Operating Manual
 The Interactive 8-Channei
OPERATING MANUAL
Recording Limiter
Model MDX 1800
Е y 5 E ара y mua. Sucre „я Fm
mi
—
|
НВ | - - and. i N rue
СО
|||
Ш
OUI
du
|
Ш
Ц II
£1
=
J Re epg me rr nee a rs " _
er у
Om ere man perrera ANA eeh
AE AA
BEHRINGER
BEHRINGER Spezielle Studiotechnik GmbH
Otto
on
CNA
LO
00
QI
<r
—
I
LO
т
CN
O
><
aq
Ef
©
D
---
T—
ol
LO
CO
QI
II
=
JT.
LO
à
©
Qc.
fama
D
D.
FH
pe -
=
©.
= |
I~
<5
QD -
CT
ow
a
O .
E
с
=
—
о
Ee ЛЕНЕ meee A AT E Ë
PE ER ES EE EE EEE rage ES 3
Eme re re ЕЕННЕННННН
OO
Tema
PROTECTOR В
INTERACTIVE @ 2 El & El О 5)
S-CHANNEL
RECORDING LIMITER
HOOEL MUX 1500 un um Ls Las La tal Lot um
O o Q o о , o o o o
PROTECTOR
The Interactive 8-Channel
Recording Limiter
Model MDX 13800
BEHRINGER
- Spezielle Studiotechnik GmbH
BEHRINGER Snezielle Stidintachnik GmhH Otta-Rrannar-Str 4 FRG-47277 Willish-Miinahhaida Il Tal (N2D454 /09NA_A Cav (MARA ADO £52
FOREWORD
CAUTION: To reduce the risk of electrical shock, do not
remove the cover (or back) No user
serviceable parts inside; refer servicing to 1 Dear Customer,
qualified personnel. CAUTION Pp
WARNING: To red the risk of fi lectrical shock Risk TE ОО | |
To reduce the risk of fire or electrical shock, и
do not expose this appliance to rain or E : we thank you for the confidence that you have shown in the Behringer company by purchasing the
moisture. _ A , Behringer PROTECTOR. Not only have you acquired the latest generation of dynamics processor, but
| | | Pg: = also a piece of equipment which is unique in its design and specification. |
| This symbol, wherever it appears, This symbol, wherever it appears, | |
| alerts you to the presence of alerts you to-important operating and FE: = Please study this manual carefully in order to make full use of the extensive capabilities of the Behringer
| uninsulated dangerous voltage inside maintenance instructions in the PROTECTOR. |
| the enclosure - voltage that may be accompanying literature. Read the gi Th
| sufficient to constitute a risk of shock. manual. e unit was manufactured to the highest industrial standards and went through extensive quality
Vo “e control checks before it was supplied.
Lc
; DETAILED SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS: | However, should you have any reason for complaint, please do NOT return the unit to us, but proceed as
outlined in chapter 10.0 "WARRANTY"!
dria
E
All the safety and operation instructions should be read before the appliance is operated.
Retain Instructions:
The safety and operating instructions should be retained for future reference.
ria ana
= it iE 2
tend fi] bss Gr
Heed Warnings: The Behringer company wishes you every success in the use of your new PROTECTOR!
All warnings on the appliance and in the operating instructions should be adhered to.
8
=
pes
Follow instructions:
All operation and user instructions should be followed.
Water and Moisture:
The appliance should not be used near water (e.g. near a bathtub, washbow|, kitchen sink, laundry tub, in a wet basement,
AR
EW
tii
or near a swimming pool etc.). /
Ventilation:
The appliance should be situated so that its location or position does not interfere with its proper ventilaton. For example,
the appliance should not be situated on a bed, sofa rug, or similar surface that may block the ventilation openings: or
placed in a built- -in installation, such as a bookcase or cabinet that may impede the flow of air through the ventilation
openings.
Heat:
The appliance should be situated away from heat sources such as radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other appliance
(including amplifiers) that produce heat.
Power Source:
The appliance should be connected to a power supply only of the type described in the operating instructions or as
marked on the appliance.
Grounding or Polarization:
Precautions should be taken so that the grounding or polarization means of an appliance is not defeated.
BEHRINGER Specialized Studio Equipment
esco
Dipl.-Ing. Uli Behringer (President)
Ë E В TE: E à ®
Ы gas Mail Esc FETAL ISA
hein ER Miao pen” print ue EERE, | Sa bado? на (pT et
Em
=
Power-Cord Protection:
Power supply cords should be routed so that they are not likely to be walked on or pinched by items placed upon or Ш
against them, paying particular attention to cords and plugs, convenience receptacles and the point where they exit from E:
Ë
Ë
"HT timer ra pea o [MAA
the appliance.
J |
Vik.
[E
|
x
Cleaning:
The appliance should be cleaned only as recommended by the manufacturer.
Non-use Periods: |
The power cord of the appliance should be unplugged from the outlet when left unused for a long period of time.
Object and Liquid Entry:
Care should be taken so that objects do not fall and liquids are not spilled into the enclosure through openings.
Damage Requiring Service:
The appliance should be serviced by qualified service personnel when:
- The power supply cord or the plug has been damaged; or
- Objects have fallen, or liquid has been spilled into the appliance; or
- The appliance has been exposed to rain; or
- The appliance does not appear to operate normally or exhibits a marked change in performance; or
- The appliance has been droped, or the enclosure damaged.
Servicing:
— The user should not attempt to service the appliance beyond that is described in the Operating Instructions. All other * subject to our General Terms of Business
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 TECHNICAL BACKGROUND
1.1.1 Noise As A Physical Phenomenon
11.2 What Are Audio Dynamics?
1.1.3 Compressors/Limiters
1.1.4 Expanders/Noise-Gates
1.1.5 Companders
3.0 BLOCK DIAGRAM
o = A AT
ООН
dos
5.0 CONTROLS
51 FRONT PANEL LAYOUT OF THE PROTECTOR
5.2 BACK PANEI LAYOUT OF THE PROTECTOR
12.3
|!
8.0 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS
8.1
82
USING THE PROTECTOR FOR RECORDING AND
CASSETTE DUPLICATION
811 The PROTECTOR In Digital Recording And Sampling
812 The PROTECTOR In Mastering
THE PROTECTOR AS A PROTECTIVE DEVICE
8.21 Protection Of A System With A Passive Crossover
8.2.2 Protection Of A System With An Active Crossover
8.2.3 Improving The Sound Of A Processor System
0
|
! ПО!
0 о Ю № — — —
I
ооо
I
10.0 WARRANTY
10 - O
E
EN ag
dei aos Lit it td цауда
a E E == E RD
=
fo A
ame
cidade ue
pue
Epis
ml
E Tia ro
ERRE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The Behringer PROTECTOR is an innovative 8-channel recording limiter, which can be used in
conjunction with digital multi-track recorders and workstations and was specially designed for
professional recording and production studios. The PROTECTOR allows for raising the level of each
single recording track of your programme material up to the dynamic limit of the recorder, giving you a
perfect recording without any risk of overload and distortion. Additionally, it is possible to increase the
average recording level by about 10 dB without producing any disturbing side effects.
The PROTECTOR can also be used as an all-purpose multi-channel limiter for stage operation or for
any other application requiring level imiting.
The Problem
Apart from their various strong points, digital systems also suffer from a few decisive drawbacks.
They basically respond to overloading by producing disastrous distortion. Even the slightest
overloading results in digital clipping, which gives you an absolutely unusable audio signal.
With iow input levels, on the other hand, the resolution of the digital system is in most cases not high
enough to deliver an exact reproduction of the input signal. The listener perceives such recordings as
‘harsh’ and 'unmusical. When the audio engineer - trying to avoid digital distortion by all means -
records the material with much too low level, he is thus accepting a considerably deteriorated
signal-to-noise ratio and a heavy increase of signal distortion with low input levels. Many audio
engineers therefore give away a large portion of the dynamic range and prefer to record with low
levels. In practice, this often means that a 16-bit system is downgraded to a 12-bit system.
The Solution
The PROTECTOR is an easy-to-operate multi-channel limiter inserted between the mixer's outputs
and the recording machine's inputs. Once the unit is set up and adjusted, you can simply forget your
levelling problems. The Threshold control, which is effective on all of the 8 channels, determines the
maximum level limit. All signals exceeding this level are automatically cut back to the adjusted
maximum level limit. This process is almost inaudible owing to our unique IGC (Interactive Gain
Control) Peak Limiter described in the following section. |
The IGC (Interactive Gain Control) Peak Limiter
The remarkable feature of the Behringer PROTECTOR is the IGC (Interactive Gain Control) Limiter,
an intelligent combination of a Clipper and a Programme Limiter Above an adjustable threshold the
peak limiter begins to function and restricts signal peaks radically (Clipper). If however, the threshold
of the limiter was surpassed for more than a few milliseconds, the IGC circuit automatically kicks in
and reduces the level of the overall output signal so that no audible distortion occurs (Programme
Limiter).
After the level falls below the threshold, the signal returns to the original value after a period of about 1
second. This IGC circuit proves to be extremely valuable as much for live work (loud speaker
protection) as for digital situations, where any extreme signal peaks would exceed the maximum
headroom and therefore would cause severe problems.
The following instructions should familiarize you with the special terms used first, so that you
can get to know all the functions of the unit. After you have read the instructions carefully,
please put them away safely, so that you can refer to them again if necessary.
№
Moss
“sb 5 su PACE
sé nel ‘ве
7 =
МЗ ral
a
Lu.
\ à. ЗК. à by 0) WEY Во E A
- = 0 TEE roues AR Sats Es Sa A
Е Fs ! a „x AO LER EE tte Me WR e В
SG a Reed LAS Emma ban shoes tes beac МНН pest BR rene Lu cu we sain
В : : E i Do 1,05
A A a TE
a EA pra Er
id [fresionl Ha Memiesouehl pale ban GSE
че
TE à
sed TEA Eee
me
=
“red i
21 ВВ
Fi ih
wb FE
ea Rea
TASA Es
3
Bindi
12]
dae
EE
a
EE HL
"Вано pes
1.1 TECHNICAL BACKGROUND
By employing current modern analogue technology, it is possible to manufacture audio equipment
with a dynamic range of up to 125 dB. In contrast to analogue techniques, the dynamic range of
digital equipment is approximately 25 dB less. With conventional record and tape recorder
technology, as well as broadcasting, this value is further reduced. Generally, dynamic restrictions
are due to noisy storage in transmission media and also the maximum headroom of these systems.
1.1.1 Noise As A Physical Phenomenon
All electrical components produce a certain level of inherent noise. Current flowing through a
- conductor leads to uncontrolled random electron movements. For statistical reasons, this produces
frequencies within the whole audio spectrum. If these currents are highly amplified, the result will be
perceived as noise. Since all frequencies are equally affected, we term this white noise.
It is fairly obvious that electronics cannot function without components. Even if special low-noise
components are used, a certain degree of basic noise cannot be avoided.
This effect is similar when replaying a tape. The undirectional magnetic particles passing the
replay head can also cause uncontrolled currents and voltages. The resulting sound of the various
frequencies is heard as noise. Even the best possible tape biasing can “only” provide signal-to-noise
ratios of about 70 dB, which is not acceptable today since the demands of listeners have increased.
Due to the laws of physics, improving the design of the magnetic carrier is Impossible using
conventional means.
1.1.2 What Are Audio Dynamics?
A remarkable feature of the human ear is that it can detect the most wide ranging amplitude
changes - from the slightest whisper to the deafening roar of a jet-plane. If one tried to record or
reproduce this wide spectrum of sound with the help of amplifiers, cassette recorders, records or
even digital recorders (CD, DAT etc.), one would immediately be restricted by the physical limitations
of electronic and acoustic sound reproduction technology.
140 dB
120
100
80
60
40
20
Cassette
Recorder
Microphone Power Tape Radio
Amplifier Amplifier Recorder
Ear
Fig. 1 The dynamic range capabilities of various devices
The usable dynamic range of electro-acoustic equipment is limited as much at the low end as at the
high end. The thermal noise of the electrons in the components results in an audible basic noise floor
and thus represents the bottom limit of the transmission range. The upper limit is determined by the
levels of the internal operating voltages; if they are exceeded, audible signal distortion is the result.
Although in theory, the usable dynamic range sits between these two limits, it is considerably smaller
in practice, since a certain reserve must be maintained to avoid distortion of the audio signal if
sudden level peaks occur. Technically speaking, we refer to this reserve as headroom” - usually
this is about 10 - 20 dB. A reduction of the operating level would allow for greater headroom, i.e. the
risk of signal distortion due to level peaks would be reduced. However, at the same time, the basic
noise floor of the programme material would be increased considerably.
Clipping signal heaviy distorted
| Headroom |
Operating leve! |
Fig. 2 The interactive relationship between the operating level and the headroom
It is therefore useful to keep the operating level as high as possible without risking signal distortion in
order to achieve optimum transmission quality.
It is possible to further improve the transmission quality by constantly monitoring the programme
material with the aid of a volume fader, which manually levels the material. During low passages the gain
is increased, during loud passages the gain is reduced. Of course it is fairly obvious that this kind of
manual control is rather restrictive; it is difficult to detect signal peaks and it is almost impossible to level
them out. Manual control is simply not fast enough to be satisfactory.
The need therefore arises for a fast acting automatic gain control system which will constantly monitor
the signals and which will always adjust the gain to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio without incurring
signal distortion. This device is called a compressor or limiter This system is a part of the Behringer
AUTOCOM.
1.1.3 Compressors/Limiters
By measuring the dynamic range of musical instruments in live recording situations, you will find that
extreme amplitudes occur which often lead to overload in subsequent signal processing equipment.
- Especially in broadcasting and record cutting techniques, these signal peaks can lead to heavy
distortion. To avoid this kind of distortion or, for example, to avoid loudspeakers being damaged by
overload, Compressors or Limiters are used. -
The principle function used in these devices is dependent on an automatic gain control as mentioned in
the previous section, which reduces the amplitude of loud passages and therefore restricts the original
dynamics to a desired range. This application is particularly useful in microphone recording techniques,
to compensate for level changes which are caused by varying microphone distances.
Although compressors and limiters perform similar tasks, one essential point makes them different:
Limiters abruptly limit the signal above a certain level, while compressors control the signal “gently” over
a wider range. A limiter continuously monitors the signal and intervenes as soon as the level exceeds a
user-adjustable threshold. Any signal exceeding this threshold will be immediately returned to the
adjusted level. | |
A Compressor also monitors the programme material continuously and has a certain threshold level.
With compression, in contarst to the action of a limiter, signals are not reduced in level abruptly once the
threshold has been exceeded, but are returned to the threshold gradually. The signal is reduced in level,
relative to the amount the signal exceeds this point.
Generally, threshold levels for compressors are set below the normal operating level to allow for the
upper dynamics to be musically compressed. For limiters, the threshold point is set above the normal
operating level in order to provide reliable signal limiting, to protect subsequent equipment from signal
overload.
Tom dere me ad ma! al —
EN
at EN ye
oa
1.1.4 Expanders/Noise-Gates
Audio, in general, is only as good as the source from which it was derived. The dynamic range of
signals will often be restricted by noise. Synthesizers, effects devices, guitar pickups, amplifiers etc.
generally produce a high level of noise, hum or other ambient background niss, which can disturb the
quality of the programme material.
Normally these noises are inaudible if the level of the desired signal lies significantly above the level
of the noise. This perception by the ear is based on the “masking” effect: noise will be masked and
thus becomes inaudible as soon as considerably louder sound signals in the same frequency band
are added. Nevertheless, the further the level that the desired signal decreases, the more the noise
floor becomes a disturbing factor.
Expanders or noise-gates offer a solution for this problem: these devices attenuate signals when
their amplitudes drop, thereby fading out the background noise. Reliant on this method, gain
controlling amplifiers, like expanders, can extend the dynamic range of a signal and are therefore
the opposite of a compressor. -
In practice, it is shown that an expansion over the entire dynamic range is not desired. With an
expansion ratio of 5:1 and a processed dynamic range of 30 dB, an output dynamic range of 150 dB
will be the result, exceeding all subsequent signal processors, as well as human hearing. Therefore,
the amplitude control is restricted to signals whose levels are below a certain threshold. Signals ..
above this threshold pass through the unit unchanged. Due to continuous attenuation of the signals
below this threshold, this kind of expansion is termed "downward" expansion.
The noise-gate is the simplest form of an expander: in contrast to the expander, which continuously
attenuates a signal below the threshold, the noise-gate cuts off the signal abruptly. In most
applications this method is not very useful, since the on/off transition is too drastic. The onset of a
simple gate function appears very obvious and unnatural. To achieve an inaudible processing of the
programme material, it is necessary to be able to control the signal's envelope parameters.
1.1.5 Companders
The most wide spread application of compressor and expander systems is found with
complimentary noise reduction systems. To improve the audio quality of magnetic carrier and
transmission media, the industry developed systems which artificially expanded the restricted
dynamic range. These sytems are called COMPANDER systems (COMpressor-exPANDER) which
are based on the following principle: |
During recording, the amplitude of low level signals (Which are below the tape's inherent noise level)
are increased, i.e., the signal becomes louder. The dynamics of loud passages, however, which would
saturate the tape, are reduced. Due to this signal compression, a higher recording level can be
achieved.
While replaying, this process is reversed to restore the original dynamic range. By expanding the
signals, i.e. by enlarging their dynamic range, the inherent noise level of the tape is reduced as well.
In order to precisely reverse the whole process, it is necessary to add a coding pattern to the
programme material.
2.0 THE DESIGN CONCEPT
2.1 HIGH QUALITY COMPONENTS AND DESIGN
The philosophy behind Behringer products guarantees a no-compromise circuit design and employs
the best choice of components.
The Behringer operational amplifiers, which are used in the PROTECTOR, are exceptional. They
boast extreme linearity and very low distortion characteristics. To complement this design the
choice of components includes high tolerance metalfiim resistors and capacitors, 41 detent
potentiometers, gold plated relay contacts and several other stringently selected elements.
Before final calibration the unit is "burnt in”, which means that the unit is placed in a special oven for
several hours in order to stabilize and artificially age the unit. This guarantees several years of
constant performance specifications. The burn-in test conforms to military guidelines.
2.1.1 The VCA
At the heart of the Behringer PROTECTOR lies an excellent VCA (Voltage Controlled Amplifier).
With its excellent specifications (noise, THD, control feedthrough, linearity, slew rate and
“temperature stability) the precision VCA used in the PROTECTOR can be considered one of the
best control components in VCA technology.
The "control feedthrough” used in VCA terminolgy. is a very critical parameter for the crosstalk of
the control voltage into the audio path. Slow changes of the control voltage lead to a slow DC offset
at the audio output of the VCA and are mostly inaudible. Fast controls however, will result in
awkward switching noise (“clicks”). | |
The circuitry developed by Behringer provides an instantaneous attack, without any audible clicks
or pops during its operation. |
2.2 INPUTS
2.2.1 Balanced Inputs
As standard, the Behringer PROTECTOR is installed with electronically servo-balanced inputs. The
new circuit design features automatic hum and noise reduction for balanced signals and thus allows
for trouble-free operation, even at high operating levels. Externally induced mains hum etc., will be
effectively suppressed. | |
The automatic servo-function recognizes the presence of unbalanced connectors and adjusts the
nominal level internally to avoid level differences between the input and output (correction 6 dB).
ESPE DA
E. q
A a PA
ST ts
DR pute Fr с»
th eS
vimentin Thal, per TRI E
Totes sis
eng
2 ad
en E
les Atrea
9 ey MOS: + IM 7 | shi
e ATEN e в 5 ке у
Y TREE EE is, e Le
reload TR har St sue as Ms Te en EB BN na sa NA . Ae
EEE EA HEEE 5 ve 1 wie Bi mine de “Caine TG Of
e To - НЫ Е da
oy
[E а
& e à. À = e NES
e Ei tomate ond fines ein Sie] Metis iter] ©
VENTE ay ds COTE thd, течь
4 = x :
E aos Co
hr Ermita YE fet
LER
3.0 BLOCK DIAGRAM
AUDIO | | WN ‚AUDIO
INPUT 1 LIMIT 1 OUTPUT 1
; SERVO ;
уе BALANCED VeA OUTPUT -
INPUT — DRIVER
| “STAGE
AUDIO A AUDIO
INPUT 2 | | LIMIT 2 OUTPUT 2
SERVO Tec
YCA PEAK
LIMITER
OUTPUT :
DRIVER
MASTER LIMITER SECTION >t TO CHANNELS 3 - 8
ON А $ -10dBV 4 +4dBu
LIMITER THRESHOLD OPERATING LEVEL
eT]
= BALANCED
| INPUT
STAGE
Fig. 3 Block diagram of the Behringer PROTECTOR MDX 1800
AUDIO Path
The input signal passes firstly through an electronically balanced input stage and is then directed
through the VCA (Voltage Controlled Amplifier) which actually governs the dynamic process. The
subsequent IGC Peak Limiter contains a Clipper and a Programme Limiter, which is linked to the
VCA. The output driver buffers the signal and leads it to the output connector.
Master Section
All 8 limiter channels are controlled by the Master Limiter section. Here, the Threshold, the
Operating Level and the In/Out functions are set.
The advantage of the balanced system is based on the effect that the differential amplifier in a
subsequent device suppresses all equal phased noise which has been induced during its
transmission down the cable link. However, the original signal will be amplified and retain all its
original integrity. |
In this way, audio signals can be transmitted without interference or loss across long distances.
4.0 INSTALLATION
Your Behringer PROTECTOR was carefully packed in the factory and the packaging was designed
to protect the unit from rough handling. Nevertheless, we recommend that you carefully examine the
packaging and its contents for any signs of physical damage, which may have occurred in transit. -
o If the unit is damaged, please do not return it to us, but notify your dealer and the shipping
Balanced or unbalanced systems require different wiring. Please read the next section
carefully and pay close attention to the correct wiring requirements of the units in the audio
chain.
4.2.3 The Correct Wiring For Balanced Operation
If the unit preceding the PROTECTOR uses output balancing, we recommend that you use
balanced audio connections. This will avoid interference such as mains hum etc.
For maximum hum rejection, you should avoid common grounding, which means, grounding
the PROTECTOR's input and output.
company immediately, otherwise claims for damage or replacement may not be granted.
Shipping claims must be made by the consignee.
4.1 RACK MOUNTING
The Behringer PROTECTOR fits into one standard rack unit of space (1 3/4”). Please allow at least
â | an additional 4” depth for the connectors on the back panel. Be sure that there is enough air space
| around the unit for cooling and please do not place the PROTECTOR on high temperature devices SOURCE | » PROTECTOR » END UNIT
| such as power amplifiers etc. to avoid overheating. , | | y
. ’ OUTPUT | INPUT
|| 4.2 CONNECTORS
| The PROTECTOR can be installed using standard 1/4” jacks. Although the inputs are fully balanced, -
| the automatic servo-function allows them to operate with unbalanced sources/loads. | | —
НЕ ® ©
ai |
: 4.2.1 Impedances В sueo y
| The input has an impedance of 60 kOhms and can be driven by most input sources. If a device's JF | —// |
i output requires a load of 600 Ohms (provided with most output transformers), a 600 Ohm resistor 77 E I не
| should be tied across tip and ring on the input jack connector. CABLE in DEVELOPS CABLE CR HUM DEVELOPS >
ÿ 4.2.2 Unbalanced/Balanced Operation
| 90% of all mistakes in audio installations can be attributed to incorrect and defective audio Fig. 4 The correct wiring of the balanced system
We recommend that you connect the shield of the input cable to the ground of the signal source,
making sure that the shield is not connected to the PROTECTOR's input connector.
At the output, the shield of the cable is connected to the ground of the PROTECTOR, but making
sure that the shield of the corresponding cable's end is not connected to the ground of the
subsequent unit. |
Generally speaking, the shield connection will be tied to the source units, but not to destination
units. |
If you still develop hum, it may be helpful in some cases to connect the shield on the input of
the subsequent device also.
connections! In order to utilize the Behringer PROTECTOR to its full potential, please pay special
attention to the following section.
For better understanding, the technical difference between unbalanced and balanced systems
must be clarified:
The Unbalanced System
Unbalanced operation is characterised by a single conductor shielded cable with the center
conductor carrying the signal and the shield at ground.
The Balanced System
A balanced operation is defined as a two conductor shielded cable, where each of the two center
conductors carry the signal but of opposite phase. They have equal but inverted potential
differences from that of ground.
PE E
4.3 BALANCED/UNBALANCED OPERATION
The Behringer PROTECTOR is used with standard 1/4” jack plugs. Please refer to the following
sections for correct wiring:
4.3.1 Balanced Operation
If the unit preceding the PROTECTOR uses output balancing or if the unit subsequent to the
PROTECTOR uses input balancing, than we recommend the following adaptations. Figures 5 and 6
show the correct connection for stereo jack to jack operation.
Figure 5 shows the correct way to connect the balanced input, whereas figure 6 shows the correct
way to connect the PROTECTOR's output. Please note that you can distinguish between the
figures by observing the shield connections.
If you still develop hum, it may be helpful in some cases to connect the shield on the input of
the subsequent device also.
ib Bo & Es = E: HO т ih = LE Е i Ly] pa й |
я A = nF PETE aE ЗЕ ik ETE x = A al qe ade En. Be тОВЁ Ta. а ‘2 RE У 1
i. НО i 202 ; 1 DH e = NE Hd mA Ж HL SH HOE =O В A № E e
A A DS ho ; В : Рон Белл 58 PLOT: TA Ë ri io HE LT =F FE E me E ME iri HA EE SE OA VE A 5 Ÿ ЗАЧ Е E A A
Iressa dan Вы e sia E ec bis is comes , al emi meine a iconos holy dead MEA cimarbia vas Vence SE Rss Si educan Mus imita pe sement Vite Ee Bh ful a had ER A BRR
: : - ; Cl : ‚ - e E . я . =
i
и ея E Г. PE &
a а. Y a
Fa Sr ee НЫЙ eee os Fit Ka
ca Ÿ té à bn y $
M eN 3 Cr || e ep
Bs
==
a
ar da pré et
be
SIGNAL FLOW
UNIT A Output — > PROTECTOR Input
RING SLEEYE a, SLEEVE RING
TIP ZE 7/ | TIP
7/ a
: |
. — 1
— sueo CABLE CF HUM CONNECTE |
O ©
Fig. 5 Balanced PROTECTOR input wiring with 1/4" jack connections
4.3.2 Unbalanced Operation
In applications that do not require balanced connections, we recommend that you use a single
conductor shielded cable with two mono jack plugs. Please make sure that the shield is connected
at both ends.
SIGNAL FLOW
UNIT A Output » PROTECTOR Input
: SIGNAL FLOW
PROTECTOR Output 7 > UNIT B Input
TIP SLEEVE 54 SLEEVE TIP
VA
SHIELD CABLE
® ; ®
Fig. 8 Unbalanced input and output wiring with 1/4” jack connections
Yo Be
o
© 4
Ha
Aa ©
i atl a RM Ml mec e
BE a в
w те 3 E ® En - E
x= a LI at 3 A E E = 1
A E 16 a E En. a, 3 а =. a A A A A.
Suiza © res рее Е iba de veia Jha SE tue da Cane GA Noe Чо,
jaa SED I st x h
на ва
4.4 MAINS CONNECTION
The mains connection of the PROTECTOR is made by using a mains cable and a standard IEC
receptacle. it meets all of the international safety certification requirements.
Please make sure that all units have a proper ground connection. For your own safety, it is
advisable not to remove the ground connection within the units or at the supply, or fail to
make this connection at all. The audio ground of the PROTECTOR is internally capacitor de-
coupled, to isolate it from the supply earth. It is therefore not advantegeous to attempt ground
loop problem solving using this method.
4.4.1 Operating Voltage Selector
Before you switch on the unit, check that it is configured to match your AC mains voltage
requirements. If it does not comply, then it is necessary to switch the operating voltage to the
correct supply requirements BEFORE turning on the unit, otherwise the unit could be severely
damaged. You will find this combined fuse holder/voltage selector at the back, adjacent to the IEC
receptacle.
Please note that the AC voltage selection is defined by the position of the fuse holder. If you
intend to change the operating voltage, remove the fuse holder and twist it by 180 degrees
before you reinsert it. When fully in place, a marker on the fuse-holder indicates which
voltage is currently selected.
4.4.2 Safety Fuse Replacement
A safety fuse protects the unit from serious defects. If the fuse blows, this is a warning sign and
always indicates that the circuit is overloaded. The fault must always be repaired before the fuse is
replaced.
If the safety fuse is faulty and needs replacing after the unit is repaired, please make sure
that you replace it only with the identical type and rating. NEVER use fuses of different
ratings or cover faulty fuses with aluminium foil. This can cause fire and electric shocks and
will endanger your life and the lives of others.
For 200-240 Volts the fuse rating is 160 mA slow-blow and 315 mA slow- blow for mains voltages
of 100-120 Volts.
5.0 CONTROLS
PROTECTOR
: VE 1 (3 zZ El al E = “ ay had -
я MITER = = 7
RECCROLNG LNT Ç й В N Ç . . - BERINGER]
o o o o o o о o =i a
O) LITA SG. Poux ( )
8
Fig. 7 The control surface of the PROTECTOR model MDX 1800
> 1 FRONT PANEL LAYOUT OF THE PROTECTOR
LIMIT LED
This LED is illuminated, when the signal of the corresponding channel is limited. For each channel
there is an individual LIMIT LED. |
IN/OUT switch
With this switch all eight channels are switched in and out.
THRESHOLD control
This control governs the maximum output level which is valid for all eight channels. The level can
be adjusted in the range of O dB to +18 dB. Its absolute value corresponds to the setting of the
OPERATING LEVEL switch.
OPERATING LEVEL switch
With this switch you can select the reference level of the THRESHOLD control. It can be chosen
between the semiprofessional -10 dBV and the professional +4 dBu reference.
T= = =- 6
A: 5 FR Ba
ma A USES БЕЗ pom ME eee] wn
dci ho
Ds da Il Eel
ea didnt fo puma mea BEG cai Si ss
Wow w
à a |
5.2 THE BACK PANEL LAYOUT OF THE PROTECTOR
rd a Cw mek ct Снт
+ ri” I= +1 +7 Ti +m “+ TIP + Tte + tr +100 +1 +m Tr
Ei [DE EA TEE mi O
RPLAMEUES | TL) [a 3 1
= сен a Qq= ma 5 с— зоне. веса COCHRANE. LC) ome E mE 2 (=) {= ome 41
5€
E
= 8 The back panel layout of the PROTECTOR
Le]
E
|5 | SERIAL NUMBER
Please take the time to make a note of the serial number in the space provided on the enclosed
warranty registration card. Put the instruction manual in a safe place and return the completed
warranty registration card to us within 8 days of purchase, making sure that the dealer stamp
has been aquired.
MAINS CONNECTOR
Please use the enclosed mains cable to connect the unit to the mains power supply.
FUSE HOLDER/VOLTAGE SELECTOR '
Please note that, depending on the mains voltage supplied to the unit, the correct fuse type and
rate must be installed.
Please note that the AC voltage selection is defined by the position of the fuse holder, If
you intend to change the operating voltage, remove the fuse holder and twist it by 180
degrees before you reinsert it. When fully in place, a marker on the fuse- holder indicates
which voltage is currently selected.
Before you connect the unit, please make sure that the displayed voltage corresponds to your
mains supply. |
AUDIO IN
This is the input of channel 8.
AUDIO OUT
This is the output of channel 8.
6.0 OPERATION
6.1 BACKGROUND
Setting the recording level on analogue tape recorders is quite straightforward. As soon as the
signal level reaches the red area of the VU meter, the fader of the mixing console is simply moved
back a bit. Excessive levels in analogue recording equipment are quite forgiving, since they produce
only little distortion and are therefore hardly audible.
Basically, this is due to the ‘soft’ saturation characteristics of the tape. Sometimes, this 'soft’ limiting
delivers even wanted effects. Similarly to a compressor, the signal is not cut off abruptly in analogue
tape machines but is limited smoothly.
Here, digital recording systems suffer from a decisive drawback: while featuring absolute linearity
up to the leveling limit, even slightly overloaded signals make them produce drastic distortions, which
can instantly make your recording unusable. =
Although tape noise represents a minor problem in digital recorders (when compared to analogue
systems), their transmission behaviour with low levels requires the same recording procedure.
Therefore, any recording should basically be made with maximum levels.
An intelligent limiter is the perfect solution to this problem. Inserted at the end of the signal chain and
directly preceding the multi-track recorder, the limiter makes sure that the level limit so crucial in
digital systems will not be exceeded, while simultaneously increasing the average recording level.
This results in a high resolution with low levels and provides absolute protection against overloading
even with highest levels. In particular, with critical music material, such as acoustic or classical
music, the improved audio quality can clearly be heard.
6.2 THE IGC PEAK LIMITER
Attack time is defined as the time taken for a processor to respond to programme levels which have
exceeded the threshold point.
Because of the physical relationship between frequency and slew rate, for relatively low
frequencies a longer attack time is required than for higher frequencies: any unpleasant dynamic
distortion is thus avoided. When compressing a programme mix that includes a wide range of
frequencies, a compromise must be made when setting the attack time. This setting would generally
suit the lowest frequency components present.
For general dynamic range control using for example a compressor, this is of no serious
consequence. However, in a limiting mode, where we are restricting the peaks of our signals to a
maximum operating level to avoid distortion in any subsequent devices, this will result in very fast
high frequency signal transients passing through unaffected by gain reduction. These transients
could cause distortion in the subsequent equipment such as tape recorders and radio transmitters. It
is therefore necessary to choose the attack time which is as close to “zero” attack as possible,
independent of the frequency.
The Behringer IGC Peak Limiter incorporated in the PROTECTOR is a dynamic processor with
dynamics specifically set for these fast transients. It consists of a new, two-stage IGC (Interactive
Gain Control) circuit, which intelligently combines the Clipper and the Programme Limiter.
The Clipper radically cuts signals above the threshold level. The “zero” attack function
(instantaneous response) provides absolute protection for a sound system. Overload due to harmful
transients is avoided.
Ae TH В TR: N E
EE Fu E ACE
die e mien fl karl WE Keen
Hai
го
NE aE ED “E E E he
E fi LES TH Eu E a. ВЫ GE E. Ez
Ре В x St "4, amiga bap T° ow зола? ТД, зон ЖМИ Мея
= Si =] us ES asas Mn peda 130 ¡riera TO Berl
far ac
FA 10 En =
E В à 5 By BF = '
2 LLY КОНЯ E \ A > = * =
ES EET SE a ho pe NETAS № EE Ku
EL a ce E E e DE En - is TR E 15 SET AE E В
Ecol RE Urea sa pate aude! Tetas gta té MEN Te brome ee aa WE Be а тары NE ош A os PA ши
à 59 ee | nt EA В e via oping 2 sas El ue eri his
5
Ta
sus LE
НЫ LIE
E = Je EI : day
5 SE BP BE
pika Hal pom pol pom MOD
Y
dues:
WET ss TE Я
—o ts HA EE de) ame BSH Estad md
Fig. 9 Fig. 10
Input Input
A A
VA, PAN Threshold
» Time » Time
The signal BEFORE gain control (fig. 9) and AFTER clipper processing (fig. 10)
However, the Clipper has a fundamental problem: even if you do not notice the clipping of certain
transients, the limiting of the actual signal amplitude leads to heavy and unpleasant distortion. It is
therefore necessary to include another dynamics section, which would additionally reduce the overall
level, in order to limit the time the Clipper is in effect.
This dynamics control is called a Programme Limiter: if the Clipper limits a signal for longer than 20 ms,
the Programme Limiter is engaged and reduces the overall level for 1 second and for the necessary
amplitude value to prevent a repeated response by the Clipper.
The function of the IGC Peak Limiter is shown in the following figures:
Fig. 11 Fig. 12
Input Input
A A
Л A Clipping Limiting LEVEL Threshold
| 1
V
| .
| |
{ 1
La |
| 1
il
Pa
|| GAIN REDUCTION
> Time + pp Time
At=20 ms
The signal BEFORE gain control (fig. 11) and AFTER IGC Peak Limiting (fig. 12) |
Clipper and Programme Limiter function interactively: depending on the programme material, one of the
two controls are activated. In this way, optimum limiting is always achieved.
“М ето Вто ва QQ n
7.2 RECORDING WITH THE PROTECTOR
Use the PROTECTOR to record your basic tracks with increased headroom and better protection
against overloading. However, you should keep in mind that the THRESHOLD control is effective on all
limiter channels at the same time. If you wish to record several tracks simultaneously but want to re-
adjust one specific instrument only, you should use the channel fader on your console. Please remember
that the maximum level is set with the mixer, while the maximum signal level is controlled with the
PROTECTOR. Any subsequent fine-adjustment of individual tracks should be done using the faders on
the mixing console.
7.0 APPLICATIONS
In this section, several typical applications of the Behringer PROTECTOR are discussed. The
following basic settings can resolve most dynamic problems. They are the ideal starting point.
Please take the time to study the application examples carefully, in order to be able to make full use
of the PROTECTOR'S capabilities | in the future.
eto E ori ЯНОВ inet
7.3 HOW MUCH LIMITING SHOULD BE APPLIED?
Please reconsider again how the IGC limiter works:
Level peaks of about 6 dB are cut off by the Clipper. These are so-called transients, ie. short level
peaks. Cutting off these peaks does not audibly restrict the dynamics. This function should be used, for
example, for classical music where an unlimited dynamic range is essential. Set up the PROTECTOR so
that the LIMIT LED's are normally off and light up with signal peaks only. This leaves the recording
unaffected but still provides protection against overloading.
If the Clipper limits by more than 6 dB, the Programme Limiter comes in and reduces the level of the
respective channel to avoid distortion. Much like a manual level control, this circuit reduces the overall
level before it enters the clipper circuit. With lower threshold settings this allows for a ‘tighter’ sound and
keeps the average level high. This mode is particularly suited for pop music where the dynamic range
needs to be compressed considerably. If applied excessively. limiting can cause audible pumping effects
due to massive dynamic processing. |
Ultimately, your ear should be the judge which setting works best for your specific application. Do not
hesitate to experiment and you will soon get the right feeling. |
7.1 MAIN APPLICATIONS AND INITIAL SETTING
Insert the PROTECTOR between your mixing console and multi-track recorder by connecting the
outputs of your mixer (usually the Bus or Direct Outputs) to the eight inputs of the PROTECTOR.
The outputs of the unit are connected to the analogue line inputs of the multi-track recorder.
7.11 Initial Setting
The setting of the OPERATING LEVEL switch depends on the recorder and/or mixer used, ie.
whether the operating level is +4 dBu or -10 dBV. Information on the operating level can be found in
the manuals accompanying your equipment.
Having linked everything properly, audio signals should be transmitted successfully through your
system. The LIMIT LEDs should not yet light up. We recommend using an oscillator to effect the
basic mixer and recorder settings. When O dB VU are adjusted on your mixing console, the
corresponding reading on the recorder's peak display should be -18 dB. If your mixer is equipped
with a peak display, an end-scale reading on this display should produce about O dB (maximum
level) on the display of the digital recorder.
Now use some programme material which is not yet compressed and adjust the level on your mixer
so that an average level of O VU is reached. Level peaks of +1 or +2 dB are permitted. Then set up
your recorder so that occasional overloading is displayed.
Turn the PROTECTOR's THRESHOLD control counter-clockwise until the signal peaks are limited
to such an extent that the recorder does not read any overloading. To be on the safe side, you can
temporarily increase the mixer level to find out whether the recorder detects any overloading. If
necessary, re-adjust the THRESHOLD control. The onset of the limiter function is displayed by the
associated LIMIT LEDs.
If it proves difficult or impossible to set the THRESHOLD control correctly, press the OPERATING
LEVEL switch. In position -10 dBV the scaling refers to the lower -10 dBV reference value, which
makes it easier to set up semi-professional mixing consoles and recorders.
г af а в WR TY E e Bf x a L
се Ее: | E SE rl I ЗА a
n= = E SERRE atan tema нана RP par rita E En ORE
I em 9 ' м mo ; N ; ‚
<I
di)
prs asm
A =>
ba. 9 1
e poy prime pty pepo e
The majority of digital recorders do not have an input control, so that you will have to use your mixer
to adjust the average level and the PROTECTOR to set up the maximum level limit.
A Ff AIN - mer ~~
Annliratinne 7-1
8.0 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS
8.1 USING THE PROTECTOR FOR RECORDING AND
CASSETTE DUPLICATION
In the recording and duplication field, the goal should always be to achieve an optimum recording
level onto the recording media. Too low or too high recording levels lead to side effects such as
noise, distortion etc. In mastering and multitrack recording, as well as in duplication, one should
always take care to utilize the full dynamic range of the tape recorder, DAT recorder etc. Principally,
it is possible to control the recording level by riding’ faders, which means with low level signals, the
gain is increased, whereas the amplitude of high level signal is reduced. It is obvious that this method
is insufficient because, especially in live recordings, the expected signal levels cannot be anticipated
correctly. Especially with multitrack recordings, which are run under hectic circumstances, the signal
level of all channels cannot be monitored and controlled at the same time. Generally, with manual
control, it is not possible to achieve satisfying recording results. |
An automatic gain control system achieves better and more constant results. Use the PROTECTOR
by starting with the initial settings, and use its dynamic control functions in order to be able to drive
an analogue, as well as a digital recording, up to the limit of its maximum dynamic range while
remaining noise- and distortion-free.
8.11 The PROTECTOR In Digital Recording And Sampling
In an analogue recording, too low recording levels lead to an increased noise level, whereas too high
levels will cause a compressed and ‘squashed’ sound. In extreme cases, it will cause distortion due
to tape saturation. In contrast to analogue, side effects in the digital field always become extremely
audible: with decreasing level, a tape previously recorded with insufficient level loses resolution: the
recording sounds ‘hard’ and loses ‘atmosphere’. With excessive level, the recording sounds harsh
and heavily distorted. In order to avoid these effects, the limiter function of the PROTECTOR should
be used. As a result of this process, a digital recording or a sampling event can be optimally set in
level without any problem.
8.1.2 The PROTECTOR In Mastering
The mastering process is one of the most critical processing steps in recording. In this production
step, it is the goal to achieve a ‘maximum level copy of the recording, without any noise or
distortion. In many applications it is further required to produce a high average volume. In the field of
commercial media for example, this is apparent especially with records and cassettes which are
processed with high average volumes. Quite often in these cases, dynamics suffer drastically,
because the programme material has been compressed and limited too heavily. Using the
PROTECTOR allows you to drastically increase the overall volume, without audibly affecting the
dynamics. | |
This effect is particularly noticeable with DAT recorders, whose level indicators achieve a response
time of less than 1 ms. Set the DAT recorder at unity and now reduce the THRESHOLD control of
the PROTECTOR until the LIMIT LEDs are illuminated. The ‘cut’ signal peaks cause a reduced
recording level of about 6 dB, which is visible on the level indicators of the DAT recorder. Now
increase the recording level of the recorder back to unity.
The result is a clearly louder recording without any loss of quality.
per
fe LE
SEC ¡e lente Biel =
FRA = EX Trac RESTE,
Eo Po Жо AE
wom para EN GIA Go rice pue
=. 1 i £ E E =
ОД SN i À НВ + A: Lf ; : E: E. И: Ei =D.
4 y 3 пена. Ts Ba : Fabs y - HE Pa ЦЕНЕ ! TT fm] Treen TE
- i В : 1 i = = I { = 5 =
= bae A dae Al Poe E emos ci dee GWT Blade) ES) semen di ANACO Pu ese pa ниавнощеный bd pbitedst ed anne GH) Biondi mS) pannes HE] ui
Leb REI EE E 5, ou = ни = 1m
8.2 THE PROTECTOR AS A PROTECTIVE DEVICE
Sound system distortion is usually a result of amplifiers and loudspeakers being driven beyond their
limitations by signals clipping. The signal limitations that occur lead to unpleasant distortion that IS
dangerous to the speakers.
A speaker diaphragm is required to accelerate, slow down, smoothly change direction and
accelerate again in normal operation. Distorted operation (clipping) leads to instant acceleration,
instant stop, change of direction and instant acceleration again. Since speaker diaphragms are
subject to the laws of physics, they will not take this kind of punishment for long: the diaphragm will
either break up or its voice coil may overheat.
In addition to the damage caused by sustained overload, the speaker may also be damaged by an
occasional high level overload, e.g. the sound of a microphone falling onto a hard floor. Even if this
type of transient does not destroy a speaker outright, it may damage the speaker surround in such
a way, as to cause mechanical abrasion and future failure. It is recommended that you use the
Behringer PROTECTOR in order to protect the speaker. "Brick Wall” peak limiters are not normally
necessary for PA systems, as amplifiers and loudspeakers are tolerant of short signal peaks.
Nevertheless, conventional limiters have to be generally driven far beyond the headroom limit of an
amplifier, in order to limit the level and length of the transients responsible for overloading the
system. The disadvantage of this principle is that the unit's full range cannot be completely used.
If an increase in the average level of up to 3 dB is attained with the PROTECTOR's limiter function,
this means that you effectively double the power amplification. The PROTECTOR can act in this
way to convert a PA system of 5,000 Watts into a distortion free 10,000 Watts system.
The following instructions will help you to integrate the unit into your system.
8.2.1 Protection Of A System With A Passive Crossover
If your sound system incorporates a passive crossover network (included in the loudspeaker case),
insert the Behringer PROTECTOR between your mixing console output and the power amplifier
input. |
EEE TTT В8
1n0 NIA
O
\
y
О
ZN
Mo)
\
NA
из р
H3T4I1dWY
Fig. 13 Integrating the Behringer PROTECTOR into a system with a passive crossover network
8.2.2 Protection Of A System With An Active Crossover
For systems using active crossovers, there are two ways to use the Behringer PROTECTOR. As
shown in fig. 31, the unit may be inserted between the console output and the crossover input. In this
application, the Behringer PROTECTOR will process the entire audio frequency spectrum.
[our у, Las
IN ROMS 1
+
=e | == NIN mo ©
66 IN OUT
| ; N HIGH BAND | LOW BAND | i= DOODOODOODIDARDOS| cow sano. | Le ©.
CT CROSSOVER J
Fig. 14 The Behringer PROTECTOR in a two way system
Alternately, the Behringer PROTECTOR can be inserted between the output of an active crossover
and the input of a power amplifier. In this application it will only affect a specific range of
frequencies.
| ur | Y
ur ET Te Ea |
Leo freer О
OUT
ne J
NP gy eme LL == NIN) co но
CROSSOVER
© >
Fig. 15 Compressing the high frequency range with the Behringer PROTECTOR
8.2.3 Improving The Sound Of A Processor System
A processor system is understood as a PA system which contains a special active crossover whose
outputs are linked via separated power amplifiers to the loudspeakers. Each band has its own limiter
whose task it is to limit dangerous signal peaks to a certain level. This process avoids overloading
the subsequent power amplifier or destruction of the loudspeaker.
In some units, the crossover frequencies in the crossover unit are further changed during high signal
levels to achieve a "loudness contour” suited to the human hearing. But in many cases, this function
leads more to a disturbance than to an improvement of the sound quality.
If the PROTECTOR is preceding this system, the signal peaks can be eliminated before they reach
the limiters of the processing system. The sound quality therefore remains natural and free of side
effects caused by the changing frequencies of the crossover.
9.0 SPECIFICATIONS
OUTPUTS
Type Electronically buffered output driver
Output Impedance 40 Ohms, unbalanced
Maximum Output Level +20 dBu
Bandwidth 5 Hz to 100 kHz, +0, -3 dB
THD @ +4 dBu 0.01% typ.
0.008 % typ.
-98 dBu (20 Hz to 22 kHz, unweighted)
better than -85 dBu
IMD (SMPTE) € +10 dBu
Noise & Hum
Crosstalk @ 20 kHz
INDICATORS
LIMIT LEDs
LED indicator for each function switch
Indicates the onset of the corresponding limiter
PHYSICAL
Dimension 13/4" (44.5 mm)H * 19” (482.6 mm) * 8.5" (217 mm)
Net Weight 3 kg
Shipping Weight 4.3 kg
Behringer Spezielle Studiotechnik GmbH is: constantly striving to maintain the highest professional standards. As a
result of these efforts, modifications may be made from time to time to existing products without prior notice:
Specifications and appearance may differ from those listed or shown,
gén НЫ, y . 5 .
dt niente a Ei guiada esl at oir e e .
Pt UE de eT ES LN RE A AAN EST PDA LEER We eae i анна
ds енощац
Neal oe el
HIE ra e
ss a eu
id SPA me:
= i AES RA
NT NA e
10.0 WARRANTY
81 WARRANTY REGISTRATION _
Warranty Registration must be completed and returned to Behringer GmbH within 8 days from
the date of purchase.
8 2 WARRANTY |
Behringer GmbH warrants the materials, workmanship and proper operation of this Behringer product for
a period of five years from the original date of purchase. If any defects are found in the materials or
workmanship, or if the product fails to function properly within the specified warranty period, Behringer
GmbH will repair or replace the product, at its discretion.
S 3 RETURN AUTHORIZATION NUMBER (RA)
84 WARRANTY AUTHORITY
Behringer GmbH reserves the right to inspect any products which may be the subject of any warranty
claim before repair or replacement is carried out.
Behringer GmbH may, at its discretion, require proof of the original date of purchase (dated copy of
original retail dealer's invoice). Final determination of warranty coverage lies solely with Behringer GmbH.
Any Behringer product deemed eligible for repair or replacement under the terms of this warranty will be
repaired or replaced within 30 days of receipt of the product at Behringer's factory. Products which do
not meet the terms of this warranty will be repaired and returned COD. with an invoice for labour
materials, return freight and insurance. Products repaired under warranty will be returned freight prepaid
by Behringer GmbH, to any location within the boundaries of the Federal Republic of Germany. Outside
of Germany, products will be returned freight collect.
8 5 WARRANTY TRANSFERABILITY
This warranty is extended to the original purchaser, but it is not transferable to anyone who may
subsequently purchase this product.
8 6 LIMITATION OF LIABILITY
Behringer products are designed and manufactured for use in professional and studio audio systems
and are not intended for any other use. With respect to products purchased by consumers for personal,
family or household use, Behringer GmbH expressly disclaims all implied warranties, including but not
limited to warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.
The foregoing warranties are in lieu of all other warranties, whether oral, written, expressed, implied or
statutory. Behringer GmbH's warranty obligation and Buyer's remedies hereunder are solely and
exclusively as stated herein.
The total liability of Behringer GmbH on any claim, whether in contract, tort (including negligence) or
otherwise arising out of, connected with, or resulting from the manufacturer, sale delivery, resale, repair,
replacement or use of any product will not exceed the price allocable to the product or part thereof
which gives rise to the claim. In no event will Behringer GmbH be liable for any incidental or
consequential damages including but not limited to damage for loss of revenue, cost of capital, claims of
customers for service interruptions or failure to supply, and costs and expenses incurred in connection
with labour, overhead, transportation, installation or removal of products or substitute facilities or supply
Sources.
o
1 q
PU 6
i
д
Bo
ape N
E.
Mia Y И,
4
4
BFC =
EU.
A
УЕ >.
PT pers `
№
E im UT
Pe
€
o
E
F4
æ 3
№ à
* о
Ri à
k 3
кз
к,
к?
BEDIENUNGSANLEITUNG
Der interaktive 8-Kanal
Recording Limiter
Modell MDX 1800
BEHRINGER
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertising