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Brewing Beer –
efficient and sustainable technologies in
regard to energy and raw material input
ERSCP workshop, Bregenz, 3 May 2012
Dr. Ludwig Scheller, Dr. Rudolf Michel
GEA Brewery Systems
Huppmann Tuchenhagen
Agenda
• Efficient and Sustainable Raw Material Use
• MILLSTAR™, Mash kettle and LAUTERSTAR™: best use of available grain starch
converted to malt sugars
• Wort boiling and dosing of hop bitter acids: homogenization and pre-isomerization
• Improvement of fermentation and cooling in CCT´s: application of ECO-FERM™
• Efficient and Sustainable Energy Supply
• Frame conditions - GHG-emission and minutes of Kyoto
• Request of European Commission – Best Available Technique
• Heat recovery of kettle vapour with an energy storage system
• Life steam for heat transfer and closed condensate systems
• Spent grains (biomass) for energy supply: anaerobic fermentation to biogas or partial
dewatering and firing as solid combustion material
• Further renewable energy sources in addition to biomass:
• Waste heat / Pinch-analysis: compressors for cooling and pressured air
• Solar thermal energy: stratified storage system
• Geothermal energy: in connection with an absorption cooling machine (Thermax)
• Separated network of thermal energy supply for production and packaging
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Steeping conditioning
Husk humidity:
20 %
Steeping
conditioning
chute
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Capacity impact of milling technique
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MILLSTAR™ / Mash kettle
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Heating of mash kettle
With surplus hot water I
• Installation of mash kettle which is heated
•
•
•
•
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with hot water of about 95 °C supplied by
an energy storage tank
Location: in a renown brewery in
Germany (fulfilled in 1994)
Technical design in accordance to drawing
on the left side, part of a project in 1992
Supply with hot water via energy storage
tank, which is collecting recovered vapour
heat from wort boiling by a vapour
condenser system
Heating surfaces on the shell and as
additional heat exchangers in the kettle,
designed as dimple plates
Additional heating surface on the bottom
of the kettle for life steam application
GEA Brewery Systems
Heating of mash kettle
With surplus hot water II
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Efficiency
Of extraction and sparging at Kulmbacher Brewery
Results from the trials in the brewery Kulmbacher
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Wort kettle
Designed for internal top pressure 0,5 bar
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Homogenization / Particle size reduction
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Design of pilot plant
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HoEx suspension - Pictures
Left sample: dispersed HoEx suspension from CO2 and ethanol extract
Sample in the middle: homogenized HoEx suspension from CO2 and ethanol extract
Right sample: homogenized and isomerized HoEx suspension
(Mixture for suspension of 35 % ethanol extract and 65 % CO2 extract)
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Calculation of profitability/ ROI
Total cost savings for hop extracts and thermal energy required
for wort boiling
• Produced quantity of wort:
2,000,000 hl/year
1) Savings hop extract
when dosing is reduced by 30 % on the basis of
70 mg/l alpha acid addition approx.
120,000 €/year
2) Energy cost net savings
when boiling is reduced by 50 % or
total evaporation is reduced by 50 %
129,000 €/year
3) Total savings
approx.
249,000 €/year
4) i.e. ROI is approx. 1.0 to 1.5 years max
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The GEA solution: ECO-FERM™
• Jet mixing in the tank with a jet pump
• Process support in the same direction
(“centrally upward”) as the natural
bubble column caused by the formation
of CO2
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The GEA solution: ECO-FERM™
• Jet mixing in the tank with a jet
•
•
•
•
pump
Process support in the same
direction (“centrally upward”) as
the natural bubble column caused
by the formation of CO2
A frequency controlled circulation
pump is integrated into the loop
Hygienic design and piping
In-line measuring devices can be
installed in the circulation line
• Due to the design of the jet only a
small flow rate is required for driving
the circulation
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The result: Occupation time
CCT #29 ECO-FERM™ vs. #31 Standard
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Time saving
Temperature #29 top
Temperature #29 middle
Temperature #29 low
Extract #29 [°P]
VDK*10 #29
Temperature #31 top
Temperature #31 middle
Temperature #31 low
Extract #31 [°P]
VDK*10 #31
JET #29 on/off
16
14
12
10
8
6
Total time saving 50 h
4
2
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
Time in [h]
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Agenda
• Efficient and Sustainable Raw Material Use
• MILLSTAR™, Mash kettle and LAUTERSTAR™: best use of available grain starch as
malt sugars
• Wort boiling and dosing of hop bitter acids: homogenization and pre-isomerization
• Improvement of fermentation and cooling in CCT´s: application of ECO-FERM™
• Efficient and Sustainable Energy Supply
• Frame conditions - GHG-emission and minutes of Kyoto
• Request of European Commission – Best Available Technique
• Heat recovery of kettle vapour with an energy storage system
• Life steam for heat transfer and closed condensate systems
• Spent grains (biomass) for energy supply: anaerobic fermentation to biogas or partial
dewatering and firing as solid combustion material
• Further renewable energy sources in addition to biomass:
• Waste heat / Pinch-analysis: compressors for cooling and pressured air
• Solar thermal energy: stratified storage system
• Geothermal energy: in connection with an absorption cooling machine (Thermax)
• Separated network of thermal energy supply for production and packaging
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Best Available Technique (BAT) in breweries
• Overview about technique in BREF Documents (published Dec. 2005)
(„Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control“, IPPC-regulations since 1996):
• E.g. heat recovery of wort boiling
• Example of
actual BREF:
vapour condensor
system combined
with energy
storage tank
• Technology of
GEA Brewery
Systems
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Process layout of dyn. LPB
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Heat flow without energy storage
Total heat consumption:
10.44 kWh/hl CW
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Heat flow with energy storage
Total heat consumption:
5.79 kWh/hl CW
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Life steam or superheated hot water supply
• Advantages of life steam supply:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Very good heat transfer
No power demand for distribution in life steam pipes
Lower investment cost for steam pipe network
Life steam network easy to enlarge
Very good controllability
Closed condensate system supports energy reduction for condensate heating on
back run to boiler system with more than 8 % compared to atmospheric condensate
system
• Additional cost of heating with superheated hot water supply:
•
•
•
•
22
Example: brewhouse with 305 hl CW per brew, 12 brews/day
Cost if investment for hot water pumps:
17.096 €
Additional electricity demand of pumps in network:
0,42 kWh/hl
Additional cost of electricity per year:
37.885 €
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State-of-the-art
Beer production with energy of fossil sources
Energy input and emissions:
Climate change and global warming
Electricity of
fossil fuels
7,5 -11,5 kWh/hl
CO2-emission using
light fuel oil, in total
11,5 -16,9 kg/hl
electricity
5,4 -8,3 kg/hl
heat energy
6,1 -8,6 kg/hl
Heat energy of
fossil fuels
23,6 -33,0 kWh/hl
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Biogas generation by spent grains fermentation
• Anaerobic fermentation is recommended by different companies to
gain energy as biogas from spent grains
• The generation of biogas from spent grains and the combustion in boiler or
CHP-unit is discussed
• Actual situation of research & development:
•
•
•
•
Hydrolysis of spent grains about 4 days
Fermentation of spent grains about 14 days
Sufficient tank capacity for hydrolysis and fermentation is requested
Amount of solid particles in sludge after finished fermentation is about 1/3
compared to total spent grains amount used for fermentation
• Disposal of sludge with solid particles possible by land filling or by
combustion
• Ideal combustion system for dewatered sludge: fluidized bed combustion
• Conclusion: GEA Brewery Systems recommends the direct
combustion of dewatered spent grains in the HEAT-STER™ to
gain heat energy with sustainability
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Spent grains combustion
Ingredients of spent grains
• Calorific value:
•
•
•
•
Spent grains (dry matter)
18.640 kJ/kg
Spent grains (50 % moisture) 9.000 kJ/kg
Wood (37 % moisture)
10.500 kJ/kg
Brown coal
10.200 kJ/kg
• The restrictions of the animal feed hygiene regulations (Futtermittelhygiene-VO (EG)
Nr. 183/2005) will not be an obligation furthermore if spent grains will be used as
combustion material
• In accordance to article 5 chapter 2 the brewery has to apply for the registration as
feeding stuff producer and an HCCP-system has to be installed for this process area
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Dewatering of spent grains
• Mechanical dewatering by screw press
• Target: Increase of dry matter from 20 % to 50 %
• Technique of dewatering has to be applicable for
spent grains of lautertun and mash filter
• To increase efficiency of screw
press the dosing of 1 % dry straw
is useful
• Actual results:
• Next steps:
• Optimisation of dewatering efficiency
• Increase of throughput
• Reduction of installed engine power
Sponsorship by:
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Press water of spent grains for biogas production
Anaerobic fermentation of spent grains
press water
Sponsorship by:
Data collected in an actual and sponsored project for the sustainable use of energy rich
biomass by the project team atz Entwicklungszentrum, Harburg-Freudenberger
Maschinenbau und GEA Brewery Systems
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Dewatered spent grains
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Dewatered spent grains
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Energy generation by spent grains combustion
Availability and use of thermal energy from spent grains:
• Combustion is possible with less than 55 % moisture
• Dewatering: mechanical (e.g. screw press) and/or thermal (e.g. tube bundle dryer,
fluidized bed dryer)
• If dewatering in two steps (mechanical and thermal) about 20 % of spent grains energy
content necessary for thermal dewatering up to 50 % moisture
• Min. 80 % of dewatered spent grains available for generation of process heat with an
specific energy content of about 14,4 kWh/hl
• 14,4 kWh/hl will be sufficient to cover 60 % heating energy of a brewery with a total
demand of about 25 kWh/hl
At present
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Future 2011
GEA Brewery Systems
Thermal energy demand
Coverage by spent grains combustion and renewables
• Thermal energy of spent grains combustion for:
mashing, boiling, fermenting cellar, filtration department and other consumer
• Thermal energy of biogas-fired CHP-units or of solar- or geo-thermal systems or waste
heat (e.g. cooling or air compressors) for: filling and packaging department
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Consumption figures
Use of spent grains combustion in European breweries, 1 Mio. hl sales beer
Fresh water 3,7 bis 4,7 hl/hl
CO2–emission of
fossil fuel 2,1kg/hl
Thermal energy
fossil fuel or renewables
10,6 kWh/hl
Waste water
2,2 bis 3,3 hl/hl
Thermal energy
spent grains comb.
14,4 kWh/hl
By products
Yeast/ lees
1,7 bis 2,9 kg/hl
Kieselgur
0,4 bis 0,7 kg/hl
Electricity
7,5 bis 11,5 kWh/hl
Kieselgur
90 bis 160 g/hl
Solid waste
Glas
Paper
Cardboard
Wood
Plastic
Metal
0,3 bis
0,14 bis
0,04 bis
0,017bis
0,01 bis
0,01 bis
0,6 kg/hl
0,27 kg/hl
0,11 kg/hl
0,03 kg/hl
0,04 kg/hl
0,06 kg/hl
Quelle: The Brewers of Europe, 2002
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Temperature profiles in production and packaging
High
temperaturelevel
Medium
temperaturelevel
Angewandte
Energierückgewinnung
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High temperature level: source biomass
Spent grains supplies a thermal energy content of about
12 kWh/hl at the consumer by the combustion with 50 %
moisture content in the HEAT-STER™, a fluidized bed
combustion system.
A brewhouse designed by GEA Brewery Systems
consumes heat energy of about 7 kWh/hl. The surplus of
the spent grains combustion is available for other
processes on high temperature level, e.g. in the
fermenting or storage cellar, filtration department or CIP
plants.
The press water of the mechanical spent grains dewatering can be metabolized
very well in an anaerobic fermentation plant. Biogas of a Methane content
above 60 % can be gained, firing in a boiler or in CHP-units is possible.
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Integration of a CHP plant
The use of biogas of anaerobic fermenter systems in
CHP-units is state of the art.
The strict separation of the different temperature
levels allows the planning of the requested capacity of
the CHP-unit in accordance with the demand of the
packaging department.
The anaerobic fermentation is able
to produce electricity of about 1
kWh/hl from the press water of the
spent grains. This is equivalent to
about 16 – 20 % of the total
electricity demand of the brewery.
This can be calculated as CO2reduction of about 0,6 kg/hl or
about 17 % of the CO2-emission
resulting on electricity generated
with fossil fuel.
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Simplified overview and outlook
About the sustainable thermal heat energy supply in a brewery
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Kontakt
GEA Brewery Systems GmbH
Dr. Ludwig Scheller
Technologie - F & E
EUREM European Energy Manager (IHK)
Tel. +49 9321 303-153
Fax +49 9321 303-254
[email protected]
www.gea-brewery.com
Vielen Dank für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit!
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