implementation of visually sensed obstacles

implementation of visually sensed obstacles
Nagpur institute of technology, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
Abstract - Navigation assistance for visually impaired (NAVI) refers to systems that are able to aid or steer natives with
hallucination defeat, ranging from quite sighted to utterly unsighted, by means of resonance guiding principle. Many
researchers are functioning to assist visually impaired natives in different ways like influence based assistance, ultrasonic
based assistance, camera based assistance and in some press forward way researchers are trying to give transplantation of
real eyes with programmed eyes which can accomplished a sufficient amount to design the real image over selfless retina
using some biomedical technologies. In other way creating a blend of sensing technology and voice based assistance system
some of the products were developed which could give better result than creature equipment. There are some limitation in
system like obstruction discovery which could not see the entity but discovery of the entity and camera based scheme can’t
work accurately in different illumination altitude so the proposed system is a separation of colour sensing antenna and the
obstacle sensor along with the voice based hindrance system. The main scheme of the ingenuous method to make selfattentive of path he/she is walking and also the complication in the path.
Index Item - Navigation system, visually impaired, obstacle detection, mobility, localization, indoor navigation, outdoor
navigation, IR sensor, RGB sensor.
requires expected dog up-keeping disbursement and
way of life changes. [1]
Visually challenged people face constraints in selfregulating mobility and map-reading. Mobility means
the possibility of substantially affecting, without
support of any additional personality, at home and
unfamiliar scenarios. People with visual impairment
tackle enormous limitations in terms of mobility.
A system which guide or assist people with vision
loss, ranging from partially sight to totally blind, by
means of sound commands is referred as Navigation
assistance for visually impaired (NAVI). Many
researches are being conducted to build navigation
system for blind people. Most of these technologies
have limitations as its challenge involves accuracy,
usability, interoperability, coverage which is not easy
to overcome with current technology for both indoor
and outdoor navigation.
B. Present Solutions on Above Problems
Quite a lot of solutions have been projected in the
modern days to boost the mobility and wellbeing of
visually impaired persons.
A system “Roshni” determines the user’s
arrangement in the construction, direction-finding via
acoustic communication by critical keys on the
movable component. It uses sonar technology to
recognize the arrangement of customer by growing
ultrasonic modules on maximum at standard interval.
This system is convenient, simple to activate and is
not unnatural by ecological changes. But this system
is partial only for covered routing because it requires
complete heart plan of the structure. [2]
RFID based routing scheme which provides
procedural result for the visually impaired to overtake
all the way through civic location without doubt using
RFID mark crisscross, RFID bamboo bookworm,
Bluetooth crossing point and special digital support.
But its preliminary growth is fairly elevated and
probabilities of prying in serious interchange. [3]
A tone of voice operated outdoor navigation system
developed using GPS, tone and ultrasonic sensor. It
can aware user’s existing situation and provide vocal
strategy for travelling to a isolated aim but fails to
offer barrier finding and caution vigilant. [4]
A further synchronized skill developed to vigilant
visually impaired user by the presence of station /
move ahead obstacles in a hardly any meter
neighbouring, which moving parts devoid of
depending on several Smartphone, uses camera for
locale proposal revelation. This system is vigorous to
composite camera and back drop movement and does
not mandatory any previous comprehension about the
A. Problems Faced by Visually Impaired People
Usually white cane is the nearly all well-liked,
simplest means for detecting obstacles due to its
economical, portability. It enables user to in point of
fact to examine the area in border and identify
obstacles on the floor like holes, ladder, stockade,
rough surface, downward etc .but it can only be used
to sense obstacles positive to knee-level. Its exposure
collection is restricted up to 1-2 feet lone. Certain
obstacles (e.g. protruding windowpane, raised
platforms, a affecting automobile, horizontal bars)
cannot be detected till they are hazardously close to
the person. Even dog guides are very capable to guide
these persons but they are powerless to sense
potentially harmful obstacles at top stage. Guide dog
examine t heater is on run of the millis 6 years and
Proceedings of IEEEFORUM International Conference, 13th August, 2017, Pune, India
Implementation of Visually Sensed Obstacles Assistance for Vision Impaired People
blockage mass, profile or arrangement. This camera
based illustration dealing out system can be a better
selection but it requires lot dealing out command and
hence scheme becomes massive, precious and it must
be portable. [5]
installing many RFID tags in outdoor to identify the
place. [9]
GPS based technique is “Drishti” which can switch
the system from an indoor to an outdoor environment
and vice versa with a simple vocal command. To
provide complete navigation system, authors extend
indoor version of Drishti to the outdoor versions for
blind pedestrians by adding only two ultrasonic
transceivers that are smaller than a credit card and are
tagged to the user’s shoulder. System provides a realtime communication between user and the mobile
client via the headphone in which user can ask for the
path, obstacle prompts, and even his/her current
location in familiar or unfamiliar surrounding also.
Unfortunately, this system has two limitations. As
only two beacons attached to the user’s shoulder, so it
becomes impossible to obtain the height data of the
user. Used algorithm calculates the location of user in
two dimensions assuming the average height of a
person, which gives larger error if the user sits or lies
down. Another limitation is that because of signals
reflection or blocking by walls and furniture, there
are some “dead spots” due to the bad faulty date
reads. [10]
C. Use Scenario Indoor/Outdoor
Navigation system generally comprised either an
indoor or outdoor positioning system or both, for
detecting the position of consumer. Most of the
outdoor navigation systems employ GPS for
positioning. Unfortunately, GPS can only be used
outside of buildings because the employed radio
signals cannot penetrate solid walls. Outdoor
navigation systems generally rely upon GPS; indoor
systems rely upon different techniques for localizing
the consumer, as GPS signals cannot be received
indoors.Currently, indoor navigation systems always
employ radio signal for positioning, which may suffer
from the problem of signal impairments, such as
multipath propagation and Radio Frequency
interference.A navigation system for blind pedestrian
using RFID passive tags provides location markers. A
mobile receiver provides navigation guidelines based
on the code saved in each tag. This system overcomes
the GPS navigation limits in indoor environment and
does not need any power supply for location markers.
On the counter side, the tags assignment cost could be
high and generally tags are not easy to adjust for an
outdoor, insensitive environment. [6]
Most of the recent years research for outdoor
navigation uses Global Positioning System (GPS)
based on geostationary satellite signals. These tools
may integrate other services such as Geographic
Information Systems (GIS). An extraordinary blind
navigation system proposed based on GIS, GPS and
wireless technology. But the resolution of GPS
localization is limited for civil purposes (few meters).
Again this system has issue of delay in the response
when the receivers are used. Because of this low realtime responsiveness and lack of accuracy, system
lacks behind to provide needed level of safety for
visually impaired person.[7]Another system for
visually impaired person gives a structure using IR
sensor and magnetic compass on handheld device.
This system determines location and orientation of
the user though a voice enabled GPS inside a closed
surrounding. .But this system is limited for indoor
Some hybrid systems used in indoor as well as
outdoor mode
A talking assistance type location finding system
proposed for both indoor and outdoor navigation.
System consists of walking stick having GSM
module to send message to authorized person at the
time of tragedy, sonar sensors and RF transmitter and
receiver. For indoor localization RFID and for
outdoor localization GPS system is used. Thus, this
GPS system used in walking cane reduces the cost of
D. Different gadgets available in different scenarios
Wearable and portable assistive technologies are also
used for supporting people with disabilities such as
the blind. Wearable devices are allowing hands-free
interaction, or at least minimizing the use of hands
when using the device, while portable assistive
devices required a constant hand interaction. A
wearable obstacle avoidance electronics device
designed to serve the navigation system of visually
impaired person. System consist of implementation of
the vOIce-“seeing with sound” system which contains
glasses with attached camera, portable computer and
ear speakers. System emphasizes its characteristics
like free hands, free ears, wearable and east to
operate. [11]An ultrasonic sensor based navigation
system for blind people is based on microcontroller
with synthetic speech output and portable device to
guide the user about urban walking paths to point out
what decisions to make. This device uses the
principle of reflection of high frequency ultrasonic
beam to detect obstacles in the path. This mobility
support instructions are given by vibro-tactile form in
order to reduce navigation difficulties.A disadvantage
of ultrasound is that walls mayreflector block
ultrasound signals, which result in less accurate
localization. [12]An indoor navigation system for
visually impaired people constantly tracks the user
through an RFID unit and communicated the user to
obtain desired destination safely via wireless
connection and through a tactile compass. [13]
“Blind audio Guidance system” is based on
embedded system, uses ultrasonic sensor for distance
measurement, IR sensor for object detection and
AVR sound system for audio instructions. The main
functions of this system are environment recognition
Proceedings of IEEEFORUM International Conference, 13th August, 2017, Pune, India
Implementation of Visually Sensed Obstacles Assistance for Vision Impaired People
and path detection. Ultrasonic sensors receive visual
information and this visual information is
transformed into auditory information. To represent
the information about the position of obstacles audio
components of intensity, frequency, binaural phase
difference are used. This signal transformation
system reduces the training time required to use a
white cane. However, only issue of this system is the
difficulty to know one’s location globally. [14]
Vibration and voice operated navigation system
developed using ultrasonic sensors to detect
obstacles. Since visually impaired people are more
sensitive in hearing and possesses strong perception
than ordinary people. So this system gives alert
through vibration and voice feedback. System works
in indoor as well as outdoor navigation and focus on
continuously sensing surround obstacles and alerting
through vibration and voice feedback. Depending
upon the distance between obstacle and user different
intensity levels are provided to vibration motor to
alert user’s mobility. [15]
A navigation system
designed for blind people using RGB-D sensor with
range expansion. System uses a consumer RGB-D
camera for range and visual information, which
support range based floor segmentation. Cheaper
RGB sensor supports in object detection and color
sensing. User interface is given through audio
instructions and sound map information.[16]
The basic concept of IR(infrared) obstacle detection
is to transmit the IR signal(radiation) in a direction
and a signal is received at the IR receiver(photodiode)
when the IR radiation bounces back from a surface of
the object. Sensing unit IR based system can be used
to detect the obstacle in particular direction even the
distance of the object. Proposed system consists of
number of IR sensors to alert visually impaired
person from obstacles in path. These IR sensors are
connected on shoes at its front, left and right side to
accurately detect the position of obstacle. There are
different obstacle sensors available in market like
sonar sensor, ultrasonic sensor and IR sensor. But
proposed system uses IR sensor as IR sensors are
highly directional and cheaper compared to others. So
it can easily differentiate the direction of obstacle.
RGB sensor is used to detect obstacles depending
upon its red, green and blue color level intensities of
detected obstacle. RGB sensor is used to detect the
red, green, blue color level from reflected light at the
boundary of obstacle. This sensor will be connected
on shoes at front facing toward ground. The output of
RGB sensor in the form of3 different values of color
intensities is given to microcontroller.
Processing unit consist of Arduino microcontroller,
power supply and voice to sound conversion Ie.
Processing unit collect all the information from
sensing unit and accordingly send signals to response
unit to alert blind user. Depending upon this red,
green and blue intensity values microcontroller
decides whether the detected object is grass or road or
zebra crossing or footpath through pattern matching
An algorithm has been developed that control the
microcontroller to work in different situations
required for the navigation system. The system
utilizes a switch forturning on or off the system.
Processing unit consist of arduno microcontroller
takes decisions depending on the pattern matching. It
collects sensed input data from RGB sensor (in the
fonn of red, green and blue intensity values) and IR
Proposed system is mainly aiming at novel approach
towards designing and developing a shoes and
portable audio playing device in order to assist blind
person to move on different surface and in different
path. By the means of creating fusion between visual
sensing technologies, object finding technology and
the voice guidance technology. Fig. shows the
proposed system architecture which state following
 Design and developing a shoe having multiple
depth, obstacle detection and RGB sensor.
 Design a control board to detect multiple level of
obstacle and the ground object.
 Develop sound recording and playing module for
voice assistance
Proceedings of IEEEFORUM International Conference, 13th August, 2017, Pune, India
Implementation of Visually Sensed Obstacles Assistance for Vision Impaired People
of feedback. System need to take into account the
user’s special requirements, minimize cognitive load,
cost effective, user friendliness and minimize any
interference from the environment.
Since visually impaired people are more efficient in
hearing and possesses strong sensitivity than ordinary
people, therefore the proposed system focused on
alerting the user through vibration and voice
For visually impaired users having less hearing
capacity, vibration alert is a perfect indicator. It is
used to alert the user depending on present
surrounding. When object detects microcontroller
gives alert through vibration assist unit which is a
wearable device at hand of user as hand is sensitive
body part. Depending upon the distance of obstacle,
intensity of vibration varies. It vibrates at its highest
intensity if the distance of obstacle is less. Its
vibration intensity minimizes along with the
increasing obstacle distance up to certain range.
Voice assistance unit consist of a voice to sound
conversion Ie and a headphone. APR 9301 is a single
chip voice recorder and playback device for 20 to
30seconds voice recording and play back. This Ie has
data storage capacity and requires no software and
provides high quality voice recording and play back
up to 30seconds. It has 100 year message retention
capacity. This Ie stores some navigation assistance
messages through recording mode and depending
upon response of microcontroller it gives vocal
guidance through ear phone. Ear phone is directly
connected to voice recording Ie. Through which user
will receive navigation supporting messages in the
audio form. If RGB sensor detects green color then
microcontroller gives command to Ie to alert through
headphone as "you are walking on grass".
Accordingly it will produce guidance for road,
footpath and zebra crossing also through pattern
matching. If obstacle detects at right side of user then
through headphone guidance messages will produce
as "obstacle right" and so on.
This paper provides a broad overview of state of the
art techniques used for navigation system for visually
impaired people. It concludes that navigation system
have not achieved large scale exploitation mainly due
to unaffordable cost, accuracy, usability. Future
navigation system needs to first and foremost lower
the installation expenditure by minimizing the
infrastructure disputes that is required for localizing
the consumer. Usability needs to be improved by
minimizing the amount of sensors users have to carry
and providing usable directions in a robust modality
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Proceedings of IEEEFORUM International Conference, 13th August, 2017, Pune, India
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