Bright Futures - National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource

Bright Futures - National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource
Bright Futures
ORAL HEALTH
Pocket Guide
THIRD EDITION
BRIGHT FUTURES: ORAL HEALTH
Pocket Guide, 3rd Edition
Paul Casamassimo, D.D.S., M.S.
Katrina Holt, M.P.H., M.S., R.D., FAND
Editors
Supported by
Maternal and Child Health Bureau
Health Resources and Services Administration
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Published by
National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center
Georgetown University
Cite as
Casamassimo P, Holt K, eds. 2016. Bright Futures: Oral Health—Pocket Guide (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: National Maternal and Child
Oral Health Resource Center.
This project is supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services (DHHS) under grant #H47MC00048 in the amount $3,000,000 over 5 years. This information or content and conclusions are
those of the author(s) and should not be construed as the official position or policy of HRSA, DHHS, or the U.S. government, nor should
any endorsements be inferred.
Bright Futures: Oral Health—Pocket Guide (3rd ed.) © 2016 by the National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center, Georgetown
University
An electronic copy of this publication is available from the OHRC website. Permission is given to photocopy this publication or to
forward it, in its entirety, to others. Requests for permission to use all or part of the information contained in this publication in other
ways should be sent to the address below.
National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center
Georgetown University
Box 571272
Washington, DC 20057-1272
Phone: (202) 784-9771
E-mail: OHRCinfo@georgetown.edu
Website: http://www.mchoralhealth.org
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ........................................................... 1
Components of Oral Health Supervision............... 9
Oral Health Supervision .......................................
Pregnancy and Postpartum ....................................
Infancy...................................................................
Early Childhood .....................................................
Middle Childhood ..................................................
Adolescence...........................................................
19
20
26
38
50
62
Appendices........................................................... 83
Tooth Eruption Chart ............................................. 84
Dietary Fluoride Supplementation Schedule for
Children and Adolescents at High Risk for
Developing Caries .............................................. 86
Glossary ................................................................. 87
Resources............................................................... 89
Risk Assessment .................................................... 71
Risk Assessment Tables ........................................... 72
Caries Risk Assessment Tools .................................. 80
iii
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
The Bright Futures project was initiated in
1990 by the Health Resources and Services
Administration’s (HRSA’s) Maternal and
Child Health Bureau (MCHB). The mission
of the Bright Futures project is to promote
and improve the health and well-being of
pregnant and postpartum women, infants,
children, and adolescents. This is achieved
by developing educational materials and
fostering partnerships. Bright Futures provides comprehensive, culturally effective,
family-centered, community-based health
supervision guidelines consistent with the
needs of families and health professionals.
The Bright Futures guidelines provide the
foundation for a coordinated series of educational materials for health professionals
and families.
Recognizing oral health as a vital component of health, HRSA’s MCHB sponsored the development of Bright Futures
in Practice: Oral Health. The information
contained in Bright Futures: Oral Health—
Pocket Guide is excerpted from Bright
Futures in Practice: Oral Health, the cornerstone document Bright Futures: Guidelines
for Health Supervision of Infants, Children,
and Adolescents, and other sources. This
pocket guide is designed to be a useful
tool for a wide array of health professionals including dentists, dental hygienists,
physicians, physician assistants, nurse
practitioners, nurses, dietitians, and others
to address the oral health needs of pregnant and postpartum women, infants,
children, and adolescents.
This pocket guide offers health professionals an overview of preventive oral health
2
presented in the pocket guide is intended
as an overview rather than as a comprehensive description of oral health. The
information does not prescribe a specific
regimen of care but builds upon existing
guidelines and treatment protocols such
as those recommended by the Academy
of Nutrition and Dietetics, the American
Academy of Family Physicians, the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, the
American Academy of Pediatrics, and the
American Dental Association.
supervision for five periods—pregnancy
and postpartum, infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence. Although groupings are designed
to take advantage of naturally occurring
milestones, many oral health issues cut
across multiple periods. The information
Optimal oral health for pregnant and
postpartum women, infants, children, and
adolescents can be achieved through an
effective partnership among families, oral
health professionals (e.g., dentists, dental
hygienists), and other health professionals
(e.g., physicians, physician assistants, nurse
practitioners, nurses, dietitians). Health
3
professionals need to help families understand the causes of oral disease, especially
dental caries (tooth decay), and how to
prevent or reduce oral disease and injury.
By including prevention and early intervention as part of comprehensive oral health
services, it may be possible to prevent or
reduce future oral disease.
Resistance to tooth decay in pregnant and
postpartum women, infants, children, and
adolescents is determined partly by physiology and partly by behavior. The younger
the child when tooth decay begins, the
greater the risk for future decay. Because
untreated tooth decay increases in severity,
necessitating more extensive and costly
treatment secondary to postponing care,
timely intervention reduces overall cost
associated with treatment. Preventing and/
or delaying the onset of tooth decay may
reduce the risk for decay. For this reason,
the time to begin preventing oral disease,
especially tooth decay, is before teeth
begin to erupt.
The first oral examination should occur
within 6 months of the eruption of the first
4
primary tooth and no later than age 12
months. Thereafter the child or adolescent
should be seen according to a schedule
recommended by the dentist, based on the
child’s or adolescent’s individual needs and
susceptibility to disease.
When an oral examination by a dentist
is not possible, an infant should receive
an oral health risk assessment by age 6
months by a pediatrician or other qualified oral health professional (e.g., dental
hygienist) or other health professional.
Infants within one of the risk groups listed
below should be referred to a dentist as
soon as possible.
• Mother or other primary caregiver has
active caries
• Parent or other caregiver has low socioeconomic status
• Child receives more than three betweenmeal foods or beverages containing
sugar per day
• Child is put to bed with a bottle or a sippy cup with beverage containing sugar
• Child has special health care needs
• Child is a recent immigrant
• Child has white spot lesions or enamel
defects
• Child has visible cavities or fillings
• Child has plaque on teeth
All pregnant and postpartum women,
infants, children, and adolescents need
dental homes. A dental home is the ongoing relationship between the dentist and
the patient, inclusive of all aspects of oral
health care delivered in a comprehensive,
continuously accessible, coordinated, and
5
family-centered way. Establishment of the
dental home begins no later than age 12
months and includes referrals to dental
specialists when appropriate.
A dental home should be able to provide
the following:
• Comprehensive oral health care including acute care and preventive services in
accordance with accepted guidelines and
periodicity schedules
• Comprehensive assessment for oral diseases and conditions
• Individualized preventive oral health
program based on risk assessment and
periodontal disease risk assessment
• Anticipatory guidance about growth and
development issues (e.g., teething, digit
or pacifier habits)
• Plan for acute dental-trauma
management
• Information about proper care of teeth
and gums
• Dietary counseling
• Referrals to dental specialists when care
cannot be directly provided within the
dental home
6
If the pregnant or postpartum woman,
infant, child, or adolescent does not have
a dental home, help the woman or parents find a source of care by doing the
following:
• Provide a referral to a dentist in your
community. Contact your state or local
dental society or pertinent national organizations for a list of such dentists. The
following national organizations may be
helpful in locating dentists:
American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry
211 East Chicago Avenue, Suite 1700
Chicago, IL 60611-2637
Phone: (312) 337-2169
To find a pediatric dentist:
Website: http://www.aapd.org/
finddentist
American Dental Association
211 East Chicago Avenue
Chicago, IL 60611-2678
Phone: (312) 440-2500
To find a dentist:
Website: http://www.mouthhealthy.org/
en/find-a-dentist.aspx
• Work with state and local agencies to
determine the pregnant or postpartum
woman’s, infant’s, child’s, or adolescent’s
eligibility for public assistance programs
such as Medicaid or the Children’s
Health Insurance Program (CHIP), obtain
dental insurance through the Health
Insurance Marketplace, or find other
sources of funding for oral health care.
With this information, help pregnant and
postpartum women and parents enroll
their child in these programs, get dental
insurance, or obtain funding for care.
7
To learn more about Medicaid and CHIP
and how to enroll, contact your state’s
Medicaid agency or call (877) KIDSNOW (543-7669).
To find information about health insurance through the Health Insurance
Marketplace:
Phone: (800) 318-2596
Website: http://www.healthcare.gov
To find a dentist:
Website: http://www.insurekidsnow.gov
8
COMPONENTS OF ORAL HEALTH SUPERVISION
COMPONENTS OF ORAL HEALTH SUPERVISION
Optimal oral health supervision for pregnant and postpartum women, infants, children,
and adolescents should contain the following components:
Components of Oral Health Supervision
Provided by Oral
Health Professionals
Provided by Other
Health Professionals
Family preparation
✔
✔
Interview questions
✔
✔
Risk assessment
✔
✔
Examination, including assessment of risk for
developing oral disease
✔
Screening, including recognizing and reporting
suspected abuse or neglect
✔
✔
Preventive procedures, such as application of
fluoride varnish
✔
✔
Anticipatory guidance
✔
✔
Measurable outcomes
✔
✔
Referrals, as needed
✔
✔
10
Family Preparation
Just as health professionals prepare for oral
health supervision visits, families need to
prepare, too. An oral health supervision
visit is any dental or medical visit where
oral health services are provided. Families
can gather health information, prepare
questions, and complete forms in anticipation of the visit. This step is an essential
component of oral health supervision, and
health professionals should give the family
information in a culturally and linguistically
appropriate manner about how to prepare
for the visit.
Interview Questions
The interview addresses key issues (e.g.,
oral development, teething and tooth
eruption, oral hygiene, feeding and eating
practices, exposure to fluoride, injury prevention, pregnancy gingivitis) during the
oral health supervision visit. The interview
should review and discuss information
gained from previous oral health supervision visits and address current issues
specific to the age and development of the
infant, child, adolescent, or pregnant or
postpartum woman. Health professionals
need to assess whether the child, adolescent, or their parents and pregnant and
postpartum women have assumed responsibility for oral health and demonstrate
mastery and consistent use of preventive
oral health care techniques. As the child,
and later the adolescent, becomes more
responsible, health professionals should
discuss these issues directly with the child
or adolescent.
11
women are equally likely to develop oral
health problems. Thus, individuals at higher risk for oral disease will likely need more
complex preventive oral health care and
treatment than those at lower risk. Oral
health risk assessment involves identifying
the risk factors that may impact an individual’s oral health. Use the risk assessment
tables shown on pages 72–79 to assess the
infant’s, child’s, adolescent’s, or pregnant
or postpartum woman’s risk for oral health
issues.
Risk Assessment
Oral health risk assessment, which can be
conducted by oral health professionals
and other health professionals, is based on
the premise that not all infants, children,
adolescents, and pregnant and postpartum
Health professionals may refer to the caries
risk assessment tools developed by the
American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry,
the American Academy of Pediatrics, and
the American Dental Association to assist
in classifying risk for tooth decay in infants,
children, and adolescents based on environmental, physical, and overall health
12
factors (see caries risk assessment tools
described on pages 80–81).
examinations) has the education and training needed to conduct oral examinations.
Screening
A dental chair is not needed to perform a
screening. For infants and children under
age 3, the health professional and the parent should sit face to face with their knees
Health professionals can perform a screening of the lips, tongue, teeth, gums, inside
of the cheeks, and roof of the mouth to
identify oral disease, especially tooth decay,
or other oral conditions (e.g., delayed
tooth eruption or premature tooth loss,
abscesses, trauma, pregnancy gingivitis)
and to provide guidance for management.
An oral health screening takes only 2 or 3
minutes.
Screenings are not examinations and do
not involve making diagnoses that lead
to treatment plans. Only an oral health
professional (a dentist or a dental hygienist who is qualified according to state
practice acts or regulations to perform
13
touching, with the child placed in the
health professional’s and the parent’s lap.
The child’s head should be nestled securely
against the health professional’s abdomen,
with the child facing the parent. By age 3,
children are able to lie flat on an examination table or to sit in front of the parent,
with both the child and the parent facing
the health professional so that the parent
can help position and steady the child. For
older children and adolescents, the parent’s assistance is not necessary.
With gloved hands, the health professional
lifts the lip, views and feels the soft tissues, and views the teeth and the entire
mouth. Almost any type of lighting, such
as a flashlight, a portable gooseneck lamp,
an examination light, or a headlamp, will
work for a screening. A tongue depressor
or toothbrush can be used to move the
tongue and view the teeth. A dental mirror
or other similar-sized mirror can make
it easier to see behind the teeth and to perform a more thorough screening, but such
a mirror is not necessary.
When performing the oral health screening, health professionals should
• Note whether the infant, child, or
adolescent is currently in pain or has an
abscess on the gums above or below the
teeth. An abscess may look like a “gum
boil” and may or may not have localized
or generalized swelling with or without
pus draining from the area. If the infant,
child, or adolescent is in pain or has an
abscess, refer to a dentist immediately.
• Check whether tooth eruption and loss
are proceeding according to schedule
14
(see Tooth Eruption Chart on pages
84–85).
• Check the teeth for plaque and food
debris.
• Note whether any teeth appear to
have unusual color or shape.
• Note whether any teeth have untreated decay. Tooth decay may occur on
any tooth surface. Tooth decay initially
appears as a chalky white area on the
enamel. More advanced tooth decay
appears as cavities or stains. When
decay is observed, refer the infant, child,
or adolescent to a dentist. It may be
difficult to determine whether discoloration of teeth is attributable to tooth
decay. When in doubt, refer to a dentist.
• Note whether any dental trauma has
occurred. If teeth are prematurely
missing, refer the infant, child, or adolescent to a dentist for space management. If trauma is suspected to be the
result of physical abuse, record observations and call the local social service
agency.
Health professionals should document oral
health history, clinical findings, and recommended follow-up in the infant’s, child’s,
or adolescent’s oral health record.
Examination
An oral examination includes a dental
history, a clinical oral assessment, and
diagnostic procedures such as X-rays. The
examination also includes an assessment
of the pregnant or postpartum woman’s,
infant’s, child’s, or adolescent’s risk for
developing oral diseases; establishment of
15
a prevention and/or treatment plan; and
determination of the interval for periodic
reevaluation based on that assessment.
Another appointment will be scheduled if
other treatment needs exist.
Preventive Procedures
Health professionals, as approved by state
practice acts or regulations, can assess the
pregnant or postpartum woman’s, infant’s,
child’s, or adolescent’s exposure to systemic and topical fluoride, apply fluoride
varnish, and prescribe systemic fluoride
supplements, if indicated.
Anticipatory Guidance
Anticipatory guidance is the process of
providing practical, developmentally
appropriate information (e.g., about oral
development, teething and tooth eruption,
oral hygiene, feeding and eating practices, exposure to fluoride, injury prevention) to the family about the pregnant or
postpartum woman’s, infant’s, child’s, or
adolescent’s current oral health and what
to expect during the next period. The
guidance should be modified based on
16
risk assessment responses. When providing
anticipatory guidance, health professionals are encouraged to discuss risk factors.
Working in partnership with the family,
health professionals can be effective in promoting oral health. Creating opportunities
for thoughtful dialogue between families
and health professionals is one of the best
ways to establish trust and build partnerships that promote oral health and prevent
oral disease and injury. Older children and
adolescents, as they mature, should actively participate in health partnerships and
should assume increasing responsibility for
their own oral health.
child, or adolescent has achieved certain
outcomes. Outcomes are important measurable health indicators that both health
professionals and families can identify
and track. Outcomes also help oral health
professionals determine the periodicity for
subsequent visits and help health professionals provide anticipatory guidance.
Examples of outcomes are (1) parents
understand and practice good oral hygiene
and feeding and eating behaviors, (2) child
has no oral disease or injury, (3) child practices safety behaviors, and (4) pregnant or
postpartum woman and child are under
the care of an oral health professional.
Measurable Outcomes
Referrals
The success of oral health supervision can
be measured by whether the pregnant or
postpartum woman or parent(s), infant,
Because pregnant and postpartum women,
infants, children, and adolescents often
do not visit oral health professionals on a
17
regular basis, it is critical that other health
professionals who have frequent contact
with pregnant and postpartum women,
infants, children, and adolescents be able
to help prevent or reduce their risk for
oral disease, especially tooth decay, and to
provide referrals to dentists for intervention
or treatment.
Conversely, oral health professionals may
be the “first line” in assessing the overall
health and well-being of pregnant and
postpartum women, infants, children,
and adolescents. Oral health professionals
can make referrals to other health professionals and can reinforce preventive
messages about oral hygiene, nutrition,
injury prevention, and other health issues
such as tobacco and other substance use
prevention.
18
ORAL HEALTH SUPERVISION
PREGNANCY AND
POSTPARTUM
PREGNANCY AND POSTPARTUM
Health professionals should select the
information in this section that is most
appropriate, using clinical judgment to
decide what is timely and relevant for each
pregnant or postpartum woman.
Family Preparation
To prepare families for oral health supervision visits, health professionals can provide
pregnant and postpartum women with
a list of topics to discuss at the next visit.
Topics may include the following:
• Changes in the teeth or gums
• Oral hygiene practices (frequency,
problems)
• Use of fluoridated water for drinking and
cooking
• Use of over-the-counter fluoride products
(toothpaste, mouthrinse)
• Eating practices
• Illnesses or infections
• Use of over-the-counter and prescription
medications
20
Interview Questions
• How often do you brush and floss your
teeth? Do you use fluoridated toothpaste
and mouthrinse?
• Have you had any problems with your
gums or teeth? For example, swollen
or bleeding gums, a toothache (pain),
problems eating or chewing food, or
other problems in your mouth?
• Do you have any questions or concerns
about getting oral health care while you
are pregnant or after your baby is born?
• Since becoming pregnant, have you
PREGNANCY AND POSTPARTUM
Following are examples of questions that
health professionals may ask pregnant and
postpartum women. In addition to asking
these or other interview questions, discuss
any issues or concerns the pregnant or
postpartum woman has.
had morning sickness (vomiting)? How
often?
• After your baby is born, how can you help
protect your baby’s teeth from decay?
Examination
Pregnant and postpartum women should
be seen according to a schedule recommended by the dentist, based on the individual’s needs or susceptibility to disease.
Anticipatory Guidance
Discuss with Pregnant and
Postpartum Women:
Oral Health Care
• The importance and safety of getting oral
health care during pregnancy.
• Scheduling a dental appointment as soon
as possible if the last dental visit took
21
PREGNANCY AND POSTPARTUM
•
•
•
•
place more than 6 months ago or if there
are any oral health problems or concerns.
Informing the dental office about pregnancy and the due date to help the dental team provide the best possible care.
Taking care of the mouth during preg–
nancy and after delivery. If gingivitis
occurs, seek treatment to prevent more
serious periodontal disease and tooth loss.
Obtaining needed oral health care,
including X-rays, pain medication, and
local anesthesia throughout pregnancy.
Getting oral health treatment, as recommended by an oral health professional,
before delivery.
Oral Hygiene
• Brushing the teeth thoroughly twice a day
(after breakfast and before bed) with fluoridated toothpaste. Spit out the toothpaste
•
•
•
•
after brushing, but do not rinse with water.
The small amount of fluoridated toothpaste
that remains in the mouth helps prevent
tooth decay. Clean between the teeth daily
with floss or an interdental cleaner.
Replacing toothbrush every 3 or 4 months,
or more often if the bristles are frayed.
Do not share toothbrushes.
Rinsing every night with an overthe-counter fluoridated, alcohol-free
mouthrinse.
After eating, chewing xylitol-containing
gum or using other xylitol-containing products, such as mints, which can help reduce
bacteria that can cause tooth decay.
Nutrition
• Eating a variety of healthy foods such as
fruits, vegetables, whole-grain products
(cereals, bread, or crackers), and dairy
22
PREGNANCY AND POSTPARTUM
products (milk, cheese, cottage cheese,
and unsweetened yogurt). Meats, fish,
chicken, eggs, beans, and nuts are also
good choices for meals and snacks. Limit
eating (grazing) between planned meals
and snacks.
• Eating fewer foods with added sugar, such
as candy, cookies, and cake, and drinking
fewer beverages with added sugar, such
as fruit-flavored drinks and pop (soda).
Frequent consumption of foods containing
sugar increases the risk for tooth decay.
Many foods contain one or more types of
sugar, and all types of sugar can promote
tooth decay. To help choose foods low in
sugar, read food labels.
• For snacks, choosing foods with no
added sugar, such as fruits, vegetables,
cheese, and unsweetened yogurt.
• Drinking water or milk instead of juice,
fruit-flavored drinks, or pop (soda).
• Drinking water throughout the day,
especially between meals and snacks.
Drinking fluoridated water (via a community fluoridated water source) or
bottled water that contains fluoride.
23
PREGNANCY AND POSTPARTUM
• If having problems with nausea, try
to eat small amounts of healthy foods
throughout the day. And if vomiting,
rinse the mouth with a teaspoon of baking soda in a cup of water to stop acid
from attacking the teeth.
• To reduce the risk for birth defects,
throughout pregnancy, getting 600 micrograms of folic acid each day by taking a
dietary supplement of folic acid and eating
foods high in folate and foods fortified with
folic acid. Examples of these foods include
• Asparagus, broccoli, and green leafy
vegetables, such as lettuce and spinach
• Legumes (beans, peas, lentils)
• Papayas, oranges, strawberries, cantaloupe, and bananas
• Grain products fortified with folic acid
(breads, cereals, cornmeal, flour, pasta,
white rice)
• Once the infant is born, avoiding testing
the temperature of the bottle with the
mouth, sharing utensils (e.g., spoons),
or orally cleaning a pacifier or a bottle
nipple. These practices help prevent
transmission of bacteria that cause tooth
decay from the parent, especially the
mother, to the child via saliva.
24
Substance Use
• Not smoking cigarettes (cigarettes or
e-cigarettes) or using chewing tobacco.
Avoiding secondhand smoke.
• Not using recreational drugs.
• Stopping consumption of alcoholic
beverages.
Outcomes
• Pregnant and postpartum women
are under the care of an oral health
professional.
• Pregnant and postpartum women are
informed of and understand the need for
oral health care.
• Pregnant and postpartum women understand and practice good oral hygiene,
eating and feeding behaviors, and other
healthy behaviors.
• Pregnant and postpartum women have
no oral disease or injury.
PREGNANCY AND POSTPARTUM
Injury Prevention
• Wearing a seat belt while riding in or
driving a vehicle. If you are driving, insist
that passengers also wear seat belts.
• Wearing protective gear (e.g., mouth
guard, face protector, helmet) when participating in physical activities or sports that
could result in injuries to the mouth, such
as biking or playing baseball or soccer.
• Not getting oral piercings, which can
damage teeth and gums.
25
INFANCY
INFANCY • 0–11 MONTHS
Health professionals should select the
information in this section that is most
appropriate, using clinical judgment to
decide what is timely and relevant for each
individual infant and family.
• Fluoride use (fluoridated toothpaste,
fluoride supplements)
• Use of a bottle or cup by infant
• Feeding practices
Family Preparation
To help prepare families for oral health
supervision visits, health professionals can
provide parents with a list of topics to
discuss at the next visit. Topics may include
the following:
• Teething and other changes in the
mouth
• Oral hygiene practices (frequency,
problems)
• Use of fluoridated water for drinking,
cooking, or formula preparation
26
Interview Questions
INFANCY • 0–11 MONTHS
• Nonnutritive sucking (pacifier, thumb,
finger)
• Illnesses or infections
• Medications
• Injuries to the teeth or mouth
• Use of tobacco by parents
Following are examples of questions that
health professionals may use. In addition to
asking these or other interview questions,
discuss any issues or concerns the family
has.
• Does Felicity have any teeth? How many?
• Do you brush Alexander’s teeth? How
often?
• Do you use fluoridated toothpaste? How
much?
• Are you breastfeeding, bottle feeding, or
both? How is feeding going?
• How well does Julia fall asleep? Do you
give her a bottle in bed? What is in the
bottle when you put her to bed?
• Does Thomas use a pacifier? Does he
suck his thumb or finger?
27
INFANCY • 0–11 MONTHS
• Do you put Celeste in a rear-facing car
seat when she rides in a vehicle? Do you
buckle her in the car seat?
• Do you have a family dentist? Did you
see a dentist during your pregnancy?
• Has Carlos been to the dentist? Does he
have a dental home? If not, have you
made an appointment for his first dental
visit?
• Has Natalie been to a health professional?
If not, have you made an appointment
for her first health supervision visit?
Screening
Risk Assessment
Oral Health Care
• Making an appointment for the infant’s
first oral examination within 6 months of
the eruption of the first primary tooth,
and no later than age 12 months,
thereby establishing a dental home.
Use the risk assessment tables shown on
pages 72–79 and caries risk assessment
tools described on pages 80–81 to assess
the infant’s risk factors for oral health
issues.
Visually inspect the lips, tongue, teeth, gums,
inside of the cheeks, and roof of the mouth.
Examination
The first oral examination should occur
within 6 months of the eruption of the first
primary tooth, and no later than age 12
months.
Anticipatory Guidance
Discuss with Parents:
28
INFANCY • 0–11 MONTHS
• After the initial dental visit, making the
next appointment for the infant according to the schedule recommended by
the dentist, based on the infant’s individual needs or risk for developing tooth
decay.
• For infants with special health care
needs, making appointments for more
frequent dental visits as directed by the
dentist based on the infant’s needs or
susceptibility to disease.
• Discussing with a dentist or other
qualified health professional the need to
apply fluoride varnish. Topical fluoride
may be especially effective for infants
at high risk for tooth decay, particularly
those who have a history of decay, do
not have access to fluoridated water,
snack frequently on foods or beverages containing sugar, or have a medical
29
INFANCY • 0–11 MONTHS
problem that decreases their resistance
to tooth decay.
• Giving the infant age 6 months or older
at high risk for developing tooth decay
dietary fluoride supplements only as
prescribed by a dentist or physician
(see Dietary Fluoride Supplementation
Schedule for Children and Adolescents
at High Risk for Developing Caries on
page 86).
Oral Hygiene
• Cleaning the infant’s gums with a soft
clean damp cloth at least once a day. This
helps the infant become comfortable with
someone working in his or her mouth.
• Brushing the infant’s teeth with a small
smear of fluoridated toothpaste as soon
as the first tooth erupts, usually around
age 6 to 10 months, twice a day (after
breakfast and before bed). Do not rinse
the infant’s mouth with water. The small
amount of fluoridated toothpaste that
remains in the mouth helps prevent
tooth decay.
30
with a clean finger or a moistened gauze
pad or cool damp washcloth to try to
ease the discomfort. Other options include
giving the infant a chilled teething ring
(made of firm rubber) or cool spoon. If the
infant is especially cranky, give acetaminophen or ibuprofen, following the dosage
directions for infants on the container.
INFANCY • 0–11 MONTHS
• Using a soft-bristled toothbrush with
a small head, preferably one designed
specifically for infants.
• Not giving the infant anything to eat or
drink (except water) after brushing at
night.
• For infants with special health care
needs, adapting or obtaining special
oral health equipment (e.g., adapting a
toothbrush) to brush the teeth.
• Becoming familiar with the normal
appearance of the infant’s gums and
teeth so that problems can be identified
if they occur (see Tooth Eruption Chart
on pages 84–85). Checking the infant’s
gums and teeth about once a month by
lifting the lip to look for decay on the
outside and inside surfaces of the teeth.
• If the infant has sore gums caused by
tooth eruption, rubbing the infant’s gums
Nutrition
• Breastfeeding the infant exclusively for
approximately the first 6 months of life,
and continuing to breastfeed until age
12 months or as long as the mother and
infant wish to continue.
• For mothers who cannot breastfeed or
choose not to breastfeed, feeding the
infant a prepared infant formula. Use
fluoridated water (via a community
fluoridated water source) or bottled
31
INFANCY • 0–11 MONTHS
water that contains fluoride for preparing
infant formula.
• Avoiding testing the temperature of the
bottle with the mouth, sharing utensils
(e.g., spoons), or orally cleaning a pacifier
or a bottle nipple. This practice helps prevent transmission of bacteria that cause
tooth decay from the parent, especially
the mother, to the child via saliva.
• To prevent sugary fluids from pooling
around the teeth, which can increase the
infant’s risk for tooth decay, not putting
the infant to sleep with a bottle or sippy
cup. Also, do not allow prolonged bottle
feedings or use of sippy cups with beverages containing sugar (e.g., fruit drinks,
pop (soda), fruit juice), milk, or formula
during the day or at night.
• Holding the infant while feeding. Make
sure to never prop a bottle (that is, use
pillows or any other objects to hold a
bottle in the infant’s mouth).
• Never adding cereal to a bottle. This
causes sugary fluids to pool around the
teeth. Feed infants solid foods with a
spoon or fork, or, once they are able,
encourage self-feeding.
32
INFANCY • 0–11 MONTHS
• Introducing a small cup when the infant
can sit up without support.
• Weaning the infant from the bottle
as the infant begins to eat more solid
foods and drink from a cup. Begin to
wean the infant gradually, at about
age 9 to 10 months. By age 12 to 14
months, most infants can drink from a
cup.
• Not introducing juice into infants’ diets
before age 12 months.
• For infants ages 6 months and older,
serving age-appropriate healthy foods
during planned meals and snacks, and
limiting eating (grazing) in between.
• Serving fewer foods with added sugar,
such as candy, cookies, cake, fruitflavored drinks, and pop (soda). Many
foods contain one or more types of
sugar, and all types of sugar can promote
tooth decay. To help choose foods low in
sugar, read food labels.
Nonnutritive Sucking
• If parents choose to have their infant
suck a pacifier, advising them to take
certain safety precautions. The following
precautions are recommended:
• Never attaching a pacifier to a ribbon
or string around the infant’s neck.
33
INFANCY • 0–11 MONTHS
• Making sure the pacifier is of sturdy,
one-piece construction and that the
material is flexible, firm, and not brittle.
• Keeping the pacifier clean.
• Not dipping a pacifier in sweetened
foods (e.g., sugar, honey, syrup) to
encourage sucking.
• Never orally cleaning a pacifier, then
giving it to the infant.
Injury Prevention
• Being aware that injuries to the head,
face, and mouth are common among
infants.
• Learning how to prevent oral injuries
and how to handle oral emergencies.
Because of the danger of damaging
the underlying permanent teeth, never
attempt to reinsert an avulsed (lost)
primary tooth. It is impossible to
relocate the tooth accurately, and there
is danger of pushing it too far into the
soft alveolar bone and damaging the
permanent tooth developing below the
primary tooth.
• Always keeping one hand on an infant
on high places such as changing tables,
beds, sofas, or chairs.
• Using an appropriate car seat in the back
seat of the vehicle at all times. Buckle the
infant into a rear-facing car seat.
• Not placing an infant in a shopping cart.
Instead, consider using a stroller, a
wagon, or a frontpack while shopping
with an infant. If an infant is placed in
a shopping cart, follow these safety
rules:
• Place the infant in a safety belt or harness at all times while in the cart.
34
INFANCY • 0–11 MONTHS
• Do not place an infant carrier on top of
the shopping cart.
• Never leave the infant alone in the
shopping cart.
• Using safety locks or latches on cabinets
and drawers. Keep all sharp knives or
other sharp utensils, poisonous substances, medicines, cleaning agents,
health and beauty aids, and paints and
paint solvents in a safe place.
• Keeping pet food and dishes out of
reach. Do not permit the infant to
approach the pet while it is eating.
• Keeping electric appliance cables and
dangling telephone, electric, blind, and
drapery cords out of reach of infants
(e.g., wrap blind and drapery cords
onto cleats so infants cannot access
them).
35
INFANCY • 0–11 MONTHS
• Locking doors and using safety gates
at the tops and bottoms of stairs, and
using safety locks and safety devices on
windows above the ground floor.
• Supervising the infant on stairs or
furniture.
• Making sure that playgrounds are carefully maintained and that equipment
is in good condition. All playground
equipment should be surrounded by a
soft surface (e.g., fine, loose sand; wood
chips; wood or rubber mulch) or by rubber mats manufactured for this use.
• Supervising the infant on playground
equipment. Make sure infants play
only on developmentally appropriate
equipment.
• Not giving toys small enough to be
placed in the mouth. Make sure that
toys do not have parts that can become
detached. Keep toys with small parts or
sharp edges out of reach.
• Making sure that toys are soft (e.g.,
balls not made with leather or hard
materials).
36
• Parents establish a safe environment and
practice safety behaviors.
• Infant has no oral disease or injury.
INFANCY • 0–11 MONTHS
• Not using an infant walker with wheels.
• Providing the infant’s caregivers with the
dentist’s emergency phone contacts, and
ensuring that the caregivers know how
to handle all emergencies.
Substance Use
• Avoiding exposing the infant to secondhand smoke.
Outcomes
• Parents and infant are under the care of
an oral health professional.
• Parents are informed of oral development issues.
• Parents understand and practice good
oral hygiene, feeding, and eating
behaviors.
37
EARLY CHILDHOOD
EARLY CHILDHOOD • 1– 4 YEARS
Health professionals should select the
information in this section that is most
appropriate, using clinical judgment to
decide what is timely and relevant for each
individual child and family.
Family Preparation
To help prepare families for oral health
supervision visits, health professionals can
provide parents with a list of topics to
discuss at the next visit. Topics may include
the following:
• Changes in the teeth and the mouth
• Oral hygiene practices (frequency,
problems)
• Use of fluoridated water for drinking,
cooking, or formula preparation
• Fluoride use (fluoridated toothpaste,
fluoridated mouthrinse, fluoride
supplements)
• Use of bottle or cup by child
• Feeding and eating practices
• Nonnutritive sucking (pacifier, thumb,
finger)
38
Illnesses or infections
Medications
Injuries to the teeth or mouth
Parents’ tobacco use
Interview Questions
Following are examples of questions that
health professionals may use. In addition to
asking these or other interview questions,
discuss any issues or concerns the family
has.
• Do you help Lynne brush her teeth? How
has this been going? Are you using fluoridated toothpaste? How much toothpaste do you use to brush her teeth?
• Does Thomas drink from a cup? Does he
take a bottle?
• How often does Benita snack? What does
she usually eat?
• Does Kevin use a pacifier? Does he suck
his thumb or finger?
• Do you and your family members wear
seat belts in a car?
• What would you do if Jane knocked out
one of her teeth?
• Has Carlos been to the dentist? If not,
have you made an appointment for his
first dental visit?
• When was Tracy’s last visit to a health
professional? Is it time for her next health
supervision visit?
EARLY CHILDHOOD • 1– 4 YEARS
•
•
•
•
Risk Assessment
Use the risk assessment tables shown on
pages 72–79 and caries risk assessment
tools described on pages 80–81 to assess
the child’s risk factors for oral health
issues.
39
Examination
EARLY CHILDHOOD • 1– 4 YEARS
The first oral examination should occur
within 6 months of the eruption of the first
primary tooth, and no later than age 12
months. Thereafter the child should be seen
according to a schedule recommended by
the dentist, based on the child’s individual
needs and risk for developing oral diseases.
Anticipatory Guidance
Discuss with Parents:
Screening
Visually inspect the lips, tongue, teeth,
gums, inside of the cheeks, and roof of the
mouth.
Oral Health Care
• If the child has not yet been to a dentist,
making an appointment for the child’s
first dental visit, thereby establishing a
dental home.
• After the initial dental visit, making the
next appointment for the child according
to the schedule recommended by the
40
only as prescribed by a dentist or physician (see Dietary Fluoride Supplementation Schedule for Children and
Adolescents at High Risk for Developing
Caries on page 86).
• Discussing with a dentist or other
qualified health professional the need to
apply dental sealants to prevent tooth
decay, shortly after the teeth erupt.
EARLY CHILDHOOD • 1– 4 YEARS
dentist, based on the child’s individual
needs or risk for developing tooth decay.
• For children with special health care
needs, making appointments for more
frequent dental visits based on the child’s
individual needs or susceptibility to
disease.
• Discussing with a dentist or other
qualified health professional the need to
apply fluoride varnish. Topical fluoride
may be especially effective for children
at high risk for tooth decay, particularly
those who have a history of decay, do
not have access to fluoridated water,
snack frequently on foods or beverages
containing sugar, or have a medical
problem that decreases their resistance
to tooth decay.
• Giving the child at high risk for developing
tooth decay dietary fluoride supplements
Oral Hygiene
• For children under age 3, brushing the
teeth with a small smear of fluoridated
toothpaste twice a day (after breakfast
and before bed). Do not have the child
rinse with water. The small amount of
fluoridated toothpaste that remains in the
mouth helps prevent tooth decay.
• For children ages 3 to 6, brushing
the teeth with a pea-sized amount of
41
EARLY CHILDHOOD • 1– 4 YEARS
fluoridated toothpaste twice a day (after
breakfast and before bed). Make sure the
child spits out the toothpaste after brushing but does not rinse with water. The
small amount of fluoridated toothpaste
that remains in the mouth helps prevent
tooth decay.
• For effective plaque removal, making
sure that a parent brushes the child’s
teeth at least once a day. Because brushing requires good fine motor control,
young children cannot clean their teeth
without parental help. After children
acquire fine motor skills (e.g., the ability
to tie their shoelaces), typically by age
7 or 8, they can clean their teeth effectively but should be supervised by a
parent.
• For children with special health care
needs, adapting or obtaining special
oral health equipment (e.g., adapting a
toothbrush) to brush the child’s teeth, if
needed.
42
Nutrition
• Serving a variety of healthy foods such as
fruits, vegetables, whole-grain products
(cereals, bread, or crackers), and dairy
products (milk, cheese, cottage cheese,
and unsweetened yogurt). Meats, fish,
chicken, eggs, beans, and nuts are also
good choices for meals and snacks.
• Serving healthy foods during planned
meals and snacks, and limiting eating
(grazing) in between.
• Serving fewer foods with added sugar,
such as candy, cookies, cake, fruitflavored drinks, and pop (soda). Frequent
consumption of foods containing sugar
increases the risk for tooth decay. Many
foods contain one or more types of
sugar, and all types of sugar can promote
tooth decay. To help choose foods low in
sugar, read food labels.
EARLY CHILDHOOD • 1– 4 YEARS
• Becoming familiar with the normal
appearance of the child’s gums and
teeth so that problems can be identified
if they occur (see Tooth Eruption Chart
on pages 84–85). Checking the child’s
gums and teeth about once a month.
• Not allowing a child to use fluoridated
mouthrinse, unless the child is able to
spit the mouthrinse out.
• If the child has sore gums caused by
tooth eruption, rubbing the child’s gums
with a clean finger or a moistened gauze
pad or cool damp washcloth to try to
ease the discomfort. Other options
include giving the child a chilled teething ring (made of firm rubber) or cool
spoon. If the child is especially cranky,
give acetaminophen or ibuprofen following the dosage directions for children on
the container.
43
EARLY CHILDHOOD • 1– 4 YEARS
• Offering fruits rather than fruit juice. If
juice is offered, serve only 100-percent
fruit juice or reconstituted juice, and limit
juice consumption to 4 oz per day for
children ages 1–3 and 4–6 oz per day for
children ages 4–6.
• To prevent sugary fluids from pooling
around the teeth, which can increase the
child’s risk for tooth decay, not putting
the child to sleep with a bottle or sippy
cup. Also, do not allow prolonged bottle
feedings or use of sippy cups with beverages containing sugar (e.g., fruit drinks,
pop (soda), fruit juice), milk, or formula
during the day or at night.
• Weaning the child from a bottle to a cup
by age 12 to 14 months. Serve beverages
in a cup.
• If the child drinks beverages between
meals, serving water or milk rather than
fruit juice, fruit-flavored drinks, or pop
(soda).
• Serving water throughout the day, especially between meals and snacks. Drink
fluoridated water (via a community fluoridated water source) or bottled water
that contains fluoride.
• Avoiding sharing utensils (e.g., spoons)
or orally cleaning a pacifier or a bottle
44
nipple. This practice helps prevent transmission of bacteria that cause tooth decay
from the parent to the child via saliva.
EARLY CHILDHOOD • 1– 4 YEARS
Nonnutritive Sucking
• If parents choose to have their child suck
a pacifier, advising them to take certain
safety precautions. The following precautions are recommended:
• Never attaching a pacifier to a ribbon
or string around the child’s neck.
• Making sure the pacifier is of sturdy,
one-piece construction and that the
material is flexible, firm, and not brittle.
• Keeping the pacifier clean.
• Not dipping a pacifier in sweetened
foods (e.g., sugar, honey, syrup) to
encourage sucking.
• Never orally cleaning a pacifier, then
giving it to a child.
Injury Prevention
• Being aware that injuries to the head,
face, and mouth are common among
children.
• Learning how to prevent oral injuries and
how to handle oral emergencies. Because
of the danger of damaging the underlying permanent teeth, never attempt to
reinsert an avulsed (lost) primary tooth. It
is impossible to relocate the tooth accurately, and there is danger of pushing it
too far into the soft alveolar bone and
damaging the permanent tooth developing below the primary tooth.
• Using an appropriate car seat in the back
seat of the vehicle at all times.
• For children ages 12 to 36 months,
buckle children into rear-facing car
seats until they reach the upper
45
EARLY CHILDHOOD • 1– 4 YEARS
weight or height limits of their seats.
Once they reach the upper weight or
height limit of the rear-facing car seat,
buckle children into forward-facing car
seats. Check the owner’s manual and/
or labels on the seat for weight and
height limits.
• For children ages 3 to 7, when they
reach the upper weight or height limit
of the rear-facing car seat, buckle the
child into a forward-facing car seat
with a harness and tether. Check the
owner’s manual and/or labels on the
seat for weight and height limits.
• Not placing a child in a carrier on top
of a shopping cart. Instead, consider
using a stroller, a wagon, or a frontpack
while shopping with a child. If placing
the child in a shopping cart, use a safety
belt or harness at all times. If the child is
placed in a shopping cart, follow these
safety rules:
• Place the child in a safety belt or harness at all times while in the cart.
• Never leave the child alone in the
shopping cart.
• Do not let the child stand up in the
shopping cart.
• Do not let the child ride in the shopping cart basket.
• Never let the child ride on the outside
of the shopping cart.
• Using safety locks or latches on cabinets
and drawers. Keep all sharp knives or
other sharp utensils, poisonous substances, medicines, cleaning agents, health
and beauty aids, and paints and paint
solvents in a safe place.
46
•
•
• Keeping pet food and dishes out of
reach. Do not permit the child to
approach the pet while it is eating.
• Keeping electric appliance cables and
dangling telephone, electric, blind, and
drapery cords out of reach of children
•
EARLY CHILDHOOD • 1– 4 YEARS
•
(e.g., wrap blind and drapery cords onto
cleats so children cannot access them).
Locking doors or using safety gates at
the tops and bottoms of stairs, and using
safety locks and safety devices on windows above the ground floor.
Supervising the child on stairs and when
climbing on and off furniture.
Making sure that playgrounds are carefully maintained and that equipment
is in good condition. All playground
equipment should be surrounded by a
soft surface (e.g., fine, loose sand; wood
chips; wood or rubber mulch) or by rubber mats manufactured for this use.
Supervising the child on playground
equipment. Make sure children play
only on developmentally appropriate
equipment.
47
EARLY CHILDHOOD • 1– 4 YEARS
• Not giving toys small enough to be
placed in the mouth. Make sure that
toys do not have parts that can become
detached. Keep toys with small parts or
sharp edges out of reach.
• Making sure that toys are soft (e.g., balls
not made with leather or hard materials).
• Ensuring that the child wears a bicycle
helmet on all wheeled toys, even on a
tricycle.
• Providing the child’s caregivers with the
dentist’s emergency phone contacts, and
ensuring that the caregivers know how
to handle all emergencies.
Substance Use
• Avoiding exposing the child to secondhand smoke.
48
EARLY CHILDHOOD • 1– 4 YEARS
• Parents understand and practice good
oral hygiene, feeding, and eating
behaviors.
• Parents establish a safe environment and
practice safety behaviors.
• Child has no oral disease or injury.
Outcomes
• Parents and child are under the care of
an oral health professional.
• Parents are informed of oral development issues.
49
MIDDLE CHILDHOOD
MIDDLE CHILDHOOD • 5–10 YEARS
Health professionals should select the
information in this section that is most
appropriate, using clinical judgment to
decide what is timely and relevant for each
individual child and family.
Family Preparation
To help prepare families for oral health
supervision visits, health professionals can
provide parents with a list of topics to
discuss at the next visit. Topics may include
the following:
• Changes in the teeth and the mouth
• Oral hygiene practices (frequency,
problems)
• Use of fluoridated water for drinking
or cooking
• Fluoride use (fluoridated toothpaste
fluoridated mouthrinse, fluoride
supplements)
• Dental sealant use
• Eating practices
• Nonnutritive sucking (pacifier, thumb,
finger)
50
Illnesses or infections
Medications
Physical activity and sports participation
Injuries to the teeth or mouth
Use of tobacco by parents or child
Interview Questions
Following are examples of questions that
health professionals may use. In addition to
asking these or other interview questions,
discuss any issues or concerns the family
has. As the child becomes more mature,
ask the child questions directly.
To parent:
• How often does Sarah brush or floss
her teeth? Does she use fluoridated
toothpaste?
• Is Jee brushing and flossing his teeth
without being reminded?
• Does your child with special health care
needs require more assistance or special
equipment when brushing her teeth?
• Has Andrea lost any teeth yet?
• Does Mark comment about his teeth and
how they look?
• How often does Selena see the dentist?
When was her last dental appointment?
• Is your water fluoridated? Do you have
any questions about fluoride supplements,
fluoride varnish, or dental sealants?
• Does Justin eat snacks at school? After
school? What types of snacks are available for Justin to eat?
• Does the school have vending machines?
If so, do they offer healthy beverage
choices such as water or milk?
• Do you and your family members wear
seat belts when riding in a vehicle?
MIDDLE CHILDHOOD • 5–10 YEARS
•
•
•
•
•
51
MIDDLE CHILDHOOD • 5–10 YEARS
• Do you understand what to do if Jon
knocks out one of his teeth?
• When was Elisa’s last visit to a health
professional? Is it time for her next health
supervision visit?
To child:
• Do you wear a helmet when riding a
bicycle, skateboard, or snowboard?
• Does Mary participate in physical activities and sports that could result in injuries
to the mouth? Does she wear protective
gear like a mouth guard, face protector,
or helmet?
• When do you brush your teeth? Floss?
Do you use fluoridated toothpaste?
• Do you think your teeth look okay?
• Do any of your teeth hurt?
• How many teeth have you lost?
• When was the last time you went to the
dentist?
• Do you snack at school? After school?
What do you eat?
• Do you wear a seat belt in a car, van,
truck, taxi, or other vehicle?
52
MIDDLE CHILDHOOD • 5–10 YEARS
cigarettes (cigarettes or e-cigarettes) in
the last month? Use chewing tobacco?
How often?
Risk Assessment
Use the risk assessment tables shown on
pages 72–79 and caries risk assessment
tools described on pages 80–81 to assess
the child’s risk factors for oral health issues.
Screening
• What sports do you play? Do you wear
protective mouth gear when you participate in contact sports? Do you wear
a helmet when riding a bicycle, skateboard, or snowboard?
• What do you think about smoking?
Chewing tobacco? Did you smoke any
Visually inspect the lips, tongue, teeth, gums,
inside of the cheeks, and roof of the mouth.
Examination
The child should be seen according to a
schedule recommended by the dentist,
based on the child’s individual needs and
susceptibility to disease.
53
Anticipatory Guidance
MIDDLE CHILDHOOD • 5–10 YEARS
Discuss with Parents (as child
becomes more mature, direct
discussion toward the child):
Oral Health Care
• Making an appointment for a dental visit
for the child according to the schedule
recommended by the child’s dentist,
based on the child’s individual needs or
risk for developing oral disease.
• For children with special health care
needs, making appointments for more
frequent dental visits based on the child’s
individual needs or susceptibility to
disease.
• Discussing with a dentist the need to
schedule a visit to the orthodontist to
have the child evaluated for braces.
• Discussing with a dentist or other qualified health professional the need to apply
fluoride varnish. Topical fluoride may be
especially effective for children at high
risk for tooth decay, particularly those
who have a history of decay, do not
have access to fluoridated water, snack
54
Oral Hygiene
• Ensuring that children brush their teeth
with fluoridated toothpaste twice a day
(after breakfast and before bed). Make
sure the child spits out the toothpaste
after brushing but does not rinse with
water. The small amount of fluoridated
toothpaste that remains in the mouth
helps prevent tooth decay.
• For effective plaque removal, making
sure that a parent brushes the child’s
teeth at least once a day until the child
acquires fine motor skills. Because brushing requires good fine motor control,
young children cannot clean their teeth
without parental help. After children
acquire fine motor skills (e.g., the ability
to tie their shoelaces), typically by age 7
or 8, they can clean their teeth effectively
but should be supervised by a parent.
• For children with special health care
needs, adapting or obtaining special
oral health equipment (e.g., adapting a
toothbrush) to brush the child’s teeth, if
needed.
MIDDLE CHILDHOOD • 5–10 YEARS
frequently on foods or beverages containing sugar, or have a medical problem
that decreases their resistance to decay.
• Giving the child at high risk for developing tooth decay dietary fluoride supplements only as prescribed by a dentist or
physician (see Dietary Fluoride Supplementation Schedule for Children and
Adolescents at High Risk for Developing
Caries on page 86).
• Discussing with a dentist or other
qualified health professional the need to
apply dental sealants to prevent tooth
decay, shortly after the teeth erupt.
55
MIDDLE CHILDHOOD • 5–10 YEARS
• Becoming familiar with the normal
appearance of the child’s gums and teeth
so that problems can be identified if
they occur (see Tooth Eruption Chart on
pages 84–85). Checking the child’s gums
and teeth about once a month.
Nutrition
• Serving a variety of healthy foods such as
fruits, vegetables, whole-grain products
(cereals, bread, or crackers), and dairy
products (milk, cheese, cottage cheese,
and unsweetened yogurt). Meats, fish,
chicken, eggs, beans, and nuts are also
good choices for meals and snacks.
• Serving healthy foods during planned
meals and snacks, and limiting eating
(grazing) in between.
• Serving fewer foods with added sugar, such as candy, cookies, cake,
56
•
•
•
Drink fluoridated water (via a community fluoridated water source) or bottled
water that contains fluoride.
MIDDLE CHILDHOOD • 5–10 YEARS
•
fruit-flavored drinks, and pop (soda).
Frequent consumption of foods containing sugar increases the risk for tooth
decay. Many foods contain one or more
types of sugar, and all types of sugar can
promote tooth decay. To help choose
foods low in sugar, read food labels.
Encouraging the child to eat fruits rather
than drink fruit juice.
If the child drinks beverages between
meals, encouraging the child to drink
water or milk rather than fruit juice,
fruit-flavored drinks, or pop (soda).
If the school has vending machines,
encouraging the child to choose water or
milk rather than fruit juice, fruit-flavored
drinks, or pop (soda).
Drinking water throughout the day,
especially between meals and snacks.
Nonnutritive Sucking
• If the child regularly engages in nonnutritive sucking behaviors, gently intervene to help the child stop. Intervention
strategies include:
• Talking with the child. Use basic words
to tell the child why to stop sucking
(e.g., sucking can change the shape of
the child’s mouth and teeth) and that
the child can stop.
• Using reminders. Put a bandage on the
child’s finger or thumb to remind the
child not to suck.
• Using rewards. The child and parent
agree on a plan (e.g., if the child does
not suck for a specified time period,
57
MIDDLE CHILDHOOD • 5–10 YEARS
then the child receives a reward). The
reward must be motivating to the
child. Charting small successes may
help (e.g., placing colored stars on a
calendar for each day the child does
not suck).
• Physically interrupting the habit. If
none of the preceding strategies are
successful, and the child wants to stop
the habit, two other strategies can be
tried:
• Cover the child’s hand at night (e.g.,
cover the hand with a mitten or
sock, dress the child with a special
shirt with the sleeves sewn closed).
• A dentist can place an intra-oral
appliance in the child’s mouth to
prevent sucking. The appliance is
removed after the child no longer
engages in nonnutritive sucking.
Injury Prevention
• Learning how to prevent oral injuries and
handle oral emergencies, especially the
loss or fracture of a tooth.
• If a permanent tooth is knocked out,
the parent or other adult should
(1) find the avulsed (lost) tooth,
(2) hold it by the crown (top part)
only, not the root, (3) rinse it under
cold water gently if the root is dirty,
but do not scrub, (4) reinsert it into
the socket as soon as possible, making sure that the front of the tooth
is facing you, and (5) take the child
to the dentist immediately. If it is not
possible to replace the tooth, place
the tooth in a container of cold milk
or in a cold damp cloth and take
the child and the tooth to a dentist
immediately.
58
MIDDLE CHILDHOOD • 5–10 YEARS
• Because of the danger of damaging
the underlying permanent teeth, never
attempt to reinsert an avulsed (lost)
primary tooth. It is impossible to relocate the tooth accurately, and there is
danger of pushing it too far into the
soft alveolar bone.
• If a tooth is fractured or chipped,
the parent or other adult should
(1) rinse the child’s mouth with water,
(2) apply cold compresses to the
cheek to reduce swelling, (3) if possible, find chipped or fractured piece(s)
of the tooth, and (4) take the child
and broken piece(s) to the dentist
immediately.
• Using an appropriate car seat in the
back seat of the vehicle at all times.
Once children reach the upper weight
or height limit of the forward-facing
car seat, they should be buckled in a
belt-positioning booster seat until the
seat belt fits properly.
59
MIDDLE CHILDHOOD • 5–10 YEARS
• Wearing a helmet when riding a bicycle
or skateboard. Children under age 16
should not ride all-terrain vehicles or
motorcycles.
• Being aware that the risk for injury is
higher during periods of rapid growth.
• Ensuring that the child wears protective
gear when participating in physical activities or sports that could result in injuries
to the mouth, such as biking; riding a
scooter; skateboarding; in-line skating;
or playing football, baseball, soccer, or
lacrosse.
• Ensuring that the child does not ride an
all-terrain vehicle of any size.
• Teaching the child about injury prevention, including the need to wear
protective gear (e.g., mouth guard, face
protector, helmet).
• Providing the child’s caregivers with the
dentist’s emergency phone contacts, and
ensuring that the caregivers know how
to handle oral emergencies.
60
MIDDLE CHILDHOOD • 5–10 YEARS
Substance Use
• Teaching the child about the dangers
of cigarette smoking (cigarettes or
e-cigarettes) or using chewing tobacco.
Avoid secondhand smoke.
Outcomes
• Parents and child are under the care of
an oral health professional.
• Parents and child are informed of oral
development issues.
• Parents and child understand and
practice good oral hygiene and eating
behaviors.
• Parents establish a safe environment,
and parents and child practice safety
behaviors.
• Child has no oral disease or injury.
61
ADOLESCENCE
ADOLESCENCE • 11–21 YEARS
Health professionals should select the
information in this section that is most
appropriate, using clinical judgment to
decide what is timely and relevant for the
adolescent and family.
Family Preparation
To help prepare families for oral health
supervision visits, health professionals can
provide adolescents with a list of topics to
discuss at the next visit. Topics may include
the following:
• Changes in the teeth or the mouth
• Oral hygiene practices (frequency,
problems)
• Use of fluoridated water for drinking or
cooking
• Fluoride use (fluoridated toothpaste,
fluoridated mouthrinse, fluoride
supplements)
• Dental sealant use
• Eating practices
• Illnesses or infections
• Medications
62
• Physical activity and sports participation
• Injuries to the teeth or the mouth
• Adolescent’s tobacco use
Following are examples of questions that
health professionals may use. In addition to
asking these or other interview questions,
discuss any issues or concerns the family
has. Ask the adolescent questions directly.
• When do you brush and floss your teeth?
Do you use fluoridated toothpaste?
• Do you think your teeth look okay?
• Have your wisdom teeth erupted?
• When was the last time you went to the
dentist?
• Do you snack at school? After school?
What do you eat or drink?
ADOLESCENCE • 11–21 YEARS
Interview Questions
• Does your school have vending
machines? If so, do they offer healthy
beverage choices such as water or milk?
• Do you wear a seat belt while driving or
riding in a vehicle?
• Do you wear a helmet when riding a
bicycle? Skateboard? An all-terrain vehicle? Motorcycle?
• Do you participate in physical activities
and sports that could result in injuries to
the mouth? Do you wear protective gear
like a mouth guard, face protector, or
helmet?
• What do you think about smoking?
Chewing tobacco? Did you smoke any
cigarettes (cigarettes or e-cigarettes) in
the last month? Use chewing tobacco?
How often?
63
ADOLESCENCE • 11–21 YEARS
• When was your last visit to a health professional? Is it time for your next health
supervision visit?
dentist, based on the adolescent’s individual needs and risk for developing oral
disease.
Risk Assessment
Anticipatory Guidance
Use the risk assessment tables shown on
pages 72–79 and caries risk assessment
tools described on pages 80–81 to assess
the adolescent’s risk factors for oral health
issues.
Discuss with Adolescent, or with
Adolescent and Parents:
Screening
Visually inspect the lips, tongue, teeth,
gums, inside of the cheeks, and roof of the
mouth.
Examination
The adolescent should be seen according to a schedule recommended by the
Oral Health Care
• Making an appointment for a dental visit
according to the schedule recommended
by your dentist, based on your individual needs and risk for developing oral
disease.
• If you have special health care needs,
making appointments for more frequent
dental visits based on your individual
needs and susceptibility to disease.
• Discussing with a dentist the need
to establish a preventive oral health
64
ADOLESCENCE • 11–21 YEARS
regimen, including an evaluation of the
bite and third molar development.
• Discussing with a dentist or other qualified health professional the need to rinse
daily with a non-alcohol-based fluoride
mouthrinse or to receive fluoride varnish
applications. Topical fluoride may be
especially effective for adolescents at
high risk for tooth decay, particularly
if they have a history of decay, do not
have access to fluoridated water, snack
frequently on foods or beverages containing sugar, or have a medical problem
that decreases their resistance to decay.
• Giving the adolescent up to age 16 at
high risk for developing tooth decay
dietary fluoride supplements only as
prescribed by a dentist or physician
(see Dietary Fluoride Supplementation
Schedule for Children and Adolescents
at High Risk for Developing Caries on
page 86).
• Discussing with a dentist or other
qualified health professional the need to
apply dental sealants to prevent tooth
decay, shortly after the teeth erupt.
65
ADOLESCENCE • 11–21 YEARS
• Discussing with a dentist the need to
schedule a visit to the orthodontist to
have the adolescent evaluated for braces.
Oral Hygiene
• Brushing your teeth with fluoridated
toothpaste twice a day (after breakfast
and before bed). Spit out the toothpaste
after brushing, but do not rinse with
water. The small amount of fluoridated
toothpaste that remains in your mouth
helps prevent tooth decay. Floss daily.
• For adolescents with special health care
needs, adapting or obtaining special
oral health equipment (e.g., adapting
a toothbrush) to brush your teeth, if
needed.
• Becoming familiar with the normal
appearance of your gums and teeth so
that you can identify problems if they
occur (see Tooth Eruption Chart on
pages 84–85).
Nutrition
• Eating a variety of healthy foods such as
fruits, vegetables, whole-grain products
(cereals, bread, or crackers), and dairy
products (milk, cheese, cottage cheese,
and unsweetened yogurt). Meats, fish,
66
•
•
•
• If the school has vending machines,
choosing water or milk rather than
fruit juice, fruit-flavored drinks, flavored
water, energy drinks, or pop (soda).
• Drinking water throughout the day,
especially between meals and snacks.
Drink fluoridated water (via a community
ADOLESCENCE • 11–21 YEARS
•
chicken, eggs, beans, and nuts are also
good choices for meals and snacks.
Eating healthy foods during planned
meals and snacks, and limiting eating
(grazing) in between.
Eating fewer foods with added sugar,
such as candy, cookies, cake, fruitflavored drinks, and pop (soda). Frequent
consumption of foods containing sugar
increases the risk for tooth decay. Many
foods contain one or more types of
sugar, and all types of sugar can promote
tooth decay. To help choose foods low in
sugar, read food labels.
Choosing fruits rather than fruit juice.
If drinking beverages between meals,
choosing water or milk rather than
fruit juice, fruit-flavored drinks, flavored
water, energy drinks, or pop (soda).
67
fluoridated water source) or bottled
water that contains fluoride.
ADOLESCENCE • 11–21 YEARS
Injury Prevention
• Learning how to prevent oral injuries and
handle oral emergencies, especially the
loss or fracture of a tooth.
• If a permanent tooth is knocked out,
you or an adult should (1) find the
avulsed (lost) tooth, (2) hold it by the
crown (top part) only, not the root,
(3) rinse it under cold water gently if
the root is dirty, but do not scrub,
(4) reinsert it into the socket as soon
as possible, making sure that the
front of the tooth is facing you, and
(5) go to the dentist immediately.
If it is not possible to replace the
tooth, place the tooth in a container
of cold milk or in a cold damp cloth
and go to a dentist with the tooth
immediately.
• If a tooth is fractured or chipped,
you or an adult should (1) rinse your
mouth with water, (2) apply cold
68
ADOLESCENCE • 11–21 YEARS
compresses to the cheek to reduce
swelling, (3) if possible, find chipped
or fractured piece(s) of the tooth, and
(4) go to the dentist with the broken
piece(s) immediately.
• Using a seat belt while riding in or driving a vehicle. Adolescents ages 12 and
under should sit in the back seat of the
vehicle. If you are driving, insist that your
passengers also wear seat belts.
• Wearing a helmet when riding a bicycle, skateboard, all-terrain vehicle, or
motorcycle. Adolescents under age 16
should not ride all-terrain vehicles or
motorcycles.
• Wearing protective gear (e.g., mouth
guard, face protector, helmet) when
participating in physical activities or
sports that could result in injuries to the
mouth, such as biking; riding a scooter;
skateboarding; in-line skating; or playing
football, baseball, soccer, or lacrosse.
• Not getting oral piercings, which can
damage teeth and gums.
Substance Use
• Not smoking cigarettes (cigarettes or
e-cigarettes) or using chewing tobacco.
Avoid secondhand smoke.
69
Outcomes
ADOLESCENCE • 11–21 YEARS
• Parents and adolescent are under the
care of an oral health professional.
• Parents and adolescent are informed of
oral development issues.
• Parents and adolescent understand and
practice good oral hygiene and eating
behaviors.
• Parents and adolescent establish a safe
environment, and parents and adolescent practice safety behaviors.
• Adolescent has no oral disease or injury.
70
RISK ASSESSMENT
DENTAL CARIES RISK ASSESSMENT TABLE
RISK FACTORS
INTERVENTION STRATEGIES
RISK ASSESSMENT
Physical: Examples
Previous dental caries experience
High Streptococcus mutans count
History of tooth decay
Variations in tooth enamel; deep pits and
fissures; anatomically susceptible areas
Increased frequency of oral health supervision
Reduction of Streptococcus mutans count
Increased frequency of oral health supervision
Dental sealants (if possible) or observation
Special health care needs
Gastric reflux
Preventive intervention to minimize effects
Management of condition
Behavioral: Examples
Frequent snacking
Poor oral hygiene
Frequent or prolonged bottle feedings during
the day or night
Reduction in snacking frequency
Good oral hygiene
Less-frequent and less-prolonged bottle
feedings, and weaning from bottle by age 12
to 14 months
Self-induced vomiting
Referral for counseling
72
DENTAL CARIES RISK ASSESSMENT TABLE (continued)
RISK FACTORS
INTERVENTION STRATEGIES
Socioenvironmental: Examples
Optimal systemic and/or topical fluoride
Access to care
Access to care and good oral hygiene
Good parental oral health and oral hygiene
RISK ASSESSMENT
Inadequate fluoride
Poverty
Poor family oral health
High parental levels of Streptococcus mutans
Disease or Treatment Related: Examples
Special carbohydrate diet
Frequent intake of medications containing
sugar
Preventive intervention to minimize effects
Alternate medications or preventive
intervention to minimize effects
Orthodontic appliances
Reduced saliva flow from medication or
irradiation
Good oral hygiene for appliances
Saliva substitute
73
PERIODONTAL DISEASE RISK ASSESSMENT TABLE
RISK FACTORS
INTERVENTION STRATEGIES
Physical: Examples
RISK ASSESSMENT
Gingivitis
Puberty
Pregnancy
Mouthbreathing
Malpositioned or crowded teeth
Genetic predisposition
Anatomical variations (e.g., frenum)
Treatment of disease
Preventive measures to address oral effects
Preventive measures to address oral effects
Management of mouthbreathing
Orthodontic care
Preventive intervention to minimize effects
Surgical correction
Behavioral: Examples
Poor oral hygiene
Tobacco use
Birth control pills
Good oral hygiene
Tobacco-use cessation
Preventive measures to minimize effects
Socioenvironmental: Examples
Poverty
Poor family oral health
Access to care
Access to care and good oral hygiene
74
PERIODONTAL DISEASE RISK ASSESSMENT TABLE (continued)
RISK FACTORS
INTERVENTION STRATEGIES
Disease or Treatment Related: Examples
Treatment of disease and preventive
intervention to minimize effects
Medications (e.g., calcium channel blockers)
Unrestored or poorly restored tooth decay
Metabolic disease (e.g., diabetes)
Neoplastic disease (e.g., leukemia or its
treatment)
Preventive intervention to minimize effects
Properly contoured and finished restorations
Treatment of disease
Treatment of disease and preventive
intervention to minimize effects
Injury
Use of age-appropriate safety measures and
treatment of injury
Nutritional deficiencies (e.g., vitamin C)
Good eating behaviors
RISK ASSESSMENT
Infectious disease (e.g., HIV/AIDS)
75
MALOCCLUSION RISK ASSESSMENT TABLE
RISK FACTORS
INTERVENTION STRATEGIES
RISK ASSESSMENT
Physical: Examples
Familial tendency for malocclusion
Conditions associated with malocclusion
(e.g., cleft lip/palate)
Early intervention
Early intervention
Variations in development (e.g., tooth eruption
delays and malpositioned teeth)
Early intervention
Congenital absence of teeth
Mouthbreathing
Muscular imbalances
Early intervention
Management of mouthbreathing
Early therapy
Behavioral: Examples
Nonnutritive sucking habits in children
ages 4 and above
Elimination of habit
76
MALOCCLUSION RISK ASSESSMENT TABLE (continued)
RISK FACTORS
INTERVENTION STRATEGIES
Disease or Treatment Related: Examples
Early intervention for dental caries
Dental intervention as a part of medical care
Dental intervention as a part of medical care
Musculoskeletal conditions (e.g., cerebral palsy)
Injury
Dental intervention as a part of medical care
Use of age-appropriate measures (e.g., car
seats, booster seats, seat belts, stair gates,
mouth guards) and treatment of injury
RISK ASSESSMENT
Loss of space owing to dental caries
Skeletal growth disorders (e.g., renal disease)
Acquired problem from systemic condition or
its therapy
77
INJURY RISK ASSESSMENT TABLE
RISK FACTORS
INTERVENTION STRATEGIES
RISK ASSESSMENT
Physical: Examples
Poor coordination (e.g., children with special
health care needs)
Referral for appropriate physical therapy
Protruding front teeth
Lack of protective reflexes
Orthodontic care
Referral for appropriate therapy
Behavioral: Examples
Failure to use age-appropriate safety measures
(e.g., car seats, booster seats, seat belts,
stair gates, mouth guards)
Use of age-appropriate safety measures
Participation in contact physical activities and
sports
Use of protective gear
78
INJURY RISK ASSESSMENT TABLE (continued)
RISK FACTORS
INTERVENTION STRATEGIES
Socioenvironmental: Examples
Referral for family counseling
Reporting of suspected abuse or neglect to
local social service agency
Substance use by child or adolescent
Substance abuse in family
Referral for substance abuse counseling
Referral for substance abuse counseling
RISK ASSESSMENT
Multiple family problems
Child abuse or neglect
Disease or Treatment Related: Examples
Hyperactivity
Overmedication
Management of condition
Adjustment of medications
79
CARIES RISK ASSESSMENT TOOLS
RISK ASSESSMENT
The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry’s
caries risk assessment forms are designed to
help oral health professionals and non-oralhealth professionals assess caries risk in infants,
children, and adolescents and to aid in clinical
decision-making related to diagnostic, fluoride, dietary, and restorative protocols. Forms
are geared toward specific age ranges (birth
through age 3, birth through age 5, and ages
6 and over) and users (oral health professionals
and non-oral-health professionals). Each form
presents different categories of risk factors and
indicates how to determine whether an infant,
child, or adolescent is at low, moderate, or high
risk for dental caries. The following forms are
available at http://www.aapd.org/media/
Policies_Guidelines/G_CariesRiskAssessment.pdf.
Caries-Risk Assessment Form for 0–3 Olds:
For Physicians and Other Non-Dental Health
Care Providers
Caries-Risk Assessment Form for 0–5 Year Olds:
For Dental Providers
Caries-Risk Assessment Form for ≥6 Years Olds:
For Dental Providers
The American Academy of Pediatrics developed
the oral health risk assessment tool to aid in the
implementation of oral health risk assessment
during health supervision visits. The tool is
intended to document risk and protective factors, clinical findings, and an assessment plan.
The tool is available at http://www2.aap.org/
oralhealth/docs/RiskAssessmentTool.pdf.
The American Dental Association’s caries risk
assessment forms are tools to help dentists
evaluate infants’, children’s, and adolescents’
risk for developing dental caries. The forms
can also be used as communication tools with
children, adolescents, and parents to highlight
risk factors. The forms are divided by age range
80
RISK ASSESSMENT
(birth to age 6 and over age 6). Each form
includes three categories: contributing conditions, general health conditions, and clinical
conditions. The first two categories can be completed by a member of the oral health team, as
determined by the dentist; the third category
should be completed by a dentist. The first
two categories can be completed by a member
of the oral health team, as determined by the
dentist; the third category should be completed
by a dentist. The forms are available at the web
addresses shown below.
Caries Risk Assessment Form (Age 0–6)
http://www.ada.org/~/media/ADA/Member
%20Center/FIles/topics_caries_educational_
under6.pdf?la=en
Caries Risk Assessment Form (Age >6)
http://www.ada.org/~/media/ADA_Foundation/
GKAS/Files/topics_caries_educational_over6.
pdf?la=en
81
APPENDICES
ERUPTION CHART
TOOTH ERUPTION(IDENTIFICATION
CHART
OF TEETH)
APPENDICES
PRIMARY DENTITION
Upper Teeth
Erupt
Exfoliate
Central incisor
8-12 months
6-7 years
Lateral incisor
9-13 months
7-8 years
Canine (cuspid)
16-22 months
10-12 years
First molar
13-19 months
9-11 years
Second molar
25-33 months
10-12 years
Lower Teeth
Erupt
Exfoliate
Second molar
23-31 months
10-12 years
First molar
14-18 months
9-11 years
Canine (cuspid)
17-23 months
9-12 years
Lateral incisor
10-16 months
7-8 years
Central incisor
6-10 months
6-7 years
PERMANENT DENTITION
84
Upper Teeth
Erupt
Central incisor
7-8 years
Lateral incisor
8-9 years
Canine (cuspid)
11-12 years
First premolar (first bicuspid)
10-11 years
Second premolar (second bicuspid)
10-12 years
First molar
6-7 years
Second molar
12-13 years
Third molar (wisdom tooth)
17-21 years
Lower Teeth
Erupt
Third molar (wisdom tooth)
17-21 years
Second molar
12-13 years
Lower Teeth
Erupt
Exfoliate
Second molar
23-31 months
10-12 years
First molar
14-18 months
9-11 years
Canine (cuspid)
17-23 months
9-12 years
Lateral incisor
10-16 months
7-8 years
Central incisor
6-10 months
6-7 years
PERMANENT DENTITION
Erupt
Central incisor
7-8 years
Lateral incisor
8-9 years
Canine (cuspid)
11-12 years
First premolar (first bicuspid)
10-11 years
Second premolar (second bicuspid)
10-12 years
First molar
6-7 years
Second molar
12-13 years
Third molar (wisdom tooth)
17-21 years
Lower Teeth
Erupt
Third molar (wisdom tooth)
17-21 years
Second molar
12-13 years
First molar
6-7 years
Second premolar (second bicuspid)
10-12 years
First premolar (first bicuspid)
10-11 years
Canine (cuspid)
11-12 years
Lateral incisor
8-9 years
Central incisor
7-8 years
APPENDICES
Upper Teeth
Adapted with permission from the Arizona Department of Health Services, Office of Oral Health, courtesy of
Don Altman, D.D.S., M.P.H. The assistance of the American Dental Hygienists’ Association is gratefully acknowledged.
85
DIETARY FLUORIDE SUPPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE
FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS AT HIGH RISK FOR
DEVELOPING CARIES
APPENDICES
Fluoride Ion Level in Drinking Water a
Age
< 0.3 ppm
0.3–0.6 ppm
> 0.6 ppm
Newborn–6 months
None
None
None
6 months–3 years
0.25 mg/day b
None
None
3–6 years
0.50 mg/day
0.25 mg/day
None
6–16 years
1.0 mg/day
0.50 mg/day
None
a
1.0 ppm = 1 mg/L.
2.2 mg sodium fluoride contains 1 mg fluoride ion.
b
Reproduced with permission from the American Dental Association from ADA Guide to Dental Therapeutics (2nd ed.).
86
GLOSSARY
bacteria: microorganisms commonly referred
to as “germs” capable of producing disease
under the right conditions
crown: the part of the tooth above the gum
line; also a restorative “cap” that covers a
cracked or broken tooth, unfixed by a filling
enamel: hard, glossy, white material that covers
the outside of the tooth
eruption: when a tooth emerges from the
gums
debris: soft foreign matter attached loosely to
tooth
fissure: anatomic groove in the surface of a
tooth
demineralization: loss of mineral from tooth
enamel during early stages of caries; may
appear as a small white area on tooth surface
fluoridation: addition of fluoride to community
water systems
dental home: a dentist who provides primary,
preventive, and maintenance oral health
services to an individual on a periodic basis
APPENDICES
caries (dental caries): infectious disease
process leading to tooth decay
dental sealant: thin, plastic coating that is
applied to the chewing surfaces of back teeth
(molars and premolars) to prevent tooth
decay
fluoride: mineral that can be found in water
and toothpaste that helps prevent and reduce
tooth decay
APPENDICES
87
fluoride varnish: lacquer containing 5 percent
sodium fluoride that is painted on teeth to
reduce tooth decay
permanent teeth (adult teeth): second set
of teeth (32 in number) that come into the
mouth after the loss of the primary teeth
fluorosis: condition that results from
consuming excessive fluoride; causes teeth
to become discolored and the enamel of the
teeth to look spotted, pitted, or stained
plaque: thin, colorless, sticky film of bacteria
that forms on teeth; main cause of caries and
periodontal disease when allowed to remain
on teeth over a period of time
malocclusion (“bad bite”): teeth that fit
together poorly as a result of crowded,
missing, or crooked teeth; extra teeth;
or a misaligned jaw
primary teeth (deciduous teeth): first set of
teeth (20 in number) that come into the
mouth, usually when an infant is around ages
6 to 10 months
molars: large, broad teeth at the back of the
mouth used for crushing and grinding food
saliva: watery secretions of glands of the mouth
periodontal disease: bacterial infection of
supporting structures of the teeth (gums,
bones, and ligaments) which, if left untreated, can destroy the support of the teeth
in their sockets, thus causing tooth loss
88
Streptococcus mutans: type of bacteria
commonly found in the mouth, associated
with caries
tooth decay: see caries
RESOURCES
National Maternal and Child Oral Health
Resource Center
APPENDICES
The National Maternal and Child Oral Health
Resource Center (OHRC) responds to the needs
of professionals working in states and communities with the goal of improving oral health
services for pregnant women, infants, children,
and adolescents, including those with special health care needs, and their families. The
resource center supports health professionals,
program administrators, educators, policymakers, and others, particularly those working in
or with state maternal and child health (MCH)
programs. The resource center collaborates with
government agencies, professional associations,
foundations, policy and research centers, and
voluntary organizations to gather, develop, and
share information and materials to promote
sustainable oral health services for the MCH
population. OHRC also maintains the online
Bright Futures Toolbox to highlight materials
that advance the Bright Futures philosophy of
promoting and improving the oral health of
pregnant and postpartum women, infants, children, and adolescents. OHRC is funded by the
Health Resources and Services Administration’s
Maternal and Child Health Bureau located at
Georgetown University.
National Maternal and Child Oral Health
Resource Center
Georgetown University
Box 571272
Washington, DC 20057-1272
Phone: (202) 784-9771
E-mail: OHRCinfo@georgetown.edu
Website: http://www.mchoralhealth.org
89
Bright Futures National Education Center
APPENDICES
The Bright Futures National Education Center’s mission is to enhance the knowledge
of health professionals and the public about
Bright Futures and about the value of clinically
based health promotion and prevention. The
center carries out its mission through a variety
of integrated strategies, including establishing and maintaining partnerships with health
professionals and public health organizations
to promote and advance the Bright Futures
initiative; fostering the adoption of the Bright
Futures approach by identifying promising
practice models, disseminating models to
health professionals and organizations and providing technical assistance; providing training,
continuing education, and assistance on Bright
Futures health promotion and prevention content; building Bright Futures outreach efforts;
and updating and maintaining key Bright
Futures guidelines and tools. The Bright Futures
90
National Education Center is funded by the
Health Resources and Services Administration’s
Maternal and Child Health Bureau and located
at the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Bright Futures National Education Center
c/o American Academy of Pediatrics
141 Northwest Point Boulevard
Elk Grove Village, IL 60007
E-mail: brightfutures@aap.org
Website: http://brightfutures.aap.org
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