Users´s Manual PESSL INSTRUMENTS.

Users´s Manual PESSL INSTRUMENTS.
MetosCompact
®
Users´s Manual
PESSL INSTRUMENTS GmbH.
© Copyright PESSL INSTRUMENTS, A-8160 Weiz – AUSTRIA
Copyright notice:
All copyrights of the respective companies are acknowledged.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into
any human or computer language, in any form or by any means, without the express written permission of Pessl
Instruments - Weiz - Austria.
The contents of this manual are subject to change without notice.
Dear Customer,
As President of the Pessl Company, I welcome you, our new customer. I congratulate you for
being a progressive individual, investing in the most advanced technology available today to
insure that your efforts produce the best possible results.
Your METOSR will provide reliable and accurate weather data. Data that will allow you to
make the best management decisions, whether your responsibilities include insect, disease
or weed pest management, turf or crop production, or commercial or research data analysis.
Our customers all over the world agree that you will sleep more soundly, knowing that METOS
is keeping track of your weather, day or night.
The METOS is the most versatile unit on the market, and can be tailored to meet your specific
needs. Our commitment to quality and technological advancement are evident in the wide
variety of sensing, reporting and automatic control options available with your METOS. We
will continue to work with leading scientists and researchers throughout the world to insure the
best results.
Our world wide network of METOS distributors are well trained and ready to meet your
service and technical support needs. They will be happy to answer any questions you may
have regarding the operation and application of your new METOS. Feel free to contact me
personally, if you need additional service.
Thanks again for choosing METOS, and we will try our best to earn your continued confidence
and business.
Warmest Welcome,
Gottfried Pessl
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 Packing list and materials needed
................................................................... 4
2 Metos Compact............................................................................................ 6
2.1 Mounting............................................................................................. 7
2.2 Sensors................................................................................................ 8
2.3 Electronic box..................................................................................... 10
3 Installation................................................................................................... 12
3.1 Start up................................................................................................ 12
3.2 Initialisation........................................................................................ 12
3.3 Mounting ............................................................................................ 13
3.3.1 General........................................................................... 13
3.3.2 Relative humidity and temperature sensor.................... 13
3.3.3 Rain gauge..................................................................... 14
3.3.4 Leaf wetness sensor....................................................... 14
3.3.5 Soil temperature............................................................. 14
3.3.6 Daylength sensor........................................................... 15
3.3.7 Soil moisture sensor...................................................... 15
3.3.8 Global radiation............................................................. 17
3.3.9 Wind speed sensor......................................................... 18
3.3.10 Wind direction............................................................. 20
3.3.11 Mounting of sensors.................................................... 20
3.3.11.1 Meteorological Reference............................ 20
3.3.11.2 Calculation of Evapotranspiration................ 21
3.3.11.3 Crop considerations for mounting sensors ...21
3.4 Communication................................................................................... 22
3.4.1 Connecting a modem .................................................... 22
3.5 MetControl.......................................................................................... 22
3.6 Additional Sensors.............................................................................. 23
3.7 Change fuse......................................................................................... 23
4 Maintenance and Service............................................................................. 24
4.1 Maintenance ....................................................................................... 24
4.1.1 Metos Compact-Instrument........................................... 24
4.1.2 Leaf wetness sensor....................................................... 24
4.1.3 Rain gauge......................................................................24
4.2 Service................................................................................................. 25
5 Problems...................................................................................................... 26
5.1 Leaf wetness sensor ............................................................................26
5.2 Air temperature sensor........................................................................ 26
5.3 Relative humidity sensor......................................................................26
5.4 Help with problems............................................................................. 26
6 Warranty....................................................................................................... 27
Appendix A - Technical Data of the Sensors................................................. 28
A.1 Relative humidity and temperature sensor.......................................... 28
A.1.1Temperature sensor ........................................................ 28
A.1.2 Relative humidity........................................................... 28
3
A.2 Daylight sensor................................................................................. 29
A.3 Rain gauge........................................................................................ 29
A.4 Leaf wetness sensors........................................................................ 29
A.5 Temperature sensors......................................................................... 30
A.6 Global radiation................................................................................ 30
A.7 Soil moisture.................................................................................... 30
A.8 Barometer......................................................................................... 30
A.9 Wind speed....................................................................................... 31
A.10 Wind direction.................................................................................31
A.11 Accuracy of the real time clock...................................................... 31
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1 Packing list and Materials Needed
Additional
Mounting
Material
2
Included with your MetosCompact is a packing list. Please check to ensure that
have received all components in perfect condition. If you have any complaints
please contact your distributor immediately.
For mounting of your station you need the following materials. These can be
ordered separately from Pessl Instruments or the distributor.
n Weather station mounting pole and fitting for installing MetosCompact
n Hammer for pounding pole into ground
n 13 mm wrench
n 17 mm wrench (if mount was supplied by Pessl Instruments)
n Flat-head screwdriver (medium size)
n Philips-head screwdriver
n Ties for sensor cable (i.e. wire ties, tape, string and if necessary, a special
protection tube as protection against small animals)
MetosCompact General Description
MetosCompact can be equipped with the following sensors
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
Relative humidity and air temperature (under convection cap)
Rain gauge
Leaf wetness sensors
Soil temperature sensor
Daylength sensors
Wet bulb temperature
Soil moisture sensor
Global radiation (Pyranometer)
Wind speed
Wind direction
Barometer
Further there is a connection for a:
n Alarm switch board (MetControl) with seven individual settings (i.e. alarm
triggered at less than O degree C) and one general alarm.
The technical data for the sensors and the rechargeable battery of the internal real
time clock are supplied under appendix A.
Sensors which are supplied with the MetosCompact are already connected on the
main board of the instrument. Instructions for connecting additional sensors are
found in section 3.6.
Power supply
The power supply of the MetosCompact runs via two 6V-Rechargable battery,
which can charged with a solar panel (available from Pessl Instruments or
distributor). MetosCompact uses a case of protection class IP65.
Frequency of data
Sensors are automatically read every 12 minutes. All data is stored within the
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reading
logger memory of the weather station for up to several weeks and can be
downloaded to a PC using the MetWin Data Transfer program. For reference on
the use of the data transfer program see the MetWin manual. Communication with
the instrument can be done in several ways: direct wire, radio, land line telephone
or GSM (digital mobile) modem (chapter 3.4).
2.1Mounting
1 Packing list and Materials Needed
A typical mounting of a MetosCompact is shown in picture 1. The rain gauge, the
sensors of relative humidity and temperature sensors and the electronic box are one
unit and are mounted on a pole. The unit is mounted on the 1 inch pole using
brackets attached to the unit.
Additional
Mounting
Material
All other sensors are connected with the electronic box via cable (see pictures 2 to
4). Technical data for the sensors is found in appendix A. The placement and height
of sensors will vary by crop. Detailed mounting instructions are provided in chapter
3.
You have got with your Metos Compact a packing list where you can check all
supplied components. Please check if you got all parts in perfect conditions and if
you have any complaint please contact immediately your distributor.
For mounting of your station you need the following materials and tools which has
not been supplied if you have not ordered it as accessories.
n Weather station mount on which Metos Compact is mounted together with
respective mounting material
n Hammer (if mount was supplied by Pessl Instruments)
n 13 inch wrench
n 17 inch wrench (if mount was supplied by Pessl Instruments)
n Flat-head screwdriver
n Philips-head screwdriver
n Tightening material for Sensor cable (i.e. Cable fixings, tapes, strings, if
necessary a special protection tube as protection against gnawers)
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2 Metos Compact
Metos Compact can be equipped with the following sensors
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
Relative humidity and air temperature (under convection cap)
Rain gauge
Leaf wetness sensors
Soil temperature sensor
Daylength sensors
Wet bulb temperature
Soil moisture sensor
Global Radiation (Pyranometer)
Wind speed
Wind direction
Barometer
Further there is a connection for a:
n Alarm switch board (MetControl) with seven entrances and one general alarm.
The technical data for the sensors and the accuracy of the internal real time watch
are supplied under appendix A.
Sensors which are supplied with the Metos Compact are already connected on the
main board of the instrument. In case additional sensors are connected on a later
time this will be discussed in section 3.6.
Power supply
The power supply of the Metos Compact runs via two 6V-Rechargable battery,
which are puffered using a solar panel. Metos Compact uses a case of protection
class IP65.
Frequency of data
reading
The frequency of data reading is automatically executed every 12 minutes. All data
is stored within the memory of the weather station for several weeks and can be
transmitted to a PC using the MetWin Data Transfer program (for reference how to
use please check the separate MetWin manual). The communication with the
instrument can be done using several ways: direct line, via radio, telephone or
GSM modem (please check chapter 3.4).
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2.1 Mounting
A typical mounting of a MiniMetos is shown in picture 1. The rain gauge, the
sensors of relative humidity and temperature sensors and the electronic box are one
unit and are mounted on a pole. The unit is mounted on the 1 inch pole using
brackets attached to the unit.
All other sensors are connected with the electronic box via cable (see pictures 2 to
4). Technical data for the sensors is found in appendix A. The placement and height
of sensors will vary by crop. Detailed mounting instructions are provided in chapter
3.
Picture 1: Mounting Metos Compact: 1 Electronic box, 2 Convection cap relative humidity and
temperature sensor
All other sensors are connected with the electronic box via cable and have to be
mounted according to the use. Please check chapter 3.3, page 13. In chapter 2.2
you will see the sensors and in chapter 2.3 the mounting is discussed. The technical
data of the sensors is shown in appendix A.
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2.2 Sensors
Picture 2: Leaf wetness sensor
Picture 3: Daylength sensor.
Picture 4: Soil moisture sensor
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Picture 5: Soil temperature sensor
Picture 6: Wind speed
Picture 7: Wind direction
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Picture 8: Barometer
2.3 Electronic box
Rechargeable
battery
On / Off-switch
Fuse holder
The electronic box hosts all the electronic components of the MetosCompact. In
the bottom of the box are the serial interface and the plugs for the sensors. Sensor
plugs that are not being used are sealed with blind screws. Sensors may be added
at a later date by removing these screws. In case a MetControl was ordered there
is also the connector for this device.
If you open the front plate of the electronic box you will see the rechargeable
battery . If you change the rechargeable battery please make sure that, the
red cable is connected with the (+) and the black cable is connected with (-)
clamps (see chapter 4 for service instructions).
Next to the battery is located the on/off switch (Power On/OFF) and the holder
for the fuse (5A-fast reaction fuse).
Picture 9: Connection scheme for MetosCompact.
If the metal plate under the battery is removed the electronic board is visible. On
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the board you have connectors for the sensors, for the power supply and the serial
interface (see picture 9). Pin connection scheme on picture 9:
1 Rechargeable battery
2 Solarpanel
3 Alarm port for MetControl
4 Serial interface (RS232)
5 Leaf wetness - sensor 2
6 Leaf wetness - sensor 1
7 Any temperature-sensor 1 (Soil, Surface- or Air temperature)
8 Additional relative
9 Any temperature-sensor 2 (Soil, Surface- or Air temperature)
10 Relative humidity (Standard)
11 Air temperature (Standard)
12 Soil moisture sensor
13 Pyranometer (Global radiation)
14 Wind direction
15 Wind speed
16 Rain gauge
17 Day length sensor
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3 Installation
Before you can use the MetosCompact the instrument must be initialised.
The initialisation of the unit can only be done using a direct cable connection to
computer. Initialisation cannot be done via modem. For that reason the installation
(initialisation) starts in the office.
Mounting procedures will differ according to the crop (see chapter 3.3).
3.1 Set up
The standard set up procedure is for a system which has sensors pre-installed in
the factory. For instructions on set-up of additional sensors please see chapter 3.6.
To start the MetosCompact please proceed with the following steps:
n Open the electronic box and place the rechargeable battery in its holder and
connected the clamps. Please make sure that you connected the red + plus
wire to + pole and the black wire on the – pole.
n Switch on the MetosCompact. Find the switch inside the electronic box and
set to “Power ON".
Close the electronic box.
3.2 Initialisation
To initialise please proceed as follows:
n Install the supplied software package MetWin on your computer. Please use
the original diskettes and follow the software instructions in the MetWin.
n Connect the MetosCompact to your computer using the supplied serial cable.
Connect the cable from the serial port of your computer to the serial port on
electronic port of the MetosCompact (see picture 9, page 10)
n Please go ahead with the initialisation as described in the MetWin-software
users manual.
The initialisation is now done and the system is ready to place on the site.
After you have done these basic initialisation steps you can easily learn to use the
software. Please leave the system connected to the PC and learn the basic
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operation with the help the MetWin software manual. Now you can use all
functions including : single reading, read data, automatic reading......
3.3 Mounting
We recommend a special mounting of the station depending on the use of the data.
In the following chapters we will give recommendations on the mounting in the
different crops. If you are not sure how to mount your station correctly please
consult your local consultant or distributor for recommendations.
3.3.1 General
MetosCompact is designed to be set up outside. The MetosCompact case is
specially sealed and protected against most environmental conditions. The
MetosCompact can work under all relative humidity conditions and also within the
temperature range of –30 to +60 degree C.
The standard power supply provides power for approximately one season before
recharge is needed. A system equipped with a solarpanel will provide power for
the lifetime of the battery (approximately 3-5 years).
Distance to
high voltage power
lines
MetosCompact should not be installed close to high voltage power sources (i.e.
high voltage power lines, electric fences.....) We recommend a security distance of
approximately 40 m.
Distance to
buildings
For good quality data we recommend a minimum distance of approximately 50 m
to buildings, but often here comprises is necessary due to communication reasons.
3.3.2 Relative humidity and temperature sensor
MetosCompact has a special convection cap (in which the relative humidity and
temperature sensor is mounted) which will ensure perfect natural ventilation for
good quality measurement of the air temperature even under high radiation and low
wind conditions.
Important:
The relative humidity, temperature and the rain gauge are one unit. General height at
which this unit is mounted is 1.5 meters. For turf the height is 15 cm.
A plastic bag is supplied which must be put over the convection cap during
spraying in order prevent entry of spray dust into the sensors during spray
applications.
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3.3.3 Rain gauge
It is very important that the rain gauge is mounted “open”, undisturbed (i.e. not too
close to buildings, tree branches etc.) and level. It is important that the rain can
reach the sensor from all sides even under heavy wind conditions.
3.3.4 Leaf wetness sensor
The leaf wetness sensor is connected via a 5 meter cable to the MetosCompact.
The leaf wetness sensor needs to be placed within the canopy but not attached to
the leaves. For placement in various crops see sector 3.3.11.3.
Important hints:
n The sensor must stand “free” and should not come in contact with leaves and
branches.
n The sensor should be mounted with an inclination of 45º in order that the water
can flow off.
n Leafs and twigs should not prevent water reaching the sensor in order to avoid
wrong measurements.
n When you spray please protect the sensor with a plastic bag
n Check the sensor paper regularly to be sure that it reaches both sides of the
stainless steel plates.
3.3.5 Soil temperature sensor
The soil temperature effects the concentration of soil micro-organisms which
creates the basis for the growth of plants. The soil temperature also directly
influences the germination of seeds, the plant growth rate, the development of
pests and diseases and the conditions for harvest of field crops. Soil temperature
during the growing season should to be measured in the upper soil part of the soil
within 5 cm below the surface. The measurement during winter can be measured
to depths of 50 cm to give information about frost depth.
Mounting
Open the soil with a spade to the desired depth, using a tape measure to define the
depth. Pack some soil around the sensor, making sure the that you have a tight
contact with the soil around the sensor. Please be careful not to damage the sensor
when you compact the soil around the sensor. Backfill the hole, packing the soil as
close to the original density as possible.
Important:
Mark the location with a flag so you will accidentally damage the sensor. The
sensor should not be placed within 40 meters of high voltage lines or electric
fences.
Disturbances
The measurements can be disturbed due to changes in soil compactions (i.e. holes
from rabbits, rats.....) or due to soil water changes.
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3.3.6 Daylength sensor
A very important factor for fungal spore release is the quantity of daylight, therefor
a daylength sensor can be connected to a MetosCompact. The sensor will be used
to distinguish day and night. The threshold is set at 700 lux . The daylength sensor
has to be mounted at approximately 2meters.
Mounting
The daylength sensor needs to be mounted horizontally on a separate 1 inch pole.
It is important, that there is no shadow or reflections from tree branches or other
objects.
Important
Make sure that the sensor data is not disturbed due to reflections from close walls,
windows, metal surfaces) or due to dirty sensor plates. Please clean the sensor
regularly with water and a soft tissue. Do not use aggressive materials for cleaning.
Check and correct the level from time to time.
3.3.7 Soil moisture sensor
For soil moisture measurement we are using the Watermark an active matrix
sensor.
Active matrix
method
The active matrix method is based on the changes in electrical resistnace
correlated with different soil moisture contents.
The sensor consists of two concentric electrodes which are encapsulated in a
special resistance material. The outer shell is a synthetic porous membrane which
will soak up water. Depending on the moisture content around the sensor water will
be absorbed and the change in electrical resistance will be measured. The sensors
are calibrated to measure the suction (tension) around the sensor area (unit cbar).
A guideline for interpretation of the sensor readings is presented in table 1.
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Temperaturecompensation
The soil suction reading must be adjusted for temperature. The adjustment varies
approx.. 1% per ° C. MetosCompact automatically adjusts the readings if a soil
temperature sensor is connected to the system. If no soil temperature sensor is
connected MetosCompact will assume the soil temperature to be 18,3ºC.
Table 1: Interpretation of suction changes in the soil.
Suction of
Soil in n cbar
Interpretation
0 to 10
Fully saturated soil. Normally one or two days after an irrigation.
10 to 20
Field capacity. The soil is still wet on clay soil but in coarse sand
water is already depleted. This state is normal in drip irrigation if the
dripper is about 20-30 cm from the sensor.
30 to 60
This is the normal range within which when you should start irrigation
in most soils. You should start at 30 cbar on light soils in hot climates.
You should start at 60 with heavier soil in cooler climates.
70 to 100
On heavy clay soils and in situations where greater soil drying is
required in between the irrigation cycles, the irrigation can be
postponed to this figure.
100 to 200
Very dry conditions
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3.3.7 Day length sensors
A very important factor for fungal spore release is the quantity of daylight, therefor
a daylength sensor can be connected to a MetosCompact The sensor will be used
to distinguish day and night. The threshold is set at 700 lux . The daylength sensor
has to be mounted at approximately 2 meters.
Mounting
The daylength sensor needs to be mounted horizontally on a separate 1 inch pole.
It is important, that there is no shadow or reflections from tree branches or other
objects.
Important
Make sure that the sensor data is not disturbed due to reflections from close walls,
windows, metal surface) or due to dirty sensor plates. Please clean the sensor
regularly with water and a soft tissue. Do not use aggressive materials for cleaning.
Check and correct the level from time to time.
3.3.8 Radiation
The solar intensity sensor may be mounted at the top of the radiation shield
housing the air temperature and humidity sensors, or it may have its own
leveling mount and cable. The sensor should be installed at a height of 2 m
(6.5 ft.). This sensor MUST BE EXPOSED TO FULL SUN AT ALL
TIMES, AND MUST BE COMPLETELY LEVEL for accurate
Measurements. To level the sensor, adjust the 3 levelling screws provided on
the mounting fixture until the bubble is in the centre of the bulls eye fixture.
Recheck the level when installation is complete.
Mounting
The radiation sensor needs to be mounted horizontally on a separate 1 inch pole. It
is important that there is no shadow or reflections from tree branches or other
objects.
Important
Make sure that the sensor data is not disturbed due to reflections from close walls,
windows, metal surfaces) or through due to dirty sensor plates. Please clean the
sensor regularly with water and a soft tissue. Do not use aggressive materials for
cleaning. Check and correct the level from time to time.
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3.3.9 Wind speed
The wind plays an important role in the evapotranspiration, drying of soils,
distribution and transportation of pollen and spores, and application of material by
spraying.
The wind speed 3-cup anemometer are secured to the sensor shaft with a small
allen nut.
Site Selection
Be certain you have sufficient clearance between the wind speed sensor and
buildings or tall structures which can create swirling wind currents that
interfere with accurate wind measurement. To calculate a sufficient clearance
distance, double the height of the structure. For example, if you have a 3 m
(10 ft.) shrubbery border, place wind gauges 6 m (20 ft.) upwind of the
shrubbery. Upwind is the direction from which the prevailing wind blows.
Table 2: Minimal distance to wind obstacle in meters (H Obstacle height)
H
in m
10
20
30
40
50
100
Mounting
10
20
30
40
50
100
200
500
1000
100
110
115
120
125
150
110
200
215
220
225
325
115
215
300
320
325
350
120
220
320
400
425
450
125
225
325
425
500
550
150
250
350
450
550
1000
150
300
400
500
600
1100
150
300
450
600
750
1250
150
300
450
600
750
1500
The standard Wind Sentry includes a 3 meter (10 ft.) cable. Additional
cable may be added by your dealer upon request. To install the wind
sentry, follow these steps:
Place Wind sensor on mounting post at a height of 2.5 m (7.5 ft.).
Tighten mounting post band clamp.
Errors in wind speed measurements may be occur due to ice and snow cover,
corrosion, used bearings or defects in mechanics and electronics.
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Wind speed measured at 2.5 meter height can also be converted into measurement at a 10 meter height.
Use the following formula:
v10 = v 2,5 * 4
v10 , v2,5
a
...Wind speed at 10 m and at 2,5 m heights
a4 = Topographic changes according to table 3.
Table 3: Values for exponents for various topographic types
Type of topography
Value
for a
Characterise the average density, size and the heights of the obstacles (buildings, tress
etc.) in an area of 3 to 5 km in the station
Even area in even surface with very little topographic obstacles i.e. grassland, plains,
deserts, tundra
0,13
Even and smooth welled places with very little obstacles i.e. arable land with
scattered trees and buildings with no hedges or other borders with low vegetation
0,15
Slightly lightly welled topographic area with low obstacle and hedges i.e. open fields
with borders and some trees and buildings scattered around.
0,18
Welled and even area with several obstacles of various sizes i.e arable land with small
fields and dense hedges with various obstacles and wind protection strips and scattered
two story buildings
0,22
Welled or flat topography with many obstacles which are uniform and covered with
forests, parks and bushes
0,29
Very uneven land with large obstacles i.e. Cities, Arable land with many forests and
large trees and wind hedges
0,33
Uneven land with large obstacles i.e. centre of large city
0,4 to
0,7
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3.3.10 Wind direction
The wind direction sensor is mounted on a crossarm (extra accessory) at the same
height as the wind speed sensor.
Please note that the sensor is mounted horizontally. The wind direction is
Shown in degrees (0º to 360° ). The azimuth refers to the angle for north 0º,
east 90° , south 180° , west 270° .
1. Place Wind Sentry on mounting post at a height of 2.5 m (7.5 ft.). Do not
tighten band clamp yet.
2. Align Vane
A) Select the north (0° azimuth) with a compass
B) Sighting down vane centreline, point counterweight toward azimuth
reference on horizon.
C) While holding vane in position, slowly turn base of the Wind Sentry until
the MetWin “Single reading” shows you zero °
D) Tighten the mounting post band clamp.
3.3.11 Mounting of the sensors
3.3.11.1 Meteorological Reference
All sensors should be mounted according to the WMO (World Meteorological
Organisation) or the VDI guidelines (for more detailed information please check
VDI 3786, Meteorological Measurements, Agrometeorological stations) :
n According to the WMO and VDI guidelines temperature and relative humidity
sensors should be mounted at 2 meter height and the rain gauge should be at 1
meter height. Our recommendation is to mount the station at 1.5 meters as a
compromise.
n The rain gauge must be level. Make sure that the sensors will not be disturbed
by walls and other obstacles so rain can be measured even if it comes in
horizontally due to wind. Make sure that bushes or other obstacles are as far
away as mounting heights.
n The soil temperature should be measured at 5cm or 50cm depths.
n The daylength sensor should be mounted at approximately 2 meters. The
mounting bracket should be directed towards the south.
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3.3.11.2 Evapotranspiration calculation
Weather stations used for ET, should be located so that weather measurements are
made over an irrigated rough green crop surface, with irrigated green crop cover
(fetch) surrounding the surrounding the station for at least 200 m (fetch to
instruments height ratio of 100:1) on all sides, and with no obstructions to air
movement within 200 m. This 100:1 fetch-to-height ratio is usually considered
adequate for measurements over agricultural crop surfaces. It generally ensures
instruments are placed with the fully adjusted layer of a newly forming internal
boundary layer caused by change in surface conditions (roughness, temperature or
humidity). Often comprises have to be made due to other use of the instrument.
3.3.11.3 Crop considerations for mounting sensors
With MetosCompact site selection is very critical because large variations in
micro- climate can occur even within relatively small fields. There are several very
important issues to consider when choosing a site for your METOS. These include
crop and pest management considerations, convenience of access, security,
elevation and meteorological standards. If your METOS is to be used for managing
pests of agricultural crops or turf, use your experience and knowledge to select the
most pest prone area to place your METOS sensor unit. This may be where pests
first appear each season, or where disease occurs most frequently. Low, shaded
areas where sunlight and air circulation may be reduced are the most likely spots,
as disease is frequently most severe where the foliage remains wet for the longest
time.
Vineyard
Depending on the intended use for the weather data collected, standardized
specifications have been developed for siting weather stations and sensors. Please
see chapter 3.3.11.1.
In the following parts we will cover the positioning of the sensors which vary from
the meteorological reference.
Different placement of the sensors is necessary according to the crop (Tree Fruit,
Vegetable, Vineyards, Golf Course etc) being monitored:
n Temperature and relative humidity sensors should be positioned at 1.5 m
height.
n It is recommended that two leaf wetness sensors be used. One should be
placed inside and one outside of the canopy. If you use only one sensor place
it at the outer edge of the canopy, but not completely exposed.
Tree Fruit
n The same as vineyards.
Vegetable
n Temperature and relative humidity sensors should be positioned at 1.5 m
height.
n The leaf wetness sensor(s) is (are) placed in the canopy. See instructions for
vineyard.
Turf Diseases
(Golf Courses)
n Monitoring for turf disease management requires measurement of temperature
and humidity at 15 cm (6 inches) above the turf.
n Leaf wetness sensor is placed on the mowed grass (marked with a flag).
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3.4 Communication
Various communication possibilities are available between the PC and the
MetosCompact. Here is a short list:
n Direct line via RS232: Transmission distance up to 20m at 2400 baud rate.
n Radio-Modem: Transmission distance (up to 15km) depends very much on
the topographic conditions and the power of the radio module (0.5Watt).
n Telephone-Modem: Transmission distance unlimited.
n GSM-Modem (Digital mobile modem) on MetosCompact-side and
Telephone- or GSM-Modem on PC-Side: Transmission distance unlimited.
Specifications for communications options are supplied in appendix B.
3.4.1 Connecting a Modem
Instructions for connecting a modem to your computer are found in the modem
users manual.
To connect a modem to the MetosCompact via serial interface use the special
modem cable (not the normal serial cable) supplied with the modem (TelephoneRadio- or GSM modem).
3.5 MetControl – Alarm system
Your METOS system can monitor a wide range of weather parameters, alert you
when conditions are likely to induce plant stress, and automatically initiate
corrective measures such as switching irrigation pumps on or off, initiating frost
control measures, or sounding alarms using the optional MetControl system. Seven
input/exit ports plus one general alarm are available on the Met-CONTROL unit.
MetControl is connected to the alarm port of the MetosCompact (see picture 9,
page 10) via special cable (factory installed).
In case MetControl was ordered on a later date please open the PG 11 blind plug
at the bottom of the main box and insert the special connector with the supplied
screws. Then open the main electronic box (see picture 9, page 10)
and connect the cable into the plug of the main board (a technical sheet
with instructions is supplied with MetControl).
Technical Data of MetControl:
n Protection class instrument box: IP65
n Relays: 5A / 250V
n Dimensions: 230 x 200 x 110 mm
For instructions on how to program the alarm ports please consult the MetWin
software manual.
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3.6 Additional Sensors
To connect additional sensors later on please proceed in the following way:
n Open the electronic box.
n Unscrew the blind caps on respective plugs on the bottom of the unit and
connect the respective watertight plug(s).
n Tighten the screws on the watertight PG plugs.
n Connect the sensor cable from the plug to the respective slot on the electronic
board. Please see chapter 2 (see also special technical mounting sheets for the
sensors).
n Close the electronic box.
n Re-initialise the MetosCompact using the correct sensor number.
3.7 Change fuse
If the system does not respond to a computer, check the fuse inside the electronic
box of the MetosCompact. If the fuse is burnt through, replace it with a new one
with the following specification:
n 5 Ampere, fast reaction, (250 Volt).
Important:
Change the fuse only if you know the reason for the malfunction of the system. The
most common cause of electronic failures is electrical spikes causes by electrical
storms. If or you are unsure of the cause please check with you local dealer (see
also chapter 4.2, Service).
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4 Maintenance and Service
4.1 Maintenance
4.1.1 MetosCompact main unit
End of the season
If the system is removed from the field to storage:
n
n
n
n
Put On/Off switch of MetosCompact to position "Power OFF"
Re-charge the battery
Clean box with a wet tissue
Remove all dirt from the instrument and the sensors. Please make sure that you
do not damage the internal sensors (i.e. R/H Temperature sensor) in the unit.
Use a soft tissue and/or a brush to do this job.
n Put the whole unit into a plastic bag and store it in a dry place.
Beginning of the
season
n
n
n
n
Important:
Before you spray please place the supplied plastic bag over the convection
cap and don’t forget to remove after completion of spraying.
Put On/Off switch of MetosCompact to position "Power ON"
Re-charge the battery
Clean box with a wet tissue
Re-initialise the system following the instruction in MetWin Software manual
4.1.2 Leaf Wetness sensor
Check the leaf wetness sensor once a week to make sure that the paper is
correctly placed and has not dissolved. Also check the leaf wetness sensor after
every spray round.
n Remove dirt from the sensor and replace the filter paper when you see signs of
dissolution. Please do not used aggressive detergents.
4.1.3 Rain gauge
You should do the following maintenance operations regularly in order to keep
your rain gauge in perfect condition:
n Remove fallen leaves and other dirt from the rain gauge funnel.
n Check if the rain gauge is mounted horizontally (check on the pulls eye level)
n Please clean it only using plain water (detergent will break the surface tension
of the water and cause incorrect readings).
n While cleaning the system make sure that the spoon of the rain gauge is
blocked so a measurement is not triggered by accident.
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4.2 Service
All instruments are subject to strict quality control, but some components need recalibration after some time in the field. The relative humidity sensor, for example,
will need re-calibration after one or two years in operation. It is recommended that
you have a maintenance contract with your local dealer in order to keep your
instruments operating at maximum accuracy. The following services are provided
under a typical maintenance contract:
n
n
n
n
n
n
Change of RH/Temperature module
Check of Rain gauge
Check of Leaf wetness sensors
Check if Radiation sensor is clean
Battery status
General check of the electronics
In order to have confidence in the data it is very important that these checks are
done by an authorised Pessl Instruments distributor, and that repairs are performed
using original spare parts. Please contact your local distributor for the cost of this
service.
Make sure that the sensor data is not disturbed due to reflections from close walls,
windows, metal surfaces and clean it regularly with water and a soft tissue. Do not
use aggressive materials for cleaning. Check and correct level from time to time.
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5 Problems
5.1 Leaf wetness sensor
A defective leaf wetness sensor will read “dry” continually, even when wet. Please
check that the filter paper is correctly inserted. If this does not correct the
problem, please contact your local distributor for help.
5.2 Air temperature sensor
If the temperature sensor is not working the respective temperature field in the
graph or column will be void. Please contact your local distributor for diagnosis
and repair.
5.3 Relative humidity sensor
If the relative humidity sensor is not working the relative humidity field in the graph
or column will be void. If it is reading 99 % humidity on a clear day it needs recalibration. It is important to check the accuracy of this sensor with a portable
psycrometer periodically and to change the sensor every year or two
automatically. Please contact your local distributor for diagnosis of problems,
repair or re-calibration.
5.4 Help with problems
If you encounter problems with the system please consult your manuals. If you
need additional assistance please contact:
n Your local Metos dealer www.efesaro.com
n PESSL INSTRUMENTS
Metos Department
Werksweg 107
A-8160 Weiz
Mail: [email protected]
Fax: +43 3172/5521-23
n In urgent cases by phone:
Tel.: +43 3172/5521 or 6605
In any case the following information is necessary:
n Serial number of your MetosCompact.
n An exact description of the failure or problem
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6 Warranty
Pessl Instruments warrants all METOS models against defects in materials and
workmanship under normal use and service for a period of 1 year from the date of
original purchase. Equipment covered by this warranty will be repaired or
replaced, at our option, without charge except for shipping costs. When returning
equipment for warranty service, inbound shipping charges to Pessl Instruments or
your local distributor must be prepaid and a copy of the original bill of sale
enclosed. Outbound shipping charges will be billed to the customer with the return
of the equipment.
This warranty covers defects incurred under normal use and service and does not
apply in the following cases: (1) Loss or damage to METOS due to abuse,
mishandling, accident, act of God, or failure to follow operating instructions; (2)
METOS has been serviced, altered or modified in any fashion, including hook-up
to other than recommended power sources, except by an authorized Pessl
Company representative; (3) METOS has been disassembled or used in a manner
not explicitly recommended or described in the User Manual.
Pessl Instruments makes no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the
merchantability of the product or the fitness of the product for any purpose. The
buyer assumes all risk and liability resulting from the use of the product. Pessl
Instruments will not be responsible for any damage, including special or
consequential damage, loss, injury or expense arising directly or indirectly from the
use of this product. In no event shall Pessl Instruments liability exceed the original
purchase price. Please use original packaging if you return system for warranty
repair.
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Appendix A – Sensor technical data
A.1 Temperature and Relative humidity sensor
MetosCompact has a naturally ventilated convection cap which fulfils the WMO
requirements to ensure accurate temperature and humidity measurements.
A.1.1 Air temperature sensor
The MetosCompact temperature sensor is very sturdy and accurate and will supply
high quality data for many years without calibration. The air temperature sensor
consists of a temperature dependent semiconductor element and an A/D charger.
The sensor is calibrated during the production process and will maintain
measurement error of less than 0.5ºC within the measuring range of -30ºC (-22ºF)
o
o
and +60 C (140 F):
Sensor:
Range:
Resolution:
Accuracy:
SMT160-30
-30 ° C to +60° C
0,2° C
±0,5° C
A.1.2 Relative humidity sensor
The relative humidity sensor consists of an active sensor layer on a
Mechanically stable glass substrate. A sensitive dielectric polymer
Layer is spin-coated onto a basic metallic electrode, and covered
With an electrode permeable to humidity. The dielectric constant of
The polymer varies with the amount of water absorbed, corresponding
To the relative humidity. Thus, the humidity of the surrounding air
Determines the capacitance of the sensor. Over the range of 20 –
95% , a straight-line-approximation is used with an error of not more
than +/-3% RH.
Sensor:
HC200
Working range:
-40 ° C to +60° C
Measuring range:
0% to 98% relative humidity,
Resolution:
1%
Accuracy:
±3% within a range of 85% relative humidity and ±2%
within a range of 85% to 96%.
Reaction time:
15s from 10% to 90% relative humidity
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A.2 Day length sensor
The day length sensor is a photocell, or light sensitive resistor, which will
Switch on or off when the light intensity crosses a pre-set threshold (dark
>3.5 Volts or < 2000 lux; day <3.5 volts or > 2000 lux). The threshold of the
photocell is set to 700 lux.
This sensor must be in the open, not shaded by structures, trees, or other parts
of the sensor station or mounting poles.
The day length sensor has a 5 meter cable.
A.3 Rain gauge
The tipping bucket rain gauge provided with your METOS has a resolution
of 0.2 mm (0.01 in.) and is equipped with a 5 m (16 ft.) cable. Mount the rain
gauge with screws or pipe clamps on a upright post at 1 - 2 m (3 - 6.5 ft.)
height. Use a level to insure that the top of the rain gauge funnel is perfectly
horizontal. Make sure that the rain gauge is mounted in the open, not
screened by branches or wires, and away from any rain splash from plant or
other structures or the mounting post or pole itself. The rain gauge may be
mounted on the same post or pole with the sensor station, if placed so that it
will not shade the photocell, restrict air movement around the radiation
shield, or receive rain splash from the post, pole, or sensor station
Measuring range:
Resolution:
Accuracy:
0 mm/h to 2400mm/h
0,2 mm
±4%.
A.4 Leaf wetness sensor
Leaf wetness is not a standardised meteorological parameter like air
temperature and relative humidity. Leaf wetness is very difficult to define
because parts of leaves and leaf canopies can become wet and dry at different
times and at different rates. However, our experience indicates that with
careful placement and maintenance, your METOS leaf wetness sensors will
provide accurate and reliable data for disease management forecasts.
Each leaf wetness sensor is connected to the sensor box with a 5 m (16 ft.)
cable . Each sensor has two sets of reinforced plastic brackets which should be
used to attach the sensor to a ground stake or plant part, using the adjustable,
locking plastic ties provided. The special filter paper needs to be replaced
from time to time and will provide accurate simulations of leaf wetness in
most agriculture crops.
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A.5 Temperature sensors
For air, soil and canopy temperature the same sensor is used.
Sensor:
Range:
Resolution:
Accuracy:
SMT160-30
-30 ° C to +60° C
0,2° C
±0,5° C
A.6 Global radiation
For the measurement of global radiation we are using a pyronometer of the
company LI-COR, which has been calibrated on the daylight spectrum.
Technical Data:
Working range: -20ºC to +65ºC, 0% to 100% relative humidity
2
Measuring range:
0 to 2000 W/m
Resolution:
2W
Precision:
±10%
2
Linearity:
maximal deviation from 1% till 3000W/m
Calibration:
maximal deviation ±5%, normal ±3%
Long time drift:
±2% per year
Temperature dependence:
0,15% per ° C
No error in dependence to the orientation.
A.7 Watermark soil moisture
The gibson block method is based on the resistance changes in dependence of the
different soil moisture content in the soil.
Sensor consists out of two concentric electrodes which are encapsulated in a
special resistance material. The outer side is synthetic porous membrane which will
soak on water. Depending on the moisture content around the sensor water will be
absorbed and change in resistance will be measured. The resistance changes are
measured in the suction (tension) around the sensor area (unit cbar).
Working range: -30ºC to 99ºC
Measuring range:
0 bis 200 cbar
Resolution:
1 cbar
Precision:
±10%
A.8 Barometer
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Sensor:
DS 100 A 21
Working range:
-40ºC to 125ºC
Measuring range:
600 mbar to 1050 mbar
Resolution:
1 mbar
Precision in the temperature range of 10ºC to 85ºC: ±2%
A.9 Wind speed
For measuring the wind speed we are using a cup anemometer tested from the
WMO in Geneva.
Measuring range:
0m/s to 50m/s (0km/h to 180km/h)
Resolution:
0,1 m/s
Accuracy:
±5%
Signal:
AC signal: 1 impulse per turn (30Hz refers to 22,8m/s)
Cup turning factor:
75 cm per turn
A.10 Wind direction
As wind direction indicator we are using a potentiometer as sensor element.
Measuring range:
0° to 360°
°
Resolution:
1 (dead angle 5° )
Precision:
±2%
A.11 Accuracy of the real time clock
The accuracy of the real time clock is ±10 ppm with 20ºC (±10 units out of 1
million). The accuracy on the whole temperature range between –10ºC to 70ºC
is ±10-120 ppm.
MetosCompact User´s Manual © PESSL INSTRUMENTS
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