EURORACK MX3242X
MX3242X
EURORACK
User’s Manual
Bedienungsanleitung
Version 1.0
March 1999
www.behringer.de
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EC-Declaration of Conformity
INTERNATIONAL GmbH
acc. to the Directives
89/336/EWG and 73/23/EWG
We,
BEHRINGER INTERNATIONAL GmbH
Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Straße 36-38
D - 47877 Willich
Name and address of the manufacturer or the introducer of the product on the market who is established in the EC
herewith take the sole responsibility to confirm that the product:
EURORACK MX3242X
Type designation and article-No (if applicable)
to which this declaration refers, is in accordance with the following standards or standardized documents:
x EN 60065
x EN 55020
x EN 55013
x EN 61000-3-2
x EN 61000-3-3
x EN 55022
The following operation conditions and installation arrangements have to be presumed:
acc. to Operating Manual
B. Nier, President
Name, address, date and legally binding signature of the person responsible
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Willich, 01.03.1999
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
CAUTION:
To reduce the risk of electrical shock, do not remove
the cover (or back). No user serviceable parts inside; refer servicing to qualified personnel.
WARNING: To reduce the risk of fire or electrical shock, do not
expose this appliance to rain or moisture.
This symbol, wherever it appears,
alerts you to the presence of
uninsulated dangerous voltage inside
the enclosure - voltage that may be
sufficient to constitute a risk of shock.
This symbol, wherever it appears, alerts
you to important operating and maintenance instructions in the accompanying
literature. Read the manual.
DETAILED SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS:
All the safety and operation instructions should be read before the appliance is operated.
Retain Instructions:
The safety and operating instructions should be retained for future reference.
Heed Warnings:
All warnings on the appliance and in the operating instructions should be adhered to.
Follow instructions:
All operation and user instructions should be followed.
Water and Moisture:
The appliance should not be used near water (e.g. near a bathtub, washbowl, kitchen sink, laundry tub, in a
wet basement, or near a swimming pool etc.).
Ventilation:
The appliance should be situated so that its location or position does not interfere with its proper ventilation.
For example, the appliance should not be situated on a bed, sofa rug, or similar surface that may block the
ventilation openings, or placed in a built-in installation, such as a bookcase or cabinet that may impede the
flow of air through the ventilation openings.
Heat:
The appliance should be situated away from heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other
appliance (including amplifiers) that produce heat.
Power Source:
The appliance should be connected to a power supply only of the type described in the operating instructions
or as marked on the appliance.
Grounding or Polarization:
Precautions should be taken so that the grounding or polarization means of an appliance is not defeated.
Power-Cord Protection:
Power supply cords should be routed so that they are not likely to be walked on or pinched by items placed
upon or against them, paying particular attention to cords and plugs, convenience receptacles and the point
where they exit from the appliance.
Cleaning:
The appliance should be cleaned only as recommended by the manufacturer.
Non-use Periods:
The power cord of the appliance should be unplugged from the outlet when left unused for a long period of
time.
Object and Liquid Entry:
Care should be taken so that objects do not fall and liquids are not spilled into the enclosure through openings.
Damage Requiring Service:
The appliance should be serviced by qualified service personnel when:
- The power supply cord or the plug has been damaged; or
- Objects have fallen, or liquid has been spilled into the appliance; or
- The appliance has been exposed to rain; or
- The appliance does not appear to operate normally or exhibits a marked change in performance; or
- The appliance has been dropped, or the enclosure damaged.
Servicing:
The user should not attempt to service the appliance beyond that is described in the Operating Instructions.
All other servicing should be referred to qualified service personnel.
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Block diagram
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Rear view
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MX3242X
Ultra-low noise 16/32-Channel 4-Bus Inline Mixing Console with integrated VIRTUALIZER Multi-Effects Processor.
s 16 Microphone Input Channels with gold-plated XLRs, TRS Jacks, Inserts and Direct Outputs.
EURORACK
s Ultra-low noise discrete Mic Preamps with +48 V Phantom Power and switchable Low Cut Filter.
s 16 Line Input Channels with balanced TRS Jack connectors.
s 4 Subgroups with independent Pan control, Solo and Main Mix switches and Inserts.
s 4 Stereo Aux Returns with separate Level and Pan controls, Solo and Routing switches.
s 2 pre / post and 4 post fader Aux Sends for a maximum effects and monitoring flexibility.
s 6 Master Aux Sends with Gain Control and Solo switches.
s 24-bit Stereo Multi-Effects Processor with ultra-high resolution 46 kHz, 20-bit AD/DA converters.
s 32 original VIRTUALIZER Presets including 16 different Reverbs, Delays, Chorus, Flanger, Pitch Shifter,
Speaker Simulation and various combinations.
s Extremely high headroom - offering a huge dynamic range.
s Balanced Inputs and Main Outputs for highest signal integrity.
s Ultra-musical and original EURODESK 4-band EQ with two sweepable Mids and I/O switch on all
channels.
s LED controlled Mute, Solo-In-Place / Pre-Fader-Listen function on all channels.
s Mix-B section with separate Level and Pan controls, Mute and Source switches.
s Separate Main Mix, Control Room and Headphone Outputs.
s Extremely versatile Headphone and Talkback section.
s Highly accurate 8-segment Bargraph Meters on all Channels, Subgroups and Main Mix.
s Ultra-high quality 100 mm faders for all Channels, Subgroups and Main Mix.
s 19 inch Rack Mounting kit included.
s Professional 19 inch external Power Supply ensures superior transient response.
s State-of-the-art 4580 ICs and high quality components ensure crystal-clear audio performance.
s Extremely rugged construction ensures long life even under the most demanding conditions.
s Manufactured under the stringent ISO9000 Management System.
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FOREWORD
Dear Customer,
Welcome to the team of EURORACK users and thank you very much for expressing your confidence in
BEHRINGER products by purchasing this unit.
It is one of my most pleasant tasks to write this letter to you, because it is the culmination of many months of
hard work delivered by our engineering team to reach a very ambitious goal: To produce a compact mixer,
which fully satisfies your and our expectations and delivers a superior sound quality, easy operation and
technical specifications. In addition to that the mixer is affordable for almost every musician. The task to
design the EURORACK certainly meant a great deal of responsibility, which we assumed by focosing on you,
the discerning user and musician. It also meant a lot of work and night shifts to accomplish this goal. But it
was fun, too. Developing a product usually brings a lot of people together, and what a great feeling it is when
everybody who participated in such a project can be proud of what we’ve achieved.
It is our philosophy to share our joy with you, because you are the most important member of the BEHRINGER
family. With your highly competent suggestions for new products you’ve greatly contributed to shaping our
company and making it successful. In return, we guarantee you uncompromising quality (manufactured
under ISO9000 certified management system) as well as excellent technical and audio properties at an
extremely favorable price. All of this will enable you to fully unfold your creativity without being hampered by
budget constraints.
We are often asked how we can make it to produce such high-grade devices at such unbelievably low prices.
The answer is quite simple: it’s you, our customers! Many satisfied customers means large sales volumes
enabling us to get better conditions of purchase for components, etc. Isn’t it only fair to pass this benefit back
to you? Because we know that your success is our success, too!
I would like to thank the following people, whose help on “Project EURORACK MX3242X” has made it all
possible:
s The existing users of BEHRINGER equipment (whose comments and suggestions have made them the
most important members of the BEHRINGER design team),
s Thorsten Derks (for this marvellous manual layout),
s Bernhard (Rammi) Ramroth (whose technical ingenuity is unique),
s Volker Wagner for the fine mechanics (key-phrase “Tooling modification”),
s and all the others, who have made very personal contributions.
My friends, it’s been worth the trouble!
Thank you very much,
Uli Behringer
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 10
1.1 Concept ........................................................................................................................................ 10
1.1.1 Architecture ......................................................................................................................... 11
1.2 Before you start ............................................................................................................................ 12
1.2.1 Level meters ....................................................................................................................... 12
1.2.2 Power Supply Unit (PSU) ................................................................................................... 12
1.2.3 Warranty ............................................................................................................................ 13
1.2.4 Shipping ............................................................................................................................. 13
1.2.5 Mounting the MX3242X in a rack ........................................................................................ 13
2. OPERATION ........................................................................................................................... 14
2.1 Main input channel ........................................................................................................................
2.1.1 Input level setting ................................................................................................................
2.1.2 Equalizer ............................................................................................................................
2.1.3 Aux Send buses ..................................................................................................................
2.1.4 Routing, fading and muting .................................................................................................
2.1.5 FLIP switch .........................................................................................................................
2.2 Mix-B input channel ......................................................................................................................
2.2.1 Input level setting ................................................................................................................
2.2.2 Aux Send buses ..................................................................................................................
2.2.3 Routing ...............................................................................................................................
2.3 Insert points and direct outputs .....................................................................................................
2.3.1 Main input channels ............................................................................................................
2.3.2 Subgroups ..........................................................................................................................
2.3.3 Main mix .............................................................................................................................
2.3.4 Direct output on each Main input channel ...........................................................................
2.4 Main section .................................................................................................................................
2.4.1 Aux Send buses ..................................................................................................................
2.4.2 Aux Returns – additional stereo line inputs ..........................................................................
2.4.3 Level meters .......................................................................................................................
2.4.4 CHANNEL MODE and SOLO MASTER LEVEL controls ......................................................
2.4.5 Mix-B ..................................................................................................................................
2.4.6 Monitor section ...................................................................................................................
2.4.7 Headphones section ...........................................................................................................
2.4.8 Subgroups and Main Mix fader ...........................................................................................
2.4.9 Digital Effects Processor ....................................................................................................
2.4.10Talkback facility: communicating with performers in the studio ............................................
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3. PRACTISE .............................................................................................................................. 26
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
8
Selecting inputs ............................................................................................................................
Initializing channels for gain setting ..............................................................................................
Auditioning a signal and setting up a channel ...............................................................................
Desk normalization .......................................................................................................................
Multi-track initialization ..................................................................................................................
Recording levels ...........................................................................................................................
Track sheet ...................................................................................................................................
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4. APPLICATIONS ..................................................................................................................... 28
4.1 Recording situation .......................................................................................................................
4.2 Live situation .................................................................................................................................
4.3 Patchbay ......................................................................................................................................
4.3.1 Patchbay configuration .......................................................................................................
4.3.2 Parallel ................................................................................................................................
4.3.3 Half-normalled .....................................................................................................................
4.3.4 Normalled ...........................................................................................................................
4.3.5 Open ...................................................................................................................................
4.3.6 Patchbay organization ........................................................................................................
4.3.7 Looming problems ..............................................................................................................
4.4 Expanding the MX3242X ...............................................................................................................
4.4.1 Expander Port .....................................................................................................................
4.4.2 Modifications ......................................................................................................................
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5. TECHNICAL BACKGROUND ................................................................................................ 37
5.1 Mixing ........................................................................................................................................... 37
5.1.1 Equalization ........................................................................................................................ 37
5.1.2 Gain optimization ................................................................................................................ 38
6. INSTALLATION ...................................................................................................................... 38
6.1 Rack mounting .............................................................................................................................. 38
6.2 Mains connection .......................................................................................................................... 39
6.3 Audio connections ........................................................................................................................ 39
7. APPENDIX ............................................................................................................................. 41
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
Specifications ...............................................................................................................................
Front view .....................................................................................................................................
Track sheet ...................................................................................................................................
Glossary .......................................................................................................................................
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8. WARRANTY ........................................................................................................................... 47
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1. INTRODUCTION
Congratulations! In purchasing the BEHRINGER EURORACK MX3242X you have acquired a mixing console
whose compact size belies its incredible versatility and superlative audio performance. Your EURORACK is
built to the same outstanding quality as our top-of-the-range console, the BEHRINGER EURODESK MX9000.
With its 19", 12 HU size it fits in a standard rack. When you mount the side panels, you can also use it as a
table-top model. The interface panel on the rear can be rotated easily and thus gives you convenient access
to all connectors, even when the MX3242X is installed in a rack.
With its complete range of sophisticated routing options, the EURORACK MX3242X is a perfect tool for both
live and studio applications. Various modifications enable you to customize the console to suit your specific
requirements. You can use the EURORACK as a recording or live console, as a live console with simultaneous multi-track recording facilities, as a sub-mixer, surround mixer, etc.
Another outstanding feature of your MX3242X is its on-board digital 24-bit Effects Processor. We designed a
scaled-down version of our well-known VIRTUALIZER, which nevertheless has the same 20-bit AD/DA converters, 24-bit DSP, 46 kHz sample rate and algorithms as our 19" unit. Which means, you can choose from
32 presets with first-class Reverb, Delay and modulation effect algorithms.
Below in this handbook you’ll find some information on how to enhance the console’s functionality even
further by using the Expansion Port to feed additional line signals in your MX3242X. At the moment, we are
planning an expansion module that can be used both as a stand-alone rack mixer and as an expansion to your
MX3242X making it a future-oriented and upgradable mixing console that grows with your needs. First of all,
however, we’d like to take you on a guided tour of all the “sights” of your BEHRINGER EURORACK MX3242X.
We recommend that you experiment with your EURORACK away from the pressure of a recording session or
live concert, in order to get a feel for it. After all, it’s a musical instrument. Learn to play it well.
Most specialist subjects are not really as difficult as they may seem at first – provided you understand the
language used. The vocabulary of mixing is pretty straightforward: a “slot” in a recorder will always be
referred to as a “track”, while that in a mixer is a “channel”. We will try to be as unambiguous as possible with
terms, since much confusion can arise from sloppy definitions. If a new term (to you) does arise, and it isn’t
fully explained in the text, look it up in the Glossary before you write a letter of complaint.
Both the Appendix and the first section of this handbook include a page that shows the front and rear panels
of your EURORACK. We recommend that you have these pages folded out while reading the handbook.
In this handbook all functions are clearly numbered both in the text and the two foldout pages.
1.1 Concept
The EURORACK MX3242X is a cross between “split” and “inline” designs. The input channels are located in
the larger left-hand section of the console, while the outputs to a multi-track recorder can be found on the
right (Subgroups). In contrast to conventional “split” consoles, however, the Tape Returns coming from the
multi-track recorder (feeding the tape signal back to the mixer) are not located in the outputs section but are
integrated in the input channels (as it is typical of an “inline” console). Thus, the input channel functions can
also be used for the Tape Returns. And later, during the mixdown this design ensures a signal path that is as
short as possible.
The MX3242X is configured as a 32/16 in 4 in 2 console, i.e. you have 16 input channels, 4 Subgroups and
16 monitor inputs for the Tape Returns. You can use one Main Mix, 4 Subgroup and 16 channel faders, each
with a control range of 100 mm. Since the monitor channels (called Mix-B in the following) can be routed to
the Main Mix bus, you can use 32 channels during mixdown. With the 6 Aux Returns and 4 Subgroups (which
can be fed via their insert points using a special cable), you have a total of 42 channels available.
On the EURORACK MX3242X you can control 6 Aux buses with 4 rotary controls. Aux buses 1 and 2 are
used for monitor mixes, and the talkback facility ensures straightforward communication between engineer
and artist. For live applications you can use the Mix-B bus as an additional monitor bus, and the 4 mono postfader Aux buses to drive external effects devices.
The input/output section comprises Microphone inputs (with 48 V phantom power), Line inputs, multi-track
connectors, various insert points as well as connectors for a 2-Track master recorder (e.g. DAT) and a
monitor system (monitor speaker with power amp).
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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1.1 Architecture
Main input channels
Channels 1 through 16 are configured as mono channels with balanced Microphone and Line connectors.
The discrete “vintage”-type microphone preamps in high-current technology have the same excellent quality
as the amplifiers in our legendary BEHRINGER EURODESK MX9000. An overdimensioned external 19"
power supply unit eliminates hum interference and ensures perfect pulse response even with signal transients. The insert jacks give the Main input channels a similar functionality as can be found in “big” mixing
consoles.
Mix-B input channels
The MX3242X provides another 16 Line inputs whose operating level can be switched between +4 dBu and
-10 dBV, making these inputs ideally suited for use as multi-track Tape Returns or to connect MIDI and other
electronic devices.
Subgroups
The four Subgroups can be used to feed signals to a multi-track recorder. In live applications they also allow
for combining several instruments, control their volumes with just one fader and send the resulting sub-mix
signal to the Main Mix bus.
Channel outputs
The channel signal passes a high-grade logarithmic 100-mm fader, to be routed to the Subgroups and/or the
Main Mix bus.
Aux Sends
The MX3242X features 6 Aux Send buses (2 pre/post, 4 post-fader), which can receive their signals both
from the Main channel and from the Mix-B input. The third Aux Send is marked “FX” and is routed to the
console’s on-board multi-effects processor, but can also be used for external effects devices.
Stereo Aux Returns (additional stereo Line inputs)
The MX3242X is equipped with 4 stereo Aux Returns located above the Subgroups. The inputs can be used
as stereo effect return or additional Tape Return inputs. As an alternative, you can also connect MIDI
instruments. The third Aux Return carries the signal from the on-board effects processor, however, can also
be used as an additional Line input, so that the outputs of the on-board effects device are not routed to Aux
Return 3.
Main Mix output (“master”)
The MX3242X has an extremely high-grade logarithmic 100-mm stereo fader to control the level of the master
outputs.
24-bit digital Effects Processor
The on-board 24-bit digital Effects Processor features first-class algorithms, similar to those used in our
VIRTUALIZER, and offers all standard effect types such as Reverb, Chorus, Flanger, Delay, etc. With its
excellent audio quality it can be used both for mixdowns, live concerts and monitoring.
Other highlights of the MX3242X are: an adjustable headphones output (stereo headphones mix possible!), a
separate 2-Track in/output as well as the Expansion Port mentioned above. Insert points are available on the
Main channels, Subgroups and Main Mix bus. Additionally, each Main channel has a direct output which can
be modified. Thus, the MX3242X can handle up to 20 tracks in a multi-track environment by adding the Aux
Return inputs and routing them to the Subgroups. And all this in a compact enclosure of 19" and 12 HU. So,
there is no reason why you shouldn’t use your EURORACK for mobile applications, too.
1. INTRODUCTION
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1.2 Before you start
1.2.1 Level meters
Fig. 1.1: Subgroup and Main Mix level meters
Each of the Main input channels, the Subgroups and the Main Mix bus are equipped with 8-segment, 3-color
LED level meters (
,
and
), which help you set levels correctly and avoid distortion. When your
MX3242X is shipped from the factory, the level meters are configured post-fader, but can also be modified to
display pre-fader signals (cf. 4.4.2 Modifications).
The level meters should average around 0 dB during loud passages. If they read persistently higher, or are
peaking above +10 dB, you should move the faders down a bit. As a last resort you can also reduce the input
gain in the channels. Always work with the PFL function and make sure that the red CLIP LED in the level
meters won’t light up.
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When you activate the MUTE switch, the level meters in the main input channels offer you two
helpful functions: If a signal is present in the main input channel, the lowest green LED lights
up (signal present). If the gain setting is too high, the red CLIP LED on top of the channel level
meter lights up. So you are able to control the main input channel’s signal, even when the
MUTE switch is activated.
1.2.2 Power Supply Unit (PSU)
Fig. 1.2: Connecting the Power Supply
Any amplifier circuit is limited in its transient response by the available current. Every mixer has numerous
operational amplifiers (op-amps) inside to process line level signals. When being driven hard, many desks
begin to show signs of stress due to power supply limitations. Not so with the EURORACK: the sound will
always stay clean and transparent right up to the operating limits of the op-amps themselves, thanks to the
overdimensioned external 150-W PSU. Mounted in a 19" enclosure (2 ½ rack units), the EURORACK’s PSU
is connected on the rear with a multi-pin connector. However, you should make sure that 3 HU are available to
ensure proper airflow around the heat sinks.
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1. INTRODUCTION
Please connect the Power Supply to the PSU connector (Power Supply Unit),
EURORACK MX3242X before you connect it to the mains.
+
+
, on the rear of your
Never connect the PSU to the EURORACK while the PSU is connected to the mains supply!
Only use the enclosed power cord to connect the PSU to the mains.
1.2.3 Warranty
Please ask your specialized retailer to fill in the warranty card, then send it back to us within 14 days after the
date of purchase. Otherwise you will lose your extended warranty rights. The serial number
of your
MX3242X can be found on the rear of the console.
1.2.4 Shipping
Your EURORACK MX3242X was carefully packed in the factory and the packaging was designed to protect
the unit from rough handling. Nevertheless, we recommend that you carefully examine the packaging and its
contents for any signs of physical damage, which may have occurred in transit.
+
If the unit is damaged, please do not return it to us, but notify your dealer and the shipping
company immediately. Otherwise claims for damage or replacement may not be granted.
1.2.5 Mounting the MX3242X in a rack
In the shipping carton you’ll find two 19" mounting angles which can be fixed to the side panels of the console.
Remove the side panels by loosening the screws (3 per side) that fix them to the console, lay the panels aside
and use the screws to fasten the mounting angles. Please note that each angle can be mounted on a specific
side only.
To be able to reach the rear connectors when the MX3242X is mounted in a rack, you should rotate the
interface panel by 90° (after loosening the screws holding it), and refix it. The following screws must be
removed:
1) 4 screws on the upper part of the interface panel.
2) Another 4 screws on the cover plate directly mounted to the interface panel at an angle of 90°.
3) 6 screws each on the left and right side panels.
Once the interface panel has been rotated, please check that all ribbon cables are seated and connected
properly. Then tighten all screws.
+
+
Ensure sufficient air space around the MX3242X. Never mount the unit in close proximity to a
power amp or similar device to avoid overheating.
Please note that both PSU and EURORACK will heat up during operation. This is completely
normal and does not indicate a malfunction.
1. INTRODUCTION
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2. OPERATION
2.1 Main input channel
Fig. 2.1: Connecting a signal source to a Main input channel
Each mono channel features a balanced Line input on a ¼" jack
XLR connector
.
and a balanced Microphone input on an
Fig. 2.2: Phantom power switch
The +48 V phantom power required for condenser mics can be activated with the phantom power button
in the Main section. If activated, the LED next to the button lights up.
+
Mute the sound system before you turn on phantom power. Otherwise, power-up thumps
could be played back by the monitor speakers.
Fig. 2.3: Gain control and Lo Cut filter
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2. OPERATION
The Gain control
has a very wide range, obviating the need for Mic/Line switching. The levels most
commonly used are -10 dBV and +4 dBu, and are clearly labelled.
+
Please note that you can only use either of the Mic and Line inputs, but never both at the same
time!
2.1.1 Input level setting
Channel input level is determined by the Gain control
right portions of the input signal onto the level meters
ed signal to the speakers.
. Use the PFL/SOLO button
to bring the left and
in the Main section. This also sends the SOLO/PFL-
For overall level setting you should use the mono PFL bus rather than the post-fader and post-channel-pan
SOLO bus. Make sure that the CHANNEL MODE button
is not pressed. We recommend that you set the
level potentiometer
for the PFL/SOLO function to 0 dB (12 o’clock). In loud environments (e.g. live
application), you can of course raise the PFL/SOLO volume as required.
+
Please note that too high a monitoring level can lead to hearing damage.
Using the PFL/SOLO function does not affect the signal that is supplied by the recording outputs, and the
same applies to the Aux buses.
In addition to channel level metering in the Main section, each single channel has its own LED chain indicating the level of the post-fader channel signal (see section 1.2.1). This option allows you to detect and correct
excessive or insufficient levels quickly, even without having to activate the PFL/SOLO function.
The Lo Cut filter
with its high slope of 18 dB/Oct. (-3 dB at 75 Hz) eliminates unwanted subsonics.
2.1.2 Equalizer
Fig. 2.4: Equalizer
In addition to the Lo Cut filter, all Main input channels come with a 4-band Equalizer with two tunable midrange
bands, each having up to 15 dB of cut and boost. In center detent position the EQ is “off”. With the EQ IN
button
you can activate/bypass the Equalizer, so as to allow for easy comparisons of EQ-ed and
unprocessed signals. If you don’t use the Equalizer, don’t press the EQ IN button.
The HI and LO bands work with shelving-type filters raising or lowering all frequencies beyond the selected
value. The cutoff frequencies of the HI
and LO
bands are 12 kHz and 80 Hz respectively. In the
midrange band, the MX3242X provides two tunable peaking-type filters emphasizing the center frequency
with a filter quality of one octave. The HI MID band can be tuned from 300 Hz through 20 kHz, the LO MID
band from 50 Hz through 3 kHz. Use controls 6 and 8 to select the center frequencies of the two midrange
2. OPERATION
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bands, and controls 5 and 7 to determine cut/boost.
2.1.3 Aux Send buses
Fig. 2.5: Aux Sends
All Aux Sends are mono, post-EQ and post-mute. To make sure that the signal form the Main input channel is
sent to the Aux bus, SOURCE buttons
and
should be up (not pressed). However, you can also split
the Aux buses and use them both for the Main input channel and for the Mix-B channel. Aux Sends 1
and
2
can be set either pre or post-fader using button
, while Aux Sends 3 through 6 are always postfader. Aux Sends 3 and 4 as well as 5 and 6 are controlled by potentiometers
and
. The SHIFT button
determines whether Aux 3 and 4, or 5 and 6 are active. Aux control 3 (marked FX) controls the level sent
to the on-board digital Effects Processor. Of course, you can also drive an external effects device from Aux
Send 3. Simply use the Aux Send jack 3 and any of the Aux Return inputs on the rear of the MX3242X to
connect to the external device. In this case, the on-board Effects Processor does no longer receive a signal
from Aux Send 3.
For almost all effect send purposes, you will want Aux Sends to be post-fader, so that when a fader level is
adjusted, the effect intensity from that channel follows the fader. Otherwise, when the fader is pulled down, the
effect signal from that channel will still be audible. For cueing purposes, Aux Sends will usually be set prefader, i.e. independent of the channel fader.
Most effects devices sum internally the left and right inputs. The very few that don’t may be driven in true
stereo by using 2 Aux Sends.
There is +15 dB of gain on every Aux Send. Such a high boost is usually only appropriate where the channel
fader is set around -15 dB or lower. Here, an almost exclusively “wet” signal will be heard. In most consoles,
such a wet mix requires the use of a pre-fader setting for channel Aux Send, losing fader control. With the
EURORACK you can have a virtually wet mix even in a post-fader configuration, i.e. with total fader control.
The headphones amplifier BEHRINGER POWERPLAY PRO HA4400 gives you a straightforward tool to
realize four independent headphone mixes in stereo.
16
2. OPERATION
2.1.4 Routing, fading and muting
E
Fig. 2.6: Fader range of Main input channel
Level to the Main mix, Subgroup buses or direct outputs is ultimately determined by the channel faders
.
These are designed to give a smooth logarithmic taper of a type more usually associated with megabuck
consoles. The performance, even at low levels, is far smoother than that of a normal “budget” fader.
The PANORAMA control
positions the output of the channel in the stereo field. Its constant-power design
ensures there are no level discrepancies whether a signal is hard-panned, center-stage, or somewhere inbetween. Such pin-point accuracy will be a revelation if you have been working on consoles with lower quality
circuits.
PFL/SOLO we encountered in section 2.1.1. SOLO also follows channel pan.
is ergonomically placed immediately above the channel fader. Engaging MUTE is
The MUTE button
equivalent to setting a fader level of minus infinity (Main Mix or Subgroup buses), and is indicated by a lightemitting diode.
With the ROUTING buttons
you can route the Main input channel either to the Main Mix or one of the four
Subgroup buses. For example, if you want to route a signal to Subgroup 3 for recording, simply press routing
button “3-4” and turn the PANORAMA control fully to the left.
2.1.5 FLIP switch
For recording purposes you will want the Main input channel to process the input signals coming from a
microphone, direct-injection box or instrument, while the Mix-B input channel is used to monitor the tracks
already recorded. For mixdowns, on the other hand, it would be a great advantage if you had the Equalizer,
Aux buses, insert and routing options available via the Subgroups (e.g. to create a drum set sub-mix), so as to
process the recorded signals played back by the multi-track recorder. Now, you could re-connect the mono
and Mix-B input channels to be able to use the various processing options in the Main input channels for the
recorded tracks – a method that is anything but straightforward! The EURORACK MX3242X features a FLIP
switch
(see fig. 2.3) which simply exchanges the signals of both channels. Thus, the Tape Return signal
2. OPERATION
17
is routed to the Main input channel, while the Mix-B input channel now carries audio signals, e.g. from MIDI
and effects equipment (which usually need less processing than the “raw” signals coming from a multi-track
recorder).
2.2 Mix-B input channel
The Mix-B input channels are independent secondary channels with their own set of PANORAMA
and
LEVEL
controls. Their output is permanently routed to the Mix-B bus. The sum of all signals from the
Mix-B channels can be taken from the MIX-B OUT jacks
located on the interface panel. Additionally, you
can route the Mix-B bus to the Main Mix bus. More on this in chapter 2.2.3 Routing. Each Mix-B channel has
a balanced line-level input on a ¼” phone jack
. The operating level (+4 dBu / -10 dBV) can be set globally
for all channels by pressing button
on the interface panel. In a recording situation you will want to use the
Mix-B input channels to return the tracks recorded on a multi-track machine. Here, the OPERATING LEVEL
switch helps you adapt the console to the recorder used.
2.2.1 Input level setting
Fig. 2.7: OPERATING LEVEL button for Mix-B input channels
The Mix-B channels on the MX3242X are specifically designed for typical line-level signals, in particular,
those from Tape Returns. The OPERATING LEVEL switch enables you to adapt the operating level of these
inputs (+4 dBu / -10 dBV) to the devices/instruments that are connected to them.
2.2.2 Aux Send buses
These are the same as for the main input channels (see 2.1.3). Please note, however, that the SOURCE
button of Aux Sends 1 and 2, or 3 through 6 must be pressed to make the respective Aux Sends available to
the Mix-B signal.
2.2.3 Routing
Fig. 2.8: Controlling the Mix-B signal
Each Mix-B input channel has a PANORAMA
and LEVEL
control as well as a MUTE button
.
All signals from a Mix-B channel are routed to the Mix-B bus and are available from the MIX-B OUT jack
on the interface panel. Their overall volume is determined by the LEVEL control
in the MIX-B Main
section. Additionally, you can route the Mix-B bus to the Main Mix bus by pressing the TO MAIN MIX button
.
When you press the SOURCE button
in a Mix-B input channel (position: CHANNEL LINK), the channel
carries the same signal as the corresponding Main input channel (e.g. Mix-B channel 17 carries the signal of
Main input channel 1). The signal is taken post-EQ/post-mute, but pre-fader.
18
2. OPERATION
This is the ideal solution whenever two different mixes are required. For example, in a live situation you can
create a FOH mix with the Main Mix bus, and use the Mix-B channels to mix down a live recording.
The Mix-B channels can also be used as a pre-fader monitor bus. When mixing a live concert, two monitor
paths are often not enough. By activating the SOURCE button in the Mix-B channels, you get an additional
pre-fader signal from the Main input channels and can determine the mix of left and right sides with the
PANORAMA control. In this way, 4 different monitor mixes can be created (Aux 1, Aux 2, Mix-B left and
Mix-B right).
2.3 Insert points and direct outputs
Fig. 2.9: Wiring a Compressor to the insert path of a Main input channel
Insert points are useful for adding dynamic processing or equalization to a channel. Unlike reverbs and other
effects devices, which are usually added to the dry signal, dynamic processing is normally applied across an
entire signal. Here, an Aux Send bus would be inappropriate. Instead the signal is intercepted somewhere
along the channel, fed through the dynamics processor and/or EQ, then returned to the console at the same
point where it left. The insert point is normalized, i.e. the signal is only interrupted when a jack is plugged into
it (see chapter 4.3 Patchfield).
2.3.1 Main input channels
All main input channels are equipped with insert points (stereo phone jack
configured pre-fader, pre-EQ and pre-Aux Send.
on the rear). They are
You can extend the functionality of your insert points by wiring them onto a patchfield, where send and return
can be accessed on separate sockets (see chapter 4.3).
Additionally, insert points can be used to automate the console functions. Our CYBERMIX CM8000 automation tool is ideally suited for this purpose and can be easily retrofitted via the insert points of your MX3242X.
2.3.2 Subgroups
If you want to insert a dynamics processor, etc. into any Subgroup, you can use the Subgroup insert points
located on the interface panel.
2.3.3 Main mix
The MX3242X features two insert points
for the Main Mix bus.
2. OPERATION
19
17
E
2.3.4 Direct output on each Main input channel
Fig. 2.10: Using the direct outputs for multi-track recording
The MX3242X has four Subgroups which can be used to feed a multi-track recorder. However, it is often
necessary to record more than 4 tracks at the same time. For this reason, your EURORACK MX3242X has a
for each Main input channel, which allows you to record up to 16 tracks
post-fader direct output
simultaneously.
If that isn’t enough, you can also use the various routing options for the Aux Returns to connect line-level
signal sources. The signals are routed from there to the Subgroups and ultimately to the multi-track recorder.
Of course, you can also create a direct link by fitting a cable with a special ¼" mono phone plug (tip =
ground; sleeve = signal) to feed the signals directly via the inserts to the Subgroups. In this configuration, you
can record a maximum of 20 individual signals at the same time ... with a 12 rack units console!
2.4 Main section
2.4.1 Aux Send buses
Fig. 2.11: Aux Send Main section
Aux Sends are on ¼" phone jacks
. Their level can be adjusted with the master controls for Aux Sends 1
through 6
located in the Main section. Beyond the center detent position (unity gain), these controls give
you up to 15 dB gain, which should be more than enough to drive any effects unit. The SOLO buttons
enable you to monitor the Aux signals via the MON OUTput
. When the SOLO function is on, its control
LED lights up (for Aux Sends 1, 3, 5 or 2, 4, 6).
20
2. OPERATION
2.4.2 Aux Returns – additional stereo line inputs
E
Fig. 2.12: Aux Return Main section
Your EURORACK MX3242X offers four effect returns on ¼" phone jacks (
,
,
and
). When
you connect the left jack only (except Aux/FX Return 3), the corresponding Aux Return is automatically set to
mono (signal on left and right channel).
/
and a LEVEL control
/
. Like the Main input channels, Aux
These inputs have a BALANCE
Returns 1 and 2 can be routed
to the Main Mix and the four Subgroup buses. Aux Return 3 (FX Return)
is normally used to return the effect signal from the on-board Effects Processor. However, when you use its
phone jack inputs
, you can configure it as an additional stereo line input. Aux Returns 3 and 4 can
additionally be routed to the Subgroup and Main Mix buses, for example to add reverb to the monitor mix sent
to a singer, which can be done most conveniently with the on-board effects processor.
Naturally, all Aux Returns feature a SOLO function (plus control LED) which can be activated with the SOLO
button
/
.
Aux Returns not only accept the output signal of an effects device, they also serve as versatile stereo line
inputs. For example, they can return the signal of a multi-track recorder (Tape Returns), or act as inputs for
instruments, especially when your MIDI keyboard or rack delivers a pre-mixed stereo signal.
2.4.3 Level meters
The Main Mix / PFL / SOLO level is displayed by two highly accurate 8-segment peak meters
on the status of the SOLO function, either the PFL
or SOLO LED
lights up.
. Depending
2.4.4 CHANNEL MODE and SOLO MASTER LEVEL controls
Fig. 2.13: PFL/SOLO Main section
The CHANNEL MODE button
determines whether PFL (pre-fader listen) or Solo-In-Place is assigned to
the SOLO buttons in the channels. With the LEVEL control
you can set the master volume of the PFL/
SOLO function. We recommend that you set this control to 0 dB, i.e. 12 o’clock. In loud environments (e.g.
live application), you can of course raise the PFL/SOLO volume as required.
PFL
PFL should always be used for gain setting (see also chapter 3 PRACTISE). Here, the signal is always taken
2. OPERATION
21
pre-fader and routed to the mono PFL bus.
SOLO
Pressing button
once deactivates the mono PFL bus and replaces it with a separate stereo SOLO bus.
SOLO is short for Solo-In-Place, and is the preferred method for auditioning an isolated signal, or group of
signals. Whenever a SOLO button is pressed, all unselected channels are muted in the monitors. Stereo
panning is maintained. The SOLO bus is derived from the output of the channel Pans, Aux Sends and stereo
Line inputs. The SOLO bus is always post-fader.
2.4.5 Mix-B
Fig. 2.14: Mix-B Main Section
The LEVEL control
allows you to adjust the overall volume of the Mix-B bus, and the button TO MAIN MIX
routes the Mix-B bus to the Main Mix bus. Thus, you can configure your MX3242X as a 32-channel
console. As the Mix-B input channels are specifically designed for line-level signals, they are ideally suited for
returning the signals from effects and MIDI devices. Naturally, the Mix-B bus also has a SOLO function, which
can be activated with button
. In this case, the button’s associated LED lights up.
2.4.6 Monitor section
Fig. 2.15: Monitor section
The buttons 2-TRACK
and MIX-B
determine which signal is sent to the MON OUTputs
, where
you can connect active or passive speakers (plus power amp). If neither one of the buttons is pressed, the
outputs provide the Main Mix signal. The 2-TRACK button allows you to monitor the signals from a 2-Track
master recorder (e.g. DAT). When you connect its input
to a hi-fi amplifier featuring a source selector,
you can conveniently monitor other sources, too (e.g. cassette recorder, CD player, etc.).
We recommend that you use more than just one single pair of speakers! Rather, you should connect at least
half a dozen of different (matrix-networked) speaker pairs – from ghetto blasters, car and club systems to
broken 5-cm portable-radio speakers mounted in a cardboard carton!
Use the LEVEL control
The MONO button
+
22
to set the volume of the monitors.
allows you to check that stereo signals are mono-compatible.
All buttons are effective on the monitor output only. They will not affect the Main Mix signal
delivered by the Main outputs.
2. OPERATION
2.4.7 Headphones section
E
Fig. 2.16: Headphones section
The headphones jack
accepts any commercial studio headphones. With the buttons MON/CTRL ROOM
, AUX 1 and AUX 2
, you can select the source for the headphones signal, while the LEVEL control
determines the volume level.
When the MON/CTRL ROOM button is pressed, the headphones output delivers the signal selected in the
MON/CTRL section. Press one of the two AUX buttons to monitor the Aux Send signal on both sides of your
headphones. To create a stereo headphones mix, just press both AUX buttons. Now the signals from Aux
Sends 1 and 2 are routed to the left and rights side of your headphones respectively.
+
Please note that too high a monitoring level can lead to hearing damage.
2.4.8 Subgroups and Main Mix fader
Fig. 2.17: Subgroups section
In a recording situation, the inputs of a multi-track recorder are fed with signals from the Subgroup outputs
2. OPERATION
23
. The 4 Subgroups, in turn, can be fed by the Main input channels and the Aux Return buses. In this way,
you can also record effect signals. The faders
control the level of the signals routed to each Subgroup,
while the MAIN MIX button
sends the signal routed to a Subgroup back to the Main Mix bus. Use the PAN
control
to determine the signal’s position in the Main Mix stereo field. When the MAIN Mix button is up,
the PAN control has no influence on the Subgroup signals.
In live applications, Subgroups are often used to combine various groups of instruments and control their
volume with one or two (stereo mode) faders. The Subgroups’ insert points allow for processing multiple
signals with just one device (e.g. Compressor). The SOLO button
and its associated control LED enable
you to monitor each of the 4 Subgroups individually.
The MAIN MIX fader
determines the level that is sent to the MAIN OUTPUTS, which are available both on
¼" phone jacks
and XLR connectors
. The MX3242X also routes the MAIN MIX signal to the
2-TRACK-OUT cinch jacks
.
2.4.9 Digital Effects Processor
Fig. 2.18: Digital effects module
A very special feature of your MX3242X is its on-board Effects Processor, which offers the same hard/
software quality as our well-known 19" VIRTUALIZER. This effects module provides 32 different standard
effects such as Reverb, Chorus, Flanger, Delay, Pitch Shifter and various effects combinations. Use
Aux Send 3 (Main input channels) and the Aux Send 3 master control to feed signals to the Effects Processor.
Please make sure that the level read by the LED level meter
in the effects module section is always high
enough. However, the CLIP LED should never light up.
The two buttons UP
and DOWN
select a specific preset. To speed up preset selection, you also
need to press the respective opposite button. Then, you can activate the selected preset with the ENTER
button
. The display
reads the number of the currently active preset. Its name can be found in the
preset list printed next to the LED level meter.
Aux Return 3 allows you to assign the effect signal to the Subgroups and Main Mix bus. Additionally, you can
use the Effects Processor for your headphones mix by routing Aux Return 3 to Aux buses 1-2.
24
2. OPERATION
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Preset name
Cathedral 1
Cathedral 2
Medium Plate
Bright Plate
Small Hall
Medium Hall
Room
Medium Studio
Large Studio
Medium Concert
Large Concert
Stage
Vocal
Percussion
Short Delay
Medium Delay
No.
Preset name
17
Echo
18
Short Gated Reverb
19 Medium Gated Reverb
20
Slow Chorus
21
Medium Chorus
22
Fast Chorus
23
Medium Flanger
24
Bright Flanger
25
Delay & Reverb
26 Chorus & Medium Reverb
27 Chorus & Large Reverb
28 Flanger & Medium Reverb
29 Flanger & Large Reverb
30
Radio Speaker
31
Distortion
32
Magic Pitch
E
Tab. 2.1: Effect presets provided by on-board effects module
Cathedral: A very dense and long Reverb, much like that heard in great cathedrals. Particularly
suitable for solo instruments or voices in slow songs.
Plate: The sound of early Reverb plates. A classic Reverb program for drums (snare) and vocals.
Room: You can clearly hear the walls as they are reflecting the sound. A useful program for “inaudible” Reverb (rap, hip hop vocals) or to make dry recordings of instruments sound natural again.
Studio: This versatile room simulation program generates a very natural ambiance.
Concert: Here, you can create a small theater (Medium Concert) or large concert hall (Large Concert), which are more lively and brilliant than the “Studio” reverb.
Stage: A wonderful Reverb, for example, to give keyboard pads or acoustic guitars more width and
depth.
Vocal: Rich and dense Reverb with middle Reverb times which gives vocals or other solo instruments
their finishing touch and makes them an integral part of the mix.
Percussion: This dense Reverb is characterized by pronounced early reflections which make it a
natural choice for dynamic signals (drums, percussion, slap bass, etc.).
Delay: This program applies several repetitions or echoes to the delayed input signal.
Echo: Much like the Delay effect, echo repeats the input signal with decaying intensity. However, here
the echoes lose brilliance with each repetition, which simulates the trendy “vintage” effect produced by
tape echo units that were widely used in the pre-digital era.
Gated Reverb: Phil Collins’ song “In the air tonight” made this effect famous: a Reverb is cut off
abruptly after a certain time.
Flanger: An LFO constantly modulates the effect signal’s pitch by a few cents up and down. Flanger
effects are primarily used for guitars and electric pianos, but there are lots of other useful applications:
voices, cymbals, bass, remixes, etc.
Chorus: Though similar to the Flanger, chorus uses a delay function instead of feedback. Combined
with the pitch shifting feature, the delay produces a very pleasant detune effect. Chorus effects are
used so frequently and in such a variety of applications that any recommendation would mean a
limitation of their use.
2. OPERATION
25
Pitch Shifter: This effect transposes the input signals to create musically useful intervals and harmonies or simply to widen the sound of a single voice. Heavy pitch shifting can also be used to produce a
Mickey Mouse type voice effect.
Delay & Reverb: Probably the most popular combination used for vocals, solo guitars, etc. The
program employs a Bright Room reverb which can be used for a great variety of applications.
Chorus & Reverb: This algorithm combines a popular chorus effect with a Reverb.
Flanger & Reverb: Flanger effect combined with a Reverb.
Radio Speaker: Simulates the typical sound of a portable radio: lots of midrange, poor bass and
treble.
Distortion: Absolutely modern effect for vocals or drum loops, combined with a Delay effect. Special
feature: this distortion algorithm also has an LFO-controlled notch filter included.
2.4.10Talkback facility: communicating with performers in the studio
Fig. 2.19: Talkback section
The built-in Talkback microphone enables you to communicate with the performers in the recording room, on
stage or via headphones. Use the buttons TALK TO AUX 1-2
to activate the microphone and access Aux
Sends 1 and 2. The volume of the talkback facility can be determined with the LEVEL control
. To avoid
feedback in the monitors (e.g. when SOLO-ing Aux Buses 1 and 2), the level at the monitor output is reduced
by 20 dB, as long as you press the TALK TO AUX 1-2 button. Of course, the Main Mix bus remains unaffected
by these operations.
3. PRACTISE
3.1 Selecting inputs
1) Mono channels accept Mic or Line inputs. If you are using the Mic input, make sure nothing is connected
to the Line input (and vice versa).
2) Mic inputs are more sensitive than Line inputs. Do not connect microphones with Phantom Power switched
on.
3.2 Initializing channels for gain setting
1) Set gain to minimum in all Main input channels, and all Aux Sends to OFF (fully counterclockwise).
2) Set EQ to flat (all controls at 12 o’clock) and turn it off (EQ IN button up).
26
3. PRACTISE
3) Set the LO CUT button to OFF, unless you need the frequencies below 75 Hz (18 dB/Oct., -3 dB).
4) Set CHANNEL MODE to PFL and LEVEL to 12 o’clock for SOLO function.
5) Press the PFL/SOLO button in the channel you wish to adjust.
3.3 Auditioning a signal and setting up a channel
1) Make a typical noise, or roll the tape. The peak meter should read a PFL level.
2) Main input channels: Adjust the Gain control until transient peaks are regularly hitting +10 dB. Continuous
signals should not exceed 0 dB.
3) If EQ is used, repeat steps 1) & 2).
4) If an insert is used to patch in a Compressor, Gate, Equalizer, etc., use the outboard processor’s Bypass
or Effect Off switch to A/B monitor the effect. If it does not have a bypass switch or equivalent, you will
have to keep connecting and disconnecting the device until you complete the following procedure: adjust
the processor’s output level so that effected and bypassed signals are of comparable level, i.e. unity gain.
5) Route the channel as desired, then switch off all PFL/SOLO buttons. Now set up the next channel.
3.4 Desk normalization
All board settings should be set to the normal default conditions before or after every session. Usually, faders
are set to zero (minus infinity), EQ’s set flat and switched out, Aux Sends turned fully counterclockwise, etc.
Many controls have a natural initial setting. For EQ cut and boost this is center position. However, some
settings, such as selecting PRE or POST for channel Aux Sends, will depend on the operating environment
(e.g. studio or live), or on a particular engineer’s preferred way of working.
3.5 Multi-track initialization
Set up the multi-track recorder so that any track in “record ready” condition has its input monitored when the
tape is stationary (once a recording has been made, these tracks should automatically switch to tape playback). Check that the input levels to each track are optimized before recording commences.
3.6 Recording levels
When recording to digital, it’s a good idea to keep the recorder’s peak meters below 0 dB. Most (not all,
especially samplers) read 0 dB with some headroom left. This is because, unlike with analog, the onset of
digital distortion is as sudden as it is horrible. If you really want to take your recording level to the limit (and
fully exploit the 16-bit digital’s 96 dB dynamic range), you’ll have to do some calibrating. How to do it? Well,
you could run a tone at 0 dB from the mixer and use that as your DAT reference. But your DAT may be way
under its maximum input limit. Probably a better way to work out just how hard you can drive your recorder is
to incrementally increase the record level until the onset of digital distortion, subtract, say 5 or 10 dB, and
never exceed that level. Engage “peak hold” on your recorder before recording if you want to confirm that
you haven’t.
When recording to analog, the tape machine’s VU meters should show around +3 dB on bass, but only
around -10 dB for hi-hats. Although analog distortion is more like compression at modest overload levels
(often desirable on bottom end), higher frequencies cause saturation even at modest levels (an unpleasant
“crunchiness”). Also, VU meters tend to progressively under-read above 1 kHz, due to their sluggish
response time. Hi-hats should read about -10 dB on a VU meter, as against 0 dB for a typical snare drum,
and +3 dB or more for a kick drum.
Peak meters read more or less independent of frequency. Aim for 0 dB recording level for all signals.
3.7 Track sheet
When laying out channels for recording or mixing, try to be sensible. Keep tom-toms together, always use the
same channels for kick drum, snare, hi-hat, bass, etc. After some time, you will know where you are without
hardly ever having to look at a track sheet (which is still a good idea to be able to figure out channel
3. PRACTISE
27
E
assignments even after years).
On the lower part of the console’s panel you can attach a strip of tape on which to make notes of which
instrument is assigned to which channel. Please remember to remove the tape after the session, so as to
avoid traces of glue remaining on the console.
4. APPLICATIONS
Using several examples, this chapter explains how to wire and use your MX3242X in typical studio and live
applications.
4.1 Recording situation
Fig. 4.1: Recording situation: example of typical connection scheme
In a typical recording situation the instruments or voices to be recorded are directly connected to the main
input channels of the console, using microphones (vocals, guitar amp, wind instruments, drums, etc.) or line
outputs (keyboards, sound modules, samplers, etc.). Ideally, this is done with a wall box mounted in the studio
(recording room) and connected to the Main input channels of the MX3242X set up in the monitor room. In
this configuration, the audio signal passes through the channels and is routed to the multi-track recorder
(Tape Send), either via the Subgroups or the direct outputs. It should be made sure though that the Main Mix
routing buttons are not pressed. Subsequently, the signal is sent back from the multi-track machine to the
Mix-B inputs (Tape Return). Please select monitor bus Mix-B in the MON/CTRL section, so that you can
control the tape return signals using the LEVEL and PAN controls of the Mix-B input channels.
+
In a recording situation the recorded material should always be monitored via the Tape Return
bus.
The same applies to the monitor mix and effect sends for the performing musician(s); they, too, should be fed
from the Tape Return bus. Press both SOURCE buttons in the Aux Send section as well as the PRE button of
Auxes 1 & 2. Now, you can create a monitor mix using Aux send 1 and/or Aux send 2, and send the effects via
Aux send 3 through 6 (press the SHIFT button to use Aux Sends 5 and 6). If you wish to use the on-board
effects processor, you should press the routing button AUX 1-2 in the Main Aux Return 3 section, so as to
route the effect signal directly on the monitor mix controlled with Aux Send 1 and/or 2.
+
28
In a recording situation both monitor mix and effect sends should always be assigned to the
Tape Return bus.
4. APPLICATIONS
4.2 Live situation
E
Fig. 4.2: Live situation: example of typical connection scheme
For live applications all instruments are connected to the Main input channels. Since the Mix-B input channels
are not used for the Tape Return bus (as in the studio), these inputs can be used for keyboards, sound
modules, etc. It should be noted though that the TO MAIN MIX button in the Mix-B Main section must be
pressed and the LEVEL control for the Mix-B bus set to 12 o’clock. The Main Mix outputs feed the power amps
of the P.A. system. Therefore, the buttons 2-TRACK or MIX-B in the MON/CTRL section should be up, so that
you can monitor the Main Mix bus. Aux Sends 1 & 2 are used to feed the monitor system and should therefore
be set pre-fader. These Aux Sends derive their signals from the Main input channels (SOURCE button up); all
effect sends are assigned to Aux Sends 3 through 6.
If two monitor paths are not enough, you can also use the Mix-B bus as a stereo monitor bus, for example to
drive two side-fill speakers. For this purpose, press Mix-B channel’s SOURCE button. Make sure that the
TO MAIN MIX button in the Mix-B section is up (not pressed); otherwise, the monitor mix would also be sent to
the FOH system.
The Subgroups can be used to create, for example, a sub-mix of all drum instruments. In this way, you can
control the overall level of the drums with just two faders.
In a live situation, the vocals are often not loud enough and can’t make themselves heard, even though they
may be processed with Compressors or their faders may be fully up. If you have a Subgroup with no signals
assigned, you can route the vocals to this Subgroups and adapt their levels there.
If you consider using dynamic processors, you should patch these devices to the Subgroup inserts. As the
Main input channels are most often used for the monitor mix, a Compressor in the channel insert would raise
the signal level in soft passages and induce feedback in the monitor system.
4.3 Patchbay
A Patchbay allows to patch the audio signals of most components in your studio from a central point and send
them to other units, which makes your entire cabling better structured and is indispensable for professional
work. If you want to use your studio as effectively as possible then it is preferable to use a complete Patchbay
wiring scheme, but even less sophisticated patchbay solutions will benefit smaller studio configurations.
4.3.1 Patchbay configuration
The majority of commercially available Patchbays include two rows with 24 phone jacks each in a 19" 1 HU
rack panel. On the rear, either a corresponding number of phone jacks or contacts for soldering signal leads
can be found. Each group of four of these phone jacks forms one module. The configuration of some
4. APPLICATIONS
29
Patchbays can be changed by inserting jumpers or turning individual modules.
With the help of our ULTRAPATCH PRO PX2000, an easy-to-use 24-Patchbay offering phone jacks throughout, you can easily understand the four different modes. With the ULTRAPATCH PRO you can select
between the four different operating modes simply by setting a switch on the upper panel (example:
module 17):
4.3.2 Parallel
Fig. 4.1: Patchbay mode “parallel”
In this mode, all terminals of one module are interconnected. This configuration doesn’t make sense at first
glance but is used to split up and send one audio signal (e.g. Aux Send) to several destinations (e.g. effects
devices).
4.3.3 Half-normalled
Fig. 4.2: Patchbay mode “half-normalled”
In this configuration, the contacts of the two jacks on the rear are interconnected. When you insert a plug into
the upper front jack, the signal routed through the rear path is not interrupted. Only when the lower front jack
is used will the rear panel route be split up, so that the two upper and the two lower phone jacks are connected
to one another. This configuration is called “input break” and is used mainly for insert paths. So you can
easily patch the signal from a mixing console channel at the Patchbay without interrupting the signal flow in
the channel.
4.3.4 Normalled
Fig. 4.3: Patchbay mode “normalled”
Here, and in contrast to the “half-normalled” setup, the signal route of the rear phone jacks is interrupted
when you insert a plug both into the upper and lower front jacks.
30
4. APPLICATIONS
4.3.5 Open
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Fig. 4.4: Patchbay mode “open”
This mode is used to connect devices such as sound modules or CD players having no inputs of their own.
This saves space, as you can route the left and right outputs to one module (left - top; right - bottom) or patch
two devices to one module (top and bottom). Effects devices and 2-Tracks can be configured this way, so the
inputs and outputs are positioned on top of each other.
Basically, the inputs are routed to the bottom and the outputs to the top rear-wall connectors. Avoid routing
digital signals over a Patchbay as the pulse signal used for the transmission of such signals causes heavy
interference in analog signals. Additionally, normal Patchbays change the impedance of the digital cable
route, which causes interference in the digital path. Use the BEHRINGER ULTRAMATCH SRC2000 specifically designed for this and other digital signal-related functions.
Microphone inputs operate at a level several orders of magnitude lower than Line levels (+4 dBu or -10 dBV).
Therefore, they should never be routed via a Patchbay. In any case, patching in a field with 48 VDC
(Phantom Power) flying about is to be avoided at all costs. It is best to plug mics directly into the mixing
console or via special XLR-type wall boxes connected to the Mic inputs of the console by good-quality
balanced multicore cables (2-cond. + shield).
4.3.6 Patchbay organization
Let us give you an example configuration that shows how you can most effectively use your Patchbays. We
assume you own a mixing console with 16 Mic/Line inputs plus inserts, 8 Direct Outputs, 8 Subgroups with 4
inserts, 4 Aux paths with 2 stereo Returns and one stereo master output including insert jacks. Added to this
we have an 8-track recorder (digital or analog), a few pieces of outboard equipment (FX, Dynamics & EQ’s),
a CD player, tape deck, HiFi system and a headphones amp:
4. APPLICATIONS
31
1
2
3
4
Fig. 4.1: Example of a studio organization with four Patchbays
In the first eight modules of Patchbay 1 the Subgroup outputs are directly connected to the corresponding
multitrack inputs. In addition to that it is also possible to record the signals coming from a Subgroup on a
different track of the multitrack. To save space and provide a clearly structured configuration, the Direct
Outputs are connected both to the top and bottom jacks. Modules 17 & 18 are the stereo master output, which
is half-normalled and thus allows for recording both to the DAT recorder and the tape deck, simply by
patching it accordingly. Modules 19 & 20 (tape deck) are open, because it does not make sense connecting
the inputs and outputs of the tape deck. 21 & 22 are normalled and route the DAT recorder outputs to the
2-Track-ins of the mixing console. So it always is possible to control the recorded data on the 2-Track from
the mixing console. The CD player and the HiFi system are connected to modules 23 & 24, which are open,
because they only serve as a source.
In Patchbay 2 the first 16 modules are normalled (1 through 8 IN could also be used to connect the
corresponding monitor inputs – if the console has a separate monitor section). MIDI devices such as samplers, expanders, keyboards, etc. are usually set up in every corner of the room. To make the cabling better
structured we route these units to modules 9 through 16. This allows further workmanship of the MIDI devices
at the mixing console. Modules 17 through 20 are normalled and have the FX inputs and the Aux Sends
connected, 21 through 24 are also normalled and are patched to the two stereo Aux Returns with the FX
outputs.
In patchbay 3 , modules 1 through 16 are for the channel insert. These modules are half-normalled, so that
you have an additional route for the channel signals. The same applies to the insert paths of the Subgroups
and the master output. The headphones amp is connected to 23 & 24, which are normalled and connected to
the Control Room outputs of the mixing console. Of course, you can also use pre-fader Aux paths for the
headphones mix.
Patchbay 4 manages the dynamics and frequency-processing devices in an open configuration (modules
32
4. APPLICATIONS
1 through 16). Multigates and Compressors should be used here, in particular. Modules 17 through 24 are
used to provide a “parallel split”, i.e. two modules are patched to each other on the rear with one patch cord,
so that you can split up a signal applied on the front panel to several destinations. These modules have a
parallel configuration.
It should be noted that Patchbays should be placed one below the other in such a way that the patch cords
won’t hang all over the Patchbays. In our example you don’t have to span great distances, for instance, to
patch the Dynamics and EQ’s to the insert paths.
4.3.7 Looming problems
Loom wiring is an art unto itself, and it is worth taking time out to get it right. First off, it is important to avoid
earth loops (a looped wire acts an aerial, picking up hum and electromagnetic radiation). Think of a tree.
Every part of that tree is connected to every other part, but only by one route. That’s how the total earth
picture for your entire studio should look. Don’t take the earth off your power cable plug to reduce audible
50 Hz mains hum. Rather you should be looking at disconnecting the signal screen somewhere (one or
several audio cables).
It is good practice to ensure that all screens are commoned at the Patchbay, in which case all unearthed
equipment would pick up earth from this point via a single screen (more than one route = an earth loop), while
mains-earthed equipment would have all screens cut at the equipment end.
Some quality equipment has an independent signal and mains earth. In this case at least one screen should
carry earth to the equipment. Sometimes the only way to find out is “suck and see”.
Take care to ensure that using the Patchbay does not disturb the studio’s earth architecture. Always use
short as possible patch leads with the screen connected at both ends.
Having designed mains hum out of the system, make up your cable looms from the Patchbays outwards, and
use cable ties, flexible sheaths, multicores, etc. to keep the back of your racks tidy.
4.4 Expanding the MX3242X
When the EURORACK is your main mixer, you may find that you run out of inputs as your system expands.
It is possible to expand your mixing system by combining two or more mixers.
4.4.1 Expander Port
The easiest way to expand your MX3242X is to connect another MX3242X or additional modules (such as our
RX1642 which will be available soon). The BEHRINGER RX1642 is a 19" 1 HU Line mixer which provides 8
stereo inputs on balanced ¼” phone jacks. The signals passing through the RX1642 can be routed both to the
Subgroups and to the Main Mix bus. With its Main Mix outputs, the RX1642 can also be used as a separate
Line mixer. One of its special features is an EQ integrated in the Main Mix section, which allows you to
process signals independently of the MX3242X.
Fig. 4.8: Expander Port connectors
To link several consoles simply connect the Expander Port output to the Expander Port input of the next
console. The last console in the chain acts as master mixer. This last console controls all Aux Send, Subgroup, Mix-B and Main Mix signals of the other linked mixers.
4. APPLICATIONS
33
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Fig. 4.9: Connecting several consoles via their Expander Ports
With the Expander Port inputs
and outputs
of your MX3242X you can route the following buses to the
outside world, and feed in the following external signals:
PIN-NR.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
DOCK INPUT
AUX SEND 1
AUX SEND 2
AUX SEND 3
AUX SEND 4
AUX SEND 5
AUX SEND 6
SUBGROUP 1
SUBGROUP 2
SUBGROUP 3
SUBGROUP 4
MIX-B L
MIX-B R
MAIN L
MAIN R
DOCK OUTPUT
AUX SEND 1
AUX SEND 2
AUX SEND 3
AUX SEND 4
AUX SEND 5
AUX SEND 6
SUBGROUP 1
SUBGROUP 2
SUBGROUP 3
SUBGROUP 4
MIX-B L
MIX-B R
MAIN L
MAIN R
Tab. 4.1: Assignment of Expander Port inputs/outputs
4.4.2 Modifications
The modifications described below require some soldering skills, and should therefore be attempted only if
you have sufficient experience in soldering. If in doubt, please contact an electronics expert.
+
Please note that any one of the modifications listed below will void your warranty rights.
The pc boards (2 boards, each with 8 mono and 8 Mix-B input channels) can be accessed when you remove
the entire bottom panel of your MX3242X. One board each is used for channels 1 through 8, and 9 through
16. The two boards are identical and labeled the same.
The ends of the jumpers to be soldered in should not be inserted into the holes, but soldered flat to them! Bend
the jumper a little bit up between the two points of rest. A wire with plastic insulation stripped off at the ends will
work fine!
34
4. APPLICATIONS
E
Fig. 4.10: Partial view of pc board carrying 8 mono and 8 Mix-B input channels
4. APPLICATIONS
35
Here’s how to do it:
1) Switch off the mixing console and disconnect it from the mains!
2) Cut the existing pcb track.
3) Solder a new jumper.
Fig. 4.11: Cut pcb track and solder jumper
J1 through J8: changing Aux Send 1/2 from POST MUTE to POST EQ.
When Aux Send 1/2 is set pre-fader (PRE button pressed), the signal is taken post-MUTE, but pre-fader.
Advantage: during a live gig you can easily mute the channels not in use as well as the monitor path. In a
recording environment it is often desirable that performing musicians can hear themselves in the monitor mix,
even though the MUTE button in the respective channel may be pressed. In this case, change Aux Send 1/2
to POST EQ.
J9 through J16: changing direct out signal from Main input channel to Mix-B.
Normally, the direct output carries the Main input channel’s signal, so that more than 4 tracks can be recorded at the same time. However, to realize a live set-up with simultaneous multi-track recording, you cannot
use the direct outputs. As these are set post-fader, the multi-track machine would also record any changes of
fader settings (which are inevitable during a gig). In this case, the console should be modified. Then, press
the SOURCE button in the Mix-B channels, so that they carry the same signals as the Main input channels.
Now the LEVEL controls of the Mix-B channels determine the levels sent to the multi-track recorder via the
direct outputs.
With the console modified and the FLIP button pressed, the following signal flow can be achieved: instruments or microphones are connected to the mic inputs of the Main input channels, and their signals are
routed to the Mix-B channels, where you can use the Mix-B LEVEL control to determine the level sent to the
direct outputs. When you connect the direct outputs to the multi-track recorder (Tape Send), the Tape
Returns from the multi-track machine should be routed to the Mix-B inputs. In this case, the signal passes the
Main input channel, and you can use the insert, EQ and Aux buses for monitoring. Via the channel faders,
Subgroups and master fader the signal finally reaches the Main Outputs. Of course you could also reverse
the entire configuration: first, the signal passes the Mix-B channels to be routed via the multi-track machine to
the Main input channels.
J17 through J24: changing Direct Out from POST FADER to PRE MUTE (makes sense only if J9
through J16 are left unmodified).
To be able to record more than 4 tracks simultaneously in a conventional recording set-up, you could use the
direct outputs, and the faders to determine the levels sent to the multi-track machine. If you wish to use the
direct outputs in a live situation (with the Mix-B channels employed for line-level instruments), you should
consider this modification. In this case, the levels provided at the direct outputs are independent of the faders,
and you can send constant levels to the multi-track machine. However, please note that EQ and gain changes
during the recording should be avoided, as this will be audible on the recording tracks.
J25 through J32: changing Mix-B Link from POST MUTE to POST FADER.
When you press the SOURCE button in a Mix-B channel, this channel will carry the same signal as the
corresponding Main input channel (e.g. Mix-B 17 has the same signal as channel 1). Since this send position
does not depend on the fader setting, the Mix-B channel could be used as stereo pre-fader monitor path (or
36
4. APPLICATIONS
2x mono pre-fader monitor). If you need a stereo post-fader send, simply modify the console accordingly.
Then, you can, for example, drive a stereo effects device in true stereo mode.
J33 through J40: changing Meters from POST FADER to PRE FADER.
When shipped from the factory, the level meters in the main input channels are set post-fader, as this is
necessary for recording purposes. However, during a live gig it may be better to have the level meters read
the pre-fader signal, so that you can quickly detect any level changes on stage and correct the input gain
appropriately, without having to use the PFL/SOLO function. In this case, you should consider this type of
modification.
5. TECHNICAL BACKGROUND
5.1 Mixing
5.1.1 Equalization
Few people buying a mixer will need to be told how an Equalizer works. But how to get the best out of it? Well,
that’s another story.
In the beginning EQ was an instrument for removing unwanted frequencies, or compensating for imperfect
microphone response curves, or bumps in a studio’s acoustic. It was a corrective device. Tamla Motown
turned that notion upside down in the sixties with the novel idea that you try to find for each instrument a
characteristic frequency not shared by the other instruments in the mix. Then you whack up its Gain. This
makes individual voices punch through a mix in a slightly unnatural but exciting way.
In general corrective EQ usually involves broadband (slope) contouring, together with narrowband notching
of unwanted resonances. The narrower the notch or “Q”, the less the total signal will be affected.
Finding bad resonances is made easier by first frequency sweeping in BOOST mode.
“Motown” EQ is achieved by applying boost in a fairly broadband way. The broader the band, the more
musical but less instrument-specific the effect. Applying boost over a narrow bandwidth will sound “honky”.
For sounds which require drastic corrective EQ, it is advisable to have a couple of channels of fully comprehensive Parametric Equalization in your rack. (You can always bounce tracks though the outboard EQ,
freeing up the unit for the next task).
Check out the BEHRINGER ULTRA-CURVE PRO DSP8024, a superlative digital stereo Equalizer and much,
much more. Or our ULTRA-Q PRO PEQ2200 5-band Constant-Q state-variable analog EQ.
For “Advanced Equalization”, EQ might be applied to a signal as follows: First, trim the LF and HF shelves to
achieve the required slope or “loudness”. Now use a parametric EQ band to boost the most significant
frequency for each instrument or tape track. Over all channels, if two or more of these frequencies coincide,
then you might have to settle for second best in some cases, if you want to achieve optimum separation in the
mix. Really nasty frequencies will need notching out.
A good vocal signal can be enhanced by applying a significant boost in the 12 kHz region or higher, above
the nasty sibilance region. This is especially effective if you’ve got a De-Esser patched post-EQ.
+
Use the Lo Cut to tighten up channels in a mix: maybe remove it only for the bass, kick drum,
toms, tablas, didgeridoo and other deliberate subsonics (when recording classical music ignore this advice).
With the LF set to boost, and the Lo Cut switch activated, you have pretty much got a peak response rather
than shelving at the bottom. Good for tight but deep bass.
Remember EQ contouring can be done with cut as well as with boost. Cutting away the top and bottom, then
pushing up the Gain is equivalent to mid range boost! EQ is not a one way street!
Always re set a channel’s input Gain (or external devices’ output level) after altering the amount of desk EQ
cut or boost applied.
5. TECHNICAL BACKGROUND
37
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5.1.2 Gain optimization
PFL (Pre-Fader-Listen) is the way to set a desk level. Master Aux Send levels are fixed at Unity Gain. As the
mix progresses, more and more channels are likely to be sending to effects via the Aux buses, and it’s best to
PFL all sends just before setting up for the final mix.
Outboard Reverbs etc. should all be made to work hard. There’s no point in having an 85 dB dynamic range
if the input meter of your reverb is barely flickering. On the other hand, digital distortion is not one of the nicer
noises around. You’ll have to rely on your ears to detect digital distortion, since different outboard processors
calibrate their meters differently.
If you hear distortion, turn down the input on the FX unit, and turn up the desk’s Aux Return input.
99 times out of 100 distortion in the Aux Send > FX > Aux Return loop will come from the FX unit (FX Gain too
high), and the same goes for a high noise level (FX Gain too low).
Noisy FX (or synth) Returns can be greatly improved by the addition of single-ended noise reduction between
FX output and Aux (or channel) Returns. The BEHRINGER DENOISER SNR2000 is ideally suited for this
purpose.
I’ve found that using analog single-ended noise reduction can help warm the sound of certain digital Reverbs
which sound too cold/metallic, and also give that “Echoplex” sound to digital delay decays.
Analog multitrack tape should be driven quite hard, since its dynamic range (without noise reduction) is likely
to be 20 to 30 dB worse than other elements in the recording chain. Try to record bright. You can always mix
back duller. Brightening up an off-tape signal will bring up the level of tape noise. With digital tape or hard disk
you have plenty of dynamic range, and treble pre-emphasis is not often necessary. Just don’t let the signal
distort!
When mixing or recording, keep the channel fader levels around or below 0 dB. If you do find the faders
creeping up or down, apply a suitable offset over all channel faders, and try to control your bad habit in
future!
6. INSTALLATION
Your BEHRINGER EURORACK MX3242X was carefully packed in the factory and the packaging was designed to protect the unit from rough handling. Nevertheless, we recommend that you carefully examine the
packaging and its contents for any signs of physical damage, which may have occurred in transit.
+
If the unit is damaged, please do not return it to us, but notify your dealer and the shipping
company immediately, otherwise claims for damage or replacement may not be granted. Shipping claims must be made by the consignee.
6.1 Rack mounting
In the shipping carton you’ll find two 19" mounting angles which can be fixed to the side panels of the console.
Remove the side panels by loosening the screws (3 per side) that fix them to the console, lay the panels aside
and use the screws to fasten the mounting angles. Please note that each angle can be mounted on a specific
side only.
To be able to reach the rear connectors when the MX3242X is mounted in a rack, you should rotate the
interface panel by 90° (after loosening the screws holding it), and refix it. The following screws must be
removed:
1) 4 screws on the upper part of the interface panel.
2) Another 4 screws on the cover plate directly mounted to the interface panel at an angle of 90°.
3) 6 screws each on the left and right side panels.
Once the interface panel has been rotated, please check that all ribbon cables are seated and connected
properly. Then tighten all screws.
+
38
Ensure sufficient air space around the MX3242X. Never mount the unit in close proximity to a
power amp or similar device to avoid overheating.
6. INSTALLATION
+
Please note that both PSU and EURORACK will heat up during operation. This is completely
normal and does not indicate a malfunction.
6.2 Mains connection
The mains connection of the MX3242X is made by using the included power supply unit. It meets all of the
international safety certification requirements.
+
Please make sure that all units have a proper ground connection. For your own safety, it is
advisable not to remove the ground connection within the units or at the supply, or fail to make
this connection at all.
6.3 Audio connections
You will need a lot of cables for different purposes – see the following figures to make sure you have got the
right ones.
Use custom-made RCA cables for the 2-Track in/out traffic (centre post = signal (+ve), sleeve = ground/
screen).
It is possible to connect unbalanced sources to the balanced inputs. Use either mono jacks or connect the
ring and sleeve of the jack (or pin 1 with pin 3 with XLR plugs). +48 V DC Phantom Power is also provided,
which can be switched on and off with +48 V PHANTOM switch.
+
Please ensure that only qualified persons install and operate the EURORACK. During installation and operation the user must have sufficient electrical contact to earth. Electrostatic charges
might affect the operation of the EURORACK!
Fig. 6.1: Headphones connector
+
Care should be taken NOT to plug mics into the console (or stagebox) while the Phantom
Power is on. Also, mute the monitor/PA speakers when turning Phantom Power on or off.
Allow the system to adjust for a couple of seconds after engaging Phantom Power before
setting input gains.
6. INSTALLATION
39
E
Unbalanced use of
mono 1/4" jack plugs
Balanced use of
stereo 1/4" jack plugs
Tip =
Signal
Tip =
hot (+ve)
Ring =
cold (-ve)
Sleeve =
Ground / Shield
Sleeve =
Ground / Shield
Tip
Tip
Sleeve
Ring
Sleeve
Strain relief clamp
Strain relief clamp
For connection of balanced and
unbalanced plugs, ring and sleeve have
to be bridged at the stereo plug.
Balanced use with XLR connectors
2
1
3
1 = Ground / Shield
2 = hot (+ve)
3 = cold (-ve)
1
Input
3
Output
For unbalanced use pin 1 and pin 3 have to be bridged
Fig. 6.2: Different plug types
Fig. 6.3: Insert send & return connector
40
2
6. INSTALLATION
7. APPENDIX
7.1 Specifications
Mono input channels
Mic input
Frequency response
Distortion (THD&N)
Gain range
Max. input
S/N ratio
Electronically balanced, discrete input configuration
10 Hz to 130 kHz +/- 3 dB
0.007 % at -30 dBu, 1 kHz, 22 Hz to 22 kHz
+10 dB to +60 dB
+12 dBu
-125 dB, 150 Ohm source, 22 Hz to 22 kHz
-121 dBqp, 150 Ohm source, 22 Hz to 22 kHz
-126 dB, input shorted
-122 dBqp, input shorted
Electronically balanced
10 Hz to 125 kHz +/- 3 dB
0.006 % at +4 dBu, 1 kHz, 22 Hz to 22 kHz
+22 dBu
-97 dB, 150 Ohm source, 22 Hz to 22 kHz
Mix-B input
Frequency response
Distortion (THD&N)
Max. input
S/N ratio (Mix-B / Main Out)
Electronically balanced
10 Hz to 100 kHz +/- 3 dB
0.005 % at +4 dBu, 1 kHz, 22 Hz to 22 kHz
+22 dBu
-94 dB, 150 Ohm source, 22 Hz to 22 kHz
Channel fader range
+10 dBu to -
EQ
Low
Lo Mid
Hi Mid
High
Lo Cut filter
80 Hz, +/- 15 dB
50 Hz to 3 kHz, +/- 15 dB
300 Hz to 20 kHz, +/- 15 dB
12 kHz, +/- 15 dB
-3 dB at 75 Hz, 18 dB/oct.
Main Mix
Max. output
Aux Send max. output
Control Room output
Monitor output
Subgroup output
+28 dBu balanced on XLR
+22 dBu unbalanced on jack
+22 dBu unbalanced on jack
+22 dBu unbalanced on jack
+22 dBu unbalanced on jack
Digital Effects Processor
Converter
Sample rate
Power Supply
External Power Supply
Mains voltage
8
Line input
Frequency response
Distortion (THD&N)
Max. input
S/N ratio
E
20-bit sigma-delta, 64/128-times oversampling
46.875 kHz
150 Watts, 19" (482.6 mm), 2 HU (88 mm), approx. 7 kg
USA/Canada
~ 115 V AC, 60 Hz, Power Supply MX3242X-PSU-UL
U.K./Australia
~ 240 V AC, 50 Hz, Power Supply MX3242X-PSU-UK
Europe
~ 230 V AC, 50 Hz, Power Supply MX3242X-PSU-EU
Japan
~ 100 V AC, 60 Hz, Power Supply MX3242X-PSU-JP
Dimensions/weight
Dimensions (H*W*D, approx.) 21/22.5" (533.4/570 mm) * 19" (482.6 mm) * 3.75/9" (95.25/228.6 mm)
Weight
approx. 12 kg (without PSU)
BEHRINGER is constantly striving to maintain the highest professional standards. As a result of these efforts, modifications may be made
from time to time to existing products without prior notice. Specifications and appearance may differ from those listed or shown.
7. APPENDIX
41
7.2 Front view
Fig. 7.1: Control elements of the MX3242X
42
7. APPENDIX
7.3 Track sheet
Copy this model track sheet and use it to archive project-specific settings, so that you can restore a specific
recording or live set-up if need be. Particularly for live applications with several groups or a series of similar
concerts it can be of great help to have the required settings available. We recommend that you enlarge this
page to, for example, DIN A3.
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Fig. 7.2: Track sheet
7. APPENDIX
43
7.4 Glossary
Ambient Music
atmospheric/lacking in a strong beat (e.g. can be played with a drum track, can be rhythmically gated etc.)
Balance
relative levels of left/right in a stereo pair, usually controlled by a panoramic potentiometer (panpot)
BPM
Beats Per Minute
Channel
input strip on a mixing desk
Clip, Clipping
overload, severe distortion
Compressor
device or program for limiting dynamic range (increasing energy)
Cross fader
fades in one music track while simultaneously fading out another
Cue
headphone feed
Cueing
getting music ready to come in at pre-arranged point
Cut Switch
silences audio
dB (decibel)
a unit of measurement, ratio of two voltages (dB = 20 log (V1/V2)), (dBu = voltage ratio relative to 0.775 V
RMS)
DI (Direct Injection)
connecting an electric instrument directly to the console via a DI-Box, converting the high level unbalanced
signal (from the instrument) into a low level balanced signal (for the console)
DJing
sequencing music tracks e.g. for dancing audience
Drum machine
electronic drum instrument
Echo
device or program for adding repeats
Effects (abbr. FX or EFX)
devices that alter the original (‘dry’) sound or add something to it, e.g. delay
Equalizing
the use of filters for cutting or boosting selected frequencies
Exciter/Enhancer
device or program for improving treble and bass intelligibility
Expander
(see Noise Gate)
Fader
linear potentiometer with logarithmic response
Feedback (howlround)
unstable circuit (e.g. mic/speaker, input/output) where a signal is able to return to an input from an output,
causing successive cycles of progressively higher gain (avoid it by e.g. not using a mic close to a speaker
driven from the mic’s own signal)
Filter
device or program for adding or removing removing part of frequency bandwidth e.g. for dramatic effect
Flanger/Chorus
device or program for adding short modulated echoes
Gain
degree of amplification
Headroom
signal range between nominal level and clipping
Incoming (cue) track
music being auditioned prior to being played
Kill Switches
switches for removing frequency bands
44
7. APPENDIX
Limiter
(see Compressor)
Line level signals
signals from low impedance sources (-10 to +6 dBu)
Lo(w) Cut (= High Pass) Filter
cuts off low frequencies
MCing
adding dialog to a sequence of music
MIDI
Musical Instrument Digital Interface - the language used by 99% of all electronic musical devices and programs
Mixdown
process by which a multitrack recording is combined into e.g. one or two channels
Mixing
seguing music to form continuous flow
Mute
(to engage) button for signal muting
Mute Switch
(see Cut Switch)
Noise Gate
device or program for auto-muting
Normal
connect an output to an input via breakable link
Outgoing (mix) track
music currently playing
Parametric EQ
EQ whose frequency can be swept e.g. for dramatic effect
PFL
Pre-Fader-Listen
Phantom Power
+48 V DC voltage for powering condenser mics
Phase coherence
degree to which L & R signal are synchronized
Phase correlation
degree of mono compatibility of L & R signal
Pot or potentiometer
a variable, usually rotary voltage driver used e.g. for gain, frequency, quality or bandwidth control
Rapping
adding dialog to a rhythmic track
Recorder
device or program for recording and playing back sounds (e.g. tape, hard disk)
Regeneration
(see Feedback)
Resonance
fast feedback
Reverb
device or program for adding reverb
Route
signal path
RPM
Revolutions Per Minute
Sampler
device for digitally storing and playing back sound
Scratching
manually spinning vinyl discs e.g. backwards and forwards
Sequencer
device or program for recording and playing back compositions (see MIDI)
Slipmat
Fabric turntable mat which enables turntable to spin while DJ holds record stationary. Let go record for a fast
start. Gets over problems of slow turntable start.
7. APPENDIX
45
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Solo
solo in place, stereo image retained
Source
signal source
Spatial Enhancer
psychoacoustic device or program for making stereo seem to come from beyond the area between the
loudspeakers
Synthesizer
electronic musical instrument
Tempo
(see BPM)
Transforming
chopping up a music signal by using mutes or gates etc.
Transient
a transitory (extreme) rise in signal level
Trimpot
variable gain potentiometer
Varispeed
control for varying playback speed
Wet signal
mix signal with effects added
46
7. APPENDIX
8. WARRANTY
§ 1 WARRANTY CARD
To be protected by this warranty, the buyer must complete and
return the enclosed warranty card (signed/stamped by retail dealer)
within 14 days of the date of purchase to BEHRINGER INTERNATIONAL (address see § 3). Failure to return the card in due time
(date as per postmark) will void any extended warranty claims.
ship. The warranty does not cover any such modification/adaptation, irrespective of whether it was carried out properly or not. Under the terms of this warranty, BEHRINGER INTERNATIONAL shall
not be held responsible for any cost resulting from such a modification/adaptation.
§ 2 WARRANTY
3. Free inspections, maintenance/repair work and replacement of
parts are expressly excluded from this warranty, in particular if
caused by inappropriate use. Likewise, the warranty does not cover
defects of expendable parts caused by normal wear of the product.
Expendable parts are typically faders, potentiometers, switches
and similar components.
1. BEHRINGER INTERNATIONAL warrants the mechanical and
electronic components of this product to be free of defects in material and workmanship for a period of one (1) year from the original
date of purchase, in accordance with the warranty regulations described below. If any defects occur within the specified warranty
period that are not caused by normal wear or inappropriate use,
BEHRINGER INTERNATIONAL shall, at its sole discretion, either
repair or replace the product.
2. If the warranty claim proves to be justified, the product will be
returned freight prepaid by BEHRINGER INTERNATIONAL within
Germany. Outside of Germany, the product will be returned at the
buyer’s expense.
3. Warranty claims other than those indicated above are expressly
excluded.
§ 3 RETURN AUTHORIZATION NUMBER
1. To obtain warranty service, the buyer must call BEHRINGER
INTERNATIONAL during normal business hours BEFORE returning the product (Tel.: +49 (0) 21 54 / 92 06 66). All inquiries must be
accompanied by a description of the problem. BEHRINGER INTERNATIONAL will then issue a return authorization number.
2. The product must be returned in its original shipping carton,
together with the return authorization number, to the following address:
BEHRINGER INTERNATIONAL GmbH
Service Department
Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Str. 36-38
D - 47877 Willich-Münchheide
3. Shipments without freight prepaid will not be accepted.
4. Damages/defects caused by the following conditions are not
covered by this warranty:
s misuse, neglect or failure to operate the unit in compliance
with the instructions given in the user or service manuals.
s connection or operation of the unit in any way that does not
comply with the technical or safety regulations applicable in
the country where the product is used.
s damages/defects that are caused by force majeure or by any
other condition beyond the control of BEHRINGER INTERNATIONAL.
5. Any repair carried out by unauthorized personnel will void the
warranty.
6. Products which do not meet the terms of this warranty will be
repaired exclusively at the buyer’s expense. BEHRINGER INTERNATIONAL will inform the buyer of any such circumstance. If the
buyer fails to submit a written repair order within 4 weeks after
notification, BEHRINGER INTERNATIONAL will return the unit
C.O.D. with a separate invoice for freight and packing. Such cost
will also be invoiced separately when the buyer has sent in a written repair order.
§ 5 WARRANTY TRANSFERABILITY
This warranty is extended exclusively to the original buyer (customer of retail dealer) and is not transferable to anyone who may
subsequently purchase this product. No other person (retail dealer,
etc.) shall be entitled to give any warranty promise on behalf of
BEHRINGER INTERNATIONAL.
§ 4 WARRANTY REGULATIONS
§ 6 CLAIM FOR DAMAGES
1. Warranty services will be furnished only if the product is accompanied by an original retail dealer’s invoice. Any product deemed
eligible for repair or replacement by BEHRINGER INTERNATIONAL
under the terms of this warranty will be repaired or replaced within
30 days of receipt of the product at BEHRINGER
INTERNATIONAL.
Failure of BEHRINGER INTERNATIONAL to provide proper warranty service shall not entitle the buyer to claim (consequential)
damages. In no event shall the liability of BEHRINGER INTERNATIONAL exceed the invoiced value of the product.
2. If the product needs to be modified or adapted in order to comply
with applicable technical or safety standards on a national or local
level, in any country which is not the country for which the product
was originally developed and manufactured, this modification/adaptation shall not be considered a defect in materials or workman-
This warranty does not exclude or limit the buyer’s statutory rights
provided by national law, in particular, any such rights against the
seller that arise from a legally effective purchase contract.
§ 7 OTHER WARRANTY RIGHTS
The information contained in this manual is subject to change without notice. No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted
in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording of any kind, for any purpose, without the
express written permission of BEHRINGER GmbH.
BEHRINGER, EURORACK and VIRTUALIZER are registered trademarks. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 1999 BEHRINGER.
BEHRINGER INTERNATIONAL GmbH, Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Str. 36-38, D-47877 Willich-Münchheide II
Tel. +49 (0) 21 54 / 92 06-0, Fax +49 (0) 21 54 / 92 06-30
8. WARRANTY
47
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