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.388
Connecting the Instrument to the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.388
Installing the Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.389
Installation of Drivers for the Network Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.389
Configuration of Available Network Protocols (TCP/IP Protocol) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.391
Installation of Further Network Protocols and Services (e.g. Novell Netware
Support) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.395
Examples of Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.399
Subsequent Changing of the Network Configuration (Computer Name, Domain,
Workgroup, etc.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.400
Operating the Instrument without a Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.403
Operating the Instrument in the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.404
NOVELL Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.404
MICROSOFT Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.404
Defining Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.405
Changing the User Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.408
Login in the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.411
Disabling the Auto Login Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.412
Re-enabling the Auto Login Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.412
Using Network Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.413
Printing on a Network Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.415
Sharing Directories (only for Microsoft Networks) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.420
Remote Monitoring of R&S ESU via XP Remote Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.423
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.423
Configuration of R&S ESU for Using Remote Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.423
Configuration of Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.427
Setting Up the Connection with the R&S ESU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.432
Interruption and Re-Setup of Remote Desktop Connection with the R&S ESU . . . 4.434
Switching Off the R&S ESU from the Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.435
Remote Data Transfer with TCP/IP Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.435
RSIB Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.437
1302.6163.12
4.4
E-1
R&S ESU
Instrument Functions
Remote Control via RSIB Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.438
Windows Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.438
UNIX Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.438
RSIB Interface Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.440
Overview of Interface Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.440
Variables ibsta, iberr, ibcntl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.441
Description of Interface Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.442
Programming via the RSIB Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.451
Visual Basic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.451
Visual Basic for Applications (Winword and Excel) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.454
C / C++ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.455
User Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.458
1302.6163.12
4.5
E-1
Instrument Functions
R&S ESU
Introduction
All functions of the EMI test receiver and their application are explained in detail
in this chapter. The sequence of the described menu groups depends on the
procedure selected for the configuration and start of a measurement:
1. Resetting the instrument - PRESET key
2. Setting the mode – hotkey bar and LOCAL key
3. Setting the measurement parameters - keys FREQ, SPAN, AMPT, BW,
SWEEP, TRIG, TRACE, CAL
4. Selecting and configuring the measurement function - keys MKR, MKR->,
MKR FCTN, MEAS, LINES
The instrument functions for general settings, printout and data management
are described at the end of this chapter – keys LINES, DISP, SETUP, FILE and
HCOPY.
The different softkeys of a menu are described from top to bottom and from the
left to the right side menu. The submenus are marked by an indentation or
displayed in a separate section. The whole path (key - softkey - ...) is indicated
in the line above the menu display.
The operating concept is described in the Quick Start Guide, chapter 4, “Basic
Operation”.
The IEC/IEEE-bus commands (if any) are indicated for each softkey. For a fast
overview a list of softkeys with the associated IEC/IEEE-bus commands is
given at the end of chapter “Remote Control – Description of Commands”.
An index at the end of the manual serves as further help for the user.
1302.6163.12
4.6
E-1
R&S ESU
Initial configuration – PRESET Key
ESU Initial Configuration – PRESET Key
PRESET
Using the PRESET key, the ESU can be set to a predefined initial state.
Aa
Notes
The settings are selected in a way that the RF input is
always protected against overload, provided that the
applied signal levels are in the allowed range for the
instrument.
The initial instrument state set by the PRESET key can
be adapted to arbitrary applications using the STARTUP
RECALL function. With this function the STARTUP
RECALL data set is loaded upon pressing the PRESET
key. For further information refer to section “Saving and
Recalling Data Sets – FILE Key” on page 4.299.
Two predefined initial states can be selected in the SETUP side menu. Default
state is the receiver mode (RECEIVER PRESET softkey). The analyzer mode
(ANALYZER PRESET softkey) is compatible with the settings of EMI Test
Receiver R&S ESU and Spectrum Analyzer R&S FSU. It facilitates
programming of control software for several instrument types.
1302.6163.12
4.7
E-1
Initial configuration – PRESET Key
Table 4-1
1302.6163.12
R&S ESU
Initial State of R&S ESU in receiver preset mode
Parameter
Settings
Mode
IF (bar graph in screen A and IF spectrum in
screen B)
Center frequency step size
AUTO COARSE
RF attenuation
auto (10 dB)
Level range
100 dB log
Level unit
dBµV
Resolution bandwidth
Bar graph 120 kHz / 6 dB, IF bandwidth 10 kHz
Video bandwidth
Bar graph 1 MHz
FFT filters
off
Sweep
cont
Trigger
free run
Trace 1
clr write
Cal correction
on
Noise source
off
Input
RF 1, AC-coupled
Display
Split screen A
Tracking generator (only with option R&S
FSU-B9)
off
External generator 1/2 (only with option R&S
FSP-B10)
off
Preamplifier
off
Preselector
on
4.8
E-1
R&S ESU
Initial configuration – PRESET Key
Table 4-2
1302.6163.12
Initial State of R&S ESU in analyzer preset mode
Parameter
Settings
Mode
Spectrum
Center frequency step size
0.1 * center frequency
RF attenuation
auto (10 dB)
Reference level
-20 dBm
Level range
100 dB log
Level unit
dBm
Sweep time
auto
Resolution bandwidth
auto (3 MHz)
Video bandwidth
auto (10 MHz)
FFT filters
off
Span / RBW
50
RBW / VBW
0.33
Sweep
cont
Trigger
free run
Trace 1
clr write
Trace 2/3
blank
Detector
auto peak
Trace math
off
Frequency offset
0 Hz
Reference level offset
0 dB
Reference level position
100%
Grid
abs
Cal correction
on
Noise source
off
Input
RF Input 1, AC-coupled
Display
Full screen, active screen A
Tracking generator (only with option R&S
FSU-B9)
off
External generator 1/2 (only with option R&S
FSP-B10)
off
Preamplifier
off
Preselector
off
4.9
E-1
Mode Selection – HOTKEY Bar
R&S ESU
Mode Selection – Hotkey Bar
For fast mode selection the ESU has keys located under the measurement
screen, the so-called hotkeys. These hotkeys are displayed depending on the
options installed on the instrument. According to the selected mode, the
corresponding softkey menus are displayed (on the right side of the
measurement screen).
Three keys are reserved for the basic model:
SPECTRUM
The SPECTRUM hotkey sets ESU to spectrum analysis mode.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RECEIVER
The RECEIVER hotkey sets the ESU in the test receiver mode.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
IF
INST:SEL REC
The IF hotkey activates the IF analysis mode.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SCREEN A /
SCREEN B
INST:SEL SAN
INST IFAN
With the SCREEN A / SCREEN B hotkey two different settings can be selected
on the ESU in the FULL SCREEN mode.
In the SPLIT SCREEN mode the key switches between active diagram A and B.
The key designation indicates the diagram which has been activated by means
of the key.
The currently active window is marked by
diagram.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
A
or
B
on the right of the
DISP:WIND<1|2>:SEL
The other keys are described with the corresponding options.
1302.6163.12
4.10
E-1
R&S ESU
Mode Selection – LOCAL Menu
Return to manual control – LOCAL Menu
The LOCAL menu is displayed on switching the instrument to remote control
mode.
At the same time, the hotkey bar is blanked out and all keys are disabled except
the PRESET key. The diagram, traces and display fields are then blanked out
(they can be activated using the remote control command SYSTem:DISPlay:
UPDate ON).
The menu contains only one softkey, the LOCAL key. The LOCAL key switches
the instrument from remote to manual control, with the assumption that the
remote controller has not previously set the LOCAL LOCKOUT function.
A change in the control mode consists of:
– Enabling the Front Panel Keys
Returning to manual mode enables all inactive keys and turns on the hotkey
bar. The softkey menu which is displayed is the main menu of the current
mode.
Inserting the measurement diagrams
The blanked diagrams, traces and display fields are inserted.
– Generating the message OPERATION COMPLETE
LOCAL
If, at the time of pressing the LOCAL softkey, the synchronization
mechanism via *OPC, *OPC? or *WAI is active, the currently running
measurement procedure is aborted and synchronization is achieved by
setting the corresponding bits in the registers of the status reporting system.
– Setting Bit 6 (User Request) of the Event Status Register
With a corresponding configuration of the status reporting system, this bit
immediately causes the generation of a service request (SRQ) which is used
to inform the control software that the user wishes to return to front-panel
control. This information can be used, e.g., to interrupt the control program
so that the user can make necessary manual corrections to instrument
settings. This bit is set each time the LOCAL softkey is pressed.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
If the LOCAL LOCKOUT function is active in the remote
control mode, the front-panel PRESET key is also
disabled. The LOCAL LOCKOUT state is left as soon as
the process controller de-activates the REN line or the
IEC/IEEE-bus cable is disconnected from the
instrument.
4.11
E-1
Receiver – RECEIVER Hotkey Menu
R&S ESU
Receiver Mode
RECEIVER
The mode is selected using the RECEIVER hotkey (see also section “Mode
Selection – Hotkey Bar” on page 4.10)
RECEIVER
FREQUENCY
RECEIVER
FREQUENCY
ADD TO
PEAK LIST
ADD TO
PEAK LIST
RECEIVER
MEAS
DETECTOR
MEAS TIME
DEMOD
THRESHOLD
SCAN
CONTINUOUS
BARGRAPH
FINAL
MEAS
SINGLE
BARGRAPH
RUN PRESCAN+FINAL
RUN
SCAN
The RECEIVER hotkey selects the receiver mode (RFI reception) and activates
the menu for setting the receiver parameters.
For description of the softkeys see the following menus:
RECEIVER FREQUENCY
“Operation on a Discrete Frequency – FREQ
Key” on page 4.14
DETECTOR
“Selecting the Detector” on page 4.25
MEAS TIME
“Setting the
page 4.28
DEMOD
“AF Demodulators” on page 4.30
THRESHOLD SCAN
“Automatic
Final
Measurement
Threshold Scan” on page 4.43
FINAL MEAS
“Data Reduction and Peak List” on page 4.32
RUN SCAN
“Running a Scan” on page 4.66
RUN PRE SCAN+FINAL
“Running a Scan” on page 4.66
IEC/IEEE bus command:
Measurement
Time”
on
with
INST REC
In the receiver mode, R&S ESU measures the level at the set frequency with a
selected bandwidth and measurement time (RES BW and MEAS TIME
softkeys). Signal weighting is by means of the average, max peak, min peak,
RMS, quasi-peak, CISPR-RMS, and CISPR-AV detectors (DETECTOR
softkey).
1302.6163.12
4.12
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – RECEIVER Hotkey Menu
The functions for data reduction and the control of line impedance simulating
network are available in the FINAL MEAS submenu.
A frequency scan can be performed after setting the start and stop frequency
and the step width. The scan subranges can be defined in a table (DEFINE
SCAN softkey).
The scan is started with the RUN SCAN softkey. In operating mode RECEIVER,
the RECEIVER hotkey and the MEAS hotkey directly open the RECEIVER
menu. For a detailed description refer to “Selection of the Measurement
Function – MEAS Key” on page 4.24.
The R&S ESU is fitted with a preselection with switchable preselection.
Preselection is always switched on in receiver mode.
1302.6163.12
4.13
E-1
Receiver – FREQ Key
R&S ESU
Operation on a Discrete Frequency – FREQ
Key
The FREQ key opens the FREQUENCY menu for setting the receive frequency
in manual mode and the frequency axis for scan display.
FREQ
RECEIVER
FREQUENCY
AUTO
COARSE
STEPSIZE
AUTO
FINE
STEPSIZE
MANUAL
STEPSIZE
= FREQ
START
STOP
RUN PRESCAN+FINAL
RUN SCAN
RECEIVER
FREQUENCY
The RECEIVER FREQUENCY softkey activates the entry field of the receive
frequency.
The tuning frequency has to be set to at least twice the IF bandwidth.
When the tuning frequency is lower than twice the IF bandwidth, the IF
bandwidth is automatically reduced so that this condition is met again.
If the frequency is increased again, the original IF bandwidth is restored
(memory function). The memory is cleared when the IF bandwidth is manually
changed.
Range: 20 Hz ≤ frec ≤ fmax
Aa
Note
This softkey is also available in the RECEIVER / MEAS
menu.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.14
FREQ:CENT 300 MHz
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – FREQ Key
STEPSIZE
The STEPSIZE opens a submenu for setting the step size of the receive
frequency. The step size can be coupled to the set frequency or be manually
set to a fixed value. The softkeys of the submenu are mutually exclusive
selection switches. Only one switch can be activated at any one time.
AUTO COARSE
If the AUTO COARSE softkey is activated, the receive frequency is set in
coarse steps. The 4th digit of the selected frequency is varied.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
AUTO FINE
If the AUTO FINE softkey is activated, the receive frequency is set in fine steps.
he 7th digit of the selected frequency is varied.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
STEPSIZE MANUA
--
The STEPSIZE MANUAL softkey activates the entry window for the input of a
fixed step size.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
STEPSIZE = FREQ
--
FREQ:CENT:STEP 50 kHz
The STEPSIZE = FREQ softkey sets the step size to a value equal to the
receive frequency.
This function is especially useful during measurements of the signal harmonic
content, because, when entering the receiver frequency, the receiver frequency
of another harmonic is selected with each stroke of the STEP key.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
START
The START softkey opens a window where the start frequency of the scan
diagram can be entered.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
STOP
--
:FREQ:STAR 20 MHz
The STOP softkey opens a window where the stop frequency of the scan
diagram can be entered.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
:FREQ:STOP 2000 MHz
RUN PRESCAN+FINAL
For details refer to the SWEEP menu, “RUN PRE-SCAN+FINAL” on page 4.67.
RUN SCAN
For details refer to the SWEEP menu, “RUN SCAN” on page 4.66.
1302.6163.12
4.15
E-1
Receiver – AMPT Key
R&S ESU
Level Display and RF Input Configuration –
AMPT Key
The AMPT key is used to set the input attenuation, the preamplifier, the auto
range function and the display unit.
In addition, the level display range for the scan can be set.
AMPT
RF ATTEN
MANUAL
dBuV
PREAMP
ON
OFF
dBm
10dB MIN
ON
OFF
dBuA
AUTO RANGE
ON
OFF
dBpW
AUTOPREAMP
ON
OFF
dBpT
RF INPUT
1
2
dBmV
RF INPUT
AC
DC
GRID RANGE
LOG MANUAL
dB* / MHz
GRID
MIN LEVEL
RF ATTEN MANUAL
The RF ATTEN MANUAL softkey activates the attenuation entry field.
The attenuation can be set between 0 and 75 dB in 5 dB steps. Other entries
are rounded to the next higher integer.
Aa
Note
To protect the input mixer against inadvertent overload,
0 dB can only be switched on when the 10 dB MIN
softkey is switched off.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.16
INP:ATT 40 DB
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – AMPT Key
Preamplifier
R&S ESU is provided with a switchable preamplifier of 20 dB gain in the
frequency range up to 3.6 GHz.
Switching on the preamplifier reduces the total noise figure of R&S ESU and
thus improves the sensitivity. The disadvantage of a poorer large-signal
immunity (intermodulation) is reduced by the connected preselector. The signal
level of the subsequent mixer is 20 dB higher so that the maximum input level
is reduced by the gain of the preamplifier. The use of the preamplifier is
recommended when measurements with a maximum sensitivity are to be
performed. On the other hand, if the measurement should be performed at
maximum dynamic range, the preamplifier should be switched off.
The gain of the preamplifier is automatically considered in the level display. The
preamplifier follows the preselection filters so that the risk of overdriving by
strong out-of-band signals is reduced to a minimum.
PREAMP ON/OFF
The PREAMP ON/OFF softkey switches the preamplifier (1 kHz to 3.6 GHz) on
and off.
Default value is OFF.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
10 DB MIN ON/OFF
:INP:GAIN:STAT ON | OFF
The 10 DB MIN softkey determines whether the 10 dB setting of the attenuator
may be used in the manual or automatic setting of the attenuator.
10 DB MIN ON is the default value, i.e. an RF attenuation of at least 10 dB is
always set on R&S ESU to protect the input mixer.
An attenuation of 0 dB cannot be set manually either. This avoids 0 dB being
switched on inadvertently particularly when DUTs with high RFI voltage are
measured.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
AUTO RANGE ON/
OFF
The AUTO RANGE ON/OFF softkey switches the autorange function on and
off.
ON
The attenuation is automatically set so that a good S/N ratio is obtained
without the receiver stages being overdriven.
OFF
The attenuation is set manually.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
AUTOPREAMP ON/
OFF
:INP:ATT:AUTO ON | OFF
The AUTOPREAMP ON/OFF softkey switches the auto preamp function and or
off.
ON
The preamplifier is considered in the autorange procedure. The
preamplifier is cut in when the RF attenuation is reduced to the
minimum settable value.
OFF
The preamplifier is not considered in the autorange procedure.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
:INP:ATT:PROT ON | OFF
4.17
:INP:GAIN:AUTO ON | OFF
E-1
Receiver – AMPT Key
dBµV
dBm
dBµA
dBpW
dBpT
dBmV
dB* / MHz
R&S ESU
In the side menu, the desired units for the level axis can be selected. Default
setting is dBµV.
In general, a receiver measures the signal voltage at the RF input. The level
display is calibrated in rms values of an unmodulated sinewave signal.
Via the known input resistance of 50 Ω a conversion can be made to other units.
The units dBm, dB A, dBpW, dBpT and dBmVpT are directly convertible.
The dB*/MHz softkey activates/deactivates the display of results in units relative
to the bandwidth. These units are derived from the logarithmic units dBµV,
dBµV/m, dBµA and dBµA/m:
Unit
Relative unit
dBµV
dBµV/MHz
dBµV/m
dBµV/mMHz
dBµA
dBµA/MHz
dBµA/m
dBµA/mMHz
dBpW
dBpW/MHz
dBpT
dBpT/MHz
dBmV
dBmV/MHz
Switching over is possible also if a transducer fixes the unit to be used.
Conversion to 1 MHz is via the pulse bandwidth of the selected resolution
bandwidth Bimp according to the following equation (example for dBµV):
P / ( dBµV / MHz ) = 20 ⋅ log
Bimp / MHz
1MHz
+ P / ( dBµV )
with P = display level; other combinations are not allowed.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RF INPUT AC/DC
The RF INPUT AC/DC softkey switches between AC and DC coupling of the
instrument input.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RF INPUT 1/2
:CALCulate<1|2>:UNIT:POWer
DBUV_MHZ|DBUA_MHZ|DBMV_MHZ
INP:COUP AC|DC
The INPUT 1/2 softkey selects RF input 1 (default setting) or 2.
INPUT 2 is the pulse-resistant input 2. With the input 2 used, the frequency
range is limited to 1 GHz. Higher frequencies cannot be set.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
GRID RANGE LOG
MANUAL
INP:TYPE INPUT1 | INPUT2
The GRID RANGE LOG MANUAL softkey activates the entry of the level
display range for the scan diagram.
The display ranges go from 10 to 200 dB in 10-dB steps. Invalid entries are
rounded off to the nearest valid value.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.18
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 120DB
E-1
R&S ESU
GRID MIN LEVEL
Receiver – AMPT Key
The GRID MIN LEVEL softkey activates the entry of the minimum level of the
display range. Allowed values are:
- 200 ≤ GRID MIN LEVEL ≤ + 200 dB - GRID RANGE
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.19
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:BOTT 0DBM
E-1
Receiver – BW Key
R&S ESU
Setting the IF Bandwidth – BW Key
R&S ESU offers the IF bandwidths (3 dB bandwidths) from 10 Hz to 10 MHz
available in steps of 1/2/3/5/10 and the IF bandwidths (6 dB bandwidths) 10 Hz,
100 Hz, 200 Hz, 1kHz, 9 kHz, 10 kHz, 100 kHz, 120 kHz, and 1 MHz.
The resolution bandwidths up to 120 kHz are implemented by digital Gaussian
bandpass filters. As far as attenuation characteristic is concerned, they behave
like analog filters, but they have a much higher measurement speed than
comparable analog filters. This is due to the fact that the transient response can
be compensated because the filters have an accurately defined behavior.
Bandwidths of 200 kHz and higher are implemented by decoupled LC filters.
These filters contain 5 filter circuits.
BW
RES BW
200 Hz
9 kHz
120 kHz
1 MHz
QP RBW
UNCOUPLED
FILTER
TYPE
The BW key opens the menu for setting the resolution bandwidth.
RES BW
The RES BW softkey activates the manual entry mode for the resolution
bandwidth.
For filter type NORMAL (3dB), the bandwidth can be set from 10 Hz to 10 MHz
in steps of 1/2/3/5/10. For filter type EMI (6dB), the 6-dB bandwidth 10 Hz, 100
Hz, 200 Hz, 1kHz, 9 kHz, 10 kHz, 100 kHz, 120 kHz, and 1 MHz can be set.
For numerical inputs, the values are always rounded to the next valid
bandwidth. For rotary knob or the UP/DOWN key entries, the bandwidth is
adjusted in steps either upwards or downwards.
For the CHANNEL and RRC filter types, the bandwidth is selected from a list of
available channel filters, which is included at the end of this section. The list can
be scrolled with the Uu and Ud keys to select a filter (see section “List of
Available Channel Filters” on page 4.22).
1302.6163.12
4.20
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – BW Key
When the quasi-peak detector, the CISPR-AV detector, or the CISPR-RMS
detector are switched on, a fixed bandwidth is preset depending on the
frequency. The coupling of the IF bandwidth to the frequency range with
activated quasi peak detector can be cancelled using the QP RBW
UNCOUPLED softkey (see below).
The bandwidth is limited by the set receive frequency:
RES BW ≤ fin /2
IEC/IEEE bus command:
200 Hz
The 200 Hz softkey sets the CISPR bandwidth 200 Hz.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
9 kHz
BAND 120 kHz
The 1 MHz softkey sets the 6-dB bandwidth 1 MHz.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
QP RBW
UNCOUPLED
BAND 9 kHz
The 120 kHz softkey sets the CISPR bandwidth 120 kHz.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1 MHz
BAND 200 Hz
The 9 kHz softkey sets the CISPR bandwidth 9 kHz.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
120 kHz
BAND 1 MHz
BAND 1 MHz
The QP RBW UNCOUPLED softkey cancels the coupling of the IF bandwidth
to the frequency range with activated quasi peak detector, CISPR-AV detector,
or CISPR-RMS detector.
If the coupling is cancelled, any of the 4 CISPR bandwidths (200 Hz, 9 kHz, 120
kHz, 1 MHz) can be selected for a given frequency range.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FILTER TYPE
BAND:AUTO ON
The FILTER TYPE softkey opens a list of available filter types. Gaussian
bandpass filters of 3 dB and 6 dB bandwidth as well as particularly steep-edged
channel filters for power measurements are available.
FILTER TYPE
NORMAL (3dB)
EMI (6dB)
CHANNEL
RRC
•
NORMAL(3dB)
The resolution bandwidths are implemented by Gaussian filters with the set
3 dB bandwidth and correspond approximately to the noise bandwidth. For
bandwidths up to 100 kHz, digital bandpass filters are used.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.21
BAND:TYPE NOIS
BAND:TYPE NORM
E-1
Receiver – BW Key
R&S ESU
•
EMI (6dB)
The resolution bandwidths are implemented by Gaussian filters with the set
6 dB bandwidth and correspond approximately to the pulse bandwidth. For
bandwidths up to 1 MHz, digital bandpass filters are used.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
•
BAND:TYPE PULS
CHANNEL
steep-edged channel filters
IEC/IEEE bus command:
•
BAND:TYPE CFIL
RRC
Root Raised Cosine filters
IEC/IEEE bus command:
BAND:TYPE RRC
List of Available Channel Filters
The channel filters included in the following table are available as resolution
filters (softkey RES BW) after activation with softkey FILTER TYPE.
Aa
Note
For filter type RRC (Root Raised Cosine) the filter
bandwidth indicated describes the sampling rate of the
filter.
For all other filters (CFILter), the filter bandwidth is the 3dB bandwidth.
1302.6163.12
Filter Bandwidth
Filter
Type
100 Hz
CFILter
200 Hz
CFILter
300 Hz
CFILter
500 Hz
CFILter
4.22
Application
A0
E-1
R&S ESU
1302.6163.12
Receiver – BW Key
Filter Bandwidth
Filter
Type
1 kHz
CFILter
1.5 kHz
CFILter
2 kHz
CFILter
2.4 kHz
CFILter
2.7 kHz
CFILter
3 kHz
CFILter
3.4 kHz
CFILter
4 kHz
CFILter
4.5 kHz
CFILter
5 kHz
CFILter
6 kHz
CFILter
8.5 kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (12.5 kHz channels)
9 kHz
CFILter
AM Radio
10 kHz
CFILter
kHz
CFILter
CDMAone
14 kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (20 kHz channels)
15 kHz
CFILter
16 kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (25 kHz channels)
18 kHz, α=0.35
RRC
TETRA
20 kHz
CFILter
21 kHz
CFILter
PDC
24.3 kHz, α=0.35
RRC
IS 136
25 kHz
CFILter
30 kHz
CFILter
50 kHz
CFILter
100 kHz
CFILter
150 kHz
CFILter
FM Radio
192 kHz
CFILter
PHS
200 kHz
CFILter
300 kHz
CFILter
500 kHz
CFILter
J.83 (8-VSB DVB, USA)
1.0 MHz
CFILter
CDMAone
1.2288 MHz
CFILter
CDMAone
1.5 MHz
CFILter
DAB
2.0 MHz*
CFILter
3.0 MHz*
CFILter
3.84 MHz, α=0.22*
RRC
W-CDMA 3GPP
4.096 MHz, α=0.22*
RRC
W-CDMA NTT DOCoMo
5.0 MHz*
CFILter
4.23
Application
SSB
DAB, Satellite
CDPD, CDMAone
E-1
Receiver – MEAS Key
R&S ESU
Selection of the Measurement Function –
MEAS Key
The MEAS key opens the menu to select the detectors and set the
measurement time for the receiver and the audio demodulator.
To reduce the amount of data in RFI voltage measurements, a list of subrange
maxima (softkey PEAK SEARCH) can be generated from the scan results and
an acceptance line (softkey MARGIN) may be defined in the FINAL MEAS
submenu. A final measurement is performed only for frequencies with high RFI
level.
The final measurement may be either automatic (softkey AUTOMATIC FINAL)
or in interactive mode (softkey INTERACTIVE). Automatic control functions for
line impedance stabilization networks (softkey LISN) are available in the side
menu. The final measurement is started with the softkey RUN FINAL MEAS.
The THRESHOLD SCAN function is also used to reduce data. The scan is
immediately interrupted when a limit violation is detected and the final
measurement performed within a short time.
MEAS
RECEIVER
FREQUENCY
RECEIVER
FREQUENCY
ADD TO
PEAK LIST
ADD TO
PEAK LIST
DETECTOR
MEAS TIME
DEMOD
THRESHOLD
SCAN
CONTINUOUS
BARGRAPH
FINAL
MEAS
SINGLE
BARGRAPH
RUN PRESCAN+FINAL
RUN
SCAN
RECEIVER
FREQUENCY
The RECEIVER FREQUENCY softkey activates the entry field of the receive
frequency.
The tuning frequency has to be set to at least twice the IF bandwidth.
When the tuning frequency is lower than twice the IF bandwidth, the IF
bandwidth is automatically reduced so that this condition is met again.
1302.6163.12
4.24
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – MEAS Key
If the frequency is increased again, the original IF bandwidth is restored
(memory function). The memory is cleared when the IF bandwidth is manually
changed.
Range: 20 Hz ≤ frec ≤ fmax
Aa
Note
This softkey is also available in the RECEIVER / MEAS
menu.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ADD TO PEAK LIST
The ADD TO PEAK LIST softkey adds the receiver frequency of the current
marker to the peak list (see also section “Data Reduction and Peak List” on
page 4.32).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CONTINUOUS
BARGRAPH
--
The CONTINUOUS BARGRAPH softkey selects the continuous measurement
mode.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SINGLE
BARGRAPH
:FREQ:CENT 300 MHz
INITiate:CONTinuous ON
Pressing the SINGLE BARGRAPH softkey triggers a single level measurement.
The enhancement label SGL displayed at the screen edge indicates that the
single-measurement mode is set.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
INITiate:CONTinuous OFF
Selecting the Detector
Six different detectors can be selected for weighting the receive signal.
1302.6163.12
•
The max peak detector yields the largest sample values of the levels
measured during the set measurement time.
•
The min peak detector yields the smallest sample values of the levels
measured during the set measurement time.
•
The average detector yields the average level of the samples measured
during the set measurement time.
•
The CISPR average detector supplies a weighted average. When
measuring the average according to CISPR 16-1, the maximum value of the
linear average during the measurement time is displayed. The detector is
used, for example, to measure pulsed sinusoidal signals with a low pulse
frequency. It is calibrated with the rms value of an unmodulated sinusoidal
signal. Averaging is with lowpass filters of the 2nd order (simulation of a
mechanical instrument). The lowpass time constants and the IF bandwidths
are fixed depending on the frequency. The main parameters are listed in the
following table:
4.25
E-1
Receiver – MEAS Key
R&S ESU
Band A
Band B
Band C/D
Band F
Frequency range
< 150 kHz
150 kHz to
30 MHz
30 MHz to 1
GHz
> 1 GHz
IF bandwidth
200 Hz
9 kHz
120 kHz
1 MHz
Time constant of instrument
160 ms
160 ms
100 ms
100 ms
Coupling of the IF bandwidth to the frequency range with the CISPR average
detector activated can be switched off by the QP RBW UNCOUPLED
softkey.
•
The rms detector yields the rms level of the samples measured. The
integration time corresponds to the set measurement time.
•
The CISPR rms detector supplies a weighted average. When measuring the
average according to CISPR 16-1, the maximum value of the linear average
during the measurement time is displayed. The detector is used, for
example, to measure pulsed sinusoidal signals with a low pulse frequency.
It is calibrated with the rms value of an unmodulated sinusoidal signal.
Averaging is with lowpass filters of the 2nd order (simulation of a mechanical
instrument). The lowpass time constants and the IF bandwidths are fixed
depending on the frequency. The main parameters are listed in the following
table:
•
Band A
Band B
Band C/D
Band E
Frequency range
< 150 kHz
150 kHz to
30 MHz
30 MHz to 1
GHz
> 1 GHz
IF bandwidth
200 Hz
9 kHz
120 kHz
1 MHz
Time constant of instrument
160 ms
160 ms
100 ms
100 ms
Corner frequency
10 Hz
100 Hz
100 Hz
1 kHz
The quasi-peak detector yields the maximum detected value weighted to
CISPR 16. Depending on the set frequency, the R&S ESU automatically
selects the detectors and IF bandwidths defined for bands A, B and C/D
listed in the following table:
Band A
Band B
Band C/D
Frequency range
< 150 kHz
150 kHz to
30 MHz
> 30 MHz
IF bandwidth
200 Hz
9 kHz
120 kHz
Charge time constant
45 ms
1 ms
1 ms
Discharge time constant
150 ms
500 ms
550 ms
Time constant of instrument
160 ms
160 ms
100 ms
For frequencies above 1 GHz, the R&S ESU uses the 120 kHz bandwidth of
band C/D.
The coupling of the IF bandwidth to the frequency range with activated quasi
peak detector can be cancelled using the QP RBW UNCOUPLED softkey.
•
1302.6163.12
The input signal of R&S ESU can be displayed weighted by three detectors
simultaneously.
4.26
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – MEAS Key
Multiple detection is important in EMI measurements since, for example, civil
standards specify limits for both the quasi-peak and the average value. Thanks
to the multiple use of detectors, only one test run is needed. The peak detector
can be combined with any other detector since it is the fastest detector and
therefore ideal for overview measurements.
DETECTOR
MAX PEAK
DETECTOR
MIN PEAK
QUASIPEAK
AVERAGE
CISPR
AVERAGE
RMS
CISPR
RMS
QP RBW
UNCOUPLED
The DETECTOR softkey opens a submenu to select the detector and
combinations of detectors.
A maximum of three detectors can be switched on simultaneously.
Aa
MAX PEAK
Note
This softkey is also available in the RECEIVER / MEAS
menu.
The MAX PEAK softkey activates the max peak detector.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
MIN PEAK
The MIN PEAK softkey activates the min peak detector.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
DET:REC POS
4.27
DET:REC NEG
E-1
Receiver – MEAS Key
QUASIPEAK
R&S ESU
The QUASIPEAK softkey selects the quasi-peak detector.
The IF bandwidth is adapted as a function of the frequency range. The coupling
of the IF bandwidth to the frequency range can be cancelled using softkey QP
RBW UNCOUPLED.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
AVERAGE
The AVERAGE softkey activates the average detector.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CISPR AVERAGE
DET:REC RMS
The CISPR RMS softkey activates the weighting rms detector according to
CISPR 16-1. The IF bandwidth is automatically set to the required value
according to the receiving frequency. This coupling can be cancelled by the QP
RBW UNCOUPLED softkey.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
QP RBW
UNCOUPLED
DET:REC CAV
The RMS softkey activates the rms detector.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CISPR RMS
DET:REC AVER
The CISPR AVERAGE softkey activates the weighting average detector
according to CISPR 16-1. The IF bandwidth is automatically set to the required
value according to the receiving frequency. This coupling can be cancelled by
the QP RBW UNCOUPLED softkey.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RMS
DET:REC QPE
DET:REC CRMS
The QP RBW UNCOUPLED softkey cancels the coupling of the IF bandwidth
to the frequency range with activated quasi peak or CISPR average detector.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
BAND:AUTO OFF
Setting the Measurement Time
The measurement time can be set with a 2-digit resolution in the range 10 µs to
100 s.
The measurement time is the time during which R&S ESU measures the input
signal and forms a measurement result weighted by the selected detector. The
measurement time does not include settling times of the synthesizer and the IF
filter. R&S ESU automatically waits until transients are over.
When the quasi-peak detector is used, the minimum measurement time is
0.5 ms. When the CISPR average detector or the CISPR rms detector is used,
the minimum measurement time is 100 ms. With the average, RMS, or min/max
peak detector the smallest settable measurement time depends on the
bandwidth.
1302.6163.12
4.28
E-1
R&S ESU
MEAS TIME
Receiver – MEAS Key
Bandwidth
Shortest measurement time
AV, RMS
Shortest measurement time
PK+, PK-
≤ 10 Hz
1 sec
10 msec
100 Hz
100 msec
1 msec
200 Hz
50 msec
1 msec
1 kHz
10 msec
0,1 msec
9 kHz
1 msec
0,1 msec
≥ 100 kHz
0,1 msec
0,01 msec
The MEAS TIME softkey activates the entry field for the measurement time.
Aa
Note
This softkey is also available in the RECEIVER / MEAS
menu.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SWE:TIME 100ms
Effect of measurement time with different weighting modes:
•
MIN/MAX PEAK measurement:
With peak weighting selected, the maximum or minimum level during the
selected measurement time is displayed. The peak detector is reset at the
beginning of each measurement. At the end of the measurement time the
maximum or minimum level occurred during the measurement time is
displayed. Since the peak detector of R&S ESU is a digital detector,
discharging is irrelevant even with long measurement times.
Unmodulated signals can be measured with the shortest possible
measurement time. When pulses are measured, the selected measurement
time must be long enough for at least one pulse to occur during the
measurement time.
•
Average measurement:
With average detection selected, the video voltage (envelope of IF signal) is
averaged during the measurement time. Averaging is digital, i.e. the
digitized values of the video voltage are summed up and divided by the
number of samples at the end of the measurement time. This corresponds
to a filtering with a rectangular window in the time domain and a filtering with
sin x/x characteristic in the frequency domain. With unmodulated signals the
shortest possible measurement time can be selected. With modulated
signals the measurement time is determined by the lowest modulation
frequency to be averaged. With pulse signals, the selected measurement
time should be long enough for sufficient number of pulses (>10) to occur in
the measurement window for averaging.
1302.6163.12
4.29
E-1
Receiver – MEAS Key
•
R&S ESU
CISPR average and CISPR rms measurement:
With a CISPR average or a CISPR rms measurement, the maximum value
of the weighted signal during the measurement time is displayed. The
relatively long time constants used with CISPR average and CISPR rms
detectors result in long measurement times in order to obtain a correct
measurement result. If unknown signals are measured, the measurement
time should be at least one second so that pulses down to a frequency of 5
Hz are correctly weighted.
After a frequency change or a modification of the attenuation, the receiver
waits until the lowpass has settled before the measurement time starts. The
measurement time is selected depending on the IF bandwidth and the
characteristics of the signal to be measured. Unmodulated sinusoidal
signals as well as signals with high modulation frequency can be measured
within a short time. Slowly fluctuating signals or pulse signals require longer
measurement times.
•
RMS measurement:
With RMS weighting the same applies to the measurement time as with the
average measurement.
•
Quasi-peak measurement:
With quasi-peak measurements, the maximum value of the weighted signal
during the measurement time is displayed. The relatively long time
constants used with quasi-peak detectors entail long measurement times to
obtain correct results. With unknown signals the measurement time should
be at least 1 s. This ensures correct weighting of pulses down to a pulse
frequency of 5 Hz.
After internal switching, R&S ESU waits until the measurement result has
stabilized before it starts the actual measurement. Since the level does not
change during a frequency scan, known signals (e.g. broadband RFI) can
be correctly measured with a much shorter measurement time.
•
Measurement with several detectors:
If several detectors are used simultaneously, a measurement time suiting
the slowest detector should be selected to obtain correct results for all
detectors. It is therefore recommended to set a measurement time that
matches the average detector when the peak and average detectors are
used.
AF Demodulators
The R&S ESU provides demodulators for AM and FM signals. With these
demodulators selected, a displayed signal can be monitored using the internal
loudspeaker or external headphones.
1302.6163.12
4.30
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – MEAS Key
DEMOD
DEMOD
ON
OFF
DEMOD
AM
FM
SQUELCH
The DEMOD softkey calls a submenu in which the desired type of demodulation
can be switched on.
The volume for loudspeaker and headphones is set by means of control knob
on the front panel. The volume can also be remote-controlled (IEC/IEEE-bus
command SYST:SPE:VOL 0.7).
A squelch function enables the input of a level threshold below which the
audible AF is cut off.
Aa
DEMOD ON/OFF
Note
This softkey is available also in the RECEIVER / MEAS
menu.
The DEMOD ON/OFF softkey switches demodulation on/off.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
AM / FM
The AM and FM softkeys can be activated one at a time. They are used to set
the desired demodulation type, FM or AM.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SQUELCH
DEM OFF
(DEModulation ON automatically switched on
with DEM AM | FM)
DEM AM | FM
The SQUELCH softkey enables the input of a level threshold below which the
audible AF is cut off. The squelch function is associated with the internal trigger
function (TRIGGER menu), which will be switched on automatically with the
squelch. Squelch level and trigger level do have the same value.
The default setting for the squelch is off.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.31
:SENS:DEM:SQU ON | OFF
:SENS:DEM:SQU:LEV 80 PCT
E-1
Receiver – MEAS Key
R&S ESU
Data Reduction and Peak List
EMI measurements may involve much time because the time constants
prescribed by the standard for the quasi-peak weighting require transients
which lead to long measurement times per each value. In addition, the
standards stipulate procedures for finding local EMI maxima such as shifting the
absorbing clamp, variation of the test antenna height and rotating the DUT.
Measuring with quasi-peak weighting at each frequency and for each setting of
the test configuration would lead to unacceptably long measurement times. For
this reason, R&S has developed a method which reduces the time-consuming
measurements to a minimum with an optimum reliability of detection.
Data Reduction using the Subrange Maximum
The interference spectrum is first pre-analyzed in a fast prescan to optimize the
duration of the measurement. Data reduction follows so that the timeconsuming final measurement is performed at only some important
frequencies:
dB
80
Subrange
70
60
Subrange maximum
50
Limit line
40
30
Acceptance line
20
10
0
0,03
GHz
1,0
0,1
Fig. 4-1
Dividing the spectrum into eight subranges
Data reduction is of crucial importance. It is initiated by the user pressing a key
after the prescan and then automatically performed by the receiver. Data
reduction is used to select frequencies with a very high interference level.
Several data reduction methods are used:
1302.6163.12
•
Acceptance analysis, i.e. the interference spectrum is further analyzed at
frequencies with levels above a line parallel to a limit line.
•
Generating subrange maxima, i.e. the interference spectrum is further
analyzed at frequencies with the highest interference level of a frequency
subrange (search method SUBRANGES).
•
Determination of a specific number of peak values relative to the limit lines
with the level values being independent of their frequency spectral
distribution (search method PEAKS).
4.32
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – MEAS Key
For generation of subrange maxima, the whole frequency range is divided into
equidistant subranges. A subrange maximum is determined for each subrange
(search method SUBRANGES).
Determining the level maxima irrespective of their distribution in the frequency
spectrum (search mode PEAKS) is suitable for measurement regulations that
demand determination of the relatively highest level irrespective of the
distribution in the measured frequency range, e.g. FCC.
If the prescan is performed in parallel with several detectors, typically with peak
value and average value, the maxima are determined separately for the two
detectors so that the distribution of narrowband and wideband sources of
interference can be taken into account. For example, the frequency of the
maximum determined with the average detector can be used for the final
measurement performed with this detector and the frequency found in the
prescan carried out with the peak detector is taken for the final measurement
using the quasi-peak detector.
Consideration of the limit lines ensures that the final measurement is not
performed at frequencies at which the inference level is far below the limit value.
The margin between the acceptance line and the limit line can be selected by
the user in dB as the MARGIN. Each limit line is allocated to a trace, i.e. different
limit lines are taken for the different detectors.
Two values should therefore be defined for this purpose:
•
the number of subranges or highest level values (NO OF PEAKS in the
range from 1 to 500; default value: 25)
•
the acceptance margin (MARGIN; default value: 6 dB). It is valid for all limit
lines.
As an alternative method, it is possible to preset a list of frequencies at which
the final measurements are performed. A typical application is, for example, the
statistical analysis of several units.
The peak list can be either edited manually or can be filled with desired values
by adopting the marker values.
If no limit lines are activated, the measurement procedure is as if all measured
values would exceed the limit line.
1302.6163.12
4.33
E-1
Receiver – MEAS Key
FINAL MEAS
R&S ESU
The FINAL MEAS softkey opens the following submenu:
PEAK
SEARCH
EDIT PEAK
LIST
NO OF
PEAKS
PEAKS
SUBRANGES
MARGIN
FINAL
MEAS TIME
AUTOMATIC
FINAL
INTER
ACTIVE
RUN FINAL
MEAS
PEAK SEARCH
The PEAK SEARCH softkey starts the determination of the subrange maxima
list from the available scan results. The procedure can be repeated as often as
desired to try out different settings of margin and number of subranges.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
:CALC:PEAK
The following table shows the peak list which is determined by the peak-search
function after the prescan:
1302.6163.12
4.34
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – MEAS Key
Trace1: 014QP
Trace2: 014AV
TRACE3:
--TRACE
1 Average
2 Average
1 Max Peak
2 Average
1 Max Peak
2 Average
1 Max Peak
2 Average
1 Max Peak
2 Average
1 Max Peak
2 Average
2 Average
2 Average
2 Average
1 Max Peak
2 Average
1 Max Peak
2 Average
2 Average
EDIT PEAK LIST
EDIT PEAK
LIST
EDIT PEAK LIST (Prescan results)
FREQUENCY
80.0000 MHz
89.4800 MHz
98.5200 MHz
98.5200 MHz
100.7200 MHz
102.3200 MHz
113.2400 MHz
116.9200 MHz
125.8800 MHz
125.8800 MHz
138.4800 MHz
138.4800 MHz
144.0400 MHz
167.0400 MHz
176.2400 MHz
200.4800 MHz
200.4800 MHz
210.2800 MHz
226.5600 MHz
239.0000 MHz
LEVEL dBpT
35.34
38.83
47.53
46.63
54.14
50.89
49.68
44.81
55.01
53.55
45.68
42.17
43.72
44.77
45.52
52.49
48.76
60.55
59.02
48.59
DELTA LIMIT dB
-3.91
-0.91
-2.63
6.47
3.88
10.56
-1.08
3.91
3.78
12.33
-5.95
0.53
1.90
2.32
2.83
-0.75
5.51
7.09
15.24
4.75
EDIT
FREQUENCY
INSERT
DELETE
SORT BY
FREQUENCY
SORT BY
DELTA LIM
ASCII FILE
EXPORT
DECIM SEP
.
,
PAGE UP
PAGE DOWN
The EDIT PEAK LIST softkey calls the EDIT PEAK LIST submenu used for
editing the peak list. A frequency list can thus be predefined and a final
measurement carried out at these frequencies.
A peak list can also be generated by adopting the marker values (see section
“Change of Settings via Markers – MKR-> Key” on page 4.72)
1302.6163.12
4.35
E-1
Receiver – MEAS Key
EDIT FREQUENCY
R&S ESU
The EDIT FREQUENCY softkey activates table EDIT PEAK LIST. The cursor
marks the upper field of column FREQUENCY.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
INSERT
The INSERT softkey creates an empty line above the current cursor position
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DELETE
--
The softkey SORT BY DELTA LIMIT sorts the table in a descending order
according to the entries in the DELTA LIMIT column.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ASCII FILE EXPORT
--
The softkey SORT BY FREQUENCY sorts the table in a descending order
according the entries in the FREQUENCY column.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SORT BY DELTA
LIMIT
--
The DELETE softkey erases the complete line at the cursor position. Before
deletion, a message appears requesting confirmation.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SORT BY
FREQUENCY
--
--
The ASCII FILE EXPORT softkey stores the final measurement data in a file
with ASCII format, e.g. on memory stick.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FORM ASC;
MMEM:STOR:FIN 1,'FINAL.DAT'
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters, several
data sections containing the scan settings and a data section containing the
results of the final measurement.
The data of the file header consist of three columns, each separated by a
semicolon:
parameter name; numeric value; basic unit
The data section for the trace date starts with the keyword " Trace <n> Final"
(<n> = number of stored trace), followed by the measured data in one or several
columns which are also separated by a semicolon.
This format can be read in from spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MSExcel. It is necessary to define ';' as a separator.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
Different language versions of evaluation programs may
require a different handling of the decimal point. It is
therefore possible to select between separators '.'
(decimal point) and ',' (comma) using softkey DECIM
SEP.
4.36
E-1
R&S ESU
DECIM SEP
Receiver – MEAS Key
The DECIM SEP softkey selects the decimal separator between '.' (decimal
point) and ',' (comma) with floating-point numerals for the function ASCII FILE
EXPORT.
With the selection of the decimal separator different language versions of
evaluation programs (e.g. MS-Excel) can be supported.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FORM:DEXP:DSEP POIN
Structure of the ASCII file
Table 4-1
1302.6163.12
RECEIVER mode, final measurement data – File header
Content of file
Description
Type; R&S ESU;
Instrument model
Version;2.32;
Firmware version
Date;03.Aug 2004;
Date record storage date
Mode;Receiver;
Instrument operating mode
Start;10000;Hz
Start/stop of the display range.
Stop;100000;Hz
Unit: Hz
x-Axis;LIN;
Scaling of x axis linear (LIN) or logarithmic (LOG)
Scan Count;1;
Number of scans set
Transducer;TRD1;
Transducer name (if switched on)
Scan 1:
Loop over all defined scan ranges (1-10)
Start;150000;Hz
Range - start frequency in Hz
Stop;1000000;Hz
Range – stop frequency in Hz
Step;4000;Hz
Range - step width in Hz for linear step width or in% (1-100)
for logarithmic step width
RBW;100000;Hz
Range - resolution bandwidth
Meas Time;0.01;s
Range - measurement time
Auto Ranging;ON;
Auto ranging on - or off for current range
RF Att;20;dB
Range - input attenuation
Auto Preamp;OFF;
Auto Preamp on or off for current range
Preamp;0;dB
Range - preamplifier on (20dB) or off (0dB)
4.37
E-1
Receiver – MEAS Key
Table 4-2
R&S ESU
RECEIVER mode, final measurement data – Data section of the
file
Content of file
Description
TRACE 1 FINAL:
Selected trace
Trace Mode;CLR/WRITE;
Trace mode: CLR/WRITE,AVERAGE,MAX HOLD,MIN
HOLD, VIEW, BLANK
Final Detector, QUASI PEAK;
Final detector MAX PEAK, MIN PEAK, RMS, AVERAGE,
QUASI PEAK, AC VIDEO
x-Unit;Hz;
Unit of x values:
y-Unit;dBuV;
Unit of y values:
Final Meas Time;1.000000;s
Final measurement time
Margin;6.000000:s
Margin
Values;8;
Number of test points
2;154000.000000;81.638535;15.638 Measured values:
535;N;GND
<Trace>;<x-value>, <y-value>; <phase>; <ground>
1;158000.000000;86.563789;7.5637
Phase and protective grounding are output only if a line
89;N;GND
impedance stabilization has been activated. They specify the
2;1018000.000000;58.689873;1.310127;N;GND
setting at which the maximum RFI level at the associated
frequency was found.
...
Example for exported final measurement data
Type;ESU;
Version;2.23;
Date;03.Mar 04;
Mode;Receiver;
Start;150000.000000;Hz
Stop;30000000.000000;Hz
x-Axis;LOG;
Scan Count;1;
Transducer;;
Scan 1:
Start;150000.000000;Hz
Stop;30000000.000000;Hz
Step;4000.000000;Hz
RBW;9000.000000;Hz
Meas Time;0.001000;s
Auto Ranging;OFF;
RF Att;10.000000;dB
Auto Preamp;OFF;
Preamp;0.000000;dB
TRACE 1 FINAL:
Trace Mode;CLR/WRITE;
1302.6163.12
4.38
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – MEAS Key
Final Detector;MAX PEAK;
TRACE 2 FINAL:
Trace Mode;CLR/WRITE;
Final Detector;AVERAGE;
x-Unit;Hz;
y-Unit;dBuV;
Final Meas Time;1.000000;s
Margin;6.000000;dB
Values;11;
2;154000.000000;81.638535;15.638535;N;GND
1;158000.000000;86.563789;7.563789;N;GND
2;1018000.000000;58.689873;-1.310127;N;GND
2;302000.000000;63.177345;-2.822655;L1;GND
2;3294000.000000;56.523022;-3.476978;N;GND
2;1122000.000000;53.849747;-6.150253;N;GND
2;10002000.000000;47.551216;-12.448784;N;GND
1;3390000.000000;59.762917;-13.237083;N;GND
1;9998000.000000;58.309189;-14.690811;L1;GND
2;20002000.000000;45.142456;-14.857544;L1;GND
2;7502000.000000;36.406967;-23.593033;L1;GND
NO OF PEAKS
The NO OF PEAKS softkey activates the entry field of the number of subranges
or peaks for the determination of the peak list. The range of values is 1 to 500.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PEAKS
SUBRANGES
The PEAKS SUBRANGES softkey defines the search method with which
maxima are searched for within a scan.
PEAKS
Determination of a specific number of peak values relative to
the limit lines with the level values being independent of their
frequency spectral distribution.
SUBRANGES
Generating subrange maxima, i.e. the interference spectrum
is further analyzed at frequencies with the highest
interference level of a frequency subrange.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
MARGIN
:CALC:PEAK:MARG -200dB to 200dB
The FINAL MEAS TIME softkey activates the entry field of the time of final
measurement.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
:CALC:PEAK:METH SUBR|PEAK
The MARGIN softkey activates the entry field of the margin, i.e. of an additional
acceptance threshold for the determination of the peak list. The limit line
currently used is shifted by this amount for defining the maxima. The range of
values is -200 dB to 200 dB.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FINAL MEAS TIME
:CALC:PEAK:SUBR 1 to 500
4.39
:SWEep:TIME:FME <num_value>
E-1
Receiver – MEAS Key
AUTOMATIC FINAL
R&S ESU
The AUTOMATIC FINAL softkey selects the automatic routine for the final
measurement. This routine is run according to the available frequency list
without user interaction.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
INTERACTIVE
The INTERACTIVE softkey selects the following sequence for the final
measurement:
•
A frequency from the frequency list is set on the receiver together with the
associated settings from the corresponding partial scan.
•
The marker is set on this frequency in the scan diagram.
•
The final measurement sequence switches to the Interrupted status.
•
The signal can be exactly analyzed by modifying the receiver settings.
•
CONTINUE AT HOLD starts the actual final measurement, the receiver
settings being restored except the frequency.
•
The current frequency replaces the original one in the frequency list (drifting
interference sources)
•
Next frequency of frequency list.....
Aa
Note
With the AUTOMATIC FINAL softkey in the CONTINUE
FINAL MEAS submenu a switchover can be made to the
automatic mode before the measurement is started
anew.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
:FME:AUTO ON
4.40
:FMEA:AUTO OFF
E-1
R&S ESU
RUN FINAL MEAS
Receiver – MEAS Key
Sequence for RUN FINAL MEAS
RUN
FINAL MEAS
HOLD
FINAL MEAS
STOP
FINAL MEAS
AUTOMATIC
FINAL
INTER
ACTIVE
MEASURE
STOP
FINAL MEAS
The RUN FINAL MEAS softkey starts the final measurement sequence as
described above. The HOLD FINAL MEAS submenu is called.
The detectors used for the final measurement replace those used in the list or
for the prescan.
The out-of-limit condition is shown by a plus sign preceding the values in the
DELTA LIMIT column (see table below).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
Aa
1302.6163.12
--
Note
The final measurement function is only available in the
manual mode. For operation under program control it is
preferable to read the prescan results and the datareduced peak list, if any, from the R&S ESU with the
controller and carry out the individual measurements
with the controller. This considerably makes the control
of the interactive mode easier.
4.41
E-1
Receiver – MEAS Key
HOLD FINAL MEAS
R&S ESU
HOLD
FINAL MEAS
AUTOMATIC
FINAL
STOP
FINAL MEAS
INTER
ACTIVE
MEASURE
STOP
FINAL MEAS
The HOLD FINAL MEAS softkey interrupts the automatic run of the final
measurement.
The CONTINUE FINAL MEAS submenu appears.
With the final measurement halted all receiver settings can be modified for
example for examining the signal in detail.
The mode of the measurement (automatic or interactive) can again be selected.
The final measurement can be started with the MEASURE softkey.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
AUTOMATIC FINAL
The AUTOMATIC FINAL softkey selects the automatic mode for the final
measurement (see above).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
INTERACTIVE
--
The STOP FINAL MEAS softkey halts the final measurement. The final
measurement starts from the beginning on a new start. The previously collected
data is lost.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
:FME:AUTO OFF
The MEASURE softkey continues with the final measurement. The final
measurement starts at the next frequency entry on the peak list or at a marked
frequency if one or several lines have been skipped with the SKIP
FREQUENCY softkey.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
STOP FINAL MEAS
:FME:AUTO ON
The INTERACTIVE softkey selects the interactive mode for the final
measurement as described above.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
MEASURE
--
4.42
--
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – MEAS Key
The peak list available after the final measurement:
EDIT PEAK LIST (Final Measurement Results)
Trace1: 014QP
Trace2: 014AV
TRACE3:
--FREQUENCY
TRACE
LEVEL dBpT
DELTA LIMIT dB
1 Average
29.99
-9.25
80.0000 MHz
2 Average
35.64
-4.09
89.4800 MHz
1 Quasi Peak
49.94
-0.22
98.5200 MHz
2 Average
48.32
8.15
98.5200 MHz
1 Quasi Peak
55.33
5.07
100.7200 MHz
2 Average
50.86
10.53
102.3200 MHz
1 Quasi Peak
42.50
-8.26
113.2400 MHz
2 Average
44.44
3.53
116.9200 MHz
1 Quasi Peak
54.91
3.68
125.8800 MHz
2 Average
53.86
12.64
125.8800 MHz
1 Quasi Peak
41.83
-9.81
138.4800 MHz
2 Average
39.38
-2.25
138.4800 MHz
2 Average
40.77
-1.04
144.0400 MHz
2 Average
44.82
2.37
167.0400 MHz
2 Average
46.56
3.87
176.2400 MHz
1 Quasi Peak
50.93
-2.31
200.4800 MHz
2 Average
48.27
5.02
200.4800 MHz
1 Quasi Peak
58.71
5.25
210.2800 MHz
2 Average
59.07
15.29
226.5600 MHz
2 Average
46.90
3.05
230.0000 MHz
Automatic Final Measurement with Threshold Scan
The interference spectrum is first pre-analyzed in a fast prescan to optimize the
duration of the measurement. If the measured level exceeds a limit line, or
violates a margin defined for this line, the time-consuming final measurement is
performed. The final measurement is, therefore, carried out only for a reduced
number of frequencies of interest. For this measurement, each scan trace to be
taken into account has to be assigned a limit line, and the limit line and the limit
check function have to be activated in the LIMIT LINE menu.
The prescan is interrupted immediately for each final measurement to be
performed, i.e. the final measurement immediately follows the prescan
measurement. In the case of drifting or fluctuating interferers, this increases the
probability that the signal of interest will be reliably detected in the final
measurement.
If the narrowband/broadband discrimination function is activated (NB/
BB DISCR softkey), the receiver automatically selects the detector to use in the
final measurement. To this end, the receiver compares the positive and the
negative peak value obtained in the prescan. If the difference between the two
values exceeds a user-selected threshold, a broadband interferer is assumed,
and the quasi-peak detector is used in the final measurement. If the difference
falls below this threshold, a narrowband interferer is assumed, and the average
detector is used in the final measurement. (The receiver automatically
determines the positive and the negative peak value during the prescan.)
1302.6163.12
4.43
E-1
Receiver – MEAS Key
R&S ESU
The value obtained in the final measurement is added to the peak list, where it
replaces the result of the prescan. With NO OF PEAKS, the maximum number
of peak values to be included in the list can be defined. If this number is
attained, the prescan will be continued, but no further final measurements will
be performed.
THRESHOLD SCAN
The THRESHOLD SCAN submenu is called from the RECEIVER main menu:
RECEIVER
RECEIVER
FREQUENCY
THRESHOLD
ON
OFF
ADD TO
PEAK LIST
EDIT PEAK
LIST
DETECTOR
NO OF
PEAKS
MEAS TIME
NB/BB
DISCR
DEMOD
MARGIN
THRESHOLD
SCAN
FINAL
MEAS TIME
FINAL
MEAS
AUTOMATIC
FINAL
RUN PRESCAN+FINAL
RUN
SCAN
THRESHOLD ON
OFF
1302.6163.12
INTER
ACTIVE
RUN
SCAN
The THRESHOLD ON OFF softkey activates or deactivates the THRESHOLD
SCAN measurement function. This function will also be activated on opening
the submenu with the THRESHOLD SCAN softkey from the RECEIVER main
menu.
4.44
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – MEAS Key
EDIT PEAK LIST
EDIT PEAK
LIST
EDIT PEAK
LIST
EDIT
FREQUENCY
INSERT
DELETE
ASCII
CONFIG
SORT BY
FREQUENCY
SORT BY
DELTA LIM
ASCII
EXPORT
ASCII
CONFIG
PAGE UP
EDIT PATH
DECIM SEP
.
,
NEW
APPEND
HEADER
ON
OFF
ASCII
COMMENT
PAGE DOWN
The EDIT PEAK LIST softkey calls the EDIT PEAK LIST submenu used for
editing the peak list.
Further functions relating to the peak list are described in the operating manual,
section “Measurement of a Peak List” on page 4.176.
NO OF PEAKS
With the NO OF PEAKS softkey, you can enter the number of final
measurement peaks to be stored. Numbers between 1 and 500 can be entered.
If the selected number is attained, no further final measurements will be
performed.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NB/BB DISCR
With the NB/BB DISCR softkey, you can enter the decision threshold to be used
by the analyzer to discriminate between broadband and narrowband
interference. Values between 0 dB and 200 dB can be entered.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
MARGIN
:FMEasurement:NBBB ON | OFF
:FMEasurement:NBBB:LEVel 0..200dB
The MARGIN softkey activates the entry field of the margin, i.e. of an additional
acceptance threshold for the determination of the peak list. The limit line
currently used is shifted by this amount for defining the maxima. The range of
values is -200 dB to 200 dB.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
:CALC:PEAK:SUBR 1...500
4.45
:CALC:PEAK:MARG –200dB...200dB
E-1
Receiver – MEAS Key
FINAL MEAS TIME
R&S ESU
The FINAL MEAS TIME softkey activates the entry field of the time of final
measurement.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
AUTOMATIC FINAL
The AUTOMATIC FINAL softkey activates the automatic mode for the final
measurement, i.e. a final measurement will be performed automatically and
immediately each time a value out of limit is detected.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
INTERACTIVE
:FMEasurement:AUTO ON
The INTERACTIVE softkey selects the following sequence for the final
measurement:
•
The prescan is interrupted – HOLD SCAN state.
•
The bar graph measurement is started in the free running mode.
•
The signal can be exactly analyzed by modifying the receiver settings.
•
The actual final measurement is started, the receiver settings being restored
except the frequency.
•
The current frequency replaces the original one in the frequency list (drifting
interference sources).
•
The prescan is continued at the frequency at which it was interrupted....
Aa
Note
With the AUTOMATIC FINAL softkey in the CONTINUE
FINAL MEAS submenu a switchover can be made to the
automatic mode before the measurement is started
anew.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
:SWE:TIME:FME <num_value>
4.46
:FMEasurement:AUTO OFF
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – MEAS Key
Sequence for AUTOMATIC FINAL
RUN SCAN
RUN
SCAN
HOLD
SCAN
STOP
SCAN
HOLD
FINAL MEAS
STOP
FINAL MEAS
The RUN SCAN softkey starts the prescan. The HOLD SCAN submenu is
called.
If an out-of-limit value is detected, the receiver automatically goes to the HOLD
SCAN state and starts the final measurement. The HOLD FINAL MEAS
submenu comes up. On completion of the final measurement, the receiver
continues the prescan, and the HOLD SCAN submenu is displayed again.
1302.6163.12
4.47
E-1
Receiver – MEAS Key
R&S ESU
Sequence for INTERACTIVE
RUN
SCAN
HOLD
SCAN
STOP
SCAN
AUTOMATIC
FINAL
INTER
ACTIVE
SKIP
FREQUENCY
GET
MAXHOLD
MEASURE
STOP
FINAL MEAS
The RUN SCAN softkey starts the prescan. The HOLD SCAN submenu is
called.
If an out-of-limit value is detected, the receiver automatically goes to the HOLD
SCAN state. A submenu with several options for the final measurement comes
up:
1302.6163.12
•
AUTOMATIC FINAL activates the automatic final measurement mode for
the rest of the test run.
•
SKIP FREQUENCY skips the final measurement and continues with the
prescan.
•
GET MAXHOLD accepts the highest level measured during the HOLD
SCAN state as the result of the final measurement and continues the
prescan. (The level value in question is displayed as a small bar in the bar
graph.)
•
MEASURE starts the final measurement, the receiver settings being
restored except the frequency.
•
STOP FINAL MEAS aborts the final measurement and the prescan.
4.48
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – MEAS Key
Selection of Detectors for Final Measurement
The selection of detectors for the final measurement is made in the right side
menu TRACE DETECTOR (see section “Selection and Setting of Traces –
TRACE Key” on page 4.78).
The detectors to be used for the final measurement can be set here for each
trace, i.e. any combination of prescan and final measurement is possible. The
required flexibility is thus obtained for the diverse test specifications which are
covered by means of the R&S ESU.
In the THRESHOLD SCAN mode, with the NB/BB DISCR function active, the
receiver automatically selects the detector to be used in the final measurement
on the basis of the results obtained in the prescan.
Fig. 4-2
1302.6163.12
Results of prescan and final measurement
4.49
E-1
Receiver – MEAS Key
R&S ESU
Automatic Control of Line Impedance Stabilization
Networks
The selected phases are controlled during the prescan and the final
measurement via the USERPORT with the LISN switched on.
In contrast, the LISN menu in the SETUP menu is used for the direct control of
the LISN and is not included in the automatic sequences.
Only one phase and one PE setting (1 out of n) can be selected for the prescan.
Any number of settings can be selected for the final measurement (m out of n).
All selected phase/PE combinations are measured during the final
measurement and the maximum value is determined.
In the FINAL MEAS side menu, the following softkeys are available:
ESH2-Z5
ESH3-Z5
ENV 4200
ENV 216
OFF
PRESCAN
PHASES
PHASE N
FINAL
PHASES
PHASE L1
PHASE L2
PHASE L3
150 KHZ
HIGHPASS
PE
GROUNDED
PE
FLOATING
1302.6163.12
4.50
E-1
R&S ESU
ESH2-Z5
ESH3-Z5
ENV 4200
ENV 216
OFF
Receiver – MEAS Key
The ESH2-Z5, ESH3-Z5, ENV 4200, and OFF softkeys allow to select the Vnetwork to be controlled via the user port.
ESH2-Z5
four-line V-network is controlled
ESH3-Z5
two-line V-network is controlled
ENV 4200
four-line V-network is controlled
ENV 216
two-line V-network is controlled
OFF
remote control is deactivated
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PRESCAN PHASES
FINAL PHASES
:INPut:LISN[:TYPE] TWOPhase|
FOURphase| ENV4200 | ENV216 | OFF
The PRESCAN PHASES and FINAL PHASES softkeys open the submenu for
the selection of phase and protective earth setting.
PRESCAN PHASES: Softkeys ESH2-Z5, ESH3-Z5, ENV 4200, ENV 216 and
OFF or PHASE N, PHASE L1, PHASE L2 and PHASE L3
as well as PE GROUNDED and PE FLOATING are
toggle keys. Only one of them can be activated at a time.
FINAL PHASES:
PHASE N
PHASE L1
PHASE L2
PHASE L3
All combinations of phases and PE setting are possible.
The PHASE N, PHASE L1, PHASE L2 and PHASE L3 softkeys select the
phase of the V-network on which the RFI voltage is to be measured.
PHASE N
RFI on phase N is measured,
PHASE L1
RFI on phase L1 is measured,
PHASE L2
RFI on phase L2 is measured
(only for ESH2-Z5/ENV 4200),
PHASE L3
RFI on phase L3 is measured
(only for ESH2-Z5/ENV 4200).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
150 KHZ HIGHPASS
The 150 KHZ HIGHPASS softkey switches an 150 kHz highpass on to protect
the receiver input from high signal levels below 150 kHz (only for ENV 216).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PE GROUNDED
PE FLOATING
:INP:LISN:PHAS L1 | L2 | L3 | N
INP:LISN:FILT:HPAS ON | OFF
The PE GROUNDED and PE FLOATING softkeys switch the protective earth
conductor chokes on or off (only for ESH2-Z5/ESH3-Z5).
PE GROUNDED
protective earth conductor choke switched off,
PE FLOATING
protective earth conductor choke switched on.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
:INP:LISN:PEAR GRO |FLO
Settings made in the PRESCAN PHASES menu are immediately output at the
user port. This way, the menu can be used to remote control the V-networks
during manual measurements.
For automatic phase selection with the V-networks, the R&S ESU user interface
and the V-networks have to be connected via a control line:
1302.6163.12
4.51
E-1
Receiver – MEAS Key
Receiver-User-Interface
PIN
R&S ESU
Filter
ESH2-Z5
PIN
N
14
46
N
L1
15
21
L1
L2
16
22
L2
L3
17
23
L3
GND
12
50
GND
PE fl. 18
47
PE fl.
+5 V
48
+5 V
13
Fig. 4-3
Connection R&S ESU with R&S ESH2-Z5 (for direct connection
without a filter: cable EZ-13)
Receiver-User-Interface
ESH3-Z5
PIN
N
Pin
14
2
N
L
15
6
L
PE fl. 18
3
PE fl.
GND
12
8
DGND
+5 V
13
1
+5 V
Filter
Fig. 4-4
Receiver-User-Interface
Pin
N
14
Connection R&S ESU with R&S ESH3-Z5 or ENV 216 (for direct
connection without a filter: cable EZ-14, model 02)
Filter
ENV 4200
PIN
14
N
L1
15
15
L1
L2
16
16
L2
L3
17
17
L3
GND
12
12
GND
+5 V
13
13
+5 V
Fig. 4-5
Connection R&S ESU with R&S ENV4200 (for direct connection
without a filter: cable EZ-21)
For controlling the phase selection and the PE simulating network of the Vnetworks ESH2-Z5, ESH3-Z5 and ENV42000, the +5-V supply voltage and
some control lines are to be routed through the wall of the shielded room.
The connection cables EZ-14 and EZ-5 can be provided for the 4-line V-network
ESH2-Z5, the connection cable EZ-14 and EZ-6 for the two-line V-network
ESH3-Z5 and the connection cables ES-14 and EZ-21 for the 4-line V-network
ENV4200.
1302.6163.12
4.52
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – MEAS Key
Suggested configuration of cables EZ-14/EZ-5/EZ-6/EZ-21
EZ-21 for ENV 4200
EZ-5 for ESH2-Z5
EZ-6 for ESH3-Z5
EZ-14
Receiver
Filter configuration
9-pin.
socket
0531.9304
supplied with
EZ--14
1
24
2
1
3
5
4
3
5
4
6
2
8
9
Fig. 4-6
1302.6163.12
Shielding panel
9-pin.
socket
018.6430.00
or
0203840.00
supplied with
EZ-5/EZ-6/EZ-2
Assignment of connection cables EZ-5, -6, -14 and –21 with AF
filters for feeding the 5-V supply and the control information for the
V-networks R&S ESH2-Z5, R&S ESH3-Z5 and R&S ENV4200 into
a shielded room.
4.53
E-1
Receiver – MEAS Key
R&S ESU
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
When the R&S ESU is used inside the shielded room,
the filter configuration is omitted. The cable EZ-14 is then
used for controlling the R&S ESH3-Z5, the cable EZ-13
for controlling the R&S ESH2-Z5, and the cable EZ-21
for controlling the R&S ENV4200.
4.54
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – SWEEP Key
Frequency Scan and Time Domain Scan –
SWEEP Key
Stepped Scan in the Frequency Domain
In the scan mode, R&S ESU measures in a predefined frequency range with
selectable step width and measurement time for each frequency.
Either the current receiver settings or the settings defined in the Scan table are
used. Up to 10 subranges which need not be next to each other can be defined
within one scan. The subranges are then scanned by R&S ESU one after the
other. Measurement ranges should not overlap. The parameters to be
measured in each subrange can be selected independently (SWEEP menu,
SCAN TABLE table).
Transducer factors or transducer sets and limit lines can be defined and
displayed separately and are not part of the scan data record.
The scanned frequency range is defined by the start and stop frequency set
independently of the scan table (SCAN TABLE table or FREQUENCY menu).
A scan table can thus be defined for each measurement task, which can be
stored and reloaded. The required frequency range can be defined by means
of two parameters which can be set via keys so that no elaborate editing has to
be done in the scan table.
start frequency
stop frequency
scan ranges
transducer set
Fig. 4-7
Definition of scan range
Scanning is started with the RUN softkey. The scan can be performed as a
single scan or continuously. In the case of single scan it is stopped when the
stop frequency is reached. The continuous scan can be interrupted with the
HOLD SCAN softkey or terminated with STOP SCAN.
The maximal number of measured frequencies is limited to 2.000.000. A
maximum of 3 x 2.000.000 values (2.000.000 per detector) can be stored for
postprocessing. If the scan subranges are defined so that more than the
possible values would be measured, a respective message is output upon the
scan start. Afterwards the scan is performed up to the maximum value.
At least one scan is defined in the list. Two subranges are defined in the default
setup. All other parameters are shown in the following table:
1302.6163.12
4.55
E-1
Receiver – SWEEP Key
Table 4-1
R&S ESU
Default setup of scan table
Range 1
Range 2
Start frequency
150 kHz
30 MHz
Stop frequency
30 MHz
1 GHz
Step width
Auto
Auto
IF bandwidth
9 kHz
120 kHz
Measurement time
1 ms
100 µs
Auto ranging
OFF
OFF
Attenuation mode
Normal
Normal
RF attenuation
10 dB
10 dB
Preamplification
OFF
OFF
The diagram parameters to be defined are: start frequency 150 kHz, stop
frequency 1 GHz, min. level 0 dBµV, grid range log 100 dB, log. frequency axis
and continuous scan.
The measurement parameters correspond to the settings recommended for
overview measurements to CISPR 16.
Time Domain Scan in the Frequency Domain
Aa
Note
This functionality is only available with the R&S ESUK53 option.
Up till now, long EMI measurement times were necessary in EMC test
laboratories, when correct measurements of unknown EUTs had to be made.
Time saving procedures as explained in “Data Reduction and Peak List” on
page 4.32 reduced the total measurement time by reducing the number of
quasi-peak measurements to a minimum. But this time is still very long,
because it is often in the order of hours, especially for the CISPR radiated
emission test. A way out of this situation can be time-domain measurements.
Whereas in conventional EMI measurement systems, only the spectrum within
the IF filter can be measured during a certain measurement time of e.g. 100 ms,
in TDEMI measurement systems, large parts of the spectrum at the receiver
input can be measured during the same time and it depends on the dynamic
range and the resolution of the A/D conversion system, how accurate the
measurement results are. Systems with higher resolution can provide a higher
dynamic range.
1302.6163.12
4.56
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – SWEEP Key
The R&S ESU uses an internal fast A/D converter with up to 80 MHz sampling
rate to convert a spectrum width of up to 7 MHz at a time. The restriction of the
FFT width is due to the built-in preselection.
Frequency range
Max. Resolution
Bandwidth
FFT width
<= 150 kHz
50 kHz
150 kHz
150 kHz … 2 MHz
50 kHz
2 MHz
2 MHz … 8 MHz
50 kHz
500 kHz
9 MHz … 15 MHz
120 kHz
1 MHz
15 MHz … 45 MHz
200 kHz
2 MHz
45 MHz … 70 MHz
500 kHz
4 MHz
> 70 MHz
1 MHz
7 MHz
Table 4-2
Frequency range vs. limitation of resolution bandwidth and FFT
width
The A/D converter has 14 bit resolution, which in combination with the built-in
preselector allows the high dynamic range which is needed for compliance with
CISPR 16-1-1.
The prescan is used to get a detailed overview of the emission spectrum. It
normally occupies the longest time of the whole emission test. Using partial fast
fourier transform (FFT) of frequency sections, this time is reduced by factors.
The prescan result is then analyzed and the critical frequencies can be
determined. On the critical frequencies, if further maximization with antenna
mast and turntable movement is needed, the receiver can be used in its
conventional measurement function with quasi-peak and/or average detection
to provide a measurement result which fully complies with CISPR 16 standards.
Scan on a Fixed Frequency in the Time Domain
It is also possible to carry out the scan in the time domain, i.e. at a fixed
frequency. Time domain analysis is generally used to examine the time
characteristics of interferences. Evaluating the detected voltage with an
oscilloscope is useful in order to correctly set the receiver measurement time.
By doing so, you can determine whether and how strongly a narrowband
interference fluctuates and whether it is amplitude-modulated or pulsed. You
can also determine the pulse rate of a broadband interference. You can set the
measurement time to a value that is greater than or equal to the reciprocal of
the pulse rate.
Thermostat-controlled, software-controlled and other electrically controlled
instruments generate discontinuous interferences. CISPR 14 and EN 55014
contain limit values for RFI voltage with click rate weighting in the range 0.15
MHz to 30 MHz. Clicks can usually be measured using click rate analyzers.
However, a factor that is often critical in click rate measurements is the
occurrence of successive pulses whose individual pulse heights cannot be
exactly assigned by using the time constants of the quasi-peak weighting and
can thus lead to the limit value being exceeded.
1302.6163.12
4.57
E-1
Receiver – SWEEP Key
R&S ESU
Time domain analysis can determine the pulse height and duration, which can
be useful in such cases. It meets the requirements of CISPR 16-1 with regard
to accuracy of the pulse duration measurement when the pulse duration is 10
ms and longer. Triggering can be performed internally – level set with display
line – or externally with a TTL level.
The result memory capacity is 2.000.000 measured values per trace in time
domain analysis. The measured values are stored internally and can, for
example, then be analyzed by zooming in on them with the marker. At a
measurement time of 5 ms per measured value, the memory depth is large
enough to record the peak value and quasi-peak value continuously for two
hours. Thus, measurement objects such as washing machines can be
evaluated for click interferences.
Once measurement has been completed, the display of the measured values
can be enlarged down to the individual measured values by using the zoom
function. Thus, each individual click interferer can be evaluated in detail if
necessary.
Freq 93 MHz
dBµV
Att 10 dB
RBW
120 kHz
MT
1 ms
PREAMP OFF
100
90
1 PK
CLRWR
2 QP
CLRWR
SGL
TRG
80
70
60
TRG 54.1 dBµV
50
40
30
20
10
0
1 s/
0 s
Fig. 4-8
10 s
Scan in the time range
Time domain analysis is started with the RUN softkey. It can be performed as a
single operation (SINGLE) or as a repeating operation (CONTINUOUS). In
SINGLE operation, time domain analysis stops after the total run time has
elapsed. In CONTINUOUS operation, time domain analysis can either be
interrupted with the HOLD SCAN softkey or stopped with the STOP SCAN
softkey. The measurement itself is continuous, i.e. if the end of the graph is
reached and recording starts again at the beginning of the graph, the
measurement keeps running internally without any interruption.
1302.6163.12
4.58
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – SWEEP Key
Display of Measurement Results
Full-screen or split-screen mode can be selected for result display. In the fullscreen mode, the result diagram covers the whole screen area.
In split-screen mode, the upper half of the screen displays the frequency and
level readout, i.e. a bar graph. The diagram is displayed in the lower half
Up to 3 detectors can be measured simultaneously. They are assigned to traces
1 to 3. Since the detectors are set only once, it is not possible to measure with
different detectors in different the subranges.
Entry of Scan Data
Pressing the SWEEP key opens the menu to configure and start the scan.
SWEEP
TDOMAIN
SCAN
ADJUST
AXIS
STEPPED
SCAN
INS BEFORE
RANGE
USE CURR
SETTINGS
INS AFTER
RANGE
FIXED
FREQUENCY
DELETE
RANGE
SINGLE
SCAN
RANGES
1-5 6-10
CONTINUOUS
SCAN
FREQ AXIS
LIN LOG
FREQ AXIS
LIN
LOG
10dB MIN
ON OFF
RUN PRESCAN+FINAL
RUN PRESCAN+FINAL
RUN
SCAN
RUN
SCAN
HOLD
SCAN
CONT AT
REC FREQ
STOP
SCAN
CONT AT
HOLD
STOP
SCAN
A scan is defined in the form of tables or it is performed using the current setting.
In the SCAN table, the scan subranges are defined. Each scan range is
specified by start frequency, stop frequency, step width and the measurement
parameters that are valid for this range.
The scan can be performed as a single scan or continuously (softkeys SINGLE
SCAN and CONTINUOUS SCAN).
Scanning is started with the RUN SCAN softkey.
1302.6163.12
4.59
E-1
Receiver – SWEEP Key
TDOMAIN SCAN
STEPPED SCAN
R&S ESU
TDOMAIN
SCAN
ADJUST
AXIS
STEPPED
SCAN
INS BEFORE
RANGE
INS AFTER
RANGE
DELETE
RANGE
RANGES
1-5 6-10
FREQ AXIS
LIN LOG
10dB MIN
ON OFF
RUN PRESCAN+FINAL
RUN
SCAN
The TDOMAIN SCAN and STEPPED SCAN softkeys open a submenu where
existing scan tables can be edited or new ones created. Tables with the current
scan settings are displayed.
Aa
Note
The TDOMAIN SCAN softkey is only available with the
R&S ESU-K53 option.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
--
In the SCAN TABLE the parameters for the individual subranges can be set.
1302.6163.12
Scan Start
start frequency of display range
Scan Stop
stop frequency of display range
Step Mode
step mode (linear or logarithmic frequency switching)
Start
start frequency of scan range
Stop
stop frequency of scan range
Step Size
step size
RES BW
resolution bandwidth
Meas Time
measurement time
Auto Ranging
automatic selection of attenuation
RF Attn
RF attenuation
Preamp
20 dB preamplification
4.60
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – SWEEP Key
Auto Preamp
auto range with preamplification
Input
selected RF input
SCAN TABLE
Scan Start
Scan Stop
Step Mode
Start
Stop
Step Size
Res BW
Meas Time
Auto Ranging
RF Attn
Preamp
Auto Preamp
20.000 MHz
1.250 GHz
LIN
RANGE1
150.000 kHz
30.000 MHz
4 kHz
9 kHz
1 ms
OFF
10 dB
OFF
OFF
RANGE2
30.000 MHz
1.000 GHz
40 kHz
120 kHz
100 us
OFF
10 dB
OFF
OFF
RANGE3
1.000 GHz
2.000 GHz
400 kHz
1 MHz
100 us
OFF
10 dB
OFF
OFF
RANGE4
RANGE5
Scan Start - start frequency of display range
Range is fmin to fmax. – 10 Hz
This value can also be set in the FREQ menu (START softkey).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FREQ:STAR 20 MHz
Scan Stop - stop frequency of display range
Range is fmin to fmax.
his value can also be set in the FREQ menu (STOP softkey).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FREQ:STOP 1250 MHz
Step Mode - selection of frequency switching mode
The selection of frequency switching is different for TDOMAIN SCAN and
STEPPED SCAN.
•
STEPPED SCAN
Linear or logarithmic frequency switching can be selected. The selected
setting is valid for all scan ranges.
STEP MODE
LIN
LOG
AUTO
LIN
linear frequency switching.
AUTO linear frequency switching.
The step width is selected automatically depending on the set
resolution bandwidth so that all signals occurring in the scan range
are reliably detected without any significant measurement error
(about one third of resolution bandwidth)
1302.6163.12
4.61
E-1
Receiver – SWEEP Key
R&S ESU
LOG
logarithmic frequency switching.
The frequency is incremented in % of the current frequency.
•
TDOMAIN SCAN (only available with the R&S ESU-K53 option)
A selection between an algorithm for pulsed signal or for CW signals can be
made.
STEP MODE
AUTO PULSE
AUTO CW
AUTO PULSE the FFT algorithm is suitable for all types off signals pulsed and continuous.
AUTO CW
the FFT algorithm is only suitable for continuous signals.
The measurement speed is higher than with AUTO
PULSE.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SWE:SPAC LIN
Start - Entry of start frequency
The start frequency of a subrange must be equal to or greater than the stop
frequency of the previous subrange.
On entering the start frequency, the preceding scan range is – if necessary –
adapted automatically to avoid overlapping of scan ranges.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SCAN1:STAR 150 kHz
Stop - Entry of stop frequency
The stop frequency of a subrange must be equal to or greater than the start
frequency of the subrange.
On entering the stop frequency, the preceding scan range is – if necessary –
adapted automatically to avoid overlapping of scan ranges.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SCAN1:STOP 30 MHz
Step Size - Entry of step size
In the case of linear frequency increments, step widths between 1 Hz and the
maximum R&S ESU frequency can be set. When a step size greater than the
scan range is entered (from start to stop), R&S ESU performs a measurement
at the start and stop frequency.
With logarithmic frequency increments, values between 0.1% and 100% can be
set with steps of ½/3/5.
With STEP AUTO selected, the step size cannot be changed because it is
automatically set with respect to the IF bandwidth.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.62
SCAN1:STEP 4 kHz
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – SWEEP Key
RES BW - Entry of IF bandwidth
In the case of quasi-peak weighting, usually a fixed bandwidth is set which
cannot be changed (CISPR).
However, the coupling of the IF bandwidth to the frequency range can be
cancelled using softkey QP RBW UNCOUPLED in the MEAS DETECTOR
menu.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SCAN1:BAND:RES 9 kHz
Meas Time - Entry of measurement time
The measurement time can be set between 100 µs and 100 s separately for
each subrange. In the case of quasi-peak weighting, the minimum is 1 ms. The
measurement time can be set independently for each scan range.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SCAN1:TIME 1ms
Auto Ranging - Activates the autorange function
Ii
ATTENTION
If 0 dB RF attenuation is used with autoranging, care
must be taken that the permissible signal level at the RF
input is not exceeded.
Exceeding this level would damage the input mixer.
The 0 dB attenuation should under no circumstances be
used when RFI voltage measurements are performed
with the aid of artificial networks as in this case very high
pulses occur during phase switching.
ON
R&S ESU automatically sets the input attenuation as a function of the
signal level.
OFF
The input attenuation setting of the scan table is used.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SCAN1:INP:ATT:AUTO OFF
RF Atten - Entry of a fixed RF attenuation
The RF attenuation can be set separately for each subrange
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SCAN1:INP:ATT:AUTO OFF
Preamp - Switching the preamplifier on and off
The preamplifier can be switched on/off separately for each subrange
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.63
SCAN1:INP:GAIN:STAT OFF
E-1
Receiver – SWEEP Key
R&S ESU
Auto Preamp - Activates the auto preamp function
ON
The preamplifier is considered in autoranging. It is only cut in after the
attenuation has been reduced to the minimum settable value.
ON
Auto ranging without preamplification
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SCAN1:INP:GAIN:AUTO OFF
RF Input - Selects the RF Input
INPUT 1- Input 1 covers the whole frequency range.
INPUT 2 - Input 2 is pulse resistant and is limited to 1 GHz
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ADJUST AXIS
The ADJUST AXIS softkey automatically sets the limits of the diagram so that
the lower limit frequency corresponds to the start frequency of range 1 and the
upper limit frequency to the stop frequency of the last range.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
INS BEFORE RANGE
--
The INS AFTER RANGE softkey shifts the active scan range in the table to the
right by one column. A new column with identical settings is created. The limit
frequencies can be changed accordingly.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DELETE RANGE
--
The INS BEFORE RANGE softkey shifts the active scan range in the table to
the left by one column. A new column with identical settings is created. The limit
frequencies can be changed accordingly.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
INS AFTER RANGE
SCAN1:INP:TYP INPUT1
--
The DELETE RANGE softkey clears the activated scan range
. All other ranges are shifted to the left by one column.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RANGES 1-5/6-10
With the RANGES 1-5/6-10 softkey a switchover can be made between ranges
1-5 and 6-10.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FREQ AXIS LIN/LOG
10dB MIN ON/OFF
RUN PRESCAN+FINAL
RUN SCAN
1302.6163.12
--
--
For details refer to “FREQ AXIS LIN/LOG” on page 4.65.
For details refer to “10 DB MIN ON/OFF” on page 4.17 (AMPT menu).
For details refer to “RUN PRE-SCAN+FINAL” on page 4.67.
For details refer to “RUN SCAN” on page 4.66.
4.64
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – SWEEP Key
USE CURR
SETTINGS
The USE CURR SETTINGS softkey activates a scan which is performed using
the current receiver settings. The step size is automatically set with respect to
the IF bandwidth (Step Mode Auto). The start and stop frequency is set via the
FREQUENCY menu.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FIXED FREQUENCY
--
The FIXED FREQUENCY softkey activates time domain analysis.
The overall measurement time for time domain analysis can be defined in a
data entry field. The range is 10 µs to 10.000 s. The value entered is rounded
to next integer that is a multiple of the measurement time of a single bar graph
measurement. The minimum value also depends on the set measurement time
of a single bar graph measurement and is at least twice this value.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SINGLE SCAN
FREQuency:MODE CW
SCAN:TDOMain 100 s
Pressing the SINGLE SCAN softkey triggers a frequency scan. R&S ESU stops
at the end frequency.
The enhancement label SGL displayed at the screen edge indicates that the
single-scan mode is set.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CONTINUOUS
SCAN
The CONTINUOUS SCAN softkey selects the continuous scan mode. R&S
ESU scans continuously until the scan is stopped.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FREQ AXIS LIN/
LOG
:INIT2:CONT OFF
:INIT2:CONT ON
The FREQ AXIS LIN/LOG switches between linear and logarithmic frequency
axis.
Default is LOG.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.65
DISP:TRAC:X:SPAC LOG
E-1
Receiver – SWEEP Key
RUN SCAN
R&S ESU
Running a Scan
RUN
SCAN
HOLD
SCAN
STOP
SCAN
CONT AT
REC FREQ
CONT AT
HOLD
STOP
SCAN
The RUN SCAN softkey starts the frequency scan with the selected settings.
The HOLD SCAN submenu is displayed instead of the menu shown before the
scan is started.
At the beginning of the scan, R&S ESU sets up the diagram as specified in the
scan table and starts the scan in the selected mode (SINGLE or
CONTINUOUS). With SINGLE selected, R&S ESU performs a single scan and
stops at the end frequency. With CONTINUOUS selected, the scan is
performed continuously until it is deliberately stopped.
The measurement can be interrupted with HOLD SCAN or stopped with STOP
SCAN. The two softkeys are displayed instead of the menu shown before the
scan is started.
If a transducer set is defined with points of changeover, the scan automatically
stops at the frequencies of the new subrange of the transducer set and the user
may exchange the transducer.
The following message informs the user that the limit has been reached:
TDS Range # reached, CONTINUE / BREAK
He can continue the scan at the point of change over by confirming the
message (CONTINUE) or he can switch off the transducer (BREAK).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
HOLD SCAN
INITiate2
The HOLD SCAN softkey interrupts the scan.
The scan stops at the frequency at which it was interrupted until it is continued
with the CONT AT REC FREQ or CONTINUE AT HOLD softkeys.
While the scan is stopped, the receiver settings can be changed, e.g. for a
detailed analysis of the recorded trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.66
:HOLD
E-1
R&S ESU
CONT AT REC FREQ
Receiver – SWEEP Key
With the CONT AT REC FREQ softkey the scan is continued at the current
receiver frequency when the receiver frequency is lower than the frequency at
which the scan was interrupted. Otherwise the scan continues at the frequency
at which it was interrupted.
The scan is always continued with the settings in the scan table.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CONT AT HOLD
With the CONT AT HOLD softkey the scan is continued where it was
interrupted. The scan is always continued with the settings in the scan table.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
STOP SCAN
:ABORt
The RUN PRE-SCAN+FINAL softkey is starting a sequence, consisting of a
prescan, the peak search-function and the final measurement.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
--
The STOP SCAN softkey stops the scan. Upon restart, scanning starts at the
beginning. The results of the performed measurements are lost.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RUN PRESCAN+FINAL
:INITiate2:CONMeasure
4.67
INITiate:EMITest
E-1
Receiver – TRIG Key
R&S ESU
Triggering the Scan – TRIG Key
The TRIG key opens a menu for selection of the trigger sources and the trigger
polarity. The active trigger mode is indicated by highlighting the corresponding
softkey.
To indicate that a trigger mode other than FREE RUN has been set, the
enhancement label TRG is displayed on the screen. If two windows are
displayed, TRG appears next to the appropriate window.
TRIG
FREE RUN
VIDEO
EXTERN
POLARITY
POS
NEG
FREE RUN
The FREE RUN softkey activates the free-run sweep mode, i.e. start of a scan
is not triggered. Once a measurement is completed, another is started
immediately.
FREE RUN is the default setting of R&S ESU.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
VIDEO
TRIG:SOUR
IMM
The VIDEO softkey activates triggering via the displayed voltage.
For the video triggering mode, a level line showing the trigger threshold is
displayed. Using the level line, the threshold can be adjusted between 0%
and100% of the diagram height.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
EXTERN
The EXTERN softkey activates triggering via a TTL signal at the input connector
EXT TRIGGER/GATE on the rear panel.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
TRIG:SOUR VID
TRIG:LEV:VID 50 PCT
4.68
TRIG:SOUR
EXT
E-1
R&S ESU
POLARITY POS/
NEG
Receiver – TRIG Key
The POLARITY POS/NEG softkey selects the polarity of the trigger source.
The scan starts after a positive or negative edge of the trigger signal. The
selected setting is highlighted.
The selection is valid for all trigger modes with the exception of FREE RUN.
The default setting is POLARITY POS.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.69
TRIG:SLOP
POS
E-1
Receiver – MKR Key
R&S ESU
Marker Functions – MKR Key
MKR
MARKER 1
MARKER 2
MARKER 3
MARKER 4
MARKER
NORM DELTA
MKR->TRACE
ALL MARKER
OFF
MARKER 1/2/3/4
The MARKER 1/2/3/4 softkey selects the corresponding marker and activates
it.
MARKER 1 is always the normal marker. After they have been switched on,
MARKERS 2 to 4 are delta markers that refer to MARKER 1. These markers
can be converted into markers with absolute value display by means of the
MARKER NORM DELTA softkey. When MARKER 1 is the active marker,
pressing the MARKER NORM DELTA softkey switches on an additional delta
marker.
Pressing the MARKER 1/2/3/4 softkey again switches off the selected marker.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
:CALC:MARK ON;
:CALC:MARK:X 10.7MHz;
:CALC:MARK:Y?
When several traces are being displayed, the marker is set to the maximum
value (peak) of the active trace which has the lowest number (1 to 3). In case a
marker is already located there, it will be set to the frequency of the next lowest
level (next peak).
A marker can only be enabled when at least one trace in the corresponding
window is visible.
If a trace is turned off, the corresponding markers and marker functions are also
deactivated. If the trace is switched on again (VIEW, CLR/WRITE;..), the
markers along with coupled functions will be restored to their original positions
provided the markers have not been used on another trace.
1302.6163.12
4.70
E-1
R&S ESU
MKR−>TRACE
Receiver – MKR Key
The MKR−>TRACE softkey places the marker on a new trace. The trace is
selected via a data entry field. Only those traces can be selected which are
visible on the screen in the same window.
Example:
Three traces are presented on the screen. The marker is always on Trace 1 on
switching on.
[MKR ->TRACE] "2"<ENTER>
The marker jumps to Trace 2 but remains on the previous frequency or time.
[MKR ->TRACE] "3"<ENTER>
The marker jumps to Trace 3. '
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.71
CALC:MARK1:TRAC 1
CALC:DELT:TRAC 1
E-1
Receiver – MKR-> Key
R&S ESU
Change of Settings via Markers – MKR-> Key
The MKR-> menu offers functions through which instrument parameters can be
changed with the aid of the currently active marker. The functions can be used
on markers and delta markers.
On opening the menu, the entry for the last active marker is activated; if no
marker was enabled, MARKER 1 is activated and a peak search is performed.
MKR->
SELECT
MARKER
MKR->
STEPSIZE
PEAK
MIN
NEXT PEAK
NEXT MIN
NEXT PEAK
RIGHT
NEXT
MIN RIGHT
NEXT PEAK
LEFT
NEXT
MIN LEFT
LEFT
LIMIT
RIGHT
LIMIT
THRESHOLD
ADD TO
PEAK LIST
SETTINGS
COUPLED
TUNE TO
MARKER
MARKER
TRACK
SEARCH
LIMITS
MARKER->
TRACE
PEAK
EXCURSION
SEARCH LIM
OFF
SELECT MARKER
The SELECT MARKER softkey activates the numerical selection of the marker
in the data entry field. If no marker is active when MKR-> menu is called,
MARKER 1 is automatically switched on. Delta marker 1 is selected by input of
' 0 '.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PEAK
CALC:MARK1 ON;
CALC:MARK1:X <value>;
CALC:MARK1:Y?
The PEAK softkey sets the active marker or delta marker to the peak of the
trace.
If no marker is active when MKR-> menu is called, MARKER 1 is automatically
switched on and the peak search
is performed.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.72
CALC:MARK:MAX
CALC:DELT:MAX
E-1
R&S ESU
NEXT PEAK
Receiver – MKR-> Key
The NEXT PEAK softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next lower
peak value on the trace. The search direction is defined in the NEXT MODE
submenu (see analyzer mode).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NEXT PEAK RIGHT
The NEXT PEAK RIGHT softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next
lower peak value to the right on the trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NEXT PEAK LEFT
:CALC:MARK:FUNC:CENT
The MARKER TRACK softkey couples the current receive frequency to the
marker frequency.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
MKR−>TRACE
--
The TUNE TO MARKER softkey sets the receiver frequency to the marker
frequency.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
MARKER TRACK
CALC:MARK:MAX:LEFT
CALC:DELT:MAX:LEFT
The ADD TO PEAK LIST softkey adds the receiver frequency of the current
marker to the peak list (see also section “Data Reduction and Peak List” on
page 4.32).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
TUNE TO MARKER
CALC:MARK:MAX:RIGH
CALC:DELT:MAX:RIGH
The NEXT PEAK LEFT softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next
lower peak value to the left on the trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ADD TO PEAK LIST
CALC:MARK:MAX:NEXT
CALC:DELT:MAX:NEXT
:CALC:MARK:COUP ON
The MKR−>TRACE softkey sets the active marker to a new trace. Please note
that only a trace visible in the measurement window can be selected.
This softkey is also available in the MARKER menu.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MARK:TRAC 2
Example:
Three traces are displayed on the screen. The marker is always on Trace 1 after
switching on.
[MKR ->TRACE] "2" <ENTER>
The marker jumps to Trace 2 but remains at the previous frequency or time.
[MKR ->TRACE] "3" <ENTER>
The marker jumps to Trace 3.
1302.6163.12
4.73
E-1
Receiver – MKR-> Key
MKR−>CF
STEPSIZE
R&S ESU
The MKR−>CF STEPSIZE softkey sets the step size for the receiver frequency
variation to the current marker frequency, and also sets step size adaptation to
MANUAL. STEPSIZE remains at this value until the receiver frequency entry
mode in the STEP menu is switched from MANUAL to AUTO again.
The MKR−>CF STEPSIZE function is, above all, useful in the measurement of
harmonics.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
MIN
The MIN softkey sets the active marker to the minimum value on the
corresponding trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NEXT MIN
CALC:MARK:MIN:RIGH
CALC:DELT:MIN:RIGH
The SETTINGS COUPLED softkey couples the receiver frequency settings
from the corresponding subscans to the marker frequency for functions TUNE
TO MARKER and MARKER TRACK.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK:MIN:LEFT
CALC:DELT:MIN:LEFT
The NEXT MIN RIGHT softkey sets the active marker to the next higher
minimum value to the right on the corresponding trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SETTINGS
COUPLED
CALC:MARK:MIN:NEXT
CALC:DELT:MIN:NEXT
The NEXT MIN LEFT softkey sets the active marker to the next higher minimum
value to the left on the corresponding trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NEXT MIN RIGHT
CALC:MARK:MIN
CALC:DELT:MIN
The NEXT MIN softkey sets the active marker to the next higher minimum value
on the corresponding trace. The search direction is defined in the NEXT MODE
submenu (see below).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NEXT MIN LEFT
CALC:MARK:FUNC:CST
4.74
:CALC:MARK:SCO ON
E-1
R&S ESU
SEARCH LIMITS
Receiver – MKR-> Key
LEFT
LIMIT
SEARCH
LIMITS
RIGHT
LIMIT
THRESHOLD
SEARCH
LIMITS OFF
The SEARCH LIMITS softkey limits the search range for maximum or minimum
search. The softkey switches to a submenu in which the search range limits can
be set in the x and y direction.
LEFT LIMIT
RIGHT LIMIT
The LEFT LIMIT and RIGHT LIMIT softkeys define the two vertical lines SL1
and SL2. The search is performed between these lines in the frequency and
time domain.
If only one line is enabled, line SL1 is the lower limit and the upper limit
corresponds to the stop frequency. If SL2 is also enabled, it determines the
upper limit.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
THRESHOLD
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:LEFT 1MHZ
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:RIGH 10MHZ
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON
The THRESHOLD softkey defines the threshold line.
The threshold line represents a limit for the level range of the max. search at the
lower end and that of the min. search at the upper end.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SEARCH LIMIT OFF
The SEARCH LIMIT OFF softkey disables all limits of the search range.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:THR -20dBm
CALC:THR ON
4.75
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM OFF
CALC:THR OFF
E-1
Receiver – MKR-> Key
PEAK EXCURSION
R&S ESU
The PEAK EXCURSION softkey activates an entry box for selecting the
minimum amount by which a signal level must decrease/increase before it is
recognized by the NEXT PEAK and NEXT MIN search functions as a maximum
or minimum.
Input values from 0 to 80 dB are allowed, the resolution being 0.1 dB.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MARK:PEXC 10dB
For detailed explanation see softkey PEAK EXCURSION in ANALYZER mode
1302.6163.12
4.76
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – MKR FCTN
Marker Functions – MKR FCTN Key
PEAK EXCURSION
MKR
FCNT
SELECT
MARKER
PEAK
MARKER
ZOOM
PREV ZOOM
RANGE
ZOOM
OFF
MRK->
TRACE
On calling the menu, the entry for the last active marker is activated (PEAK
EXCURSION softkey); if no marker is activated, marker 1 is activated and a
maximum search (PEAK softkey) is performed. The marker can be set to the
desired trace by means of MKR -> TRACE softkey.
MARKER ZOOM
The MARKER ZOOM softkey zooms 10% of the diagram around the current
marker. It opens at the same time a data entry field which allows to enter any
frequency range which is then displayed
Pressing the softkey again expands the diagram such that only 3 measured
values are represented.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PREVIOUS ZOOM
The PREVIOUS ZOOM softkey sets again the previous frequency range
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ZOOM OFF
:DISP:TRAC:X:ZOOM OFF
The MKR−>TRACE softkey places the marker on a new trace. The trace is
selected via a data entry field. Only those traces can be selected which are
visible on the screen in the same window.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
--
The ZOOM OFF softkey switches off the zoomed representation.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
MKR−>TRACE
:CALC:MARK:FUNC:ZOOM <num_value>
4.77
CALC:MARK1:TRAC 1
CALC:DELT:TRAC 1
E-1
Receiver – TRACE Key
R&S ESU
Selection and Setting of Traces – TRACE Key
The R&S ESU is capable of displaying up to three different traces at a time in a
diagram. A trace consists of a maximum of 625 pixels on the horizontal axis
(frequency or time). If more measured values than pixels are available, several
measured values are combined in one pixel.
The traces are selected using the SELECT TRACE softkey in the menu of the
TRACE key.
The traces can individually be activated for a measurement or frozen after
completion of a measurement. Traces that are not activated are blanked.
The display mode can be selected for each trace. Traces can be overwritten in
each measurement (CLEAR/WRITE mode), averaged over several
measurements (AVERAGE mode), or a maximum or minimum value can be
determined from several measurements and displayed (MAX HOLD or MIN
HOLD).
Individual detectors can be selected for the various traces. The max peak
detector and min peak detector display the maximum and minimum value of the
level within a pixel. The rms detector displays the power (rms value) of the
measured values within a pixel, the average detector the average value.
The quasi-peak detector yields the level weighted to CISPR 16.
Selection of Trace Function
The trace functions are subdivided as follows:
1302.6163.12
•
Display mode of trace (CLEAR/WRITE, VIEW and BLANK)
•
Evaluation of the trace as a whole (AVERAGE, MAX HOLD and MIN HOLD)
•
Evaluation of individual pixels of a trace (MAX PEAK, MIN PEAK,
QUASIPEAK, AVERAGE and RMS).
4.78
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – TRACE Key
TRACE
SELECT
TRACE
MAX PEAK
FINAL
MAX PEAK
CLEAR/
WRITE
MIN PEAK
FINAL
MIN PEAK
MAX HOLD
QUASIPEAK
FINAL
QUASIPEAK
AVERAGE
FINAL
AVERAGE
MIN HOLD
FINAL
CISPR AV
VIEW
BLANK
RMS
SCAN
COUNT
ASCII FILE
EXPORT
DETECTOR
DECIM SEP
.
,
PEAK LIST
ON
OFF
COPY
TRACE
FINAL
RMS
FINAL
CISPR RMS
The TRACE key opens a menu offering the setting options for the selected
trace.
In this menu, the mode of representing the measured data in the frequency or
time domain in the 501 pixels of the display is determined. Upon start of the
measurement, each trace can be displayed either completely new or based on
the previous results.
Traces can be displayed, blanked and copied.
The measurement detector for the individual display modes can be selected
directly by the user.
The default setting is trace 1 in the overwrite mode (CLEAR / WRITE) and
detector MAX PEAK is selected, trace 2 is also in the overwrite mode (CLEAR
/ WRITE) and detector AVERAGE is selected, trace 3 is switched off (BLANK).
The CLEAR/WRITE, MAX HOLD, MIN HOLD, AVERAGE, VIEW and BLANK
softkeys are mutually exclusive selection keys.
SELECT TRACE
The SELECT TRACE softkey activates the entry for the active trace (1, 2, 3).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CLEAR/WRITE
-- (selected via numeric suffix of :
TRACe)
The CLEAR/WRITE softkey activates the overwrite mode for the collected
measured values, i.e. the trace is overwritten by each sweep.
Each time the CLEAR/WRITE softkey is actuated, R&S ESU clears the selected
trace memory and starts the measurement anew.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.79
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE WRIT
E-1
Receiver – TRACE Key
MAX HOLD
R&S ESU
The MAX HOLD softkey activates the max peak detector.
R&S ESU saves the sweep result in the trace memory only if the new value is
greater than the previous one.
his is especially useful with modulated or impulsive signals. The signal
spectrum is filled up upon each scan until all signal components are detected in
a kind of envelope.
Pressing the MAX HOLD softkey again clears the trace memory and restarts
the max hold mode.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
VIEW
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE MAXH
The VIEW softkey freezes the current contents of the trace memory and
displays it.
If in the VIEW display mode the level display range (GRID RANGE) or the
reference level (GRID MIN LEVEL) are changed, R&S ESU automatically
adapts the measured data to the changed display range. This allows an
amplitude zoom
to be made after the measurement in order to show details of the trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
BLANK
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE VIEW
The BLANK softkey activates the blanking of the trace on the screen.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SCAN COUNT
DISP:WIND:TRAC OFF
The SCAN COUNT softkey activates the entry of the number of scan used in
the SINGLE SCAN mode.
The allowed range of values is 0 to 30000. The default setting is 1.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DETECTOR
SWE:COUN 10
The DETECTOR softkey opens a submenu to select the detector.
The detector type may be indecently selected for each trace.
For description of detector types see section “Selection of Detector” on
page 4.152.
MAX PEAK
The MAX PEAK softkey activates the max peak detector.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
MIN PEAK
The MIN PEAK softkey activates the min peak detector.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
QUASIPEAK
DET POS
DET NEG
The QUASIPEAK softkey selects the quasi-peak detector.
The IF bandwidth is adapted as a function of the frequency range. The coupling
of the IF bandwidth to the frequency range can be cancelled using softkey QP
RBW UNCOUPLED.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.80
DET QPE
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – TRACE Key
AVERAGE
The AVERAGE softkey activates the average detector.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RMS
The RMS softkey activates the rms detector.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FINAL MAX PEAK
:DET:FME RMS
The FINAL CISPR RMS softkey selects the weighting rms detector according
to CISPR 16-1-1 for the final measurement.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PEAK LIST ON /
OFF
:DET:FME CAV
The FINAL RMS selects the rms detector for the final measurement.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FINAL CISPR RMS
:DET:FME AVER
The FINAL CISPR AV selects the weighting average detector according to
CISPR 16-1 for the final measurement.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FINAL RMS
:DET:FME QPE
The FINAL AVERAGE selects the average detector for the final measurement.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FINAL CISPR AV
:DET:FME NEG
The FINAL QUASIPEAK selects the quasi peak detector for the final
measurement.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FINAL AVERAGE
:DET:FME POS
The FINAL MIN PEAK selects the min peak detector for the final measurement.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FINAL QUASIPEAK
:DET RMS
The FINAL MAX PEAK selects the max peak detector for the final
measurement.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FINAL MIN PEAK
DET AVER
:DET:FME CRMS
The PEAK LIST ON / OFF softkey switches on and off the indication of the peak
list or of the final measurement results. The single value is indicated as + or x.
The assignment of symbol to trace is fixed.
RUN SCAN automatically switches PEAK LIST to OFF in order to prevent the
indication of preceding final measurement results. PEAK SEARCH
automatically sets PEAK LIST to ON (see “Data Reduction and Peak List” on
page 4.32)
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.81
DISP:TRAC:SYMB CROS | OFF
E-1
Receiver – TRACE Key
MIN HOLD
R&S ESU
The MIN HOLD softkey activates the min peak detector. R&SESU saves for
each scan the smallest of the previously stored/currently measured values in
the trace memory.
This function is useful e.g. for making an unmodulated carrier in a composite
signal visible. Noise, interference signals or modulated signals are suppressed
by the min hold function whereas a CW signal is recognized by its constant
level.
Pressing the MIN HOLD softkey again clears the trace memory and restarts the
min hold function.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ASCII FILE EXPORT
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE MINH
The ASCII FILE EXPORT softkey stores the active trace in ASCII format, e.g.
on a memory stick.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FORM ASC;
MMEM:STOR:TRAC 1,'TRACE.DAT'
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters, several
data sections containing the scan settings and a data section containing the
trace data.
The data of the file header consist of three columns, each separated by a
semicolon:
parameter name; numeric value; basic unit
The data section for the scan ranges starts with the keyword "Scan <n>:", (<n>
= number of scan range), followed by the scan data in one or several columns
which are also separated by a semicolon.
The data section for the trace date starts with the keyword " Trace <n> " (<n> =
number of stored trace), followed by the measured data in one or several
columns which are also separated by a semicolon.
This format can be read in from spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MSExcel. It is necessary to define ';' as a separator.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
Different language versions of evaluation programs may
require a different handling of the decimal point. It is
therefore possible to select between separators '.'
(decimal point) and ',' (comma) using softkey DECIM
SEP.
4.82
E-1
R&S ESU
Receiver – TRACE Key
Table 4-1
File contents
Description
Type;R&S ESU
Instrument model
Version;1.00;
Firmware version
Date;10.Nov 03;
Date of data set storage
Mode;Receiver;
Instrument mode
Start;150000.000000;Hz
Stop;1000000000.000000;Hz
Start/stop of the display range.
Unit: Hz
x-Axis;LOG;
Scaling of x-axis linear (LIN) or logarithmic (LOG)
Detector;AVERAGE;
Selected detector
MAXPEAK, MINPEAK, AVERAGE, RMS, QUASIPEAK
Scan Count;1;
Scan count
Transducer;;
Transducer name (if switched on)
Table 4-2
1302.6163.12
Example – File header:
Example – Data section of the file, Scan ranges
File contents
Description
Scan 1:
Settings for scan range 1
Start;150000.000000;Hz
Range 1 - start frequency in Hz
Stop;30000000.000000;Hz
Range 1 – stop frequency in Hz
Step; 4000.000000;Hz
Range 1 - step width
RBW;9000.000000;Hz
Range 1 - resolution bandwidth
Meas Time;0.001000;s
Range 1 - measurement time
Auto Ranging;OFF;
Range 1 - Auto ranging on - or off
RF Att;10.000000;dB
Range 1 - input attenuation
Auto Preamp;OFF;
Range 1 - Auto Preamp on or off
Preamp;0.000000;dB
Range 1 - preamplifier on (20dB) or off (0dB)
Scan 2:
Settings for scan range 2
Start;30000000.000000;Hz
Range 2 - start frequency in Hz
Stop;1000000000.000000;Hz
Range 2 – stop frequency in Hz
Step; 50000.000000;Hz
Range 2 - step width
RBW;120000.000000;Hz
Range 2 - resolution bandwidth
Meas Time;0.000100;s
Range 2 - measurement time
Auto Ranging;OFF;
Range 2 - Auto ranging on - or off
RF Att;10.000000;dB
Range 2 - input attenuation
Auto Preamp;OFF;
Range 2 - Auto Preamp on or off
Preamp;0.000000;dB
Range 2 - preamplifier on (20dB) or off (0dB)
4.83
E-1
Receiver – TRACE Key
Table 4-3
R&S ESU
Example – Data section of the file, Trace
File contents
Description
Trace 1:
Selected trace
Trace Mode;CLR/WRITE;
Trace mode: CLR/WRITE, MAXHOLD
x-Unit;Hz;
Unit of x values: Hz for span > 0
y-Unit;dBµV;
Unit of y values:
dB*/V/A/W depending on the selected unit
Values;26863;
Number of test points
150000.000000;15.604355;
Measured values: <x value>, <y value>;
154000.000000;13.236252;
158000.000000;11.907021;
...;...;
DECIM SEP
The DECIM SEP softkey selects the decimal separator between '.' (decimal
point) and ',' (comma) with floating-point numerals for the function ASCII FILE
EXPORT.
With the selection of the decimal separator different language versions of
evaluation programs (e.g. MS-Excel) can be supported.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
COPY TRACE
FORM:DEXP:DSEP POIN
The COPY TRACE softkey copies the screen contents of the current trace into
another trace memory. The desired memory is selected by entering the number
1, 2 or 3.
Upon copying, the contents of the selected memory are overwritten and the new
contents displayed in view mode.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.84
TRAC:COPY TRACE1,TRACE2
E-1
R&S ESU
IF Spectrum Analysis – IF Hotkey Menu
IF Spectrum Analysis Mode
In IF spectrum analysis, the spectrum of the RF input signal is displayed in the
vicinity of the receiver frequency. The center frequency of the displayed
spectrum is always the current receive frequency.
The IF analysis provides a fast overview of the assignment of the spectrum
adjacent to the measuring channel proper, or, with a large IF bandwidth, the
spectral distribution of a modulated signal in the channel. Interference of the
received useful signal can also be detected quickly, whether it is CW
interference appearing as unmodulated carrier or pulse-like interference which
is represented in the form of narrow horizontal lines on the screen.
The IF spectrum analysis is a very comfortable means for exact frequency
tuning of the receiver and for identification of signals and of their bandwidth. The
accuracy of the frequency axis corresponds to the reference used (internal or
external). The frequency display range (span) can be selected between 1 kHz
and 10 MHz in steps of 1, 2 and 5. With the bandwidths 10 Hz to 100 kHz in
steps of 1, 3, 10 the frequency resolution can be matched to the span.
In contrast to normal spectrum analyzer operation, the measured values are
determined using FFT from samples recorded from the A/D-converter. Thus the
receiver stays tuned to the center frequency. It may continue to measure with
the selected measurement time and display the signal level with the bar graph.
E.g. the quasipeak level measured with one second measurement time may be
displayed in the upper half of the display while in the lower half the spectrum
may be refreshed every few milliseconds.
1302.6163.12
4.85
E-1
IF Spectrum Analysis – IF Hotkey Menu
R&S ESU
The measurement time of the bar graph may be longer than the measurement
time of the IF analysis. If the measurement time of the bar graph is set to a
smaller value then the measurement time of the IF analysis, the bar graph will
as often be refreshed as the display of the IF analysis.
Table 4-4
Measurement time (data-recording time) for the possible spanRBW-combinations
RBW
Span
10 Hz
30 Hz
1 kHz
384 ms
128 ms
2 kHz
384 ms
128 ms
5 kHz
384 ms
128 ms
10 kHz
384 ms
128 ms
38,4 ms
20 kHz
384 ms
128 ms
38,4 ms
128 ms
38,4 ms
12,8 ms
100 kHz
38,4 ms
12,8 ms
3,84 ms
200 kHz
38,4 ms
12,8 ms
3,84 ms
12,8 ms
3,84 ms
1,28 ms
1 MHz
3,84 ms
1,28 ms
384 µs
2 MHz
3,84 ms
1,28 ms
384 µs
50 kHz
500 kHz
100 Hz
300 Hz
1 kHz
3 kHz
10 kHz
30 kHz
100
kHz
5 MHz
384 µs
128µs
38,4 µs
10 MHz
384 µs
128µs
38,4 µs
The level display of the IF analysis is unweighted. It is independent of the
selected detector for the bar graph measurement, e.g. average or quasi peak.
This is indicated by the label SA (for sample detector) on the left side of the IF
analysis display. A maximum of three traces can be displayed in parallel. The
display mode – CLEAR/WRITE, MAX HOLD, MIN HOLD, AVERAGE, VIEW or
BLANK – may be selected independent for each trace.
The IF display does switch on the 6 dB EMI resolution bandwidth filters for the
bar graph measurement. 3 dB or channel filters are not possible in the IF
analysis mode. The maximum span for the IF analysis is limited to ten times the
selected resolution bandwidth for the bar graph measurement. This is due to the
dynamic range of the bar graph measurement.
The IF analysis mode is selected using the IF hotkey (see also section “Mode
Selection – Hotkey Bar” on page 4.10)
1302.6163.12
4.86
E-1
R&S ESU
IF Spectrum Analysis – IF Hotkey Menu
RECEIVER
FREQUENCY
IF
ADD TO
PEAK LIST
DETECTOR
MEAS TIME
DEMOD
FINAL
MEAS
IF RBW
SPAN
MANUAL
The IF hotkey selects the IF analysis mode (IF spectrum analysis) and activates
the menu for setting the main parameters.
For information on the following softkeys refer to the descriptions in section
“Receiver Mode”:
•
“RECEIVER FREQUENCY” on page 4.14 (FREQ menu)
•
“ADD TO PEAK LIST” on page 4.25 (MKR menu)
•
“DETECTOR” on page 4.27 (MEAS menu)
•
“MEAS TIME” on page 4.29 (MEAS menu)
•
“DEMOD” on page 4.31 (MEAS menu)
•
“FINAL MEAS” on page 4.34 (MEAS menu)
IEC/IEEE bus command:
IF RBW
INST IFAN
The IF RBW softkey activates the manual entry mode for the resolution
bandwidth.
For filter type NORMAL (3dB), the bandwidth can be set from 10 Hz to 10 MHz
in steps of 1/3/10. For filter type NORMAL (6dB), the 6-dB bandwidth 200 Hz,
9 kHz, 120 kHz and 1 MHz can be set.
For numerical inputs, the values are always rounded to the next valid
bandwidth. For rotary knob or the UP/DOWN key entries, the bandwidth is
adjusted in steps either upwards or downwards.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.87
BAND:IF 1 kHz
E-1
IF Spectrum Analysis – IF Hotkey Menu
SPAN MANUAL
R&S ESU
The SPAN MANUAL softkey activates the window for manually entering the
frequency span. The center frequency is kept constant. The overall allowed
range of span values is 1 kHz to 10 MHz.
It depends on the selected resolution bandwidth of the bar graph measurement:
the span is limited to ten times the resolution bandwidth.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.88
FREQ:SPAN 1 MHz
E-1
R&S ESU
IF Spectrum Analysis – AMPT Key
Level Display and RF Input Configuration –
AMPT Key
The AMPT key is used to set the input attenuation, the preamplifier, the auto
range function and the display unit. These functions are explained in detail in
section “Receiver Mode” – “Level Display and RF Input Configuration – AMPT
Key ” on page 4.89.
AMPT
RF ATTEN
MANUAL
dBuV
PREAMP
ON
OFF
dBm
10dB MIN
ON
OFF
dBuA
AUTO RANGE
ON
OFF
dBpW
AUTOPREAMP
ON
OFF
RF INPUT
1
2
dBpT
dBmV
RF INPUT
AC
DC
GRID RANGE
LOG MANUAL
dB* / MHz
GRID
MIN LEVEL
In addition, the level display range for the IF analysis display can be set.
The level axis of the IF analysis display is automatically set to display the full
dynamic range of the IF analysis. The upper limit of the diagram is equal to the
upper limit of the bar graph. The lower limit of the diagram depends on the
selected resolution bandwidth of the IF analysis. Every time when a parameter
is changed which affects the bar graph limits, e.g. the input attenuation, the IF
analysis diagram is changed accordingly. With the softkeys GRID RANGE LOG
MANUAL and GRID MIN LEVEL is it possible to select a user defined display
range. As soon as a parameter is changed which affects the bar graph limits
again, the display range is reset to the automatic settings.
GRID RANGE LOG
MANUAL
The GRID RANGE LOG MANUAL softkey activates the entry of the level
display range for the scan diagram.
The display ranges go from 10 to 200 dB in 10-dB steps. Invalid entries are
rounded off to the nearest valid value.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.89
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 120DB
E-1
IF Spectrum Analysis – AMPT Key
GRID MIN LEVEL
R&S ESU
The GRID MIN LEVEL softkey activates the entry of the minimum level of the
display range. Allowed values are:
- 200 ≤ GRID MIN LEVEL ≤ + 200 dB - GRID RANGE
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.90
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:BOTT 0DBM
E-1
R&S ESU
IF Spectrum Analysis – MKR Key
Markers and Delta Markers – MKR Key
The markers are used for marking points on traces, reading out measurement
results and for quickly selecting a display section. R&S ESU provides four
markers. All markers can be used either as markers or delta markers.
The marker that can be moved by the user is defined in the following as the
active marker.
Marker
Active marker
1
3
2
Delta marker
Fig. 4-9
Examples of marker display
The measurement results of the active marker (also called marker values) are
displayed in the marker field. The marker info field at the upper right of the
display shows the marker location (here, frequency), the level and the currently
selected trace [T1].
The MKR key calls a menu that contains all marker and delta marker standard
functions. If no marker is active, MARKER 1 will be enabled and a peak search
on the trace carried out. Otherwise, the data entry for the marker activated last
is opened.
1302.6163.12
4.91
E-1
IF Spectrum Analysis – MKR Key
R&S ESU
SPAN
MARKER 1
MKR->TRACE
MARKER 2
LINK MKR1
AND DELTA1
MKR
MARKER 3
MARKER 4
MARKER
NORM DELTA
ALL MARKER
OFF
MARKER 1/2/3/4
The MARKER 1/2/3/4 softkey selects the corresponding marker and activates
it.
MARKER 1 is always the normal marker. After they have been switched on,
MARKERS 2/3/4 are delta markers that refer to MARKER 1. These markers can
be converted into markers with absolute value display by means of the
MARKER NORM DELTA softkey. When MARKER 1 is the active marker,
pressing the MARKER NORM DELTA softkey switches on an additional delta
marker.
Pressing the MARKER 1/2/3/4 softkey again switches off the selected marker.
1302.6163.12
4.92
E-1
R&S ESU
IF Spectrum Analysis – MKR Key
Example:
[PRESET]
R&S ESU is set to the default setting.
[MKR]
On calling the menu, MARKER 1 is switched on
('1' highlighted in the softkey) and positioned on
the maximum value of the trace. It is a normal
marker and the MARKER NORMAL softkey is
highlighted.
[MARKER 2]
MARKER 2 is switched on ('2' highlighted in the
softkey). It is automatically defined as a delta
marker on switching on so the DELTA is
highlighted on softkey MARKER NORM DELTA.
The frequency and level of MARKER 2 with
reference to MARKER 1 are output in the marker
info field.
[MARKER NORM DELTA] The MARKER NORM DELTA softkey is
highlighted. MARKER 2 becomes a normal
marker. The frequency and level of MARKER 2
are output as absolute values in the marker info
field.
[MARKER 2]
MARKER 2 is switched off. MARKER 1 is the
active marker for entry. The frequency and level of
MARKER 1 are output in the marker info field.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MARK ON;
CALC:MARK:X <value>;
CALC:MARK:Y?
CALC:DELT ON;
CALC:DELT:MODE ABS|REL
CALC:DELT:X <value>;
CALC:DELT:X:REL?
CALC:DELT:Y?
When several traces are being displayed, the marker is set to the maximum
value (peak) of the active trace which has the lowest number (1 to 3). In case a
marker is already located there, it will be set to the frequency of the next lowest
level (next peak).
A marker can only be enabled when at least one trace in the corresponding
window is visible.
If a trace is turned off, the corresponding markers and marker functions are also
deactivated. If the trace is switched on again (VIEW, CLR/WRITE,..), the
markers along with coupled functions will be restored to their original positions
provided the markers have not been used on another trace.
MKR->TRACE
1302.6163.12
The MKR->TRACE softkey places the marker on a new trace. The trace is
selected via a data entry field. Only those traces can be selected which are
visible on the screen in the same window.
4.93
E-1
IF Spectrum Analysis – MKR Key
R&S ESU
Example:
Three traces are presented on the screen. The marker is always on Trace 1 on
switching on.
[MKR ->TRACE]
2 | ENTER
The marker jumps to trace 2 but remains on the previous
frequency or time.
[MKR ->TRACE]
3 | ENTER
The marker jumps to trace 3.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
LINK MKR1 AND
DELTA1
CALC:MARK1:TRAC 1
CALC:DELT:TRAC 1
With the softkey LINK MKR1 AND DELTA1 the delta marker1 can be linked to
marker1, so if the x-axis value of the marker1 is changed the delta marker1 will
follow on the same x-position. The link is default off, and can be switched on.
Example for setup:
1. PRESET
2. TRACE | MAX HOLD
3. TRACE | SELECT TRACE | 2 | AVERAGE
4. MKR (Switches marker1 on)
5. MARKER NORM DELTA | DELTA (Switches delta marker 1 on)
6. MKR-> | MKR->TRACE | 2
7. LINK MKR1 AND DELTA1
Now select the marker1 (by switching MARKER1 from DELTA back to NORM)
and when changing the x-axis value (by rotary knob or UP/DOWN keys), the
delta marker1 will follow automatically.
The delta marker1 x-value can not be changed away from 0 as long as the link
functionality is active.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:
LINK ON | OFF
The suffix at DELTamarker can only be 1 or not present, because the
functionality is only available for marker1.
ALL MARKER OFF
1302.6163.12
The ALL MARKER OFF softkey switches off all markers (reference and delta
markers). It also switches off all functions and displays associated with the
markers/delta markers.
4.94
E-1
R&S ESU
IF Spectrum Analysis – MKR FCTN Key
Marker Functions – MKR FCTN Key
In spectrum analysis mode the MKR FCTN menu offers further measurements
with the markers. In IF analysis the functionality is limited.
Select the spectrum analysis mode for the following functions:
•
Measurement of noise density (NOISE MEAS softkey)
•
Measurement of phase noise (PHASE NOISE softkey)
•
Measurement of filter or signal bandwidth (N DB DOWN softkey)
•
Activating of AF demodulation (MARKER DEMOD softkey)
On calling the menu, the entry for the last active marker is activated (SELECT
MARKER softkey); if no marker is activated, marker 1 is activated and a
maximum search (PEAK softkey) is performed. The marker can be set to the
desired trace by means of the MKR->TRACE softkey.
SPAN
AMPT
MKR
MKR
FCTN
SELECT
MARKER
PEAK
SHAPE FACT
60:3 60:6
MRK->TRACE
1302.6163.12
4.95
E-1
IF Spectrum Analysis – MKR FCTN Key
R&S ESU
Activating the Markers
SELECT MARKER
The SELECT MARKER softkey activates the numerical selection of the marker
in the data entry field. Delta marker 1 is selected by input of ' 0 '.
If the marker is switched off, then it is switched on and can be moved later on.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PEAK
CALC:MARK1 ON;
CALC:MARK1:X <value>;
CALC:MARK1:Y?
The PEAK softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the peak of the trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MARK1:MAX
CALC:DELT1:MAX
Selecting the Trace
MKR->TRACE
The MKR->TRACE softkey sets the active marker to different traces. Only
those traces can be selected which are visible on the screen in the same
window.
The function of the softkey is identical to that of the softkey with the same name
in the MKR-> menu.
Example:
Three traces are displayed on the screen. The marker is always on Trace 1 on
switching on.
[MKR->TRACE]
1 | ENTER
The marker jumps to Trace 2, but remains at the
previous frequency or time.
[MKR->TRACE]
3 | ENTER
The marker jumps to Trace 3.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.96
CALC:MARK:TRAC 2
E-1
R&S ESU
IF Spectrum Analysis – MKR-> Key
Change of Settings via Markers – MKR-> Key
The MKR-> menu offers functions through which instrument parameters can be
changed with the aid of the currently active marker. The functions can be used
on markers and delta markers.
On opening the menu, the entry for the last active marker is activated; if no
marker was enabled, MARKER 1 is activated and a peak search is performed.
SPAN
AMPL
MKR
MKR
FCTN
SELECT
MARKER
LEFT
LIMIT
MKR -> CF
STEPSIZE
PEAK
MIN
CENTER
=MKR FREQ
NEXT MIN
NEXT MIN
RIGHT
RIGHT
LIMIT
NEXT PEAK
THRESHOLD
NEXT MIN
LEFT
NEXT PEAK
RIGHT
NEXT PEAK
LEFT
SEARCH
LIMITS
MRK->TRACE
PEAK
EXCURSION
SEARCH LIM
OFF
SELECT MARKER
The SELECT MARKER softkey activates the numerical selection of the marker
in the data entry field. Delta marker 1 is selected by input of ' 0 '.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PEAK
CALC:MARK1 ON;
CALC:MARK1:X <value>;
CALC:MARK1:Y?
The PEAK softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the peak of the trace.
If no marker is active when MKR-> menu is called, MARKER 1 is automatically
switched on and the peak search is performed.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.97
CALC:MARK:MAX
CALC:DELT:MAX
E-1
IF Spectrum Analysis – MKR-> Key
CENTER=MKR
FREQ
R&S ESU
The CENTER=MKR FREQ softkey sets the center frequency to the current
marker or delta marker frequency.
A signal can thus be set to the center of the frequency display range, for
example, so that it can then be examined in detail with a smaller span.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:CENT
Example:
A spectrum is displayed with a large span after PRESET. A signal off the center
is to be examined in detail:
[PRESET]
R&S ESU is set to the default setting.
[MKR->]
MARKER 1 is switched on and automatically jumps to
the largest signal of the trace.
[CENTER=MKR FREQ] The center frequency is set to the marker frequency.
The span is adapted in such a way that the minimum
frequency (= 0 Hz) or the maximum frequency is not
exceeded.
[SPAN]
NEXT PEAK
The span can, for example, be reduced using the
rotary knob.
The NEXT PEAK softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next lower
maximum of the selected trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NEXT PEAK RIGHT
The NEXT PEAK RIGHT softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next
lower maximum right of the current marker position on the selected trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NEXT PEAK LEFT
CALC:MARK:MAX:RIGH
CALC:DELT:MAX:RIGH
The NEXT PEAK LEFT softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next
lower maximum left of the current marker position the selected trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK:MAX:NEXT
CALC:DELT:MAX:NEXT
4.98
CALC:MARK:MAX:LEFT
CALC:DELT:MAX:LEFT
E-1
R&S ESU
SEARCH LIMITS
IF Spectrum Analysis – MKR-> Key
SEARCH
LIMITS
LEFT
LIMIT
RIGHT
LIMIT
THRESHOLD
SEARCH LIM
OFF
The SEARCH LIMITS softkey limits the search range for maximum or minimum
search. The softkey switches to a submenu in which the search range limits can
be set in the x and y direction.
LEFT LIMIT
RIGHT LIMIT
The LEFT LIMIT and RIGHT LIMIT softkeys define the two vertical lines F1 and
F2 in the frequency domain (span > 0) and T1 / T2 in the time domain
(span = 0). The search is performed between these lines in the frequency and
time domain.
If only LEFT LIMIT is enabled, line F1/T1 is the lower limit and the upper limit
corresponds to the stop frequency. If RIGHT LIMIT is also enabled, it
determines the upper limit.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
THRESHOLD
The THRESHOLD softkey defines the threshold line. The threshold line
represents a limit for the level range of the max. search at the lower end and
that of the min. search at the upper end.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SEARCH LIMIT OFF
CALC:THR -20dBm
CALC:THR ON
The SEARCH LIMIT OFF softkey disables all limits of the search range.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:LEFT 1MHZ
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:RIGH 10MHZ
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON
4.99
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM OFF
CALC:THR OFF
E-1
IF Spectrum Analysis – MKR-> Key
MKR->TRACE
R&S ESU
The MKR->TRACE softkey sets the active marker to a new trace. If only one
trace is available on the screen, the softkey does not appear. If several traces
are available on the screen, only these are offered.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MARK:TRAC 2
Example:
Three traces are displayed on the screen. The marker is always on Trace 1 after
switching on.
[MKR->TRACE]
2 | ENTER
The marker jumps to Trace 2 but remains at the previous
frequency or time.
[MKR->TRACE]
3 | ENTER
MKR->CF
STEPSIZE
The marker jumps to Trace 3.
The MKR->CF STEPSIZE softkey sets the step size for the center frequency
variation to the current marker frequency, and also sets step size adaptation to
MANUAL. CF STEPSIZE remains at this value until the center frequency entry
mode in the STEP menu is switched from MANUAL to AUTO again.
The MKR->CF STEPSIZE function is, above all, useful in the measurement of
harmonics with large dynamic range (narrow bandwidth and narrow span).
The softkey is not available in the time domain (span = 0 Hz).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:CST
Example:
The harmonics levels of a CW carrier are to be measured at 100 MHz.
[PRESET]
R&S ESU is set to the default setting.
[CENTER: 100 MHz]
R&S ESU sets the center frequency to 100 MHz. The
span is set to 200 MHz.
[SPAN: 1 MHz]
The span is set to 1 MHz.
[MKR->]
MARKER 1 is switched on and set to the maximum
value of the signal.
[NEXT]
R&S ESU switches to the submenu.
[MKR->CF STEPSIZE] The step size of the center frequency setting equals the
marker frequency (100 MHz).
MIN
[CENTER]
The center frequency entry mode is activated.
[Right key]
The center frequency is set to 200 MHz. The first
harmonic of the test signal is displayed.
[MKR->: PEAK]
The marker is set to the harmonic and the level of the
latter is output in the marker info field.
The MIN softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the minimum of the
selected trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK:MIN
CALC:DELT:MIN
4.100
E-1
R&S ESU
NEXT MIN
IF Spectrum Analysis – MKR-> Key
The NEXT MIN softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next higher
minimum of the selected trace. The search direction is defined in the NEXT
MODE submenu (see above).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NEXT MIN RIGHT
The NEXT MIN RIGHT softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next
higher minimum right of the current marker position on the selected trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NEXT MIN LEFT
CALC:MARK:MIN:RIGH
CALC:DELT:MIN:RIGH
The NEXT MIN LEFT softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next
higher minimum left of the current marker position on the selected trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PEAK EXCURSION
CALC:MARK:MIN:NEXT
CALC:DELT:MIN:NEXT
CALC:MARK:MIN:LEFT
CALC:DELT:MIN:LEFT
The PEAK EXCURSION softkey enables – for level measurements – the entry
of a minimum level value by which a signal must rise or fall so that it will be
identified as a maximum or a minimum by the NEXT PEAK and NEXT MIN
search functions.
Valid entries are from 0 dB to 80 dB; the resolution is 0.1 dB.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MARK:PEXC 10dB
The default setting for the peak excursion is 6 dB. This value is sufficient for the
NEXT PEAK and NEXT MIN functions since, in this mode, the next lower
maximum or next higher minimum will always be detected.
If NEXT PEAK LEFT or NEXT PEAK RIGHT is selected, these functions search
for the next relative maximum left or right of the current marker position
irrespective of the current signal amplitude. Relative maximum is understood to
mean a decrease of the signal amplitude by a defined value – i.e. the peak
excursion – right and left of the amplitude peak.
The 6 dB level change set as a default value may be attained already by the
inherent noise of the instrument. In such a case, the R&S ESU would identify
noise peaks as maxima or minima. The value entered for the PEAK
EXCURSION should therefore be higher than the difference between the
highest and the lowest value measured for the displayed inherent noise.
1302.6163.12
4.101
E-1
IF Spectrum Analysis – MKR-> Key
R&S ESU
Example:
The following example illustrates the effect of different settings of the PEAK
EXCURSION.
Fig. 4-10
Examples of level measurement with different settings of PEAK
EXCURSION
The following table lists the signals as indicated by marker numbers in the
diagram above, as well as the minimum of the amplitude decrease to both sides
of the signal:
signal #
min. amplitude decrease to
both sides of the signal
1
30 dB
2
29.85 dB
3
7 dB
4
7 dB
With 40 dB peak excursion, NEXT PEAK, NEXT PEAK RIGHT and NEXT
PEAK LEFT will not find any signal, as the signal level does not decrease by
more than 30 dB to either side of any signal.
Order of signals detected:
1302.6163.12
PEAK:
signal 1
NEXT PEAK:
signal 1 (no further signal detected)
4.102
E-1
R&S ESU
IF Spectrum Analysis – MKR-> Key
or
PEAK:
signal 1
NEXT PEAK LEFT:
signal 1 (no further signal detected)
NEXT PEAK RIGHT: signal 1 (no further signal detected)
With 20 dB peak excursion, NEXT PEAK and NEXT PEAK RIGHT will also
detect signal 2, as the signal level decreases at least by 29.85 dB to either side
of this signal, which is now greater than the peak excursion.
Order of signals detected:
PEAK:
Signal 1
NEXT PEAK:
Signal 2
NEXT PEAK:
Signal 2 (no further signal detected)
or
PEAK:
Signal 1
NEXT PEAK LEFT:
Signal 1 (no further signal detected)
NEXT PEAK RIGHT: Signal 2
NEXT PEAK RIGHT: Signal 2 (no further signal detected)
With 6 dB peak excursion, all signals will be detected with NEXT PEAK and
NEXT PEAK RIGHT / NEXT PEAK LEFT.
Order of signals detected:
PEAK:
Signal 1
NEXT PEAK:
Signal 2
NEXT PEAK:
Signal 3
NEXT PEAK:
Signal 4
or
PEAK:
Signal 1
NEXT PEAK LEFT:
Signal 3
NEXT PEAK RIGHT: Signal 1
NEXT PEAK RIGHT: Signal 2
NEXT PEAK RIGHT. Signal 4
1302.6163.12
4.103
E-1
IF Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
R&S ESU
Selection and Setting of Traces – TRACE Key
The R&S ESU is capable of displaying up to three different traces at a time in a
diagram. A trace consists of a maximum of 625 pixels on the horizontal axis. If
more measured values than pixels are available, several measured values are
combined in one pixel.
The traces are selected using the SELECT TRACE softkey in the menu of the
TRACE key.
The traces can individually be activated for a measurement or frozen after
completion of a measurement. Traces that are not activated are blanked.
The display mode can be selected for each trace. Traces can be overwritten in
each measurement (CLEAR/WRITE mode), averaged over several
measurements (AVERAGE mode), or a maximum or minimum value can be
determined from several measurements and displayed (MAX HOLD or MIN
HOLD mode).
In IF analysis mode is only the sample detector for the traces available.
1302.6163.12
4.104
E-1
R&S ESU
IF Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
Selection of Trace Function
The trace functions are subdivided as follows:
•
Display mode of trace (CLEAR/WRITE, VIEW, and BLANK)
•
Evaluation of the trace as a whole (AVERAGE, MAX HOLD, and MIN HOLD)
TRACE
SELECT
TRACE
MIN
HOLD
AVG
LOG
MODE
LIN
CLEAR/
WRITE
MAX
HOLD
AVERAGE
VIEW
BLANK
ASCII FILE
EXPORT
DECIM
.
SEP
,
COPY
TRACE
The TRACE key opens a menu offering the setting options for the selected
trace.
In this menu, the mode of representing the measured data in the frequency or
time domain in the 625 pixels of the display is determined. Upon start of the
measurement, each trace can be displayed either completely new or based on
the previous results.
Traces can be displayed, blanked and copied.
The default setting is trace 1 in the overwrite mode (CLEAR/WRITE mode),
trace 2 and trace 3 are switched off (BLANK mode).
The CLEAR/WRITE, MAX HOLD, MIN HOLD, AVERAGE, VIEW and BLANK
softkeys are mutually exclusive selection keys.
SELECT TRACE
The SELECT TRACE softkey activates the entry for the active trace (1, 2, 3).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CLEAR/WRITE
The CLEAR/WRITE softkey activates the overwrite mode for the collected
measured values, i.e. the trace is overwritten by each sweep.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
-- (selected via numeric suffix of TRACe)
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE WRIT
4.105
E-1
IF Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
MAX HOLD
R&S ESU
The MAX HOLD softkey activates the max hold mode for the trace display.
R&S ESU saves the sweep result in the trace memory only if the new value is
greater than the previous one.
This is especially useful with modulated or impulsive signals. The signal
spectrum is filled up upon each scan until all signal components are detected in
a kind of envelope.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
AVERAGE
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE MAXH
The AVERAGE softkey activates the trace averaging function. The average is
formed over several sweeps.
Depending on the setting of AVG MODE LOG / LIN, the logarithmic level values
or the measured power/voltage values are averaged.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE AVER
Description of averaging
Averaging is carried out over the pixels derived from the measurement
samples. Several measured values may be combined in a pixel. This means
that with linear level display the average is formed over linear amplitude values
and with logarithmic level display over levels. For this reason the trace must be
measured again when changing between LIN and LOG display mode. The
settings CONT/SINGLE SWEEP and running averaging apply to the average
display analogously.
A running average is calculated according to the following formula:
Due to the weighting between the new measured value and the trace average,
past values have practically no influence on the displayed trace after about ten
sweeps. With this setting, signal noise is effectively reduced without need for
restarting the averaging process after a change of the signal.
VIEW
The VIEW softkey freezes the current contents of the trace memory and
displays it.
If in the VIEW display mode the level display range (GRID RANGE) or the
reference level (GRID MIN LEVEL) are changed, R&S ESU automatically
adapts the measured data to the changed display range. This allows an
amplitude zoom to be made after the measurement in order to show details of
the trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
BLANK
The BLANK softkey activates the blanking of the trace on the screen.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE VIEW
DISP:WIND:TRAC OFF
4.106
E-1
R&S ESU
IF Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
MIN HOLD
The MIN HOLD softkey activates the min hold mode for the trace. R&S ESU
saves for each scan the smallest of the previously stored/currently measured
values in the trace memory.
This function is useful e.g. for making an unmodulated carrier in a composite
signal visible. Noise, interference signals or modulated signals are suppressed
by the min hold function whereas a CW signal is recognized by its constant
level.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
AVG MODE LOG/
LIN
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE MINH
The AVG MODE LOG/LIN softkey selects logarithmic or linear averaging for the
logarithmic level display mode.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MATH:AVER:MODE LIN
With logarithmic averaging, the dB values of the display voltage are averaged.
With linear averaging the level values in dB are converted into linear voltages
or powers prior to averaging. Voltage or power values are averaged or offset
against each other and reconverted into level values.
For stationary signals the two methods yield the same result.
Logarithmic averaging is recommended if sinewave signals are to be clearly
visible against noise since with this type of averaging noise suppression is
improved while the sinewave signals remain unchanged.
For noise or pseudo-noise signals the positive peak amplitudes are decreased
in logarithmic averaging due the characteristic involved and the negative peak
values are increased relative to the average value. If the distorted amplitude
distribution is averaged, a value is obtained that is smaller than the actual
average value. The difference is -2.5 dB.
A m p li tu d e
A m p li tu d e d istr i b u ti o n
( w i th o u t a v e ra g in g )
2 .5 d B
A m p li tu d e d i str ib u ti o n
( a fte r a v e ra g in g )
P r o b a b i l it y d is tr ib u ti o n
This low average value is usually corrected in noise power measurements by a
2.5 dB factor. Therefore the R&S ESU offers the selection of linear averaging.
The trace data are delogarithmized prior to averaging, then averaged and
logarithmized again for display on the screen. The average value is always
correctly displayed irrespective of the signal characteristic.
1302.6163.12
4.107
E-1
IF Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
ASCII FILE EXPORT
R&S ESU
The ASCII FILE EXPORT softkey stores the active trace in ASCII format, e.g.
on a memory stick.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FORM ASC;
MMEM:STOR:TRAC 1,'TRACE.DAT'
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters, several
data sections containing the scan settings and a data section containing the
trace data.
The data of the file header consist of three columns, each separated by a
semicolon: parameter name; numeric value; basic unit
The data section for the scan ranges starts with the keyword "Scan <n>:", (<n>
= number of scan range), followed by the scan data in one or several columns
which are also separated by a semicolon.
The data section for the trace date starts with the keyword " Trace <n> " (<n> =
number of stored trace), followed by the measured data in one or several
columns which are also separated by a semicolon.
This format can be read in from spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MSExcel. It is necessary to define ';' as a separator.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
Different language versions of evaluation programs may
require a different handling of the decimal point. It is
therefore possible to select between separators '.'
(decimal point) and ',' (comma) using softkey DECIM
SEP.
4.108
E-1
R&S ESU
IF Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
Example - File header:
File contents
Description
Type;ESU8;
Instrument model
Version;1.00;
Firmware version
Date;01.Jul 2005;
Date of data set storage
Mode;IF;
Instrument mode
Center Freq;10000000;Hz
Center frequency
Freq Offset;0;Hz
Frequency offset
Span;100000;Hz
Frequency range
x-Axis;LIN;
Scaling of x axis linear (LIN)
Start;9950000;Hz
Stop;10050000;Hz
Start/stop of the display range.
Ref.Level;-30;dBm
Reference level
Level Offset;0;dB
Level offset
Ref Position;100;%
Position of reference level referred to diagram limits
(0% = lower edge)
y-Axis;LOG;
Scaling of y axis: logarithmic (LOG)
Level Range;100;dB
Display range in y direction. Unit: dB with x axis LOG,
RF Att;20;dB
Input attenuation
RBW;100000;Hz
Resolution bandwidth
VBW;30000;Hz
Video bandwidth
SWT;0.005;s
Sweep time
Trace Mode;AVERAGE;
Display mode of trace:
CLR/WRITE,AVERAGE,MAXHOLD,MINHOLD
Detector;SAMPLE;
Detector set: always SAMPLE
Sweep Count;0;
Number of sweeps set, always 0
Example - Data section of the file
File contents
Description
Trace 1:;;
Selected trace
x-Unit;Hz;
Unit of x values: always Hz
y-Unit;dBm;
Unit of y values
Values; 625;
Number of test points
Measured values:
10000;-10.3
<x value>, <y1>
10180;-11.5
10360;-12.0
...;...
DECIM SEP
The DECIM SEP softkey selects the decimal separator between '.' (decimal
point) and ',' (comma) with floating-point numerals for the function ASCII FILE
EXPORT.
With the selection of the decimal separator different language versions of
evaluation programs (e.g. MS Excel) can be supported.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
FORM:DEXP:DSEP POIN
4.109
E-1
IF Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
COPY TRACE
R&S ESU
The COPY TRACE softkey copies the screen contents of the current trace into
another trace memory. The desired memory is selected by entering the number
1, 2 or 3.
Upon copying, the contents of the selected memory are overwritten and the new
contents displayed in view mode.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
TRAC:COPY TRACE1,TRACE2
4.110
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – SPECTRUM Hotkey
Spectrum Analysis Mode
The spectrum analysis mode is activated by pressing the SPECTRUM hotkey
(see also section “Mode Selection – Hotkey Bar” on page 4.10)
SPECTRUM
The SPECTRUM hotkey selects the spectrum analysis mode.
The functions provided correspond to those of a conventional spectrum
analyzer. The analyzer measures the frequency spectrum of the test signal over
the selected frequency range with the selected resolution and sweep time, or,
for a fixed frequency, displays the waveform of the video signal.
Aa
Note
If two displays (screen A and screen B) are opened after
switch-on of signal analysis, the analyzer mode is only
set for the display activated for entry (marked at the top
right corner of diagram). For the other display, the
previous settings remain valid.
Data acquisition and display of measured values is
sequential: first in the upper and then in the lower
display.
1302.6163.12
4.111
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – FREQ Key
R&S ESU
Frequency and Span Selection – FREQ
The FREQ key is used to specify the frequency axis of the active display
window. The frequency axis can be defined either by the start and stop
frequency or by the center frequency and the span (SPAN key). With two
windows (SPLIT SCREEN) displayed at the same time, the input data always
refer to the window selected in the SYSTEM-DISPLAY menu.
After pressing one of the CENTER, START or STOP softkeys, the value of the
corresponding parameter can be defined in an input window.
Span <> 0
Span = 0
CENTER
0.1 * SPAN
0.1 * RBW
TRACK
ON
OFF
CFSTEPSIZE
0.5 * SPAN
0.5 * RBW
TRACK
BW
x * SPAN
x * RBW
TRACK
THRESHOLD
START
= CENTER
= CENTER
STOP
= MARKER
= MARKER
MANUAL
MANUAL
FREQ
SELECT
TRACE
FREQUENCY
OFFSET
SIGNAL
TRACK
CENTER
The CENTER softkey opens the window for manually entering the center
frequency.
The allowed range of values for the center frequency is:
•
for the frequency domain (span >0):
minspan / 2 ≤ fcenter ≤ fmax – minspan / 2
•
and for the time domain (span = 0):
0 Hz ≤ fcenter ≤ fmax
fcenter
center frequency
minspan
smallest selectable span > 0 Hz (10 Hz)
fmax
max. frequency
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
FREQ:CENT 100MHz
4.112
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – FREQ Key
CF STEPSIZE
The CF STEPSIZE softkey opens a submenu for setting the step size of the
center frequency. The step size can be coupled to the span (frequency domain)
or the resolution bandwidth (time domain) or it can be manually set to a fixed
value. The softkeys are mutually exclusive selection keys.
The softkeys are presented according to the selected domain (frequency or
time).
Softkeys in frequency domain:
0.1 * SPAN
The 0.1 * SPAN softkey sets the step size for the center frequency entry to 10%
of the span.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
0.5 * SPAN
The 0.5 * SPAN softkey sets the step size for the center frequency entry to 50%
of the span.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
X * SPAN
--
The MANUAL softkey activates the window for entering a fixed step size.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
--
The = MARKER softkey sets the step size coupling to MANUAL and the step
size to the value of the marker. This function is especially useful during
measurements of the signal harmonic content at the marker position because
by entering the center frequency each stroke of the STEP key selects the center
frequency of another harmonic.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
MANUAL
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 20PCT
The = CENTER softkey sets the step size coupling to MANUAL and the step
size to the value of the center frequency. This function is especially useful
during measurements of the signal harmonic content because by entering the
center frequency each stroke of the STEP key selects the center frequency of
another harmonic.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
= MARKER
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 50PCT
The X * SPAN softkey allows the factor defining the center frequency step size
to be entered as % of the span.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
= CENTER
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 10PCT
FREQ:CENT:STEP 120MHz
4.113
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – FREQ Key
R&S ESU
Softkeys in time domain:
0.1 * RBW
The 0.1 * RBW softkey sets the step size for the center frequency entry to 10%
of the resolution bandwidth.
AUTO 0.1 * RBW corresponds to the default setting.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
0.5 * RBW
The 0.5 * RBW softkey sets the step size for the center frequency entry to 50%
of the resolution bandwidth.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
X * RBW
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 10PCT
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 50PCT
The X * RBW softkey allows the factor defining the center frequency step size
to be entered as % of the resolution bandwidth.
Values between 1 and 100% in steps of 1% are allowed. The default setting is
10%.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
= CENTER
The = CENTER softkey sets the step size coupling to MANUAL and the step
size to the value of the center frequency. This function is especially useful
during measurements of the signal harmonic content because by entering the
center frequency each stroke of the STEP key selects the center frequency of
another harmonic.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
= MARKER
--
The MANUAL softkey activates the window for entering a fixed step size.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
START
--
The = MARKER softkey sets the step size coupling to MANUAL and the step
size to the value of the marker. This function is especially useful during
measurements of the signal harmonic content at the marker position because
by entering the center frequency each stroke of the STEP key selects the center
frequency of another harmonic.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
MANUAL
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 20PCT
FREQ:CENT:STEP 120MHz
The START softkey activates the window for manually entering the start
frequency.
The allowed range of values for the start frequency is:
0 Hz ≤ fstart ≤ fmax - minspan
fstart
start frequency
minspan smallest selectable span (10 Hz)
fmax
max. frequency
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
FREQ:STAR 20MHz
4.114
E-1
R&S ESU
STOP
Spectrum Analysis – FREQ Key
The STOP softkey activates the window for entering the stop frequency.
The allowed range of values for the stop frequency is:
minspan ≤ fstop ≤ fmax
fstop
stop frequency
minspan
smallest selectable span (10 Hz)
fmax
max. frequency
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FREQUENCY
OFFSET
The FREQUENCY OFFSET softkey activates the window for entering an
arithmetical frequency offset which is added to the frequency axis labelling. The
allowed range of values for the offset is -100 GHz to 100 GHz. The default
setting is 0 Hz.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SIGNAL TRACK
FREQ:STOP 2000MHz
FREQ:OFFS 10 MHz
The SIGNAL TRACK softkey switches on the tracking of a signal near the
center frequency. The signal is tracked as long it is in the search bandwidth
around the center frequency defined with TRACK BW and above the level
threshold defined with TRACK THRESHOLD.
For that purpose, the maximum signal is searched (PEAK SEARCH) on the
screen and the center frequency set to this signal (MARKER ->CENTER) after
each frequency sweep within the search bandwidth.
If the signal falls below the level threshold or jumps out of the search bandwidth
around the center frequency, the center frequency is not varied until a signal is
in the search bandwidth above the level threshold. This can be achieved by
manually modifying the center frequency, for example.
On switching on, the softkey is highlighted and the search bandwidth and the
threshold value are marked on the diagram by two vertical lines and one
horizontal line. All these lines are allocated the designation TRK.
At the same time a submenu is opened in which the search bandwidth, the
threshold value and the trace can be modified for the maximum search.
The softkey is only available in the frequency domain (span >0).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
TRACK ON/OFF
The TRACK ON/OFF softkey switches on and off signal tracking.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
TRACK BW
CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:BAND 10KHZ
The TRACK THRESHOLD softkey defines the threshold value for signal
detection. The value is always entered as an absolute level value.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR OFF
The TRACK BW softkey defines the search bandwidth for signal tracking. The
frequency range is symmetrical with respect to the center frequency.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
TRACK THRESHOLD
CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR OFF
CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:THR -70DBM
4.115
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – FREQ Key
SELECT TRACE
R&S ESU
The SELECT TRACE softkey selects the trace on which signal tracking is to be
performed.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:TRAC 1
4.116
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – SPAN Key
Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN
The SPAN key opens a menu which offers various options for setting the span.
The entry of the span (SPAN MANUAL softkey) is automatically active for span
> 0 Hz.
For span = 0 Hz the entry for sweep time (SWEEPTIME MANUAL) is
automatically active.
With two windows (SPLIT SCREEN) displayed at the same time, the input data
always refer to the window selected with the SCREEN A/B hotkey.
SPAN
SPAN
MANUAL
SWEEPTIME
MANUAL
FULL SPAN
ZERO SPAN
LAST SPAN
FREQ AXIS
LIN
LOG
.
.
.
SPAN MANUAL
The SPAN MANUAL softkey activates the window for manually entering the
frequency span. The center frequency is kept constant.
The allowed range of span values is
•
for the time domain (span = 0): 0 Hz
•
and for the frequency domain (span >0): minspan ≤ fspan ≤ fmax
fspan
frequency span
minspan
smallest selectable span (10 Hz)
fmax
max. frequency
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SWEEPTIME
MANUAL
The SWEEPTIME MANUAL softkey activates the window for entering the
sweep time manually with Span = 0 Hz. The softkey is not available for Span >
0 Hz.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FULL SPAN
SWE:TIME 10s
The FULL SPAN softkey sets the span to the full frequency range of ESU.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
FREQ:SPAN 2GHz
FREQ:SPAN:FULL
4.117
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – SPAN Key
ZERO SPAN
R&S ESU
The ZERO SPAN softkey sets the span to 0 Hz. The x axis becomes the time
axis with the grid lines corresponding to 1/10 of the current sweep time (SWT).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
LAST SPAN
After changing the span setting the LAST SPAN softkey activates the previous
setting. With this function a fast change between overview measurement (FULL
SPAN) and detailed measurement (manually set center frequency and span) is
possible.
Aa
Note
Only values > 0 Hz are restored, i.e. a transition between
time and frequency domain is not possible.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FREQ AXIS LIN/
LOG
FREQ:SPAN 0Hz
--
The FREQ AXIS LIN/LOG softkey switches between linear and logarithmic
scaling of the frequency axis. Switch over is only possible if the stop/start
frequency ratio is ≥10.
The default state is LIN.
The logarithmic frequency axis is only available in spectrum mode and it is not
available in zero span mode, in external mixer mode, with frequency offset or if
the ratio stop frequency / start frequency is below 1.4.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
DISP:WIND<1|2>:TRAC:X:SPAC LIN
4.118
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – AMPT Key
Level Display Setting and RF Input
Configuration – AMPT
The AMPT key is used to set the reference level, the maximum level and the
display range of the active window as well as the input impedance and the input
attenuation of the RF input.
The AMPT key opens a menu for setting the reference level and the input
attenuation of the active window. The data entry for the reference level (REF
LEVEL softkey) is opened automatically.
Further settings regarding level display and attenuation can be made in this
menu.
REF LEVEL
RANGE LOG MANUAL
RANGE LINEAR !
RANGE LINEAR %
RANGE LINEAR dB
UNIT !
dBm
dBmV
dBµV
dBµΑ
dBµW
VOLT
AMPERE
WATT
RF INPUT AC/DC
RF ATTEN MANUAL
RF ATTEN AUTO
10 dB MIN ON/OFF
RF INPUT 1/2
Side menu
REF LEVEL POSITION
REF LEVEL OFFSET
GRID ABS/REL
RF INPUT 50 W / 75 W
REF LEVEL
The REF LEVEL softkey allows the reference level to be input in the currently
active unit (dBm, dBµV, etc.)
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RLEV -60dBm
4.119
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – AMPT Key
RANGE LOG
MANUAL
R&S ESU
The RANGE LOG MANUAL softkey activates the manual entry of the level
display range. Display ranges from 10 to 200 dB are allowed in 10 dB steps.
Inputs which are not allowed are rounded to the next valid value.
The default setting is 100 dB.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RANGE LINEAR
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 120DB
The RANGE LINEAR softkey selects linear scaling for the level display range
of the analyzer. In addition, it opens a submenu for selecting % or dB for the
scaling.
When linear scaling is selected, the % scaling is first activated (see also
RANGE LINEAR dB softkey).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RANGE LINEAR %
The RANGE LINEAR % softkey selects linear scaling in % for the level display
range, i.e. the horizontal lines are labelled in %. The grid is divided in decadic
steps. Markers are displayed in the selected unit; delta markers are displayed
in % referenced to the voltage value at the position of marker 1.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RANGE LINEAR dB
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN
The RANGE LINEAR dB softkey selects linear scaling in dB for the level display
range, i.e. the horizontal lines are labelled in dB.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit; delta markers are displayed in dB
referenced to the power value at the position of marker 1.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LDB
UNIT
The UNIT softkey opens a submenu allowing to select the unit for the level axis.
The default setting is dBm.
1302.6163.12
4.120
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – AMPT Key
In general, the analyzer measures the signal voltage at the RF input. The level
display is calibrated in rms values of an unmodulated sinewave signal. In the
default state, the level is displayed at a power of 1 mW (= dBm). Via the known
input resistance of 50 Ω or 75W, conversion to other units is possible. The units
dBm, dBmV, dBµV, dBµA, dBpW, V, A and W are directly convertible.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RF INPUT AC/DC
The RF INPUT AC/DC softkey toggles the RF input of the analyzer between AC
and DC coupling.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RF ATTEN MANUAL
CALC:UNIT:POW DBM
INP:COUP AC
The RF ATTEN MANUAL softkey allows the attenuation to be entered
irrespective of the reference level.
The attenuation can be set in 5 dB steps between 0 and 75 dB.
Other entries will be rounded to the next lower integer value.
If the defined reference level cannot be set for the given RF attenuation, the
reference level will be adjusted accordingly and the warning "Limit reached" will
be output.
Aa
Note
The value 0 dB cannot be switched on unless the 10 dB
MIN ON/OFF softkey is set to OFF.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RF ATTEN AUTO
INP:ATT 40 DB
The RF ATTEN AUTO softkey sets the RF attenuation automatically as a
function of the selected reference level.
This ensures that the optimum RF attenuation desired by the user is always
used.
RF ATTEN AUTO is the default setting.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
10 dB MIN ON/OFF
INP:ATT:AUTO ON
The 10 dB MIN ON/OFF softkey determines whether or not the 0 dB position of
the attenuator is used when the attenuation is set manually or automatically.
The default setting is ON. This means the ESU always leaves at least 10 dB RF
attenuation on in order to protect the input mixer.
The 0 dB position cannot be switched on manually. This prevents that 0 dB are
set by mistake especially for measurements on objects with high signal voltage.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RF INPUT 1/2
INP:ATT:PROT ON
The RF INPUT 1/2 softkey selects the RF input.
Input 1 is the default setting. Alternatively, the pulse-resistant input 2 can be
used in a frequency range up to 1 GHz.
1302.6163.12
4.121
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – AMPT Key
REF LEVEL
POSITION
R&S ESU
The REF LEVEL POSITION softkey allows the reference level position to be
entered.
The setting range is from -200 to +200%, 0% corresponding to the lower and
100% to the upper limit of the diagram.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
REF LEVEL
OFFSET
DISP:WIND:TRAC:RPOS 100PCT
The REF LEVEL OFFSET softkey allows the arithmetic level offset to be
entered. This offset is added to the measured level irrespective of the selected
unit. The scaling of the Y axis is changed accordingly.
The setting range is ±200 dB in 0.1 dB steps.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
GRID ABS/REL
DISP:WIND:TRAC:RLEV:OFFS -10dB
The GRID ABS/REL softkey switches between absolute and relative scaling of
the level axis.
GRID ABS is the default setting.
ABS
The labelling of the level lines refers to the absolute value of the
reference level.
REL
The upper line of the grid is always at 0 dB.
The scaling is in dB whereas the reference level is always in the set unit
(dBm, dBmV,..).
For setting RANGE LINEAR (linear scaling, labelling of axes in %) the softkey
is not displayed since the unit % itself implies a relative scale.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RF INPUT 50 Ω /
75 Ω
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:MODE ABS
The RF INPUT 50 Ω / 75 Ω softkey switches the input impedance of the
instrument between 50 Ω (= default setting) and 75 Ω.
The setting 75 Ω should be used if the input impedance (50 Ω) is transformed
to 75 Ω using the corresponding adapter unit of type RAZ (= 25 Ω in series to
the input impedance of the analyzer). The correction value used for the
adoption is 1.76 dB = 10 log (75Ω / 50Ω).
All levels specified in this operating manual refer to the default setting of the
instrument (50 Ω).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
INP:IMP 50OHM
4.122
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – BW Key
Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW
The BW key calls a menu for setting the resolution bandwidth (RBW), video
bandwidth (VBW) and sweep time (SWT) for the frequency sweep. The
parameters may be coupled dependent on the span (stop minus start
frequency) or freely set by the user. When working with a split screen display,
the settings always refer to the active window.
The ESU offers resolution bandwidths from 10 Hz to 10 MHz in 1, 2, 3, 5, 10
steps.
Resolution bandwidths up to 120 kHz are realized using digital bandpasses with
Gaussian characteristics. As far as the attenuation characteristic is concerned
they behave like analog filters but have a much higher measurement speed
than comparable analog filters. This is due to the fact that the transient
response can be compensated as a result of an accurately defined filter
behavior.
Bandwidths above 120 kHz are realized using decoupled 5-circuit LC filters.
As an alternative to the analog filters, FFT filters are available for the
bandwidths between 1 Hz and 30 kHz. When working with bandwidths up to 30
kHz, the FFT algorithm offers considerably higher measurement speeds with all
the other settings remaining the same. The reason is that with analog filters the
sweep time required for a particular span is proportional to (Span/RBW2). When
using the FFT algorithm, however, the sweep time is proportional to (Span/
RBW).
The video bandwidths are available in 1, 2, 3, 5, 10 steps between 1 Hz and 10
MHz. They can be set in accordance with the resolution bandwidth.
The video filters serve for smoothing the displayed trace. Video bandwidths that
are small compared to the resolution bandwidth average out noise peaks and
pulsed signals, so that only the signal average is displayed. If pulsed signals are
to be measured, it is recommended to use a video bandwidth that is large
compared to the resolution bandwidth (VBW ≥ 10 × RBW) for the amplitudes of
pulses to be measured correctly.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
For analog and digital filters, the ESU has overload
reserves of different magnitude above the reference
level. Due to the LO breakthrough the overload display
OVLD responds with digital filters with RBW < 100 kHz,
as soon as the start frequency is selected <6 * resolution
bandwidth, for RBW = 100 kHz, as soon as the start
frequency is below 3 MHz.
4.123
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – BW Key
BW
M EAS
SWEEP
T R IG
R&S ESU
RES BW
MANUAL
MAIN PLL
BANDWIDTH
RBW / VBW
SINE [ 1/3]
VIDEO BW
MANUAL
FFT FILTER
MODE
RB W / VBW
PU LSE[0.1]
SWEEPTIME
MANUAL
VBW MODE
LIN
LOG
RB W / VBW
NO ISE [10]
RES BW
AUTO
RB W / VBW
MANUAL
VIDEO BW
AUTO
SWEEPTIME
AUTO
SPAN /RBW
AUTO [50]
COUPLING
RATIO
SPAN / RBW
MANUAL
DEFAULT
COUPLING
FILTER
TYPE
The BW key opens a menu for setting the resolution bandwidth, the video
bandwidth, the sweep time and their couplings.
The …BW AUTO softkeys are used to couple the functions. The coupling ratios
are selected by means of the COUPLING RATIO softkey.
The …BW MANUAL softkeys allow a parameter to be entered. This parameter
is not coupled to the other parameters.
Aa
Note
With the …BW AUTO softkeys the resolution bandwidth,
the video bandwidth and the sweep time can be entered
separately for the frequency domain (span > 0 Hz) and
the time domain (span = 0 Hz).
But with …BW MANUAL softkeys the selected values
apply to both the frequency and time domain.
1302.6163.12
4.124
E-1
R&S ESU
RES BW MANUAL
Spectrum Analysis – BW Key
The RES BW MANUAL softkey activates the manual data entry for the
resolution bandwidth.
The resolution bandwidth can be selected in 1/2/3/5/10 steps in the range
between 10 Hz and 10 MHz. The nominal resolution bandwidth is the 3 dB
bandwidth.
When FFT filters are used, the lower limit of the bandwidth is 1 Hz. FFT filters
may be used with bandwidths up to 30 kHz.
For numeric inputs, the values are always rounded to the nearest possible
bandwidth. For rotary knob or UP/DOWN key inputs, the bandwidth is adjusted
in steps either upwards or downwards.
For filter type CHANNEL or RRC the bandwidth is selected from the list of
available channel filters given at the end of this section. For data entry, the
cursor keys Uu and Ud scroll through this list.
The manual input mode of the resolution bandwidth is indicated by a green
asterisk (*) on the display.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
VIDEO BW
MANUAL
BAND:AUTO OFF;
BAND 1MHz
The VIDEO BW MANUAL softkey activates the manual data entry for the video
bandwidth.
The video bandwidth can be selected in 1/2/3/5/10 steps in the range between
1 Hz and 10 MHz.
For numeric inputs, the values are always rounded to the nearest possible
allowed bandwidth. For rotary knob or UP/DOWN key inputs, the bandwidth is
adjusted in steps either downwards or upwards.
The manual input mode of the video bandwidth is indicated by a green asterisk
(*) on the display.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SWEEP TIME
MANUAL
BAND:VID:AUTO OFF;
BAND:VID 10 kHz
The SWEEPTIME MANUAL softkey activates the manual data entry for the
sweep time. At the same time, the coupling of the sweep time is cancelled.
Other couplings (VIDEO BW, RES BW) remain effective.
In the frequency domain (span > 0 Hz) and for resolution bandwidths above 1
kHz, the allowed sweep times for spans > 3.2 kHz range from 2.5 ms through
to 16000 s. With spans below 3.2 kHz, the maximum allowed sweep time is
reduced to 5 s * span/Hz.
If FFT filters are used, the sweep time is fixed by the span and the bandwidth
and therefore cannot be set.
In time domain (span = 0 Hz), the range of sweep times is 1 µs to 16000 s is
selectable in steps of max. 5% of the sweep time. For numeric inputs, rounding
is made to the nearest possible sweep time. For rotary knob or UP/DOWN key
inputs, the sweep time is adjusted in steps either downwards or upwards.
1302.6163.12
4.125
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – BW Key
R&S ESU
The manual input mode of the sweep time is indicated by a green asterisk (*)
on the display. If the selected sweep time is too short for the selected bandwidth
and span, level measurement errors will occur. This happens because the
available settling time for the resolution or video filters is too short. In this case,
the ESU outputs UNCAL on the display and marks the indicated sweep time
with a red asterisk (*).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RES BW AUTO
SWE:TIME:AUTO OFF;
SWE:TIME 10s
The RES BW AUTO softkey couples the resolution bandwidth to the selected
span. Changing the span causes automatic adjustment of the resolution
bandwidth.
Automatic coupling of resolution bandwidth to span is always recommended
when a favorable setting of the resolution bandwidth in relation to the selected
span is desired for the measurement under request.
The coupling ratio is set in the COUPLING RATIO submenu.
The RES BW AUTO softkey is only available in the frequency domain (span >
0 Hz). The softkey is blanked in the time domain.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
VIDEO BW AUTO
BAND:AUTO ON
The VIDEO BW AUTO softkey couples the video bandwidth to the resolution
bandwidth. If the resolution bandwidth is changed, the video bandwidth is
automatically adjusted.
The coupling of the video bandwidth is always recommended when the
minimum sweep time is required for a selected resolution bandwidth. Narrower
video bandwidths require longer sweep times due to the longer settling time.
Wider bandwidths reduce the signal/noise ratio.
The coupling ratio is set in the COUPLING RATIO submenu.
The coupling of the video bandwidth to the resolution filter is also permitted for
the time domain display (span = 0).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SWEEPTIME AUTO
BAND:VID:AUTO ON
The SWEEPTIME AUTO softkey couples the sweep time to the span, video
bandwidth (VBW) and resolution bandwidth (RBW). The sweep time is
automatically adjusted on any change in span, resolution bandwidth or video
bandwidth.
The softkey is only available in the frequency domain (span >0 Hz). It is blanked
in the time domain.
The ESU always selects the shortest sweep time possible without falsifying the
signal. The maximum level error compared to using a longer sweep time is <
0.1 dB. If additional bandwidth and level errors are to be avoided, the sweep
time is to be set to three times the time offered in coupled mode.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
SWE:TIME:AUTO ON
4.126
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – BW Key
COUPLING RATIO
The COUPLING RATIO softkey opens a submenu for selection of the coupling
ratios.
When the default setting is active, i.e. the COUPLING RATIO softkey is
deactivated (not highlighted), the ratio span/resolution bandwidth (SPAN/RBW)
is 50 (this corresponds to SPAN / RBW AUTO [50]) and the ratio resolution
bandwidth/video bandwidth (RBW/VBW) is 0.33 (this corresponds to RBW /
VBW SINE [1/3]).
If the ratio RBW/VBW or SPAN/RBW is different from the default setting, the
COUPLING RATIO softkey is highlighted.
The softkeys RBW/VBW... are selection keys. Only one softkey can be enabled
at any one time. The softkeys are only effective for the VBW AUTO selection in
the main menu.
The softkeys SPAN/RBW... are also selection keys. They are only effective for
the RBW AUTO selection in the main menu.
RBW/VBW SINE [1/3]
The RBW/VBW SINE [1/3] softkey sets the following coupling ratio:
video bandwidth = 3 × resolution bandwidth.
This is the default setting for the coupling ratio resolution bandwidth/video
bandwidth.
This is the coupling ratio recommended if sinusoidal signals are to be
measured.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
BAND:VID:RAT 3
This setting is only effective for the VBW AUTO selection in the main menu.
1302.6163.12
4.127
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – BW Key
RBW/VBW
PULSE [.1]
R&S ESU
The RBW/VBW PULSE [.1] softkey sets the following coupling ratio:
video bandwidth = 10 × resolution bandwidth or
video bandwidth = 10 MHz (= max. VBW).
This coupling ratio is recommended whenever the amplitudes of pulsed signals
are to be measured correctly. The IF filter is exclusively responsible for pulse
shaping. No additional evaluation is performed by the video filter.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
BAND:VID:RAT 10
This setting is only effective for the VBW AUTO selection in the main menu.
RBW/VBW
NOISE [10]
The RBW/VBW NOISE [10] softkey sets the following coupling ratio:
video bandwidth = resolution bandwidth/10
At this coupling ratio, noise and pulsed signals are suppressed in the video
domain. For noise signals, the average value is displayed.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
BAND:VID:RAT 0.1
This setting is only effective for the VBW AUTO selection in the main menu.
RBW/VBW MANUAL
The RBW/VBW MANUAL softkey activates the manual input of the coupling
ratio.
The resolution bandwidth/video bandwidth ratio can be set in the range 0.001
to 1000.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
BAND:VID:RAT 10
This setting is only effective for the VBW AUTO selection in the main menu.
SPAN/RBW
AUTO [50]
The SPAN/RBW AUTO [50] softkey sets the following coupling ratio:
resolution bandwidth = span/50
This coupling ratio is the default setting of the ESU
IEC/IEEE bus command:
BAND:RAT 0.02
This setting is only effective for the RBW AUTO selection in the main menu.
SPAN/RBW MANUAL
The SPAN/RBW MANUAL softkey activates the manual input of the coupling
ratio.
The span / resolution bandwidth ratio can be set in the range
1 to 10000.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
BAND:RAT 0.1
This setting is only effective for the RBW AUTO selection in the main menu.
1302.6163.12
4.128
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – BW Key
DEFAULT
COUPLING
The DEFAULT COUPLING softkey sets all coupled functions to the default
state (AUTO). In addition, the ratio RBW/VBW is set to SINE [1/3] and the ratio
SPAN/RBW to 50 in the COUPLING RATIO submenu (default setting,
COUPLING RATIO softkey not highlighted).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FILTER TYPE
BAND:AUTO ON
BAND:VID:AUTO ON
SWE:TIME:AUTO ON
The FILTER TYPE softkey opens the selection list for different filter types. In the
range up to 30 kHz digital band filters with Gaussian characteristic and filtering
with FFT algorithm can be selected.
Filter Types
•
EMI (6dB): The resolution bandwidths are implemented by Gaussian filters
with the set 6 dB bandwidth and correspond approximately to the pulse
bandwidth. For bandwidths up to 1 MHz, digital bandpass filters are used.
•
FFT: An FFT is performed. For that purpose, the filtered IF signal is digitized
and then transformed into the spectral domain via FFT. The transformation
range depends on the selected filter bandwidths and can be set between 4
kHz to 50 kHz. If the span is larger than the transformation range, several
transformations are performed and the results are appended to each other
in the spectral domain.
If the span is smaller than the transformation range, the measurement
results are interpolated when the number of measurement points provided
by the FFT is smaller than the number of display points in x-direction (625).
A flattop window serves as a window in the time domain so that high
amplitude accuracy as well as good selection are achieved.
Compared to bandpasses, FFT filters lead to significantly reduced sweep
times. For a span of 50 kHz and a bandwidth of 100 Hz, for instance, the
sweep time is reduced from 5 s to 40 ms. FFT filters are particularly suitable
for stationary signals (sinusoidal signals or signals that are continuously
modulated in time). For burst signals (TDMA) or pulsed signals, normal
filters are preferable.
1302.6163.12
4.129
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – BW Key
Aa
R&S ESU
Note
As soon as the FFT filters are active (RBW ≤ 30 kHz) the
sweep time display field (SWT) is replaced by the
acquisition time (AQT) display field.
FFT is a block transformation so the result depends on
the time relation between the data set to be transformed
and the burst or pulsed signal. A gated sweep
measurement for TDMA signals is therefore not provided
if FFT filters are used.
When the tracking generator (option FSU-B9) is used as
signal source for the DUT, filtering with the FFT
algorithm is not useful. The selection FFT is thus not
available if the tracking generator is switched on.
When the preselection is active, the FFT filter is not
available.
Additionally, a number of especially steep-edged channel filters are available
for power measurement.
A distinction is made between the following filter types:
•
CHANNEL = general, steep-edged channel filters
•
RRC = filters with root-raised cosine characteristic
(RRC = Root Raised Cosine)
When selecting these filter types, the automatic coupling of the resolution
bandwidth to the span is not available. The filters are selected via the RES BW
softkey.
A list of all available channel filters with their associated applications can be
found at the end of this section.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
BAND:TYPE NORM | FFT | CFIL | RRC | P5
4.130
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – BW Key
List of Available Channel Filters
The channel filters included in the following table are can be activated via the
FILTER TYPE softkey and are then available as resolution filters.
Aa
Note
For filters of type RRC (Root Raised Cosine), the filter
bandwidth indicated describes the sampling rate of the
filter.
For all other filters (CFILter) the filter bandwidth is the 3
dB bandwidth.
1302.6163.12
Filter Bandwidth
Filter Type
100 Hz
CFILter
200 Hz
CFILter
300 Hz
CFILter
500 Hz
CFILter
1 kHz
CFILter
3 kHz
CFILter
3.4 kHz
CFILter
4 kHz
CFILter
DAB, Satellite
8.5 kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (12.5 kHz channels)
10 kHz
CFILter
12.5 kHz
CFILter
CDMAone
14 kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (20 kHz channels)
16 kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (25 kHz channels)
18 kHz, α=0.35
RRC
TETRA
21 kHz
CFILter
PDC
24.3 kHz, α=0.35
RRC
IS 136
30 kHz
CFILter
CDPD, CDMAone
100 kHz
CFILter
150 kHz
CFILter
192 kHz
CFILter
300 kHz
CFILter
500 kHz
CFILter
1.0 MHz
CFILter
CDMAone
1.2288 MHz
CFILter
CDMAone
1.5 MHz
CFILter
DAB
5.6 MHz
CFILter
DVB-T (Japan)
6 MHz
CFILter
J.83 (8VSB DVB, USA)
6.4 MHz
CFILter
DVB-T
4.131
Application
A0
FM Radio
J.83 (8-VSB DVB, USA)
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – BW Key
MAIN PLL
BANDWIDTH
R&S ESU
The MAIN PLL BANDWIDTH softkey defines the bandwidth of the main PLL of
the analyzer synthesizer and thus influences the phase noise of the analyzer.
Three bandwidth settings are possible (High / Medium / Low); if AUTO is
selected, the bandwidth is set automatically (default).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FFT FILTER MODE
BAND:PLL AUTO
The softkey FFT FILTER MODE allows to specify between the following three
options for FFT filters:
WIDE:
The FFT filters with the greater partial span (this is the span which
is covered with one FFT analysis) are used always.
AUTO:
The firmware decides whether to use wide or narrow filters to
achieve the best performance of the measurement.
NARROW: The FFT filters with the smaller partial span are used, this allows
measurements near a carrier with reduced reference level, because
of a more narrow analog prefilter.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
VBW MODE LIN/
LOG
[SENSe1]:BWIDth:FFT:MODE WIDE | AUTO
| NARRow
The VBW MODE LIN/LOG softkey determines the position of the video filter in
the signal path for resolution bandwidths ≤ 100 kHz:
•
If LINear is selected, the video filter will be in front of the logarithmic amplifier
(default).
•
If LOGarithmic is selected, the video filter will be behind the logarithmic
amplifier.
The essential difference between the two operating modes relates to the
settling in the case of falling signal edges:
With LINear, the falling signal edge will be "flatter" than with LOGarithmic.
This is due to the conversion from linear power to logarithmic level units: a
reduction of the linear power by 50% reduces the logarithmic signal level by
only 3 dB.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
BAND:VID:TYPE LIN
4.132
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – SWEEP Key
Sweep Settings – SWEEP
The SWEEP key serves for configuring the sweep mode.
The SWEEP key calls a menu in which the sweep mode is defined. In splitscreen mode, the entries made are valid for the active window only.
The CONTINUOUS SWEEP, SINGLE SWEEP and SGL SWEEP DISP OFF
softkeys are mutually exclusive selection keys.
BW
SWEEP
CONTINUOUS
SWEEP
MEAS
TRIG
SINGLE
SWEEP
CONTINUE
SGL SWEEP
SWEEPTIME
MANUAL
SWEEPTIME
AUTO
SWEEP
COUNT
SWEEP
POINTS
SGL SWEEP
DISP OFF
CONTINUOUS
SWEEP
The CONTINUOUS SWEEP softkey activates the continuous sweep mode,
which means that the sweep takes place continuously according to the trigger
mode set.
When working in the split-screen mode and with different settings in the two
windows, screen A is swept first, followed by screen B. When the softkey is
pressed, the sweep is restarted.
CONTINUOUS SWEEP is the default setting of ESU.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SINGLE SWEEP
INIT:CONT ON
The SINGLE SWEEP softkey starts n sweeps after triggering. The number of
sweeps is determined by the SWEEP COUNT softkey.
When working in the split-screen mode, the frequency ranges of the two
windows are swept one after the other.
If a trace is swept using TRACE AVERAGE or MAXHOLD, the value set via the
SWEEP COUNT softkey determines the number of sweeps. If 0 has been
entered, one sweep is performed.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
INIT:CONT OFF
4.133
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – SWEEP Key
CONTINUE SGL
SWEEP
R&S ESU
The CONTINUE SGL SWEEP softkey repeats the number of sweeps set under
SWEEP COUNT, however without first deleting the trace.
This is particularly of interest when using the functions TRACE AVERAGE and
MAXHOLD, if previously recorded measurement results are to be taken into
consideration for averaging / maximum search.
If SGL SWEEP DISP OFF is active, the screen is switched off also during
repeated sweeps.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SWEEPTIME
MANUAL
The SWEEPTIME MANUAL softkey activates the window for entering the
sweep time manually (see also BW menu).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SWEEPTIME AUTO
SWE:TIME 10s
The SWEEPTIME AUTO softkey activates the automatic selection of the sweep
time as a function of the bandwidth of the resolution and video filters (see also
BW menu).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SWEEP COUNT
INIT:CONM
SWE:TIME:AUTO ON
The SWEEP COUNT softkey activates the window for the entry of the number
of sweeps to be performed by ESU after a single sweep has been started. If
Trace Average, Max Hold or Min Hold is activated, this also determines the
number of averaging or maximum search procedures.
Example
[TRACE1: MAX HOLD]
[SWEEP: SWEEP COUNT: {10} ENTER]
[SINGLE SWEEP]
ESU performs the Max Hold function over 10 sweeps.
The permissible range for the sweep count is 0 to 32767. For sweep count = 0
or 1, one sweep is performed. For trace averaging in the continuous-sweep
mode, ESU performs running averaging over 10 sweeps if sweep count = 0; if
sweep count = 1, no averaging is performed.
The sweep count is valid for all the traces in a diagram.
Aa
Note
The number of sweeps set in the TRACE menu is the
same as that in the SWEEP menu.
If SINGLE SWEEP is selected, the measurement stops
after the selected number of sweeps has been
performed.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
SWE:COUN 64
4.134
E-1
R&S ESU
SWEEP POINTS
Spectrum Analysis – SWEEP Key
The SWEEP POINTS softkey selects the number of measurement samples
acquired during a sweep.
The following numbers of points per sweep are available: 155, 313, 625
(default), 1251, 2501, 5001, 10001, 20001, 40001
Aa
Note
The autopeak detector will be disabled while the number
of points per sweep is ≠ 625.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SGL SWEEP
DISP OFF
The SGL SWEEP DISP OFF softkey deactivates the display while a single
sweep is being performed. Once the sweep has been completed, the trace is
shown.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
SWE:POIN 625
INIT:DISP OFF;:INIT
4.135
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – TRIG Key
R&S ESU
Triggering the Sweep – TRIG
The TRIG key opens a menu for selection of the various trigger sources, trigger
polarity and external gate function. The active trigger mode is indicated by
highlighting the corresponding softkey.
For video trigger, a trigger threshold can be entered, which is represented in the
diagram as a horizontal line.
To indicate that a trigger mode other than FREE RUN has been set, the
enhancement label TRG is displayed on the screen. If two windows are
displayed, TRG appears next to the appropriate window.
TRIG
FREE RUN
GATE MODE
LEVEL EDGE
VIDEO
POLARITY
POS
NEG
EXTERN
GATE
DELAY
IF POWER
GATE
LENGTH
TRIGGER
OFFSET
DELAY COMP
ON
OFF
SWEEPTIME
POLARITY
POS
NEG
GATED
TRIGGER
GATE
SETTINGS
FREE RUN
The FREE RUN softkey activates the free-run sweep mode, i.e. start of a sweep
is not triggered. Once a measurement is completed, another is started
immediately.
FREE RUN is the default setting of ESU.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
VIDEO
TRIG:SOUR
IMM
The VIDEO softkey activates triggering through the displayed voltage.
For the video triggering mode, a horizontal trigger line is shown in the diagram.
It may be used to set the trigger threshold between 0% and 100% of the overall
diagram height.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
TRIG:SOUR VID
TRIG:LEV:VID 50 PCT
4.136
E-1
R&S ESU
EXTERN
Spectrum Analysis – TRIG Key
The EXTERN softkey activates triggering via a TTL signal at the input connector
EXT TRIGGER/GATE on the rear panel.
The external trigger level can be adjusted in the range from 0.5 V to 3.5 V. The
default value is 1.4 V.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
IF POWER
TRIG:SOUR EXT <numeric_value>
SWE:EGAT:SOUR EXT
The IF POWER softkey activates triggering of the measurement via signals
which are outside the measurement channel.
For this purpose, the ESU uses a level detector at the second intermediate
frequency. can be selected in a range between –30 dBm and -10 dBm at the
input mixer. The resulting trigger level at the RF input is calculated via the
following formula:
The bandwidth at the intermediate frequency is 10 MHz. The ESU is triggered
as soon as the trigger threshold is exceeded within a 5 MHz range around the
selected frequency (= start frequency in the frequency sweep).
Thus, the measurement of spurious emissions, e.g. for pulsed carriers, is
possible even when the carrier lies outside the selected frequency span.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
TRIGGER OFFSET
TRIG:SOUR IFP
SWE:EGAT:SOUR IFP
The TRIGGER OFFSET softkey activates the window for entering the time
offset between the trigger signal and the start of the sweep.
Triggering is delayed by the entered time with respect to the trigger signal (time
entered > 0) or is started earlier (time entered < 0). The time may be entered in
multiples of 125 ns in the range -100 s to 100 s (default 0 s).
Aa
Note
A negative offset (pretrigger) can be set in the time
domain only (SPAN = 0 Hz) provided GATED TRIGGER
is not active in that domain.
The maximum allowed range and the maximum
resolution of the pretrigger is limited by the set sweep
time:
max. range = - 499/500 × sweep time
max. resolution = sweep time/500.
Pretriggering is not possible when the rms or the
average detector is activated
As a common input signal is used for both trigger and gate when selecting
EXTERN and IF POWER, changes to the gate delay will affect the trigger delay
(TRIGGER OFFSET) as well.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
TRIG:HOLD
4.137
10US
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – TRIG Key
POLARITY POS/
NEG
R&S ESU
The POLARITY POS/NEG softkey selects the polarity of the trigger source.
The sweep starts after a positive or negative edge of the trigger signal. The
selected setting is highlighted.
The selection is valid for all trigger modes with the exception of FREE RUN; in
the gate mode, it also applies to the gate polarity.
The default setting is POLARITY POS.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
TRIG:SLOP
POS
By using a gate in sweep mode and stopping the measurement while the gate
signal is inactive, the spectrum for pulsed RF carriers can be displayed without
the superposition of frequency components generated during switching.
Similarly, the spectrum can also be examined for an inactive carrier. The sweep
can be controlled by an external gate or by the internal power trigger.
Fig. 4-11
1302.6163.12
Pulsed signal GATE OFF
4.138
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – TRIG Key
Fig. 4-12
TDMA signal with GATE ON
The gated-sweep mode is activated by the GATED TRIGGER softkey. The
setting of the mode takes place in the GATE SETTINGS submenu.
GATED TRIGGER
The GATED TRIGGER softkey switches the sweep mode with gate on and off.
When gate is switched on, a gate signal applied to the rear panel connector EXT
TRIGGER/GATE or the internal IF power detector controls the sweep of the
analyzer. This selection is made via the EXTERN and IF POWER softkeys for
trigger and gate.
The length of the gate signal defines when the sweep is to be interrupted. Here
a differentiation is made between edge-triggered and level-triggered modes: in
case of edge triggering the gate length can be set via the GATE LENGTH
softkey, while in case of level triggering the gate length depends on the length
of the gate signal.
Fig. 4-13
Timing diagram for GATE, GATE DELAY and GATE LENGTH
This softkey requires the EXTERN or IF POWER trigger mode. If a different
mode is active, IF POWER is automatically selected.
1302.6163.12
4.139
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – TRIG Key
R&S ESU
Gated-sweep operation is also possible in the time domain. This enables - e.g.
in burst signals - level variations of individual slots to be displayed versus time.
To indicate that a gate is used for the sweep, the enhancement label GAT is
displayed on the screen. This label appears to the right of the window for which
the gate is configured.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SWE:EGAT ON
SWE:EGAT:SOUR
or:
SWE:EGAT:SOUR
IFP
EXT
GATE SETTINGS
The GATE SETTINGS softkey calls a submenu for making all the settings
required for gated-sweep operation.
At the same time, a transition is made to the time domain (span = 0) and the
time parameters GATE DELAY and GATE LENGTH are represented as vertical
lines. This allows the required gate time parameters to be set easily.
For highly accurate setting of gate delay and gate length, the x axis can be
altered using the SWEEPTIME softkey in a way that the signal range concerned
(e.g. one full burst) is displayed.
Then the sampling time and duration can be set by GATE DELAY and GATE
LENGTH in a way that the desired portion of the signal is shown.
When quitting the submenu, the program will return to the frequency domain
provided it was active before. The original span is restored so the desired
measurement can now be performed with the accurately set gate.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
--
4.140
E-1
R&S ESU
GATE MODE LEVEL/
EDGE
Spectrum Analysis – TRIG Key
The GATE MODE LEVEL/EDGE softkey selects the trigger mode. Gated
sweep is possible in the level-triggered as well as in the edge-triggered mode.
If level triggering is selected, the GATE LENGTH softkey becomes inactive and
cannot be operated.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
POLARITY POS/NEG
SWE:EGAT:TYPE
EDGE
The POLARITY POS/NEG softkey controls the polarity of the EXT TRIGGER/
GATE control line.
In case of level triggering the sweep is stopped by POLARITY POS and a logic
’0’ signal; the signal ’1’ will restart the sweep after the GATE DELAY time has
elapsed.
In case of edge triggering the sweep is continued on a ´0´ to ´1´ transition for
the duration of GATE LENGTH after a delay (GATE DELAY) has elapsed.
Changing the polarity automatically implies a transition of the trigger-edge
polarity (POLARITY softkey in the higher menu).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
GATE DELAY
SWE:EGAT:POL
POS
The GATE DELAY softkey activates the window for setting the delay time
between the gate signal and the continuation of the sweep.
This may be useful for taking into account a delay between the gate signal and
the stabilization of an RF carrier for example.
As gate delay, values between 125 ns and 100 s may be set. The position of
the delay on the time axis in relation to the sweep is indicated by the line
labelled GD.
As there is a common input signal for trigger and gate if EXTERN or IF POWER
is selected, changes to the gate delay will affect the trigger delay (TRIGGER
OFFSET) as well.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
GATE LENGTH
SWE:EGAT:HOLD
1US
The GATE LENGTH softkey activates the window for setting the sweep
duration of ESU in the edge-triggered mode.
Values between 125 ns and 100 s may be set for the gate length. The length of
the gate in relation to the sweep is indicated by the line labelled GL.
This softkey is only available if GATE MODE EDGE (edge triggering) has been
selected.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SWEEP TIME
SWE:EGAT:LENG
100US
The SWEEP TIME softkey enables the user to change the time axis to obtain a
higher resolution for positioning gate delay and gate length.
When this is to be done, the sweep time temporarily changes; the original value
is restored when the menu is quit.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
--
4.141
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – TRIG Key
R&S ESU
Measurement example
The modulation spectrum of a GSM or PCS1900 signal is to be measured using
the gated-sweep function. The signal is generated by a Signal Generator
SME03 whose RF output is directly connected to the RF input of ESU.
Settings on SME03:
FREQ:
802 MHz
Level:
0 dBm: Return
Digital Mod:
Select: GMSK: Select
Source:
Select: PRBS: Select: Return
Level Attenuation:
Select: 60 dB: Return
The SME03 supplies a GMSK-modulated TDMA signal (GSM).
Settings on ESU:
Conventions:
[KEY]
Menu called by this key. All information between the
brackets refers to this menu.
{Number}
Numeric value to be entered for the parameter on hand.
SOFTKEY
Softkey to be used for making a selection or entering a
value.
[PRESET]
[FREQ:
CENTER {802} MHz]
[SPAN
{3.6} MHz]
[AMPT:
REF LEVEL {0} dBm: RF ATTEN MANUAL: {10} dB]
[BW:
RES BW MANUAL: {30} kHz]
[TRACE:
TRACE 1 DETECTOR: RMS]
[SWEEP:
SWEEPTIME MANUAL: {50} ms]
[TRIG:
EXTERN
GATED TRIGGER;
GATE SETTINGS: GATE MODE EDGE; POLARITY POS
SWEEPTIME MANUAL {1} ms: GATE DELAY {300} µs:
GATE LENGTH: {250} µs]
The following figure shows the screen display for setting gate parameters. The
vertical lines for gate delay (GD) and gate length (GL) can be adjusted to the
burst signal by entering numeric values or by means of the rotary knob.
1302.6163.12
4.142
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – TRIG Key
Fig. 4-14
Setting GATE DELAY and GATE LENGTH in time domain by
means of lines GD and GL
On quitting the GATE SETTINGS menu, ESU returns to the previous screen.
DELAY COMP ON/
OFF
The DELAY COMP ON/OFF softkey enables the filter group delay
compensation for the external trigger. If a bursted signal is analyzed in zero
span and the delay compensation is on, a change of the RBW will not change
the rising slope of the signal.
Default is OFF.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
TRIG:HOLD:ADJ:AUTO ON|OFF
4.143
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
R&S ESU
Selection and Setting of Traces – TRACE
The traces are selected using the SELECT TRACE softkey in the menu of the
TRACE key.
The traces can individually be activated for a measurement or frozen after
completion of a measurement. Traces that are not activated are blanked.
The display mode can be selected for each trace. Traces can be overwritten in
each measurement (CLEAR/WRITE mode), averaged over several
measurements (AVERAGE mode), or a maximum or minimum value can be
determined from several measurements and displayed (MAX HOLD or MIN
HOLD).
Individual detectors can be selected for the various traces. The autopeak
detector displays maximum and minimum values connected by a vertical line.
The max peak detector and min peak detector display the maximum and
minimum value of the level within a pixel. The sample detector displays the
instantaneous value of the level at a pixel. The rms detector displays the power
(rms value) of the measured values within a pixel, the average detector the
average value.
Selection of Trace Functions
The trace functions are subdivided as follows:
•
Display mode of trace (CLEAR/WRITE, VIEW and BLANK)
•
Evaluation of the trace as a whole (AVERAGE, MAX HOLD and MIN HOLD)
•
Evaluation of individual pixels of a trace (AUTOPEAK, MAX PEAK, MIN
PEAK, SAMPLE, RMS, AVERAGE and QUASIPEAK)
The TRACE key opens a menu offering the setting options for the selected
trace.
Traces can be displayed, blanked and copied. Traces can also be corrected
with the aid of mathematical functions.
The measurement detector for the individual display modes can be selected
directly by the user or set automatically by ESU.
The default setting is trace 1 in the overwrite mode (CLEAR / WRITE), the other
traces 2 and 3 are switched off (BLANK).
The CLEAR/WRITE, MAX HOLD, MIN HOLD, AVERAGE, VIEW and BLANK
softkeys are mutually exclusive selection keys.
1302.6163.12
4.144
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
AUTO
SELECT
SELECT
TRACE
MIN HOLD
CLEAR/
WRITE
HOLD CONT
ON
OFF
MAX HOLD
ANALOG TR
OFF
ON
TRACE
T1-T2->T1
T1-T3->T1
TRACE
POSITION
AVG MODE
LOG
LIN
BLANK
SWEEP
COUNT
ASCII FILE
EXPORT
DETECTOR
DECIM SEP
.
,
TRACE
MATH
COPY
TRACE
SELECT TRACE
DETECTOR
SAMPLE
DETECTOR
RMS
DETECTOR
AVERAGE
DETECTOR
QPK
TRACE MATH
OFF
The SELECT TRACE softkey activates the entry for the active trace (1, 2, 3).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CLEAR/WRITE
DETECTOR
MAX PEAK
DETECTOR
MIN PEAK
AVERAGE
VIEW
DETECTOR
AUTO PEAK
-- (selected via numeric suffix of: TRACe)
The CLEAR/WRITE softkey activates the overwrite mode for the collected
measured values, i.e. the trace is overwritten by each sweep.
In the CLEAR/WRITE display mode all the available detectors can be selected.
In the default mode the autopeak detector (setting AUTO) is selected.
Each time the CLEAR/WRITE softkey is actuated, ESU clears the selected
trace memory and starts the measurement anew.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
MAX HOLD
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE WRIT
The MAX HOLD softkey activates the max peak detector.
ESU saves the sweep result in the trace memory only if the new value is greater
than the previous one.
The detector is automatically set to MAX PEAK. The maximum value of a signal
can thus be determined over several sweeps.
This is especially useful with modulated or impulsive signals. The signal
spectrum is filled up upon each sweep until all signal components are detected
in a kind of envelope.
Pressing the MAX HOLD softkey again clears the trace memory and restarts
the max hold mode.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE MAXH
4.145
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
AVERAGE
R&S ESU
The AVERAGE softkey activates the trace averaging function. The average is
formed over several sweeps. Averaging can be performed with any of the
detectors available. If the detector is automatically selected by ESU, the sample
detector is used.
Depending on the setting of AVG MODE LOG / LIN, the logarithmic level values
or the measured power/voltage values are averaged.
Averaging is restarted every time the AVERAGE softkey is pressed. The trace
memory is always cleared.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE AVER
Description of averaging
Averaging is carried out over the pixels derived from the measurement
samples. Several measured values may be combined in a pixel. This means
that with linear level display the average is formed over linear amplitude values
and with logarithmic level display over levels. For this reason the trace must be
measured again when changing between LIN and LOG display mode. The
settings CONT/SINGLE SWEEP and running averaging apply to the average
display analogously.
There are two methods for calculating the average. For a sweep count = 0, a
running average is calculated according to the following formula:
Due to the weighting between the new measured value and the trace average,
past values have practically no influence on the displayed trace after about ten
sweeps. With this setting, signal noise is effectively reduced without need for
restarting the averaging process after a change of the signal.
If the sweep count is >1, averaging takes place over the selected number of
sweeps. In this case the displayed trace is determined during averaging
according to the following formula:
where n is the number of the current sweep (n = 2 ... SWEEP COUNT). No
averaging is carried out for the first sweep but the measured value is stored in
the trace memory. With increasing n, the displayed trace is increasingly
smoothed since there are more single sweeps for averaging.
After the selected number of sweeps the average trace is saved in the trace
memory. Until this number of sweeps is reached, a preliminary average is
displayed.
1302.6163.12
4.146
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
After completion of averaging, i.e. when the averaging length defined by
SWEEP COUNT is attained, a running averaging is continued with
CONTINUOUS SWEEP according to the following formula:
where
Trace
= new trace
Traceold = old trace
N
= SWEEP COUNT
The display "Sweep N of N" does not change any more until a new start is
triggered.
In the SINGLE SWEEP mode, the number of sweeps is triggered with SWEEP
START. The sweeps are stopped when the selected number of sweeps is
attained. The number of the current sweep and the total number of sweeps are
shown on the display: "Sweep 3 of 200".
VIEW
The VIEW softkey freezes the current contents of the trace memory and
displays it.
If a trace is frozen by VIEW, the instrument settings can be changed without the
displayed trace being modified (exception: level display range and reference
level, see below). The fact that the trace and the current instrument setting do
not agree any more is indicated by an enhancement label "*" at the right edge
of the grid.
If in the VIEW display mode the level display range (RANGE) or the reference
level (REF LEVEL) are changed, ESU automatically adapts the measured data
to the changed display range. This allows an amplitude zoom to be made after
the measurement in order to show details of the trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
BLANK
The BLANK softkey activates the blanking of the trace on the screen.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SWEEP COUNT
1302.6163.12
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE VIEW
DISP:WIND:TRAC OFF
The SWEEP COUNT softkey activates the entry of the number of sweeps used
for averaging. The allowed range of values is 0 to 30000 and the following
should be observed:
•
Sweep Count = 0 means running averaging
•
Sweep Count = 1 means no averaging being carried out
•
Sweep Count > 1 means averaging over the selected number of sweeps; in
the continuous sweep mode averaging is performed until the set number of
sweeps is attained and is then continued as running averaging.
4.147
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
R&S ESU
The default setting is running averaging (Sweep Count = 0). The number of
sweeps used for averaging is the same for all active traces in the selected
diagram.
Aa
Note
The setting of the sweep count in the TRACE menu is
equivalent to the setting in the SWEEP menu.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SWE:COUN 64
DETECTOR
See following section “Selection of Detector” on page 4.152.
TRACE MATH
See following section “Mathematical Functions for Traces” on page 4.157.
MIN HOLD
The MIN HOLD softkey activates the min peak detector. ESU saves for each
sweep the smallest of the previously stored/currently measured values in the
trace memory. The detector is automatically set to MIN PEAK. In this way, the
minimum value of a signal can be determined over several sweeps.
This function is useful e.g. for making an unmodulated carrier in a composite
signal visible. Noise, interference signals or modulated signals are suppressed
by the min hold function whereas a CW signal is recognized by its constant
level.
Pressing the MIN HOLD softkey again clears the trace memory and restarts the
min hold function.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
HOLD CONT
DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE MINH
The HOLD CONT softkey defines whether the traces in min hold and max hold
mode are reset after some specific parameter changes.
•
OFF: The traces are reset after some definite parameter changes (default)
•
ON: This mechanism is switched off.
In general, parameter changes require a restart of the measurement before
results are evaluated (e.g. with markers). For those changes that are known to
require a new measurement (e.g. modification of the span), the trace is
automatically reset so that erroneous evaluations of previous results are
avoided.
This mechanism can be switched off for those exceptional cases where the
described behavior is unwelcome.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1..4>:
MODE:HCON ON|OFF
4.148
E-1
R&S ESU
AVG MODE LOG/
LIN
Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
The AVG MODE LOG/LIN softkey selects logarithmic or linear averaging for the
logarithmic level display mode.
At the same time the difference calculation is switched between linear and
logarithmic in submenu TRACE MATH.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MATH:AVER:MODE LIN
With logarithmic averaging, the dB values of the display voltage are averaged
or substracted from each other with trace mathematical functions. With linear
averaging the level values in dB are converted into linear voltages or powers
prior to averaging. Voltage or power values are averaged or offset against each
other and reconverted into level values.
For stationary signals the two methods yield the same result.
Logarithmic averaging is recommended if sinewave signals are to be clearly
visible against noise since with this type of averaging noise suppression is
improved while the sinewave signals remain unchanged.
For noise or pseudo-noise signals the positive peak amplitudes are decreased
in logarithmic averaging due the characteristic involved and the negative peak
values are increased relative to the average value. If the distorted amplitude
distribution is averaged, a value is obtained that is smaller than the actual
average value. The difference is -2.5 dB.
A m p li tu d e
A m p litu d e d i str i b u ti o n
( w i th o u t a v e ra g in g )
2 .5 d B
A m p li tu d e d i str i b u tio n
( a fte r a v e ra g i n g )
P r o b a b il it y d is tr ib u ti o n
This low average value is usually corrected in noise power measurements by a
2.5 dB factor. Therefore the ESU offers the selection of linear averaging. The
trace data are delogarithmized prior to averaging, then averaged and
logarithmized again for display on the screen. The average value is always
correctly displayed irrespective of the signal characteristic.
1302.6163.12
4.149
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
ASCII FILE EXPORT
R&S ESU
The ASCII FILE EXPORT softkey stores the active trace in ASCII format, e.g.
on a memory stick.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FORM ASC;
MMEM:STOR:TRAC 1,'TRACE.DAT'
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters and a
data section containing the trace data.
The data of the file header consist of three columns, each separated by a
semicolon:
parameter name; numeric value; basic unit
The data section starts with the key word " Trace <n> " (<n> = number of stored
trace), followed by the measured data in one or several columns (depending on
measurement) which are also separated by a semicolon.
This format can be read in from spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MSExcel. It is necessary to define ';' as a separator.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
Different language versions of evaluation programs may
require a different handling of the decimal point. It is
therefore possible to select between separators '.'
(decimal point) and ',' (comma) using the DECIM SEP
softkey.
4.150
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
Example - file header
1302.6163.12
File contents
Description
Type; ESU8;
Instrument model
Version;1.00;
Firmware version
Date;01.Jul 1999;
Date of data set storage
Mode;Spectrum;
Instrument mode
Center Freq;55000;Hz
Center frequency
Freq Offset;0;Hz
Frequency offset
Span;90000;Hz
Frequency range (0 Hz with zero span and statistics
measurements)
x-Axis;LIN;
Scaling of x axis linear (LIN) or logarithmic (LOG)
Start;10000;Hz
Stop;100000;Hz
Start/stop of the display range.
Unit:
Hz for span > 0, s for span = 0,
dBm/dB for statistics measurements
Ref.Level;-30;dBm
Reference level
Level Offset;0;dB
Level offset
Ref Position;75;%
Position of reference level referred to diagram limits (0% =
lower edge)
y-Axis;LOG;
Scaling of y axis linear (LIN) or logarithmic (LOG)
Level Range;100;dB
Display range in y direction. Unit: dB with x axis LOG, % with
x axis LIN
RF Att;20;dB
Input attenuation
RBW;100000;Hz
Resolution bandwidth
VBW;30000;Hz
Video bandwidth
SWT;0.005;s
Sweep time
Trace Mode;AVERAGE;
Display mode of trace:
CLR/WRITE,AVERAGE,MAXHOLD,MINHOLD
Detector;SAMPLE;
Detector set:
AUTOPEAK,MAXPEAK,MINPEAK,AVERAGE,
RMS,SAMPLE,QUASIPEAK
Sweep Count;20;
Number of sweeps set
4.151
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
R&S ESU
Example - data section of the file
File contents
Description
Trace 1:;;
Selected trace
x-Unit;Hz;
Unit of x values:
Hz with span > 0; s with span = 0;
dBm/dB with statistics measurements
y-Unit;dBm;
Unit of y values:
dB*/V/A/Ω depending on the selected unit with y axis LOG or
% with y axis LIN
Values; 625;
Number of test points
10000;-10.3;-15.7
Measured values:
10180;-11.5;-16.9
<x value>, <y1>, <y2>
10360;-12.0;-17.4
<y2> being available only with detector AUTOPEAK and
containing in this case the smallest of the two measured
values for a test point.
...;...;
DECIM SEP
The DECIM SEP softkey selects the decimal separator between '.' (decimal
point) and ',' (comma) with floating-point numerals for the function ASCII FILE
EXPORT.
With the selection of the decimal separator different language versions of
evaluation programs (e.g. MS-Excel) can be supported.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
COPY TRACE
FORM:DEXP:DSEP POIN
The COPY TRACE softkey copies the screen contents of the current trace into
another trace memory. The desired memory is selected by entering the number
1, 2 or 3.
Upon copying, the contents of the selected memory is overwritten and the new
contents displayed in view mode.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
TRAC:COPY TRACE1,TRACE2
Selection of Detector
The detectors of the ESU are implemented as pure digital devices. The
detectors available are the peak detectors which determine the maximum and/
or the minimum value from a number of samples, the rms detector which
measures the power within a pixel, the average, the quasipeak and the sample
detector. The sample detector routes through the sampled data without any
modification or performs a data reduction by suppressing measured values that
cannot be displayed.
The peak detectors compare the current level value with the maximum or
minimum level from the previously sampled data. When the number of samples
defined by the instrument setting is reached, the samples are combined in the
displayed pixels. Each of the 625 pixels of the display thus represents 1/625 of
the sweep range and contains all single measurements (frequency samples) in
this subrange in compressed form. For each trace display mode an optimized
detector is selected automatically. Since peak detectors and sample detector
are connected in parallel, a single sweep is sufficient for collecting all detector
values for 3 traces.
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R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
Peak detectors (MAX PEAK and MIN PEAK)
Peak detectors are implemented by digital comparators. They determine the
largest of all positive (max peak) or the smallest of all negative (min peak) peak
values of the levels measured at the individual frequencies which are displayed
in one of the 625 pixels. This procedure is repeated for each pixel so that for
wide frequency spans and despite the limited resolution of the display a large
number of measurements can be taken into consideration for the display of the
spectrum.
Autopeak detector
The AUTOPEAK detector combines the two peak detectors. The max peak
detector and the min peak detector simultaneously determine the maximum and
the minimum level within a displayed test point and display it as a single
measured value. The maximum and minimum levels within a frequency point
are connected by a vertical line.
Sample detector
The SAMPLE detector routes through the sampled data without any further
evaluation and either displays them directly or, for reasons of speed in case of
short sweep times, first writes them into a memory and processes them
subsequently.
There is no data reduction, i.e. no summing up of measured values of
neighboring frequencies or time samples. If during a frequency sweep more
measured values are obtained than can be displayed, measured values will be
lost. This means that discrete signals might be lost.
The sample detector therefore can only be recommended for a span-toresolution bandwidth ratio of up to approx. 250 in order to ensure that no signal
will be suppressed (example: span 1 MHz, -> min. bandwidth 5 kHz).
RMS detector
The RMS detector forms the rms value of the measured values within a pixel.
To this effect, ESU uses the linear voltage after envelope detection. The
sampled linear values are squared, summed and the sum is divided by the
number of samples (= root mean square). For logarithmic display the logarithm
is formed from the square sum. For linear display the root mean square value
is displayed. Each pixel thus corresponds to the power of the measured values
summed up in the pixel.
The rms detector supplies the power of the signal irrespective of the waveform
(CW carrier, modulated carrier, white noise or impulsive signal). Correction
factors as needed for other detectors for measuring the power of the different
signal classes are not required.
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4.153
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Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
R&S ESU
Average detector
The average detector forms the average value of the measured values within a
pixel.
To this effect, ESU uses the linear voltage after envelope detection. The
sampled linear values are summed up and the sum is divided by the number of
samples (= linear average value). For logarithmic display the logarithm is
formed from the average value. For linear display the average value is
displayed. Each pixel thus corresponds to the average of the measured values
summed up in the pixel.
The average detector supplies the average value of the signal irrespective of
the waveform (CW carrier, modulated carrier, white noise or impulsive signal).
Quasipeak detector
The quasipeak detector resembles the behavior of an analog voltmeter by
evaluating the measured values in a pixel.
The quasipeak detector is especially designed for the requirements of EMC
measurements and is used for evaluating pulse-shaped spurious.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
During a frequency sweep, ESU increments the 1st local
oscillator in steps that are smaller than approximately 1/
10 of the bandwidth. This is to ensure that the signal
level is correctly measured. For narrow bandwidths and
wide frequency spans a very large number of measured
values is thus obtained. The number of frequency steps,
however, always is a multiple of 625 (= number of pixels
that can be displayed). With the sample detector
selected, only every nth value is displayed. The value of
n depends on the number of measured values, i.e. on the
frequency span, the resolution bandwidth and the
measurement rate.
4.154
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R&S ESU
DETECTOR
Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
DETECTOR
AUTO
SELECT
DETECTOR
AUTOPEAK
DETECTOR
MAX PEAK
DETECTOR
MIN PEAK
DETECTOR
SAMPLE
DETECTOR
RMS
DETECTOR
AVERAGE
DETECTOR
QPK
The DETECTOR softkey opens a submenu for selecting the detector for the
selected trace. The softkey is highlighted if the detector is not selected with
AUTO SELECT.
The detector can be selected independently for each trace. The AUTO SELECT
mode selects the optimum detector for each display mode of the trace (Clear/
Write, Max Hold or Min Hold).
The softkeys for the detectors are mutually exclusive selection keys.
AUTO SELECT
1302.6163.12
The AUTO SELECT softkey (= default setting) selects the optimum detector for
the set display mode of the trace (Clear/Write, Max Hold and Min Hold) and the
selected filter mode (bandpass/FFT).
Trace display
Detector (bandpass)
Detector (FFT)
Clear/Write
Auto Peak
Max Peak
Average
Sample
Sample
Max Hold
Max Peak
Max Peak
Min Hold
Min Peak
Max Peak
4.155
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Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
R&S ESU
The detector activated for the specific trace is identified in the respective trace
display field as follows:
Detector
Auto Peak
AP
Max Peak
PK
Min Peak
MI
Average
AV
RMS
RM
Sample
SA
Quasipeak
QP
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DETECTOR
AUTOPEAK
DETECTOR MAX
PEAK
The DETECTOR AUTOPEAK softkey activates the autopeak detector.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DET POS
The DETECTOR MIN PEAK softkey activates the min peak detector. Weak
sinewave signals become clearly visible in noise using this detector. In case of
a composite signal made up of sinewave and impulsive signals, the impulsive
signals are suppressed.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DETECTOR SAMPLE
DET APE
The DETECTOR MAX PEAK softkey activates the max peak detector. It is
recommended for measurement of impulsive signals.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DETECTOR MIN
PEAK
DET:AUTO ON
DET NEG
The DETECTOR SAMPLE softkey activates the sample detector.
It is used for measuring uncorrelated signals such as noise. The power can be
determined with the aid of fixed correction factors for evaluation and the
logarithmic function.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DETECTOR RMS
DET SAMP
The DETECTOR RMS softkey activates the rms detector.
The rms detector supplies the power of the signal independent of the waveform.
For this effect the root mean square of all sampled level values is formed during
the sweep of a pixel. The sweep time thus determines the number of averaged
values and with increasing sweep time better averaging is obtained. The rms
detector is thus an alternative for averaging over several sweeps (see TRACE
AVERAGE).
Since the video bandwidth must be at least 10 times the resolution bandwidth
(RBW) to ensure that video filtering does not invalidate the rms values of the
signal, this ratio is set automatically upon activating the detector.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
DET RMS
4.156
E-1
R&S ESU
DETECTOR
AVERAGE
Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
The DETECTOR AVERAGE softkey activates the average detector.
In contrast to the rms detector, the average detector supplies the linear average
of all sampled level values during the sweep of a pixel.
The same relations as for the rms detector apply (see above).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DETECTOR QPK
DET AVER
The DETECTOR QPK softkey activates the quasipeak detector.
This detector evaluates the sampled level values during the sweep of a pixel
like an analog voltmeter.
On switching the quasipeak detector on the video bandwidth is automatically
set to 10*RBW so as to exclude the influence of the video filter on the signal
evaluation.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DET QPE
Mathematical Functions for Traces
TRACE MATH
TRACE
MATH
TRACE MATH
T1-T2->T1
T1-T3->T1
TRACE
POSITION
REF-T1
->T1
TRACE MATH
OFF
The TRACE MATH softkey opens a submenu in which the difference between
the selected trace to trace 1 is calculated. The softkey is highlighted if a math
function is activated.
1302.6163.12
4.157
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – TRACE Key
T1-T2->T1
T1-T3->T1
R&S ESU
The T1-T2 and T1-T3 softkeys subtract the corresponding traces. The result
displayed is referred to the zero point defined by TRACE POSITION.
To indicate that the trace has been obtained by subtraction, the difference "1 2" or "1 - 3" is indicated on the trace info of trace 1 and in the TRACE main menu
the TRACE MATH softkey is highlighted.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
TRACE POSITION
CALC:MATH (TRACE1–TRACE2)
CALC:MATH (TRACE1–TRACE3)
The TRACE POSITION softkey activates the entry of the trace position for 0
difference. The position is stated in % of the diagram height.
The range of values extends from -100% to +200%
IEC/IEEE bus command:
TRACE MATH OFF
The TRACE MATH OFF softkey switches the math function off.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
DISP:MATH:POS 50PCT
CALC:MATH:STAT OFF
4.158
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – CAL Key
Recording the Correction Data – CAL
The ESU obtains its high measurement accuracy through its inbuilt selfalignment method.
The correction data and characteristics required for the alignment are
determined by comparison of the results at different settings with the known
characteristics of the high-precision calibration signal source of ESU at
128 MHz. The correction data are then available in the instrument as a file and
can be displayed by means of the CAL RESULTS softkey.
For service purposes the use of correction data can be deactivated by means
of the CAL CORR ON/OFF softkey. If the correction data recording is aborted,
the last complete correction data set is restored.
Aa
Note
The term "Calibration" formerly used for the integrated
self alignment was often mistaken for the "true"
calibration of the instrument at the test set in production
and in service. It is therefore no longer used although it
appears in the abbreviated form in the name of keys
("CAL...").
The CAL key opens a menu with the available functions for recording,
displaying and activating the data for self alignment.
1302.6163.12
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Spectrum Analysis – CAL Key
CAL TOTAL
R&S ESU
The CAL TOTAL softkey starts the recording of correction data of the
instrument.
If the correction data recording has failed or if the correction values are
deactivated (CAL CORR = OFF softkey), the status field indicates
UNCAL
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CAL ABORT
The CAL ABORT softkey interrupts the recording of correction data and
restores the last complete correction data set.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CAL CORR ON/OFF
CAL:ABOR
The CAL CORR ON/OFF softkey switches the calibration data on/off.
•
ON: The status message depends upon the results of the total calibration.
•
OFF: The message UNCAL appears in the status line.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
YIG CORR ON/OFF
*CAL?
CAL:STAT ON
The YIG CORR ON/OFF softkey switches on or off the automatic, cyclic
correction of the temperature-dependent frequency drift of the YIG filter.
When switched to ON (default setting), it is checked once per minute whether a
frequency correction for the YIG filter is required. Frequency correction is
performed if the temperature has changed by more than 5K relative to the last
instance of correction.
Aa
Note
If the instrument is operated in a temperature-controlled
environment, the cyclic frequency drift correction can –
for time-critical applications – be switched off after an
operating period of ≥ 30 minutes.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CAL RESULTS
:[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:YIG:
TEMPerature:AUTO ON | OFF
The CAL RESULTS softkey calls the CALIBRATION RESULTS table, which
shows the correction data found during calibration.
The CALIBRATION RESULTS table contains the following information:
– date and time of last record of correction values
– overall results of correction value record
– list of found correction values according to function/module
1302.6163.12
4.160
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R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – CAL Key
The results have the following meaning:
PASSED
calibration successful without any restrictions
CHECK
deviation of correction value larger than expected, correction
could however be performed
FAILED
deviations of correction value too large, no correction was
possible. The found correction data are not valid.
ABORTED
calibration aborted
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PAGE UP /
PAGE DOWN
The softkeys PAGE UP and PAGE DOWN scroll one page forward or backward
in the CALIBRATION RESULTS table. They have no function when the table is
closed.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CAL:RES?
--
4.161
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MKR Key
R&S ESU
Markers and Delta Markers – MKR
The markers are used for marking points on traces, reading out measurement
results and for quickly selecting a display section. ESU provides four markers
per display window. All markers can be used either as markers or delta
markers. The availability of marker functions depends on whether the
measurement is performed in the frequency, time or level domain.
The marker that can be moved by the user is defined in the following as the
active marker.
Fig. 4-15
Examples of marker display
Temporary markers are used in addition to the markers and delta markers to
evaluate the measurement results. They disappear when the associated
function is deactivated.
The measurement results of the active marker (also called marker values) are
displayed in the marker field. The marker info field at the upper right of the
display shows the marker location (here, frequency), the level and the currently
selected trace [T1].
MARKER 1 [T1]
-27.5 dBm
123.4567 MHz
The MKR key calls a menu that contains all marker and delta marker standard
functions. If no marker is active, MARKER 1 will be enabled and a peak search
on the trace carried out. Otherwise, the data entry for the marker activated last
is opened.
1302.6163.12
4.162
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R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MKR Key
FR EQ
S P AN
MKR
M KR
MARKER
MARKER
MARKER 1
MKR->TRACE
MARKER 2
LINK MKR1
AND DELTA1
MARKER 3
MARKER 1/2/3/4
MARKER NORM
DELTA
MARKER 4
CNT RESOL
10 kHz
MARKER
NORM DELTA
CNT RESOL
1 kHz
SIGNAL
COUNT
CNT RESOL
100 Hz
REFERENCE
FIXED
CNT RESOL
10 Hz
MARKER
ZOOM
CNT RESOL
1 Hz
ALL MARKER
OFF
CNT RESOL
0.1 Hz
REF FIXED
REF FXD
ON
OFF
REF POINT
LEVEL
REF POINT
LVL OFFSET
REF POINT
FREQUENCY
REF POINT
TIME
PEAK
SEARCH
SIGNAL ID
The MARKER 1/2/3/4.softkey selects the corresponding marker and activates
it.
MARKER 1 is always the normal marker. After they have been switched on,
MARKERS 2 to 4 are delta markers that refer to MARKER 1. These markers
can be converted into markers with absolute value display by means of the
MARKER NORM DELTA softkey. When MARKER 1 is the active marker,
pressing the MARKER NORM DELTA softkey switches on an additional delta
marker.
Pressing the MARKER 1 to 4 softkey again switches off the selected marker.
1302.6163.12
4.163
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Spectrum Analysis – MKR Key
R&S ESU
Example
[PRESET]
ESU is set to the default setting.
[MKR]
On calling the menu, MARKER 1 is switched on ('1'
highlighted in the softkey) and positioned on the maximum
value of the trace. It is a normal marker and the MARKER
NORMAL softkey is highlighted.
[MARKER 2]
MARKER 2 is switched on ('2' highlighted in the softkey). It is
automatically defined as a delta marker on switching on so the
DELTA is highlighted on softkey MARKER NORM DELTA.
The frequency and level of MARKER 2 with reference to
MARKER 1 are output in the marker info field.
[MARKER
The MARKER NORM DELTA softkey is highlighted.
NORM DELTA] MARKER 2 becomes a normal marker. The frequency and
level of MARKER 2 are output as absolute values in the
marker info field.
[MARKER 2]
MARKER 2 is switched off. MARKER 1 is the active marker for
entry. The frequency and level of MARKER 1 are output in the
marker info field.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MARK ON;
CALC:MARK:X <value>;
CALC:MARK:Y?
CALC:DELT ON;
CALC:DELT:MODE ABS|REL
CALC:DELT:X <value>;
CALC:DELT:X:REL?
CALC:DELT:Y?
When several traces are being displayed, the marker is set to the maximum
value (peak) of the active trace which has the lowest number (1 to 3). In case a
marker is already located there, it will be set to the frequency of the next lowest
level (next peak).
When the split-screen display mode is active, the marker will be placed in the
active window. A marker can only be enabled when at least one trace in the
corresponding window is visible.
If a trace is turned off, the corresponding markers and marker functions are also
deactivated. If the trace is switched on again (VIEW, CLR/WRITE;..), the
markers along with coupled functions will be restored to their original positions
provided the markers have not been used on another trace.
1302.6163.12
4.164
E-1
R&S ESU
MKR->TRACE
Spectrum Analysis – MKR Key
The MKR->TRACE softkey places the marker on a new trace. The trace is
selected via a data entry field. Only those traces can be selected which are
visible on the screen in the same window.
Example
Three traces are presented on the screen. The marker is always on Trace 1 on
switching on.
[MKR ->TRACE] "2"<ENTER>
The marker jumps to Trace 2 but remains on
the previous frequency or time.
[MKR ->TRACE] "3"<ENTER>
The marker jumps to Trace 3. '
IEC/IEEE bus command:
LINK MKR1 AND
DELTA1
CALC:MARK1:TRAC 1
CALC:DELT:TRAC 1
With the softkey LINK MKR1 AND DELTA1 the delta marker1 can be linked to
marker1, so if the x-axis value of the marker1 is changed the delta marker1 will
follow on the same x-position. The link is default off, and can be switched on.
Example for setup
•
PRESET
•
TRACE | MAX HOLD
•
TRACE | SELECT TRACE | 2 | AVERAGE
•
MKR (Switches marker1 on)
•
MARKER NORM DELTA | DELTA (Delta Marker 1 ON)
•
MKR-> | MKR->TRACE | 2
•
LINK MKR1 AND DELTA1
Now select the Marker1 (by switching MARKER1 from DELTA back to NORM)
and when changing the x-axis value (by knob wheel or UP/DOWN keys) the
delta marker1 will follow automatically.
The delta marker1 x-value can not be changed away from 0 as long as the link
functionality is active.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:
LINK ON | OFF
The suffix at DELTamarker can only be 1 or not present, because the
functionality is only available for marker1.
1302.6163.12
4.165
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MKR Key
R&S ESU
Frequency Measurement with the Frequency
Counter
In order to accurately determine the frequency of a signal, ESU is equipped with
a frequency counter which measures the frequency of the RF signal at the
intermediate frequency. Using the measured IF, ESU calculates the frequency
of the RF input signal by applying the known frequency conversion factors.
The frequency measurement error depends only upon the accuracy of the
frequency standard used (external or internal reference). Although ESU always
operates synchronously irrespective of the set span, the frequency counter
delivers a more exact result than a measurement performed with a marker. This
is due to the following:
•
The marker measures only the position of the pixel on the trace and infers
the frequency of the signal from this value. The trace, however, contains only
a limited number of pixels. Depending upon the selected span, each pixel
may contain many measurement values, which therefore limits the
frequency resolution.
•
The resolution with which the frequency can be measured is proportional to
the measurement time. For this reason, the bandwidth is normally made as
wide as possible and the sweep time as short as possible. This results in a
loss of frequency resolution.
For the measurement with the frequency counter, the sweep is stopped at the
reference marker, the frequency is counted with the desired resolution and then
the sweep is allowed to continue.
SIGNAL COUNT
The SIGNAL COUNT softkey switches the frequency counter on/off.
The frequency is counted at the position of the reference marker (MARKER 1).
The sweep stops at the reference marker until the frequency counter has
delivered a result. The time required for a frequency measurement depends on
the selected frequency resolution. The resolution is set in the side menu.
If no marker is enabled when the SIGNAL COUNT softkey is pressed,
MARKER 1 is switched on and set at the largest signal.
In addition, the SIGNAL COUNT function is displayed in the marker info field on
the screen with [Tx CNT].
MARKER 1 [T1 CNT]
-27.5 dBm
23.4567891 MHz
Switching the SIGNAL COUNT function off is accomplished by pressing the
softkey again.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK1:COUN ON;
CALC:MARK:COUN:FREQ?
4.166
E-1
R&S ESU
MARKER
CNT RESOL
10 kHz
CNT RESOL
1 kHz
CNT RESOL
100 Hz
Spectrum Analysis – MKR Key
The resolution of the frequency counter is set in the NEXT menu of the
MARKER menu. ESU offers counter resolutions between 0.1 Hz and 10 kHz.
The CNT RESOL ... softkeys select the counter resolution. They are selection
switches, i.e. only one of the can be active at any one time.
The marker stop time, i.e. the frequency measurement time, depends on the
selected resolution.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MARK1:COUN:RES <value>
CNT RESOL
10 Hz
Measurement example
CNT RESOL
1 Hz
The frequency of a CW signal is to be determined by means of the frequency
counter with a resolution of 10 Hz.
CNT RESOL
0.1 Hz
REFERENCE FIXED
[PRESET]
ESU is set to the default setting.
[MARKER]
MARKER 1 is switched on and set to the maximum
value of the displayed spectrum.
[SIGNAL COUNT]
The frequency counter is switched on. ESU counts the
frequency of the signal at the marker position with a
resolution of 1 kHz. The counted frequency is indicated
in the marker info field.
[NEXT]
Changes to the submenu for setting the counter
resolution.
[CNT RESOL 10 Hz]
The frequency counter resolution is increased to 10 Hz.
REF FXD ON/OFF
REF POINT LEVEL
REF POINT LVL OFFSET
REF POINT FREQUENCY
REF POINT TIME
REF POINT x-LEVEL
The REFERENCE FIXED softkey defines the level and the frequency or time of
MARKER 1 as a reference for one or several delta markers. The measured
values for one or several markers displayed in the marker info field are derived
from this reference point instead of the current values of the reference marker
(MARKER 1).
On actuating the softkey, reference fixed is switched on and thus, the level
value and the frequency, time or x-level value of MARKER 1 immediately
become the reference point.
Additionally, the REFERENCE FIXED softkey opens the submenu where it is
possible to determine manually a reference point with level and frequency, time
or x-axis level, to define a level offset or deactivate the reference point.
The REFERENCE FIXED function is useful for the measurement of the
harmonic suppression at small span (fundamental not represented).
1302.6163.12
4.167
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MKR Key
REF FXD ON/OFF
R&S ESU
The REF FXD ON/OFF softkey switches on or off the relative measurement to
a fixed reference value (REFERENCE POINT) independent of the trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
REF POINT LEVEL
The REF POINT LEVEL softkey enters a reference level independent of the
reference marker level. All relative level values of the delta markers refer to this
reference level.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
REF POINT LVL
OFFSET
CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX ON
CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y -10dBm
The REF POINT LVL OFFSET softkey specifies a level offset relevant to the
reference level. The relative level values of the delta markers refer to the
reference point level plus the level offset.
The level offset is set to 0 dB on enabling the REFERENCE FIXED or PHASE
NOISE function.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
REF POINT
FREQUENCY
With the REF POINT FREQUENCY softkey a reference frequency can be
manually activated for the delta markers when the REFERENCE FIXED or
PHASE NOISE function is used.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
REF POINT TIME
CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y:OFFS 0dB
CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X 10.7MHz
The REF POINT TIME softkey activates the entry box for the input of a
reference time for the REFERENCE FIXED function in the time domain (span
= 0 Hz).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X 5MS
For phase noise measurement, input of reference time is not possible.
REF POINT x-LEVEL
The REF POINT x-LEVEL softkey activates the entry box for the input of a
reference level on the x-axis for the REFERENCE FIXED function when the
power sweep is active.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:DELT2:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X -5DBM
4.168
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MKR Key
Measurement example
Small-span harmonics measurement to increase sensitivity
CW signal (e.g. 100 MHz, 0 dBm) with harmonics at the RF input of ESU.
[PRESET]
ESU is set to the default setting.
[CENTER: 100 MHz]
The center frequency of ESU is set to 100 MHz.
[SPAN: 1 MHz]
The span is set to 1 MHz.
[AMPL: 3 dBm]
The reference level is set to 3 dBm (3 dB above the
expected RF level).
[MKR]
MARKER 1 is switched on ('1' highlighted in the
softkey) and set to the signal peak.
[MARKER 2]
MARKER 2 is switched on and automatically defined
as the delta marker (DELTA is highlighted on
MARKER NORM DELTA softkey).
[REFERENCE FIXED] The frequency and level of MARKER 1 are a reference
for the delta marker.
MARKER ZOOM
[CENTER: 200 MHz]
The center frequency is set to 200 MHz (= frequency
of the 2nd harmonic). The reference level may have to
be reduced to see the 2nd harmonic from the noise.
This does not affect the reference level set with
REFERENCE FIXED.
[MKR->: PEAK]
The delta marker jumps to the 2nd harmonic of the
signal. The level spacing of the harmonic to the
fundamental is displayed in the marker info field.
The MARKER ZOOM softkey expands the area around MARKER 1. With the
zoom function, more details of the spectrum can be seen. The desired display
range can be defined in an entry window.
The following sweep is stopped at the position of the reference marker. The
frequency of the signal is counted and the measured frequency becomes the
new center frequency. The zoomed display range is then configured and the
new settings are used by ESU for further measurements.
As long as switching to the new frequency display range has not yet taken
place, pressing the softkey will abort the procedure.
If MARKER 1 is not active when the softkey is pressed, it is automatically
activated and set to the highest peak in the window.
If an instrument setting is changed after selection of MARKER ZOOM, the
function is aborted.
The MARKER ZOOM softkey is only available in the frequency domain
(span > 0).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ALL MARKER OFF
The ALL MARKER OFF softkey switches off all markers (reference and delta
markers). It also switches off all functions and displays associated with the
markers/delta markers.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:ZOOM 1kHz
CALC:MARK:AOFF
4.169
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Spectrum Analysis – MKR FCTN Key
R&S ESU
Marker Functions – MKR FCTN
The MKR FCTN menu offers further measurements with the markers:
– Measurement of noise density (NOISE MEAS softkey)
– Measurement of phase noise (PHASE NOISE softkey)
– Measurement of filter or signal bandwidth (N DB DOWN softkey)
– Activating of AF demodulation (MARKER DEMOD softkey)
On calling the menu, the entry for the last active marker is activated (SELECT
MARKER softkey); if no marker is activated, marker 1 is activated and a
maximum search (PEAK softkey) is performed. The marker can be set to the
desired trace by means of MKR -> TRACE softkey.
SELECT MARKER
PEAK
NOISE MEAS
PHASE NOISE !
PH NOISE ON/OFF
REF POINT LEVEL
REF POINT LVL OFFSET
REF POINT FREQUENCY
PEAK SEARCH
N dB DOWN
PEAK LIST !
NEW SEARCH
SORT MODE FREQ/LEVEL
PEAK EXCURSION
LEFT LIMIT / RIGHT LIMIT
THRESHOLD
PEAK LIST OFF
MARKER DEMOD !
MKR DEMOD ON/OFF
AM FM
SQUELCH
MKR STOP TIME
CONT DEMOD
MKR->TRACE
1302.6163.12
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R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MKR FCTN Key
Activating the Markers
SELECT MARKER
The SELECT MARKER softkey activates the numerical selection of the marker
in the data entry field. Delta marker 1 is selected by input of ' 0 '.
If the marker is switched off, then it is switched on and can be moved later on.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PEAK
CALC:MARK1 ON;
CALC:MARK1:X <value>;
CALC:MARK1:Y?
The PEAK softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the peak of the trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MARK1:MAX
CALC:DELT1:MAX
Measurement of Noise Density
NOISE MEAS
The NOISE MEAS softkey switches the noise measurement for the active
marker on or off. The corresponding marker becomes the NORMAL marker.
During noise measurement, the noise power density is measured at the position
of the marker. In the time domain mode, all points of the trace are used to
determine the noise power density. When measurements are performed in the
frequency domain, two points to the right and left of the marker are used for the
measurement to obtain a stable result.
The noise power density is indicated in the marker field. With a logarithmic
amplitude units (dBm, dBmV, dBmµV, dBµA) the noise power density is output
in dBm/Hz i.e. as level in 1 Hz bandwidth with reference to 1 mW. With linear
amplitude units (V, A, Ω) the noise voltage density is evaluated in µV/√Hz, the
noise current density in µA/√Hz or the noise power density in µW/Hz.
The following settings have to be made to ensure that the power density
measurement yields correct values:
Detector:
Sample or RMS
Video bandwidth:
≤ 0.1 × resolution bandwidth with sample detector
(corresponds to RBW / VBW NOISE)
≥ 3 × resolution bandwidth with RMS detector
(corresponds to RBW / VBW SINE)
In the default setting, the ESU uses the sample detector for the noise function.
With the sample detector, the trace can additionally be set to AVERAGE to
stabilize the measured values. With RMS detector used, trace averaging must
not be used since in this case it produces too low noise levels which cannot be
corrected. Instead, the sweep time can be increased to obtain stable
measurement results.
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R&S ESU
The ESU uses the following correction factors to evaluate the noise density
from the marker level:
•
Since the noise power is indicated with reference to 1 Hz bandwidth, the
bandwidth correction value is deducted from the marker level. It is
10 × lg (1 Hz/BWNoise), where BWNoise is the noise or power bandwidth of
the set resolution filter (RBW).
•
Sample detector
– As a result of video filter averaging and trace averaging, 1.05 dB is added
to the marker level. This is the difference between the average value and
the RMS value of white noise.
– With a logarithmic level axis, 1.45 dB is added additionally. Logarithmic
averaging is thus fully taken into account which yields a value that is 1.45
dB lower than that of linear averaging.
•
RMS detector
– With the exception of bandwidth correction, no further corrections are
required for the RMS detector since it already indicates the power with
every point of the trace.
To allow a more stable noise display the adjacent (symmetric to the
measurement frequency) points of the trace are averaged.
In time domain mode, the measured values are averaged versus time (after a
sweep).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:NOIS ON;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:NOIS:RES?
Example: Measurement of inherent ESU noise
[PRESET]
The ESU is set to default setting.
[MARKER]
Marker 1 is switched on and set to the maximum value of the
displayed spectrum. Set marker to desired frequency using the
rotary knob.
[NOISE]
The ESU switches the sample detector on and sets the video
bandwidth to 300 kHz (0.1 × RBW). The power density level of
inherent noise is displayed in dBm/Hz in the marker info field.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
The ESU noise figure can be calculated from the
measured power density level. It is calculated by
deducting the set RF attenuation (RF Att) from the
displayed noise level. 174 is to be added to the result to
obtain the ESU noise figure.
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R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MKR FCTN Key
Phase Noise Measurement
PHASE NOISE
The PHASE NOISE softkey switches the PHASE NOISE function on/off.
Additionally, the softkey opens the submenu for manually setting the reference
point. The phase noise measurement can be switched off in the submenu.
MARKER 1 (= reference marker) is used as a reference for the phase noise
measurement. The frequency and level of the reference marker are used as
fixed reference values, i.e. the REFERENCE FIXED function is activated. After
switching on the phase noise measurement the reference level or the center
frequency can thus be set in a way that the carrier is outside the displayed
frequency range, or, for example, a notch filter is switched on to suppress the
carrier.
A noise power density measurement is carried out with the delta marker or delta
markers. This measurement corresponds to the NOISE function in the
MARKER menu (MKR). The result of the phase noise measurement is the
difference in level between the reference point and the noise power density.
The following possibilities can be selected on switching on PHASE NOISE:
1302.6163.12
4.173
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Spectrum Analysis – MKR FCTN Key
R&S ESU
No marker enabled:
[MKR FCTN]
MARKER 1 is enabled and set to peak.
[PHASE NOISE]
MARKER 1 becomes the reference marker, MARKER 2 the
delta marker; frequency = frequency of the reference
marker. The delta marker is the active marker, i.e. it can be
moved with the rotary knob or adjusted by entering
numerals.
The PHASE NOISE function is switched on and the
measured value is output.
Markers are enabled:
[MKR FCTN]
The previous marker configuration remains unchanged.
[PHASE NOISE]
MARKER 1 becomes the reference marker. If other markers
are enabled, they become delta markers and measure the
phase noise at their respective positions.
If further markers are enabled during the phase noise measurement, they
automatically become delta markers and measure the phase noise at their
respective positions.
When the phase noise measurement is switched off, the marker configuration
remains unchanged and the delta markers measure the relative level to the
reference marker (MARKER 1).
The PHASE NOISE function measures the noise power at the delta markers
referred to 1 Hz bandwidth. The sample detector is automatically used and the
video bandwidth set to 0.1 times the resolution bandwidth (RBW). The two
settings are taken into account in the correction values used for the noise power
measurement.
To obtain stable results, two pixels on the right and the left of the respective
delta marker position are taken for the measurement. The procedure for
determining the noise power is identical to the method used for the noise power
measurement (see NOISE softkey). The measured noise level referred to 1 Hz
bandwidth is subtracted from the carrier level at the reference marker
(MARKER 1). The measured values are displayed in the delta marker field in
dBc/Hz (= spacing in dB of the noise power from the carrier level in 1 Hz
bandwidth).
If several delta markers are enabled, only the value read by the active marker
is shown in the marker field. If several delta markers are active, their
measurement results are shown in the marker info field.
The reference value for the phase noise measurement can be defined with REF
POINT LEVEL, REF POINT FREQUENCY and REF POINT LVL OFFSET to
differ from that of the reference marker.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
--
4.174
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R&S ESU
PH NOISE ON/OFF
Spectrum Analysis – MKR FCTN Key
The PH NOISE ON/OFF softkey switches on/off the phase noise measurement.
Switching on is performed by means of the PHASE NOISE softkey and is only
necessary when the phase noise measurement has been switched off in the
submenu.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
REF POINT LEVEL
The REF POINT LEVEL softkey activates an entry box for the input of a
reference level other than the reference marker level. The function is identical
to that of the softkey with the same name in the MARKER menu (MKR).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
REF POINT LVL
OFFSET
CALC:DELT1:FUNC:PNO ON
CALC:DELT1:FUNC:PNO:RES?
CALC:DELT1:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y -10dB
The REF POINT LVL OFFSET softkey activates an entry box for the input of an
additional level offset for the phase noise calculation.
This level offset is set to 0 dB on when the REFERENCE FIXED or PHASE
NOISE function is enabled.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
REF POINT
FREQUENCY
The REF POINT FREQUENCY softkey activates an entry box for the manual
input of a reference frequency for the REFERENCE FIXED or PHASE NOISE
function.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PEAK SEARCH
CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y:OFFS 10dB
CALC:DELT1:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X 10.7MHz
The PEAK SEARCH sets the reference point level for delta marker 2 in the
selected measurement window to the peak of the selected trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:MAX
Measurement example
The phase noise of a CW signal at 100 MHz with 0 dBm level is to be measured
at 800 kHz from the carrier
1302.6163.12
[PRESET]
The ESU is set to the default setting.
[CENTER: 100 MHz]
The center frequency is set to 100 MHz.
[SPAN: 2 MHz]
The span is set to 2 MHz.
[AMPT: 0 dBm]
The reference level is set to 0 dBm.
[MKR FCTN]
MARKER 1 is switched on and positioned at the
maximum of the displayed trace.
[PHASE NOISE: 800 kHz]
The phase noise measurement is switched on.
The delta marker is positioned on the main marker
and the measured phase noise value is displayed
in the marker info field. The sample detector is
used and the video bandwidth is set to 3 × RBW.
When the phase noise measurement function is
enabled, the entry of the delta marker frequency is
activated. It can be entered directly.
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R&S ESU
Measurement of the Filter or Signal Bandwidth
N dB DOWN
The N dB DOWN softkey activates the temporary markers T1 and T2 which are
n dB below the active reference marker. Marker T1 is placed to the left and
marker T2 at the right of the reference marker. The value n can be input in a
window.
The default setting is 3 dB.
Span > 0:
The frequency spacing of the two temporary markers is indicated
in the marker info field.
Span = 0:
The pulse width between the two temporary markers is indicated
in the marker info field.
If, for example, it is not possible to form the frequency spacing for the n dB value
because of the noise display, dashes are indicated instead of a measured
value.
If a negative value is entered than the markers are placed n dB above the active
reference marker. This is then a n dB up function which can be used for notch
filter measurements,
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:STAT ON
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD 3dB
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:RES?
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:FREQ? 'Span > 0
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:TIME? 'Span = 0
Measurement of a Peak List
PEAK LIST
PEAK
LIST
NEW
SEARCH
SORT MODE
FREQ LEVEL
PEAK
EXCURSION
LEFT
LIMIT
RIGHT
LIMIT
THRESHOLD
PEAK LIST
OFF
1302.6163.12
4.176
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R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MKR FCTN Key
The PEAK LIST softkey allows the peak values of the trace to be determined
and entered in a list with 50 entries max. The order of the entries is defined by
the SORT MODE:
•
FREQ: sorting in ascending order of frequency values (see screenshot); if
span = 0, the entries are sorted in ascending order of time values
•
LEVEL: sorting according to level
The search range can be restricted by means of the LEFT LIMIT, RIGHT LIMIT
and THRESHOLD softkeys. The definition of the peak values can be modified
using the PEAK EXCURSION softkey. The MKR->TRACE softkey in the main
menu is used to select the trace for searching peak values.
Opening the list performs a single search at the end of the sweep. The NEW
SEARCH softkey triggers a new sweep, determines the peak values of the trace
at the end of the sweep and enters them in the list.
Use the PEAK LIST OFF key to delete the list from the screen.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NEW SEARCH
The NEW SEARCH softkey starts a new peak search and enters the results in
the peak list.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
INIT:CONT OFF;
CALC:MARK:TRAC 1;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SORT X;
INIT;*WAI;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE 10;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:COUN?;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:Y?;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:X?
INIT;*WAI;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE 10;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:COUN?;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:Y?;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:X?
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Spectrum Analysis – MKR FCTN Key
SORT MODE FREQ/
LEVEL
R&S ESU
The SORT MODE FREQ/LEVEL softkey defines the position of the peak values
in the list:
•
FREQ: sorting in ascending order of frequency values (time values if
span = 0)
•
LEVEL: sorting according to level
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PEAK EXCURSION
CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SORT X;
With level measurements, the PEAK EXCURSION softkey allows the minimum
amount to be entered by which a signal must decrease or increase in order to
be recognized as a maximum by the peak search function.
Values between 0 dB and 80 dB may be entered, the resolution being 0.1 dB
IEC/IEEE bus command:
LEFT LIMIT /
RIGHT LIMIT
CALC:MARK:PEXC 6dB
The LEFT LIMIT and RIGHT LIMIT softkeys define the vertical lines F1/F2 in
the frequency domain (span > 0) and T1/T2 in the time domain (span = 0)
between which the search is carried out.
If only one line is active, the F1/T1 line is used as the lower limit; the upper limit
is the stop frequency. If F2/T2 is also active, it defines the upper limit.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
THRESHOLD
The THRESHOLD softkey defines a horizontal threshold line which represents
the lower limit of the peak search level range.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PEAK LIST OFF
CALC:THR -20dBm
CALC:THR ON
The PEAK LIST OFF softkey switches off the table with the search results.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:LEFT 1MHZ
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:RIGH 10MHZ
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON
--
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R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MKR FCTN Key
AF Demodulation
The ESU provides demodulators for AM and FM signals. With these
demodulators, a displayed signal can be identified acoustically through the use
of the internal loudspeaker or with headphones. The frequency at which the
demodulation is enabled is coupled to the markers. The sweep stops at the
frequency determined by the active marker for the selected time and the RF
signal is demodulated. During a measurement in the time domain (span = 0 Hz)
the demodulation is continuously on.
The threshold line (MKR->SEARCH LIMITS:THRESHOLD) performs a squelch
function in the demodulator. If the threshold is set, the ESU LF demodulation is
switched on only when the signal to be demodulated exceeds the set threshold.
MARKER DEMOD
The MARKER DEMOD softkey switches on the audio demodulator and calls a
submenu in which the demodulation mode and the duration of the demodulation
can be selected.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
MKR DEMOD ON/
OFF
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM ON
The MKR DEMOD ON/OFF softkey switches the demodulation on/off.
In the frequency range (span >0), the frequency scan is stopped at the
frequency of the active marker with demodulation switched on – provided that
the level is above the threshold line - and the signal is demodulated during the
given stop time.
In the time domain (span = 0) demodulation is continuous, i.e. not only active at
the marker position.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM ON
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Spectrum Analysis – MKR FCTN Key
AM
FM
R&S ESU
The softkeys AM and FM are selector switches one of which only may be active
at a time. They set the desired demodulation mode FM or AM. Default setting
is AM.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SQUELCH
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:SEL AM
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:SEL FM
The SQUELCH softkey enables the input of a level threshold below which the
audible AF is cut off. The squelch function is associated with the internal trigger
function (TRIGGER menu), which will be switched on automatically with the
squelch. Squelch level and trigger level do have the same value.
The default setting for the squelch is off.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
MKR STOP TIME
:CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:SQU ON | OFF
:CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:SQU:LEV 80 PCT
The MKR STOP TIME softkey defines the stop time for demodulation at the
marker(s).
The ESU interrupts the frequency sweep at the marker position and activates
the demodulation for the duration of the stop time (see also MKR DEMOD ON/
OFF).
In the time domain (span = 0) the demodulation is continuously active
irrespective of the stop time set.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CONT DEMOD
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:HOLD 3s
The CONT DEMOD softkey switches on the continuous demodulation in the
frequency domain. If the sweep time is long enough, the set frequency range
can be monitored acoustically.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:CONT ON
Selecting the Trace
MKR−>TRACE
The MKR->TRACE softkey sets the active marker to different traces. Only
those traces can be selected which are visible on the screen in the same
window.
The function of the softkey is identical to that of the softkey with the same name
in the MKR-> menu.
Example
Three traces are displayed on the screen. The marker is always on Trace 1 on
switching on.
[MKR ->TRACE] "1"<ENTER>
The marker jumps to Trace 2, but remains at
the previous frequency or time.
[MKR ->TRACE] "3"<ENTER>
The marker jumps to Trace 3.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK:TRAC 2
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R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MKR-> Key
Change of Settings via Markers – MKR->
The MKR-> menu offers functions through which instrument parameters can be
changed with the aid of the currently active marker. The functions can be used
on markers and delta markers.
On opening the menu, the entry for the last active marker is activated; if no
marker was enabled, MARKER 1 is activated and a peak search is performed.
SELECT MARKER
PEAK
CENTER = MKR
REF LEVEL = MKR LVL
NEXT PEAK
NEXT PEAK RIGHT
NEXT PEAK LEFT
SEARCH LIMITS !
LEFT LIMIT / RIGHT
LIMIT
THRESHOLD
SEARCH LIMIT OFF
MKR->TRACE
Side menu
MKR->CF STEPSIZE
MIN
NEXT MIN
NEXT MIN RIGHT
NEXT MIN LEFT
EXCLUDE LO
EXCLUDE LO
SELECT MARKER
The SELECT MARKER softkey activates the numerical selection of the marker
in the data entry field. Delta marker 1 is selected by input of ' 0 '.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PEAK
The PEAK softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the peak of the trace.
If no marker is active when MKR-> menu is called, MARKER 1 is automatically
switched on and the peak search is performed.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK1 ON;
CALC:MARK1:X <value>;
CALC:MARK1:Y?
CALC:MARK:MAX
CALC:DELT:MAX
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Spectrum Analysis – MKR-> Key
CENTER = MKR
R&S ESU
The CENTER = MKR FREQ softkey sets the center frequency to the current
marker or delta marker frequency.
A signal can thus be set to the center of the frequency display range, for
example, so that it can then be examined in detail with a smaller span.
The softkey is not available in the time domain (zero span).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:CENT
Example
A spectrum is displayed with a large span after PRESET. A signal off the center
is to be examined in detail:
[PRESET]
ESU is set to the default setting.
[MKR->]
MARKER 1 is switched on and automatically jumps to
the largest signal of the trace.
[CENTER=MKR FREQ] The center frequency is set to the marker frequency.
The span is adapted in such a way that the minimum
frequency (= 0 Hz) or the maximum frequency is not
exceeded.
[SPAN]
1302.6163.12
The span can, for example, be reduced using the
rotary knob.
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R&S ESU
REF LEVEL = MKR
LVL
Spectrum Analysis – MKR-> Key
The REF LEVEL = MKR LVL softkey sets the reference level to the current
marker level.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:REF
Example
A spectrum is displayed with a large span after PRESET. A signal off the center
is to be examined in detail:
[PRESET]
ESU is set to the default setting.
[MKR->]
MARKER 1 is switched on and automatically jumps
to the largest signal of the trace.
[CENTER=MKR FREQ]
The center frequency is set to the marker
frequency. The span is adapted in such a way that
the minimum frequency (= 0 Hz) or the maximum
frequency is not exceeded.
[REF LEVEL = MKR LVL] The reference level is set to the measured marker
level.
[SPAN]
NEXT PEAK
The span can, for example, be reduced using the
rotary knob.
The NEXT PEAK softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next lower
maximum of the selected trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NEXT PEAK RIGHT
The NEXT PEAK RIGHT softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next
lower maximum right of the current marker position on the selected trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NEXT PEAK LEFT
CALC:MARK:MAX:RIGH
CALC:DELT:MAX:RIGH
The NEXT PEAK LEFT softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next
lower maximum left of the current marker position the selected trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK:MAX:NEXT
CALC:DELT:MAX:NEXT
CALC:MARK:MAX:LEFT
CALC:DELT:MAX:LEFT
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Spectrum Analysis – MKR-> Key
R&S ESU
SEARCH LIMITS
The SEARCH LIMITS softkey limits the search range for maximum or minimum
search. The softkey switches to a submenu in which the search range limits can
be set in the x and y direction.
LEFT LIMIT / RIGHT
LIMIT
The LEFT LIMIT and RIGHT LIMIT softkeys define the two vertical lines F1 and
F2 in the frequency domain (span > 0) and T1 / T2 in the time domain (span =
0). The search is performed between these lines in the frequency and time
domain
If only LEFT LIMIT is enabled, line F1/T1 is the lower limit and the upper limit
corresponds to the stop frequency. If RIGHT LIMIT is also enabled, it
determines the upper limit.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
THRESHOLD
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:LEFT 1MHZ
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:RIGH 10MHZ
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON
The THRESHOLD softkey defines the threshold line.
The threshold line represents a limit for the level range of the max. search at the
lower end and that of the min. search at the upper end.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SEARCH LIMIT OFF
The SEARCH LIMIT OFF softkey disables all limits of the search range.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:THR -20dBm
CALC:THR ON
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM OFF
CALC:THR OFF
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R&S ESU
MKR->TRACE
Spectrum Analysis – MKR-> Key
The MKR->TRACE softkey sets the active marker to a new trace. If only one
trace is available on the screen, the softkey does not appear. If several traces
are available on the screen, only these are offered.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MARK:TRAC 2
Example
Three traces are displayed on the screen. The marker is always on Trace 1 after
switching on.
MKR->CF
STEPSIZE
[MKR ->TRACE] "2" <ENTER>
The marker jumps to Trace 2 but remains at
the previous frequency or time.
[MKR ->TRACE] "3" <ENTER>
The marker jumps to Trace 3.
The MKR->CF STEPSIZE softkey sets the step size for the center frequency
variation to the current marker frequency, and also sets step size adaptation to
MANUAL. CF STEPSIZE remains at this value until the center frequency entry
mode in the STEP menu is switched from MANUAL to AUTO again.
The MKR->CF STEPSIZE function is, above all, useful in the measurement of
harmonics with large dynamic range (narrow bandwidth and narrow span).
The softkey is not available in the time domain (span = 0 Hz).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:CST
Example
The harmonics levels of a CW carrier are to be measured at 100 MHz.
MIN
[PRESET]
ESU is set to the default setting.
[CENTER: 100 MHz]
ESU sets the center frequency to 100 MHz. The span
is set to 200 MHz.
[SPAN: 1 MHz]
The span is set to 100 MHz.
[MKR->]
MARKER 1 is switched on and set to the maximum
value of the signal.
[NEXT]
ESU switches to the submenu.
[MKR->CF STEPSIZE]
The step size of the center frequency setting equals
the marker frequency (100 MHz).
[CENTER]
The center frequency entry mode is activated.
[Right key]
The center frequency is set to 200 MHz. The first
harmonic of the test signal is displayed.
[MKR->: PEAK]
The marker is set to the harmonic and the level of the
latter is output in the marker info field.
The MIN softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the minimum of the
selected trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK:MIN
CALC:DELT:MIN
4.185
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Spectrum Analysis – MKR-> Key
NEXT MIN
R&S ESU
The NEXT MIN softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next higher
minimum of the selected trace. The search direction is defined in the NEXT
MODE submenu (see above).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NEXT MIN RIGHT
The NEXT MIN RIGHT softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next
higher minimum right of the current marker position on the selected trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NEXT MIN LEFT
CALC:MARK:MIN:LEFT
CALC:DELT:MIN:LEFT
The EXCLUDE LO softkey limits the frequency range for the marker search
functions or disables the limit.
activated
Because of the feed through of the first local oscillator to the first
intermediate frequency at the input mixer, the LO is represented
as a signal at 0 Hz. To avoid the marker jumping to the LO at 0
Hz with the peak function when setting the display range, this
frequency is excluded. The minimum frequency to which the
marker jumps, is ≥ 6 × resolution bandwidth (RBW).
deactivated
No restriction to the search range. The frequency 0 Hz is
included in the marker search functions.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PEAK EXCURSION
CALC:MARK:MIN:RIGH
CALC:DELT:MIN:RIGH
The NEXT MIN LEFT softkey sets the active marker/delta marker to the next
higher minimum left of the current marker position on the selected trace.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
EXCLUDE LO
CALC:MARK:MIN:NEXT
CALC:DELT:MIN:NEXT
CALC:MARK:LOEX ON
The PEAK EXCURSION softkey enables – for level measurements – the entry
of a minimum level value by which a signal must rise or fall so that it will be
identified as a maximum or a minimum by the NEXT PEAK and NEXT MIN
search functions.
Valid entries are from 0 dB to 80 dB; the resolution is 0.1 dB.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:MARK:PEXC 10dB
The default setting for the peak excursion is 6 dB. This value is sufficient for the
NEXT PEAK and NEXT MIN functions since, in this mode, the next lower
maximum or next higher minimum will always be detected.
If NEXT PEAK LEFT or NEXT PEAK RIGHT is selected, these functions search
for the next relative maximum left or right of the current marker position
irrespective of the current signal amplitude. Relative maximum is understood to
mean a decrease of the signal amplitude by a defined value – i.e. the peak
excursion – right and left of the amplitude peak.
The 6 dB level change set as a default value may be attained already by the
inherent noise of the instrument. In such a case, the R&S ESU would identify
noise peaks as maxima or minima. The value entered for the PEAK
EXCURSION should therefore be higher than the difference between the
highest and the lowest value measured for the displayed inherent noise.
1302.6163.12
4.186
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MKR-> Key
The following example illustrates the effect of different settings of the PEAK
EXCURSION.
Fig. 4-16
Examples of level measurement with different settings of PEAK
EXCURSION
The following table lists the signals as indicated by marker numbers in the
diagram above, as well as the minimum of the amplitude decrease to both sides
of the signal:
signal #
min. amplitude decrease to both sides of the signal
1
30 dB
2
29.85 dB
3
7 dB
4
7 dB
With 40 dB peak excursion, NEXT PEAK, NEXT PEAK RIGHT and NEXT
PEAK LEFT will not find any signal, as the signal level does not decrease by
more than 30 dB to either side of any signal.
Order of signals detected:
PEAK:
signal 1
NEXT PEAK:
signal 1 (no further signal detected)
or
PEAK:
signal 1
NEXT PEAK LEFT:
signal 1 (no further signal detected)
NEXT PEAK RIGHT: signal 1 (no further signal detected)
1302.6163.12
4.187
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MKR-> Key
R&S ESU
With 20 dB peak excursion, NEXT PEAK and NEXT PEAK RIGHT will also
detect signal 2, as the signal level decreases at least by 29.85 dB to either side
of this signal, which is now greater than the peak excursion.
Order of signals detected:
PEAK:
Signal 1
NEXT PEAK:
Signal 2
NEXT PEAK:
Signal 2 (no further signal detected)
or
PEAK:
Signal 1
NEXT PEAK LEFT:
Signal 1 (no further signal detected)
NEXT PEAK RIGHT: Signal 2
NEXT PEAK RIGHT: Signal 2 (no further signal detected)
With 6 dB peak excursion, all signals will be detected with NEXT PEAK and
NEXT PEAK RIGHT / NEXT PEAK LEFT.
Order of signals detected:
PEAK:
Signal 1
NEXT PEAK:
Signal 2
NEXT PEAK:
Signal 3
NEXT PEAK:
Signal 4
or
PEAK:
Signal 1
NEXT PEAK LEFT:
Signal 3
NEXT PEAK RIGHT: Signal 1
NEXT PEAK RIGHT: Signal 2
NEXT PEAK RIGHT. Signal 4
1302.6163.12
4.188
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
Power Measurements – MEAS
With its power measurement functions the ESU is able to measure all the
necessary parameters with high accuracy in a wide dynamic range.
A modulated carrier is almost always used (except e.g. SSB-AM) for highfrequency transmission of information. Due to the information modulated upon
the carrier, the latter covers a spectrum which is defined by the modulation, the
transmission data rate and the signal filtering. Within a transmission band each
carrier is assigned a channel taking into account these parameters. In order to
ensure error-free transmission, each transmitter must be conforming to the
specified parameters. These include among others:
•
the output power,
•
the occupied bandwidth, i.e. the bandwidth which must contain a defined
percentage of the power and
•
the power dissipation allowed in the adjacent channels.
Additionally the menu contains functions to determine the modulation depth of
AM modulated signals and to measure the 3rd order intercept point.
The measurements and the corresponding settings are selected in the MEAS
menu.
BW
SWEEP
MEAS
TRIG
TIME DOM
POWER
TOI
CHAN PWR
ACP
HARMONIC
DISTOR
MULT CARR
ACP
OCCUPIED
BANDWIDTH
SIGNAL
STATISTIC
C/N
C/No
MODULATION
DEPTH
SPURIOUS
EMISSIONS
SELECT
MARKER
SELECT
MARKER
The MEAS key opens the menu to select and set the power measurement.
1302.6163.12
4.189
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Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
R&S ESU
The following measurements can be selected:
•
Power in the time domain (TIME DOM POWER)
•
Channel power and adjacent-channel power in the frequency domain with a
single carrier (CHAN PWR ACP)
•
Channel power and adjacent-channel power in the frequency domain with
several carriers (MULT CARR ACP)
•
Occupied bandwidth (OCCUPIED BANDWIDTH)
•
Carrier-to-noise ratio (C/N, C/No)
•
Amplitude probability distribution (SIGNAL STATISTICS)
•
Modulation depth (MODULATION DEPTH)
•
SPURIOUS EMISSIONS
•
3rd order intercept (TOI)
•
Harmonic distortion (HARMONIC DISTOR)
The above measurements are carried out alternatively.
Power Measurement in Time Domain
With the aid of the power measurement function, the ESU determines the power
of the signal in the time domain (SPAN = 0 Hz) by summing up the power at the
individual pixels and dividing the result by the number of pixels. In this way it is
possible to measure for example the power of TDMA signals during
transmission or during the muting phase. Both the mean power and the rms
power can be measured by means of the individual power values.
The result is displayed in the marker info field.
The measured values are updated after each sweep or averaged over a userdefined number of sweeps (AVERAGE ON/OFF and NUMBER OF SWEEPS)
in order to determine e.g. the mean power over several bursts. For
determination of the peak value (MAX HOLD ON) the maximum value from
several sweeps is displayed.
Example
Marker info field for: MEAN selected, AVERAGE ON and MAX HOLD ON:
MEAN HOLD
MEAN AV
-2.33 dBm
-2.39 dBm
If both the on and off phase of a burst signal are displayed, the measurement
range can be limited to the transmission or to the muting phase with the aid of
vertical lines. The ratio between signal and noise power of a TDMA signal for
instance can be measured by using a measurement as a reference value and
after that varying the measurement range.
Upon switching on power measurement the sample detector is activated
(TRACE-DETECTOR-SAMPLE).
1302.6163.12
4.190
E-1
R&S ESU
TIME DOM POWER
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
TIME DOM
POWER
POWER
ON
OFF
SET
REFERENCE
PEAK
POWER
ABS
REL
RMS
MEAN
MAX HOLD
ON
OFF
STANDARD
DEVIATION
AVERAGE
ON
OFF
LIMITS
ON
OFF
NUMBER OF
SWEEPS
START
LIMIT
STOP
LIMIT
OFF
O
The TIME DOM POWER softkey activates the power measurement in the time
domain and opens a submenu for configuration of the power measurement.
The submenu allows selection of the type of power measurement (rms or mean
power), the settings for max hold and averaging as well as the definition of
limits.
The power evaluation range can be limited by input of limit values.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
This softkey is only available in time domain (SPAN = 0).
4.191
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
POWER ON/OFF
R&S ESU
The POWER ON/OFF softkey switches the power measurement on and off.
When entering the submenu it is ON since the power measurement is already
switched on with the TIME DOM POWER softkey in the main menu.
Aa
Note
The measurement is performed on the trace on which
marker 1 is placed. To evaluate another trace, marker 1
should be set on another trace using the SELECT
TRACE softkey in MARKER menu (MKR).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PEAK
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE ON
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE:RES?
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS ON
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS:RES?
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN ON
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:RES?
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV ON
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV:RES?
The PEAK softkey switches on the calculation of the peak value from the points
of the displayed trace or a segment thereof.
For the maximum peak, the largest peak value obtained since the activation of
MAX HOLD ON is displayed.
With AVERAGE ON, the peak values of a trace are averaged over several
sweeps and displayed.
The number of sweeps over which the average or the maximum value is
calculated is set with the NUMBER OF SWEEPS softkey.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RMS
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE ONCALC:MARK:
FUNC:SUMM:PPE:RES?
The RMS softkey switches on the calculation of the rms value from the points
of the displayed trace or a segment of it.
For the maximum peak, the largest rms value obtained since the activation of
MAX HOLD ON is displayed.
With AVERAGE ON, the rms values of a trace are averaged over several
sweeps and displayed.
The number of sweeps over which the average or the maximum value is
calculated is set with the NUMBER OF SWEEPS softkey.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS ON
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS:RES?
4.192
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
MEAN
The MEAN softkey switches on the calculation of the mean value from the
points of the displayed trace or a segment of it. The linear mean value of the
equivalent voltages is calculated.
This can be used for instance to measure the mean power during a GSM burst.
For the maximum peak, the largest mean value obtained since the activation of
MAX HOLD ON is displayed.
With AVERAGE ON, the mean values of a trace are averaged over several
sweeps and displayed.
The number of sweeps over which the average or the maximum value is
calculated is set with the NUMBER OF SWEEPS softkey.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
STANDARD
DEVIATION
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN ON
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:RES?
The STANDARD DEVIATION softkey switches on the calculation of the
standard deviation of trace points from the mean value and outputs them as
measured value. The measurement of the mean power is automatically
switched on at the same time.
For the maximum peak, the largest standard deviation obtained since the
activation of MAX HOLD ON is displayed.
With AVERAGE ON, the standard deviations of a trace are averaged over
several sweeps and displayed.
The number of sweeps over which the average or the maximum value is
calculated is set with the NUMBER OF SWEEPS softkey.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
LIMIT ON/OFF
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV ON
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV:RES?
The LIMIT ON/OFF softkey selects the limited (ON) or non-limited (OFF)
evaluation range.
The evaluation range is defined by the START LIMIT and STOP LIMIT softkeys.
If LIMIT = ON, signals are only searched between the two lines.
If only one limit line is switched on, time line 1 is the lower limit and the upper
limit corresponds to the stop frequency. If time line 2 is also switched on, it
defines the upper limit.
If no limit line is switched on, the evaluation range is not limited.
The default setting is LIMIT = OFF.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
START LIMIT
The START LIMIT softkey activates the entry of the lower limit of the evaluation
range.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
STOP LIMIT
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:LEFT <value>
The STOP LIMIT softkey activates the entry of the upper limit of the evaluation
range.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM OFF
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:RIGH <value>
4.193
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Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
SET REFERENCE
R&S ESU
The SET REFERENCE softkey sets the power values currently measured as
reference values for the calculation of the mean value (MEAN) and the rms
value (RMS). The reference values are used to perform relative measurements.
If the calculation of the mean value (MEAN) and rms value (RMS) is not
switched on, 0 dBm is used as a reference value.
If the average value (AVERAGE) or maximum value (MAX HOLD) is calculated
over several sweeps, the current value is the measured value summed up at
the actual time.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
POWER ABS/REL
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:REF:AUTO ONCE
The POWER ABS/REL softkey selects the absolute power measurement
(default setting) or relative power measurement. The reference value for the
relative power is defined by SET REFERENCE.
The value 0 dBm is used if the reference value is not defined.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
MAX HOLD ON/OFF
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MODE ABS
The MAX HOLD ON/OFF softkey switches the display of the maximum peak
obtained from measurements at successive sweeps on and off.
The displayed maximum peak is only updated at the end of a sweep if a higher
value has occurred.
The maximum value can be reset by switching the MAX HOLD ON / OFF
softkey off and on again.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
AVERAGE ON/OFF
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PHOL ON
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE:PHOL:RES?
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS:PHOL:RES?
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:PHOL:RES?
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV:PHOL:RES?
The AVERAGE ON/OFF softkey switches averaging over successive sweep
measurements on and off.
The measured values can be reset by switching the AVERAGE ON / OFF
softkey off and on again.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AVER ON
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE:AVER:RES?
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS:AVER:RES?
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:AVER:RES?
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV:AVER:RES?
4.194
E-1
R&S ESU
NUMBER OF
SWEEPS
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
The NUMBER OF SWEEPS softkey activates the entry of the number of
sweeps for maximum or average value calculation.
SINGLE SWEEP mode
The ESU performs sweeps until the selected
number of sweeps is reached and stops then.
CONTINUOUS SWEEP mode Averaging is carried out until the selected
number of sweeps is reached. After that,
averaging is performed in continuous mode
and is then continued as running averaging.
Calculation of the maximum peak (MAX
HOLD) is performed continuously irrespective
of the selected number of sweeps.
The valid range values is 0 to 32767.
Depending on the specified number of sweeps, averaging is carried out
according to the following rules:
NUMBER OF SWEEPS = 0
Continuous averaging is carried out over 10
measured values.
NUMBER OF SWEEPS = 1
No averaging is carried out.
NUMBER OF SWEEPS > 1
Averaging is carried out over the set number of
measured values.
Aa
Note
This setting is equivalent to the setting of the sweep
count in the TRACE menu.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SWE:COUN <value>
Example
The mean power of a GSM burst with 0 dBm nominal power at 800 MHz is to
be measured.
1302.6163.12
[PRESET]
Set the ESU to the default setting.
[FREQ: CENTER: 800 MHz]
Set the center frequency to 800 MHz.
[SPAN: ZERO SPAN]
Select time domain display (span = 0 Hz).
[AMPT: 0 dBm]
Set the reference level to 0 dBm.
[BW: RES BW MANUAL: 30
kHz]
Set the resolution bandwidth to 30 kHz in line
with the requirements of the GSM standard.
[SWEEP: SWEEPTIME
MANUAL 600 µs]
Set the sweep time to 600 µs.
[TRIG: VIDEO: 50%]
Use the video signal as trigger source.
[MEAS]
Call the menu for the measurement functions.
4.195
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
R&S ESU
[TIME DOM POWER]
Select power measurement in the time domain.
The ESU calculates the mean power from the
points of the whole trace.
The submenu for configuration of the power
measurement is opened. MEAN is already
switched on.
[LIMITS ON]
Activate the limitation of the time domain of the
power measurement.
[START LIMIT: 250 µs]
Set the start of the power measurement at 250
µs.
[STOP LIMIT: 500 µs]
Set the end of the power measurement at 500
µs.
Aa
Note
The GSM specifications require the power to be
measured between 50% and 90% of the TDMA burst.
The time limits set above approximately correspond to
the required time domain.
Channel and Adjacent-Channel Power
Measurements
For all channel and adjacent-channel power measurements a specified channel
configuration is assumed which is for instance based on a specific radio
communication system.
This configuration is defined by the nominal channel frequency (= center
frequency of the ESU if only one carrier is active), the channel bandwidth, the
channel spacing, the adjacent-channel bandwidth and the adjacent-channel
spacing. The ESU is able to simultaneously measure the power in up to four
transmission channels and up to three adjacent channels (10 channels: 4
transmission channels, 3 lower and 3 upper adjacent channels).
It offers two methods for channel and adjacent-channel power measurement:
•
The integrated bandwidth method (IBW method), i.e. the integration of trace
pixels within the bandwidth of the channel to be measured to the total power
of the channel,
•
The measurement in time domain (Fast ACP) by means of steep resolution
filters simulating the channel.
The two measurements yield the same results. The measurement in time
domain can be performed much faster since the complete signal is measured
within a channel at the same time. With the IBW method, the channel is divided
into subspectra. This is done by means of a bandwidth which is small compared
to the channel bandwidth. These subspectra are then combined by integration
of the trace pixels.
1302.6163.12
4.196
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
With the IBW method, the transmission channels or adjacent channels are
marked by vertical lines at a distance of half the channel bandwidth to the left
and to the right of the corresponding channel center frequency (see Fig. 4-17
Screen display of adjacent-channel power measurement using the IBW
method).
With the time-domain method, the power versus time is shown for each
channel. The boundaries of the channels are marked by vertical lines (see Fig.
4-18 Screen display of adjacent-channel power measurement using the timedomain method).
For both methods, the results are listed in tables in the lower half of the screen.
The ESU offers predefined standard settings which can be selected from a table
for the common mobile radio standards. Thus, channel configuration is
performed automatically without the need to enter the corresponding
parameters manually.
For some standards, the channel power and the adjacent-channel power are to
be weighted by means of a root-raised cosine filter corresponding to a receive
filter. This type of filtering is switched on automatically for both methods on
selecting the standard (e.g. NADC, TETRA or 3GPP W-CDMA).
Fig. 4-17
1302.6163.12
Screen display of adjacent-channel power measurement using the
IBW method
4.197
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
Fig. 4-18
R&S ESU
Screen display of adjacent-channel power measurement using the
time-domain method
Limit values for the adjacent-channel power can be defined for the
measurement. If limit checking is switched on, a pass/fail information indicating
that the power has been exceeded is displayed during the measurement in the
table in the lower half of the screen.
Aa
Note
With the CP/ACP measurement switched on the
functions SPLIT SCREEN and FULL SCREEN are
inhibited.
The channel configuration is defined in the MEAS - CHAN PWR ACP or the
MEAS - MULT CARR ACP menu.
1302.6163.12
4.198
E-1
R&S ESU
CHAN PWR ACP /
MULT CARR ACP
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
CP/ACP ON/OFF
CP/ACP STANDARD
CP/ACP CONFIG !
NO. OF ADJ CHAN
NO. OF TX CHAN
CHANNEL BANDWIDTH
CHANNEL SPACING
ACP REF SETTINGS
CP/ACP ABS/REL
CHAN PWR / HZ
POWER MODE !
CLEAR/WRITE
MAX HOLD
ADJUST SETTINGS
Side menu
ACP LIMIT CHECK
EDIT ACP LIMITS
SELECT TRACE
SET CP REFERENCE
SWEEP TIME
NOISE CORR ON/OFF
FAST ACP ON/OFF
DIAGRAM FULL SIZE
ADJUST REF LVL
The CHAN PWR ACP and MULT CARR ACP softkeys activate channel or
adjacent-channel power measurement either for a single carrier signal (CHAN
PWR ACP) or for several carrier signals (MULT CARR ACP), depending on the
current measurement configuration. In addition, they open a submenu for
defining the parameters for channel power measurement. The softkey selected
is shown in color to indicate that a channel or adjacent-channel power
measurement is active.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
The softkeys are available only for measurements in the
frequency domain (span > 0).
4.199
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
CP/ACP ON/OFF
R&S ESU
The CP/ACP ON/OFF softkey switches calculation of the channel power or
adjacent-channel power on and off.
With default settings the measurement is performed by integrating the powers
at the display points within the specified channels (IBW method).
The powers of the adjacent channels are measured either as absolute values
or as relative values referenced to the power of a transmission channel. The
default setting is relative-value measurement (see CP/ACP ABS/REL softkey).
When multi carrier ACP measurement is activated, the number of test points is
increased to ensure that adjacent-channel powers are measured with adequate
accuracy.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CP/ACP STANDARD
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL CPOW|ACP|MCAC
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES?
CPOW|ACP|MCAC
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW OFF
The CP/ACP STANDARD softkey opens a table for the selection of the settings
according to predefined standards. The test parameters for the channel and
adjacent-channel measurements are set according to the mobile radio
standard.
The standards available are listed in the table above.
1302.6163.12
4.200
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
Aa
Note
For the ESU, the channel spacing is defined as the
distance between the center frequency of the adjacent
channel and the center frequency of the transmission
channel. The definition of the adjacent-channel spacing
in standards IS95 B and C, IS97 B and C and IS98 B and
C is different. These standards define the adjacentchannel spacing from the center of the transmission
channel to the closest border of the adjacent channel.
This definition is also used for the ESU when the
following standard settings are selected:
CDMA IS95 Class 0 FWD
CDMA IS95 Class 0 REV
CDMA IS95 Class 1 FWD
CDMA IS95 Class 1 REV
FAST ACP is not available if a WLAN standard is
selected.
The selection of the standard influences the following parameters:
•
channel spacing and adjacent-channel spacing
•
channel bandwidth, adjacent-channel bandwidth, and type of filtering
•
resolution bandwidth
•
video bandwidth
•
detector
•
# of adjacent channels
Trace mathematics and trace averaging are switched off.
The reference level is not influenced by the selection of a standard. To achieve
an optimum dynamic range, the reference level has to be set in a way that
places the signal maximum close to the reference level without forcing an
overload message.
The default setting is CP/ACP STANDARD NONE.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CP/ACP CONFIG
SET CP REFERENCE
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:PRES <standard>
See following section “Setting the Channel Configuration” on page 4.205.
With channel power measurement activated, the SET CP REFERENCE softkey
defines the currently measured channel power as the reference value. The
reference value is displayed in the CH PWR REF field; the default value is 0
dBm.
4.201
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
R&S ESU
In adjacent-channel power measurement with one or several carrier signals, the
power is always referenced to a transmission channel, i.e. no value is displayed
for CH PWR REF.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SWEEP TIME
POW:ACH:REF:AUTO ONCE
The SWEEP TIME softkey activates the entry of the sweep time. With the RMS
detector, a longer sweep time increases the stability of the measurement
results.
The function of the softkey is identical to the softkey SWEEP TIME MANUAL in
the BW menu.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NOISE CORR ON/
OFF
SWE:TIM <value>
If the NOISE CORR ON/OFF softkey is activated, the results will be corrected
by the instrument's inherent noise, which increases the dynamic range.
When the function is switched on, a reference measurement of the instrument's
inherent noise is carried out. The noise power measured is then subtracted from
the power in the channel that is being examined.
The inherent noise of the instrument depends on the selected center frequency,
resolution bandwidth and level setting. Therefore, the correction function is
disabled whenever one of these parameters is changed. A disable message is
displayed on the screen.
To enable the correction function in conjunction with the changed setting, press
the softkey once more. A new reference measurement is carried out.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FAST ACP ON/OFF
SENS:POW:NCOR ON
The FAST ACP ON/OFF softkey switches between the IBW method (FAST
ACP OFF) and the time domain method (FAST ACP ON).
With FAST ACP ON the power measurement is performed in the different
channels in the time domain. The ESU sets the center frequency consecutively
to the different channel center frequencies and measures the power with the
selected measurement time (= sweep time/number of channels). The RBW
filters suitable for the selected standard and frequency offset are automatically
used (e.g. root raised cos with IS 136). The list of available channel filters is
included in section “Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW” on
page 4.123.
The RMS detector is used for obtaining correct power measurement results.
Therefore this requires no software correction factors.
Measured values are output as a list. The powers of the transmission channels
are output in dBm, the powers of the adjacent channels in dBm (CP/ACP ABS)
or dB (CP/ACP REL).
The sweep time is selected depending on the desired reproducibility of results.
Reproducibility increases with sweep time since power measurement is then
performed over a longer time period.
As a general approach, it can be assumed that approx. 500 non-correlated
measured values are required for a reproducibility of 0.5 dB (99% of the
measurements are within 0.5 dB of the true measured value). This holds true
for white noise. The measured values are considered as non-correlated when
their time interval corresponds to the reciprocal of the measured bandwidth.
1302.6163.12
4.202
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
With IS 136 the measurement bandwidth is approx. 25 kHz, i.e. measured
values at an interval of 40 µs are considered as non correlated. A measurement
time of 20 ms is thus required per channel for 1000 measured values. This is
the default sweep time which the ESU sets in coupled mode. Approx. 5000
measured values are required for a reproducibility of 0.1 dB (99%), i.e. the
measurement time is to be increased to 200 ms.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DIAGRAM FULL SIZE
The DIAGRAM FULL SIZE softkey switches the diagram to full screen size.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ADJUST REF LVL
SENS:POW:HSP ON
DISP:WIND1:SIZE LARG|SMAL
The ADJUST REF LVL softkey adjusts the reference level of the ESU to the
measured channel power. This ensures that the settings of the RF attenuation
and the reference level are optimally adjusted to the signal level without
overloading the ESU or limiting the dynamic range by a too small S/N ratio.
Since the measurement bandwidth for channel power measurements is
significantly lower than the signal bandwidth, the signal path may be overloaded
although the trace is still significantly below the reference level.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SENS:POW:ACH:PRES:RLEV
For manual setting of the test parameters different from the settings made with
ADJUST SETTINGS the following should be observed:
Frequency span
The frequency span must at least cover the channels to be measured plus a
measurement margin of 10%.
For channel power measurement, the span is 1.1 × channel bandwidth.
Aa
Note
If the frequency span is large in comparison with the
channel
bandwidth
(or
the
adjacent-channel
bandwidths) being examined, only a few points on the
trace are available per channel. This reduces the
accuracy of the waveform calculation for the channel
filter used, which has a negative effect on the
measurement accuracy.
We therefore strongly recommend that the formulas
mentioned be taken into consideration when selecting
the frequency span.
1302.6163.12
4.203
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Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
R&S ESU
Resolution bandwidth (RBW)
To ensure both an acceptable measurement speed and the required selection
(to suppress spectral components outside the channel to be measured,
especially of the adjacent channels), the resolution bandwidth must not be
selected too small or too large. As a general approach, the resolution bandwidth
is to be set to values between 1% and 4% of the channel bandwidth.
A larger resolution bandwidth can be selected if the spectrum within the channel
to be measured and around it has a flat characteristic. In the standard setting,
e.g. for standard IS95A REV at an adjacent channel bandwidth of 30 kHz, a
resolution bandwidth of 30 kHz is used. This yields correct results since the
spectrum in the neighborhood of the adjacent channels normally has a constant
level. For standard NADC/IS136 this is not possible for example, since the
spectrum of the transmit signal penetrates into the adjacent channels and a too
large resolution bandwidth causes a too low selection of the channel filter. The
adjacent-channel power would thus be measured too high.
With the exception of the IS95 CDMA standards, the ADJUST SETTINGS
softkey sets the resolution bandwidth (RBW) as a function of the channel
bandwidth:
RBW ≤ 1/40 of channel bandwidth.
The maximum possible resolution bandwidth (with respect to the requirement
RBW ≤ 1/40) resulting from the available RBW steps (1, 3) is selected.
Video bandwidth (VBW)
For a correct power measurement, the video signal must not be limited in
bandwidth. A restricted bandwidth of the logarithmic video signal would cause
signal averaging and thus result in a too low indication of the power (-2.51 dB
at very low video bandwidths). The video bandwidth should therefore be
selected at least three times the resolution bandwidth.
The ADJUST SETTINGS softkey sets the video bandwidth (VBW) as a function
of the channel bandwidth as follows:
VBW ≥ 3 × RBW.
The smallest possible VBW with regard to the available step size will be
selected.
Detector
The ADJUST SETTINGS softkey selects the RMS detector.
The RMS detector is selected since it correctly indicates the power irrespective
of the characteristics of the signal to be measured. In principle, the sample
detector would be possible as well. Due to the limited number of trace pixels
used to calculate the power in the channel, the sample detector would yield less
stable results. Averaging, which is often performed to stabilize the
measurement results, leads to a too low level indication and should therefore
be avoided. The reduction in the displayed power depends on the number of
averages and the signal characteristics in the channel to be measured.
1302.6163.12
4.204
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
Setting the Channel Configuration
CP/ACP CONFIG
CP/ACP
CONFIG
NO. OF
ADJ CHAN
ACP LIMIT
CHECK
NO. OF
TX CHAN
EDIT
ACP LIMIT
CHANNEL
BANDWIDTH
CHANNEL
SPACING
ACP REF
SETTINGS
CP/ACP
ABS
REL
CHAN PWR
/ HZ
POWER
MODE
ADJUST
SETTINGS
The CP/ACP CONFIG softkey opens a submenu for configuration of the
channel power and adjacent channel power measurement independently of the
offered standards.
The channel configuration includes the number of channels to be measured, the
channel bandwidths (CHANNEL BANDWIDTH), and the channel spacings
(CHANNEL SPACING).
Limit values can additionally be specified for the adjacent-channel power (ACP
LIMIT CHECK and EDIT ACP LIMITS) which are checked for compliance
during the measurement.
NO. OF ADJ CHAN
The NO. OF ADJ CHAN softkey activates the entry of the number ±n of adjacent
channels to be considered in the adjacent-channel power measurement.
Numbers from 0 to 12 can be entered.
The following measurements are performed depending on the number of the
channels.
1302.6163.12
0
Only the channel powers are measured.
1
The channel powers and the power of the upper and lower adjacent
channel are measured.
2
The channel powers, the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel
and of the next higher and lower channel (alternate channel 1) are
measured.
3
The channel power, the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel,
the power of the next higher and lower channel (alternate channel 1) and
of the next but one higher and lower adjacent channel (alternate channel
2) are measured.
4.205
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
R&S ESU
With higher numbers the procedure is expanded accordingly.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
POW:ACH:ACP 1
This increased number of adjacent channels is realized all for the relevant
settings like:
ACLR LIMIT CHECK
:CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:RES?
:CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT1..11:RES?
EDIT ACLR LIMITS
:CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:STAT ON
:CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS –10dBm,-10dBm
:CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS:STAT ON
:CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT1..11 0dB,0dB
:CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT1..11:STAT ON
:CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT1..11:ABS –10dBm,-10dBm
:CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT1..11:ABS:STAT ON
ADJ CHAN
BANDWIDTH
:SENS:POW:ACH:BWID:ALT1..11 30kHz
ADJ CHAN SPACING :SENS:POW:ACH:SPAC:ALT1..11 4MHz
NO. OF TX CHAN
The NO. OF TX CHAN softkey enables the entry of the number of carrier signals
to be considered in channel and adjacent-channel power measurements.
Numbers from 1 to 12 can be entered.
The softkey is available only for multi carrier ACP measurements.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CHANNEL
BANDWIDTH
SENS:POW:ACH:TXCH:COUN 12
The CHANNEL BANDWIDTH softkey opens a table for defining the channel
bandwidths for the transmission channels and the adjacent channels.
ACP CHANNEL BW
CHAN
BANDWIDTH
ADJ
14 kHz
ALT1
14 kHz
ALT2
14 kHz
The transmission-channel bandwidth is normally defined by the transmission
standard. The correct bandwidth is set automatically for the selected standard
(see CP/ACP STANDARD softkey).
With the IBW method (FAST ACP OFF), the channel bandwidth limits are
marked by two vertical lines right and left of the channel center frequency. It can
in this way be visually checked whether the entire power of the signal under test
is within the selected channel bandwidth.
Measurements in the time domain (FAST ACP ON) are performed in the zero
span mode. The channel limits are indicated by vertical lines. For
measurements requiring channel bandwidths deviating from those defined in
the selected standard the IBW method is to be used.
Refer to section “Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW” on page 4.123
for a list of available channel filters.
1302.6163.12
4.206
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
When measuring according to the IBW method (FAST ACP OFF) the
bandwidths of the different adjacent channels are to be entered numerically.
Since all adjacent channels often have the same bandwidth, the other channels
Alt1 and Alt2 are set to the bandwidth of the adjacent channel on entering the
adjacent-channel bandwidth (ADJ). Thus only one value needs to be entered in
case of equal adjacent channel bandwidths. The same holds true for the ALT2
channels (alternate channels 2) when the bandwidth of the ALT1 channel
(alternate channel 1) is entered.
Aa
Note
The channel spacings can be set separately by
overwriting the table from top to bottom.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CHANNEL SPACING
SENS:POW:ACH:BWID:CHAN 14kHz
SENS:POW:ACH:BWID:ACH 1kHz
SENS:POW:ACH:BWID:ALT1 14kHz
SENS:POW:ACH:BWID:ALT2 14kHz
The CHANNEL SPACING softkey opens a table for defining the channel
spacings for the TX channels as well as for the adjacent channels.
Aa
Note
The entry "TX" is only available for the multi carrier ACP
measurement.
TX channels
The spacing between every TX channels can be defined separately. Therefore
a TX spacing 1-2 for the spacing between the first and the second carrier, a TX
spacing 2-3 for the spacing between the second and the third carrier and so on
can be defined. In order to allow a convenient setup for the system with equal
TX channel spacing, the value of TX spacing 1-2 will be copied in all the spacing
below after entry, the TX spacing 2-3 will be copied in all the spacing below after
entry and so forth.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
For different spacings a setup from top to bottom is
necessary
4.207
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
R&S ESU
If the spacings are not equal the channel distribution according to the center
frequency is as follows:
•
Odd number of TX channels:
The middle TX channel is centered to center frequency.
•
Even number of TX channels:
The two TX channels in the middle are used to calculate the frequency
between those two channels. This frequency is aligned to the center
frequency.
Adjacent channels
Since all the adjacent channels often have the same distance to each other, the
entry of the adjacent-channel spacing (ADJ) causes channel spacing ALT1 to
be set to twice and channel spacing ALT2 to three times the adjacent-channel
spacing (and so on). Thus only one value needs to be entered in case of equal
channel spacing. The same holds true for the ALT2 channels when the
bandwidth of the ALT1 channel is entered.
Aa
Note
The channel spacings can be set separately by
overwriting the table from top to bottom
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
:SENS:POW:ACH:SPAC:CHAN 20kHz
:SENS:POW:ACH:SPAC:ACH 20kHz
:SENS:POW:ACH:SPAC:ALT1 40kHz
:SENS:POW:ACH:SPAC:ALT2 60kHz
4.208
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
Aa
ACP REF SETTINGS
Note
If the ACP or MCACP measurement is started all
settings according to the standard including the channel
bandwidths and channel spacings are set and can be
adjusted afterwards.
The ACP REF SETTINGS softkey opens a table for selecting the transmission
channel to which the adjacent-channel relative power values should be
referenced.
ACP REFERENCE CHANNEL
TX CHANNEL 1
TX CHANNEL 2
TX CHANNEL 3
TX CHANNEL 4
MIN POWER TX CHANNEL
MAX POWER TX CHANNEL
LOWEST & HIGHEST CHANNEL
TX CHANNEL 1 - 4
Selection of one of channels 1 to 4.
MIN POWER TX
CHANNEL
The transmission channel with the lowest power is
used as a reference channel.
MAX POWER TX
CHANNEL
The transmission channel with the highest power is
used as a reference channel.
LOWEST & HIGHEST The outer left hand transmission channel is the
CHANNEL
reference channel for the lower adjacent channels, the
outer right hand transmission channel that for the
upper adjacent channels.
Aa
Note
The softkey is only available for the multi carrier ACP
measurement.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
SENS:POW:ACH:REF:TXCH:MAN 1
SENS:POW:ACH:REF:TXCH:AUTO MIN
4.209
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
CP/ACP ABS/REL
R&S ESU
The CP/ACP ABS/REL softkey (channel power absolute/relative) switches
between absolute and relative power measurement in the channel.
CP/ACP ABS
The absolute power in the transmission channel and in the
adjacent channels is displayed in the unit of the Y axis, e.g. in
dBm, dBmV.
CP/ACP REL
For adjacent-channel power measurements (NO. OF ADJ
CHAN > 0), the level of the adjacent channels is displayed
relative to the level of the transmission channel in dBc.
For channel power measurements (NO. OF ADJ CHAN = 0)
with a single carrier, the power of the transmission channel is
displayed relative to the power of a reference channel defined
by SET CP REFERENCE. This means:
1. Declare the power of the currently measured channel as the
reference value, using the SET CP REFERENCE softkey.
2. Select the channel of interest by varying the channel
frequency (ESU center frequency).
With linear scaling of the Y axis, the power of the new channel
relative to the reference channel (CP/CPref) is displayed. With
dB scaling, the logarithmic ratio 10lg (CP/CPref) is displayed.
The relative channel power measurement can thus also be
used for universal adjacent-channel power measurements.
Each channel can be measured individually.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CHAN PWR / HZ
SENS:POW:ACH:MODE ABS
The CHAN PWR / HZ softkey toggles between the measurement of the total
channel power and the measurement of the channel power referenced to a 1Hz bandwidth.
The conversion factor is
By means of this function it is possible e.g. to measure the signal/noise power
density or use the additional functions CP/ACP REL and SET CP REFERENCE
to obtain the signal to noise ratio.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
POWER MODE
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES:PHZ ON|OFF
POWER
MODE
CLEAR/
WRITE
MAX HOLD
The POWER MODE softkey opens the submenu for selecting the power mode.
CLEAR/WRITE
1302.6163.12
In the CLEAR/WRITE mode the channel power and the adjacent channel
powers are calculated directly from the current trace (default mode).
4.210
E-1
R&S ESU
MAX HOLD
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
In MAX HOLD mode the power values are still derived from the current trace,
but they are compared with the previous power value using a maximum
algorithm. The higher value is remained.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ADJUST SETTINGS
:CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:MODE WRIT|MAXH
The ADJUST SETTINGS softkey automatically optimizes the instrument
settings for the selected power measurement (see below).
All instrument settings relevant for a power measurement within a specific
frequency range (channel bandwidth) are optimized for the selected channel
configuration (channel bandwidth, channel spacing):
•
Frequency span:
The frequency span should cover at least all channels to be considered in a
measurement.
For channel power measurements, the frequency span is set as follows:
(No. of transmission channels - 1) × transmission channel spacing +
2 × transmission channel bandwidth + measurement margin
For adjacent-channel power measurements, the frequency span is set as a
function of the number of transmission channels, the transmission channel
spacing, the adjacent-channel spacing, and the bandwidth of one of
adjacent-channels ADJ, ALT1 or ALT2, whichever is furthest away from the
transmission channels:
(No. of transmission channels - 1) × transmission channel spacing +
2 × (adjacent-channel spacing + adjacent-channel bandwidth) +
measurement margin
The measurement margin is approx. 10% of the value obtained by adding
the channel spacing and the channel bandwidth.
•
Resolution bandwidth: RBW ≤ 1/40 of channel bandwidth
•
Video bandwidth: VBW ≥ 3 × RBW
•
Detector: RMS detector
Trace math and trace averaging functions are switched off.
The reference level is not influenced by ADJUST SETTINGS. It can be
separately adjusted with ADJUST REF LVL.
The adjustment is carried out only once; if necessary, the instrument settings
can be changed later.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ACP LIMIT CHECK
The ACP LIMIT CHECK softkey switches the limit check for the ACP
measurement on and off.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
SENS:POW:ACH:PRES ACP|CPOW|MCAC|OBW
CALC:LIM:ACP ON
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:RES?
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT:RES?
4.211
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Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
EDIT ACP LIMITS
R&S ESU
The EDIT ACP LIMITS softkey opens a table for defining the limits for the ACP
measurement.
The following rules apply for the limits:
•
A separate limit can be defined for each adjacent channel. The limit applies
to both the upper and the lower adjacent channel.
•
A relative and/or absolute limit can be defined. The check of both limit values
can be activated independently.
•
The ESU checks adherence to the limits irrespective of whether the limits
are absolute or relative or whether the measurement is carried out with
absolute or relative levels. If both limits are active and if the higher of both
limit values is exceeded, the measured value is marked accordingly.
Aa
Note
Measured values exceeding the limit are marked by a
preceding asterisk.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SELECT TRACE
The SELECT TRACE softkey selects the trace on which the CP/ACP
measurement is to be performed. Only activated traces can be selected, i.e.
traces not set to BLANK.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:LIM:ACP ON
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH 0dB,0dB
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:STAT ON
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS –10dBm,-10dBm
CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS:STAT ON
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT1 0dB,0dB
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT1:STAT ON
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT1:ABS –10dBm,-10dBm
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT1:ABS:STAT ON
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2 0dB,0dB
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:STAT ON
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:ABS –10dBm,-10dBm
CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:ABS:STAT ON
SENS:POW:TRAC 1
4.212
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
Examples
1. Measurement of adjacent-channel power for a specific standard:
The adjacent-channel power is to be measured for a signal at 800 MHz with 0
dBm level in line with IS136.
[PRESET]
Set the ESU to the default setting.
[FREQ: CENTER: 800
MHz]
Set the center frequency to 800 MHz.
[AMPT: 0 dBm]
Set the reference level to 0 dBm.
[MEAS]
Call the menu for the measurement functions.
[CHAN PWR / ACP]
Select the channel and adjacent-channel power
measurement function. The measurement is
performed with the default settings or a previously
defined setting. The submenu for setting the desired
new configuration is opened.
[CP/ACP STANDARD:
select IS136: ENTER]
Select the NADC (IS136) standard.
[CP/ACP CONFIG]
Call the submenu for configuration of the adjacentchannel power measurement.
[NO. OF ADJ CHAN: 2
ENTER]
Select two adjacent channels for the measurement,
i.e. the adjacent channel and the alternate channel
are measured.
[ADJUST SETTINGS]
Set the optimum span, resolution bandwidth (RBW),
video bandwidth (VBW) and detector automatically
for the measurement. The absolute channel power
and the relative power of the adjacent channels are
displayed on the screen.
PREV
[ADJUST REF LVL]
Change to the main menu for channel power
measurement.
Set the reference level equal to the channel power
measured.
2. Measurement with user-specific channel configuration:
Measurement of the adjacent-channel power ratio (ACPR) of an IS95 CDMA
signal at 800 MHz, level 0 dBm. Similar to example 1, the setting can be
simplified by using CP/ACP STANDARD.
1302.6163.12
[PRESET]
Set the ESU to the default setting.
[FREQ: CENTER: 800
MHz]
Set the center frequency to 800 MHz.
[AMPT: 0 dBm]
Set the reference level to 0 dBm.
[MEAS]
Call the menu for the measurement functions.
[CHAN PWR / ACP]
Select the channel and adjacent-channel power
measurement function. The measurement is carried
out with the default settings or a previously defined
setting. The submenu for setting the desired new
configuration is opened.
[CP/ACP CONFIG]
Call the submenu
configuration.
4.213
for
defining
the
channel
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
[NO. OF ADJ CHAN:
2 ENTER]
R&S ESU
Select two adjacent channels for the measurement,
i.e. the adjacent channel and the alternate channel
are measured.
[CHANNEL
Set the channel bandwidth to 1.23 MHz in
BANDWIDTH: 1.23 MHz: accordance with IS 95. Set the adjacent-channel
Ud: 30 kHz]
bandwidth to 30 kHz.
TX/ACP CHANNEL BW
CHAN
BANDWIDTH
TX
1.23 MHz
ADJ
30 kHz
ALT1
30 kHz
ALT2
30 kHz
Upon entry of 30 kHz for the adjacent channel the
alternate channels are also set to 30 kHz.
[CHAN SPACING: 1.25 Open the list for entering the channel spacings.
MHz:Ud 885 kHz: Ud: 1.98 MHz] Ud: 2.97 MHz] TX/ACP CHAN SPACING
CHAN
TX
ADJ
ALT1
ALT2
SPACING
1.25 MHz
885 kHz
1.98 MHz
2.97 MHz
Upon entry of 885 kHz for the adjacent channel the
channels ALT1 and ALT2 are set to 1770 kHz and
2655 kHz. Upon entry of 1.98 MHz for the alternate
channel 1 the alternate channel 2 is set to 2.97 MHz.
[ADJUST SETTINGS]
PREV
[ADJUST REF LVL]
1302.6163.12
Automatically set the optimum span (= 5 MHz),
resolution bandwidth (RBW = 30 kHz), video
bandwidth (VBW = 300 kHz) and detector (RMS) for
the measurement. The absolute channel power and
the relative power of the adjacent channels and
alternate channels are displayed on the screen.
Go to the main
measurement.
menu
for
channel
power
Set the reference level equal to the channel power
measured.
4.214
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
3. Measurement of signal/noise power density (C/No) of an IS95 CDMA
signal (frequency 800 MHz, level 0 dBm)
[PRESET]
Set the ESU to the default setting.
[FREQ: CENTER:
800 MHz]
Set the center frequency to 800 MHz.
[AMPT: 0 dBm]
Set the reference level to 0 dBm.
MEAS]
Call the menu for the measurement functions.
[CHAN PWR / ACP]
Select the channel and adjacent-channel power
measurement. The measurement is performed with
the default setting or a previously defined setting. The
submenu for setting the desired new configuration is
opened.
[CP/ACP CONFIG]
Call the submenu
configuration.
[NO. OF ADJ CHAN: 0
ENTER]
Do not select an adjacent channel for the
measurement, i.e. the measurement is carried out in
one channel only.
for
defining
the
channel
[CHANNEL
Set the channel bandwidth to 1.23 MHz in line with
BANDWIDTH: 1.23 MHz] IS95.
[ADJUST SETTINGS]
PREV
[ADJUST REF LVL]
Set the optimum span (= 5 MHz), resolution
bandwidth (RBW = 30 kHz), video bandwidth (VBW =
300 kHz) and detector (RMS) for the measurement
automatically. The absolute channel power and the
relative power of the adjacent channels and alternate
channels are displayed on the screen.
Go to the main
measurement
menu
for
channel
power
Set the reference level equal to the channel power
measured.
[SET CP REFERENCE] Set the measured channel power as a reference for
the subsequent measurements.
1302.6163.12
[CP/ACP ABS / REL]
Select relative measurement related to the reference
power set with SET REFERENCE (result 0 dB).
[CHAN PWR / HZ]
Select power measurement related to 1 Hz
bandwidth (result -60.9 dB).
[FREQ: CENTER: 805
MHz]
Set the center frequency to 805 MHz. The ESU
measures the channel power at 1.23 MHz bandwidth
and outputs the result in dB relative to the reference
power and 1 Hz bandwidth.
4.215
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
R&S ESU
Measurement of Occupied Bandwidth
An important characteristics of a modulated signal is its occupied bandwidth. In
a radio communications system for instance the occupied bandwidth must be
limited to enable distortion-free transmission in adjacent channels. The
occupied bandwidth is defined as the bandwidth containing a defined
percentage of the total transmitted power. A percentage between 10% and
99.9% can be set on the ESU.
OCCUPIED
BANDWIDTH
The OCCUPIED BANDWIDTH softkey activates measurement of the occupied
bandwidth according to the current configuration and opens the submenu for
configuring the measurement. The softkey is available only in frequency domain
(span > 0) and is highlighted when the measurement is switched on.
In the spectrum display mode, this measurement determines the bandwidth that
contains a predefined percentage of the power of the displayed frequency
range (% POWER BANDWIDTH softkey). The occupied bandwidth is output in
the marker display field and marked on the trace by temporary markers.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
•
The softkey is only available in the frequency domain
(span > 0).
•
The measurement is performed on the trace with
marker 1. In order to evaluate another trace, marker
1 must be placed on another trace by means of
SELECT TRACE in the MARKER menu
4.216
E-1
R&S ESU
OCCUP BW ON/OFF
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
The OCCUP BW ON/OFF softkey switches measurement of the occupied
bandwidth on or off.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
% POWER
BANDWIDTH
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL OBW
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? OBW
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW OFF
The % POWER BANDWIDTH softkey opens the entry of the percentage of
power related to the total power in the displayed frequency range which defines
the occupied bandwidth (percentage of total power).
The valid range of values is 10% to 99.9%.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CHANNEL
BANDWIDTH
SENS:POW:BWID 99PCT
The CHANNEL BANDWIDTH softkey opens an input window for defining the
channel bandwidth for the transmission channel. For measurements in line with
a specific transmission standard, the bandwidth specified by the standard for
the transmission channel must be entered.
The default setting is 14 kHz.
The specified channel bandwidth is used for optimization of the test parameters
of the ESU with ADJUST SETTINGS.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ADJUST REF LVL
SENS:POW:ACH:BWID 14kHz
The ADJUST REF LVL softkey adjusts the reference level of the ESU to the
measured total power of the signal. The softkey is activated after the first sweep
with the measurement of the occupied bandwidth has been completed and the
total power of the signal is thus known.
Adjusting the reference level ensures that the signal path of the ESU will not be
overloaded and the dynamic range not limited by too low a reference level.
Since the measurement bandwidth for channel power measurements is
significantly lower than the signal bandwidth, the signal path may be overloaded
although the trace is distinctly below the reference level. If the measured
channel power is equal to the reference level, the signal path cannot be
overloaded.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ADJUST SETTINGS
SENS:POW:ACH:PRES:RLEV
The ADJUST SETTINGS softkey optimizes the instrument settings for the
measurement of the occupied bandwidth according to the specified channel
bandwidth.
All instrument settings relevant for power measurement within a specific
frequency range are optimized:
1302.6163.12
•
frequency span: 3 × channel bandwidth
•
resolution bandwidth: RBW ≤ 1/40 of channel bandwidth
•
video bandwidth: VBW ≥ 3 × RBW
•
detector: RMS
4.217
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
R&S ESU
The reference level is not influenced by ADJUST SETTINGS. For an optimum
dynamic range it should be selected in a way that the signal maximum is close
to the reference level.
The adjustment is carried out only once; if necessary, the instrument settings
may be changed later.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SENS:POW:PRES OBW
Measurement principle
For example, the bandwidth containing 99% of the signal power is to be
determined. The routine first calculates the total power of all displayed points of
the trace. In the next step, the points from the right edge of the trace are
summed up until 0.5% of the total power is reached. Auxiliary marker 1 is
positioned at the corresponding frequency. Then the ESU sums up the points
from the left edge of the trace until 0.5% of the power is reached. Auxiliary
marker 2 is positioned at this point. 99% of the power is now between the two
markers. The distance between the two frequency markers is the occupied
bandwidth which is displayed in the marker info field.
A prerequisite for correct measurement is that only the signal to be measured
is visible on the screen of the ESU. An additional signal would invalidate the
measurement.
To ensure correct power measurement especially for noise signals and to
obtain the correct occupied bandwidth, the following settings should be
selected:
RBW
<< occupied bandwidth (approx. 1/20 of occupied bandwidth, for
voice communication type. 300 Hz or 1 kHz)
VBW
≥ 3 × RBW
Detector
RMS or sample
Span
≥2 to 3 × occupied bandwidth
Some of the measurement specifications (e.g. PDC, RCR STD-27B) require
measurement of the occupied bandwidth using a peak detector. The detector
setting of the ESU has to be changed accordingly then.
Example
Measurement of occupied bandwidth of a PDC signal at 800 MHz, level 0 dBm
1302.6163.12
[PRESET]
Set the ESU to the default setting.
[FREQ: CENTER: 800
MHz]
Set the center frequency to 800 MHz.
[AMPT: 0 dBm]
Set the reference level to 0 dBm.
[MEAS]
Call the menu for the measurement functions.
[OCCUPIED
BANDWIDTH]
Select measurement of the occupied bandwidth and
open the submenu for configuring the measurement.
[% POWER
BANDWIDTH: 99%]
Select 99% for the bandwidth to be measured.
[CHANNEL
BANDWIDTH: 21 kHz]
Enter the channel bandwidth of 21 kHz specified by
PDC.
4.218
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
[ADJUST SETTINGS]
Optimize the measurement parameters for the
specified channel bandwidth.
Allow for a complete frequency sweep so that the
ESU can determine the total signal power.
[ADJUST REF LVL]
Adjust the reference level to the measured signal
power.
[TRACE: DETECTOR:
PDC requires measurement
bandwidth using a
of
the
occupied
DETECTOR MAX PEAK] peak detector. Therefore, switch on the peak detector
instead of the RMS detector selected by ADJUST
SETTINGS.
Measurement of Signal Amplitude Statistics
Digital modulated signals are similar to white noise within the transmit channel,
but are different in their amplitude distribution. In order to transmit the
modulated signal without distortion all amplitudes of the signal have to be
transmitted linearly, e.g. from the output power amplifier. Most critical are the
peak amplitude values, of course.
Degradation in transmit quality caused by a transmitter two port network is
dependent on the amplitude of the peak values as well as on their probability.
The probability of amplitude values can be measured with the APD function
(Amplitude Probability Distribution). During a selectable measurement time all
occurring amplitude values are assigned to an amplitude range. The number of
amplitude values in the specific ranges is counted and the result is displayed as
a histogram. Each bar of the histogram represents the percentage of measured
amplitudes within the specific amplitude range.
Fig. 4-19
1302.6163.12
Simplified block diagram for APD measurement
4.219
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
R&S ESU
Fig. 4-20
Display of the amplitude probability distribution
Fig. 4-21
Display of the complementary cumulative distribution function
(CCDF)
Alternate to the histogram display of the APD the Complementary Cumulative
Distribution Function (CCDF) can be displayed. It shows the probability of an
amplitude exceeding a specific value.
For the APD function the x-axis is scaled in absolute values in dBm, whereas
for the CCDF function the x-axis is scaled relative to the MEAN POWER
measured.
1302.6163.12
4.220
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
Definitions:
Crest factor = peak voltage to rms
CCDF = complementary cumulative distribution function
Aa
SIGNAL STATISTIC
Note
During an active statistic measurement the functions
FULL SCREEN, SPLIT SCREEN and selection of the
active diagram via SCREEN A / SCREEN B are
disabled.
APD ON/OFF
CCDF ON/OFF
PERCENT MARKER
RES BW
NO OF SAMPLES
SCALING
X-AXIS REF LEVEL
X-AXIS RANGE
Y-UNIT %/ABS
Y-AXIS MAX VALUE
Y-AXIS MIN VALUE
ADJUST SETTINGS
DEFAULT SETTINGS
ADJUST SETTINGS
CONT MEAS
SINGLE MEAS
The SIGNAL STATISTIC softkey opens a submenu for measurement of signal
statistics.
In the submenu measurement of amplitude probability density (APD) and
complementary cumulative distribution (CCDF) can be selected alternately.
Only one of the signal statistic functions can be switched on at a time.
In default mode all statistic functions are switched off.
With a statistic function switched on the ESU is set into zero span mode
automatically.
The ESU measures the statistics of the signal applied to the RF input with the
resolution bandwidth set. In order not to influence the peak amplitudes the video
bandwidth is automatically set to 10 times the resolution bandwidth. The sample
detector is used for detecting the video voltage.
1302.6163.12
4.221
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
APD ON/OFF
R&S ESU
The APD ON/OFF softkey switches on or off the amplitude probability
distribution function. When the APD function is switched on, the CCDF function
is switched off automatically.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CCDF ON/OFF
The CCDF ON/OFF softkey switches on or off the complementary cumulative
distribution function. When the CCDF function is switched on, the APD function
is switched off automatically.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PERCENT MARKER
CALC:STAT:APD ON
CALC:STAT:CCDF ON
If the CCDF function is active, the PERCENT MARKER softkey allows to
position marker 1 by entering a probability value. Thus, the power which is
exceeded with a given probability can be determined very easily.
If marker 1 is in the switched-off state, it will be switched on automatically.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RES BW
CALC:MARK:Y:PERC 0...100%
The RES BW softkey sets the resolution bandwidth in the menu STATISTIC
FUNCTION directly without switching to the corresponding menu (BW). The
function of the softkey is identical to the softkey RES BW MANUAL in the BW
menu.
For correct measurement of the signal statistics the resolution bandwidth has to
be wider than the signal bandwidth in order to transmit the actual peaks of the
signal amplitude correctly. Video bandwidth is set to 10 MHz automatically with
a statistic function switched on.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NO OF SAMPLES
BAND 3 MHz
The NO OF SAMPLES softkey sets the number of power measurements taken
into account for the statistics.
Please note that the overall measurement time is influenced by the number of
samples selected as well as by the resolution bandwidth set up for the
measurement as the resolution bandwidth directly influences the sampling rate.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:STAT:NSAM <value>
4.222
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
SCALING
SCALING
X-AXIS
REF LEVEL
X-AXIS
RANGE
%
Y-UNIT
ABS
Y-AXIS
MAX VALUE
Y-AXIS
MIN VALUE
ADJUST
SETTINGS
DEFAULT
SETTINGS
The SCALING softkey opens a submenu that allows changing the scaling
parameters for both the x- and the y-axis.
X-AXIS REF LEVEL
The X-AXIS REF LEVEL softkey changes the level settings of the instrument
and sets the maximum power to be measured.
The function is identical to softkey REF LEVEL in AMPT menu.
For the APD function this value is mapped to the right diagram border. For the
CCDF function there is no direct representation of this value on the diagram as
the x-axis is scaled relatively to the MEAN POWER measured.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
X-AXIS RANGE
CALC:STAT:SCAL:X:RLEV <value>
The X-AXIS RANGE softkey changes the level range to be covered by the
statistics measurement selected.
The function is identical to softkey RANGE LOG MANUAL in AMPT menu.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
Y-UNIT %/ABS
CALC:STAT:SCAL:X:RANG <value>
The softkey Y-UNIT %/ABS defines the scaling type on the y-axis. The default
case are the absolute probability. This can be changed to percent values. The
softkeys Y-AXIS MIN and Y-AXIS MAX are using values based on the Y-UNIT
setting.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
:CALC:STAT:SCAL:Y:UNIT PCT | ABS
The 0.1%, 1% and 10% value from the CCDF measurement are shown in the
bottom screen half. Those values can also queried via remote:
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
4.223
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
Y-AXIS MAX VALUE
R&S ESU
The Y-AXIS MAX VALUE softkey defines the upper limit of the displayed
probability range.
Values on the y-axis are normalized which means that the maximum value is
1.0. As the y-axis scaling has a logarithmic axis the distance between max and
min value must be at least one decade.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
Y-AXIS MIN VALUE
CALC:STAT:SCAL:Y:UPP <value>
The Y-AXIS MIN VALUE softkey defines the lower limit of the displayed
probability range.
As the y-axis scaling has a logarithmic axis the distance between max and min
value must be at least one decade. Valid values are in the range 0 < value < 1.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ADJUST SETTINGS
CALC:STAT:SCAL:Y:LOW <value>
The ADJUST SETTINGS softkey optimizes the level settings of the ESU
according to the measured peak power in order to gain maximum sensitivity of
the instrument.
The level range is adjusted according to the measured difference between peak
and minimum power for APD measurement and peak and mean power for
CCDF measurement in order to obtain maximum power resolution.
Additionally the probability scale is adapted to the selected number of samples.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DEFAULT SETTINGS
The DEFAULT SETTINGS softkey resets the x- and y-axis scalings to their
PRESET values.
•
x-axis ref level: -20 dBm
•
x-axis range APD: 100 dB
•
x-axis range CCDF: 20 dB
•
y-axis upper limit: 1.0
•
y-axis lower limit: 1E-6
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ADJUST SETTINGS
CONT MEAS
CALC:STAT:PRES
see “ADJUST SETTINGS” on page 4.224
The CONT MEAS softkey starts collecting a new sequence of sample data and
calculating the APD or CCDF curve depending on the selected measurement.
The next measurement is started automatically as soon as the indicated
number of samples has been reached ("CONTinuous MEASurement").
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:STAT:SCAL:AUTO ONCE
INIT:CONT ON;
INIT:IMM
4.224
E-1
R&S ESU
SINGLE MEAS
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
The SINGLE MEAS softkey starts collecting a new sequence of sample data
and calculating the APD or CCDF curve depending on the selected
measurement. At the beginning of the measurement previously obtained
measurement results are discarded.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
INIT:CONT OFF;
INIT:IMM
Hint for usage of the marker functions with measurement of signal
statistics
With the signal statistic measurement level always is displayed on x-axis. Y-axis
always is a normalized value between 0 and 1. In contrary to use of marker in
frequency or time domain marker is input in level values and the output is in
percentage values.
Example
Measurement of CCDF of a IS95 BTS signal, level 0 dBm, frequency 800 MHz
1302.6163.12
[PRESET]
Switch on preset settings.
[FREQ: CENTER: 800
MHz]
Set center frequency to 800 MHz.
[AMPT: 10 dBm]
Set reference level to 10 dBm.
[BW: 3 MHz]
Set resolution bandwidth to 3 MHz (resolution
bandwidth shall be wider then signal bandwidth (1.25
MHz) in order to have the complete signal within the
resolution bandwidth).
[MEAS]
Call the menu for measurement functions.
[SIGNAL STATISTIC]
Call the menu for signal statistics measurement.
[CCDF ON /OFF]
Switch on measurement of the complementary
cumulative distribution function. The ESU switches to
zero span mode. The power of the signal and the
CCDF is calculated for the number of samples
selected. With the CCDF function sample detector
and video bandwidth are set automatically.
[NO OF SAMPLES:
10000]
Set the number of measurement samples to 10000.
[SINGLE MEAS]
Start the measurement sequence. At the end the
resulting trace will display the CCDF for the
measured 10000 samples.
4.225
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
R&S ESU
Measurement of Carrier/Noise Ratio C/N and C/No
Using the carrier/noise measurement function, the ESU determines the C/N
ratio which can also be shown normalized to a 1 Hz bandwidth (function C/No).
To determine the noise power, a channel at the set center frequency is
examined. The bandwidth of the channel is fixed by means of the CHANNEL
BANDWIDTH function.
The largest signal in the frequency span is the carrier. It is searched when the
function is activated and is marked by means of the REFERENCE FIXED
marker. The noise power of the channel is subtracted from the signal level
obtained (C/N), and in the case of a C/No measurement it is referred to a 1 Hz
bandwidth.
There are two methods for measuring the carrier/noise ratio:
1. The carrier is outside the channel examined:
In this case, it is sufficient to switch on the desired measurement function
and to set the channel bandwidth. The carrier/noise ratio is displayed on the
screen.
2. The carrier is inside the channel examined:
In this case, the measurement must be performed in two steps. First, the
reference measurement is performed with the carrier being active. This is
done by switching on either the C/N or the C/No measurement and waiting
for the end of the next measurement run. Then, the carrier is switched off so
that only the noise of the test setup is active in the channel. The carrier/noise
ratio is displayed after the subsequent measurement has been completed.
The ADJUST SETTINGS function facilitates the selection of the frequency span
appropriate for the channel bandwidth: it automatically sets the SPAN to
approx. 4 × channel bandwidth.
The RMS detector is enabled when the power measurement is switched on
(TRACE-DETECTOR-RMS).
1302.6163.12
4.226
E-1
R&S ESU
C/N C/No
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
C/N
C/No
C/N
C/No
CHANNEL
BANDWIDTH
F
ADJUST
SETTINGS
The C/N, C/No softkeys open the submenu for configuring the carrier/noise ratio
measurement.
The user can choose between measurement without (C/N) and measurement
with reference to the bandwidth (C/No). In addition, it is possible to select the
bandwidth of the channel and to adapt the span.
Aa
Note
The measurements are only available in the frequency
domain (span >0).
The C/N and C/No softkeys enable and disable the measurement of the carrier/
noise ratio, the C/No measurement also being referred to a 1 Hz bandwidth.
The maximum value of the current trace is determined when the function is
activated and is marked by means of the REFERENCE FIXED marker.
1302.6163.12
4.227
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
Aa
R&S ESU
Note
The measurement is performed on the trace where
MARKER 1 is located. To measure another trace,
MARKER 1 has to be shifted to the trace in question
using the SELECT TRACE softkey in the MARKER
menu.
If no marker is active, MARKER 1 is activated when the
function is switched on.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CHANNEL
BANDWIDTH
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL CN
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CN
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL CN0
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CN0
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW OFF
The CHANNEL BANDWIDTH softkey opens a window for selecting the
measurement channel bandwidth.
The default setting is 14 kHz.
The specified channel bandwidth allows the optimal setting of the measurement
parameters of the ESU using ADJUST SETTINGS.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ADJUST SETTINGS
SENS:POW:ACH:BWID 14kHz
The ADJUST SETTINGS softkey adapts the span to the channel bandwidth
selected.
For the carrier/noise ratio measurement, the span is set to:
4 × channel bandwidth + measurement margin
The adjustment is performed once; if necessary, the setting can be changed
later on.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
SENS:POW:ACH:PRES CN | CN0
4.228
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
Measurement of the AM Modulation Depth
MODULATION
DEPTH
The MODULATION DEPTH softkey switches on the measurement of the AM
modulation depth. An AM-modulated carrier is required on the screen for
ensuring correct operation.
The level value of MARKER 1 is taken as the carrier level. When this function
is activated, MARKER 2 and MARKER 3 are automatically set symmetrically to
the carrier on the adjacent peak values of the trace as delta markers and
MARKER 2 is activated for the entry.
When the position of MARKER 2 (delta) is changed, MARKER 3 (delta) is
moved symmetrically with respect to the reference marker (MARKER 1).
If the data entry is activated for MARKER 3 (MARKER 1 2 3 4 softkey), the latter
can be moved for fine adjustment irrespective of MARKER 2.
The ESU calculates the power at the marker positions from the measured
levels. The AM modulation depth is calculated from the ratio between the power
values at the reference marker and at the delta markers. When the powers of
the two AM side bands are unequal, the mean value of the two power values is
used for AM modulation depth calculation.
Measurement example
The AM modulation depth of a carrier modulated with 1 kHz is to be measured
at 100 MHz.
[PRESET]
The ESU is set to the default setting.
[CENTER: 100 MHz]
The center frequency is set to 100 MHz.
[SPAN: 5 kHz]
The span is set to 5 kHz.
[AMPT: 0 dBm]
The reference level is set to 0 dBm.
[MKR FCTN]
MARKER 1 is switched on and positioned at the
maximum of the displayed trace.
[MODULATION DEPTH: The measurement of the AM modulation depth is
1 kHz]
switched on. MARKERS 2 and 3 (delta markers) are
set to the adjacent peak values of the trace and are
activated for the frequency entry.
The AM modulation depth is output in % in the marker
info field.
When 1 kHz is entered, MARKER 2 can be exactly
positioned on 1 kHz and MARKER 3 at -1 kHz from
the reference marker.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK:FUNC:MDEP ON;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:MDEP:RES?
4.229
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
R&S ESU
Measurement of the Third Order Intercept (TOI)
If several signals are applied to a transmission two port device with nonlinear
characteristic, intermodulation products appear at its output by the sums and
differences of the signals. The nonlinear characteristic produces harmonics of
the useful signals which intermodulate at the characteristic. The
intermodulation products of lower order have a special effect since their level is
largest and they are near the useful signals. The intermodulation product of
third order causes the highest interference. It is the intermodulation product
generated from one of the useful signals and the 2nd harmonic of the second
useful signal in case of two-tone modulation.
The frequencies of the intermodulation products are above and below the useful
signals. Fig. 4-22 Intermodulation products PU1 and PU2 shows
intermodulation products PI1 and PI2 generated by the two useful signals PU1
and PU2.
P
U1
Level
P
U2
a D3
PI2
PI1
∆f
f
I1
Fig. 4-22
∆f
f
U1
∆f
f
U2
f
I2
Frequency
Intermodulation products PU1 and PU2
The intermodulation product at fI2 is generated by mixing the 2nd harmonic of
useful signal PU2 and signal PU1, the intermodulation product at fI1 by mixing
the 2nd harmonic of useful signal PU1 and signal PU2.
fI1 = 2 × fU1 - fU2
(1)
fI2 = 2 × fU2 - fU1
(2)
The level of the intermodulation products depends on the level of the useful
signals. If the two useful signals are increased by 1 dB, the level of the
intermodulation products increases by 3 dB, which means that spacing aD3
between intermodulation signals and useful signals is reduced by 2 dB. This is
illustrated in Fig. 4-23 Dependence of intermodulation level on useful signal
level.
1302.6163.12
4.230
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
Intercept point
Output
level
Com pression
Intermodulation
product
Useful signal
3
1
1
1
Input level
Fig. 4-23
Dependence of intermodulation level on useful signal level
The useful signals at the two port output increase proportionally with the input
level as long as the two port is in the linear range. A level change of 1 dB at the
input causes a level change of 1 dB at the output. Beyond a certain input level,
the two port goes into compression and the output level stops increasing. The
intermodulation products of the third order increase three times as much as the
useful signals. The intercept point is the fictitious level where the two lines
intersect. It cannot be measured directly since the useful level is previously
limited by the maximum two port output power.
It can be calculated from the known line slopes and the measured spacing aD3
at a given level according to the following formula.
(3)
The 3rd order intercept point (TOI), for example, is calculated for an
intermodulation of 60 dB and an input level PU of -20 dBm according to the
following formula:
(4)
TOI
The TOI softkey enables the measurement of the 3rd order intercept point.
A two-tone signal with equal carrier levels is expected at the ESU input.
MARKER 1 and MARKER 2 (both normal markers) are set to the maximum of
the two signals. MARKER 3 and MARKER 4 (both delta markers) are placed on
the intermodulation products. When the function is enabled, the frequency entry
is activated for the delta markers. They can be set manually.
The ESU calculates the third order intercept from the level spacing between
normal markers and delta markers and outputs it in the marker info field.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI ON;
CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI:RES?
4.231
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
R&S ESU
Example
A two-tone signal with frequencies of 100 MHz and 101 MHz is applied to the
RF input of the ESU. The level of the two signals is -10 dBm.
SELECT MARKER
[PRESET]
The ESU is set to the default setting.
[CENTER: 100.5 MHz]
The center frequency is set to 100.5 MHz.
[SPAN: 3 MHz]
The span is set to 3 MHz.
[AMPT: -10 dBm]
The reference level is set to -10 dBm.
[MKR FCTN]
MARKER 1 is switched on and set to the signal peak.
[TOI]
The ESU sets the 4 markers to the useful signals and
the intermodulation products and calculates the third
order intercept. The result is output in the marker info
field.
The SELECT MARKER softkey activates the selection of a marker for functions
MODULATION DEPTH and TOI. Thus, the markers can be fine-adjusted for
these functions.
The markers are numerically selected in a data entry field. Delta marker 1 is
selected by entering '0'.
If the marker is in the switch-off state, it will be switched on and can thus be
shifted.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:MARK1 ON;
CALC:MARK1:X <value>;
CALC:MARK1:Y?
4.232
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
Harmonic Measurement
HARMONIC
DISTORTION
HARMONIC
DISTOR
HARMONIC
ON OFF
NO. OF
HARMONICS
HARMONIC
SWEEPTIME
HARMONIC
RBW AUTO
ADJUST
SETTINGS
The HARMONIC DISTORTION softkey opens this submenu.
In the upper screen the zero span sweeps on all harmonics are shown,
separated by a grid line. This allows a very good overview about the
measurement. In the lower screen the mean RMS results are displayed in
numerical values and the THD values can be seen in the marker info field.
The resolution bandwidth will be automatically adjusted: RBWn = RBW1 * n, if
that RBW is not available the next higher value is used.
HARMONIC ON OFF
The HARMONIC ON OFF Softkey activates the harmonic distortion
measurement. With this measurement it is possible to measure easily the
harmonics e.g. from a VCO. In addition the THD (total harmonic distortion) is
calculated in % and dB.
There are 2 possible modes within the harmonic measurement. When entering
the harmonic measurement from a frequency sweep (span > 0 Hz) an automatic
search for the first harmonic is carried out within that given frequency range.
Also a level adjust will be carried out. Is the zero span mode active before
entering the harmonic measurement, the center frequency is unchanged.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NO. OF HARMONICS
With the softkey NO. OF HARMONICS the number of harmonics which shall be
measured can be adjusted. The range is from 1 to 26.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
:CALC:MARKer:FUNC:HARM:STAT ON | OFF
:CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:NHAR <numerical
value>
4.233
E-1
Spectrum Analysis – MEAS Key
HARMONIC
SWEEPTIME
HARMONIC RBW
AUTO
ADJUST SETTINGS
R&S ESU
The HARMONIC SWEEPTIME softkey allows to set the value how long the
zero span measurement on each harmonic frequency shall take place. This is
an alias softkey to the normal sweep time of the zero span, therefore the same
parser command is to be used.
The softkey HARMONIC RBW AUTO disabled the resolution bandwidth.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
:CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:BAND:AUTO ON |
OFF
The ADJUST SETTINGS softkey activated he frequency search in the
frequency range from before starting the harmonic measurement (if harmonic
measurement was started from frequency sweep) and the level adjust.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
:CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:PRES
The results can be obtained via IEC/IEEE-bus via the following commands:
Trace read out via the normal trace subsystem. The first harmonic frequency
can be read out via the center frequency command.
THD value comma separated in % and dB:
:CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:DIST? TOT
Comma separated list of harmonic levels, for each harmonic one value:
:CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:LIST?
1302.6163.12
4.234
E-1
R&S ESU
Measuring Spurious Emissions
All real amplifiers also generate unwanted RF products outside the assigned
frequency band. These spurious emissions are usually measured across a wide
frequency range, for example from 9 kHz to 12.75 GHz (ETSI). The analyzer
settings are specified for each frequency range.
SPURIOUS
EMISSIONS
SPURIOUS ON OFF
SWEEP LIST !
EDIT SWEEP LIST
INS BEFORE RANGE
INS AFTER RANGE
DELETE RANGE
NEXT RANGES
PREVIOUS RANGES
ADJUST AXIS
START MEAS
STOP MEAS
PEAK SEARCH
PEAKS PER RANGE
MARGIN
VIEW PEAK LIST !
SORT BY FREQUENCY
SORT BY DELTA LIM
ASCII FILE EXPORT
DECIM SEP
PAGE UP / PAGE DOWN
START MEAS
STOP MEAS
In the Spurious Emissions mode, the ESU performs measurements in
predefined frequency ranges with settings that can be specified individually for
each of these ranges.
For this purpose, the SWEEP TABLE settings or the current device settings are
used. Up to 20 subranges can be defined (they need not directly follow one
another) across which the ESU sweeps in subsequent order. However, the
measurement ranges must not overlap. The measurement parameters can be
selected independently from each other in every subrange (SWEEP LIST
menu, EDIT SWEEP LIST).
Limit lines are defined and displayed irrespective of the sweep ranges, i.e. they
are not part of the sweep ranges. The unit of the limit lines is restricted to dB or
dBm.
1302.6163.12
4.235
E-1
R&S ESU
The frequency range where measurements are actually performed is set by the
start and stop frequency parameters of the ESU; these parameters are
independent of the sweep ranges. It is thus possible to define sweep ranges for
a measurement task that can be stored and reloaded and to quickly and easily
set the frequency range to be actually measured by means of two parameters;
complex editing in the sweep table is not necessary.
Aa
SPURIOUS ON OFF
Note
When a limit line is defined in steps, the weaker limit is
used at the frequency point with the straight vertical
section.
The SPURIOUS ON OFF softkey switches the spurious emissions
measurement on or off according to the current configuration.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SWEEP LIST
The SWEEP LIST softkey opens a submenu where predefined sweep ranges
can be edited, or new ranges generated or deleted. A table listing the current
sweep ranges is displayed.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
EDIT SWEEP LIST
--
The EDIT SWEEP LIST softkey opens the table for editing the sweep ranges.
SWEEP LIST
Range Start
Range Stop
Filter Type
RBW
VBW
Sweep time mode
Sweep time
Detector
REF-Level
RF-Att. mode
RF-Attenuator
PRE-AMP
Sweep Points
Stop after sweep
Transd. factor
1302.6163.12
SWEEP:MODE LIST switches the spurious list on
SWEEP:MODE AUTO switches the spurious list off
RANGE 1
9 kHz
50 MHz
NORMAL
10 kHz
30 kHz
AUTO
10 ms
Peak
-20 dBm
AUTO
10 dB
OFF
625
ON
LOWFREQ
RANGE 2
50 MHz
500 MHz
CHANNEL
100 kHz
300 kHz
MANUAL
10 ms
RMS
-20 dBm
MANUAL
10 dB
OFF
625
OFF
MIDFREQ
4.236
RANGE 3
500 MHz
1 GHz
RRC
3 MHz
10 MHz
AUTO
100 ms
Peak
-20 dBm
AUTO
5 dB
OFF
625
OFF
MIDFREQ
RANGE 4
RANGE 5
E-1
R&S ESU
In the SWEEP LIST table, the individual sweep ranges are set.
Range Start:
Start frequency of the range
Range Stop:
Stop frequency of the range
Filter Type:
Filter type: NORMAL, CHANNEL, RRC
RBW:
Resolution filter bandwidth
VBW:
Video filter bandwidth; not applicable for CHANNEL and
RRC filters
Sweep Time Mode:
AUTO / MANUAL
Sweep Time:
Sweep time; if AUTO is indicated for the sweep time
mode, the automatically calculated sweep time is
displayed. If the cell is edited, the associated sweep time
mode is automatically set to MANUAL.
Detector:
Specifies the range detector: Sample, Average, Max
Peak, RMS, Min Peak and Auto Peak
REF-Level
Reference level in dBm
The upper edge of the displayed screen area is the value
of the maximum reference level, corrected by the
associated transducer factor.
RF-Attenuator-Mode AUTO / MANUAL
RF-Attenuator
Number; as with Sweep Time
PRE-AMP
ON / OFF; preamplifier selection
Sweep Points
Number of sweep points per range (sweep segment).
The number of sweep points must not exceed 100001.
Stop after Sweep
ON / OFF; if ON, the sweep is stopped after the range
and continued only if confirmed by you via a message
box.
Transd. factor
NONE or factor (enter via selection list)
IEC/IEEE bus command:
INS BEFORE RANGE
The INS BEFORE RANGE softkey inserts a range in front of the marked line.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
SENS:LIST:RANGE<1…20>:…
LIST:RANG1:STAR
LIST:RANG1:STOP
LIST:RANG1:FILTER:TYP
LIST:RANG1:BANDwidth
LIST:RANG1:BANDwidth:VID
LIST:RANG1:SWEEP:TIME:AUTO
LIST:RANG1:SWEEP:TIME
LIST:RANG1:DET
LIST:RANG1:RLEV
LIST:RANG1:INPUT:ATT:AUTO
LIST:RANG1:INPUT:ATT
LIST:RANG1:INPUT:GAIN:STAT
LIST:RANG1:POINt
LIST:RANG1:BREA
LIST:RANG1:TRAN
--
4.237
E-1
R&S ESU
INS AFTER RANGE
The INS AFTER RANGE softkey inserts a range following the marked line.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DELETE RANGE
The DELETE RANGE softkey deletes the current range. All higher ranges are
set back by one.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NEXT RANGES
--
The ADJUST AXIS softkey automatically adjusts the frequency axis of
measurement diagram so that the start frequency matches the start frequency
of the first sweep range, and the stop frequency of the last sweep range.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
START MEAS
--
The PREVIOUS RANGES softkey activates the displays of the next lower
subranges, i.e. 1 to 5, 6 to 10 or 11 to 15.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ADJUST AXIS
LIST:RANGe<1…20>:DELete
The NEXT RANGES softkey activates the displays of the next higher
subranges, i.e. 6 to 10, 11 to 15 or 16 to 20.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PREVIOUS RANGES
--
-(via FREQuency:STARt <num_value> /
FREQuency:STOP <num_value>)
Using the START MEAS softkey, you can start the measurement while the
submenu is simultaneously exited.
When the measurement is started, the ESU sets up the measurement diagram
in the selected measurement window and starts the measurement in the
selected mode.
With SINGLE, a single frequency sweep occurs; afterwards the ESU remains
on the stop frequency.
With CONTINUOUS, the measurement continues until it is stopped.
You can stop the measurement with STOP SWEEP.
If a STOP AFTER SWEEP point has been defined in the range, the sweep stops
automatically at the end of the respective range to allow you to change the
external circuitry, for example. This is indicated in a message box:
SWEEP Range# reached CONTINUE/BREAK
If CONTINUE is selected, the sweep is continued in the next range. If BREAK
is selected, the sweep is stopped.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
STOP MEAS
The STOP MEAS softkey stops the measurement. The measurement data can
be analyzed.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
INIT:SPUR starts the measurement
INIT:CONM starts the measurement after a
BREAK has been reached
ABORt stops the measurement after a range has
been reached
ABORt
4.238
E-1
R&S ESU
PEAK SEARCH
The PEAK SEARCH softkey starts the process of determining the list of the
subrange maximums from the existing sweep results. This procedure can be
repeated as often as desired, e.g. to experiment with the various threshold
settings.
It is activated only after a measurement has been performed with START
MEAS.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PEAKS PER RANGE
CALC:PEAK
The PEAKS PER RANGE softkey activates entry of the number of peaks per
range that are stored in the list. The value range extends from 1 to 50. Once the
selected number of peaks has been reached, the peak search is stopped in the
current range and continued in the next range.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:PEAK:SUBR 1...50
Default: 25;
MARGIN
The MARGIN softkey activates entry of the margin, i.e. the acceptance
threshold for determining the peak list. The limit line is shifted by this value when
the maximums are determined. The value range extends from -200 dB to 200
dB.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:PEAK:MARG –200dB...200dB
Default: 6 dB
VIEW PEAK LIST
The VIEW PEAK LIST softkey opens the submenu for viewing the peak list.
It is activated for display only after a PEAK search has been performed with
PEAK SEARCH.
A delta limit of +200dB is listed if no limit check is active.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
TRACe? SPURious
The table below shows a peak list after a PEAK SEARCH:
VIEW PEAK LIST
TRACE / Detector
1 RMS
1 RMS
1 RMS
1 AVERAGE
SORT BY
FREQUENCY
FREQUENCY
80.0000 MHz
80.0001 MHz
85.1234 MHz
130.234 MHz
--
The SORT BY DELTA LIM softkey sorts the table according to the entries in the
DELTA LIM column (default) in descending order. If no limit line has been
specified, an offset of 200 dB is assumed for all peaks.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
DELTA LIMIT dB
-5.02
+0.24
-0.02
-5.12
The SORT BY FREQUENCY softkey sorts the table according to the entries in
the FREQUENCY column in descending order.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SORT BY DELTA LIM
LEVEL dBm
-36.02
-30.07
-30.02
-29.12
--
4.239
E-1
R&S ESU
ASCII FILE EXPORT
The ASCII FILE EXPORT softkey stores the peak list in ASCII format to a file
on a memory stick.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
MMEM:STOR:SPUR,'F:\TEST.ASC'
The file has a header containing important parameters for scaling, several data
sections containing the sweep settings per range and a data section containing
the peak list.
The header data is made up of three columns, separated by ';':
parameter name; numeric value; basic unit
The data section for the measurement values starts with the key word "TRACE
<n>:", where <n> includes the number of the used trace. Next comes the peak
list with several columns also separated by ';'.
Spreadsheet programs such as MS Excel can read this format. Use ';' as the
delimiter for the table cells.
Aa
DECIM SEP
Note
Different language versions of evaluation programs may
require different handling of the decimal point. Using the
DECIM SEP softkey, you can thus choose between the
delimiters '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma).
In the case of floating-point numbers, use the DECIM SEP softkey to select
between '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) as the decimal delimiter for the ASCII
FILE EXPORT function.
By selecting the decimal delimiter, various language versions of evaluation
programs (e.g. MS Excel) are supported.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
FORM:DEXP:DSEP POIN
4.240
E-1
R&S ESU
Example: ASCII export table - file header
File contents
Explanation
Type;ESU;
Model
Version;3.55;
Firmware version
Date;02.Aug 2004;
Storage date of data set
Mode;ANALYZER; SPURIOUS;
Operating mode of the device
Start;9000.000000;Hz
Stop;8000000000.000000;Hz
Start/stop of the span
Unit: Hz
x-Axis;LIN;
Linear (LIN) or logarithmic (LOG) (future feature)
scaling of the x-axis
Sweep Count;1;
Selected number of sweeps
Example: ASCII export table - file data section
File contents
Explanation
TRACE 1:
Selected trace
Trace Mode;CLR/WRITE;
Display mode of trace:
CLR/WRITE,AVERAGE,MAX HOLD,MIN HOLD,
VIEW, BLANK
x-Unit;Hz;
Unit of x values:
y-Unit;dBm;
Unit of y values:
Margin;6.000000:s
Peak List margin
Values;8;
Number of measurement points
1;1548807257.5999999000;65.602280;-5.602280
Measurement values:
<Trace>;<x value>; <y value>;<delta limit>
1;1587207214.4000001000;65.327530;-5.327530
1;2112006624.0000000000;4.388008;55.611992
PAGE UP / PAGE
DOWN
Using PAGE UP and PAGE DOWN, you can scroll forward and backward
through the peak list pages.
They are active only as long as a peak list is displayed.
START MEAS
See “START MEAS” on page 4.238.
STOP MEAS
See “STOP MEAS” on page 4.238.
1302.6163.12
4.241
E-1
Basic Settings – LINES Key
R&S ESU
Basic Settings
In this section, all mode-independent functions are described. If a softkey is only
available in a special mode, the corresponding mode is indicated in the softkey
description.
Setup of Limit Lines and Display Lines –
LINES Key
Limit lines are used to define amplitude curves or spectral distribution
boundaries on the display screen which are not to be exceeded. They indicate,
for example, the upper limits for interference radiation or spurious waves which
are allowed from a unit under test (UUT). For transmission of information in
TDMA (e.g. GSM), the amplitude of the bursts in a timeslot must adhere to a
curve which must fall within a specified tolerance band. The lower and upper
limits may each be specified by a limit line. Then, the amplitude curve can be
controlled either visually or automatically for any violations of the upper or lower
limits (GO/NOGO test).
The instrument supports limit lines with a maximum of 50 data points. 8 of the
limit lines stored in the instrument can be used simultaneously and activated in
the split-screen mode either in Screen A, Screen B or in the two windows. The
number of limit lines stored in the instrument is only limited by the capacity of
the flash disk used.
For each limit line, the following characteristics must be defined:
1302.6163.12
•
The name of the limit line. The limit line data are stored under this name and
can be examined in the table LIMIT LINES.
•
The domain in which the limit line is to be used. Here, a distinction is made
between the time domain (span = 0 Hz, analyzer mode only) and the
frequency domain (span > 0 Hz).
•
The reference of the interpolation points to the X axis. The limit line may be
specified either for absolute frequencies or times or for frequencies which
are related to the set center frequency and times related to the time on the
left edge of the diagram. In receiver mode, only absolute scaling is used.
•
The reference of the interpolation points to the Y axis. The limit line can be
selected either for absolute levels or voltages or referred to the set maximum
level (Ref Lvl). The position on the display depends on the REF LEVEL
POSITION. In receiver mode, only absolute scaling is used.
•
With relative reference values for the Y axis, it is possible to enter an
absolute threshold (THRESHOLD) which lowers the relative limit values
(see below, analyzer mode only).
•
The type of limit line (upper or lower limit, lower limit for analyzer mode only).
With this information and the active limit checking function (Table LIMIT
LINES, LIMIT CHECK ON, analyzer mode only), the ESU checks for
compliance with each limit.
•
The limit line units to be used. The units of the limit line must be compatible
with the level axis in the active measurement window.
4.242
E-1
R&S ESU
Basic Settings – LINES Key
•
The measurement curve (trace) to which the limit line is assigned. For the
ESU, this defines the curve to which the limit is to be applied when several
traces are simultaneously displayed.
•
For each limit line, a margin can be defined which serves as a threshold for
automatic evaluation.
•
In addition, commentary can be written for each limit line, e.g. a description
of the application.
Display lines are exclusively used to optically mark relevant frequencies or
points in time (span = 0) as well as constant level values. It is not possible to
check automatically whether the marked level values have been underranged
or exceeded.
1302.6163.12
4.243
E-1
Basic Settings – LINES Key
R&S ESU
Selection of Limit Lines
The LINES key opens the menu for fixing the limit lines and the display lines.
The SELECTED LIMIT LINE display field provides information concerning the
characteristics of the marked limit lines.
In the LIMIT LINES table, the limit lines compatible to the settings of the active
screen can be enabled.
New limit lines can be specified and edited in the NEW LIMIT LINE and EDIT
LIMIT LINE submenus, respectively.
The horizontal and vertical lines of the DISPLAY LINES submenu mark
individual levels or frequencies (span > 0) or times (span = 0) in the diagram.
The SELECTED LIMIT LINE table
characteristics of the marked limit line:
provides
Name
name
Domain
frequency or time
Unit
vertical scale
X-Axis
interpolation
Limit
upper/lower limit
X-Scaling
absolute or relative frequencies/times
Y-Scaling
absolute or relative Y units
Threshold
absolute limit with relative Y units
Comment
commentary
information
about
the
The characteristics of the limit line are set in the EDIT LIMIT LINE (=NEW LIMIT
LINE) submenu.
1302.6163.12
4.244
E-1
R&S ESU
SELECT LIMIT LINE
Basic Settings – LINES Key
The SELECT LIMIT LINE softkey activates the LIMIT LINES table and the
selection bar jumps to the uppermost name in the table.
The following information is offered in the columns of the table:
Name
Enable the limit line.
Compatible
Indicates if the limit line is compatible with the measurement
window of the given trace.
Limit Check
Activate automatic violation check for upper/lower limits.
Trace
Select the measurement curve to which the limit is assigned.
Margin
Define margin.
Name and Compatible - Enabling limit lines
A maximum of 8 limit lines can be enabled at any one time. In split screen mode,
they may be assigned to screen A, screen B or to both screens. A check mark
at the left edge of a cell indicates that this limit line is enabled.
A limit line can only be enabled when it has a check mark in the Compatible
column, i.e. only when the horizontal display (time or frequency) and vertical
scales are identical to those of the display in the measurement window.
Lines with the unit dB are compatible to all dB(..) settings of the Y axis.
If the scale of the y axis or the domain (frequency or time axis) are changed, all
non-compatible limit lines are automatically switched off in order to avoid
misinterpretation. The limit lines must be enabled anew when the original
display is re-displayed.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:LIM3:NAME "GSM1"
CALC:LIM3:UPP:STAT ON
CALC:LIM4:LOW:STAT ON
Limit Check - Activate automatic limit violation check (analyzer mode
only)
When LIMIT CHECK ON is activated, a GO/NOGO test is performed in the
active screen. In the center of the diagram, a display window appears which
indicates the results of the limit check test:
LIMIT CHECK: PASSED
No violations of active limits.
LIMIT CHECK: FAILED
One or more active limit lines were violated. The
message contains the names of the limit lines
which were violated or whose margins were not
complied with.
LIMIT CHECK: MARGIN
The margin of at least one active limit lines was not
complied with, however, no limit line was violated.
The message contains the names of the limit lines
whose margins were not complied with.
The following example shows two active limit lines:
LIMIT CHECK: FAILED
LINE VHF_MASK: Failed
LINE UHF2MASK: Margin
1302.6163.12
4.245
E-1
Basic Settings – LINES Key
R&S ESU
A check for violations of limit lines takes place only if the limit line of the
assigned measurement curve (trace) is enabled.
If LIM CHECK is set to OFF for all active limit lines, then the limit line check is
not executed and the display window is activated.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:LIM:STAT ON
INIT;*WAI
CALC:LIM:FAIL?
Trace - Select the measurement curve to which the limit line is
assigned.
The selection of the measurement curve (trace) takes place in an entry window.
Allowed are the integer entries 1, 2 or 3. The default setting is trace 1. If the
selected limit line is not compatible with the assigned measurement curve, then
the limit line is disabled (display and limit check).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:LIM:TRAC 1
NEW LIMIT LINE
See following section “Entry and Editing of Limit Lines” on page 4.247.
EDIT LIMIT LINE
See following section “Entry and Editing of Limit Lines” on page 4.247.
COPY LIMIT LINE
The COPY LIMIT LINE softkey copies the data file describing the marked limit
line and saves it under a new name. In this way, a new limit line can be easily
generated by parallel translation or editing of an existing limit line. The name
can be arbitrarily chosen and input via an entry window (max. of 8 characters).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DELETE LIMIT LINE
The DELETE LIMIT LINE softkey erases the selected limit line. Before deletion,
a message appears requesting confirmation.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
X OFFSET
CALC:LIM3:DEL
The X OFFSET softkey horizontally shifts a limit line, which has been specified
for relative frequencies or times (X axis). The softkey opens an entry window,
where the value for shifting may be entered numerically or via the rotary knob.
Aa
Note
This softkey does not have any effect on limit lines that
represent absolute values for the X axis.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:LIM3:COPY 2
or
CALC:LIM3:COPY "GSM2"
CALC:LIM3:CONT:OFFS 10kHz
4.246
E-1
R&S ESU
Basic Settings – LINES Key
Y OFFSET
The Y OFFSET softkey vertically shifts a limit line, which has relative values for
the Y axis (levels or linear units such as volt). The softkey opens an entry
window where the value for shifting may be entered numerically or via the rotary
knob.
Aa
Note
This softkey does not have any effect on limit lines that
represent absolute values for the Y axis.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:LIM3:LOW:OFFS 3dB
CALC:LIM3:UPP:OFFS 3dB
Entry and Editing of Limit Lines
A limit line is characterized by
1302.6163.12
•
its name
•
the assignment of domain (frequency or time)
•
the scaling in absolute or relative times or frequencies
•
the vertical unit
•
the interpolation
•
the vertical scaling
•
the vertical threshold (only with relative vertical scaling)
4.247
E-1
Basic Settings – LINES Key
R&S ESU
•
the margin
•
the definition of the limit line as either upper or lower limit.
•
the data points for frequency/time and level.
At the time of entry, the ESU immediately checks that all limit lines are in
accordance with certain guidelines. These guidelines must be observed if
specified operation is to be guaranteed.
•
The frequencies/times for each data point must be entered in ascending
order, however, for any single frequency/time, two data points may be input
(vertical segment of a limit line).
The data points are allocated in order of ascending frequency/time. Gaps
are not allowed. If gaps are desired, two separate limit lines must be defined
and then both enabled.
EDIT LIMIT LINE /
NEW LIMIT LINE
•
The entered frequencies/times need not necessarily be selectable in ESU.
A limit line may also exceed the specified frequency or time domains. The
minimum frequency for a data point is -200 GHz, the maximum frequency is
200 GHz. For the time domain representation, negative times may also be
entered. The valid range is -1000 s to +1000 s.
•
The minimum/maximum value for a limit line is -200 dB to +200 dB for the
logarithmic or 10-20 to 10+20 or -99.9% to + 999.9% for the linear amplitude
scales.
The EDIT LIMIT LINE and NEW LIMIT LINE softkeys both call the EDIT LIMIT
LINE submenu used for editing limit lines. In the table heading, the
characteristics of the limit line can be entered. The data points for frequency/
time and level values are entered in the columns.
Name
Enter name.
Domain
Select domain.
Unit
Select units.
X-Axis
Select interpolation
Limit
Select upper and lower limit value.
X-Scaling
Entry of absolute or relative values for the X axis
Y-Scaling
Entry of absolute or relative values for the Y axis
Margin
Entry of margin.
Threshold
Entry of vertical threshold (only with relative vertical
scaling)
Comment
Enter comments.
Time/Frequency
Enter time/frequency for the data points.
Limit/dBm
Enter magnitudes for the data points.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
Domain, unit, X scaling and Y scaling cannot be modified
as soon as reference values have been entered in the
data section of the table.
4.248
E-1
R&S ESU
Basic Settings – LINES Key
NAME
The NAME softkey enables the entry of characteristics in the table heading.
Name - Enter name
A maximum of 8 characters is permitted for each name. All names must be
compatible with the MS DOS conventions for file names. The instrument stores
all limit lines with the .LIM extension.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:LIM3:NAME "GSM1"
Domain - Select time or frequency domain
The default setting is frequency. In receiver mode, only the frequency domain
can be selected.
Aa
Note
A change in domain (frequency/time) is only permitted
when the data point table is empty.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:LIM3:CONT:DOM FREQ
X Axis - Select interpolation
Linear or logarithmic interpolation can be carried out between the frequency
reference points of the table. The ENTER key toggles between LIN and LOG
selection.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:LIM3:CONT:SPAC LIN
CALC:LIM3:UPP:SPAC LIN
CALC:LIM3:LOW:SPAC LIN
Scaling - selection of absolute or relative scaling
The limit line can either be scaled in absolute (frequency or time) or relative
units. In receiver mode, only absolute scaling is used. Any of the unit keys may
be used to toggle between ABSOLUTE and RELATIVE, the cursor must be
positioned in the X-Scaling or the Y-Scaling line.
The RELATIVE scaling is always suitable, if masks for bursts are to be defined
in the time domain, or if masks for modulated signals are required in the
frequency domain.
An X offset with half the sweep time may be entered in order to shift the mask
in the time domain into the center of screen.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:LIM3:CONT:MODE ABS
CALC:LIM3:UPP:MODE ABS
CALC:LIM3:LOW:MODE ABS
Unit - Select the vertical scale units for the limit line
The selection of units takes place in a selection box. The default setting is dBm.
1302.6163.12
4.249
E-1
Basic Settings – LINES Key
R&S ESU
UNITS
VERTICAL SCALE
dB
dBm
%
dBuV
dBmV
dBuA
dBpW
V
A
W
dBuV/MHz
dBmV/MHz
dBuA/MHz
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:LIM3:UNIT DBM
Limit - Select upper/lower limit
A limit line can be defined as either an upper or lower limit. In receiver mode,
only the upper limit line is used.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
-- (defined by key words :UPPer or :LOWer)
Margin - Setting a margin.
The margin is defined as the signal-level distance to the limit line. When the limit
line is defined as an upper limit, the margin means that the level is below the
limit line. When the limit line is defined as a lower limit, the margin means that
the level is above the limit line. The default setting is 0 dB (i.e. no margin).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:LIM3:UPP:MARG 10dB
CALC:LIM3:LOW:MARG 10dB
Threshold – Selection of the threshold value with relative Y scaling
With relative Y scaling, an absolute threshold value can be defined which
lowers the relative limit values. The function is useful especially for mobile radio
applications provided the limit values are defined in relation to the carrier power
as long as they are above an absolute limit value.
Example:
Ref -20 dBm
Att 10 dB
RBW 300 Hz
VBW 3 kHz
SWT 100 ms
Marker [T1]
-28.4 dBm
200.0100 MHz
resulting limit
absolute threshold
relative limit line
Center
1302.6163.12
200 MHz
10 kHz/
4.250
Span 100 kHz
E-1
R&S ESU
Basic Settings – LINES Key
The preset value is at -200 dBm. The field is displayed if the value RELATIVE
is entered in the field Y-SCALING.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CALC:LIM3:UPP:THR -30 dBm
or
CALC:LIM3:LOW:THR -30 dBm
Comment - Enter comments
Comments are arbitrary, however, they must be less than 41 characters long.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
VALUES
CALC:LIM3:COMM "Upper limit"
The VALUES softkey activates the entry of the data points in the table columns
Time/Frequency and Limit/dB. Which table columns appear depends upon the
Domain selection in the table heading.
The desired frequency/time data points are entered in ascending order (two
repeated frequencies/time values are permitted).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
INSERT VALUE
The INSERT VALUE softkey creates an empty line above the current cursor
position where a new data point may be entered. However, during the entry of
new values, it is necessary to observe an ascending order for frequency/time.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DELETE VALUE
--
The DELETE VALUE softkey erases the data point (complete line) at the cursor
position. All succeeding data points are shifted down accordingly.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SHIFT X LIMIT LINE
CALC:LIM3:CONT:DATA 1MHz,3MHz,30MHz
CALC:LIM3:UPP:DATA -10,0,0
CALC:LIM3:LOW:DATA -30,-40,-40
--
The SHIFT X LIMIT LINE softkey calls an entry window where the complete limit
line may be shifted parallel in the horizontal direction.
The shift takes place according to the horizontal scale:
– in the frequency domain in Hz, kHz, MHz or GHz
– in the time domain in ns, µs, ms or s
In this manner, a new limit line can be easily generated based upon an existing
limit line which has been shifted horizontally and stored (SAVE LIMIT LINE
softkey) under a new name (NAME softkey).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:LIM3:CONT:SHIF 50KHz
4.251
E-1
Basic Settings – LINES Key
SHIFT Y LIMIT LINE
R&S ESU
The SHIFT Y LIMIT LINE softkey calls an entry window where the complete limit
line may be shifted parallel in the vertical direction.
The shift takes place according to the vertical scale:
– for logarithmic units, relative, in dB
– for linear units, as a factor
In this manner, a new limit line can be easily generated based upon an existing
limit line which has been shifted vertically and stored (SAVE LIMIT LINE
softkey) under a new name (NAME softkey).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SAVE LIMIT LINE
CALC:LIM3:CONT:UPP:SHIF 20dB
CALC:LIM3:CONT:LOW:SHIF 20dB
The SAVE LIMIT LINE softkey stores the currently edited limit line. The name
can be entered in an input window (max. 8 characters)
IEC/IEEE bus command:
--
Display Lines
Display lines help to evaluate a trace – as do markers. The function of a display
line is comparable to that of a ruler that can be shifted on the trace in order to
mark absolute values.
The ESU provides two different types of display lines:
•
two horizontal level lines for marking levels – Display Line 1/2,
•
two vertical frequency or time lines for marking frequencies or points in time
– Frequency/Time Line 1/2.
Each line is identified by one of the following abbreviations:
D1
Display Line 1
D2
Display Line 2
F1
Frequency Line 1
F2
Frequency Line 2
T1
Time Line 1
T2
Time Line 2
The level lines are continuous horizontal lines across the entire width of a
diagram and can be shifted in y direction.
The frequency or time lines are continuous vertical lines across the entire height
of the diagram and can be shifted in x direction.
The DISPLAY LINES submenu for activating and setting the display lines
appears different depending on the display mode set in the active measurement
window (frequency or time domain).
If the spectrum is shown (span ≠ 0) the TIME LINE 1 and TIME LINE 2 softkeys
are disabled, whereas in the time domain (span = 0) the FREQUENCY LINE 1
and FREQUENCY LINE 2 softkeys are not available.
1302.6163.12
4.252
E-1
R&S ESU
Basic Settings – LINES Key
Working with display lines
The softkeys for setting and switching the display lines on/off work like triple
switches:
Initial situation: The line is off (softkey with gray background)
1st press: The line is switched on (softkey with red background) and the data
input function is activated. The position of the display line can be selected by
means of the rotary knob, the step keys or a numerical entry in the appropriate
field. The data input function is disabled if another function is activated. The line,
however, remains switched on (softkey with green background).
2nd press: The line is switched off (softkey with gray background).
Initial situation: The line is on (softkey with green background)
1st press: The data input function is activated (softkey with red background).
The position of the display line can be selected by means of the rotary knob, the
step keys or a numerical entry in the appropriate field. The data input function
is disabled if another function is activated. The line, however, remains switched
on (softkey with green background).
2nd press: The line is switched off (softkey with gray background).
DISPLAY LINES
DISPLAY
LINES
DISPLAY
LINE 1
DISPLAY
LINE 2
FREQUENCY
LINE 1
FREQUENCY
LINE 2
TIME
LINE 1
TIME
LINE 2
DISPLAY LINE 1
DISPLAY LINE 2
Frequency Domain
(Span > 0 Hz)
Time Domain
(Span = 0 Hz)
The DISPLAY LINE 1/2 softkeys enable or disable the level lines and allow the
user to enter the position of the lines.
The level lines mark the selected level in the measurement window.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:DLIN:STAT ON
CALC:DLIN -20dBm
4.253
E-1
Basic Settings – LINES Key
FREQUENCY LINE 1
FREQUENCY LINE 2
R&S ESU
The FREQUENCY LINE 1/2 softkeys enable or disable the frequency lines 1/2
and allow the user to enter the position of the lines.
The frequency lines mark the selected frequencies in the measurement
window.
Aa
Note
The two softkeys cannot be used in the time domain
(span = 0).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
TIME LINE 1
TIME LINE 2
CALC:FLIN:STAT ON
CALC:FLIN 120MHz
The TIME LINE 1/2 softkeys enable or disable the time lines 1/2 and allow the
user to enter the position of the lines.
The time lines mark the selected times or define search ranges (see section
“Marker Functions – MKR FCTN” on page 4.170).
Aa
Note
The two softkeys cannot be used in the frequency
domain (span > 0).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CALC:TLIN:STAT ON
CALC:TLIN 10ms
4.254
E-1
R&S ESU
Basic Settings – DISP Key
Configuration of Screen Display – DISP Key
The DISPLAY menu allows the configuration of the diagram display on the
screen and also the selection of the display elements and colors. The POWER
SAVE mode is also configured in this menu for the display.
The test results are displayed on the screen of the ESU either in a full-screen
window or in two overlapping windows. The two windows are called diagram A
and diagram B.
In the default setting, the two windows are completely decoupled from each
other, i.e. they behave like two separate instruments. This is very useful, for
example with harmonics measurements or measurements on frequencyconverting DUTs, since the input signal and the output signal lie in different
frequency ranges.
However, specific settings of the two windows (reference level, center
frequency) can be coupled, if required, so that with CENTER B = MARKER A
for example, the shift of the marker in diagram A causes the frequency range
(zoomed in some cases) to be shifted along diagram B.
In the default setting, the upper half of the screen shows the bar graph
measurement of the receiver (screen A) and the lower half shows the sweep of
the IF analysis (screen B). Various instrument settings such as RF attenuation
are coupled together for the two measurement screens, i.e. changing a setting
in one of the measurement screens automatically changes it in the other
screen. You can define which instrument settings are to be coupled from the
PARAM COUPLING menu.
New settings are performed in the diagram selected via SCREEN A or
SCREEN B hotkey. If only one window is displayed, it is the diagram in which
the measurements are performed; the diagram not displayed is not active for
measurements.
Fig. 4-24
1302.6163.12
Typical split-screen display
4.255
E-1
Basic Settings – DISP Key
R&S ESU
The DISP key opens the menu for configuring the screen display and selecting
the active diagram in SPLIT SCREEN mode.
LINE S
Receiver
Analyzer
D ISP
FULL
SCREEN
FULL
SCREEN
FILE
SPLIT
SCREEN
SPLIT
SCREEN
PARAM
COUPLING
PARAM
COUPLING
SCREEN
TITLE
TIME+DATE
ON
OFF
ON
REF LEVEL
COUPLED
ANNOTATION
ON
OFF
BARGRAPH
MAXHOLD
BARGRAPH
RESET
CONFIG
DISPLAY
FULL SCREEN
LOGO
OFF
SELECT
OBJECT
BRIGHTNESS
TINT
SATURATION
DATA ENTRY
OPAQUE
CENTER B
= MARKER A
DEFAULT
COLORS 1
CENTER A
= MARKER B
DEFAULT
COLORS 2
PREDEFINED
COLORS
DISPLAY
PWR SAVE
CONFIG
DISPLAY
The FULL SCREEN softkey selects the display of one diagram. This
corresponds to the default setting of ESU.
In Analyzer mode, it is possible to switch between two different device settings
by selecting the active window (screen A or screen B).
Switching between SCREEN A and SCREEN B is performed by means of the
corresponding key in the hotkey bar (for details refer to “Mode Selection –
Hotkey Bar” on page 4.10).
It should be noted that the measurements in the FULL SCREEN mode are
performed only in the visible (active) window.
The active window is marked by
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SPLIT SCREEN
A
or
B
on the right of the diagram.
DISP:FORM SING
DISP:WIND<1|2>:SEL
The SPLIT SCREEN softkey selects the display of two diagrams. The upper
diagram is designated SCREEN A, the lower diagram SCREEN B.
Switching between SCREEN A and SCREEN B is performed via the
corresponding key in the hotkey bar. The active window is marked by
highlighting fields A and B on the right of the diagram.
In receiver mode, screen A displays the receiver bar graph and screen B the
scan diagram or the IF analysis diagram.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
DISP:FORM SPL
4.256
E-1
R&S ESU
PARAM COUPLING
COUPLING TABLE
Basic Settings – DISP Key
The PARAM COUPLING softkey opens the submenu for selecting the coupled
parameters of receiver and analyzer mode.
The COUPLING TABLE softkey opens the PARAMETER COUPLING table.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DEFAULT CONFIG
Analyzer Center
INST:COUP:CENT ALL
Start-Stop
INST:COUP:SPAN ALL
Attenuation, Unit
INST:COUP:ATT ALL
Minimum Attenuation
INST:COUP:PROT ALL
Preamp
INST:COUP:GAIN ALL
Preselector
INST:COUP:PRES ALL
Demodulator
INST:COUP:DEM ALL
Bandwidth
INST:COUP:BWID ALL
The DEFAULT CONFIG softkey activates the preset settings of the
PARAMETER COUPLING table.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ENABLE ALL ITEMS
The ENABLE ALL ITEMS softkey switches all of the possible couplings to on.
The coupling of center frequency is switched on, therefore coupling of start /
stop frequency is switched off.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DISABLE ALL ITEMS
1302.6163.12
--
The DISABLE ALL ITEMS softkey switches all of the possible couplings to off.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
BARGRAPH
MAXHOLD
--
--
The BARGRAPH MAXHOLD switches on the maxhold display of a single
measurement.
4.257
E-1
Basic Settings – DISP Key
R&S ESU
The BARGRAPH MAXHOLD softkey changes the display of the results of the
bar graph measurement such that both the highest level for each detector and
the frequency at which it is measured are displayed. The MAX Hold value will
not be automatically reset by the instrument until BARGRAPH MAXHOLD is
switched off or until, for example, the test receiver mode is deactivated as a
result of switching to the spectrum analyzer.
Thus, you can also trace fluctuating interference signals in the frequency, and
the highest measured value will remain on screen together with the associated
frequency.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
BARGRAPH RESET
The BARGRAPH RESET softkey resets the stored maximum values of the bar
graph measurement.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
DISP:BARG:PHOL ON
DISP:BARG:PHOL:RES
4.258
E-1
R&S ESU
REF LEVEL
COUPLED
Basic Settings – DISP Key
The REF LEVEL COUPLED softkey switches the coupling of the reference level
on and off. In addition to the reference level, the mixer level and input
attenuation are coupled with one another.
For the level measurement, the same reference level and input attenuation
must be set for the two diagrams.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CENTER B
= MARKER A /
CENTER A
= MARKER B
INST:COUP RLEV
The CENTER B = MARKER A and CENTER A = MARKER B softkeys couple
the center frequency in diagram B with the frequency of marker 1 in diagram A
and the center frequency in diagram B with the frequency of marker 1 in
diagram B. The two softkeys are mutually exclusive.
This coupling is useful, e.g. for viewing the signal at the marker position in
diagram A with higher frequency resolution or in the time domain in diagram B.
If marker 1 is off, it is switched on and set to the maximum of the trace in the
active diagram.
The softkeys are only available in receiver mode.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CONFIG DISPLAY
CONFIG
DISPLAY
INST:COUP CF_B
INST:COUP CF_A
SCREEN
TITLE
SELECT
OBJECT
TIME+DATE
ON
OFF
BRIGHTNESS
LOGO
ON
OFF
TINT
ANNOTATION
ON
OFF
SATURATION
DATA ENTRY
OPAQUE
DEFAULT
COLORS 1
PREDEFINED
COLORS
DEFAULT
COLORS 2
DISPLAY
PWR SAVE
The CONFIG DISPLAY softkey opens a submenu allowing additional display
items to be added to the screen. In addition, the display power-save mode
(DISPLAY PWR SAVE softkey) and the colors of the display elements can be
set here.
1302.6163.12
4.259
E-1
Basic Settings – DISP Key
SCREEN TITLE
R&S ESU
The SCREEN TITLE softkey activates the entry of a title for the active diagram
A or B. It switches on or off a title that is already input. The length of the title is
limited to max. 20 characters.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
TIME+DATE ON/OFF
The TIME+DATE ON/OFF softkey switches on or off the display of date and
time above the diagram.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
LOGO ON/OFF
•
ON: Frequency information is displayed.
•
OFF: Frequency information is not outputted to the display. This can be used
for example to protect confidential data.
DISP:ANN:FREQ ON
The DATAENTRY OPAQUE softkey sets the data entry windows to opaque.
This means that entry windows are underlaid with the background color for
tables.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DEFAULT COLORS 1
DEFAULT COLORS 2
DISP:LOGO ON
The ANNOTATION ON/OFF softkey switches the displaying of frequency
information on the screen on and off.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DATAENTRY
OPAQUE
DISP:TIME OFF
The LOGO ON/OFF softkey switches the Rohde & Schwarz company logo
displayed in the upper left corner of the display screen on or off.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ANNOTATION ON/
OFF
DISP:WIND1:TEXT 'Noise Meas'
DISP:WIND1:TEXT:STATe ON
--
The DEFAULT COLORS 1/2 softkeys restores the default settings for
brightness, color tint and color saturation for all display screen elements.
The color schemes have been selected to give optimum visibility of all picture
elements at an angle of vision from above or below. DEFAULT COLORS 1 is
active in the default setting of the instrument.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DISPLAY PWR SAVE
The DISPLAY PWR SAVE softkey is used to switch on/off the power-save
mode for the display and to enter the time for the power-save function to
respond. After the elapse of this time the display is completely switched off, i.e.
including backlighting.
Aa
1302.6163.12
DISP:CMAP:DEF1
DISP:CMAP:DEF2
Note
This mode is recommended for saving the TFT display
especially when the instrument is exclusively operated in
remote control.
4.260
E-1
R&S ESU
Basic Settings – DISP Key
The power-save mode is configured as follows:
•
The first keystroke activates the power-save mode and opens the editor for
the response time. The response time is entered in minutes between 1 and
6 minutes and is confirmed by ENTER.
•
The power-save mode is deactivated by pressing the key again.
On leaving the menu with the power-save mode in the activated state, the
softkey is highlighted in color on returning to the menu and opens again the
editor for the response time. Pressing again the key switches off the powersave mode.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SELECT OBJECT
DISP:PSAV ON
DISP:PSAV:HOLD 15
The SELECT OBJECT softkey activates the SELECT DISPLAY OBJECT table,
with which a graphics element can be selected. After selection, the brightness,
tint and saturation of the selected element can be changed using the softkeys
of the same name. The color changes by means of the PREDEFINED COLORS
softkey can be seen immediately on the display screen.
SE LECT D ISP LA Y O BJEC T
Background
Grid
Function field + status field + data entry text
Function field LED on
Function field LED warn
Enhancement label text
Status field background
Trace 1
Trace 2
Trace 3
Marker
Lines
Measurement status + limit check pass
Limit check fail
Table + softkey text
Table + softkey background
Table selected field text
Table selected field background
Table + data entry field opaq titlebar
Data entry field opaq text
Data entry field opaq background
3D shade bright part
3D shade dark part
Softkey state on
Softkey state data entry
Logo
BRIGHTNESS
The BRIGHTNESS softkey activates entry of the brightness of the selected
graphics element.
Values between 0 and 100% can be entered.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
DISP:CMAP3:HSL< hue>,<sat>,<lum>
4.261
E-1
Basic Settings – DISP Key
TINT
R&S ESU
The TINT softkey activates the entry of the color tint of the selected element.
The entered value is related to a continuous color spectrum ranging from red
(0%) to blue (100%).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SATURATION
DISP:CMAP3:HSL <hue>,<sat>,<lum>
The SATURATION softkey activates the entry of the color saturation for the
selected element.
The range of inputs is from 0 to 100%.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PREDEFINED
COLORS
DISP:CMAP3:HSL <hue>,<sat>,<lum>
The PREDEFINED COLORS softkey activates a table, with which the
predefined colors for the display screen elements can be selected.
COLOR
BLACK
BLUE
BROWN
GREEN
CYAN
RED
MAGENTA
YELLOW
WHITE
GRAY
LIGHT GRAY
LIGHT BLUE
LIGHT GREEN
LIGHT CYAN
LIGHT RED
LIGHT MAGENTA
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
DISP:CMAP1 to 26:PDEF <color>
4.262
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration
– SETUP Key
The SETUP key opens the menu for configuration of the ESU:
TRANSDUCER
FACTOR
TRANSDUCER TRANSDUCER
FACTOR
SET
INSERT
INS BEFORE
LINE
RANGE
USER PORT
IN
OUT
0
PORT 1
1
NEW
DELETE
RANGE
COM
INTERFACE
0
PORT 2
1
EDIT
RANGES
1-5
6-10
TIME +
DATE
0
PORT 3
1
0
PORT 4
1
0
PORT 5
1
0
PORT 6
1
0
PORT 7
1
DELETE
CONFIGURE
NETWORK
VIEW
TRANSDUCER
NETWORK
LOGIN
PAGE UP
SAVE TRD
FACTOR
FIRMWARE
UPDATE
LISN
NOISE SRC
ON
OFF
PRESELECT
ON
OFF
TRANSDUCER
PRESET
RECEIVER
GENERAL
SETUP
PRESET
ANALYZER
FSP
FSP
B1
6
B1
6
SAVE TRD
SET
PAGE DOWN
PREAMP
ON
OFF
PORT 0
1
USER PORT
DELETE
LINE
REFLVL ADJ
AUTO MAN
REFERENCE
INT
EXT
0
INS AFTER
RANGE
TRANSDUCER
SET
SETUP
SOFT
FRONTPANEL
GPIB
OPTIONS
INPUT
RF
INPUT
CAL
SELFTEST
CAL GEN
128 MHZ
SELFTEST
RESULTS
CAL GEN
COMB PULSE
CAL GEN
COMB RECT
HARDWARE
INFO
INSTALL
OPTION
GPIB
ADDRESS
STATISTICS
REMOVE
OPTION
ID STRING
FACTORY
ID STRING
USER
SYSTEM
MESSAGES
GPIB
LANGUAGE
FSP
B16
FSP
B16
CLEAR ALL
MESSAGES
SYSTEM
INFO
SERVICE
ENTER
PASSWORD
ESH2-Z5
PHASE N
PHASE N
PHASE N
PHASE N
FIRMWARE
UPDATE
ESH3-Z5
PHASE L1
PHASE L1
PHASE L1
PHASE L1
RESTORE
FIRMWARE
ENV 4200
PHASE L2
ENV 216
PHASE L3
OFF
UPDATE
PATH
PHASE L2
PE
GROUNDED
PHASE L3
150 KHZ
HIGHPASS
PE
FLOATING
PE
GROUNDED
PE
FLOATING
1302.6163.12
4.263
E-1
Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
R&S ESU
The following settings can be modified here:
•
The REFERENCE INT/EXT softkey determines the source of the reference.
For details refer to section “External Reference” on page 4.264.
•
The LISN softkey opens a submenu for the V-networks (LISNs) control. For
details refer to section “Control of V-Networks (LISNs)” on page 4.265.
•
The PREAMP softkey switches on the RF preamplifier gain. For details refer
to section “Preamplification and Preselection” on page 4.266.
•
The PRESELECT ON/OFF softkey is used to switch the preselection. For
details refer to section “Preamplification and Preselection” on page 4.266.
•
The TRANSDUCER softkey opens a submenu for entering the correction
characteristics for transducers.
•
The GENERAL SETUP softkey opens a submenu for all the general settings
such as IEC/IEEE-bus address, date and time as well as the configuration
of the device interfaces. FIRMWARE OPTIONS can be installed under this
menu item.
•
The SYSTEM INFO softkey opens a submenu for displaying the hardware
configuration of the instrument, the switching cycle statistics and system
messages.
•
The SERVICE softkey opens a submenu in which special device functions
and system information can be selected for servicing. The password
required for service functions can be entered in this submenu.
•
The SERVICE FUNCTIONS softkey enables additional special settings for
servicing and troubleshooting. It is available after entering the corresponding
password under the SERVICE softkey.
External Reference
The ESU can use the internal reference source or an external reference source
as frequency standard from which all internal oscillators are derived. A 10 MHz
crystal oscillator is used as internal reference source. In the default setting
(internal reference), this frequency is available as output signal at rear-panel
connector REF OUT, e.g. to synchronize other instruments to the reference of
the ESU.
In the setting REFERENCE EXT, the connector REF IN is used as input
connector for an external frequency standard. In this case all internal oscillators
of the ESU are synchronized to the external reference frequency (also 10 MHz).
REFERENCE INT /
EXT
The REFERENCE INT / EXT softkey switches between the internal and
external reference.
If the external reference is selected, also the frequency of the external reference
is adjustable between 1 MHz and 20 MHz.
The default value is 10 MHz.
These reference settings are not changed if a preset occurs to maintain the
specific setup of a test system.
1302.6163.12
4.264
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
Aa
Note
If the reference signal is missing when switching to
external reference, the message "EXREF" appears after
a while to indicate that there is no synchronization.
On switching to internal reference please ensure that the
external reference signal is de-activated to avoid
interactions with the internal reference signal.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ROSC:SOUR INT
ROSC:EXT:FREQ <numeric value>
Control of V-Networks (LISNs)
LISN
The LISN softkey opens the submenu including the settings required to control
V-networks (LISNs).
ESH2-Z5 ENV 4200 / ESH3-Z5 / OFF
PHASE N / PHASE L1 / PHASE L2 / PHASE L3
PE GROUNDED / PE FLOATING
ESH2-Z5 ENV 4200 /
ESH3-Z5 /
OFF
The ESH2-Z5 ENV 4200, ESH3-Z5, and OFF softkeys select the V-network to
be controlled via the user port. They are toggle softkeys, and only one of them
can be activated at a time.
ESH2-Z5 ENV 4200 Four-line V-network is controlled.
ESH3-Z5
Two-line V-network is controlled.
OFF
Remote control is deactivated.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PHASE N /
PHASE L1 /
PHASE L2 /
PHASE L3
The PHASE N, PHASE L1, PHASE L2, and PHASE L3 softkeys select the
phase of the V-network on which the RFI voltage is to be measured.
PHASE N
RFI on phase N is measured.
PHASE L1
RFI on phase L1 is measured.
PHASE L2
RFI on phase L2 is measured
(only for ESH2-Z5/ENV 4200).
PHASE L3
RFI on phase L3 is measured
(only for ESH2-Z5/ENV 4200).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
INP:LISN TWOP|FOUR|OFF
INP:LISN:PHAS L1|L2|L3|N
4.265
E-1
Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
PE GROUNDED /
PE FLOATING
R&S ESU
The PE GROUNDED and PE FLOATING softkeys switch the protective earth
conductor chokes on or off.
PE GROUNDED
Protective earth conductor choke is switched off.
PE FLOATING
Protective earth conductor choke is switched on.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
INP:LISN:PEAR GRO|FLO
Preamplification and Preselection
In the frequency range up to 3.6 GHz, R&S ESU offers a preselection with
switchable preamplifier which can be selected by the user in the analyzer mode.
The preselection is always active in the receiver mode.
The 20 dB preamplifier is available only if the preselection is switched on.
Preselection
The frequency range 20 Hz to 3.6 GHz is distributed over 12 filter bands.
Two fixed-tuned filters are used up to 2 MHz, eight tracking passband and highpass filters from 2 MHz to 2000 MHz and two fixed-tuned high-pass filter above
2 GHz.
The filters are switched by a relay at 150 kHz and by PIN-diode switches above
150 kHz.
Bypass
20 Hz...3.6 GHz
20 Hz...3.6GHz
PREAMP 9K_8M
20 Hz...30 MHz
LP 150 kHz
Diplexer
20 Hz...8 MHz
20 Hz...8 MHz
Diplexer
LP 2 MHz
8 MHz....3600 MHz
8 MHz....3600 MHz
HP 150 kHz
BP 2...8 MHz
BP 8...30 MHz
BP 30...70 MHz
BP 70...150 MHz
BP 150...300 MHz
BP 300...600 MHz
BP 600...1000 MHz
PREAMP 8M_4G
HP 1000...2000 MHz
HP 2000 MHz
HP 3000 MHz
Fig. 4-1
1302.6163.12
Preselection and preamplifier
4.266
E-1
R&S ESU
PRESELECT ON/
OFF
Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
The PRESELECT ON/OFF softkey switches the preselection on or off.
The softkey is available only in the analyzer mode.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
INP:PRES ON
Preselection causes additional dependencies which are automatically taken
into account in the coupled setting.
•
With the preselection active, the FFT bandwidths are not available.
•
With the preselection active, the start frequency is set to 150 kHz in the
FULL SPAN setting to avoid permanent switching of the relay at the band
limit of 150 kHz.
•
Due to the limited tuning speed of the tracking passband filters, the
maximum sweep rate (3.6 GHz / 5 ms) can no longer be attained with the
preselection switched on. The minimum settable sweep time is obtained
from the sum of the minimum possible sweep times in the associated filter
bands.
Filter band
Min. sweep time for filter band
9 kHz to 150 kHz
-
150 kHz to 2 MHz
-
2 to 8 MHz
500 ms
8 to 30 MHz
50 ms
30 to 70 MHz
50 ms
70 to 150 MHz
50 ms
150 to 300 MHz
50 ms
300 to 600 MHz
50 ms
600 to 1000 MHz
50 ms
1000 to 2000 MHz
50 ms
2000 to 3000 MHz
-
3000 to 3600 MHz
-
Preamplification
Switching on the preamplifier diminishes the total noise figure of the R&S ESU,
thus increasing the sensitivity. The preamplifier follows the preselection filters
so that the risk of overdriving by strong out-of-band signals is reduced to a
minimum. The signal level of the subsequent mixer is 20 dB higher so that the
maximum input level is reduced by the gain of the preamplifier. The total noise
figure of R&S ESU is reduced from approx. 18 dB to approx. 11 dB with the
preamplifier switched on. The use of the preamplifier is recommended when
measurements with a maximum sensitivity are to be performed. If the
measurement should be performed at maximum dynamic range, the
preamplifier should be switched off.
The gain of the preamplifier is automatically considered in the level display. In
Analyzer mode, on switching on the preamplifier the RF attenuation or the
reference level is adapted depending on the settings of the R&S ESU.
1302.6163.12
4.267
E-1
Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
PREAMP ON/OFF
R&S ESU
The PREAMP ON/OFF softkey switches the preamplifier on or off.
The softkey is available only in the analyzer mode when the measurement with
preselection is activated.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
:INP>:GAIN:STAT OFF
Transducer
A transducer is often connected ahead of R&S ESU both during the
measurement of useful signals and EMI and converts the useful or interference
variable such as field strength, current or RFI voltage into a voltage across 50
Ohm.
Transducers such as antennas, probes or current probes mostly have a
frequency-dependent transducer factor which can be stored in R&S ESU and
automatically has the correct unit during level measurement.
If a transducer is switched on it is considered as part of the unit during the
measurement, i.e. the measured values are displayed in the correct unit and
magnitude. When working with two measurement windows, the transducer is
always assigned to two windows.
R&S ESU distinguishes between transducer factor and transducer set. A
transducer factor takes the frequency response of a single transfer element,
e.g. an antenna into consideration. A transducer set can summarize different
transducer factors in several subranges (several transducer factors at the same
time), e.g. an antenna, a cable and a diplexer.
A transducer factor consists of max. 50 reference values defined with
frequency, transducer factor and the unit. For the measurement between
frequency values linear or logarithmic interpolation of the transducer factor can
be chosen.
Several factors can be compiled in a transducer set provided that all factors
have the same unit or unit "dB". The frequency range covered by a set can be
subdivided into max. 10 subranges (each with up to 4 transducer factors) which
follow each other without a gap, i.e. the stop frequency of a subrange is the start
frequency of the next subrange.
The transducer factors used in a subrange have to fully cover the subrange.
The definition of a transducer set is recommended if different transducers are
used in the frequency range to be measured or if a cable attenuation or an
amplifier has to be taken into consideration.
If a transducer set is defined during a frequency sweep, the latter can be
stopped at the interface between two transducer ranges and the user is asked
to exchange the transducer.
The following message informs that the limit has been reached:
TDS Range # reached, CONTINUE / BREAK
it is possible either to continue the sweep by confirming the message
(CONTINUE) or to switch off the transducer (BREAK).
With the automatic switchover of the transducer used, the frequency sweep is
not interrupted.
1302.6163.12
4.268
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R&S ESU
Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
Activating Transducer Factors
The TRANSDUCER softkey opens a submenu enabling the user to activate or
deactivate defined transducer factors, to generate new transducer factors or to
edit existing ones. A table with the transducer factors defined is displayed.
As soon as a transducer is activated, the unit of the transducer is automatically
used for all the level settings and outputs. The unit cannot be changed in the
AMPT menu since the ESU and the transducer used are regarded as one
measuring instrument. Only if the transducer has the unit dB, will the unit
originally set on the ESU be maintained and can be changed.
If a transducer factor is active, the remark TDF appears in the enhancement
labels column.
After all transducers have been switched off, the ESU returns to the unit that
was used before a transducer was activated.
In the analyzer mode, an active transducer for a sweep is calculated once in
advance for every point displayed and is added to the result of the level
measurement during the sweep. If the sweep range changes, the correction
values are calculated again. If several measured values are combined, only one
value is taken into consideration.
In the receiver mode, the transducer is also calculated for a set scan. The
transducer is uniquely calculated for each frequency point and added to the
result of the level measurement as the measurement results are stored
internally and can be zoomed subsequently.
If the active transducer factor is not defined for the entire sweep range, the
values missing are replaced by zeroes.
TRANSDUCER
TRANSDUCER FACTOR
TRANSDUCER SET
EDIT
NEW
DELETE
VIEW TRANSDUCER
REFLVL ADJ AUTO MAN
PAGE UP
PAGE DOWN
The TRANSDUCER softkey opens a submenu for editing existing transducer
factor and sets or creating new transducer factor and sets.
Tables show the settings of already existing factors and sets as well as the
settings of the active factor and set.
TRANSDUCER FACTOR
Name
Unit
Cable_1
dB
HK116
dBuV/m
HL223
dBuV/m
1302.6163.12
4.269
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Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
R&S ESU
The TRANSDUCER FACTOR table contains all the defined factors with name
and unit. If the number of transducer factors defined exceeds the number of
lines available in the table, the user has to scroll through the table.
The ACTIVE TRANSDUCER FACTOR / SET table indicates the active
transducer factor or the set with the associated name, frequency range and unit.
If no factor or set is active, NONE is displayed in the table. Additional
information can be entered in a comment line. If a transducer factor is active,
the selected interpolation is displayed in addition, if a set is active, the break
setting is displayed.
The TRANSDUCER SET table comprises all the defined transducer sets with
the corresponding information.
Only one set or transducer can be activated. An already active transducer factor
or set is switched off automatically if another one is switched on. An activated
transducer factor or set is marked with a check sign.
TRANSDUCER
FACTOR
The TRANSDUCER FACTOR softkey places the scrollbar on the position of the
active transducer factor.
If a transducer factor is not active, the scrollbar is placed on the first line of the
table.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
TRANSDUCER SET
CORR:TRAN:SEL <name>
CORR:TRAN ON | OFF
The TRANSDUCER SET softkey sets the selection bar to the position of the
active transducer set.
If no transducer set is switched on, the bar is set to the first line of the table.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CORR:TSET:SEL <name>
CORR:TSET ON |OFF
NEW
The NEW softkey gives access to the submenu for editing and generating
transducer factors. For details refer to section “Entry and Editing of Transducer
Factors” on page 4.271.
EDIT
The EDIT softkey gives access to the submenu for editing and generating
transducer factors. For details refer to section “Entry and Editing of Transducer
Factors” on page 4.271.
4.270
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R&S ESU
Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
DELETE
The DELETE softkey deletes the marked factor or set.
To prevent deletion by mistake, deletion has to be confirmed.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
VIEW TRANSDUCER
The VIEW TRANSDUCER softkey activates the display of the active transducer
factor or set.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
REFLVL ADJ
AUTO MAN
CORR:TRAN DEL
--
When a transducer factor is used, the trace is moved by a calculated shift.
However, an upward shift reduces the dynamic range for the displayed values.
With the softkey REFLVL ADJ an automatic reference level offset adaptation
allows to restore the original dynamic range by also shifting the reference level
by the maximum value of the transducer factor.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
Aa
[:SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:TRANsducer:
ADJust:
RLEVel[:STATe] ON | OFF
Note
Command CORR:TRAN:SEL has to be sent prior to this
command
PAGE UP
The PAGE UP softkey is used to scroll through large tables that cannot
completely be displayed on the screen.
PAGE DOWN
The PAGE DOWN softkey is used to scroll through large tables that cannot
completely be displayed on the screen.
Entry and Editing of Transducer Factors
A transducer factor is characterized by the following:
1302.6163.12
•
Reference values with frequency and factor (Values)
•
Unit of the factor (Unit) and
•
Name (Name) to distinguish the various factors.
4.271
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Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
R&S ESU
During entry the ESU checks the transducer factor for compliance with specific
rules that must be met to ensure correct operation.
•
The frequencies for the reference values must always be entered in
ascending order. Otherwise the entry will not be accepted and the following
message is displayed.
Frequency Sequence!
•
The frequencies entered may exceed the frequency range of the ESU since
only the set frequency range is taken into account for measurements. The
minimum frequency of a reference value is 0 Hz, the maximum frequency
200 GHz.
•
The value range for the transducer factor is ±200 dB. If the minimum or
maximum value is exceeded, the ESU outputs the following message:
Min Level -200 dB or
Max Level 200 dB.
•
Gain has to be entered as a negative value, and attenuation as a positive
value.
Aa
NEW
EDIT
NEW
Note
The softkeys in the UNIT submenu of the AMPT key
cannot be operated if the transducer is on.
INSERT
LINE
DELETE
LINE
EDIT
SAVE TRD
FACTOR
The NEW and EDIT softkeys give access to the submenu for editing and
generating transducer factors.
1302.6163.12
4.272
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R&S ESU
Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
EDIT TRANSDUCER FACTOR
Name/Unit/Interpolation: Cable
dB
Comment:
FREQUENCY
TDF/dB..
FREQUENCY
1.0000000 MHz
1.000
1.0000000 GHz
5.500
LIN
TDF/dB..
Depending on the softkey selected, either the table with the data of the factor
marked (EDIT softkey) or an empty table (NEW softkey) is displayed. This table
is empty except for the following entries:
Unit:
dB
Interpolation:
LIN for linear frequency scaling
LOG for logarithmic frequency scaling
The features of the factor are entered in the header of the table, and the
frequency and the transducer factor are entered in the columns.
Name
Entry of name
Unit
Selection of unit
Interpolation
Selection of interpolation
Comment
Entry of comment
FREQUENCY
Entry of frequency of reference values
TDF/dB
Entry of transducer factor.
During editing, a transducer factor remains stored in the background until the
factor edited is saved with the SAVE TRD FACTOR softkey or until the table is
closed. A factor that was edited by mistake can be restored by leaving the entry
function.
Name – Entry of name
The name may consist of a maximum of 8 characters that have to comply with
the conventions for DOS file names. The instrument automatically adds the
extension.TDF to all transducer factors that are saved.
If an existing name is changed, the factor stored under the previous name is
maintained and is not automatically overwritten by the new version. The old
factor can be deleted later on using the DELETE function. This makes it
possible to copy factors.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CORR:TRAN:SEL <name>
4.273
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Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
R&S ESU
Unit - Selection of unit
The unit of the transducer factor is selected from a box that is activated by
pressing ENTER.
FACTOR UNIT
dB
dBm
dBµV
dBµV/m
dBµA
dBµA/m
dBpW
dBpT
The default setting is dB.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CORR:TRAN:UNIT <string>
Interpolation - Selection of interpolation
Linear or logarithmic interpolation can be performed between the frequency
reference values of the table. The ENTER key allows the user to select LIN or
LOG (toggle function).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CORR:TRAN:SCAL LIN|LOG
The following diagrams show the effect that interpolation has on the calculated
trace:
Fig. 4-25
Linear frequency axis and linear interpolation
Fig. 4-26
Logarithmic frequency axis and interpolation
Comment - Entry of comment
Any comment with a maximum length of 50 characters can be entered.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CORR:TRAN:COMM <string>
4.274
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R&S ESU
Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
FREQUENCY, TDF/dB – Entry of values
The scrollbar marks the first reference value. The desired reference values
must be entered in ascending order of frequencies. After the frequency has
been entered, the scrollbar automatically goes to the associated level value.
The table can be edited after entry of the first value using the INSERT LINE and
DELETE LINE softkeys. To change individual values later on, the value has to
be selected and a new one entered.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CORR:TRAN:DATA <freq>,<level>.
INSERT LINE
The INSERT LINE softkey inserts an empty line above the marked reference
value. When entering a new reference value in the line, the ascending order of
frequencies must be taken into consideration, however.
DELETE LINE
The DELETE LINE softkey deletes the marked reference value (complete line).
The reference values that follow move one line up.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SAVE TRD FACTOR
--
The SAVE TRD FACTOR softkey saves the changed table in a file on the
internal hard disk.
If there is already a transducer factor that has the same name, a confirmation
query is output.
If the new factor is active, the new values become immediately valid.
If a transducer set is switched on comprising the factor, the values will only be
used when the set is switched on next time.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
-(executed automatically after the definition of the
reference values)
Entry and Editing of Transducer Sets
A transducer set is characterized by:
– maximum 10 ranges (Ranges) in which different transducer factors can be
active
– the combination of several transducer factors per range (Factor)
– a transducer-set name (Name)
1302.6163.12
4.275
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Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
NEW
EDIT
NEW
R&S ESU
INS BEFORE
RANGE
INS AFTER
RANGE
DELETE
RANGE
EDIT
RANGE
1-5
6-10
SAVE TRD
SET
The NEW and EDIT softkeys both open the submenu for editing and entering
new transducer factors if softkey TRANSDUCER SET.
The table with the data of the marked set (the EDIT softkey) or an empty table
in which the following entries are preset (the NEW softkey) is displayed:
Unit:
dB
Break:
OFF
The characteristics of the set can be entered in the header field of the table, the
subranges in the columns of the set.
1302.6163.12
Name
Entry of the name
Unit
Selection of unit
Break
Activating the query when changing the subrange
Comment
Entry of a comment
Start
Entry of the start frequency of the subrange
Stop
Entry of the stop frequency of the subrange
Factors
Selection of the transducer factors for the subrange
4.276
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R&S ESU
Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
An overwritten transducer set remains stored in the background as long as the
edited factor is stored with the SAVE TRD SET softkey or until the table is
closed. A set overwritten by mistake can be restored by leaving the entry.
Name - Entry of name
A maximum of 8 characters is permissible for the name. The characters have
to comply with the convention of DOS file names. The unit automatically stores
all transducer sets with the extension .TDS.
If an existing name is changed, the set stored under the previous name is
retained and will not be overwritten automatically with the new name. The
previous set can be deleted at a later time using DELETE FACTOR/SET. Thus,
sets can be copied.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CORR:TSET:SEL <name>
Unit - Selection of unit
The unit of the transducer set is selected from a selection box activated by the
ENTER key.
The unit should be selected prior to the entry as it determines the settable
transducer factors. The preset unit for new sets is "dB".
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CORR:TSET:UNIT <string>
Break - Activation of query when changing a subrange
The sweep can be stopped if the user changes the subrange and selects a new
subrange of the transducer. A message informs the user that the limit has been
attained. He can continue the sweep or switch off the transducer.
The interruption is activated by setting Break to ON. Selection is by the ENTER
key which toggles between ON and OFF (toggle function).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CORR:TSET:BRE ON|OFF
Start - Entry of start frequency of subrange
Stop - Entry of stop frequency of subrange
The individual subranges have to be linked without a gap. That is why the start
frequency is already defined from the second subrange (= stop frequency of
previous range).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CORR:TSET:RANG<1.10>
<freq>,<freq>,<name>..
4.277
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Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
INS BEFORE RANGE
R&S ESU
The INS BEFORE RANGE softkey copies the active column and inserts it to the
right. The frequency limits can be edited.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
INS AFTER RANGE
The INS AFTER RANGE softkey copies the active column and inserts it to the
left. The frequency limits can be edited.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DELETE RANGE
--
The DELETE RANGE softkey deletes the marked subrange. The following
subranges move left.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RANGES 1-5/6-10
--
--
The RANGES 1-5/6-10 softkey switches between the display of ranges 1 to five
and ranges 6 to 10.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
--
Factors - Selection of factors for the subrange
The permissible transducer factors for the marked subrange can be selected in
a selection box. Only factors matching with the unit of the set and fully covering
the selected subrange are permissible.
After each change of range limits, R&S ESU thus checks the factor list and, if
required, rebuilds it.
After reducing the start frequency or increasing the stop frequency of a range it
may happen that the factors defined for this range no longer fully cover the
range. These factors are deleted for this range when the transducer factor table
is opened next time.
A maximum of 4 transducer factors can be switched on at the same time in each
subrange. If none of them is switched on, 0 dB is assumed as a factor for the
whole subrange.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SAVE TRD SET
--
The SAVE TRD SET softkey saves the changed table in a file on the internal
hard disk. If a transducer name with the same name already exists, a
corresponding query is performed beforehand:
If the saved set is switched on, the new values will be used immediately.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
-- (executed automatically)
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R&S ESU
Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
Programming the Interface Configuration and Time
Setup
The GENERAL SETUP softkey opens a submenu in which the general
instrument parameters can be set up. In addition to the configuration of the
digital interfaces (IECBUS, COM), the date and time may be entered.
The current settings are displayed in tabular form on the display screen where
they may be edited.
GENERAL SETUP
Selecting the IEC/IEEE-Bus Address
GPIB
The GPIB softkey opens a submenu for setting the parameters of the remotecontrol interface.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
--
4.279
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Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
GPIB ADDRESS
R&S ESU
The GPIB ADDRESS softkey enables the entry of the IEC/IEEE-bus address.
Valid addresses are 0 through 30. The default address is 20.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ID STRING FACTOR
The ID STRING FACTORY softkey selects the default response to the *IDN?
query.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ID STRING USER
SYST:COMM:GPIB:ADDR 20
--
The ID STRING USER softkey opens an editor for entering a user-defined
response to the *IDN? query.
Max. length of output string: 36 characters
IEC/IEEE bus command:
GPIB LANGUAGE
1302.6163.12
--
The GPIB LANGUAGE softkey opens a list of selectable remote-control
languages:
•
SCPI
•
8560E
•
8561E
•
8562E
•
8563E
•
8564E
•
8565E
•
8566A
•
8566B
•
8568A
•
8568B
•
8591E
•
8594E
•
71100C
•
71200C
•
71209A
4.280
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
Aa
Note
For 8566A/B, 8568A/B and 8594E, command sets A and
B are available. Command sets A and B differ in the rules
regarding the command structure.
Selecting a language different from "SCPI" will set the
GPIB address to 18 if it was 20 before.
Start / stop frequency, reference level and # of sweep
points will be adapted to the selected instrument model.
On switching between remote-control languages, the following settings or
changes will be made:
SCPI:
➢ The instrument will perform a PRESET.
8566A/B, 8568A/B, 8594E:
➢ The instrument will perform a PRESET.
➢ The following instrument settings will then be changed:
Model
# of Trace
Points
Start Freq.
Stop Freq.
Ref Level
Input Coupling
8566A/B
1001
2 GHz
22 GHz
0 dBm
"DC (FSU/FSQ)
8568A/B
1001
0 Hz
1.5 GHz
0 dBm
AC
8560E
601
0 Hz
2.9 GHz
0 dBm
AC
8561E
601
0 Hz
6.5 GHz
0 dBm
AC
8562E
601
0 Hz
13.2 GHz
0 dBm
AC
8563E
601
0 Hz
26.5 GHz
0 dBm
AC
8564E
601
0 Hz
40 GHz
0 dBm
AC
8565E
601
0 Hz
50 GHz
0 dBm
AC
8594E
401
0 Hz
3 GHz
0 dBm
AC
AC (FSP)"
1302.6163.12
4.281
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Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
Aa
R&S ESU
Notes regarding switch over to 8566A/B and 8568A/
B on ESU
•
Switch-hitter of the "# of Trace Points" will not take
place until the instrument is switched to the REMOTE
mode. For manual operation (selected with LOCAL
softkey), the number of sweep points (trace points)
will always be set to 1251.
•
The stop frequency indicated in the table may be
limited to the corresponding frequency of the R&S
ESU, if required.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SYST:LANG "SCPI" | "8560E" |
"8561E" | "8562E" | "8563E" |
"8564E" | "8565E" | "8566A" |
"8566B" | "8568A" | "8568B" |
"8591E" | "8594E" | "71100C" |
"71200C" | "71209A"
User Port Configuration
The instrument provides a parallel interface, which is 8 bits wide. Over these
ports, arbitrary bit patterns can be output or input.
USER PORT
USER PORT
USER PORT
IN
OUT
PORT 0
0
1
PORT 1
0
1
0
PORT 2
1
0
PORT 3
1
PORT 4
0
1
PORT 5
0
1
0
0
PORT 6
1
PORT 7
1
The USER PORT softkey opens the submenu for setting the direction of the
data transmission and for entering the values of the individual ports.
1302.6163.12
4.282
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R&S ESU
USER PORT IN/OUT
Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
The USER PORT IN/OUT determines in which direction the interface transmits
data.
USER PORT (read operation)
The value is indicated in a window. A new readout is started by pressing READ.
Pressing OK closes the window
USER PORT INPUT
00000000
OK
READ
IEC/IEEE bus command:
INP:UPOR:STAT ON
INP:UPOR?
USER PORT OUT (write operation)
The bit pattern selected with softkeys PORT 0 to PORT 7 is output.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PORT 0 0/1
OUTP:UPOR:STAT ON
The PORT 0 0/1 to PORT 7 0/1 softkeys determine the output value for port 1
to 7. These softkeys are only available for setting USER PORT OUT.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
OUTP:UPOR STAT ON
OUTP:UPOR #B10110010
Serial Interface Configuration
COM INTERFACE
The COM INTERFACE softkey activates the COM INTERFACE table for entry
of the serial interface parameters.
The following parameters can be configured in the table:
1302.6163.12
Baud rate
data transmission rate
Bits
number of data bits
Parity
bit parity check
Stop bits
number of stop bits
HW-Handshake
hardware handshake protocol
SW-Handshake
software handshake protocol
Owner
assignment to the measuring instrument or computer
4.283
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Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
R&S ESU
Baud – Data transmission rate
The ESU supports baud rates between 110 and 19200 baud. The default
setting is 9600 baud.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SYST:COMM:SER:BAUD 9600
Bits – Number of data bits per word
For the transmission of text without special characters, 7 bits are adequate. For
binary data as well as for text with special characters, 8 bits must be selected
(default setting).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SYST:COMM:SER:BITS 7
Parity – Bit parity check
NONE
no parity check (default setting)
EVEN
even parity check
ODD
odd parity check
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SYST:COMM:SER:PAR NONE
Stop bits – Number of stop bits
Available are 1 and 2. The default setting is 1 stop bit.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
SYST:COMM:SER:SBIT 1
4.284
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R&S ESU
Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
HW-Handshake – Hardware handshake protocol
The integrity of data transmission can be improved by the use of a hardware
handshake mechanism, which effectively prevents uncontrolled transmission of
data and the resulting loss of data bytes. For hardware handshake additional
interface lines are used to transmit acknowledge signals with which the data
transmission can be controlled and, if necessary, stopped until the receiver is
ready to receive data again.
A prerequisite for using hardware handshaking is, however, that the interface
lines (DTR and RTS) are connected on both transmitter and receiver. For a
simple 3-wire connection, this is not the case and hardware handshake cannot
be used here.
Default setting is NONE.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SYST:COMM:SER:CONT:DTR OFF
SYST:COMM:SER:CONT:RTS OFF
SW-Handshake – Software handshake protocol
Besides the hardware handshake mechanism using interface lines, it is also
possible to achieve the same effect by using a software handshake protocol.
Here, control bytes are transmitted in addition to the normal data bytes. These
control bytes can be used, as necessary, to stop data transmission until the
receiver is ready to receive data again.
In contrast to hardware handshaking, software handshaking can be realized
even for a simple 3-wire connection.
One limitation is, however, that software handshaking cannot be used for the
transmission of binary data, since the control characters XON and XOFF
require bit combinations that are also used for binary data transmission.
Default setting is NONE.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SYST:COMM:SER:PACE NONE
Owner – Assignment of the interface
The serial interface can be assigned alternatively to the measuring instrument
section or to the computer section.
1302.6163.12
4.285
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Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
R&S ESU
If the interface is assigned to one section of the instrument, it is not available to
the other section.
INSTRUMENT
The interface is assigned to the measuring instrument
section. Outputs to the interface from the computer section
are not possible will get lost.
OS
The interface is assigned to the computer section. It cannot
be used by the measuring instrument section. This means
that remote control of the instrument via the interface is not
possible.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
--
Setting Date and Time
TIME+DATE
The TIME+DATE softkey activates the entry of time and date for the internal
real-time clock.
Time - Input of time
In the corresponding dialog box, the time is partitioned into two input fields so
that hours and minutes can be entered independently.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SYST:TIME 21,59
Date - Input of Date
In the corresponding dialog box, the date is partitioned into 3 input fields so that
day, month and year can be input separately.
For the selection of the month, pressing a unit key opens a list of abbreviations
wherein the desired month can be selected.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
SYST:DATE 1999,10,01
4.286
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R&S ESU
Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
Configuration of Network Settings ESU
The instrument can be connected to an Ethernet LAN (local area network) by
means of the LAN Interface ESU. This allows data transmission via the network
and the use of network printers. The network card is able to handle both 10 MHz
Ethernet IEEE 802.3 and 100 MHz Ethernet IEEE 802.3u.
For more details see the Quick Start Guide, appendix LAN Interface.
CONFIGURE
NETWORK
The CONFIGURE NETWORK softkey opens the dialog box with the network
settings.
The softkey is used to modify an existing network configuration after the
corresponding tabs are selected (see the quick Start Guide, appendix LAN
Interface).
Aa
Notes
•
A PC keyboard with trackball (or mouse instead) is
required for the installation/configuration of the
network support.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
--
4.287
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Spectrum Analyzer – SETUP Key
NETWORK LOGIN
R&S ESU
The NETWORK LOGIN softkey opens the dialog box with the auto login
settings.
When a network is installed, the preset user name 'Instrument' and the
password 'instrument' can be adapted to a new user (see the Quick Start Guide,
appendix LAN Interface).
With the 'Auto Login' option active, an automatic registration is performed
during booting with the specified user name and password. Otherwise the
Windows XP login request is displayed during booting.
Aa
Notes
•
A PC keyboard with trackball (or additional mouse
instead) is required for the installation/configuration
of the network support.
•
The softkey is only available with built-in LAN
interface ESU.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
--
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Enabling Firmware Options
The OPTIONS softkey opens a submenu that allows license keys for firmware
options to be entered. Previously installed options are displayed in a table that
opens automatically.
OPTIONS
INSTALL OPTION
Softkey INSTALL OPTION opens the data entry for the license keycode of a
firmware option.
On entry of a valid license key the message OPTION KEY OK is displayed in
the status line and the firmware option appears in table FIRMWARE OPTIONS.
On entry of an invalid license key the message OPTION KEY INVALID is
displayed in the status line.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
REMOVE OPTION
Softkey REMOVE OPTION removes all firmware options from the instruments.
Execution of this function must be confirmed in a message box in order to avoid
removal of the firmware options by mistake.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
--
--
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Emulation of the Instrument Front Panel
SOFT FRONTPANEl
The SOFT FRONTPANEL softkey switches the display of the front-panel keys
on and off.
When the front-panel keys are displayed on the screen, the instrument can be
controlled by clicking the respective button with the mouse. This is especially
useful when the instrument in a different site is controlled via a remote-control
program, such as, for instance, the remote desktop of Windows XP, and the
screen contents are transferred to the controller via remote link (see the Quick
Start Guide, appendix LAN Interface).
Display resolution
When the display of the front-panel keys is switched on, the screen resolution
of the instrument changes to 1024x768 pixels. Only a section of the total screen
is then displayed on the LC display, which will automatically be shifted on
mouse moves.
In order to obtain a complete display of the user interface, an external monitor
is to be plugged into the corresponding connector at the rear panel. Prior to
performing the resolution change the user is prompted for confirmation whether
the required monitor is connected.
Switching off the front-panel display restores the original screen resolution.
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Key assignment
Button labels largely correspond to those of the front-panel keys. The rotation
function of the rotary knob is assigned to the 'KNOB LEFT' and 'KNOB RIGHT'
buttons, the press function (<ENTER>) to 'KNOB PRESS'.
The labels of the softkey buttons (F1 to F9) and of the hotkey buttons (C-F1 to
C-F7) indicate that the keys can be operated directly by means of the
corresponding function keys F1 to F9 or <CTRL>F1 to <CTRL>F7 of a PS/2
keyboard.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SYST:DISP:FPAN ON
System Information
The SYSTEM INFO softkey opens a submenu in which detailed information on
module data, device statistics and system messages is displayed.
SYSTEM INFO
Display of Module Data
HARDWARE INFO
The HARDWARE INFO softkey opens a table in which the modules
(INSTALLED COMPONENTS) installed in the instrument are listed together
with the corresponding hardware revisions.
Table HARDWARE INFO consists of six columns:
1302.6163.12
SERIAL #
serial number
COMPONENT
name of module
ORDER #
order number
MODEL
model number of the module
REV
main modification index of the module
SUB REV
secondary modification index of the module
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Aa
1302.6163.12
R&S ESU
Note
The screenshot lists the components of an ESU 40.
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Display of Device Statistics
STATISTICS
The STATISTICS softkey opens the table STATISTICS. This table contains the
model information, serial number and firmware version, and a list in which the
operating time of the instrument, the power-on cycles as well as attenuator
switching cycles are displayed.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
--
For new delivered devices the specifications version (document of the hardware
properties) is shown. For already delivered device dashes (--.--) are displayed.
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Display of System Messages
SYSTEM
MESSAGES
The SYSTEM MESSAGES softkey opens a submenu including a table in which
the generated system messages are displayed in the order of their occurrence.
The most recent messages are placed at the top of the list.
The following information is available:
No
Device-specific error code
MESSAGE
Brief description of the message
COMPONENT
On hardware messages:
name of the affected module
On software messages:
if needed, the name of the affected software components
DATE/TIME
Date and time of the occurrence of the message
Messages that have occurred since the last call to the SYSTEM MESSAGES
menu are marked with an asterisk '*'.
The CLEAR ALL MESSAGES softkey is activated and allows clearing of the
error buffer.
If the number of error messages exceeds the capacity of the error buffer, the
message appearing first is "Message buffer overflow".
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CLEAR ALL
MESSAGES
The CLEAR ALL MESSAGES softkey deletes all messages in the table.
The softkey is only available when table SYSTEM INFO is active.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
SYST:ERR?
SYST:ERR?
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Service Menu
The service menu offers a variety of additional functions which are used for
maintenance and/or trouble shooting.
Ii
ATTENTION
The service functions are not necessary for normal
measurement operation. However, incorrect use can
affect correct operation and/or data integrity of the ESU.
Therefore, many of the functions can only be used after
entering a password. They are described in the
instrument service manual.
SERVICE
INPUT RF
INPUTCAL
SELFTEST
SELFTEST RESULTS
ENTER PASSWORD
CAL GEN 128 MHZ
CAL GEN COMB
CAL GEN COMB RECT
The SERVICE softkey opens a submenu for selection of the service function.
The INPUT RF and INPUT CAL softkeys are mutually exclusive selection
switches. Only one switch can be active at any one time.
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General Service Functions
INPUT RF
The INPUT RF softkey switches the input of the ESU to the input connector
(normal position).
After PRESET, RECALL or ESU power on, the INPUT RF is always selected.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
INPUTCAL
The INPUT CAL softkey switches the RF input of the ESU to the internal
calibration source (128 MHz) and activates the data entry of the output level of
the calibration source. Possible values are 0 dB and –30 dB.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
ENTER PASSWORD
DIAG:SERV:INP RF
DIAG:SERV:INP CAL;
DIAG:SERV:INP:CSO 0 DBM
The ENTER PASSWORD softkey allows the entry of a password.
The ESU contains a variety of service functions which, if incorrectly used, can
affect correct operation of the analyzer. These functions are normally not
accessible and are only usable after the entry of a password (see instrument
service manual).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CAL GEN 128 MHZ
The CAL GEN 128 MHZ softkey selects a sinusoidal signal at 128 MHz as
output signal for the internal calibration source. The internal pulse generator will
be switched off.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CAL GEN COMB
SYST:PASS "Password"
DIAG:SERV:INP:PULS OFF
The CAL GEN COMB softkey switches the internal pulse generator on and
allows the pulse frequency to be entered.
Available pulse frequencies are 10 kHz, 62.5 kHz, 100 kHz, 1 MHz, 128 MHz,
and 640 MHz.
CAL GEN COMB
RECT
The CAL GEN COMB RECT softkey switches the internal pulse generator on
and allows the pulse frequency to be entered.
Available pulse frequencies are 5 kHz, 31.25 kHz, 50 kHz, 250 kHz, and 500
kHz.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DIAG:SERV:INP:RECT:STAT
DIAG:SERV:INP:RECT:PRAT
Selftest
SELFTEST
The SELFTEST softkey initiates the selftest of the instrument modules.
With this function the instrument is capable of identifying a defective module in
case of failure.
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During the selftest a message box appears in which the current test and its
result is shown. The test sequence can be aborted by pressing ENTER ABORT.
All modules are checked consecutively and the test result (selftest PASSED or
FAILED) is output in the message box.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SELFTEST RESULTS
*TST?
The SELFTEST RESULTS softkey calls the SELFTEST table in which the
results of the module test are displayed.
In case of failure a short description of the failed test, the defective module, the
associated value range and the corresponding test results are indicated.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PAGE UP /
PAGE DOWN
DIAG:SERV:STE:RES?
The PAGE UP or PAGE DOWN softkey sets the SELFTEST RESULTS table to
the next or previous page.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
--
Hardware Adjustment
Some of the ESU modules can be realigned. This realignment can become
necessary after calibration due to temperature drift or aging of components (see
service manual instrument).
Ii
1302.6163.12
ATTENTION
The realignment should be carried out by qualified
personnel since the changes considerably influence the
measurement accuracy of the instrument. This is the
reason why the softkeys REF FREQUENCY, CAL
SIGNAL POWER and SAVE CHANGES can only be
accessed after entering a password.
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Firmware Update
The installation of a new firmware version can be performed using a memory
stick.
The installation program is called in the SETUP menu.
FIRMWARE
UPDATE
The FIRMWARE UPDATE softkey opens the subdirectory for installing/
deinstalling new firmware versions.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FIRMWARE UPDATE
--
The FIRMWARE UPDATE softkey starts the installation program and leads the
user through the remaining steps of the update
IEC/IEEE bus command:
--
The firmware update is started as follows:
➢ Provide the files for the firmware update, e.g. on a memory stick.
➢ Call SETUP side menu via [SETUP][NEXT]
➢ Start the update via [FIRMWARE UPDATE]
RESTORE
FIRMWARE
UPDATE PATH
The RESTORE FIRMWARE softkey restores the previous firmware version
IEC/IEEE bus command:
--
The UPDATE PATH softkey is used to select the drive and directories under
which the archive files for the firmware update are stored.
The firmware update can thus also be performed via network drives or USB
memory sticks/USB-CD-ROM drives.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
"SYST:FIRM:UPD 'D:\USER\FWUPDATE'"
External Noise Source
NOISE SRC ON/OFF
The NOISE SRC ON/OFF softkey switches on or off the supply voltage for an
external noise source which is connected to the NOISE SOURCE connector on
the rear panel of the instrument.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
DIAG:SERV:NSO ON
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Spectrum Analyzer – FILE Key
Saving and Recalling Data Sets – FILE Key
Overview
The FILE key calls the following functions:
•
Storage/loading functions for storing (SAVE) instrument settings such as
instrument configurations (measurement/display settings, etc.) and
measurement results from working memory to permanent storage media, or
to load (RECALL) stored data into working memory.
•
Functions for management of storage media (FILE MANAGER). Included
are among others functions for listing files, formatting storage media,
copying, and deleting/renaming files.
The ESU is capable of internally storing complete instrument settings with
instrument configurations and measurement data in the form of data sets. The
respective data are stored on the internal hard disk or, if selected, on a memory
stick. The hard disk has the following name:
hard disk D: (hard disk C: is reserved for instrument software)
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The configuration of the softkeys in the menu is shown in the following table:
SAVE
RECALL
EDIT PATH
EDIT COMMENT
ITEMS TO SAVE/RCL !
SELECT ITEMS
ENABLE ALL ITEMS
DISABLE ALL ITEMS
DEFAULT CONFIG
DATA SET LIST
DATA SET CLEAR
STARTUP RECALL
FILE MANAGER !
EDIT PATH
NEW FOLDER
COPY
RENAME
CUT
PASTE
DELETE
SORT MODE !
NAME
DATE
EXTENSION
SIZE
2 FILE LISTS
Side menu
ASCII FILE EXPORT
DECIM SEP
Side menu
ASCII FILE EXPORT
DECIM SEP
DATA SET CLEAR ALL
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Storing a Device Configuration
Storing a Complete Device Configuration
The following steps are required to store a complete device configuration:
➢ Press the FILE key and then press the SAVE softkey.
The selection box for the device configuration will be opened:
➢ Enter the name of the data set to be stored (in the simplest case, a digit from
0 to 9) and press ENTER. The data set will be stored and the dialog window
closed.
The name of the data set may comprise letters and digits; if required, the
desired directory may precede the name of the data set (the directory will
then automatically be used for further SAVE and RECALL processes).
The help line editor, which can be opened by pressing the CURSOR DOWN
U key, is available for entering file names via the front-panel keypad.
d
For further information on the operation of this editor, see the Quick Start
Guide, chapter “Basic Operation”.
How to enter comments, change the path for the file to be stored and select the
data set from a list is described under the associated softkeys EDIT
COMMENT, EDIT PATH and DATA SET LIST.
The default path for the device configuration is D:\USER\CONFIG. The file
names of the data sets have the extension .FSP.
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Storing Parts of a Device Configuration
To store part of a data set (e.g. "All Transducers"), the partial data set has to be
selected beforehand. The following steps are required:
➢ Press the FILE key and then the SAVE softkey.
➢ Press the ITEMS TO SAVE/RCL softkey. The entry focus moves to the first
entry in the Items field.
➢ Use the rotary knob to move the entry focus to the desired entry in the Items
field and select the partial data set by pressing the rotary knob or ENTER.
The selection of already highlighted partial data sets can be cancelled by
pressing the rotary knob / ENTER again.
Softkeys ENABLE ALL ITEMS / DISABLE ALL ITEMS are also available to
select all partial data sets or to cancel the selection.
➢ Move the entry focus to the field File Name using the rotary knob and
activate the text entry by pressing the rotary knob.
➢ Enter file names and store the data set with ENTER.
Loading a Data Set
A data set may be loaded in two different ways:
1. Direct entry of data set name:
➢ Press the FILE key and then press the RECALL softkey.
➢ Enter the name of the data set to be stored (in the simplest case, a digit
from 0 to 9) and press ENTER. The data set will be loaded.
The name of the data set may comprise letters and digits; if required, the
desired directory may precede the name of the data set (the directory will
then automatically be used for further SAVE and RECALL processes).
The help line editor, which can be opened by pressing the CURSOR
DOWN Ud key, is available for entering file names via the front-panel
keypad.
For further information on the operation of this editor, see the Quick Start
Guide, chapter “Basic Operation”.
2. Selection of data set via a selection list:
➢ Press the FILE key and then press the RECALL softkey.
➢ Press the ITEMS TO SAVE/RCL softkey.
The list of available data sets will be selected:
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➢ Select the data set to be loaded with the rotary knob and confirm twice
with ENTER. The data set will be loaded.
If the path for the device configuration is to be changed, this is done via the
EDIT PATH softkey.
When loading device data, the settings of the unloaded partial data sets will
remain unchanged. The R&S ESU recognizes which parts the loaded data set
has and ignores selected but unavailable partial data sets.
Automatic Loading of a Data Set during Booting
When the R&S ESU is delivered, it will load the device setting last activated
when the unit was switched off (provided that the unit was switched off via the
STANDBY switch at the front panel, see the Quick Start Guide, chapter
“Preparing for Use”).
Moreover, the R&S ESU is also able to automatically load a user-defined data
set. The following operating steps are required:
➢ Press the FILE key and then press the RECALL softkey.
➢ Press the STARTUP RECALL softkey.
The list of available data sets will be selected (see figure “Startup Recall
dialog box” on page 4.313.)
➢ Select the data set to be loaded using the rotary knob and mark with ENTER.
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Aa
R&S ESU
Notes
•
The selected data set will also be loaded when
pressing the PRESET key.
•
The FACTORY entry will load the last setting that was
activated prior to switch-off when the unit is started
after delivery.
➢ Close the dialog window by pressing ESC twice.
If the path is to be changed for the device configuration, this is done via the
EDIT PATH softkey.
Copying Data Sets to Disk
The saved files of the data sets can be copied from one storage medium (e.g.
drive D:) to another storage medium (e.g. drive F:) or to another directory using
the functions found in the FILE MANAGER submenu. The file extension .FSP
must not be changed.
Entering Text with the Help Line Editor
The help line editor is opened as soon as the CURSOR DOWN Ud key is
pressed on a text entry field (File Name, Comment):
The entry range consists of two parts:
•
editing line
•
character selection field
Die CURSOR DOWN Ud key is used to move from the editing line to the
character selection field.
The navigation in the character selection field is by means of the rotary knob or
the cursor keys Uu, Ud, Ur, and Ul.
The desired characters are transferred to the editing line by pressing the rotary
knob or by pressing the ENTER key:
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The fields of the last line of the character selection field have special functions:
SPACE
adds a space to the editing line
<<
moves the cursor in the editing line by one character towards the left
>>
moves the cursor in the editing line by one character towards the right
BACK
deletes the character in front of the cursor
EXIT
stores the contents of the editing line and closes the help line editor
A return to the editing line is possible via the CURSOR UP Uu key (return from
the top line of the character selection field).
Within the editing line, navigation is also performed by means of the rotary knob
or the cursor keys Ur and Ul.
Digits, decimal points and signs are directly entered into the editing line via the
keys of the numeric block provided at the front panel. With a PC keyboard
connected, letters and special characters can also be entered directly.
Editing is terminated via ENTER if the text is to be stored and via ESC if the text
is to be discarded. The help line editor will be closed in both cases.
Config DAta
tracking generator settings (only with option
tracking generator)
TCI
active transducer set
.TS
active transducer factors
.TF
peak list or final measurement results
.FIN
Add config data ALL TRANSDUCERS all transducer sets and transducer factors
SOURCE CAL DATA
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4.305
.TSA
.TFA
Setting for source calibration
(only with option tracking generator)
.TS1
.TS2
Correction data for source calibration
(only with option tracking generator)
.TC1
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R&S ESU
Description of the Individual Softkeys
SAVE
The SAVE softkey opens the dialog window for entering the data set to be
stored.
The SAVE table contains the entry fields for editing the data set:
Path
Directory in which the data set is stored.
Files
List of data sets already stored.
File Name
Name of data set.
The name can be entered with or without drive name and
directory; the drive name and directory, if available, will then
appear in the PATH field. The extension of the data name is
ignored.
Comment
Comment regarding the data set.
Items
Selection of settings to be stored.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
MMEM:STOR:STAT 1,"a:\test02"
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RECALL
Spectrum Analyzer – FILE Key
The RECALL softkey activates the dialog window to enter the data set to be
loaded.
The RECALL table shows the current settings regarding the data set:
Path
Directory in which the data set is stored.
Files
List of stored data sets
File Name
Name of data set.
The name can be entered with or without drive name and
directory. The drive name and directory will then appear in the
Path field. A potential extension of the file name is ignored.
Comment
Comment regarding data set.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
MMEM:LOAD:STAT 1,"a:\test02"
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EDIT PATH
R&S ESU
The EDIT PATH softkey activates the entry of a path name for the device
configuration to be stored/to be loaded:
The desired directory is selected with the rotary knob or the CURSOR UP /
DOWN key and is confirmed by pressing the rotary knob or the ENTER key.
Subdirectories are opened by the CURSOR RIGHT Ur key and closed with the
CURSOR LEFT Ul key.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
EDIT COMMENT
--
The EDIT COMMENT softkey activates the entry of commentary concerning the
current data set. The help line editor is opened with CURSOR DOWN.
A total of 60 characters are available for this purpose.
Aa
Note
For further information on how to enter the comment text
via the front panel of the unit, see the Quick Start Guide,
chapter “Basic Operation.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
MMEM:COMM "Setup for FM measurement"
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ITEMS TO SAVE/
RCL
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Spectrum Analyzer – FILE Key
The ITEMS TO SAVE/RCL softkey opens a submenu for selecting the data
subsets.
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The Save dialog box offers the following selectable data subsets in the Items
field:
Current Settings
These settings include:
•
current configuration of general instrument
parameters
•
current measurement hardware settings
•
active limit lines:
A data set may contain maximum 8 limit lines for each
window. It always contain the activated limit lines and
the de-activated limit lines used last, if any.
Consequently, the combination of the restored
deactivated limit lines depends on the sequence of
use with command MMEM:LOAD.
•
the activated transducer factor
•
user-defined color settings
•
configuration for hardcopy output
•
active transducer set:
A data set may contain maximum 4 transducer
factors. It always contain the activated factors and the
factors used and de-activated last, if any.
Consequently, the combination of the restored
deactivated transducer factors depends on the
sequence of use with the command MMEM:LOAD.
SELECT ITEMS
1302.6163.12
•
peak list or final measurement results
(receiver mode)
•
settings of tracking generator (only with option
tracking generator)
All Limit Lines
all limit lines
All Transducer
all transducer factors
All Transducers
all transducer
All Traces
all traces which are not blanked
Source Cal Data
correction data for tracking generator (only with options
B9 / B10)
The SELECT ITEMS softkey moves the selection bar to the first line, left column
of the Items field. An entry is selected. Position the entry focus to the
corresponding partial data set using the cursor keys and then press the ENTER
key in the desired line. The selection is cleared by pressing the key again.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
MMEM:SEL:HWS ON (Current Settings)
MMEM:SEL:LIN:ALL ON (All Limit Lines)
MMEM:SEL:TRAC ON (All Traces)
IEC/IEEE bus command:
MMEM:SEL:SCD ON (Source Cal Data)
MMEM:SEL:TRAN:ALL ON (All Transducers)
MMEM:SEL:FIN ON (Peak/Final List)
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ENABLE ALL ITEMS
Spectrum Analyzer – FILE Key
The ENABLE ALL ITEMS softkey marks all partial data sets.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DISABLE ALL ITEMS
DEFAULT CONFIG
The DISABLE ALL ITEMS softkey deselects all partial data sets.
The DEFAULT CONFIG softkey establishes the default selection of the data
subset to be saved and outputs DEFAULT in the ITEMS field of the SAVE/
RECALL DATA SET table.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
MMEM:SEL:ALL
MMEM:SEL:DEF
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DATA SET LIST
R&S ESU
The DATA SET LIST softkey sets the entry focus to the list Files of all available
data sets. In addition, the DATA SET CLEAR softkey is displayed.
The list Files lists all data sets which are stored in the selected directory.
The Comment and Items fields in the DATA SET CONTENTS column indicate
the saved data subsets and the comment for the currently selected data set.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DATA SET CLEAR
The DATA SET CLEAR softkey deletes the selected data set
IEC/IEEE bus command:
STARTUP RECALL
1302.6163.12
--
MMEM:CLE:STAT 1, "test03"
The STARTUP RECALL softkey activates the selection of a data set which is
automatically loaded when the instrument is powered on and after PRESET.
For this purpose the Dialog Startup Recall is opened (analogously to DATA SET
LIST).
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Spectrum Analyzer – FILE Key
Fig. 4-27
Startup Recall dialog box
The field Files lists all data sets stored in the selected directory. The currently
selected data set is checked.
In addition to the data sets stored by the user, the data set FACTORY, which
specifies the settings of the instrument before it was last switched off (Standby),
is always present (when unit is delivered).
To select a data set, the entry focus is set to the corresponding entry by means
of the rotary knob and the data set is activated by pressing the rotary knob or
the ENTER key.
If a data set other than FACTORY is chosen, this data set will be loaded when
the unit is switched on or after pressing the PRESET key. Any settings can be
assigned to the PRESET key.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
MMEM:LOAD:AUTO 1,"D:
\user\config\test02"
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Operating Concept of File Managers
FILE MANAGER
The FILE MANAGER softkey opens a menu for managing storage media and
files.
The designation and the letter of the current drive are displayed in the upper left
corner of the File Manager dialog.
The table below shows the files of the current directory and potential
subdirectories.
A file or a directory in the table is selected via cursor keys. The ENTER key is
used to switch from one subdirectory to another. The softkeys COPY,
RENAME, CUT and DELETE are only visible if the entry focus is set to a file and
not to a directory.
The dots ".." open up the next higher directory.
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EDIT PATH
Spectrum Analyzer – FILE Key
The EDIT PATH softkey activates the input of the directory which will be used
in subsequent file operations.
The new path is included in the FILE MANAGEMENT table.
Use CURSOR UP / DOWN to select a drive and confirm your selection with
ENTER.
Open subdirectories by using CURSOR RIGHT, and use CURSOR LEFT to
close them again.
When you have found the subdirectory you looked for, mark it with ENTER.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NEW FOLDER
MMEM:MSIS "a:"
MMEM:CDIR "D:\user "
The NEW FOLDER softkey creates subdirectories.
The entry of an absolute path name (e.g. "\USER\MEAS") as well as the path
relative to the current directory (e.g. "..\MEAS") is possible.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
MMEM:MDIR "D:\user\test"
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COPY
R&S ESU
The COPY softkey opens the help line editor to enter the target directory for a
copying process. The file is also copied into the clipboard and can be copied
into a different directory at a later time by means of PASTE.
Files can also be copied to a different storage medium by indicating a certain
drive letter (e.g. D:). The selected files or directories will be copied after
terminating the entry with the ENTER key.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
RENAME
The RENAME softkey opens the help line editor to rename a file or a directory
(analogously to the COPY softkey).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CUT
Note
The file in the output directory will only be deleted if the
PASTE softkey has been pressed.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
--
The PASTE softkey copies files from the clipboard to the current directory. The
directory is changed by means of the cursor keys and subsequent pressing of
ENTER or via the EDIT PATH softkey.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
MMEM:MOVE "test02.cfg","set2.cfg"
The CUT softkey shifts the selected file into the clipboard from where it can be
copied into a different directory at a later time by means of PASTE.
Aa
PASTE
MMEM:COPY "D:\user\set.cfg","a:"
--
4.316
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R&S ESU
Spectrum Analyzer – FILE Key
DELETE
The DELETE softkey deletes the selected file.
A confirmation query is displayed to avoid unintentional deletion of files.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SORT MODE
MMEM:DEL "test01.hcp"
MMEM:RDIR "D:\user\test"
The SORT MODE softkey opens the submenu to select the sorting mode for the
displayed files.
Directory names are located at the top of the list after the entry for the next
higher directory level ("..").
IEC/IEEE bus command:
2 FILE LISTS
--
The 2 FILE LISTS softkey opens a second window for the File Manager. The
entry focus can be moved between the two windows by means of SCREEN A
and SCREEN B hotkeys.
Files can thus very easily be copied and shifted from one directory to the other.
Aa
Note
The second file list can also be opened in the Full Screen
mode via SCREEN B or SCREEN A hotkey.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
-
4.317
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Spectrum Analyzer – FILE Key
ASCII FILE EXPORT
R&S ESU
The ASCII FILE EXPORT softkey stores the active trace in ASCII format, e.g.
on a memory stick.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
FORM ASC;
MMEM:STOR:TRAC 1,'TRACE.DAT'
The file consists of a header, which contains important scaling parameters, and
a data section, which contains the trace data.
The file header data comes in three columns separated by semicolons (;).
It has the following contents:
parameter name; numerical value; default unit
The data section starts with the key word "Trace <n>", where <n> designates
the number of the trace to be stored. This is followed by the measured data in
columns separated by semicolons (;).
This format can be read by spreadsheet programs such as MS Excel.
A semicolon (;) is to be defined as a separator between the cells of a table.
Aa
Note
Analysis programs may come in different language
versions that require different notations of the decimal
point. By means of the DECIM SEP softkey, a decimal
point (.) or a comma (,) can be selected as decimal-point
notation.
For a detailed description of the ASCII file format, refer to section “Selection and
Setting of Traces – TRACE”, “ASCII FILE EXPORT” on page 4.150 softkey.
DECIM SEP
By means of the DECIM SEP softkey, one can select between a decimal point
(.) and a comma (,) as decimal-point notation for the ASCII FILE EXPORT
function.
Due to the possibility of selecting between different decimal-point notations,
different language versions of analysis programs (such as MS Excel) can be
supported.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DATA SET CLEAR
ALL
The DATA SET CLEAR ALL softkey deletes all files containing device settings
(data sets) in the selected directory.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
FORM:DEXP:DSEP POIN
MMEMory:CLEar:ALL
4.318
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R&S ESU
Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
Measurement Documentation – HCOPY Key
The HCOPY key opens the HARDCOPY menu for starting and configuring the
printout.
HCOPY
PRINT
SCREEN
PRINT
TRACE
INSTALL
PRINTER
PRINT
TABLE
COLOR
ON
OFF
SELECT
OBJECT
SCREEN
COLORSET
BRIGHTNESS
OPTIMIZED
COLORS
TINT
USER
DEFINED
SATURATION
DEVICE
SETUP
PREDEFINED
COLORS
DEVICE
1
2
COLORS
COMMENT
SET TO
DEFAULT
REPORT
SETUP
LOAD
TEMPLATE
TEMPLATE
EDIT
CURRENT
EDIT
HEADER
DELETE
TEMPLATE
SAVE
TEMPLATE
NEW
APPEND
PRINT
PREVIEW
Pressing one of the softkeys PRINT SCREEN, PRINT TRACE or PRINT
TABLE in the HCOPY menu initiates the print job. The printer parameters
defined in the DEVICE SETTINGS menu are used for setting up the printer
configuration. All of the display items to be printed are written to the printer
buffer. Since the printer runs in the background, the instrument may be
operated immediately after pressing the PRINT softkey.
With PRINT SCREEN selected, all the diagrams with traces and status displays
are printed as they occur on the screen. Softkeys, open tables and data entry
fields are not printed.
1302.6163.12
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R&S ESU
The PRINT TRACE function allows individual traces to be printed. With PRINT
TABLE, tables can be printed.
The DEVICE 1 / 2 softkeys are used for selecting and configuring the output
interface. For detailed information refer to section “Selecting Alternative Printer
Configurations” on page 4.326.
If the PRINT TO FILE option in the DEVICE SETTINGS table is selected, the
printout is directed to a file. Upon pressing one of the PRINT... softkeys, the file
name to which the output data is to be written is requested. An entry field is then
opened for entering the file name. For detailed information refer to section
“Selecting Printer, Clipboard and File Formats” on page 4.323.
The COLORS submenu allows switch over between black-and-white and color
printouts (default), provided that the printer connected can produce color
printouts. In addition, the colors are set in this submenu. For detailed
information refer to section “Selecting Printer Colors” on page 4.326.
•
SCREEN
Output in screen colors.
•
OPTIMIZED (default)
Instead of light colors, dark colors are used for
traces and markers: trace 1 blue, trace 1 black,
trace 3 green, markers turquoise.
•
USER DEFINED
This option enables the user to change the colors
at will. It provides the same setting functions as the
DISPLAY – CONFIG DISPLAY – NEXT menu.
Aa
Notes
•
With SCREEN and OPTIMIZED selected, the
background will always be white and the grid black.
With USER DEFINED, these colors can be selected,
too.
•
Upon activation of the submenu, the color display is
switched over to the selected printout colors. When
the menu is quit, the original color setting is restored.
The COMMENT SCREEN A / B softkeys allow text to be added to the printout
(date and time are inserted automatically).
The REPORT softkey is used to configure and print test reports. In contrast to
the hardcopy which is restricted to the contents of the screen, the test report
consists of more different items, such as a diagram, a header, a scan table and
lists with measurement results. For detailed information refer to section
“Configuring the Test Report” on page 4.329.
Use the INSTALL PRINTER softkey to install additional printer drivers. For
detailed information refer to the following sections:
1302.6163.12
•
“Installation of Plug&Play Printers” on page 4.334
•
“Installation of Non-Plug&Play Printers” on page 4.335
•
“Local Printer” on page 4.337
•
“Network Printer” on page 4.343
4.320
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R&S ESU
PRINT SCREEN
Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
The PRINT SCREEN softkey starts the output of test results.
All the diagrams, traces, markers, marker lists, limit lines etc. are printed out as
long as they are displayed on the screen. All the softkeys, tables and open data
entry fields are not printed out. Moreover, comments, title, date, and time are
output at the bottom margin of the printout.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PRINT TRACE
The PRINT TRACE softkey starts the output of all curves visible on the display
screen without auxiliary information. Specifically, no markers or display lines
are printed.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PRINT TABLE
--
The COLORS softkey gives access to the submenu where the colors for the
printout can be selected (see section “Selecting Printer Colors” on page 4.326).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
COMMENT
HCOP:DEV:LANG GDI;
SYST:COMM:PRIN:ENUM:FIRS?;
SYST:COMM:PRIN:ENUM:NEXT?;
SYST:COMM:PRIN:SEL <Printer>;
HCOP:PAGE:ORI PORT;
HCOP:DEST "SYST:COMM:PRIN";
HCOP:DEST "SYST:COMM:MMEM"
The analyzer is able to manage two hardcopy settings independently of each
other. They are selected via the DEVICE 1 / 2 softkey, which displays also the
associated setting if the DEVICE SETUP dialog is open.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
COLORS
HCOP:ITEM:WIND:TABL:STAT ON
HCOP:IMM
The DEVICE SETUP softkey opens the dialog where the file format and the
printer can be selected (see section “Selecting Printer, Clipboard and File
Formats” on page 4.323).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DEVICE 1 / 2
HCOP:ITEM:WIND:TRAC:STAT ON
HCOP:IMM
The PRINT TABLE softkey starts the output of all tables and info lists visible on
the display screen without the measurement diagrams and other information
lying behind.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
DEVICE SETUP
HCOP:ITEM:ALL
HCOP:IMM
--
The COMMENT softkey opens an entry field in which a comment of two lines
(60 characters per line) can be entered for screen A or B.
If the user enters more than 60 characters, the excess characters appear on the
second line on the print-out. At any point, a manual line-feed can be forced by
entering the @ character.
The comment is printed below the diagram area. The comment text appears on
the hardcopy, but not on the display screen.
If a comment should not be printed, it must be cleared.
1302.6163.12
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R&S ESU
If the instrument is reset by a click on the PRESET key, all entered comments
are cleared.
Aa
Note
The COMMENT softkey opens the auxiliary line editor
where the desired letters can be entered in the text field
by means of rotary knob and cursor keys.
After clicking the COMMENT softkey, the auxiliary line editor can be reached
with the Ud key. Pressing the rotary knob or the ENTER key inserts the selected
characters in the text line.
After editing is completed, return to the text line with the Uu key and confirm the
comment text with ENTER.
If the entered comment should be aborted, quit the auxiliary line editor with
ESC.
Aa
Note
Only after the auxiliary line editor has been closed with
ESC can the softkeys and hardkeys be operated again.
A detailed description of the auxiliary line editor can be found in the Quick Start
Guide, chapter “Basic Operation”.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
INSTALL PRINTER
HCOP:ITEM:WIND2:TEXT 'Comment'
A certain number of printer drivers is already installed on the ESU.
The INSTALL PRINTER softkey opens the Printers and Faxes dialog where
more printer drivers can be installed.
For details refer to the Quick Start Guide, appendix “Printer Interface”.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
--
4.322
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Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
Selecting Printer, Clipboard and File Formats
DEVICE SETUP
The DEVICE SETUP softkey opens the selection dialog for file format and
printer.
Navigation in the dialog is possible by turning the rotary knob; selection of an
item is confirmed by pressing the rotary knob or the ENTER key.
The dialog is closed with ESC (alternatively, the Close button can be selected
with the rotary knob and the dialog can be closed by pressing the rotary knob
or with ENTER).
File Formats
A file format is selected by turning the rotary knob
pressing the rotary knob or the ENTER key.
and then confirmed by
The following file formats can be selected:
BITMAP
BMP format (non-compressed)
WINDOWS METAFILE
Vector format, supported as of Windows 3.1
ENHANCED METAFILE
Vector format, supported as of Windows 95/98/ME/
NT/XP
When a file format is selected, printing to a file is automatic. The file name is
queried when the PRINT SCREEN, PRINT TRACE and PRINT TABLE softkeys
are pressed.
1302.6163.12
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R&S ESU
Clipboard
A clipboard is also selected with the rotary knob
pressing the rotary knob or ENTER key.
and then confirmed by
After the PRINT SCREEN, PRINT TRACE or PRINT TABLE softkey has been
pressed, printout is routed to the clipboard. With the aid of the "Process - Insert"
function, the information in the clipboard can then be pasted into other
programs, e.g. Paint, and subsequently processed.
Printer
A printer (also a preconfigured network printer) is selected by selecting Printer
with the rotary knob
and then confirmed by pressing the rotary knob or the
ENTER key.
After confirmation, the entries under Name, Print to File and Orientation are
available for selection with the rotary knob.
To select the printer type, select Name and open the selection list by pressing
the rotary knob or ENTER.
1302.6163.12
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Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
Select the desired printer (in the example "Cannon Bubble-Jet BJC800 (A4")
from the list by means of the rotary knob and confirm by pressing the rotary
knob or ENTER. This closes the list and the cursor is placed on the Name field
again.
Printing to a file is also possible. In this case select Print to File with the rotary
knob and activate or deactivate the associated list by pressing the rotary knob
or the ENTER key.
The printing format is selected under Orientation. In this case, too, pressing the
rotary knob or ENTER opens the selection list.
The desired format (here Portrait) is selected in the list with the rotary knob and
confirmed by pressing the rotary knob or ENTER. This closes the list and the
cursor is placed again on the Orientation field.
The dialog is then closed with ESC or by clicking the Close button.
1302.6163.12
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Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
Aa
R&S ESU
Note
The installation of new printer types is described in the
Quick Start Guide, appendix “Printer Interface”.
Selecting Alternative Printer Configurations
The analyzer is capable of managing two independent hardcopy settings. This,
for instance, permits fast switch over between printing to a file or by a printer.
DEVICE 1 / 2
A selection is made with the DEVICE 1 / 2 softkey which also shows settings
when the DEVICE SETUP dialog is open.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
--
Selecting Printer Colors
COLORS
The COLORS softkey gives access to the submenu where the colors for the
printout can be selected. To facilitate color selection, the selected color
combination is displayed when the menu is entered. The previous colors are
restored when the menu is exited.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
COLOR ON OFF
The COLOR ON OFF softkey switches over from color output to black-andwhite output. All color-highlighted areas are printed in white and all color lines
in black. This improves the contrast on the printout. The default setting is
COLOR ON.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SCREEN COLORS
HCOP:DEV:COL ON
The SCREEN COLORS softkey selects the current screen colors for the
printout.
Aa
Note
The background is always printed in white and the grid in
black.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
--
HCOP:CMAP:DEF1
4.326
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R&S ESU
OPTIMIZED COLORS
Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
The OPTIMIZED COLORS softkey selects an optimized color setting for the
printout to improve the visibility of the colors on the hardcopy.
Trace 1 is blue, trace 2 black, trace 3 green, and the markers are turquoise.
The other colors correspond to the display colors of the DISP – CONFIG
DISPLAY – DEFAULT COLORS 1 softkey.
Aa
Note
The background is always printed in white and the grid in
black.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
USER DEFINED
The USER DEFINED softkey opens a submenu for user-defined color selection
(see submenu USER DEFINED COLORS).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SELECT OBJECT
HCOP:CMAP:DEF2
HCOP:CMAP:DEF3
The SELECT OBJECT softkey allows picture elements to be selected to
change their color setting. After selection, the PREDEFINED COLORS,
BRIGHTNESS, TINT and SATURATION softkeys enable the user to change
the colors or brightness, the hue and the color saturation of the element
selected.
SE LECT D ISP LA Y O BJ ECT
Background
Grid
Function field + status field + data entry text
Function field LED on
Function field LED warn
Enhancement label text
Status field background
Trace 1
Trace 2
Trace 3
Marker
Lines
Measurement status + limit check pass
Limit check fail
Table + softkey text
Table + softkey background
Table selected field text
Table selected field background
Table + data entry field opaq titlebar
Data entry field opaq text
Data entry field opaq background
3D shade bright part
3D shade dark part
Softkey state on
Softkey state data entry
Logo
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
--
4.327
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Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
BRIGHTNESS
R&S ESU
The BRIGHTNESS softkey serves for determining the brightness of the graphic
element selected.
A value between 0 and 100% can be entered.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
TINT
The TINT softkey serves for determining the hue of the element selected. The
percentage entered refers to a continuous color spectrum from red (0%) to blue
(100%).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SATURATION
HCOP:CMAP5:HSL <hue>,<sat>,<lum>
HCOP:CMAP5:HSL <hue>,<sat>,<lum>
The SATURATION softkey serves for determining the saturation of the element
selected.
A value between 0 and 100% can be entered.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PREDEFINED
COLORS
HCOP:CMAP5:HSL <hue>,<sat>,<lum>
The PREDEFINED COLORS softkey opens a list from which predefined colors
for the displayed elements can be selected:
COLOR
BLACK
BLUE
BROWN
GREEN
CYAN
RED
MAGENTA
YELLOW
WHITE
GRAY
LIGHT GRAY
LIGHT BLUE
LIGHT GREEN
LIGHT CYAN
LIGHT RED
LIGHT MAGENTA
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SET TO DEFAULT
The SET TO DEFAULT softkey reactivates the default color setting (=
OPTIMIZED COLORS).
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
HCOP:CMAP1 ... 26:PDEF <color>
--
4.328
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Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
Configuring the Test Report
REPORT
SETUP
TEMPLATE !
LOAD TEMPLATE
EDIT CURRENT
DELETE TEMPLATE
SAVE TEMPLATE
EDIT HEADER
NEW
APPEND
PRINT
PREVIEW
The REPORT softkey opens a submenu for configuring and starting the printout
of a test report. In contrast to the hardcopy which is restricted to the contents of
the screen, the test report consists of more different items, such as a diagram,
a header, a scan table, and lists with measurement results.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SETUP
HCOP:MODE TREP
The SETUP softkey opens the Report Setup dialog to select the file format and
the printer.
Under Output Format, select the file format by turning the rotary knob and then
confirm by pressing the rotary knob or the ENTER key.
1302.6163.12
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R&S ESU
The following file formats are available:
•
PDF
Portable document format
•
HTML
Hypertext Markup Language 4.1, can be viewed with internet browsers
•
Rich Text Format
Can be read and edited by word processors
When a file format is selected, printing to a file is set automatically. The file
name is queried when the PRINT softkey is pressed.
Under Printer, select a printer (also a preconfigured network printer) by
selecting Printer with the rotary knob and then confirm by pressing the rotary
knob or the ENTER key.
After confirmation, the entries in the Name and Orientation list are available for
selection with the rotary knob.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
TEMPLATE
The TEMPLATE softkey defines the contents and the header of the test report
in a template. Up to 20 templates can be stored for different layouts.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
LOAD TEMPLATE
HCOP:TREP:ITEM:TEMP:CAT?
The LOAD TEMPLATE softkey opens a list of all defined layouts. Select the
desired template using the rotary knob or the cursor keys and then confirm by
pressing the ENTER key.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
HCOP:DEV:LANG HTML | PDF | RTF
HCOP:DEV:LANG GDI;
SYST:COMM:PRIN:ENUM:FIRS?;
SYST:COMM:PRIN:ENUM:NEXT?;
SYST:COMM:PRIN:SEL <Printer>;
HCOP:PAGE:ORI PORT;
HCOP:DEST "SYST:COMM:PRIN"
HCOP:TREP:ITEM:TEMP:LOAD 'FULL
REPORT'
4.330
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R&S ESU
EDIT CURRENT
Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
The EDIT CURRENT softkey opens the Edit Current Template dialog to edit the
currently active template.
Under Header Layout, define the texts and the visibility of the single items on
several pages (always, once or never can be set). A bitmap file can be selected
as a logo which is printed right on top of the page.
Under Report Content, select the items to be printed.
OK generates a report.
Default sets the default layout and content.
Cancel aborts the report generation.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
HCOP:TREP:ITEM:HEAD:LINE:TITL 'Text'
HCOP:TREP:ITEM:HEAD:LINE:CONT ALW
HCOP:TREP:ITEM:LOGO:CONT ALW
HCOP:TREP:ITEM:HEAD:STAT ON
HCOP:TREP:ITEM:DIAG:STAT ON
HCOP:TREP:ITEM:FRES:STAT ON
HCOP:TREP:ITEM:PAG:STAT ON
HCOP:TREP:ITEM:SCAN:STAT ON
HCOP:TREP:ITEM:SRES:STAT ON
HCOP:TREP:ITEM:TDST:STAT ON
HCOP:TREP:ITEM:TRAN:STAT ON
HCOP:TREP:ITEM:DEF
4.331
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Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
DELETE TEMPLATE
R&S ESU
The DELETE TEMPLATE softkey opens a list of all defined layouts. Select the
template to be deleted using the rotary knob or the cursor keys and then confirm
by pressing the ENTER key.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SAVE TEMPLATE
The SAVE TEMPLATE softkey opens a list of all defined layouts. Enter the
name for the current template with an external keyboard or with the help line
editor.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
EDIT HEADER
HCOP:TREP:ITEM:TEMP:SAVE 'FULL
REPORT'
The EDIT HEADER softkey opens the Edit Header dialog to enter the contents
of the header.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
NEW
HCOP:TREP:ITEM:TEMP:DEL 'FULL
REPORT'
HCOP:TREP:ITEM:HEAD:LINE2:TEXT
'radiated test'
The NEW softkey creates a new test report. The Edit Header dialog is displayed
and the contents of the header can be edited. After pressing OK the report is
created.
If a previously created test report has not been printed or exported into a file,
the following message is displayed: Previous Report Will Be Lost.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
APPEND
The APPEND softkey appends a test report to the existing report. The Edit
Header dialog is displayed and the contents of the header can be edited. It is
possible to create reports that contain the results of several measurements. The
report is stored in internal memory until it is printed.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
HCOP:TREP:NEW
HCOP:TREP:APP
4.332
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Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
PRINT
The PRINT softkey prints or exports the previously created test report.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
PREVIEW
With the PREVIEW softkey, the test report can be checked before printing.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
HCOP:TREP:APP
-
4.333
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R&S ESU
Installation of Plug&Play Printers
The installation of Plug&Play printers under Windows XP is quite simple:
After the printer is connected and switched on, Windows XP automatically
recognizes it and installs its driver, provided the driver is included in the XP
installation.
If the XP printer driver is not found, Windows XP prompts you to enter the path
for the corresponding installation files. In addition to pre-installed drivers, a
number of other printer drivers can be found in directory D:\I386.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
When installing new printer drivers, you will be prompted
to indicate the path of the new driver. This path may be
on a memory stick or USB CD-ROM drive (see the Quick
Start Guide, chapter “Preparing for Use”).
4.334
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Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
Installation of Non-Plug&Play Printers
Aa
INSTALL PRINTER
Note
The dialogs below can be operated either from the front
panel or via mouse and keyboard (see the Quick Start
Guide, chapter “Preparing for Use”). Mouse and PC
keyboard are absolutely essential for configuring
network printers.
A new printer is installed via the INSTALL PRINTER softkey.
➢ Select Add Printer in the list using the rotary knob.
➢ Highlight the selected item with CURSOR RIGHT and press ENTER or the
rotary knob to confirm the selection.
The Add Printer Wizard is displayed.
1302.6163.12
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R&S ESU
➢ Select NEXT with the rotary knob and press the rotary knob for confirmation.
Local or Network Printer can be selected.
➢ To install a local printer, select Local printer attached to this computer with
the rotary knob. Press the rotary knob for confirmation and continue with the
section “Local Printer” on page 4.337.
➢ To install a network printer, select A network printer or a printer attached to
another computer. Press the rotary knob for confirmation and continue with
the section “Network Printer” on page 4.343.
1302.6163.12
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R&S ESU
Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
Local Printer
In the example below, a Star LC24 printer is installed.
➢ To select the USB interface, open the list of ports by clicking the rotary knob.
Select the printer port with rotary knob/arrow keys and confirm by pressing
the rotary knob. The selection list is closed again.
➢ To select the LPT connector, the selection list need not be opened.
➢ Place the cursor on the NEXT button and confirm by pressing the rotary
knob.
The "Install Printer Software" dialog is opened.
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R&S ESU
➢ Select the desired manufacturer ("Star") in the Manufacturer table using the
up / down keys.
Go to the Printers list with the rotary knob.
➢ Select the desired printer type (Star LC24-200 Color) using the up / down
keys and confirm with ENTER.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
If the desired printer type is not in the list, the respective
driver is not installed yet. In this case click the HAVE
DISK button with the mouse key. You will be prompted
to connect e.g. a memory stick with the corresponding
printer driver. Press OK and select the desired printer
driver.
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Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
➢ The printer name can be changed as required in the Printer name entry field
(max. 60 characters). A PC keyboard is required in this case.
➢ Use the rotary knob to select Yes or No for the default printer.
➢ Choose the desired status with the up /down keys.
➢ Confirm with ENTER.
The Printer Sharing dialog is opened.
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R&S ESU
➢ Exit the dialog with ENTER.
The Print Test Page dialog is opened.
➢ Exit the dialog with ENTER.
The Completing the Add Printer Wizard dialog is opened.
➢ Check the displayed settings and exit the dialog with ENTER.
The printer is installed. If Windows finds the required driver files, the
installation is completed without any further queries.
If Windows cannot find the required driver files, a dialog is opened where the
path for the files can be entered.
1302.6163.12
4.340
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
➢ Select the Browse button with the rotary knob and confirm with by pressing
the rotary knob.
The Locate File dialog is opened.
➢ Turn the rotary knob to select the directory and path D:\I386 and press it to
confirm the selection.
If the selected item is not printed on a blue background, it must be marked
with the cursor up / down keys before it can be activated by pressing the
rotary knob.
1302.6163.12
4.341
E-1
Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
R&S ESU
➢ Select the driver file with the rotary knob and confirm by pressing the rotary
knob.
The file is included in the Files Needed dialog.
Aa
Note
If the desired file is not in the D:\I386 directory, e.g. a
memory stick with the driver file is needed. In this case,
exit the dialog with ESC and repeat the selection starting
from the Files Needed dialog.
➢ Select the OK button with the rotary knob and press the rotary knob to
confirm.
The installation is completed.
➢ Finally the instrument must be configured for printouts of the measurement
screen with this printer. For details please refer to the DEVICE SETUP
softkey in the hardcopy menu.
1302.6163.12
4.342
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
Network Printer
Aa
Note
For easy operation of the subsequent dialogs,
connection of a PS/2 keyboard with trackball to the front
panel is recommended. If no trackball is available, a USB
mouse should be connected additionally to the rear
panel (see the Quick Start Guide, chapter “Preparing for
Use”).
In the example below, a HP Laserjet 5 printer is installed as network printer. The
Add Printer Wizard has already been opened as described in section
“Installation of Non-Plug&Play Printers” on page 4.335
➢ To select a network printer, click the option "A network printer or a printer
attached to another computer".
1302.6163.12
4.343
E-1
Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
R&S ESU
➢ Continue with NEXT.
➢ Click Browse for a printer and then NEXT.
A list of selectable printers is displayed.
1302.6163.12
4.344
E-1
R&S ESU
Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
➢ Mark the desired printer and select it with OK.
➢ Confirm the subsequent prompt to install a suitable printer driver with "OK".
The list of available printer drivers is displayed.
The manufacturers are listed in the left-hand table, the available printer
drivers in the right-hand table.
➢ Select the manufacturer from the Manufacturers table and then the printer
driver from the Printers table.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
If the desired type of output device is not shown in the
list, the driver has not yet been installed. In this case,
click the HAVE DISK button. You will be prompted to
connect a memory stick with the corresponding printer
driver. Connect the memory stick, select OK and then
choose the desired printer driver.
4.345
E-1
Spectrum Analyzer – HCOPY Key
R&S ESU
➢ Click NEXT.
If one or more printers are already installed, a query is displayed whether the
printer just installed should be used as the standard printer for the Windows
XP applications. Default setting is No.
➢ Start the printer driver installation with Finish.
➢ Finally, the instrument has to be configured for printout with this printer using
the DEVICE SETUP and DEVICE 1/2 softkeys in the hardcopy main menu
(see section “Selecting Printer, Clipboard and File Formats” on page 4.323).
1302.6163.12
4.346
E-1
R&S ESU
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
During normal operation (without a frequency offset), the tracking generator
emits a signal exactly at the input frequency of the ESU.
For frequency-converting measurements it is possible to set a constant
frequency offset of ±200 MHz between the receive frequency of the ESU and
the output signal of the tracking generator.
Moreover, an I/Q modulation or AM and FM modulation of the output signal can
be provided using two analog input signals.
The output power is level-controlled and can be set in 0.1 dB steps in a range
from -30 dBm to +5 dBm (-100 to + 5 dBm with option FSU-B12).
The tracking generator can be used in all operating modes. Acquisition of test
setup calibration values (SOURCE CAL) and normalization using these
correction values (NORMALIZE) is only possible in the NETWORK operating
mode.
Aa
Note
The RF characteristics of some DUTs is especially
sensitive concerning the input VSWR. In such cases
insertion of 20 dB attenuation between the DUT and the
tracking generator output is highly recommended.
The tracking generator is activated by means of the NETWORK hotkey in the
hotkey bar at the bottom of the screen (for details refer to section “Mode
Selection – Hotkey Bar” on page 4.10.)
1302.6163.12
4.347
E-1
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
R&S ESU
Tracking Generator Settings
The NETWORK hotkey opens a menu for selecting the functions of the tracking
generator.
NETWORK
SOURCE
ON
OFF
CAL
TRANS
SOURCE
POWER
CAL REFL
SHORT
POWER
OFFSET
CAL REFL
OPEN
EXT FM
SOURCE
CAL
NORMALIZE
EXT I/Q
FREQUENCY
OFFSET
REF VALUE
POSITION
MODULATION
REF VALUE
POWER
SWEEP
option B10 only
EXT AM
RECALL
EXT
SOURCE
SAVE AS
TRD FACTOR
EXT SRC
ON
OFF
POWER SWP
ON
OFF
SELECT
GENERATOR
START
POWER
FREQUENCY
SWEEP
STOP
POWER
MODULATION
OFF
GEN REF
INT
EXT
SAVE AS
TRD FACTOR
1302.6163.12
4.348
E-1
R&S ESU
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
Aa
SOURCE ON/OFF
Note
Additional softkeys are available in the displayed menus
for controlling an external generator if option External
Generator Control FSP-B10 is fitted. For detailed
information see section “External Generator Control –
Option R&S FSP-B10” on page 4.366.
The SOURCE ON/OFF softkey switches the tracking generator on or off.
Default setting is OFF
Aa
Note:
•
When the tracking generator is switched on the
maximum stop frequency is limited to 3.6 GHz. This
upper limit is automatically reduced by a frequency
offset set up for the tracking generator.
•
In order to meet the data sheet accuracy for
measurements with active tracing generator the start
frequency must be set to ≥ 3 × Resolution Bandwidth.
•
The minimum sweeptime for measurements with
data sheet accuracy is 100 ms in frequency domain
(span > 0 Hz). Selecting a sweeptime below this limit
will result in the sweeptime indicator field SWT being
supplied with a red asterisk and the message UNCAL
being displayed.
•
FFT filters (FILTER TYPE FFT in BW menu) are not
available when the tracking generator is active.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SOURCE POWER
OUTP:STAT ON
The SOURCE POWER softkey allows the tracking generator output power to
be selected.
The output power can be set in 0.1 dB steps from -30 dBm to +5 dBm (-100 to
+ 5 dBm with option FSU-B12).
If the tracking generator is off, it is automatically switched on when an output
power value is entered.
The default output power is -20 dBm.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
SOUR:POW -20dBm
4.349
E-1
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
POWER OFFSET
R&S ESU
The POWER OFFSET softkey allows selection of a constant level offset for the
tracking generator.
With this offset for example attenuators or amplifiers at the output connector of
the tracking generator can be taken into account for the displayed output power
values on screen or during data entry.
The valid range is -200 dB to +200 dB in 0.1 dB steps. Positive offsets apply to
an amplifier and negative offsets to an attenuator subsequent to the tracking
generator.
The default setting is 0 dB. Offsets <> 0 will display the enhancement label LVL.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
SOUR:POW:OFFS -10dB
4.350
E-1
R&S ESU
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
Transmission Measurement
This measurement will yield the transmission characteristics of a two-port
network. The built-in tracking generator serves as a signal source. It is
connected to the input connector of the DUT. The input of the ESU is fed from
the output of the DUT.
SPECTRUM ANALYZER.
. 9kHz . . . 3.6GHz
. FSU
1129.9003.03
PRESET
FREQ
SPAN
AMPT
BW
SWEEP
MKR
MKR
MKR
FCTN
MEAS
TRIG
GHz
7
8
9
4
5
6
1
2
3
kHz
-
Hz
-dBm
CAL
SETUP
HCOPY
0
ESC
CANCEL
.
MHz
dBm
dB
dB..
ENTER
s
V
m
s
mV
µ
sµ
V
n
s
nV
BACK
AF OUTPUT
TRACE
PROBEPOWER
KEYBOARD
LINES
GEN OUTPUT 50Ω
DISP
EXT MIXER
RF INPUT50Ω
FILE
PREV
NEXT
MA
+30 dBm / 50V DC
X
MAX 0V DC
MADE IN GERMANY
GEN
OUTPUT
RF
INPUT
DUT
Fig. 4-2
Test setup for transmission measurement
A calibration can be carried out to compensate for the effects of the test setup
(eg frequency response of connecting cables).
Calibration of Transmission Measurement
SOURCE CAL
SOURCE
CAL
CAL TRANS
CAL REFL
SHORT
CAL REFL
OPEN
NORMALIZE
REF VALUE
POSITION
REF VALUE
RECALL
SAVE AS
TRD FACTOR
The SOURCE CAL softkey opens a submenu comprising of the calibration
functions for the transmission and reflection measurement.
1302.6163.12
4.351
E-1
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
R&S ESU
The calibration of the reflection measurement (CAL REFL...) and its
mechanisms are described in separate sections.
To carry out a calibration for transmission measurements the whole test setup
is through-connected (THRU).
CAL TRANS
The CAL TRANS softkey triggers the calibration of the transmission
measurement.
It starts a sweep that records a reference trace. This trace is then used to
calculate the difference for the normalized values.
Fig. 4-3
Calibration curve for transmission measurement
During the calibration the following message is displayed:
After the calibration the following message is displayed:
This message will be cleared automatically after approx. 3 seconds.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CORR:METH TRAN
4.352
E-1
R&S ESU
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
Normalization
NORMALIZE
The NORMALIZE softkey switches the normalization on or off. The softkey is
only available if the memory contains a correction trace.
It is possible to shift the relative reference point within the grid using the REF
VALUE POSITION softkey. Thus, the trace can be shifted from the upper
border of the grid to the vertical center of the grid:
Fig. 4-4
Normalized display
In SPLIT SCREEN operation, the normalization is switched on in the currently
active window. Different types of normalization can be active in the two
windows.
Normalization is aborted when the NETWORK operating mode is quit.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
REF VALUE
POSITION
CORR ON
The REF VALUE POSITION softkey marks a reference position in the active
window at which the normalization result (calculated difference with a reference
trace) is displayed.
If no reference line is active, the softkey switches on a reference line and
activates the input of its position. The line can be moved within the grid
boundaries.
The reference line is switched off by pressing the softkey again.
The function of the reference line is explained in the section “Calibration
Mechanism” on page 4.358.
1302.6163.12
4.353
E-1
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
Fig. 4-5
Normalized measurement, shifted with REF VALUE
POSITION 50%
IEC/IEEE bus command:
REF VALUE
R&S ESU
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RPOS 10PCT
The REF VALUE softkey activates the input of a value which is assigned to the
reference line.
With default settings the reference line corresponds to a difference of 0 dB
between the currently measured trace and the reference trace. Setting the REF
VALUE to a different value helps to compensate for changes to the level
conditions in the signal path after the calibration data have been recorded. If eg
after a source calibration a 10 dB attenuation is inserted into the signal path
between DUT and ESU input, the measurement trace will be moved by 10 dB
down. Entering a REF VALUE of –10 dB will then result in the reference line for
difference calculation being moved by 10 dB down as well. This means that the
measured trace will be placed on it, as displayed in Fig. 4-6.
REF VALUE always refers to the active window.
1302.6163.12
4.354
E-1
R&S ESU
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
Fig. 4-6
Measurement with REF VALUE -10 dB and REF VALUE
POSITION 50%
After the reference line has been moved by entering a REF VALUE of –10 dB
the deviation from the nominal power level can be displayed with high resolution
(eg 1 dB/div). The power is still displayed in absolute values, which means that
in the above example 1 dB below the nominal power (reference line) = 11 dB
attenuation.
Fig. 4-7
Measurement of a 10dB attenuator pad with 1dB/DIV
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RVAL -10dB
4.355
E-1
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
RECALL
R&S ESU
The RECALL softkey restores the ESU settings that were used during source
calibration.
This can be useful if device settings were changed after calibration (eg center
frequency, frequency deviation, reference level, etc.).
The softkey is only available if:
•
the NETWORK mode has been selected
•
the memory contains a calibration data set.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SAVE AS TRD
FACTOR
SAVE AS TRD FACTOR uses the normalized measurement data to generate a
transducer factor with up to 625 points. The trace data are converted to a
transducer with unit dB after the transducer name has been entered. The
number of points is defined by SWEEP COUNT. The frequency points are
allocated in equidistant steps between start and stop frequency. The generated
transducer factor can be further adapted in the SETUP menu – TRANSDUCER.
The SAVE AS TRD FACTOR softkey is only available if normalization is
switched on.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CORR:REC
CORR:TRAN:GEN <name>'
4.356
E-1
R&S ESU
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
Reflection Measurement
Scalar reflection measurements can be carried out by means of a reflectioncoefficient measurement bridge.
SPECTRUM ANALYZER.
. 9kHz . . . 3.6GHz
. FSU
1129.9003.03
PRESET
FREQ
SPAN
AMPT
BW
SWEEP
MKR
MKR
MKR
FCTN
MEAS
TRIG
GHz
7
8
9
4
5
6
1
2
3
kHz
-
Hz
-dBm
CAL
SETUP
HCOPY
0
ESC
CANCEL
.
MHz
dBm
dB
dB..
ENTER
s
V
m
s
mV
µ
sµ
V
n
s
nV
BACK
AF OUTPUT
TRACE
PROBEPOWER
KEYBOARD
LINES
GEN OUTPUT 50Ω
DISP
EXT MIXER
RF INPUT50Ω
FILE
PREV
NEXT
MA
+30 dBm / 50V DC
X
MAX 0V DC
MADE IN GERMANY
GEN
OUTPUT
RF
INPUT
Messbrück
e
DU
T
Fig. 4-8
Test Setup for Reflection Measurement
Calibration of Reflection Measurement
The calibration mechanism for reflection measurement is basically the same as
the one used for transmission measurement.
CAL REFL OPEN
The CAL REFL OPEN softkey starts the open-circuit calibration. During
calibration the following message is displayed:
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CAL REFL SHORT
CORR:METH REFL
CORR:COLL OPEN
The CAL REFL SHORT softkey starts the short-circuit calibration.
If both calibrations (open circuit, short circuit) are carried out, the calibration
curve is calculated by averaging the two measurements and stored in the
memory. The order of the two calibration measurements is free.
After the calibration the following message is displayed:
The message is cleared after approx. 3 seconds.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CORR:METH REFL
4.357
E-1
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
R&S ESU
Calibration Mechanism
Calibration means a calculation of the difference between the currently
measured power and a reference curve, independent of the selected type of
measurement (transmission/reflection). The hardware settings used for
measuring the reference curve are included in the reference data set.
Even with normalization switched on, the device settings can be changed in a
wide area without stopping the normalization. This reduces the necessity to
carry out a new normalization to a minimum.
For this purpose the reference data set (trace with 625 measured values) is
stored internally as a table of 625 points (frequency/level).
Differences in level settings between the reference curve and the current device
settings are taken into account automatically. If the span is reduced, a linear
interpolation of the intermediate values is applied. If the span increases, the
values at the left or right border of the reference data set are extrapolated to the
current start or stop frequency, i.e. the reference data set is extended by
constant values.
An enhancement label is used to mark the different levels of measurement
accuracy. This enhancement label is displayed at the right diagram border
when normalization is switched on and a deviation from the reference setting
occurs. Three accuracy levels are defined:
Table 4-1
Measurement accuracy levels
Accuracy
Enhancement
label
Reason/Limitation
High
NOR
No difference between reference setting and
measurement
Medium
APX
(approximation)
Change of the following settings:
• coupling (RBW, VBW, SWT)
• reference level, RF attenuation
• start or stop frequency
• output level of tracking generator
• frequency offset of tracking generator
• detector (max. peak, min. peak, sample, etc.)
Change of frequency:
• max. 625 points within the set sweep limits
(corresponds to a doubling of the span)
-
1302.6163.12
Aborted
normalization
4.358
• more than 624 extrapolated points within the current
sweep limits (in case of span doubling)
E-1
R&S ESU
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
Aa
Note
At a reference level (REF LEVEL) of -10 dBm and at a
tracking generator output level of the same value the
ESU operates without overrange reserve, i.e. the ESU is
in danger of being overloaded if a signal is applied
whose amplitude is higher than the reference line. In this
case, either the message OVLD for overload is
displayed in the status line or the display range is
exceeded (clipping of the trace at the upper diagram
border = Overrange).
Overloading can be avoided as follows:
1302.6163.12
•
Reducing the output level of the tracking generator
(SOURCE POWER, NETWORK menu)
•
Increasing the reference level (REF LEVEL, AMPT
menu)
4.359
E-1
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
R&S ESU
Frequency-Converting Measurements
For frequency-converting measurements (eg on converter units) the tracking
generator is able to set a constant frequency offset between the output
frequency of the tracking generator and the receive frequency of the ESU.
Up to an output frequency of 200 MHz the measurement can be carried out in
both inverted and normal positions.
SPECTRUM ANALYZER.
. 9kHz . . . 3.6GHz
. FSU
1129.9003.03
PRESET
FREQ
SPAN
AMPT
BW
SWEEP
MKR
MKR
MKR
FCTN
MEAS
TRIG
GHz
7
8
9
4
5
6
1
2
3
kHz
0
.
-
Hz
-dBm
CAL
SETUP
HCOPY
ESC
CANCEL
MHz
dBm
dB
dB..
ENTER
s
V
m
s
mV
µ
µ
s
V
n
s
nV
BACK
AF OUTPUT
TRACE
PROBEPOWER
KEYBOARD
LINES
GEN OUTPUT 50Ω
DISP
EXT MIXER
RF INPUT50Ω
FILE
PREV
NEXT
MA
+30 dBm / 50V DC
X
MAX 0V DC
MADE IN GERMANY
GEN
OUTPUT
RF
INPUT
DUT
Fig. 4-9
FREQUENCY
OFFSET
Test setup for frequency converting measurements
The FREQUENCY OFFSET softkey activates the input of the frequency offset
between the output signal of the tracking generator and the input frequency of
the ESU. Possible offsets are in a range of ±200 MHz in 0.1 Hz steps.
The default setting is 0 Hz. Offsets <> 0 Hz are marked with the enhancement
label FRQ.
If a positive frequency offset is entered, the tracking generator generates an
output signal above the receive frequency of the ESU. In case of a negative
frequency offset it generates a signal below the receive frequency of the ESU.
The output frequency of the tracking generator is calculated as follows:
Tracking generator frequency = receive frequency + frequency offset.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
SOUR:FREQ:OFFS 50MHz
4.360
E-1
R&S ESU
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
External Modulation of the Tracking
Generator
MODULATION
MODULATION
MODULATION
EXT
AM
EXT FM
EXT
I/Q
POWER
SWEEP
MODULATION
OFF
The MODULATION softkey opens a submenu for selecting different modulation
modes.
The time characteristics of the tracking generator output signal can be
influenced by means of external signals (input voltage range -1 V to +1 V).
Two BNC connectors at the rear panel are available as signal inputs. Their
function changes depending on the selected modulation:
•
TG IN I / AM and
•
TG IN Q / FM
The modulation modes can be combined with each other and with the
frequency offset function up to a certain degree. The following table shows
which modulation modes are possible at the same time and which ones can be
combined with the frequency offset function.
1302.6163.12
4.361
E-1
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
Table 4-2
R&S ESU
Simultaneous modes of modulation (tracking generator)
Modulation
Frequency
offset
Frequency offset
EXT AM
"
EXT FM
"
EXT I/Q
"
EXT AM
EXT FM
EXT I/Q
"
"
"
"
"
" = can be combined
EXT AM
The EXT AM softkey activates an AM modulation of the tracking generator
output signal.
The modulation signal is applied to the TG IN I / AM connector. An input voltage
of 1 V corresponds to 100% amplitude modulation.
Switching on an external AM disables the active I/Q modulation.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
EXT FM
SOUR:AM:STAT ON
The EXT FM softkey activates the FM modulation of the tracking generator
output signal.
The modulation frequency range is 1 kHz to 100 kHz, the deviation can be set
in 1-decade steps in the range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz at an input voltage of 1 V.
The phase deviation h should not exceed the value 100.
Phase deviation h = deviation / modulation frequency
The modulation signal is applied to the TG IN Q / FM connector.
Switching on an external FM disables the active I/Q modulation.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
EXT I/Q
SOUR:FM:STAT ON
SOUR:FM:DEV 10MHz
The EXT I/Q softkey activates the external I/Q modulation of the tracking
generator.
The signals for modulation are applied to the two input connectors TG IN I and
TG IN Q at the rear panel of the unit. The input voltage range is ±1 V into 50 Ω.
Switching on an external I/Q modulation disables the following functions:
– active external AM
– active external FM
Functional description of the quadrature modulator:
1302.6163.12
4.362
E-1
R&S ESU
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
I channel
0°
I mod
RF IN
RF OUT
90°
Q channel
Q mod
Fig. 4-10
I/Q modulation
I/Q modulation is performed by means of the built-in quadrature modulator. The
RF signal is divided into two orthogonal I and Q components (in phase and
quadrature phase). Amplitude and phase are controlled in each path by the I
and Q modulation signal. By adding the two components an RF output signal is
generated that can be controlled in amplitude and phase.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
MODULATION OFF
The MODULATION OFF softkey switches off the modulation of the tracking
generator.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
SOUR:DM:STAT ON
SOUR:AM:STAT OFF
SOUR:FM:STAT OFF
SOUR:DM:STAT OFF
4.363
E-1
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
R&S ESU
Power Offset of the Tracking Generator
POWER OFFSET
POWER
SWEEP
POWER SWP
ON
OFF
START
POWER
STOP
POWER
SAVE AS
TRD FACTOR
The POWER OFFSET softkey opens a submenu for activates or deactivates
the power sweep.
POWER SWP ON/
OFF
The softkey POWER SWP ON/OFF activates or deactivates the power sweep.
If the power sweep is ON the enhancement label TGPWR is shown and the
analyzer is set in zero span mode (span = 0Hz). During the sweep time of the
zero span the power at the internal tracking generator is changed linear from
start power to stop power. The start and stop power values are shown on the
right side below the diagram.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
START POWER
:SOUR:POW:MODE SWE
:SOUR:POW:MODE FIX
The softkey START POWER defines the start power of the power sweep.
The start power can be set between -30 and +0 dBm for the R&S ESU and
between -30 dBm and +5 dBm for the R&S FSU.
With the option FSU-B12 the power can be set between -100 and + 5 dBm.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
:SOUR:POW:STAR –20dBm
4.364
E-1
R&S ESU
STOP POWER
Tracking Generator – Option R&S FSU-B9
The softkey STOP POWER defines the stop power of the power sweep.
The stop power can be set between -30 and +0 dBm for the R&S ESU and
between -30 dBm and +5 dBm for the R&S FSU. With the option FSU-B12 the
power can be set between -100 and + 5 dBm.
The stop value can be smaller than the start value.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
:SOUR:POW:STOP –10dBm
4.365
E-1
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
R&S ESU
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
The external generator control option permits to operate a number of
commercially available generators as tracking generator on the ESU. Thus,
scalar network analysis with the ESU is also possible outside the frequency
range of the internal tracking generator when the appropriate generators are
used.
The ESU also permits to set a frequency offset for frequency-converting
measurements when external generators are used. For harmonics
measurements or frequency-converting measurements, it is also possible to
enter a factor, by which the generator frequency is increased or reduced
compared with the receive frequency of the ESU. Only make sure that the
resulting generator frequencies do not exceed the allowed setting range of the
generator.
The level range to be set also depends on the generator used.
The generator is controlled via the – optional – second IECBUS interface of the
ESU (= IEC2, supplied with the option) and, with some Rohde & Schwarz
generators, additionally via the TTL synchronization interface included in the
AUX interface of the ESU.
Aa
Note
The use of the TTL interface enables considerably
higher measurement rates as pure IECBUS control,
because the frequency stepping of the ESU is directly
coupled with the frequency stepping of the generator.
Therefore, the frequency sweep differs according to the capabilities of the
generator used:
•
In the case of generators without TTL interface, the generator frequency is
first set for each frequency point via IECBUS, then the setting procedure has
to be completed before recording of measured values is possible.
•
In the case of generators with TTL interface, a list of the frequencies to be
set is entered into the generator before the beginning of the first sweep.
Then the sweep is started and the next frequency point selected by means
of the TTL handshake line TRIGGER. The recording of measured values is
only enabled when the generator signals the end of the setting procedure via
the BLANK signal. This method is considerably faster than pure IECBUS
control.
With the SELECT GENERATOR softkey, a list of the supported generators with
the frequency and level range as well as the capabilities used is included.
1302.6163.12
4.366
E-1
R&S ESU
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
The external generator can be used in all operating modes. Recording of test
setup calibration values (SOURCE CAL) and normalization with the correction
values (NORMALIZE) are only possible in the NETWORK mode.
Aa
Note
In order to enhance measurement accuracy a common
reference frequency should be used for both the ESU
and the generator. If no independent 10 MHz reference
frequency is available, it is recommended to connect the
reference output of the generator with the reference
input of the ESU and to enable usage of the external
Reference on the ESU via SETUP – REFERENCE EXT.
Like the internal tracking generator, the external generator is activated by
means of the hotkey bar: MORE hotkey - NETWORK hotkey (for details refer to
section “Mode Selection – Hotkey Bar” on page 4.10).
1302.6163.12
4.367
E-1
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
R&S ESU
External Generator Settings
The NETWORK hotkey opens the menu for setting the functions of the external
generator.
CAL
TRANS
EXT SRC
ON
OFF
SOURCE
POWER
CAL REFL
SHORT
SELECT
GENERATOR
POWER
OFFSET
CAL REFL
OPEN
FREQUENCY
SWEEP
SOURCE
CAL
NORMALIZE
FREQUENCY
OFFSET
REF VALUE
POSITION
NETWORK
REF VALUE
GEN REF
INT
EXT
RECALL
EXT
SOURCE
SAVE AS
TRD FACTOR
SOURCE POWER
The SOURCE POWER softkey activates the entry of the generator output level.
The value range depends on the selected generator.
If both option External Generator Control B10 and option Tracking Generator
B9 are installed, the softkey will modify the output power of the generator
currently in use.
The default output power is -20 dBm.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
POWER OFFSET
SOUR:EXT:POW –20dBm
The POWER OFFSET softkey activates the entry of a constant level offset of
the generator. With this offset, attenuator pads or amplifiers connected to the
output connector of the generator can be handled during the input and output
of output levels.
The permissible setting range is -200 dB to +200 dB in steps of 0.1 dB. Positive
offsets handle a subsequent amplifier and negative offsets an attenuator pad.
The default setting is 0 dB; offsets <> 0 are marked by the activated
enhancement label LVL.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
SOUR:POW:OFFS -10dB
4.368
E-1
R&S ESU
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
Transmission Measurement
The transmission characteristic of a two-port network is measured. The external
generator serves as a signal source. It is connected to the input connector of
the DUT. The input of the analyzer is fed from the output of the DUT.
.
SPECTRUM ANALYZER
. 9kHz . . . 3GHz
. FSP
1093.4495.03
PRESET
FREQ
SPAN
AMPT
BW
SWEEP
MKR
MKR
MKR
FCTN
MEAS
TRIG
7
8
9
GHz
4
5
6
MHz
1
2
3
kHz
-
Hz
-dBm
CAL
SETUP
HCOPY
0
ESC
CANCEL
.
dBm
dB
dB..
ENTER
TRACE
s
V
ms
mV
µs
µV
ns
nV
BACK
AF OUTPUT
PROBEPOWER
KEYBOARD
LINES
DISP
GEN OUTPUT 50Ω
EXT MIXER
RF INPUT50Ω
FILE
PREV
NEXT
MAX 0V DC
MAX +30 dBm / 50V DC
MAD E IN G ER MAN Y
GEN OUTPUT
RF INPUT
DUT
Fig. 4-28
Test setup for transmission measurement
A calibration can be carried out to compensate for the effects of the test setup
(e.g. frequency response of connecting cables).
Calibration of Transmission Measurement
SOURCE CAL
SOURCE
CAL
CAL TRANS
CAL REFL
SHORT
CAL REFL
OPEN
NORMALIZE
REF VALUE
POSITION
REF VALUE
RECALL
SAVE AS
TRD FACTOR
The SOURCE CAL softkey opens a submenu comprising the calibration
functions for the transmission and reflection measurement.
1302.6163.12
4.369
E-1
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
R&S ESU
The calibration of the reflection measurement (CAL REFL...) and its functioning
are described in separate sections.
To carry out a calibration for transmission measurements the whole test setup
is through-connected (THRU).
CAL TRANS
The CAL TRANS softkey triggers the calibration of the transmission
measurement.
It starts a sweep that records a reference trace. This trace is then used to obtain
the differences to the normalized values.
Fig. 4-29
Calibration curve for transmission measurement
During the calibration the following message is displayed:
After the calibration sweep the following message is displayed:
This message is cleared after approx. 3 seconds.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CORR:METH TRAN
4.370
E-1
R&S ESU
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
Normalization
NORMALIZE
The NORMALIZE softkey switches normalization on or off. The softkey is only
available if the memory contains a correction trace.
It is possible to shift the relative reference point within the grid using the REF
VALUE POSITION softkey. Thus, the trace can be shifted from the top grid
margin to the middle of the grid:
Fig. 4-30
Normalized display
In the SPLIT SCREEN setting, the normalization is switched on in the current
window. Different normalizations can be active in the two windows.
Normalization is aborted when the NETWORK mode is quit.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CORR ON
4.371
E-1
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
REF VALUE
POSITION
R&S ESU
The REF VALUE POSITION softkey (reference position) marks a reference
position in the active window on which the normalization (difference formation
with a reference curve) is performed.
When pressed for the first time, the softkey switches on the reference line and
activates the input of its position. The line can be shifted within the grid limits.
The reference line is switched off by pressing the softkey again.
The function of the reference line is explained in the section “Calibration
Mechanism” on page 4.376.
Fig. 4-31
Normalized measurement, shifted with REF VALUE
POSITION 50%
IEC/IEEE bus command:
REF VALUE
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RPOS 10PCT
The REF VALUE softkey activates the input of a level difference which is
assigned to the reference line.
In the default setting, the reference line corresponds to a level difference of 0
dB. If e.g. a 10-dB attenuator pad is inserted between DUT and analyzer input
between recording of the calibration data and normalization, the trace will be
shifted down by 10 dB. By entering a REF VALUE of –10 dB the reference line
for difference formation can also be shifted down by 10 dB so that it will again
coincide with the trace (see Fig. 4-32).
1302.6163.12
4.372
E-1
R&S ESU
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
Fig. 4-32
Measurement with REF VALUE -10dB and REF VALUE
POSITION 50%
After the reference line has been shifted by entering REF VALUE –10 dB,
departures from the nominal value can be displayed with high resolution (e.g. 1
dB / Div.). The absolute measured values are still displayed, in the above
example, 1 dB below nominal value (reference line) = 11 dB attenuation.
Fig. 4-33
Measurement of a 10-dB attenuator pad with 1dB/DIV
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RVAL -10dB
4.373
E-1
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
RECALL
R&S ESU
The RECALL softkey restores the instrument setting with which the calibration
was carried out.
This can be useful if the device setting was changed after calibration (e.g.
center frequency setting, frequency deviation, reference level, etc.).
The softkey is only available if:
•
the NETWORK mode has been selected
•
the memory contains a calibration data set.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SAVE AS TRD
FACTOR
SAVE AS TRD FACTOR uses the normalized measurement data to generate a
transducer factor with up to 625 points. The trace data are converted to a
transducer with unit dB after the transducer name has been entered. The
number of points is defined by SWEEP COUNT. The frequency points are
allocated in equidistant steps between start and stop frequency. The generated
transducer factor can be further adapted in the menu SETUP – TRANSDUCER.
SAVE AS TRD FACTOR is only available if normalization is switched on.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CORR:REC
CORR:TRAN:GEN <name>'
4.374
E-1
R&S ESU
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
Reflection Measurement
Scalar reflection measurements can be carried out by means of a reflectioncoefficient bridge.
.
SPECTRUM ANALYZER
. 9kHz . . . 3GHz
. FSP
1093.4495.03
PRESET
FREQ
SPAN
AMPT
BW
SWEEP
MKR
MKR
MKR
FCTN
MEAS
TRIG
GHz
7
8
9
4
5
6
MHz
1
2
3
kHz
0
.
-
Hz
-dBm
CAL
SETUP
HCOPY
ESC
CANCEL
dBm
dB
dB..
ENTER
s
V
ms
mV
µs
µV
ns
nV
BACK
AF OUTPUT
TRACE
PROBEPOWER
KEYBOARD
LINES
DISP
GEN OUTPUT 50Ω
EXT MIXER
RF INPUT50Ω
FILE
PREV
NEXT
MAX 0V D C
MA X +30 dB m / 50V DC
MAD E IN G ER MAN Y
GEN OUTPUT
RF INPUT
Messbrücke
DUT
Fig. 4-34
Test setup for reflection measurement
Calibration of Reflection Measurement
The calibration mechanism essentially corresponds to that of the transmission
measurement.
CAL REFL OPEN
The CAL REFL OPEN softkey starts the open-circuit calibration. During
calibration the following message is displayed:
IEC/IEEE bus command:
CAL REFL SHORT
CORR:METH REFL
CORR:COLL OPEN
The CAL REFL SHORT softkey starts the short-circuit calibration.
If both calibrations (open circuit, short circuit) are carried out, the calibration
curve is formed by averaging the two measurements and stored in the memory.
The order of measurements is optional.
After the calibration the following message is displayed:
The display is cleared after approx. 3 seconds.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
CORR:METH REFL
CORR:COLL THR
4.375
E-1
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
R&S ESU
Calibration Mechanism
Calibration means a calculation of the difference between the currently
measured power and a reference curve, independent of the selected type of
measurement (transmission/reflection). The hardware settings used for
measuring the reference curve are included in the reference data set.
Even with normalization switched on, the device settings can be changed in a
wide area without stopping the normalization. This reduces the necessity to
carry out a new normalization to a minimum.
For this purpose, the reference data set (trace with 625 measured values) is
stored as a table with 625 points (frequency/level). Differences in level settings
between the reference curve and the current device settings are taken into
account automatically. If the span is reduced, a linear interpolation of the
intermediate values is applied. If the span increases, the values at the left or
right border of the reference data set are extrapolated to the current start or stop
frequency, i.e. the reference data set is extended by constant values.
An enhancement label is used to mark the different levels of measurement
accuracy. This enhancement label is displayed at the right diagram border
when normalization is switched on and a deviation from the reference setting
occurs. Three accuracy levels are defined:
Table 4-1
Measurement accuracy levels
Accuracy
Enhancement
label
Reason/Limitation
High
NOR
No difference between reference setting and
measurement
Medium
APX
(approximation)
Change of the following settings:
• coupling (RBW, VBW, SWT)
• reference level, RF attenuation
• start or stop frequency
• output level of tracking generator
• frequency offset of tracking generator
• detector (max. peak, min. peak, sample, etc.)
Change of frequency:
• max. 501 points within the set sweep limits
(corresponds to a doubling of the span)
-
1302.6163.12
Aborted
normalization
4.376
• more than 500 extrapolated points within the current
sweep limits (in case of span doubling)
E-1
R&S ESU
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
Aa
Note
At a reference level (REF LEVEL) of -10 dBm and at a
tracking generator output level of the same value the
analyzer operates without overrange reserve, i.e. the
analyzer is in danger of being overloaded if a signal is
applied whose amplitude is higher than the reference
line. In this case, either the message OVLD for overload
is displayed in the status line or the display range is
exceeded (clipping of the trace at the upper diagram
border = Overrange).
Overloading can be avoided as follows:
1302.6163.12
•
Reducing the output level of the tracking generator
(SOURCE POWER, NETWORK menu)
•
Increasing the reference level (REF LEVEL, AMPT
menu)
4.377
E-1
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
R&S ESU
Frequency-Converting Measurements
For frequency-converting measurements (e.g. on converters) the external
generator is able to set a constant frequency offset between the output
frequency of the generator and the receive frequency of the analyzer and, in
addition, the generator frequency as a multiple of the analyzer.
SPECTRUM ANALYZER.
. 9kHz . . . 3GHz
. FSP
1093.4495.03
FREQ
PRESET
MKR
7
SPAN
AMPT
BW
SWEEP
MKR
MKR
FCTN
MEAS
TRIG
8
9
GHz
-dBm
CAL
SETUP
HCOPY
4
5
6
MHz
1
2
3
kHz
0
.
-
Hz
ESC
CANCEL
dBm
dB
dB..
ENTER
s
V
ms
mV
µs
µV
ns
nV
BACK
AF OUTPUT
TRACE
PROBEPOWER
KEYBOARD
LINES
GEN OUTPUT 50Ω
DISP
EXT MIXER
RF INPUT50Ω
FILE
PREV
NEXT
MA X 0V DC
MAX +30 dBm / 50V DC
MADE IN G ERMANY
RF INPUT
GEN OUTPUT
DUT
Fig. 4-35
FREQUENCY
OFFSET
Test setup for frequency-converting measurements
The FREQUENCY OFFSET softkey activates the input of the frequency offset
between the output signal of the generator and the input frequency of the
analyzer. The value range depends on the selected generator.
The default setting is 0 Hz. Offsets <> 0 Hz are marked with the enhancement
label FRQ.
If a positive frequency offset is entered, the tracking generator generates an
output signal above the receive frequency of the "analyzer. In case of a negative
frequency offset it generates a signal below the receive frequency of the
analyzer. The output frequency of the generator is calculated as follows:
Generator frequency = receive frequency + frequency offset
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
SOUR:EXT:FREQ:OFFS 1GHZ
4.378
E-1
R&S ESU
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
Configuration of an External Generator
EXT SOURCE
EXT
SOURCE
EXT SRC
ON
OFF
SELECT
GENERATOR
FREQUENCY
SWEEP
GEN REF
INT
EXT
The EXT SOURCE softkey opens a submenu for configuration of the external
generator.
The ESU is able to manage two generators, one of which can be active at the
time.
1302.6163.12
4.379
E-1
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
EXT SRC ON / OFF
R&S ESU
The EXT SRC ON / OFF softkey switches the external generator on or off.
It can only be switched on successfully if the generator has been selected by
means of SELECT GENERATOR and configured correctly by means of
FREQUENCY SWEEP. If one of these conditions is not fulfilled, an error
message will be output.
Aa
Notes
When switching on the external generator by means of
EXT SRC ON, the ESU switches off the internal tracking
generator and starts programming the generator settings
via the IEC/IEEE-bus interface IEC2.
Programming requires takeover of the IEC/IEEE-bus
control at this interface by the ESU. To avoid any access
conflicts, ensure that no other controller is connected to
the IEC2 interface or the external generator when
selecting EXT SRC ON.
The maximum stop frequency is limited to the maximum
generator frequency. This upper limit is automatically
reduced by the set frequency offset of the generator and
a set multiplication factor.
With the external generator switched on, the FFT filters
(FILTER TYPE FFT in the menu BW) are not available.
If an error occurs on the IEC/IEEE bus when
programming the external generator, the generator will
automatically be switched off and the following error
message will be output:
When the external generator is switched off using EXT
SRC OFF, the IEC/IEEE-bus control is handed over
again at the IEC2 interface, i.e. a different controller will
then take over the control of the signal generator.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
SOUR:EXT ON
4.380
E-1
R&S ESU
SELECT
GENERATOR
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
The SELECT GENERATOR softkey opens a table for selection of the generator
and definition of IECBUS address and control interface.
The table permits configuration of two generators so that switching between two
different configurations is easily possible.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
SOUR:AM:STAT ON
The individual fields contain the following settings:
•
SRC
Index of generator selected
•
TYPE
The field opens the list with the available generators:
After completion of the selection, the remaining fields of the table are filled
with the generator characteristics.
A list of generator types supported by the ESU is to be found in section “List
of Generator Types Supported by the ESU” on page 4.383.
•
IFC
This field selects the interface type of external generator 1 or 2. The
following types are available:
– GPIB: IECBUS only, suitable for all generators of other manufacturers
and some Rohde & Schwarz instruments
– TTL: IECBUS and TTL interface for synchronization, for most of the
Rohde & Schwarz generators, see table above.
The two operating modes differ in the speed of the control: Whereas, with
pure IECBUS operation, each frequency to be set must be individually
transferred to the generator, additional use of the TTL interface permits to
program a total frequency list at once and subsequently perform the
frequency stepping via TTL handshake, which is a big advantage in terms of
speed.
1302.6163.12
4.381
E-1
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
Aa
R&S ESU
Note
Generators equipped with the TTL interface can also be
operated with IECBUS (= GPIB) only.
Only one of the two generators can be operated with TTL
interface at a time. The other generator must be
configured for IECBUS (GPIB).
•
GPIB ADDR
IECBUS address of the respective generator. Addresses from 0 to 30 are
possible.
•
MODE
Operating mode of generator. The generator activated using the
FREQUENCY SWEEP softkey is automatically set to remote mode
(REMOTE), the other to manual mode (LOCAL).
•
F MIN F MAX
Frequency range of generator. Select the start and stop frequency of the
ESU in a way that the specified range is not exceeded. If the start frequency
lies below F MIN, the generator is only switched on when F MIN is reached.
If the stop frequency lies above F MAX, it is limited to F MAX when the
generator is switched on using the EXT SRC ON/OFF softkey.
•
P MIN P MAX
Level range of generator. This field defines the allowed input range for the
POWER column in the FREQUENCY SWEEP table.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
SYST:COMM:RDEV:GEN2:TYPE 'SME02'
SYST:COMM:RDEV:GEN:LINK TTL
SYST:COMM:GPIB:RDEV:GEN1:ADDR 28
4.382
E-1
R&S ESU
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
List of Generator Types Supported by the ESU
Aa
Generator
1302.6163.12
Note
There is a minimum version requirement of the R&S
SMU firmware. Please install V1.10 or higher on the R&S
SMU!
Interface
Type
Generator
Min Freq
Generator
Max Freq
Generator
Min Power
Generator
Max Power
dBm
dBm
SME02
TTL
5 kHz
1.5 GHz
-144
+16
SME03
TTL
5 kHz
3.0 GHz
-144
+16
SME06
TTL
5 kHz
6.0 GHz
-144
+16
SMG
GPIB
100 kHz
1.0 GHz
-137
+13
SMGL
GPIB
9 kHz
1.0 GHz
-118
+30
SMGU
GPIB
100 kHz
2.16 GHz
-140
+13
SMH
GPIB
100 kHz
2.0 GHz
-140
+13
SMHU
GPIB
100 kHz
4.32 GHz
-140
+13
SMIQ02B
TTL
300 kHz
2.2 GHz
-144
+13
SMIQ02E
GPIB
300 kHz
2.2 GHz
-144
+13
SMIQ03B
TTL
300 kHz
3.3 GHz
-144
+13
SMIQ03E
GPIB
300 kHz
3.3 GHz
-144
+13
SMIQ04B
TTL
300 kHz
4.4 GHz
-144
+10
SMIQ06B
TTL
300 kHz
6.4 GHz
-144
+10
SML01
GPIB
9 kHz
1.1 GHz
-140
+13
SML02
GPIB
9 kHz
2.2 GHz
-140
+13
SML03
GPIB
9 kHz
3.3 GHz
-140
+13
SMR20
TTL
1 GHz
20 GHz
-130 2)
+11 2)
SMR20B11 1)
TTL
10 MHz
20 GHz
-130 2)
+13 2)
SMR27
TTL
1 GHz
27 GHz
-130 2)
+11 2)
SMR27B11 1)
TTL
10 MHz
27 GHz
-130 2)
+12 2)
SMR30
TTL
1 GHz
30 GHz
-130 2)
+11 2)
SMR30B11 1)
TTL
10 MHz
30 GHz
-130 2)
+12 2)
SMR40
TTL
1 GHz
40 GHz
-130 2)
+9 2)
SMR40B11 1)
TTL
10 MHz
40 GHz
-130 2)
+12 2)
SMR50
TTL
1 GHz
50 GHz
-130 2)
+9 2)
4.383
E-1
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
Generator
1302.6163.12
Interface
Type
Generator
Min Freq
R&S ESU
Generator
Max Freq
Generator
Min Power
Generator
Max Power
dBm
dBm
SMR50B11 1)
TTL
10 MHz
50 GHz
-130 2)
+12 2)
SMR60
TTL
1 GHz
60 GHz
-130 2)
+9 2)
SMR60B11 1)
TTL
10 MHz
60 GHz
-130 2)
+12 2)
SMP02
TTL
10 MHz
20 GHz
-130 3)
+17 3)
SMP03
TTL
10 MHz
27 GHz
-130 3)
+13 3)
SMP04
TTL
10 MHz
40 GHz
-130 3)
+12 3)
SMP22
TTL
10 MHz
20 GHz
-130 3)
+20 3)
SMT02
GPIB
5.0 kHz
1.5 GHz
-144
+13
SMT03
GPIB
5.0 kHz
3.0 GHz
-144
+13
SMT06
GPIB
5.0 kHz
6.0 GHz
-144
+13
SMV03
GPIB
9 kHz
3.3 GHz
-140
+13
SMU200A
TTL
100 kHz
2.2 GHz
-145
+13
SMU02B31
TTL
100 kHz
2.2 GHz
-145
+19
SMU03 4)
TTL
100 kHz
3 GHz
-145
+13
SMU03B31
TTL
100 kHz
3 GHz
-145
+19
SMU04
TTL
100 kHz
4 GHz
-145
+13
SMU04B31
TTL
100 kHz
4 GHz
-145
+19
SMU06
TTL
100 kHz
6 GHz
-145
+13
SMU06B31
TTL
100 kHz
6 GHz
-145
+13
SMX
GPIB
100 kHz
1.0 GHz
-137
+13
SMY01
GPIB
9 kHz
1.04 GHz
-140
+13
SMY02
GPIB
9 kHz
2.08 GHz
-140
+13
HP8340A
GPIB
10 MHz
26.5 GHz
-110
10
HP8648
GPIB
9 kHz
4 GHz
-136
10
HP ESG-A
Series 1000A,
2000A,
3000A,
4000A
GPIB
250 kHz
4 GHz
-136
20
HP ESG-D
SERIES
E4432B
GPIB
250 kHz
3 GHz
-136
+10
1)
Requires the option SMR-B11 to be fitted.
2)
Maximum/minimum power depends on presence of Option SMR-B15/-B17 and set frequency range.
For more details see SMR data sheet.
3)
Maximum/minimum power depends on presence of Option SMP-B15/-B17 and set frequency range.
For more details see SMP data sheet.
4.384
E-1
R&S ESU
FREQUENCY
SWEEP
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
The FREQUENCY SWEEP softkey opens a table for setting the generator level
as well as the multiplier and the offset used to derive the generator frequency
from the analyzer frequency.
This table also permits configuration of two generators so that switching
between two different configurations is easily possible.
The individual fields contain the following settings:
•
SRC
Index of selected generator
•
STATE
Selects the active generator. Only one generator can be active at a time. The
operating mode of the active generator is set to remote control in the
SELECT GENERATOR table.
•
POWER
Permits to enter the generator level within the limits P MIN to P MAX of the
SELECT GENERATOR table.
•
NUM
Numerator,
•
DEN
Denominator,
•
OFFSET
Offset, used to derive the generator frequency from the current frequency of
the ESU according to the following formula:
Note that the frequencies resulting from start and stop frequency of the ESU
do not exceed the allowed generator range:
– If the start frequency lies below F MIN, the generator is only switched on
when F MIN is reached.
– If the stop frequency lies above F MAX, the generator is switched off.
When the generator is subsequently switched on using the EXT SRC
ON/OFF softkey, the stop frequency is limited to F MAX.
– If the stop frequency lies below F MIN, the generator is switched off and
the following error message output:
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External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
R&S ESU
– In the time domain (Span = 0 Hz) the generator frequency is derived from
the set receive frequency of the ESU using the calculation formula.
For the sake of clarity, the formula is also displayed in the table.
The offset setting can be used to sweep in the reverse direction. This can be
achieved by setting a negative offset in the formula above:
Example for reverse sweep:
FAnalyzerStart= 100 MHz
FAnalyzerStop = 200 MHz
FOffset = -300 MHz
Numerator = Denominator = 1
→ FGeneratorStart = 200 MHz
→ FGeneratorStop = 100 MHz
If the offset is adjusted in a way that the sweep of the generator crosses the
0 Hz Frequency, it is indicated by the additional statement “via 0 Hz”.
Example for reverse sweep via 0 Hz
FAnalyzerStart= 100 MHz
FAnalyzerStop = 200 MHz
FOffset = -150 MHz
Numerator = Denominator = 1
→ FGeneratorStart = 50 MHz
→ FGeneratorStop = 50 MHz via 0 Hz
IEC/IEEE bus command:
•
:SOUR:EXT:FREQ:NUM 1
:SOUR:EXT:FREQ:DEN 1
:SOUR:EXT:FREQ:OFFS -300MHZ
RESULT
The frequency range of the generator resulting from the calculation formula.
An asterisk (*) after the upper limit indicates that the stop frequency of the
ESU must be adapted when the generator is switched on in order not to
exceed its maximum frequency. In the following illustration, this is true for the
upper generator at a stop frequency of 3.2 GHz of the ESU, whereas the
lower generator does not yet require an adaptation:
IEC/IEEE bus command:
1302.6163.12
SOUR:EXT:POW –30dBm
SOUR:EXT:FREQ:NUM 4
SOUR:EXT:FREQ:DEN 3
SOUR:EXT:FREQ:OFFS 100MHZ
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R&S ESU
GEN REF INT / EXT
External Generator Control – Option R&S FSP-B10
The GEN REF INT / EXT softkey switches over the reference oscillator of the
generator (switch over between internal and external reference source).
Selection EXT allows connecting the external generator to an external
reference frequency source. The internal reference source is selected as the
default setting.
IEC/IEEE bus command:
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SOUR:EXT1:ROSC INT
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LAN Interface
R&S ESU
LAN Interface
Using the LAN Interface, the instrument can be connected to an Ethernet LAN
(Local Area Network). Thus it is possible to transfer data via the network and
use network printers. In addition, the instrument can be remote-controlled via
network. The network card allows both for a 10 MHz Ethernet IEEE 802.3 and
a 100 MHz Ethernet IEEE 802.3u.
Connecting the Instrument to the Network
Ii
ATTENTION
Before connecting the instrument to the network it is
recommended to contact the network administrator, in
particular larger LAN installations are affected. Faults in
the connection may have a negative effect on the entire
network.
The instrument is connected to a network hub of the desired LAN segment via
a commercially-available RJ45 cable (not supplied with the instrument) at the
instrument rear panel. Since RJ45 provides no bus but a star network topology,
no other precautions need to be taken for the connection.
The connection procedure does not produce any disturbances in the network
traffic. Disconnection from the network is easily possible provided that there is
no more data traffic from and to the instrument.
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R&S ESU
LAN Interface
Installing the Software
The data transfer in the network takes place in data blocks, called packets. In
addition to the useful data, further information on the operation, i.e. protocol
data (transmitter, receiver, type of data, sequence), is transferred in the
packets. For processing the protocol information, suitable drivers must be
installed. For the network services (file transfer, directory services, printing in
the network) a network operating system needs to be installed.
Aa
Notes:
•
The WINDOWS files required for the installation of
network drivers, protocols or services are included in
the directory "D:\I386".
•
A PC keyboard with trackball (or an additional mouse
instead) is required for the installation.
Installation of Drivers for the Network Card
.The network-card drivers do not have to be installed under Windows XP. It is
sufficient to connect the network cable to the "LAN-Interface" connector at the
rear of the unit. Windows XP will automatically recognize the network link and
will activate the required drivers.
Aa
Note
If the original factory setting is required at a later time, i.e.
when the unit is to be operated with a different network
configuration at a different site, this base configuration
can be restored as described below.
➢ Switch the unit off and on again.
➢ In the Boot menu, select the entry "Analyzer Firmware Backup" with the
cursor keys and confirm with ENTER. The device is started from the backup
partition and opens a selection window with available device configurations:
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LAN Interface
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
R&S ESU
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
INSTUMENT RESTORE PROCEDURE V 1.4 (c) RSD 2002
*
*
Note:
*
The presence of the LAN-interface requires
*
a restore process different from the standard firmware
*
restore (due to the necessary network drivers).
*
*
The following 3 selections will NOT destroy user defined
*
limit lines and transducer data
*
*
Press 1 to perform standard system RESTORE
*
press 2 to perform system RESTORE with LAN interface
*
press 3 to ABORT system RESTORE
*
*
The following selection will DESTROY user defined
*
limit lines and transducer data
*
*
Press 4 to perform standard system RESTORE
*
(destroys user limit lines and transducers !)
*
press 5 to perform system RESTORE with LAN interface,
*
(destroys user limit lines and transducers !)
*
*
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
➢ Press 1. Windows XP is newly installed on the analyzer partition of the hard
disk with LAN support and device firmware. The device may boot several
times. At the end of the installation procedure, the device firmware will be
restarted.
The unit is again ready for operation. The configuration of the network protocols
then has to be performed according to the following sections.
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LAN Interface
Configuration of Available Network Protocols (TCP/
IP Protocol)
When the unit is delivered, the TCP/IP network protocol is factory-set with the
IP address 10.0.0.10 and the subnet mask 255.255.255.0. The steps required
to change this configuration and to install further network protocols are
described in this and the following sections.
➢ Open the Windows XP start menu with the Windows key or CTRL+ESC.
➢ Click Settings - Network Connections - Local Area Connection.
The Local Area Connection Status dialog will be opened.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
Windows XP appends numbers to the name Local Area
Connection Status (e.g. Local Area Connection Status 8)
if the configuration is created with the New Connection
Wizard. These numbers are irrelevant for the following
configurations and are therefore not mentioned in the
text.
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R&S ESU
➢ Click the Properties button.
The dialog box with the available network protocols will be opened.
➢ Click the desired network protocol (in the example: TCP/IP).
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LAN Interface
➢ Click the Properties button.
The dialog box with the settings of the selected network protocol will be
opened.
➢ If the IP address is to be automatically requested by a DHCP server, click
Obtain an IP address automatically.
Aa
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Note
Your network administrator knows whether your network
has a DHCP server.
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➢ Click OK. Windows will store the configuration.
➢ If a predefined IP address is to be set (since no DHCP server is available in
the network), click Use the following IP address.
➢ Enter the IP address.
➢ Enter the required mask.
Aa
Note
Your network administrator knows which IP addresses
and subnet masks are suitable for your network.
➢ Click OK. Windows checks whether the entered settings are correct and
stores the configuration.
If an invalid IP address or subnet mask was entered, a corresponding error
message will be displayed together with a question as whether a different
address or mask is to be entered.
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LAN Interface
➢ Click Yes.
The dialog for entering the TCP/IP parameters will again be opened.
If all settings are correct, the request to start the unit again will be displayed
depending on the changed settings.
➢ Click Yes.
Windows will restart the system.
Installation of Further Network Protocols and
Services (e.g. Novell Netware Support)
Aa
Note
The network administrator knows the protocols to be
used. The TCP/IP protocol has to be installed for the
RSIB protocol and the VXI11 support. The support for
the Novell netware is additionally installed in the
following example.
➢ Open the Windows XP start menu using the Windows key or CTRL+ESC.
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➢ Click Settings - Network Connections - Local Area Connection.
The Local Area Connection Status dialog will be opened.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
Windows XP appends numbers to the name Local Area
Connection Status (e.g. Local Area Connection Status 8)
if the configuration is created with the New Connection
Wizard. These numbers are irrelevant for the following
configurations and are therefore not mentioned in the
text.
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LAN Interface
➢ Press the Properties button.
The window with the available network protocols will be opened.
➢ Click the Install button.
The list of installable network components will be opened.
➢ Select Client.
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➢ Click the Add... button.
The list of available network protocols will be opened.
➢ Select Client Service for NetWare.
➢ Click the OK button.
The network driver for Novell Netware is installed.
Aa
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Notes
•
Your network administrator knows which clients,
services and protocols have to be installed for your
network.
•
If network components not contained in D:\I386 are to
be installed, a corresponding memory stick including
the drivers has to be prepared (or a CD that can be
read via a USB CD-ROM drive).
•
In this case, click the Have Disk... button and indicate
the path with the corresponding drivers.
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LAN Interface
After completion of the installation, the user is requested to restart the unit.
➢ Click Yes.
Windows will restart the system.
Examples of Configurations
Network
Protocols
Services
Notes
NOVELL Netware
NWLink IPX/SPX
Compatible
Transport
Client Service for
NetWare
In folder "Protocols - Properties", the frame
type used in the network is to be set.
IP Networks
(FTP, TELNET, WWW,
GOPHER, etc.)
TCP/IP Protocol
Simple TCP/IP
Services
In folder "Protocols - Properties", an IP address
that is unique in the network is to be set.
MICROSOFT Network
NetBEUI Protocol
or
TCP/IP Protocol
Workstation Server
In folder "Identification - Computer Name", a
name that is unique in the network is to be
entered.
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Subsequent Changing of the Network Configuration
(Computer Name, Domain, Workgroup, etc.)
After completion of the installation, the computer name can be adapted as
follows:
➢ Press the Windows key or CTRL+ESC.
The Windows Start menu will be opened.
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LAN Interface
➢ Select Settings - Control Panel - System.
➢ Select the Computer Name tab.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
The other settings can be changed after selection of the
other tabs. It is strongly recommended to consult the
network administrator beforehand.
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R&S ESU
➢ Click the Change button.
The dialog to change the computer name, the domain and workgroup will be
opened.
➢ Enter a new computer name.
➢ If required, enter the desired domain or workgroup.
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LAN Interface
➢ Confirm the changes with OK.
If the request to restart the unit is displayed:
➢ Click Yes.
Windows will restart the system.
Operating the Instrument without a Network
If the instrument is to be operated without any network connection for a limited
or unlimited period of time, or permanently, no special precautions have to be
taken in contrast to Windows NT. Windows XP automatically recognizes the
interruption of the network connection and will not carry out any setup when the
instrument is switched on.
If the user name and the password are not to be queried, proceed as described
in section “Re-enabling the Auto Login Mechanism” on page 4.412.
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R&S ESU
Operating the Instrument in the Network
After the network support has been installed, it is possible to exchange data
between the instrument and other computers and to use printers in the network.
A prerequisite to network operation is having the appropriate access rights for
the required network resources. Resources may be file directories of other
computers or also central printers.
Access rights can be obtained from the network or server administrator. In that
respect it is necessary to obtain the network name of the resource as well as
the corresponding access rights.
To prevent misuse, the resources are protected by passwords. Normally, every
entitled user of the resources is assigned a user name that is also protected by
a password. Resources can then be assigned to this user. It is possible to
determine the type of data access, i.e. whether data can only be read or also
written, as well as shared data access. Depending on the network operating
system, different types of usage are possible.
NOVELL Networks
The operating system NETWARE from NOVELL is a server-based system.
Data cannot be exchanged between individual workstations; data transfer takes
place between the PC and a server. This server provides memory space and
the connection to network printers. On a server, data is organized in directories
as under DOS and mapped to the workstation as virtual drives. A virtual drive
behaves like an additional hard disk on the workstation, and the data can be
edited accordingly. Network printers can also be addressed like normal printers.
There are two versions of the NOVELL network operating system: binderybased (NETWARE 3) and NDS-based (more recent versions of NETWARE).
With the older version (NETWARE 3), each server manages its resources on its
own and is independent. A user must be managed on each server separately.
In the case of NDS-based versions, all resources in the network are managed
together in the NDS (NOVELL DIRECTORY SERVICE). The user must log into
the network only once and is given access to the resources according to his/her
access rights. The individual resources and users are managed as objects in a
hierarchical tree (NDS TREE). The position of the object in the tree is referred
to as "CONTEXT" with NETWARE and must be known for access to the
resources.
MICROSOFT Network
In case of a MICROSOFT network, data can be exchanged both between
workstations (peer to peer) and between workstations and servers. The latter
can supply access to files and connection to the printers. On a server, data is
organized in directories as under DOS and mapped to the workstation as virtual
drives. A virtual drive behaves like an additional hard disk on the workstation,
and the data can be edited accordingly. Network printers can also be addressed
like normal printers. A connection is possible to DOS, WINDOWS FOR
WORKGROUPS, WINDOWS95/98/ME, WINDOWS NT/XP.
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LAN Interface
Defining Users
After the network driver software has been installed, the instrument will output
an error message on the next power-on, as there is no user called "Instrument"
(= user name for XP auto login) in the network. It is therefore necessary to
define a common user for Windows XP, to adapt the password to the network
password and the network and to disable the auto login mechanism
subsequently.
The definition of new users in the network is done by the network administrator.
For definition of a new user on the instrument, the User Account Assistant is
required:
➢ Call up the Windows XP start menu using the Windows key or the key
combination CTRL+ESC.
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➢ Then click Settings, Control Panel and User Accounts one after the other.
The User Accounts wizard with the Pick a task... dialog will be opened.
➢ Select Create a new account.
The dialog to enter a new user name will be opened.
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LAN Interface
➢ Enter the name of the new user into the text field and terminate the entry with
Next ->.
The Pick an account type dialog to select the user rights will be opened.
➢ Select Computer administrator.
Aa
Note
Administrator rights are required to ensure trouble-free
operation of the firmware.
➢ Confirm the newly created user with the Create Account button.
The new user is created.
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Changing the User Password
After the new user has been created, the password has to be adapted to the
network password. This is also done via the User Accounts wizard:
➢ Call up the Windows XP start menu using the Windows key or the key
combination CTRL+ESC.
➢ Then click Settings, Control Panel and User Accounts one after the other.
The User Accounts wizard with the Pick a task... dialog will be opened.
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LAN Interface
➢ Click the required user account (in the example: "test").
The dialog to select the desired action will be opened.
➢ Click Create a password.
The dialog to enter a new password will be opened.
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➢ Enter the new password in the upper text line and repeat the entry in the line
below.
➢ Scroll the picture contents downwards and terminate the entry with the
Create Password button.
The new password is activated.
NOVELL network only: Configure NOVELL client
➢ Call up the Windows XP start menu using the Windows key or the key
combination CTRL+ESC.
➢ Then click Settings, Control Panel and CSNW one after the other.
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LAN Interface
Bindary login (NOVELL 3.x)
➢ Click Preferred Server.
➢ Select the NOVELL server where the user is configured using Select
Preferred Server.
NDS login (more recent NOVELL versions)
➢ Click Default Tree and Context.
➢ Enter the NDS Tree under Tree and the hierarchical path where the user is
defined under Context.
➢ If required, click the Run Login Script entry.
Aa
Note
This data can
administrator.
be
obtained
from
the
network
➢ Terminate the Login configuration with OK.
Login in the Network
The user automatically logs into the network with the registration in the
operating system. As a prerequisite, the user name and the password must be
identical under Windows XP and on the network.
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Disabling the Auto Login Mechanism
Upon delivery, the instrument is configured for automatic login into Windows
XP. This mechanism must be disabled if the instrument is operated in a
network, since the default user name ("instrument") and the password normally
are not identical to those of the network account.
To disable the auto login mechanism, proceed as follows:
➢ Open the XP start menu by means of CTRL+ESC.
➢ Select the menu item RUN.
A dialog box opens.
➢ Enter the command "D:\USER\NO_AUTOLOGIN.REG" in the dialog box
and confirm with ENTER.
The auto login mechanism is disabled. When the instrument is rebooted, a
prompt for user name and password will appear before the instrument
firmware is started.
Re-enabling the Auto Login Mechanism
To enable the auto login mechanism again, proceed as follows:
➢ Open the XP start menu by means of CTRL+ESC.
➢ Select the menu item RUN.
A dialog box opens.
➢ Enter the command "D:\USER\AUTOLOGIN.REG" in the dialog box and
confirm with ENTER.
The auto login mechanism is re-enabled and is active when the instrument
is rebooted the next time.
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LAN Interface
Using Network Drives
Mapping a network drive
➢ Use the Windows key or the key combination CTRL+ESC to call the
Windows XP start menu.
➢ Click Programs - Accessories -Windows Explorer.
➢ Click the line My Network Places in the overview Desktop.
An overview of the available network drives is displayed.
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➢ Click Tools and then Map Network Drive.
➢ Select the appropriate drive under Drive:.
➢ With Browse, open the list of available network paths in the network.
➢ Activate Reconnect at Logon: if the connection is to be set up automatically
each time the instrument is started.
➢ Use Finish to connect the network path with the selected drive.
➢ Enter the user name and the password. Then the drive will appear in the All
Directories overview of the explorer.
Aa
Note
Only those drives in the network for which the user has
the appropriate access right can be connected.
Disconnecting a network drive
➢ Click Tools in the Explorer and then Disconnect Network Drive.
➢ Select the drive to be disconnected under Network Drive:.
➢ Disconnect the drive using OK. The security prompt must be answered with
Yes.
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LAN Interface
Printing on a Network Printer
Aa
Note
The following dialogs may be operated both via the front
panel and via a mouse and PC keyboard (for further
information refer to the Quick Start Guide). The mouse
and the PC keyboard are indispensable for the
configuration of network printers.
A new printer is installed via the INSTALL PRINTER softkey in the HCOPY
menu.
DEVICE
SETUP
HCOPY
DEVICE
1
2
COLORS
➢ Press the HCOPY key.
The HCOPY menu will be opened.
➢ Call up the lateral menu via the NEXT key.
➢ Open the Printers and Faxes dialog with INSTALL PRINTER.
➢ Select the entry Add Printer in the selection list using the rotary knob.
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➢ Highlight the entry with CURSOR RIGHT and confirm the selection by
pressing ENTER or the rotary knob.
The Add Printer Wizard will be displayed.
➢ Select NEXT with the rotary knob and confirm by pressing the rotary knob.
The selection Local or Network Printer will be displayed.
In the following example, an HP Laserjet 5 printer will be installed as the
network printer. The Add Printer Wizard has already been opened according to
the information described in the section “Installation of Non-Plug&Play Printers”
on page 4.335.
➢ To select a network printer, click the line A network printer or a printer
attached to another computer.
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LAN Interface
➢ Then continue with Next.
➢ First click Browse for a printer and then Next.
The selection of shared printers will appear.
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➢ Highlight printer and select with OK.
➢ Confirm the following request to install a suitable printer driver using OK.
The selection of printer drivers will be displayed.
The manufacturers are displayed in the left-hand table and the available
printer drivers in the right-hand table.
➢ First highlight the manufacturer in the selection list Manufacturers and then
the printer driver in the selection list Printers.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
If the desired printer type does not appear in this list, the
driver has not yet been installed in the instrument. In this
case, click the Have Disk button. A request to connect a
memory stick with the corresponding printer driver will
appear. Then click OK and select the desired printer
driver.
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➢ Click Next.
If one or several printers have already been installed, the query of whether
the printer installed so far is to be selected as the default printer for the
Windows XP applications will be displayed. No is preset.
➢ Start the installation of the printer driver with Finish.
Finally, the instrument still has to be configured for printout via this printer
with the softkeys DEVICE SETUP and DEVICE 1/2 in the main hardcopy
menu (see section “Selecting Printer, Clipboard and File Formats” on
page 4.323).
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Sharing Directories (only for Microsoft Networks)
Data on the instrument can be made available for other computers if directories
are shared. Sharing directories is only possible in the MICROSOFT network.
Sharing is a property of a file or directory. To allow sharing, proceed as follows:
➢ Open the Windows start menu using the Windows key or CTRL+ESC.
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LAN Interface
➢ Open the Windows Explorer by clicking Programs - Accessories - Windows
Explorer.
➢ Click the desired folder with the right mouse key.
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➢ Click Sharing and Security.
The dialog to share the directories will be opened.
➢ Click Share this folder.
The following settings can optionally be changed:
Share name:
the name under which the directory appears in the Explorer
Comment:
a comment regarding the shared directory
User Limit:
the number of users that may access the directory at the same time
Permissions:
the rights of the users (read only, read and write, all)
Caching:
local buffering of directory contents for fast access
➢ Confirm settings with OK.
The drive is shared and this is shown in the Explorer by a hand under the
directory symbol:
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Remote Monitoring of R&S ESU via XP
Remote Desktop
Introduction
In production test and measurements, the question of how to centrally monitor
measuring instruments that are used for remote servicing/diagnostics is often
arises. With the remote desktop of Windows XP, the analyzer family R&S ESU
offers ideal preconditions for use in production:
•
Access to operating functions via virtual front panel (soft front panel)
•
Printout of measurement results directly from the controller
•
Storing measurement data to the hard disk of the controller
The analyzer is connected via LAN. XP also supports the connection via data
transmission (via modem). This section describes the configuration of R&S
ESU and the remote desktop client of the control PC. For details on setting up
the data transmission link, see relevant XP literature.
Configuration of R&S ESU for Using Remote
Desktop
The following steps are required to allow an external PC access to the desktop
of the R&S ESU.
1. Determine the IP configuration of the network link:
➢ Open the Windows XP start menu using the Windows key or
CTRL+ESC.
➢ Click Settings - Network Connections - Local Area Connection.
➢ The Local Area Connection Status dialog will be opened.
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➢ Click the Support tab.
The current TCP/IP configuration will be displayed.
If the entry "Assigned by DHCP" is displayed in the Address Type field,
continue with step 2 (Installing a fixed
IP address...)
It would otherwise be sufficient to note the IP address and to continue
with step 3 (Enabling the R&S ESU...)
2. Install a fixed IP address for the TCP/IP protocol as described in the section
“Configuration of Available Network Protocols (TCP/IP Protocol)” on
page 4.391.
Aa
Note
Operation with
recommended.
a
fixed
IP
address
is
strongly
When a DHCP server is used, a new IP address (which
has to be determined first) will be assigned any time the
instrument is restarted. For this reason, a DHCP server
would not be suitable for use for detached operation of
the R&S ESU.
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R&S ESU
LAN Interface
3. Enable the R&S ESU for operation with the remote desktop.
➢ Press the Windows key or CTRL+ESC.
The Windows start menu will be opened.
➢ Select Settings - Control Panel - System.
➢ Select the Remote tab.
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LAN Interface
R&S ESU
➢ In the Remote Desktop field, tick the box in front of Allow users to connect
remotely to this computer.
➢ If required, select the users installed on the R&S ESU who are to also
have access to the R&S ESU via remote desktop in the Select Remote
Users... dialog.
Aa
Note
The user account under which the configuration is to be
performed is automatically enabled for remote desktop.
➢ Confirm setting with OK.
The R&S ESU is therefore ready for setting up the connection with the
remote desktop of the controller.
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R&S ESU
LAN Interface
Configuration of Controller
A precondition for the operation of the remote desktop is the availability of the
TCP/IP protocol on the controller and the installation of the remote desktop
client.
Aa
Note
For Windows XP, the remote desktop client is part of the
operating system and available under Start - Programs Accessories - Communications - Remote Desktop
Connection.
For other Windows versions, Microsoft offers the remote
client as a separate program package for subsequent
installation.
The settings on the remote desktop client of the controller must be made prior
to setting up the connection with the R&S ESU. The following steps are
required:
➢ Press the Windows key or CTRL+ESC.
➢ Select Programs - Accessories - Communications - Remote Desktop
Connection.
The Remote Desktop Connection screen will be opened.
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➢ Click the Options >> button.
The tabs with the configuration data will be opened.
➢ Select the Experience tab.
The speed of setting up the connection will be selected and optimized.
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LAN Interface
➢ Click the selection list under Choose your connection speed to optimize
performance.
The list of available configurations will be opened.
➢ Select the suitable connection (in the example LAN (10 Mbps or higher)).
Different boxes in the list below are activated depending on the selection
and depending on the performance of the connection.
➢ To improve the performance, the entries Desktop background, Show
Contents of Window while dragging and Menu and Window animation can
be switched off.
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➢ Click the Local Resources tab.
The tab to share printers, local drives and serial interfaces will be opened.
➢ Click the box in front of Disk drives if drives of the controller are to be
accessed from the R&S ESU (e.g. to save settings or to copy files from the
controller to the R&S ESU).
Windows XP will then map the drives of the controller like network drives on
the R&S ESU.
➢ Click the box in front of Printers if printers connected to the controller are to
be used from the R&S ESU.
➢ Do not change the other settings.
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R&S ESU
LAN Interface
➢ Click the Display tab.
The configuration of the representation of the R&S ESU screen on the
controller will be opened.
➢ The size of the R&S ESU window on the desktop of the controller can be
changed by means of the slider. The default setup is full screen.
➢ Do not change the color depth.
➢ Display the connection bar when in full screen mode:
If this box is checked, a bar will appear at the top screen margin. This bar
displays the network address of the R&S ESU and can be used to reduce,
minimize or to close the window.
If the box is not checked, a return from the R&S ESU screen to the controller
desktop in the full-screen mode is possible only if Disconnect is selected in
the start menu:
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R&S ESU
Setting Up the Connection with the R&S ESU
After configuration of the remote desktop client, the connection with the R&S
ESU has to be set up.
➢ Click the General tab. The connection information will be entered.
➢ Enter the IP address of the R&S ESU in the Computer field.
➢ The information can be stored via the Save As... button for the next time.
With the Open... button, it is possible to load an existing configuration again.
➢ Press the Connect button.
The connection will be set up.
Aa
Note
If the entry Disk Drives is active in the Local Resources
tab, a warning is issued that the drives will be shared for
access from the R&S ESU:
Confirm the warning with OK. The setup will be
continued.
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LAN Interface
The R&S ESU screen will appear on the controller screen with the request
to log in. To allow remote control of the R&S ESU, the following steps have
to be carried out:
➢ Enter user name "instrument" and password "instrument".
The R&S ESU screen will be opened in a few moments.
If the screen is dark or if a dark rectangle appears in the upper left corner,
the R&S ESU firmware must be restarted in order to recognize the modified
screen resolution. In this case:
➢ Press ALT+F4.
The R&S ESU firmware will be shut down. This may last for several seconds.
➢ Double-click the entry R&S Analyzer Interface.
The firmware will restart and will automatically open the Soft Frontpanel, i.e.
the user interface in which all front panel buttons and the rotary knob are
shown.
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R&S ESU
➢ If the R&S ESU application is directly displayed after setup, shutdown and
restart can be omitted.
➢ All hardkeys, softkeys and hotkeys can be operated with the mouse.
➢ The rotary knob is implemented by KNOB LEFT, KNOB RIGHT and KNOB
PRESS.
➢ The XP start menu is available if the remote desktop window is enlarged to
full size.
Interruption and Re-Setup of Remote Desktop
Connection with the R&S ESU
The connection to the R&S ESU can be interrupted any time if the remote
desktop window is connected to the controller.
To reestablish the connection, the setup with the R&S ESU only has to be
performed again as described in the section “Setting Up the Connection with the
R&S ESU” on page 4.432. The R&S ESU will then maintain its state in case of
an interruption with a subsequent re-setup.
When the connection is set up with the controller, the login entry will be
displayed on the R&S ESU screen. If the login procedure is carried out
successfully, the message that a different user has assumed control of the
instrument and that the connection was therefore cleared will be displayed on
the screen of the controller.
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R&S ESU
LAN Interface
Switching Off the R&S ESU from the Controller
The R&S ESU can be switched off per remote control. For this purpose,
proceed as follows:
1. Click the R&S ESU soft front panel and close the application with ALT+F4.
2. Click the desktop and press ALT+F4.
A confirmation query with the warning that the instrument cannot be
switched on again via remote control is displayed with the query to continue
the shutdown process.
3. Answer the confirmation query with YES.
The connection to the controller will then be cleared and the R&S ESU will
be switched off.
Remote Data Transfer with TCP/IP Services
The protocol TCP/IP allows the transfer of files between different computer
systems. This requires a program running on the two computers that controls
this data transfer. It is not necessary that the same operating or file system is
used by both computers. For example, a file transfer between DOS/WINDOWS
and UNIX is possible. One of the two partners must be configured as Host and
the other one as Client. However, they may change their roles. Usually, the
system which is able to perform several processes at the same time will play
the host role. The file transfer program usually used under TCP/IP is FTP (File
Transfer Protocol). An FTP host is installed as standard on the majority of UNIX
systems.
If the TCP/IP services are installed, a terminal connection is possible using Start
- Programs - Accessories - Telnet or a data transfer via FTP by means of Start
- Run ftp - OK. Thus all computer systems supporting these universal protocols
can be addressed (UNIX, Vetc).
For further information, refer to the corresponding XP literature.
File Transfer via FTP
The total scope of functions and commands is described in the FTP literature.
The following table therefore only contains the major functions:
Setting up the connection
➢ Click Start and then Run in the task bar.
➢ The DOS command FTP starts the program.
➢ The command OPEN <xx.xx.xx.xx> sets up the connection. (xx.xx.xx.xx
= IP address e.g. 89.0.0.13)
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LAN Interface
R&S ESU
Data transfer
•
The command PUT <file name> transfers the data to the target system.
•
The command GET <file name> transfers the data from the target
system.
•
The command TYPE B transfers the data in BINARY format; no conversion
takes place.
•
The command TYPE A transfers the data in ASCII format, converting control
characters so that text files can also be read on the target system.
Examples
PUT C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT
sends the file AUTOEXEC.BAT to the target system.
LCD DATA
changes the current directory on the local machine to subdirectory DATA
CD SETTING
changes to the subdirectory SETTING on the target system
file name = file name e.g. DATA.TXT
Changing the directories
•
The command LCD <path> changes the directory on the local machine as
with DOS.
•
The command LDIR shows the directory contents on the local machine.
These commands refer to the file system of the ESU. If the “L” is omitted ahead
of the commands, they apply to the target system.
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R&S ESU
RSIB Protocol
RSIB Protocol
The instrument is equipped with an RSIB protocol as standard, which allows the
instrument to be controlled by means of Visual C++ and Visual Basic programs,
but also by means of the Windows applications WinWord and Excel as well as
National Instruments LabView, LabWindows/CVI and Agilent VEE. The control
applications run on an external computer in the network.
A UNIX operating system can be installed on an external computer in addition
to a Windows operating system. In this case, the control applications are
created either in C or C++. The supported UNIX operating systems include:
1302.6163.12
•
Sun Solaris 2.6 Sparc Station
•
Sun Solaris 2.6 Intel Platform
•
Red Hat Linux 6.2 x86 Processors
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RSIB Protocol
R&S ESU
Remote Control via RSIB Protocol
Windows Environment
To access the measuring instruments via the RSIB protocol, the file
RSIB32.DLL must be copied to the Windows system32 directory or to the
directory of the control applications. For 16-bit applications, the file RSIB.DLL
must be additionally copied to the directories mentioned. The files RSIB.DLL
and RSIB32.DLL are included on the instrument in directory D:\R_S\Instr\RSIB.
For the different programming languages, there are files available that contain
the declarations of the DLL functions and the definition of the error codes.
Visual Basic (16 bit):
'RSIB.BAS'
(D:\R_S\Instr\RSIB)
Visual Basic (32 bit):
'RSIB32.BAS'
(D:\R_S\Instr\RSIB)
C:/C++:
'RSIB.H'
(D:\R_S\Instr\RSIB)
For C/C++: programs, import libraries are additionally available.
Import library for RSIB.DLL:
RSIB.LIB'
Import library for RSIB32.DLL: RSIB32.LIB'
(D:\R_S\Instr\RSIB)
(D:\R_S\Instr\RSIB)
The control is performed using the Visual C++ or Visual Basic programs
WinWord, Excel, LabView, LabWindows/CVI or Agilent VEE. Every application
that can load a DLL is able to use the RSIB protocol. The programs use the IP
address of the instrument or its host name to set up the connection.
Via VisualBasic:
ud = RSDLLibfind ("82.1.1.200", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Return to manual operation is possible via the front panel (LOCAL key) or via
the RSIB protocol:
Via RSIB:
ud = RSDLLibloc (ud, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl);
or
ud = RSDLLibonl (ud, 0, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl);
UNIX Environment
To access the measuring equipment via the RSIB interface, copy the
librsib.so.X.Y file to a directory for which the control application has read
rights. X.Y in the file name indicates the version number of the library, for
example 1.0.
The librsib.so.X.Y library is created as a shared library. The applications
using the library need not consider its version. They simply link the library with
the lrsib option. The following instructions have to be observed so that linking
can be successfully performed and the library can be found during program
execution:
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R&S ESU
RSIB Protocol
File link:
•
Use the operating system command In to create a file with the link name
librsib.so and pointing to librsib.so.X.Y in a directory for which the
control application has read rights. Example:
$ ln –s /usr/lib/librsib.so.1.0 /usr/lib/librsib.so
Linker options for creating applications:
•
-lrsib : import library
•
-Lxxx : path information where the import library can be found. This is where
the above file link has been created. Example: -L/usr/lib.
Additional linker options for creating applications (only under Solaris):
•
-Rxxx: path information where the library is searched for during the
program run: -R/usr/lib.
Run-time environment:
•
Set environment variable LD_RUN_PATH to the directory in which the file link
has been created. This is necessary only if librsib.so cannot be found in
the default search path of the operating system and the -R linker option (only
Solaris) was not specified.
For C/C++ programming, the declarations of the library functions and the
definition of error codes are contained in:
C/C++:
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'RSIB.H'
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RSIB Interface Functions
R&S ESU
RSIB Interface Functions
This section lists all functions of the DLL "RSIB.DLL" or "RSIB32.DLL" or
"librsib.so", which allow control applications to be produced.
Overview of Interface Functions
The library functions are adapted to the interface functions of National
Instruments for GPIB programming. The functions supported by the libraries are
listed in the following table.
1302.6163.12
Function
Description
RSDLLibfind()
Provides a handle for access to a device.
RSDLLibwrt()
Sends a zero-terminated string to a device.
RSDLLilwrt()
Sends a certain number of bytes to a device.
RSDLLibwrtf()
Sends the contents of a file to a device.
RSDLLibrd()
Reads data from a device into a string.
RSDLLilrd()
Reads a certain number of bytes from a device.
RSDLLibrdf()
Reads data from a device into a file.
RSDLLibtmo()
Sets time-out for RSIB functions.
RSDLLibsre()
Switches a device to the local or remote state.
RSDLLibloc()
Temporarily switches a device to the local state.
RSDLLibeot()
Enables/disables the END message for write operations.
RSDLLibrsp()
Performs a serial poll and provides the status byte.
RSDLLibonl()
Sets the device online/offline.
RSDLLTestSRQ()
Checks whether a device has generated an SRQ.
RSDLLWaitSrq()
Waits until a device generates an SRQ.
RSDLLSwapBytes
Swaps the byte sequence for binary numeric display (only
required for non-Intel platforms).
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RSIB Interface Functions
Variables ibsta, iberr, ibcntl
As with the National Instrument interface, the successful execution of a
command can be checked by means of the variables ibsta, iberr and
ibcntl. For this purpose, all RSIB functions are assigned references to these
three variables.
Status word - ibsta
The status word ibsta provides information on the status of the RSIB interface.
The following bits are defined:
Bit designation
Bit
Hex code
Description
ERR
15
8000
Is set when an error has occurred on calling a
function. If this bit is set, iberr contains an error
code that specifies the error in greater detail.
TIMO
14
4000
Is set when a time-out has occurred on calling a
function.
CMPL
8
0100
Is set if the response of the GPIB parser has been
read out completely. If a parser response is read out
with the function RSDLLilrd() and the length of the
buffer is insufficient for the answer, the bit will be
cleared.
Error variable - iberr
If the ERR bit (8000h) is set in the status word, iberr contains an error code
which allows the error to be specified in greater detail. Extra error codes are
defined for the RSIB protocol, independent of the National Instruments
interface.
Error
Error code
Description
IBERR_CONNECT
2
Setup of the connection to the measuring instrument
has failed.
IBERR_NO_DEVICE
3
A function of the interface has been called with an
illegal device handle.
IBERR_MEM
4
No empty memory available.
IBERR_TIMEOUT
5
Time-out has occurred.
IBERR_BUSY
6
The RSIB protocol is blocked by a function that is still
running.
IBERR_FILE
7
Error when reading or writing to a file.
IBERR_SEMA
8
Error upon creating or assigning a semaphore (only
under UNIX).
Count variable - ibcntl
The variable ibcntl is updated with the number of transferred bytes each time
a read or write function is called.
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R&S ESU
Description of Interface Functions
RSDLLibfind()
The function provides a handle for access to the device with the name udName.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibfind (ByVal udName$, ibsta%,
iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
short WINAPI RSDLLibfind( char far *udName,
short far *ibsta, short far *iberr, unsigned
long far *ibcntl)
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibfind( char *udName, short
*ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long *ibcntl)
Parameters:
udName
Example:
ud = RSDLLibfind ("89.10.38.97", ibsta,
iberr, ibcntl)
IP address of device
The function must be called prior to all other functions of the interface.
As return value, the function provides a handle that must be indicated in all
functions for access to the device. If the device with the name udName is not
found, the handle has a negative value.
RSDLLibwrt
This function sends data to the device with the handle ud.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibwrt (ByVal ud%, ByVal Wrt$,
ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
short WINAPI RSDLLibwrt( short ud, char far
*Wrt, short far *ibsta, short far *iberr,
unsigned long far *ibcntl )
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibwrt( short ud, char *Wrt, short
*ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long *ibcntl
)
Parameters:
Example:
ud
Device handle
Wrt
String sent to the device.
RSDLLibwrt(ud, "SENS:FREQ:STAR?", ibsta,
iberr, ibcntl)
This function allows setting and query commands to be sent to the measuring
instruments. Whether the data is interpreted as a complete command can be
set using the function RSDLLibeot().
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R&S ESU
RSIB Interface Functions
RSDLLilwrt
This function sends Cnt bytes to a device with the handle ud.
VB format:
Function RSDLLilwrt (ByVal ud%, ByVal Wrt$,
ByVal Cnt&, ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As
Integer
C format:
short WINAPI RSDLLilwrt( short ud, char far
*Wrt, unsigned long Cnt, short far *ibsta,
short far *iberr, unsigned long far *ibcntl)
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLilwrt( short ud, char *Wrt,
unsigned long Cnt, short *ibsta, short
*iberr, unsigned long *ibcntl)
Parameters:
Example:
ud
Device handle
Wrt
String sent to the GPIB parser.
Cnt
Number of bytes sent to the device.
RSDLLilwrt (ud, '......', 100, ibsta,
iberr, ibcntl)
Like RSDLLibwrt() this function sends data to a device. The only difference
is that binary data can be sent as well. The length of the data is not determined
by a zero-terminated string, but by the indication of Cnt bytes. If the data is to
be terminated with EOS (0Ah), the EOS byte must be appended to the string.
RSDLLibwrtf
This function sends the contents of a file file$ to the device with the handle
ud.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibwrtf (ByVal ud%, ByVal
file$, ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
short WINAPI RSDLLibwrt( short ud, char far
*Wrt, short far *ibsta, short far *iberr,
unsigned long far *ibcntl )
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibwrt( short ud, char *Wrt, short
*ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long *ibcntl
)
Parameters:
Example:
ud
Device handle
file
File whose contents is sent to the
device.
RSDLLibwrtf(ud, "C:\db.sav", ibsta, iberr,
ibcntl)
This function allows setting and query commands to be sent to the measuring
instruments. Whether the data is interpreted as a complete command can be
set using the function RSDLLibeot().
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RSDLLibrd()
The function reads data from the device with the handle ud into the string Rd.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibrd (ByVal ud%, ByVal Rd$,
ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
short WINAPI RSDLLibrd( short ud, char far
*Rd, short far *ibsta, short far *iberr,
unsigned long far *ibcntl )
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibrd( short ud, char *Rd, short
*ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long *ibcntl
)
Parameters:
Example:
ud
Device handle
Rd
String to which the read data is copied.
RSDLLibrd (ud, Rd, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
This function fetches the responses of the GPIB parser to a query.
In the case of Visual Basic programming, a string of sufficient length must be
generated beforehand. This can be done during the definition of the string or
using the command Space$().
Generation of a string of the length 100:
– Dim Rd as String * 100
– Dim Rd as String
Rd = Space$(100)
RSDLLilrd
This function reads Cnt bytes from the device with the handle ud.
VB format:
Function RSDLLilrd (ByVal ud%, ByVal Rd$,
ByVal Cnt&, ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As
Integer
C format:
short WINAPI RSDLLilrd( short ud, char far
*Rd, unsigned long Cnt, short far *ibsta,
short far *iberr, unsigned long far *ibcntl
)
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLilrd( short ud, char *Rd,
unsigned long Cnt, short *ibsta, short
*iberr, unsigned long *ibcntl )
Parameters:
Example:
ud
Device handle
cnt
Maximum number of bytes copied from
the DLL into the target string Rd.
RSDLLilrd (ud, RD, 100, ibsta, iberr,
ibcntl)
Like the function RSDLLibrd(), this function reads data from a device. The
only difference is that in this case the maximum number of bytes to be copied
to the target string Rd can be indicated by means of Cnt. This function prevents
writing beyond the end of the string.
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RSIB Interface Functions
RSDLLibrdf()
Reads data from the device with the handle ud into the file file.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibrdf (ByVal ud%, ByVal
file$, ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
short WINAPI RSDLLibrd( short ud, char far
*file, short far *ibsta, short far *iberr,
unsigned long far *ibcntl )
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibrd( short ud, char *file, short
*ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long *ibcntl
)
Parameters:
Example:
ud
Device handle
file
File to which the read data is written.
RSDLLibrdf (ud, "c:\db.sav", ibsta, iberr,
ibcntl)
The file name may as well include a drive or path specification.
RSDLLibtmo
This function defines the time-out for a device. The default value for the timeout is set to 5 seconds.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibtmo (ByVal ud%, ByVal tmo%,
ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
void WINAPI RSDLLibtmo( short ud, short tmo,
short far *ibsta, short far *iberr, unsigned
long far *ibcntl )
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibtmo( short ud, short tmo, short
*ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long *ibcntl
)
Parameters:
Example:
1302.6163.12
ud
Device handle
tmo
Time-out in seconds
RSDLLibtmo (ud, 10, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
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R&S ESU
RSDLLibsre
This function sets the device to the 'LOCAL' or 'REMOTE' state.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibsre (ByVal ud%, ByVal v%,
ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
void WINAPI RSDLLibsre( short ud, short v,
short far *ibsta, short far *iberr, unsigned
long far *ibcntl)
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibsre( short ud, short v, short
*ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long
*ibcntl)
Parameters:
Example:
ud
Device handle
v
State of device
0 - local
1 - remote
RSDLLibsre (ud, 0, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
RSDLLibloc
This function temporarily switches the device to the 'LOCAL' state.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibloc (ByVal ud%, ibsta%,
iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
void WINAPI RSDLLibloc( short ud, short far
*ibsta, short far *iberr, unsigned long far
*ibcntl)
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibloc( short ud, short *ibsta,
short *iberr, unsigned long *ibcntl)
Parameter:
ud
Example:
RSDLLibloc (ud, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Device handle
After switch over to LOCAL state, the instrument can be manually operated via
the front panel. On the next access to the instrument by means of one of the
functions of the library, the instrument is switched again to the REMOTE state.
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RSIB Interface Functions
RSDLLibeot
This function enables or disables the END message after write operations.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibeot (ByVal ud%, ByVal v%,
ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
void WINAPI RSDLLibsre( short ud, short v,
short far *ibsta, short far *iberr, unsigned
long far *ibcntl)
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibsre( short ud, short v, short
*ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long
*ibcntl)
Parameters:
Example:
ud
Device handle
v
0 - no END message 1 – send END
message
RSDLLibeot (ud, 1, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
If the END message is disabled, the data of a command can be sent with
several successive calls of write functions. The END message must be enabled
again before sending the last data block.
RSDLLibrsp
This function performs a serial poll and provides the status byte of the device.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibrsp(ByVal ud%, spr%,
ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
void WINAPI RSDLLibrsp( short ud, char far*
spr, short far *ibsta, short far *iberr,
unsigned long far *ibcntl)
C format (UNIX): short RSDLLibrsp( short ud, char *spr,
short *ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long
*ibcntl)
Parameters:
Example:
1302.6163.12
ud
Device handle
spr
Pointer to status byte
RSDLLibrsp(ud, spr, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
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RSDLLibonl
This function switches the device to 'online' or 'offline' mode. When it is switched
to ‘offline’ mode, the interface is released and the device handle becomes
invalid. By calling RSDLLibfind again, the communication is set up again.
VB format:
Function RSDLLibonl (ByVal ud%, ByVal v%,
ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
void WINAPI RSDLLibonl( short ud, short v,
short far *ibsta, short far *iberr,
unsigned long far *ibcntl)
C format:
short RSDLLibonl( short ud, short v, short
*ibsta, short *iberr, unsigned long
*ibcntl)
Parameters:
ud
Device handle
v
Device state
0 - local
1 - remote
Example:
RSDLLibonl(ud, 0, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
RSDLLTestSRQ
This function checks the status of the SRQ bit.
VB format:
Function RSDLLTestSrq (ByVal ud%, Result%,
ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
void WINAPI RSDLLTestSrq( short ud, short
far *result, short far *ibsta, short far
*iberr, unsigned long far *ibcntl)
C format (UNIX):
short RSDLLTestSrq( short ud, short
*result, short *ibsta, short *iberr,
unsigned long *ibcntl)
Parameters:
ud
Device handle
result
Reference to an integer value in which
the library returns the status of the
SRQ bit
0 - no SRQ
1 - SRQ active, device requests
service
Example:
RSDLLTestSrq (ud, result%, ibsta, iberr,
ibcntl)
This function corresponds to the function RSDLLWaitSrq. The only difference
is that RSDLLTestSRQ immediately returns the current status of the SRQ bit,
whereas RSDLLWaitSrq waits for an SRQ to occur.
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RSIB Interface Functions
RSDLLWaitSrq
This function waits until the device triggers an SRQ with the handle ud.
VB format:
Function RSDLLWaitSrq (ByVal ud%, Result%,
ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
C format:
void WINAPI RSDLLWaitSrq( short ud, short
far *result, short far *ibsta, short far
*iberr, unsigned long far *ibcntl)
C format (UNIX):
short RSDLLWaitSrq( short ud, short
*result, short *ibsta, short *iberr,
unsigned long *ibcntl)
Parameters:
ud
Device handle
result
Reference to an integer value in which
the library returns the status of the
SRQ bit
0 - No SRQ occurred during the timeout
1 - SRQ occurred during the time-out
Example:
RSDLLWaitSrq( ud, result, ibsta, iberr,
ibcntl );
The function waits until one of the following two events occurs.
•
The measuring instrument triggers an SRQ.
•
No SRQ occurs during the time-out defined with RSDLLibtmo().
RSDLLSwapBytes
This function changes the display of binary numbers on non-Intel platforms.
VB format:
Not provided at present since it is
required only on non-Intel platforms.
C format:
void WINAPI RSDLLSwapBytes( void far
*pArray, const long size, const long count)
C format (UNIX):
void RSDLLSwapBytes( void *pArray, const
long size, const long count)
Parameters:
pArray
Array in which modifications are made
size
Size of a single element in pArray
count
Number of elements in pArray
Example:
RSDLLSwapBytes( Buffer, sizeof(float),
ibcntl/sizeof(float))
This function swaps the display of various elements from Big Endian to Little
Endian and vice versa. It is expected that a coherent storage area of elements
of the same file type (size byte) is transferred to pArray. This function has no
effect on Intel platforms.
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Different types of processor architecture store data in different byte sequences.
For example, Intel processors store data in the reverse order of Motorola
processors. Comparison of byte sequences:
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Byte sequence
Use in
Display in memory
Description
Big Endian
Motorola processors,
network standard
Most significant byte at
least significant address
The most significant
byte is at the left end
of the word.
Little Endian
Intel processors
Least significant byte at
least significant address
The most significant
byte is at the right
end of the word.
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RSIB Interface Functions
Programming via the RSIB Protocol
Visual Basic
Programming tips
Access to the functions of the RSIB.DLL
To create Visual Basic control applications, the file RSIB.BAS must be added
to a project for 16-bit Basic programs and the file RSIB32.BAS for 32-bit Basic
programs (D:\R_S\INSTR\RSIB) so that the functions of the RSIB.DLL or
RSIB32.DLL can be accessed.
Generating a response buffer
Prior to calling the functions RSDLLibrd() and RSDLLilrd(), a string of
sufficient length must be generated. This is possible either by defining the string
or using the command Space$().
Generating a string of the length 100:
– Dim Response as String * 100
– Dim Response as String
Response = Space$(100)
If a response is to be output as a string from the measuring instrument, the
appended blanks can be removed using the Visual Basic Function RTrim().
Example:
Response = Space$(100)
Call RSDLLibrd(ud, Response, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Response = RTrim(Response)
' Output of Response
Reading out trace data in real format
Using the function declarations in the file RSIB.BAS or RSIB32.BAS the
responses of the device can be assigned to one string only. If the data are to be
read into an array with float values, the header and the useful data must be read
out with separate function calls.
Example of a header
# 4 2004
Prefix for
binary data
Number of digits of
the following length
indication
Length of data, e.g.
501 pixels
4 bytes/pixel
In order to enable the trace data to be directly read into a float array, a special
function declaration must be created.
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Declare Function RSDLLilrdTraceReal Lib "rsib32.dll" Alias
"RSDLLilrd" (ByVal ud%, Rd As Single, ByVal Cnt&, ibsta%,
iberr%, ibcntl&) As Integer
Example
Dim
Dim
Dim
Dim
Dim
Dim
Dim
Dim
ibsta As Integer
iberr As Integer
ibcntl As Long
ud As Integer
Result As String
Digits As Byte
TraceBytes As Long
TraceData(501) As Single
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
Status variable
Error variable
Count variable
Handle for measuring instrument
Buffer for simple results
Number of digits of length indication
Length of trace data in bytes
Buffer for floating point Binary data
' Set up connection to instrument
ud = RSDLLibfind("89.10.38.97", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
' Query trace data in real format
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud, "FORM:DATA REAL,32", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud, "TRACE? TRACE1", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
' Read number of digits of length indication
Result = Space$(20)
Call RSDLLilrd(ud, Result, 2, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Digits = Val(Mid$(Result, 2, 1))
' Read length indication
Result = Space$(20)
Call RSDLLilrd(ud, Result, Digits, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
TraceBytes = Val(Left$(Result, Digits))
'and store
' Read out trace data
Call RSDLLilrdTraceReal(ud, TraceData(0), TraceBytes, ibsta, iberr,ibcntl)
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RSIB Interface Functions
Programming examples
In this example, the start frequency of the instrument is queried.
Dim
Dim
Dim
Dim
Dim
ibsta As Integer
iberr As Integer
ibcntl As Long
ud As Integer
Response As String
'
'
'
'
'
Status variable
Error variable
Count variable
Handle for measuring instrument
Response string
' Set up connection to measuring instrument
ud = RSDLLibfind("89.10.38.97", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
If (ud < 0) Then
' Error treatment
End If
' Send query command
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud, "FREQ:START?", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
' Provide space for response
Response = Space$(100)
' Read response from measuring instrument
Call RSDLLibrd(ud, Response, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
In this example, a Save/Recall of the instrument setups is performed.
Dim
Dim
Dim
Dim
Dim
ibsta As Integer
iberr As Integer
ibcntl As Long
ud As Integer
Cmd As String
'
'
'
'
'
Status variable
Error variable
Count variable
Handle for measuring instrument
Command string
' Set up connection to measuring instrument
ud = RSDLLibfind("89.10.38.97", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
If (ud < 0) Then
' Error treatment
End If
' Request instrument settings
Cmd = "SYST:SET?"
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud, Cmd, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
' Store instrument response in file
Call RSDLLibrdf(ud, "C:\db.sav", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
' Reset instrument
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud, "*RST", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
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RSIB Interface Functions
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' and restore the previous settings
' to this end disable the END message
Call RSDLLibeot(ud, 0, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
' first send off command
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud, "SYST:SET ", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
' enable the END message again
Call RSDLLibeot(ud, 1, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
' and send the data
Call RSDLLibwrtf(ud, "C:\db.sav", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Visual Basic for Applications (Winword and Excel)
Programming tips
The programming language Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is supported as
a macro language by various manufacturers. The programs Winword and Excel
use this language for the versions Winword 97 or Excel 5.0 and higher.
For macros created with Visual Basic for Applications, the same tips are valid
as for Visual Basic Applications.
Programming example
Using the macro QueryMaxPeak, a single sweep with subsequent query of the
maximum peak is performed. The result is entered in a Winword or Excel
document.
Sub QueryMaxPeak()
Dim
Dim
Dim
Dim
Dim
ibsta As Integer
iberr As Integer
ibcntl As Long
ud As Integer
Response As String
'
'
'
'
'
Status variable
Error variable
transferred characters
Unit Descriptor (handle)for instrument
Response string
' Set up connection to measuring instrument
ud = RSDLLibfind("89.10.38.97", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
If (ud < 0) Then
Call MsgBox("Device with address 89.10.38.97 could" & _
"not be found", vbExclamation)
End
End If
' Determine maximum
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud,
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud,
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud,
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud,
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud,
Call RSDLLibwrt(ud,
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peak in the range 1-2MHZ
"*RST", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
"INST:SEL SAN", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
"INIT:CONT OFF", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
"FREQ:START 1MHZ", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
"FREQ:STOP 2MHZ", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
"INIT:IMM;*WAI", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
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Call RSDLLibwrt(ud, "CALC:MARK:MAX;Y?", ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Response = Space$(100)
Call RSDLLibrd(ud, Response, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
Response = RTrim(Response) ' Cut off space
' Insert value in current document (Winword)
Selection.InsertBefore (Response)
Selection.Collapse (wdCollapseEnd)
' Terminate connection to measuring instrument
Call RSDLLibonl(ud, 0, ibsta, iberr, ibcntl)
End Sub
The entry of the peak value in the Winword document can be replaced as
follows for Excel:
' Insert value in current document (Excel)
ActiveCell.FormulaR1C1 = Response
C / C++
Programming tips
Access to the functions of the RSIB32.DLL (Windows platforms)
The functions of the RSIB32.DLL are declared in the header file RSIB.H. The
DLL functions can be linked to a C/C++ program in different ways.
•
Enter one of the supplied import libraries (RSIB.LIB or RSIB32.LIB) into
the linker options.
•
Load the library using the function LoadLibrary() during runtime and
determine the function pointers of the DLL functions using
GetProcAddress(). Before the end of the program, the RSIB.DLL must
be unloaded again using the function FreeLibrary().
When import libraries are used, the DLL is automatically loaded immediately
before the application is started. At the end of the program, the DLL is unloaded
again unless it is still used by other applications.
Access to librsib.so functions (UNIX platforms)
The functions of librsib.so are declared in the header file RSIB.H.
Uppercase/lowercase characters for file names are typically observed under
UNIX. The library functions are linked to a C/C++ program by entering the
-lrsib linker option.
The shared library librsib.so is automatically loaded on starting the
application. The accessibility (for example via standard path) of the library must
be ensured. Refer to section “UNIX Environment” on page 4.438.
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Query of strings
If instrument responses are to be further processed as strings, a zero
termination must be appended.
Example
char buffer[100];
...
RSDLLibrd( ud, buffer, &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl );
buffer[ibcntl] = 0;
Programming example
In the following C program example, a single sweep is started on the device with
the IP address 89.10.38.97 and subsequently a marker is set to maximum level.
Prior to the search for maximum, a synchronization to the end of the sweep is
performed. For this purpose the command "*OPC" (Operation complete) is
used to create a service request at the end of the sweep, for which the control
program waits with the function RSDLLWaitSrq(). Then the maximum is
determined ("CALC:MARK:MAX") and the level read out ("Y?").
#define MAX_RESP_LEN 100
short
unsigned long
short
short
char
char
ibsta, iberr;
ibcntl;
ud;
srq;
MaxPegel[MAX_RESP_LEN];
spr;
// Determine handle for instrument
ud = RSDLLibfind( "89.10.38.97", &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl );
// if instrument exists
if ( ud >= 0 )
{
// Set timeout for RSDLLWaitSrq() to 10 seconds
RSDLLibtmo( ud, 10, &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl );
// Activate SRQ generation via event status register (ESR)
// and enable ESB bit in SRE register
RSDLLibwrt( ud, "*ESE 1;*SRE 32", &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl );
// Set single sweep, trigger sweep and use "*OPC" to cause
// the generation of a service request at the end of the sweep
RSDLLibwrt( ud, "INIT:CONT off;INIT;*OPC", &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl );
// Wait for SRQ (end of sweep)
RSDLLWaitSrq( ud, &srq, &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl );
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// Clear RQS/MSS bit
RSDLLibrsp( ud, &spr, &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl );
// if sweep is terminated
if (srq)
{
// then set marker to first maximum and query the level
RSDLLibwrt( ud, "CALC:MARK:MAX;Y?", &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl );
RSDLLilrd( ud, MaxPegel, MAX_RESP_LEN, &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl );
MaxPegel[ibcntl] = 0;
}
// End connection to instrument
RSDLLibonl (ud, 0, &ibsta, &iberr, &ibcntl ) ;
}
else
{
; // Error Instrument not found
}
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User Port
R&S ESU
User Port
The user port is located at the rear panel of the ESU. For information on the
mechanical design and the electrical characteristics refer to the Quick Start
Guide, chapter “Front and Rear Panel”:
An essential performance criterion to be met by automatic test systems is to
minimize the time overhead of the entire test relative to the net measurement
time. A typical test comprises the following steps:
1. Setting of analyzer (frequency, level, bandwidth, measurement time, trigger
source)
2. Setting of device under test (DUT) and activation of its output signal
3. Start of measurement on analyzer; analyzer waits for trigger signal
4. Generation of trigger signal; test system waits for ready signal from analyzer
5. Reading of measured data
After the start of a measurement, hardware settling times are allowed for the
R&S ESU before data acquisition is started. Trigger signals received by the
R&S ESU during the settling time will, therefore, be ignored.
This behavior is not critical in most cases, as long as the trigger signal is
periodic and the test signal is stationary.
Trigger Signal Accepted by
Analyzer
Analyzer Setup
Analyzer Settling Time
DUT Output Signal
Data Acquisition
Trigger
Signal
Start of
Measurement
Fig. 4-36
Test with stationary test signal and periodic trigger signal
In the above case, the analyzer will respond to the first trigger signal received
after the settling time.
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User Port
The situation is quite different, however, if data acquisition is to be started by a
single trigger event. In such a case it is mandatory that settling times on the
analyzer have elapsed before the trigger signal is sent. Otherwise, the trigger
signal will not be identified as a request for data acquisition, and the subsequent
query of measured data will result in a time-out on the controller:
Analyzer Setup
Analyzer Settling Time
DUT Output Signal
Data Acquisition
Analyzer not ready for trigger
valid Trigger
Signal
Start
Measurement
Fig. 4-37
Test with single trigger pulse
A particularly difficult aspect of this problem is the variable settling times of the
analyzer, which are unavoidable in practice. If there is no signal to indicate that
the analyzer is ready to collect measured data, the maximum settling time will
have to be allowed for until the trigger signal is sent, thus ensuring reliable
measurements. This results in considerable – and in many cases unacceptable
– time overhead, depending on the instrument settings.
To minimize this overhead, the port supplies a signal that indicates the
analyzer's readiness to collect measured data. The signal is reset on detection
of the next trigger signal. In this way, a handshake is established between the
analyzer and the DUT and between the analyzer and the controller, which
ensures reliable measurements and reduces the time overhead to the settling
time actually needed by the analyzer:
Analyzer Setup
Analyzer Settling Time
DUT Output Signal
Data Acquisition
ready for
Trigger
Trigger
Signal
Start
Measurement
Fig. 4-38
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5
Remote Control – Basics
Remote Control – Basics
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3
Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4
Starting Remote Control Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5
Display Contents during Remote Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5
Remote Control via IEC/IEEE Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6
Setting the Device Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6
Return to Manual Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7
Remote Control via RS-232-Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting the Transmission Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Return to Manual Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.9
Remote Control in a Network (RSIB Interface) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.9
Setting the Device Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.9
Return to Manual Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.9
Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.10
IEC/IEEE-Bus Interface Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.10
Device Messages (Commands and Device Responses) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.10
Structure and Syntax of the Device Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11
SCPI Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11
Structure of a Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.11
Structure of a Command Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.14
Responses to Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.15
Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.15
Overview of Syntax Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.17
Instrument Model and Command Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.18
Input Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.18
Command Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.19
Instrument Data Base and Instrument Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.19
Status Reporting System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.19
Output Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.19
Command Sequence and Command Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.20
Status Reporting System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.21
Structure of an SCPI Status Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.21
Overview of the Status Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.23
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5.1
E-1
Remote Control – Basics
R&S ESU
Description of the Status Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Status Byte (STB) and Service Request Enable Register (SRE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IST Flag and Parallel Poll Enable Register (PPE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event-Status Register (ESR) and Event-Status-Enable Register (ESE) . . . . . . . . .
STATus:OPERation Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STATus:QUEStionable Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2> Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2> Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.24
5.24
5.25
5.25
5.26
5.27
5.28
5.29
5.30
5.31
5.32
Application of the Status Reporting Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Service Request, Making Use of the Hierarchy Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Serial Poll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Parallel Poll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Query by Means of Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Error Queue Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.33
5.33
5.33
5.33
5.34
5.34
Resetting Values of the Status Reporting System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.35
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5.2
E-1
R&S ESU
Overview
Overview
In this chapter you'll find:
•
instructions on how to put the R&S ESU into operation via remote control,
•
a general introduction to remote control of programmable instruments. This includes the description of
the command structure and syntax according to the SCPI standard, the description of command
execution and of the status registers,
•
diagrams and tables describing the status registers used in the R&S ESU.
In chapter “Remote Control – Description of Commands”, all remote control functions are described in
detail. The subsystems are listed by alphabetical order according to SCPI. All commands and their
parameters are listed by alphabetical order in the command list at the end of the chapter.
Program examples for the R&S ESU can be found in chapter “Remote Control – Programming
Examples”.
The remote control interfaces and their interface functions are described in chapter “Maintenance and
Instrument Interfaces”.
Introduction
The instrument is equipped with an IEC-bus interface according to standard IEC 625.1/IEEE 488.2 and a
RS-232 interface. The connectors are located at the rear of the instrument and permit to connect a
controller for remote control. In addition, the instrument can be remotely controlled in a local area network
(LAN interface).
The instrument supports the SCPI version 1997.0 (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments).
The SCPI standard is based on standard IEEE 488.2 and aims at the standardization of device-specific
commands, error handling and the status registers (see section “SCPI Introduction” on page 5.11).
The tutorial "Automatic Measurement Control – A tutorial on SCPI and IEEE 488.2" from John M. Pieper
(R&S order number 0002.3536.00) offers detailed information on concepts and definitions of SCPI. For
remote control in a network, refer to section “Remote Control in a Network (RSIB Interface)” on page 5.9.
This section assumes basic knowledge of IEC/IEEE bus programming and operation of the controller. A
description of the interface commands can be obtained from the relevant manuals.
The requirements of the SCPI standard placed on command syntax, error handling and configuration of
the status registers are explained in detail in the following sections. Tables provide a fast overview of the
bit assignment in the status registers. The tables are supplemented by a comprehensive description of
the status registers.
The program examples for IEC-bus programming are all written in VISUAL BASIC.
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5.3
E-1
Getting Started
R&S ESU
Getting Started
The short and simple operating sequence provided below enables you to quickly put the instrument into
operation and set its basic functions. As a prerequisite, the IEC/IEEE bus address, which is factory-set to
20, must remain unchanged.
1. Connect instrument and controller using IEC/IEEE bus cable.
2. Write and start the following program on the controller:
CALL IBFIND("DEV1", analyzer%)
'Open port to the instrument
CALL IBPAD(analyzer%, 20)
'Inform controller about instrument address
CALL IBWRT(analyzer%, '*RST;*CLS')
'Reset instrument
CALL IBWRT(analyzer%, 'FREQ:CENT 20MHz')
'Set center frequency to 20 MHz
CALL IBWRT(analyzer%, 'BAND 9 kHz')
'Set resolution bandwidth to 9 kHz
CALL IBWRT(analyzer%, 'DET:REC POS')
'Switch on peak detector
The instrument now measures at 20 MHz with 9 kHz RBW the peak level.
3. To return to manual control, press the LOCAL key on the front panel.
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5.4
E-1
R&S ESU
Starting Remote Control Operation
Starting Remote Control Operation
On power-on, the instrument is always in the manual operating state ("LOCAL" state) and can be operated
via the front panel.
It is switched to remote control ("REMOTE" state)
IEC/IEEE-bus
as soon as it receives an addressed command from a controller.
if it is controlled in a network (RSIB interface), as soon as it receives a command
from a controller.
RS-232
as soon as it receives the command "@REM" from a controller.
During remote control, operation via the front panel is disabled. The instrument remains in the remote
state until it is reset to the manual state via the front panel or via remote control interfaces. Switching from
manual operation to remote control and vice versa does not affect the remaining instrument settings.
Display Contents during Remote Control
During remote control, only the LOCAL softkey appears, with which it is possible to return to manual
operation.
In addition, the display of diagrams and results can be blanked out with the command "SYSTem:
DISPlay:UPDate OFF" (default in remote control) to obtain optimum performance during remote
control operation.
During program execution it is recommended to activate the display of results by means of "SYSTem:
DISPlay:UPDate ON" so that it is possible to follow the changes in the device settings and the recorded
measurement curves on the screen.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
If the instrument is exclusively operated in remote control, it is recommended to
switch on the power-save mode (POWER SAVE). In this mode, the required
display is completely switched off after a preset time.
5.5
E-1
Starting Remote Control Operation
R&S ESU
Remote Control via IEC/IEEE Bus
Setting the Device Address
In order to operate the instrument via the IEC-bus, it must be addressed using the set IEC/IEEE bus
address. The IEC/IEEE bus address of the instrument is factory-set to 20. It can be changed manually in
the SETUP - GENERAL SETUP menu or via IEC bus. Addresses 0 to 30 are permissible.
Manually:
➢ Call SETUP - GENERAL SETUP menu
➢ Enter desired address in table GPIB-ADDRESS
➢ Terminate input using the ENTER key
Via IEC/IEEE bus:
CALL IBFIND("DEV1", analyzer%)
'Open port to the instrument
CALL IBPAD(analyzer%, 20)
'Inform controller about old address
CALL IBWRT(analyzer%, "SYST:COMM:GPIB:ADDR 18")
'Set instrument to new address
CALL IBPAD(analyzer%, 18)
'Inform controller about new address
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5.6
E-1
R&S ESU
Starting Remote Control Operation
Return to Manual Operation
Return to manual operation is possible via the front panel or the IEC/IEEE bus.
Manually:
➢ Press the LOCAL softkey or the PRESET key
Aa
Notes
•
Before the transition, command processing must be completed as otherwise
transition to remote control is performed immediately.
•
The keys can be disabled by the universal command LLO (see chapter
“Maintenance and Instrument Interfaces”, section “Interface Messages” on
page 8.5) in order to prevent unintentional transition. In this case, transition to
manual mode is only possible via the IEC/IEEE bus.
•
The keys can be enabled again by deactivating the REN line of the IEC/IEEE
bus (see chapter “Maintenance and Instrument Interfaces”, section “Bus Lines”
on page 8.4).
Via IEC bus:
…
CALL IBLOC(analyzer%)
'Set instrument to manual operation
…
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5.7
E-1
Starting Remote Control Operation
R&S ESU
Remote Control via RS-232-Interface
Setting the Transmission Parameters
To enable an error-free and correct data transmission, the parameters of the unit and the controller should
have the same setting.
Parameters can be manually changed in menu SETUP-GENERAL SETUP in table COM PORT or via
remote control using the command SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:… .
The transmission parameters of the COM interface are factory-set to the following values:
baudrate = 9600, data bits = 8, stop bits = 1, parity = NONE and owner = INSTRUMENT.
For remote control operation, the interface should be allocated to the operating system (owner = OS) so
that the control characters including @ can be recognized by the interface.
Manually:
Setting the COM interface
➢ Call SETUP-GENERAL SETUP menu
➢ Select desired baudrate, bits, stopbit, parity in table COM PORT.
➢ Set owner to OS in table COM PORT.
➢ Terminate input using the ENTER key.
Return to Manual Operation
Return to manual operation is possible via the front panel or via RS-232 interface.
Manually:
➢ Press the LOCAL softkey or the PRESET key.
Aa
Notes
•
Before the transition, command processing must be completed as otherwise
transition to remote control is performed immediately
•
The keys can be enabled again by sending the control string "@LOC" via RS232 (see chapter “Maintenance and Instrument Interfaces”, section “RS-232-C
Interface (COM)” on page 8.8).
Via RS-232:
…
v24puts(port,"@LOC");
Set instrument to manual operation.
…
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5.8
E-1
R&S ESU
Starting Remote Control Operation
Restrictions
The following restrictions apply if the unit is remote-controlled via the RS-232-C interface:
No interface messages, only control strings (see interface description in chapter “Maintenance and
Instrument Interfaces”, section “RS-232-C Interface (COM)” on page 8.8).
Only the Common Commands *OPC? can be used for command synchronization, *WAI and *OPC are
not available.
Block data cannot be transmitted.
Remote Control in a Network (RSIB Interface)
Setting the Device Address
For control of the instrument in a network, it must be accessed using the preselected IP address.
The IP address of the instrument (device address) is defined in the network configuration.
Setting the IP address:
➢ Call SETUP - GENERAL SETUP – CONFIGURE NETWORK menu.
➢ Select Protocols tab.
➢ Under Properties, set IP address for TCP/IP protocol (for details refer to the Quick Start Guide,
appendix LAN Interface).
Return to Manual Operation
Return to manual operation can be made manually via the front panel or remotely via the RSIB interface.
Manually:
➢ Press LOCAL softkey or PRESET key.
Aa
Note
Make sure that the execution of commands is completed prior to switch over since
otherwise the instrument will switch back to remote control immediately.
Via RSIB interface:
…
CALL RSDLLibloc(analyzer%, ibsta%, iberr%, ibcntl&)
'Set device to manual control
…
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5.9
E-1
Messages
R&S ESU
Messages
The messages transferred via the data lines of the IEC bus (see chapter “Maintenance and Instrument
Interfaces”, section “IEC/IEEE Bus Interface” on page 8.3) can be divided into two groups:
– “IEC/IEEE-Bus Interface Messages”
– “Device Messages (Commands and Device Responses)”
IEC/IEEE-Bus Interface Messages
Interface messages are transferred on the data lines of the IEC bus, the "ATN" control line being active.
They are used for communication between controller and instrument and can only be sent by a controller
which has the IEC/IEEE bus control. Interface commands can be subdivided into
– universal commands and
– addressed commands.
Universal commands act on all devices connected to the IEC/IEEE bus without previous addressing,
addressed commands only act on devices previously addressed as listeners. The interface messages
relevant to the instrument are listed in chapter “Maintenance and Instrument Interfaces”, section “Interface
Functions” on page 8.5.
Device Messages (Commands and Device Responses)
Device messages are transferred on the data lines of the IEC bus, the "ATN" control line not being active.
ASCII code is used.
A distinction is made according to the direction in which they are sent on the IEC/IEEE bus:
– Commands are messages the controller sends to the instrument. They operate the device functions
and request informations.
The commands are subdivided according to two criteria:
•
According to the effect they have on the instrument:
Setting commands cause instrument settings such as reset of the instrument or setting the center
frequency.
Queries cause data to be provided for output on the IEC/IEEE bus, e.g. for identification of the
device or polling the marker.
•
According to their definition in standard IEEE 488.2:
Common Commands are exactly defined as to their function and notation in standard IEEE 488.2.
They refer to functions such as management of the standardized status registers, reset and selftest.
Device-specific commands refer to functions depending on the features of the instrument such
as frequency setting. A majority of these commands has also been standardized by the SCPI
committee (cf. section “SCPI Introduction” on page 5.11).
– Device responses are messages the instrument sends to the controller after a query. They can
contain measurement results, instrument settings and information on the instrument status (cf. section
“Responses to Queries” on page 5.15).
Structure and syntax of the device messages are described in the following section.
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5.10
E-1
R&S ESU
Structure and Syntax of the Device Messages
Structure and Syntax of the Device Messages
SCPI Introduction
SCPI (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments) describes a standard command set for
programming instruments, irrespective of the type of instrument or manufacturer. The goal of the SCPI
consortium is to standardize the device-specific commands to a large extent. For this purpose, a model
was developed which defines the same functions inside a device or for different devices. Command
systems were generated which are assigned to these functions. Thus it is possible to address the same
functions with identical commands. The command systems are of a hierarchical structure.
Fig. 5-1 illustrates this tree structure using a section of command system SENSe, which controls the
device-specific settings, that do not refer to the signal characteristics of the measurement signal.
SCPI is based on standard IEEE 488.2, i.e. it uses the same syntactic basic elements as well as the
common commands defined in this standard. Part of the syntax of the device responses is defined with
greater restrictions than in standard IEEE 488.2 (see section “Responses to Queries” on page 5.15).
Structure of a Command
The commands consist of a so-called header and, in most cases, one or more parameters. Header and
parameter are separated by a "white space" (ASCII code 0 to 9, 11 to 32 decimal, e.g. blank). The headers
may consist of several key words. Queries are formed by directly appending a question mark to the
header.
Aa
Note
The commands used in the following examples are not in every case implemented
in the instrument.
Common commands
Common commands consist of a header preceded by an asterisk "*" and one or several parameters, if
any.
Examples:
*RST
RESET, resets the device
*ESE 253
EVENT STATUS ENABLE, sets the bits of the event status enable register
*ESR?
EVENT STATUS QUERY, queries the contents of the event status register.
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5.11
E-1
Structure and Syntax of the Device Messages
R&S ESU
Device-specific commands
Hierarchy:
Device-specific commands are of hierarchical structure (see Fig. 5-1). The different levels are represented
by combined headers. Headers of the highest level (root level) have only one key word. This key word
denotes a complete command system.
Example:
SENSe
This key word denotes the command system SENSe.
For commands of lower levels, the complete path has to be specified, starting on the left with the highest
level, the individual key words being separated by a colon ":".
Example:
SENSe:FREQuency:SPAN 10MHZ
This command lies in the third level of the SENSe system. It sets the frequency span.
SENSe
BANDwidth
FUNCtion
STARt
Fig. 5-1
FREQuency
STOP
DETector
CENTer
SPAN
OFFSet
Tree structure the SCPI command systems using the SENSe system by way of example
Some key words occur in several levels within one command system. Their effect depends on the
structure of the command, that is to say, at which position in the header of a command they are inserted.
Examples:
SOURce:FM:POLarity NORMal
This command contains key word POLarity in the third command level. It defines the polarity between
modulator and modulation signal.
SOURce:FM:EXTernal:POLarity NORMal
This command contains key word POLarity in the fourth command level. It defines the polarity between
modulation voltage and the resulting direction of the modulation only for the external signal source
indicated.
Optional key words
Some command systems permit certain key words to be optionally inserted into the header or omitted.
These key words are marked by square brackets in the description. The full command length must be
recognized by the instrument for reasons of compatibility with the SCPI standard. Some commands are
considerably shortened by these optional key words.
1302.6163.12
5.12
E-1
R&S ESU
Structure and Syntax of the Device Messages
Example:
[SENSe]:BANDwidth[:RESolution]:AUTO
This command couples the resolution bandwidth of the instrument to other parameters. The following
command has the same effect:
BANDwidth:AUTO
Aa
Note
An optional key word must not be omitted if its effect is specified in detail by a
numeric suffix.
Long and short form
The key words feature a long form and a short form. Either the short form or the long form can be entered,
other abbreviations are not permissible.
Example:
STATus:QUEStionable:ENABle 1= STAT:QUES:ENAB 1
Aa
Note
The short form is marked by upper-case letters, the long form corresponds to the
complete word. Upper-case and lower-case notation only serve the above
purpose, the instrument itself does not make any difference between upper-case
and lower-case letters.
Parameter
The parameter must be separated from the header by a "white space". If several parameters are specified
in a command, they are separated by a comma ",". A few queries permit the parameters MINimum,
MAXimum and DEFault to be entered. For a description of the types of parameter, refer to section
“Parameters” on page 5.15.
Example:
SENSe:FREQuency:STOP? MAXimum
This query requests the maximal value for the stop frequency. Response: 3.5E9
Numeric suffix
If a device features several functions or features of the same kind, e.g. inputs, the desired function can be
selected by a suffix added to the command. Entries without suffix are interpreted like entries with the
suffix 1.
Example:
SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial2:BAUD 9600
This command sets the baudrate of a second serial interface.
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5.13
E-1
Structure and Syntax of the Device Messages
R&S ESU
Structure of a Command Line
A command line may consist of one or several commands. It is terminated by a <New Line>, a <New Line>
with EOI or an EOI together with the last data byte. The IEC/IEEE driver of the controller usually produces
automatically an EOI together with the last data byte.
Several commands in a command line are separated by a semicolon ";". If the next command belongs to
a different command system, the semicolon is followed by a colon.
Example:
CALL IBWRT(analyzer%,"SENSe:FREQuency:CENTer 100MHz;:INPut:ATTenuation 10")
This command line contains two commands. The first one is part of the SENSe command system and
is used to determine the center frequency of the instrument. The second one is part of the INPut
command system and sets the input signal attenuation.
If the successive commands belong to the same system, having one or several levels in common, the
command line can be abbreviated. For that purpose, the second command after the semicolon starts with
the level that lies below the common levels (see also Fig. 5-1). The colon following the semicolon must
be omitted in this case.
Example:
CALL IBWRT(analyzer%, "SENSe:FREQuency:STARt 1E6;:SENSe:FREQuency:STOP 1E9")
This command line is represented in its full length and contains two commands separated from each
other by the semicolon. Both commands are part of the SENSe command system, subsystem
FREQuency, i.e. they have two common levels.
When abbreviating the command line, the second command begins with the level below SENSe:
FREQuency. The colon after the semicolon is omitted.
The abbreviated form of the command line reads as follows:
CALL IBWRT(analyzer%, "SENSe:FREQuency:STARt 1E6;STOP 1E9")
However, a new command line always begins with the complete path.
Example:
CALL IBWRT(analyzer, "SENSe:FREQuency:STARt 1E6")
CALL IBWRT(analyzer%, "SENSe:FREQuency:STOP 1E9")
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5.14
E-1
R&S ESU
Structure and Syntax of the Device Messages
Responses to Queries
A query is defined for each setting command unless explicitly specified otherwise. It is formed by adding
a question mark to the associated setting command. According to SCPI, the responses to queries are
partly subject to stricter rules than in standard IEEE 488.2.
1. The requested parameter is transmitted without header.
Example: INPut:COUPling?
Response: DC
2. Maximum values, minimum values and all further quantities, which are requested via a special text
parameter are returned as numerical values.
Example: SENSe:FREQuency:STOP? MAX
Response: 3.5E9
3. Numerical values are output without a unit. Physical quantities are referred to the basic units or to the
units set using the Unit command.
Example: SENSe:FREQuency:CENTer?
Response: 1E6 for 1 MHz
4. Truth values <Boolean values> are returned as 0 (for OFF) and 1 (for ON).
Example: SENSe:BANDwidth:AUTO?
Response: 1 for ON
5. Text (character data) is returned in a short form.
Example: SYSTem:COMMunicate:SERial:CONTrol:RTS?
Response (for standard): STAN
Parameters
Most commands require a parameter to be specified. The parameters must be separated from the header
by a "white space". Permissible parameters are numerical values, Boolean parameters, text, character
strings and block data. The type of parameter required for the respective command and the permissible
range of values are specified in the command description
Numerical values
Numerical values can be entered in any form, i.e. with sign, decimal point and exponent. Values
exceeding the resolution of the instrument are rounded up or down. The mantissa may comprise up to
255 characters, the exponent must lie inside the value range -32000 to 32000. The exponent is introduced
by an "E" or "e". Entry of the exponent alone is not permissible. In the case of physical quantities, the unit
can be entered. Permissible unit prefixes are G (giga), MA (mega), MOHM and MHZ are also
permissible), K (kilo), M (milli), U (micro) and N (nano). It the unit is missing, the basic unit is used.
Example:
SENSe:FREQuency:STOP 1.5GHz = SENSe:FREQuency:STOP 1.5E9
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5.15
E-1
Structure and Syntax of the Device Messages
R&S ESU
Special numerical
The texts MINimum, MAXimum, DEFault, UP and DOWN are interpreted as values special numerical
values.
In the case of a query, the numerical value is provided.
Example:
Setting command: SENSe:FREQuency:STOP MAXimum
Query: SENSe:FREQuency:STOP?
Response: 3.5E9
MIN/MAX
MINimum and MAXimum denote the minimum and maximum value.
DEF
DEFault denotes a preset value which has been stored in the EPROM. This value conforms to the
default setting, as it is called by the *RST command
UP/DOWN
UP, DOWN increases or reduces the numerical value by one step. The step width can be specified via
an allocated step command (see annex C, List of Commands) for each parameter which can be set
via UP, DOWN.
INF/NINF
INFinity, Negative INFinity (NINF) Negative INFinity (NINF) represent the numerical values -9.9E37 or
9.9E37, respectively. INF and NINF are only sent as device responses.
NAN
Not A Number (NAN) represents the value 9.91E37. NAN is only sent as device response. This value
is not defined. Possible causes are the division of zero by zero, the subtraction of infinite from infinite
and the representation of missing values.
Boolean Parameters
Boolean parameters represent two states. The ON state (logically true) is represented by ON or a
numerical value unequal to 0. The OFF state (logically untrue) is represented by OFF or the numerical
value 0. 0 or 1 is provided in a query.
Example:
Setting command: DISPlay:WINDow:STATe ON
Query: DISPlay:WINDow:STATe?
Response: 1
Text
Text parameters observe the syntactic rules for key words, i.e. they can be entered using a short or long
form. Like any parameter, they have to be separated from the header by a white space. In the case of a
query, the short form of the text is provided.
Example:
Setting command: INPut:COUPling
GROund
Query: INPut:COUPling?
Response: GRO
1302.6163.12
5.16
E-1
R&S ESU
Structure and Syntax of the Device Messages
Strings
Strings must always be entered in quotation marks (' or ").
Example:
SYSTem:LANGuage "SCPI"
or
SYSTem:LANGuage 'SCPI'
Block data
Block data are a transmission format which is suitable for the transmission of large amounts of data. A
command using a block data parameter has the following structure:
Example:
HEADer:HEADer #45168xxxxxxxx
ASCII character # introduces the data block. The next number indicates how many of the following digits
describe the length of the data block. In the example the 4 following digits indicate the length to be 5168
bytes. The data bytes follow. During the transmission of these data bytes all End or other control signs
are ignored until all bytes are transmitted.
Overview of Syntax Elements
The following survey offers an overview of the syntax elements.
:
;
,
?
*
"
#
The colon separates the key words of a command.
In a command line the colon after the separating semicolon marks the uppermost command
level.
The semicolon separates two commands of a command line. It does not alter the path.
The comma separates several parameters of a command.
The question mark forms a query.
The asterix marks a common command.
Quotation marks introduce a string and terminate it.
The double dagger ( #) introduces block data
A "white space (ASCII-Code 0 to 9, 11 to 32 decimal, e.g.blank) separates header and parameter.
1302.6163.12
5.17
E-1
Instrument Model and Command Processing
R&S ESU
Instrument Model and Command Processing
The instrument model shown in Fig. 5-2 has been made viewed from the standpoint of the servicing of
IEC-bus commands. The individual components work independently of each other and simultaneously.
They communicate by means of so-called "messages".
Input unit with
IEC Bus
input puffer
Command
recognition
Data set
Instrument
hardware
Output unit with
output buffer
IEC Bus
Fig. 5-2
Status reportingsystem
Instrument model in the case of remote control by means of the IEC bus
Input Unit
The input unit receives commands character by character from the IEC bus and collects them in the input
buffer. The input unit sends a message to the command recognition as soon as the input buffer is full or
as soon as it receives a delimiter, <PROGRAM MESSAGE TERMINATOR>, as defined in IEEE 488.2, or
the interface message DCL.
If the input buffer is full, the IEC-bus traffic is stopped and the data received up to then are processed.
Subsequently the IEC-bus traffic is continued. If, however, the buffer is not yet full when receiving the
delimiter, the input unit can already receive the next command during command recognition and
execution. The receipt of a DCL clears the input buffer and immediately initiates a message to the
command recognition.
1302.6163.12
5.18
E-1
R&S ESU
Instrument Model and Command Processing
Command Recognition
The command recognition analyses the data received from the input unit. It proceeds in the order in which
it receives the data. Only a DCL is serviced with priority, a GET (Group Execute Trigger), e.g., is only
executed after the commands received before as well. Each recognized command is immediately
transferred to the instrument data base but without being executed there at once.
Syntactical errors in the command are recognized in the command recognition and supplied to the status
reporting system. The rest of a command line after a syntax error is analyzed further if possible and
serviced.
If the command recognition recognizes a delimiter (<PROGRAM MESSAGE SEPARATOR> or
<PROGRAM MESSAGE TERMINATOR>) or a DCL, it requests the instrument data base to set the
commands in the instrument hardware as well now. Subsequently it is immediately prepared to process
commands again. This means for the command servicing that further commands can already be serviced
while the hardware is still being set ("overlapping execution").
Instrument Data Base and Instrument Hardware
Here the expression "instrument hardware" denotes the part of the instrument fulfilling the actual
instrument function - signal generation, measurement etc. The controller is not included.
The instrument data base is a detailed reproduction of the instrument hardware in the software.
IEC-bus setting commands lead to an alteration in the data set. The data base management enters the
new values (e.g. frequency) into the data base, however, only passes them on to the hardware when
requested by the command recognition.
The data are only checked for their compatibility among each other and with the instrument hardware
immediately before they are transmitted to the instrument hardware. If the detection is made that an
execution is not possible, an "execution error" is signalled to the status reporting system. The alteration
of the data base are cancelled, the instrument hardware is not reset.
IEC-bus queries induce the data base management to send the desired data to the output unit.
Status Reporting System
The status reporting system collects information on the instrument state and makes it available to the
output unit on request. The exact structure and function are described in section “Overview of the Status
Registers” on page 5.23.
Output Unit
The output unit collects the information requested by the controller, which it receives from the data base
management. It processes it according to the SCPI rules and makes it available in the output buffer. If the
instrument is addressed as a talker without the output buffer containing data or awaiting data from the
data base management, the output unit sends error message "Query UNTERMINATED" to the status
reporting system. No data are sent on the IEC bus, the controller waits until it has reached its time limit.
This behavior is specified by SCPI.
1302.6163.12
5.19
E-1
Instrument Model and Command Processing
R&S ESU
Command Sequence and Command Synchronization
What has been said above makes clear that all commands can potentially be carried out overlapping.
In order to prevent an overlapping execution of commands, one of commands *OPC, *OPC? or *WAI must
be used. All three commands cause a certain action only to be carried out after the hardware has been
set and has settled. By a suitable programming, the controller can be forced to wait for the respective
action to occur (cf. Table 5-1).
Table 5-1
Synchronization using *OPC, *OPC? and *WAI
Command
Action after the hardware has settled
Programming the controller
*OPC
Setting the operation-complete bit in the ESR
- Setting bit 0 in the ESE
- Setting bit 5 in the SRE
- Waiting for service request (SRQ)
*OPC?
Writing a "1" into the output buffer
Addressing the instrument as a talker
*WAI
Continuing the IEC-bus handshake
Sending the next command
An example as to command synchronization can be found in chapter “Remote Control – Programming
Examples”.
For a couple of commands the synchronization to the end of command execution is mandatory in order
to obtain the desired result. The affected commands require either more than one measurement in order
to accomplish the desired instrument setting (e.g. auto range functions), or they require a longer period
of time for execution. If a new command is received during execution of the corresponding function this
may either lead to either to an aborted measurement or to invalid measurement data.
The following list includes the commands, for which a synchronization via *OPC, *OPC? or *WAI is
mandatory:
Table 5-2
Commands with mandatory synchronization (Overlapping Commands)
Command
Purpose
INIT
start measurement
INIT:CONM
continue measurement
CALC:MARK:FUNC:ZOOM
zoom frequency range around marker 1
CALC:STAT:SCAL:AUTO ONCE
optimize level settings for signal statistic measurement functions
[SENS:]POW:ACH:PRES:RLEV
optimize level settings for adjacent channel power measurements
1302.6163.12
5.20
E-1
R&S ESU
Status Reporting System
Status Reporting System
The status reporting system (cf. Fig. 5-4) stores all information on the present operating state of the
instrument, e.g. that the instrument presently carries out a calibration and on errors which have occurred.
This information is stored in the status registers and in the error queue. The status registers and the error
queue can be queried via IEC bus.
The information is of a hierarchical structure. The register status byte (STB) defined in IEEE 488.2 and its
associated mask register service request enable (SRE) form the uppermost level. The STB receives its
information from the standard event status register (ESR) which is also defined in IEEE 488.2 with the
associated mask register standard event status enable (ESE) and registers STATus:OPERation and
STATus:QUEStionable which are defined by SCPI and contain detailed information on the instrument.
The IST flag ("Individual STatus") and the parallel poll enable register (PPE) allocated to it are also part
of the status reporting system. The IST flag, like the SRQ, combines the entire instrument status in a
single bit. The PPE fulfills the same function for the IST flag as the SRE for the service request.
The output buffer contains the messages the instrument returns to the controller. It is not part of the status
reporting system but determines the value of the MAV bit in the STB and thus is represented in Fig. 5-4.
Structure of an SCPI Status Register
Each SCPI register consists of 5 parts which each have a width of 16 bits and have different functions (cf.
Fig. 5-3). The individual bits are independent of each other, i.e. each hardware status is assigned a bit
number which is valid for all five parts. For example, bit 3 of the STATus:OPERation register is assigned
to the hardware status "wait for trigger" in all five parts. Bit 15 (the most significant bit) is set to zero for all
parts. Thus the contents of the register parts can be processed by the controller as positive integer.
15 14 13 12
CONDition part
3 2 1 0
15 14 13 12
PTRansition part
3 2 1 0
15 14 13 12
NTRansition part
3 2 1 0
15 14 13 12
EVENt part
3 2 1 0
to higher-order register
&
&
& & & & &
& & & & & & & & &
+ Sum bit
15 14 13 12
Fig. 5-3
ENABle part
& = logical AND
+ = logical OR
of all bits
3 2 1 0
The status-register model
CONDition part
The CONDition part is directly written into by the hardware or the sum bit of the next lower register. Its
contents reflects the current instrument status. This register part can only be read, but not written into or
cleared. Its contents is not affected by reading.
1302.6163.12
5.21
E-1
Status Reporting System
R&S ESU
PTRansition part
The Positive-TRansition part acts as an edge detector. When a bit of the CONDition part is changed from
0 to 1, the associated PTR bit decides whether the EVENt bit is set to 1.
PTR bit =1: the EVENt bit is set.
PTR bit =0: the EVENt bit is not set.
This part can be written into and read at will. Its contents is not affected by reading.
NTRansition part
The Negative-TRansition part also acts as an edge detector. When a bit of the CONDition part is changed
from 1 to 0, the associated NTR bit decides whether the EVENt bit is set to 1.
NTR-Bit = 1: the EVENt bit is set.
NTR-Bit = 0: the EVENt bit is not set.
This part can be written into and read at will. Its contents is not affected by reading.
With these two edge register parts the user can define which state transition of the condition part (none,
0 to 1, 1 to 0 or both) is stored in the EVENt part.
EVENt part
The EVENt part indicates whether an event has occurred since the last reading, it is the "memory" of the
condition part. It only indicates events passed on by the edge filters. It is permanently updated by the
instrument. This part can only be read by the user. During reading, its contents is set to zero. In linguistic
usage this part is often equated with the entire register.
ENABle part
The ENABle part determines whether the associated EVENt bit contributes to the sum bit (cf. below).
Each bit of the EVENt part is ANDed with the associated ENABle bit (symbol '&'). The results of all logical
operations of this part are passed on to the sum bit via an OR function (symbol '+').
ENABle-Bit = 0: the associated EVENt bit does not contribute to the sum bit
ENABle-Bit = 1: if the associated EVENT bit is "1", the sum bit is set to "1" as well.
This part can be written into and read by the user at will. Its contents is not affected by reading.
Sum bit
As indicated above, the sum bit is obtained from the EVENt and ENABle part for each register. The result
is then entered into a bit of the CONDition part of the higher-order register.
The instrument automatically generates the sum bit for each register. Thus an event, e.g. a PLL that has
not locked, can lead to a service request throughout all levels of the hierarchy.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
The service request enable register SRE defined in IEEE 488.2 can be taken as
ENABle part of the STB if the STB is structured according to SCPI. By analogy, the
ESE can be taken as the ENABle part of the ESR.
5.22
E-1
R&S ESU
Status Reporting System
Overview of the Status Registers
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
& = logic AND
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
= logic OR
of all bits
SRQ
not used
SCAN results available
HCOPy in progress
CALibrating
not used
Subrange limit attained
Subrange 10
Subrange 9
Subrange 8
Subrange 7
Subrange 6
Subrange 5
Subrange 4
Subrange 3
Subrange 2
Subrange 1
STATus:QUEStionable:TRANsducer
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
STATus:OPERation
-&-&-&-&-&-
SRE
7
6 RQS/MSS
5 ESB
4 MAV
3
2
1
0
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-&-&-&-&-&-&-
not used
TRANsducer break
ACPLimit
LMARgin
LIMit
CALibration (= UNCAL)
FREQuency
Outpubuffer
-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&ESE
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Screen B
not used
LMARgin
LMARgin
LMARgin
LMARgin
LMARgin
LMARgin
LMARgin
LMARgin
8 FAIL
7 FAIL
6 FAIL
5 FAIL
4 FAIL
3 FAIL
2 FAIL
1 FAIL
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Screen A
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Screen B
not used
LIMit
LIMit
LIMit
LIMit
LIMit
LIMit
LIMit
LIMit
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
FAIL
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2>
IST flag
Fig. 5-4
ALT2 LOWer FAIL (screen A)
ALT2 UPPer FAIL (screen A)
ALT1 LOWer FAIL (screen A)
ALT1 UPPer FAIL (screen A)
ADJ LOWer FAIL (screen A)
ADJ UPPer FAIL (screen A)
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2>
POWer
STATus:QUEStionable
Error/event
queue
ALT2 LOWer FAIL (screen B)
ALT2 UPPer FAIL (screen B)
ALT1 LOWer FAIL (screen B)
ALT1 UPPer FAIL (screen B)
ADJ LOWer FAIL (screen B)
ADJ UPPer FAIL (screen B)
Screen A
STB
PPE
not used
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Power on
User Request
Command Error
Execution Error
Device Dependent Error
Query Error
Request Control
Operation Complete
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
not used
LO UNLocked (screen B)
LO UNLocked (screen A)b
OVEN COLD
STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
not used
IF_OVerload (screen B)
UNDerload (screen B)
OVERload (screen B)
IF_OVerload (screen A)
UNDerload (screen A)
OVERload (screen A)
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer
ESR
Overview of the status registers
1302.6163.12
5.23
E-1
Status Reporting System
R&S ESU
Description of the Status Registers
Status Byte (STB) and Service Request Enable Register (SRE)
The STB is already defined in IEEE 488.2. It provides a rough overview of the instrument status by
collecting the pieces of information of the lower registers. It can thus be compared with the CONDition
part of an SCPI register and assumes the highest level within the SCPI hierarchy. A special feature is that
bit 6 acts as the sum bit of the remaining bits of the status byte.
The STATUS BYTE is read out using the command "*STB?" or a serial poll.
The STB implies the SRE. It corresponds to the ENABle part of the SCPI registers as to its function. Each
bit of the STB is assigned a bit in the SRE. Bit 6 of the SRE is ignored. If a bit is set in the SRE and the
associated bit in the STB changes from 0 to 1, a Service Request (SRQ) is generated on the IEC bus,
which triggers an interrupt in the controller if this is appropriately configured and can be further processed
there.
The SRE can be set using command "*SRE" and read using "*SRE?".
Table 5-1
Meaning of the bits in the status byte
Bit No.
Meaning
2
Error Queue not empty
The bit is set when an entry is made in the error queue.
If this bit is enabled by the SRE, each entry of the error queue generates a Service Request. Thus an error can be
recognized and specified in greater detail by polling the error queue. The poll provides an informative error message.
This procedure is to be recommended since it considerably reduces the problems involved with IEC-bus control.
3
QUEStionable status sum bit
The bit is set if an EVENt bit is set in the QUEStionable: status register and the associated ENABle bit is set to 1.
A set bit indicates a questionable instrument status, which can be specified in greater detail by polling the
QUEStionable status register.
4
MAV bit (message available)
The bit is set if a message is available in the output buffer which can be read.
This bit can be used to enable data to be automatically read from the instrument to the controller (cf. chapter “Remote
Control – Programming Examples”).
5
ESB bit
Sum bit of the event status register. It is set if one of the bits in the event status register is set and enabled in the
event status enable register.
Setting of this bit implies an error or an event which can be specified in greater detail by polling the event status
register.
6
MSS bit (master status summary bit)
The bit is set if the instrument triggers a service request. This is the case if one of the other bits of this registers is set
together with its mask bit in the service request enable register SRE.
7
OPERation status register sum bit
The bit is set if an EVENt bit is set in the OPERation-Status register and the associated ENABle bit is set to 1.
A set bit indicates that the instrument is just performing an action. The type of action can be determined by polling
the OPERation-status register.
1302.6163.12
5.24
E-1
R&S ESU
Status Reporting System
IST Flag and Parallel Poll Enable Register (PPE)
By analogy with the SRQ, the IST flag combines the entire status information in a single bit. It can be
queried by means of a parallel poll (cf. section “Parallel Poll” on page 5.33) or using command "*IST?".
The parallel poll enable register (PPE) determines which bits of the STB contribute to the IST flag. The
bits of the STB are ANDed with the corresponding bits of the PPE, with bit 6 being used as well in contrast
to the SRE. The Ist flag results from the ORing of all results. The PPE can be set using commands "*PRE"
and read using command "*PRE?".
Event-Status Register (ESR) and Event-Status-Enable Register (ESE)
The ESR is already defined in IEEE 488.2. It can be compared with the EVENt part of an SCPI register.
The event status register can be read out using command "*ESR?".
The ESE is the associated ENABle part. It can be set using command "*ESE" and read using command
"*ESE?".
Table 5-2
Meaning of the bits in the event status register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Operation Complete
This bit is set on receipt of the command *OPC exactly when all previous commands have been executed.
1
This bit is not used
2
Query Error
This bit is set if either the controller wants to read data from the instrument without having send a query, or if it does
not fetch requested data and sends new instructions to the instrument instead. The cause is often a query which is
faulty and hence cannot be executed.
3
Device-dependent Error
This bit is set if a device-dependent error occurs. An error message with a number between -300 and -399 or a
positive error number, which denotes the error in greater detail, is entered into the error queue (cf. chapter “Error
Messages”).
4
Execution Error
This bit is set if a received command is syntactically correct, however, cannot be performed for other reasons. An
error message with a number between -200 and -300, which denotes the error in greater detail, is entered into the
error queue (cf. chapter “Error Messages”).
5
Command Error
This bit is set if a command which is undefined or syntactically incorrect is received. An error message with a number
between -100 and -200, which denotes the error in greater detail, is entered into the error queue (cf. chapter “Error
Messages”).
6
User Request
This bit is set on pressing the LOCAL key.
7
Power On (supply voltage on)
This bit is set on switching on the instrument.
1302.6163.12
5.25
E-1
Status Reporting System
R&S ESU
STATus:OPERation Register
In the CONDition part, this register contains information on which actions the instrument is being
executing or, in the EVENt part, information on which actions the instrument has executed since the last
reading. It can be read using commands "STATus:OPERation:CONDition?" or "STATus:
OPERation[:EVENt]?".
Table 5-3
Meaning of the bits in the STATus.OPERation register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
CALibrating
This bit is set as long as the instrument is performing a calibration.
1 to 7
These bits are not used
8
HardCOPy in progress
This bit is set while the instrument is printing a hardcopy.
9
SCAN results available
This bit is set when a block of scan results is available. Must be enabled by TRAC:FEED:CONT ALWays
10
Sweep Break
This bit is set when end of sweep range is reached (spurious measurement, mode analyzer).
Command “INIT:CONM” has to be used to proceed.
11 to 14
These bits are not used
15
This bit is always 0
1302.6163.12
5.26
E-1
R&S ESU
Status Reporting System
STATus:QUEStionable Register
This register comprises information about indefinite states which may occur if the unit is operated without
meeting the specifications. It can be queried by commands STATus:QUEStionable:CONDition? and
STATus:QUEStionable[:EVENt]?.
Table 5-4
Meaning of bits in STATus:QUEStionable register
Bit No.
Meaning
0 to 2
These bits are not used
3
POWer
This bit is set if a questionable power occurs (cf. also section “STATus:QUEStionable:POWer Register” on
page 5.32)
4
TEMPerature
This bit is set if a questionable temperature occurs.
5
FREQuency
The bit is set if a frequency is questionable (cf. section “STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency Register” on page 5.29)
6 to 7
These bits are not used
8
CALibration
The bit is set if a measurement is performed uncalibrated (equivalent to label "UNCAL")
9
LIMit (device-specific)
This bit is set if a limit value is violated (see also section “STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2> Register” on page 5.30)
10
LMARgin (device-specific)
This bit is set if a margin is violated (see also section “STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2> Register” on
page 5.31)
11
12
This bit is not used
ACPLimit (device-specific)
This bit is set if a limit for the adjacent channel power measurement is violated (see also section “STATus:
QUEStionable:ACPLimit Register” on page 5.28)
13 to 14
These bits are not used
15
This bit is always 0.
1302.6163.12
5.27
E-1
Status Reporting System
R&S ESU
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit Register
This register comprises information about the observance of limits during adjacent power measurements.
It can be queried with commands STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit:CONDition? and STATus:
QUEStionable:ACPLimit[:EVENt]?.
Table 5-5
Meaning of bits in STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
ADJ UPPer FAIL(Screen A)
This bit is set if in screen A. the limit is exceeded in the upper adjacent channel
1
ADJ LOWer FAIL (Screen A)
This bit is set if in screen A the limit is exceeded in the lower adjacent channel.
2
ALT1 UPPer FAIL (Screen A)
This bit is set if in screen A the limit is exceeded in the upper 1st alternate channel.
3
ALT1 LOWer FAIL (Screen A)
This bit is set if in screen A the limit is exceeded in the lower 1st alternate channel.
4
ALT2 UPPer FAIL (Screen A)
This bit is set if in screen A the limit is exceeded in the upper 2nd alternate channel.
5
ALT2 LOWer FAIL (Screen A)
This bit is set if in screen A the limit is exceeded in the lower 2nd alternate channel.
6 to 7
not used
8
ADJ UPPer FAIL (Screen B)
This bit is set if in screen B the limit is exceeded in the upper adjacent channel.
9
ADJ LOWer FAIL (Screen B)
This bit is set if in screen B the limit is exceeded in the lower adjacent channel.
10
ALT1 UPPer FAIL (Screen B)
This bit is set if in screen B the limit is exceeded in the upper 1st alternate channel.
11
ALT1 LOWer FAIL (Screen B)
This bit is set if in screen B the limit is exceeded in the lower 1st alternate channel.
12
ALT2 UPPer FAIL (Screen B)
This bit is set if in screen B the limit is exceeded in the upper 2nd alternate channel.
13
ALT2 LOWer FAIL (Screen B)
This bit is set if in screen B the limit is exceeded in the lower 2nd alternate channel.
14
not used
15
This bit is always set to 0.
1302.6163.12
5.28
E-1
R&S ESU
Status Reporting System
STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency Register
This register comprises information about the reference and local oscillator.
It can be queried with commands STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency:CONDition? and STATus:
QUEStionable:FREQuency[:EVENt]?.
Table 5-6
Meaning of bits in STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
OVEN COLD
This bit is set if the reference oscillator has not yet attained its operating temperature. 'OCXO' will then be displayed.
1
LO UNLocked (Screen A)
This bit is set if the local oscillator no longer locks. 'LOUNL will then be displayed.
2 to 8
not used
9
LO UNLocked (Screen B)
This bit is set if the local oscillator no longer locks.' LOUNL' will then be displayed.
10 to 14
not used
15
This bit is always 0.
1302.6163.12
5.29
E-1
Status Reporting System
R&S ESU
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2> Register
This register comprises information about the observance of limit lines in the corresponding measurement
window (LIMit 1 corresponds to Screen A, LIMit 2 to Screen B). It can be queried with commands
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2>:CONDition? and STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2>[:
EVENt]?.
Table 5-7
Meaning of bits in STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2> register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
LIMit 1 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 1 is violated.
1
LIMit 2 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 2 is violated.
2
LIMit 3 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 3 is violated.
3
LIMit 4 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 4 is violated.
4
LIMit 5 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 5 is violated.
5
LIMit 6 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 6 is violated.
6
LIMit 7 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 7 is violated.
7
LIMit 8 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 8 is violated.
8 to 14
not used
15
This bit is always 0.
1302.6163.12
5.30
E-1
R&S ESU
Status Reporting System
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2> Register
This register comprises information about the observance of limit margins in the corresponding
measurement window (LMARgin1 corresponds to Screen A, LMARgin2 corresponds to Screen B). It can
be queried with commands STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2>:CONDition? and "STATus:
QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2>[:EVENt]?.
Table 5-8
Meaning of bits in STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin<1|2> register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
LMARgin 1 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 1 is violated.
1
LMARgin 2 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 2 is violated.
2
LMARgin 3 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 3 is violated.
3
LMARgin 4 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 4 is violated.
4
LMARgin 5 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 5 is violated.
5
LMARgin 6 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 1 is violated.
6
LMARgin 7 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 7 is violated.
7
LMARgin 8 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 8 is violated.
8 to 14
not used
15
This bit is always 0.
1302.6163.12
5.31
E-1
Status Reporting System
R&S ESU
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer Register
This register comprises all information about possible overloads of the unit.
It can be queried with commands STATus:QUEStionable:POWer:CONDition? and STATus:
QUEStionable:POWer[:EVENt]?.
Table 5-9
Bit No.
0
Meaning of bits in STATus:QUEStionable:POWer register
Meaning
OVERload (Screen A)
This bit is set if the RF input is overloaded. 'OVLD' will then be displayed.
1
UNDerload (Screen A)
This bit is set if the RF input is underloaded. 'UNLD' will then be displayed.
2
IF_OVerload (Screen A)
This bit is set if the IF path is overloaded. 'IFOVL' will then be displayed.
3 to 7
not used
8
OVERload (Screen B)
This bit is set if the RF input is overloaded. 'OVLD' will then be displayed.
9
UNDerload (Screen B)
This bit is set if the RF input is underloaded. 'UNLD' will then be displayed.
10
IF_OVerload (Screen B)
This bit is set if the IF path is overloaded. 'IFOVL' will then be displayed.
11 to 14
not used
15
This bit is always 0.
1302.6163.12
5.32
E-1
R&S ESU
Status Reporting System
Application of the Status Reporting Systems
In order to be able to effectively use the status reporting system, the information contained there must be
transmitted to the controller and further processed there. There are several methods which are
represented in the following. Detailed program examples are to be found in chapter “Remote Control –
Programming Examples”.
Service Request, Making Use of the Hierarchy Structure
Under certain circumstances, the instrument can send a service request (SRQ) to the controller. Usually
this service request initiates an interrupt at the controller, to which the control program can react with
corresponding actions. As evident from Fig. 5-4, an SRQ is always initiated if one or several of bits 2, 3,
4, 5 or 7 of the status byte are set and enabled in the SRE. Each of these bits combines the information
of a further register, the error queue or the output buffer. The corresponding setting of the ENABle parts
of the status registers can achieve that arbitrary bits in an arbitrary status register initiate an SRQ. In order
to make use of the possibilities of the service request, all bits should be set to "1" in enable registers SRE
and ESE.
Examples (cf. Fig. 5-4 and chapter “Remote Control – Programming Examples”):
Use of command "*OPC" to generate an SRQ at the end of a sweep.
➢ CALL IBWRT(analyzer%, "*ESE 1")Set bit 0 in the ESE (Operation Complete)
➢ CALL IBWRT(analyzer%, "*SRE 32")Set bit 5 in the SRE (ESB)?
After its settings have been completed, the instrument generates an SRQ.
The SRQ is the only possibility for the instrument to become active on its own. Each controller program
should set the instrument in a way that a service request is initiated in the case of malfunction. The
program should react appropriately to the service request. A detailed example for a service request
routine is to be found in chapter “Remote Control – Programming Examples”.
Serial Poll
In a serial poll, just as with command "*STB", the status byte of an instrument is queried. However, the
query is realized via interface messages and is thus clearly faster. The serial-poll method has already
been defined in IEEE 488.1 and used to be the only standard possibility for different instruments to poll
the status byte. The method also works with instruments which do not adhere to SCPI or IEEE 488.2.
The VISUAL BASIC command for executing a serial poll is "IBRSP()". Serial poll is mainly used to obtain
a fast overview of the state of several instruments connected to the IEC bus.
Parallel Poll
In a parallel poll, up to eight instruments are simultaneously requested by the controller by means of a
single command to transmit 1 bit of information each on the data lines, i.e., to set the data line allocated
to each instrument to logically "0" or "1". By analogy to the SRE register which determines under which
conditions an SRQ is generated, there is a parallel poll enable register (PPE) which is ANDed with the
STB bit by bit as well considering bit 6. The results are ORed, the result is then sent (possibly inverted)
as a response in the parallel poll of the controller. The result can also be queried without parallel poll by
means of command "*IST".
The instrument first has to be set for the parallel poll using quick-BASIC command "IBPPC()". This
command allocates a data line to the instrument and determines whether the response is to be inverted.
The parallel poll itself is executed using "IBRPP()".
1302.6163.12
5.33
E-1
Status Reporting System
R&S ESU
The parallel-poll method is mainly used in order to quickly find out after an SRQ which instrument has sent
the service request if there are many instruments connected to the IEC bus. To this effect, SRE and PPE
must be set to the same value. A detailed example as to the parallel poll is to be found in chapter “Remote
Control – Programming Examples”.
Query by Means of Commands
Each part of every status register can be read by means of queries. The individual commands are
indicated in the detailed description of the registers. What is returned is always a number which
represents the bit pattern of the register queried. Evaluating this number is effected by the controller
program.
Queries are usually used after an SRQ in order to obtain more detailed information on the cause of the
SRQ.
Error Queue Query
Each error state in the instrument leads to an entry in the error queue. The entries of the error queue are
detailed plain-text error messages which can be looked at in the ERROR menu via manual control or
queried via the IEC bus using command "SYSTem:ERRor?". Each call of "SYSTem:ERRor?" provides an
entry from the error queue. If no error messages are stored there any more, the instrument responds with
0, "No error".
The error queue should be queried after every SRQ in the controller program as the entries describe the
cause of an error more precisely than the status registers. Especially in the test phase of a controller
program the error queue should be queried regularly since faulty commands from the controller to the
instrument are recorded there as well.
1302.6163.12
5.34
E-1
R&S ESU
Status Reporting System
Resetting Values of the Status Reporting System
Table 5-10 comprises the different commands and events causing the status reporting system to be reset.
None of the commands, except for *RST and SYSTem:PRESet influences the functional instrument
settings. In particular, DCL does not change the instrument settings.
Table 5-10 Resetting instrument functions
Event
Switching on
supply voltage
Power-On-StatusClear
DCL,SDC
(Device Clear,
Selected
Device Clear)
*RST or
SYSTem:
PRESet
STATus:
PRESet
*CLS
—
—
yes
Effect
0
1
Clear STB,ESR
—
yes
—
Clear SRE,ESE
—
yes
—
—
—
Clear PPE
—
yes
—
—
—
Clear EVENTt parts of the
registers
—
yes
—
—
Clear Enable parts of all
OPERation and QUEStionable
registers, Fill Enable parts of all
other registers with "1".
—
yes
—
—
yes
—
Fill PTRansition parts with "1" ,
Clear NTRansition parts
—
yes
—
—
yes
—
Clear error queue
yes
yes
—
—
—
yes
Clear output buffer
yes
yes
yes
1)
1)
1)
Clear command processing and
input buffer
yes
yes
yes
—
—
—
yes
1) Every command being the first in a command line, i.e., immediately following a <PROGRAM
MESSAGE TERMINATOR> clears the output buffer.
1302.6163.12
5.35
E-1
Status Reporting System
1302.6163.12
R&S ESU
5.36
E-1
R&S ESU
6
Remote Control – Description of Commands
Remote Control – Description of
Commands
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3
Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4
Common Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7
ABORt Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.10
CALCulate Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.11
CALCulate:DELTamarker Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.12
CALCulate:LIMit Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CALCulate:LIMit:CONTrol Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CALCulate:LIMit:LOWer Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CALCulate:LIMit:UPPer Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.20
6.24
6.31
6.33
6.36
CALCulate:MARKer Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:HARMonics Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.39
6.49
6.60
6.61
6.68
6.70
CALCulate:MATH Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.82
CALCulate:PEAKsearch I PSEarch Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.84
CALCulate:STATistics Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.85
CALCulate:THReshold Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.89
CALibration Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.91
DIAGnostic Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.93
DISPlay Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.97
FORMat Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.107
HCOPy Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.108
INITiate Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.118
INPut Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.121
INSTrument Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.126
MMEMory Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.129
OUTPut Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.142
SENSe Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.144
SENSe:AVERage Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.145
SENSe:BANDwidth Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.147
SENSe:CORRection Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.152
1302.6163.12
6.1
E-1
Remote Control – Description of Commands
R&S ESU
SENSe:DEMod Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.160
SENSe:DETector Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.161
SENSe:FMEasurement Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.163
SENSe:FREQuency Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.166
SENSe:LIST Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.169
SENSe:MPOWer Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.178
SENSe:POWer Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.182
SENSe:ROSCillator Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.189
SENSe:SCAN Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.191
SENSe:SWEep Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.194
SOURce Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.198
SOURce:EXTernal Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.201
STATus Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.205
SYSTem Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.214
TRACe Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.225
General Trace Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.225
Number and Format of the Measurement Values for the Different Operating Modes . . . 6.227
TRACe:IQ Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.230
TRIGger Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.240
UNIT Subsystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.242
IEC/IEEE-Bus Commands of HP Models 856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and 8594E . . . . . . . . . 6.243
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.243
Command Set of Models 8560E, 8561E, 8562E, 8563E, 8564E, 8565E, 8566A/B,
8568A/B and 8594E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.244
Special Features of the Syntax Parsing Algorithms for 8566A and 8568A Models . . . . . 6.261
Special Behavior of Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.262
Model-Dependent Default Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.264
Data Output Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.265
Trace Data Output Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.265
Trace Data Input Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.265
IEC/IEEE-Bus Status Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.266
Differences in GPIB Behavior between the FSP and the FSE Families of Instruments . . . 6.267
1302.6163.12
6.2
E-1
R&S ESU
Introduction
Introduction
This chapter describes all remote control commands for the EMI Test Receiver functions of the R&S ESU
in detail. The remote control commands for phase noise measurements are provided in the appendix. For
details on the notation of the remote control commands refer to “Notation” on page 6.4.
The remote control commands are sorted according to the subsystem they belong to. The following
subsystems are included in this chapter:
•
“Common Commands” on page 6.7
•
“ABORt Subsystem” on page 6.10
•
“CALCulate Subsystem” on page 6.11
•
“CALibration Subsystem” on page 6.91
•
“DIAGnostic Subsystem” on page 6.93
•
“DISPlay Subsystem” on page 6.97
•
“FORMat Subsystem” on page 6.107
•
“HCOPy Subsystem” on page 6.108
•
“INITiate Subsystem” on page 6.118
•
“INPut Subsystem” on page 6.121
•
“INSTrument Subsystem” on page 6.126
•
“MMEMory Subsystem” on page 6.129
•
“SENSe Subsystem” on page 6.144
•
“SOURce Subsystem” on page 6.198
•
“STATus Subsystem” on page 6.205
•
“SYSTem Subsystem” on page 6.214
•
“TRACe Subsystem” on page 6.225
•
“TRIGger Subsystem” on page 6.240
•
“UNIT Subsystem” on page 6.242
Additionally, a subset of IEC/IEEE-bus commands of HP models is supported. These commands are
listed in section “IEC/IEEE-Bus Commands of HP Models 856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and 8594E” on
page 6.243. For information on differences between the FSP and FSE families refer to section
“Differences in GPIB Behavior between the FSP and the FSE Families of Instruments” on page 6.267.
1302.6163.12
6.3
E-1
Notation
R&S ESU
Notation
In the following sections, all commands implemented in the instrument are first listed in tables and then
described in detail, arranged according to the command subsystems. The notation is adapted to the SCPI
standard. The SCPI conformity information is included in the individual description of the commands.
Table of Commands
Command:
In the command column, the table provides an overview of the commands and their
hierarchical arrangement (see indentations).
Parameter:
The parameter column indicates the requested parameters together with their
specified range.
Unit:
The unit column indicates the basic unit of the physical parameters.
Comment:
In the comment column an indication is made on:
– whether the command does not have a query form,
– whether the command has only one query form
– whether the command is implemented only with a certain option of the
instrument
Indentations
The different levels of the SCPI command hierarchy are represented in the table by
means of indentations to the right. The lower the level, the further the indentation
to the right. Please note that the complete notation of the command always includes
the higher levels as well.
Example:
SENSe:FREQuency:CENTer is represented in the table as follows:
SENSe first level
:FREQuency second level
:CENTer third level
Individual
description
The individual description contains the complete notation of the command. An
example for each command, the *RST value and the SCPI information are included
as well.
The operating modes for which a command can be used are indicated by the
following abbreviations:
– R – receiver
– A – spectrum analysis
– A-F – spectrum analysis - frequency domain only
– A-T – spectrum analysis - time domain only (zero span)
– FM – analog demodulation
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
The receiver and spectrum analysis modes are implemented
in the basic unit. For the other modes, the corresponding
options are required.
6.4
E-1
R&S ESU
Upper/lower case
notation
Notation
Upper/lower case letters are used to mark the long or short form of the key words
of a command in the description (see chapter “Remote Control – Basics”). The
instrument itself does not distinguish between upper and lower case letters.
Special characters |
A selection of key words with an identical effect exists for several commands.
These key words are indicated in the same line; they are separated by a vertical
stroke. Only one of these key words needs to be included in the header of the
command. The effect of the command is independent of which of the key words is
used.
Example:
SENSe:FREQuency:CW|:FIXed
The two following commands with identical meaning can be created. They set
the frequency of the fixed frequency signal to 1 kHz:
SENSe:FREQuency:CW 1E3 = SENSe:FREQuency:FIXed 1E3
A vertical stroke in parameter indications marks alternative possibilities in the
sense of "or". The effect of the command is different, depending on which
parameter is used.
Example: Selection of the parameters for the command
DISPlay:FORMat FULL | SPLit
If parameter FULL is selected, full screen is displayed, in the case of SPLit, split
screen is displayed.
[ ]
Key words in square brackets can be omitted when composing the header (cf.
chapter “Remote Control – Basics”, section “Optional key words” on page 5.12).
The full command length must be accepted by the instrument for reasons of
compatibility with the SCPI standards.
Parameters in square brackets can be incorporated optionally in the command or
omitted as well.
{ }
Parameters in braces can be incorporated optionally in the command, either not at
all, once or several times.
Description of
parameters
Due to the standardization, the parameter section of SCPI commands consists
always of the same syntactical elements. SCPI has therefore specified a series of
definitions, which are used in the tables of commands. In the tables, these
established definitions are indicated in angled brackets (<...>) and will be briefly
explained in the following (see also chapter “Remote Control – Basics”, section
“Parameters” on page 5.15).
<Boolean>
This key word refers to parameters which can adopt two states, "on" and "off". The
"off" state may either be indicated by the key word OFF or by the numeric value 0,
the "on" state is indicated by ON or any numeric value other than zero. Parameter
queries are always returned the numeric value 0 or 1.
1302.6163.12
6.5
E-1
Notation
<numeric_value>
<num>
R&S ESU
These key words mark parameters which may be entered as numeric values or be
set using specific key words (character data).
The following key words given below are permitted:
– MINimum – This key word sets the parameter to the smallest possible value.
– MAXimum – This key word sets the parameter to the largest possible value.
– DEFault – This key word is used to reset the parameter to its default value.
– UP – This key word increments the parameter value.
– DOWN – This key word decrements the parameter value.
The numeric values associated to MAXimum/MINimum/DEFault can be queried by
adding the corresponding key words to the command. They must be entered
following the quotation mark.
Example:
SENSe:FREQuency:CENTer? MAXimum
returns the maximum possible numeric value of the center frequency as result.
<arbitrary block
program data>
1302.6163.12
This key word is provided for commands the parameters of which consist of a binary
data block.
6.6
E-1
R&S ESU
Common Commands
Common Commands
The common commands are taken from the IEEE 488.2 (IEC 625-2) standard. A particular command has
the same effect on different devices. The headers of these commands consist of an asterisk "*" followed
by three letters. Many common commands refer to the status reporting system which is described in detail
in chapter “Remote Control – Basics”.
Command
Function
Comment
*CAL?
Calibration Query
query only
*CLS
Clear Status
no query
*ESE
Parameter
0 to 255
Event Status Enable
*ESR?
Standard Event Status Query
query only
*IDN?
Identification Query
query only
*IST?
Individual Status Query
query only
*OPC
Operation Complete
*OPT?
Option Identification Query
query only
no query
*PCB
0 to 30
Pass Control Back
*PRE
0 to 255
Parallel Poll Register Enable
*PSC
0|1
Power On Status Clear
*RST
*SRE
Reset
0 to 255
no query
Service Request Enable
*STB?
Status Byte Query
query only
*TRG
Trigger
no query
*TST?
Self Test Query
query only
*WAI
Wait to continue
no query
*CAL?
CALIBRATION QUERY initiates a calibration of the instrument and subsequently queries the
calibration status. Any responses > 0 indicate errors.
*CLS
CLEAR STATUS sets the status byte (STB), the standard event register (ESR) and the EVENt-part of
the QUEStionable and the OPERation register to zero. The command does not alter the mask and
transition parts of the registers. It clears the output buffer.
*ESE 0 to 255
EVENT STATUS ENABLE sets the event status enable register to the value indicated. The query form
*ESE? returns the contents of the event status enable register in decimal form.
*ESR?
STANDARD EVENT STATUS QUERY returns the contents of the event status register in decimal
form (0 to 255) and subsequently sets the register to zero.
1302.6163.12
6.7
E-1
Common Commands
R&S ESU
*IDN?
IDENTIFICATION QUERY queries the instrument identification.
Example: " Rohde&Schwarz, ESU-26, 123456/789, 3.97"
ESU-26 = Device name
123456/789 = Serial number of the instrument
3.97 = Firmware version number
*IST?
INDIVIDUAL STATUS QUERY returns the contents of the IST flag in decimal form (0 | 1). The IST flag
is the status bit which is sent during a parallel poll (cf. chapter “Remote Control – Basics”).
*OPC
OPERATION COMPLETE sets bit 0 in the event status register when all preceding commands have
been executed. This bit can be used to initiate a service request (cf. chapter “Remote Control –
Basics”).
*OPC?
OPERATION COMPLETE QUERY writes message "1" into the output buffer as soon as all preceding
commands have been executed (cf. chapter “Remote Control – Basics”).
*OPT?
OPTION IDENTIFICATION QUERY checks which options the instrument contains and returns a list of
installed options. The individual options are separated by commas.
Position
Option
1
2
Reserved
B4
OCXO
3
Preselector (always present)
4 to 6
Reserved
7
B9
Tracking Generator 3.6 GHz / I/Q can be
modulated
8
B10
Ext. Generator Control
9
10
Reserved
B12
Attenuator for Tracking Generator
11 to 13
Reserved
14 to 16
LAN Interface
17
Reserved
18
ESU-K53
19 to 31
32
33 to 51
Time Domain Scan
Reserved
FS-K7
FM Demodulator
Reserved
Example:
1302.6163.12
6.8
E-1
R&S ESU
Common Commands
0,B4,0,B6,0,0,B9,B10,0,0,0,0,0,B16,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,K5,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0
*PCB 0 to 30
PASS CONTROL BACK indicates the controller address which the IEC-bus control is to be returned
to after termination of the triggered action.
*PRE 0 to 255
PARALLEL POLL REGISTER ENABLE sets the parallel poll enable register to the indicated value.
The query form *PRE? returns the contents of the parallel poll enable register in decimal form.
*PSC 0 | 1
POWER ON STATUS CLEAR determines whether the contents of the ENABle registers are
preserved or reset during power-up.
*PSC = 0
causes the contents of the status registers to be preserved. Thus a service request
can be generated when switching on the instrument, if the status registers ESE and
SRE are suitably configured.
*PSC <> 0
Resets the registers.
The query form *PSC? reads out the contents of the power-on-status-clear flag. The response can be
0 or 1.
*RST
RESET sets the instrument to a defined default status. The command essentially corresponds to
pressing the PRESET key. The default setting is indicated in the description of the commands.
*SRE 0 to 255
SERVICE REQUEST ENABLE sets the service request enable register to the indicated value. Bit 6
(MSS mask bit) remains 0. This command determines under which conditions a service request is
generated. The query form *SRE? reads the contents of the service request enable register in decimal
form. Bit 6 is always 0.
*STB?
READ STATUS BYTE QUERY reads out the contents of the status byte in decimal form.
*TRG
TRIGGER initiates all actions in the currently active test screen expecting a trigger event. This
command corresponds to INITiate:IMMediate (cf. section “TRIGger Subsystem” on page 6.240).
*TST?
SELF TEST QUERY initiates the selftest of the instrument and outputs an error code in decimal form
(0 = no error).
*WAI
WAIT-to-CONTINUE permits servicing of subsequent commands only after all preceding commands
have been executed and all signals have settled (cf. section “*OPC” on page 6.8 and chapter “Remote
Control – Basics”).
1302.6163.12
6.9
E-1
ABORt Subsystem
R&S ESU
ABORt Subsystem
The ABORt subsystem contains the commands for aborting triggered actions. An action can be triggered
again immediately after being aborted. All commands trigger events, and therefore they have no *RST
value.
ABORt
This command aborts a current measurement and resets the trigger system.
Example:
"ABOR;INIT:IMM"
Characteristics: *RST value: 0
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
R, A, FM
:HOLD
This command interrupts a current scan measurement. The scan is resumed by “INITiate<1|2>[:
IMMediate]” on page 6.119
Example:
"HOLD"
'interrupts the current scan measurement
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
1302.6163.12
R
6.10
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate Subsystem
The CALCulate subsystem contains commands for converting instrument data, transforming and carrying
out corrections. These functions are carried out subsequent to data acquisition, i.e. following the SENSe
subsystem.
The numeric suffix is used in CALCulate to make the distinction between the two measurement windows
SCREEN A and SCREEN B:
CALCulate1 = Screen A
CALCulate2 = Screen B.
For commands without suffix, screen A is selected automatically.
Full Screen
The settings are valid for the measurement window selected with the numeric
suffix. They become effective as soon as the corresponding measurement window
has been selected as active measurement window using the command
DISPLay[:WINDow<1|2>]:SELect. Triggering measurements and querying
measured values is possible only in the active measurement window.
Split Screen
The settings are valid for the measurement window selected by means of the
numeric suffix and become effective immediately.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
In the receiver mode, the marker can be activated only for the scan display. The
numeric suffixes are irrelevant. In receiver mode the markers can only be activated
after a scan is carried out.
6.11
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate:DELTamarker Subsystem
The CALCulate:DELTamarker subsystem controls the delta-marker functions in the instrument. The
measurement windows are selected via CALCulate1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
In the receiver mode, the markers can only be activated after a scan is performed.
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on and off the delta marker when delta marker 1 is selected. The
corresponding marker becomes the delta marker when delta marker 2 to 4 is selected. If the
corresponding marker is not activated, it will be activated and positioned on the maximum of the
measurement curve.
If no numeric suffix is indicated, delta marker 1 is selected automatically.
Example:
"CALC:DELT3 ON"
'Switches marker 3 in screen A to delta marker mode.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:MODE
ABSolute | RELative
This command switches between relative and absolute frequency input of the delta marker (or time
with span = 0). It affects all delta markers independent of the measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:DELT:MODE ABS"
'Switches the frequency/time indication for all delta markers to absolute values.
"CALC:DELT:MODE REL"
'Switches the frequency/time indication for all delta markers to relative to marker 1.
Characteristics: *RST value: REL
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:AOFF
This command switches off all active delta markers in the selected measurement window (screen A or
screen B).
Example:
"CALC2:DELT:AOFF"
'Switches off all delta markers in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
1302.6163.12
6.12
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:TRACe
1 to 3
This command assigns the selected delta marker to the indicated measurement curve in the indicated
measurement window. The selected measurement curve must be active, i.e. its state must be different
from "BLANK".
Example:
"CALC:DELT3:TRAC 2"
'Assigns deltamarker 3 to trace 2 in screen A.
"CALC:DELT:TRAC 3"
'Assigns delta marker 1 to trace 3 in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:X
0 to MAX (frequency | sweep time)
This command positions the selected delta marker in the indicated measurement window to the
indicated frequency (span > 0), time (span = 0) or level (APD measurement = ON or CCDF
measurement = ON). The input is in absolute values or relative to marker 1 depending on the
command CALCulate:DELTamarker:MODE. If Reference Fixed measurement (CALCulate:
DELTamarker:FUNCtion:FIXed:STATe ON) is active, relative values refer to the reference
position are entered. The query always returns absolute values.
Example:
"CALC:DELT:MOD REL"
'Switches the input for all delta markers to relative to marker 1.
"CALC:DELT2:X 10.7MHz"
'Positions delta marker 2 in screen A 10.7 MHz to the right of marker 1.
"CALC2:DELT:X?"
'Outputs the absolute frequency/time of delta marker 1 in screen B
"CALC2:DELT:X:REL?"
'Outputs the relative frequency/time/level of delta marker 1 in screen B
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:X:RELative?
This command queries the frequency (span > 0) or time (span = 0) of the selected delta marker relative
to marker 1 or to the reference position (for CALCulate:DELTamarker:FUNCtion:FIXed:STATe
ON). The command activates the corresponding delta marker, if necessary.
Example:
"CALC:DELT3:X:REL?"
'Outputs the frequency of delta marker 3 in screen B relative to marker 1 or relative
to the reference position.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
1302.6163.12
R, A, FM
6.13
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:Y?
This command queries the measured value of the selected delta marker in the indicated measurement
window. The corresponding delta marker will be activated, if necessary. The output is always a relative
value referred to marker 1 or to the reference position (reference fixed active).
To obtain a valid query result, a complete sweep with synchronization to the sweep end must be
performed between the activation of the delta marker and the query of the y value. This is only possible
in single sweep mode. In receiver mode, the markers can be only activated after a scan is carried out.
Depending on the unit defined with CALC:UNIT or on the activated measuring functions, the query
result is output in the units below:
•
DBM | DBPW | DBUV | DBMV | DBUA: Output unit DB
•
WATT | VOLT | AMPere: Output unit W | V | A
•
Statistics function (APD or CCDF) on: Dimensionless output
•
Result display FM (FS-K7): Hz
•
Result display RF POWER (FS-K7): dB
•
Result display SPECTRUM (FS-K7): dB
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:DELT2 ON"
'Switches on delta marker 2 in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for its end.
"CALC:DELT2:Y?"
'Outputs measurement value of delta marker 2 in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:MAXimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the delta marker to the current maximum value on the measured curve. If
necessary, the corresponding delta marker will be activated first.
Example:
"CALC2:DELT3:MAX"
'Sets delta marker 3 in screen B to the maximum value of the associated trace.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
1302.6163.12
6.14
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:MAXimum:NEXT
This command positions the delta marker to the next smaller maximum value on the measured curve.
The corresponding delta marker will be activated first, if necessary.
Example:
"CALC1:DELT2:MAX:NEXT"
'Sets delta marker 2 in screen A to the next smaller maximum value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:MAXimum:RIGHt
This command positions the delta marker to the next smaller maximum value to the right of the current
value (i.e. ascending X values). The corresponding delta marker is activated first, if necessary.
Example:
"CALC2:DELT:MAX:RIGH"
'Sets delta marker 1 in screen B to the next smaller maximum value to the right of
the current value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:MAXimum:LEFT
This command positions the delta marker to the next smaller maximum value to the left of the current
value (i.e. descending X values). The corresponding delta marker will be activated first, if necessary.
Example:
"CALC:DELT:MAX:LEFT"
'Sets delta marker 1 in screen A to the next smaller maximum value to the left of
the current value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:MINimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the delta marker to the current minimum value on the measured curve. The
corresponding delta marker will be activated first, if necessary.
Example:
"CALC2:DELT3:MIN"
'Sets delta marker 3 in screen B to the minimum value of the associated trace.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
1302.6163.12
6.15
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:MINimum:NEXT
This command positions the delta marker to the next higher minimum value of the measured curve.
The corresponding delta marker will be activated first, if necessary.
Example:
"CALC1:DELT2:MIN:NEXT"
'Sets delta marker 2 in screen A to the next higher minimum value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:MINimum:RIGHt
This command positions the delta marker to the next higher minimum value to the right of the current
value (i.e. ascending X values). The corresponding delta marker will be activated first, if necessary.
Example:
"CALC2:DELT:MIN:RIGH"
'Sets delta marker 1 in screen B to the next higher minimum value to the right of
the current value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:MINimum:LEFT
This command positions the delta marker to the next higher minimum value to the left of the current
value (i.e. descending X values). The corresponding delta marker will be activated first, if necessary.
Example:
"CALC:DELT:MIN:LEFT"
'Sets delta marker 1 in screen A to the next higher minimum to the left of the current
value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1...4>:LINK ON | OFF
This command switches on and off the delta marker when delta marker 1 is selected. The
corresponding marker becomes the delta marker when delta marker 2 to 4 is selected. If the
corresponding marker is not activated, it will be activated and positioned on the maximum of the
measurement curve.
If no numeric suffix is indicated, delta marker 1 is selected automatically.
Example:
"CALC:DELT3 ON"
'Switches marker 3 in screen A to delta marker mode.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
1302.6163.12
R, A
6.16
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:FIXed[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches the relative measurement to a fixed reference value on or off. Marker 1 will
be activated previously and a peak search will be performed, if necessary. If marker 1 is activated, its
position becomes the reference point for the measurement. The reference point can then be modified
with commands CALCulate:DELTamarker:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:X and to:RPOint:Y
independently of the position of marker 1 and of a trace. It is valid for all delta markers in the selected
measurement window as long as the function is active.
Example:
"CALC2:DELT:FUNC:FIX ON"
'Switches on the measurement with fixed reference value for all delta markers in
screen B.
"CALC2:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X 128 MHZ"
'Sets the reference frequency in screen B to 128 MHz.
"CALC2:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y 30 DBM"
'Sets the reference level in screen B to +30 dBm
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific.
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:MAXimum[:PEAK]
<numeric_value>
This command sets the reference point level for all delta markers in the selected measurement window
for a measurement with fixed reference point (CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:STAT ON) to the peak of the
selected trace.
For phase-noise measurements (CALCulate:DELTamarker:FUNCtion:PNOise:STATe ON), the
command defines a new reference point level for delta marker 2 in the selected measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:MAX"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:Y
<numeric_value>
This command defines a new reference point level for all delta markers in the selected measurement
window for a measurement with fixed reference point. (CALCulate:DELTamarker:FUNCtion:
FIXed:STATe ON).
For phase-noise measurements (CALCulate:DELTamarker:FUNCtion:PNOise:STATe ON), the
command defines a new reference point level for delta marker 2 in the selected measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y -10dBm"
'Sets the reference point level for delta markers in screen A to -10 dBm.
Characteristics: *RST value: - (FUNction:FIXed[:STATe] is set to OFF)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
1302.6163.12
A
6.17
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:Y:OFFSet
<numeric_value>
This command defines an additional level offset for the measurement with fixed reference value
(CALCulate:DELTamarker:FUNCtion:FIXed:STATe ON). For this measurement, the offset is
included in the display of all delta markers of the selected measurement window.
For phase-noise measurements (CALCulate:DELTamarker:FUNCtion:PNOise:STATe ON), the
command defines an additional level offset which is included in the display of delta marker 2 in the
selected measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y:OFFS 10dB"
'Sets the level offset for the measurement with fixed reference value or the phasenoise measurement in screen A to 10 dB.
Characteristics: *RST value: 0 dB
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:FIXed:RPOint:X
<numeric_value>
This command defines a new reference frequency (span > 0) or time (span = 0) for all delta markers
in the selected measurement window for a measurement with fixed reference value (CALCulate:
DELTamarker:FUNCtion:FIXed:STATe ON).
For phase-noise measurements (CALCulate:DELTamarker:FUNCtion:PNOise:STATe ON), the
command defines a new reference frequency or time for delta marker 2 in the selected measurement
window.
Example:
"CALC2:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X 128MHz"
'Sets the reference frequency in screen B to 128 MHz.
Characteristics: *RST value: - (FUNction:FIXed[:STATe] is set to OFF)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:PNOise[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the phase-noise measurement with all active delta markers in the
selected measurement window. The correction values for the bandwidth and the log amplifier are
taken into account in the measurement.
Marker 1 will be activated, if necessary, and a peak search will be performed. If marker 1 is activated,
its position becomes the reference point for the measurement.
The reference point can then be modified with commands CALCulate:DELTamarker:FUNCtion:
FIXed:RPOint:X and ...:RPOint:Y independently of the position of marker 1 and of a trace (the
same commands used for the measurement with fixed reference point).
The numeric suffix <1 to 4> with DELTamarker is not relevant for this command.
Example:
"CALC:DELT:FUNC:PNO ON"
'Switches on the phase-noise measurement with all delta markers in screen A.
"CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:X 128 MHZ"
'Sets the reference frequency to 128 MHz.
"CALC:DELT:FUNC:FIX:RPO:Y 30 DBM"
'Sets the reference level to +30 dBm
1302.6163.12
6.18
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:DELTamarker<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:PNOise:RESult?
This command queries the result of the phase-noise measurement in the selected measurement
window. The measurement will be switched on, if necessary.
Example:
"CALC:DELT:FUNC:PNO:RES?"
'Outputs the result of phase-noise measurement of the selected delta marker in
screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
1302.6163.12
6.19
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate:LIMit Subsystem
The CALCulate:LIMit subsystem consists of the limit lines and the corresponding limit checks. In receiver
mode, upper limit lines can be defined. In analyzer mode, limit lines can be defined as upper or lower limit
lines. The individual Y values of the limit lines correspond to the values of the X axis (CONTrol). The
number of X and Y values must be identical.
8 limit lines can be active at the same time (marked by LIMIT1 to LIMIT8) in screen A and/or screen B.
The measurement windows is selected via CALCulate 1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
The limit check can be switched on separately for each measurement screen and limit line. WINDow1
corresponds to screen A, WINDow2 to screen B.
Each limit line can be assigned a name (max. 8 letters) under which the line is stored in the instrument.
An explanatory comment can also be given for each line (max. 40 characters).
Example (analyzer mode):
Definition and use of a new limit line 5 for trace 2 in screen A and trace 1 in screen B with the following
features:
•
upper limit line
•
absolute X axis in the frequency domain
•
5 ref. values: 126 MHz/-40 dB, 127 MHz/-40 dB, 128 MHz/-20 dB, 129 MHz/-40 dB, 130 MHz/-40 dB
•
relative Y axis with unit dB
•
absolute threshold value at -35 dBm
•
no safety margin
Definition of the line:
1. Defining the name: CALC:LIM5:NAME 'TEST1'
2. Entering the comment: CALC:LIM5:COMM 'Upper limit line'
3. Associated trace in screen A: CALC1:LIM5:TRAC 2
4. Associated trace in screen B: CALC2:LIM5:TRAC 1
5. Defining the X axis range: CALC:LIM5:CONT:DOM FREQ
6. Defining the X axis scaling: CALC:LIM5:CONT:MODE ABS
7. Defining the Y axis unit: CALC:LIM5:UNIT DB
8. Defining the Y axis scaling: CALC:LIM5:UPP:MODE REL
9. Defining the X axis values: CALC:LIM5:CONT 126MHZ, 127MHZ, 128MHZ, 129MHZ, 130MHZ
10.Defining the y values: CALC:LIM5:UPP -40, -40, -30, -40, -40
11.Defining the y threshold value: CALC:LIM5:UPP:THR -35DBM
The definition of the safety margin and shifting in X and/or Y direction can take place as from here (see
commands below).
1302.6163.12
6.20
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
Switching on and evaluating the line in screen A:
1. Switching on the line in screen A: CALC1:LIM5:UPP:STAT ON
2. Switching on the limit check in screen A: CALC1:LIM5:STAT ON
3. Starting a new measurement with synchronization: INIT;*WAI
4. Querying the limit check result: CALC1:LIM5:FAIL?
Switching on and evaluating the line in screen B is performed in the same way by using CALC2 instead of
CALC1.
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:CATalog?
This command reads out the names of all limit lines stored on the hard disk.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:CAT?"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:TRACe
1 to 3
This command assigns a limit line to a trace in the indicated measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:TRAC 3"
'Assigns limit line 2 to trace 3 in screen A.
"CALC2:LIM2:TRAC 1"
'Assigns limit line 2 to trace 1 in screen B at the same time.
Characteristics: *RST value: 1
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:STATe ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the limit check for the selected limit line in the selected measurement
window.
The result of the limit check can be queried with CALCulate:LIMit<1 to 8>:FAIL?.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:STAT ON"
'Switches on the limit check for limit line 1 in screen A.
"CALC2:LIM:STAT OFF"
'Switches off the limit check for limit line 1 in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
1302.6163.12
R, A, FM
6.21
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1...8>:UNIT DBM | DBPW | WATT | DBUV | DBMV | VOLT |DBUA | AMPere |
DB | DBPT | DEG | RAD | S | HZ | PCT | DBUV_M | DBUA_M | DBUV_MHZ | DBMV_MHZ |
DBUA_MHZ | DBPW_MHZ | DBPT_MHZ | DBUV_MMHZ | DBUA_MMHZ | UNITLESS
This command defines the unit for the associated limit line.
The specification is valid regardless of the measurement window.
DBxx_MHZ indicates the units dBxx/MHz and DBxx_MMHZ indicates the units dBxx/mMHz (the
measured level is referenced to a 1 MHz bandwidth).
Specification of the DB unit automatically switches the limit line over to relative mode. Units other than
DB cause the limit line to switch over to absolute mode.
Example:
"CALC:LIM4:UNIT DBUV"
'Sets the unit of limit line 4 to dBµV.
Characteristics: *RST value: DBM
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
In the receiver mode, the following units are available: DBM, DBPW, DBUV, DBMV, DBUA, DB, DBPT,
DBUV_M, DBUA_M, DBUV_MHZ, DBMV_MHZ, DBUA_MHZ, DBPW_MHZ, DBPT_MHZ,
DBUV_MMHZ and DBUA_MMHZ.
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:FAIL?
This command queries the result of the limit check of the limit line indicated in the selected
measurement window. It should be noted that a complete sweep must have been performed for
obtaining a valid result. A synchronization with *OPC, *OPC? or *WAI should therefore be provided.
The result of the limit check responds with 0 for PASS, 1 for FAIL, and 2 for MARGIN.
This command is not available in receiver mode.
Example:
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a new sweep and waits for its end.
"CALC2:LIM3:FAIL?"
'Queries the result of the check for limit line 3 in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:CLEar[:IMMediate]
This command deletes the result of the current limit check for all limit lines in the selected
measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:CLE"
'Deletes the result of the limit check in screen A
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value.
1302.6163.12
6.22
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:COMMent
<string>
This command defines a comment for the limit line selected (max. 40 characters). The comment is
independent from the measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM5:COMM 'Upper limit for spectrum'"
'Defines the comment for limit line 5.
Characteristics: *RST value: blank comment
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:COPY 1 to 8 | <name>
This command copies one limit line onto another one. It is independent of the measurement window.
The name of the limit line may consist of max 8 characters.
Parameter:
1 to 8 ::= number of the new limit line or:
<name> ::= name of the new limit line given as a string
Example:
"CALC:LIM1:COPY 2"
'Copies limit line 1 to line 2.
"CALC:LIM1:COPY 'FM2'"
'Copies limit line 1 to a new line named 'FM2'.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:NAME
<name of limit line>
This command assigns a name to a limit line numbered 1 to 8. If it does not exist already, a limit line
with this name is created. The command is independent of the measurement window.
The name of the limit line may contain a maximum of 8 characters.
Example:
"CALC:LIM1:NAME 'FM1'"
'Assigns the name 'FM1' to limit line 1.
Characteristics: *RST value: 'REM1' to 'REM8' for lines 1 to 8
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:DELete
This command deletes the selected limit line. The command is independent of the measurement
window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM1:DEL"
'Deletes limit line 1.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
1302.6163.12
6.23
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower Subsystem
The CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower subsystem defines the limit check for adjacent channel power
measurement.
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:ACPower[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on and off the limit check for adjacent channel power measurements in the
selected measurement window. The commands CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ACHannel:STATe
or CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ALTernate:STATe must be used in addition to specify whether
the limit check is to be performed for the upper/lower adjacent channel or for the alternate adjacent
channels.
The numeric suffixes <1 to 8> are irrelevant for this command.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACP ON"
'Switches on the ACP limit check in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:ACPower:ACHannel[:RELative]
0 to 100dB, 0 to 100dB
This command defines the relative limit of the upper/lower adjacent channel for adjacent channel
power measurements in the selected measurement window. The reference value for the relative limit
value is the measured channel power.
It should be noted that the relative limit value has no effect on the limit check as soon as it is below the
absolute limit value defined with CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ACHannel:ABSolute. This
mechanism allows automatic checking of the absolute basic values of adjacent channel power as
defined in mobile radio standards.
The numeric suffixes <1 to 8> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter:
The first numeric value is the limit for the upper (lower) adjacent channel. The
second value is ignored but must be indicated for reasons of compatibility with the
FSE family.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH 30DB, 30DB"
'Sets the relative limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
adjacent channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
Characteristics: *RST value: 0 dB
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:ACPower:ACHannel[:RELative]:STATe
ON | OFF
This command activates the limit check for the relative limit value of the adjacent channel when
adjacent channel power measurement is performed. Before the command, the limit check must be
activated using CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:STATe ON.
The result can be queried with CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ACHannel:RESult?. It should be
noted that a complete measurement must be performed between switching on the limit check and the
result query, since otherwise no valid results are available.
The numeric suffixes <1 to 8> are irrelevant for this command.
1302.6163.12
6.24
E-1
R&S ESU
Example:
CALCulate Subsystem
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH 30DB, 30DB"
'Sets the relative limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
adjacent channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS -35DBM, -35DBM"
'Sets the absolute limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
adjacent channel to -35 dBm.
"CALC:LIM:ACP ON"
'Switches on globally the limit check for the channel/adjacent channel
measurement in screen A.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:REL:STAT ON"
'Switches on the check of the relative limit values for adjacent channels in screen A.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS:STAT ON"
'Switches on the check of absolute limit values for the adjacent channels in screen
A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a new measurement and waits for the sweep end.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:RES?"
'Queries the limit check result in the adjacent channels in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:ACPower:ACHannel:ABSolute
200DBM
-200DBM to 200DBM, -200 to
This command defines the absolute limit value for the lower/upper adjacent channel during adjacentchannel power measurement (Adjacent Channel Power) in the selected measurement window.
It should be noted that the absolute limit value has no effect on the limit check as soon as it is below
the relative limit value defined with CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ACHannel:RELative. This
mechanism allows automatic checking of the absolute basic values of adjacent channel power as
defined in mobile radio standards.
The numeric suffixes <1 to 8> in LIMIt are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter:
The first value is the limit for the lower and the upper adjacent channel. The second
limit value is ignored but must be indicated for reasons of compatibility with the FSE
family.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS -35DBM, -35DBM"
'Sets the absolute limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
adjacent channel to -35 dBm.
Characteristics: *RST value: -200DBM
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
1302.6163.12
A
6.25
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:ACPower:ACHannel:ABSolute:STATe
ON | OFF
This command activates the limit check for the adjacent channel when adjacent-channel power
measurement (Adjacent Channel Power) is performed. Before the command, the limit check for the
channel/adjacent-channel measurement must be globally switched on using CALC:LIM:ACP ON.
The result can be queried with CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ACHannel:RESult?. It should be
noted that a complete measurement must be performed between switching on the limit check and the
result query, since otherwise no valid results are available.
The numeric suffixes <1 to 8> in LIMIt are irrelevant for this command.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH 30DB, 30DB"
'Sets the relative limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
adjacent channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS -35DBM, -35DBM"
'Sets the absolute limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
adjacent channel to -35 dBm.
"CALC:LIM:ACP ON"
'Switches on globally the limit check for the channel/adjacent channel
measurement in screen A.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:REL:STAT ON"
'Switches on the check of the relative limit values for adjacent channels in screen A.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS:STAT ON"
'Switches on the check of absolute limit values for the adjacent channels in screen
A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a new measurement and waits for the sweep end.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:RES?"
'Queries the limit check result in the adjacent channels in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:ACPower:ACHannel:RESult?
This command queries the result of the limit check for the upper/lower adjacent channel in the selected
measurement window when adjacent channel power measurement is performed.
If the power measurement of the adjacent channel is switched off, the command produces a query
error.
The numeric suffixes <1 to 8> are irrelevant for this command.
Parameter:
1302.6163.12
The result is returned in the form <result>, <result> where
<result> = PASSED | FAILED, and where the first returned value denotes the
lower, the second denotes the upper adjacent channel.
6.26
E-1
R&S ESU
Example:
CALCulate Subsystem
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH 30DB, 30DB"
'Sets the relative limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
adjacent channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS -35DBM, -35DBM"
'Sets the absolute limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
adjacent channel to -35 dB.
"CALC:LIM:ACP ON"
'Switches on globally the limit check for the channel/adjacent channel
measurement in screen A.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:STAT ON"
'Switches on the limit check for the adjacent channels in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a new measurement and waits for the sweep end.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:RES?"
'Queries the limit check result in the adjacent channels in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>[:RELative]
0 to 100dB, 0 to 100dB.
This command defines the limit for the alternate adjacent channels in the selected measurement
window for adjacent channel power measurements. The reference value for the relative limit value is
the measured channel power.
The numeric suffix after ALTernate<1...11> denotes the alternate channel. The numeric suffixes <1 to
8> are irrelevant for this command.
It should be noted that the relative limit value has no effect on the limit check as soon as it is below the
absolute limit defined with CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:ABSolute. This
mechanism allows automatic checking of the absolute basic values of adjacent channel power as
defined in mobile radio standards.
Parameter:
The first value is the limit for the lower and the upper alternate adjacent channel.
The second limit value is ignored but must be indicated for reasons of compatibility
with the FSE family.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2 30DB, 30DB"
'Sets the relative limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
alternate adjacent channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
Characteristics: *RST value: 0DB
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
1302.6163.12
A
6.27
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>[:RELative]:STATe
ON | OFF
This command activates the limit check for the alternate adjacent channels in the selected
measurement window for adjacent channel power measurements. Before the command, the limit
check must be activated using CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:STATe ON.
The numeric suffix after ALTernate<1...11> denotes the alternate channel. The numeric suffixes <1 to
8> are irrelevant for this command.
The result can be queried with CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:RESult?. It
should be noted that a complete measurement must be performed between switching on the limit
check and the result query, since otherwise no valid results are obtained.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2 30DB, 30DB"
'Sets the relative limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
second alternate adjacent channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:ABS -35DBM, -35DBM"
'Sets the absolute limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
second alternate adjacent channel to -35 dBm.
"CALC:LIM:ACP ON"
'Switches on globally the limit check for the channel/adjacent channel
measurement in screen A.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:REL:STAT ON"
'Switches on the check of the relative limit values for the alternate adjacent
channels in screen A.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS:STAT ON"
'Switches on the check of absolute limit values for the alternate adjacent channels
in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a new measurement and waits for the sweep end.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:RES?"
'Queries the limit check result in the second alternate adjacent channels in screen
A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:ABSolute
-200DBM to 200DBM
-200DBM to 200DBM,
This command defines the absolute limit value for the lower/upper alternate adjacent channel power
measurement (Adjacent Channel Power) in the selected measurement window.
The numeric suffix after ALTernate<1...11> denotes the alternate channel. The numeric suffixes <1 to
8> are irrelevant for this command.
It should be noted that the absolute limit value for the limit check has no effect as soon as it is below
the relative limit value defined with CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:
RELative. This mechanism allows automatic checking of the absolute basic values defined in mobile
radio standards for the power in adjacent channels.
Parameter:
1302.6163.12
The first value is the limit for the lower and the upper alternate adjacent channel.
The second limit value is ignored but must be indicated for reasons of compatibility
with the FSE family.
6.28
E-1
R&S ESU
Example:
CALCulate Subsystem
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:ABS -35DBM, -35DBM"
'Sets the absolute limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
second alternate adjacent channel to -35 dBm.
Characteristics: *RST value: -200DBM
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:ABSolute:STATe
ON | OFF
This command activates the limit check for the alternate adjacent channels in the selected
measurement window for adjacent channel power measurement (Adjacent Channel Power).
Before the command, the limit check must be globally switched on for the channel/adjacent channel
power with the command CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:STATe ON.
The numeric suffix after ALTernate<1...11> denotes the alternate channel. The numeric suffixes <1 to
8> are irrelevant for this command.
The result can be queried with CALCulate:LIMit:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:RESult?. It
should be noted that a complete measurement must be performed between switching on the limit
check and the result query, since otherwise no valid results are available.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2 30DB, 30DB"
'Sets the relative limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
second alternate adjacent channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:ABS -35DBM, -35DBM"
'Sets the absolute limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
second alternate adjacent channel to -35 dBm.
"CALC:LIM:ACP ON"
'Switches on globally the limit check for the channel/adjacent channel
measurement in screen A.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:REL:STAT ON"
Switches on the check of the relative limit values for the alternative adjacent
channels in screen A.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:ABS:STAT ON"
'Switches on the check of absolute limit values for the alternative adjacent
channels in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a new measurement and waits for the sweep end.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ACH:RES?"
'Queries the limit check result in the second alternate adjacent channels in screen
A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
1302.6163.12
A
6.29
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:ACPower:ALTernate<1...11>:RESult?
This command queries the result of the limit check for the alternate adjacent channels in the selected
measurement window for adjacent channel power measurements.
The numeric suffix after ALTernate<1...11> denotes the alternate channel. The numeric suffixes <1 to
8> are irrelevant for this command.
If the power measurement of the adjacent channel is switched off, the command produces a query
error.
Parameter:
The result is returned in the form <result>, <result> where
<result> = PASSED | FAILED and where the first (second) returned value denotes
the lower (upper) alternate adjacent channel.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2 30DB, 30DB"
'Sets the relative limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
second alternate adjacent channel to 30 dB below the channel power.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT2:ABS -35DBM, -35DBM"
'Sets the absolute limit value in screen A for the power in the lower and upper
second alternate adjacent channel to -35 dBm.
"CALC:LIM:ACP ON"
'Switches on globally the limit check for the channel/adjacent channel
measurement in screen A.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT:STAT ON"
'Switches on the limit check for the adjacent channels in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a new measurement and waits for the sweep end.
"CALC:LIM:ACP:ALT:RES?"
'Queries the limit check result in the second alternate adjacent channels in screen
A.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is a query and therefore has no *RST value.
1302.6163.12
6.30
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate:LIMit:CONTrol Subsystem
The CALCulate:LIMit:CONTrol subsystem defines the x axis (CONTrol-axis).
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:CONTrol[:DATA]
<numeric_value>,<numeric_value>..
This command defines the X axis values (frequencies or times) of the upper or lower limit lines. The
values are defined independently of the measurement window.
The number of values for the CONTrol axis and for the corresponding UPPer and/or LOWer limit lines
have to be identical. Otherwise default values are entered for missing values or not required values
are deleted.
In analyzer mode, the unit of values depends on the frequency or time domain of the X axis, i.e. it is
HZ with CALC:LIM:CONT:DOM FREQ and S with CALC:LIM:CONT:DOM TIME.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:CONT 1MHz,30MHz,100MHz, 300MHz,1GHz"
'Defines 5 reference values for the X axis of limit line 2
"CALC:LIM2:CONT?"
'Outputs the reference values for the X axis of limit line 2 separated by a comma.
Characteristics: *RST value: - (LIMit:STATe is set to OFF)
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:CONTrol:DOMain
FREQuency | TIME
This command defines the frequency or time domain for the x axis values.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:CONT:DOM TIME"
'Defines the time domain for the X axis of limit line 2.
Characteristics: *RST value: FREQuency
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:CONTrol:OFFSet
<numeric_value>
This command defines an offset for the X axis value of the selected relative limit line in the frequency
or time domain.
The unit of values depends on the frequency or time domain of the X axis, i.e. it is HZ with CALC:LIM:
CONT:DOM FREQ and S with CALC:LIM:CONT:DOM TIME.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:CONT:OFFS 100us"
'Sets the X offset for limit line 2 (defined in the time domain) to 100µs.
Characteristics: *RST value: 0
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
1302.6163.12
R, A, FM
6.31
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:CONTrol:MODE RELative | ABSolute
This command selects the relative or absolute scaling for the X axis of the selected limit line. The
definition is independent of the measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:CONT:MODE REL"
'Defines the X axis of limit line 2 as relatively scaled.
Characteristics: *RST value: ABSolute
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:CONTrol:SHIFt <numeric_value>
This command moves a limit line by the indicated value in x direction. In contrast to CALC:LIM:CONT:
OFFS, the line is shifted by modifying the individual x values and not by means of an additive offset.
The shift is independent of the measurement window.
In the analyzer mode, the unit of values depends on the frequency or time domain of the X axis, i.e. it
is HZ with CALC:LIM:CONT:DOM FREQ and S with CALC:LIM:CONT:DOM TIME.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:CONT:SHIF 50KHZ"
'Shifts all reference values of limit line 2 by 50 kHz.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 ... 8>:CONTrol:SPACing
LINear | LOGarithmic
This command selects linear or logarithmic interpolation for the calculation of limit lines from frequency
points.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:CONT:SPAC LIN"
Characteristics: *RST value: LIN
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
1302.6163.12
R, A
6.32
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate:LIMit:LOWer Subsystem
The CALCulate:LIMit:LOWer subsystem defines the lower limit line. This subsystem is not available in
receiver mode.
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:LOWer[:DATA]
<numeric_value>,<numeric_value>..
This command defines the values for the selected lower limit line independently of the measurement
window.
The number of values for the CONTrol axis and for the corresponding LOWer limit line has to be
identical. Otherwise default values are entered for missing values or not necessary values are deleted.
The unit must be identical with the unit selected by CALC:LIM:UNIT. If no unit is indicated, the unit
defined with CALC:LIM:UNIT is automatically used.
If the measured values are smaller than the LOWer limit line, the limit check signals errors.
The units DEG, RAD, S, HZ, PCT are not available in the RECEIVER mode.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:LOW -30,-40,-10,-40,-30"
'Defines 5 lower limit values for limit line 2 in the preset unit.
"CALC:LIM2:LOW?"
'Outputs the lower limit values of limit line 2 separated by a comma.
Characteristics: *RST value: - (LIMit:STATe is set to OFF)
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:LOWer:STATe ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the indicated limit line in the selected measurement window. The limit
check is activated separately with CALC:LIM:STAT ON.
In analyzer mode, the result of the limit check can be queried with CALCulate:LIMit<1 to 8>:
FAIL?.
Example:
"CALC:LIM4:LOW:STAT ON"
'Switches on limit line 4 (lower limit) in screen A.
"CALC2:LIM4:LOW:STAT ON"
'Switches on limit line 4 (lower limit) also in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:LOWer:OFFSet <numeric_value>
This command defines an offset for the Y axis of the selected relative lower limit line. In contrast to
CALC:LIM:LOW:SHIFt, the line is not shifted by modifying the individual Y values but by means of
an additive offset. The offset is independent of the measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:LOW:OFFS 3dB"
'Shifts limit line 2 in the corresponding measurement windows by 3 dB upwards.
Characteristics: *RST value: 0
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
1302.6163.12
A, FM
6.33
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
<numeric_value>
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:LOWer:MARGin
This command defines a margin to a lower limit line, at which out-of-limit values are signaled (if the
limit check is active), but not handled as a violation of the limit value. The margin is independent of the
measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:LOW:MARG 10dB"
Characteristics: *RST value: 0
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:LOWer:MODE
RELative | ABSolute
This command selects the relative or absolute scaling for the Y axis of the selected lower limit line.
The setting is independent of the measurement window.
Selecting RELative causes the unit to be switched to DB.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:LOW:MODE REL"
'Defines the Y axis of limit line 2 as relative scaled.
Characteristics: *RST value: ABSolute
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:LOWer:SHIFt
<numeric_value>
This command shifts a limit line by the indicated value in Y direction. In contrast to CALC:LIM:LOW:
OFFS, the line is shifted by modifying the individual Y values but not by means of an additive offset.
The shift is independent of the measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM3:LOW:SHIF 20DB"
'Shifts all Y values of limit line 3 by 20 dB.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:LOWer:SPACing
LINear | LOGarithmic
This command selects linear or logarithmic interpolation for the lower limit line.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:LOW:SPAC LIN"
Characteristics: *RST value: LIN
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
1302.6163.12
R, A, FM
6.34
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:LOWer:THReshold
<numeric_value>
This command defines an absolute threshold value for limit lines with relative Y axis scaling
independently of the measurement window. The absolute threshold value is used in the limit check as
soon as it exceeds the relative limit value.
The unit must correspond to the unit selected with CALC:LIM:UNIT (except dB which is not allowed).
If no unit is indicated, the unit defined with CALC:LIM:UNIT is automatically used (exception: dBm
instead of dB).
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:LOW:THR -35DBM"
'Defines an absolute threshold value for limit line 2.
Characteristics: *RST value: -200 dBm
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
1302.6163.12
R, A, FM
6.35
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate:LIMit:UPPer Subsystem
The CALCulate:LIMit:UPPer subsystem defines the upper limit line.
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:UPPer[:DATA]
<numeric_value>,<numeric_value>..
This command defines the values for the upper limit lines independently of the measurement window.
The number of values for the CONTrol axis and for the corresponding UPPer and/or LOWer limit line
have to be identical. Otherwise default values are entered for missing values or not necessary values
are deleted.
The unit must be identical with the unit selected by CALC:LIM:UNIT. If no unit is indicated, the unit
defined with CALC:LIM:UNIT is automatically used.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:UPP -10,0,0,-10,-5"
'Defines 5 upper limit values for limit line 2 in the preset unit.
"CALC:LIM2:UPP?"
'Outputs the upper limit values for limit line 2 separated by a comma.
Characteristics: *RST value: - (LIMit:STATe is set to OFF)
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:UPPer:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the indicated limit line in the selected measurement window. The limit
check is activated separately with CALC:LIM:STAT ON.
Example:
"CALC1:LIM4:UPP:STAT ON"
'Switches on limit line 4 (upper limit) in screen A.
"CALC2:LIM4:UPP:STAT ON"
'Switches on limit line 4 (upper limit) in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:UPPer:OFFSet
<numeric_value>
This command defines an offset for the Y axis of the selected relative upper limit line. In contrast to
CALC:LIM:UPP:SHIFt, the line is not shifted by modifying the individual Y values but by means of
an additive offset. The offset is independent of the measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:UPP:OFFS 3dB"
'Shifts limit line 2 by 3 dB upwards in the corresponding measurement windows.
Characteristics: *RST value: 0
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
1302.6163.12
R, A, FM
6.36
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
<numeric_value>
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:UPPer:MARGin
This command defines a margin to an upper limit line, at which out-of-limit values are signaled (if the
limit check is active), but not handled as a violation of the limit value. The margin is independent of the
measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:UPP:MARG 10dB"
'Defines the margin of limit line 2 to 10 dB below the limit value.
Characteristics: *RST value: 0
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:UPPer:MODE
RELative | ABSolute
This command selects the relative or absolute scaling for the Y axis of the selected upper limit line.
The setting is independent of the measurement window.
Selecting RELative causes the unit to be switched to DB.
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:UPP:MODE REL"
'Defines the Y axis of limit line 2 as relative scaled.
Characteristics: *RST value: ABSolute
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:UPPer:SHIFt
<numeric_value>
This command moves a limit line by the indicated value in Y direction. In contrast to CALC:LIM:UPP:
OFFS, the line is shifted by modifying the individual Y values and not by means of an additive offset.
The shift is independent of the measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:LIM3:UPP:SHIF 20DB"
'Shifts all Y values of limit line 3 by 20 dB.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:UPPer:SPACing
LINear | LOGarithmic
This command selects linear or logarithmic interpolation for the upper limit line.
Example:
"CALC:LIM:UPP:SPAC LIN"
Characteristics: *RST value: LIN
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
1302.6163.12
R, A
6.37
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate<1|2>:LIMit<1 to 8>:UPPer:THReshold
<numeric_value>
This command defines an absolute threshold value for limit lines with relative Y axis scaling
independently of the measurement window. The absolute threshold value is used in the limit check as
soon as it exceeds the relative limit value.
The unit must correspond to the unit selected with CALC:LIM:UNIT (except dB which is not possible).
If no unit is indicated, the unit defined with CALC:LIM:UNIT is automatically used (exception: dBm
instead of dB).
Example:
"CALC:LIM2:UPP:THR -35DBM"
'Defines an absolute threshold value
for limit line 2.
Characteristics: *RST value: -200 dBm
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
1302.6163.12
R, A, FM
6.38
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate:MARKer Subsystem
The CALCulate:MARKer subsystem checks the marker functions in the instrument. The measurement
windows are assigned to CALCulate 1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
In receiver mode the markers can only be activated after a scan is carried out.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the currently selected marker in the selected measurement window.
If no indication is made, marker 1 is selected automatically. If marker 2, 3 or 4 is selected and used as
a delta marker, it is switched to marker mode.
Example:
"CALC:MARK3 ON"
'Switches marker 3 in screen A on or to marker mode.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:AOFF
This command switches off all active markers in the selected measurement window. All delta markers
and active marker/delta marker measurement functions are switched off.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:AOFF"
'Switches off all markers in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:TRACe
1 to 3
This command assigns the selected marker (1 to 4) to the indicated measurement curve in the selected
measurement window. The corresponding trace must be active, i.e. its status must be different from
"BLANK".
If necessary the corresponding marker is switched on prior to the assignment.
Example:
"CALC:MARK3:TRAC 2"
'Assigns marker 3 in screen A to trace 2.
"CALC2:MARK:TRAC 3"
'Assigns marker 1 in screen B to trace 3.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
1302.6163.12
R, A, FM
6.39
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:X
R&S ESU
0 to MAX (frequency | sweep time)
This command positions the selected marker to the indicated frequency (span > 0), time (span = 0) or
level (APD measurement or CCDF measurement ON) in the selected measurement window. If marker
2, 3 or 4 is selected and used as delta marker, it is switched to marker mode.
Example:
"CALC1:MARK2:X 10.7MHz"
'Positions marker 2 in screen A to frequency 10.7 MHz.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:X:SLIMits[:STATe] ON | OFF
This command switches between a limited (ON) and unlimited (OFF) search range in the selected
measurement window. The function is independent of the selection of a marker, i.e. the numeric suffix
MARKer<1 to 4> is irrelevant.
If the time domain power measurement is active, this command limits the evaluation range on the
trace.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON"
'Switches on search limitation in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:X:SLIMits:LEFT
0 to MAX (frequency | sweep time)
This command sets the left limit of the search range for markers and delta markers in the selected
measurement window. Depending on the x axis domain the indicated value defines a frequency (span
> 0) or time (span = 0). The function is independent of the selection of a marker, i.e. the numeric suffix
in MARKer<1 to 4> is irrelevant.
If the time domain power measurement is active, this command limits the evaluation range to the trace.
Aa
Example:
Note
The function is only available if the search limit for marker and delta marker is
switched on (CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON).
"CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON"
'Switches the search limit function on for screen A.
"CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:LEFT 10MHz"
'Sets the left limit of the search range in screen A to 10 MHz.
Characteristics: *RST value: - (is set to the left diagram border on switching on search limits)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
1302.6163.12
R, A, FM
6.40
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:X:SLIMits:RIGHt
0 to MAX (frequency | sweep time)
This command sets the right limit of the search range for markers and delta markers in the selected
measurement window. Depending on the x axis domain the indicated value defines a frequency (span
> 0) or time (span = 0). The function is independent of the selection of a marker, i.e. the numeric suffix
in MARKer<1 to 4> is irrelevant.
If the time domain power measurement is active, this command limits the evaluation range to the trace.
Aa
Example:
Note
The function is only available if the search limit for marker and delta marker is
switched on (CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON).
"CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON"
'Switches the search limit function on for screen A.
"CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:RIGH 20MHz"
'Sets the right limit of the search range in screen A to 20 MHz.
Characteristics: *RST value: - (is set to the right diagram border on switching on search limits)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:COUNt
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the frequency counter at the marker position in the selected
measurement window. The count result is queried with CALCulate:MARKer:COUNt:FREQuency?.
Frequency counting is possible only for one marker at a time for each measurement window. If it is
activated for another marker, it is automatically de-activated for the previous marker.
It should be noted that a complete sweep must be performed after switching on the frequency counter
to ensure that the frequency to be measured is actually reached. The synchronization to the sweep
end required for this is possible only in single-sweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK ON"
'Switches on marker 1 in screen A.
"CALC:MARK:COUN ON"
'Switches on the frequency counter for marker 1.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:COUN:FREQ?"
'Outputs the measured value in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
1302.6163.12
A, FM
6.41
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
0.1 | 1 | 10 | 100 | 1000 | 10000 Hz
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:COUNt:RESolution
This command specifies the resolution of the frequency counter in the selected measurement window.
The setting is independent of the selected marker, i.e. the numeric suffix in MARKer<1 to 4> is
irrelevant.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:COUN:RES 1kHz"
'Sets the resolution of the frequency counter to 1 kHz.
Characteristics: *RST value: 1kHz
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:COUNt:FREQuency?
This command queries the result of the frequency counter for the indicated marker in the selected
measurement window. Before the command, the frequency counter should be switched on and a
complete measurement performed to obtain a valid count result. Therefore, a single sweep with
synchronization must be performed between switching on the frequency counter and querying the
count result.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK2 ON"
'Switches marker 2 in screen A.
"CALC:MARK2:COUN ON"
'Switches the frequency counter for marker 2.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK2:COUN:FREQ?"
'Outputs the measured value of marker 2 in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:COUPled[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches the coupling of the receiver frequency to the marker on or off.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:COUP ON"
'marker coupling is switched on
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R
The numeric suffix in MARKer<1 to 4> is irrelevant.
1302.6163.12
6.42
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:SCOupled[:STATe] ON | OFF
This command switches the coupling of the receiver frequency settings from the corresponding
subscans to the marker frequency on or off.
Example:
":CALC:MARK:SCO ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R
The numeric suffix in MARKer<1 to 4> is not significant.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:LOEXclude
ON | OFF
This command switches the local oscillator suppression for peak search on or off. This setting is valid
for all markers and delta markers in all measurement windows. The numeric suffixes 1|2 and 1 to 4 are
irrelevant.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:LOEX ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:Y?
This command queries the measured value of the selected marker in the selected measurement
window. The corresponding marker is activated before or switched to marker mode, if necessary.
To obtain a valid query result, a complete sweep with synchronization to the sweep end must be
performed between the activation of the marker and the query of the y value. This is only possible in
single sweep mode.
The query result is output in the unit determined with CALCulate:UNIT.
In the default setting, the output is made depending on the unit determined with CALC:UNIT; only with
linear level scaling is the output in %.
If the FM Demodulator (FS-K7) is activated, the query result is output in the following units:
•
Result display FM: Hz
•
Result display RF POWER LOG: dBm
•
Result display RF POWER LIN: %
•
Result display SPECTRUM LOG: dBm
•
Result display SPECTRUM LIN: %
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK2 ON"
'Switches marker 2 in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK2:Y?"
'Outputs the measured value of marker 2 in screen A.
1302.6163.12
6.43
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:Y:PERCent
0 to100%
This command positions the selected marker in the selected window to the given probability. If marker
2, 3 or 4 is selected and used as a delta marker, it is switched to marker mode.
Aa
Example:
Note
The command is only available with the CCDF measurement switched on.
The associated level value can be determined with the CALC:MARK:X? command.
"CALC1:MARK:Y:PERC 95PCT"
'Positions marker 1 in screen A to a 'probability of 95%.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:MAXimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the marker to the current maximum value of the corresponding trace in the
selected measurement window. The corresponding marker is activated first or switched to the marker
mode.
Aa
Example:
Note
If no maximum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values < peak
excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
"CALC:MARK2:MAX"
'Positions marker 2 in screen A to the maximum value of 'the trace.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
1302.6163.12
6.44
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:MAXimum:NEXT
This command positions the marker to the next smaller maximum value of the corresponding trace in
the selected measurement window.
Aa
Example:
Note
If no next smaller maximum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent
values < peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
"CALC:MARK2:MAX:NEXT"
'Positions marker 2 in screen A to the next 'lower maximum value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:MAXimum:RIGHt
This command positions the marker to the next smaller maximum value to the right of the current value
(i.e. in ascending X values) on the corresponding trace in the selected measurement window.
Aa
Example:
Note
If no next smaller maximum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent
values < peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
"CALC:MARK2:MAX:RIGH"
'Positions marker 2 in screen A to the next lower maximum value to the right of the
current value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
1302.6163.12
6.45
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:MAXimum:LEFT
This command positions the marker to the next smaller maximum value to the left of the current value
(i.e. in descending X values) on the trace in the selected measurement window.
Aa
Example:
Note
If no next smaller maximum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent
values < peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
"CALC:MARK2:MAX:LEFT"
'Positions marker 2 in screen A to the next lower maximum value to the left of the
current value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:MINimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the marker to the current minimum value of the corresponding trace in the
selected measurement window. The corresponding marker is activated first or switched to marker
mode, if necessary.
Aa
Example:
Note
If no minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent values < peak
excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
"CALC:MARK2:MIN"
'Positions marker 2 in screen A to the minimum value of the trace.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
1302.6163.12
6.46
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:MINimum:NEXT
This command positions the marker to the next higher minimum value of the corresponding trace in
the selected measurement window.
Aa
Example:
Note
If no next higher minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent
values < peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
"CALC:MARK2:MIN:NEXT"
'Positions marker 2 in screen A to the next higher maximum value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:MINimum:RIGHt
This command positions the marker to the next higher minimum value to the right of the current value
(i.e. in ascending X direction) on the corresponding trace in the selected measurement window.
Aa
Example:
Note
If no next higher minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent
values < peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
"CALC:MARK2:MIN:RIGH"
'Positions marker 2 in screen A to the next higher minimum value to the right of the
current value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
1302.6163.12
6.47
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:MINimum:LEFT
This command positions the marker to the next higher minimum value to the left of the current value
(i.e. in descending X direction) on the corresponding trace in the selected measurement window.
Aa
Example:
Note
If no next higher minimum value is found on the trace (level spacing to adjacent
values < peak excursion), an execution error (error code: -200) is produced.
"CALC:MARK2:MIN:LEFT"
'Positions marker 2 in screen A to the next higher minimum value to the left of the
current value.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:PEXCursion
<numeric_value>
This command defines the peak excursion, i.e. the spacing below a trace maximum which must be
attained before a new maximum is recognized, or the spacing above a trace minimum which must be
attained before a new minimum is recognized. The set value is valid for all markers and delta markers.
The unit depends on the selected operating mode.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:PEXC 10dB"
'Defines peak excursion 10 dB in SPECTRUM mode
"CALC:MARK:PEXC 100 HZ"
Defines peak excursion 100 Hz in FM DEMOD mode
Characteristics: *RST value: 6dB
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
The numeric suffix in MARKer<1 to 4> is irrelevant.
1302.6163.12
6.48
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion Subsystem
The measurement window is selected by CALCulate 1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks[:IMMediate]
<numeric_value>
This command searches the selected trace for the indicated number of maxima. The results are
entered in a list and can be queried with commands CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPEaks:X? and CALC:
MARK:FUNC:FPEaks:Y?. The number of maxima found can be queried with CALC:MARK:FUNC:
FPEaks:COUNt?. The trace to be examined is selected with CALC:MARK:TRACe. The order of the
results in the list can be defined with CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPEaks:SORT.
Aa
Example:
Note
The number of maxima found depends on the waveform and value set for the Peak
Excursion parameter (CALC:MARK:PEXC), however, a maximum number of 50
maxima are determined. Only the signals which exceed their surrounding values at
least by the value indicated by the peak excursion parameter will be recognized as
maxima. Therefore, the number of maxima found is not automatically the same as
the number of maxima desired.
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'switches to single-sweep mode
"INIT;*WAI"
'starts measurement and synchronizes to end
"CALC:MARK:TRAC 1"
'sets marker 1 in screen A to trace 1
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SORT X"
'sets the sort mode to increasing X values
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE 3"
'searches the 3 highest maxima for trace 1
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:COUN?"
'queries the number of maxima found
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:Y?"
'queries the level of maxima found
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:X?"
'queries the frequencies (span <> 0) or time (span = 0) of maxima found.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
1302.6163.12
A
6.49
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:COUNt?
This query reads out the number of maxima found during the search. If no search for maxima has been
performed, 0 is returned.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE 3"
'searches the 3 highest maxima for trace 1
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:COUN?"
'queries the number of maxima found
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:X?
This query reads out the list of X values of the maxima found. The number of available values can be
queried with CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPEaks:COUNt?.
With sort mode X, the X values are in increasing order; with sort mode Y the order corresponds to the
decreasing order of the Y values.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SORT Y"
'sets the sort mode to decreasing y values
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE 3"
'searches the 3 highest maxima for trace 1
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:COUN?"
'queries the number of maxima found
"CALC:MARK:FPE:FUNC:X?"
'queries the frequencies (span <> 0) or time (span = 0) of the maxima found.
Return value:
"107.5E6,153.8E6,187.9E6"
'frequencies in increasing order
"2.05E-3,2.37E-3, 3.71e-3"
'times in increasing order
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:Y?
This query reads out the list of X values of the maxima found. The number of available values can be
queried with CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPEaks:COUNt?.
With sort mode X, the X values are in increasing order; with sort mode Y the order corresponds to the
decreasing order of the Y values.
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R&S ESU
Example:
CALCulate Subsystem
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SORT Y"
'sets the sort mode to decreasing y values
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE 3"
'searches the 3 highest maxima for trace 1
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:COUN?"
'queries the number of maxima found
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:Y?"
'queries the levels of the maxima found.
Return value:
"-37.5,-58.3,-59.6"
'level in decreasing order
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:FPEaks:SORT
X|Y
This command sets the sort mode for the search for maxima:
Parameter:
X: the maxima are sorted in the list of responses according to increasing X values
Y: the maxima are sorted in the list of responses according to decreasing Y values
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:FPE:SORT Y"
'sets the sort mode to decreasing y values
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown
<numeric_value>
This command defines the level spacing of the two delta markers to the right and left of marker 1 in the
selected measurement window. Marker 1 is always used as the reference marker. The numeric suffix
<1 to 4> is irrelevant for this command.
The temporary markers T1 and T2 are positioned by n dB below the active reference marker. The
frequency spacing of these markers can be queried with CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:
NDBDown:RESult?.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD 3dB"
'Sets the level spacing in screen A to 3 dB.
Characteristics: *RST value: 6dB
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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A
6.51
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches the "N dB Down" function on or off in the selected measurement window.
Marker 1 is activated first, if necessary. The numeric suffix <1 to 4> is irrelevant for this command.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD:STAT ON"
'Switches on the N-dB-down function in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown:RESult?
This command queries the frequency spacing (bandwidth) of the N-dB-down markers in the selected
measurement window. The numeric suffix <1 to 4> is irrelevant for this command.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value in order to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible
in single sweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD ON"
'Switches on the n-dB-down function in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD:RES?"
'Outputs the measured value of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown:FREQuency?
This command queries the two frequencies of the N-dB-down marker in the selected measurement
window. The numeric suffix <1 to 4> is irrelevant for this command. The two frequency values are
separated by comma and output in ascending order.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in single
sweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD ON"
'Switches on the n-dB-down function in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD:FREQ?"
'Outputs the frequencies of the temporary markers in screen A.
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R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:NDBDown:TIME?
This command queries the two time values of the "N dB Down" markers in the specified measurement
window. The suffix <1 to 4> has no meaning with this command. The two time values are output in
ascending order, separated by commas.
To obtain a valid query response, a complete sweep with synchronization to the sweep end must have
been performed in between activating the function and querying the measurement results. This is
possible only in single-sweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD ON"
'Switches on the "N dB Down" function in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD:TIME?"
'Outputs the time values of the temporary markers in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is a query only and thus has no *RST value
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:ZOOM
<numeric_value>
This command defines the range to be zoomed around marker 1 in the selected measurement window.
Marker 1 is activated first, if necessary.
The frequency at the marker position becomes the new center frequency at the diagram. The results
of a previous measured scan are displayed in the activated frequency range.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:ZOOM 1kHz;*WAI"
'Activates zooming in screen A and waits for its end.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
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6.53
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:NOISe[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches the noise measurement on or off for all markers of the indicated measurement
window. The noise power density is measured at the position of the markers. The result can be queried
with CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:NOISe:RESult?.
Example:
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:NOIS ON"
'Switches on the noise measurement for screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:NOISe:RESult?
This command queries the result of the noise measurement.
A complete sweep with synchronization to the sweep end must be performed between switching on
the function and querying the measured value in order to obtain a valid query result. This is only
possible in single sweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK2 ON"
'Switches on marker 2 in screen A.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:NOIS ON"
'Switches on noise measurement in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK2:NOIS:RES?"
'Outputs the noise result of marker 2 in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation:SELect
AM | FM
This command selects the demodulation type for the audio demodulator. The command is
independent of the measurement window and of the selected marker, i.e. suffixes 1|2 and 1 to 4 are
irrelevant.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
In receiver mode the audio demodulator is controlled by the SENSe:DEMod
subsystem.
6.54
E-1
R&S ESU
Example:
CALCulate Subsystem
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:DEM:SEL FM"
Characteristics: *RST value: AM
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the audio demodulator when the indicated marker is reached in the
selected measurement window. In the frequency domain (span > 0) the hold time can be defined at
the corresponding marker position with CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion: DEModulation:HOLD.
In the time domain (span = 0) the demodulation is permanently active.
Example:
"CALC2:MARK3:FUNC:DEM ON"
'Switches on the demodulation for marker 3 in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation:HOLDoff
10ms to 1000s
This command defines the hold time at the marker position for the demodulation in the frequency
domain (span > 0). The setting is independent of the measurement window and the selected marker,
i.e. the suffixes <1|2> and <1 to 4> are irrelevant
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:DEM:HOLD 3s"
Characteristics: *RST value: - (DEModulation is set to OFF)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation:CONTinuous ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the continuous demodulation in the frequency domain (span >0) in
the selected measurement window. Thus acoustic monitoring of the signals can be performed in the
frequency domain. The function does not depend on the selected marker, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to
4> is irrelevant.
Example:
"CALC2:MARK3:FUNC:DEM:CONT ON"
'Switches on the continuous demodulation in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation:SQUelch[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command enables or disables the squelch function for the audio output.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:DEM:SQU ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
Mode:
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A
6.55
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:DEModulation:SQUelch:LEVel
0...100 PCT
This command sets the trigger level for the squelch function.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:DEM:SQU:LEV 80 PCT"
Characteristics: *RST value: 50%
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:MDEPth[:STATe]
This command switches on the measurement of the AM modulation depth. An AM-modulated carrier
is required on the screen for correct operation. If necessary, marker 1 is previously activated and set
to the largest signal available.
The level value of marker 1 is regarded as the carrier level. On activating the function, marker 2 and
marker 3 are automatically set as delta markers symmetrically to the carrier to the adjacent maxima of
the trace.
If the position of delta marker 2 is changed, delta marker 3 is moved symmetrically with respect to the
reference marker (marker 1). If the position of delta marker 3 is changed, fine adjustment can be
performed independently of delta marker 2.
The R&S ESU calculates the power at the marker positions from the measured levels.
The AM modulation depth is calculated from the ratio of power values at the reference marker and the
delta markers. If the two AM sidebands differ in power, the average value of the two power values is
used for calculating the AM modulation depth.
The numeric suffix <1 to 4> of :MARKer is irrelevant with this command.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:X 10MHZ"
'Sets the reference marker (marker 1) to the carrier signal at 10 MHz
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:MDEP ON"
'Switches on the modulation depth measurement in screen A.
"CALC:DELT2:X 10KHZ"
'Sets delta markers 2 and 3 to the signals at 10 kHz from the carrier signal
"CALC:DELT3:X 9.999KHZ"
'Corrects the position of delta marker 3 relative to delta marker 2.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:MDEPth:RESult?
This command queries the AM modulation depth in the indicated measurement window.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in single
sweep mode.
The numeric suffix <1 to 4> of :MARKer is irrelevant for this command.
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6.56
E-1
R&S ESU
Example:
CALCulate Subsystem
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:X 10MHZ"
'Sets the reference marker (marker 1) to the carrier signal at 10 MHz.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:MDEP ON"
'Switches on the modulation depth measurement in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:MDEP:RES?"
'Outputs the measured value of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:TOI[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command initiates the measurement of the third-order intercept point.
A two-tone signal with equal carrier levels is expected at the RF input of the instrument. Marker 1 and
marker 2 (both normal markers) are set to the maximum of the two signals. Delta marker 3 and delta
marker 4 are positioned to the intermodulation products. The delta markers can be modified separately
afterwards with the commands CALCulate:DELTamarker3:X and CALCulate:DELTamarker4:
X.
The third-order intercept is calculated from the level spacing between the normal markers and the delta
markers.
The numeric suffix <1 to 4> of :MARKer is irrelevant for this command.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI ON"
'Switches on the measurement of the third-order intercept in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:TOI:RESult?
This command queries the third-order intercept point measurement in the indicated measurement
window.
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in single
sweep mode.
The numeric suffix <1 to 4> of :MARKer is irrelevant of this command.
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6.57
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CALCulate Subsystem
Example:
R&S ESU
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI ON"
'Switches the intercept measurement in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:TOI:RES?"
'Outputs the measured value of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:CENTer
This command sets the receiver or center frequency of the selected measurement window equal to the
frequency of the indicated marker.
If marker 2, 3 or 4 is selected and used as delta marker, it is switched to the marker mode.
Example:
"CALC:MARK2:FUNC:CENT"
'Sets the receiver frequency to the frequency of marker 2.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A-F
This command is an "event" and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:CSTep
This command sets the step width of the receiver or center frequency in the selected measurement
window to the X value of the current marker. If marker 2, 3 or 4 is selected and used as delta marker,
it is switched to the marker mode.
Example:
"CALC2:MARK2:FUNC:CST"
'Sets the receiver frequency to the same value as the frequency of marker 2.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A-F
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
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R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:REFerence
This command sets the reference level in the selected measurement window to the power measured
by the indicated marker. If marker 2, 3 or 4 is selected and used as delta marker, it is switched to
marker mode.
Example:
"CALC:MARK2:FUNC:REF"
'Sets the reference level of screen A to the level of marker 2.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:HARMonics Subsystem
The CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:HARMonics subsystem contains the commands for Harmonic
Distortion measurement
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the measurement of the harmonics of a carrier signal. The carrier
signal is the first harmonic. The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the suffix <1|2>
or <1 to 4> of CALCulate or MARKer is irrelevant. It is only available in the frequency domain
(span > 0).
If the measurement is started in the frequency domain (span > 0), the last span will define the search
range for the first harmonic. The level for the first harmonic will also be calculated in the frequency
domain. However, the measurement can also be started in the time domain (span = 0), in which case
the center frequency and the level used will remain unchanged.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM ON"
'Switches on the measurement of harmonics.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:HARMonics:NHARmonics
1 to 10
This command defines the number of harmonics of a carrier signal to be measured. The function is
independent of the marker selection, i.e. the suffix <1|2> or <1 to 4> of CALCulate or MARKer is
irrelevant.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:HARM:NHARM 3"
'Sets the number of harmonics to be measured to 3.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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6.60
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer Subsystem
The CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWER subsystem contains the commands for control of power
measurement.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:POWer:SELect
OBANdwidth | OBWidth | CN | CN0
ACPower | CPOWer | MCACpower |
This command selects – and switches on – one of the above types of power measurement in the
selected measurement window. This function is independent of the selected marker, i.e. the numerical
suffix <1...4> appended to MARKer has no effect.
The channel spacings and channel bandwidths are configured in the SENSe:POWer:ACHannel
subsystem.
Please note the following:
If CPOWer is selected, the number of adjacent channels (command: [SENSe:]POWer:ACHannel:
ACPairs) is set to 0. If ACPower is selected, the number of adjacent channels is set to 1, unless
adjacent-channel power measurement is switched on already.
Aa
Note
The channel/adjacent-channel power measurement is performed for the trace
selected with SENSe:POWer:TRACe 1|2|3.
The occupied bandwidth measurement is performed for the trace on which marker 1 is positioned. To
select another trace for the measurement, marker 1 is to be positioned on the desired trace by means
of CALC:MARK:TRAC 1|2|3.
Parameter:
ACPower: Adjacent-channel power measurement with a single carrier signal
CPOWer: Channel power measurement with a single carrier signal (equivalent to
adjacent-channel power measurement with NO. OF ADJ CHAN = 0)
MCACpower: Channel/adjacent-channel power measurement with several carrier
signals
OBANdwidth | OBWidth: Measurement of occupied bandwidth
CN: Measurement of carrier-to-noise ratio
CN0: Measurement of carrier-to-noise ratio referenced to 1 Hz bandwidth
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL ACP"
'Switches on adjacent-channel power measurement in window A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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6.61
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:POWer:RESult?
OBANdwidth | OBWidth | CN | CN0
ACPower | CPOWer | MCACpower |
This command queries the result of the power measurement performed in the selected window.
If necessary, the measurement is switched on prior to the query.
The channel spacings and channel bandwidths are configured in the SENSe:POWer:ACHannel
subsystem.
To obtain a valid result, a complete sweep with synchronization to the end of the sweep must be
performed before a query is output. Synchronization is possible only in the single-sweep mode.
Parameters:
ACPower:
Adjacent-channel power measurement
Results are output in the following sequence, separated by commas:
1. Power of transmission channel
2. Power of lower adjacent channel
3. Power of upper adjacent channel
4. Power of lower alternate channel 1
5. Power of upper alternate channel 1
6. Power of lower alternate channel 2
7. Power of upper alternate channel 2
The number of measured values returned depends on the number of adjacent/
alternate channels selected with SENSe:POWer:ACHannel:ACPairs.
With logarithmic scaling (RANGE LOG), the power is output in the currently
selected level unit; with linear scaling (RANGE LIN dB or LIN %), the power is
output in W. If SENSe:POWer:ACHannel:MODE REL is selected, the adjacent/
alternate-channel power is output in dB.
CPOWer:
Channel power measurement
With logarithmic scaling (RANGE LOG), the channel power is output in the
currently selected level unit; with linear scaling (RANGE LIN dB or LIN %), the
channel power is output in W.
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R&S ESU
MCACpower:
CALCulate Subsystem
Channel/adjacent-channel power measurement with several carrier signals
Results are output in the following sequence, separated by commas:
1. Power of carrier signal 1
2. Power of carrier signal 2
3. Power of carrier signal 3
4. Power of carrier signal 4
5. Total power of all carrier signals
6. Power of lower adjacent channel
7. Power of upper adjacent channel
8. Power of lower alternate channel 1
9. Power of upper alternate channel 1
10.Power of lower alternate channel 2
11.Power of upper alternate channel 2
The number of measured values returned depends on the number of
carrier signals and adjacent/alternate channels selected with
SENSe:POWer:ACHannel:TXCHannel:COUNt
and
SENSe:POWer:
ACHannel:ACPairs.
If only one carrier signal is measured, the total value of all carrier signals will not
be output.
With logarithmic scaling (RANGE LOG), the power is output in dBm; with linear
scaling (RANGE LIN dB or LIN %), the power is output in W. If SENSe:POWer:
ACHannel:MODE REL is selected, the adjacent/alternate-channel power is
output in dB.
OBANdwidth |
OBWidth:
Measurement of occupied bandwidth
CN:
Measurement of carrier-to-noise ratio
The occupied bandwidth in Hz is returned.
The carrier-to-noise ratio in dB is returned.
CN0:
Measurement of carrier-to-noise ratio referenced to 1 Hz bandwidth.
The carrier-to-noise ratio in dB/Hz is returned.
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
Example of channel/adjacent-channel power measurement:
"SENS2:POW:ACH:ACP 3"
'Sets the number of adjacent/alternate channels in
screen B to 3.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:BAND 30KHZ"
'Sets the bandwidth of the transmission channel to
30 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:BAND:ACH 40KHZ"
'Sets the bandwidth of each adjacent channel to
40 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:BAND:ALT1 50KHZ"
'Sets the bandwidth of each alternate channel to
50 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:BAND:ALT2 60KHZ"
'Sets the bandwidth of alternate channel 2 to 60 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:SPAC 30KHZ"
'Sets the spacing between the transmission channel
and the adjacent channel to 30 kHz, the spacing
between the transmission channel and alternate
channel 1 to 60 kHz, and the spacing between the
transmission channel and alternate channel 2 to
90 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:SPAC:ALT1 100KHZ"
'Sets the spacing between the transmission channel
and alternate channel 1 to 100 kHz, and the spacing
between the transmission channel and alternate
channel 2 to 150 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:SPAC:ALT2 140KHZ"
'Sets the spacing between the transmission channel
and alternate channel 2 to 140 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:MODE ABS"
'Switches on absolute power measurement.
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL ACP"
'Switches
on
the
adjacent-channel
measurement in screen B.
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches over to single-sweep mode.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end of the sweep.
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? ACP"
'Queries the result of
measurement in screen B.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:REF:AUTO ONCE"
'Defines the measured channel power as the reference
value for relative power measurements.
adjacent-channel
power
power
If the channel power only is to be measured, all commands relating to adjacent/alternate channel
bandwidth and channel spacings are omitted. The number of adjacent/alternate channels is set to 0
with SENS2:POW:ACH:ACP 0.
Example of occupied bandwidth measurement:
"SENS2:POW:BAND 90PCT"
'Defines 90% as the percentage of the power to be
contained in the bandwidth range to be measured.
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches over to single-sweep mode.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end of the sweep.
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? OBW"
'Queries the occupied bandwidth measured in screen
B.
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R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
This command is a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:POWer:RESult:PHZ
ON | OFF
This command switches the query response of the power measurement results in the indicated
measurement window between output of absolute values (OFF) and output referred to the
measurement bandwidth (ON).
The measurement results are output with CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:POWer:RESult?
Parameter:
ON: Results output referred to measurement bandwidth.
OFF: Results output in absolute values.
Example of channel/adjacent channel measurement:
"SENS2:POW:ACH:ACP 3"
'Sets the number of adjacent channels in screen B to
3.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:BAND 30KHZ"
'Sets the bandwidth of the main channel to 30 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:BAND:ACH 40KHZ"
'Sets the bandwidth of all adjacent channels to 40
kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:BAND:ALT1 50KHZ"
'Sets the bandwidth of all alternate adjacent channels
to 50 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:BAND:ALT2 60KHZ"
'Sets the bandwidth of alternate adjacent channel 2 to
60 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:SPAC 30KHZ"
'Sets the spacing between channel and adjacent
channel as well as between all adjacent channels to
30 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:SPAC:ALT1 40KHZ"
'Sets the spacing between adjacent channel and
alternate adjacent channel as well as between all
alternate adjacent channels to 40 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:SPAC:ALT2 50KHZ"
'Sets the spacing between alternate adjacent channel
1 and alternate adjacent channel 2 to 50 kHz.
"SENS2:POW:ACH:MODE ABS"
'Switches on absolute power measurement.
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:POW:SEL ACP"
'Switches the adjacent channel power measurement
in screen B.
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES:PHZ ON"
'Output of results referred to the channel bandwidth.
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? ACP"
'Queries the result of the adjacent channel power
measurement in screen B referred to the channel
bandwidth.
If only the channel power is to be measured, all commands for defining the bandwidths of adjacent
channels as well as the channel spacings are not necessary. The number of adjacent channels is set
to 0 with SENS2:POW:ACH:ACP 0.
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:POWer[:STATe]
OFF
This command switches off the power measurement in the selected measurement window.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW OFF"
'Switches off the power measurement in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:POWer:PRESet NADC | TETRA | PDC | PHS | CDPD |
FWCDma | RWCDma | F8CDma | R8CDma | F19Cdma | R19Cdma | FW3Gppcdma | RW3Gppcdma
| D2CDma | S2CDma | M2CDma | FIS95A | RIS95A | FIS95C0 | RIS95C0 | FJ008 | RJ008 | FIS95C1
| RIS95C1 | TCDMa | NONE | AWLan | BWLan
This command selects the power measurement setting for a standard in the indicated measurement
window and previously switches on the corresponding measurement, if required. The function is
independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> of MARKer is irrelevant.
The configuration for a standard comprises of the parameters weighting filter, channel bandwidth and
spacing, resolution and video bandwidth, as well as detector and sweep time.
Meaning of the CDMA standard abbreviations:
FIS95A, F8CDma
CDMA IS95A forward
RIS95A, R8CDma
CDMA IS95A reverse
FJ008, F19CDma
CDMA J-STD008 forward
RJ008, R19CDma
CDMA J-STD008 reverse
FIS95C0
CDMA IS95C Class 0 forward
RIS95C0
CDMA IS95C Class 0 reverse
FIS95C1
CDMA IS95C Class 1 forward
RIS95C1
CDMA IS95C Class 1 reverse
FWCDma
W-CDMA 4.096 MHz forward
RWCDma
W-CDMA 4.096 MHz reverse
FW3Gppcdma
W-CDMA 3.84 MHz forward
RW3Gppcdma
W-CDMA 3.84 MHz reverse
D2CDma
CDMA 2000 direct sequence
S2CDma
CDMA 2000 MC1 multi carrier with 1 carrier
M2CDma
CDMA 2000 MC3 multi carrier with 3 carriers
TCDMa
TD-SCDMA
AWLan
WLAN 802.11a
BWLan
WLAN 802.11b
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R&S ESU
Aa
Example:
CALCulate Subsystem
Note
The settings for standards IS95A and C differ as far as the calculation method of
channel spacings is concerned. For IS95A and J-STD008 the spacing is calculated
from the center of the main channel to the center of the corresponding adjacent
channel, for IS95C from the center of the main channel to the nearest border of the
adjacent channel.
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:POW:PRES NADC"
'Selects the standard setting for NADC in screen B
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1...4>:FUNCtion:POWer:MODE
WRITe | MAXHold
This command selects the Clear Write or Maxhold for Channel Power values.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:MODE MAXH"
'Maxhold for Channel Power values
Characteristics: *RST value: WRITe
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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6.67
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack Subsystem
The CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:STRack subsystem defines the settings of the signal track.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:STRack[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches the signal-track function on or off for the selected measurement window. The
function is independent of the selected marker, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> of MARKer is irrelevant.
With signal track activated, the maximum signal is determined after each frequency sweep and the
center frequency is set to the frequency of this signal. Thus with drifting signals the center frequency
follows the signal.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR ON"
'Switches on the signal track function for screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:STRack:BANDwidth
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:STRack:BWIDth
10Hz to MAX(SPAN)
10Hz to MAX(SPAN)
These commands have the same function. For the selected measurement window they define the
bandwidth around the center frequency within which the largest signal is searched. The function is
independent of the selected marker, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> of MARKer is irrelevant. It is only
available in the frequency domain (span > 0).
Aa
Example:
Note
The entry of the search bandwidth is only possible if the Signal Track function is
switched on (CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR ON).
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:BAND 1MHZ"
'Sets the search bandwidth for screen A to 1 MHz.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:BWID 1MHZ"
'Alternative command for the same function.
Characteristics: *RST value: -- (= span/10 on activating the function)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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6.68
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:STRack:THReshold
-330dBm to +30dBm
This command defines the threshold above which the largest signal is searched for in the selected
measurement window. The function is independent of the selected marker, i.e. the numeric suffix <1
to 4> of MARKer is irrelevant. It is only available in the frequency domain (span > 0).
The response unit depends on the settings defined with CALC:UNIT.
Aa
Example:
Note
The entry of the search bandwidth is only possible if the Signal Track function is
switched on (CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR ON).
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:STR:THR -50DBM"
'Sets the threshold for signal tracking in screen A to -50 dBm.
Characteristics: *RST value: -120 dBm
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-F
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:STRack:TRACe
1 to 3
This command defines the trace on which the largest signal is searched for in the selected
measurement window. The function is independent of the selected marker, i.e. the numeric suffix <1
to 4> of MARKer is irrelevant. It is only available in the frequency domain (span > 0).
Example:
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:STR:TRAC 3"
'Defines trace 3 in screen B as the trace for signal tracking.
Characteristics: *RST value: 1
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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6.69
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:SUMMary Subsystem
This subsystem contains the commands for controlling the time domain power functions. These are
provided in the marker subsystem for reasons of compatibility with the FSE family.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the previously selected time domain power measurements. Thus one
or several measurements can be first selected and then switched on and off together with CALC:
MARK:FUNC:SUMMary:STATe.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the suffix of MARKer is irrelevant. It is only
available in the time domain (span = 0).
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PPEak[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the measurement of the positive peak value in the selected
measurement window.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> of MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PPEak:RESult?
This command is used to query the result of the measurement of the positive peak value in the selected
measurement window. The measurement may have to be switched on previously.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> of MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in single
sweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
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E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PPEak:AVERage:RESult?
This command is used to query the result of the measurement of the averaged positive peak value in
the selected measurement window. The query is only possible if averaging has been activated
previously using CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:AVERage.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> in MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in single
sweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AVER ON"
'Switches on the calculation of average in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE:AVER:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PPEak:PHOLd:RESult?
This command is used to query the result of the measurement of the positive peak value with active
peak hold function. The query is only possible if the peak hold function has been activated previously
using CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PHOLd.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> of :MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in single
sweep mode.
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E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
Example:
R&S ESU
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PHOL ON"
'Switches on the measurement of the peak value in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PPE:PHOL:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:RMS[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the measurement of the effective (RMS) power in the selected
measurement window. If necessary the function is switched on previously.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> of :MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
Example:
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:SUM:RMS ON"
'Switches on the function in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:RMS:RESult?
This command queries the result of the measurement of the RMS power value in the selected
measurement window.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> of :MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in single
sweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
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6.72
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:RMS:AVERage:RESult?
This command queries the result of the measurement of the averaged RMS value in the selected
measurement window. The query is only possible if averaging has been activated previously using
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:AVERage.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> of :MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in single
sweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AVER ON"
Switches on the average value calculation in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS:AVER:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:RMS:PHOLd:RESult?
This command queries the result of the measurement of the RMS value with active peak hold in the
selected measurement window. The query is only possible only if the peak hold function has been
activated previously using CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PHOLd.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> of :MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in single
sweep mode.
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6.73
E-1
CALCulate Subsystem
Example:
R&S ESU
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PHOL ON"
'Switches on the peak value measurement in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:RMS:PHOL:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MEAN[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the measurement of the mean value in the selected measurement
window.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> of :MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
Aa
Example:
Note
The measurement is performed on the trace on which marker 1 is positioned. In
order to evaluate another trace, marker 1 must be positioned on another trace with
CALC:MARK:TRAC 1|2|3.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MEAN:RESult?
This command queries the result of the measurement of the mean value in the selected measurement
window.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> of :MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in single
sweep mode.
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6.74
E-1
R&S ESU
Example:
CALCulate Subsystem
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MEAN:AVERage:RESult?
This command queries the result of the measurement of the averaged mean value in the selected
measurement window. The query is only possible if averaging has been activated previously using
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:AVERage.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> of :MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in single
sweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AVER ON"
'Switches on the average value calculation in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:AVER:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MEAN:PHOLd:RESult?
This command queries the result of the measurement of the mean value with active peak hold in the
selected measurement window. The query is only possible if the peak hold function has been switched
on previously using CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PHOLd.
The query is possible only if the peak hold function is active. The function is independent of the marker
selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> of :MARKer is irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain
(span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in single
sweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PHOL ON"
'Switches on the peak value measurement in screen A
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:PHOL:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:SDEViation[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the measurement of the standard deviation in the selected
measurement window. The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1
to 4> of :MARKer is irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
On switching on the measurement, the mean power measurement is switched on as well.
Example:
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV ON"
'Switches on the measurement of the standard deviation in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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6.76
E-1
R&S ESU
CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:SDEViation:RESult?
This command queries the results of the standard deviation measurement. The function is
independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> of :MARKer is irrelevant. It is only
available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in single
sweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:SDEViation:AVERage:RESult?
This command queries the result of the averaged standard deviation determined in several sweeps in
the selected measurement window. The query is possible only if averaging is active. The function is
independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> of :MARKer is irrelevant. It is only
available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in single
sweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AVER ON"
'Switches on the calculation of average in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MEAN:SDEV:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:SDEViation:PHOLd:RESult?
This command queries the maximum standard deviation value determined in several sweeps in the
selected measurement window. The query is possible only if the peak hold function is active.
The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> of :MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
A complete sweep with synchronization to sweep end must be performed between switching on the
function and querying the measured value to obtain a valid query result. This is only possible in single
sweep mode.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PHOL ON"
'Switches on the peak value measurement in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:SDEV:PHOL:RES?"
'Outputs the result of screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is only a query and therefore has no *RST value.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:PHOLd
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the peak-hold function for the active time domain power
measurement in the indicated measurement window. The function is independent of the marker
selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> of :MARKer is irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain
(span = 0).
The peak-hold function is reset by switching it off and on again.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:PHOL ON"
'Switches on the function in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
The peak-hold function is reset by switching off and on, again.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:AVERage
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off averaging for the active time domain power measurement in the
indicated window. The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4>
of :MARKer is irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
Averaging is reset by switching it off and on again.
The number of results required for the calculation of average is defined with [SENSe<1|2>:
]AVERage:COUNt.
It should be noted that synchronization to the end of averaging is only possible in single sweep mode.
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Example:
CALCulate Subsystem
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AVER ON"
'Switches on the calculation of average in screen B.
"AVER:COUN 200"
'Sets the measurement counter to 200.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts a sweep and waits for the end.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:MODE
ABSolute | RELative
This command selects absolute or relative time domain power measurement in the indicated
measurement window. The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1
to 4> of :MARKer is irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
The reference power for relative measurement is defined with CALCulate:MARKer:FUNCtion:
SUMMary:REFerence:AUTO ONCE. If the reference power is not defined, the value 0 dBm is used.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:MODE REL"
'Switches the time domain power measurement to relative.
Characteristics: *RST value: ABSolute
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:REFerence:AUTO
ONCE
With this command the currently measured average value (…:SUMMary:MEAN) and RMS value (…:
SUMMary:RMS)are declared as reference values for relative measurements in the indicated
measurement window. The function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix
<1 to 4> of :MARKer is irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
If the measurement of RMS value and average is not activated, the reference value 0 dBm is used.
If the function …:SUMMary:AVERage or …:SUMMary:PHOLd is switched on, the current value is the
accumulated measurement value at the time considered.
Example:
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:REF:AUTO ONCE"
'Takes the currently measured power in screen A as reference value for the relative
time domain power measurement.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:SUMMary:AOFF
This command switches off all time domain measurements in the selected measurement window. The
function is independent of the marker selection, i.e. the numeric suffix <1 to 4> of :MARKer is
irrelevant. It is only available in the time domain (span = 0).
Example:
"CALC2:MARK:FUNC:SUMM:AOFF"
'Switches off the time domain power measurement functions in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: _
SCPI: device-specific
A-T
Mode:
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate<1|2>:MARKer<1 to 4>:FUNCtion:MSUMmary? <time offset of first pulse>,
<measurement time>, <period>, < # of pulses to measure>
The commands of this subsystem are used to determine the power of a sequence of signal pulses
having the same interval. The number of pulses to be measured as well as the measurement time and
the period can be set. To define the position of the first pulse in the trace, a suitable offset can be
entered.
The evaluation is performed on the measurement data of a previously recorded trace. The data
recorded during the set measurement time is combined to a measured value for each pulse according
to the detector specified and the indicated number of results is output as a list.
P
Measurement
Time
Measurement
Time
Period
Measurement
Time
Period
t
Time offset of
first pulse
Trace start
TRACE 1 of the selected screen is always used by the function. The suffix of MARKer will be ignored.
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Example:
CALCulate Subsystem
"DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RLEV –10dBm"
'Sets the reference level to 10 dB
"INP:ATT 30 dB"
'Sets the input attenuation to 30 dB
"FREQ:CENT 935.2MHz;SPAN 0Hz"
'Sets the receive frequency to 935.2 MHz and the span to 0 Hz
"BAND:RES 1MHz;VID 3MHz"
'Sets the resolution bandwidth to 1 MHz and the video bandwidth to 3 MHz
"DET RMS"
'Sets the RMS detector
"TRIG:SOUR VID;LEV:VID 50 PCT"
'Selects the trigger source VIDeo and sets the level of the video trigger source to
50 PCT
"SWE:TIME 50ms"
'Sets the sweep time to 50 ms
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts the measurement with synchronization
"CALC:MARK:FUNC:MSUM? 50US,450US,576.9US,8"
'Queries 8 bursts with an offset of 50 µs, a test time of 450 µs and a period of
576.9 µs
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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6.81
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate:MATH Subsystem
The CALCulate:MATH subsystem allows to process data from the SENSe-subsystem in numeric
expressions. The measurement windows are selected by CALCulate1 (screen A) or CALCulate2 (screen
B).
<expr>
CALCulate<1|2>:MATH[:EXPression][:DEFine]
This command defines the mathematical expression for relating traces to trace1.
The zero point of the result display can be defined with CALC:MATH:POS. Command CALCulate:
MATH:STATe switches the mathematical relation of traces on or off.
Parameter:
<expr>::= 'OP1 - OP2'
OP1 ::= TRACE1
OP2 ::= TRACE2 | TRACE3
Example:
"CALC1:MATH (TRACE1 - TRACE2)"
'Selects the subtraction of trace 1 from trace 2 in screen A.
"CALC2:MATH (TRACE1 - TRACE3)"
'Selects the subtraction of trace 1 from trace 3 in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
A
CALCulate<1|2>:MATH:POSition
-100PCT to 200PCT
This command defines the position of the result of the trace mathematics in the selected measurement
window. The indication is in % of the screen height, with 100% corresponding to the upper diagram
border.
Example:
"CALC:MATH:POS 50PCT"
'Sets the position in screen A to the horizontal diagram center.
Characteristics: *RST value: 50 %
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A-T
CALCulate<1|2>:MATH:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches the mathematical relation of traces on or off.
Example:
"CALC:MATH:STAT ON"
'Switches on the trace mathematics in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:MATH:MODE
LINear | LOGarithmic
This command selects linear or logarithmic (= video) calculation of the mathematical functions related
to the traces. The calculation of the average is one of the affected functions. The setting is valid for all
measurement windows, i.e. the numeric suffix <1|2> of CALCulate is irrelevant.
Example:
"CALC:MATH:MODE LIN"
'Switches on the linear calculation.
Characteristics: *RST value: LOG
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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6.83
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CALCulate Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALCulate:PEAKsearch I PSEarch Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch[:IMMediate]
This command activates the generation of a peak list.
The numeric suffix in CALCULATE<1|2> is not significant.
Example:
":CALC:PEAK"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device specific
Mode:
R
CALCulate<1|2>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:MARGin
MINimum .. MAXimum
This command defines the margin for the peak search.
The numeric suffix in CALCULATE<1|2> is not significant.
Example:
":CALC:PEAK:MARG 5 dB"
Characteristics: *RST value: 6 dB
SCPI: device specific
Mode:
R
CALCulate<1|2>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:SUBRanges
1 to 500
This command defines the number of subranges for the peak search.
The numeric suffix in CALCULATE<1|2> is not significant.
Example:
":CALC:PEAK:SUBR 10"
Characteristics: *RST value: 25
SCPI: device specific
Mode:
R
CALCulate<1|2>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:METHod
SUBRange | PEAK
This command defines the method that is used to determine the level maxima of a scan.
The numeric suffix in CALCULATE<1|2> is not significant.
Example:
"CALC:PEAK:METH SUBR"
Characteristics: *RST value: PEAK
SCPI: device specific
Mode:
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6.84
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate:STATistics Subsystem
The CALCulate:STATistics subsystem controls the statistical measurement functions in the instrument.
The measurement window cannot be selected with these functions. The numeric suffix in CALCulate is
therefore ignored.
CALCulate:STATistics:APD[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the measurement of amplitude distribution (APD). On activating this
function, the CCDF measurement is switched off.
Example:
"CALC:STAT:APD ON"
'Switches on the APD measurement.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate:STATistics:CCDF[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the measurement of the complementary cumulative distribution
function (CCDF). On activating this function, the APD measurement is switched off.
Example:
"CALC:STAT:CCDF ON"
'Switches on the CCDF measurement.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate:STATistics:CCDF:X<1...3>?
P0_1 | P1 | P10
This command reads out the level values for the probabilities 0.1%, 1% and 10%. The trace is selected
by means of the numeric suffix <1 to 3>.
The desired result is selected by means of the following parameters:
Parameter:
P0_1: Level value for 0.1% probability
P1: Level value for 1% probability
P10: Level value for 10% probability
Example:
"CALC:STAT:CCDF:X? P1"
'Reads out the level values for 1% probability.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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6.85
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate:STATistics:NSAMples
R&S ESU
100 to 1E9
This command sets the number of measurement points to be acquired for the statistical measurement
functions.
Example:
"CALC:STAT:NSAM 500"
'Sets the number of measurement points to be acquired to 500.
Characteristics: *RST value: 100000
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate:STATistics:SCALe:AUTO
ONCE
This command optimizes the level setting of the instrument depending on the measured peak power,
in order to obtain maximum instrument sensitivity.
To obtain maximum resolution, the level range is set as a function of the measured spacing between
peak power and the minimum power for the APD measurement and of the spacing between peak
power and mean power for the CCDF measurement. In addition, the probability scale for the number
of test points is adapted.
Aa
Example:
Note
Subsequent commands have to be synchronized with *WAI, *OPC or *OPC? to the
end of the auto range process which would otherwise be aborted.
"CALC:STAT:SCAL:AUTO ONCE;*WAI"
'Adapts the level setting for statistical measurements.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate:STATistics:SCALe:X:RLEVel
-130dBm to 30dBm
This command defines the reference level for the X axis of the measurement diagram. The setting is
identical to the reference level setting using the command DISPlay:WINDow:TRACe:Y:RLEVel.
With the reference level offset <> 0 the indicated value range of the reference level is modified by the
offset.
The unit depends on the setting performed with CALC:UNIT.
Example:
"CALC:STAT:SCAL:X:RLEV -60dBm"
Characteristics: *RST value: -20dBm
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate:STATistics:SCALe:X:RANGe
10dB to 200dB
This command defines the level range for the X axis of the measurement diagram. The setting is
identical to the level range setting defined with the command DISPlay:WINDow:TRACe:Y:SCALe.
Example:
"CALC:STAT:SCAL:X:RANG 20dB"
Characteristics: *RST value: 100dB
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate:STATistics:SCALe:Y:UNIT
PCT | ABS
This command toggles the scaling of Y axis between percentage and absolute.
Example:
"CALC:STAT:SCAL:Y:UNIT PCT"
'toggle to percentage
Characteristics: *RST value: ABS
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate:STATistics:SCALe:Y:UPPer
1E-8 to 1.0
This command defines the upper limit for the Y axis of the diagram in statistical measurements. Since
probabilities are specified on the Y axis, the entered numerical values are dimensionless.
Example:
"CALC:STAT:Y:UPP 0.01"
Characteristics: *RST value: 1.0
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate:STATistics:SCALe:Y:LOWer
1E-9 to 0.1
This command defines the lower limit for the Y axis of the diagram in statistical measurements. Since
probabilities are specified on the Y axis, the entered numerical values are dimensionless.
Example:
"CALC:STAT:SCAL:Y:LOW 0.001"
Characteristics: *RST value: 1E-6
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
CALCulate:STATistics:PRESet
This command resets the scaling of the X and Y axes in a statistical measurement. The following
values are set:
•
X axis ref level: -20 dBm
•
X axis range APD: 100 dB
•
X axis range CCDF: 20 dB
•
Y axis upper limit: 1.0
•
Y axis lower limit: 1E-6
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CALCulate Subsystem
Example:
R&S ESU
"CALC:STAT:PRES"
'Resets the scaling for statistical functions
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
CALCulate:STATistics:RESult<1 to 3>?
MEAN | PEAK | CFACtor | ALL
This command reads out the results of statistical measurements of a recorded trace. The trace is
selected with the numeric suffix <1 to 3> attached to RESult.
The required result is selected via the following parameters:
Parameter:
MEAN: Average (=RMS) power in dBm measured during the measurement time.
PEAK: Peak power in dBm measured during the measurement time.
CFACtor: Determined CREST factor (= ratio of peak power to average power) in
dB.
ALL: Results of all three measurements mentioned before, separated by commas:
<mean power>,<peak power>,<crest factor>
Example:
"CALC:STAT:RES2? ALL"
'Reads out the three measurement results of trace 2. Example of answer string:
5.56,19.25,13.69 i.e. mean power: 5.56 dBm, peak power 19.25 dBm, CREST
factor 13.69 dB
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate:THReshold Subsystem
The CALCulate:THReshold subsystem controls the threshold value for the maximum/minimum search of
markers. The measurement windows are selected by CALCulate 1 (screen A) or 2 (screen B).
CALCulate<1|2>:DLINe<1|2>
MINimum .. MAXimum (depending on current unit)
This command defines the position of Display Line 1 or 2. These lines enable the user to mark any
levels in the diagram. The unit depends on the setting made with CALC:UNIT.
Example:
"CALC:DLIN -20dBm"
Characteristics: *RST value: - (STATe to OFF)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
CALCulate<1|2>:DLINe<1|2>:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches Display Line 1 or 2 (level lines) on or off.
Example:
"CALC:DLIN2:STAT OFF"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
CALCulate<1|2>:THReshold
MINimum to MAXimum (depending on current unit)
This command defines the threshold value for the maximum/minimum search of markers with marker
search functions MAX PEAK, NEXT PEAK, etc. in the selected measurement window. The associated
display line is automatically switched on.
Example:
"CALC:THR -82DBM"
'Sets the threshold value for screen A to -82 dBm.
Characteristics: *RST value: - (STATe to OFF)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A, FM
CALCulate<1|2>:THReshold:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the threshold line in the selected measurement window. The unit
depends on the setting performed with CALC:UNIT.
Example:
"CALC2:THR:STAT ON"
'Switches on the threshold line in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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R, A, FM
6.89
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CALCulate Subsystem
CALCulate<1|2>:FLINe<1|2>
R&S ESU
0...fmax
This command defines the position of the frequency lines.
The frequency lines mark the frequencies specified in the measurement window. Frequency lines are
only available with SPAN > 0.
Example:
"CALC:FLIN2 120MHz"
Characteristics: *RST value: - (STATe to OFF)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A-F
CALCulate<1|2>:FLINe<1|2>:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches the frequency line on or off.
Example:
"CALC:FLIN2:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A-F
CALCulate<1|2>:TLINe<1|2>
0 ... 1000s
This command defines the position of the time lines.
The time lines mark the times specified in the measurement window. Time lines are only available with
SPAN = 0.
Example:
"CALC:TLIN 10ms"
Characteristics: *RST value: - (STATe auf OFF)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A-T
CALCulate<1|2>:TLINe<1|2>:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches the time line on or off.
Example:
"CALC:TLIN2:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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CALibration Subsystem
CALibration Subsystem
The commands of the CALibration subsystem determine the data for system error correction in the
instrument.
CALibration[:ALL]?
This command initiates the acquisition of system error correction data. A "0" is returned if the
acquisition was successful.
Aa
Note
During the acquisition of correction data the instrument does not accept any remote
control commands, except
*RST
CALibration:ABORt
In order to recognize when the acquisition of correction data is completed, the MAV bit in the status
byte can be used. If the associated bit is set in the Service Request Enable Register, the instrument
generates a service request after the acquisition of correction data has been completed.
Example:
"*CLS"
'Resets the status management.
"*SRE 16"
'Enables MAV bit in the Service Request Enable Register.
"*CAL?"
'Starts the correction data recording and then a service request is generated.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
CALibration:ABORt
This command aborts the acquisition of correction data and restores the last complete correction data
set.
Example:
"CAL:ABOR"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
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CALibration Subsystem
R&S ESU
CALibration:RESult?
This command outputs the results of the correction data acquisition. The lines of the result table (see
chapter “Instrument Functions”, section “Recording the Correction Data – CAL” on page 4.159) are
output as string data separated by commas:
"Total Calibration Status: PASSED","Date (dd/mm/yyyy): 12/07/1999",
"Time: 16:24:54","Runtime:00.06"
Example:
"CAL:RES?"
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
CALibration:STATe
all
ON | OFF
This command determines whether the current calibration data are taken into account by the
instrument (ON) or not (OFF).
Example:
"CAL:STAT OFF"
'Sets up the instrument to ignore the calibration data.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
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DIAGnostic Subsystem
DIAGnostic Subsystem
The DIAGnostic subsystem contains the commands which support instrument diagnostics for
maintenance, service and repair. In accordance with the SCPI standard, all of these commands are
device-specific.
The measurement windows are selected by DIAGnostic1 (screen A) or DIAGnostic2 (screen B).
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:INPut[:SELect]
CALibration | RF
This command toggles between the RF input on the front panel and the internal 128-MHz reference
signal in the selected measurement window. The level of the 128-MHz signals can be selected by
command DIAG:SERV:CSOurce.
Example:
"DIAG:SERV:INP CAL"
Characteristics: *RST value: RF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:INPut:PULSed[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command toggles the calibration signal in the selected measurement window between pulsed and
non-pulsed. The selection takes effect only if the RF input has been set to the internal reference signal
using DIAG:SERV:INP CAL.
Example:
"DIAG:SERV:INP CAL;
DIAG:SERV:INP:PULS ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:INPut:PULSed:PRATe
10 kHz | 62.5 kHz | 1 MHz | 128 MHz | 640 MHz
This command selects the pulse rate for the pulsed calibration signal in the selected measurement
window.
Available pulse frequencies are 10 kHz, 62.5 kHz, 100 kHz, 1 MHz, 128 MHz and 640 MHz.
Example:
"DIAG:SERV:INP:PRAT 128 MHz"
Characteristics: *RST value: 128 MHz
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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6.93
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DIAGnostic Subsystem
R&S ESU
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:INPut:RECTangle[:STATe] ON | OFF
This command switches the rectangle calibration signal on or off in the selected measurement window
(suffix <1|2>). The setting takes effect only if the RF input is set to the internal reference signal (DIAG:
SERV:INP CAL command).
Aa
Example:
Note
If the rectangle calibration signal is switched on, the pulsed calibration signal is
switched off.
"DIAG:SERV:INP CAL;
DIAG:SERV:INP:RECT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:INPut:RECTangle:PRATe
5 kHz | 31.25 kHz | 50 kHz | 250 kHz | 500 kHz
This command sets the frequency of the rectangle calibration signal in the selected measurement
window (suffix <1|2>).
5 kHz | 31.25 kHz | 50 kHz | 250 kHz | 500 kHz can be set.
Example:
"DIAG:SERV:INP:RECT:PRAT 128 MHz
Characteristics: *RST value: 5 kHz
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:SFUNction
<string>...
This command activates a service function which can be selected by indicating the five parameters:
function group number, board number, function number, parameter 1 and parameter 2 (see service
manual). The contents of the parameter string is identical to the code to be entered in the data entry
field of manual operation.
The entry of a service function is accepted only if the system password Level 1 or Level 2 has been
entered previously (command: SYSTem:SECurity).
The numeric suffix <1|2> is ignored with this command.
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
The service functions of the instrument are not identical to those of the FSE family.
That is why the IEC/IEEE-bus command differs in syntax and data format.
6.94
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R&S ESU
Example:
DIAGnostic Subsystem
"DIAG:SERV:SFUN '2.0.2.12.1'"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:NSOurce
ON | OFF
This command switches the 28-V supply of the noise source at the rear panel on or off.
The numeric suffix <1|2> is ignored with this command.
Example:
"DIAG:SERV:NSO ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:CSOource[:POWer]
<numeric_value>
This command switches the level of the 128 MHz reference signal source between 0 dBm and -30 dBm
in the selected measurement window.
Example:
"DIAG:SERV:CSO 0DBM"
Characteristics: *RST value: -30 dBm
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:STESt:RESult?
This command reads the results of the selftest out of the instrument. The lines of the result table are
output as string data separated by commas:
"Total Selftest Status: PASSED","Date (dd/mm/yyyy): 09/07/1999
TIME: 16:24:54","Runtime: 00:06","...
The numeric suffix <1|2> is ignored with this command.
Example:
"DIAG:SERV:STES:RES?"
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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DIAGnostic Subsystem
R&S ESU
DIAGnostic<1|2>:SERVice:HWINfo?
This command queries the contents of the module info table. Table lines are output as string data and
are separated by commas.
"<component 1>|<serial #>|<order #>|<model>|<HWC>|<rev>|<sub rev>",
"<component 2>|<serial #>|<order #>|<model>|<HWC>|<rev>|<sub rev>",...
The individual columns of the table are separated from each other by '|'.
The numeric suffix <1|2> is ignored with this command.
Example:
"DIAG:SERV:HWIN?"
Result (shortened):
"RF_ATTEN_7|650551/007|1067.7684|02|00|20|04",
"IF-FILTER|648158/037|1093.5540|03|01|07|05",
...
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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R&S ESU
DISPlay Subsystem
DISPlay Subsystem
The DISPLay subsystem controls the selection and presentation of textual and graphic information as well
as of measurement data on the display.
The measurement windows are selected by WINDow1 (screen A) or WINDow2 (screen B).
DISPlay:FORMat SINGle | SPLit
This command switches the measurement result display between FULL SCREEN and SPLIT
SCREEN. The coupling of settings between screen A and screen B can be selected with the command
INSTrument:COUPle.
In full-screen display the active measurement window can be selected with DISPlay:WINDow<1|2>:
SELect.
Example:
"DISP:FORM SPL"
'Switches the display to 2 measurement windows.
Characteristics: *RST value: SINGle
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
DISPlay:ANNotation:FREQuency
ON | OFF
This command switches the X axis annotation on or off.
Example:
"DISP:ANN:FREQ OFF"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
DISPlay:LOGO
all
ON | OFF
This command switches the company logo on the screen on or off.
Example:
"DISP:LOGO OFF"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
DISPlay:PSAVe[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the power-save mode of the display. With the power-save mode
activated the display including backlight is completely switched off after the elapse of the response
time (see command DISPlay:PSAVe:HOLDoff).
Aa
1302.6163.12
Note
This mode is recommended for preserving the display especially if the instrument
is exclusively operated via remote control.
6.97
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DISPlay Subsystem
Example:
R&S ESU
"DISP:PSAVe ON"
'Switches on the power-save mode.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
all
Mode:
DISPlay:PSAVe:HOLDoff
1 to 60
This command sets the hold off time for the power-save mode of the display. The available value range
is 1 to 60 minutes, the resolution 1 minute. The entry is dimensionless.
Example:
"DISP:PSAV:HOLD 30"
Characteristics: *RST value: 15
SCPI: device-specific
all
Mode:
DISPlay:CMAP<1...34>:DEFault<1|2>
This command resets the screen colors of all display items to their default settings. Two default
settings DEFault1 and DEFault2 are available. The numeric suffix of CMAP is irrelevant.
Example:
"DISP:CMAP:DEF2"
'Selects default setting 2 for setting the colors.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: conforming
all
Mode:
This command is an event and therefore has no query and no *RST value.
DISPlay:CMAP<1...34>:HSL
<hue>,<sat>,<lum>
This command defines the color table of the instrument.
Each numeric suffix of CMAP is assigned one or several graphical elements which can be modified by
varying the corresponding color setting. The following assignment applies:
CMAP1
Background
CMAP2
Grid
CMAP3
Function field + status field + data entry text
CMAP4
Function field LED on
CMAP5
Function field LED warn
CMAP6
Enhancement label text
CMAP7
Status field background
CMAP8
Trace 1
CMAP9
Trace 2
CMAP10
Trace 3
CMAP11
Marker
CMAP12
Lines
CMAP13
Measurement status + limit check pass
CMAP14
Limit check fail
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R&S ESU
DISPlay Subsystem
CMAP15
Table + softkey background
CMAP16
Table + softkey text
CMAP17
Table selected field text
CMAP18
Table selected field background
CMAP19
Table + data entry field opaque title bar
CMAP20
Data entry field opaque text
CMAP21
Data entry field opaque background
CMAP22
3D shade bright part
CMAP23
3D shade dark part
CMAP24
Softkey state on
CMAP25
Softkey state data entry
CMAP26
Logo
CMAP27
Bar graph PK+
CMAP28
Bar graph PK-
CMAP29
Bar graph QPK
CMAP30
Bar graph AVER
CMAP31
Bar graph RMS
CMAP32
Final Meas
CMAP33
Bar graph CAV
CMAP34
Bar graph CRMS
Parameter:
hue = TINT
sat = SATURATION
lum = BRIGHTNESS
The value range is 0 to 1 for all parameters.
Example:
"DISP:CMAP2:HSL 0.3,0.8,1.0"
'Changes the grid color.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
The values set are not changed by *RST.
DISPlay:CMAP<1...34>:PDEFined BLACk | BLUE | BROWn | GREen | CYAN | RED | MAGenta |
YELLow | WHITe | DGRAy | LGRAy | LBLUe | LGREen | LCYan | LRED | LMAGenta
This command defines the color table of the instrument using predefined color values. Each numeric
suffix of CMAP is assigned one or several graphical elements which can be modified by varying the
corresponding color setting.
The same assignment as for DISPlay:CMAP<1 to 26>:HSL applies.
Example:
"DISP:CMAP2:PDEF GRE"
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
The values set are not changed by *RST.
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DISPlay Subsystem
R&S ESU
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:SELect
This command selects the active measurement window. WINDow1 corresponds to SCREEN A,
WINDow2 to SCREEN B.
In FULL SCREEN mode, the measurements are only performed in the active measurement window.
Measurements are therefore initiated in the active window and result queries (marker, trace data and
other results) answered also in the active window.
Initiating measurements and querying results in the inactive window yields an error message
(execution error).
In split screen mode, the selection of the active window for result queries is irrelevant.
Aa
Example:
Note
•
In FULL SCREEN mode, settings can also be performed in the inactive
measurement window. They become effective as soon as the corresponding
window becomes active.
•
This command is not available in FM mode. In FM mode, the display is always
set to FULL SCREEN, which corresponds to SCREEN A and thus to WINDow1.
WINDow1 is automatically selected when the FM mode is activated with
command INSTrument:SELect:ADEMod.
"DISP:WIND2:SEL"
'Selects SCREEN B as active measurement window.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCREEN A active
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no query.
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:SIZE
LARGe | SMALl
This command switches the measurement window for channel and adjacent-channel power
measurements or for active FM demodulator (FS-K7) to full screen or half screen. Only "1" is allowed
as a numerical suffix.
Example:
"DISP:WIND1:SIZE LARG"
'Switches the measurement window to full screen.
Characteristics: *RST value: SMALl
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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A, FM
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R&S ESU
DISPlay Subsystem
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TEXT[:DATA]
<string>
This command defines a comment (max. 20 characters) which can be displayed on the screen in the
selected measurement window.
Example:
"DISP:WIND2:TEXT 'Noise Measurement'"
'Defines the title for screen B
Characteristics: *RST value: "" (empty)
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TEXT:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the display of the comment (screen title) in the selected
measurement window.
Example:
"DISP:TEXT:STAT ON"
'Switches on the title of screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TIME
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the screen display of date and time. The numeric suffix in
WINDow<1| 2> is irrelevant.
Example:
"DISP:TIME ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACE<1 to 3>:X:SPACing LINear | LOGarithmic
This command toggles between linear and logarithmic display in receiver mode
Example:
"DISP:TRAC:X:SPAC LIN"
Characteristics: *RST value: LOGarithmic
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
R, A
The numeric suffix in TRACE<1 to 3> is irrelevant.
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DISPlay Subsystem
R&S ESU
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1 to 3>:Y[:SCALe]
10dB to 200dB
This command defines the display range of the Y axis (level axis) in the selected measurement window
with logarithmic scaling (DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG).
For linear scaling, (DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN | PERC) the display range is fixed and cannot be
modified. The numeric suffix in TRACe<1 to 3> is irrelevant.
Example:
"DISP:TRAC:Y 110dB"
Characteristics: *RST value: 100dB
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1 to 3>:Y[:SCALe]:MODE
ABSolute | RELative
This command defines the scale type of the Y axis (absolute or relative) in the selected measurement
window. SYSTem:DISPlay is set to OFF, this command has no immediate effect on the screen. The
numeric suffix in TRACe<1 to 3> is irrelevant.
Example:
"DISP:TRAC:Y:MODE REL"
Characteristics: *RST value: ABS
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1 to 3>:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel
-130dBm to 30dBm
This command defines the reference level in the selected measurement window. Depending on the
coupling of the measurement windows, it is valid for both screens (INSTrument:COUPle ALL) or
only for the selected measurement window (INSTrument:COUPle NONE).
With the reference level offset <> 0 the indicated value range of the reference level is modified by the
offset.
The unit depends on the setting defined with CALCulate:UNIT. The numeric suffix in TRACe<1 to
3> is irrelevant.
Example:
"DISP:TRAC:Y:RLEV -60dBm"
Characteristics: *RST value: -20dBm
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
A, FM
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1 to 3>:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel:OFFSet
-200dB to 200dB
This command defines the offset of the reference level in the selected measurement window.
Depending on the coupling of the measurement windows, it is valid for both screens (INSTrument:
COUPle ALL) or only for the selected measurement window (INSTrument:COUPle NONE).
The numeric suffix at TRACe<1 to 3> is irrelevant.
Example:
"DISP:TRAC:Y:RLEV:OFFS -10dB"
Characteristics: *RST value: 0dB
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
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6.102
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R&S ESU
DISPlay Subsystem
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACE<1 to 3>:Y[:SCALe]:RVALue
<numeric_value>
If the tracking generator option or the external generator control option (R&S FSU-B9/R&S FSP-B10)
is mounted and the normalization in the NETWORK mode is activated, this value defines the power
value assigned to the reference position in the selected measurement window. This value corresponds
to the parameter REFERENCE VALUE in manual operation.
The numeric suffix at TRACe<1 to 3> is irrelevant.
Characteristics: "DISP:TRAC:Y:RVAL 0"
'Sets the power value assigned to the reference position to 0 dB (Tracking
Generator/Ext. Generator Control option) or 0 Hz (FM demodulator option).
*RST value:
0 dB (Mode NETWORK)
0 Hz (FM demodulator mode with FM display)
2.5 MHz (FM demodulator mode with AF spectrum display of FM)
SCPI: device specific
Mode:
A, FM
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1 to 3>:Y[:SCALe]:RPOSition
0 to 100PCT
This command defines the position of the reference value in the selected measurement window. The
numeric suffix in TRACe<1 to 3> is irrelevant.
In operating mode NETWORK (Tracking Generator /Ext. Generator Option R&S FSU-B9/R&S FSPB10) with active normalization, RPOSition defines the reference point for the output of the normalized
measurement results.
With the FM demodulator (FS-K7) switched on, the reference position for result display RF POWER
and SPECTRUM is kept separate from that for result display FM.
Example:
"DISP:TRAC:Y:RPOS 50PCT"
Characteristics: *RST value:
100PCT(SPECTRUM mode)
50 PCT (NETWORK and FM DEMOD mode)
50 PCT (Mode FM-DEMOD with FM display)
100 PCT (Mode FM-DEMOD with AF spectrum display of FM)
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
A, FM
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1 to 3>:Y[:SCALe]:BOTTom
<numeric_value>
This command defines the minimum grid level in the current unit for the scan display in the receiver
mode.
Example:
"DISP:TRAC:Y:BOTT -20"
'The minimum grid level is set to -20 dBuV (pre-condition: the default unit has not
been changed)
Characteristics: *RST value: 0
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
R
The numeric suffix in TRACE<1 to 3> is irrelevant.
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DISPlay Subsystem
R&S ESU
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1 to 3>:Y:SPACing
LINear | LOGarithmic| LDB
This command toggles between linear and logarithmic display in the selected measurement window.
On a linear scale, switch over between the unit % (command DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN) and
the unit dB (command DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LDB) is also possible.
If the FM demodulator (FS-K7) is active and result display AF spectrum of FM is selected, only the
parameters LINear and LOGarithmic are permissible.
The numeric suffix in TRACe<1 to 3> is irrelevant.
Example:
"DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN"
Characteristics: *RST value: LOGarithmic
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
A, FM
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1 to 3>:MODE
WRITe | VIEW | AVERage | MAXHold | MINHold
This command defines the type of display and the evaluation of the traces in the selected
measurement window. WRITE corresponds to the Clr/Write mode of manual operation. The trace is
switched off (= BLANK in manual operation) with DISP:WIND:TRAC:STAT OFF.
The number of measurements for AVERage, MAXHold and MINHold is defined with the command
SENSe:AVERage:COUNt or SENSe:SWEep:COUNt. It should be noted that synchronization to the end
of the indicated number of measurements is only possible in single sweep mode.
If calculation of average values is active, selection between logarithmic and linear averaging is
possible. For more detail see command SENSe:AVERage:TYPE.
Example:
"SWE:CONT OFF"
'Switching to single-sweep mode.
"SWE:COUN 16"
'Sets the number of measurements to 16.
"DISP:WIND1:TRAC3:MODE MAXH"
'Switches on the calculation of the for trace 3 in screen A.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts the measurement and waits for the end of the 16 sweeps.
Characteristics: *RST value: WRITe for TRACe1, STATe OFF for TRACe2/3
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACe<1...3>:MODE:HCONtinuous
ON | OFF
This command specifies whether or not the traces with peak or minimum value detection are reset after
specific parameter changes.
Usually the measurement must be restarted after a parameter change, before an evaluation of the
measurement results is performed (e.g. with a marker). In cases in which a change causes a
compulsory new measurement, the trace is automatically reset in order to prevent erroneous
measurements of previous measurement results (e.g. when the span changes). For applications in
which this behavior is not desired, this mechanism can be switched off.
Parameter:
OFF: The traces are reset after specific parameter changes.
ON: The reset mechanism is switched off.
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R&S ESU
Example:
DISPlay Subsystem
"DISP:WIND1:TRAC3:MODE:HCON ON"
'The reset mechanism is switched off for measurement window 1.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACE<1 to 3>[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the display of the corresponding trace in the selected measurement
window.
Example:
"DISP:WIND1:TRAC3 ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON for TRACe1, OFF for TRACe2 to 4
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
DISPlay[:WINDow<1|2>]:TRACE<1 to 3>:SYMBol
CROSs | OFF
This command switches on or off the indication of the peak list or the final measurement result on the
trace.
Parameter:
CROSs: The single value is indicated as x.
OFF: No indication.
Example:
"DISP:TRAC:SYMB CROS"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R
DISPlay:BARGraph:LEVel:LOWer?
This command queries the minimum level of the bar graph.
Example:
":DISP:BARG:LEV:LOW?"
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R
DISPlay:BARGraph:LEVel:UPPer?
This command queries the maximum level of the bar graph.
Example:
":DISP:BARG:LEV:UPP?"
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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R
6.105
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DISPlay Subsystem
DISPlay:BARGraph:PHOLd
R&S ESU
ON | OFF
This command switches the indication of the maxhold value of the bar graph measurement on or off.
Example:
":DISP:BARG:PHOL ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R
DISPlay:BARGraph:PHOLd:PRESet
This command resets the maxhold value of the numeric indication of the bar graph measurement.
Example:
":DISP:BARG:PHOL:PRES"
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R
This command is an event and thus has no *RST value and no query.
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R&S ESU
FORMat Subsystem
FORMat Subsystem
The FORMat subsystem specifies the data format of the data transmitted from and to the instrument.
FORMat[:DATA]
ASCii | REAL | UINT[, 8 | 32]
This command specifies the data format for the data transmitted from the instrument to the control PC.
The format settings below are valid for the binary transmission of trace data (see also TRACE:DATA?):
Example:
"FORM REAL,32"
"FORM ASC"
"FORM UINT,8"
Characteristics: *RST value: ASCII
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
The data format is either ASCII or one of the formats REAL. ASCII data are transmitted in plain text,
separated by commas. REAL data are transmitted as 32-bit IEEE 754 floating-point numbers in the
"definite length block format".
The FORMat command is valid for the transmission of trace data and the results of the bar graph
measurement. The data format of trace data received by the instrument is automatically recognized,
regardless of the format which is programmed.
Format setting for the binary transmission of trace data (see also TRACE:DATA?):
Aa
Note
Incorrect format setting will result in numerical conversion, which may lead to
incorrect results.
FORMat:DEXPort:DSEParator
POINt | COMMA
This command defines which decimal separator (decimal point or comma) is to be used for outputting
measurement data to the file in ASCII format. Different languages of evaluation programs (e.g. MSExcel) can thus be supported.
Example:
"FORM:DEXP:DSEP POIN
'Sets the decimal point as separator.
Characteristics: *RST value: -- (factory setting is POINt; *RST does not affect setting)
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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6.107
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HCOPy Subsystem
R&S ESU
HCOPy Subsystem
The HCOPy subsystem controls the output of display information for documentation purposes on output
devices or files. The instrument allows two independent printer configurations which can be set separately
with the numeric suffix <1|2>.
HCOPy:ABORt
This command aborts a running hardcopy output.
Example:
"HCOP:ABOR"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
all
Mode:
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
HCOPy:CMAP<1...34>:DEFault<1|2|3>
This command resets the colors for a hardcopy to the selected default settings. DEFault1(SCREEN
COLORS, but background white), DEFault2 (OPTIMIZED COLOR SET) and DEFault3 (USER
DEFINED). The numeric suffix in CMAP is not significant.
Example:
"HCOP:CMAP:DEF2"
'selects OPTIMIZED COLOR SET for the color settings of a hardcopy.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: conforming
all
Mode:
This command is an event and therefore has no query and no *RST value.
HCOPy:CMAP<1...34>:HSL
<hue>,<sat>,<lum>
This command defines the color table in USER DEFINED COLORS mode.
To each numeric suffix of CMAP is assigned one or several picture elements which can be modified
by varying the corresponding color setting. The following assignment applies:
CMAP1
Background
CMAP2
Grid
CMAP3
Function field + status field + data entry text
CMAP4
Function field LED on
CMAP5
Function field LED warn
CMAP6
Enhancement label text
CMAP7
Status field background
CMAP8
Trace 1
CMAP9
Trace 2
CMAP10
Trace 3
CMAP11
Marker
CMAP12
Lines
CMAP13
Measurement status + limit check pass
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R&S ESU
HCOPy Subsystem
CMAP14
Limit check fail
CMAP15
Table + softkey background
CMAP16
Table + softkey text
CMAP17
Table selected field text
CMAP18
Table selected field background
CMAP19
Table + data entry field opaque title bar
CMAP20
Data entry field opaque text
CMAP21
Data entry field opaque background
CMAP22
3D shade bright part
CMAP23
3D shade dark part
CMAP24
Softkey state on
CMAP25
Softkey state data entry
CMAP26
Logo
CMAP27
Bar graph PK+
CMAP28
Bar graph PK-
CMAP29
Bar graph QPK
CMAP30
Bar graph AVER
CMAP31
Bar graph RMS
CMAP32
Final Meas
CMAP33
Bar graph CAV
CMAP34
Bar graph CRMS
Parameter:
hue = tint
sat = saturation
lum = brightness
The value range is 0 to 1 for all parameters
Example:
"HCOP:CMAP2:HSL 0.3,0.8,1.0"
'changes the grid color
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
The values set are not changed by *RST.
HCOPy:CMAP<1...34>:PDEFined BLACk | BLUE | BROWn | GREen | CYAN | RED | MAGenta |
YELLow | WHITe | DGRAy | LGRAy | LBLUe | LGREen | LCYan | LRED | LMAGenta
This command defines the color table in USER DEFINED COLORS using predefined color values. To
each numeric suffix of CMAP is assigned one or several picture elements which can be modified by
varying the corresponding color setting. The same assignment as for :HCPOy:CMAP<1 to 26>:HSL
applies
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HCOPy Subsystem
Example:
R&S ESU
"HCOP:CMAP2:PDEF GRE"
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
The values set are not changed by *RST.
HCOPy:DESTination<1|2>
<string>
This command selects the printer output medium (Disk, Printer or Clipboard) associated with
configuration 1 or 2.
Aa
Parameter:
Note
The type of instrument is selected with SYSTem:COMMunicate:PRINter:
SELect, which will automatically select a default output medium. Therefore the
command HCOPy:DESTination should always be sent after setting the device
type.
<string>::= 'SYST:COMM:GPIB' | 'SYST:COMM:SER' | 'SYST:COMM:CENT' |
'MMEM' | 'SYST:COMM:PRIN' | 'SYST:COMM:CLIP'
'MMEM': Directs the hardcopy to a file. Command MMEM:NAME '<file_name>'
defines the file name. All formats can be selected for HCOPy:DEVice:LANGuage.
'SYST:COMM:PRIN': Directs the hardcopy to the printer. The printer is selected
with command SYSTEM:COMMunicate:PRINter:SELect.
GDI should be selected for HCOPy:DEVice:LANGuage.
'SYST:COMM:CLIP': Directs the hardcopy to the clipboard. EWMF should be
selected for HCOPy:DEVice:LANGuage.
Example:
"SYST:COMM:PRIN:SEL2 'LASER on LPT1'"
'Selects the printer and output medium for device 2
"HCOP:DEST2 'SYST:COMM:PRIN'"
'Selects the printer interface as device 2.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
HCOPy:DEVice:COLor
ON|OFF
This command selects between color and monochrome hardcopy of the screen.
Example:
"HCOP:DEV:COL ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
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R&S ESU
HCOPy Subsystem
HCOPy:DEVice:LANGuage<1|2>
GDI | WMF | EWMF | BMP | HTML | PDF | RTF
This command determines the data format for the printed output.
Parameter:
GDI (Graphics Device Interface): Default format for output to a printer that has
been configured under Windows. Must be selected for output to the printer
interface (HCOPy:DEVice 'SYST:COMM:PRIN'). Can be used for output to a file
(HCOPy:DEVice 'SYST:COMM:MMEM'). The printer driver that was configured
under Windows is used to generate a file format that is specific to the printer. GDI
is available only for HCOPY:MODE SCReen.
WMF (WINDOWS Metafile) and EWMF (Enhanced Metafile Format): Data formats
for output to files which can be directly processed at a later point in time for
documentation purposes using suitable software. WMF can be used only for output
to a file (HCOPy:DEVice 'SYST:COMM:MMEM'), EWMF can also be used for
output to the clipboard (HCOPy:DEVice 'SYST:COMM:CLIP').
BMP (Bitmap): Data format, exclusively for output to files (HCOPy:DEVice
'SYST:COMM:MMEM').
BMP is available only for HCOPY:MODE SCReen.
HTML 4.0 (Hypertext Markup Language): Test reports can be exported to files in
HTML format. It is then possible to view these files using a web browser.
HTML is available only for HCOPY:MODE TREPort.
Adobe Acrobat (Portable Document Format): Test reports can be exported to files
in PDF format. These files can then be opened using a PDF reader such as Adobe
Acrobat.
PDF is available only for HCOPY:MODE TREPort.
Rich Text Format: Test reports can be exported to files in RTF format. It is then
possible to open these files for further processing using word processing software
such as Microsoft Word.
RTF is available only for HCOPY:MODE TREPort.
Example:
"HCOP:DEV:LANG WMF"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
HCOPy[:IMMediate<1|2>]
This command starts a hardcopy output. The numeric suffix selects which printer configuration (1 or
2) is to be used for the hardcopy output. If there is no suffix, configuration 1 is automatically selected.
Example:
"HCOP"
"HCOPy:IMM[1]"
'Starts the hardcopy output to device 1 (default).
"HCOPy:IMM2"
'Starts the output to device 2.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
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HCOPy Subsystem
R&S ESU
HCOPy:ITEM:ALL
This command selects the complete screen to be output.
Example:
"HCOP:ITEM:ALL"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
The hardcopy output is always provided with comments, title, time and date. As an alternative to the
whole screen, only traces (commands 'HCOPy:ITEM:WINDow:TRACe:STATe ON') or tables
(command 'HCOPy:ITEM:WINDow:TABLe:STATe ON') can be output.
HCOPy:ITEM:WINDow<1|2>:TABle:STATe
ON | OFF
This command selects the output of the currently displayed tables.
Example:
"HCOP:ITEM:WIND:TABL:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
The command HCOPy:DEVice:ITEM:WINDow<1|2>:TABle:STATe
HCOPy:DEVice:ITEM:ALL enables the output of the whole screen.
HCOPy:ITEM:WINDow<1|2>:TEXT
OFF as well as command
<string>
This command defines the comment text for measurement window 1 or 2 for printout, with a maximum
of 100 characters; line feed by means of character @).
Example:
"HCOP:ITEM:WIND2:TEXT 'comment'"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
HCOPy:ITEM:WINDow<1|2>:TRACe:STATe
ON | OFF
This command selects the output of the currently displayed trace.
Example:
"HCOP:ITEM:WIND:TRACe:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
The command HCOPy:ITEM:WINDow<1|2>:TRACe:STATe
ITEM:ALL enables the output of the whole screen.
HCOPy:MODE
OFF as well as command HCOPy:
SCReen | TREPort:
This command selects the type of output that is used to document the measurements.
SCReen outputs the information that is visible on the screen in a graphical format.
TREPort prepares a configurable collection of measurement results and the instrument settings that
had an influence on the measurement results.
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R&S ESU
Example:
HCOPy Subsystem
":HCOP:MODE SCR"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCR
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
HCOPy:PAGE:ORIentation<1|2>
LANDscape | PORTrait
The command selects the format of the output (portrait and landscape) (hardcopy unit 1 or 2).
Aa
Example:
Note
The command is only available provided that the output device "printer" (HCOP:
DEST 'SYST:COMM:PRIN') has been selected.
"HCOP:PAGE:ORI LAND"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
HCOPy:TREPort:APPend
This command adds a new test report to an existing document in accordance with the test report
configuration settings. This report document is initially stored internally until it is printed using the
HCOPy:IMMediate command or exported to a portable file format.
Example:
":HCOP:TREP:APP"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
This command is an event, so it has neither an *RST value nor a query function.
HCOPy:TREPort:NEW
This command generates a new test report in a new document in accordance with the test report
configuration settings. An existing report document is deleted. This report document is initially stored
internally until it is printed using the HCOPy:IMMediate command or exported to a portable file format.
Example:
":HCOP:TREP:NEW"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
This command is an event, so it has neither an *RST value nor a query function.
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HCOPy Subsystem
R&S ESU
HCOPy:TREPort:ITEM:DEFault
This command sets the test report configuration to a defined default status.
A newly generated test report will then contain the following:
Header line
Diagram
Scan table
Final measured values
Time of day and date
Page number
Example:
":HCOP:TREP:ITEM:DEF"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
HCOPy:TREPort:ITEM:LOGO:CONTrol
ALWays | ONCE | NEVer
In the current test report configuration, this command switches the output of the diagram on the test
instrument screen either on or off.
Example:
":HCOP:TREP:ITEM:LOGO:CONT ALW"
Characteristics: *RST value: NEVer
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
HCOPy:TREPort:ITEM:HEADer:LINE<1…7>:CONTrol
ALWays | ONCE | NEVer
In the current test report configuration, this command controls whether the line indicated in the numeric
suffix of the report header is output.
The meanings are as follows:
ALWays
On each page
ONCE
Only on the first page
NEVer
Not on any page
A further condition for the output is that outputting of the report header must be switched on with ":
HCOP:TREP:ITEM:HEAD:STAT ON".
Example:
":HCOP:TREP:ITEM:HEAD:LINE2:CONT ALW"
Characteristics: *RST value: ALWays
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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R&S ESU
HCOPy Subsystem
HCOPy:TREPort:ITEM:HEADer:LINE<1…7>:TEXT
<string>
This command defines the text used for the line of the report header indicated in the numeric suffix.
Example:
":HCOP:TREP:ITEM:HEAD:LINE2:TEXT 'radiated test'"
Characteristics: *RST value: ''
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
HCOPy:TREPort:ITEM:HEADer:LINE<1…7>:TITLe
<string>
This command defines a name for the line of the report header indicated in the numeric suffix. This
name is also output in the test report.
Example:
":HCOP:TREP:ITEM:HEAD:LINE2:TITL 'Specification'"
Characteristics: *RST value:
LINE1 'Heading'
LINE2 'Meas Type'
LINE3 'Equipment under Test'
LINE4 'Manufacturer'
LINE5 'OP Condition'
LINE6 'Operator'
LINE6 'Test Spec'
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
HCOPy:TREPort:ITEM:HEADer: STATe
ON | OFF
In the current test report configuration, this command switches the output of the report header either
on or off. The individual lines can also be controlled individually with ":HCOP:TREP:ITEM:HEAD:
LINE:CONT ALW | ONCE | NEV".
Example:
":HCOP:TREP:ITEM:HEAD:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
HCOPy:TREPort:ITEM:DIAGram:STATe
ON | OFF
In the current test report configuration, this command switches the output of the diagram on the test
instrument screen either on or off.
Example:
":HCOP:TREP:ITEM:DIAG:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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6.115
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HCOPy Subsystem
HCOPy:TREPort:ITEM:FRESults:STATe
R&S ESU
ON | OFF
In the current test report configuration, this command switches the output of the final measured values
in tabular format either on or off.
Example:
":HCOP:TREP:ITEM:FRES:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R
HCOPy:TREPort:ITEM:PAGecount:STATe
ON | OFF
In the current test report configuration, this command switches the output of the page numbering either
on or off.
Example:
":HCOP:TREP:ITEM:PAG:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
HCOPy:TREPort:ITEM:SCANtable:STATe
ON | OFF
In the current test report configuration, this command switches the output of the scan table with the
measurement settings either on or off.
Example:
":HCOP:TREP:ITEM:SCAN:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
HCOPy:TREPort:ITEM:SRESults:STATe
ON | OFF
In the current test report configuration, this command switches the output of the results on the
preliminary measurement in tabular format either on or off. Depending on the current scan settings,
this table can be very long in certain cases.
Example:
":HCOP:TREP:ITEM:SRES:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R
HCOPy:TREPort:ITEM:TDSTamp:STATe
ON | OFF
In the current test report configuration, this command switches the output of the date and time of day
at the start of the documented measurement either on or off.
Example:
":HCOP:TREP:ITEM:TDST:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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R&S ESU
HCOPy Subsystem
HCOPy:TREPort:ITEM:TRANsducer:STATe
ON | OFF
In the current test report configuration, this command switches the output of the enabled transducer
factor(s) either on or off.
Example:
":HCOP:TREP:ITEM:TRAN:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
HCOPy:TREPort:ITEM:TEMPlate:CATalog?
This command outputs a list showing the complete test report configuration.
The syntax of the output format is as follows: 'template1','template2',...
Example:
":HCOP:TREP:ITEM:TEMP:CAT?"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
HCOPy:TREPort:ITEM:TEMPlate:DELete
<string>
This command deletes the specified test report configuration.
Example:
":HCOP:TREP:ITEM:TEMP:DEL 'short test'"
Characteristics: *RST value: ''
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
HCOPy:TREPort:ITEM:TEMPlate:LOAD
<string>
This command loads the specified test report configuration.
Example:
":HCOP:TREP:ITEM:TEMP:LOAD 'short test'"
Characteristics: *RST value: ''
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
HCOPy:TREPort:ITEM:TEMPlate:SAVE
<string>
This command saves the current test report configuration using the specified name.
Example:
":HCOP:TREP:ITEM:TEMP:SAVE 'short test'"
Characteristics: *RST value: ''
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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INITiate Subsystem
R&S ESU
INITiate Subsystem
The INITiate subsystem is used to control the init measurement function in the selected measurement
window. In receiver mode, a distinction is made between single measurement (INITiate1) and scan
(INITiate2). In signal analyzer mode, a distinction is made between INITiate1 (screen A) and INITiate2
(screen B) in split screen representation.
INITiate<1|2>:CONTinuous ON | OFF
This command determines whether the trigger system is continuously initiated (continuous) or
performs single measurements (single).
Setting "INITiate:CONTinuous ON" corresponds to function SCAN/SWEEP CONTinuous, i.e. the
scan/sweep of the receiver/analyzer is cyclically repeated. The setting "INITiate:CONTinuous
OFF" corresponds to function SCAN/SWEEP SINGLE.
Example:
"INIT2:CONT OFF"
'Switches the sequence in screen B to single scan/sweep.
"INIT2:CONT ON"
'Switches the sequence to continuous scan/sweep.
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
INITiate<1|2>:CONMeas
This command continues an aborted scan measurement at the current receiver frequency.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE AVER
'Switches on trace averaging.
"SWE:COUN 20"
Setting the sweep counter to 20 sweeps.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts the measurement and waits for the end of the 20 sweeps.
"INIT:CONM;*WAI"
'Continues the measurement (next 20 sequences) and waits for the end.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
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R&S ESU
INITiate Subsystem
INITiate<1|2>[:IMMediate]
The command initiates a new sweep in the indicated measurement window.
In receiver mode with SINGLE selected, the ESU performs a single scan and stops at the end
frequency. With CONTINUOUS selected, the scan is performed continuously until it is deliberately
stopped.
In analyzer mode, with Sweep Count > 0 or Average Count > 0, this means a restart of the indicated
number of measurements. With trace functions MAXHold, MINHold and AVERage, the previous
results are reset on restarting the measurement.
In single sweep mode, synchronization to the end of the indicated number of measurements can be
achieved with the command *OPC, *OPC? or *WAI. In continuous-sweep mode, synchronization to
the sweep end is not possible since the overall measurement never ends.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode.
"DISP:WIND:TRAC:MODE AVER
'Switches on trace averaging.
"SWE:COUN 20"
Setting the sweep counter to 20 sweeps.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts the measurement and waits for the end of the 20 sweeps.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
INITiate<1|2>:DISPlay
ON | OFF
This command configures the behavior of the display during a single sweep.
INITiate:DISPlay OFF means that the display is switched off during the measurement,
INITiate:DISPlay ON means that the display is switched on during the measurement.
The numeric suffix of INITiate is irrelevant with this command.
Example:
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Switches to single-sweep mode
"INIT:DISP OFF"
'Sets the display behavior to OFF
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts the measurement with display switched off.
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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INITiate Subsystem
R&S ESU
INITiate<1|2>:FMEasurementINITiate<1|2>: FMEasurement
In the receiver mode, this command starts the final measurement based on the peak list.
Example:
"INIT:FME" 'Starts the final measurement
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R
This command is an event, so it has neither an *RST value nor a query function.
INITiate<1|2>:EMItestINITiate<1|2>:EMItest
In the receiver mode, this command starts an automatic sequence consisting of the preliminary
measurement, determination of the peak list and subsequent final measurement.
Example:
"INIT:EMI" 'Starts the sequence preliminary measurement, peak search and
final measurement
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R
This command is an event, so it has neither an *RST value nor a query function.
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R&S ESU
INPut Subsystem
INPut Subsystem
The INPut subsystem controls the input characteristics of the RF inputs of the instrument. In receiver
mode, the suffix is irrelevant. In the analyzer mode, the measurement windows are assigned to INPut1
(screen A) and INPut2 (screen B).
INPut<1|2>:ATTenuation 0 to 70 dB
In the default state with analyzer mode, the attenuation set on the step attenuator is coupled to the
reference level of the instrument. If the attenuation is programmed directly, the coupling to the
reference level is switched off.
With receiver mode, if the attenuation is programmed directly, the auto range function is switched off
if necessary. Setting 0 dB can be prevented by activating the protection function (INPut:
ATTenuation:PROTection ON).
Example:
"INP:ATT 40dB"
Analyzer: 'Sets the attenuation on the attenuator to 40 dB and switches off the
coupling to the reference level.
Receiver: 'Sets the attenuation on the attenuator to 40 dB and switches off the auto
ranging.
Characteristics: *RST value: 10 dB (AUTO is set to ON)
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
INPut<1|2>:ATTenuation:AUTO
ON | OFF
In analyzer mode, this command automatically couples the input attenuation to the reference level
(state ON) or switches the input attenuation to manual entry (state OFF). The minimum input
attenuation set with the coupling switched on is 10 dB.
In receiver mode, this command automatically sets the attenuation so that a good S/N ratio is obtained
without the receiver stages being overdriven (state ON).
Example:
"INP:ATT:AUTO ON"
'Switches the auto ranging function on.
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
INPut<1|2>:ATTenuation:PROTection ON | OFF
This command defines whether the 0 dB position of the attenuator is to be used in manual or automatic
adjustment.
Example:
"INP:ATT:PROT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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INPut Subsystem
R&S ESU
INPut<1|2>:ATTenuation:PROTection:RESet
The R&S ESU is equipped with an overload protection mechanism. This mechanism becomes active
as soon as the power at the input mixer exceeds a value of 27 dBm. It ensures that the connection
between RF input and input mixer is cut off.
The command resets the attenuator into the state that it had before the overload condition was
detected. It re-connects the RF input with the input mixer.
Aa
INPut:COUPling
Note
This command comes into effect only if the reason for the overload condition has
been eliminated. Otherwise the connection between RF input and input mixer is left
open.
AC | DC
This command switches the input coupling of the RF input between AC and DC.
Example:
"INP:COUP DC"
Characteristics: *RST value: AC
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
A, R
INPut<1|2>:LISN[:TYPE]
TWOPhase | FOURphase | ESH3Z5 | ESH2Z5 | ENV4200 | ENV216 | OFF
This command selects the V-network that is controlled via the USER port. This setting is used in the
receiver mode also for the preliminary measurement
TWOPhase and ESH3Z5
R&S ESH3-Z5 (two phases and protective earth are controllable)
FOURphase and ESH2Z5
R&S ESH2-Z5 (four phases and protective earth are controllable)
ENV4200
R&S ENV 4200 (four phases are controllable)
ENV216
R&S ENV 216 (two phases and highpass are controllable)
OFF
Remote control deactivated
Example:
”:INP:LISN:TWOP"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device specific
Mode:
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R&S ESU
INPut Subsystem
INPut<1|2>:LISN:PHASe
L1 | L2 | L3 | N
This command selects the phase of the V-network that is used and which is controlled via the USER
port. This setting is used in the receiver mode also for the preliminary measurement. The permissible
selection depends on the selected V-network.
Example:
":INP:LISN:PHAS L1"
Characteristics: *RST value: L1
SCPI: device specific
Mode:
R, A
INPut<1|2>:LISN:PEARth
GROunded | FLOating
This command selects the setting of the Protective EARth that is controlled via the USER port. This
setting is used in the receiver mode also for the preliminary measurement. The availability depends on
the selected V-network.
Example:
":INP:LISN:PEAR GRO"
Characteristics: *RST value: GROunded
SCPI: device specific
Mode:
R, A
INPut<1|2>:LISN:FILTer:HPAS[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command selects the setting for the highpass on the V-network that is controlled via the USER
port. This setting is used in the receiver mode also for the preliminary measurement. This command
is available only for the R&S ENV 216 V-network (INP:LISN ENV216).
Example:
":INP:LISN:FILT:HPAS ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R
INPut<1|2>:TYPE INPUT1 | INPUT2
The command selects the signal input. INPUT1 is RF input 1 and INPUT2 is RF input 2.
Example:
"INP:TYPE INPUT1"
Characteristics: *RST value: INPUT1
SCPI: conform
Mode:
R, A
INPut<1|2>:UPORt[:VALue]?
This command queries the control lines of the user ports.
Example:
"INP:UPOR?"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
This command is a query and therefore has no *RST value.
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INPut Subsystem
R&S ESU
ON | OFF
INPut<1|2>:UPORt:STATe
This command toggles the control lines of the user ports between INPut and OUTPut.
Example:
"INP:UPOR:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
With ON, the user port is switched to INPut, with OFF to OUTPut.
INPut<1|2>:IMPedance
50 | 75
This command sets the nominal input impedance of the instrument. The set impedance is taken into
account in all level indications of results.
The setting 75 Ω should be selected, if the 50 Ω input impedance is transformed to a higher impedance
using a 75 Ω adapter of the RAZ type (= 25 Ω in series to the input impedance of the instrument). The
correction value in this case is 1.76 dB = 10 log (75Ω / 50Ω).
Example:
"INP:IMP 75"
Characteristics: *RST value: 50 Ω
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
A, FM
INPut<1|2>:GAIN:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches on the preamplifier for the instrument. The switchable gain is fixed to 20 dB.
In analyzer mode, the command is only available, if the preselector measurement has been activated.
Example:
"INP:GAIN ON"
'Switches on 20 dB preamplification
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
INPut<1|2>:GAIN:AUTO
ON | OFF
This command includes the preamplifier into the autoranging function of the receiver.
Example:
":INP:GAIN:AUTO ON"
'Includes the preamplifier into the auto range function
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
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R&S ESU
INPut Subsystem
INPut<1|2>:PRESelection[:STATe]
ON | OFF
In analyzer mode, this command switches the preselection on or off.
Example:
":INP:PRES:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
INPut<1|2>:MIXer[:POWer]
<numeric value>
This command defines the desired power at the input mixer of the analyzer. On any change to the
reference level the RF attenuation will be adjusted in a way that makes the difference between
reference level and RF attenuation come as close to the desired mixer level as possible.
Example:
"INP:MIX -30"
Characteristics: *RST value: - 25 dBm
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
INPut<1|2>:MIXer:AUTO
ON | OFF
This command enables/disables the automatic setup of the mixer level.
Example:
"INP:MIX:AUTO ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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INSTrument Subsystem
R&S ESU
INSTrument Subsystem
The INSTrument subsystem selects the operating mode of the unit either via text parameters or fixed
numbers.
SANalyzer | RECeiver | IFANalyzer | ADEMod
INSTrument[:SELect]
This command enables you to switch between modes by entering the mode designation.
Parameter:
SANalyzer: spectrum analysis
ADEMod: FM demodulator
RECeiver: Receiver mode
IFANalyzer: IF analysis mode
Example:
"INST SAN"
'Switches the instrument to SPECTRUM.
Characteristics: *RST value: RECeiver
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
Changeover to ADEMod is only possible with FM Demodulator FS-K7 option installed.
<numeric value>
INSTrument:NSELect
This command enables you to switch between the modes by using numbers.
Parameter:
1: Spectrum analysis mode
3: FM demodulator mode
6: Receiver mode
23: TD-SCDMA MS mode
Example:
"INST:NSEL 1"
'Switches to the SPECTRUM mode.
Characteristics: *RST value: 23
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
Changeover to 23 is only possible with FM Demodulator FS-K7 option installed.
INSTrument:COUPle
NONE | RLEVel | CF_B | CF_A
In operating mode SPECTRUM this command selects the parameter coupling between the two
measurement windows screen A and B.
Parameter:
NONE: No coupling. The two measurement windows are operated like two
independent "virtual" devices.
RLEVel: The reference levels of the two measurement windows are coupled.
CF_B: The center frequency of screen B is coupled to the frequency of marker 1 in
screen A.
CF_A: The center frequency of screen A is coupled to the frequency of marker 1 in
screen B.
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R&S ESU
Example:
INSTrument Subsystem
"INST:COUP NONE"
'Switches off the coupling of measurement windows. This leads to two independent
"virtual" devices.
Characteristics: *RST value: NONE
SCPI: device specific
Mode:
A
INSTrument:COUPle:ATTenuation
ALL | NONE
This command couples die RF attenuation settings for the analyzer and receiver modes with one
another.
The RF attenuation unit and level unit are then set to the same value in the analyzer and receiver
screen.
Example:
"INST:COUP:ATT ALL"
Characteristics: *RST value:ALL
SCPI:device-specific
Mode:
R, A
INSTrument:COUPle:BANDwidth|BWIDth
ALL | NONE
This command couples the bandwidth settings for the analyzer and receiver modes with one another.
The resolution bandwidth (RBW) and filter type are then set to the same value on the analyzer and
receiver screen. In some cases, other settings (e.g. the quasi-peak detector) can block these settings.
Example:
"INST:COUP:BWID ALL"
Characteristics: *RST value:NONE
SCPI:device-specific
Mode:
:R, A
INSTrument:COUPle:CENTer
ALL | NONE
This command couples the center frequency and receive frequency settings for the analyzer and
receiver modes with one another.
Example:
"INST:COUP:CENT ALL"
Characteristics: *RST value:ALL
SCPI:device-specific
Mode:
R, A
INSTrument:COUPle:DEModulation
ALL | NONE
This command couples the settings of the audio demodulator for the analyzer and receiver modes with
one another.
Example:
"INST:COUP:DEM ALL"
Characteristics: *RST value:NONE
SCPI:device-specific
Mode:
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INSTrument Subsystem
INSTrument:COUPle:GAIN
R&S ESU
ALL | NONE
This command couples gain settings for the analyzer and receiver modes with one another.
Example:
"INST:COUP:GAIN ALL"
Characteristics: *RST value:ALL
SCPI:device-specific
Mode:
R, A
INSTrument:COUPle:PRESelector
ALL | NONE
This command couples the activation of the preselector for the analyzer and receiver modes with one
another.
In the receiver mode, the preselector cannot be deactivated. In normal operation, this means that the
preselector is always automatically activated when a change to the analyzer mode occurs and
coupling has been activated.
Example:
"INST:COUP:PRES ALL"
Characteristics: *RST value:ALL
SCPI:device-specific
Mode:
R, A
INSTrument:COUPle:PROTection
ALL | NONE
This command couples the RF protection attenuation of 10 dB for the analyzer and receiver modes
with one another.
To prevent damage to the RF input, activate this coupling.
Example:
"INST:COUP:PROT ALL"
Characteristics: *RST value:ALL
SCPI:device-specific
Mode:
R, A
INSTrument:COUPle:SPAN
ALL | NONE
This command couples the start and stop frequencies of sweep and scan for the analyzer and receiver
modes with one another.
Example:
"INST:COUP:SPAN ALL"
Characteristics: *RST value:NONE
SCPI:device-specific
Mode:
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6.128
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R&S ESU
MMEMory Subsystem
MMEMory Subsystem
The MMEMory (mass memory) subsystem provides commands which allow for access to the storage
media of the instrument and for storing and loading various instrument settings.
The various drives can be addressed via the "mass storage unit specifier" <msus> using the conventional
DOS syntax. The internal hard disk is addressed by "D:", a memory stick by "F:".
Aa
Note
For reasons of compatibility with the FSE instruments, addressing the hard disk by
"C:" is also accepted. Since hard disk "C:" is reserved for instrument software, all
read and write operations are rerouted to hard disk "D:" in normal operation
(service level 0).
The file names <file_name> are indicated as string parameters with the commands being enclosed in
quotation marks. They also comply with DOS conventions.
DOS file names consist of max. 8 ASCII characters and an extension of up to three characters separated
from the file name by a dot "." Both, the dot and the extension are optional. The dot is not part of the file
name. DOS file names do not distinguish between uppercase and lowercase notation. All letters and digits
are permitted as well as the special characters "_", "^", "$", "~", "!", "#", "%", "&", "-", "{", "}", "(", ")", "@"
and "`". Reserved file names are CLOCK$, CON, AUX, COM1 to COM4, LPT1 to LPT3, NUL and PRN.
The two characters "*" and "?" have the function of so-called "wildcards", i.e., they are variables for
selection of several files. The question mark "?" replaces exactly one character, the asterisk means any
of the remaining characters in the file name. "*.*" thus means all files in a directory.
MMEMory:CATalog?
<path>
This command reads the indicated directory. According to DOS convention, wild card characters can
be entered in order to query e.g. a list of all files of a certain type.
The path name should be in conformance with DOS conventions and may also include the drive name.
Parameter:
<path>::= DOS Path name
Example:
"MMEM:CAT? 'D:\USER\DATA'"
'Returns the contents of the D:\USER\DATA directory
"MMEM:CAT? 'D:\USER\DATA\*.LOG'"
'Returns all files in D:\USER\DATA with extension ".LOG"
"MMEM:CAT? 'D:\USER\DATA\SPOOL?.WMF'"
'Returns all files in D:\USER\DATA whose names start with SPOOL, have 6 letters
and the extension ".WMF".
Return value:
List of file names in the form of strings separated by commas, i.e.
'SPOOL1.WMF','SPOOL2.WMF','SPOOL3.WMF'
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conformal
Mode:
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MMEMory Subsystem
MMEMory:CATalog:LONG?
R&S ESU
<path>
This command queries the directories and files in the given path.
Parameter:
<path>::= DOS path
Example:
"MMEM:CAT:LONG? 'D:\USER\DATA'
'queries the contents of directory D:\USER\DATA
Return value:
<used_bytes_in_this_directory>,<free_bytes_on_this_disk>,
"<file_name>,<file_type>,<filesize_in_bytes>",
"<file_name>,<file_type>,<filesize_in_bytes>", …
with
<file_name>: name of file or directory
<file_type>: DIR (directory), ASCii (ASCII file), BINary (binary file) and STATe (file
with device settings)
<filesize_in_bytes>: size of file, 0 for directories
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conformal
Mode:
all
MMEMory:CDIRectory
<directory_name>
This command changes the current directory.
In addition to the path name, the indication of the directory may contain the drive name. The path name
complies with the DOS conventions.
Parameter:
<directory_name>::= DOS path name
Example:
"MMEM:CDIR 'D:\USER\DATA'"
'Returns the list of files in directory D:\USER\DATA.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
MMEMory:COPY
all
<file_source>,<file_destination>
This command copies the files indicated in <file_source> to the destination directory indicated with
<file_destination> or to the destination file indicated by <file_destination> when <file_source> is just a
file.
The indication of the file name may include the path and the drive name. The file names and path
information must be in accordance with the DOS conventions.
Parameter:
<file_source>,<file_destination> ::= <file_name>
<file_name> ::= DOS file name
Example:
"MMEM:COPY 'D:\USER\DATA\SETUP.CFG','F:'"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
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R&S ESU
MMEMory:DATA
MMEMory Subsystem
<file_name>[,<block data>]
This command writes the block data contained in <block> into the file characterized by <file_name>.
The IEC/IEEE-bus delimiter must be set to EOI to obtain error-free data transfer.
The associated query command reads the indicated file from the mass memory and transfers it to the
control computer via the IEC/IEEE bus. It should be noted that the buffer memory of the control
computer should be large enough to store the file. The setting of the IEC/IEEE-bus delimiter is
irrelevant in this case.
The command is useful for reading stored device settings or trace data from the instrument or for
transferring them to the instrument.
•
MMEMory:DATA <file_name>,<block data>
Data transfer from control computer to instrument.
•
MMEMory:DATA? <file_name>
Data transfer from instrument to control computer.
<file_name> selects the file to be transferred.
The binary data block <block> has the following structure:
– it always begins with the character '#',
– followed by a digit for the length of the length information,
– followed by the indicated number of digits as length information (number of bytes) for the binary
data themselves,
– finally the binary data with the indicated number of bytes
Example:
"MMEM:DATA 'TEST01.HCP',#216This is the file"
'means:
'#2: the next 2 characters are the length indication
'16: number of subsequent binary data bytes
'This is the file: 16 bytes stored as binary data in the file TEST01.HCP.
"MMEM:DATA? 'TEST01.HCP'"
'Transfers the file TEST01.HCP from the instrument to the control computer.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
MMEMory:DELete
all
<file_name>
This command deletes the indicated files.
The indication of the file name contains the path and, optionally, the drive name. Indication of the path
complies with DOS conventions.
Parameter:
<file_name> ::= DOS file name
Example:
"MMEM:DEL 'TEST01.HCP'"
'The file TEST01.HCP is deleted.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
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MMEMory Subsystem
MMEMory:LOAD:STATe
R&S ESU
1,<file_name>
This command loads device settings from files. The contents of the file are loaded and set as the new
device state.
The file name includes indication of the path and may also include the drive name. The path name
complies with DOS conventions.
Parameter:
<file_name> ::= DOS file name without extension, extensions see table
Example:
"MMEM:LOAD:STAT 1,'F:TEST'"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
MMEMory:LOAD:AUTO
1,<file_name>
This command defines which device setting is automatically loaded after the device is switched on.
The contents of the file are read after switching on the device and used to define the new device state.
The file name includes indication of the path and may also include the drive. The path name complies
with DOS conventions.
Aa
Note
The data set defined as auto recall set will also be restored by a *RST-command.
Parameter:
<file_name> ::= DOS file name without extension;
FACTORY denotes the data set previously in the instrument
Example:
"MMEM:LOAD:AUTO 1,'D:\USER\DATA\TEST'"
Characteristics: *RST value: FACTORY
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
MMEMory:LOGO:CDIRectory
<directory_name>
This command selects the directory in which the graphics file is saved which contains the logo for the
test report. The indication of the directory must contain the drive name in addition to the path indication.
That path indication should comply with DOS conventions.
Parameter:
<directory_name>::= DOS path indication
Example:
"MMEM:LOGO:CDIR 'D:\USER\DATA'"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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R&S ESU
MMEMory Subsystem
MMEMory:LOGO:NAME
<file_name>
This command selects a graphics file which will appear as the logo in the header of the test report.
The file name should comply with DOS conventions.
Parameter:
<file_name> ::= DOS file name
Example:
"MMEM:LOGO:NAME 'COMPANY.BMP'"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
All
MMEMory:MDIRectory
<directory_name>
This command creates a new directory. The file name includes indication of the path and may also
include the drive name. The path name complies with DOS conventions.
Parameter:
<directory_name>::= DOS path name
Example:
"MMEM:MDIR 'D:\USER\DATA'"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
MMEMory:MOVE
<file_source>,<file_destination>
This command renames existing files, if <file_destination> contains no path indication. Otherwise the
file is moved to the indicated path and stored under the file name specified there, if any.
The file name includes indication of the path and may also include the drive. The path name complies
with DOS conventions.
Parameter:
<file_source>,<file_destination> ::= <file_name>
<file_name> ::= DOS file name
Example:
"MMEM:MOVE 'D:\TEST01.CFG','SETUP.CFG'"
'Renames TEST01.CFG in SETUP.CFG in directory D:\.
"MMEM:MOVE 'D:\TEST01.CFG','D:\USER\DATA'"
'Moves TEST01.CFG from D:\ to D:\USER\DATA.
"MMEM:MOVE 'D:\TEST01.CFG','D:\USER\DATA\SETUP.CFG'"
'Moves TEST01.CFG from D:\ to D:\USER\DATA and renames the file in
SETUP.CFG.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
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MMEMory Subsystem
MMEMory:MSIS
R&S ESU
<device>
This command changes to the drive indicated. The drive may be the internal hard disk D: or a memory
stick F:.
Example:
"MMEM:MSIS 'F:'"
Characteristics: *RST value: "D:'
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
MMEMory:NAME
all
<file_name>
This command defines a destination file for the printout started with the command HCOPy:
IMMediate. In this case the printer output must be routed to destination FILE using the command
"HCOP:DEST 'MMEM' ".
The file name includes indication of the path and may also include the drive name. The file name and
path information comply with DOS conventions.
Parameter:
<file_name> ::= DOS file name
Example:
"HCOP:DEV:LANG BMP"
'Selection of data format.
"HCOP:DEST 'MMEM' "
'Selection of the output device
"MMEM:NAME 'PRINT1.BMP'"
'Selection of file name.
"HCOP:IMM"
'Start of the printout.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
MMEMory:RDIRectory
<directory_name>
This command deletes the indicated directory. The directory name includes indication of the path and
may also include the drive name. The path name complies with DOS conventions.
Parameter:
<directory_name>::= DOS path name
Example:
"MMEM:RDIR 'D:\TEST'"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
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R&S ESU
MMEMory Subsystem
MMEMory:STORe<1|2>:STATe
1,<file_name>
This command stores the current device settings in a series of files which have the indicated file name,
but different extensions. The file name includes indication of the path and may also include the drive
name. The path name complies with DOS conventions. The numeric suffix in STORe<1|2> is irrelevant
with this command.
Parameter:
<file_name> := DOS file name without extension
Example:
"MMEM:STOR:STAT 1,'TEST'"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
MMEMory:STORe<1|2>:TRACe
1 to 3,<file_name>
This command stores the selected trace (1 to 3) in the measurement window indicated by
STORe<1|2> (screen A or B) in a file with ASCII format. The file format is described in chapter
“Instrument Functions”, section “ASCII FILE EXPORT” on page 4.150.
The decimal separator (decimal point or comma) for floating-point numerals contained in the file is
defined with the command FORMat:DEXPort:DSEParator.
The file name includes indication of the path and the drive name. Indication of the path complies with
DOS conventions.
Parameter:
1 to 3 := selected measurement curve Trace 1 to 3
<file_name> := DOS file name
Example:
"MMEM:STOR2:TRAC 3,'F:\TEST.ASC'"
'Stores trace 3 from screen B in the file TEST.ASC on a memory stick.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
For Spurious Measurement in Analyzer Mode an extended file format is used:
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MMEMory Subsystem
File header
R&S ESU
File contents
Explanation
Type;ESU;
Model
Version;3.97;
Firmware version
Date;02.Feb 2005;
Storage date of data set
Mode;ANALYZER;SPURIOUS;
Operating mode of the device
Format for Spurious Emissions measurement
Start;9000.000000;Hz
Stop;8000000000.000000;Hz
Start/stop of the span
Unit: Hz
x-Axis;LIN;
Linear (LIN) or logarithmic (LOG) (future feature) scaling of
the x-axis
Sweep Count;1;
Selected number of sweeps
Range 1:
Loop across all defined sweep ranges (1 to 20)
Start; 9000.000000;Hz
Range start frequency in Hz
Stop; 150000.000000;Hz
Range stop frequency in Hz
Filter Type;NORMAL;
Range filter type: NORMAL, RRC or CFILTER
RBW;10000.000000;Hz
Resolution bandwidth of the measurement filter
VBW;30000.000000;Hz
Resolution bandwidth of the video filter
Auto Sweep time;ON
File data section
Sweep time; 0.145000;s
Selected sweep time in the current range
Detector;RMS;
Detector: MAX PEAK, MIN PEAK, RAVERAGE
REF-Level; -10.000000;dBm
Setting of the reference level in the current range
Auto RF-Attenuator; OFF;
Manual (OFF) or automatic (ON) setting of the RF
attenuator
RF Att;15.000000;dB
Range input attenuation
Sweep Points;625;
Number of sweep points in the current range
Preamp; 0.000000;dB
Range preamplifier, on (20 dB) or off (0 dB)
Stop after range;OFF;
Stop after range, switched on (ON) or off (OFF) for the
current range
Transducer;TRD1;
Transducer name (if activated)
repeated for all sweep list ranges
TRACE 1:
Selected trace
x-Unit;Hz;
Unit of x values:
y-Unit;dBm;
Unit of y values:
Values;2500;
Number of measurement points
9000.000000;-99.619965;
Measurement values:
9225.961538;-105.416908;
<x value>; <y value>
9451.923077;-100.938057;
9677.884615;-99.483894;
9903.846154;-106.879539;
10129.807692;-108.772316;
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R&S ESU
MMEMory Subsystem
MMEMory:STORe:SPURious
<file_name>
This command stores the peak list in an ASCII file to a file, e.g. on a memory stick.
The file has a header containing important parameters for scaling, several data sections containing the
sweep settings per range and a data section containing the peak list.
The header data is made up of three columns, separated by ';':
parameter name; numeric value; basic unit
The data section for the measurement values starts with the key word "TRACE <n>:", where <n>
includes the number of the used trace. Next comes the peak list with several columns also separated
by ';'.
Spreadsheet programs such as MS Excel can read this format. Use ';' as the delimiter for the table
cells.
Aa
Note
Different language versions of evaluation programs may require different handling
of the decimal point. Using the DECIM SEP softkey, you can thus choose between
the delimiters '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma).
Parameter:
<file_name> := DOS file name
Example:
":MMEM:STOR:SPUR 'D:\TEST.ASC'"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
MMEMory:STORe:FINal
<file_name>
This command stores the final measurement data in an ASCII file.
The file name includes indication of the path and may also include the drive. The path name
corresponds to the DOS conventions.
Parameter:
<file_name> := DOS file name
Example:
":MMEM:STOR:FIN 'F:\TEST.ASC'"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
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MMEMory Subsystem
MMEMory:CLEar:STATe
R&S ESU
1,<file_name>
This command deletes the instrument setting selected by <file_name>. All associated files on the
mass memory storage are cleared. A list of the extensions used is included under MMEMory:LOAD:
STATe.
The file name includes indication of the path and may also include the drive. The path name complies
with DOS conventions.
Parameter:
<file_name> ::= DOS file name without extension
Example:
"MMEM:CLE:STAT 1,'TEST'"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
MMEMory:CLEar:ALL
This command deletes all device settings in the current directory. The current directory can be selected
with MMEM:CDIR. The default directory is D:.
Example:
"MMEM:CLE:ALL"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
MMEMory:SELect[:ITEM]:HCOPy
ON | OFF
This command copies the test report settings to the list of partial data records of a device setting to be
stored/loaded.
Example:
"MMEM:SEL:HCOP ON"
Characteristics: *RST value:OFF
SCPI:device-specific
Mode:
R
MMEMory:SELect[:ITEM]:HWSettings
ON | OFF
This command includes the hardware settings in the list of data subsets of a device setting to be
stored/loaded. The hardware settings include:
•
current configuration of general device parameters (general setup)
•
current setting of the measurement hardware including markers
•
activated limit lines
•
user-defined color setting
•
configuration for the hardcopy output
•
the activated transducers
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R&S ESU
MMEMory Subsystem
•
Tracking generator settings
(only in conjunction with option Tracking Generator B9 or External Generator Control B10)
•
Correction data for source calibration
(only in conjunction with option Tracking Generator B9 or External Generator Control B10)
Example:
"MMEM:SEL:HWS ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
MMEMory:SELect[:ITEM]:TRACe[:ACTive]
ON | OFF
This command adds the active traces to the list of data subsets of a save/recall device setting. Active
traces are all traces whose state is not blank.
Example:
"MMEM:SEL:TRAC ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF, i.e. no traces will be stored
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
MMEMory:SELect[:ITEM]:LINes:ALL
ON | OFF
This command adds all limit lines (activated and de-activated) to the list of device settings to be stored/
loaded. The selection MMEM:SEL:LIN:ACT is thus switched off.
Example:
"MMEM:SEL:LIN:ALL ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
MMEMory:SELect[:ITEM]:FINal
ON | OFF
This command includes the final measurement data in the list of partial data sets of a device setting to
be stored/loaded.
Example:
"MMEM:SEL:FIN ON"
'inserts the final measurement data in the list of partial data sets
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R
MMEMory:SELect[:ITEM]:SCData
ON | OFF
This command adds the tracking generator calibration data to the list of device settings to be stored/
loaded.
Example:
1302.6163.12
"MMEM:SEL:SCD ON"
'Inserts the tracking generator correction data in the list of data subsets
6.139
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MMEMory Subsystem
R&S ESU
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
This command is only available in conjunction with the tracking generator option B9 or external
generator control option B10.
MMEMory:SELect[:ITEM]:TRANsducer:ALL
ON | OFF
This command includes all transducer factors and sets in the list of data subsets of a device setting to
be stored/loaded.
Example:
"MMEM:SEL:TRAN:ALL ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value.
MMEMory:SELect[:ITEM]:ALL
This command includes all data subsets in the list device settings to be stored/loaded.
Example:
"MMEM:SEL:ALL"
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value.
MMEMory:SELect[:ITEM]:NONE
This command deletes all data subsets from the list of device settings to be stored/loaded.
Example:
"MMEM:SEL:NONE"
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value.
MMEMory:SELect[:ITEM]:DEFault
This command sets the default list of device settings to be stored/loaded. The latter includes:
•
current configuration of general device parameters (general setup)
•
current setting of the measurement hardware including markers
•
activated limit lines
•
user-defined color setting
•
configuration for the hardcopy output
•
Final measurement data
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R&S ESU
MMEMory Subsystem
•
Tracking generator settings
(only in conjunction with option Tracking Generator B9 or External Generator Control B10)
•
Correction data for source calibration
(only in conjunction with option Tracking Generator B9 or External Generator Control B10)
Trace data, non-used transducer factors/sets and non-used limit lines are not included.
Example:
"MMEM:SEL:DEFault"
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value.
MMEMory:COMMent <string>
This command defines a comment (max. 60 characters) for a device setting to be stored.
Example:
"MMEM:COMM 'Setup for FM measurement'"
Characteristics: *RST value: blank comment
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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MMEMory Subsystem
R&S ESU
OUTPut Subsystem
The OUTPut subsystem controls the output features of the instrument.
In conjunction with the tracking generator option, a distinction is made between OUTPut1 (screen A) and
OUTPut2 (screen B).
OUTPut<1|2>[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches the tracking generator on or off.
Aa
Example:
Notes
•
With the tracking generator switched on, the maximum stop frequency is limited
to 3 GHz. This upper limit is automatically modified by the set frequency offset
of the generator.
•
If measurements in compliance with specs are to be performed with the tracking
generator, the start frequency has to be ≥3 x resolution bandwidth.
•
The minimum sweep time for measurements in compliance with the data sheet
is 100 ms in the frequency domain (span >0). If a shorter sweep time is
selected, the sweep time indicator SWT on the screen is marked with a red
asterisk and the message UNCAL is also displayed.
•
With the tracking generator switched on, the FFT filters (BAND:MODE:FFT) are
not available.
"OUTP ON"
'Switches on the tracking generator in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
A, R
This command is only valid in conjunction with option tracking generator.
OUTPut:UPORt[:VALue]
#B00000000 to #B11111111
This command sets the control lines of the user ports. In manual operation, the control lines are
represented by softkeys PORT 0 to 7.
The user port is written to with the given binary pattern. If the user port is programmed to INPut instead
of OUTPut, the output value is temporarily stored.
Example:
"OUTP:UPOR #B10100101"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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R&S ESU
MMEMory Subsystem
OUTPut:UPORt:STATe
ON | OFF
This command switches the control line of the user ports between INPut and OUTPut.
The user port is switched to OUTPut with parameter ON, to INPut with OFF.
Example:
"OUTP:UPOR:STAT ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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SENSe Subsystem
R&S ESU
SENSe Subsystem
The SENSe subsystem is organized in several subsystems. The commands of these subsystems directly
control device-specific settings, they do not refer to the signal characteristics of the measurement signal.
The SENSe subsystem controls the essential parameters of the receiver. In accordance with the SCPI
standard, the key word "SENSe" is optional for this reason, which means that it is not necessary to include
the SENSe node in command sequences.
The measurement windows are selected by SENSe1 and SENSe2:
SENSe1 = Modification of screen A settings
SENSe2 = Modification of screen B settings.
Screen A is automatically selected if 1 or 2 is missing.
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R&S ESU
SENSe Subsystem
SENSe:AVERage Subsystem
The SENSe:AVERage subsystem calculates the average of the acquired data. A new test result is
obtained from several successive measurements.
There are two types of average calculation: logarithmic and linear. In case of logarithmic average
calculation (denoted with VIDeo), the average value of the measured logarithmic power is calculated and
in case of linear average calculation, the linear power is averaged before the logarithm is applied.
The measurement windows are selected by SENSe1 (screen A) and SENSe2 (screen B).
[SENSe<1|2>:]AVERage:COUNt
0 to 32767
In receiver mode, this command defines the number of scan started with single scan. In analyzer
mode, it defines the number of measurements which contribute to the average value.
It should be noted that continuous averaging will be performed after the indicated number has been
reached in continuous sweep mode.
In single sweep or scan mode, the scan/sweep is stopped as soon as the indicated number of
measurements (scans/sweeps) is reached. Synchronization to the end of the indicated number of
measurements is only possible in single scan/sweep mode.
The command [SENSe<1|2>:]AVERage:COUNt is the same as command [SENSe<1|2>:
]SWEep:COUNt. In both cases, the number of measurements is defined whether the average
calculation is active or not.
The number of measurements is valid for all traces in the indicated measurement window.
Example:
"SWE:CONT OFF"
'Switching to single-sweep mode.
"AVER:COUN 16"
'Sets the number of measurements to 16.
"AVER:STAT ON"
'Switches on the calculation of average.
"INIT;*WAI"
'Starts the measurement and waits for the end of the 16 sweeps.
Characteristics: *RST value: 0
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
all
[SENSe<1|2>:]AVERage[:STATe<1 to 3>]
ON | OFF
This command switches on or off the average calculation for the selected trace (STATe<1 to 3>) in the
selected measurement window.
Example:
"AVER OFF"
'Switches off the average calculation for trace 1 in screen A.
"SENS2:AVER:STAT3 ON"
'Switches on the average calculation for trace 3 in screen B.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
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SENSe Subsystem
[SENSe<1|2>:]AVERage:TYPE
R&S ESU
VIDeo | LINear
This command selects the type of average function. If VIDeo is selected, the logarithmic power is
averaged and, if LINear is selected, the power values are averaged before they are converted to
logarithmic values.
The type of average calculation is equally set for all traces in one measurement window.
Example:
"AVER:TYPE LIN"
'Switches screen A to linear average calculation.
Characteristics: *RST value: VIDeo
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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R&S ESU
SENSe Subsystem
SENSe:BANDwidth Subsystem
This subsystem controls the setting of the instrument's filter bandwidths. Both groups of commands
(BANDwidth and BWIDth) perform the same functions. The measurement windows are selected by
SENSe1 (screen A) and SENSe2 (screen B).
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth:FFT WIDE | AUTO | NARROW
This command allows to specify between the following three options for FFT filters.
WIDE: The FFT filters with the greater partial span (this is the span which is covered with one FFT
analysis) are used always.
AUTO: The firmware decides whether to use wide or narrow filters to achieve the best performance of
the measurement.
NARROW: The FFT filters with the smaller partial span are used, this allows measurements near a
carrier with reduced reference level, because of a more narrow analog prefilter.
Example:
"BWID:FFT:MODE WIDE"
Characteristics: *RST value: AUTO
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution] 10 Hz to 10 MHz
This command defines the receiver IF bandwidth or, in SPECTRUM mode, the analyzer's resolution
bandwidth.
Analog resolution filters of 10 Hz to 10 MHz in 1, 2, 3, 5, 10 steps are available. These filters are
implemented as 5-circuit LC filters in the range from 300 kHz to 10 MHz and as digital filters with
analog characteristic in the range of 10 Hz to 100 kHz.
The EMI bandwidths are only available when parameter PULSe is selected by command BAND:TYPE.
FFT filters from 1 Hz to 30 kHz (3 dB bandwidth each) are also available in the frequency domain (span
> 0) for fast measurements on periodic signals. The instrument automatically switches to analog filters
above 30 kHz.
The FFT bandwidths are not available if the preselector is switched on.
A number of especially steep-edged channel filters can be selected provided that parameters
CFILter or RRC are selected using the BAND:TYPE command. The possible combinations of filter
type and filter bandwidth are listed in the table "List of available channel filters" of chapter “Instrument
Functions”, section “Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW” on page 4.123.
If the resolution bandwidth is modified in SPECTRUM mode, the coupling to the span is automatically
switched off.
If the resolution bandwidth is modified in FM DEMOD mode, the coupling to the demodulation
bandwidth is automatically switched off.
Example:
"BAND 120 kHz"
'Sets the IF bandwidth to 120 kHz
Characteristics: *RST value: - (AUTO is set to ON)
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
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SENSe Subsystem
R&S ESU
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:AUTO ON | OFF
In RECEIVER mode with activated quasi peak detector, this command either automatically couples
the IF bandwidth of the receiver to the frequency range or cancels the coupling.
In SPECTRUM mode, this command either automatically couples the resolution bandwidth of the
instrument to the span or cancels the coupling. In FM DEMOD mode, this command either
automatically couples the IF bandwidth of the instrument to the demodulation bandwidth or cancels the
coupling (BWRBW = 10 * BWDemod).
In FM DEMOD mode, the coupling refers to the demodulation bandwidth (BWRBW = 10 * BWDemod).
The automatic coupling adapts the resolution bandwidth to the currently set frequency span according
to the relationship between frequency span and resolution bandwidth. The 6 dB bandwidths 200 Hz,
9 kHz and 120 kHz and the channel filters are not set by the automatic coupling.
The ratio resolution bandwidth/span can be modified with the command [SENSe<1|2>:
]BANDwidth[:RESolution]:RATio.
Example:
"BAND:AUTO OFF"
'Switches off the coupling of the IF bandwidth to the frequency range (receiver
mode).
'Switches off the coupling of the resolution bandwidth to the span (analyzer mode).
'Switches off the coupling of the IF bandwidth to the demodulation bandwidth (FM
demod mode).
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
R, A-F, FM
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:RATio 0.0001 to 1
This command defines the ratio resolution bandwidth (Hz) / span (Hz). The ratio to be entered is
reciprocal to the ratio span/RBW used in manual control.
Example:
"BAND:RAT 0.1"
Characteristics: *RST value: 0.02 with BAND:TYPE NORMal or RBW > 30 kHz
0.01 with BAND:TYPE FFT for RBW ≤ 30 kHz
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:TYPE
PULSe
NORMal | FFT | CFILter | RRC | NOISe |
This command switches the filter type for the resolution bandwidth between "normal" analog or FIR
filters in 1, 3, 10 steps and the FFT filtering for bandwidths <100 kHz.
The advantage of FFT filtering is the higher measurement speed compared to digital filters with analog
filter characteristic. However, FFT filters are only suitable for periodic signals, and they are only
available for span > 0 Hz.
Steep-edged channel filters and filters with RRC (Root Raised Cosine) characteristic are available.
The possible combinations of filter type and filter bandwidth are listed in the table "List of available
channel filters" in chapter “Instrument Functions”, section “Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time –
BW” on page 4.123.
The filter type NOISe selects the 3 dB bandwidths for spectrum analysis, filter type PULSe selects the
6 dB bandwidths for EMI measurements.
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R&S ESU
Example:
SENSe Subsystem
"BAND:TYPE NORM"
Characteristics: *RST value: PULSe
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
all
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo
1Hz to 10MHz
This command defines the instrument's video bandwidth. Bandwidths from 10 Hz to 10 MHz in 1, 3,
10 steps are available. The command is not available if FFT filtering is switched on and the set
bandwidth is ≤ 30 kHz or if the quasi-peak detector is switched on.
Aa
Example:
Note
In receiver mode, the video bandwidth is set to ten times the resolution bandwidth.
"BAND:VID 10kHz"
Characteristics: *RST value: - (AUTO is set to ON)
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:AUTO
ON | OFF
This command either automatically couples the instrument's video bandwidth to the resolution
bandwidth or cancels the coupling.
The ratio video bandwidth/resolution bandwidth can be modified with the command [SENSe<1|2>:
]BANDwidth:VIDeo:RATio.
Aa
Example:
Note
In receiver mode, the video bandwidth is set to ten times the resolution bandwidth.
"BAND:VID:AUTO OFF"
Characteristics: *RST value: ON
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
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SENSe Subsystem
R&S ESU
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:RATio
0.01 to 1000
This command defines the ratio video bandwidth (Hz) / resolution bandwidth (Hz).The ratio to be
entered is reciprocal to the ratio RBW/VBW used in manual control.
Aa
Example:
Note
In receiver mode, the video bandwidth is set to ten times the resolution bandwidth.
"BAND:VID:RAT 3"
'Sets the coupling of video bandwidth to video bandwidth = 3*resolution bandwidth
Characteristics: *RST value: 3
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth:VIDeo:TYPE
LINear | LOGarithmic
This command selects the position of the video filter in the signal path, provided that the resolution
bandwidth is ≤100 kHz:
•
If LINear is selected, the video filter is connected ahead of the logarithmic amplifier (default)
•
If LOGarithmic is selected, the video filter follows the logarithmic amplifier
The essential difference between the two modes is the transient response at falling signal edges:
If LINear is selected, the measurement with logarithmic level scaling yields a much "flatter" falling edge
than LOGarithmic.
This behavior is due to the conversion of linear power into logarithmic level. If the linear power is
halved, the level decreases by only 3 dB.
Example:
"BAND:VID:TYPE LIN"
'Video filter ahead of the logarithmic amplifier
Characteristics: *RST value: LIN
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
A
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth:PLL
AUTO | HIGH | MEDium | LOW
This command defines the bandwidth of the main PLL of the instrument synthesizer.
Example:
"BAND:PLL HIGH"
Characteristics: *RST value: AUTO
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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R&S ESU
SENSe Subsystem
[SENSe<1|2>:]BANDwidth|BWIDth:IF
10 Hz...100 kHz
This command sets the resolution bandwidth of the IF analysis.
Digitally implemented resolution filters from 10 Hz to 100 kHz in steps of 1, 3, and 10 are available
(each with 6 dB bandwidths). The reliable value range depends on the selected frequency span of the
IF analysis.
Example:
"BAND:IF 10kHz"'Sets the IF bandwidth to 10 kHz.
Characteristics: *RST value:3 kHz
SCPI:device-specific
Mode:
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SENSe Subsystem
R&S ESU
SENSe:CORRection Subsystem
The SENSe:CORRection subsystem controls the correction of measured results by means of frequencydependent correction factors (e.g. for antenna or cable attenuation).
This subsystem also controls calibration and normalization during operation with the tracking generator
options (B9/B10). The measurement windows are selected by SENSe1 (screen A) and SENSe2 (screen
B).
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command activates/deactivates the normalization of the measurement results in the selected
window provided that the tracking generator is active. The command is available only after acquisition
of a reference trace for the selected type of measurement (transmission/reflection, see command
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:COLLect[:ACQire]).
Example:
"CORR ON "
'Activates normalization in screen A.
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: conforming
Mode:
A
This command is only valid in conjunction with the tracking generator / ext. generator control option
(B9/B10).
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:METHod
TRANsmission | REFLection
This command selects the type of measurement with active tracking generator (transmission/
reflection).
Example:
"CORR:METH TRAN "
'Sets the type of measurement in screen A to “transmission“.
Characteristics: *RST value: TRANsmission
SCPI: device specific
Mode:
A
This command is only valid in conjunction with the tracking generator / ext. generator control option
(B9/B10).
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:COLLect[:ACQuire]
THRough | OPEN
When the tracking generator is active, this command determines the type of result acquisition for the
normalization reference measurement and starts the measurement selected:
Parameter:
THRough:
"TRANsmission" mode: calibration with direct connection between tracking
generator and device input.
"REFLection" mode: calibration with short circuit at the input
OPEN: only valid in "REFLection" mode: calibration with open input
To obtain a valid reference measurement, a complete sweep with synchronization to the end of the
sweep must have been carried out. This is only possible in the single sweep mode.
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R&S ESU
Example:
SENSe Subsystem
"INIT:CONT OFF"
'Selects single sweep operation
"CORR:COLL THR;*WAI"
'Starts the measurement of reference data using direct connection between
generator and device input and waits for the sweep end.
Characteristics: *RST value: -SCPI: conforming
Mode:
A
This command is an "event" and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
This command is only valid in conjunction with the tracking generator / ext. generator control option
(B9/B10).
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:RECall
This command restores the instrument setting that was valid for the measurement of the reference
data, provided that the tracking generator is active.
Example:
"CORR:REC"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: conforming
Mode:
A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value and no query.
This command is only valid in conjunction with the tracking generator / ext. generator control option
(B9/B10).
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:TRANsducer:CATalog?
This command reads out the names of all transducer factors stored on the hard disk.
Example:
"CORR:TRAN:CAT?"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:TRANsducer:GENerate
<name>
This command generates a transducer factor <name> using normalized trace data. The function is
only available when normalization is switched on.
Parameter:
<name>::= Name of the transducer factors as string data with up to 8 characters.
Example:
"CORR:TRAN:GEN 'FACTOR1'"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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SENSe Subsystem
R&S ESU
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:TRANsducer:SELect
<name>
This command selects the transducer factor designated by <name>. If <name> does not exist yet, a
new transducer factor is created.
Aa
Note
This command must be sent prior to the subsequent commands for modifying/
activating transducer factors.
Parameter:
<name>::= Name of the transducer factor in string data form with a maximum of 8
characters.
Example:
":CORR:TRAN:SEL 'FACTOR1'"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:TRANsducer:UNIT
<string>
This command specifies the unit for the selected transducer factor.
Aa
Note
The command SENS:CORR:TRAN:SEL must be transmitted prior to this
command.
Parameter:
<string>::= 'DB' | 'DBM' | 'DBMV' | 'DBUV' | 'DBUV/M' | 'DBUA' | 'DBUA/M' | 'DBPW'
| 'DBPT'
Example:
":CORR:TRAN:UNIT 'DBUV'"
Characteristics: *RST value: 'DB'
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
Prior to this command, the command SENS:CORR:TRAN:SEL must be sent.
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R&S ESU
SENSe Subsystem
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:TRANsducer:SCALing
LINear | LOGarithmic
This command defines whether the frequency scaling of the transducer factor is linear or logarithmic.
Aa
Example:
Note
Prior to this command, the command SENS:CORR:TRAN:SEL must be sent.
":CORR:TRAN:SCAL LOG"
Characteristics: *RST value: LINear
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:TRANsducer:COMMent
<string>
This command defines the comment for the selected transducer factor.
Aa
Example:
Note
Prior to this command, the command SENS:CORR:TRAN:SEL must be sent.
":CORR:TRAN:COMM 'FACTOR FOR ANTENNA'"
Characteristics: *RST value: '' (empty comment)
SCPI: device specific
Mode:
R, A
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:TRANsducer:DATA
<freq>,<level>..
This command defines the reference values of the transducer factor selected. These values are
entered as a sequence of frequency/level pairs. The frequencies must be sent in ascending order.
Aa
Example:
Note
Prior to this command, the command SENS:CORR:TRAN:SEL must be sent. The
level values are sent as dimensionless numbers; the unit is specified by means of
the command SENS:CORR:TRAN:UNIT.
":CORR:TRAN:TRANsducer:DATA 1MHZ,-30,2MHZ,-40"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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SENSe Subsystem
R&S ESU
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:TRANsducer[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches the selected transducer factor on or off.
Aa
Example:
Note
Prior to this command, the command SENS:CORR:TRAN:SEL must be sent.
":CORR:TRAN ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:TRANsducer:DELete
This command deletes the selected transducer factor.
Aa
Example:
Note
Prior to this command, the command SENS:CORR:TRAN:SEL must be sent.
":CORR:TRAN:DEL"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
This command is an event and therefore has no *RST value.
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:TRANsducer:VIEW
ON | OFF
This command switches on the display of the active transducer factor or set.
Aa
Example:
Note
Prior to this command, the command SENS:CORR:TRAN:SEL must be sent.
"CORR:TRAN:VIEW ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
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R&S ESU
SENSe Subsystem
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:TRANsducer:ADJust:RLEVel[:STATe]
ON | OFF
This command switches the automatic adjustment of the reference level to the selected transducer
factor on or off.
Aa
Example:
Note
The command SENS:CORR:TRAN:SEL must have been sent prior to this
command.
"CORR:TRAN:ADJ:RLEV ON"
Characteristics: *RST-Wert: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:TSET:SELect
<name>
This command selects the transducer set designated by <name>. If <name> does not exist yet, a new
set is created.
Parameter:
<name>::= name of the transducer set in string data form with a maximum of 8
characters.
Example:
"CORR:TSET:SEL 'SET1'"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
This command must be sent prior to the subsequent commands for changing/activating the transducer
sets.
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:TSET:UNIT
<string>
This command defines the unit of the selected transducer sets. When assigning transducer factors to
the set, only factors which are compatible to the selected unit, i.e. factors with the same unit or the unit
dB, are allowed.
Parameter:
<string>::= 'DB' | 'DBM' | 'DBUV' | 'DBUV/M' | 'DBUA' | 'DBUA/M'' | DBPW' | 'DBPT'
Example:
"CORR:TSET:UNIT 'DBUV'"
Characteristics: *RST value: 'DB'
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
Prior to this command, the command SENS:CORR:TSET:SEL must be sent.
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SENSe Subsystem
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:TSET:BREak
R&S ESU
ON | OFF
This command defines if the sweep is to be stopped on changeover from range to another.
Example:
"CORR:TSET:BRE ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
Prior to the above command, the command SENS:CORR:TSET:SEL must be sent.
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:TSET:COMMent
<string>
This command defines the comment for the selected transducer set.
Example:
":CORR:TSET:COMM 'SET FOR ANTENNA'"
Characteristics: *RST value: '' (empty comment)
SCPI: device specific
Mode:
R, A
Prior to this command, the command SENS:CORR:TSET:SEL must be sent.
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:TSET:RANGe<1 to 10>
<freq>,<freq>,<name>..
This command defines a partial range of the selected transducer set. The partial range is determined
by its start and stop frequencies plus a list of names of the assigned transducer factors. The ranges 1
to 10 must be sent in ascending order.
Parameter:
<freq>,<freq>::= start frequency, stop frequency of the range
<name>...::= list of names for the assigned transducer factors.
The individual names must be characterized by single quotation marks (') and
separated by commas.
Example:
"CORR:TRAN:TSET:RANG 1MHZ,2MHZ,'FACTOR1,'FACTOR2'"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
Prior to this command, the command SENS:CORR:TSET:SEL must be sent.
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:TSET[:STATe] ON | OFF
This command switches the selected transducer set on or off.
Example:
"CORR:TSET ON"
Characteristics: *RST value: OFF
SCPI: device-specific
Mode:
R, A
Prior to this command, the command SENS:CORR:TSET:SEL must be sent.
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SENSe Subsystem
[SENSe<1|2>:]CORRection:TSET:DELete
This command deletes the selected transducer set.
Example:
"CORR:TSET:DEL"
Characteristics: *RST value: SCPI: device-spe