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Topic : IT로 이끄는 신개념 제조혁신, 3D 프린팅
Prof. Sung-Kwon Choi
Associate Professor of Department of Industrial Design, Seoil University
2013. 10. 08.
Contents
I. AM & 3D Printing Overview
IV. Conclusion
1. 3D Printing Issue
2. What is AM & 3D Printing?
1. AM(Additive Manufacturing)Benefits
3.
4.
5.
6.
How companies are applying AM processes
Installations by country
CAD software
Hardware Type
7. Build Volume(size)
8. Materials & AM Systems
9. AM Comparison Matrix
II. 3D Printing Technology & Application
SLS (Selective Laser Sintering)
1. Sound pebble / iPhone5 Sound amplifier
2. Leaf Design Series/ iPhone4S Protection Cases
3. Hangul Proclamation Day / LED Mood Lamp
4. Korea Bridal crown Hair band
FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling)
5. Flower Lampshade / Mood Lamp
DLP (Digital Light Processing)
6. Starfish Pendant / Jewelry Design
SLA/SL (Stereo Lithography Apparatus)
7. Twilight / LED Lighting
8. Drop Light / Power LED Lighting
9. DONA / Urban Donation Motivation Robot
Etc.
2. The `marble’ model, check it out!
3. Production Method Comparison
4. 3D Printing & Design Market
References
3D Printing Issue
“3D Printing is next revolution in manufacturing”
Alvin Toffler
Barack Hussein Obama
Chris Anderson
Janne Kyttanen
Terry T. Wohlers
Neri Oxman
Charlie Maddock
Peter Weijmarshausen
What is AM & 3D Printing?
3D Printing > Layer by Layer
CAD 3D Modeling
3D Printing
* ASTM(American Society for Testing and Materials) International F42 committee
* RP: Rapid Prototyping > AM: Additive Manufacturing / 3D Printing
Prototype
What is AM & 3D Printing?
SM
RP
RP: Rapid Prototyping
RT: Rapid Tooling
RM: Rapid Manufacturing
Subtractive
Manufacturing
3D Printing
Formative
Subtractive
AM
AM: Additive
Manufacturing
3D Printing
Additive
3D Printer / AM Machines
* ASTM(American Society for Testing and Materials) International F42 committee
3D Printing Needs
제품
다양화
요구
제품
형상의
복잡화
NC
가공의
한계
TIME
Concurrent Engineering
인건비
상승
제품
수명주기
단축
금형
제작비
상승
COST
기업의
경쟁력
강화
How companies are applying AM processes
Source : Wohlers Report 2013, Wohlers Associates, Inc.
CAD software
Structure in Nature
1990
Freeform
surface
Algorism Modeling
1980
6 surfaces
Generative Modeling
Parametric Modeling
Topology Modeling
1970
Corner R
Haptic Device Modeling
1960
box
2000~
3D Scanning & Software
3D Scan equipment
Touch Probe Type
Noncontact Type
접촉식
非접촉식
Point cloud
Polygon mesh
* White Paper:3RD Generation Parametric Modeling from 3D Scan Data(F), Martin Chader
3D Printing
Hardware Type
Box type
Robot type
Conveyor Type
Hardware Type
FDM : Fused Deposition Modeling
Entry Level 3D Printer
SLA / SL
출처: http://www.3ders.org/pricecompare/3dprinters/
3D DERS 홈페이지에 제조사 2013년 현재 18개국 62개사 등록
국가 : 미국, 캐나다, 영국, 싱가폴, 프랑스, 홍콩, 인디아, 한국, 스페인, 중국, 독일, 이탈리아, 네덜란드, 일본, 폴란드, 대만, 네덜란드, 덴마크 등
제품 형식: DIY 형태 주류 > 제품 가격: $200~$7,000 > 프린팅 기술 FFF(FDM) 방식 주류 > 오픈 소스와 특허 만료
사용 재료: ABS, PLA 주력, Lawood-D3, Nylon-618, PC > 재료 가격: $10~$140
제조사는 전문기업과 개인 DIY 혼재 > TOP 10엔 전문기업 우세
초기 RepRap 오픈 소스코드를 이용하여 개발 > 향후 자체적인 업그레이드 지속 서비스 필요
한국의 경우 멘델, 윌리봇, 에디슨 등 5개사 정도가 현재 DIY형태로 초기 제품 개발 > 커뮤니티로 카페 활용
Entry level 3D Printer sales
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
96
97
98
99
00
01
02
03
04
출처 : Wohlers Report 2009, Terry Wohlers, page 53 요약
05
06
07
08
InkJet
Build Volume(size)
SLS
SLA
4000 x 2000 x 1000mm
700 x 380 x 560mm
2100 x 700 x 800mm
>Ink-jet print technology
>Selective powder adherence
>26.560 nozzles
>resolution: 600 dpi
>print with: 1120 mm
>printing speed: 75s/layer
>layer thickness: 300 micron
>SLA(SL): Stereolithography technology
>Layer Thickness 50 micron=0.05mm
>SLS(Selective Laser Sintering) technology
>Layer Thickness 120 micron=0.12mm
DLP
FDM
PolyJet
SLA
445 x 356 x 500mm
>DLP(Digital Light Projection)technology
>Layer Thickness 25 micron=0.025mm
>3D laser lithography technology
>3D micro & nanostructure made
>ex1. 220 micron=0.22mm
>ex2. 10 micron=0.01mm
1000 x 800 x 500mm
914 x 610 x 914mm
>PolyJet Matrix technology
>Layer Thickness 16 micron=0.016mm
>FDM(Fused Deposition Modeling) technology
>Layer Thickness 117 micron=0.330/0.254/0.178mm
Materials
Plastic
Stainless Steel, Bronze, Titanium Ti64
ABS,PLA, Epoxy, PC, Nylon Etc.
Metal
Rubber
Paper
Wax
Wood
Cement Polymer
Ceramic composite
Sand
Sugar
Salt
Chocolate
Food
Meat
Human tissue
Materials & AM Systems
Powder-based systems
Solid-based systems
Liquid-based systems
AM Comparison Matrix
Additive Manufacturing-01
Sound pebble / iPhone5 Sound amplifier
SLS :
Selective Laser Sintering
Sound pebble / iPhone5 Sound amplifier. Design by 3dconnection. 2013.
01
Sound pebble / iPhone5 Sound amplifier. Design by 3dconnection. 2013.
3D Modeling & Inspection
02
SLS Making platform
Sound pebble / iPhone5 Sound amplifier. Design by 3dconnection. 2013.
Cooling Time
SLS : Selective Laser Sintering
03
Sound pebble / iPhone5 Sound amplifier. Design by 3dconnection. 2013.
Packaging
05
Additive Manufacturing-02
Leaf Design Series/ iPhone4S Protection Cases
Reverse Engineering
3D Scanning
Shape Design
01
Leaf series/ iPhone4S Protection cases. Design by 3dconnection. 2012.
Dyeing
02
Leaf series/ iPhone4S Protection cases. Design by 3dconnection. 2012.
User Testing
03
Leaf series/ iPhone4S Protection cases. Design by 3dconnection. 2012.
Packaging
04
Additive Manufacturing-03
Hangul Proclamation Day / LED Mood Lamp
Hangul Proclamation Day / LED Mood Lamp, Design by 3dconnection. 2013.
Lighting Design
Quin-MGX, Desugn by Basheba Grossman, US/ courtesy of materialise / SLA, PA, 2007.
Quin-MGX, materialise, 2007 / SLS, PA.
Lighting Design
Palm Hanging D32, Janne Kyttanen 2007, FOC / SLS, PA.
CLAM / NUDL as team of JUNGLIM Architecture / Korea / 2009. Courtesy of JUNGLIM Architecture
CLAM / NUDL as team of JUNGLIM Architecture / Korea / 2009.
Courtesy of JUNGLIM Architecture
Additive Manufacturing-04
The winners of the Accessory Challenge by Materialise
Koran Bridal crown Hairband by Kijin Shin, 3DCONNECTION, 2013.
01
02
The Universe by Jeeyoung Bang
03
04
Alissia Melka, byamt, 2010.
Jointed Jewels > Necklaces , Rings, Bangles
Jointed Jewels > Necklaces and Rings
Jointed Jewels > Bangles and Ring
N12 Bikini, continuumfashion, 2011 / SLS, PA2200.
Additive Manufacturing-05
Flower Lampshade / Mood Lamp
FDM : Fused Deposition Modeling
Rhino3D>3D Modeling
01
netfabb studio>3D Modeling Inspection
02
Printer Head
Final Lamp Shade
Build & Support
3D Printing
FDM : Fused Deposition Modeling
03
04
Additive Manufacturing-06
Starfish Pendant / Jewelry Design
DLP :
Digital Light Processing
Topology Modeling
Mesh Modeling > STL. File conversion
* STL=Stereo Lithography / * AMF : Additive Manufacturing Format
01
Starfish Pendant. Made by 3dconnection. 2012.
Mask Image Projection
DLP : Digital Light Processing
02
3D Printed Resin
Casting
Starfish Pendant. Made by 3dconnection. 2012.
03
Starfish Pendant. Made by 3dconnection. 2012.
04
Jewelry Design
Goddess Dream Pendant & Necklace, 18K Gold, Silver Series, JOO,EUN-OK, 2009.
Jewelry Design
BLOOMING Earring & Necklace, 18K Gold Series, YEMYUNGJI, 2010.
Additive Manufacturing-07
Twilight / LED Lighting
Arduino interation programming /Software (RoboPlus Task, Manager and Motion v1.0.18.0) Testing
01
3D Printing Parts > Post Processing
SLA : Stereolithography
02
Twilight / Design by Minsu Kim. 2009.
03
Additive Manufacturing-08
Drop Light / Power LED Lighting
SLA / SL :
Stereo Lithography Apparatus
01
Drop Light : Rapid Prototyping / SLA Process
02
Drop Light : Prototypes (design mock-up), 2010~2013. Courtesy of DOOLIGHT.COM
Drop Light : Prototypes (design mock-up)
03
Drop Light : Manufacturing goods
Drop Light, design by doolight, 2013.
04
Drop Light : Manufacturing goods
Drop Light Mini, design by doolight, 2013. Courtesy of DOOLIGHT.COM
05
Additive Manufacturing-09
DONA / Urban Donation Motivation Robot
DONA: Urban Donation Motivating Robot . Design by Min Su Kim. 2009~2011. Courtesy of KIMMINSUDESIGN/RCA
A
C
B
D
Two initial concept sketches and prototypes
Final prototype
Courtesy of KIMMINSUDESIGN
01
3D Modeling & Inner structure assembling inspection
02
1
Image Mapping(Character-oriented, Humanoid-like type)
Form study with clay
3
2 Rapid Prototyping > SLA
Arduino interation programming /Software (RoboPlus Task,
Manager and Motion v1.0.18.0) Testing
4 Parts Assembling
03
Public Demonstration, Seoul Museum of Art, 2011.
04
AM(Additive Manufacturing) Benefits
Additive Manufacturing has many remarkable benefits compared to traditional mass production techniques
Rapid
It can build unique and complex parts rapidly over a number of hours.
Affordable
Additive Manufacturing eliminates tooling, set-up and some labor costs.
It can produce parts of far superior complexity that can consist of one or
more movable components without the need for assembly.
Hence, it is the only viable manufacturing process for ‘Mass Customization'.
Less Waste
There is considerably less material waste than traditional manufacturing techniques.
Environmentally
Friendly
‘Local’ manufacturing results in a lower carbon footprint and materials can include recycled plastics.
Competitive
With no upfront costs for moulds, manufacturing on-demand promotes a positive cash flow.
Flexible Design
The absence of moulds allows for complex geometries to be created without difficulty.
AM(Additive Manufacturing) Benefits
Long lead time
A traditional supply chain
Just in time
A 3D printing supply chain
3D Printing & Design Market
Long Tail Economy, Chris Anderson
Production Method Comparison
다양성
복잡성
유연성
($)
방법 1 사출 성형
(금형 제작 비용 1만 달러 + 고무오리 1개당 20달러)
개
당
방법 2 3차원 프린터
(고무오리 1개를 추가 생산할 때 드는 비용은 20달러로 동일)
제
조
비
용
(개)
제품 개수
3D Printing & Design Market
New Design Business Model
유통/판매의 민주화
자금 조달의 민주화
제조의 민주화
Distribution/Sales
Democratization
Funds Procurement
Democratization
Production
Democratization
Global Online Web
Global Online App
Crowd Funding
3D Printing
Arduino
Open Source
3D Printing & AM Paradigm 예측
MAKE THE IMAGINATION RAEL
“상상하는 것을 현실로 만들 수 있음”
>무금형(無金型 ) 제품의 등장> No Assembly
>3차원을 넘어선 디자인 제품의 등장
상품
>CUSTOMIZATION, LIMITED, 유일 상품 등장
>Low Volume Production>다품종 소량 생산적합
>기능위주>이야기, 감성 상품의 증가
유통
>상품의 형태가 Digital File의 형태로도 On-Line 유통
>Cloud 컴퓨팅 기반 AM 상품 유통 마켓 활성화
>슈퍼 컴퓨팅 플랫폼 및 빅 데이터 마케팅 활성화
>RP / 3D Printer 서비스 Bureau 성장 / 전문회사 등장
제조
>Desktop Factory / FAB at Home > 1인 생산 기업 등장
>Network 교역생산 > 전세계 장비 활용
>프로슈머(Prosumer)의 증가와 경계성의 한계
NEW BUSINESS MODELS IN THE CREATIVE INDUSRIES
Factory of Future
AM(Additive Manufacturing) 산업을 위한 준비와 해결 과제
AM 의 바른 인식과 기초 생태계 구축
AM의 기술의 저변 확대 노력
국내외 기술교류와 기초 연구
3D MODELING 및 SCAN/REVERSE 설계기술 인재양성
AM 생태계 구축 전략 수립
AM 장비와 재료의 국산화
장비의 상용화와 환경친화적 재료 개발
사용 재료의 내구성, 다양성 확보
AM 후처리 기술 확보와 개발
AM 상품의 표면처리기술 > 상품성 높임
AM 디자인 상품의 적극 연구와 개발
AM 디자인기술을 별도로 연구,교육 지원하는
R&D 및 Facility Center 필요>대학 기초 교육
AM 상품의 대량 생산 시설 확보
AM 디자인 상품의 분야별 브랜드 상품 개발
AM 상품은 차별화된 디자인과 초기 세분야
영역을 선점하여 History 가치와 국제 마케팅
ex. MGX, FOC > History 만들기
References
Rapid Manufacturing, An industrial Revolution for the Digital Age
Editors N. Hopkinson, R.J.M. Hague and P.M. Dickens / Loughborough University, UK, 2006.
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Rapid Prototyping / Principles and Applications / Second Edition, Chua C.K., Leong K. F.
and Lim C. S. 2004.
World Scientific
Wohlers Report 2006, 2008, 2009, 2012, 2013 / State of the Industry / Annual Worldwide
Progress Report / Terry Wohlers, 2009 / Terry T. Wohlers Wohlers Associates, Inc.
The New World of 3D Printing / 2013 /Hod Lipson, Melba Kurman, 2013.
The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More, Chris Anderson, New
York, NY: Hyperion Press, 2008.
산업디자이너를 위한 신속조형기술 / RP 활용가이드, 최성권 지음, 도서출판 혜지원, 2010.
Designers for Rapid Prototyping User Guide, Sung-Kwon Choi, Hyejiwon Press, 2010.
앨빈 토플러 > 부의 미래, 앨빈 토플러, 하이디 토플러 지음, 김중웅 옮김, 청림출판, 2006.
Revolutionary Wealth
메이커스(MAKERS), 크리스 앤더슨, RHK알에이치코리아, 2013.
www. 3dconnection.co.kr
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