UNIVERSITY OF VAASA FACULTY OF TECHNLOLOGY

UNIVERSITY OF VAASA FACULTY OF TECHNLOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF VAASA
FACULTY OF TECHNLOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF PRODUCTION
Andreas Kreuzer
APPLICATION OF AXIOMATIC DESIGN TO ELECTRIC BICYCLES
Master’s Thesis in
Industrial Management
VAASA 2014
1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
LIST OF FIGURES
3
LIST OF TABLES
4
ABBREVIATIONS
5
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
6
1.
INTRODUCTION
8
2.
BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Electric bicycles
2.2. The European electric bicycle market
2.3. Case company
10
10
11
13
2.4. Applications of Axiomatic Design
2.4.1. Application to software design
2.4.2. Application to system design
2.4.3. Application to product design
2.4.4. Literature review of 2009
13
14
14
15
15
2.5. Axiomatic Design theory
2.5.1. Domains and mapping in between domains
2.5.2. Decomposition, hierarchy and zigzagging
2.5.3. Axioms
2.5.4. Corollaries
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16
18
19
21
2.5.5. Theorems
2.5.6. Example of a coupling problem
2.5.7. Limitations of creating FRs based on customer feedback
2.6. Other design methodologies
2.6.1. Generic Product Development
22
24
25
26
26
2.6.2. Quality Function Deployment
27
2
3.
METHOD
3.1. Data collection
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30
3.2. Design
3.2.1. Top-level FRs and DPs
3.2.2. Decomposition of FR1 and DP1
3.2.3. Decomposition of FR2 and DP2
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32
33
35
3.2.4.
3.2.5.
3.2.6.
3.2.7.
3.2.8.
Decomposition of FR3 and DP3
Decomposition of FR4 and DP4
Decomposition of FR5 and DP5
Decomposition of FR6 and DP6
Constraints
36
40
40
41
43
3.2.9. Design matrix
3.2.10. Suggestions for PVs
3.2.11. Example of calculating information content
3.3. Remarks on the design process
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45
46
47
4.
RESULTS
4.1. The Axiomatic Design based Third Element electric bicycle
4.2. Opportunities and limitations of Axiomatic Design with this case
51
51
53
5.
DISCUSSION
54
5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
54
54
55
57
6.
Mapping from CAs to FRs
Coupling
Suggestions to keep the information content low
Limitations of this study
CONCLUSION
58
LIST OF REFERENCES
60
APPENDIX 1. Complete list of customer statements
66
APPENDIX 2. Design matrix prior to decoupling
88
3
LIST OF FIGURES
page
Figure 1. An electric bicycle by Third Element.
Figure 2. Electric Bicycle Sales in Europe.
Figure 3. The four domains of Axiomatic Design.
Figure 4. Decomposition of FRs and DPs.
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12
16
19
Figure 5. Design range, system range, common range and system pdf.
Figure 6. Refrigerator door design.
Figure 7. Generic Product Development Process.
Figure 8. Spiral and Complex Development Processes.
Figure 9. The House of Quality.
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25
26
27
28
Figure 10. Customer statements according to customer type.
Figure 11. Combination of multiple customer statements into one FR.
Figure 12. Design Matrix.
Figure 13. Speed detection systems.
Figure 14. Mounting of the rear light.
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31
45
48
50
Figure 15. Proposed concept.
Figure 16. Design matrix prior to decoupling.
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88
4
LIST OF TABLES
page
Table 1. Top-level parameters for electric bicycle design.
Table 2. Decomposed parameters for frame design.
Table 3. Decomposed parameters for wheels design.
Table 4. Decomposed parameters for electrical drive design.
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33
35
36
Table 5. Third level display design.
Table 6. Third level walking assist design.
Table 7. Decomposed parameters for mechanical drive design.
Table 8. Decomposed parameters for human interface design.
Table 9. Decomposed parameters for accessories design.
38
39
40
40
41
Table 10. Constraints table.
Table 11. Complete list of customer statements.
43
66
5
ABBREVIATIONS
CA
Customer attribute
DP
Design parameter
ECCS
Emergency core cooling system
FR
Functional requirement
GPS
Global positioning system
KAIST Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
LT
Lower triangular
MRS
Market requirements specification
NPP
Nuclear power plant
OEM
Original equipment manufacturer
OLEV
On-line electric vehicle
PV
Process variable
SUV
Sports utility vehicle
UT
Upper triangular
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I want to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisors Jussi Kantola of
University of Vaasa and Bernhard Nitsche of Third Element who took their best
efforts in supporting me with this work. Especially I was glad to see that they
shared my enthusiasm for this topic.
Further I want to thank all that helped me make my way to and through the
Master in Industrial Management Programme. Michael Hörmann of Clean
Mobile as well as Ralf Burmester and Terence Wynne of Esslingen University of
Applied Sciences have paved my way to Vaasa with their recommendation
letters. Henna Huovinen of University of Vaasa was of great help to getting
started with studies. Luise Schmidt-Ohr of Third Element was particularly
reliable in keeping me in touch with my previous employer.
Finally I want to thank my family and my beloved girlfriend for their emotional
support.
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UNIVERSITY OF VAASA
Faculty of technology
Author:
Topic of the Master’s Thesis:
Instructor:
Degree:
Major subject:
Year of Entering the University:
Year of Completing the Master’s Thesis:
Andreas Kreuzer
Application of Axiomatic Design to
Electric Bicycles
Jussi Kantola
Master of Science in Economics
and Business Administration
Industrial Management
2012
2014
Pages: 89
ABSTRACT:
Market conditions and the situation inside electric bicycle producing
companies require a product development process which ensures that
customer requirements are met and problems in product design are identified
at an early stage. Therefore, this research takes an analytical approach towards
the development of electric bicycles by applying Axiomatic Design, which
offers both a holistic framework for product development as well as analytical
mapping in between the individual steps of the design process. The application
is done as a case study at a German electric bicycle manufacturing company
and based on a collection of customer feedback as well as the contribution of
the company’s management. In the design process, functional requirements
and design parameters are formulated and a design matrix is created to
identify and resolve coupling issues. Further, constraints such as price, weight
and ease of use are taken into account and process variables for practical
implementation are suggested. The study results in recommendations for a
specifications sheet of a new electric bicycle model. It is concluded that
Axiomatic Design is of substantial advantage to the case company’s product
development. Future research is suggested to improve the level of detail and
quality of electric bicycles designed by Axiomatic Design.
KEYWORDS: axiomatic design, electric bicycles, generic product development,
quality function deployment
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1. INTRODUCTION
A central issue in product design is the fulfilment of customer needs. At the
same time, efficient engineering of products is important to avoid rework and
reduce product life cycle cost. Both of these factors are especially true for the
development of electric bicycles at Third Element GmbH & Co. KG (further
referred to as ‘Third Element’). First, the market for electric bicycles is rapidly
growing, dynamic and diversified (ZIV 2013: 63). This makes it challenging to
design products that successfully address customer needs, especially for small
companies such as Third Element which do not have the resources for extensive
market research. Second, it is crucial for those companies to organize their
development processes in an efficient way in order to avoid rework. Recalls of
electric bicycles and bankruptcies of firms in the industry have shown that the
complexity of electric bicycles is often underestimated and mistakes in their
design are recognized too late (myStromer: 2013).
Axiomatic Design has the potential to address both of these issues. The
importance of customer needs is addressed by putting customer feedback at the
very beginning of the design process and effectiveness is pursued by taking an
analytical approach to transform those requirements into functions and
physical properties of a product. The advantages of this methodology are better
matching of product functions with customer requirements, better consistency
in between functions and physical parts and, thus, more efficiency and less cost
during the life-cycle of a product (Axiomatic Design Solutions 2014b).
There are numerous studies connected to electric bicycle design using other
methods than Axiomatic Design. Hsu, Liu and Chan (2012) have studied power
management of electric bicycles based on reinforcement learning. Xiao, Liu, Du,
Wang and He (2012) have applied topology optimization to frame design of
electric bicycles. Wu and Sun (2013) have designed and analysed a novel speedchanging wheel hub with an integrated motor for electric bicycles, using
analytical modelling. Liang, Lin and Chang (2006) have used a fuzzy logic and
single chip approach to develop an intelligent control for electric bicycles. Hua
and Kao (2011) have designed a regenerative braking system for electric
bicycles by experimenting with digital signal processing. Further studies apply
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Axiomatic Design to the design of non-electrical bicycles, for example the case
study conducted by Guo, Jiang, Zhang and Tan (2012). However, little research
has been done on the combination of Axiomatic Design and electric bicycles.
In order to fill this gap and to explore how Axiomatic Design can help to deal
with the issues in the field, two questions are addressed in this study: “How
does an Axiomatic Design based electric bicycle look like?” as well as “What are
the opportunities and limitations of Axiomatic Design with this case?” The first
question marks the main goal of this study, the creation of a proposal for an
electric bicycle which fulfils the needs of Third Element’s customers in the best
possible way. The second question aims at a brief evaluation of the approach
taken, possibly helping the case company with the decision on further pursuing
this matter.
The general approach of this study is that of the application of a scientific
method to practical problems in a realistic and feasible way. All measures
described have the potential of generating actual benefit for businesses, as
shown by the specific recommendations made in the results of this research.
Further the study is directed towards easy implementation in companies by
suggesting changes on different levels. Incremental changes require little effort
to implement and take place with the adaption of existing parts and features to
improve customer satisfaction. Structural changes such as the arrangement of
components take place when coupling issues are resolved. Disruptive changes
alike the proposed innovative charging system are likely to take more
implementation effort but bear potential for future innovation and further
differentiation from competitors.
In the following, information on the background of this case and the
methodology is presented. Subsequently, the data collection is described,
followed by the application of the Axiomatic Design framework: The
formulation of functional requirements, design parameters, process variables
and constraints as well as the creation of a design matrix. Finally, the results of
this process will be presented and discussed.
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2. BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW
This section provides the theoretical knowledge the research is based on. A
brief description of electric bicycles, the market of those and the case company
is followed by an explanation of the theory of Axiomatic Design and other
product development methodologies.
2.1. Electric bicycles
Electric bicycles can be defined by the main characteristic that, in addition to the
features that come with a regular bicycle, “an electric motor supplements pedal
power, usually powered by a rechargeable battery” (Pucher and Buehler 2012:
81). In addition to the electric motor and the rechargeable battery, the electric
powertrain also comprises an electric controller, controller software, a display
with input and output functionality, as well as several sensors and switches.
The motor is often placed at the rear- or the front wheel (hub-motor) or at the
pedal crank (centre-motor). Sensors may include a speed sensor which detects
the movement speed of the vehicle and a torque sensor in the pedal crank
which measures the human force applied to the pedals. The torque sensor
allows control over the electric powertrain in a way that electrical assistance
will be provided in combination with pedalling only, which is referred to as
‘pedal assist mode’. In most European countries this mode of electric bicycle
operation has become a standard for legal reasons. If the electric motor operates
independently from pedalling, the vehicle is considered as a motorbike and
additional regulations apply. (Larminie and Lowry 2012: 271-272.)
Another approach to distinguish in between electric bicycles and electric
motorbikes is given by Raines, stating that there are primarily two variants of
electric two-wheelers: Bicycle style electric bikes or scooter style electric bikes
(Raines 2009: 69). In this context, it should be noted that it is not only the legal
consequences which make a difference, but also the overall physical appearance
of the vehicle, which has a strong impact on customer perception.
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Display
Battery
Speed
Sensor
Motor/Gearbox
Unit
Figure 1. An electric bicycle by Third Element. (Third Element: 2014c)
2.2. The European electric bicycle market
The market for electric bicycles is rapidly growing. While there has been little
development in production and sales of regular bicycles from 2008 to 2012,
sales volumes of electric bicycles have been remarkably increasing during the
same period. The increase was roughly 200 000 units per year, resulting in a
total of 1.1 million units sold in 2012. (ZIV 2013: 63.)
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Figure 2. Electric Bicycle Sales in Europe. (ZIV 2013: 67)
At the same time, this market is dynamic. While in other industries such as
machinery and automotive, the lifetime of a product usually is several years
until a major model update is required, a bicycle becomes outdated just one
year after its introduction to the market. In Europe the cycle time of bicycles is
dominated by the Eurobike Trade Fair which takes places in Friedrichshafen,
Germany in every August or September. At this trade fair, bicycle manufacturers present their model line-up for the following year and retailers make
their orders. Due to the great importance of the Eurobike, many customer
statements that originated from this event have been taken into consideration
for this study. (Messe Friedrichshafen 2014.)
Finally, the market for electric bicycles is also diversified. Users of bicycles can
be men or women of all ages and occupations, with differing health level,
income, likes or dislikes. Among these users there is a broad bandwidth of
requirements, reaching from senior citizens that seek recreation and health
(Gojanovic, Welker, Iglesias, Daucourt and Gremion 2011), to extreme athletes
who want to push their limits (McClellan 2013: 15). Large bicycle manufacturers
try to address this diversification by a vast range of products. Small- and midsized companies like Third Element however, do not have the resources to
create and maintain a line-up of dozens of models every year. Therefore it is
most important to these companies to make model decisions wisely and to
create a product that actually fits to the expectations of their target customers.
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2.3. Case company
This research is based on the case of Third Element, an original equipment
manufacturer (OEM) of electric bicycles located in Gauting, greater area of
Munich, Germany. Third Element was founded in 2009 when prototypes of a
newly developed electric bicycle were tested. This model combined a
fullsuspension mountain bike with a powerful electrical assist, which was an
innovation to the market at the time. In 2011 the company received the official
listing from the Federal Office for Motor Traffic Germany as a certified
manufacturer, enabling the company to series production also of such electric
bicycles that require a type approval. In 2012 Third Element presented a new
model line-up, adding hardtail mountain bikes and bicycles for urban use to the
existing models of fullsuspension mountain bikes. With this step the company
made a move to becoming a full-range bicycle manufacturer. (Third Element
2014a.)
Third Element’s products are positioned in the premium segment of the electric
bicycle market. The premium status is claimed by using quality components
and manufacturing in Germany as well as superior appearance and technology
with „the aim of giving users the possibility of moving in a modern, stylish and
highly efficient way“ (Third Element 2014a). With the numerous customer
expectations for premium products on the one side, and the high cost for
quality components and manufacturing on the other, Third Element often faces
the challenge of keeping their products both attractive and profitable.
2.4. Applications of Axiomatic Design
Since its postulation by Nam P. Suh, Axiomatic Design and its principles have
been applied to numerous cases. The applications comprise both physical and
non-physical products as well as services. Furthermore the dimensions of
products or services vary from small individual entities to large and complex
systems. In the following, examples of Axiomatic Design applications in
different kinds of industries will be given.
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2.4.1. Application to software design
Suh and Do (2000) demonstrated that Axiomatic Design can also be applied to
software. In their paper “Axiomatic Design of Software Systems” an approach
to object-oriented programming of large software systems is explained. Herein
a process was defined which consisted of three main steps:



Building the software hierarchy by the recognition of customer
attributes, FRs, mapping and decomposition
Identifying of leaves depending on the software modules defined
Building the object oriented model by identifying classes, establishing
interfaces and coding with system architecture
As a result the ACCLARO software system was created, in order “to help
designers to develop rational and correct designs from the beginning without
resorting to prototypes and debugging” (Suh and Do 2000: 100). To the date of
this research the ACCLARO software has become a versatile tool for design,
comprising the key elements of


Voice of the customer (VOC) capture
Axiomatic Design



Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA)
Innovation Tools (TRIZ)
and is available for purchase from Axiomatic Design Solutions via the web
pages of DFSS Software. (Axiomatic Design Solutions 2014a.)
2.4.2. Application to system design
Heo and Lee (2007) have evaluated the design of emergency core cooling
systems (ECCS) for nuclear power plants. In this research the ECCS of the
Korean NPPs “Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe” (APR 1400) and
“Optimized Power Reactor 1000 MWe” (OPR 1000) were compared to each
other using Axiomatic Design. FRs and DPs were defined and DMs were
created for the ECCS. While the design matrix of APR 1400 was uncoupled and
that of OPR 1000 was decoupled on the top-level, coupling of sub-components
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was found in the low-level design matrices of both systems. Due to these
findings, designers were able to improve the set-up of a coolant injecting device
by separating flow rate and flow path. (Heo and Lee 2007.)
2.4.3. Application to product design
Suh, Cho and Rim (2010) have developed a concept for an on-line electric
vehicle (OLEV) which draws electric energy from underground electric coils
using induction technology. The design consisted of eight top-level FRs, eight
top-level DPs and five constraints. For example, FR7 required that electric
power has to be provided to the vehicle even if there is no external power
supply. Therefore, DP7 was established which defined that the vehicle has to be
equipped with a re-chargeable battery which serves as a backup if there is no
underground power supply. These top-level FRs and DPs were then
decomposed into lower-level FRs and DPs, further detailing the design concept.
A design matrix was created which related the FR vector to the DP vector. The
authors state that an integration team of the project was able to eliminate
coupling and create a final design that was either uncoupled or decoupled.
Subsequently two prototypes – one electric bus and one electric sports utility
vehicle (SUV) – were built at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and
Technology (KAIST) and tested. The concept showed to be promising and was
reported to have substantial advantages towards plug-in battery electric
vehicles such as lower cost of infrastructure deployment, less weight,
independency from lithium resources and the ability to charge during drive.
(Suh et al. 2010.)
2.4.4. Literature review of 2009
In their extensive literature review, Kulak, Cebi and Kahrman (2009) have
investigated applications of Axiomatic Design from 1990 to 2009. Of the 63
papers studied, Axiomatic Design was applied to product development in 20
cases. Further fields of application were system design, manufacturing system
design, software design, decision making and others. A frequency analysis of
the papers published from 1990 to 2009 showed that the popularity of
Axiomatic Design applications has increased since the early 2000’s. The authors
classified the papers also according to their focus either on the independence
axiom or the information axiom. In 45 cases a focus was put on the
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independence axiom. The other papers either emphasized the information
axiom or considered both axioms equally. (Kulak et al. 2009.)
2.5. Axiomatic Design theory
This research uses the method of Axiomatic Design. Axiomatic Design
establishes a scientific basis for design. It provides logical and rational thought
processes and tools which help to improve product design activities and
reduces the random search process.
2.5.1. Domains and mapping in between domains
The Axiomatic Design Framework consists of four domains which describe the
Customer Attributes (CAs), Functional Requirements (FRs), Design Parameters
(DPs) and Process Variables (PVs) of a design task. Starting from the CAs, each
further domain is reached by an analytical mapping process. (Suh 2001: 5, 11).
Figure 3. The four domains of Axiomatic Design. (Suh 2001: 11)
In the customer domain, the needs or attributes of customers are assessed. In
the next step, these are translated into FRs of the product or service which is
about to be created, asking for “what” the solution should do. Following that,
answers to “how” the requirements can be satisfied in reality are sought in the
physical domain. Finally, the process domain defines the production of the
solution. (Suh 2001: 10.)
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Mapping in between domains is an analytical process, which can be
mathematically formulated using vectors and matrices. For example, the
mapping in between the Functional Domain and the Physical Domain of a
design that has three FRs and three DPs is described as:
(1)
where
(2)
is referred to as the design matrix which defines the interconnections in
between FRs and DPs. (Suh 2001: 18.)
Design matrices can be uncoupled, decoupled and coupled. In an uncoupled
design as shown in ( 3 ), [A] is a fully diagonal matrix, which means that each
DP is connected to exactly one FR. This is the best possible solution because all
design attributes are independent from each other.
(3)
In a decoupled design ( 4 ), [A] is a triangular matrix, which leads to
dependencies in between design attributes to a limited extend. Both lower
triangular (LT) and upper triangular (UT) matrices are possible (Suh 2001: 19).
This design is not ideal, but acceptable if no other options exist.
(4)
A coupled design ( 5 ) has dependencies above and below the diagonal.
Changes in one design attribute are likely to affect many other design attributes
as well. This leads to high levels of dependency and has to be avoided.
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(5)
In the next step, the mapping from the physical domain to the process domain
can be described as
(6)
where [B] is a matrix similar in form to [A] and describes the process design for
the transition of DPs into PVs (Suh 2001: 409).
PVs refer to all measures that can produce DPs. For example with materials
production and processing, PVs can describe manufacturing processes required
to achieve the design goals specified. With organizations and businesses, PVs
may refer to human and financial resources. (Suh 2001: 12.)
2.5.2. Decomposition, hierarchy and zigzagging
FRs, DPs or PVs are arranged in a hierarchy, consisting of higher and lower
level elements. The process of building those hierarchies is called
decomposition, starting from a top-level element and going more and more into
details. However, decomposing is not done sequentially domain by domain,
but by zigzagging. Zigzagging (as indicated by the dashed arrows in Figure 4)
means to go forth and back in between domains during the decomposition
process. For example if FR1 is defined, DP1 is defined after that. Next, FR1 is
decomposed into FR11 and FR12 and immediately after that their equivalents in
the physical domain are sought. This method seeks to avoid divisional thinking,
which often happens with organizations where for example the design
specification is solely carried out by one department and the design realization
is done by another department. (Suh 2001: 29-31.)
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Figure 4. Decomposition of FRs and DPs. (Suh 2001: 30)
2.5.3. Axioms
There are two main principles which the Axiomatic Design approach is based
on. These are formulated as follows:

The Independence Axiom: “Maintain the independence of the functional
requirements (FRs)."

The Information Axiom: “Minimize the information content of the
design.”
(Suh 2001: 16.)
The independence axiom states that a design has to be done in a way that the
FRs of that design can be fulfilled without affecting each other. This means in
turn that the DPs which shall satisfy the FRs have to be chosen wisely.
Otherwise the independence of FRs may not be maintained. (Suh 2005: 23.)
Considering the three types of design matrices explained in the previous
section, an uncoupled design would fully satisfy the independence axiom. With
decoupled designs, FRs are not fully independent but since it is difficult to
avoid all kinds of dependencies especially with difficult designs, this can still be
considered acceptable. With coupled designs however, the interdependencies
20
have reached an extent that the independence axiom has to be considered as
violated.
The Information Axiom helps to find the best design solution among different
possibilities. There may be several designs which all fulfil the Independence
Axiom, however, some of those may be superior to others. According to the
Information Axiom, the best design among those possibilities is the one that has
the smallest information content Ii. The smaller the information content, the less
information is needed to reach the design goals. The information content can be
computed by calculating the probability Pi of satisfying FRi, also known as the
probability of success. While there are many ways to do this, one possible
solution is
.
(7)
(Suh 2005: 30.)
The probability of success can be calculated by taking a closer look on the
design range and the system range of a FR. The design range is the area which
comprises all values that are acceptable to satisfy a FR. The system range
contains all values that the proposed design can have. The common range
equals to the overlap of design range and system range. For example in the case
of cutting a rod to a certain length, the tolerance specified to the desired length
refers to the design range while the machine which is chosen to cut the rod
corresponds to the system and the tolerance of that machine is the system
range.
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Figure 5. Design range, system range, common range and system pdf. (Suh
2005: 32)
Information content and probability of success ultimately lead to the subject of
complexity. Suh defines that “a design is called complex when its probability of
success is low, that is, when the information content required to satisfy the FRs
is high”(2005: 31). With a complex task, the design range is small and the
system range is large, so there is little overlap in between both ranges and thus
the probability of success is small. In contrast, with a simple task the design
range is large and the system range is small, so that there is much overlap and
the probability of success is high. Therefore, it should be the designer’s goal to
keep requirements as simple as possible and choose methods that have high
capability of meeting requirements. In other words, simple solutions should be
chosen in favour of difficult ones and the level of precision should be held
within reasonable limits.
2.5.4. Corollaries
Further eight corollaries exist. Following these rules helps to satisfy the two
axioms and find the best possible design solution. The corollaries are:
1. Decoupling of coupled designs: Separate parts or aspects of a solution if
FRs are interdependent in a proposed design.
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2. Minimization of FRs: Use as little FRs and constraints as possible.
3. Integration of physical parts: Combine design features in a single
physical part if FRs can be independently satisfied in that solution.
4. Use of standardization: Use standardized of interchangeable parts if
possible regarding the FRs and constraints.
5. Use of symmetry: If possible in terms of FRs and constraints, use
symmetrical shapes and/or components.
6. Largest design ranges: When stating FRs, use the largest allowable
design range.
7. Uncoupled design with less information: Seek uncoupled designs with
less information in favour of coupled designs.
8. Effective reangularity of a scalar: For a scalar coupling matrix or element,
the effective reangularity is unity. Reangularity is a metric for the degree
of coupling in between design elements.
(Suh 2001: 60.)
2.5.5. Theorems
Further there are theorems related to different subjects in design. Theorems
provide background and proof for the corollaries stated above. 26 theorems
exist on general design, nine theorems relate to design and decomposition of
large systems, three theorems deal with the design and operation of large
organizations and two further theorems describe software design. (Suh 2001:
61-64.)
Theorem 1, 3 and 4 define the three basic types of design: Coupled, redundant
and ideal design.
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
Theorem 1: Coupling due to insufficient number of DPs
If there are more FRs than DPs, the design will either be coupled or FRs
cannot be satisfied. The independence axiom will be violated in any case.
For example in a design with three FRs and two DPs the design equation
is
(8)
where A31 and A32 being 0 would mean that FR3 is not satisfied and being
non-zero would result in a coupled design.

Theorem 3: Redundant design
If there are more DPs than FRs, the design is called redundant. While
some redundant designs violate the independence axiom, others do not.
For example a design with two FRs and five DPs has the equation
(9)
where, depending on the values of A11 to A25, the design is either
coupled or redundant.

Theorem 4: Ideal Design
If the FRs and DPs of a design are equal in number and the
independence axiom is satisfied, the design is called an ideal design. For
example (2) represents the design matrix of an ideal design, assuming
that A11 to A33 are chosen in a way that the independence axiom is not
violated.
(Suh 2001: 22-24.)
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2.5.6. Example of a coupling problem
A prominent example of a coupling problem and its solution is the design of a
refrigerator door. In this case, it is assumed that two FRs exist which can be
formulated as follows:
FR1: Provide access to the items inside
FR2: Minimize energy loss
The solutions as in Figure 6 a) satisfies these FRs with the DPs
DP1: Vertically hung door
DP2: Thermal insulation material
This leads to a design equation which can be stated as:
( 10 )
This is a decoupled design. The door provides access to items and the insulation
material has a positive effect on energy consumption. However, the vertically
hung doors also have an effect on FR2 – a negative one – since cold air will flow
out of the refrigerator once a door is opened.
With the solution as in Figure 6 b), the DPs are:
DP1: Horizontally hung doors
DP2: Thermal insulation material
which results in the design equation
( 11 )
This concept is similar to solution a) with the difference that the doors
attachment method does not have an influence on thermal insulation. Since cold
air is heavier than hot air, it will stay inside the refrigerator if the doors are
25
mounted on top of it. The result is an uncoupled design which is superior to the
decoupled design of solution a). (Park 2007: 20-22.)
Figure 6. Refrigerator door design. (Park 2007: 21)
2.5.7. Limitations of creating FRs based on customer feedback
Customer feedback does not necessarily create CAs and FRs. Suh mentions that
input given by customers is important, however there may be problems in
determining FRs solely based on this type of feedback. First, preferences of
individuals may not correspond with the preferences of a group as a whole.
Second, a listwise collection of customer statements – often referred to as
marketing requirements specification (MRS) – usually is a random mixture of
CAs, FRs, DPs, PVs and constraints from the point of view of Axiomatic Design.
This leads to numerous constraints and little freedom which makes design very
complicated. Third, when translating CAs to FRs, the range of usage must be
specified. However, users seldom specify such a range. (Suh 2001: 14-15.)
Due to these reasons, the mapping process from CAs to FRs is not of the
analytical kind as with the other domains and designers are asked to come up
with their own ideas of defining FRs in the best possible way. This freedom of
choice of FRs leaves room for criticism. For example Mann (2002: 4) pointed out
that – despite the arguments put forth by users of Axiomatic Design – a large
number of freezers with vertically hinged doors had been sold, concluding that
the FRs chosen for that design could not be the requirements most important to
customers.
26
2.6. Other design methodologies
Besides Axiomatic Design, a number of product development and design
methods exist in practice. In the following, two other prominent principles will
be explained briefly: The Generic Product Development process by Ulrich and
Eppinger and Quality Function Deployment (QFD). Generic Product
Development is presented because it has an approach different from Axiomatic
Design by employing a sequential process flow through organizational entities.
QFD however is a tool that shares certain elements with Axiomatic Design and
in addition to that, there has been research on applying both theories together,
such as the study by Carnevalli, Miguel and Carnage (2010).
2.6.1. Generic Product Development
Ulrich and Eppinger describe product development as a process that follows a
structured flow, a “sequence of steps or activities that an enterprise employs to
conceive, design, and commercialize a product” (Ulrich and Eppinger 2012: 12).
The process is generic and has six phases, as depicted in Figure 7, starting from
the planning phase and ending with the production ramp-up. In between these
steps there are reviews or gates which correspond to the completion of the
phase.
Figure 7. Generic Product Development Process. (Ulrich and Eppinger 2012:
22)
Depending on the type of product that is about to be designed, the
development process may differ. While the Generic Product Development
process is suitable for market-pull, technology-push, platform, processintensive, customized, and high-risk products; the spiral process is considered
to be a good fit for quick-built products. This process has iteration cycles in the
detail design and testing phase, which create better flexibility and
responsiveness during the development of a product. For complex systems
27
such as automobiles and airplanes, a development process is proposed which
has parallel design- and test phases for sub-systems and components, followed
by phases of integration and testing of the whole system. This is especially
suitable when product development is done by many teams at once. (Ulrich and
Eppinger 2012: 22.)
Figure 8. Spiral and Complex Development Processes. (Ulrich and Eppinger
2012: 22)
Ulrich and Eppinger present a sequential approach towards product
development. The emphasis lies on organizational and managerial aspects,
which will guide companies and designers along their path towards the
completion of a new product. Risk-management, quality and improvement
aspects are also included. For example, the reviews in between phases may help
to recognize problems and avoid misleading developments. With the complex
system development process, Ulrich and Eppinger also investigate the aspect of
decomposition of systems and give advice how to deal with sub-systems and
components. Other than Axiomatic Design, which tries to avoid divisional
thinking by zigzagging in between domains, Generic Product Development
follows a series of sequential steps division by division.
2.6.2. Quality Function Deployment
Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is “a method for structured product
planning and development”(Cohen 1995: 11) that follows a process to correlate
customer requirements with product properties and the technical specification
of the product using a morphological chart.
28
Figure 9. The House of Quality. (Cohen 1995: 12)
The central structure of QFD is the House of Quality, which consists of a
customer needs as well as a technical response section, a relationships matrix
(also referred to as correlations matrix), a section for correlations in between
technical responses, a planning matrix and a technical matrix (Cohen 1995: 11).
The correlation in between customer requirements and product properties is
done in the relationships matrix. First, each customer requirement is given a
weight depending on how important the requirement is to the customer and
each product property is given a value according to the importance of that
property towards the customer requirement. Subsequently, all property values
are multiplied with the requirements weight to create relative weights. The
result is a ranking of product properties according to their importance to fulfil
customer requirements. Finally, for each product property exactly one design
element can be defined, whereas dependencies in between elements may apply.
Properties may be specific (e.g. “optical link”) or specific (e.g. “flat screen
display”). The list of all design elements leads to the specification sheet of the
product.
29
There are advantages and disadvantages with the use of QFD. Benefits of QFD
were found to be less project changes, reduction in project time, increased
revenue, reduced complaints and increased customer satisfaction while
difficulties in working with large matrices, interpretation of the customer voice
and identifying the importance of customer demands were found to be frequent
problems of the method (Carnevalli and Miguel 2008: 742).
30
3. METHOD
This research was carried out as a single company case study for Third Element
in Munich, Germany. The proceeding was divided into four steps: First, a data
collection on customer feedback was conducted within the case company in
order to assess the needs of their customers. Second, a preliminary design was
made and presented to the General Manager of Third Element. Third, a midterm review was held, in which the General Manager added his comments and
suggestions to the preliminary design. Last, the author improved and finalized
the design.
3.1. Data collection
The Axiomatic Design process starts with the customer domain which assesses
the needs of customers. In order to familiarize with the needs of Third
Element’s customers, an extensive data collection was conducted within the
company. All data used in this research is secondary data from organisational
records of Third Element. The records comprise notes from trade fairs and
exhibitions, test drive evaluations, emails from retailers and users, internal
evaluations and a survey among retailers conducted by a consultant agency.
The oldest document taken into account was an employee’s note from May 2010
and the newest was a test drive evaluation from November 2013.
Based on this material, a total of 440 customer statements were identified. The
individuals that gave feedback were categorized into three types: “Consumer”
refers to private people that use electric bicycles or have an interest in those.
“Business” customers are mostly bicycle retailers. “Internal” means that the
feedback was either given by an employee of Third Element or the result of an
in-house evaluation. The majority of 161 customer statements originated from
consumers, followed by 142 statements of business customers. 65 statements
came from inside the company. With 72 statements it was not possible to
identify from whom they originally came from and therefore the feedback
provider was marked as “unknown”.
31
Customer Statements according to
Customer Type
Consumer
161
Unknown
72
Internal
65
Business
142
Figure 10. Customer statements according to customer type.
Sorting and processing of the data was done manually. Due to the number of
customer statements, redundancy, and varying impact on decision making, a
‘sort and combine’ approach was taken. This means that statements to the same
topic were sought and if suitable, condensed into a FR or DP as illustrated by
the example given in Figure 11.
Id.
Customer statement
49
“Quite a lot of force needs to
be applied to the brake levers
to generate an acceptable
deceleration.”
62
“The brakes were
sufficient,
although
still
you
could feel that they were
stressed.”
217
FR7: Have sufficient brake force
A brake system that is capable
of providing sufficient brake
power, giving the user a feeling
of control and safety.
“Insufficient brakes.”
Figure 11. Combination of multiple customer statements into one FR.
32
3.2. Design
Based on the 440 customer statements collected and the expertise of the General
Manager, FRs and DPs were formulated. The identifiers (“Id.”) refer to entries
in the list of customer statements which can be found in Appendix I. The
structure of the modules follows the company’s modular framework for electric
bicycles (Third Element: 2012b).
3.2.1. Top-level FRs and DPs
Table 1. Top-level parameters for electric bicycle design.
Index
FR
DP
1
Provide basic structure
Frame assembly
2
Allow movement
Wheelset
3
Drive electrically
Electric drive assembly
4
Drive mechanically
Mechanical drive assembly
5
Interact with user
Human interaction
components
6
Have optional functions
Flexible accessories packages
7
Have sufficient brake force
Quality hydraulic disc brakes
8
Have lighting
Lighting package, frame mount
The design equation is given by
.
( 12 )
33
Explanations:

FR1 / DP1 to FR6 / DP6: These top-level FRs and DPs have to be further
decomposed in the following steps.

FR7 / DP7: Having strong brake force was repeatedly mentioned and
considered to be important, especially in connection with heavier
models (Appendix 1: Id. 49, 62, 217). This calls for a brake system that is
capable of providing sufficient brake power, giving the user a feeling of
control and safety. Hydraulic disc brakes supply better braking
performance than mechanical disc or rim brakes. However, also among
hydraulic disc brakes there are significant differences in performance.
Therefore, only good quality hydraulic disc brakes should be used.

FR8 / DP8: Lighting refers to all components needed for use during
darkness and on public roads such as front light, rear light and
reflectors. This may either be required by customers’ wish or by legal
norms. Mounting to the frame keeps the light package independent from
the mudguards and the carrier.
3.2.2. Decomposition of FR1 and DP1
Table 2. Decomposed parameters for frame design.
Index
FR
DP
11
High stiffness
Rigid aluminium construction
12
Good-looking weld seams
Quality welding supplier
13
Frame shock absorption
Suspension front fork
14
Unique design
Double top-tube
15
Easy to clean
Wet paint
34
The design equation is given by
.
( 13 )
Explanations:

FR11 / DP11: Previous models had been criticized for low rigidity of the
rear end and little ground clearance (Appendix 1: Id. 125, 126, 129).
Although these complaints were already taken into concern with the
development of newer models, the issue remains important and is thus
articulated as an FR. The proposed solution is an aluminium
construction that does not bend even under high loads.

FR12 / DP12: Frames of current models seem to have room for
improvement in terms of weld seam quality (Appendix 1: Id. 70, 316).
This may be addressed by choosing welding services providers with
higher quality standards than previous suppliers.

FR13 / DP13: Latest models received criticism due to little comfort caused
by the front fork (Appendix 1: Id. 50). Therefore, it is proposed to use a
front fork that allows reasonable amount of travel while not yet reaching
into high-level segments designed for heavy mountain biking purposes.
Even entry-level forks, such as the 30 Gold TK by SRAM, offer good
quality at a reasonable price (SRAM 2014).

FR14 / DP14: Existing models have received generally positive reviews for
their exterior design and overall appearance (Appendix 1: Id. 41, 108,
176, 189). According to an internal analysis, it is mainly due to the
unique frame geometry that Third Element can differentiate to
competitors (Appendix 1: Id. 254), while the most significant element of
this geometry is the design feature of having two parallel top tubes
instead of one single tube (Third Element 2014d).
35

FR15 / DP15: The matt paint of newer generation frames was questioned in
terms of dust-sensitivity and ease to clean (Appendix 1: Id. 67). In
contrast, a wet-paint has a glossy surface which is not sensitive to dust
and does not require much effort to clean.
3.2.3. Decomposition of FR2 and DP2
Table 3. Decomposed parameters for wheels design.
Index
FR
DP
21
High tyre shock absorption
Large diameter tyres
22
Low rolling resistance
Low friction profile
The design equation is given by
.
( 14 )
Explanations:

FR21 / DP21: Also referring to complaints about riding comfort (Appendix
1: Id. 50, 200), the tyres were taken into concern as well. Since the
diameter of a tyre defines its comfort, large diameter tyres have better
shock absorbing qualities than small diameter tyres. For example, the
Schwalbe Big Apple is a tyre specifically designed for comfort (Ralf
Bohle 2014).

FR22 / DP22: Concerning electric driving range and top speed, the rolling
resistance of tyres plays a viable role. An efficient road profile rolls
easier than a rough mountain bike profile.
36
3.2.4. Decomposition of FR3 and DP3
Table 4. Decomposed parameters for electrical drive design.
Index
FR
DP
31
Propulsion
Motor-/gearbox unit with
integrated controller
32
Interaction with electrical
drive
High value display
33
Speed metering
Speed sensor, spoke magnet
based method
34
Innovative charging
Inductive charging system
35
Control of the electric drive
Controller software
36
Assist during walking
Walking assist
37
Good gearshift performance
Gear sensor
38
Sufficient range
Lithium-ion battery
The design equation is given by
.
( 15 )
Explanations:

FR31 / DP31: An electric motor, mechanical transmission and control unit
integrated into the same housing. Using an integrated controller is
consistent with Axiomatic Design because additional parts are
eliminated.

FR32 / DP32: The display types of previous models were criticized for little
functionality, low contrast and overall limited quality compared to the
37
price of the vehicle (Appendix 1: Id. 51, 68, 85, 153). In general,
monochromatic, small sized and little functionality displays indicate low
value while colour, large size and high functionality indicate high value.
Since the display is the main interface in between the machine and the
user, it has to be appealing. Being aware of these issues Third Element
has introduced the new “AF-Type” display with their latest models
which offers additional features, such as a graphical interface, USB
charging connector, pulse detection and cadence (Appendix 1: 268).

FR33 / DP33: Speed metering provides important data for other functions.
Besides that, this function is required due to legal reasons (The European
Parliament and the Council of the European Union 2002). While there
are differing technical solutions, in this design the use of a sensor is
proposed which measures the spin of a wheel by magnetic force. This
decision is discussed in detail in 3.3.

FR34 / DP34: Charging the battery has to function without problems such
as charging errors (Appendix 1: Id. 419). In addition to that, there seems
to be a demand for a greater variety of charging methods, such as fast
charging and plugless charging (Appendix 1: Id. 421, 422). As one of the
main characteristics of this design, the use of an inductive charging
system is proposed. This solution has the advantages to be reliable, easy
to use and can be considered as innovative. In 2012, a concept for an
electric bicycle application of this technology was developed by the
German automation company SEW (SEW-EURODRIVE 2012).

FR35 / DP35: The controller software controls all electrical functions of the
electric drive.

FR36 / DP36: A function to use part of the electric drive power to assist the
user while moving the vehicle by hand, for example on a steep hill.

FR37 / DP37: Customers repeatedly reported to have difficulty with
shifting gears while the drive is delivering power (Appendix 1: Id. 48,
193, 196, 199, 332). To avoid these difficulties, it is proposed to use a
sensor which links the gearshift of the mechanical drive to the electric
38
drive. This allows automatic coordination of gearshift and power
supply, which results in better performance of the electric bicycle. At the
time of this study, gear sensors were still under development. A
prototype was built by the Czech company Agentura repro (2014).

FR38 / DP38: Operating range was generally considered too low, especially
under heavy-load operations such as mountain biking (Appendix 1: Id.
59, 65, 150, 152, 354, 361). In addition to that, retailers stated in an
interview conducted in April 2011 that battery capacity would be the
most important feature of an electric drive (no. 407). At the time of this
study, lithium-ion batteries were the only solution capable of addressing
these high expectations.
FR32 and DP32 may be further decomposed as:
Table 5. Third level display design.
Index
FR
DP
321
Good usability
Graphical user interface (GUI)
322
High contrast
High contrast screen
323
Sufficient functionality
3 drive modes
The design equation is given by
.
( 16 )
Explanations:

FR321 / DP321: GUIs have become standard for premium electric bicycles
and should therefore not to be missed in this design proposal.

FR322 / DP322: Customers gave negative feedback on the visibility of
information, asking for displays with high contrast (Appendix 1: Id. 51).
39

FR323 / DP323: ‘Sufficient’ means that the display functionality should
serve customers’ needs while not being complicated and overloaded
(Appendix 1: Id. 271, 423). Customers suggested that three operating
modes would be more sufficient than ten, and that the modes should
have names alike “max Range”, “eco” and “performance” rather than
numbers (Appendix 1: Id. 325, 357, 372).
FR36 and DP36 may be further decomposed as:
Table 6. Third level walking assist design.
Index
FR
DP
361
Software function
5 km/h limiter software
module
362
User interface
On/off button
The design equation is given by
.
( 17 )
Explanations:

FR361 / DP361: Adds the walking assist function to the controller software.
If the walking assist was not limited to a maximum of 5 km/h, the
vehicle would become subject to the regulations of 2002/24/EC, which
has to be avoided if possible (The European Parliament and the Council
of the European Union 2002).

FR362 / DP362: Enables the user a control of the function. To be realised
separately or integrated into the display. Following Axiomatic Design
principles, the proposed design shows the separate solution causing less
dependency than the integrated solution.
40
3.2.5. Decomposition of FR4 and DP4
Table 7. Decomposed parameters for mechanical drive design.
Index
FR
DP
41
Gearshift
Derailleur gears
42
Compatibility with electric
drive
Single speed crankset
The design equation is given by
.
( 18 )
Explanations:

FR41 / DP41: Derailleur gears have the advantage of being less expensive
than other types of gears but the disadvantage that they usually do not
function properly when used in electric bicycles. However, this design
compensates the negative effect of derailleur gears by using a gear
sensor (DP37).

FR42 / DP42: A single speed crankset is required because motor-/gearbox
units are not compatible with double or triple speed cranksets.
3.2.6. Decomposition of FR5 and DP5
Table 8. Decomposed parameters for human interface design.
Index
FR
DP
51
Saddle shock absorption
Comfortable saddle
52
Steering control
Quality grips
41
The design equation is given by
.
( 19 )
Explanations:

FR51 / DP51: Latest models received criticism for lack of comfort due to
hard saddles (Appendix 1: Id. 200). It is suggested to use a saddle that
provides at least a basic level of comfort, while not being clumsy. For
example, Selle Italia’s X1 saddles offer a compromise in between comfort
and sportiness for an entry-level price (Selle Italia: 2014).

FR52 / DP52: Customers of latest models asked for handlebars with good
quality grips (Appendix 1: Id. 227). Therefore more attention has to be
paid to the quality of grips for future models.
3.2.7. Decomposition of FR6 and DP6
Table 9. Decomposed parameters for accessories design.
Index
FR
DP
61
Protection from dirt
Quality mudguards without
reflector mount
62
Protection from oil and grease
Quality chain protection
63
Goods transport capability
Carrier without light mount
64
Multi-media functions
Mobile phone interface
The design equation is given by
.
( 20 )
42
Explanations:

FR61 / DP61: Some of Third Element’s bicycles are equipped with
mudguards. These parts have been repeatedly criticized to create
vibration, friction or dangling noises during operation (Appendix 1: Id.
251, 327, 328). Due to this criticism, it is important that accessory parts
are of good quality. In addition to that, the mudguards should come
without a reflector mount, which makes them independent from the
lighting package.

FR62 / DP62: A chain protection is a plastic cover that protects the user
from oil and grease of the chain. This part can increase customer
satisfaction with relatively little effort and should therefore be available
as an option (Appendix 1: 376).

FR63 / DP63: Without a light mount, the carrier is independent from the
lighting package.

FR64 / DP64: A great variety of wishes exist which relate to mobile phone
and GPS interfaces as well as more multi-media related functions in
general (Appendix 1: Id. 354, 358, 363, 374, 426). To satisfy these
requests, the General Manager (2014a) named the Bluetooth Low Energy
Standard as a suitable technology. Examples of electric bicycles with
Bluetooth functionalities can be found with the Neo models by BH Easy
Motion (Electric Cyclery 2014).
43
3.2.8. Constraints
Table 10. Constraints table.
Index
Constraint
Impacts FR
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
Cost
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
Weight
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
Creates fun
-
-
-
-
-
4
Easy to use
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
Legal requirements
-
-
-
-
-
-
Description of Constraints:

C1: Price was generally considered too high, or at least at the upper price
level of the respective vehicle type (Appendix 1: Id. 32, 148, 391).
Therefore, material and labour cost have to be monitored carefully. Suh
(2001: 21) suggests treating costs as a constraint rather than a FR, because
costs are affected by all design decisions and, thus, cannot be
independent from other FRs.

C2: Weight was generally considered too high across all products and
customer types (Appendix 1: Id. 127, 128, 204, 206, 213, 215). One
business customer even demanded for “less weight and greater driving
range at the same time” (Appendix 1: Id. 430).

C3: There is a large amount of statements on the subjective perception of
users when operating Third Element electric bicycles. Customers would
like to have good support from the electric drive in every operating
situation, such as uphill, downhill or on flat land (Appendix 1: Id. 24,
169, 171). Concerning the question on how “good support” can be
defined in more detail, there is a great variety of possible answers. While
some appreciate high electric power in particular (Appendix 1: Id. 98,
143, 177), others describe their positive riding experiences independent
from the rated output of their bicycles, for example “smooth” or “agile”
behaviour (Appendix 1: Id. 83, 166). Independent from the specific
44
model used, customers seek for “fun” (Appendix 1: Id. 136, 188, 382,
396).

C4: In the same manner as with C3, there is a large number of statements
on the factor how difficult it is to operate the electric bicycle, wishing for
easy solutions (Appendix 1: Id. 175, 179, 183, 188, 190, 310). While this is
not astonishing, the realization of this wish is complex, because ease of
use depends on a great variety of functions in different use cases. By
suggesting this constraint, an underlying element is created to all design
decisions that affect ease of use.

C5: Customer feedback on legal requirements is contradicting.
Customers appreciate to have little legal requirements and oppose the
idea of having to have insurance or wearing a helmet (Appendix 1: Id.
394 403, 404). However, there is a number of customers that dislike the
electrical assist to be limited to a top speed of 25km/h (no. 87, 88) and
some even oppose the limit of 45km/h as well (Appendix 1: Id. 29, 30).
At the same time, customers that have a bicycle with 45km/h limitation,
ask for a “pedelec function” to switch in between faster and slower
operation modes (Appendix 1: Id. 117, 124, 131). If the assist is not
limited to a maximum of 25km/h, the vehicle should have an approval
and has to be equipped with all components required for operation on
public roads, such as a license plate holder (Appendix 1: Id. 23, 235, 367).
3.2.9. Design matrix
Mapping in between the functional domain and the physical domain was done
according to formula ( 1 ), resulting in the design matrix shown in Figure 12.
The layout of the design matrix used in this research is a combination of the
matrices used by Carnevalli et al. (2010: 6) as well as Suh (2001: 282-283). The
FRs, as formulated in the previous sections, can be found in rows while the DPs
are shown in columns. An “X” at the intersection of a FR and a DP indicates
dependence in between both elements, while an empty cell means that there is
no dependence. Cells on the diagonal are highlighted in grey, making it easier
to see that the result is a LT matrix which corresponds to a decoupled design as
described in ( 4 ). Thus, the design is not coupled but there are inter-
45
dependencies. For example, FR21 (high tyre shock absorption) is not only
affected by DP21 (large diameter tyres) but also by DP11 (rigid frame
construction) and DP13 (suspension front fork), because frame and fork
dimension have to fit together with tyre dimensions.
DPs
1
2
1 2 3 4 5 1 2 1
1
2
1 3
4
5
1
2
2
1
FRs
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
2 2
3
3
4
5
1
6
2
7
8
1
2
1
2
1
2
3
4
3
4
5
6
7 8
2
3 4 5
6
7 8 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 4
1 2 3
1 2
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x x
x
x
x
x
x x x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Figure 12. Design Matrix.
3.2.10. Suggestions for PVs

PVs for DP12 (quality welding supplier) may comprise values related to
the welding process such as welding method, type of filler material and
degrees of freedom during the welding process (Weman 2012 :210).
46

DP14 (wet-paint) may be further defined by variables relevant to the
tasks done in the paint shop, for example the number of layers applied.

DP21 (large diameter tyres) and DP22 (low friction profile) may result
either from automated or manual (‘hand-made’) tyre manufacturing
processes.

Since DP6 (flexible accessory packages) and all of its sub-components are
optional parts, it is advisable to define inventory control parameters for
the manufacturing process, such as safety stock to meet fluctuations in
demand (Hopp and Spearman 2011: 73).

With DP7 (quality hydraulic disc brakes) it can be relevant to choose
either manufacturing in Germany or manufacturing in other parts of the
world.
3.2.11. Example of calculating the information content
With FR13 (suspension front fork) the requirement for a “reasonable amount of
travel” (cf. 3.2.2) was discussed. With this wording, it should be questioned
what is ‘reasonable’ and how can the requirement be quantified? The solution
can be found in the calculation of the information content.
Assumed that the majority of customers considers a travel of up to 100 mm as
reasonable, the system range for this FR is 0-100 mm. Further it is assumed that
Third Element wanted to investigate two design options: Fork 1 with 80 mm
maximum travel and fork 2 with 100 mm maximum travel.
In case of fork 1 the design range overlaps with the system range by 80 %,
which means that the possibility P13 (Fork 1) to meet the requirement is 0.8. Using
formula ( 7 ), the information content of FR13 equals to
.
( 21 )
47
In case of fork 2, P13 (Fork 2) = 1 and the information content is
.
( 22 )
Thus, the information content of fork 1 is higher than that of fork 2, the latter
should be become part of the design if this would not violate any constraints.
Calculations of this kind should be done for each element of a design, and the
overall information content of the design as a whole should be calculated as
well.
3.3. Remarks on the design process
The design presented in the previous section was not achieved at once, it is the
result of a process of re-design cycles. In the first step, FR and DP hierarchies
had to be made consistent, otherwise there would have been insufficient DPs or
a redundant design. This was achieved through combination, decomposition
and zigzagging in between FRs and DPs. Next, a first attempt was made to map
in between domains, resulting in a coupled design matrix which can be found
in Appendix 2. This matrix was presented to the General Manager of Third
Element during the mid-term review and analysed according to two aspects:
Improving design quality by adding or removing dependencies in between FRs
and DPs as well as resolving coupling issues. Consequently a more detailed and
rearranged design was created, which finally lead to the solution presented in
Figure 12.
Coupling was found and resolved with the components connected to FR22 (low
rolling resistance), FR33 (speed metering), FR35 (control of the electric drive) and
FR8 (have lighting).
The wheelset had to be moved up in the hierarchy due to coupling caused by
one of its sub-components, the tyres. While tyres serve their main purpose of
letting the vehicle roll, they also interfere with other functional requirements
48
such as riding comfort and driving range. The latter created coupling in the first
design matrix and therefore wheels and tyres were moved up in the hierarchy
above the electric powertrain.
Speed sensors may depend either on the rear brake disc or a spoke magnet
attached to the rear wheel. The disc dependent solution has the advantage that
it does not require any additional parts such as magnets. However, the speed
can only be measured correctly if the brake disc is designed in a way that its
support stays form a fully symmetrical pattern. This is not the case with every
brake disc on the market and, thus, the speed detection function has an
influence on the choice of the braking system, which creates coupling. Other
systems use a speed sensor that measures the spin of the rear wheel using an
additional magnet attached to one of the spokes (Figure 13). This solution has
the disadvantage that it requires more parts compared to the disc-based
detection method, but the advantage of keeping braking functionality and
speed metering functionality independent from each other. Following Corollary
3, the proposed design employs the spoke magnet based method, since it is
more important to avoid coupling than reducing parts.
Brake disc
Spoke
Sensor
Sensor
Figure 13. Speed detection systems. Left: Brake disc dependent system; Right:
Spoke magnet dependent system. (Third Element 2014e, Third Element 2014f)
49
Prior to this study, the controller software was considered to be one part among
many. Despite being the only non-physical part of the electric powertrain, the
controller software
motor/gearbox unit
electric powertrain
rearranged. As the
came in line with other components, such as the
and the battery. Since this created coupling in between
functions, it became evident that functions had to be
solution, the controller software was moved up in the
hierarchy to resolve coupling. This implies that more attention should be given
to controller software in future, since it is the software that makes all physical
parts of the electric powertrain function together. Considering that bicycle
industry is predominantly oriented in mechanical engineering, this might be
challenging.
Lights and reflectors interfered with accessory parts, especially in the rear of the
vehicle. The red rear light and reflectors may be mounted to the rear mud flap,
to the carrier, or both of them. This results in a group of components highly
dependent on each other, adding complexity to the design and leaving little
choice for both designers and customers. Therefore, it is proposed to change the
physical arrangement of parts in a way that three independent groups of
components are created: Lighting package, mud flaps accessory package and
carrier accessory package, whereas lights and reflectors mounting is done
directly to the bicycle frame instead of mounting to the accessories (Figure 14).
This ensures both physical and functional independence while still meeting
legal requirements. Compatible rear lights and reflectors already exist on the
market and may be supplied by Trelock (2014) and Busch & Müller (2014).
Moreover, it is suggested to make these packages separately available for
purchase, giving customers the possibility to choose freely in between packages
when ordering their electric bicycle, thus increasing customization and adding
flexibility to pricing and weight.
50
B
A
B
Figure 14. Mounting of the rear light. A: Mounting to the accessories; B:
Proposed mounting to the frame. (Third Element 2014b)
51
4. RESULTS
4.1. The Axiomatic Design based Third Element electric bicycle
Figure 15. Proposed concept.(Agentura repro 2014, Ralf Bohle 2014, Electric
Cyclery 2014, Selle Italia 2014, SEW-EURODRIVE 2012, SRAM 2014, Third
Element 2012a, Third Element 2014d, Trelock 2014)
52
A concept for a novel electric bicycle was created that is defined by the
following main characteristics:

An uniquely shaped frame which clearly distinguishes the vehicle from
competitor’s products,

a combination of an effective front suspension, comfortable saddle and
shock absorbing tyres which provides riding comfort, even though the
frame is a rigid construction,

a gear sensor which makes shifting of gears easily possible even under
load conditions, turning a major weakness of electric bicycles into an
advantage,

reduced complexity and the possibility for increased customization by a
fully modular arrangement of components and component groups,
especially concerning the speed detection system and accessories,

an innovative and reliable charging system which makes charging of the
battery easy and convenient and,

additional multi-media functions for better human-machine interaction,
thereby improving key functionalities such as driving range as well.
The proposed concept further comprises a rigid frame which ensures stability
and gives the user a feeling of control and safety, a graphical display providing
exactly defined functionality, a speed sensor without interdependencies to
other component groups, and intelligent controller software which further
improves a variety of performance factors.
Overall, the Axiomatic Design based electric bicycle pleases the user with a
number of functions that make operation easy and full of pleasure, while still
meeting legal requirements and keeping price and weight within reasonable
limits. All characteristics are based on original customer feedback as well as
professional expertise. The technical realization exhibits reduced dependencies
and complexity.
53
4.2. Opportunities and limitations of Axiomatic Design with this case
All in all, Axiomatic Design showed to be of advantage to electric bicycle
development at Third Element.
The application of Axiomatic Design to the case of Third Element’s electric
bicycle development showed to have substantial opportunities. In his feedback
on the results of this study, Third Element’s General Manager (2014b) pointed
out that “Axiomatic Design helps to analyse the capabilities and visualizes the
dependencies of the single components” and that “many mistakes can be
shown at an early stadium, so time can be saved without getting these results
too late in a more advanced stage”. He added that fewer mistakes will be done
and problematic dependencies can be avoided, especially when teams work
together at different departments. Further the General Manger agreed with the
starting point of the process, which is user feedback, or – in case of products or
components that are completely new to the market – a mix of personal
experience, market research, or pilot studies. (General Manager, Third Element
(2014b.)
Limitations with the application of Axiomatic Design to this case exist, but are
minor in their impact and can be dealt with. One limitation may be seen in the
workload that comes with the quantitative assessment of the Information
Axiom, which appears to be a well-known problem in research on complexity.
Already in the 1990s, Calinescu, Efstathiou, Schirn and Bermejo (1998: 724)
warned that the task of measuring complexity is time-consuming, requires a lot
of involvement and might not be carried out thoroughly. Therefore, an exact
calculation of the information content might exceed the resources of small
companies like Third Element. As a work-around, the Information Axiom could
be assessed in a qualitative way, as done by the author. Another difficulty
comes with mapping from the customer domain to the functional domain,
which will be dealt with in more detail in the discussion section.
54
5. DISCUSSION
5.1. Mapping from CAs to FRs
In the end of the results section, it was stated that difficulties occurred with
mapping from the customer domain to the functional domain. The underlying
reasons for this may be found in the possibly problematic nature of customer
statements (cf. 2.5.7). In fact, the list of customer statements created for this
research comes close to a MRS, including the difficulties that were assumed to
come with it. There are some suggestions within Axiomatic Design theory on
how to deal with these challenges, however there seems to be no as detailed
mapping process with the customer domain as it is with other domains. This
has generated many degrees of freedom for the case company manager and the
author when formulating FRs, bearing the risk of misrepresenting customer
statements due to human error. As a consequence, it may be necessary to
extend the theoretical framework for this case. If it was possible to supplement
Axiomatic Design with one or more methods from marketing or quality
research, an even more analytical approach could be established that guides
through the whole product development process without any lack of detail
from start to finish.
5.2. Coupling
Although coupling issues had to be resolved and the final design did not result
in an uncoupled but a decoupled matrix, the amount of coupling was not as
extensive as could have been expected. The reason for this might lie in the
organizational framework of bicycle production which clearly distinguishes in
between OEMs and component manufacturers with own areas of responsibility.
However, as the coupling problem in between some speed detection systems
and brake systems has shown, there is still room for interference in between
component groups. This especially applies to electric bicycles which have
components that are new to bicycle industry. Therefore it is important indeed to
55
be in control of functional and physical dependencies by paying attention to
principles such as the Independence Axiom of Axiomatic Design.
5.3. Suggestions to keep the information content low
In the past, the case company has tried to address C3 (creates fun) by equipping
their vehicles with very powerful electric powertrains. This made it very
difficult not to violate C1 (price) and C2 (weight), because more power usually
came along with more expensive and heavier powertrain components,
especially regarding the batteries. If due to the powerful powertrain the vehicle
becomes a scooter style electric bike and regulations of 2002/24/EC apply,
additional parts have to be added which increases the difficulty of meeting C1
and C2 even more. Therefore, it is suggested to create fun by other means than
superior power and stay within bicycle regulations whenever possible. This will
reduce complexity and make it easier to meet price and weight goals.
How can the demand for “fun” be addressed by other means than brutally
strong, motorbike-standard powertrains? In fact many customers demanded for
a powerful electric motor and it is also true that a powertrain which meets
bicycle standards is weaker than a motorbike powertrain. However, it does not
have to appear like that to the user. By using intelligent motor-control and startup procedures, the electric propulsion can subjectively appear strong even at a
250 W power rating. Other measures may comprise improved gearshift
performance, frame rigidness, drive modes and multi-media functions. In their
sum, such measures may make a vehicle with a less powerful motor as
appealing as a stronger one, and thereby enable electric bicycle OEMs to satisfy
“fun” seeking customers while still operating within bicycle standards.
Especially with gearshift performance there is much room for future
innovation. Customer feedback has shown that gearshift performance has a
viable impact on the operation of electric bicycles, within the past often in a
negative way. Cracking sounds, the impossibility to shift when going uphill
and even damage to the drive led to disappointment of users. Resolving these
issues can not only cure a weak spot of electric bicycles, moreover it has the
56
potential to add up to the often sought „fun“ and „easy to use“ factors if
addressed correctly. Possibilities are the use of internal gears that are more
tolerant to shifting under load such as the NuVinci models, the direct linkage of
gearshift and electric powertrain by a gear sensor, or the programming of more
intelligent controller software to indirectly anticipate gearshifts and regulate
electric assistance accordingly. At the time of this study, the gear sensor seemed
to be the most promising option due to its availability, cost and newness to the
market.
Another suggestion to reduce price and weight is to increase customization.
Third Element can offer a basic vehicle that comes with a standard capacity
battery and without any accessories. This reduces the number of parts and
lowers complexity, thus lowering price and weight. In addition, a price level is
established which makes Third Element’s products accessible to customers with
a comparably low spending level. Customers with comparably high spending
level still have the possibility to purchase a high capacity battery or additional
accessory packages to adapt the product according to their own needs and
wishes. The practical implementation of this suggestion seems feasible due to
the capabilities of Axiomatic Design and the Third Element’s organizational
structure. Axiomatic Design facilitates this approach by making it easy to add
or remove components of a design by carefully paying attention to coupling.
Third Element as a small company is much more flexible than mass-producers,
thus having the possibility to supply customized products and gaining
competitive advantage towards other OEMs with less flexible productions
systems.
Finally it was learned that increasing battery capacity in order to extend driving
range should be the least measure to undertake. In the past, much focus was on
battery capacity when it came to driving range. Although the technical linkage
in between these two factors is undeniable, there are other factors that influence
driving range as well and should be taken into concern more carefully in future.
Weight, top-speed, acceleration capability, controller software, gear shift, assist
modes and tyre friction are just few among many factors to mention that can
contribute negatively or positively to driving range and should receive more
careful attention in the future. This can be done by easy measure, such as the
choice of light rolling tyres, or far-reaching measures such as intelligent drive
57
modes which automatically adapt assist ratio to the individual driving
behaviour of users.
5.4. Limitations of this study
It should be noted that this research has examined only specific challenges and
components affected by those challenges, which were of importance to the case
company at the time the study was conducted. The design application does not
follow a holistic approach towards the design of an electric bicycle, lacking
functions such as steering. If a complete vehicle was designed based on this
study, further research would have to be undertaken to finalize the design. The
same applies to the Information Axiom, which could have been qualitatively
assessed in more than one example. Further the extent to which Axiomatic
Design theory was discussed was also limited, for example by leaving out
aspects on the robustness of designs.
58
6. CONCLUSION
The collection and review of 440 individual customer statements marked the
starting point for this case study. Based on the dataset, Axiomatic Design was
applied to electric bicycle development at Third Element. This comprised the
definition of FRs and DPs, their analytical mapping in order to create the design
matrix, the formulation of PVs and constraints, as well as the discussion of the
information content. As the result, a novel electric bicycle concept was
presented.
Concerning the question on how an Axiomatic Design based electric bicycle is
specified, it can be answered that a vehicle design following this approach is
defined by six main characteristics organised in a decoupled design with
reduced complexity. The main characteristics comprise a uniquely shaped
frame which distinguishes the vehicle from competitor’s products, while a
combination of comfort elements ensure pleasant riding capabilities. Further
the use of a gearshift sensor and the possibility for an inductive charging
system are innovative features which pave the way to the future. In addition to
that, flexible accessory packages and additional multi-media functions broaden
the customer base and contribute to better human-machine interaction. The
Independence Axiom is taken into account by a fully modular arrangement of
components, leading to the additional benefit of numerous possibilities for
customization. The Independence Axiom has also helped to resolve existing
and future coupling problems. The qualitative use of the Information Axiom
has led to reduced overall complexity.
The question on the opportunities and limitations of Axiomatic Design with this
case was addressed by the collection of feedback from the case company as well
as the critical reflection of the design process. It can be concluded that
Axiomatic Design bears substantial advantages to electric bicycle development,
especially towards two aspects: First, Axiomatic Design helps to translate
customer requirements into product specifications by providing an allencompassing design framework. Second, analytical methods within this
framework visualize dependencies in between components of the design. Both
aspects together support designers in creating products that meet customer
59
expectations better and require less rework during the development process.
Difficulties occurred with the processing of customer statements and the
quantitative application of the Information Axiom. With customer statements it
was challenging to manually translate them into FRs due to their large number.
The quantitative assessment of the information axiom was difficult to realize
due to the in-depth system knowledge required on the one hand, and limited
resources on the other hand.
In the larger context, the Axiomatic Design approach taken in this study may
lead to generally increased problem awareness in the early phases of electric
bicycle development projects. The method was proven to be practical enough
for application in a real world context, and tools like the design matrix give
product designers the possibility to detect potential issues earlier in the design
process than usual. Especially with small and medium size companies, this
ability is crucial for success.
Taking into account the challenges identified with mapping from the customer
domain to the functional domain, future research may investigate how to
combine Axiomatic Design with methods that enable effective processing of
large amounts of customer data. If this was possible, the result would
contribute towards an even broader framework for analytical product and
service design.
60
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Xiao, Denghong, Liu, Xiandong, Du, Wenhua, Wang, Junyuan, He, Tian (2012).
Application of topology optimization to design an electric bicycle main frame.
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization. [online] 46:6 [cited 25 March 2014],
913-929. Available from Internet: <URL: http://link.springer.com.proxy.
tritonia.fi/article/10.1007/s00158-012-0803-7/>.
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Feb
2014].
Available
from
Internet:
<URL:
http://www.zivzweirad.de/newsdossiers.html>.
66
APPENDIX 1. Complete list of customer statements
Table 11. Complete list of customer statements.
Id.
Source
Vehicle or
Component
Date
Customer
Type
Feedback
1
Physical folder
"Messen 3E 2012"
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.12
Business
"In Australien sind max. 200W
erlaubt"
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.12
Business
"Interesse an Flottenlösungen"
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"Interesse an Pedelec 25km/h. Mit
Batterie im Oberrohr."
4
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"E-Bike laden, interessieren sich für
45 km/h Version"
5
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"Zu teuer!"
6
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"Zweifelt am Preis."
7
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"Möchte 45 km/h"
8
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"Sucht Mofa-/Mopedklassebikes für
Benelux"
9
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
10
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"Speedversion gefragt. Preislevel
muss besser sein. Von Optik
angetan."
"Nicht uninteressiert (an E-Bikes)"
11
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"Kein Interesse."
12
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"Ist begeistert."
13
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"Kein Interesse an E-Bikes"
14
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"Aus Prinzip keine E-Bikes"
15
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"Zu teuer!"
16
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"Klasse, aber zu teuer. Obergrenze
7000-7500"
17
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"Hat Bedenken bez. Preis"
18
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"Zu teuer!"
19
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"Preis!"
20
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"Kein Gasgriff!"
2
3
Physical folder "Sales
- Messekontakte"
67
21
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"Möchte offene Version, weil in
Russland kein Limit besteht"
22
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"Begeistert vom Ansprechverhalten"
23
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
08.11
Business
"Rücklichthalter ohne
Nummernschild"
24
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
09.11
Business
"Guter Anzug, Leichtläufig, Gute
Kurvenlage"
25
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
09.11
Business
"Bordcomputer fehlt, ist Standard
selbst bei billigen E-bikes"
26
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
09.11
Business
"Guter Motoranzug, Abrieglung
sollte nicht so Abrupt sein."
27
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
09.11
Business
"Sucht E-Bike für Funsektor mit
mehr Leistung"
28
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
09.11
Business
"Ist voll begeistert."
29
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
09.11
Business
"Starker Anzug, leider bei 45km/h
begrenzt"
30
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
09.11
Business
31
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
09.11
Business
32
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
09.11
Business
"Gute Optik, Gute
Fahreigenschaften 45kmh, Gewicht
schlecht, Preis schlecht, 3-Gang
Nabe würde genügen, 45kmh sind
noch zu wenig."
"Fahrspaß pur, durch Mittelmotor
starker Verzug der Schwinge, tolle
Optik."
"E-Spire Comp UVP2-3k€"
33
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
09.11
Business
34
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
09.11
Business
35
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
09.11
Business
(+) Kompatibel mit Parts, (+) Power
Beschleunigung, (+) Design, (-) Preis
36
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
09.11
Business
37
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
09.11
Business
(-) unstabil bei schnellen
Lastwechseln, (-) vibrieren
Vorderrad bei hoher Geschw.
"Display muss sein, Akku
frostgefährdet?"
(-) Hinterbau hat
Lastwechselreaktionen, (-) zu
schwer, (-) zu teuer, (+) hohes
Drehmoment, (++) hoher Fahrspaß
(+) Antriebsstark, (+) Treten
Nebensache, (-) Verwindung EAntrieb hinten (Dämpfer)
38
Physical folder
"Messen - Motorrad,
Fahrrad, Freizeit"
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
09.11
Business
"E-Spire als Promo für Tankstellen."
39
Phsical folder "Presse
Leads"
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
05.10
Business
"Design super"
68
40
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
05.10
Business
"Eigene E-Spire Helme denkbar."
41
eSpire / eSpire
Comp
05.10
Business
"Schönstes Bike hier, Preis unter
5k€, kein Nummernschild."
Overall
07.13
Consumer
43
Usage
07.13
Consumer
44
Motor
07.13
Consumer
"Sportliches Pedelec, besonders hart
und unkomfortabel. Der Motor
schafft auch lange Steigungen, ohne
merklich nachzulassen. Nur mit
kleinen 26-Zoll-Reifen erhältlich.
Passable Bremsen."
(+) "Handliches Fahrrad mit 26-Zoll
Rädern. Die Kette ist vollständig
verkleidet, so gibt es keine
eingeölten Hosen. Vorderradgabel
wackelt leicht."
(+) "Der Motor hat eine Anfahrhilfe,
bei der das Fahrrad sofort
Geschwindigkeit aufnimmt. Die ist
auch beim Bergaufschieben des 24
kg schweren Fahrrades angenehm."
45
Motor
07.13
Consumer
(+) "Zieht kräftig an, der eingelegte
Gang muss dabei zur
Geländesituation passen (8 Gänge)."
46
Motor
07.13
Consumer
(-) "Das Treten wird über 25 km/h
recht schwer."
47
Transmission
07.13
Consumer
48
Transmission
07.13
Consumer
Brakes
07.13
Consumer
Comfort
07.13
Consumer
(+) "Die acht Gänge der
Nabenschaltung sind gut übersetzt
und in der Anzahl völlig
ausreichend für die maximal
erlaubten motorunterstützten 25
km/h."
(0) "Die Nabenschaltung benötigt
beim Wechseln der Übersetzung
eine kurze Trittunterbrechung,
sonst rasten die Gänge nicht ein.
Deshalb sollte sich der Radler
bereits vor dem Erklimmen eines
Berges für den geeigneten Gang
entscheiden."
(-) "Die Bremsen benötigen
ordentlich Kraft an den Hebeln, um
für passable Verzögerung zu
sorgen."
(--)"Extrem unkomfortabel, der
Radler springt und hüpft auf
schlechter Straße über die
Unebenheiten, sitzt dabei auf einem
eisenharten Sattel. Die
Vorderradfederung zeigt keine
erkennbare Wirkung."
42
49
50
Test drive evaluation
"Pure 25 1"
Test drive evaluation
"Pure 25 2"
69
51
Interface
07.13
Consumer
52
Carrying
07.13
Consumer
53
Sound
07.13
Consumer
(+) "Das dezente Motorsummen
stört kaum."
Trail 40
11.13
Consumer
(+) "Das Bike liegt satt und straff auf
der Straße und vermittelt einem ein
sicheres Fahrgefühl"
55
Trail 40
11.13
Consumer
(+) "Das Bike fühlt sich
grundsätzlich sportlich und agil an,
im durchschnittlichen Gelände…"
56
Trail 40
11.13
Consumer
(+) "Die Bremsen sind stark genug
das schnelle und doch schwere Bike
zu zügeln"
57
Trail 40
11.13
Consumer
58
Trail 40
11.13
Consumer
(+) "Das Bike ist gefühlt
'rattenschnell'"
"Die Möglichkeit richtig selbst zu
bestimmen wie viel ich mitwirkte
(also selbst mit Treten beisteure) hat
für mich nicht optimal funktioniert,
d.h. wenn ich nicht trete verliere ich
an Speed, wenn ich trete dann geht
das Bike ab wie ne Rakete…"
59
Trail 40
11.13
Consumer
(-) "Der Akku ist viel, viel, viel zu
schnell leer (gefühlt bei guter Last,
ca. 20 Km), das ist unakzeptabel."
60
Trail 40
11.13
Consumer
"Übrigens, die Treppen von der
Schlossberghalle auf die
Hauptstraße herunter die hat das
Bike auch gut gemeistert."
Trail 40
11.13
Consumer
(+) "Grundsätzlich hat sich das Bike
noch überall fahren lassen"
62
Trail 40
11.13
Consumer
63
Trail 40
11.13
Consumer
(+) "Die Bremsen waren immer noch
ausreichend gut, obwohl du ihnen
schon die Last (Gefälle,
Eigengewicht, Fahrgewicht)
angemerkt hast."
(-) "Das Bike schiebt bei steilem
Bergabpassagen mit seinen 25 kg
schon gewaltig, d.h. der Fahrer
muss hier sehr sensibel die Bremsen
zwischen vorne und hinten
dosieren, auf Schotterstrecke eine
echte Herausforderung."
54
61
Test drive evaluation
"Trail40 1"
Test drive evaluation
"Trail40 2"
(-) "Etwas umständliche Bedienung,
Display mit wenig Kontrast,
Einstellung mit Sonnenbrille kaum
erkennbar."
(0) "Die oberen Rahmenröhrchen
haben eine recht bequeme Höhe
zum Anheben, die insgesamt 24 kg
Gesamtgewicht sind gut austariert."
70
64
Trail 40
11.13
Consumer
65
Trail 40
11.13
Consumer
66
Trail 40
11.13
Consumer
Pure25
03.13
Business
68
Pure25
03.13
Business
69
Pure25
03.13
Business
70
Pure25
03.13
Business
"Die Schweißnähte sollten feiner
bearbeitet sein."
71
Pure25
03.13
Business
"Das hintere Schutzblech sollte
besser befestigt sein."
72
Pure25
03.13
Business
"Das Kabel des Rücklichts sollte
besser eingearbeitet sein."
73
Pure25
03.13
Business
"Im Wesen sollten alle Bikes mit
12Ah-Batterie kommen."
74
Product: Trail
03.13
Business
"Knick-Bewegung nach Innen beim
Bremsen der Vordergabel (Passung
im Rahmen zu groß?)"
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(+) "Keine Tretkraft und trotzdem
Vollgas möglich"
67
75
Sales feedback
"Feedback Vertrieb
BeNeLux 2013 03"
Trade fair feedback
"Feedback Eurobike
(-) "Bergauf musste ich trotz voller
Unterstützung sehr stark mithelfen,
d.h. für richtig knackige
Bergaufpassagen scheint mir das
Bike ungeeignet, das liegt wohl am
hohen Eigengewicht und aus
meiner Sicht an der
Schaltübersetzung, die ist für solche
Steigungen einfach nicht ausgelegt."
"Der Akku war auch hier sehr
schnell leer, ich musste meine
Isartour von sonst 30 auf 17 Km
abkürzen."
"Eine tolle Erfahrung, ein
interessantes und doch sportliches
eBike, jedoch für meine etwas
hohen Geländeanforderungen nicht
geeignet. Und die Akkulaufzeit
sollte auch bei Volllast doch 40-50
Km reichen."
"Lackierung am besten keine
Pulverbeschichtung da zu sehr
Schmutzempflindlich und nicht
Pflegeleicht. Der Dreck zieht in die
Poren."
"Alle 3E-Produkte sind im hohen
Preissegment (>2000€) und sollten
daher folgende Komponenten
beinhalten bei den Pure
(unabhängig ob 25 oder 45): Großes
Display mit entsprechende Info (das
kleine Display wirkt zu mickrig)
und wenn im Vergleich zu BoschMotoren gearbeitet wird, haben
diese alle das sehr vernünftige
große Bosch-Display."
"…Diebstahlsicherung am
Hinterrahmen (z.B. Abus))"
71
76
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(+) "Starker Anzug des Motors"
77
2011"
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(+) "Durchzugskraft, lineare
Leistung, Fahrspaß"
78
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(+) "Nuvinci super zum
Antriebskonzept (Extra Energy)"
79
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(+) "Konzept nicht schlecht, jeder,
der das Rad fährt."
80
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(+) "Wird es früher oder später
haben wollen (Extra Energy)"
81
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(+) "Anfahren am Berg +10"
82
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(+) "Leistung gut"
83
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(+) Gleichmäßige Beschleunigung"
84
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(+) "Gut zu fahren"
85
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(0) "Display o.k., aber einfach (Extra
Energy)"
86
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(0) "Preis o.k."
87
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(-) "25km/h Begrenzung"
88
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(-) "25km/h Begrenzung"
89
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(-) "Vmax zu gering"
90
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(-) "Tretlagersensor fehlt"
91
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(-) "Hinterbau weich"
92
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(-) "Hinterbau schwammig"
93
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(-) "Hinterbausteifigkeit"
94
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
(-) "Motorgeräusch störend"
95
Pedelec 25
08.11
?
96
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(-) "Zubehör anbieten! Vorbild
smart."
(+) "Gute Leistung"
97
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(+) "Gute Bremsen"
98
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(+) "Brachiale Gewalt"
99
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(+) "Gutes Fahrverhalten"
100
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(+) "Fahrwerkskomfort"
101
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(+) "Fahrspaß"
102
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(+) "Optik"
103
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(+) "Beschleunigung"
104
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(+) "1200W"
105
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(+) "Sehr gutes Fahrgefühl"
106
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(+) "Fährt gut, guter Abzug, Hupe
gut für Leute, die im Weg sind."
107
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(+) "Very cool"
108
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(+) "Power, Spaß, Design"
109
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
110
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
111
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(+) "Gasgriff geht normalerweise
nicht, hier aber sinnvoll (Extra
Energy)"
(+) "Erster Eindruck: Krass, gutes
Ansprechen der ezl. Gänge, Hupe
lustig"
(+) "Gute Bremsen, Drehmoment im
Vgl. mit Benziner gut."
72
112
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(+) "7000 Euro realistischer Preis"
113
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
114
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(+) "Kein Vergleich zu sonstigen
Bikes"
(+) "Für schotteriges Gelände o.k."
115
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(+) "Starker Motor"
116
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(0) "Mehr Motorrad als Fahrrad"
117
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(-) "Keine Pedelecfunktion"
118
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(-) "Schwinge verzieht sich beim
Anfahren"
119
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(-) "Keine kleinen Rahmengrößen
120
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(-) "Wendigkeit"
121
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(-) "Drehmoment"
122
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(-) "Schaltung zu kurz übersetzt"
123
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(-) "Rohloff"
124
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(-) "Pedelecfunktion fehlt"
125
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(-) "Bodenfreiheit"
126
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(-) "Low rigidity of the rear frame"
127
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(-) "Gewicht"
128
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(-) "Zu schwer fürs Gelände"
129
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(-) "Bodenfreiheit"
130
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(-) "Schwingendrehpunkt"
131
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(-) "Keine Pedelecfunktion"
132
eSpire KBA 45
08.11
?
(-) "Nicht für Training geeignet"
133
Not specified
08.11
?
(+) "Aussehen"
134
Not specified
08.11
?
(+) "Anzug/Beschleunigung"
135
Not specified
08.11
?
(+) "Bequemlichkeit"
136
Not specified
08.11
?
(+) "Fun Faktor +++"
137
Not specified
08.11
?
(+) "Handling ++"
138
Not specified
08.11
?
(+) "Bremse +++"
139
Not specified
08.11
?
(+) "Antrieb ++"
140
Not specified
08.11
?
(+) "Feedback wird über 3E Blog
gegeben"
141
Not specified
08.11
?
(+) "Super nettes Personal"
142
Not specified
08.11
?
(+) "Sportive Modelle"
143
Not specified
08.11
?
(+) "Krasse Beschleunigung"
144
Not specified
08.11
?
(+) "Wahnsinns Feeling! : )"
145
Not specified
08.11
?
(-) "Preis"
146
Not specified
08.11
?
(-) "Gewicht"
Pure 25 / Trail
45
01.13
Business
(+) "Handgemachte Rahmen aus
Karlsruhe und auch sonst direkt aus
Deutschland."
147
Sales feedback
"Feedback
Grosshandel 2013 01"
73
148
Pure 25 / Trail
45
01.13
Business
149
Pure 25 / Trail
45
01.13
Business
150
Pure 25 / Trail
45
01.13
Business
151
Pure 25 / Trail
45
03.13
Business
152
Pure 25 / Trail
45
03.13
Business
153
Pure 25 / Trail
45
03.13
Business
154
Pure 25 / Trail
45
03.13
Business
155
Pure 25 / Trail
45
Pure 25 / Trail
45
Pure 25 / Trail
45
Pure 25 / Trail
45
03.13
Business
03.13
Business
03.13
Business
03.13
Business
Pure25
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Design, praktisch, einfach"
Espire
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Looks, Unterstützung"
Espire
04.13
Consumer
162
Espire
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Design, Beeindruckend, MotoLook"
(+) "Fun, Gabel von DH"
163
Espire
04.13
Consumer
156
157
158
159
160
161
Trade fair feedback
"Feedback Messe
HappyBikeDays
Houffalize 2013 04"
(+) "Besonders bei den Händlern
kam das Pure 25 sehr gut an. Mit
3500€ ist es nur 500€ über dem Preis
eines taiwanesischen Rades,
zumindest wenn man was schickes
nimmt. Dennoch dürfen wir uns
nichts vormachen, es ist ein
hochpreisiges Rad. Gerade der
Handel ist da oft sehr
zurückhaltend."
(+) "Neueinsteiger im Handel
wollen meistens vorsichtig
anfangen. Ich empfehle dann das
Pure 25 und das Trail 45 als
Erstbestellung."
"Etwas Sorgen mache ich mir bei
der Reichweite. In der schnellen
Variante dürfte das Rad wohl keine
20 Kilometer weit reichen. Hier
muss man mal testen bzw. Schauen,
ob es andere Akkumodifikationen
gibt."
"MPF Motor nicht bekannt und
„fährt sich nicht so harmonisch wie
ein Bosch“"
"50 km Reichweite ist zu wenig –
zumindest die Angabe -> ist ein
absolutes KO Kriterium"
"Schlechtes Display momentan – zu
wenig Funktionen und
Informationen - brauchen auf den
Vorführern dringend die neuen
Displays"
"Im Moment keine Nuvinci bei den
Pure verbaut"
"Hoher Preis für das was geboten
wird"
"USP vom MPF Motor
herausarbeiten"
"Aktuelle Versionen schnell
hierhaben"
"USP vom Fahrzeug selbst noch
etwas hervorheben"
(+) "Gutes Handling, angemessene
Geschwindigkeit"
74
164
Espire
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Angenehme Erfahrung. Gute
Unterstützung"
165
Espire
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Unglaublicher Power,
angenehme Erfahrung"
166
Espire
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Unterstützung, Agil"
167
Pure25
04.13
Consumer
168
Pure25
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Geniale Unterstützung,
angenehme Fahrerfahrung. Gute
Fahrposition"
(+) "Gute Effizienz, gutes Handling"
169
Pure25
04.13
Consumer
170
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
171
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
172
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
173
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Gute erste Erfahrung mit EBike, gute Geschwindigkeit"
174
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Genial, gute Vorschritt,
angenehme Erfahrung"
175
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
176
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Einfach zu verwenden auch mit
kleine Unterstützung.
Höchstgeschwindigkeit"
(+) "Schönes Design, verschiedene
Unterstützungsmodi, erstaunliche
Gangwechsel"
177
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Kraft, Komfort, Bremsen"
178
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Leichte Unterstützung, gute
Stoßdämpfer"
179
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Unterstützung,
Geschwindigkeit, einfach"
180
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Gute sanfte Schaltung, gute
Unterstützung"
181
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
182
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Gute Unterstützung auf dem
Flachen"
(+) "Motor"
183
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Schnell und einfach ein zu
stellen. Schönes Modell"
184
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
185
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Aufhängung, Design,
Gangwechsel"
(+) "Fun-Bike, gutes Handling"
186
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Unterstützung, fast überall
durchs Gelände, gute Aufhängung"
187
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Effizienz"
188
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Komfort, Einfachheit, Spaß"
189
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
190
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
(+) "Look, Unterstützung auf flache
Bahn"
(+) "Gute Unterstützung, gute
Stoßdämpfer, einfache Bedienung"
(+) "Gute Unterstützung beim flach
fahren"
(+) "Effizienz, Unterstützung"
(+) "Schnell uphill, gute
Übersetzung"
(+) "Leistung, Design, TopGeschwindigkeit"
75
191
Pure25
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Kein off-road"
192
eSpire
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Blockierung"
193
eSpire
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Rohloff Schaltung, Anhalten um
Gänge zu wechseln"
194
eSpire
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Zu wenig Power, schlechte
Schaltung"
195
eSpire
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Keine Regeneration"
196
eSpire
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Schwer schalten"
197
eSpire
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Gewöhnungsbedürftig"
198
eSpire
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Rohloff Schaltung"
199
Pure25
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Nicht sanft treten, Schaltung"
200
Pure25
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Hartes Sattel"
201
Pure25
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Am meisten wird Sport-Modus
verwendet"
202
Pure25
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Unzureichend Berg hoch"
203
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Batterie"
204
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Gewicht, keine Regeneration"
205
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
206
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Ohne Batterie gefallen während
der Fahrt und war dann sehr
schwer"
(-) "Gewicht"
207
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Preis"
208
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Zugänglichkeit und Ausbau der
Batterie, teuer"
209
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Gewicht, Preis"
210
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Bodenfreiheit"
211
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Gewicht Berg hoch"
212
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Keine Unterstützung bei steile
Fahrten"
213
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Gewicht"
214
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Langsam beim anfahren,
schwer, kein Display"
215
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
216
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
(-) "5 bis 10 kg zu schwer, fehlt
lockout für den hinteren
Stoßdämpfer"
(-) "Nicht ausreichend berghoch"
217
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Gewicht, Bremsen"
218
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Schwer, keine Unterstützung
Berg hoch"
219
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
(-) "Gewicht"
220
Pure25
04.13
Consumer
''Gut entwickelt''
221
Trail 40
04.13
Consumer
''Bremsen umgekehrt, gefährlich
wenn nicht mitgeteilt''
222
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
''Erste E-Bike Erfahrung und gut''
223
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
''Gut für Leute die etwas
Unterstützung brauchen. Gutes
Konzept''
76
224
Trail 25
04.13
Consumer
''Keine Begründung kein Fahrrad
mehr zu fahren ''
Pure/Trail
03.13
Business
Pure/Trail
03.13
Business
''Federgabel soll Lock am Lenker
haben''
''Schutzbleche müssen entweder gut
sein, oder gar keine''
227
Pure/Trail
03.13
Business
''Griffe müssen gut sein''
228
Pure/Trail
03.13
Business
''Entgraten nach dem Lackieren und
nicht erst beim Händler''
229
Pure/Trail
03.13
Business
''Sattelstütze bekommt sehr schnell
Kratzer, Problem bei Probefahrten''
230
Pure/Trail
03.13
Business
''USP ist der Rahmen (+)''
231
Pure/Trail
03.13
Business
''Anbauteile sind 0815 (-)''
232
Pure/Trail
03.13
Business
''Vergleichbarkeit mit anderen Bikes
(z.B. Stromer, AVE, Haibike, Riese
und Müller) im Preissegment 3 500 4 500 € ist fraglich''
All CM / 3E
09.11
Consumer
234
All CM / 3E
09.11
Consumer
''Die Nuvinci konnte man auf dem
Espire in einem Prototypen
Probefahren, harmonierte klasse mit
dem Clean-Mobile-Antrieb. Es wird
jetzt auch eine abgespeckte Version
als Pedelec und S-Pedelec
angeboten.''
''Die Clean Mobile Antriebe sind
sehr kräftig, bei zu kleinem Gang
kommt beim Anfahren ohne
pedalieren das Vorderrad hoch''
235
All CM / 3E
09.11
Consumer
236
Bosch drive
09.11
Consumer
237
Bosch drive
09.11
Consumer
238
Bosch drive
09.11
Consumer
225
226
233
Sales feedback
"Feedback Händler
2013 03"
Trade fair feedback
"FeedbackEurobike
Sept 2011 Antriebe
extern"
''Das Corratec eBow hat leider keine
Straßenzulassung (Bild). Wäre doch
etwas für unsere Speed-Junkies um
A.D.''
''Beweist wie hässlich die meisten
Bosch-Pedelec sind - Motor zumeist
unten (Ausnahme Hai) wie eine
Tumorgeschwulst drangeklebt und
der Akku - mit den Panasonic in
Konkurrenz um den hässlichsten
Kloben''
"Am Bosch-Stand gibts einen
aufgeschnittenen Motor, der so
schön "nackt" in meinen Augen ein
Schmuckstück deutscher
Ingenieurskunst ist - wertig, gut
verarbeitet und aufgeräumt."
"Der Ave XHybrid fährt sich super,
wobei der Bosch-Antrieb deutlich
leiser war als bei den ersten
Exemplaren, die ich gefahren bin."
77
239
Bosch drive
09.11
Consumer
"Der schnelle Bosch ist auch
wirklich super, genauso super wie
der 25km/h schnelle, rockt aber
locker auf über 40 ;-)"
"Der Bosch Motor war laut und
unangenehm im Geräusch."
240
Bosch drive
09.11
Consumer
241
Bosch drive
09.11
Consumer
''Die 45 Bosch sind super, mit gut
Mittreten sind 45km/h drin, bei
gemütlichem Treten kommt man
aber auch auf knapp über 40km/h.''
242
Bosch drive
09.11
Consumer
243
Bosch drive
09.11
Consumer
''Bei Bosch wird einem bei der
höchsten Unterstützungsstufe fast
jede eigene Kraftanwendung
abgenommen, außer man fährt
schneller, als 27 km/h.''
''Der schnelle Bosch hat mir sehr gut
gefallen, fand ihn auch nicht laut,
allerdings ist das Vibrieren in der
Kurbel weiterhin spürbar.''
244
BionX drive
09.11
Consumer
245
BionX drive
09.11
Consumer
246
TransX drive
09.11
Consumer
247
TransX drive
09.11
Consumer
248
TransX drive
09.11
Consumer
249
Stromer drive
09.11
Consumer
250
Ghost
09.11
Consumer
''Die Kunden haben allerdings viel
über Bionx diskutiert. Scheinen
nach wie vor begeistert zu sein, was
ich nicht verstehen kann, wenn ich
hier im Forum über dauernde
Softwareprobleme lese.''
"Was ich ja absolut super fand ist
der Vorderradantrieb den Bionx
gebastelt hat (gibt es erstmal nur in
Diamanträdern)."
''Also der neue TranzX Mittelmotor
war für mich der größte Reinfall...
schwach laut und furchtbare
Regelung...''
''Leider ist Geräuschentwicklung
und Fahrdynamik nicht so wie man
es erwarten könnte. War vom
Antrieb recht enttäuscht.''
''Beim TranzX Mittelmotor mit 2-3
Kettenblättern ist offenbar noch viel
Arbeit notwendig bis zur
Serienreife.''
''Den Stromer (45 km/h) bin ich
gefahren, hervorragender Antrieb!
Die S-Zulassung für D bekommen
sie angeblich in drei Wochen''
''Ghost hat schöne EMountainbikes, allerdings mit
Nabenantrieb und zunächst erstmal
nicht das Konzept (endure) vom
letzten Jahr.''
78
251
Ghost
09.11
Consumer
252
Cube
09.11
Consumer
253
Cube
09.11
Consumer
Model line-up
02.13
Internal
255
Model line-up
02.13
Internal
256
Model line-up
02.13
Internal
257
Model line-up
02.13
Internal
258
Unique Selling
Points
02.13
Internal
''Eigenständiges unverwechselbares
Rahmendesign''
259
Unique Selling
Points
02.13
Internal
''Hoher Wiedererkennungsfaktor''
260
Unique Selling
Points
02.13
Internal
''Hohe Differenzierung zu
Wettbewerbsprodukten''
261
Unique Selling
Points
02.13
Internal
''Hohe Individualität für den
Kunden''
262
Unique Selling
Points
02.13
Internal
''Vielseitige Einsatzmöglichkeiten /
hoher Nutzwert''
263
Unique Selling
Points
02.13
Internal
''Qualitativ hochwertig, Premium''
264
Unique Selling
Points
02.13
Internal
''Made in Germany
(Produktionstiefe in D >75%)''
265
Drive
Technology
02.13
Internal
266
Drive
Technology
02.13
Internal
''Antrieb geräuscharm und kräftig,
optisch formschöner integrierbar als
Wettbewerb''
''Platzierung des Akku nicht hinter
dem Sitzrohr führt zu einem
fahrradüblichen Radstand, nicht
wie beispielsweise bei Panasonic zu
254
Internal evaluation
"Wettbewerbsanalyse
3E Feb.13 HS RT."
"I was hoping to see a production
ready Ghost Ndure this year, but
they have decided to put it on ice
for now…"
''Cube hat optisch sehr gelungene
Räder mit Direktantrieb und im
Sattelrohr eine Batterie''
''Das Cuba-rad sieht wirklich schick
aus, fährt sich auch ganz gut, aber
es bremst an der
Unterstützungsgrenze ab.
Komisches Gefühl.''
''Durch das eigenständige
Rahmendesign differenziert sich
THIRD ELEMENT deutlich, und
ermöglicht dem Kunden
Individualität zu leben. ''
''Wie in der Anwendung der E Bikes bedient sich THIRD
ELEMENT auch im Motorkonzept
höchst möglicher Effizienz. ''
''Der verbaute Mittelmotor generiert
250 bzw. 500W, d.h. der Kunde
kann pro Modell zwischen einem
zulassungsfreien 25km/h einem
45km/h E – Bike wählen.''
''Das Produktbild runden
ausgesuchte Qualitäts - Lieferanten
im Bereich der Anbauteile ab.''
79
überlangen Fahrrädern.''
267
Drive
Technology
02.13
Internal
268
Drive
Technology
02.13
Internal
269
Drive
Technology
02.13
Internal
270
Drive
Technology
02.13
Internal
271
Drive
Technology
02.13
Internal
272
Service
02.13
Internal
273
Service
02.13
Internal
274
Service
02.13
Internal
275
Trail & Pure
(25/40): Design
02.13
Internal
''Akku wird künftig vom
renommierten BMZ produziert,
„made in Germany“.''
''Ab ca. April ist das AF Display
erhältlich, mit grafischer
Darstellung der wichtigsten
Fahrfunktionen. Zusätzlich USB
Ladeschnittstelle und Pulsmessung
und Trittfrequenz.''
"Akkus mit geringerer Kapazität
sind bei entsprechender Nutzung
sinnvoller als überdimensionierte
Akkus, die immer nur zu einem
Bruchteil entladen werden.
Standardakku 9 Ah, gegen Aufpreis
12 Ah erhältlich."
''Rahmendesign und -aufbau auf
den Mittelmotor konzipiert, kein
bloßes Aufrüsten eines
Fahrradrahmens auf Elektroantrieb
– hier ist der Markt wegen
fehlender Stabilität und der
entsprechenden Berichterstattung
der Medien verunsichert.''
''Antriebstechnik ist schnörkellos
und auf das Wesentliche reduziert –
keine riesigen, schwer zu
bedienenden Displays,
Unterfunktionen,
erklärungsintensiven Teile.''
''MPF Servicestelle in Österreich,
Akkuhersteller in Deutschland –
kurze Wege.''
''Servicesoftware nicht nötig, da
über das Display sämtliche
Funktionen überprüft und
diagnostiziert werden können.
Darüber hinaus gibt es einen Tester,
der dem Händler bei Bedarf zur
Verfügung gestellt werden kann.''
''Servicesoftware ist stark
betreuungsbedürftig, hoher
zusätzlicher Aufwand, wenn der
Antriebshersteller nicht den
Support übernimmt.''
''Eigenständig''
80
276
Trail & Pure
(25/40): Design
02.13
Internal
''Unverwechselbar / einzigartig''
277
Trail & Pure
(25/40): Design
02.13
Internal
''Hoher Differenzierungs- und
Wiedererkennungsfaktor''
278
Trail & Pure
(25/40):
Technik
Trail & Pure
(25/40):
Technik
02.13
Internal
02.13
Internal
Trail & Pure
(25/40):
Technik
Trail & Pure
(25/40): Service
02.13
Internal
02.13
Internal
''State of the Art
(Mittelmotorkonzept, Akkuleistung
& Reichweite)''
''Höchste Effizienz (Skalierbare
Modelle/ 25er / 40er Varianten) =
Belegung der wichtigsten
Produktgruppen Urban/Trekking &
MTB''
''Sehr gutes Preis /
Leistungsverhältnis (Ausstattung
vs. Preis)''
''Hoher Supportlevel''
282
Trail & Pure
(25/40): Service
02.13
Internal
''Seitens Retail leistbar ''
283
Trail & Pure
(25/40): Sales
02.13
Internal
''Hochattraktives Pricing für alle
Vertriebsstufen''
284
Trail & Pure
(25/40): Sales
02.13
Internal
''Fachhandelsorientierung (höchste
Beratungsqualität = 69% Kaufanteil
beim Endverwender)''
285
Trail & Pure
(25/40): Sales
02.13
Internal
286
Trail & Pure
(25/40):
Marketing
02.13
Internal
''Konzentration auf die
Absatzstärksten produktrelevanten
Märkte in Europa mit effizienten
Vertriebsnetz''
''Höchste Markenidentifikation /
Corporate Design''
287
Trail & Pure
(25/40):
Marketing
02.13
Internal
''Made in Germany''
288
Trail & Pure
(25/40):
Marketing
02.13
Internal
''Permanente Bearbeitung des
Marktes im Vertrieb und Medien,
inkl. POS Ausstattungen''
289
Trail
02.13
Internal
''Made in Germany''
290
Trail
02.13
Internal
''Fullsuspension''
291
Trail
02.13
Internal
''Hoher Wiedererkennungseffekt
(Potential zum Kultfaktor)''
292
Pure
02.13
Internal
''Made in Germany''
293
Pure
02.13
Internal
''Bestes Preis Leistungsverhältnis''
294
Pure
02.13
Internal
295
Conclusion
02.13
Internal
296
Conclusion
02.13
Internal
''Voll ausgestattet / voll
alltagstauglich''
''Im Wettbewerbsvergleich erfüllen
die Third Element Produkte alle
wichtigen kaufrelevanten
Merkmale''
''Preis Leistung ''
279
280
281
81
297
Conclusion
02.13
Internal
''Antriebskonzept und
Akkuleistung für alle relevanten
Klassen (25Km/h und 40Km/h)''
298
Conclusion
02.13
Internal
''Made in Germany''
299
Conclusion
02.13
Internal
''Eigenständiges,
unverwechselbares Design''
300
Conclusion
02.13
Internal
''Höchste Qualität''
Conclusion
02.13
Internal
''Bester Service''
Hardtail 25/45
03.12
Internal
Hardtail 25/45
03.12
Internal
''Wichtig: Hohe
Spitzenlastunterstützung''
''Wichtig: Hohe Reichweite''
Hardtail 25/45
03.12
Internal
''Sehr wichtig: Hohe Anmutung''
305
Hardtail 25/45
03.12
Internal
306
Hardtail 25/45
03.12
Internal
''Sehr wichtig: Hohe
Zuverlässigkeit''
''Sehr wichtig: Geringer
Wartungsaufwand''
307
Hardtail 25/45
03.12
Internal
''Weniger wichtig: Hohe
Bergsteifähigkeit''
308
Hardtail 25/45
03.12
Internal
''Weniger wichtig: Geringe
Anschaffungskosten''
309
Hardtail 25/45
03.12
Internal
''Weniger wichtig: Hohe
Fahrradähnlichkeit''
310
Hardtail 25/45
03.12
Internal
''Sehr wichtig: Einfache Benutzung''
311
Hardtail 25/45
03.12
Internal
312
Hardtail 25/45
03.12
Internal
''Wichtig: Leichte
Laufeigenschaften''
''Wichtig: Hohe Unterstützung''
Pure / Trail
03.13
Business
314
Pure / Trail
03.13
Business
315
Pure / Trail
03.13
Business
316
Pure / Trail
03.13
Business
317
Pure / Trail
03.13
Business
''Testfahrt mit Trail40. Fand das Rad
nicht stabil beim Kurvenfahren.
Schweißnähte nicht hochwertig
genug.''
''Schutzbleche zu instabil''
Pure / Trail
03.13
Business
''Schutzbleche zu nahe am Reifen''
Pure 40: Drive
08.13
Consumer
''Motorunterstützung bei langsamer
Fahrt recht schubweise à eine
konstante Geschwindigkeit kann
nicht gut gehalten werden (z.B. bei
20 km/h)''
301
302
303
304
313
Internal evaluation
"Anforderungen
Urban eBike
20120308"
Sales feedback
"Händlerfeedback
Produkte März 2013"
318
319
Test drive evaluation
"Pure 40 Fahrtest"
''Schutzkappen bei
Motoraufhängung (Schrauben /
Muttern) als Korrosions- bzw.
Rostschutz''
''Der Lack wird als zu empfindlich
betrachtet, Bowdenzüge scheuern
und könnten Lackschicht
freilegen?''
''Batteriegehäuse wird als zu
„unrobust“ empfunden''
82
320
Pure 40: Drive
08.13
Consumer
"Bei Anstiegen bricht
Geschwindigkeit weit ein und kann
nur durch kräftige
Fahrerbeteiligung aufrechterhalten
werden"
"Nach etwa 30/22/20 km gefahrener
Strecke unter Höchstunterstützung
und aggressiver Fahrweise schaltete
der Display Modus zum reinen
Fahrradtacho Modus um und
versagte jegliche Unterstützung
trotz Batterierestfüllung (1/2
Balken); kein Einschalten der
Fahrradbeleuchtung möglich"
''Sich wiederholendes An- und
Abschalten des Ladegeräts über
längeren Zeitraum (> 30 min) bei
besagter, folgender Aufladung''
321
Pure 40: Drive
08.13
Consumer
322
Pure 40: Drive
08.13
Consumer
323
Pure 40: Drive
08.13
Consumer
324
Pure 40: Drive
08.13
Consumer
325
Pure 40: Drive
08.13
Consumer
326
Pure 40: Drive
08.13
Consumer
327
Pure 40:
Accessories
08.13
Consumer
''Merkliches (lautes) Reiben des
offenen Chaingliders''
328
Pure 40:
Accessories
08.13
Consumer
329
Pure 40:
Accessories
08.13
Consumer
''Merkliche Vibration des vorderen
Schutzbleches, beim Überfahren
von Unebenheiten
Klappergeräusche''
''Merkliches Anstoßen (Akustik) des
Nummernschildes mit Halter (?!)
bei größeren Unebenheiten''
330
Pure 40:
Accessories
08.13
Consumer
331
Pure 40:
Accessories
08.13
Consumer
''Kein „sauberes“ Abschalten bei
„leerfahren“ der Batterie,
kurzzeitige Schubartige
Unterstützung''
''Fest installiertes Display
(gesetzlich Vorgeschrieben?) ersetzt
einen Tacho nur unzureichend, da
Datenauswertung nur zur Zeit des
Fahrens oder bei Aufenthalt beim
Fahrradmöglich ist.''
''10 Untestützungsstufen erscheinen
zunächst überflüssig, High,
Medium und Low würden als
Freizeitfahrer reichen, ''
''Für Pendler kann allerdings so die
Unterstützung (10 Stufen) auf die
Akkukapazität und Fahrtdistanz
(bekannt) besser angepasst werden''
''Erhebliches Reifengeräusch bei
schneller Fahrt auf asphaltierter
Strecke''
''Teilweise Vibration in höherer
Frequenz (bei starkem Motoreinsatz
?) im vorderen Fahrzeugbereich
(Lenker, Schutzblech?)''
83
332
Pure 40:
Accessories
08.13
Consumer
333
Pure 40:
Accessories
08.13
Consumer
334
Pure 40:
Accessories
08.13
Consumer
eSpire KBA 45
07.10
Business
336
eSpire KBA 45
07.10
Business
337
eSpire KBA 45
07.10
Business
(+) "Hohe Reichweite im
Tourengelände und im
Stadtverkehr"
(+) "Hohe Zuladung"
338
eSpire KBA 45
07.10
Business
(+) "14-Gang Nabenschaltung"
339
eSpire KBA 45
07.10
Business
(0) "Versicherungspflichtig"
340
eSpire KBA 45
07.10
Business
(–) "Hohes Gewicht"
341
eSpire KBA 45
07.10
Business
(–) "Motorgeräusch deutlich hörbar"
342
eSpire KBA 45
07.10
Business
(–) "Hoher Preis"
eSpire KBA 45
07.10
Business
(–) "Schwer fahrbar ohne Motor"
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(+) "Gasannahme auch im
Stillstand"
(+) "Federgabel ist Top (nach
Einstellung)"
346
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(+) "Fahrstabilität"
347
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(+) "Motorunterstützung"
348
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(+) "Motorpfeifen"
349
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(+) "NuVinci Nabe"
350
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(+) "Griffige Pedale"
351
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(+) "Schmerzfreier Sattel"
352
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(+) "Aha Effekt"
353
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(+) "Am Berg erste Wahl (so lange
der Akku hält"
354
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(-) "Restreichweite"
355
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(-) "Personal Trainer (Kalorien)"
356
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(-) "Höhenmesser"
357
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
358
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(-) "Fahrstufen besser in „max
Range“, „eco“, „PERFORMANCE“
"
(-) "Evtl. GPS"
359
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(-) "Halterung für Kamera (Hero)"
360
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(-) "Hinterradführung verwindet
335
Test drive evaluation
"eSpire Testsieger"
343
344
345
Test drive evaluation
"E-Spire
Testweekend
Gardasee"
''Merklicher
Geschwindigkeitsverlust beim
Schalten am Berg durch
Kraftflussauskopplung, man kann
eigentlich gleich 2 Gänge im Berg
runterschalten sollte aber lieber
vorausschauend fahren oder muss
kräftig treten (Wiegetritt)''
''Bei Fahrt ohne
Motorunterstützung sind
Reisegeschwindigkeiten von über
20 km sehr sportlich, Anstiege
kleine Herausforderungen''
''Zu leise Klingel um sich im
Straßenverkehr Gehör zu
verschaffen ''
(+) "Starke Unterstützung in allen
Fahrsituationen"
84
sich"
361
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(-) "30% mehr Reichweite
wünschenswert"
362
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
363
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(-) "Gasgriff mit weicherem
Gummi"
(-) "GPS Befestigung"
364
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
365
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
366
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(-) "Zweitakku sinnvoll"
367
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
368
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
369
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(-) "Nummerntafelhalter nicht
vorhanden"
(-) "Viele Klappergeräusche,
schlechter Qualitätseindruck bei
Passanten"
(-) "Design Seitenständer"
370
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
371
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(-) "Aluschutz sollte durchgängig
sein"
(-) "Schrauben haben Überstand"
372
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(0) "Drei Fahrstufen ausreichend"
373
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(0) "Instrument auch ohne EAntrieb (zweistufiger Betrieb, vgl.
Fzge mit Zündung)"
374
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
(0) "Akku Ladeanzeige auf Handy"
375
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
376
eSpire KBA 45
04.11
Consumer
E-scooters in
general
06.11
Business
(-) "Zu viele frei verlaufende
Leitungen"
(-) "Kein durchgängiger
Kettenschutz"
(0) "Kaum learnings zu E-Scooter"
Pedelecs in
general
06.11
Business
(+) "Starkes Wachstum bei Pedelecs"
Fast pedelecs
in general
06.11
Business
(-) "Wachstum stagniert bzw. max.
leichter Anstieg bei Fast-Pedelecs"
380
Fast pedelecs
in general
06.11
Business
(0) "Entwicklung ist abhängig von
restlicher Rahmensetzung,
momentan unklar"
381
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
(+) "Fahrunterstützung bei
Steigungen, Mithalten können, für
gehandicappte Personen"
382
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
(+) "Weniger Ermüdung, mehr
Spaß"
383
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
(+) "Längere Touren"
384
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
(+) "Wellness/ Fitness"
385
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
(+) "Alternative fürs Pendeln"
377
378
379
Physical folder
"Marketing
Strategie": External
analysis "E-Bike
Händlerbefragung
Deutschland"
(-) "Freiraum im Rahmen besser
Nutzbar"
(-) "Keine Beleuchtung am Fzg.
Stecklösung"
85
386
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
(-) "Preis"
387
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
(-) "Gewicht"
388
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
(-) "Angst vor schneller
Technikentwicklung"
389
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
(-) "Bisheriges Image: Reha-Bike"
390
Pedelecs in
general
06.11
Business
(0) "Preisobergrenze Pedelecs: 3000
€"
391
Fast pedelecs
in general
06.11
Business
(0) "Preisobergrenze Fast-Pedelecs:
3000-7000€"
392
Pedelecs in
general
06.11
Business
(+) "Größere Nähe zum Fahrrad:
Wiedereinstieg, Bewegung, Spaß,
Unterstützung im Alltag, Mobilität,
Mithalten können in der Gruppe"
393
Pedelecs in
general
06.11
Business
(+) "Pendler"
394
Pedelecs in
general
06.11
Business
(+) "Keine rechtlichen Vorgaben"
395
Fast pedelecs
in general
06.11
Business
(+) "Schnelles Fahren, Dynamik"
396
Fast pedelecs
in general
06.11
Business
(+) "Spaß"
397
Fast pedelecs
in general
06.11
Business
(+) "Pendler, Streckenmacher"
398
Pedelecs in
general
06.11
Business
(-) "Teils zu langsam"
399
Pedelecs in
general
06.11
Business
(-) "Zu wenig Informationen"
400
Pedelecs in
general
06.11
Business
(-) "Design veraltet"
401
Pedelecs in
general
06.11
Business
(-) "Kein Rücktritt"
402
Fast pedelecs
in general
06.11
Business
(-) "Unklarer gesetzlicher Rahmen"
403
Fast pedelecs
in general
06.11
Business
(-) "Helmpflicht"
404
Fast pedelecs
in general
06.11
Business
(-) "Versicherung"
405
Fast pedelecs
in general
06.11
Business
(-) "Hat kaum noch Fahrrad-Flair"
406
Fast pedelecs
in general
06.11
Business
(-) "Zu schwer"
407
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Batteriekapazität top wichtig (Platz
1)''
86
408
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Marke sehr wichtig (Platz 2)''
409
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Antrieb wichtig (Platz 3)''
410
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Lebensdauer Batterie wichtig
(Platz 3)''
411
Pedelecs and
fast pedelecs in
general
06.11
Business
''Probefahrt Kaufargument''
412
Pedelecs and
fast pedelecs in
general
06.11
Business
''Reichweite Kaufargument''
413
Pedelecs and
fast pedelecs in
general
06.11
Business
''Serviceleistungen Kaufargument''
414
Pedelecs in
general
06.11
Business
''Gewährleistung Akku
Kaufargument''
415
Pedelecs in
general
06.11
Business
''Betriebssicherheit Kaufargument''
416
Fast pedelecs
in general
06.11
Business
''Preisvergleich Auto beim Pendeln
Kaufargument''
417
Fast pedelecs
in general
06.11
Business
''Leasingmöglichkeiten
Kaufargument''
418
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Akkutechnologie: Mehr
Zuverlässigkeit und mehr Leistung''
419
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Intelligente Ladetechnik, keine
Ladefehler''
420
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Kleines Reiseladegerät''
421
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Schnelladefähigkeit''
422
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Ein- und ausgesteckt ladefähig''
423
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Display Mittelding zwischen zu
wenig und zu viel Elektronik''
424
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Fahrrad auch ohne Antrieb gut
fahrbar''
425
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Umstellmöglichkeit von hoher
Endgeschwindigkeit zu viel
Drehmoment und umgekehrt''
426
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Anzeige der Restreichweite
basierend auf Fahrverhalten''
427
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Attraktive Formen um Jüngere
anzusprechen''
428
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Je cooler desto besser, vor allem 25
km/h Pedelecs müssen wie
Fahrräder aussehen''
87
429
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Tiefeinstieg ist erwünscht''
430
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Weniger Gewicht bei gleichzeitig
mehr Reichweite''
431
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Mehr Zubehör, auf Details
konzentrieren (Komponenten)''
432
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Preis weiter nach unten bringen''
433
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Weniger Gewicht ''
434
E-Bikes in
general
06.11
Business
''Gute Qualität in der
Gesamtverarbeitung''
435
E-Spire Comp
09.11
Internal
(-) "Gewicht zu hoch"
436
E-Spire Comp
09.11
Internal
(-) "Look zu wuchtig"
437
E-Spire Comp
09.11
Internal
(-) "Zu nah am Motorrad"
438
E-Spire Comp
09.11
Internal
439
E-Spire Comp
09.11
Internal
(-) "Preis an der Obergrenze für
Pedelecs"
(-) "Marktsegment "FUN" mit
Abstand das Kleinste"
440
E-Spire Comp
09.11
Internal
(+) "Marktsegment "FUN" noch
nicht belegt - Blue-Ocean Strategie"
88
APPENDIX 2. Design matrix prior to decoupling
DPs
1
2
1 2 3 4 5
3
1 2
3 4 5 6 7
1 2 3
1
4
1 2
5
1 2
6
1 2
7
1 2 3 4
8
1
1
1 2
x
1
2
3
4
5
x
x
x
x
x
2
x
1
2
x
x
x
x
1
2
3
x
x x
FRs
3
4
5
6
7
x
x
x
x
x x
x x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
3
x
x
1
2
3
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
4
x
1
2
x
x
x
x
x
5
x
1
2
6
x
x
x
1
2
3
4
7
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
x
x
x x
x x x
x
1
8
x
x
x
x
Figure 16. Design matrix prior to decoupling.
x
x
x
x
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