Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide

Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Oracle® Database
Performance Tuning Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1)
E15857-15
June 2013
Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)
E15857-15
Copyright © 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Primary Author:
Immanuel Chan
Contributor: The Oracle Database 12c documentation is dedicated to Mark Townsend, who was an
inspiration to all who worked on this release.
Contributors: Lance Ashdown, Hermann Baer, Deba Chatterjee, Kevin Jernigan, Sue K. Lee, David
McDermid, Uri Shaft
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Contents
Preface ............................................................................................................................................................... xix
Audience.....................................................................................................................................................
Documentation Accessibility ...................................................................................................................
Related Documents ...................................................................................................................................
Conventions ...............................................................................................................................................
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Changes in This Release for Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide .......... xxi
Changes in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1)..................................................................................
Part I
1
Database Performance Fundamentals
Performance Tuning Overview
Introduction to Performance Tuning....................................................................................................
Performance Planning .......................................................................................................................
Instance Tuning ..................................................................................................................................
Performance Principles ..............................................................................................................
Baselines .......................................................................................................................................
The Symptoms and the Problems.............................................................................................
When to Tune .............................................................................................................................
Proactive Monitoring ..........................................................................................................
Bottleneck Elimination ........................................................................................................
SQL Tuning .........................................................................................................................................
Query Optimizer and Execution Plans ....................................................................................
Introduction to Performance Tuning Features and Tools ................................................................
Automatic Performance Tuning Features ......................................................................................
Additional Oracle Database Tools ...................................................................................................
V$ Performance Views ...............................................................................................................
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Designing and Developing for Performance
Oracle Methodology ................................................................................................................................
Understanding Investment Options.....................................................................................................
Understanding Scalability......................................................................................................................
What is Scalability? ............................................................................................................................
System Scalability...............................................................................................................................
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Factors Preventing Scalability .......................................................................................................... 2-4
System Architecture................................................................................................................................. 2-5
Hardware and Software Components ............................................................................................ 2-5
Hardware Components.............................................................................................................. 2-5
CPU ........................................................................................................................................ 2-5
Memory ................................................................................................................................. 2-5
I/O Subsystem ..................................................................................................................... 2-5
Network ................................................................................................................................ 2-6
Software Components ................................................................................................................ 2-6
Managing the User Interface.............................................................................................. 2-6
Implementing Business Logic ............................................................................................ 2-6
Managing User Requests and Resource Allocation........................................................ 2-6
Managing Data and Transactions...................................................................................... 2-7
Configuring the Right System Architecture for Your Requirements ......................................... 2-7
Application Design Principles.............................................................................................................. 2-9
Simplicity In Application Design.................................................................................................. 2-10
Data Modeling ................................................................................................................................. 2-10
Table and Index Design.................................................................................................................. 2-10
Appending Columns to an Index or Using Index-Organized Tables .............................. 2-11
Using a Different Index Type................................................................................................. 2-11
B-Tree Indexes .................................................................................................................. 2-11
Bitmap Indexes ................................................................................................................. 2-11
Function-based Indexes .................................................................................................. 2-11
Partitioned Indexes........................................................................................................... 2-12
Reverse Key Indexes......................................................................................................... 2-12
Finding the Cost of an Index .................................................................................................. 2-12
Serializing within Indexes ...................................................................................................... 2-12
Ordering Columns in an Index .............................................................................................. 2-12
Using Views ..................................................................................................................................... 2-12
SQL Execution Efficiency ............................................................................................................... 2-13
Implementing the Application ..................................................................................................... 2-14
Trends in Application Development............................................................................................ 2-16
Workload Testing, Modeling, and Implementation ...................................................................... 2-16
Sizing Data ....................................................................................................................................... 2-17
Estimating Workloads .................................................................................................................... 2-17
Extrapolating From a Similar System ................................................................................... 2-17
Benchmarking........................................................................................................................... 2-17
Application Modeling .................................................................................................................... 2-18
Testing, Debugging, and Validating a Design ............................................................................ 2-18
Deploying New Applications ............................................................................................................. 2-19
Rollout Strategies ............................................................................................................................ 2-19
Performance Checklist.................................................................................................................... 2-20
3
Performance Improvement Methods
The Oracle Performance Improvement Method ................................................................................ 3-1
Steps in the Oracle Performance Improvement Method.............................................................. 3-2
A Sample Decision Process for Performance Conceptual Modeling.......................................... 3-3
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Top Ten Mistakes Found in Oracle Systems .................................................................................. 3-4
Emergency Performance Methods ........................................................................................................ 3-6
Steps in the Emergency Performance Method............................................................................... 3-6
4 Configuring a Database for Performance
Performance Considerations for Initial Instance Configuration ....................................................
Initialization Parameters ...................................................................................................................
Configuring Undo Space...................................................................................................................
Sizing Redo Log Files ........................................................................................................................
Creating Subsequent Tablespaces....................................................................................................
Creating Permanent Tablespaces - Automatic Segment-Space Management ...................
Creating Temporary Tablespaces .............................................................................................
Creating and Maintaining Tables for Optimal Performance ..........................................................
Table Compression ............................................................................................................................
Estimating the Compression factor ..........................................................................................
Tuning to Achieve a Better Compression Ratio .....................................................................
Reclaiming Unused Space.................................................................................................................
Indexing Data .....................................................................................................................................
Specifying Memory for Sorting Data .......................................................................................
Performance Considerations for Shared Servers ...............................................................................
Identifying Contention Using the Dispatcher-Specific Views ....................................................
Reducing Contention for Dispatcher Processes .....................................................................
Identifying Contention for Shared Servers.....................................................................................
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Part II Diagnosing and Tuning Database Performance
5 Measuring Database Performance
About Database Statistics .......................................................................................................................
Time Model Statistics.........................................................................................................................
Active Session History Statistics ......................................................................................................
Wait Events Statistics.........................................................................................................................
Session and System Statistics............................................................................................................
Interpreting Database Statistics ............................................................................................................
Using Hit Ratios .................................................................................................................................
Using Wait Events with Timed Statistics........................................................................................
Using Wait Events without Timed Statistics..................................................................................
Using Idle Wait Events......................................................................................................................
Comparing Database Statistics with Other Factors.......................................................................
Using Computed Statistics................................................................................................................
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6 Gathering Database Statistics
About Gathering Database Statistics ...................................................................................................
Automatic Workload Repository.....................................................................................................
Snapshots.............................................................................................................................................
Baselines ..............................................................................................................................................
Fixed Baselines ............................................................................................................................
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Moving Window Baselines........................................................................................................ 6-3
Baseline Templates ..................................................................................................................... 6-3
Single Baseline Templates .................................................................................................. 6-3
Repeating Baseline Templates ........................................................................................... 6-4
Space Consumption ........................................................................................................................... 6-4
Adaptive Thresholds ......................................................................................................................... 6-5
Percentage of Maximum Thresholds ....................................................................................... 6-5
Significance Level Thresholds................................................................................................... 6-5
Managing the Automatic Workload Repository ................................................................................ 6-6
Enabling the Automatic Workload Repository ............................................................................. 6-6
Managing Snapshots.......................................................................................................................... 6-7
User Interfaces for Managing Snapshots................................................................................. 6-7
Creating Snapshots ..................................................................................................................... 6-7
Creating Snapshots Using the Command-Line Interface .............................................. 6-7
Dropping Snapshots ................................................................................................................... 6-8
Dropping Snapshots Using the Command-Line Interface ............................................ 6-8
Modifying Snapshot Settings .................................................................................................... 6-8
Modifying Snapshot Settings Using the Command-Line Interface ............................. 6-9
Managing Baselines ........................................................................................................................... 6-9
User Interface for Managing Baselines ................................................................................. 6-10
Creating a Baseline .................................................................................................................. 6-10
Creating a Baseline Using the Command-Line Interface............................................ 6-10
Dropping a Baseline ................................................................................................................ 6-11
Dropping a Baseline Using the Command-Line Interface.......................................... 6-11
Renaming a Baseline................................................................................................................ 6-11
Renaming a Baseline Using the Command-Line Interface......................................... 6-12
Displaying Baseline Metrics ................................................................................................... 6-12
Displaying Baseline Metrics Using the Command-Line Interface ............................ 6-12
Resizing the Default Moving Window Baseline.................................................................. 6-12
Resizing the Default Moving Window Using the Command-Line Interface .......... 6-13
Managing Baseline Templates....................................................................................................... 6-13
User Interfaces for Managing Baseline Templates.............................................................. 6-13
Creating a Single Baseline Template ..................................................................................... 6-14
Creating a Single Baseline Template Using the Command-Line Interface .............. 6-14
Creating a Repeating Baseline Template.............................................................................. 6-14
Creating a Repeating Baseline Template Using the Command-Line Interface ....... 6-14
Dropping a Baseline Template............................................................................................... 6-15
Dropping a Baseline Template Using the Command-Line Interface ........................ 6-15
Transporting Automatic Workload Repository Data ................................................................ 6-15
Extracting AWR Data .............................................................................................................. 6-16
Loading AWR Data.................................................................................................................. 6-17
Using Automatic Workload Repository Views .......................................................................... 6-18
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Reports................................................................... 6-18
User Interface for Generating an AWR Report........................................................................... 6-19
Generating an AWR Report Using the Command-Line Interface ........................................... 6-19
Generating an AWR Report for the Local Database ........................................................... 6-19
Generating an AWR Report for a Specific Database........................................................... 6-20
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Generating an Oracle RAC AWR Report for the Local Database.....................................
Generating an Oracle RAC AWR Report for a Specific Database ....................................
Generating an AWR Report for a SQL Statement on the Local Database .......................
Generating an AWR Report for a SQL Statement on a Specific Database.......................
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7 Automatic Performance Diagnostics
Overview of the Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor ............................................................. 7-1
ADDM Analysis ................................................................................................................................. 7-2
Using ADDM with Oracle Real Application Clusters .................................................................. 7-4
Real-Time ADDM Analysis .............................................................................................................. 7-4
Real-Time ADDM Connection Modes..................................................................................... 7-4
Real-Time ADDM Triggers ....................................................................................................... 7-5
Real-Time ADDM Trigger Controls......................................................................................... 7-5
ADDM Analysis Results ................................................................................................................... 7-6
Reviewing ADDM Analysis Results: Example.............................................................................. 7-7
Setting Up ADDM ................................................................................................................................... 7-7
Diagnosing Database Performance Problems with ADDM ............................................................ 7-8
Running ADDM in Database Mode ................................................................................................ 7-9
Running ADDM in Instance Mode.................................................................................................. 7-9
Running ADDM in Partial Mode.................................................................................................. 7-10
Displaying an ADDM Report........................................................................................................ 7-10
Views with ADDM Information........................................................................................................ 7-11
8 Comparing Database Performance Over Time
About Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports .............................................. 8-1
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports ..................................... 8-2
User Interfaces for Generating AWR Compare Periods Reports................................................ 8-2
Generating an AWR Compare Periods Report Using the Command-Line Interface .............. 8-2
Generating an AWR Compare Periods Report for the Local Database .............................. 8-3
Generating an AWR Compare Periods Report for a Specific Database.............................. 8-3
Generating an Oracle RAC AWR Compare Periods Report for the Local Database ........ 8-5
Generating an Oracle RAC AWR Compare Periods Report for a Specific Database ....... 8-6
Interpreting Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports.................................... 8-8
Summary of the AWR Compare Periods Report........................................................................... 8-8
Snapshot Sets ............................................................................................................................... 8-8
Host Configuration Comparison .............................................................................................. 8-8
System Configuration Comparison.......................................................................................... 8-8
Load Profile.................................................................................................................................. 8-9
Top 5 Timed Events .................................................................................................................... 8-9
Details of the AWR Compare Periods Report................................................................................ 8-9
Time Model Statistics ................................................................................................................. 8-9
Operating System Statistics .................................................................................................... 8-10
Wait Events ............................................................................................................................... 8-10
Service Statistics ....................................................................................................................... 8-10
SQL Statistics ............................................................................................................................ 8-10
Top 10 SQL Comparison by Execution Time................................................................ 8-10
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Top 10 SQL Comparison by CPU Time.........................................................................
Top 10 SQL Comparison by Buffer Gets .......................................................................
Top 10 SQL Comparison by Physical Reads.................................................................
Top 10 SQL Comparison by Executions ........................................................................
Top 10 SQL Comparison by Parse Calls........................................................................
Complete List of SQL Text ..............................................................................................
Instance Activity Statistics ......................................................................................................
Key Instance Activity Statistics.......................................................................................
Other Instance Activity Statistics ...................................................................................
I/O Statistics .............................................................................................................................
Tablespace I/O Statistics .................................................................................................
Top 10 File Comparison by I/O......................................................................................
Top 10 File Comparison by Read Time .........................................................................
Top 10 File Comparison by Buffer Waits ......................................................................
Advisory Statistics ...................................................................................................................
PGA Aggregate Summary...............................................................................................
PGA Aggregate Target Statistics ....................................................................................
Wait Statistics ...........................................................................................................................
Buffer Wait Statistics ........................................................................................................
Enqueue Activity ..............................................................................................................
Undo Segment Summary........................................................................................................
Latch Statistics ..........................................................................................................................
Segment Statistics.....................................................................................................................
Top 5 Segments Comparison by Logical Reads ...........................................................
Top 5 Segments Comparison by Physical Reads .........................................................
Top 5 Segments Comparison by Row Lock Waits.......................................................
Top 5 Segments Comparison by ITL Waits ..................................................................
Top 5 Segments Comparison by Buffer Busy Waits ....................................................
Dictionary Cache Statistics .....................................................................................................
Library Cache Statistics ...........................................................................................................
Memory Statistics.....................................................................................................................
Process Memory Summary .............................................................................................
SGA Memory Summary ..................................................................................................
SGA Breakdown Difference ............................................................................................
Streams Statistics......................................................................................................................
Supplemental Information in the AWR Compare Periods Report ..........................................
init.ora Parameters...................................................................................................................
Complete List of SQL Text......................................................................................................
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9 Analyzing Sampled Data
About Active Session History................................................................................................................
Generating Active Session History Reports .......................................................................................
User Interfaces for Generating ASH Reports .................................................................................
Generating an ASH Report Using the Command-Line Interface ...............................................
Generating an ASH Report on the Local Database Instance ................................................
Generating an ASH Report on a Specific Database Instance................................................
Generating an ASH Report for Oracle RAC ...........................................................................
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Interpreting Results from Active Session History Reports ............................................................. 9-6
Top Events........................................................................................................................................... 9-7
Top User Events .......................................................................................................................... 9-7
Top Background Events............................................................................................................. 9-7
Top Event P1/P2/P3 .................................................................................................................. 9-7
Load Profile......................................................................................................................................... 9-7
Top Service/Module .................................................................................................................. 9-7
Top Client IDs.............................................................................................................................. 9-7
Top SQL Command Types ........................................................................................................ 9-8
Top Phases of Execution ............................................................................................................ 9-8
Top SQL ............................................................................................................................................... 9-8
Top SQL with Top Events.......................................................................................................... 9-8
Top SQL with Top Row Sources............................................................................................... 9-8
Top SQL Using Literals .............................................................................................................. 9-8
Top Parsing Module/Action..................................................................................................... 9-8
Complete List of SQL Text......................................................................................................... 9-8
Top PL/SQL........................................................................................................................................ 9-9
Top Java ............................................................................................................................................... 9-9
Top Sessions........................................................................................................................................ 9-9
Top Sessions................................................................................................................................. 9-9
Top Blocking Sessions ................................................................................................................ 9-9
Top Sessions Running PQs ........................................................................................................ 9-9
Top Objects/Files/Latches ............................................................................................................... 9-9
Top DB Objects ............................................................................................................................ 9-9
Top DB Files.............................................................................................................................. 9-10
Top Latches ............................................................................................................................... 9-10
Activity Over Time ......................................................................................................................... 9-10
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Instance Tuning Using Performance Views
Instance Tuning Steps ..........................................................................................................................
Define the Problem .........................................................................................................................
Examine the Host System ..............................................................................................................
CPU Usage ................................................................................................................................
Non-Oracle Processes.......................................................................................................
Oracle Processes................................................................................................................
Oracle Database CPU Statistics.......................................................................................
Interpreting CPU Statistics ..............................................................................................
Identifying I/O Problems .......................................................................................................
Identifying I/O Problems Using V$ Views ..................................................................
Identifying I/O Problems Using Operating System Monitoring Tools....................
Identifying Network Issues ....................................................................................................
Examine the Oracle Database Statistics .......................................................................................
Setting the Level of Statistics Collection...............................................................................
V$STATISTICS_LEVEL ...................................................................................................
Wait Events ...............................................................................................................................
Dynamic Performance Views Containing Wait Event Statistics.......................................
System Statistics .......................................................................................................................
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V$ACTIVE_SESSION_HISTORY ...................................................................................
V$SYSSTAT .......................................................................................................................
V$FILESTAT......................................................................................................................
V$ROLLSTAT....................................................................................................................
V$ENQUEUE_STAT ........................................................................................................
V$LATCH ..........................................................................................................................
Segment-Level Statistics........................................................................................................
Implement and Measure Change................................................................................................
Interpreting Oracle Database Statistics ..........................................................................................
Examine Load ................................................................................................................................
Changing Load .......................................................................................................................
High Rates of Activity ...........................................................................................................
Using Wait Event Statistics to Drill Down to Bottlenecks.......................................................
Table of Wait Events and Potential Causes ...............................................................................
Additional Statistics......................................................................................................................
Redo Log Space Requests Statistic.......................................................................................
Read Consistency ..................................................................................................................
Table Fetch by Continued Row............................................................................................
Parse-Related Statistics..........................................................................................................
Wait Events Statistics..........................................................................................................................
Changes to Wait Event Statistics from Past Releases...............................................................
buffer busy waits...........................................................................................................................
Causes ......................................................................................................................................
Actions .....................................................................................................................................
segment header ...............................................................................................................
data block .........................................................................................................................
undo header.....................................................................................................................
undo block .......................................................................................................................
db file scattered read.....................................................................................................................
Actions .....................................................................................................................................
Managing Excessive I/O.......................................................................................................
Inadequate I/O Distribution ................................................................................................
Finding the SQL Statement executed by Sessions Waiting for I/O ...............................
Finding the Object Requiring I/O .......................................................................................
db file sequential read ..................................................................................................................
Actions .....................................................................................................................................
direct path read and direct path read temp ..............................................................................
Causes ......................................................................................................................................
Actions .....................................................................................................................................
Sorts to Disk ....................................................................................................................
Full Table Scans...............................................................................................................
Hash Area Size ................................................................................................................
direct path write and direct path write temp............................................................................
Causes ......................................................................................................................................
Actions .....................................................................................................................................
enqueue (enq:) waits .....................................................................................................................
Finding Locks and Lock Holders.........................................................................................
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Actions .....................................................................................................................................
ST enqueue.......................................................................................................................
HW enqueue....................................................................................................................
TM enqueue.....................................................................................................................
TX enqueue ......................................................................................................................
events in wait class other .............................................................................................................
free buffer waits.............................................................................................................................
Causes ......................................................................................................................................
Actions .....................................................................................................................................
Writes................................................................................................................................
Cache is Too Small..........................................................................................................
Cache Is Too Big for One DBWR ..................................................................................
Consider Multiple Database Writer (DBWR) Processes or I/O Slaves..........................
DB_WRITER_PROCESSES............................................................................................
DBWR_IO_SLAVES .......................................................................................................
Choosing Between Multiple DBWR Processes and I/O Slaves ...............................
Idle Wait Events ............................................................................................................................
latch events.....................................................................................................................................
Actions .....................................................................................................................................
Example: Find Latches Currently Waited For ...................................................................
Shared Pool and Library Cache Latch Contention............................................................
Unshared SQL .................................................................................................................
Reparsed Sharable SQL..................................................................................................
By Session.........................................................................................................................
cache buffers lru chain ...................................................................................................
cache buffers chains........................................................................................................
row cache objects ............................................................................................................
log file parallel write.....................................................................................................................
library cache pin ............................................................................................................................
library cache lock...........................................................................................................................
log buffer space..............................................................................................................................
log file switch .................................................................................................................................
Actions .....................................................................................................................................
log file sync ....................................................................................................................................
rdbms ipc reply..............................................................................................................................
SQL*Net Events .............................................................................................................................
SQL*Net message from client ..............................................................................................
Network Bottleneck........................................................................................................
Resource Bottleneck on the Client Process..................................................................
SQL*Net message from dblink.............................................................................................
SQL*Net more data to client.................................................................................................
Tuning Instance Recovery Performance: Fast-Start Fault Recovery .........................................
About Instance Recovery .............................................................................................................
Cache Recovery (Rolling Forward) .....................................................................................
Transaction Recovery (Rolling Back) ..................................................................................
Checkpoints and Cache Recovery .......................................................................................
How Checkpoints Affect Performance ........................................................................
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Fast Cache Recovery Tradeoffs.....................................................................................
Configuring the Duration of Cache Recovery: FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET ................
Practical Values for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET .......................................................
Reducing Checkpoint Frequency to Optimize Run-Time Performance ........................
Monitoring Cache Recovery with V$INSTANCE_RECOVERY .....................................
Tuning FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET and Using MTTR Advisor ....................................
Calibrate the FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET...................................................................
Determine the Practical Range for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET..............................
Determining Lower Bound for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET: Scenario ...........
Determining Upper Bound for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET ............................
Selecting Preliminary Value for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET...........................
Evaluate Different Target Values with MTTR Advisor....................................................
Enabling MTTR Advisor................................................................................................
Using MTTR Advisor .....................................................................................................
Viewing MTTR Advisor Results: V$MTTR_TARGET_ADVICE ............................
Determine the Optimal Size for Redo Logs .......................................................................
Part III
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Tuning Database Memory
11 Database Memory Allocation
About Database Memory Caches .......................................................................................................
Database Memory Management Methods .......................................................................................
Automatic Memory Management ................................................................................................
Automatic Shared Memory Management ...................................................................................
Manual Shared Memory Management ........................................................................................
Automatic PGA Memory Management.......................................................................................
Manual PGA Memory Management............................................................................................
Using Automatic Memory Management ..........................................................................................
Monitoring Memory Management ....................................................................................................
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12 Tuning the System Global Area
Using Automatic Shared Memory Management ............................................................................
User Interfaces for Setting the SGA_TARGET Parameter.........................................................
Setting the SGA_TARGET Parameter in Oracle Enterprise Manager..............................
Setting the SGA_TARGET Parameter in the Command-Line Interface ..........................
Setting the SGA_TARGET Parameter ..........................................................................................
Enabling Automatic Shared Memory Management ...........................................................
Disabling Automatic Shared Memory Management..........................................................
Sizing the SGA Components Manually ...........................................................................................
SGA Sizing Unit...............................................................................................................................
Maximum Size of the SGA.............................................................................................................
Application Considerations...........................................................................................................
Operating System Memory Use....................................................................................................
Reduce Paging ..........................................................................................................................
Fit the SGA into Main Memory .............................................................................................
Viewing SGA Memory Allocation .................................................................................
xii
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Locking the SGA into Physical Memory .......................................................................
Allow Adequate Memory to Individual Users....................................................................
Iteration During Configuration.....................................................................................................
Monitoring Shared Memory Management ......................................................................................
12-6
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12-6
13 Tuning the Database Buffer Cache
About the Database Buffer Cache......................................................................................................
Configuring the Database Buffer Cache...........................................................................................
Using the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE View...................................................................................
Calculating the Buffer Cache Hit Ratio........................................................................................
Interpreting the Buffer Cache Hit Ratio.......................................................................................
Increasing Memory Allocated to the Database Buffer Cache ...................................................
Reducing Memory Allocated to the Database Buffer Cache ....................................................
Configuring Multiple Buffer Pools ...................................................................................................
Considerations for Using Multiple Buffer Pools ........................................................................
Random Access to Large Segments.......................................................................................
Oracle Real Application Cluster Instances...........................................................................
Using Multiple Buffer Pools ..........................................................................................................
Using the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE View for Individual Buffer Pools ..................................
Calculating the Buffer Pool Hit Ratio for Individual Buffer Pools ..........................................
Examining the Buffer Cache Usage Pattern ................................................................................
Examining the Buffer Cache Usage Pattern for All Segments ..........................................
Examining the Buffer Cache Usage Pattern for a Specific Segment ...............................
Configuring the KEEP Pool .........................................................................................................
Configuring the RECYCLE Pool .................................................................................................
Configuring the Redo Log Buffer ....................................................................................................
Sizing the Redo Log Buffer ..........................................................................................................
Using Redo Log Buffer Statistics.................................................................................................
13-1
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14 Tuning the Shared Pool and the Large Pool
About the Shared Pool .........................................................................................................................
Benefits of Using the Shared Pool.................................................................................................
Shared Pool Concepts .....................................................................................................................
Library Cache Concepts ..........................................................................................................
Data Dictionary Cache Concepts ...........................................................................................
SQL Sharing Criteria................................................................................................................
Using the Shared Pool ..........................................................................................................................
Use Shared Cursors.........................................................................................................................
Use Single-User Logon and Qualified Table Reference ............................................................
Use PL/SQL .....................................................................................................................................
Avoid Performing DDL Operations .............................................................................................
Cache Sequence Numbers..............................................................................................................
Control Cursor Access....................................................................................................................
Controlling Cursor Access Using OCI ..................................................................................
Controlling Cursor Access Using Oracle Precompilers .....................................................
Controlling Cursor Access Using SQLJ ................................................................................
14-1
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xiii
Controlling Cursor Access Using JDBC................................................................................
Controlling Cursor Access Using Oracle Forms .................................................................
Maintain Persistent Connections ..................................................................................................
Configuring the Shared Pool ..............................................................................................................
Sizing the Shared Pool....................................................................................................................
Using Library Cache Statistics ...............................................................................................
Using the V$LIBRARYCACHE View ............................................................................
Calculating the Library Cache Hit Ratio .....................................................................
Viewing the Amount of Free Memory in the Shared Pool .......................................
Using Shared Pool Advisory Statistics ...............................................................................
About the V$SHARED_POOL_ADVICE View..........................................................
About the V$LIBRARY_CACHE_MEMORY View ...................................................
About V$JAVA_POOL_ADVICE and V$JAVA_LIBRARY_CACHE_MEMORY
Using Dictionary Cache Statistics........................................................................................
Increasing Memory Allocated to the Shared Pool ............................................................
Reducing Memory Allocated to the Shared Pool ..............................................................
Deallocating Cursors ....................................................................................................................
Caching Session Cursors ..............................................................................................................
About the Session Cursor Cache .........................................................................................
Enabling the Session Cursor Cache.....................................................................................
Sizing the Session Cursor Cache..........................................................................................
Sharing Cursors .............................................................................................................................
About Cursor Sharing ...........................................................................................................
Forcing Cursor Sharing .........................................................................................................
Keeping Large Objects to Prevent Aging ..................................................................................
Configuring the Reserved Pool ...................................................................................................
Sizing the Reserved Pool.......................................................................................................
Increasing Memory Allocated to the Reserved Pool ........................................................
Reducing Memory Allocated to the Reserved Pool..........................................................
Configuring the Large Pool ...............................................................................................................
Configuring the Large Pool for Shared Server Architecture ..................................................
Sizing the Large Pool ....................................................................................................................
Limiting Memory Use for User Sessions ...................................................................................
Reducing Memory Use Using Three-Tier Connections...........................................................
14-7
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15 Tuning the Result Cache
About the Result Cache........................................................................................................................
Server Result Cache Concepts.......................................................................................................
Benefits of Using the Server Result Cache ...........................................................................
Understanding How the Server Result Cache Works ........................................................
How Results are Retrieved in a Query ..........................................................................
How Results are Retrieved in a View ............................................................................
Client Result Cache Concepts........................................................................................................
Benefits of Using the Client Result Cache ............................................................................
Understanding How the Client Result Cache Works.........................................................
Configuring the Result Cache.............................................................................................................
Configuring the Server Result Cache ...........................................................................................
xiv
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Sizing the Server Result Cache Using Initialization Parameters ......................................
Managing the Server Result Cache Using DBMS_RESULT_CACHE..............................
Viewing Memory Usage Statistics for the Server Result Cache.................................
Flushing the Server Result Cache...................................................................................
Configuring the Client Result Cache............................................................................................
Setting the Result Cache Mode .....................................................................................................
Requirements for the Result Cache ..............................................................................................
Read Consistency Requirements ...........................................................................................
Query Parameter Requirements ............................................................................................
Restrictions for the Result Cache ...........................................................................................
Specifying Queries for Result Caching ............................................................................................
Using SQL Result Cache Hints....................................................................................................
Using the RESULT_CACHE Hint .......................................................................................
Using the NO_RESULT_CACHE Hint ...............................................................................
Using the RESULT_CACHE Hint in Views .......................................................................
Using Result Cache Table Annotations .....................................................................................
Using the DEFAULT Table Annotation..............................................................................
Using the FORCE Table Annotation ...................................................................................
Monitoring the Result Cache ............................................................................................................
15-5
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16 Tuning the Program Global Area
About the Program Global Area.........................................................................................................
Work Area Sizes ..............................................................................................................................
Sizing the Program Global Area ........................................................................................................
Configuring Automatic PGA Memory Management ................................................................
Setting the Initial Value for PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET.....................................................
Monitoring Automatic PGA Memory Management..................................................................
Using the V$PGASTAT View.................................................................................................
Using the V$PROCESS View .................................................................................................
Using the V$PROCESS_MEMORY View .............................................................................
Using the V$SQL_WORKAREA_HISTOGRAM View ......................................................
Using the V$WORKAREA_ACTIVE View ........................................................................
Using the V$SQL_WORKAREA View ...............................................................................
Tuning PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET......................................................................................
Enabling Automatic Generation of PGA Performance Advisory Views.......................
Using the V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE View.....................................................................
Using the V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE_HISTOGRAM View..........................................
Using the V$SYSSTAT and V$SESSTAT Views ................................................................
Tutorial: How to Tune PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET....................................................
Limiting the Size of the Program Global Area ..............................................................................
About PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT ............................................................................................
Setting PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT ...........................................................................................
16-1
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Part IV Managing System Resources
xv
17
I/O Configuration and Design
About I/O ................................................................................................................................................
I/O Configuration..................................................................................................................................
Lay Out the Files Using Operating System or Hardware Striping..........................................
Requested I/O Size..................................................................................................................
Concurrency of I/O Requests ................................................................................................
Alignment of Physical Stripe Boundaries with Block Size Boundaries ...........................
Manageability of the Proposed System ................................................................................
Manually Distributing I/O ............................................................................................................
When to Separate Files ...................................................................................................................
Tables, Indexes, and TEMP Tablespaces ..............................................................................
Redo Log Files ..........................................................................................................................
Archived Redo Logs ................................................................................................................
Three Sample Configurations........................................................................................................
Stripe Everything Across Every Disk....................................................................................
Move Archive Logs to Different Disks .................................................................................
Move Redo Logs to Separate Disks .......................................................................................
Oracle Managed Files .....................................................................................................................
Choosing Data Block Size ..............................................................................................................
Reads..........................................................................................................................................
Writes.........................................................................................................................................
Block Size Advantages and Disadvantages .........................................................................
I/O Calibration Inside the Database................................................................................................
Prerequisites for I/O Calibration................................................................................................
Running I/O Calibration .............................................................................................................
I/O Calibration with the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool ............................................................
Introduction to the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool ..................................................................
Orion Test Targets..................................................................................................................
Orion for Oracle Administrators .........................................................................................
Getting Started with Orion ..........................................................................................................
Orion Input Files ...........................................................................................................................
Orion Parameters ..........................................................................................................................
Orion Required Parameter ...................................................................................................
Orion Optional Parameters ..................................................................................................
Orion Command Line Samples............................................................................................
Orion Output Files ........................................................................................................................
Orion Sample Output Files...................................................................................................
Orion Troubleshooting .................................................................................................................
18
Managing Operating System Resources
Understanding Operating System Performance Issues.................................................................
Using Operating System Caches...................................................................................................
Asynchronous I/O...................................................................................................................
FILESYSTEMIO_OPTIONS Initialization Parameter .........................................................
Limiting Asynchronous I/O in NFS Server Environments...............................................
Memory Usage.................................................................................................................................
Buffer Cache Limits .................................................................................................................
xvi
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Parameters Affecting Memory Usage...................................................................................
Using Operating System Resource Managers.............................................................................
Resolving Operating System Issues ..................................................................................................
Performance Hints on UNIX-Based Systems ..............................................................................
Performance Hints on Windows Systems ...................................................................................
Performance Hints on HP OpenVMS Systems ...........................................................................
Understanding CPU..............................................................................................................................
Resolving CPU Issues...........................................................................................................................
Finding and Tuning CPU Utilization...........................................................................................
Checking Memory Management ...........................................................................................
Paging and Swapping .....................................................................................................
Oversize Page Tables .......................................................................................................
Checking I/O Management ...................................................................................................
Checking Network Management ..........................................................................................
Checking Process Management .............................................................................................
Scheduling and Switching ..............................................................................................
Context Switching ............................................................................................................
Starting New Operating System Processes .................................................................
Managing CPU Resources Using Oracle Database Resource Manager ................................
Managing CPU Resources Using Instance Caging ..................................................................
18-3
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Index
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Preface
This preface contains these topics:
■
Audience
■
Documentation Accessibility
■
Related Documents
■
Conventions
Audience
This document is intended for database administrators (DBAs) who are responsible for
the operation, maintenance, and performance of Oracle Database. This guide describes
how to use Oracle Database performance tools to optimize database performance. This
guide also describes performance best practices for creating an initial database and
includes performance-related reference information.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for information about how to
optimize and tune SQL performance
Oracle Database 2 Day + Performance Tuning Guide to learn how to
use Oracle Enterprise Manager to tune database performance
Documentation Accessibility
For information about Oracle's commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle
Accessibility Program website at
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=docacc.
Access to Oracle Support
Oracle customers have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support. For
information, visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or
visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs if you are hearing
impaired.
Related Documents
Before reading this guide, you should be familiar with the following documents:
■
Oracle Database Concepts
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
xix
■
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA
■
Oracle Database 2 Day + Performance Tuning Guide
To learn how to tune data warehouse environments, see Oracle Database Data
Warehousing Guide.
Many of the examples in this book use the sample schemas, which are installed by
default when you select the Basic Installation option during an Oracle Database
installation. To learn how to install and use these schemas, see Oracle Database Sample
Schemas.
To learn about Oracle Database error messages, see Oracle Database Error Messages.
Oracle Database error message documentation is only available in HTML. When
connected to the Internet, you can search for a specific error message using the error
message search feature of the Oracle online documentation.
Conventions
The following text conventions are used in this document:
xx
Convention
Meaning
boldface
Boldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated
with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
italic
Italic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for
which you supply particular values.
monospace
Monospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code
in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.
Changes in This Release for Oracle Database
Performance Tuning Guide
This preface lists changes in Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide.
Changes in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1)
The following are changes in Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for Oracle
Database 12c Release 1 (12.1).
New Features
The following features are new in this release:
■
Real-Time ADDM
Real-Time ADDM helps you to analyze and resolve problems in unresponsive or
hung databases without having to restart the database.
See "Real-Time ADDM Analysis" on page 7-4.
■
Limiting the size of the Program Global Area (PGA)
The PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT initialization parameter enables you to specify a hard
limit on PGA memory usage. Oracle Database ensures that the PGA size does not
exceed this limit by terminating sessions or processes that are consuming the most
PGA memory.
See "Limiting the Size of the Program Global Area" on page 16-17.
Other Changes
The following are additional changes in the release:
■
New books
Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide is undergoing a major rewrite for this
release. As a result, the book structure has undergone significant changes. This
book now contains only tuning topics that pertain to the database itself. All
SQL-related tuning topics are moved to Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide.
xxi
xxii
Part I
Part I
Database Performance Fundamentals
This part contains the following chapters:
■
Chapter 1, "Performance Tuning Overview"
■
Chapter 2, "Designing and Developing for Performance"
■
Chapter 3, "Performance Improvement Methods"
■
Chapter 4, "Configuring a Database for Performance"
1
1
Performance Tuning Overview
This chapter provides an introduction to performance tuning and contains the
following sections:
■
Introduction to Performance Tuning
■
Introduction to Performance Tuning Features and Tools
Introduction to Performance Tuning
This guide provides information about tuning Oracle Database for performance.
Topics discussed in this guide include:
■
Performance Planning
■
Instance Tuning
■
SQL Tuning
Oracle Database 2 Day + Performance Tuning Guide to learn
how to use Oracle Enterprise Manager to tune database performance
See Also:
Performance Planning
You should complete Part I, "Database Performance Fundamentals" before proceeding
to other parts of this guide. Based on years of designing and performance experience,
Oracle has designed a performance methodology. This part describes activities that
can dramatically improve system performance and contains the following topics:
■
Understanding Investment Options
■
Understanding Scalability
■
System Architecture
■
Application Design Principles
■
Workload Testing, Modeling, and Implementation
■
Deploying New Applications
Instance Tuning
Part II, "Diagnosing and Tuning Database Performance" discusses the factors involved
in the tuning and optimizing of an Oracle database instance.
When considering instance tuning, take care in the initial design of the database to
avoid bottlenecks that could lead to performance problems. In addition, you must
consider:
Performance Tuning Overview 1-1
Introduction to Performance Tuning
■
Allocating memory to database structures
■
Determining I/O requirements of different parts of the database
■
Tuning the operating system for optimal performance of the database
After the database instance has been installed and configured, you must monitor the
database as it is running to check for performance-related problems.
Performance Principles
Performance tuning requires a different, although related, method to the initial
configuration of a system. Configuring a system involves allocating resources in an
ordered manner so that the initial system configuration is functional.
Tuning is driven by identifying the most significant bottleneck and making the
appropriate changes to reduce or eliminate the effect of that bottleneck. Usually,
tuning is performed reactively, either while the system is in preproduction or after it is
live.
Baselines
The most effective way to tune is to have an established performance baseline that you
can use for comparison if a performance issue arises. Most database administrators
(DBAs) know their system well and can easily identify peak usage periods. For
example, the peak periods could be between 10.00am and 12.00pm and also between
1.30pm and 3.00pm. This could include a batch window of 12.00am midnight to 6am.
It is important to identify these peak periods at the site and install a monitoring tool
that gathers performance data for those high-load times. Optimally, data gathering
should be configured from when the application is in its initial trial phase during the
QA cycle. Otherwise, this should be configured when the system is first in production.
Ideally, baseline data gathered should include the following:
■
Application statistics (transaction volumes, response time)
■
Database statistics
■
Operating system statistics
■
Disk I/O statistics
■
Network statistics
In the Automatic Workload Repository, baselines are identified by a range of
snapshots that are preserved for future comparisons. See "Automatic Workload
Repository" on page 6-2.
The Symptoms and the Problems
A common pitfall in performance tuning is to mistake the symptoms of a problem for
the actual problem itself. It is important to recognize that many performance statistics
indicate the symptoms, and that identifying the symptom is not sufficient data to
implement a remedy. For example:
■
Slow physical I/O
Generally, this is caused by poorly-configured disks. However, it could also be
caused by a significant amount of unnecessary physical I/O on those disks issued
by poorly-tuned SQL.
■
Latch contention
1-2 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Introduction to Performance Tuning
Rarely is latch contention tunable by reconfiguring the instance. Rather, latch
contention usually is resolved through application changes.
■
Excessive CPU usage
Excessive CPU usage usually means that there is little idle CPU on the system.
This could be caused by an inadequately-sized system, by untuned SQL
statements, or by inefficient application programs.
When to Tune
There are two distinct types of tuning:
■
Proactive Monitoring
■
Bottleneck Elimination
Proactive Monitoring Proactive monitoring usually occurs on a regularly scheduled
interval, where several performance statistics are examined to identify whether the
system behavior and resource usage has changed. Proactive monitoring can also be
considered as proactive tuning.
Usually, monitoring does not result in configuration changes to the system, unless the
monitoring exposes a serious problem that is developing. In some situations,
experienced performance engineers can identify potential problems through statistics
alone, although accompanying performance degradation is usual.
Experimenting with or tweaking a system when there is no apparent performance
degradation as a proactive action can be a dangerous activity, resulting in unnecessary
performance drops. Tweaking a system should be considered reactive tuning, and the
steps for reactive tuning should be followed.
Monitoring is usually part of a larger capacity planning exercise, where resource
consumption is examined to see changes in the way the application is being used, and
the way the application is using the database and host resources.
Bottleneck Elimination Tuning usually implies fixing a performance problem. However,
tuning should be part of the life cycle of an application—through the analysis, design,
coding, production, and maintenance stages. Often, the tuning phase is left until the
database is in production. At this time, tuning becomes a reactive process, where the
most important bottleneck is identified and fixed.
Usually, the purpose for tuning is to reduce resource consumption or to reduce the
elapsed time for an operation to complete. Either way, the goal is to improve the
effective use of a particular resource. In general, performance problems are caused by
the overuse of a particular resource. The overused resource is the bottleneck in the
system. There are several distinct phases in identifying the bottleneck and the
potential fixes. These are discussed in the sections that follow.
Remember that the different forms of contention are symptoms that can be fixed by
making changes in the following places:
■
Changes in the application, or the way the application is used
■
Changes in Oracle
■
Changes in the host hardware configuration
Often, the most effective way of resolving a bottleneck is to change the application.
Performance Tuning Overview 1-3
Introduction to Performance Tuning Features and Tools
SQL Tuning
Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide discusses the process of tuning and optimizing SQL
statements.
Many application programmers consider SQL a messaging language, because queries
are issued and data is returned. However, client tools often generate inefficient SQL
statements. Therefore, a good understanding of the database SQL processing engine is
necessary for writing optimal SQL. This is especially true for high transaction
processing systems.
Typically, SQL statements issued by OLTP applications operate on relatively few rows
at a time. If an index can point to the exact rows that are required, then Oracle
Database can construct an accurate plan to access those rows efficiently through the
shortest possible path. In decision support system (DSS) environments, selectivity is
less important, because they often access most of a table's rows. In such situations, full
table scans are common, and indexes are not even used. This book is primarily
focussed on OLTP-type applications. For detailed information on DSS and mixed
environments, see the Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide.
Query Optimizer and Execution Plans
When a SQL statement is executed on an Oracle database, the query optimizer
determines the most efficient execution plan after considering many factors related to
the objects referenced and the conditions specified in the query. This determination is
an important step in the processing of any SQL statement and can greatly affect
execution time.
During the evaluation process, the query optimizer reviews statistics gathered on the
system to determine the best data access path and other considerations. You can
override the execution plan of the query optimizer with hints inserted in SQL
statement.
Introduction to Performance Tuning Features and Tools
Effective data collection and analysis is essential for identifying and correcting
performance problems. Oracle Database provides several tools that allow a
performance engineer to gather information regarding database performance. In
addition to gathering data, Oracle Database provides tools to monitor performance,
diagnose problems, and tune applications.
The Oracle Database gathering and monitoring features are mainly automatic,
managed by Oracle background processes. To enable automatic statistics collection
and automatic performance features, the STATISTICS_LEVEL initialization parameter
must be set to TYPICAL or ALL. You can administer and display the output of the
gathering and tuning tools with Oracle Enterprise Manager, or with APIs and views.
For ease of use and to take advantage of its numerous automated monitoring and
diagnostic tools, Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control is recommended.
1-4 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Introduction to Performance Tuning Features and Tools
See Also:
■
■
■
■
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA to learn how to use Oracle
Enterprise Manager to manage Oracle Database
Oracle Database 2 Day + Performance Tuning Guide to learn how
to use Oracle Enterprise Manager to tune database performance
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for detailed
information on the DBMS_ADVISOR, DBMS_SQLTUNE, DBMS_AUTO_
SQLTUNE, and DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY packages
Oracle Database Reference for information about the STATISTICS_
LEVEL initialization parameter
Automatic Performance Tuning Features
The Oracle Database automatic performance tuning features include:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) collects, processes, and maintains
performance statistics for problem detection and self-tuning purposes. See
"Automatic Workload Repository" on page 6-2.
Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM) analyzes the information
collected by AWR for possible performance problems with the Oracle database.
See "Overview of the Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor" on page 7-1.
SQL Tuning Advisor allows a quick and efficient technique for optimizing SQL
statements without modifying any statements. See Oracle Database SQL Tuning
Guide.
SQLAccess Advisor provides advice on materialized views, indexes, and
materialized view logs. See Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide.
End to End Application tracing identifies excessive workloads on the system by
specific user, service, or application component. See Oracle Database SQL Tuning
Guide.
Server-generated alerts automatically provide notifications when impending
problems are detected. See Oracle Database Administrator's Guide to learn how to
monitor the operation of the database with server-generated alerts.
Additional advisors that can be launched from Oracle Enterprise Manager, such as
memory advisors to optimize memory for an instance. The memory advisors are
commonly used when automatic memory management is not set up for the
database. Other advisors are used to optimize mean time to recovery (MTTR),
shrinking of segments, and undo tablespace settings. To learn about the advisors
available with Oracle Enterprise Manager, see Oracle Database 2 Day + Performance
Tuning Guide.
The Database Performance page in Oracle Enterprise Manager displays host,
instance service time, and throughput information for real time monitoring and
diagnosis. The page can be set to refresh automatically in selected intervals or
manually. To learn about the Database Performance page, see Oracle Database 2
Day + Performance Tuning Guide.
Additional Oracle Database Tools
This section describes additional Oracle Database tools that you can use for
determining performance problems.
Performance Tuning Overview 1-5
Introduction to Performance Tuning Features and Tools
V$ Performance Views
The V$ views are the performance information sources used by all Oracle Database
performance tuning tools. The V$ views are based on memory structures initialized at
instance startup. The memory structures, and the views that represent them, are
automatically maintained by Oracle Database for the life of the instance. See
Chapter 10, "Instance Tuning Using Performance Views" for information diagnosing
tuning problems using the V$ performance views.
See Also: Oracle Database Reference to learn more about dynamic
performance views
Oracle recommends using the Automatic Workload
Repository to gather performance data. These tools have been
designed to capture all of the data needed for performance analysis.
Note:
1-6 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
2
2
Designing and Developing for Performance
Optimal system performance begins with design and continues throughout the life of
your system. Carefully consider performance issues during the initial design phase so
that you can tune your system more easily during production.
This chapter contains the following sections:
■
Oracle Methodology
■
Understanding Investment Options
■
Understanding Scalability
■
System Architecture
■
Application Design Principles
■
Workload Testing, Modeling, and Implementation
■
Deploying New Applications
Oracle Methodology
System performance has become increasingly important as computer systems get
larger and more complex as the Internet plays a bigger role in business applications.
To accommodate this, Oracle has produced a performance methodology based on
years of designing and performance experience. This methodology explains clear and
simple activities that can dramatically improve system performance.
Performance strategies vary in their effectiveness, and systems with different
purposes—such as operational systems and decision support systems—require
different performance skills. This book examines the considerations that any database
designer, administrator, or performance expert should focus their efforts on.
System performance is designed and built into a system. It does not just happen.
Performance problems are usually the result of contention for, or exhaustion of, some
system resource. When a system resource is exhausted, the system cannot scale to
higher levels of performance. This new performance methodology is based on careful
planning and design of the database, to prevent system resources from becoming
exhausted and causing down-time. By eliminating resource conflicts, systems can be
made scalable to the levels required by the business.
Understanding Investment Options
With the availability of relatively inexpensive, high-powered processors, memory, and
disk drives, there is a temptation to buy more system resources to improve
performance. In many situations, new CPUs, memory, or more disk drives can indeed
Designing and Developing for Performance 2-1
Understanding Scalability
provide an immediate performance improvement. However, any performance
increases achieved by adding hardware should be considered a short-term relief to an
immediate problem. If the demand and load rates on the application continue to grow,
then the chance of the same problem occurring soon is likely.
In other situations, additional hardware does not improve the system's performance at
all. Poorly designed systems perform poorly no matter how much extra hardware is
allocated. Before purchasing additional hardware, ensure that serialization or single
threading is not occurring within the application. Long-term, it is generally more
valuable to increase the efficiency of your application in terms of the number of
physical resources used for each business transaction.
Understanding Scalability
The word scalability is used in many contexts in development environments. The
following section provides an explanation of scalability that is aimed at application
designers and performance specialists.
This section covers the following topics:
■
What is Scalability?
■
System Scalability
■
Factors Preventing Scalability
What is Scalability?
Scalability is a system's ability to process more workload, with a proportional increase
in system resource usage. In other words, in a scalable system, if you double the
workload, then the system uses twice as many system resources. This sounds obvious,
but due to conflicts within the system, the resource usage might exceed twice the
original workload.
Examples of poor scalability due to resource conflicts include the following:
■
Applications requiring significant concurrency management as user populations
increase
■
Increased locking activities
■
Increased data consistency workload
■
Increased operating system workload
■
Transactions requiring increases in data access as data volumes increase
■
■
Poor SQL and index design resulting in a higher number of logical I/Os for the
same number of rows returned
Reduced availability, because database objects take longer to maintain
An application is said to be unscalable if it exhausts a system resource to the point
where no more throughput is possible when its workload is increased. Such
applications result in fixed throughputs and poor response times.
Examples of resource exhaustion include the following:
■
Hardware exhaustion
■
Table scans in high-volume transactions causing inevitable disk I/O shortages
■
Excessive network requests, resulting in network and scheduling bottlenecks
2-2 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Understanding Scalability
■
Memory allocation causing paging and swapping
■
Excessive process and thread allocation causing operating system thrashing
This means that application designers must create a design that uses the same
resources, regardless of user populations and data volumes, and does not put loads on
the system resources beyond their limits.
System Scalability
Applications that are accessible through the Internet have more complex performance
and availability requirements. Some applications are designed and written only for
Internet use, but even typical back-office applications—such as a general ledger
application—might require some or all data to be available online.
Characteristics of Internet age applications include the following:
■
Availability 24 hours a day, 365 days a year
■
Unpredictable and imprecise number of concurrent users
■
Difficulty in capacity planning
■
Availability for any type of query
■
Multitier architectures
■
Stateless middleware
■
Rapid development timescale
■
Minimal time for testing
Figure 2–1 illustrates the classic workload growth curve, with demand growing at an
increasing rate. Applications must scale with the increase of workload and also when
additional hardware is added to support increasing demand. Design errors can cause
the implementation to reach its maximum, regardless of additional hardware
resources or re-design efforts.
Required Workload
Figure 2–1 Workload Growth Curve
Time
Applications are challenged by very short development timeframes with limited time
for testing and evaluation. However, bad design typically means that you must later
Designing and Developing for Performance 2-3
Understanding Scalability
rearchitect and reimplement the system. If you deploy an application with known
architectural and implementation limitations on the Internet, and if the workload
exceeds the anticipated demand, then failure is a real possibility. From a business
perspective, poor performance can mean a loss of customers. If Web users do not get a
response in seven seconds, then the user's attention could be lost forever.
In many cases, the cost of re-designing a system with the associated downtime costs in
migrating to new implementations exceeds the costs of properly building the original
system. The moral of the story is simple: design and implement with scalability in
mind from the start.
Factors Preventing Scalability
When building applications, designers and architects should aim for as close to perfect
scalability as possible. This is sometimes called linear scalability, where system
throughput is directly proportional to the number of CPUs.
In real life, linear scalability is impossible for reasons beyond a designer's control.
However, making the application design and implementation as scalable as possible
should ensure that current and future performance objectives can be achieved through
expansion of hardware components and the evolution of CPU technology.
Factors that may prevent linear scalability include:
■
Poor application design, implementation, and configuration
The application has the biggest impact on scalability. For example:
■
Poor schema design can cause expensive SQL that do not scale.
■
Poor transaction design can cause locking and serialization problems.
■
Poor connection management can cause poor response times and unreliable
systems.
However, the design is not the only problem. The physical implementation of the
application can be the weak link. For example:
■
■
■
■
■
Systems can move to production environments with bad I/O strategies.
The production environment could use different execution plans than those
generated in testing.
Memory-intensive applications that allocate a large amount of memory
without much thought for freeing the memory at run time can cause excessive
memory usage.
Inefficient memory usage and memory leaks put a high stress on the operating
virtual memory subsystem. This impacts performance and availability.
Incorrect sizing of hardware components
Bad capacity planning of all hardware components is becoming less of a problem
as relative hardware prices decrease. However, too much capacity can mask
scalability problems as the workload is increased on a system.
■
Limitations of software components
All software components have scalability and resource usage limitations. This
applies to application servers, database servers, and operating systems.
Application design should not place demands on the software beyond what it can
handle.
■
Limitations of Hardware Components
2-4 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
System Architecture
Hardware is not perfectly scalable. Most multiprocessor computers can get close
to linear scaling with a finite number of CPUs, but after a certain point each
additional CPU can increase performance overall, but not proportionately. There
might come a time when an additional CPU offers no increase in performance, or
even degrades performance. This behavior is very closely linked to the workload
and the operating system setup.
These factors are based on Oracle Server Performance
group's experience of tuning unscalable systems.
Note:
System Architecture
There are two main parts to a system's architecture:
■
Hardware and Software Components
■
Configuring the Right System Architecture for Your Requirements
Hardware and Software Components
This section discusses:
■
Hardware Components
■
Software Components
Hardware Components
Today's designers and architects are responsible for sizing and capacity planning of
hardware at each tier in a multitier environment. It is the architect's responsibility to
achieve a balanced design. This is analogous to a bridge designer who must consider
all the various payload and structural requirements for the bridge. A bridge is only as
strong as its weakest component. As a result, a bridge is designed in balance, such that
all components reach their design limits simultaneously.
The main hardware components include:
■
CPU
■
Memory
■
I/O Subsystem
■
Network
CPU There can be one or more CPUs, and they can vary in processing power from
simple CPUs found in hand-held devices to high-powered server CPUs. Sizing of
other hardware components is usually a multiple of the CPUs on the system.
Memory Database and application servers require considerable amounts of memory to
cache data and avoid time-consuming disk access.
I/O Subsystem The I/O subsystem can vary between the hard disk on a client PC and
high performance disk arrays. Disk arrays can perform thousands of I/Os each second
and provide availability through redundancy in terms of multiple I/O paths and hot
pluggable mirrored disks.
Designing and Developing for Performance 2-5
System Architecture
Network All computers in a system are connected to a network, from a modem line to a
high speed internal LAN. The primary concerns with network specifications are
bandwidth (volume) and latency (speed).
Software Components
The same way computers have common hardware components, applications have
common functional components. By dividing software development into functional
components, it is possible to better comprehend the application design and
architecture. Some components of the system are performed by existing software
bought to accelerate application implementation, or to avoid re-development of
common components.
The difference between software components and hardware components is that while
hardware components only perform one task, a piece of software can perform the roles
of various software components. For example, a disk drive only stores and retrieves
data, but a client program can manage the user interface and perform business logic.
Most applications involve the following components:
■
Managing the User Interface
■
Implementing Business Logic
■
Managing User Requests and Resource Allocation
■
Managing Data and Transactions
Managing the User Interface This component is the most visible to application users, and
includes the following functions:
■
Displaying the screen to the user
■
Collecting user data and transferring it to business logic
■
Validating data entry
■
Navigating through levels or states of the application
Implementing Business Logic This component implements core business rules that are
central to the application function. Errors made in this component can be very costly
to repair. This component is implemented by a mixture of declarative and procedural
approaches. An example of a declarative activity is defining unique and foreign keys.
An example of procedure-based logic is implementing a discounting strategy.
Common functions of this component include:
■
Moving a data model to a relational table structure
■
Defining constraints in the relational table structure
■
Coding procedural logic to implement business rules
Managing User Requests and Resource Allocation This component is implemented in all
pieces of software. However, there are some requests and resources that can be
influenced by the application design and some that cannot.
In a multiuser application, most resource allocation by user requests are handled by
the database server or the operating system. However, in a large application where the
number of users and their usage pattern is unknown or growing rapidly, the system
architect must be proactive to ensure that no single software component becomes
overloaded and unstable.
Common functions of this component include:
2-6 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
System Architecture
■
Connection management with the database
■
Executing SQL efficiently (cursors and SQL sharing)
■
Managing client state information
■
Balancing the load of user requests across hardware resources
■
Setting operational targets for hardware and software components
■
Persistent queuing for asynchronous execution of tasks
Managing Data and Transactions This component is largely the responsibility of the
database server and the operating system.
Common functions of this component include:
■
Providing concurrent access to data using locks and transactional semantics
■
Providing optimized access to the data using indexes and memory cache
■
Ensuring that data changes are logged in the event of a hardware failure
■
Enforcing any rules defined for the data
Configuring the Right System Architecture for Your Requirements
Configuring the initial system architecture is a largely iterative process. System
architects must satisfy the system requirements within budget and schedule
constraints. If the system requires interactive users transacting business-making
decisions based on the contents of a database, then user requirements drive the
architecture. If there are few interactive users on the system, then the architecture is
process-driven.
Examples of interactive user applications:
■
Accounting and bookkeeping applications
■
Order entry systems
■
Email servers
■
Web-based retail applications
■
Trading systems
Examples of process-driven applications:
■
Utility billing systems
■
Fraud detection systems
■
Direct mail
In many ways, process-driven applications are easier to design than multiuser
applications because the user interface element is eliminated. However, because the
objectives are process-oriented, system architects not accustomed to dealing with large
data volumes and different success factors can become confused. Process-driven
applications draw from the skills sets used in both user-based applications and data
warehousing. Therefore, this book focuses on evolving system architectures for
interactive users.
Designing and Developing for Performance 2-7
System Architecture
Generating a system architecture is not a deterministic
process. It requires careful consideration of business requirements,
technology choices, existing infrastructure and systems, and actual
physical resources, such as budget and manpower.
Note:
The following questions should stimulate thought on system architecture, though they
are not a definitive guide to system architecture. These questions demonstrate how
business requirements can influence the architecture, ease of implementation, and
overall performance and availability of a system. For example:
■
How many users must the system support?
Most applications fall into one of the following categories:
–
Very few users on a lightly-used or exclusive computer
For this type of application, there is usually one user. The focus of the
application design is to make the single user as productive as possible by
providing good response time, yet make the application require minimal
administration. Users of these applications rarely interfere with each other and
have minimal resource conflicts.
–
A medium to large number of users in a corporation using shared applications
For this type of application, the users are limited by the number of employees
in the corporation actually transacting business through the system. Therefore,
the number of users is predictable. However, delivering a reliable service is
crucial to the business. The users must share a resource, so design efforts must
address response time under heavy system load, escalation of resource for
each session usage, and room for future growth.
–
An infinite user population distributed on the Internet
For this type of application, extra engineering effort is required to ensure that
no system component exceeds its design limits. This creates a bottleneck that
halts or destabilizes the system. These applications require complex load
balancing, stateless application servers, and efficient database connection
management. In addition, use statistics and governors to ensure that the user
receives feedback if the database cannot satisfy their requests because of
system overload.
■
What will be the user interaction method?
The choices of user interface range from a simple Web browser to a custom client
program.
■
Where are the users located?
The distance between users influences how the application is engineered to cope
with network latencies. The location also affects which times of the day are busy,
when it is impossible to perform batch or system maintenance functions.
■
What is the network speed?
Network speed affects the amount of data and the conversational nature of the
user interface with the application and database servers. A highly conversational
user interface can communicate with back-end servers on every key stroke or field
level validation. A less conversational interface works on a screen-sent and a
screen-received model. On a slow network, it is impossible to achieve high data
entry speeds with a highly conversational user interface.
2-8 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Application Design Principles
■
How much data will the user access, and how much of that data is largely read
only?
The amount of data queried online influences all aspects of the design, from table
and index design to the presentation layers. Design efforts must ensure that user
response time is not a function of the size of the database. If the application is
largely read only, then replication and data distribution to local caches in the
application servers become a viable option. This also reduces workload on the core
transactional server.
■
What is the user response time requirement?
Consideration of the user type is important. If the user is an executive who
requires accurate information to make split second decisions, then user response
time cannot be compromised. Other types of users, such as users performing data
entry activities, might not need such a high level of performance.
■
Do users expect 24 hour service?
This is mandatory for today's Internet applications where trade is conducted 24
hours a day. However, corporate systems that run in a single time zone might be
able to tolerate after-hours downtime. You can use this after-hours downtime to
run batch processes or to perform system administration. In this case, it might be
more economic not to run a fully-available system.
■
Must all changes be made in real time?
It is important to determine whether transactions must be executed within the
user response time, or if they can be queued for asynchronous execution.
The following are secondary questions, which can also influence the design, but really
have more impact on budget and ease of implementation. For example:
■
How big will the database be?
This influences the sizing of the database server. On servers with a very large
database, it might be necessary to have a bigger computer than dictated by the
workload. This is because the administration overhead with large databases is
largely a function of the database size. As tables and indexes grow, it takes
proportionately more CPUs to allow table reorganizations and index builds to
complete in an acceptable time limit.
■
What is the required throughput of business transactions?
■
What are the availability requirements?
■
Do skills exist to build and administer this application?
■
What compromises are forced by budget constraints?
Application Design Principles
This section describes the following design decisions that are involved in building
applications:
■
Simplicity In Application Design
■
Data Modeling
■
Table and Index Design
■
Using Views
■
SQL Execution Efficiency
Designing and Developing for Performance 2-9
Application Design Principles
■
Implementing the Application
■
Trends in Application Development
Simplicity In Application Design
Applications are no different than any other designed and engineered product.
Well-designed structures, computers, and tools are usually reliable, easy to use and
maintain, and simple in concept. In the most general terms, if the design looks correct,
then it probably is. This principle should always be kept in mind when building
applications.
Consider the following design issues:
■
■
■
■
■
If the table design is so complicated that nobody can fully understand it, then the
table is probably poorly designed.
If SQL statements are so long and involved that it would be impossible for any
optimizer to effectively optimize it in real time, then there is probably a bad
statement, underlying transaction, or table design.
If there are indexes on a table and the same columns are repeatedly indexed, then
there is probably a poor index design.
If queries are submitted without suitable qualification for rapid response for
online users, then there is probably a poor user interface or transaction design.
If the calls to the database are abstracted away from the application logic by many
layers of software, then there is probably a bad software development method.
Data Modeling
Data modeling is important to successful relational application design. You must
perform this modeling in a way that quickly represents the business practices. Heated
debates may occur about the correct data model. The important thing is to apply
greatest modeling efforts to those entities affected by the most frequent business
transactions. In the modeling phase, there is a great temptation to spend too much
time modeling the non-core data elements, which results in increased development
lead times. Use of modeling tools can then rapidly generate schema definitions and
can be useful when a fast prototype is required.
Table and Index Design
Table design is largely a compromise between flexibility and performance of core
transactions. To keep the database flexible and able to accommodate unforeseen
workloads, the table design should be very similar to the data model, and it should be
normalized to at least 3rd normal form. However, certain core transactions required
by users can require selective denormalization for performance purposes.
Examples of this technique include storing tables pre-joined, the addition of derived
columns, and aggregate values. Oracle Database provides numerous options for
storage of aggregates and pre-joined data by clustering and materialized view
functions. These features allow a simpler table design to be adopted initially.
Again, focus and resources should be spent on the business critical tables, so that
optimal performance can be achieved. For non-critical tables, shortcuts in design can
be adopted to enable a more rapid application development. However, if prototyping
and testing a non-core table becomes a performance problem, then remedial design
effort should be applied immediately.
2-10 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Application Design Principles
Index design is also a largely iterative process, based on the SQL generated by
application designers. However, it is possible to make a sensible start by building
indexes that enforce primary key constraints and indexes on known access patterns,
such as a person's name. As the application evolves, and as you perform testing on
realistic amounts of data, you may need to improve the performance of specific
queries by building a better index. Consider the following list of indexing design ideas
when building a new index:
■
Appending Columns to an Index or Using Index-Organized Tables
■
Using a Different Index Type
■
Finding the Cost of an Index
■
Serializing within Indexes
■
Ordering Columns in an Index
Appending Columns to an Index or Using Index-Organized Tables
One of the easiest ways to speed up a query is to reduce the number of logical I/Os by
eliminating a table access from the execution plan. This can be done by appending to
the index all columns referenced by the query. These columns are the select list
columns, and any required join or sort columns. This technique is particularly useful
in speeding up online applications response times when time-consuming I/Os are
reduced. This is best applied when testing the application with properly sized data for
the first time.
The most aggressive form of this technique is to build an index-organized table (IOT).
However, you must be careful that the increased leaf size of an IOT does not
undermine the efforts to reduce I/O.
Using a Different Index Type
There are several index types available, and each index has benefits for certain
situations. The following list gives performance ideas associated with each index type.
B-Tree Indexes These indexes are the standard index type, and they are excellent for
primary key and highly-selective indexes. Used as concatenated indexes, the database
can use B-tree indexes to retrieve data sorted by the index columns.
Bitmap Indexes These indexes are suitable for low cardinality data. Through
compression techniques, they can generate a large number of rowids with minimal
I/O. Combining bitmap indexes on non-selective columns allows efficient AND and OR
operations with a great number of rowids with minimal I/O. Bitmap indexes are
particularly efficient in queries with COUNT(), because the query can be satisfied within
the index.
Function-based Indexes These indexes allow access through a B-tree on a value derived
from a function on the base data. Function-based indexes have some limitations with
regards to the use of nulls, and they require that you have the query optimizer
enabled.
Function-based indexes are particularly useful when querying on composite columns
to produce a derived result or to overcome limitations in the way data is stored in the
database. An example is querying for line items in an order exceeding a certain value
derived from (sales price - discount) x quantity, where these were columns in the
table. Another example is to apply the UPPER function to the data to allow
case-insensitive searches.
Designing and Developing for Performance 2-11
Application Design Principles
Partitioned Indexes Partitioning a global index allows partition pruning to take place
within an index access, which results in reduced I/Os. By definition of good range or
list partitioning, fast index scans of the correct index partitions can result in very fast
query times.
Reverse Key Indexes These indexes are designed to eliminate index hot spots on insert
applications. These indexes are excellent for insert performance, but they are limited
because the database cannot use them for index range scans.
Finding the Cost of an Index
Building and maintaining an index structure can be expensive, and it can consume
resources such as disk space, CPU, and I/O capacity. Designers must ensure that the
benefits of any index outweigh the negatives of index maintenance.
Use this simple estimation guide for the cost of index maintenance: each index
maintained by an INSERT, DELETE, or UPDATE of the indexed keys requires about three
times as much resource as the actual DML operation on the table. Thus, if you INSERT
into a table with three indexes, then the insertion is approximately 10 times slower
than an INSERT into a table with no indexes. For DML, and particularly for
INSERT-heavy applications, the index design should be seriously reviewed, which
might require a compromise between the query and INSERT performance.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide to learn how to
monitor index usage
Serializing within Indexes
Use of sequences, or timestamps, to generate key values that are indexed themselves
can lead to database hotspot problems, which affect response time and throughput.
This is usually the result of a monotonically growing key that results in a
right-growing index. To avoid this problem, try to generate keys that insert over the
full range of the index. This results in a well-balanced index that is more scalable and
space efficient. You can achieve this by using a reverse key index or using a cycling
sequence to prefix and sequence values.
Ordering Columns in an Index
Designers should be flexible in defining any rules for index building. Depending on
your circumstances, use one of the following two ways to order the keys in an index:
■
■
Order columns with most selectivity first. This method is the most commonly used
because it provides the fastest access with minimal I/O to the actual rowids
required. This technique is used mainly for primary keys and for very selective
range scans.
Order columns to reduce I/O by clustering or sorting data. In large range scans,
I/Os can usually be reduced by ordering the columns in the least selective order,
or in a manner that sorts the data in the way it should be retrieved.
Using Views
Views can speed up and simplify application design. A simple view definition can
mask data model complexity from the programmers whose priorities are to retrieve,
display, collect, and store data.
However, while views provide clean programming interfaces, they can cause
sub-optimal, resource-intensive queries. The worst type of view use is when a view
references other views, and when they are joined in queries. In many cases, developers
2-12 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Application Design Principles
can satisfy the query directly from the table without using a view. Usually, because of
their inherent properties, views make it difficult for the optimizer to generate the
optimal execution plan.
SQL Execution Efficiency
In the design and architecture phase of any system development, care should be taken
to ensure that the application developers understand SQL execution efficiency. To
achieve this goal, the development environment must support the following
characteristics:
■
Good database connection management
Connecting to the database is an expensive operation that is highly unscalable.
Therefore, the number of concurrent connections to the database should be
minimized as much as possible. A simple system, where a user connects at
application initialization, is ideal. However, in a Web-based or multitiered
application, where application servers are used to multiplex database connections
to users, this can be difficult. With these types of applications, design efforts
should ensure that database connections are pooled and are not reestablished for
each user request.
■
Good cursor usage and management
Maintaining user connections is equally important to minimizing the parsing
activity on the system. Parsing is the process of interpreting a SQL statement and
creating an execution plan for it. This process has many phases, including syntax
checking, security checking, execution plan generation, and loading shared
structures into the shared pool. There are two types of parse operations:
–
Hard parsing
A SQL statement is submitted for the first time, and no match is found in the
shared pool. Hard parses are the most resource-intensive and unscalable,
because they perform all the operations involved in a parse.
–
Soft parsing
A SQL statement is submitted for the first time, and a match is found in the
shared pool. The match can be the result of previous execution by another
user. The SQL statement is shared, which is good for performance. However,
soft parses are not ideal, because they still require syntax and security
checking, which consume system resources.
Because parsing should be minimized as much as possible, application developers
should design their applications to parse SQL statements once and execute them
many times. This is done through cursors. Experienced SQL programmers should
be familiar with the concept of opening and re-executing cursors.
Application developers must also ensure that SQL statements are shared within
the shared pool. To achieve this goal, use bind variables to represent the parts of
the query that change from execution to execution. If this is not done, then the
SQL statement is likely to be parsed once and never re-used by other users. To
ensure that SQL is shared, use bind variables and do not use string literals with
SQL statements. For example:
Statement with string literals:
SELECT * FROM employees
WHERE last_name LIKE 'KING';
Designing and Developing for Performance 2-13
Application Design Principles
Statement with bind variables:
SELECT * FROM employees
WHERE last_name LIKE :1;
The following example shows the results of some tests on a simple OLTP
application:
Test
#Users Supported
No Parsing all statements
270
Soft Parsing all statements
150
Hard Parsing all statements
60
Re-Connecting for each Transaction
30
These tests were performed on a four-CPU computer. The differences increase as
the number of CPUs on the system increase.
Implementing the Application
The choice of development environment and programming language is largely a
function of the skills available in the development team and architectural decisions
made when specifying the application. There are, however, some simple performance
management rules that can lead to scalable, high-performance applications.
1.
Choose a development environment suitable for software components, and do not
let it limit your design for performance decisions. If it does, then you probably
chose the wrong language or environment.
■
User interface
The programming model can vary between HTML generation and calling the
windowing system directly. The development method should focus on
response time of the user interface code. If HTML or Java is being sent over a
network, then try to minimize network volume and interactions.
■
Business logic
Interpreted languages, such as Java and PL/SQL, are ideal to encode business
logic. They are fully portable, which makes upgrading logic relatively easy.
Both languages are syntactically rich to allow code that is easy to read and
interpret. If business logic requires complex mathematical functions, then a
compiled binary language might be needed. The business logic code can be on
the client computer, the application server, and the database server. However,
the application server is the most common location for business logic.
■
User requests and resource allocation
Most of this is not affected by the programming language, but tools and fourth
generation languages that mask database connection and cursor management
might use inefficient mechanisms. When evaluating these tools and
environments, check their database connection model and their use of cursors
and bind variables.
■
Data management and transactions
Most of this is not affected by the programming language.
2.
When implementing a software component, implement its function and not the
functionality associated with other components. Implementing another
component's functionality results in sub-optimal designs and implementations.
This applies to all components.
2-14 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Application Design Principles
3.
Do not leave gaps in functionality or have software components under-researched
in design, implementation, or testing. In many cases, gaps are not discovered until
the application is rolled out or tested at realistic volumes. This is usually a sign of
poor architecture or initial system specification. Data archival and purge modules
are most frequently neglected during initial system design, build, and
implementation.
4.
When implementing procedural logic, implement in a procedural language, such
as C, Java, or PL/SQL. When implementing data access (queries) or data changes
(DML), use SQL. This rule is specific to the business logic modules of code where
procedural code is mixed with data access (nonprocedural SQL) code. There is
great temptation to put procedural logic into the SQL access. This tends to result
in poor SQL that is resource-intensive. SQL statements with DECODE case
statements are very often candidates for optimization, as are statements with a
large amount of OR predicates or set operators, such as UNION and MINUS.
5.
Cache frequently accessed, rarely changing data that is expensive to retrieve on a
repeated basis. However, make this cache mechanism easy to use, and ensure that
it is indeed cheaper than accessing the data in the original method. This is
applicable to all modules where frequently used data values should be cached or
stored locally, rather than be repeatedly retrieved from a remote or expensive data
store.
The most common examples of candidates for local caching include the following:
■
■
■
■
■
Today's date. SELECT SYSDATE FROM DUAL can account for over 60% of the
workload on a database.
The current user name.
Repeated application variables and constants, such as tax rates, discounting
rates, or location information.
Caching data locally can be further extended into building a local data cache
into the application server middle tiers. This helps take load off the central
database servers. However, care should be taken when constructing local
caches so that they do not become so complex that they cease to give a
performance gain.
Local sequence generation.
The design implications of using a cache should be considered. For example, if a
user is connected at midnight and the date is cached, then the user's date value
becomes invalid.
6.
Optimize the interfaces between components, and ensure that all components are
used in the most scalable configuration. This rule requires minimal explanation
and applies to all modules and their interfaces.
7.
Use foreign key references. Enforcing referential integrity through an application
is expensive. You can maintain a foreign key reference by selecting the column
value of the child from the parent and ensuring that it exists. The foreign key
constraint enforcement supplied by Oracle—which does not use SQL—is fast, easy
to declare, and does not create network traffic.
8.
Consider setting up action and module names in the application to use with End
to End Application Tracing. This allows greater flexibility in tracing workload
problems.
Designing and Developing for Performance 2-15
Workload Testing, Modeling, and Implementation
Trends in Application Development
The two biggest challenges in application development today are the increased use of
Java to replace compiled C or C++ applications, and increased use of object-oriented
techniques, influencing the schema design.
Java provides better portability of code and availability to programmers. However,
there are several performance implications associated with Java. Because Java is an
interpreted language, it is slower at executing similar logic than compiled languages,
such as C. As a result, resource usage of client computers increases. This requires more
powerful CPUs to be applied in the client or middle-tier computers and greater care
from programmers to produce efficient code.
Because Java is an object-oriented language, it encourages insulation of data access
into classes not performing the business logic. As a result, programmers might invoke
methods without knowledge of the efficiency of the data access method being used.
This tends to result in minimal database access and uses the simplest and crudest
interfaces to the database.
With this type of software design, queries do not always include all the WHERE
predicates to be efficient, and row filtering is performed in the Java program. This is
very inefficient. In addition, for DML operations—and especially for INSERTs—single
INSERTs are performed, making use of the array interface impossible. In some cases,
this is made more inefficient by procedure calls. More resources are used moving the
data to and from the database than in the actual database calls.
In general, it is best to place data access calls next to the business logic to achieve the
best overall transaction design.
The acceptance of object-orientation at a programming level has led to the creation of
object-oriented databases within the Oracle Server. This has manifested itself in many
ways, from storing object structures within BLOBs and only using the database
effectively as an indexed card file to the use of the Oracle Database object-relational
features.
If you adopt an object-oriented approach to schema design, then ensure that you do
not lose the flexibility of the relational storage model. In many cases, the
object-oriented approach to schema design ends up in a heavily denormalized data
structure that requires considerable maintenance and REF pointers associated with
objects. Often, these designs represent a step backward to the hierarchical and network
database designs that were replaced with the relational storage method.
In summary, if you are storing your data in your database for the long-term, and if
you anticipate a degree of ad hoc queries or application development on the same
schema, then the relational storage method probably gives the best performance and
flexibility.
Workload Testing, Modeling, and Implementation
This section describes workload estimation, modeling, implementation, and testing.
This section covers the following topics:
■
Sizing Data
■
Estimating Workloads
■
Application Modeling
■
Testing, Debugging, and Validating a Design
2-16 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Workload Testing, Modeling, and Implementation
Sizing Data
You could experience errors in your sizing estimates when dealing with variable
length data if you work with a poor sample set. As data volumes grow, your key
lengths could grow considerably, altering your assumptions for column sizes.
When the system becomes operational, it becomes more difficult to predict database
growth, especially for indexes. Tables grow over time, and indexes are subject to the
individual behavior of the application in terms of key generation, insertion pattern,
and deletion of rows. The worst case is where you insert using an ascending key, and
then delete most rows from the left-hand side but not all the rows. This leaves gaps
and wasted space. If you have index use like this, then ensure that you know how to
use the online index rebuild facility.
DBAs should monitor space allocation for each object and look for objects that may
grow out of control. A good understanding of the application can highlight objects
that may grow rapidly or unpredictably. This is a crucial part of both performance and
availability planning for any system. When implementing the production database,
the design should attempt to ensure that minimal space management takes place when
interactive users are using the application. This applies for all data, temp, and rollback
segments.
Estimating Workloads
Considering the number of variables involved, estimation of workloads for capacity
planning and testing purposes is extremely difficult. However, designers must specify
computers with CPUs, memory, and disk drives, and eventually roll out an
application. There are several techniques used for sizing, and each technique has
merit. When sizing, it is best to use the following two methods to validate your
decision-making process and provide supporting documentation:
■
Extrapolating From a Similar System
■
Benchmarking
Extrapolating From a Similar System
This is an entirely empirical approach where an existing system of similar
characteristics and known performance is used as a basis system. The specification of
this system is then modified by the sizing specialist according to the known
differences. This approach has merit in that it correlates with an existing system, but it
provides little assistance when dealing with the differences.
This approach is used in nearly all large engineering disciplines when preparing the
cost of an engineering project, such as a large building, a ship, a bridge, or an oil rig. If
the reference system is an order of magnitude different in size from the anticipated
system, then some components may have exceeded their design limits.
Benchmarking
The benchmarking process is both resource and time consuming, and it might not
produce the correct results. By simulating an application in early development or
prototype form, there is a danger of measuring something that has no resemblance to
the actual production system. This sounds strange, but over the many years of
benchmarking customer applications with the database development organization,
Oracle has yet to see reliable correlation between the benchmark application and the
actual production system. This is mainly due to the number of application
inefficiencies introduced in the development process.
Designing and Developing for Performance 2-17
Workload Testing, Modeling, and Implementation
However, benchmarks have been used successfully to size systems to an acceptable
level of accuracy. In particular, benchmarks are very good at determining the actual
I/O requirements and testing recovery processes when a system is fully loaded.
Benchmarks by their nature stress all system components to their limits. As the
benchmark stresses all components, be prepared to see all errors in application design
and implementation manifest themselves while benchmarking. Benchmarks also test
database, operating system, and hardware components. Because most benchmarks are
performed in a rush, expect setbacks and problems when a system component fails.
Benchmarking is a stressful activity, and it takes considerable experience to get the
most out of a benchmarking exercise.
Application Modeling
Modeling the application can range from complex mathematical modeling exercises to
the classic simple calculations performed on the back of an envelope. Both methods
have merit, with one attempting to be very precise and the other making gross
estimates. The downside of both methods is that they do not allow for implementation
errors and inefficiencies.
The estimation and sizing process is an imprecise science. However, by investigating
the process, some intelligent estimates can be made. The whole estimation process
makes no allowances for application inefficiencies introduced by poor SQL, index
design, or cursor management. A sizing engineer should build in margin for
application inefficiencies. A performance engineer should discover the inefficiencies
and make the estimates look realistic. The Oracle performance method describes how
to discover the application inefficiencies.
Testing, Debugging, and Validating a Design
The testing process mainly consists of functional and stability testing. At some point in
the process, performance testing is performed.
The following list describes some simple rules for performance testing an application.
If correctly documented, then this list provides important information for the
production application and the capacity planning process after the application has
gone live.
■
■
Use the Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM) and SQL Tuning
Advisor for design validation
Test with realistic data volumes and distributions
All testing must be done with fully populated tables. The test database should
contain data representative of the production system in terms of data volume and
cardinality between tables. All the production indexes should be built and the
schema statistics should be populated correctly.
■
Use the correct optimizer mode
Perform all testing with the optimizer mode that you plan to use in production.
All Oracle Database research and development effort is focused on the query
optimizer. Therefore, the use of the query optimizer is recommended.
■
Test a single user performance
Test a single user on an idle or lightly-used database for acceptable performance.
If a single user cannot achieve acceptable performance under ideal conditions,
then multiple users cannot achieve acceptable performance under real conditions.
■
Obtain and document plans for all SQL statements
2-18 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Deploying New Applications
Obtain an execution plan for each SQL statement. Use this process to verify that
the optimizer is obtaining an optimal execution plan, and that the relative cost of
the SQL statement is understood in terms of CPU time and physical I/Os. This
process assists in identifying the heavy use transactions that require the most
tuning and performance work in the future.
■
Attempt multiuser testing
This process is difficult to perform accurately, because user workload and profiles
might not be fully quantified. However, transactions performing DML statements
should be tested to ensure that there are no locking conflicts or serialization
problems.
■
Test with the correct hardware configuration
Test with a configuration as close to the production system as possible. Using a
realistic system is particularly important for network latencies, I/O subsystem
bandwidth, and processor type and speed. Failing to use this approach may result
in an incorrect analysis of potential performance problems.
■
Measure steady state performance
When benchmarking, it is important to measure the performance under steady
state conditions. Each benchmark run should have a ramp-up phase, where users
are connected to the application and gradually start performing work on the
application. This process allows for frequently cached data to be initialized into
the cache and single execution operations—such as parsing—to be completed
before the steady state condition. Likewise, at the end of a benchmark run, there
should be a ramp-down period, where resources are freed from the system and
users cease work and disconnect.
Deploying New Applications
This section describes the following design decisions involved in deploying
applications:
■
Rollout Strategies
■
Performance Checklist
Rollout Strategies
When new applications are rolled out, two strategies are commonly adopted:
■
Big Bang approach - all users migrate to the new system at once
■
Trickle approach - users slowly migrate from existing systems to the new one
Both approaches have merits and disadvantages. The Big Bang approach relies on
reliable testing of the application at the required scale, but has the advantage of
minimal data conversion and synchronization with the old system, because it is
simply switched off. The Trickle approach allows debugging of scalability issues as the
workload increases, but might mean that data must be migrated to and from legacy
systems as the transition takes place.
It is difficult to recommend one approach over the other, because each method has
associated risks that could lead to system outages as the transition takes place.
Certainly, the Trickle approach allows profiling of real users as they are introduced to
the new application, and allows the system to be reconfigured while only affecting the
migrated users. This approach affects the work of the early adopters, but limits the
Designing and Developing for Performance 2-19
Deploying New Applications
load on support services. This means that unscheduled outages only affect a small
percentage of the user population.
The decision on how to roll out a new application is specific to each business. Any
adopted approach has its own unique pressures and stresses. The more testing and
knowledge that you derive from the testing process, the more you realize what is best
for the rollout.
Performance Checklist
To assist in the rollout, build a list of tasks that increase the chance of optimal
performance in production and enable rapid debugging of the application. Do the
following:
1.
When you create the control file for the production database, allow for growth by
setting MAXINSTANCES, MAXDATAFILES, MAXLOGFILES, MAXLOGMEMBERS, and
MAXLOGHISTORY to values higher than what you anticipate for the rollout. This
technique results in more disk space usage and larger control files, but saves time
later should these need extension in an emergency.
2.
Set block size to the value used to develop the application. Export the schema
statistics from the development or test environment to the production database if
the testing was done on representative data volumes and the current SQL
execution plans are correct.
3.
Set the minimal number of initialization parameters. Ideally, most other
parameters should be left at default. If there is more tuning to perform, then this
appears when the system is under load.
4.
Be prepared to manage block contention by setting storage options of database
objects. Tables and indexes that experience high INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE rates
should be created with automatic segment space management. To avoid
contention of rollback segments, use automatic undo management.
5.
All SQL statements should be verified to be optimal and their resource usage
understood.
6.
Validate that middleware and programs that connect to the database are efficient
in their connection management and do not logon or logoff repeatedly.
7.
Validate that the SQL statements use cursors efficiently. The database should
parse each SQL statement once and then execute it multiple times. The most
common reason this does not happen is because bind variables are not used
properly and WHERE clause predicates are sent as string literals. If you use
precompilers to develop the application, then make sure to reset the parameters
MAXOPENCURSORS, HOLD_CURSOR, and RELEASE_CURSOR from the default values
before precompiling the application.
8.
Validate that all schema objects have been correctly migrated from the
development environment to the production database. This includes tables,
indexes, sequences, triggers, packages, procedures, functions, Java objects,
synonyms, grants, and views. Ensure that any modifications made in testing are
made to the production system.
9.
As soon as the system is rolled out, establish a baseline set of statistics from the
database and operating system. This first set of statistics validates or corrects any
assumptions made in the design and rollout process.
10. Start anticipating the first bottleneck (which is inevitable) and follow the Oracle
performance method to make performance improvement.
2-20 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
3
3
Performance Improvement Methods
This chapter discusses Oracle Database improvement methods and contains the
following sections:
■
The Oracle Performance Improvement Method
■
Emergency Performance Methods
The Oracle Performance Improvement Method
Oracle performance methodology helps you to identify performance problems in an
Oracle database. This involves identifying bottlenecks and fixing them. It is
recommended that changes be made to a system only after you have confirmed that
there is a bottleneck.
Performance improvement, by its nature, is iterative. For this reason, removing the
first bottleneck might not lead to performance improvement immediately, because
another bottleneck might be revealed. Also, in some cases, if serialization points move
to a more inefficient sharing mechanism, then performance could degrade. With
experience, and by following a rigorous method of bottleneck elimination, applications
can be debugged and made scalable.
Performance problems generally result from either a lack of throughput, unacceptable
user/job response time, or both. The problem might be localized between application
modules, or it might be for the entire system.
Before looking at any database or operating system statistics, it is crucial to get
feedback from the most important components of the system: the users of the system
and the people ultimately paying for the application. Typical user feedback includes
statements like the following:
■
"The online performance is so bad that it prevents my staff from doing their jobs."
■
"The billing run takes too long."
■
■
"When I experience high amounts of Web traffic, the response time becomes
unacceptable, and I am losing customers."
"I am currently performing 5000 trades a day, and the system is maxed out. Next
month, we roll out to all our users, and the number of trades is expected to
quadruple."
From candid feedback, it is easy to set critical success factors for any performance
work. Determining the performance targets and the performance engineer's exit
criteria make managing the performance process much simpler and more successful at
all levels. These critical success factors are better defined in terms of real business
goals rather than system statistics.
Performance Improvement Methods
3-1
The Oracle Performance Improvement Method
Some real business goals for these typical user statements might be:
■
■
■
"The billing run must process 1,000,000 accounts in a three-hour window."
"At a peak period on a Web site, the response time must not exceed five seconds
for a page refresh."
"The system must be able to process 25,000 trades in an eight-hour window."
The ultimate measure of success is the user's perception of system performance. The
performance engineer's role is to eliminate any bottlenecks that degrade performance.
These bottlenecks could be caused by inefficient use of limited shared resources or by
abuse of shared resources, causing serialization. Because all shared resources are
limited, the goal of a performance engineer is to maximize the number of business
operations with efficient use of shared resources. At a very high level, the entire
database server can be seen as a shared resource. Conversely, at a low level, a single
CPU or disk can be seen as shared resources.
You can apply the Oracle performance improvement method until performance goals
are met or deemed impossible. This process is highly iterative. Inevitably, some
investigations may have little or no impact on database performance. Time and
experience are necessary to develop the skills to accurately and quickly pinpoint
critical bottlenecks. However, prior experience can sometimes work against the
experienced engineer who neglects to use the data and statistics available. This type of
behavior encourages database tuning by myth and folklore. This is a very risky,
expensive, and unlikely to succeed method of database tuning.
The Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM) implements parts of the
performance improvement method and analyzes statistics to provide automatic
diagnosis of major performance issues. Using ADDM can significantly shorten the
time required to improve the performance of a system.
Systems are so different and complex that hard and fast rules for performance analysis
are impossible. In essence, the Oracle performance improvement method defines a
way of working, but not a definitive set of rules. With bottleneck detection, the only
rule is that there are no rules! The best performance engineers use the data provided
and think laterally to determine performance problems.
Steps in the Oracle Performance Improvement Method
1.
2.
Perform the following initial standard checks:
a.
Get candid feedback from users. Determine the performance project's scope
and subsequent performance goals, and performance goals for the future. This
process is key in future capacity planning.
b.
Get a full set of operating system, database, and application statistics from the
system when the performance is both good and bad. If these are not available,
then get whatever is available. Missing statistics are analogous to missing
evidence at a crime scene: They make detectives work harder and it is more
time-consuming.
c.
Sanity-check the operating systems of all computers involved with user
performance. By sanity-checking the operating system, you look for hardware
or operating system resources that are fully utilized. List any over-used
resources as symptoms for analysis later. In addition, check that all hardware
shows no errors or diagnostics.
Check for the top ten most common mistakes with Oracle Database, and
determine if any of these are likely to be the problem. List these as symptoms for
3-2 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
The Oracle Performance Improvement Method
later analysis. These are included because they represent the most likely problems.
ADDM automatically detects and reports nine of these top ten issues.
3.
Build a conceptual model of what is happening on the system using the symptoms
as clues to understand what caused the performance problems. See "A Sample
Decision Process for Performance Conceptual Modeling" on page 3-3.
4.
Propose a series of remedy actions and the anticipated behavior to the system,
then apply them in the order that can benefit the application the most. ADDM
produces recommendations each with an expected benefit. A golden rule in
performance work is that you only change one thing at a time and then measure
the differences. Unfortunately, system downtime requirements might prohibit
such a rigorous investigation method. If multiple changes are applied at the same
time, then try to ensure that they are isolated so that the effects of each change can
be independently validated.
5.
Validate that the changes made have had the desired effect, and see if the user's
perception of performance has improved. Otherwise, look for more bottlenecks,
and continue refining the conceptual model until your understanding of the
application becomes more accurate.
6.
Repeat the last three steps until performance goals are met or become impossible
due to other constraints.
This method identifies the biggest bottleneck and uses an objective approach to
performance improvement. The focus is on making large performance improvements
by increasing application efficiency and eliminating resource shortages and
bottlenecks. In this process, it is anticipated that minimal (less than 10%) performance
gains are made from instance tuning, and large gains (100% +) are made from isolating
application inefficiencies.
A Sample Decision Process for Performance Conceptual Modeling
Conceptual modeling is almost deterministic. However, as you gain experience in
performance tuning, you begin to appreciate that no real rules exist. A flexible
heads-up approach is required to interpret statistics and make good decisions.
For a quick and easy approach to performance tuning, use ADDM. ADDM
automatically monitors your Oracle system and provides recommendations for
solving performance problems should problems occur. For example, suppose a DBA
receives a call from a user complaining that the system is slow. The DBA simply
examines the latest ADDM report to see which of the recommendations should be
implemented to solve the problem.
The following steps illustrate how a performance engineer might look for bottlenecks
without using automatic diagnostic features. These steps are only intended as a
guideline for the manual process. With experience, performance engineers add to the
steps involved. This analysis assumes that statistics for both the operating system and
the database have been gathered.
1.
Is the response time/batch run time acceptable for a single user on an empty or
lightly loaded computer?
If it is not acceptable, then the application is probably not coded or designed
optimally, and it will never be acceptable in a multiple user situation when system
resources are shared. In this case, get application internal statistics, and get SQL
Trace and SQL plan information. Work with developers to investigate problems in
data, index, transaction SQL design, and potential deferral of work to batch and
background processing.
Performance Improvement Methods
3-3
The Oracle Performance Improvement Method
2.
Is all the CPU being utilized?
If the kernel utilization is over 40%, then investigate the operating system for
network transfers, paging, swapping, or process thrashing. Continue to check
CPU utilization in user space to verify if there are any non-database jobs
consuming CPU on the system limiting the amount of shared CPU resources, such
as backups, file transforms, print queues, and so on. After determining that the
database is using most of the CPU, investigate the top SQL by CPU utilization.
These statements form the basis of all future analysis. Check the SQL and the
transactions submitting the SQL for optimal execution. Oracle Database provides
CPU statistics in V$SQL and V$SQLSTATS.
See Also: Oracle Database Reference for more information on V$SQL
and V$SQLSTATS
If the application is optimal and no inefficiencies exist in the SQL execution, then
consider rescheduling some work to off-peak hours or using a bigger computer.
3.
At this point, the system performance is unsatisfactory, yet the CPU resources are
not fully utilized.
In this case, you have serialization and unscalable behavior within the server. Get
the WAIT_EVENTS statistics from the server, and determine the biggest serialization
point. If there are no serialization points, then the problem is most likely outside
the database, and this should be the focus of investigation. Elimination of WAIT_
EVENTS involves modifying application SQL and tuning database parameters. This
process is very iterative and requires the ability to drill down on the WAIT_EVENTS
systematically to eliminate serialization points.
Top Ten Mistakes Found in Oracle Systems
This section lists the most common mistakes found in Oracle databases. By following
the Oracle performance improvement methodology, you should be able to avoid these
mistakes altogether. If you find these mistakes in your system, then re-engineer the
application where the performance effort is worthwhile.
1.
Bad connection management
The application connects and disconnects for each database interaction. This
problem is common with stateless middleware in application servers. It has over
two orders of magnitude impact on performance, and is totally unscalable.
2.
Bad use of cursors and the shared pool
Not using cursors results in repeated parses. If bind variables are not used, then
there is hard parsing of all SQL statements. This has an order of magnitude impact
in performance, and it is totally unscalable. Use cursors with bind variables that
open the cursor and execute it many times. Be suspicious of applications
generating dynamic SQL.
3.
Bad SQL
Bad SQL is SQL that uses more resources than appropriate for the application
requirement. This can be a decision support systems (DSS) query that runs for
more than 24 hours, or a query from an online application that takes more than a
minute. You should investigate SQL that consumes significant system resources
for potential improvement. ADDM identifies high load SQL. SQL Tuning Advisor
can provide recommendations for improvement.
4.
Use of nonstandard initialization parameters
3-4 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
The Oracle Performance Improvement Method
These might have been implemented based on poor advice or incorrect
assumptions. Most databases provide acceptable performance using only the set of
basic parameters. In particular, parameters associated with SPIN_COUNT on latches
and undocumented optimizer features can cause a great deal of problems that can
require considerable investigation.
Likewise, optimizer parameters set in the initialization parameter file can override
proven optimal execution plans. For these reasons, schemas, schema statistics, and
optimizer settings should be managed as a group to ensure consistency of
performance.
See Also:
■
■
5.
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about
initialization parameters and database creation
Oracle Database Reference for details on initialization parameters
Getting database I/O wrong
Many sites lay out their databases poorly over the available disks. Other sites
specify the number of disks incorrectly, because they configure disks by disk space
and not I/O bandwidth.
6.
Online redo log setup problems
Many sites run with too few online redo log files and files that are too small. Small
redo log files cause system checkpoints to continuously put a high load on the
buffer cache and I/O system. If too few redo log files exist, then the archive cannot
keep up, and the database must wait for the archiver to catch up.
7.
Serialization of data blocks in the buffer cache due to lack of free lists, free list
groups, transaction slots (INITRANS), or shortage of rollback segments.
This is particularly common on INSERT-heavy applications, in applications that
have raised the block size above 8K, or in applications with large numbers of
active users and few rollback segments. Use automatic segment-space
management (ASSM) and automatic undo management to solve this problem.
8.
Long full table scans
Long full table scans for high-volume or interactive online operations could
indicate poor transaction design, missing indexes, or poor SQL optimization. Long
table scans, by nature, are I/O intensive and unscalable.
9.
High amounts of recursive (SYS) SQL
Large amounts of recursive SQL executed by SYS could indicate space
management activities, such as extent allocations, taking place. This is unscalable
and impacts user response time. Use locally managed tablespaces to reduce
recursive SQL due to extent allocation. Recursive SQL executed under another
user ID is probably SQL and PL/SQL, and this is not a problem.
10. Deployment and migration errors
In many cases, an application uses too many resources because the schema
owning the tables has not been successfully migrated from the development
environment or from an older implementation. Examples of this are missing
indexes or incorrect statistics. These errors can lead to sub-optimal execution plans
and poor interactive user performance. When migrating applications of known
performance, export the schema statistics to maintain plan stability using the
DBMS_STATS package.
Performance Improvement Methods
3-5
Emergency Performance Methods
Although these errors are not directly detected by ADDM, ADDM highlights the
resulting high load SQL.
Emergency Performance Methods
This section provides techniques for dealing with performance emergencies. You
presumably have a methodology for establishing and improving application
performance. However, in an emergency situation, a component of the system has
changed to transform it from a reliable, predictable system to one that is unpredictable
and not satisfying user requests.
In this case, the performance engineer must rapidly determine what has changed and
take appropriate actions to resume normal service as quickly as possible. In many
cases, it is necessary to take immediate action, and a rigorous performance
improvement project is unrealistic.
After addressing the immediate performance problem, the performance engineer must
collect sufficient debugging information either to get better clarity on the performance
problem or to at least ensure that it does not happen again.
The method for debugging emergency performance problems is the same as the
method described in the performance improvement method earlier in this book.
However, shortcuts are taken in various stages because of the timely nature of the
problem. Keeping detailed notes and records of facts found as the debugging process
progresses is essential for later analysis and justification of any remedial actions. This
is analogous to a doctor keeping good patient notes for future reference.
Steps in the Emergency Performance Method
The Emergency Performance Method is as follows:
1.
Survey the performance problem and collect the symptoms of the performance
problem. This process should include the following:
■
■
■
User feedback on how the system is underperforming. Is the problem
throughput or response time?
Ask the question, "What has changed since we last had good performance?"
This answer can give clues to the problem. However, getting unbiased
answers in an escalated situation can be difficult. Try to locate some reference
points, such as collected statistics or log files, that were taken before and after
the problem.
Use automatic tuning features to diagnose and monitor the problem. In
addition, you can use Oracle Enterprise Manager performance features to
identify top SQL and sessions.
2.
Sanity-check the hardware utilization of all components of the application system.
Check where the highest CPU utilization is, and check the disk, memory usage,
and network performance on all the system components. This quick process
identifies which tier is causing the problem. If the problem is in the application,
then shift analysis to application debugging. Otherwise, move on to database
server analysis.
3.
Determine if the database server is constrained on CPU or if it is spending time
waiting on wait events. If the database server is CPU-constrained, then investigate
the following:
■
Sessions that are consuming large amounts of CPU at the operating system
level and database; check V$SESS_TIME_MODEL for database CPU usage
3-6 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Emergency Performance Methods
■
■
Sessions or statements that perform many buffer gets at the database level;
check V$SESSTAT and V$SQLSTATS
Execution plan changes causing sub-optimal SQL execution; these can be
difficult to locate
■
Incorrect setting of initialization parameters
■
Algorithmic issues caused by code changes or upgrades of all components
If the database sessions are waiting on events, then follow the wait events listed in
V$SESSION_WAIT to determine what is causing serialization. The V$ACTIVE_
SESSION_HISTORY view contains a sampled history of session activity which you
can use to perform diagnosis even after an incident has ended and the system has
returned to normal operation. In cases of massive contention for the library cache,
it might not be possible to logon or submit SQL to the database. In this case, use
historical data to determine why there is suddenly contention on this latch. If most
waits are for I/O, then examine V$ACTIVE_SESSION_HISTORY to determine the SQL
being run by the sessions that are performing all of the inputs and outputs.
4.
Apply emergency action to stabilize the system. This could involve actions that
take parts of the application off-line or restrict the workload that can be applied to
the system. It could also involve a system restart or the termination of job in
process. These naturally have service level implications.
5.
Validate that the system is stable. Having made changes and restrictions to the
system, validate that the system is now stable, and collect a reference set of
statistics for the database. Now follow the rigorous performance method
described earlier in this book to bring back all functionality and users to the
system. This process may require significant application re-engineering before it is
complete.
Performance Improvement Methods
3-7
Emergency Performance Methods
3-8 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
4
Configuring a Database for Performance
4
This chapter contains an overview of the Oracle methodology for configuring a
database for performance. Although performance modifications can be made to Oracle
Database on an ongoing basis, significant benefits can be gained by proper initial
configuration of the database.
This chapter contains the following sections:
■
Performance Considerations for Initial Instance Configuration
■
Creating and Maintaining Tables for Optimal Performance
■
Performance Considerations for Shared Servers
Performance Considerations for Initial Instance Configuration
This section discusses some initial database instance configuration options that have
important performance impacts.
If you use the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) to create a database, then the
supplied seed database includes the necessary basic initialization parameters and
meets the performance recommendations that are discussed in this chapter.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide to learn how to create a
database with the Database Configuration Assistant
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide to learn how to create a
database with a SQL statement
Initialization Parameters
A running Oracle database instance is configured using initialization parameters,
which are set in the initialization parameter file. These parameters influence the
behavior of the running instance, including influencing performance. In general, a
very simple initialization file with few relevant settings covers most situations, and the
initialization file should not be the first place you expect to do performance tuning,
except for the few parameters shown in Table 4–2.
Table 4–1 describes the parameters necessary in a minimal initialization file. Although
these parameters are necessary, they have no performance impact.
Configuring a Database for Performance 4-1
Performance Considerations for Initial Instance Configuration
Table 4–1
Necessary Initialization Parameters Without Performance Impact
Parameter
Description
DB_NAME
Name of the database. This should match the ORACLE_SID
environment variable.
DB_DOMAIN
Location of the database in Internet dot notation.
OPEN_CURSORS
Limit on the maximum number of cursors (active SQL
statements) for each session. The setting is
application-dependent; 500 is recommended.
CONTROL_FILES
Set to contain at least two files on different disk drives to
prevent failures from control file loss.
DB_FILES
Set to the maximum number of files that can assigned to the
database.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide to learn more
about these initialization parameters
Table 4–2 includes the most important parameters to set with performance
implications:
Table 4–2
Important Initialization Parameters With Performance Impact
Parameter
Description
COMPATIBLE
Specifies the release with which the Oracle database must
maintain compatibility. It lets you take advantage of the
maintenance improvements of a new release immediately in your
production systems without testing the new functionality in your
environment. If your application was designed for a specific
release of Oracle Database, and you are actually installing a later
release, then you might want to set this parameter to the version
of the previous release.
DB_BLOCK_SIZE
Sets the size of the Oracle database blocks stored in the database
files and cached in the SGA. The range of values depends on the
operating system, but it is typically 8192 for transaction
processing systems and higher values for database warehouse
systems.
SGA_TARGET
Specifies the total size of all SGA components. If SGA_TARGET is
specified, then the buffer cache (DB_CACHE_SIZE), Java pool (JAVA_
POOL_SIZE), large pool (LARGE_POOL_SIZE), and shared pool
(SHARED_POOL_SIZE) memory pools are automatically sized.
PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
Specifies the target aggregate PGA memory available to all server
processes attached to the instance.
PROCESSES
Sets the maximum number of processes that can be started by that
instance. This is the most important primary parameter to set,
because many other parameter values are deduced from this.
SESSIONS
This is set by default from the value of processes. However, if you
are using the shared server, then the deduced value is likely to be
insufficient.
UNDO_MANAGEMENT
Specifies the undo space management mode used by the
database. The default is AUTO. If unspecified, the database uses
AUTO.
UNDO_TABLESPACE
Specifies the undo tablespace to be used when an instance starts.
4-2 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Performance Considerations for Initial Instance Configuration
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Reference for information about initialization
parameters
Oracle Streams Concepts and Administration for information
about the STREAMS_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter
Configuring Undo Space
The database uses undo space to store data used for read consistency, recovery, and
rollback statements. This data exists in one or more undo tablespaces. If you use the
Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) to create a database, then the undo
tablespace is created automatically. To manually create an undo tablespace, add the
UNDO TABLESPACE clause to the CREATE DATABASE statement.
To automate the management of undo data, Oracle Database uses automatic undo
management, which transparently creates and manages undo segments.To enable
automatic undo management, set the UNDO_MANAGEMENT initialization parameter to
AUTO (the default setting). If unspecified, then the UNDO_MANAGEMENT initialization
parameter uses the AUTO setting. Oracle strongly recommends using automatic undo
management because it significantly simplifies database management and eliminates
the need for any manual tuning of undo (rollback) segments. Manual undo
management using rollback segments is supported for backward compatibility.
The V$UNDOSTAT view contains statistics for monitoring and tuning undo space. Using
this view, you can better estimate the amount of undo space required for the current
workload. Oracle Database also uses this information to help tune undo usage. The
V$ROLLSTAT view contains information about the behavior of the undo segments in the
undo tablespace.
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA and Oracle Enterprise Manager
online help to learn about the Undo Management Advisor
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about
managing undo space using automatic undo management
Oracle Database Reference to learn about the V$ROLLSTAT and
V$UNDOSTAT views
Sizing Redo Log Files
The size of the redo log files can influence performance, because the behavior of the
database writer and archiver processes depend on the redo log sizes. Generally, larger
redo log files provide better performance. Undersized log files increase checkpoint
activity and reduce performance.
Although the size of the redo log files does not affect LGWR performance, it can affect
DBWR and checkpoint behavior. Checkpoint frequency is affected by several factors,
including log file size and the setting of the FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET initialization
parameter. If the FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET parameter is set to limit the instance
recovery time, Oracle Database automatically tries to checkpoint as frequently as
necessary. Under this condition, the size of the log files should be large enough to
avoid additional checkpointing due to under sized log files. The optimal size can be
obtained by querying the OPTIMAL_LOGFILE_SIZE column from the V$INSTANCE_
RECOVERY view. You can also obtain sizing advice on the Redo Log Groups page of
Oracle Enterprise Manager.
Configuring a Database for Performance 4-3
Performance Considerations for Initial Instance Configuration
It may not always be possible to provide a specific size recommendation for redo log
files, but redo log files in the range of 100 MB to a few gigabytes are considered
reasonable. Size online redo log files according to the amount of redo your system
generates. A rough guide is to switch log files at most once every 20 minutes.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information
about managing the online redo log
Creating Subsequent Tablespaces
If you use the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) to create a database, then the
seed database automatically includes the necessary tablespaces. If you choose not to
use DBCA, then you must create extra tablespaces after creating the database.
All databases should have several tablespaces in addition to the SYSTEM and SYSAUX
tablespaces. These additional tablespaces include:
■
■
■
A temporary tablespace, which is used for operations such as sorting
An undo tablespace to contain information for read consistency, recovery, and
undo statements
At least one tablespace for application use (in most cases, applications require
several tablespaces)
For extremely large tablespaces with many data files, you can run multiple ALTER
TABLESPACE ... ADD DATAFILE statements in parallel. During tablespace creation, the
data files that make up the tablespace are initialized with special empty block images.
Temporary files are not initialized.
Oracle Database does this to ensure that it can write all data files in their entirety, but
this can obviously be a lengthy process if done serially. Therefore, run multiple CREATE
TABLESPACE statements concurrently to speed up tablespace creation. For permanent
tables, the choice between local and global extent management on tablespace creation
can greatly affect performance. For any permanent tablespace that has moderate to
large insert, modify, or delete operations compared to reads, choose local extent
management.
Creating Permanent Tablespaces - Automatic Segment-Space Management
For permanent tablespaces, Oracle recommends using automatic segment-space
management. Such tablespaces, often referred to as bitmap tablespaces, are locally
managed tablespaces with bitmap segment space management.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Concepts for a discussion of free space
management
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information on
creating and using automatic segment-space management for
tablespaces
Creating Temporary Tablespaces
Properly configuring the temporary tablespace helps optimize disk sort performance.
Temporary tablespaces can be dictionary-managed or locally managed. Oracle
recommends the use of locally managed temporary tablespaces with a UNIFORM extent
size of 1 MB.
4-4 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Creating and Maintaining Tables for Optimal Performance
You should monitor temporary tablespace activity to check how many extents the
database allocates for the temporary segment. If an application extensively uses
temporary tables, as in a situation when many users are concurrently using temporary
tables, then the extent size could be set smaller, such as 256K, because every usage
requires at least one extent. The EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL clause is optional for
temporary tablespaces because all temporary tablespaces are created with locally
managed extents of a uniform size. The default for SIZE is 1M.
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information on
managing temporary tablespaces
Oracle Database Concepts for more information on temporary
tablespaces
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for more information on
using the CREATE and ALTER TABLESPACE statements with the
TEMPORARY clause
Creating and Maintaining Tables for Optimal Performance
When installing applications, an initial step is to create all necessary tables and
indexes. When you create a segment, such as a table, the database allocates space for
the data. If subsequent database operations cause the data volume to increase and
exceed the space allocated, then Oracle Database extends the segment.
When creating tables and indexes, note the following:
■
Specify automatic segment-space management for tablespaces
In this way Oracle Database automatically manages segment space for best
performance.
■
Set storage options carefully
Applications should carefully set storage options for the intended use of the table
or index. This includes setting the value for PCTFREE. Note that using automatic
segment-space management eliminates the necessity of specifying PCTUSED.
Use of free lists is not recommended. To use automatic
segment-space management, create locally managed tablespaces,
with the segment space management clause set to AUTO.
Note:
Table Compression
You can store heap-organized tables in a compressed format that is transparent for any
kind of application. Compressed data in a database block is self-contained, which
means that all information needed to re-create the uncompressed data in a block is
available within the block. A block is also compressed in the buffer cache. Table
compression not only reduces the disk storage but also the memory usage, specifically
the buffer cache requirements. Performance improvements are accomplished by
reducing the amount of necessary I/O operations for accessing a table and by
increasing the probability of buffer cache hits.
Oracle Database has an advanced compression option that enables you to boost the
performance of any type of application workload—including data warehousing and
OLTP applications—while reducing the disk storage that is required by the database.
Configuring a Database for Performance 4-5
Creating and Maintaining Tables for Optimal Performance
You can use the advanced compression feature for all types of data, including
structured data, unstructured data, backup data, and network data.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information
about using table compression
Estimating the Compression factor
Table compression works by eliminating column value repetitions within individual
blocks. Duplicate values in all the rows and columns in a block are stored once at the
beginning of the block, in what is called a symbol table for that block. All occurrences
of such values are replaced with a short reference to the symbol table. The
compression is higher in blocks that have more repeated values.
Before compressing large tables you should estimate the expected compression factor.
The compression factor is defined as the number of blocks necessary to store the
information in an uncompressed form divided by the number of blocks necessary for a
compressed storage. The compression factor can be estimated by sampling a small
number of representative data blocks of the table to be compressed and comparing the
average number of records for each block for the uncompressed and compressed case.
Experience shows that approximately 1000 data blocks provides a very accurate
estimation of the compression factor. Note that the more blocks you are sampling, the
more accurate the result become.
Tuning to Achieve a Better Compression Ratio
Oracle Database achieves a good compression factor in many cases with no special
tuning. As a DBA or application developer, you can try to tune the compression factor
by reorganizing the records when the compression takes place. Tuning can improve
the compression factor slightly in some cases and substantially in other cases.
To improve the compression factor you must increase the likelihood of value
repetitions within a data block. The achievable compression factor depends on the
cardinality of a specific column or column pairs (representing the likelihood of column
value repetitions) and on the average row length of those columns. Table compression
not only compresses duplicate values of a single column but tries to use multi-column
value pairs whenever possible. Without a detailed understanding of the data
distribution it is very difficult to predict the most optimal order.
Reclaiming Unused Space
Over time, it is common for segment space to become fragmented or for a segment to
acquire a lot of free space as the result of update and delete operations. The resulting
sparsely populated objects can suffer performance degradation during queries and
DML operations.
Oracle Database provides a Segment Advisor that provides advice on whether an
object has space available for reclamation based on the level of space fragmentation
within an object.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide and Oracle
Database 2 Day DBA to learn about the Segment Advisor
If an object does have space available for reclamation, then you can compact and
shrink segments or deallocate unused space at the end of a segment.
4-6 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Performance Considerations for Shared Servers
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for a discussion of
reclaiming unused space
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for details about SQL
statements used to shrink segments or deallocate unused space
Indexing Data
The most efficient time to create indexes is after data has been loaded. In this way,
space management becomes simpler, and no index maintenance takes place for each
row inserted. SQL*Loader automatically uses this technique, but if you are using other
methods to do initial data load, then you may need to create indexes manually.
Additionally, you can perform index creation in parallel using the PARALLEL clause of
the CREATE INDEX statement. However, SQL*Loader is not able to parallelize index
creation, so you must manually create indexes in parallel after loading data.
Oracle Database Utilities for information about
SQL*Loader
See Also:
Specifying Memory for Sorting Data
During index creation on tables that contain data, the data must be sorted. This sorting
is done in the fastest possible way, if all available memory is used for sorting. Oracle
recommends that you enable automatic sizing of SQL working areas by setting the
PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET initialization parameter.
See Also:
■
■
Chapter 16, "Tuning the Program Global Area" for information
about PGA memory management
Oracle Database Reference for information about the PGA_
AGGREGATE_TARGET initialization parameter
Performance Considerations for Shared Servers
Using shared servers reduces the number of processes and the amount of memory
consumed on the database host. Shared servers are beneficial for databases where
there are many OLTP users performing intermittent transactions.
Using shared servers rather than dedicated servers is also generally better for systems
that have a high connection rate to the database. With shared servers, when a connect
request is received, a dispatcher is available to handle concurrent connection requests.
With dedicated servers, however, a connection-specific dedicated server is
sequentially initialized for each connection request.
Performance of certain database features can improve when a shared server
architecture is used, and performance of certain database features can degrade slightly
when a shared server architecture is used. For example, a session can be prevented
from migrating to another shared server while parallel execution is active.
A session can remain nonmigratable even after a request from the client has been
processed, because not all the user information has been stored in the UGA. If a server
were to process the request from the client, then the part of the user state that was not
stored in the UGA would be inaccessible. To avoid this situation, individual shared
servers often need to remain bound to a user session.
Configuring a Database for Performance 4-7
Performance Considerations for Shared Servers
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide to learn how to manage
shared servers
Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide to learn how
to configure dispatchers for shared servers
When using some features, you may need to configure more shared servers, because
some servers might be bound to sessions for an excessive amount of time.
This section discusses how to reduce contention for processes used by Oracle Database
architecture:
■
Identifying Contention Using the Dispatcher-Specific Views
■
Identifying Contention for Shared Servers
Identifying Contention Using the Dispatcher-Specific Views
The following views provide dispatcher performance statistics:
■
V$DISPATCHER: general information about dispatcher processes
■
V$DISPATCHER_RATE: dispatcher processing statistics
The V$DISPATCHER_RATE view contains current, average, and maximum dispatcher
statistics for several categories. Statistics with the prefix CUR_ are statistics for the
current sample. Statistics with the prefix AVG_ are the average values for the statistics
after the collection period began. Statistics with the prefix MAX_ are the maximum
values for these categories after statistics collection began.
To assess dispatcher performance, query the V$DISPATCHER_RATE view and compare
the current values with the maximums. If your present system throughput provides
adequate response time and current values from this view are near the average and
less than the maximum, then you likely have an optimally tuned shared server
environment.
If the current and average rates are significantly less than the maximums, then
consider reducing the number of dispatchers. Conversely, if current and average rates
are close to the maximums, then you might need to add more dispatchers. A general
rule is to examine V$DISPATCHER_RATE statistics during both light and heavy system
use periods. After identifying your shared server load patterns, adjust your
parameters accordingly.
If necessary, you can also mimic processing loads by running system stress tests and
periodically polling V$DISPATCHER_RATE statistics. Proper interpretation of these
statistics varies from platform to platform. Different types of applications also can
cause significant variations on the statistical values recorded in V$DISPATCHER_RATE.
See Also:
■
Oracle Database Reference for detailed information about the
V$DISPATCHER and V$DISPATCHER_RATE views
Reducing Contention for Dispatcher Processes
To reduce contention, consider the following:
■
Adding dispatcher processes
4-8 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Performance Considerations for Shared Servers
The total number of dispatcher processes is limited by the value of the
initialization parameter MAX_DISPATCHERS. You might need to increase this value
before adding dispatcher processes.
■
Enabling connection pooling
When system load increases and dispatcher throughput is maximized, it is not
necessarily a good idea to immediately add more dispatchers. Instead, consider
configuring the dispatcher to support more users with connection pooling.
■
Enabling Session Multiplexing
Multiplexing is used by a connection manager process to establish and maintain
network sessions from multiple users to individual dispatchers. For example,
several user processes can connect to one dispatcher by way of a single connection
from a connection manager process. Session multiplexing is beneficial because it
maximizes use of the dispatcher process connections. Multiplexing is also useful
for multiplexing database link sessions between dispatchers.
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide to learn how to configure
dispatcher processes
Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide to learn how
to configure connection pooling
Oracle Database Reference to learn about the DISPATCHERS and
MAX_DISPATCHERS initialization parameters
Identifying Contention for Shared Servers
Steadily increasing wait times in the requests queue indicate contention for shared
servers. To examine wait time data, use the dynamic performance view V$QUEUE. This
view contains statistics showing request queue activity for shared servers. By default,
this view is available only to the user SYS and to other users with SELECT ANY TABLE
system privilege, such as SYSTEM. Table 4–3 lists the columns showing the wait times
for requests and the number of requests in the queue.
Table 4–3
Wait Time and Request Columns in V$QUEUE
Column
Description
WAIT
Displays the total waiting time, in hundredths of a second, for
all requests that have ever been in the queue
TOTALQ
Displays the total number of requests that have ever been in
the queue
Monitor these statistics occasionally while your application is running by issuing the
following SQL statement:
SELECT DECODE(TOTALQ, 0, 'No Requests',
WAIT/TOTALQ || ' HUNDREDTHS OF SECONDS') "AVERAGE WAIT TIME PER REQUESTS"
FROM V$QUEUE
WHERE TYPE = 'COMMON';
This query returns the results of a calculation that show the following:
AVERAGE WAIT TIME PER REQUEST
----------------------------.090909 HUNDREDTHS OF SECONDS
Configuring a Database for Performance 4-9
Performance Considerations for Shared Servers
From the result, you can tell that a request waits an average of 0.09 hundredths of a
second in the queue before processing.
You can also determine how many shared servers are currently running by issuing the
following query:
SELECT COUNT(*) "Shared Server Processes"
FROM V$SHARED_SERVER
WHERE STATUS != 'QUIT';
The result of this query could look like the following:
Shared Server Processes
----------------------10
If you detect resource contention with shared servers, then first ensure that this is not a
memory contention issue by examining the shared pool and the large pool. If
performance remains poor, then you might want to create more resources to reduce
shared server process contention. You can do this by modifying the optional server
process initialization parameters:
■
MAX_DISPATCHERS
■
MAX_SHARED_SERVERS
■
DISPATCHERS
■
SHARED_SERVERS
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide to learn how to set
the shared server process initialization parameters
4-10 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Part II
Part II
Diagnosing and Tuning Database
Performance
This part contains the following chapters:
■
Chapter 5, "Measuring Database Performance"
■
Chapter 6, "Gathering Database Statistics"
■
Chapter 7, "Automatic Performance Diagnostics"
■
Chapter 8, "Comparing Database Performance Over Time"
■
Chapter 9, "Analyzing Sampled Data"
■
Chapter 10, "Instance Tuning Using Performance Views"
5
Measuring Database Performance
5
This chapter describes how to measure the performance of Oracle Database using
database statistics.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
About Database Statistics
■
Interpreting Database Statistics
About Database Statistics
Database statistics provide information about the type of database load and the
resources being used by the database. To effectively measure database performance,
statistics must be available.
Oracle Database generates many types of cumulative statistics for the system, sessions,
segments, services, and individual SQL statements. Cumulative values for statistics
are generally accessible using dynamic performance views, or V$ views. When
analyzing database performance in any of these scopes, look at the change in statistics
(delta value) over the period you are interested in. Specifically, focus on the difference
between the cumulative values of a statistic at the start and the end of the period.
This section describes some of the more important database statistics that are used to
measure the performance of Oracle Database:
■
Time Model Statistics
■
Active Session History Statistics
■
Wait Events Statistics
■
Session and System Statistics
See Also: Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for information about
optimizer statistics
Time Model Statistics
Time model statistics use time to identify quantitative effects about specific actions
performed on the database, such as logon operations and parsing. The most important
time model statistic is database time, or DB time. This statistic represents the total time
spent in database calls and is an indicator of the total instance workload. DB time is
measured cumulatively from the time of instance startup and is calculated by
aggregating the CPU and wait times of all sessions not waiting on idle wait events
(non-idle user sessions).
Measuring Database Performance 5-1
About Database Statistics
Because DB time is calculated by combining the times from all
non-idle user sessions, it is possible that the DB time can exceed the
actual time elapsed after the instance started. For example, an instance
that has been running for 30 minutes could have four active user
sessions whose cumulative DB time is approximately 120 minutes.
Note:
When tuning an Oracle database, each component has its own set of statistics. To look
at the system as a whole, it is necessary to have a common scale for comparisons.
Many Oracle Database advisors and reports thus describe statistics in terms of time.
Ultimately, the objective in tuning an Oracle database is to reduce the time that users
spend in performing an action on the database, or to simply reduce DB time. Time
model statistics are accessible from the V$SESS_TIME_MODEL and V$SYS_TIME_MODEL
views.
Oracle Database Reference for information about the
V$SESS_TIME_MODEL and V$SYS_TIME_MODEL views
See Also:
Active Session History Statistics
Any session that is connected to the database and is waiting for an event that does not
belong to the Idle wait class is considered an active session. Oracle Database samples
active sessions every second and stores the sampled data in a circular buffer in the
shared global area (SGA).
The sampled session activity is accessible using the V$ACTIVE_SESSION_HISTORY view.
Each session sample contains a set of rows and the V$ACTIVE_SESSION_HISTORY view
returns one row for each active session per sample, starting with the latest session
sample rows. Because the active session samples are stored in a circular buffer in the
SGA, the greater the system activity, the smaller the number of seconds of session
activity that can be stored. This means that the duration for which a session sample is
displayed in the V$ view is completely dependent on the level of database activity.
Because the content of the V$ view can become quite large during heavy system
activity, only a portion of the session samples is written to disk.
By capturing only active sessions, a manageable set of data can be captured with its
size being directly related to the work being performed, rather than the number of
sessions allowed on the system. Active Session History (ASH) enables you to examine
and perform detailed analysis on both current data in the V$ACTIVE_SESSION_HISTORY
view and historical data in the DBA_HIST_ACTIVE_SESS_HISTORY view, often avoiding
the need to replay the workload to trace additional performance information. ASH
also contains execution plan information for each captured SQL statement. You can
use this information to identify which part of SQL execution contributed most to the
SQL elapsed time. The data present in ASH can be rolled up in various dimensions
that it captures, including:
■
■
SQL identifier of SQL statement
SQL plan identifier and hash value of the SQL plan used to execute the SQL
statement
■
SQL execution plan information
■
Object number, file number, and block number
■
Wait event identifier and parameters
■
Session identifier and session serial number
5-2 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
About Database Statistics
■
Module and action name
■
Client identifier of the session
■
Service hash identifier
■
Consumer group identifier
You can gather this information over a specified duration into an ASH report.
Active session history sampling is also available for Active Data Guard physical
standby instances and Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) instances.
On these instances, the current session activity is collected and displayed in the
V$ACTIVE_SESSION_HISTORY view, but not written to disk.
See Also:
■
■
■
Chapter 9, "Analyzing Sampled Data" for information about ASH
reports
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for information
about Active Data Guard physical standby databases
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
information about Oracle ASM instances
Wait Events Statistics
Wait events are statistics that are incremented by a server process or thread to indicate
that it had to wait for an event to complete before processing could continue. Wait
event data reveals various symptoms of problems that might be impacting
performance, such as latch contention, buffer contention, and I/O contention.
To enable easier high-level analysis of wait events, Oracle Database groups events into
the following classes:
■
Administrative
■
Application
■
Cluster
■
Commit
■
Concurrency
■
Configuration
■
Idle
■
Network
■
Other
■
Scheduler
■
System I/O
■
User I/O
The wait classes are based on a common solution that usually applies to fixing a
problem with the particular wait event. For example, exclusive TX locks are generally
an application-level issue and HW locks are generally a configuration issue. The
following list includes common examples of wait events in some of the wait classes:
■
Application: locks waits caused by row level locking or explicit lock commands
■
Commit: waits for redo log write confirmation after a commit
Measuring Database Performance 5-3
Interpreting Database Statistics
■
Idle: wait events that signify the session is inactive, such as SQL*Net message from
client
■
Network: waits for data to be sent over the network
■
User I/O: wait for blocks to be read off a disk
Wait event statistics for a database instance include statistics for both background and
foreground processes. Because tuning is typically focused in foreground activities,
overall database instance activity is categorized into foreground and background
statistics in the relevant V$ views to facilitate tuning.
The V$SYSTEM_EVENT view shows wait event statistics for the foreground activities of a
database instance and the wait event statistics for the database instance. The
V$SYSTEM_WAIT_CLASS view shows these foreground and wait event statistics at the
instance level after aggregating to wait classes. V$SESSION_EVENT and V$SESSION_
WAIT_CLASS show wait event and wait class statistics at the session level.
See Also:
Oracle Database Reference for information about wait events
Session and System Statistics
A large number of cumulative database statistics on a system and session level are
accessible using the V$SYSSTAT and V$SESSTAT views.
Oracle Database Reference for information about the
V$SYSSTAT and V$SESSTAT views
See Also:
Interpreting Database Statistics
When initially examining performance data, you can formulate potential
interpretations of the data by examining the database statistics. To ensure that your
interpretation is accurate, cross-check with other data to establish if a statistic or event
is truly relevant. Because foreground activities are tunable, it is recommended to first
analyze the statistics from foreground activities before analyzing the statistics from
background activities.
The following sections provide tips for interpreting the various types of database
statistics to measure database performance:
■
Using Hit Ratios
■
Using Wait Events with Timed Statistics
■
Using Wait Events without Timed Statistics
■
Using Idle Wait Events
■
Comparing Database Statistics with Other Factors
■
Using Computed Statistics
Using Hit Ratios
When tuning, it is common to compute a ratio that helps determine if a problem exists.
Such ratios may include the buffer cache hit ratio, the soft-parse ratio, and the latch hit
ratio. Do not use these ratios as definitive identifiers of whether a performance
bottleneck exists. Instead, use them as indicators. To identify whether a performance
bottleneck exists, examine other related performance data. For information about how
to calculate the buffer cache hit ratio, see "Calculating the Buffer Cache Hit Ratio" on
page 13-4.
5-4 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Interpreting Database Statistics
Using Wait Events with Timed Statistics
Setting TIMED_STATISTICS to TRUE at the instance level directs the database to gather
wait time for events, in addition to available wait counts. This data is useful for
comparing the total wait time for an event to the total elapsed time between the data
collections. For example, if the wait event accounts for only 30 seconds out of a 2-hour
period, then very little performance improvement can be gained by investigating this
event, even if it is the highest ranked wait event when ordered by time waited.
However, if the event accounts for 30 minutes of a 45-minute period, then the event is
worth investigating. For information about wait events, see "Wait Events Statistics" on
page 5-3.
Note: Timed statistics are automatically collected for the database if
the initialization parameter STATISTICS_LEVEL is set to TYPICAL or
ALL. If STATISTICS_LEVEL is set to BASIC, then you must set TIMED_
STATISTICS to TRUE to enable collection of timed statistics. Note that
setting STATISTICS_LEVEL to BASIC disables many automatic features
and is not recommended.
If you explicitly set DB_CACHE_ADVICE, TIMED_STATISTICS, or TIMED_
OS_STATISTICS, either in the initialization parameter file or by using
ALTER_SYSTEM or ALTER SESSION, then the explicitly set value overrides
the value derived from STATISTICS_LEVEL.
Oracle Database Reference for information about the
STATISTICS_LEVEL initialization parameter
See Also:
Using Wait Events without Timed Statistics
If TIMED_STATISTICS is set to FALSE, then the amount of time spent waiting for an
event is not available. Therefore, it is only possible to order wait events by the number
of times each event was waited for. Although the events with the largest number of
waits might indicate a potential bottleneck, they might not be the main bottleneck.
This situation can happen when an event is waited for a large number of times, but the
total time waited for that event is small. Conversely, an event with fewer waits might
be a bigger bottleneck if the wait time accounts for a significant proportion of the total
wait time. Without the wait times to use for comparison, it is difficult to determine
whether a wait event is worth investigating.
Using Idle Wait Events
Oracle Database uses some wait events to indicate whether the Oracle server process is
idle. Typically, these events are of no value when investigating performance problems,
and should be ignored when examining wait events.
Comparing Database Statistics with Other Factors
When evaluating statistics, it is important to consider other factors that may influence
whether the statistic is of value. Such factors may include the user load and hardware
capability. Even an event that had a wait of 30 minutes in a 45-minute period might
not be indicative of a performance problem if you discover that there were 2000 users
on the system, and the host hardware was a 64-node computer.
Measuring Database Performance 5-5
Interpreting Database Statistics
Using Computed Statistics
When interpreting computed statistics (such as rates, statistics normalized over
transactions, or ratios), verify the computed statistic with the actual statistic counts.
This comparison can confirm whether the derived rates are really of interest because
small statistic counts usually can discount an unusual ratio. For example, on initial
examination, a soft-parse ratio of 50% generally indicates a potential area for tuning. If,
however, there was only one hard parse and one soft parse during the data collection
interval, then the soft-parse ratio would be 50%, even though the statistic counts show
this is not impacting performance. In this case, the ratio is not important due to the
low raw statistic counts.
5-6 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
6
Gathering Database Statistics
6
This chapter describes how to gather database statistics for Oracle Database and
contains the following topics:
■
About Gathering Database Statistics
■
Managing the Automatic Workload Repository
■
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Reports
About Gathering Database Statistics
Oracle Database automatically persists the cumulative and delta values for most of the
statistics at all levels (except the session level) in the Automatic Workload Repository
(AWR). This process is repeated on a regular time period and the results are captured
in an AWR snapshot. The delta values captured by the snapshot represent the changes
for each statistic over the time period.
A statistical baseline is a collection of statistic rates usually taken over a time period
when the system is performing well at an optimal level. Use statistical baselines to
diagnose performance problems by comparing statistics captured in a baseline to those
captured during a period of poor performance. This enables you to identify specific
statistics that may have increased significantly and could be the cause of the problem.
AWR supports the capture of baseline data by enabling you to specify and preserve a
pair or range of AWR snapshots as a baseline.
A metric is typically the rate of change in a cumulative statistic. You can measure this
rate against a variety of units, including time, transactions, or database calls. For
example, the number database calls per second is a metric. Metric values are exposed
in some V$ views, where the values are the averages over a fairly small time interval,
typically 60 seconds. A history of recent metric values is available through V$ views,
and some data is also persisted by AWR snapshots.
The following sections describe various Oracle Database features that enable you to
more effectively gather database statistics:
■
Automatic Workload Repository
■
Snapshots
■
Baselines
■
Space Consumption
■
Adaptive Thresholds
Gathering Database Statistics 6-1
About Gathering Database Statistics
Use of AWR features described in this chapter requires
licensing of the Oracle Diagnostic Pack.
Note:
Data visibility and privilege requirements may differ when
using AWR features with pluggable databases (PDBs). For
information about how manageability features—including AWR
features—work in a multitenant container database (CDB), see Oracle
Database Administrator's Guide.
Note:
Automatic Workload Repository
AWR collects, processes, and maintains performance statistics for problem detection
and self-tuning purposes. This gathered data is stored both in memory and in the
database, and is displayed in both reports and views.
The statistics collected and processed by AWR include:
■
■
■
■
■
Object statistics that determine both access and usage statistics of database
segments
Time model statistics based on time usage for activities, displayed in the V$SYS_
TIME_MODEL and V$SESS_TIME_MODEL views
Some of the system and session statistics collected in the V$SYSSTAT and V$SESSTAT
views
SQL statements that are producing the highest load on the system, based on
criteria such as elapsed time and CPU time
Active Session History (ASH) statistics, representing the history of recent sessions
activity
See Also:
■
■
"About Database Statistics" on page 5-1 for information about the
various types of database statistics
Oracle Database Reference for information about the views
Snapshots
Snapshots are sets of historical data for specific time periods that are used for
performance comparisons by Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM). By
default, Oracle Database automatically generates snapshots of the performance data
once every hour and retains the statistics in AWR for 8 days. You can also manually
create snapshots or change the snapshot retention period, but it is usually not
necessary.
AWR compares the difference between snapshots to determine which SQL statements
to capture based on the effect on the system load. This reduces the number of SQL
statements that must be captured over time. After the snapshots are created, ADDM
analyzes the data captured in the snapshots to perform its performance analysis.
"Managing Snapshots" on page 6-7 for information about
managing snapshots
See Also:
6-2 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
About Gathering Database Statistics
Baselines
A baseline is a set of snapshots from a specific time period that is preserved for
comparison with other snapshots when a performance problem occurs. The snapshots
contained in a baseline are excluded from the automatic AWR purging process and are
retained indefinitely.
There are several types of available baselines:
■
Fixed Baselines
■
Moving Window Baselines
■
Baseline Templates
Fixed Baselines
A fixed baseline corresponds to a fixed, contiguous time period in the past that you
specify. Before creating a fixed baseline, carefully consider the time period you choose
as a baseline, because the baseline should represent the system operating at an optimal
level. In the future, you can compare the baseline with other baselines or snapshots
captured during periods of poor performance to analyze performance degradation
over time.
"Managing Baselines" on page 6-9 for information about
managing fixed baselines
See Also:
Moving Window Baselines
A moving window baseline corresponds to all AWR data that exists within the AWR
retention period. This is useful when using adaptive thresholds because the database
can use AWR data in the entire AWR retention period to compute metric threshold
values.
Oracle Database automatically maintains a system-defined moving window baseline.
The default window size for the system-defined moving window baseline is the
current AWR retention period, which by default is 8 days. If you are planning to use
adaptive thresholds, then consider using a larger moving window—such as 30
days—to accurately compute threshold values. You can resize the moving window
baseline by changing the number of days in the moving window to a value that is
equal to or less than the number of days in the AWR retention period. Therefore, to
increase the size of a moving window, you must first increase the AWR retention
period accordingly.
"Resizing the Default Moving Window Baseline" on
page 6-12 for information about resizing a moving window baseline
See Also:
Baseline Templates
Baseline templates enable you to create baselines for a contiguous time period in the
future. There are two types of baseline templates:
■
Single Baseline Templates
■
Repeating Baseline Templates
"Managing Baseline Templates" on page 6-13 for
information about managing baseline templates
See Also:
Single Baseline Templates Use a single baseline template to create a baseline for a single
contiguous time period in the future. This is useful if you know beforehand of a time
Gathering Database Statistics 6-3
About Gathering Database Statistics
period that you intend to capture in the future. For example, you may want to capture
AWR data during a system test that is scheduled for the upcoming weekend. In this
case, you can create a single baseline template to automatically capture the time period
when the test occurs.
Repeating Baseline Templates Use a repeating baseline template to create and drop
baselines based on a repeating time schedule. This is useful if you want Oracle
Database to automatically capture a contiguous time period on an ongoing basis. For
example, you may want to capture AWR data during every Monday morning for a
month. In this case, you can create a repeating baseline template to automatically
create baselines on a repeating schedule for every Monday, and automatically remove
older baselines after a specified expiration interval, such as one month.
Space Consumption
The space consumed by AWR is determined by several factors:
■
Number of active sessions in the database at any given time
■
Snapshot interval
The snapshot interval determines the frequency at which snapshots are captured.
A smaller snapshot interval increases the frequency, which increases the volume
of data collected by AWR.
■
Historical data retention period
The retention period determines how long this data is retained before being
purged. A longer retention period increases the space consumed by AWR.
By default, Oracle Database captures snapshots once every hour and retains them in
the database for 8 days. With these default settings, a typical system with an average
of 10 concurrent active sessions can require approximately 200 to 300 MB of space for
its AWR data.
To reduce AWR space consumption, increase the snapshot interval and reduce the
retention period. When reducing the retention period, note that several Oracle
Database self-managing features depend on AWR data for proper functioning. Not
having enough data can affect the validity and accuracy of these components and
features, including:
■
Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM)
■
SQL Tuning Advisor
■
Undo Advisor
■
Segment Advisor
If possible, Oracle recommends that you set the AWR retention period large enough to
capture at least one complete workload cycle. If your system experiences weekly
workload cycles—such as OLTP workload during weekdays and batch jobs during the
weekend—then you do not need to change the default AWR retention period of 8
days. However, if your system is subjected to a monthly peak load during month-end
book closing, then you may need to set the retention period to one month.
Under exceptional circumstances, you can disable automatic snapshot collection by
setting the snapshot interval to 0. Under this condition, the automatic collection of the
workload and statistical data is stopped, and most of the Oracle Database
self-management functionality is not operational. In addition, you cannot manually
create snapshots. For this reason, Oracle strongly recommends against disabling
automatic snapshot collection.
6-4 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
About Gathering Database Statistics
"Modifying Snapshot Settings" on page 6-8 for
information about changing the default values for the snapshot
interval and retention period
See Also:
Adaptive Thresholds
Adaptive thresholds enable you to monitor and detect performance issues, while
minimizing administrative overhead. Adaptive thresholds automatically set warning
and critical alert thresholds for some system metrics using statistics derived from
metric values captured in the moving window baseline. The statistics for these
thresholds are recomputed weekly and might result in new thresholds as system
performance evolves over time. Additionally, adaptive thresholds can compute
different thresholds values for different times of the day or week based on periodic
workload patterns.
For example, many databases support an online transaction processing (OLTP)
workload during the day and batch processing at night. The performance metric for
response time per transaction can be useful for detecting degradation in OLTP
performance during the day. However, a useful OLTP threshold value is usually too
low for batch workloads, where long-running transactions might be common. As a
result, threshold values appropriate to OLTP might trigger frequent false performance
alerts during batch processing. Adaptive thresholds can detect such a workload
pattern and automatically set different threshold values for daytime and nighttime.
There are two types of adaptive thresholds:
■
Percentage of Maximum Thresholds
■
Significance Level Thresholds
Percentage of Maximum Thresholds
The threshold value for percentage of maximum thresholds is computed as a
percentage multiple of the maximum value observed for the data in the moving
window baseline.
Percentage of maximum thresholds are most useful when a system is sized for peak
workloads, and you want to be alerted when the current workload volume approaches
or exceeds previous high values. Metrics that have an unknown but definite limiting
value are prime candidates for these settings. For example, the redo generated per
second metric is typically a good candidate for a percentage of maximum threshold.
Significance Level Thresholds
The threshold value for significance level thresholds is set to a statistical percentile that
represents how unusual it is to observe values above the threshold value based the
data in the moving window baseline.
Significance level thresholds are most useful for metrics that exhibit statistically stable
behavior when the system is operating normally, but might vary over a wide range
when the system is performing poorly. For example, the response time per transaction
metric should be stable for a well-tuned OLTP system, but may fluctuate widely when
performance issues arise. Significance level thresholds are meant to generate alerts
when conditions produce both unusual metric values and unusual system
performance.
Significance level thresholds can be set to one of the following levels:
■
High (.95)
Only 5 in 100 observations are expected to exceed this value.
Gathering Database Statistics 6-5
Managing the Automatic Workload Repository
■
Very High (.99)
Only 1 in 100 observations are expected to exceed this value.
■
Severe (.999)
Only 1 in 1,000 observations are expected to exceed this value.
■
Extreme (.9999)
Only 1 in 10,000 observations are expected to exceed this value.
When you specify a significance level threshold, Oracle Database performs an internal
calculation to set the threshold value. In some cases, Oracle Database cannot establish
the threshold value at higher significance levels using the data in the baseline, and the
significance level threshold is not set.
If you specified a Severe (.999) or Extreme (.9999) significance level threshold and are
not receiving alerts as expected, try setting the significance level threshold to a lower
value, such as Very High (.99) or High (.95). Alternatively, consider using a percentage
of maximum threshold instead. If you change the threshold and find that you are
receiving too many alerts, try increasing the number of occurrences to trigger an alert.
The primary interface for managing baseline metrics is Oracle
Enterprise Manager. To create an adaptive threshold for a baseline
metric, use Oracle Enterprise Manager, as described in Oracle Database
2 Day + Performance Tuning Guide.
Note:
See Also:
■
■
"Moving Window Baselines" on page 6-3 for information about
moving window baselines
"Managing Baselines" on page 6-9 for information about
managing baseline metrics
Managing the Automatic Workload Repository
This section describes how to manage AWR features of Oracle Database and contains
the following topics:
■
Enabling the Automatic Workload Repository
■
Managing Snapshots
■
Managing Baselines
■
Managing Baseline Templates
■
Transporting Automatic Workload Repository Data
■
Using Automatic Workload Repository Views
"Automatic Workload Repository" on page 6-2 for a
description of AWR
See Also:
Enabling the Automatic Workload Repository
Gathering database statistics using AWR is enabled by default and is controlled by the
STATISTICS_LEVEL initialization parameter.
To enable statistics gathering by AWR:
6-6 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Managing the Automatic Workload Repository
■
Set the STATISTICS_LEVEL parameter to TYPICAL or ALL.
The default setting for this parameter is TYPICAL.
Setting STATISTICS_LEVEL to BASIC disables many Oracle Database features, including
AWR, and is not recommended. If STATISTICS_LEVEL is set to BASIC, you can still
manually capture AWR statistics using the DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY package.
However, because in-memory collection of many system statistics—such as segments
statistics and memory advisor information—will be disabled, the statistics captured in
these snapshots may not be complete.
Oracle Database Reference for information about the
STATISTICS_LEVEL initialization parameter
See Also:
Managing Snapshots
By default, Oracle Database generates snapshots once every hour, and retains the
statistics in the workload repository for 8 days. When necessary, you can manually
create or drop snapshots and modify snapshot settings.
This section describes how to manage snapshots and contains the following topics:
■
User Interfaces for Managing Snapshots
■
Creating Snapshots
■
Dropping Snapshots
■
Modifying Snapshot Settings
See Also:
"Snapshots" on page 6-2 for information about snapshots
User Interfaces for Managing Snapshots
The primary interface for managing snapshots is Oracle Enterprise Manager.
Whenever possible, you should manage snapshots using Oracle Enterprise Manager.
If Oracle Enterprise Manager is unavailable, then manage snapshots using the DBMS_
WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY package in the command-line interface. The DBA role is
required to invoke the DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY procedures.
See Also: Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for
information about the DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY package
Creating Snapshots
By default, Oracle Database automatically generates snapshots once every hour.
However, you may want to manually create snapshots to capture statistics at times
different from those of the automatically generated snapshots.
This section describes how to create snapshots and contains the following topics:
■
Creating Snapshots Using the Command-Line Interface
Creating Snapshots Using the Command-Line Interface To manually create snapshots, use
the CREATE_SNAPSHOT procedure.
Example 6–1 shows a CREATE_SNAPSHOT procedure call.
Example 6–1 Using the CREATE_SNAPSHOT Procedure
BEGIN
DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY.CREATE_SNAPSHOT ();
Gathering Database Statistics 6-7
Managing the Automatic Workload Repository
END;
/
In this example, a snapshot is created immediately on the local database instance with
the flush level specified to the default flush level of TYPICAL. To view information
about the newly created snapshot (and any existing snapshots), use the DBA_HIST_
SNAPSHOT view.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for
information about the DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY package
Oracle Database Reference for information about the DBA_HIST_
SNAPSHOT view
Dropping Snapshots
By default, Oracle Database automatically purges snapshots that have been stored in
AWR for over 8 days. However, you may want to manually drop a range of snapshots
to free up space.
This section describes how to drop snapshots and contains the following topics:
■
Dropping Snapshots Using the Command-Line Interface
Dropping Snapshots Using the Command-Line Interface To manually drop a range of
snapshots, use the DROP_SNAPSHOT_RANGE procedure.
Example 6–2 shows a DROP_SNAPSHOT_RANGE procedure call.
Example 6–2 Using the DROP_SNAPSHOT_RANGE Procedure
BEGIN
DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY.DROP_SNAPSHOT_RANGE (low_snap_id => 22,
high_snap_id => 32, dbid => 3310949047);
END;
/
In the example, snapshots with snapshot IDs ranging from 22 to 32 are dropped
immediately from the database instance with the database identifier of 3310949047.
Any ASH data that were captured during this snapshot range are also purged.
To determine which snapshots to drop, use the DBA_HIST_
SNAPSHOT view to review the existing snapshots
Tip:
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for
information about the DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY package
Oracle Database Reference for information about the DBA_HIST_
SNAPSHOT view
Modifying Snapshot Settings
You can adjust the interval, retention, and captured Top SQL of snapshot generation
for a specified database ID, but note that this can affect the precision of the Oracle
Database diagnostic tools.
6-8 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Managing the Automatic Workload Repository
This section describes how to modify snapshot settings and contains the following
topics:
■
Modifying Snapshot Settings Using the Command-Line Interface
Modifying Snapshot Settings Using the Command-Line Interface You can modify various
snapshot settings using the MODIFY_SNAPSHOT_SETTINGS procedure:
■
■
■
The INTERVAL setting affects how often the database automatically generates
snapshots.
The RETENTION setting affects how long the database stores snapshots in AWR.
The TOPNSQL setting affects the number of Top SQL to flush for each SQL criteria
(Elapsed Time, CPU Time, Parse Calls, sharable Memory, and Version Count).
The value for this setting is not affected by the statistics/flush level and overrides
the system default behavior for AWR SQL collection. It is possible to set the value
for this setting to MAXIMUM to capture the complete set of SQL in the shared SQL
area, though doing so (or by setting the value to a very high number) may lead to
possible space and performance issues because there will be more data to collect
and store.
To modify the settings, use the MODIFY_SNAPSHOT_SETTINGS procedure, as shown in the
following example.
Example 6–3 shows a MODIFY_SNAPSHOT_SETTINGS procedure call.
Example 6–3 Using the MODIFY_SNAPSHOT_SETTINGS Procedure
BEGIN
DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY.MODIFY_SNAPSHOT_SETTINGS( retention => 43200,
interval => 30, topnsql => 100, dbid => 3310949047);
END;
/
In this example, the snapshot settings for the database with the database identifier of
3310949047 are modified as follows:
■
The retention period is specified as 43200 minutes (30 days).
■
The interval between each snapshot is specified as 30 minutes.
■
The number of Top SQL to flush for each SQL criteria is specified as 100.
To verify the current settings for your database, use the DBA_HIST_WR_CONTROL view.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for
information about the DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY package
Oracle Database Reference for information about the DBA_HIST_WR_
CONTROL view
Managing Baselines
By default, Oracle Database automatically maintains a system-defined moving
window baseline. When necessary, you can manually create, drop, or rename a
baseline and view the baseline threshold settings. Additionally, you can manually
resize the window size of the moving window baseline.
This section describes how to manage baselines and contains the following topics:
Gathering Database Statistics 6-9
Managing the Automatic Workload Repository
■
User Interface for Managing Baselines
■
Creating a Baseline
■
Dropping a Baseline
■
Renaming a Baseline
■
Displaying Baseline Metrics
■
Resizing the Default Moving Window Baseline
See Also:
"Baselines" on page 6-3 for information about baselines
User Interface for Managing Baselines
The primary interface for managing baselines is Oracle Enterprise Manager. Whenever
possible, manage baselines using Oracle Enterprise Manager.
If Oracle Enterprise Manager is unavailable, then manage baselines using the DBMS_
WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY package in the command-line interface. The DBA role is
required to invoke the DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY procedures.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database 2 Day + Performance Tuning Guide for more
information about managing baselines using Oracle Enterprise
Manager
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for
information about the DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY package
Creating a Baseline
By default, Oracle Database automatically maintains a system-defined moving
window baseline. However, you may want to manually create a fixed baseline that
represents the system operating at an optimal level, so you can compare it with other
baselines or snapshots captured during periods of poor performance.
This section describes how to create a baseline using an existing range of snapshots
and contains the following topics:
■
Creating a Baseline Using the Command-Line Interface
Creating a Baseline Using the Command-Line Interface To create baselines, use the CREATE_
BASELINE procedure.
Example 6–4 shows a CREATE_BASELINE procedure call.
Example 6–4 Using the CREATE_BASELINE Procedure
BEGIN
DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY.CREATE_BASELINE (start_snap_id => 270,
end_snap_id => 280, baseline_name => 'peak baseline',
dbid => 3310949047, expiration => 30);
END;
/
In this example, a baseline is created on the database instance with the database
identifier of 3310949047 with the following settings:
■
The start snapshot sequence number is 270.
■
The end snapshot sequence number is 280.
6-10 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Managing the Automatic Workload Repository
■
The name of baseline is peak baseline.
■
The expiration of the baseline is 30 days.
Oracle Database automatically assigns a unique baseline ID to the new baseline when
the baseline is created.
Tip: To determine the range of snapshots to include in a baseline, use
the DBA_HIST_SNAPSHOT view to review the existing snapshots
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for
information about the DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY package
Oracle Database Reference for information about the DBA_HIST_
SNAPSHOT view
Dropping a Baseline
To conserve disk space, consider periodically dropping a baseline that is no longer
being used. The snapshots associated with a baseline are retained indefinitely until
you explicitly drop the baseline or the baseline has expired.
This section describes how to drop an existing baseline and contains the following
topics:
■
Dropping a Baseline Using the Command-Line Interface
Dropping a Baseline Using the Command-Line Interface To drop a baseline, use the DROP_
BASELINE procedure.
Example 6–5 shows a DROP_BASELINE procedure call.
Example 6–5 Using the DROP_BASELINE Procedure
BEGIN
DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY.DROP_BASELINE (baseline_name => 'peak baseline',
cascade => FALSE, dbid => 3310949047);
END;
/
In the example, the baseline peak baseline is dropped from the database instance
with the database identifier of 3310949047 and the associated snapshots are preserved.
To determine which baseline to drop, use the DBA_HIST_
BASELINE view to review the existing baselines
Tip:
To drop the associated snapshots along with the baseline, set the
cascade parameter to TRUE
Tip:
See Also: Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for
information about the DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY package
Renaming a Baseline
This section describes how to rename a baseline and contains the following topics:
■
Renaming a Baseline Using the Command-Line Interface
Gathering Database Statistics
6-11
Managing the Automatic Workload Repository
Renaming a Baseline Using the Command-Line Interface To rename a baseline, use the
RENAME_BASELINE procedure.
Example 6–6 shows a RENAME_BASELINE procedure call.
Example 6–6 Using the RENAME_BASELINE Procedure
BEGIN
DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY.RENAME_BASELINE (
old_baseline_name => 'peak baseline',
new_baseline_name => 'peak mondays',
dbid => 3310949047);
END;
/
In this example, the name of the baseline on the database instance with the database
identifier of 3310949047 is renamed from peak baseline to peak mondays.
See Also: Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for
information about the DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY package
Displaying Baseline Metrics
When used with adaptive thresholds, a baseline contains AWR data that the database
can use to compute metric threshold values. This section describes how to display
metric threshold settings during the time period captured in a baseline and contains
the following topics:
■
Displaying Baseline Metrics Using the Command-Line Interface
"Adaptive Thresholds" on page 6-5 for information about
baseline metric thresholds
See Also:
Displaying Baseline Metrics Using the Command-Line Interface To display the summary
statistics for metric values in a baseline period, use the SELECT_BASELINE_METRICS
function:
DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY.SELECT_BASELINE_METRICS (
baseline_name IN VARCHAR2,
dbid IN NUMBER DEFAULT NULL,
instance_num IN NUMBER DEFAULT NULL)
RETURN awr_baseline_metric_type_table PIPELINED;
See Also: Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for
information about the DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY package
Resizing the Default Moving Window Baseline
By default, Oracle Database automatically maintains a system-defined moving
window baseline. The default window size for the system-defined moving window
baseline is the current AWR retention period, which by default is 8 days. In certain
circumstances, you may want to modify the window size of the default moving
window baseline, such as increasing its size to more accurately compute threshold
values for adaptive thresholds.
This section describes how to resize the window size of the default moving window
baseline and contains the following topics:
■
Resizing the Default Moving Window Using the Command-Line Interface
6-12 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Managing the Automatic Workload Repository
"Moving Window Baselines" on page 6-3 for information
about moving window baselines
See Also:
Resizing the Default Moving Window Using the Command-Line Interface To modify the
window size of the default moving window baseline, use the MODIFY_BASELINE_
WINDOW_SIZE procedure.
Example 6–7 shows a MODIFY_BASELINE_WINDOW_SIZE procedure call.
Example 6–7 Using the MODIFY_BASELINE_WINDOW_SIZE Procedure
BEGIN
DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY.MODIFY_BASELINE_WINDOW_SIZE (
window_size => 30,
dbid => 3310949047);
END;
/
In this example, the default moving window is resized to 30 days on the database
instance with the database identifier of 3310949047.
The window size must be set to a value that is equal to or less
than the value of the AWR retention setting. To set a window size that
is greater than the current AWR retention period, you must first
increase the value of the retention parameter, as described in
"Modifying Snapshot Settings" on page 6-8.
Note:
See Also: Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for
information about the DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY package
Managing Baseline Templates
Baseline templates enable you to automatically create baselines to capture specified
time periods in the future. This section describes how to manage baseline templates
and contains the following topics:
■
User Interfaces for Managing Baseline Templates
■
Creating a Single Baseline Template
■
Creating a Repeating Baseline Template
■
Dropping a Baseline Template
"Baseline Templates" on page 6-3 for information about
baseline templates
See Also:
User Interfaces for Managing Baseline Templates
The primary interface for managing baseline templates is Oracle Enterprise Manager.
Whenever possible, manage baseline templates using Oracle Enterprise Manager.
If Oracle Enterprise Manager is unavailable, then manage baseline templates using the
DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY package in the command-line interface. The DBA role is
required to invoke the DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY procedures.
Gathering Database Statistics
6-13
Managing the Automatic Workload Repository
See Also: Oracle Database 2 Day + Performance Tuning Guide for more
information about managing baseline templates using Oracle
Enterprise Manager
Creating a Single Baseline Template
You can use a single baseline template to create a baseline during a single, fixed time
interval in the future. For example, you can create a single baseline template to
generate a baseline that is captured on April 2, 2012 from 5:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m.
This section describes how to create a single baseline template and contains the
following topics:
■
Creating a Single Baseline Template Using the Command-Line Interface
Creating a Single Baseline Template Using the Command-Line Interface To create a single
baseline template, use the CREATE_BASELINE_TEMPLATE procedure.
Example 6–8 shows a CREATE_BASELINE_TEMPLATE procedure call.
Example 6–8 Using the CREATE_BASELINE_TEMPLATE Procedure
BEGIN
DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY.CREATE_BASELINE_TEMPLATE (
start_time => '2012-04-02 17:00:00 PST',
end_time => '2012-04-02 20:00:00 PST',
baseline_name => 'baseline_120402',
template_name => 'template_120402', expiration => 30,
dbid => 3310949047);
END;
/
In this example, a baseline template named template_120402 is created that will
generate a baseline named baseline_120402 for the time period from 5:00 p.m. to 8:00
p.m. on April 2, 2012 on the database with a database ID of 3310949047. The baseline
will expire after 30 days.
See Also: Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for
information about the DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY package
Creating a Repeating Baseline Template
You can use a repeating baseline template to automatically create baselines that repeat
during a particular time interval over a specific period in the future. For example, you
can create a repeating baseline template to generate a baseline that repeats every
Monday from 5:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. for the year 2012.
This section describes how to create a repeating baseline template and contains the
following topics:
■
Creating a Repeating Baseline Template Using the Command-Line Interface
Creating a Repeating Baseline Template Using the Command-Line Interface To create a
repeating baseline template, use the CREATE_BASELINE_TEMPLATE procedure.
Example 6–9 shows a CREATE_BASELINE_TEMPLATE procedure call.
Example 6–9 Using the CREATE_BASELINE_TEMPLATE Procedure
BEGIN
DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY.CREATE_BASELINE_TEMPLATE (
6-14 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Managing the Automatic Workload Repository
day_of_week => 'monday', hour_in_day => 17,
duration => 3, expiration => 30,
start_time => '2012-04-02 17:00:00 PST',
end_time => '2012-12-31 20:00:00 PST',
baseline_name_prefix => 'baseline_2012_mondays_',
template_name => 'template_2012_mondays',
dbid => 3310949047);
END;
/
In this example, a baseline template named template_2012_mondays is created that
will generate a baseline on every Monday from 5:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. beginning on
April 2, 2012 at 5:00 p.m. and ending on December 31, 2012 at 8:00 p.m. on the
database with a database ID of 3310949047. Each of the baselines will be created with a
baseline name with the prefix baseline_2012_mondays_ and will expire after 30 days.
See Also: Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for
information about the DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY package
Dropping a Baseline Template
Periodically, you may want to remove baselines templates that are no longer used to
conserve disk space.
This section describes how to drop an existing baseline template and contains the
following topics:
■
Dropping a Baseline Template Using the Command-Line Interface
Dropping a Baseline Template Using the Command-Line Interface To drop a baseline
template, use the DROP_BASELINE_TEMPLATE procedure.
Example 6–10 shows a DROP_BASELINE_TEMPLATE procedure call.
Example 6–10
Using the DROP_BASELINE_TEMPLATE Procedure
BEGIN
DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY.DROP_BASELINE_TEMPLATE (
template_name => 'template_2012_mondays',
dbid => 3310949047);
END;
/
In this example, the baseline template named template_2012_mondays is dropped
from the database instance with the database identifier of 3310949047.
To determine which baseline template to drop, use the DBA_
HIST_BASELINE_TEMPLATE view to review the existing baseline
templates
Tip:
See Also: Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for
information about the DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY package
Transporting Automatic Workload Repository Data
Oracle Database enables you to transport AWR data between systems. This is useful in
cases where you want to use a separate system to perform analysis of AWR data. To
transport AWR data, first extract the data from the database on the source system, and
then load the data into the database on the target system.
Gathering Database Statistics
6-15
Managing the Automatic Workload Repository
This section contains the following topics:
■
Extracting AWR Data
■
Loading AWR Data
Extracting AWR Data
The awrextr.sql script extracts AWR data for a range of snapshots from the database
into a Data Pump export file. After it is created, you can transport this dump file to
another database where you can load the extracted data. To run the awrextr.sql
script, you must be connected to the database as the SYS user.
To extract AWR data:
1.
At the SQL prompt, enter:
@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/awrextr.sql
A list of the databases in the AWR schema is displayed.
2.
Specify the database from which AWR data will be extracted:
Enter value for db_id: 1377863381
In this example, the database with the database identifier of 1377863381 is
selected.
3.
Specify the number of days for which you want to list snapshot IDs.
Enter value for num_days: 2
A list of existing snapshots for the specified time range is displayed. In this
example, snapshots captured in the last 2 days are displayed.
4.
Define the range of snapshots for which AWR data will be extracted by specifying
a beginning and ending snapshot ID:
Enter value for begin_snap: 30
Enter value for end_snap: 40
In this example, the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 30 is selected as the beginning
snapshot, and the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 40 is selected as the ending
snapshot.
A list of directory objects is displayed.
5.
Specify the directory object pointing to the directory where the export dump file
will be stored:
Enter value for directory_name: DATA_PUMP_DIR
In this example, the directory object DATA_PUMP_DIR is selected.
6.
Specify a prefix for the name of the export dump file (the .dmp suffix will be
automatically appended):
Enter value for file_name: awrdata_30_40
In this example, an export dump file named awrdata_30_40 will be created in the
directory corresponding to the directory object you specified:
Dump file set for SYS.SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01 is:
C:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\12.1.0.1\DB_1\RDBMS\LOG\AWRDATA_30_40.DMP
Job "SYS"."SYS_EXPORT_TABLE_01" successfully completed at 08:58:20
6-16 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Managing the Automatic Workload Repository
Depending on the amount of AWR data that must be extracted, the AWR extract
operation may take a while to complete. After the dump file is created, you can
use Data Pump to transport the file to another system.
See Also:
Oracle Database Utilities for information about using Data
Pump
Loading AWR Data
After the export dump file is transported to the target system, load the extracted AWR
data using the awrload.sql script. The awrload.sql script will first create a staging
schema where the snapshot data is transferred from the Data Pump file into the
database. The data is then transferred from the staging schema into the appropriate
AWR tables. To run the awrload.sql script, you must be connected to the database as
the SYS user.
To load AWR data:
1.
At the SQL prompt, enter:
@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/awrload.sql
A list of directory objects is displayed.
2.
Specify the directory object pointing to the directory where the export dump file is
located:
Enter value for directory_name: DATA_PUMP_DIR
In this example, the directory object DATA_PUMP_DIR is selected.
3.
Specify a prefix for the name of the export dump file (the .dmp suffix will be
automatically appended):
Enter value for file_name: awrdata_30_40
In this example, the export dump file named awrdata_30_40 is selected.
4.
Specify the name of the staging schema where AWR data will be loaded:
Enter value for schema_name: AWR_STAGE
In this example, a staging schema named AWR_STAGE will be created where AWR
data will be loaded.
5.
Specify the default tablespace for the staging schema:
Enter value for default_tablespace: SYSAUX
In this example, the SYSAUX tablespace is selected.
6.
Specify the temporary tablespace for the staging schema:
Enter value for temporary_tablespace: TEMP
In this example, the TEMP tablespace is selected.
7.
A staging schema named AWR_STAGE will be created where AWR data will be
loaded. After AWR data is loaded into the AWR_STAGE schema, the data will be
transferred into AWR tables in the SYS schema:
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/CONSTRAINT
Completed 113 CONSTRAINT objects in 11 seconds
Processing object type TABLE_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/REF_CONSTRAINT
Completed 1 REF_CONSTRAINT objects in 1 seconds
Gathering Database Statistics
6-17
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Reports
Job "SYS"."SYS_IMPORT_FULL_03" successfully completed at 09:29:30
... Dropping AWR_STAGE user
End of AWR Load
Depending on the amount of AWR data that must be loaded, the AWR load
operation may take a while to complete. After AWR data is loaded, the staging
schema will be dropped automatically.
Using Automatic Workload Repository Views
Typically, you would view AWR data through Oracle Enterprise Manager or AWR
reports. However, you can also view historical data stored in AWR using the
following DBA_HIST views:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
DBA_HIST_ACTIVE_SESS_HISTORY displays the history of the contents of the
in-memory active session history for recent system activity.
DBA_HIST_BASELINE displays information about the baselines captured on the
system, such as the time range of each baseline and the baseline type.
DBA_HIST_BASELINE_DETAILS displays details about a specific baseline.
DBA_HIST_BASELINE_TEMPLATE displays information about the baseline templates
used by the system to generate baselines.
DBA_HIST_DATABASE_INSTANCE displays information about the database
environment.
DBA_HIST_DB_CACHE_ADVICE displays historical predictions of the number of
physical reads for the cache size corresponding to each row.
DBA_HIST_DISPATCHER displays historical information for each dispatcher process
at the time of the snapshot.
DBA_HIST_DYN_REMASTER_STATS displays statistical information about the dynamic
remastering process.
DBA_HIST_IOSTAT_DETAIL displays historical I/O statistics aggregated by file type
and function.
DBA_HIST_SHARED_SERVER_SUMMARY displays historical information for shared
servers, such as shared server activity, common queues and dispatcher queues.
■
DBA_HIST_SNAPSHOT displays information on snapshots in the system.
■
DBA_HIST_SQL_PLAN displays the SQL execution plans.
■
DBA_HIST_WR_CONTROL displays the settings for controlling AWR.
See Also: Oracle Database Reference for information about dynamic
and static data dictionary views
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Reports
An AWR report shows data captured between two snapshots (or two points in time).
AWR reports are divided into multiple sections. The content of the report contains the
workload profile of the system for the selected range of snapshots. The HTML report
includes links that can be used to navigate quickly between sections.
6-18 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Reports
If you run a report on a database that does not have any
workload activity during the specified range of snapshots, then
calculated percentages for some report statistics can be less than 0 or
greater than 100. This result means that there is no meaningful value
for the statistic.
Note:
This section describes how to generate AWR reports and contains the following topics:
■
User Interface for Generating an AWR Report
■
Generating an AWR Report Using the Command-Line Interface
User Interface for Generating an AWR Report
The primary interface for generating AWR reports is Oracle Enterprise Manager.
Whenever possible, generate AWR reports using Oracle Enterprise Manager.
If Oracle Enterprise Manager is unavailable, then generate AWR reports by running
SQL scripts. The DBA role is required to run these scripts.
Oracle Database 2 Day + Performance Tuning Guide for more
information about generating AWR reports using Oracle Enterprise
Manager
See Also:
Generating an AWR Report Using the Command-Line Interface
This section describes how to generate AWR reports by running SQL scripts in the
command-line interface. The DBA role is required to run these scripts.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Generating an AWR Report for the Local Database
■
Generating an AWR Report for a Specific Database
■
Generating an Oracle RAC AWR Report for the Local Database
■
Generating an Oracle RAC AWR Report for a Specific Database
■
Generating an AWR Report for a SQL Statement on the Local Database
■
Generating an AWR Report for a SQL Statement on a Specific Database
Generating an AWR Report for the Local Database
The awrrpt.sql SQL script generates an HTML or text report that displays statistics
from a range of snapshot IDs.
To generate an AWR report on the local database instance using the command-line interface:
1.
At the SQL prompt, enter:
@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/awrrpt.sql
2.
Specify whether you want an HTML or a text report:
Enter value for report_type: text
In this example, a text report is chosen.
3.
Specify the number of days for which you want to list snapshot IDs.
Gathering Database Statistics
6-19
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Reports
Enter value for num_days: 2
A list of existing snapshots for the specified time range is displayed. In this
example, snapshots captured in the last 2 days are displayed.
4.
Specify a beginning and ending snapshot ID for the workload repository report:
Enter value for begin_snap: 150
Enter value for end_snap: 160
In this example, the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 150 is selected as the
beginning snapshot, and the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 160 is selected as the
ending snapshot.
5.
Enter a report name, or accept the default report name:
Enter value for report_name:
Using the report name awrrpt_1_150_160
In this example, the default name is accepted and an AWR report named awrrpt_
1_150_160 is generated.
Generating an AWR Report for a Specific Database
The awrrpti.sql SQL script generates an HTML or text report that displays statistics
from a range of snapshot IDs using a specific database instance. This script enables
you to specify a database identifier and instance for which the AWR report will be
generated.
To generate an AWR report on a specific database instance using the command-line
interface:
1.
At the SQL prompt, enter:
@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/awrrpti.sql
2.
Specify whether you want an HTML or a text report:
Enter value for report_type: text
In this example, a text report is chosen.
A list of available database identifiers and instance numbers are displayed:
Instances in this Workload Repository schema
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
DB Id
Inst Num DB Name
Instance
----------- -------- ------------ -----------3309173529
1 MAIN
main
3309173529
1 TINT251
tint251
3.
Host
-----------examp1690
samp251
Enter the values for the database identifier (dbid) and instance number (inst_
num):
Enter value for dbid: 3309173529
Using 3309173529 for database Id
Enter value for inst_num: 1
4.
Specify the number of days for which you want to list snapshot IDs.
Enter value for num_days: 2
A list of existing snapshots for the specified time range is displayed. In this
example, snapshots captured in the last 2 days are displayed.
6-20 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Reports
5.
Specify a beginning and ending snapshot ID for the workload repository report:
Enter value for begin_snap: 150
Enter value for end_snap: 160
In this example, the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 150 is selected as the
beginning snapshot, and the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 160 is selected as the
ending snapshot.
6.
Enter a report name, or accept the default report name:
Enter value for report_name:
Using the report name awrrpt_1_150_160
In this example, the default name is accepted and an AWR report named awrrpt_
1_150_160 is generated on the database instance with a database ID value of
3309173529.
Generating an Oracle RAC AWR Report for the Local Database
The awrgrpt.sql SQL script generates an HTML or text report that displays statistics
from a range of snapshot IDs using the current database instance in an Oracle Real
Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) environment.
In an Oracle RAC environment, Oracle recommends
generating an HTML report (instead of a text report) because it is
much easier to read.
Note:
To generate an AWR report for Oracle RAC on the local database instance using the
command-line interface:
1.
At the SQL prompt, enter:
@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/awrgrpt.sql
2.
Specify whether you want an HTML or a text report:
Enter value for report_type: html
In this example, an HTML report is chosen.
3.
Specify the number of days for which you want to list snapshot IDs.
Enter value for num_days: 2
A list of existing snapshots for the specified time range is displayed. In this
example, snapshots captured in the last day are displayed.
4.
Specify a beginning and ending snapshot ID for the workload repository report:
Enter value for begin_snap: 150
Enter value for end_snap: 160
In this example, the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 150 is selected as the
beginning snapshot, and the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 160 is selected as the
ending snapshot.
5.
Enter a report name, or accept the default report name:
Enter value for report_name:
Using the report name awrrpt_rac_150_160.html
Gathering Database Statistics
6-21
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Reports
In this example, the default name is accepted and an AWR report named awrrpt_
rac_150_160.html is generated.
Generating an Oracle RAC AWR Report for a Specific Database
The awrgrpti.sql SQL script generates an HTML or text report that displays statistics
from a range of snapshot IDs using specific databases instances running in an Oracle
RAC environment. This script enables you to specify database identifiers and a
comma-delimited list of database instances for which the AWR report will be
generated.
In an Oracle RAC environment, Oracle recommends
generating an HTML report (instead of a text report) because it is
much easier to read.
Note:
To generate an AWR report for Oracle RAC on a specific database instance using the
command-line interface:
1.
At the SQL prompt, enter:
@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/awrgrpti.sql
2.
Specify whether you want an HTML or a text report:
Enter value for report_type: html
In this example, an HTML report is chosen.
A list of available database identifiers and instance numbers are displayed:
Instances in this Workload Repository schema
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
DB Id
Inst Num DB Name
Instance
----------- -------- ------------ -----------3309173529
1 MAIN
main
3309173529
1 TINT251
tint251
3309173529
2 TINT251
tint252
3.
Host
-----------examp1690
samp251
samp252
Enter the value for the database identifier (dbid):
Enter value for dbid: 3309173529
Using 3309173529 for database Id
4.
Enter the value for the instance numbers (instance_numbers_or_all) of the Oracle
RAC instances you want to include in the report:
Enter value for instance_numbers_or_all: 1,2
5.
Specify the number of days for which you want to list snapshot IDs.
Enter value for num_days: 2
A list of existing snapshots for the specified time range is displayed. In this
example, snapshots captured in the last 2 days are displayed.
6.
Specify a beginning and ending snapshot ID for the workload repository report:
Enter value for begin_snap: 150
Enter value for end_snap: 160
6-22 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Reports
In this example, the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 150 is selected as the
beginning snapshot, and the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 160 is selected as the
ending snapshot.
7.
Enter a report name, or accept the default report name:
Enter value for report_name:
Using the report name awrrpt_rac_150_160.html
In this example, the default name is accepted and an AWR report named awrrpt_
rac_150_160.html is generated on the database instance with a database ID value
of 3309173529.
Generating an AWR Report for a SQL Statement on the Local Database
The awrsqrpt.sql SQL script generates an HTML or text report that displays statistics
of a particular SQL statement from a range of snapshot IDs. Run this report to inspect
or debug the performance of a SQL statement.
To generate an AWR report for a SQL statement on the local database instance using
the command-line interface:
1.
At the SQL prompt, enter:
@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/awrsqrpt.sql
2.
Specify whether you want an HTML or a text report:
Enter value for report_type: html
In this example, an HTML report is chosen.
3.
Specify the number of days for which you want to list snapshot IDs.
Enter value for num_days: 1
A list of existing snapshots for the specified time range is displayed. In this
example, snapshots captured in the previous day are displayed.
4.
Specify a beginning and ending snapshot ID for the workload repository report:
Enter value for begin_snap: 146
Enter value for end_snap: 147
In this example, the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 146 is selected as the
beginning snapshot, and the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 147 is selected as the
ending snapshot.
5.
Specify the SQL ID of a particular SQL statement to display statistics:
Enter value for sql_id: 2b064ybzkwf1y
In this example, the SQL statement with a SQL ID of 2b064ybzkwf1y is selected.
6.
Enter a report name, or accept the default report name:
Enter value for report_name:
Using the report name awrrpt_1_146_147.html
In this example, the default name is accepted and an AWR report named awrrpt_
1_146_147 is generated.
Gathering Database Statistics
6-23
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Reports
Generating an AWR Report for a SQL Statement on a Specific Database
The awrsqrpi.sql SQL script generates an HTML or text report that displays statistics
of a particular SQL statement from a range of snapshot IDs using a specific database
instance.This script enables you to specify a database identifier and instance for which
the AWR report will be generated. Run this report to inspect or debug the
performance of a SQL statement on a specific database and instance.
To generate an AWR report for a SQL statement on a specific database instance using
the command-line interface:
1.
At the SQL prompt, enter:
@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/awrsqrpi.sql
2.
Specify whether you want an HTML or a text report:
Enter value for report_type: html
In this example, an HTML report is chosen.
A list of available database identifiers and instance numbers are displayed:
Instances in this Workload Repository schema
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
DB Id
Inst Num DB Name
Instance
----------- -------- ------------ -----------3309173529
1 MAIN
main
3309173529
1 TINT251
tint251
3.
Enter the values for the database identifier (dbid) and instance number (inst_
num):
Enter
Using
Enter
Using
4.
Host
-----------examp1690
samp251
value for dbid: 3309173529
3309173529 for database Id
value for inst_num: 1
1 for instance number
Specify the number of days for which you want to list snapshot IDs.
Enter value for num_days: 1
A list of existing snapshots for the specified time range is displayed. In this
example, snapshots captured in the previous day are displayed.
5.
Specify a beginning and ending snapshot ID for the workload repository report:
Enter value for begin_snap: 146
Enter value for end_snap: 147
In this example, the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 146 is selected as the
beginning snapshot, and the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 147 is selected as the
ending snapshot.
6.
Specify the SQL ID of a particular SQL statement to display statistics:
Enter value for sql_id: 2b064ybzkwf1y
In this example, the SQL statement with a SQL ID of 2b064ybzkwf1y is selected.
7.
Enter a report name, or accept the default report name:
Enter value for report_name:
Using the report name awrrpt_1_146_147.html
6-24 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Reports
In this example, the default name is accepted and an AWR report named awrrpt_
1_146_147 is generated on the database instance with a database ID value of
3309173529.
Gathering Database Statistics
6-25
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Reports
6-26 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
7
Automatic Performance Diagnostics
7
This chapter describes Oracle Database automatic features for performance diagnosing
and tuning.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
Overview of the Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor
■
Setting Up ADDM
■
Diagnosing Database Performance Problems with ADDM
■
Views with ADDM Information
Oracle Database 2 Day + Performance Tuning Guide for
information about using Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control
(Cloud Control) to diagnose and tune the database with the
Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor
See Also:
Overview of the Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor
When problems occur with a database, it is important to perform accurate and timely
diagnosis of the problem before making any changes. Often a database administrator
(DBA) simply looks at the symptoms and immediately starts changing the system to
fix those symptoms. However, an accurate diagnosis of the actual problem in the
initial stage significantly increases the probability of success in resolving the problem.
With Oracle Database, the statistical data needed for accurate diagnosis of a problem is
stored in Automatic Workload Repository (AWR). Automatic Database Diagnostic
Monitor (ADDM):
■
Analyzes AWR data on a regular basis
■
Diagnoses the root causes of performance problems
■
Provides recommendations for correcting any problems
■
Identifies non-problem areas of the system
Because AWR is a repository of historical performance data, ADDM can analyze
performance issues after the event, often saving time and resources in reproducing a
problem.
In most cases, ADDM output should be the first place that a DBA looks when notified
of a performance problem. ADDM provides the following benefits:
■
Automatic performance diagnostic report every hour by default
■
Problem diagnosis based on decades of tuning expertise
Automatic Performance Diagnostics
7-1
Overview of the Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor
■
Time-based quantification of problem impacts and recommendation benefits
■
Identification of root cause, not symptoms
■
Recommendations for treating the root causes of problems
■
Identification of non-problem areas of the system
■
Minimal overhead to the system during the diagnostic process
Tuning is an iterative process, and fixing one problem can cause the bottleneck to shift
to another part of the system. Even with the benefit of ADDM analysis, it can take
multiple tuning cycles to reach acceptable system performance. ADDM benefits apply
beyond production systems; on development and test systems, ADDM can provide an
early warning of performance issues.
This section contains the following topics:
■
ADDM Analysis
■
Using ADDM with Oracle Real Application Clusters
■
Real-Time ADDM Analysis
■
ADDM Analysis Results
■
Reviewing ADDM Analysis Results: Example
Data visibility and privilege requirements may differ when
using ADDM features with pluggable databases (PDBs). For
information about how manageability features—including ADDM
features—work in a multitenant container database (CDB), see Oracle
Database Administrator's Guide.
Note:
ADDM Analysis
An ADDM analysis can be performed on a pair of AWR snapshots and a set of
instances from the same database. The pair of AWR snapshots define the time period
for analysis, and the set of instances define the target for analysis.
If you are using Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC), then ADDM has three
analysis modes:
■
Database
In Database mode, ADDM analyzes all instances of the database.
■
Instance
In Instance mode, ADDM analyzes a particular instance of the database.
■
Partial
In Partial mode, ADDM analyzes a subset of all database instances.
If you are not using Oracle RAC, then ADDM can only function in Instance mode
because only one instance of the database exists.
An ADDM analysis is performed each time an AWR snapshot is taken and the results
are saved in the database. The time period analyzed by ADDM is defined by the last
two snapshots (the last hour by default). ADDM will always analyze the specified
instance in Instance mode. For non-Oracle RAC or single instance environments, the
analysis performed in the Instance mode is the same as a database-wide analysis. If
you are using Oracle RAC, then ADDM also analyzes the entire database in Database
7-2 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Overview of the Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor
mode, as described in "Using ADDM with Oracle Real Application Clusters" on
page 7-4. After an ADDM completes its analysis, you can view the results using Cloud
Control, or by viewing a report in a SQL*Plus session.
ADDM analysis is performed top down, first identifying symptoms, and then refining
them to reach the root causes of performance problems. The goal of the analysis is to
reduce a single throughput metric called DB time. DB time is the fundamental measure
of database performance, and is the cumulative time spent by the database in
processing user requests. It includes wait time and CPU time of all non-idle user
sessions. DB time is displayed in the V$SESS_TIME_MODEL and V$SYS_TIME_MODEL views.
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Database Reference for information about the V$SESS_
TIME_MODEL and V$SYS_TIME_MODEL views
"Time Model Statistics" on page 5-1 for a discussion of time
model statistics and DB time
Oracle Database Concepts for information about server processes
By reducing DB time, the database is able to support more user requests using the
same resources, which increases throughput. The problems reported by ADDM are
sorted by the amount of DB time they are responsible for. System areas that are not
responsible for a significant portion of DB time are reported as non-problem areas.
The types of problems that ADDM considers include the following:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
CPU bottlenecks - Is the system CPU bound by Oracle Database or some other
application?
Undersized Memory Structures - Are the Oracle Database memory structures,
such as the SGA, PGA, and buffer cache, adequately sized?
I/O capacity issues - Is the I/O subsystem performing as expected?
High-load SQL statements - Are there any SQL statements which are consuming
excessive system resources?
High-load PL/SQL execution and compilation, and high-load Java usage
Oracle RAC specific issues - What are the global cache hot blocks and objects; are
there any interconnect latency issues?
Sub-optimal use of Oracle Database by the application - Are there problems with
poor connection management, excessive parsing, or application level lock
contention?
Database configuration issues - Is there evidence of incorrect sizing of log files,
archiving issues, excessive checkpoints, or sub-optimal parameter settings?
■
Concurrency issues - Are there buffer busy problems?
■
Hot objects and top SQL for various problem areas
This is not a comprehensive list of all problem types that
ADDM considers in its analysis.
Note:
ADDM also documents the non-problem areas of the system. For example, wait event
classes that are not significantly impacting the performance of the system are
identified and removed from the tuning consideration at an early stage, saving time
Automatic Performance Diagnostics
7-3
Overview of the Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor
and effort that would be spent on items that do not impact overall system
performance.
Using ADDM with Oracle Real Application Clusters
If you are using Oracle RAC, then run ADDM in Database analysis mode to analyze
the throughput performance of all instances of the database. In Database mode,
ADDM considers DB time as the sum of the database time for all database instances.
Using the Database analysis mode enables you to view all findings that are significant
to the entire database in a single report, instead of reviewing a separate report for each
instance.
The Database mode report includes findings about database resources (such as I/O
and interconnect). The report also aggregates findings from the various instances if
they are significant to the entire database. For example, if the CPU load on a single
instance is high enough to affect the entire database, then the finding appears in the
Database mode analysis, which points to the particular instance responsible for the
problem.
See Also: Oracle Database 2 Day + Real Application Clusters Guide for
information about using ADDM with Oracle RAC
Real-Time ADDM Analysis
Introduced in Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c, Real-Time ADDM helps
you to analyze and resolve problems in unresponsive or hung databases that
traditionally require you to restart the database. Real-Time ADDM runs through a set
of predefined criteria to analyze the current performance of the database. After
analyzing the problem, Real-Time ADDM helps you to resolve the identified
issues—such as deadlocks, hangs, shared pool connections, and other exception
situations—without having to restart the database.
This section describes Real-Time ADDM and contains the following topics:
■
Real-Time ADDM Connection Modes
■
Real-Time ADDM Triggers
■
Real-Time ADDM Trigger Controls
See Also: Oracle Database 2 Day + Performance Tuning Guide for
information about using Real-Time ADDM with Cloud Control
Real-Time ADDM Connection Modes
Depending on the database state, Real-Time ADDM uses two different types of
connection modes when connecting to the database using Enterprise Manager:
■
Normal connection
In this mode, Real-Time ADDM performs a normal JDBC connection to the
database. This mode is intended to perform extensive performance analysis of the
database when some connectivity is available.
■
Diagnostic connection
In this mode, Real-Time ADDM performs a latch-less connection to the database.
This mode is intended for extreme hang situations when a normal JDBC
connection is not possible.
7-4 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Overview of the Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor
Real-Time ADDM Triggers
Starting with Oracle Database 12c, Real-Time ADDM proactively detects transient
database performance issues. To do this, Real-Time ADDM runs automatically every 3
seconds and uses in-memory data to diagnose any performance spikes in the database.
Real-Time ADDM triggers an analysis automatically when a performance problem is
detected, as described in the following steps:
1.
Every 3 seconds, the manageability monitor process (MMON) performs an action
to obtain performance statistics without lock or latch.
2.
The MMON process checks these statistics and triggers a Real-Time ADDM
analysis if any of the issues listed in Table 7–1 are detected.
3.
The MMON slave process creates the report and stores it in the AWR.
To view metadata for the report, use the DBA_HIST_REPORTS view.
Table 7–1 lists the issues and conditions that trigger a Real-Time ADDM analysis.
Table 7–1
Triggering Issues and Conditions for Real-Time ADDM
Issue
Condition
High load
Average active sessions are greater than 3 times the number of
CPU cores
I/O bound
I/O impact on active sessions based on single block read
performance
CPU bound
Active sessions are greater than 10% of total load and CPU
utilization is greater than 50%
Over-allocated memory
Memory allocations are over 95% of physical memory
Interconnect bound
Based on single block interconnect transfer time
Session limit
Session limit is close to 100%
Process limit
Process limit is close to 100%
Hung session
Hung sessions are greater than 10% of total sessions
Deadlock detected
Any deadlock is detected
Oracle Database Reference for information about the DBA_
HIST_REPORTS view
See Also:
Real-Time ADDM Trigger Controls
To ensure that the automatic triggers do not consume too many system resources and
overwhelm the system, Real-Time ADDM employs the following controls:
■
Duration between reports
If a Real-Time ADDM report was created in the past 5 minutes by the automatic
trigger, then no new reports will be generated.
■
Oracle RAC control
Automatic triggers are local to the database instance. For Oracle RAC, only one
database instance can create a Real-Time ADDM report at a given time because a
lock is required and a query is performed by the MMON slave process before the
report is actually generated.
■
Repeated triggers
Automatic Performance Diagnostics
7-5
Overview of the Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor
An automatic trigger for any issue must have an impact of 100% or higher than the
previous report with the same triggering issue within the past 45 minutes. For
example, if a report is triggered for active sessions with an impact of 8 sessions,
then in order for another report to trigger within the next 45 minutes, there must
be at least 16 active sessions. In this case, the reported problem with the database
is becoming more severe over time. On the other hand, if the same report is being
generated once every 45 minutes, then the database is experiencing a persistent
problem that has a consistent impact.
■
Newly identified issues
If a new issue is detected (that was not previously detected within the past 45
minutes), then a new report is generated. For example, if a report is triggered for 8
active sessions and a new deadlock issue is detected, then a new report is
generated regardless of the new active sessions load.
ADDM Analysis Results
In addition to problem diagnostics, ADDM recommends possible solutions. ADDM
analysis results are represented as a set of findings. See Example 7–1 on page 7-7 for an
example of an ADDM analysis result. Each ADDM finding can belong to one of the
following types:
■
■
■
■
Problem findings describe the root cause of a database performance problem.
Symptom findings contain information that often lead to one or more problem
findings.
Information findings are used for reporting information that are relevant to
understanding the performance of the database, but do not constitute a
performance problem (such as non-problem areas of the database and the activity
of automatic database maintenance).
Warning findings contain information about problems that may affect the
completeness or accuracy of the ADDM analysis (such as missing data in AWR).
Each problem finding is quantified by an impact that is an estimate of the portion of DB
time caused by the finding's performance issue. A problem finding can be associated
with a list of recommendations for reducing the impact of the performance problem.
The types of recommendations include:
■
Hardware changes: adding CPUs or changing the I/O subsystem configuration
■
Database configuration: changing initialization parameter settings
■
■
■
Schema changes: hash partitioning a table or index, or using automatic
segment-space management (ASSM)
Application changes: using the cache option for sequences or using bind
variables
Using other advisors: running SQL Tuning Advisor on high-load SQL or running
Segment Advisor on hot objects
A list of recommendations can contain various alternatives for solving the same
problem; you do not have to apply all the recommendations to solve a specific
problem. Each recommendation has a benefit which is an estimate of the portion of DB
time that can be saved if the recommendation is implemented. Recommendations are
composed of actions and rationales. You must apply all the actions of a
recommendation to gain the estimated benefit. The rationales are used for explaining
why the set of actions were recommended and to provide additional information to
implement the suggested recommendation.
7-6 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Setting Up ADDM
Reviewing ADDM Analysis Results: Example
Consider the following section of an ADDM report in Example 7–1.
Example 7–1 Example ADDM Report
FINDING 1: 31% impact (7798 seconds)
-----------------------------------SQL statements were not shared due to the usage of literals. This resulted in
additional hard parses which were consuming significant database time.
RECOMMENDATION 1: Application Analysis, 31% benefit (7798 seconds)
ACTION: Investigate application logic for possible use of bind variables
instead of literals. Alternatively, you may set the parameter
"cursor_sharing" to "force".
RATIONALE: SQL statements with PLAN_HASH_VALUE 3106087033 were found to be
using literals. Look in V$SQL for examples of such SQL statements.
In Example 7–1, the finding points to a particular root cause, the usage of literals in
SQL statements, which is estimated to have an impact of about 31% of total DB time in
the analysis period.
The finding has a recommendation associated with it, composed of one action and one
rationale. The action specifies a solution to the problem found and is estimated to have
a maximum benefit of up to 31% DB time in the analysis period. Note that the benefit is
given as a portion of the total DB time and not as a portion of the finding's impact. The
rationale provides additional information on tracking potential SQL statements that
were using literals and causing this performance issue. Using the specified plan hash
value of SQL statements that could be a problem, a DBA could quickly examine a few
sample statements.
When a specific problem has multiple causes, ADDM may report multiple problem
and symptom findings. In this case, the impacts of these multiple findings can contain
the same portion of DB time. Because the performance issues of findings can overlap,
the sum of the impacts of the findings can exceed 100% of DB time. For example, if a
system performs many reads, then ADDM might report a SQL statement responsible
for 50% of DB time due to I/O activity as one finding, and an undersized buffer cache
responsible for 75% of DB time as another finding.
When multiple recommendations are associated with a problem finding, the
recommendations may contain alternatives for solving the problem. In this case, the
sum of the recommendations' benefits may be higher than the finding's impact.
When appropriate, an ADDM action may have multiple solutions for you to choose
from. In the example, the most effective solution is to use bind variables. However, it
is often difficult to modify the application. Changing the value of the CURSOR_SHARING
initialization parameter is much easier to implement and can provide significant
improvement.
Setting Up ADDM
Automatic database diagnostic monitoring is enabled by default and is controlled by
the CONTROL_MANAGEMENT_PACK_ACCESS and the STATISTICS_LEVEL initialization
parameters.
The CONTROL_MANAGEMENT_PACK_ACCESS parameter should be set to DIAGNOSTIC or
DIAGNOSTIC+TUNING to enable automatic database diagnostic monitoring. The default
setting is DIAGNOSTIC+TUNING. Setting CONTROL_MANAGEMENT_PACK_ACCESS to NONE
disables ADDM.
Automatic Performance Diagnostics
7-7
Diagnosing Database Performance Problems with ADDM
The STATISTICS_LEVEL parameter should be set to the TYPICAL or ALL to enable
automatic database diagnostic monitoring. The default setting is TYPICAL. Setting
STATISTICS_LEVEL to BASIC disables many Oracle Database features, including
ADDM, and is strongly discouraged.
Oracle Database Reference for information about the
CONTROL_MANAGEMENT_PACK_ACCESS and STATISTICS_LEVEL
initialization parameters
See Also:
ADDM analysis of I/O performance partially depends on a single argument, DBIO_
EXPECTED, that describes the expected performance of the I/O subsystem. The value of
DBIO_EXPECTED is the average time it takes to read a single database block in
microseconds. Oracle Database uses the default value of 10 milliseconds, which is an
appropriate value for most modern hard drives. If your hardware is significantly
different—such as very old hardware or very fast RAM disks—then consider using a
different value.
To determine the correct setting for the DBIO_EXPECTED parameter:
1.
Measure the average read time of a single database block read for your hardware.
Note that this measurement is for random I/O, which includes seek time if you
use standard hard drives. Typical values for hard drives are between 5000 and
20000 microseconds.
2.
Set the value one time for all subsequent ADDM executions.
For example, if the measured value if 8000 microseconds, you should execute the
following command as SYS user:
EXECUTE DBMS_ADVISOR.SET_DEFAULT_TASK_PARAMETER(
'ADDM', 'DBIO_EXPECTED', 8000);
Diagnosing Database Performance Problems with ADDM
To diagnose database performance problems, first review the ADDM analysis results
that are automatically created each time an AWR snapshot is taken. If a different
analysis is required (such as a longer analysis period, using a different DBIO_EXPECTED
setting, or changing the analysis mode), you can run ADDM manually as described in
this section.
ADDM can analyze any two AWR snapshots (on the same database), as long as both
snapshots are still stored in AWR (have not been purged). ADDM can only analyze
instances that are started before the beginning snapshot and remain running until the
ending snapshot. Additionally, ADDM will not analyze instances that experience
significant errors when generating AWR snapshots. In such cases, ADDM will analyze
the largest subset of instances that did not experience these problems.
The primary interface for diagnostic monitoring is Cloud Control. Whenever possible,
run ADDM using Cloud Control, as described in Oracle Database 2 Day + Performance
Tuning Guide. If Cloud Control is unavailable, then run ADDM using the DBMS_ADDM
package. To run the DBMS_ADDM APIs, the user must be granted the ADVISOR privilege.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Running ADDM in Database Mode
■
Running ADDM in Instance Mode
■
Running ADDM in Partial Mode
■
Displaying an ADDM Report
7-8 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Diagnosing Database Performance Problems with ADDM
See Also: Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for
information about the DBMS_ADDM package
Running ADDM in Database Mode
For Oracle RAC configurations, you can run ADDM in Database mode to analyze all
instances of the databases. For single-instance configurations, you can still run ADDM
in Database mode; ADDM will behave as if running in Instance mode.
To run ADDM in Database mode, use the DBMS_ADDM.ANALYZE_DB procedure:
BEGIN
DBMS_ADDM.ANALYZE_DB (
task_name
IN OUT VARCHAR2,
begin_snapshot
IN
NUMBER,
end_snapshot
IN
NUMBER,
db_id
IN
NUMBER := NULL);
END;
/
The task_name parameter specifies the name of the analysis task that will be created.
The begin_snapshot parameter specifies the snapshot number of the beginning
snapshot in the analysis period. The end_snapshot parameter specifies the snapshot
number of the ending snapshot in the analysis period. The db_id parameter specifies
the database identifier of the database that will be analyzed. If unspecified, this
parameter defaults to the database identifier of the database to which you are
currently connected.
The following example creates an ADDM task in database analysis mode, and
executes it to diagnose the performance of the entire database during the time period
defined by snapshots 137 and 145:
VAR tname VARCHAR2(30);
BEGIN
:tname := 'ADDM for 7PM to 9PM';
DBMS_ADDM.ANALYZE_DB(:tname, 137, 145);
END;
/
Running ADDM in Instance Mode
To analyze a particular instance of the database, you can run ADDM in Instance mode.
To run ADDM in Instance mode, use the DBMS_ADDM.ANALYZE_INST procedure:
BEGIN
DBMS_ADDM.ANALYZE_INST
task_name
begin_snapshot
end_snapshot
instance_number
db_id
END;
/
(
IN OUT VARCHAR2,
IN
NUMBER,
IN
NUMBER,
IN
NUMBER := NULL,
IN
NUMBER := NULL);
The task_name parameter specifies the name of the analysis task that will be created.
The begin_snapshot parameter specifies the snapshot number of the beginning
snapshot in the analysis period. The end_snapshot parameter specifies the snapshot
number of the ending snapshot in the analysis period. The instance_number
parameter specifies the instance number of the instance that will be analyzed. If
Automatic Performance Diagnostics
7-9
Diagnosing Database Performance Problems with ADDM
unspecified, this parameter defaults to the instance number of the instance to which
you are currently connected. The db_id parameter specifies the database identifier of
the database that will be analyzed. If unspecified, this parameter defaults to the
database identifier of the database to which you are currently connected.
The following example creates an ADDM task in instance analysis mode, and executes
it to diagnose the performance of instance number 1 during the time period defined by
snapshots 137 and 145:
VAR tname VARCHAR2(30);
BEGIN
:tname := 'my ADDM for 7PM to 9PM';
DBMS_ADDM.ANALYZE_INST(:tname, 137, 145, 1);
END;
/
Running ADDM in Partial Mode
To analyze a subset of all database instances, you can run ADDM in Partial mode. To
run ADDM in Partial mode, use the DBMS_ADDM.ANALYZE_PARTIAL procedure:
BEGIN
DBMS_ADDM.ANALYZE_PARTIAL (
task_name
IN OUT
instance_numbers
IN
begin_snapshot
IN
end_snapshot
IN
db_id
IN
END;
/
VARCHAR2,
VARCHAR2,
NUMBER,
NUMBER,
NUMBER := NULL);
The task_name parameter specifies the name of the analysis task that will be created.
The instance_numbers parameter specifies a comma-delimited list of instance
numbers of instances that will be analyzed. The begin_snapshot parameter specifies
the snapshot number of the beginning snapshot in the analysis period. The end_
snapshot parameter specifies the snapshot number of the ending snapshot in the
analysis period. The db_id parameter specifies the database identifier of the database
that will be analyzed. If unspecified, this parameter defaults to the database identifier
of the database to which you are currently connected.
The following example creates an ADDM task in partial analysis mode, and executes it
to diagnose the performance of instance numbers 1, 2, and 4, during the time period
defined by snapshots 137 and 145:
VAR tname VARCHAR2(30);
BEGIN
:tname := 'my ADDM for 7PM to 9PM';
DBMS_ADDM.ANALYZE_PARTIAL(:tname, '1,2,4', 137, 145);
END;
/
Displaying an ADDM Report
To display a text report of an executed ADDM task, use the DBMS_ADDM.GET_REPORT
function:
DBMS_ADDM.GET_REPORT (
task_name
IN VARCHAR2
RETURN CLOB);
7-10 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Views with ADDM Information
The following example displays a text report of the ADDM task specified by its task
name using the tname variable:
SET LONG 1000000 PAGESIZE 0;
SELECT DBMS_ADDM.GET_REPORT(:tname) FROM DUAL;
Note that the return type of a report is a CLOB, formatted to fit line size of 80. For
information about reviewing the ADDM analysis results in an ADDM report, see
"ADDM Analysis Results" on page 7-6.
Views with ADDM Information
Typically, you should view output and information from ADDM using Cloud Control
or ADDM reports.
However, you can display ADDM information through the DBA_ADVISOR views. This
group of views includes:
■
DBA_ADVISOR_FINDINGS
This view displays all the findings discovered by all advisors. Each finding is
displayed with an associated finding ID, name, and type. For tasks with multiple
executions, the name of each task execution associated with each finding is also
listed.
■
DBA_ADDM_FINDINGS
This view contains a subset of the findings displayed in the related DBA_ADVISOR_
FINDINGS view. This view only displays the ADDM findings discovered by all
advisors. Each ADDM finding is displayed with an associated finding ID, name,
and type.
■
DBA_ADVISOR_FINDING_NAMES
This view lists all finding names registered with the advisor framework.
■
DBA_ADVISOR_RECOMMENDATIONS
This view displays the results of completed diagnostic tasks with
recommendations for the problems identified in each execution. The
recommendations should be reviewed in the order of the RANK column, as this
relays the magnitude of the problem for the recommendation. The BENEFIT
column displays the benefit to the system you can expect after the
recommendation is performed. For tasks with multiple executions, the name of
each task execution associated with each advisor task is also listed.
■
DBA_ADVISOR_TASKS
This view provides basic information about existing tasks, such as the task ID, task
name, and when the task was created. For tasks with multiple executions, the
name and type of the last or current execution associated with each advisor task is
also listed.
See Also: Oracle Database Reference for information about static data
dictionary views
Automatic Performance Diagnostics 7-11
Views with ADDM Information
7-12 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
8
Comparing Database Performance Over Time
8
This chapter describes how to compare database performance over time using
Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) Compare Periods reports and contains the
following topics:
■
About Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
■
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
■
Interpreting Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
About Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
Performance degradation of the database occurs when your database was performing
optimally in the past, but has over time gradually degraded to a point where it
becomes noticeable to the users. AWR Compare Periods report enables you to
compare database performance over time.
An AWR report shows AWR data during a period in time between two snapshots (or
two points in time). An AWR Compare Periods report, on the other hand, shows the
difference between two periods in time (or two AWR reports, which equates to four
snapshots). Using AWR Compare Periods reports helps you to identify detailed
performance attributes and configuration settings that differ between two time
periods.
For example, assume that a batch workload runs daily during a maintenance window
between 10:00 p.m. and midnight is showing poor performance and is now completing
at 2 a.m instead. You can generate an AWR Compare Periods report for the time
period from 10:00 p.m. to midnight on a day when performance was good, and
another report for the time period from 10:00 a.m. to 2 a.m. on a day when
performance was poor. You can then compare these reports to identify configuration
settings, workload profile, and statistics that differ between these two time periods.
Based on those differences, you can more easily diagnose the cause of the performance
degradation.
The two time periods selected in an AWR Compare Periods report can be of different
durations because the report normalizes the statistics by the amount of time spent on
the database for each time period, and presents statistical data ordered by the largest
difference between the time periods.
Comparing Database Performance Over Time 8-1
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
Data visibility and privilege requirements may differ when
using AWR features with pluggable databases (PDBs). For
information about how manageability features—including AWR
features—work in a multitenant container database (CDB), see Oracle
Database Administrator's Guide.
Note:
See Also:
■
■
"Automatic Workload Repository" on page 6-2 for information
about the AWR
"Generating Automatic Workload Repository Reports" on
page 6-18 for information about AWR reports
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
If the performance of your database degrades over time, AWR Compare Periods
reports enable you to compare two periods in time to identify key differences that can
help you diagnose the cause of the performance degradation.
AWR Compare Periods reports are divided into multiple sections. The HTML report
includes links that can be used to navigate quickly between sections. The content of
the report contains the workload profile of the system for the selected range of
snapshots.
This section describes how to generate AWR Compare Periods reports and contains
the following topics:
■
User Interfaces for Generating AWR Compare Periods Reports
■
Generating an AWR Compare Periods Report Using the Command-Line Interface
User Interfaces for Generating AWR Compare Periods Reports
The primary interface for generating AWR Compare Periods reports is Oracle
Enterprise Manager. Whenever possible, generate AWR Compare Periods reports
using Oracle Enterprise Manager.
If Oracle Enterprise Manager is unavailable, then generate AWR Compare Periods
reports by running SQL scripts. The DBA role is required to run these scripts.
See Also: Oracle Database 2 Day + Performance Tuning Guide for
information about generating AWR Compare Periods reports using
Oracle Enterprise Manager
Generating an AWR Compare Periods Report Using the Command-Line Interface
This section describes how to generate AWR Compare Periods reports by running
SQL scripts in the command-line interface.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Generating an AWR Compare Periods Report for the Local Database
■
Generating an AWR Compare Periods Report for a Specific Database
■
Generating an Oracle RAC AWR Compare Periods Report for the Local Database
■
Generating an Oracle RAC AWR Compare Periods Report for a Specific Database
8-2 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
Generating an AWR Compare Periods Report for the Local Database
The awrddrpt.sql SQL script generates an HTML or text report that compares
detailed performance attributes and configuration settings between two selected time
periods on the local database instance.
To generate an AWR Compare Periods report on the local database instance using the
command-line interface:
1.
At the SQL prompt, enter:
@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/awrddrpt.sql
2.
Specify whether you want an HTML or a text report:
Enter value for report_type: html
In this example, an HTML report is chosen.
3.
Specify the number of days for which you want to list snapshot IDs in the first
time period.
Enter value for num_days: 2
A list of existing snapshots for the specified time range is displayed. In this
example, snapshots captured in the last 2 days are displayed.
4.
Specify a beginning and ending snapshot ID for the first time period:
Enter value for begin_snap: 102
Enter value for end_snap: 103
In this example, the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 102 is selected as the
beginning snapshot, and the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 103 is selected as the
ending snapshot for the first time period.
5.
Specify the number of days for which you want to list snapshot IDs in the second
time period.
Enter value for num_days2: 1
A list of existing snapshots for the specified time range is displayed. In this
example, snapshots captured in the previous day are displayed.
6.
Specify a beginning and ending snapshot ID for the second time period:
Enter value for begin_snap2: 126
Enter value for end_snap2: 127
In this example, the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 126 is selected as the
beginning snapshot, and the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 127 is selected as the
ending snapshot for the second time period.
7.
Enter a report name, or accept the default report name:
Enter value for report_name:
Using the report name awrdiff_1_102_1_126.txt
In this example, the default name is accepted and an AWR report named awrdiff_
1_102_126 is generated.
Generating an AWR Compare Periods Report for a Specific Database
The awrddrpi.sql SQL script generates an HTML or text report that compares
detailed performance attributes and configuration settings between two selected time
Comparing Database Performance Over Time 8-3
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
periods on a specific database and instance. This script enables you to specify a
database identifier and instance for which AWR Compare Periods report will be
generated.
To generate an AWR Compare Periods report on a specific database instance using
the command-line interface:
1.
At the SQL prompt, enter:
@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/awrddrpi.sql
2.
Specify whether you want an HTML or a text report:
Enter value for report_type: text
In this example, a text report is chosen.
3.
A list of available database identifiers and instance numbers are displayed:
Instances in this Workload Repository schema
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
DB Id
Inst Num DB Name
Instance
----------- -------- ------------ -----------3309173529
1 MAIN
main
3309173529
1 TINT251
tint251
Host
-----------examp1690
samp251
Enter the values for the database identifier (dbid) and instance number (inst_
num) for the first time period:
Enter
Using
Enter
Using
4.
value for dbid: 3309173529
3309173529 for Database Id for the first pair of snapshots
value for inst_num: 1
1 for Instance Number for the first pair of snapshots
Specify the number of days for which you want to list snapshot IDs in the first
time period.
Enter value for num_days: 2
A list of existing snapshots for the specified time range is displayed. In this
example, snapshots captured in the last 2 days are displayed.
5.
Specify a beginning and ending snapshot ID for the first time period:
Enter value for begin_snap: 102
Enter value for end_snap: 103
In this example, the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 102 is selected as the
beginning snapshot, and the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 103 is selected as the
ending snapshot for the first time period.
6.
Enter the values for the database identifier (dbid) and instance number (inst_
num) for the second time period:
Enter
Using
Enter
Using
7.
value for dbid2: 3309173529
3309173529 for Database Id for the second pair of snapshots
value for inst_num2: 1
1 for Instance Number for the second pair of snapshots
Specify the number of days for which you want to list snapshot IDs in the second
time period.
Enter value for num_days2: 1
8-4 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
A list of existing snapshots for the specified time range is displayed. In this
example, snapshots captured in the previous day are displayed.
8.
Specify a beginning and ending snapshot ID for the second time period:
Enter value for begin_snap2: 126
Enter value for end_snap2: 127
In this example, the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 126 is selected as the
beginning snapshot, and the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 127 is selected as the
ending snapshot for the second time period.
9.
Enter a report name, or accept the default report name:
Enter value for report_name:
Using the report name awrdiff_1_102_1_126.txt
In this example, the default name is accepted and an AWR report named awrdiff_
1_102_126 is generated on the database instance with a database ID value of
3309173529.
Generating an Oracle RAC AWR Compare Periods Report for the Local Database
The awrgdrpt.sql SQL script generates an HTML or text report that compares
detailed performance attributes and configuration settings between two selected time
periods using the current database identifier and all available database instances in an
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) environment.
In an Oracle RAC environment, generate an HTML report
(instead of a text report) because it is much easier to read.
Note:
To generate an AWR Compare Periods report for Oracle RAC on the local database
instance using the command-line interface:
1.
At the SQL prompt, enter:
@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/awrgdrpt.sql
2.
Specify whether you want an HTML or a text report:
Enter value for report_type: html
In this example, an HTML report is chosen.
3.
Specify the number of days for which you want to list snapshot IDs in the first
time period.
Enter value for num_days: 2
A list of existing snapshots for the specified time range is displayed. In this
example, snapshots captured in the last 2 days are displayed.
4.
Specify a beginning and ending snapshot ID for the first time period:
Enter value for begin_snap: 102
Enter value for end_snap: 103
In this example, the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 102 is selected as the
beginning snapshot, and the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 103 is selected as the
ending snapshot for the first time period.
Comparing Database Performance Over Time 8-5
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
5.
Specify the number of days for which you want to list snapshot IDs in the second
time period.
Enter value for num_days2: 1
A list of existing snapshots for the specified time range is displayed. In this
example, snapshots captured in the previous day are displayed.
6.
Specify a beginning and ending snapshot ID for the second time period:
Enter value for begin_snap2: 126
Enter value for end_snap2: 127
In this example, the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 126 is selected as the
beginning snapshot, and the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 127 is selected as the
ending snapshot for the second time period.
7.
Enter a report name, or accept the default report name:
Enter value for report_name:
Using the report name awrracdiff_1st_1_2nd_1.html
In this example, the default name is accepted and an AWR report named awrrac_
1st_1_2nd_1.html is generated.
Generating an Oracle RAC AWR Compare Periods Report for a Specific Database
The awrgdrpi.sql SQL script generates an HTML or text report that compares
detailed performance attributes and configuration settings between two selected time
periods using specific databases and instances in an Oracle RAC environment. This
script enables you to specify database identifiers and a comma-delimited list of
database instances for which AWR Compare Periods report will be generated.
In an Oracle RAC environment, you should always generate
an HTML report (instead of a text report) because they are much
easier to read.
Note:
To generate an AWR Compare Periods report for Oracle RAC on a specific database
using the command-line interface:
1.
At the SQL prompt, enter:
@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/awrgdrpi.sql
2.
Specify whether you want an HTML or a text report:
Enter value for report_type: html
In this example, an HTML report is chosen.
3.
A list of available database identifiers and instance numbers are displayed:
Instances in this Workload Repository schema
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
DB Id
Inst Num DB Name
Instance
----------- -------- ------------ -----------3309173529
1 MAIN
main
3309173529
1 TINT251
tint251
3309173529
2 TINT251
tint252
3309173529
3 TINT251
tint253
3309173529
4 TINT251
tint254
8-6 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Host
-----------examp1690
samp251
samp252
samp253
samp254
Generating Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
Enter the values for the database identifier (dbid) and instance number
(instance_numbers_or_all) for the first time period:
Enter
Using
Enter
Using
4.
value for dbid: 3309173529
3309173529 for Database Id for the first pair of snapshots
value for inst_num: 1,2
instances 1 for the first pair of snapshots
Specify the number of days for which you want to list snapshot IDs in the first
time period.
Enter value for num_days: 2
A list of existing snapshots for the specified time range is displayed. In this
example, snapshots captured in the last 2 days are displayed.
5.
Specify a beginning and ending snapshot ID for the first time period:
Enter value for begin_snap: 102
Enter value for end_snap: 103
In this example, the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 102 is selected as the
beginning snapshot, and the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 103 is selected as the
ending snapshot for the first time period.
6.
A list of available database identifiers and instance numbers are displayed:
Instances in this Workload Repository schema
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
DB Id
Inst Num DB Name
Instance
Host
----------- -------- ------------ ------------ -----------3309173529
1 MAIN
main
examp1690
3309173529
1 TINT251
tint251
samp251
3309173529
2 TINT251
tint252
samp252
3309173529
3 TINT251
tint253
samp253
3309173529
4 TINT251
tint254
samp254
INSTNUM1
----------------------------------------------------1,2
Enter the values for the database identifier (dbid2) and instance numbers
(instance_numbers_or_all2) for the second time period:
Enter value for dbid2: 3309173529
Using 3309173529 for Database Id for the second pair of snapshots
Enter value for instance_numbers_or_all2: 3,4
7.
Specify the number of days for which you want to list snapshot IDs in the second
time period.
Enter value for num_days2: 1
A list of existing snapshots for the specified time range is displayed. In this
example, snapshots captured in the previous day are displayed.
8.
Specify a beginning and ending snapshot ID for the second time period:
Enter value for begin_snap2: 126
Enter value for end_snap2: 127
Comparing Database Performance Over Time 8-7
Interpreting Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
In this example, the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 126 is selected as the
beginning snapshot, and the snapshot with a snapshot ID of 127 is selected as the
ending snapshot for the second time period.
9.
Enter a report name, or accept the default report name:
Enter value for report_name:
Using the report name awrracdiff_1st_1_2nd_1.html
In this example, the default name is accepted and an AWR report named awrrac_
1st_1_2nd_1.html is generated.
Interpreting Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
After generating an AWR Compare Periods report for the time periods you want to
compare, review its contents to identify possible causes of performance degradation
over time.
The contents of the AWR Compare Periods report are divided into the following
sections:
■
Summary of the AWR Compare Periods Report
■
Details of the AWR Compare Periods Report
■
Supplemental Information in the AWR Compare Periods Report
Summary of the AWR Compare Periods Report
The report summary is at the beginning of the AWR Compare Periods report, and
summarizes information about the snapshot sets and workloads used in the report.
The report summary contains the following sections:
■
Snapshot Sets
■
Host Configuration Comparison
■
System Configuration Comparison
■
Load Profile
■
Top 5 Timed Events
Snapshot Sets
The Snapshot Sets section displays information about the snapshot sets used for this
report, such as instance, host, and snapshot information.
Host Configuration Comparison
The Host Configuration Comparison section compares the host configurations used in
the two snapshot sets. For example, the report compares physical memory and
number of CPUs. Any differences in the configurations are quantified as percentages
differed in the %Diff column.
System Configuration Comparison
The System Configuration Comparison section compares the database configurations
used in the two snapshot sets. For example, the report compares the System Global
Area (SGA) and log buffer sizes. Any differences in the configurations are quantified
as percentages differed in the %Diff column.
8-8 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Interpreting Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
Load Profile
The Load Profile section compares the workloads used in the two snapshot sets. Any
differences in the workloads are quantified as percentages differed in the %Diff
column.
Top 5 Timed Events
The Top 5 Timed Events section displays the five timed events or operations that
consumed the highest percentage of total database time (DB time) in each of the
snapshot sets.
Details of the AWR Compare Periods Report
The details section follows the report summary of the AWR Compare Periods report,
and provides extensive information about the snapshot sets and workloads used in the
report.
The report details contains the following sections:
■
Time Model Statistics
■
Operating System Statistics
■
Wait Events
■
Service Statistics
■
SQL Statistics
■
Instance Activity Statistics
■
I/O Statistics
■
Advisory Statistics
■
Wait Statistics
■
Undo Segment Summary
■
Latch Statistics
■
Segment Statistics
■
Dictionary Cache Statistics
■
Library Cache Statistics
■
Memory Statistics
■
Streams Statistics
Time Model Statistics
The Time Model Statistics section compares time model statistics in the two snapshot
sets. The time model statistics are ordered based on the difference in total DB time
spent on a particular type of operation between the two snapshot sets, and are listed in
descending order. Time model statistics at the top of this section have the greatest
differential between the two snapshot sets, and the related operations may be possible
causes for performance degradation over time.
"Time Model Statistics" on page 5-1 for information about
time model statistics
See Also:
Comparing Database Performance Over Time 8-9
Interpreting Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
Operating System Statistics
The Operating System Statistics section compares operating system statistics in the
two snapshot sets. This section provides an overall state of the operating system
during each of the two periods being compared.
Wait Events
The Wait Events section compares the wait events in the two snapshot sets.
The first section lists the classes of wait events, including user I/O and system I/O.
The classes are listed in descending order by absolute value of the % of DB time
column.
The second section lists the wait events. The wait events are ordered based on the
difference in total DB time spent on the wait event between the two snapshot sets, and
are listed in descending order. Wait events at the top of this section have the greatest
differential between the two snapshot sets, and may be possible causes for
performance degradation over time.
"Wait Events Statistics" on page 5-3 for information about
wait events and wait classes
See Also:
Service Statistics
The Service Statistics section compares services in the two snapshot sets. The services
are ordered based on the difference in total DB time spent on a particular service
between the two snapshot sets, and are listed in descending order.
SQL Statistics
The SQL Statistics section compares the top SQL statements in the two snapshot sets.
The SQL statements are ordered based on different comparison methods, but in all
cases, the top ten SQL statements with the greatest differential between the two
snapshot sets are shown.
The SQL statements shown in this section may be possible causes for performance
degradation over time, and are ordered based on the following categories:
■
Top 10 SQL Comparison by Execution Time
■
Top 10 SQL Comparison by CPU Time
■
Top 10 SQL Comparison by Buffer Gets
■
Top 10 SQL Comparison by Physical Reads
■
Top 10 SQL Comparison by Executions
■
Top 10 SQL Comparison by Parse Calls
■
Complete List of SQL Text
Top 10 SQL Comparison by Execution Time SQL statements in this subsection are ordered
based on the difference in total DB time spent processing the SQL statement between
the two snapshot sets and are listed in descending order.
SQL statements shown in this subsection that consumed a high percentage of DB time
in the one time period, but not in the other, are likely the high-load SQL statements
that caused the performance degradation and should be investigated. Review the SQL
statements in the Complete List of SQL Text subsection of the report and tune them, if
necessary.
8-10 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Interpreting Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
See Also: Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for information about
tuning SQL statements
Top 10 SQL Comparison by CPU Time SQL statements in this subsection are ordered based
on the difference in CPU time spent processing the SQL statement between the two
snapshot sets, and are listed in descending order.
Top 10 SQL Comparison by Buffer Gets SQL statements in this subsection are ordered
based on the difference in the number of total buffer cache reads or buffer gets made
when processing the SQL statement between the two snapshot sets, and are listed in
descending order.
Top 10 SQL Comparison by Physical Reads SQL statements in this subsection are ordered
based on the difference in the number of physical reads made when processing the
SQL statement between the two snapshot sets, and are listed in descending order.
Top 10 SQL Comparison by Executions SQL statements in this subsection are ordered
based on the difference in the number of executions per second (based on DB time)
when processing the SQL statement between the two snapshot sets, and are listed in
descending order.
Top 10 SQL Comparison by Parse Calls SQL statements in this subsection are ordered
based on the difference in the number of total parses made when processing the SQL
statement between the two snapshot sets, and are listed in descending order. Parsing
is one stage in the processing of a SQL statement.
When an application issues a SQL statement, the application makes a parse call to
Oracle Database. Making parse calls can greatly affect the performance of a database
and should be minimized as much as possible.
See Also:
Oracle Database Concepts for information about parsing
Complete List of SQL Text This subsection displays the SQL text of all SQL statements
listed in the SQL Statistics section.
Instance Activity Statistics
The Instance Activity Statistics section compares the statistic values of instance activity
between the two snapshot sets. For each statistic, the value of the statistic is shown
along with the differentials measured by DB time, elapsed time, and per transaction.
The instance activity statistics are categorized into the following subsections:
■
Key Instance Activity Statistics
■
Other Instance Activity Statistics
Key Instance Activity Statistics This subsection displays the difference in key instance
activity statistic values between the two snapshot sets.
Other Instance Activity Statistics This subsection displays the difference in instance
activity for all other statistics between the two snapshot sets.
I/O Statistics
The I/O Statistics section compares the I/O operations performed on tablespaces and
database files between the two snapshot sets. A drastic increase in I/O operations
between the two snapshots may be the cause of performance degradation over time.
Comparing Database Performance Over Time
8-11
Interpreting Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
For each tablespace or database file, the difference in the number of reads, writes, and
buffer cache waits (or buffer gets) are quantified as a percentage. The database files are
ordered based on different comparison methods, but in all cases, the top 10 database
files with the greatest differential between the two snapshot sets are shown.
The I/O statistics are divided into the following categories:
■
Tablespace I/O Statistics
■
Top 10 File Comparison by I/O
■
Top 10 File Comparison by Read Time
■
Top 10 File Comparison by Buffer Waits
Tablespace I/O Statistics Tablespaces shown in this subsection are ordered by the
difference in the number of normalized I/Os performed on the tablespace between the
two snapshot sets, and are listed in descending order. Normalized I/Os are the sum of
average reads and writes per second.
Top 10 File Comparison by I/O Database files shown in this subsection are ordered by the
difference in the number of normalized I/Os performed on the database file between
the two snapshot sets, and are listed in descending order. Normalized I/Os are the
sum of average reads and writes per second.
Top 10 File Comparison by Read Time Database files shown in this subsection are ordered
by the difference in the percentage of DB time spent reading data from the database
file between the two snapshot sets, and are listed in descending order.
Top 10 File Comparison by Buffer Waits Database files shown in this subsection are
ordered by the difference in the number of buffer waits (waits caused during a free
buffer lookup in the buffer cache) performed on the database file between the two
snapshot sets, and are listed in descending order.
Advisory Statistics
The Advisory Statistics section compares program global area (PGA) memory statistics
between the two snapshot sets, and is divided into the following categories:
■
PGA Aggregate Summary
■
PGA Aggregate Target Statistics
PGA Aggregate Summary This subsection compares the PGA cache hit ratio between the
two snapshot sets.
PGA Aggregate Target Statistics This subsection compares the key statistics related to the
automatic PGA memory management between the two snapshot sets.
Wait Statistics
The Wait Statistics section compares statistics for buffer waits and enqueues between
the two snapshot sets.
The wait statistics are divided into the following categories:
■
Buffer Wait Statistics
■
Enqueue Activity
8-12 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Interpreting Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
Buffer Wait Statistics This subsection compares buffer waits between the two snapshot
sets. Buffer waits happen during a free buffer lookup in the buffer cache.
Enqueue Activity This subsection compares enqueue activities between the two
snapshot sets. Enqueues are shared memory structures (or locks) that serialize access
to database resources and can be associated with a session or transaction.
See Also:
Oracle Database Reference for information about enqueues
Undo Segment Summary
The Undo Segment Summary section compares the use of undo segments in the two
periods. The chart compares the number of undo blocks in the two periods, the
number of transactions that use those blocks, and the maximum length of queries. The
STO/OOS column indicates the number of snapshot too old and out of space counts.
Latch Statistics
The Latch Statistics section compares the number of total sleeps for latches between
the two snapshot sets in descending order.
Latches are simple, low-level serialization mechanisms to protect shared data
structures in the SGA. For example, latches protect the list of users currently accessing
the database and the data structures describing the blocks in the buffer cache. A server
or background process acquires a latch for a very short time while manipulating or
looking up one of these structures. The implementation of latches is operating system
dependent, particularly in regard to whether and how long a process will wait for a
latch.
Segment Statistics
The Segment Statistics section compares segments, or database objects (such as tables
and indexes), between the two snapshot sets. The segments are ordered based on
different comparison methods, but in all cases the top five segments with the greatest
differential between the two snapshot sets are shown.
The segments shown in this may be the causes of performance degradation over time,
and are ordered based on the following categories:
■
Top 5 Segments Comparison by Logical Reads
■
Top 5 Segments Comparison by Physical Reads
■
Top 5 Segments Comparison by Row Lock Waits
■
Top 5 Segments Comparison by ITL Waits
■
Top 5 Segments Comparison by Buffer Busy Waits
Top 5 Segments Comparison by Logical Reads Segments shown in this subsection are
ordered based on the difference in the number of logical reads (total number of reads
from disk or memory) performed on the segment between the two snapshot sets, and
are listed in descending order.
If an extremely high percentage of logical reads are made on a database object, then
the associated SQL statements should be investigated to determine if data access to the
database object need to be tuned using an index or a materialized view.
See Also: Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for information about
optimizing data access paths
Comparing Database Performance Over Time
8-13
Interpreting Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
Top 5 Segments Comparison by Physical Reads Segments shown in this subsection are
ordered based on the difference in the number of physical reads (such as disk reads)
performed on the segment between the two snapshot sets, and are listed in descending
order.
Top 5 Segments Comparison by Row Lock Waits Segments shown in this subsection are
ordered based on the difference in the number of waits on row locks for the segment
between the two snapshot sets, and are listed in descending order.
Row-level locks are primarily used to prevent two transactions from modifying the
same row. When a transaction needs to modify a row, a row lock is acquired.
See Also:
Oracle Database Concepts for information about row locks
Top 5 Segments Comparison by ITL Waits Segments shown in this subsection are ordered
based on the difference in the number of interested transaction list (ITL) waits for the
segment between the two snapshot sets, and are listed in descending order.
Top 5 Segments Comparison by Buffer Busy Waits Segments shown in this subsection are
ordered based on the difference in the number of buffer busy waits for the segment
between the two snapshot sets, and are listed in descending order.
Dictionary Cache Statistics
The Dictionary Cache Statistics section compares the number of get requests
performed on the dictionary cache between the two snapshot sets in descending order.
The difference is measured by the number of get requests per second of both total DB
time and elapsed time.
The dictionary cache is a part of the SGA that stores information about the database,
its structures, and its users. The dictionary cache also stores descriptive information
(or metadata) about schema objects, which is accessed by Oracle Database during the
parsing of SQL statements.
"Data Dictionary Cache Concepts" on page 14-3 for
information about the dictionary cache
See Also:
Library Cache Statistics
The Library Cache Statistics section compares the number of get requests performed
on the library cache between the two snapshot sets in descending order. The difference
is measured by the number of get requests per second of both total DB time and
elapsed time.
The library cache is a part of the SGA that stores table information, object definitions,
SQL statements, and PL/SQL programs.
"Library Cache Concepts" on page 14-2 for information
about the library cache
See Also:
Memory Statistics
The Memory Statistics section compares process and SGA memory statistics between
the two snapshot sets, and is divided into the following categories:
■
Process Memory Summary
■
SGA Memory Summary
■
SGA Breakdown Difference
8-14 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Interpreting Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
Process Memory Summary This subsection summarizes the memory use of processes in
the two time periods. The process categories include SQL, PL/SQL, and other.
SGA Memory Summary This subsection summarizes the SGA memory configurations for
the two snapshot sets.
SGA Breakdown Difference This subsection compares SGA memory usage for each of its
subcomponents between the two snapshot sets. The difference is measured based on
the percentage changed in the beginning and ending values of memory usage between
the two snapshot sets.
Streams Statistics
The Streams Statistics section compares CPU time, I/O time, Streams capture and
apply, and other statistics related to Oracle Streams.
Supplemental Information in the AWR Compare Periods Report
The supplemental information is at the end of the AWR Compare Periods report, and
provides information that is useful but not essential about the snapshot sets and
workloads used in the report.
The supplemental information contains the following sections:
■
init.ora Parameters
■
Complete List of SQL Text
init.ora Parameters
The init.ora Parameters section lists all the initialization parameter values for the first
snapshot set. Any changes in the values of the initialization parameters between the
two snapshot sets are listed for the second snapshot set with the changed value
shown.
Complete List of SQL Text
The Complete List of SQL Text section lists each statement contained in the workloads
by SQL ID and shows the text of the SQL statement.
Comparing Database Performance Over Time
8-15
Interpreting Automatic Workload Repository Compare Periods Reports
8-16 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
9
Analyzing Sampled Data
9
This chapter describes how to use sampled data to identify transient performance
problems in Oracle Database and contains the following topics:
■
About Active Session History
■
Generating Active Session History Reports
■
Interpreting Results from Active Session History Reports
About Active Session History
Transient performance problems are short-lived and do not appear in the Automatic
Database Diagnostics Monitor (ADDM) analysis. ADDM tries to report the most
significant performance problems during an analysis period in terms of their impact
on DB time. Whether a performance problem is captured by ADDM depends on its
duration compared to the interval between AWR snapshots.
If a performance problem lasts for a significant portion of the time between snapshots,
it will be captured by ADDM. For example, if the snapshot interval is set to one hour,
then a performance problem that lasts for 30 minutes should not be considered as a
transient performance problem because its duration represents a significant portion of
the snapshot interval and will likely be captured by ADDM.
If a particular problem lasts for a very short duration, then its severity might be
averaged out or minimized by other performance problems in the analysis period, and
the problem may not appear in the ADDM findings. Using the same example where
the snapshot interval is set to one hour, a performance problem that lasts for only 2
minutes may be a transient performance problem because its duration represents a
small portion of the snapshot interval and will likely not show up in the ADDM
findings.
To facilitate the identification of transient performance problems, Oracle Database
samples active sessions every second and stores the sampled data in a circular buffer
in the shared global area (SGA). Any session that is connected to the database and is
waiting for an event that does not belong to the Idle wait class is considered as an
active session. By capturing only active sessions, a manageable set of data is
represented with its size being directly related to the work being performed, rather
than the number of sessions allowed on the system.
Active Session History (ASH) enables you to examine and perform detailed analysis
on the sampled session activity in the V$ACTIVE_SESSION_HISTORY view. The data
present in ASH can be rolled up in various dimensions that it captures over a specified
duration and gathered into an ASH report.
Analyzing Sampled Data 9-1
Generating Active Session History Reports
Data visibility and privilege requirements may differ when
using ASH features with pluggable databases (PDBs). For information
about how manageability features—including ASH features—work in
a multitenant container database (CDB), see Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide.
Note:
"Active Session History Statistics" on page 5-2 for
information about ASH
See Also:
Generating Active Session History Reports
ASH reports enable you to perform analysis of:
■
■
Transient performance problems that typically last for a few minutes
Scoped or targeted performance analysis by various dimensions or their
combinations, such as time, session, module, action, or SQL identifier
ASH reports are divided into multiple sections. The HTML report includes links that
can be used to navigate quickly between sections. The content of the report contains
ASH information used to identify blocker and waiter identities, their associated
transaction identifiers, and SQL statements for a specified duration.
This section describes how to generate ASH reports and contains the following topics:
■
User Interfaces for Generating ASH Reports
■
Generating an ASH Report Using the Command-Line Interface
User Interfaces for Generating ASH Reports
The primary interface for generating ASH reports is Oracle Enterprise Manager.
Whenever possible, generate ASH reports using Oracle Enterprise Manager.
If Oracle Enterprise Manager is unavailable, then generate ASH reports by running
SQL scripts. The DBA role is required to run these scripts.
See Also: Oracle Database 2 Day + Performance Tuning Guide for
information about generating ASH reports using Oracle Enterprise
Manager
Generating an ASH Report Using the Command-Line Interface
This section describes how to generate ASH reports by running SQL scripts in the
command-line interface.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Generating an ASH Report on the Local Database Instance
■
Generating an ASH Report on a Specific Database Instance
■
Generating an ASH Report for Oracle RAC
Generating an ASH Report on the Local Database Instance
The ashrpt.sql SQL script generates an HTML or text report that displays ASH
information for a specified duration on the local database instance.
To generate an ASH report on the local database instance using the command-line in-
9-2 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Generating Active Session History Reports
terface:
1.
At the SQL prompt, enter:
@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/ashrpt.sql
2.
Specify whether you want an HTML or a text report:
Enter value for report_type: text
In this example, a text report is chosen.
3.
Specify the begin time in minutes before the system date:
Enter value for begin_time: -10
In this example, 10 minutes before the current time is selected.
4.
Specify the duration to capture ASH information in minutes from the begin time.
Enter value for duration:
In this example, the default duration of system date minus begin time is accepted.
5.
Enter a report name, or accept the default report name:
Enter value for report_name:
Using the report name ashrpt_1_0310_0131.txt
In this example, the default name is accepted and an ASH report named ashrpt_
1_0310_0131 is generated. The report will gather ASH information beginning from
10 minutes before the current time and ending at the current time.
Generating an ASH Report on a Specific Database Instance
The ashrpti.sql SQL script generates an HTML or text report that displays ASH
information for a specified duration on a specified database and instance. This script
enables you to specify a database and instance for which the ASH report will be
generated.
To generate an ASH report on a specific database instance using the command-line
interface:
1.
At the SQL prompt, enter:
@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/ashrpti.sql
2.
Specify whether you want an HTML or a text report:
Enter value for report_type: html
In this example, an HTML report is chosen.
A list of available database IDs and instance numbers are displayed:
Instances in this Workload Repository schema
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
DB Id
Inst Num DB Name
Instance
----------- -------- ------------ -----------3309173529
1 MAIN
main
3309173529
1 TINT251
tint251
3.
Host
-----------examp1690
samp251
Enter the values for the database identifier (dbid) and instance number (inst_
num):
Enter value for dbid: 3309173529
Analyzing Sampled Data 9-3
Generating Active Session History Reports
Using 3309173529 for database id
Enter value for inst_num: 1
4.
To generate an ASH report on a physical standby instance, the standby database
must be opened read-only. The ASH data on disk represents activity on the
primary database and the ASH data in memory represents activity on the standby
database.
This step is applicable only if you are generating an ASH
report on an Active Data Guard physical standby instance. If this is
not the case, then skip this step.
Note:
Specify whether to generate the report using data sampled from the primary or
standby database:
You are running ASH report on a Standby database.
To generate the report over data sampled on the Primary database, enter 'P'.
Defaults to 'S' - data sampled in the Standby database.
Enter value for stdbyflag:
Using Primary (P) or Standby (S): S
In this example, the default value of Standby (S) is selected.
5.
Specify the begin time in minutes before the system date:
Enter value for begin_time: -10
In this example, 10 minutes before the current time is selected.
6.
Specify the duration to capture ASH information in minutes from the begin time.
Enter value for duration:
In this example, the default duration of system date minus begin time is accepted.
7.
Specify the slot width in seconds that will be used in the Activity Over Time
section of the report:
Enter value for slot_width:
In this example, the default value is accepted. For more information about the
Activity Over Time section and how to specify the slot width, see "Activity Over
Time" on page 9-10.
8.
9.
Follow the instructions in the subsequent prompts and enter values for the
following report targets:
■
target_session_id
■
target_sql_id
■
target_wait_class
■
target_service_hash
■
target_module_name
■
target_action_name
■
target_client_id
■
target_plsql_entry
Enter a report name, or accept the default report name:
9-4 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Generating Active Session History Reports
Enter value for report_name:
Using the report name ashrpt_1_0310_0131.txt
In this example, the default name is accepted and an ASH report named ashrpt_
1_0310_0131 is generated. The report will gather ASH information on the database
instance with a database ID value of 3309173529 beginning from 10 minutes
before the current time and ending at the current time.
Generating an ASH Report for Oracle RAC
The ashrpti.sql SQL script generates an HTML or text report that displays ASH
information for a specified duration for specified databases and instances in an Oracle
Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) environment. Only ASH data that is written to
disk will be used to generate the report. This report will only use ASH samples from
the last 10 minutes that are found in the DBA_HIST_ACTIVE_SESS_HISTORY table.
To generate an ASH report for Oracle RAC:
1.
At the SQL prompt, enter:
@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/ashrpti.sql
2.
Specify whether you want an HTML or a text report:
Enter value for report_type: html
In this example, an HTML report is chosen.
A list of available database IDs and instance numbers are displayed:
Instances in this Workload Repository schema
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
DB Id
Inst Num DB Name
Instance
----------- -------- ------------ -----------3309173529
1 MAIN
main
3309173529
1 TINT251
tint251
3309173529
2 TINT251
tint252
3309173529
3 TINT251
tint253
3309173529
4 TINT251
tint254
3.
Host
-----------examp1690
samp251
samp252
samp253
samp254
Enter the values for the database identifier (dbid) and instance number (inst_
num):
Enter value for dbid: 3309173529
Using database id: 3309173529
Enter instance numbers. Enter 'ALL' for all instances in an Oracle
RAC cluster or explicitly specify list of instances (e.g., 1,2,3).
Defaults to current instance.
Enter value for inst_num: ALL
Using instance number(s): ALL
4.
Specify the begin time in minutes before the system date:
Enter value for begin_time: -1:10
In this example, 1 hour and 10 minutes before the current time is selected.
5.
Specify the duration to capture ASH information in minutes from the begin time.
Enter value for duration: 10
In this example, the duration is set to 10 minutes.
Analyzing Sampled Data 9-5
Interpreting Results from Active Session History Reports
6.
Specify the slot width in seconds that will be used in the Activity Over Time
section of the report:
Enter value for slot_width:
In this example, the default value is accepted. For more information about the
Activity Over Time section and how to specify the slot width, see "Activity Over
Time" on page 9-10.
7.
8.
Follow the instructions in the subsequent prompts and enter values for the
following report targets:
■
target_session_id
■
target_sql_id
■
target_wait_class
■
target_service_hash
■
target_module_name
■
target_action_name
■
target_client_id
■
target_plsql_entry
Enter a report name, or accept the default report name:
Enter value for report_name:
Using the report name ashrpt_rac_0310_0131.txt
In this example, the default name is accepted and an ASH report named ashrpt_
rac_0310_0131 is generated. The report will gather ASH information on all
instances belonging to the database with a database ID value of 3309173529
beginning from 1 hour and 10 minutes before the current time and ending at 1
hour before the current time.
Interpreting Results from Active Session History Reports
After generating an ASH report, review its contents to identify possible causes of
transient performance problems.
The contents of the ASH report are divided into the following sections:
■
Top Events
■
Load Profile
■
Top SQL
■
Top PL/SQL
■
Top Java
■
Top Sessions
■
Top Objects/Files/Latches
■
Activity Over Time
See Also: Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and
Deployment Guide for information about sections in the ASH report
that are specific to Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)
9-6 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Interpreting Results from Active Session History Reports
Top Events
The Top Events section describes the top wait events of the sampled session activity
categorized by user, background, and priority. Use the information in this section to
identify wait events that may be causing a transient performance problem.
The Top Events section contains the following subsections:
■
Top User Events
■
Top Background Events
■
Top Event P1/P2/P3
Top User Events
The Top User Events subsection lists the top wait events from user processes that
accounted for the highest percentages of sampled session activity.
Top Background Events
The Top Background Events subsection lists the top wait events from backgrounds
that accounted for the highest percentages of sampled session activity.
Top Event P1/P2/P3
The Top Event P1/P2/P3 subsection lists the wait event parameter values of the top
wait events that accounted for the highest percentages of sampled session activity,
ordered by the percentage of total wait time (% Event). For each wait event, values in
the P1 Value, P2 Value, P3 Value column correspond to wait event parameters
displayed in the Parameter 1, Parameter 2, and Parameter 3 columns.
Load Profile
The Load Profile section describes the load analyzed in the sampled session activity.
Use the information in this section to identify the service, client, or SQL command
type that may be the cause of a transient performance problem.
The Load Profile section contains the following subsections:
■
Top Service/Module
■
Top Client IDs
■
Top SQL Command Types
■
Top Phases of Execution
Top Service/Module
The Top Service/Module subsection lists the services and modules that accounted for
the highest percentages of sampled session activity.
Top Client IDs
The Top Client IDs subsection lists the clients that accounted for the highest
percentages of sampled session activity based on their client ID, which is the
application-specific identifier of the database session.
Analyzing Sampled Data 9-7
Interpreting Results from Active Session History Reports
Top SQL Command Types
The Top SQL Command Types subsection lists the SQL command types—such as
SELECT or UPDATE commands—that accounted for the highest percentages of sampled
session activity.
Top Phases of Execution
The Top Phases of Execution subsection lists the phases of execution—such as SQL,
PL/SQL, and Java compilation and execution—that accounted for the highest
percentages of sampled session activity.
Top SQL
The Top SQL section describes the top SQL statements in the sampled session activity.
Use this information to identify high-load SQL statements that may be the cause of a
transient performance problem.
The Top SQL section contains the following subsections:
■
Top SQL with Top Events
■
Top SQL with Top Row Sources
■
Top SQL Using Literals
■
Top Parsing Module/Action
■
Complete List of SQL Text
Top SQL with Top Events
The Top SQL with Top Events subsection lists the SQL statements that accounted for
the highest percentages of sampled session activity and the top wait events that were
encountered by these SQL statements. The Sampled # of Executions column shows
how many distinct executions of a particular SQL statement were sampled.
Top SQL with Top Row Sources
The Top SQL with Top Row Sources subsection lists the SQL statements that
accounted for the highest percentages of sampled session activity and their detailed
execution plan information. You can use this information to identify which part of the
SQL execution contributed significantly to the SQL elapsed time.
Top SQL Using Literals
The Top SQL Using Literals subsection lists the SQL statements using literals that
accounted for the highest percentages of sampled session activity. You should review
the statements listed in this report to determine whether the literals can be replaced
with bind variables.
Top Parsing Module/Action
The Top Parsing Module/Action subsection lists the module and action that
accounted for the highest percentages of sampled session activity while parsing the
SQL statement.
Complete List of SQL Text
The Complete List of SQL Text subsection displays the entire text of the SQL
statements shown in the Top SQL section.
9-8 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Interpreting Results from Active Session History Reports
Top PL/SQL
The Top PL/SQL section lists the PL/SQL procedures that accounted for the highest
percentages of sampled session activity.
The PL/SQL Entry Subprogram column lists the application's top-level entry point
into PL/SQL. The PL/SQL Current Subprogram column lists the PL/SQL subprogram
being executed at the point of sampling. If the value of this column is SQL, then the %
Current column shows the percentage of time spent executing SQL for this
subprogram.
Top Java
The Top Java section describes the top Java programs in the sampled session activity.
Top Sessions
The Top Sessions section describes the sessions that were waiting for a particular wait
event. Use this information to identify the sessions that accounted for the highest
percentages of sampled session activity, which may be the cause of a transient
performance problem.
The Top Sessions section contains the following subsections:
■
Top Sessions
■
Top Blocking Sessions
■
Top Sessions Running PQs
Top Sessions
The Top Session subsection lists the sessions that were waiting for a particular wait
event that accounted for the highest percentages of sampled session activity.
Top Blocking Sessions
The Top Blocking Sessions subsection lists the blocking sessions that accounted for the
highest percentages of sampled session activity.
Top Sessions Running PQs
The Top Sessions Running PQs subsection lists the sessions running parallel queries
(PQs) that were waiting for a particular wait event, which accounted for the highest
percentages of sampled session activity.
Top Objects/Files/Latches
The Top Objects/Files/Latches section provides additional information about the
most commonly-used database resources and contains the following subsections:
■
Top DB Objects
■
Top DB Files
■
Top Latches
Top DB Objects
The Top DB Objects subsection lists the database objects (such as tables and indexes)
that accounted for the highest percentages of sampled session activity.
Analyzing Sampled Data 9-9
Interpreting Results from Active Session History Reports
Top DB Files
The Top DB Files subsection lists the database files that accounted for the highest
percentages of sampled session activity.
Top Latches
The Top Latches subsection lists the latches that accounted for the highest percentages
of sampled session activity.
Latches are simple, low-level serialization mechanisms used to protect shared data
structures in the System Global Area (SGA). For example, latches protect the list of
users currently accessing the database and the data structures describing the blocks in
the buffer cache. A server or background process acquires a latch for a very short time
while manipulating or looking at one of these structures. The implementation of
latches is operating system-dependent, particularly regarding if and how long a
process waits for a latch.
Activity Over Time
The Activity Over Time section is one of the most informative sections of the ASH
report. This section is particularly useful for analyzing longer time periods because it
provides in-depth details about activities and workload profiles during the analysis
period.
The Activity Over Time section is divided into 10 time slots. The size of each time slot
varies based on the duration of the analysis period. The first and last slots are usually
odd-sized. All inner slots are equally sized and can be compared to each other. For
example, if the analysis period lasts for 10 minutes, then all time slots will 1 minute
each. However, if the analysis period lasts for 9 minutes and 30 seconds, then the outer
slots may be 15 seconds each and the inner slots will be 1 minute each.
Each of the time slots contains information regarding that particular time slot, as
described in Table 9–1.
Table 9–1
Activity Over Time
Column
Description
Slot Time (Duration)
Duration of the slot
Slot Count
Number of sampled sessions in the slot
Event
Top three wait events in the slot
Event Count
Number of ASH samples waiting for the wait event
% Event
Percentage of ASH samples waiting for wait events in the entire
analysis period
When comparing the inner slots, perform a skew analysis by identifying spikes in the
Event Count and Slot Count columns. A spike in the Event Count column indicates an
increase in the number of sampled sessions waiting for a particular event. A spike in
the Slot Count column indicates an increase in active sessions, because ASH data is
sampled from active sessions only and a relative increase in database workload.
Typically, when the number of active session samples and the number of sessions
associated with a wait event increases, the slot may be the cause of a transient
performance problem.
To generate the ASH report with a user-defined slot size, run the ashrpti.sql script,
as described in "Generating an ASH Report on a Specific Database Instance" on
page 9-3.
9-10 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
10
01
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views
After the initial configuration of a database, monitoring and tuning an instance
regularly is important to eliminate any potential performance bottlenecks. This
chapter discusses the tuning process using Oracle V$ performance views.
This chapter contains the following sections:
■
Instance Tuning Steps
■
Interpreting Oracle Database Statistics
■
Wait Events Statistics
■
Tuning Instance Recovery Performance: Fast-Start Fault Recovery
Instance Tuning Steps
These are the main steps in the Oracle performance method for instance tuning:
1.
Define the Problem
Get candid feedback from users about the scope of the performance problem.
2.
Examine the Host System and Examine the Oracle Database Statistics
■
■
■
3.
After obtaining a full set of operating system, database, and application
statistics, examine the data for any evidence of performance problems.
Consider the list of common performance errors to see whether the data
gathered suggests that they are contributing to the problem.
Build a conceptual model of what is happening on the system using the
performance data gathered.
Implement and Measure Change
Propose changes to be made and the expected result of implementing the changes.
Then, implement the changes and measure application performance.
4.
Determine whether the performance objective defined in step 1 has been met. If
not, then repeat steps 2 and 3 until the performance goals are met.
The remainder of this chapter discusses instance tuning using the Oracle Database
dynamic performance views. However, Oracle recommends using Automatic
Workload Repository (AWR) and Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM)
for statistics gathering, monitoring, and tuning due to the extended feature list.
If your site does not have AWR and ADDM features, then
you can use Statspack to gather Oracle database instance statistics.
Note:
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views 10-1
Instance Tuning Steps
Define the Problem
It is vital to develop a good understanding of the purpose of the tuning exercise and
the nature of the problem before attempting to implement a solution. Without this
understanding, it is virtually impossible to implement effective changes. The data
gathered during this stage helps determine the next step to take and what evidence to
examine.
Gather the following data:
1.
Identify the performance objective.
What is the measure of acceptable performance? How many transactions an hour,
or seconds, response time will meet the required performance level?
2.
Identify the scope of the problem.
What is affected by the slowdown? For example, is the whole instance slow? Is it a
particular application, program, specific operation, or a single user?
3.
Identify the time frame when the problem occurs.
Is the problem only evident during peak hours? Does performance deteriorate
over the course of the day? Was the slowdown gradual (over the space of months
or weeks) or sudden?
4.
Quantify the slowdown.
This helps identify the extent of the problem and also acts as a measure for
comparison when deciding whether changes implemented to fix the problem have
actually made an improvement. Find a consistently reproducible measure of the
response time or job run time. How much worse are the timings than when the
program was running well?
5.
Identify any changes.
Identify what has changed since performance was acceptable. This may narrow
the potential cause quickly. For example, has the operating system software,
hardware, application software, or Oracle Database release been upgraded? Has
more data been loaded into the system, or has the data volume or user population
grown?
At the end of this phase, you should have a good understanding of the symptoms. If
the symptoms can be identified as local to a program or set of programs, then the
problem is handled in a different manner from instance-wide performance issues.
Examine the Host System
Look at the load on the database server and the database instance. Consider the
operating system, the I/O subsystem, and network statistics, because examining these
areas helps determine what might be worth further investigation. In multitier systems,
also examine the application server middle-tier hosts.
Examining the host hardware often gives a strong indication of the bottleneck in the
system. This determines which Oracle Database performance data could be useful for
cross-reference and further diagnosis.
Data to examine includes the following:
■
CPU Usage
■
Identifying I/O Problems
■
Identifying Network Issues
10-2 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Instance Tuning Steps
CPU Usage
If there is a significant amount of idle CPU, then there could be an I/O, application, or
database bottleneck. Note that wait I/O should be considered as idle CPU.
If there is high CPU usage, then determine whether the CPU is being used effectively.
Is the majority of CPU usage attributable to a small number of high-CPU using
programs, or is the CPU consumed by an evenly distributed workload?
If a small number of high-usage programs use the CPU, then look at the programs to
determine the cause. Check whether some processes alone consume the full power of
one CPU. Depending on the process, this could indicate a CPU or process-bound
workload that can be tackled by dividing or parallelizing process activity.
Non-Oracle Processes If the programs are not Oracle programs, then identify whether
they are legitimately requiring that amount of CPU. If so, determine whether their
execution be delayed to off-peak hours. Identifying these CPU intensive processes can
also help narrowing what specific activity, such as I/O, network, and paging, is
consuming resources and how can it be related to the database workload.
Oracle Processes If a small number of Oracle processes consumes most of the CPU
resources, then use SQL_TRACE and TKPROF to identify the SQL or PL/SQL statements
to see if a particular query or PL/SQL program unit can be tuned. For example, a
SELECT statement could be CPU-intensive if its execution involves many reads of data
in cache (logical reads) that could be avoided with better SQL optimization.
Oracle Database CPU Statistics Oracle Database CPU statistics are available in several V$
views:
■
■
■
V$SYSSTAT shows Oracle Database CPU usage for all sessions. The CPU used by
this session statistic shows the aggregate CPU used by all sessions. The parse
time cpu statistic shows the total CPU time used for parsing.
V$SESSTAT shows Oracle Database CPU usage for each session. Use this view to
determine which particular session is using the most CPU.
V$RSRC_CONSUMER_GROUP shows CPU utilization statistics for each consumer group
when the Oracle Database Resource Manager is running.
Interpreting CPU Statistics It is important to recognize that CPU time and real time are
distinct. With eight CPUs, for any given minute in real time, there are eight minutes of
CPU time available. On Windows and UNIX, this can be either user time or system
time (privileged mode on Windows). Thus, average CPU time utilized by all processes
(threads) on the system could be greater than one minute for every one minute real
time interval.
At any given moment, you know how much time Oracle Database has used on the
system. So, if eight minutes are available and Oracle Database uses four minutes of
that time, then you know that 50% of all CPU time is used by Oracle. If your process is
not consuming that time, then some other process is. Identify the processes that are
using CPU time, figure out why, and then attempt to tune them.
If the CPU usage is evenly distributed over many Oracle server processes, examine the
V$SYS_TIME_MODEL view to help get a precise understanding of where most time is
spent. See Table 10–1, " Wait Events and Potential Causes" on page 10-13.
Identifying I/O Problems
An overly active I/O system can be evidenced by disk queue lengths greater than two,
or disk service times that are over 20-30ms. If the I/O system is overly active, then
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views 10-3
Instance Tuning Steps
check for potential hot spots that could benefit from distributing the I/O across more
disks. Also identify whether the load can be reduced by lowering the resource
requirements of the programs using those resources. If the I/O problems are caused
by Oracle Database, then I/O tuning can begin. If Oracle Database is not consuming
the available I/O resources, then identify the process that is using up the I/O.
Determine why the process is using up the I/O, and then tune this process.
I/O problems can be identified using V$ views in Oracle Database and monitoring
tools in the operating system, as described in the following sections:
■
Identifying I/O Problems Using V$ Views
■
Identifying I/O Problems Using Operating System Monitoring Tools
Identifying I/O Problems Using V$ Views Check the Oracle wait event data in V$SYSTEM_
EVENT to see whether the top wait events are I/O related. I/O related events include db
file sequential read, db file scattered read, db file single write, db file
parallel write, and log file parallel write. These are all events corresponding to
I/Os performed against data files and log files. If any of these wait events correspond
to high average time, then investigate the I/O contention.
Cross reference the host I/O system data with the I/O sections in the Automatic
Repository report to identify hot data files and tablespaces. Also compare the I/O
times reported by the operating system with the times reported by Oracle Database to
see if they are consistent.
An I/O problem can also manifest itself with non-I/O related wait events. For
example, the difficulty in finding a free buffer in the buffer cache or high wait times
for logs to be flushed to disk can also be symptoms of an I/O problem. Before
investigating whether the I/O system should be reconfigured, determine if the load on
the I/O system can be reduced.
To reduce I/O load caused by Oracle Database, examine the I/O statistics collected for
all I/O calls made by the database using the following views:
■
V$IOSTAT_CONSUMER_GROUP
The V$IOSTAT_CONSUMER_GROUP view captures I/O statistics for consumer groups.
If Oracle Database Resource Manager is enabled, I/O statistics for all consumer
groups that are part of the currently enabled resource plan are captured.
■
V$IOSTAT_FILE
The V$IOSTAT_FILE view captures I/O statistics of database files that are or have
been accessed. The SMALL_SYNC_READ_LATENCY column displays the latency for
single block synchronous reads (in milliseconds), which translates directly to the
amount of time that clients need to wait before moving onto the next operation.
This defines the responsiveness of the storage subsystem based on the current
load. If there is a high latency for critical data files, you may want to consider
relocating these files to improve their service time. To calculate latency statistics,
timed_statistics must be set to TRUE.
■
V$IOSTAT_FUNCTION
The V$IOSTAT_FUNCTION view captures I/O statistics for database functions (such
as the LGWR and DBWR).
An I/O can be issued by various Oracle processes with different functionalities.
The top database functions are classified in the V$IOSTAT_FUNCTION view. In cases
when there is a conflict of I/O functions, the I/O is placed in the bucket with the
lower FUNCTION_ID. For example, if XDB issues an I/O from the buffer cache, the
I/O would be classified as an XDB I/O because it has a lower FUNCTION_ID value.
10-4 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Instance Tuning Steps
Any unclassified function is placed in the Others bucket. You can display the
FUNCTION_ID hierarchy by querying the V$IOSTAT_FUNCTION view:
select FUNCTION_ID, FUNCTION_NAME
from v$iostat_function
order by FUNCTION_ID;
FUNCTION_ID FUNCTION_NAME
----------- -----------------0 RMAN
1 DBWR
2 LGWR
3 ARCH
4 XDB
5 Streams AQ
6 Data Pump
7 Recovery
8 Buffer Cache Reads
9 Direct Reads
10 Direct Writes
11 Others
These V$IOSTAT views contains I/O statistics for both single and multi block read and
write operations. Single block operations are small I/Os that are less than or equal to
128 kilobytes. Multi block operations are large I/Os that are greater than 128 kilobytes.
For each of these operations, the following statistics are collected:
■
Identifier
■
Total wait time (in milliseconds)
■
Number of waits executed (for consumer groups and functions)
■
Number of requests for each operation
■
Number of single and multi block bytes read
■
Number of single and multi block bytes written
You should also look at SQL statements that perform many physical reads by
querying the V$SQLAREA view, or by reviewing the "SQL ordered by Reads" section of
the Automatic Workload Repository report. Examine these statements to see how they
can be tuned to reduce the number of I/Os.
See Also:
■
Oracle Database Reference for information about the V$IOSTAT_
CONSUMER_GROUP, V$IOSTAT_FUNCTION, V$IOSTAT_FILE, and
V$SQLAREA views
Identifying I/O Problems Using Operating System Monitoring Tools Use operating system
monitoring tools to determine what processes are running on the system as a whole
and to monitor disk access to all files. Remember that disks holding data files and redo
log files can also hold files that are not related to Oracle Database. Reduce any heavy
access to disks that contain database files. You can monitor access to non-database files
only through operating system facilities, rather than through the V$ views.
Utilities, such as sar -d (or iostat) on many UNIX systems and the administrative
performance monitoring tool on Windows systems, examine I/O statistics for the
entire system.
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views 10-5
Instance Tuning Steps
See Also: Your operating system documentation for the tools
available on your platform
Identifying Network Issues
Using operating system utilities, look at the network round-trip ping time and the
number of collisions. If the network is causing large delays in response time, then
investigate possible causes.
To identify network I/O caused by remote access of database files, examine the
V$IOSTAT_NETWORK view. This view contains network I/O statistics caused by
accessing files on a remote database instance, including:
■
Database client initiating the network I/O (such as RMAN and PLSQL)
■
Number of read and write operations issued
■
Number of kilobytes read and written
■
Total wait time in milliseconds for read operations
■
Total wait in milliseconds for write operations
After the cause of the network issue is identified, network load can be reduced by
scheduling large data transfers to off-peak times, or by coding applications to batch
requests to remote hosts, rather than accessing remote hosts once (or more) for one
request.
Examine the Oracle Database Statistics
Examine Oracle Database statistics and cross-reference them with operating system
statistics to ensure a consistent diagnosis of the problem. Operating system statistics
can indicate a good place to begin tuning. However, if the goal is to tune the Oracle
database instance, then look at the Oracle Database statistics to identify the resource
bottleneck from a database perspective before implementing corrective action. See
"Interpreting Oracle Database Statistics" on page 10-11.
The following sections discuss the common Oracle data sources used while tuning.
Setting the Level of Statistics Collection
Oracle Database provides the initialization parameter STATISTICS_LEVEL, which
controls all major statistics collections or advisories in the database. This parameter
sets the statistics collection level for the database.
Depending on the setting of STATISTICS_LEVEL, certain advisories or statistics are
collected, as follows:
■
■
■
BASIC: No advisories or statistics are collected. Monitoring and many automatic
features are disabled. Oracle does not recommend this setting because it disables
important Oracle Database features.
TYPICAL: This is the default value and ensures collection for all major statistics
while providing best overall database performance. This setting should be
adequate for most environments.
ALL: All of the advisories or statistics that are collected with the TYPICAL setting are
included, plus timed operating system statistics and row source execution
statistics.
10-6 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Instance Tuning Steps
See Also:
■
Oracle Database Reference for more information on the
STATISTICS_LEVEL initialization parameter
V$STATISTICS_LEVEL This view lists the status of the statistics or advisories controlled
by STATISTICS_LEVEL.
See Also: Oracle Database Reference for information about the
dynamic performance V$STATISTICS_LEVEL view
Wait Events
Wait events are statistics that are incremented by a server process or thread to indicate
that it had to wait for an event to complete before being able to continue processing.
Wait event data reveals various symptoms of problems that might be impacting
performance, such as latch contention, buffer contention, and I/O contention.
Remember that these are only symptoms of problems, not the actual causes.
Wait events are grouped into classes. The wait event classes include: Administrative,
Application, Cluster, Commit, Concurrency, Configuration, Idle, Network, Other,
Scheduler, System I/O, and User I/O.
A server process can wait for the following:
■
A resource to become available, such as a buffer or a latch.
■
An action to complete, such as an I/O.
■
More work to do, such as waiting for the client to provide the next SQL statement
to execute. Events that identify that a server process is waiting for more work are
known as idle events.
Oracle Database Reference for more information about
Oracle wait events
See Also:
Wait event statistics include the number of times an event was waited for and the time
waited for the event to complete. If the initialization parameter TIMED_STATISTICS is
set to true, then you can also see how long each resource was waited for.
To minimize user response time, reduce the time spent by server processes waiting for
event completion. Not all wait events have the same wait time. Therefore, it is more
important to examine events with the most total time waited rather than wait events
with a high number of occurrences. Usually, it is best to set the dynamic parameter
TIMED_STATISTICS to true at least while monitoring performance. See "Setting the
Level of Statistics Collection" on page 10-6 for information about STATISTICS_LEVEL
settings.
Dynamic Performance Views Containing Wait Event Statistics
These dynamic performance views can be queried for wait event statistics:
■
V$ACTIVE_SESSION_HISTORY
The V$ACTIVE_SESSION_HISTORY view displays active database session activity,
sampled once every second.
■
V$SESS_TIME_MODEL and V$SYS_TIME_MODEL
The V$SESS_TIME_MODEL and V$SYS_TIME_MODEL views contain time model
statistics, including DB time which is the total time spent in database calls.
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views 10-7
Instance Tuning Steps
■
V$SESSION_WAIT
The V$SESSION_WAIT view displays information about the current or last wait for
each session (such as wait ID, class, and time).
■
V$SESSION
The V$SESSION view displays information about each current session and contains
the same wait statistics as those found in the V$SESSION_WAIT view. If applicable,
this view also contains detailed information about the object that the session is
currently waiting for (such as object number, block number, file number, and row
number), the blocking session responsible for the current wait (such as the
blocking session ID, status, and type), and the amount of time waited.
■
V$SESSION_EVENT
The V$SESSION_EVENT view provides summary of all the events the session has
waited for since it started.
■
V$SESSION_WAIT_CLASS
The V$SESSION_WAIT_CLASS view provides the number of waits and the time spent
in each class of wait events for each session.
■
V$SESSION_WAIT_HISTORY
The V$SESSION_WAIT_HISTORY view displays information about the last ten wait
events for each active session (such as event type and wait time).
■
V$SYSTEM_EVENT
The V$SYSTEM_EVENT view provides a summary of all the event waits on the
instance since it started.
■
V$EVENT_HISTOGRAM
The V$EVENT_HISTOGRAM view displays a histogram of the number of waits, the
maximum wait, and total wait time on an event basis.
■
V$FILE_HISTOGRAM
The V$FILE_HISTOGRAM view displays a histogram of times waited during single
block reads for each file.
■
V$SYSTEM_WAIT_CLASS
The V$SYSTEM_WAIT_CLASS view provides the instance wide time totals for the
number of waits and the time spent in each class of wait events.
■
V$TEMP_HISTOGRAM
The V$TEMP_HISTOGRAM view displays a histogram of times waited during single
block reads for each temporary file.
See Also: Oracle Database Reference for information about the
dynamic performance views
Investigate wait events and related timing data when performing reactive
performance tuning. The events with the most time listed against them are often
strong indications of the performance bottleneck. For example, by looking at
V$SYSTEM_EVENT, you might notice lots of buffer busy waits. It might be that many
processes are inserting into the same block and must wait for each other before they
can insert. The solution could be to use automatic segment space management or
partitioning for the object in question. See "Wait Events Statistics" on page 10-17 for a
10-8 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Instance Tuning Steps
description of the differences between the views V$SESSION_WAIT, V$SESSION_EVENT,
and V$SYSTEM_EVENT.
System Statistics
System statistics are typically used in conjunction with wait event data to find further
evidence of the cause of a performance problem.
For example, if V$SYSTEM_EVENT indicates that the largest wait event (in terms of wait
time) is the event buffer busy waits, then look at the specific buffer wait statistics
available in the view V$WAITSTAT to see which block type has the highest wait count
and the highest wait time.
After the block type has been identified, also look at V$SESSION real-time while the
problem is occurring or V$ACTIVE_SESSION_HISTORY and DBA_HIST_ACTIVE_SESS_
HISTORY views after the problem has been experienced to identify the contended-for
objects using the object number indicated. The combination of this data indicates the
appropriate corrective action.
Statistics are available in many V$ views. Some common views include the following:
■
V$ACTIVE_SESSION_HISTORY
■
V$SYSSTAT
■
V$FILESTAT
■
V$ROLLSTAT
■
V$ENQUEUE_STAT
■
V$LATCH
V$ACTIVE_SESSION_HISTORY This view displays active database session activity,
sampled once every second.
V$SYSSTAT This contains overall statistics for many different parts of Oracle Database,
including rollback, logical and physical I/O, and parse data. Data from V$SYSSTAT is
used to compute ratios, such as the buffer cache hit ratio.
V$FILESTAT This contains detailed file I/O statistics for each file, including the number
of I/Os for each file and the average read time.
V$ROLLSTAT This contains detailed rollback and undo segment statistics for each
segment.
V$ENQUEUE_STAT This contains detailed enqueue statistics for each enqueue,
including the number of times an enqueue was requested and the number of times an
enqueue was waited for, and the wait time.
V$LATCH This contains detailed latch usage statistics for each latch, including the
number of times each latch was requested and the number of times the latch was
waited for.
See Also: Oracle Database Reference for information about dynamic
performance views
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views 10-9
Instance Tuning Steps
Segment-Level Statistics
You can gather segment-level statistics to help you spot performance problems
associated with individual segments. Collecting and viewing segment-level statistics is
a good way to effectively identify hot tables or indexes in an instance.
After viewing wait events and system statistics to identify the performance problem,
you can use segment-level statistics to find specific tables or indexes that are causing
the problem. Consider, for example, that V$SYSTEM_EVENT indicates that buffer busy
waits cause a fair amount of wait time. You can select from V$SEGMENT_STATISTICS the
top segments that cause the buffer busy waits. Then you can focus your effort on
eliminating the problem in those segments.
You can query segment-level statistics through the following dynamic performance
views:
■
■
■
V$SEGSTAT_NAME This view lists the segment statistics being collected and the
properties of each statistic (for instance, if it is a sampled statistic).
V$SEGSTAT This is a highly efficient, real-time monitoring view that shows the
statistic value, statistic name, and other basic information.
V$SEGMENT_STATISTICS This is a user-friendly view of statistic values. In addition
to all the columns of V$SEGSTAT, it has information about such things as the
segment owner and table space name. It makes the statistics easy to understand,
but it is more costly.
See Also: Oracle Database Reference for information about
dynamic performance views
Implement and Measure Change
Often at the end of a tuning exercise, it is possible to identify two or three changes that
could potentially alleviate the problem. To identify which change provides the most
benefit, it is recommended that only one change be implemented at a time. The effect
of the change should be measured against the baseline data measurements found in
the problem definition phase.
Typically, most sites with dire performance problems implement several overlapping
changes at once, and thus cannot identify which changes provided any benefit.
Although this is not immediately an issue, this becomes a significant hindrance if
similar problems subsequently appear, because it is not possible to know which of the
changes provided the most benefit and which efforts to prioritize.
If it is not possible to implement changes separately, then try to measure the effects of
dissimilar changes. For example, measure the effect of making an initialization change
to optimize redo generation separately from the effect of creating a new index to
improve the performance of a modified query. It is impossible to measure the benefit
of performing an operating system upgrade if SQL is tuned, the operating system disk
layout is changed, and the initialization parameters are also changed at the same time.
Performance tuning is an iterative process. It is unlikely to find a 'silver bullet' that
solves an instance-wide performance problem. In most cases, excellent performance
requires iteration through the performance tuning phases, because solving one
bottleneck often uncovers another (sometimes worse) problem.
Knowing when to stop tuning is also important. The best measure of performance is
user perception, rather than how close the statistic is to an ideal value.
10-10 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Interpreting Oracle Database Statistics
Interpreting Oracle Database Statistics
Gather statistics that cover the time when the instance had the performance problem.
If you previously captured baseline data for comparison, then you can compare the
current data to the data from the baseline that most represents the problem workload.
When comparing two reports, ensure that the two reports are from times where the
system was running comparable workloads.
Examine Load
Usually, wait events are the first data examined. However, if you have a baseline
report, then check to see if the load has changed. Regardless of whether you have a
baseline, it is useful to see whether the resource usage rates are high.
Load-related statistics to examine include redo size, session logical reads, db block
changes, physical reads, physical read total bytes, physical writes, physical
write total bytes, parse count (total), parse count (hard), and user calls. This
data is queried from V$SYSSTAT. It is best to normalize this data over seconds and over
transactions. It is also useful to examine the total I/O load in MB per second by using
the sum of physical read total bytes and physical write total bytes. The combined
value includes the I/O's used to buffer cache, redo logs, archive logs, by Recovery
Manager (RMAN) backup and recovery and any Oracle Database background process.
In the AWR report, look at the Load Profile section. The data has been normalized
over transactions and over seconds.
Changing Load
The load profile statistics over seconds show the changes in throughput (that is,
whether the instance is performing more work each second). The statistics over
transactions identify changes in the application characteristics by comparing these to
the corresponding statistics from the baseline report.
High Rates of Activity
Examine the statistics normalized over seconds to identify whether the rates of activity
are very high. It is difficult to make blanket recommendations on high values, because
the thresholds are different on each site and are contingent on the application
characteristics, the number and speed of CPUs, the operating system, the I/O system,
and the Oracle Database release.
The following are some generalized examples (acceptable values vary at each site):
■
■
■
A hard parse rate of more than 100 a second indicates that there is a very high
amount of hard parsing on the system. High hard parse rates cause serious
performance issues and must be investigated. Usually, a high hard parse rate is
accompanied by latch contention on the shared pool and library cache latches.
Check whether the sum of the wait times for library cache and shared pool latch
events (latch: library cache, latch: library cache pin, latch: library cache lock and
latch: shared pool) is significant compared to statistic DB time found in V$SYSSTAT.
If so, examine the SQL ordered by Parse Calls section of the AWR report.
A high soft parse rate could be in the rate of 300 a second or more. Unnecessary
soft parses also limit application scalability. Optimally, a SQL statement should be
soft parsed once in each session and executed many times.
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views
10-11
Interpreting Oracle Database Statistics
Using Wait Event Statistics to Drill Down to Bottlenecks
Whenever an Oracle process waits for something, it records the wait using one of a set
of predefined wait events. These wait events are grouped in wait classes. The Idle wait
class groups all events that a process waits for when it does not have work to do and is
waiting for more work to perform. Non-idle events indicate nonproductive time spent
waiting for a resource or action to complete.
Not all symptoms can be evidenced by wait events. See
"Additional Statistics" on page 10-14 for the statistics that can be
checked.
Note:
The most effective way to use wait event data is to order the events by the wait time.
This is only possible if TIMED_STATISTICS is set to true. Otherwise, the wait events can
only be ranked by the number of times waited, which is often not the ordering that
best represents the problem.
See Also:
■
■
"Setting the Level of Statistics Collection" on page 10-6 for
information about STATISTICS_LEVEL settings
Oracle Database Reference for information about the STATISTICS_
LEVEL initialization parameter
To get an indication of where time is spent, follow these steps:
1.
Examine the data collection for V$SYSTEM_EVENT. The events of interest should be
ranked by wait time.
Identify the wait events that have the most significant percentage of wait time. To
determine the percentage of wait time, add the total wait time for all wait events,
excluding idle events, such as Null event, SQL*Net message from client, SQL*Net
message to client, and SQL*Net more data to client. Calculate the relative
percentage of the five most prominent events by dividing each event's wait time
by the total time waited for all events.
See Also:
■
■
■
"Idle Wait Events" on page 10-29 for the list of idle wait events
Description of the V$EVENT_NAME view in Oracle Database
Reference
Detailed wait event information in Oracle Database Reference
Alternatively, look at the Top 5 Timed Events section at the beginning of the
Automatic Workload Repository report. This section automatically orders the wait
events (omitting idle events), and calculates the relative percentage:
Top 5 Timed Events
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
% Total
Event
Waits
Time (s) Call Time
-------------------------------------- ------------ ----------- --------CPU time
559
88.80
log file parallel write
2,181
28
4.42
SQL*Net more data from client
516,611
27
4.24
db file parallel write
13,383
13
2.04
db file sequential read
563
2
.27
10-12 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Interpreting Oracle Database Statistics
In some situations, there might be a few events with similar percentages. This can
provide extra evidence if all the events are related to the same type of resource
request (for example, all I/O related events).
2.
Look at the number of waits for these events, and the average wait time. For
example, for I/O related events, the average time might help identify whether the
I/O system is slow. The following example of this data is taken from the Wait
Event section of the AWR report:
Event
Waits Timeouts
--------------------------- --------- --------log file parallel write
2,181
0
SQL*Net more data from clie
516,611
0
db file parallel write
13,383
0
Avg
Total Wait
wait
Waits
Time (s)
(ms)
/txn
---------- ------ --------28
13
41.2
27
0
9,747.4
13
1
252.5
3.
The top wait events identify the next places to investigate. A table of common wait
events is listed in Table 10–1. It is usually a good idea to also have quick look at
high-load SQL.
4.
Examine the related data indicated by the wait events to see what other
information this data provides. Determine whether this information is consistent
with the wait event data. In most situations, there is enough data to begin
developing a theory about the potential causes of the performance bottleneck.
5.
To determine whether this theory is valid, cross-check data you have examined
with other statistics available for consistency. The appropriate statistics vary
depending on the problem, but usually include load profile-related data in
V$SYSSTAT, operating system statistics, and so on. Perform cross-checks with other
data to confirm or refute the developing theory.
Table of Wait Events and Potential Causes
Table 10–1 links wait events to possible causes and gives an overview of the Oracle
data that could be most useful to review next.
Table 10–1
Wait Events and Potential Causes
Wait Event
General
Area
Possible Causes
Look for / Examine
buffer busy
waits
Buffer cache, Depends on buffer type.
Examine V$SESSION while the problem is
DBWR
For example, waits for an occurring to determine the type of block in
index block may be caused contention.
by a primary key that is
based on an ascending
sequence.
free buffer
waits
Buffer cache, Slow DBWR (possibly due Examine write time using operating system
DBWR, I/O to I/O?)
statistics. Check buffer cache statistics for
evidence of too small cache.
Cache too small
db file
scattered read
I/O, SQL
statement
tuning
Poorly tuned SQL
db file
sequential read
I/O, SQL
statement
tuning
Poorly tuned SQL
Slow I/O system
Slow I/O system
Investigate V$SQLAREA to see whether there are
SQL statements performing many disk reads.
Cross-check I/O system and V$FILESTAT for
poor read time.
Investigate V$SQLAREA to see whether there are
SQL statements performing many disk reads.
Cross-check I/O system and V$FILESTAT for
poor read time.
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views
10-13
Interpreting Oracle Database Statistics
Table 10–1 (Cont.) Wait Events and Potential Causes
General
Area
Wait Event
Possible Causes
Look for / Examine
enqueue waits
Locks
(waits starting with
enq:)
Depends on type of
enqueue
Look at V$ENQUEUE_STAT.
library cache latch
waits: library
cache, library
cache pin, and
library cache
lock
Latch
contention
SQL parsing or sharing
Check V$SQLAREA to see whether there are SQL
statements with a relatively high number of
parse calls or a high number of child cursors
(column VERSION_COUNT). Check parse
statistics in V$SYSSTAT and their
corresponding rate for each second.
log buffer space
Log buffer,
I/O
Log buffer small
Check the statistic redo buffer allocation
retries in V$SYSSTAT. Check configuring log
buffer section in configuring memory chapter.
Check the disks that house the online redo
logs for resource contention.
I/O, overcommitting
Slow disks that store the
online logs
log file sync
Slow I/O system
Un-batched commits
Check the disks that house the online redo
logs for resource contention. Check the
number of transactions (commits + rollbacks)
each second, from V$SYSSTAT.
You may also want to review the My Oracle Support notices on buffer busy waits
(34405.1) and free buffer waits (62172.1). You can also access these notices and
related notices by searching for "busy buffer waits" and "free buffer waits" at:
http://support.oracle.com/
See Also:
■
■
"Wait Events Statistics" on page 10-17 for detailed information
on each event listed in Table 10–1 and for other information to
cross-check
Oracle Database Reference for information about dynamic
performance views
Additional Statistics
There are several statistics that can indicate performance problems that do not have
corresponding wait events.
Redo Log Space Requests Statistic
The V$SYSSTAT statistic redo log space requests indicates how many times a server
process had to wait for space in the online redo log, not for space in the redo log
buffer. Use this statistic and the wait events as an indication that you must tune
checkpoints, DBWR, or archiver activity, not LGWR. Increasing the size of the log
buffer does not help.
Read Consistency
Your system might spend excessive time rolling back changes to blocks in order to
maintain a consistent view. Consider the following scenarios:
■
If there are many small transactions and an active long-running query is running
in the background on the same table where the changes are happening, then the
query might need to roll back those changes often, in order to obtain a
10-14 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Interpreting Oracle Database Statistics
read-consistent image of the table. Compare the following V$SYSSTAT statistics to
determine whether this is happening:
■
–
consistent: changes statistic indicates the number of times a database block
has rollback entries applied to perform a consistent read on the block.
Workloads that produce a great deal of consistent changes can consume a
great deal of resources.
–
consistent gets: statistic counts the number of logical reads in consistent
mode.
If there are few very, large rollback segments, then your system could be spending
a lot of time rolling back the transaction table during delayed block cleanout in
order to find out exactly which system change number (SCN) a transaction was
committed. When Oracle Database commits a transaction, all modified blocks are
not necessarily updated with the commit SCN immediately. In this case, it is done
later on demand when the block is read or updated. This is called delayed block
cleanout.
The ratio of the following V$SYSSTAT statistics should be close to one:
ratio = transaction tables consistent reads - undo records applied /
transaction tables consistent read rollbacks
The recommended solution is to use automatic undo management.
■
If there are insufficient rollback segments, then there is rollback segment (header
or block) contention. Evidence of this problem is available by the following:
■
■
Comparing the number of WAITS to the number of GETS in V$ROLLSTAT; the
proportion of WAITS to GETS should be small.
Examining V$WAITSTAT to see whether there are many WAITS for buffers of
CLASS 'undo header'.
The recommended solution is to use automatic undo management.
Table Fetch by Continued Row
You can detect migrated or chained rows by checking the number of table fetch
continued row statistic in V$SYSSTAT. A small number of chained rows (less than 1%) is
unlikely to impact system performance. However, a large percentage of chained rows
can affect performance.
Chaining on rows larger than the block size is inevitable. Consider using a tablespace
with a larger block size for such data.
However, for smaller rows, you can avoid chaining by using sensible space
parameters and good application design. For example, do not insert a row with key
values filled in and nulls in most other columns, then update that row with the real
data, causing the row to grow in size. Rather, insert rows filled with data from the
start.
If an UPDATE statement increases the amount of data in a row so that the row no longer
fits in its data block, then Oracle Database tries to find another block with enough free
space to hold the entire row. If such a block is available, then Oracle Database moves
the entire row to the new block. This operation is called row migration. If the row is
too large to fit into any available block, then the database splits the row into multiple
pieces and stores each piece in a separate block. This operation is called row chaining.
The database can also chain rows when they are inserted.
Migration and chaining are especially detrimental to performance with the following:
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views
10-15
Interpreting Oracle Database Statistics
■
■
UPDATE statements that cause migration and chaining to perform poorly
Queries that select migrated or chained rows because these must perform
additional input and output
The definition of a sample output table named CHAINED_ROWS appears in a SQL script
available on your distribution medium. The common name of this script is
UTLCHN1.SQL, although its exact name and location varies depending on your platform.
Your output table must have the same column names, data types, and sizes as the
CHAINED_ROWS table.
Increasing PCTFREE can help to avoid migrated rows. If you leave more free space
available in the block, then the row has room to grow. You can also reorganize or
re-create tables and indexes that have high deletion rates. If tables frequently have
rows deleted, then data blocks can have partially free space in them. If rows are
inserted and later expanded, then the inserted rows might land in blocks with deleted
rows but still not have enough room to expand. Reorganizing the table ensures that
the main free space is totally empty blocks.
Note:
PCTUSED is not the opposite of PCTFREE.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Concepts for more information on PCTUSED
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide to learn how to reorganize
tables
Parse-Related Statistics
The more your application parses, the more potential for contention exists, and the
more time your system spends waiting. If parse time CPU represents a large
percentage of the CPU time, then time is being spent parsing instead of executing
statements. If this is the case, then it is likely that the application is using literal SQL
and so SQL cannot be shared, or the shared pool is poorly configured.
There are several statistics available to identify the extent of time spent parsing by
Oracle. Query the parse related statistics from V$SYSSTAT. For example:
SELECT NAME, VALUE
FROM V$SYSSTAT
WHERE NAME IN ( 'parse time cpu', 'parse time elapsed',
'parse count (hard)', 'CPU used by this session' );
There are various ratios that can be computed to assist in determining whether parsing
may be a problem:
■
parse time CPU / parse time elapsed
This ratio indicates how much of the time spent parsing was due to the parse
operation itself, rather than waiting for resources, such as latches. A ratio of one is
good, indicating that the elapsed time was not spent waiting for highly contended
resources.
■
parse time CPU / CPU used by this session
This ratio indicates how much of the total CPU used by Oracle server processes
was spent on parse-related operations. A ratio closer to zero is good, indicating
that the majority of CPU is not spent on parsing.
10-16 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Wait Events Statistics
Wait Events Statistics
The V$SESSION, V$SESSION_WAIT, V$SESSION_HISTORY, V$SESSION_EVENT, and
V$SYSTEM_EVENT views provide information on what resources were waited for, and, if
the configuration parameter TIMED_STATISTICS is set to true, how long each resource
was waited for.
See Also:
■
■
"Setting the Level of Statistics Collection" on page 10-6 for
information about STATISTICS_LEVEL settings
Oracle Database Reference for a description of the V$ views and
the Oracle wait events
Investigate wait events and related timing data when performing reactive
performance tuning. The events with the most time listed against them are often
strong indications of the performance bottleneck.
The following views contain related, but different, views of the same data:
■
■
■
■
■
V$SESSION lists session information for each current session. It lists either the event
currently being waited for, or the event last waited for on each session. This view
also contains information about blocking sessions, the wait state, and the wait
time.
V$SESSION_WAIT is a current state view. It lists either the event currently being
waited for, or the event last waited for on each session, the wait state, and the wait
time.
V$SESSION_WAIT_HISTORY lists the last 10 wait events for each current session and
the associated wait time.
V$SESSION_EVENT lists the cumulative history of events waited for on each session.
After a session exits, the wait event statistics for that session are removed from this
view.
V$SYSTEM_EVENT lists the events and times waited for by the whole instance (that
is, all session wait events data rolled up) since instance startup.
Because V$SESSION_WAIT is a current state view, it also contains a finer-granularity of
information than V$SESSION_EVENT or V$SYSTEM_EVENT. It includes additional
identifying data for the current event in three parameter columns: P1, P2, and P3.
For example, V$SESSION_EVENT can show that session 124 (SID=124) had many waits
on the db file scattered read, but it does not show which file and block number.
However, V$SESSION_WAIT shows the file number in P1, the block number read in P2,
and the number of blocks read in P3 (P1 and P2 let you determine for which segments
the wait event is occurring).
This section concentrates on examples using V$SESSION_WAIT. However, Oracle
recommends capturing performance data over an interval and keeping this data for
performance and capacity analysis. This form of rollup data is queried from the
V$SYSTEM_EVENT view by AWR.
Most commonly encountered events are described in this chapter, listed in
case-sensitive alphabetical order. Other event-related data to examine is also included.
The case used for each event name is that which appears in the V$SYSTEM_EVENT view.
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views
10-17
Wait Events Statistics
Changes to Wait Event Statistics from Past Releases
Starting with Oracle Database 11g, Oracle Database accumulates wait counts and time
outs for wait events (such as in the V$SYSTEM_EVENT view) differently than in past
releases. Continuous waits for certain types of resources (such as enqueues) are
internally divided into a set of shorter wait calls. In releases prior to Oracle Database
11g, each individual internal wait call was counted as a separate wait. Starting with
Oracle Database 11g, a single resource wait is recorded as a single wait, irrespective of
the number of internal time outs experienced by the session during the wait.
This change allows Oracle Database to display a more representative wait count, and
an accurate total time spent waiting for the resource. Time outs now refer to the
resource wait, instead of the individual internal wait calls. This change also affects the
average wait time and the maximum wait time. For example, if a user session must
wait for an enqueue in order for a transaction row lock to update a single row in a
table, and it takes 10 seconds to acquire the enqueue, Oracle Database breaks down the
enqueue wait into 3-second wait calls. In this example, there will be three 3-second
wait calls, followed by a 1-second wait call. From the session's perspective, however,
there is only one wait on an enqueue.
In releases prior to Oracle Database 11g, the V$SYSTEM_EVENT view would represent
this wait scenario as follows:
■
■
TOTAL_WAITS: 4 waits (three 3-second waits, one 1-second wait)
TOTAL_TIMEOUTS: 3 time outs (the first three waits time out and the enqueue is
acquired during the final wait)
■
TIME_WAITED: 10 seconds (sum of the times from the 4 waits)
■
AVERAGE_WAIT: 2.5 seconds
■
MAX_WAIT: 3 seconds
Starting with Oracle Database 11g, this wait scenario is represented as:
■
TOTAL_WAITS: 1 wait (one 10-second wait)
■
TOTAL_TIMEOUTS: 0 time outs (the enqueue is acquired during the resource wait)
■
TIME_WAITED: 10 seconds (time for the resource wait)
■
AVERAGE_WAIT: 10 seconds
■
MAX_WAIT: 10 seconds
The following common wait events are affected by this change:
■
Enqueue waits (such as enq: name - reason waits)
■
Library cache lock waits
■
Library cache pin waits
■
Row cache lock waits
The following statistics are affected by this change:
■
Wait counts
■
Wait time outs
■
Average wait time
■
Maximum wait time
The following views are affected by this change:
10-18 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Wait Events Statistics
■
V$EVENT_HISTOGRAM
■
V$EVENTMETRIC
■
V$SERVICE_EVENT
■
V$SERVICE_WAIT_CLASS
■
V$SESSION_EVENT
■
V$SESSION_WAIT
■
V$SESSION_WAIT_CLASS
■
V$SESSION_WAIT_HISTORY
■
V$SYSTEM_EVENT
■
V$SYSTEM_WAIT_CLASS
■
V$WAITCLASSMETRIC
■
V$WAITCLASSMETRIC_HISTORY
See Also:
Oracle Database Reference for a description of the V$SYSTEM_
EVENT view
buffer busy waits
This wait indicates that there are some buffers in the buffer cache that multiple
processes are attempting to access concurrently. Query V$WAITSTAT for the wait
statistics for each class of buffer. Common buffer classes that have buffer busy waits
include data block, segment header, undo header, and undo block.
Check the following V$SESSION_WAIT parameter columns:
■
P1: File ID
■
P2: Block ID
■
P3: Class ID
Causes
To determine the possible causes, first query V$SESSION to identify the value of ROW_
WAIT_OBJ# when the session waits for buffer busy waits. For example:
SELECT row_wait_obj#
FROM V$SESSION
WHERE EVENT = 'buffer busy waits';
To identify the object and object type contended for, query DBA_OBJECTS using the
value for ROW_WAIT_OBJ# that is returned from V$SESSION. For example:
SELECT owner, object_name, subobject_name, object_type
FROM DBA_OBJECTS
WHERE data_object_id = &row_wait_obj;
Actions
The action required depends on the class of block contended for and the actual
segment.
segment header If the contention is on the segment header, then this is most likely free
list contention.
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views
10-19
Wait Events Statistics
Automatic segment-space management in locally managed tablespaces eliminates the
need to specify the PCTUSED, FREELISTS, and FREELIST GROUPS parameters. If possible,
switch from manual space management to automatic segment-space management
(ASSM).
The following information is relevant if you are unable to use ASSM (for example,
because the tablespace uses dictionary space management).
A free list is a list of free data blocks that usually includes blocks existing in several
different extents within the segment. Free lists are composed of blocks in which free
space has not yet reached PCTFREE or used space has shrunk below PCTUSED.
Specify the number of process free lists with the FREELISTS parameter. The default
value of FREELISTS is one. The maximum value depends on the data block size.
To find the current setting for free lists for that segment, run the following:
SELECT
FROM
WHERE
AND
SEGMENT_NAME, FREELISTS
DBA_SEGMENTS
SEGMENT_NAME = segment name
SEGMENT_TYPE = segment type;
Set free lists, or increase the number of free lists. If adding more free lists does not
alleviate the problem, then use free list groups (even in single instance this can make a
difference). If using Oracle RAC, then ensure that each instance has its own free list
group(s).
See Also: Oracle Database Concepts for information about
automatic segment-space management, free lists, PCTFREE, and
PCTUSED
data block If the contention is on tables or indexes (not the segment header):
■
■
Check for right-hand indexes. These are indexes that are inserted into at the same
point by many processes. For example, those that use sequence number generators
for the key values.
Consider using ASSM, global hash partitioned indexes, or increasing free lists to
avoid multiple processes attempting to insert into the same block.
undo header For contention on rollback segment header:
■
If you are not using automatic undo management, then add more rollback
segments.
undo block For contention on rollback segment block:
■
If you are not using automatic undo management, then consider making rollback
segment sizes larger.
db file scattered read
This event signifies that the user process is reading buffers into the SGA buffer cache
and is waiting for a physical I/O call to return. A db file scattered read issues a
scattered read to read the data into multiple discontinuous memory locations. A
scattered read is usually a multiblock read. It can occur for a fast full scan (of an index)
in addition to a full table scan.
The db file scattered read wait event identifies that a full scan is occurring. When
performing a full scan into the buffer cache, the blocks read are read into memory
locations that are not physically adjacent to each other. Such reads are called scattered
10-20 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Wait Events Statistics
read calls, because the blocks are scattered throughout memory. This is why the
corresponding wait event is called 'db file scattered read'. multiblock (up to DB_FILE_
MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT blocks) reads due to full scans into the buffer cache show up
as waits for 'db file scattered read'.
Check the following V$SESSION_WAIT parameter columns:
■
P1: The absolute file number
■
P2: The block being read
■
P3: The number of blocks (should be greater than 1)
Actions
On a healthy system, physical read waits should be the biggest waits after the idle
waits. However, also consider whether there are direct read waits (signifying full table
scans with parallel query) or db file scattered read waits on an operational (OLTP)
system that should be doing small indexed accesses.
Other things that could indicate excessive I/O load on the system include the
following:
■
■
Poor buffer cache hit ratio
These wait events accruing most of the wait time for a user experiencing poor
response time
Managing Excessive I/O
There are several ways to handle excessive I/O waits. In the order of effectiveness,
these are as follows:
■
Reduce the I/O activity by SQL tuning.
■
Reduce the need to do I/O by managing the workload.
■
Gather system statistics with DBMS_STATS package, allowing the query optimizer to
accurately cost possible access paths that use full scans.
■
Use Automatic Storage Management.
■
Add more disks to reduce the number of I/Os for each disk.
■
Alleviate I/O hot spots by redistributing I/O across existing disks.
The first course of action should be to find opportunities to reduce I/O. Examine the
SQL statements being run by sessions waiting for these events and statements causing
high physical I/Os from V$SQLAREA. Factors that can adversely affect the execution
plans causing excessive I/O include the following:
■
Improperly optimized SQL
■
Missing indexes
■
High degree of parallelism for the table (skewing the optimizer toward scans)
■
Lack of accurate statistics for the optimizer
■
Setting the value for DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT initialization parameter too
high which favors full scans
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views
10-21
Wait Events Statistics
Inadequate I/O Distribution
Besides reducing I/O, also examine the I/O distribution of files across the disks. Is
I/O distributed uniformly across the disks, or are there hot spots on some disks? Are
the number of disks sufficient to meet the I/O needs of the database?
See the total I/O operations (reads and writes) by the database, and compare those
with the number of disks used. Remember to include the I/O activity of LGWR and
ARCH processes.
Finding the SQL Statement executed by Sessions Waiting for I/O
Use the following query to determine, at a point in time, which sessions are waiting
for I/O:
SELECT SQL_ADDRESS, SQL_HASH_VALUE
FROM V$SESSION
WHERE EVENT LIKE 'db file%read';
Finding the Object Requiring I/O
To determine the possible causes, first query V$SESSION to identify the value of ROW_
WAIT_OBJ# when the session waits for db file scattered read. For example:
SELECT row_wait_obj#
FROM V$SESSION
WHERE EVENT = 'db file scattered read';
To identify the object and object type contended for, query DBA_OBJECTS using the
value for ROW_WAIT_OBJ# that is returned from V$SESSION. For example:
SELECT owner, object_name, subobject_name, object_type
FROM DBA_OBJECTS
WHERE data_object_id = &row_wait_obj;
db file sequential read
This event signifies that the user process is reading a buffer into the SGA buffer cache
and is waiting for a physical I/O call to return. A sequential read is a single-block
read.
Single block I/Os are usually the result of using indexes. Rarely, full table scan calls
could get truncated to a single block call because of extent boundaries, or buffers
present in the buffer cache. These waits would also show up as db file sequential
read.
Check the following V$SESSION_WAIT parameter columns:
■
P1: The absolute file number
■
P2: The block being read
■
P3: The number of blocks (should be 1)
"db file scattered read" on page 10-20 for information
about managing excessive I/O, inadequate I/O distribution, and
finding the SQL causing the I/O and the segment the I/O is
performed on
See Also:
10-22 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Wait Events Statistics
Actions
On a healthy system, physical read waits should be the biggest waits after the idle
waits. However, also consider whether there are db file sequential reads on a large
data warehouse that should be seeing mostly full table scans with parallel query.
Figure 10–1 depicts the differences between the following wait events:
■
db file sequential read (single block read into one SGA buffer)
■
db file scattered read (multiblock read into many discontinuous SGA buffers)
■
direct read (single or multiblock read into the PGA, bypassing the SGA)
Figure 10–1
Scattered Read, Sequential Read, and Direct Path Read
direct path read and direct path read temp
When a session is reading buffers from disk directly into the PGA (opposed to the
buffer cache in SGA), it waits on this event. If the I/O subsystem does not support
asynchronous I/Os, then each wait corresponds to a physical read request.
If the I/O subsystem supports asynchronous I/O, then the process is able to overlap
issuing read requests with processing the blocks existing in the PGA. When the
process attempts to access a block in the PGA that has not yet been read from disk, it
then issues a wait call and updates the statistics for this event. Hence, the number of
waits is not necessarily the same as the number of read requests (unlike db file
scattered read and db file sequential read).
Check the following V$SESSION_WAIT parameter columns:
■
P1: File_id for the read call
■
P2: Start block_id for the read call
■
P3: Number of blocks in the read call
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views
10-23
Wait Events Statistics
Causes
This situation occurs in the following situations:
■
■
■
The sorts are too large to fit in memory and some of the sort data is written out
directly to disk. This data is later read back in, using direct reads.
Parallel execution servers are used for scanning data.
The server process is processing buffers faster than the I/O system can return the
buffers. This can indicate an overloaded I/O system.
Actions
The file_id shows if the reads are for an object in TEMP tablespace (sorts to disk) or
full table scans by parallel execution servers. This wait is the largest wait for large data
warehouse sites. However, if the workload is not a Decision Support Systems (DSS)
workload, then examine why this situation is happening.
Sorts to Disk Examine the SQL statement currently being run by the session
experiencing waits to see what is causing the sorts. Query V$TEMPSEG_USAGE to find the
SQL statement that is generating the sort. Also query the statistics from V$SESSTAT for
the session to determine the size of the sort. See if it is possible to reduce the sorting by
tuning the SQL statement. If WORKAREA_SIZE_POLICY is MANUAL, then consider
increasing the SORT_AREA_SIZE for the system (if the sorts are not too big) or for
individual processes. If WORKAREA_SIZE_POLICY is AUTO, then investigate whether to
increase PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET.
Full Table Scans If tables are defined with a high degree of parallelism, then this setting
could skew the optimizer to use full table scans with parallel execution servers. Check
the object being read into using the direct path reads. If the full table scans are a valid
part of the workload, then ensure that the I/O subsystem is adequate for the degree of
parallelism. Consider using disk striping if you are not already using it or Oracle
Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM).
Hash Area Size For query plans that call for a hash join, excessive I/O could result from
having HASH_AREA_SIZE too small. If WORKAREA_SIZE_POLICY is MANUAL, then consider
increasing the HASH_AREA_SIZE for the system or for individual processes. If WORKAREA_
SIZE_POLICY is AUTO, then investigate whether to increase PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET.
See Also:
■
"Managing Excessive I/O" on page 10-21
direct path write and direct path write temp
When a process is writing buffers directly from PGA (as opposed to the DBWR writing
them from the buffer cache), the process waits on this event for the write call to
complete. Operations that could perform direct path writes include sorts on disk,
parallel DML operations, direct-path INSERTs, parallel create table as select, and some
LOB operations.
Like direct path reads, the number of waits is not the same as number of write calls
issued if the I/O subsystem supports asynchronous writes. The session waits if it has
processed all buffers in the PGA and cannot continue work until an I/O request
completes.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information
about direct-path inserts
10-24 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Wait Events Statistics
Check the following V$SESSION_WAIT parameter columns:
■
P1: File_id for the write call
■
P2: Start block_id for the write call
■
P3: Number of blocks in the write call
Causes
This happens in the following situations:
■
Sorts are too large to fit in memory and are written to disk
■
Parallel DML are issued to create/populate objects
■
Direct path loads
Actions
For large sorts see "Sorts to Disk" on page 10-24.
For parallel DML, check the I/O distribution across disks and ensure that the I/O
subsystem is adequately configured for the degree of parallelism.
enqueue (enq:) waits
Enqueues are locks that coordinate access to database resources. This event indicates
that the session is waiting for a lock that is held by another session.
The name of the enqueue is included as part of the wait event name, in the form enq:
enqueue_type - related_details. In some cases, the same enqueue type can be held
for different purposes, such as the following related TX types:
■
enq: TX - allocate ITL entry
■
enq: TX - contention
■
enq: TX - index contention
■
enq: TX - row lock contention
The V$EVENT_NAME view provides a complete list of all the enq: wait events.
You can check the following V$SESSION_WAIT parameter columns for additional
information:
■
P1: Lock TYPE (or name) and MODE
■
P2: Resource identifier ID1 for the lock
■
P3: Resource identifier ID2 for the lock
See Also: Oracle Database Reference for information about Oracle
Database enqueues
Finding Locks and Lock Holders
Query V$LOCK to find the sessions holding the lock. For every session waiting for the
event enqueue, there is a row in V$LOCK with REQUEST <> 0. Use one of the following
two queries to find the sessions holding the locks and waiting for the locks.
If there are enqueue waits, you can see these using the following statement:
SELECT * FROM V$LOCK WHERE request > 0;
To show only holders and waiters for locks being waited on, use the following:
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views
10-25
Wait Events Statistics
SELECT DECODE(request,0,'Holder: ','Waiter: ') ||
sid sess, id1, id2, lmode, request, type
FROM V$LOCK
WHERE (id1, id2, type) IN (SELECT id1, id2, type FROM V$LOCK WHERE request > 0)
ORDER BY id1, request;
Actions
The appropriate action depends on the type of enqueue.
ST enqueue If the contended-for enqueue is the ST enqueue, then the problem is most
likely to be dynamic space allocation. Oracle Database dynamically allocates an extent
to a segment when there is no more free space available in the segment. This enqueue
is only used for dictionary managed tablespaces.
To solve contention on this resource:
■
■
Check to see whether the temporary (that is, sort) tablespace uses TEMPFILES. If
not, then switch to using TEMPFILES.
Switch to using locally managed tablespaces if the tablespace that contains
segments that are growing dynamically is dictionary managed.
Oracle Database Concepts for detailed information on
TEMPFILEs and locally managed tablespaces
See Also:
■
■
If it is not possible to switch to locally managed tablespaces, then ST enqueue
resource usage can be decreased by changing the next extent sizes of the growing
objects to be large enough to avoid constant space allocation. To determine which
segments are growing constantly, monitor the EXTENTS column of the DBA_
SEGMENTS view for all SEGMENT_NAMEs. See Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for
information about displaying information about space usage.
Preallocate space in the segment, for example, by allocating extents using the
ALTER TABLE ALLOCATE EXTENT SQL statement.
HW enqueue The HW enqueue is used to serialize the allocation of space beyond the
high water mark of a segment.
■
■
V$SESSION_WAIT.P2 / V$LOCK.ID1 is the tablespace number.
V$SESSION_WAIT.P3 / V$LOCK.ID2 is the relative data block address (dba) of
segment header of the object for which space is being allocated.
If this is a point of contention for an object, then manual allocation of extents solves the
problem.
TM enqueue The most common reason for waits on TM locks tend to involve foreign
key constraints where the constrained columns are not indexed. Index the foreign key
columns to avoid this problem.
TX enqueue These are acquired exclusive when a transaction initiates its first change
and held until the transaction does a COMMIT or ROLLBACK.
■
Waits for TX in mode 6: occurs when a session is waiting for a row level lock that
is held by another session. This occurs when one user is updating or deleting a
row, which another session wants to update or delete. This type of TX enqueue
wait corresponds to the wait event enq: TX - row lock contention.
The solution is to have the first session holding the lock perform a COMMIT or
ROLLBACK.
10-26 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Wait Events Statistics
■
Waits for TX in mode 4 can occur if the session is waiting for an ITL (interested
transaction list) slot in a block. This happens when the session wants to lock a row
in the block but one or more other sessions have rows locked in the same block,
and there is no free ITL slot in the block. Usually, Oracle Database dynamically
adds another ITL slot. This may not be possible if there is insufficient free space in
the block to add an ITL. If so, the session waits for a slot with a TX enqueue in
mode 4. This type of TX enqueue wait corresponds to the wait event enq: TX allocate ITL entry.
The solution is to increase the number of ITLs available, either by changing the
INITRANS or MAXTRANS for the table (either by using an ALTER statement, or by
re-creating the table with the higher values).
■
Waits for TX in mode 4 can also occur if a session is waiting due to potential
duplicates in UNIQUE index. If two sessions try to insert the same key value the
second session has to wait to see if an ORA-0001 should be raised or not. This type
of TX enqueue wait corresponds to the wait event enq: TX - row lock contention.
The solution is to have the first session holding the lock perform a COMMIT or
ROLLBACK.
■
■
■
Waits for TX in mode 4 is also possible if the session is waiting due to shared
bitmap index fragment. Bitmap indexes index key values and a range of rowids.
Each entry in a bitmap index can cover many rows in the actual table. If two
sessions want to update rows covered by the same bitmap index fragment, then
the second session waits for the first transaction to either COMMIT or ROLLBACK by
waiting for the TX lock in mode 4. This type of TX enqueue wait corresponds to
the wait event enq: TX - row lock contention.
Waits for TX in Mode 4 can also occur waiting for a PREPARED transaction.
Waits for TX in mode 4 also occur when a transaction inserting a row in an index
has to wait for the end of an index block split being done by another transaction.
This type of TX enqueue wait corresponds to the wait event enq: TX - index
contention.
See Also: Oracle Database Development Guide for more information
about referential integrity and locking data explicitly
events in wait class other
This event belong to Other wait class and typically should not occur on a system. This
event is an aggregate of all other events in the Other wait class, such as latch free,
and is used in the V$SESSION_EVENT and V$SERVICE_EVENT views only. In these views,
the events in the Other wait class will not be maintained individually in every session.
Instead, these events will be rolled up into this single event to reduce the memory
used for maintaining statistics on events in the Other wait class.
free buffer waits
This wait event indicates that a server process was unable to find a free buffer and has
posted the database writer to make free buffers by writing out dirty buffers. A dirty
buffer is a buffer whose contents have been modified. Dirty buffers are freed for reuse
when DBWR has written the blocks to disk.
Causes
DBWR may not be keeping up with writing dirty buffers in the following situations:
■
The I/O system is slow.
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views
10-27
Wait Events Statistics
■
■
■
There are resources it is waiting for, such as latches.
The buffer cache is so small that DBWR spends most of its time cleaning out
buffers for server processes.
The buffer cache is so big that one DBWR process is not enough to free enough
buffers in the cache to satisfy requests.
Actions
If this event occurs frequently, then examine the session waits for DBWR to see
whether there is anything delaying DBWR.
Writes If it is waiting for writes, then determine what is delaying the writes and fix it.
Check the following:
■
■
Examine V$FILESTAT to see where most of the writes are happening.
Examine the host operating system statistics for the I/O system. Are the write
times acceptable?
If I/O is slow:
■
Consider using faster I/O alternatives to speed up write times.
■
Spread the I/O activity across large number of spindles (disks) and controllers.
Cache is Too Small It is possible DBWR is very active because the cache is too small.
Investigate whether this is a probable cause by looking to see if the buffer cache hit
ratio is low. Also use the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE view to determine whether a larger
cache size would be advantageous.
Cache Is Too Big for One DBWR If the cache size is adequate and the I/O is evenly
spread, then you can potentially modify the behavior of DBWR by using
asynchronous I/O or by using multiple database writers.
Consider Multiple Database Writer (DBWR) Processes or I/O Slaves
Configuring multiple database writer processes, or using I/O slaves, is useful when
the transaction rates are high or when the buffer cache size is so large that a single
DBWn process cannot keep up with the load.
DB_WRITER_PROCESSES The DB_WRITER_PROCESSES initialization parameter lets you
configure multiple database writer processes (from DBW0 to DBW9 and from DBWa
to DBWj). Configuring multiple DBWR processes distributes the work required to
identify buffers to be written, and it also distributes the I/O load over these processes.
Multiple db writer processes are highly recommended for systems with multiple CPUs
(at least one db writer for every 8 CPUs) or multiple processor groups (at least as
many db writers as processor groups).
Based upon the number of CPUs and the number of processor groups, Oracle
Database either selects an appropriate default setting for DB_WRITER_PROCESSES or
adjusts a user-specified setting.
DBWR_IO_SLAVES If it is not practical to use multiple DBWR processes, then Oracle
Database provides a facility whereby the I/O load can be distributed over multiple
slave processes. The DBWR process is the only process that scans the buffer cache LRU
list for blocks to be written out. However, the I/O for those blocks is performed by the
I/O slaves. The number of I/O slaves is determined by the parameter DBWR_IO_
SLAVES.
10-28 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Wait Events Statistics
DBWR_IO_SLAVES is intended for scenarios where you cannot use multiple DB_WRITER_
PROCESSES (for example, where you have a single CPU). I/O slaves are also useful
when asynchronous I/O is not available, because the multiple I/O slaves simulate
nonblocking, asynchronous requests by freeing DBWR to continue identifying blocks
in the cache to be written. Asynchronous I/O at the operating system level, if you
have it, is generally preferred.
DBWR I/O slaves are allocated immediately following database open when the first
I/O request is made. The DBWR continues to perform all of the DBWR-related work,
apart from performing I/O. I/O slaves simply perform the I/O on behalf of DBWR.
The writing of the batch is parallelized between the I/O slaves.
Note: Implementing DBWR_IO_SLAVES requires that extra shared
memory be allocated for I/O buffers and request queues. Multiple
DBWR processes cannot be used with I/O slaves. Configuring I/O
slaves forces only one DBWR process to start.
Choosing Between Multiple DBWR Processes and I/O Slaves Configuring multiple DBWR
processes benefits performance when a single DBWR process cannot keep up with the
required workload. However, before configuring multiple DBWR processes, check
whether asynchronous I/O is available and configured on the system. If the system
supports asynchronous I/O but it is not currently used, then enable asynchronous I/O
to see if this alleviates the problem. If the system does not support asynchronous I/O,
or if asynchronous I/O is configured and there is still a DBWR bottleneck, then
configure multiple DBWR processes.
If asynchronous I/O is not available on your platform, then
asynchronous I/O can be disabled by setting the DISK_ASYNCH_IO
initialization parameter to FALSE.
Note:
Using multiple DBWRs parallelizes the gathering and writing of buffers. Therefore,
multiple DBWn processes should deliver more throughput than one DBWR process
with the same number of I/O slaves. For this reason, the use of I/O slaves has been
deprecated in favor of multiple DBWR processes. I/O slaves should only be used if
multiple DBWR processes cannot be configured.
Idle Wait Events
These events belong to Idle wait class and indicate that the server process is waiting
because it has no work. This usually implies that if there is a bottleneck, then the
bottleneck is not for database resources. The majority of the idle events should be
ignored when tuning, because they do not indicate the nature of the performance
bottleneck. Some idle events can be useful in indicating what the bottleneck is not. An
example of this type of event is the most commonly encountered idle wait-event SQL
Net message from client. This and other idle events (and their categories) are listed
in Table 10–2.
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views
10-29
Wait Events Statistics
Table 10–2
Idle Wait Events
Wait Name
Background
Process Idle User Process Parallel Query
Event
Idle Event
Idle Event
Shared Server
Idle Event
Oracle Real
Application Clusters
Idle Event
dispatcher timer
.
.
.
X
.
pipe get
.
X
.
.
.
pmon timer
X
.
.
.
.
PX Idle Wait
.
.
X
.
.
PX Deq Credit: need buffer
.
.
X
.
.
rdbms ipc message
X
.
.
.
.
shared server idle wait
.
.
.
X
.
smon timer
X
.
.
.
.
SQL*Net message from client
.
X
.
.
.
See Also:
Oracle Database Reference for explanations of each idle
wait event
latch events
A latch is a low-level internal lock used by Oracle Database to protect memory
structures. The latch free event is updated when a server process attempts to get a
latch, and the latch is unavailable on the first attempt.
There is a dedicated latch-related wait event for the more popular latches that often
generate significant contention. For those events, the name of the latch appears in the
name of the wait event, such as latch: library cache or latch: cache buffers
chains. This enables you to quickly figure out if a particular type of latch is
responsible for most of the latch-related contention. Waits for all other latches are
grouped in the generic latch free wait event.
Oracle Database Concepts for more information on
latches and internal locks
See Also:
Actions
This event should only be a concern if latch waits are a significant portion of the wait
time on the system as a whole, or for individual users experiencing problems.
■
■
Examine the resource usage for related resources. For example, if the library cache
latch is heavily contended for, then examine the hard and soft parse rates.
Examine the SQL statements for the sessions experiencing latch contention to see if
there is any commonality.
Check the following V$SESSION_WAIT parameter columns:
■
P1: Address of the latch
■
P2: Latch number
■
P3: Number of times process has slept, waiting for the latch
Example: Find Latches Currently Waited For
SELECT EVENT, SUM(P3) SLEEPS, SUM(SECONDS_IN_WAIT) SECONDS_IN_WAIT
FROM V$SESSION_WAIT
WHERE EVENT LIKE 'latch%'
GROUP BY EVENT;
10-30 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Wait Events Statistics
A problem with the previous query is that it tells more about session tuning or instant
instance tuning than instance or long-duration instance tuning.
The following query provides more information about long duration instance tuning,
showing whether the latch waits are significant in the overall database time.
SELECT EVENT, TIME_WAITED_MICRO,
ROUND(TIME_WAITED_MICRO*100/S.DBTIME,1) PCT_DB_TIME
FROM V$SYSTEM_EVENT,
(SELECT VALUE DBTIME FROM V$SYS_TIME_MODEL WHERE STAT_NAME = 'DB time') S
WHERE EVENT LIKE 'latch%'
ORDER BY PCT_DB_TIME ASC;
A more general query that is not specific to latch waits is the following:
SELECT EVENT, WAIT_CLASS,
TIME_WAITED_MICRO,ROUND(TIME_WAITED_MICRO*100/S.DBTIME,1) PCT_DB_TIME
FROM V$SYSTEM_EVENT E, V$EVENT_NAME N,
(SELECT VALUE DBTIME FROM V$SYS_TIME_MODEL WHERE STAT_NAME = 'DB time') S
WHERE E.EVENT_ID = N.EVENT_ID
AND N.WAIT_CLASS NOT IN ('Idle', 'System I/O')
ORDER BY PCT_DB_TIME ASC;
Table 10–3
Latch Wait Event
Latch
SGA Area
Possible Causes
Look For:
Shared pool,
library cache
Shared pool
Lack of statement reuse
Sessions (in V$SESSTAT) with high:
Statements not using bind variables
■
parse time CPU
Insufficient size of application cursor cache
■
parse time elapsed
Cursors closed explicitly after each
execution
■
Ratio of parse count (hard) / execute
count
Frequent logins and logoffs
■
Underlying object structure being modified
(for example truncate)
Cursors (in V$SQLAREA/V$SQLSTATS) with:
Shared pool too small
■
■
Ratio of parse count (total) / execute
count
High ratio of PARSE_CALLS / EXECUTIONS
EXECUTIONS = 1 differing only in literals
in the WHERE clause (that is, no bind
variables used)
■
High RELOADS
■
High INVALIDATIONS
■
Large (> 1mb) SHARABLE_MEM
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views
10-31
Wait Events Statistics
Table 10–3 (Cont.) Latch Wait Event
Latch
SGA Area
Possible Causes
Look For:
cache buffers
lru chain
Buffer cache
LRU lists
Excessive buffer cache throughput. For
example, inefficient SQL that accesses
incorrect indexes iteratively (large index
range scans) or many full table scans
Statements with very high logical I/O or
physical I/O, using unselective indexes
DBWR not keeping up with the dirty
workload; hence, foreground process
spends longer holding the latch looking for
a free buffer
Cache may be too small
cache buffers
chains
Buffer cache
buffers
Repeated access to a block (or small
number of blocks), known as a hot block
Sequence number generation code that updates
a row in a table to generate the number, rather
than using a sequence number generator
Index leaf chasing from very many processes
scanning the same unselective index with very
similar predicate
Identify the segment the hot block belongs to
row cache
objects
Shared Pool and Library Cache Latch Contention
A main cause of shared pool or library cache latch contention is parsing. There are
several techniques that you can use to identify unnecessary parsing and several types
of unnecessary parsing:
■
Unshared SQL
■
Reparsed Sharable SQL
■
By Session
■
cache buffers lru chain
■
cache buffers chains
■
row cache objects
Unshared SQL This method identifies similar SQL statements that could be shared if
literals were replaced with bind variables. The idea is to either:
■
Manually inspect SQL statements that have only one execution to see whether
they are similar:
SELECT
FROM
WHERE
ORDER
■
SQL_TEXT
V$SQLSTATS
EXECUTIONS < 4
BY SQL_TEXT;
Or, automate this process by grouping what may be similar statements. Estimate
the number of bytes of a SQL statement that are likely the same, and group the
SQL statements by this number of bytes. For example, the following example
groups statements that differ only after the first 60 bytes.
SELECT SUBSTR(SQL_TEXT, 1, 60), COUNT(*)
FROM V$SQLSTATS
WHERE EXECUTIONS < 4
GROUP BY SUBSTR(SQL_TEXT, 1, 60)
HAVING COUNT(*) > 1;
10-32 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Wait Events Statistics
■
Or report distinct SQL statements that have the same execution plan. The
following query selects distinct SQL statements that share the same execution plan
at least four times. These SQL statements are likely to be using literals instead of
bind variables.
SELECT SQL_TEXT FROM V$SQLSTATS WHERE PLAN_HASH_VALUE IN
(SELECT PLAN_HASH_VALUE
FROM V$SQLSTATS
GROUP BY PLAN_HASH_VALUE HAVING COUNT(*) > 4)
ORDER BY PLAN_HASH_VALUE;
Reparsed Sharable SQL Check the V$SQLSTATS view. Enter the following query:
SELECT SQL_TEXT, PARSE_CALLS, EXECUTIONS
FROM V$SQLSTATS
ORDER BY PARSE_CALLS;
When the PARSE_CALLS value is close to the EXECUTIONS value for a given statement,
you might be continually reparsing that statement. Tune the statements with the
higher numbers of parse calls.
By Session Identify unnecessary parse calls by identifying the session in which they
occur. It might be that particular batch programs or certain types of applications do
most of the reparsing. To achieve this goal, run the following query:
SELECT
FROM
WHERE
AND
pa.SID, pa.VALUE "Hard Parses", ex.VALUE "Execute Count"
V$SESSTAT pa, V$SESSTAT ex
pa.SID = ex.SID
pa.STATISTIC#=(SELECT STATISTIC#
FROM V$STATNAME WHERE NAME = 'parse count (hard)')
AND ex.STATISTIC#=(SELECT STATISTIC#
FROM V$STATNAME WHERE NAME = 'execute count')
AND pa.VALUE > 0;
The result is a list of all sessions and the amount of reparsing they do. For each session
identifier (SID), go to V$SESSION to find the name of the program that causes the
reparsing.
Because this query counts all parse calls since instance
startup, it is best to look for sessions with high rates of parse. For
example, a connection which has been up for 50 days might show a
high parse figure, but a second connection might have been up for
10 minutes and be parsing at a much faster rate.
Note:
The output is similar to the following:
SID
-----7
8
6
11
Hard Parses
----------1
3
26
84
Execute Count
------------20
12690
325
1619
cache buffers lru chain The cache buffers lru chain latches protect the lists of buffers in
the cache. When adding, moving, or removing a buffer from a list, a latch must be
obtained.
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views
10-33
Wait Events Statistics
For symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) systems, Oracle Database automatically sets the
number of LRU latches to a value equal to one half the number of CPUs on the system.
For non-SMP systems, one LRU latch is sufficient.
Contention for the LRU latch can impede performance on SMP computers with a large
number of CPUs. LRU latch contention is detected by querying V$LATCH, V$SESSION_
EVENT, and V$SYSTEM_EVENT. To avoid contention, consider tuning the application,
bypassing the buffer cache for DSS jobs, or redesigning the application.
cache buffers chains The cache buffers chains latches are used to protect a buffer list
in the buffer cache. These latches are used when searching for, adding, or removing a
buffer from the buffer cache. Contention on this latch usually means that there is a
block that is greatly contended for (known as a hot block).
To identify the heavily accessed buffer chain, and hence the contended for block, look
at latch statistics for the cache buffers chains latches using the view V$LATCH_
CHILDREN. If there is a specific cache buffers chains child latch that has many more
GETS, MISSES, and SLEEPS when compared with the other child latches, then this is the
contended for child latch.
This latch has a memory address, identified by the ADDR column. Use the value in the
ADDR column joined with the X$BH table to identify the blocks protected by this latch.
For example, given the address (V$LATCH_CHILDREN.ADDR) of a heavily contended
latch, this queries the file and block numbers:
SELECT OBJ data_object_id, FILE#, DBABLK,CLASS, STATE, TCH
FROM X$BH
WHERE HLADDR = 'address of latch'
ORDER BY TCH;
X$BH.TCH is a touch count for the buffer. A high value for X$BH.TCH indicates a hot
block.
Many blocks are protected by each latch. One of these buffers will probably be the hot
block. Any block with a high TCH value is a potential hot block. Perform this query
several times, and identify the block that consistently appears in the output. After you
have identified the hot block, query DBA_EXTENTS using the file number and block
number, to identify the segment.
After you have identified the hot block, you can identify the segment it belongs to
with the following query:
SELECT OBJECT_NAME, SUBOBJECT_NAME
FROM DBA_OBJECTS
WHERE DATA_OBJECT_ID = &obj;
In the query, &obj is the value of the OBJ column in the previous query on X$BH.
row cache objects The row cache objects latches protect the data dictionary.
log file parallel write
This event involves writing redo records to the redo log files from the log buffer.
library cache pin
This event manages library cache concurrency. Pinning an object causes the heaps to
be loaded into memory. If a client wants to modify or examine the object, the client
must acquire a pin after the lock.
10-34 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Wait Events Statistics
library cache lock
This event controls the concurrency between clients of the library cache. It acquires a
lock on the object handle so that either:
■
■
One client can prevent other clients from accessing the same object
The client can maintain a dependency for a long time which does not allow
another client to change the object
This lock is also obtained to locate an object in the library cache.
log buffer space
This event occurs when server processes are waiting for free space in the log buffer,
because all the redo is generated faster than LGWR can write it out.
Actions
Modify the redo log buffer size. If the size of the log buffer is reasonable, then ensure
that the disks on which the online redo logs reside do not suffer from I/O contention.
The log buffer space wait event could be indicative of either disk I/O contention on
the disks where the redo logs reside, or of a too-small log buffer. Check the I/O profile
of the disks containing the redo logs to investigate whether the I/O system is the
bottleneck. If the I/O system is not a problem, then the redo log buffer could be too
small. Increase the size of the redo log buffer until this event is no longer significant.
log file switch
There are two wait events commonly encountered:
■
log file switch (archiving needed)
■
log file switch (checkpoint incomplete)
In both of the events, the LGWR cannot switch into the next online redo log file. All
the commit requests wait for this event.
Actions
For the log file switch (archiving needed) event, examine why the archiver cannot
archive the logs in a timely fashion. It could be due to the following:
■
Archive destination is running out of free space.
■
Archiver is not able to read redo logs fast enough (contention with the LGWR).
■
■
Archiver is not able to write fast enough (contention on the archive destination, or
not enough ARCH processes). If you have ruled out other possibilities (such as
slow disks or a full archive destination) consider increasing the number of ARCn
processes. The default is 2.
If you have mandatory remote shipped archive logs, check whether this process is
slowing down because of network delays or the write is not completing because of
errors.
Depending on the nature of bottleneck, you might need to redistribute I/O or add
more space to the archive destination to alleviate the problem. For the log file switch
(checkpoint incomplete) event:
■
Check if DBWR is slow, possibly due to an overloaded or slow I/O system. Check
the DBWR write times, check the I/O system, and distribute I/O if necessary.
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views
10-35
Wait Events Statistics
■
Check if there are too few, or too small redo logs. If you have a few redo logs or
small redo logs (for example, 2 x 100k logs), and your system produces enough
redo to cycle through all of the logs before DBWR has been able to complete the
checkpoint, then increase the size or number of redo logs.
log file sync
When a user session commits (or rolls back), the session's redo information must be
flushed to the redo logfile by LGWR. The server process performing the COMMIT or
ROLLBACK waits under this event for the write to the redo log to complete.
Actions
If this event's waits constitute a significant wait on the system or a significant amount
of time waited by a user experiencing response time issues or on a system, then
examine the average time waited.
If the average time waited is low, but the number of waits are high, then the
application might be committing after every INSERT, rather than batching COMMITs.
Applications can reduce the wait by committing after 50 rows, rather than every row.
If the average time waited is high, then examine the session waits for the log writer
and see what it is spending most of its time doing and waiting for. If the waits are
because of slow I/O, then try the following:
■
■
■
■
■
Reduce other I/O activity on the disks containing the redo logs, or use dedicated
disks.
Alternate redo logs on different disks to minimize the effect of the archiver on the
log writer.
Move the redo logs to faster disks or a faster I/O subsystem (for example, switch
from RAID 5 to RAID 1).
Consider using raw devices (or simulated raw devices provided by disk vendors)
to speed up the writes.
Depending on the type of application, it might be possible to batch COMMITs by
committing every N rows, rather than every row, so that fewer log file syncs are
needed.
rdbms ipc reply
This event is used to wait for a reply from one of the background processes.
SQL*Net Events
The following events signify that the database process is waiting for acknowledgment
from a database link or a client process:
■
SQL*Net break/reset to client
■
SQL*Net break/reset to dblink
■
SQL*Net message from client
■
SQL*Net message from dblink
■
SQL*Net message to client
■
SQL*Net message to dblink
■
SQL*Net more data from client
10-36 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Wait Events Statistics
■
SQL*Net more data from dblink
■
SQL*Net more data to client
■
SQL*Net more data to dblink
If these waits constitute a significant portion of the wait time on the system or for a
user experiencing response time issues, then the network or the middle-tier could be a
bottleneck.
Events that are client-related should be diagnosed as described for the event SQL*Net
message from client. Events that are dblink-related should be diagnosed as described
for the event SQL*Net message from dblink.
SQL*Net message from client
Although this is an idle event, it is important to explain when this event can be used to
diagnose what is not the problem. This event indicates that a server process is waiting
for work from the client process. However, there are several situations where this
event could accrue most of the wait time for a user experiencing poor response time.
The cause could be either a network bottleneck or a resource bottleneck on the client
process.
Network Bottleneck A network bottleneck can occur if the application causes a lot of
traffic between server and client and the network latency (time for a round-trip) is
high. Symptoms include the following:
■
■
Large number of waits for this event
Both the database and client process are idle (waiting for network traffic) most of
the time
To alleviate network bottlenecks, try the following:
■
■
■
Tune the application to reduce round trips.
Explore options to reduce latency (for example, terrestrial lines opposed to VSAT
links).
Change system configuration to move higher traffic components to lower latency
links.
Resource Bottleneck on the Client Process If the client process is using most of the
resources, then there is nothing that can be done in the database. Symptoms include
the following:
■
Number of waits might not be large, but the time waited might be significant
■
Client process has a high resource usage
In some cases, you can see the wait time for a waiting user tracking closely with the
amount of CPU used by the client process. The term client here refers to any process
other than the database process (middle-tier, desktop client) in the n-tier architecture.
SQL*Net message from dblink
This event signifies that the session has sent a message to the remote node and is
waiting for a response from the database link. This time could go up because of the
following:
■
Network bottleneck
For information, see "SQL*Net message from client" on page 10-37.
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views
10-37
Tuning Instance Recovery Performance: Fast-Start Fault Recovery
■
Time taken to execute the SQL on the remote node
It is useful to see the SQL being run on the remote node. Login to the remote
database, find the session created by the database link, and examine the SQL
statement being run by it.
■
Number of round trip messages
Each message between the session and the remote node adds latency time and
processing overhead. To reduce the number of messages exchanged, use array
fetches and array inserts.
SQL*Net more data to client
The server process is sending more data or messages to the client. The previous
operation to the client was also a send.
See Also: Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for a
detailed discussion on network optimization
Tuning Instance Recovery Performance: Fast-Start Fault Recovery
This section describes instance recovery, and how Oracle's Fast-Start Fault Recovery
improves availability in the event of a crash or instance failure. It also offers guidelines
for tuning the time required to perform crash and instance recovery.
This section contains the following topics:
■
About Instance Recovery
■
Configuring the Duration of Cache Recovery: FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET
■
Tuning FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET and Using MTTR Advisor
About Instance Recovery
Instance and crash recovery are the automatic application of redo log records to Oracle
data blocks after a crash or system failure. During normal operation, if an instance is
shut down cleanly (as when using a SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE statement), rather than
terminated abnormally, then the in-memory changes that have not been written to the
data files on disk are written to disk as part of the checkpoint performed during
shutdown.
However, if a single instance database crashes or if all instances of an Oracle RAC
configuration crash, then Oracle Database performs crash recovery at the next startup.
If one or more instances of an Oracle RAC configuration crash, then a surviving
instance performs instance recovery automatically. Instance and crash recovery occur
in two steps: cache recovery followed by transaction recovery.
The database can be opened as soon as cache recovery completes, so improving the
performance of cache recovery is important for increasing availability.
Cache Recovery (Rolling Forward)
During the cache recovery step, Oracle Database applies all committed and
uncommitted changes in the redo log files to the affected data blocks. The work
required for cache recovery processing is proportional to the rate of change to the
database (update transactions each second) and the time between checkpoints.
10-38 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Tuning Instance Recovery Performance: Fast-Start Fault Recovery
Transaction Recovery (Rolling Back)
To make the database consistent, the changes that were not committed at the time of
the crash must be undone (in other words, rolled back). During the transaction
recovery step, Oracle Database applies the rollback segments to undo the
uncommitted changes.
Checkpoints and Cache Recovery
Periodically, Oracle Database records a checkpoint. A checkpoint is the highest system
change number (SCN) such that all data blocks less than or equal to that SCN are
known to be written out to the data files. If a failure occurs, then only the redo records
containing changes at SCNs higher than the checkpoint need to be applied during
recovery. The duration of cache recovery processing is determined by two factors: the
number of data blocks that have changes at SCNs higher than the SCN of the
checkpoint, and the number of log blocks that need to be read to find those changes.
How Checkpoints Affect Performance Frequent checkpointing writes dirty buffers to the
data files more often than otherwise, and so reduces cache recovery time in the event
of an instance failure. If checkpointing is frequent, then applying the redo records in
the redo log between the current checkpoint position and the end of the log involves
processing relatively few data blocks. This means that the cache recovery phase of
recovery is fairly short.
However, in a high-update system, frequent checkpointing can reduce run-time
performance, because checkpointing causes DBWn processes to perform writes.
Fast Cache Recovery Tradeoffs To minimize the duration of cache recovery, you must
force Oracle Database to checkpoint often, thus keeping the number of redo log
records to be applied during recovery to a minimum. However, in a high-update
system, frequent checkpointing increases the overhead for normal database
operations.
If daily operational efficiency is more important than minimizing recovery time, then
decrease the frequency of writes to data files due to checkpoints. This should improve
operational efficiency, but also increase cache recovery time.
Configuring the Duration of Cache Recovery: FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET
The Fast-Start Fault Recovery feature reduces the time required for cache recovery,
and makes the recovery bounded and predictable by limiting the number of dirty
buffers and the number of redo records generated between the most recent redo
record and the last checkpoint.
The foundation of Fast-Start Fault Recovery is the Fast-Start checkpointing
architecture. Instead of conventional event-driven (that is, log switching)
checkpointing, which does bulk writes, fast-start checkpointing occurs incrementally.
Each DBWn process periodically writes buffers to disk to advance the checkpoint
position. The oldest modified blocks are written first to ensure that every write lets the
checkpoint advance. Fast-Start checkpointing eliminates bulk writes and the resultant
I/O spikes that occur with conventional checkpointing.
With the Fast-Start Fault Recovery feature, the FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET initialization
parameter simplifies the configuration of recovery time from instance or system
failure. FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET specifies a target for the expected mean time to
recover (MTTR), that is, the time (in seconds) that it should take to start up the
instance and perform cache recovery. After FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET is set, the
database manages incremental checkpoint writes in an attempt to meet that target. If
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views
10-39
Tuning Instance Recovery Performance: Fast-Start Fault Recovery
you have chosen a practical value for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET, you can expect your
database to recover, on average, in approximately the number of seconds you have
chosen.
You must disable or remove the FAST_START_IO_TARGET,
LOG_CHECKPOINT_INTERVAL, and LOG_CHECKPOINT_TIMEOUT
initialization parameters when using FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET.
Setting these parameters interferes with the mechanisms used to
manage cache recovery time to meet FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET.
Note:
Practical Values for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET
The maximum value for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET is 3600 seconds (one hour). If you
set the value to more than 3600, then Oracle Database rounds it to 3600.
The following example shows how to set the value of FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET:
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET=30;
In principle, the minimum value for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET is one second.
However, the fact that you can set FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET this low does not mean
that this target can be achieved. There are practical limits to the minimum achievable
MTTR target, due to such factors as database startup time.
The MTTR target that your database can achieve given the current value of FAST_
START_MTTR_TARGET is called the effective MTTR target. You can view your current
effective MTTR by viewing the TARGET_MTTR column of the V$INSTANCE_RECOVERY
view.
The practical range of MTTR target values for your database is defined to be the range
between the lowest achievable effective MTTR target for your database and the longest
that startup and cache recovery will take in the worst-case scenario (that is, when the
whole buffer cache is dirty). "Determine the Practical Range for FAST_START_MTTR_
TARGET" on page 10-42 describes the procedure for determining the range of
achievable MTTR target values, one step in the process of tuning your FAST_START_
MTTR_TARGET value.
It is usually not useful to set your FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET
to a value outside the practical range. If your FAST_START_MTTR_
TARGET value is shorter than the lower limit of the practical range,
the effect is as if you set it to the lower limit of the practical range.
In such a case, the effective MTTR target will be the best MTTR
target the system can achieve, but checkpointing will be at a
maximum, which can affect normal database performance. If you
set FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET to a time longer than the practical
range, the MTTR target will be no better than the worst-case
situation.
Note:
Reducing Checkpoint Frequency to Optimize Run-Time Performance
To reduce the checkpoint frequency and optimize run-time performance, you can do
the following:
■
Set the value of FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET to 3600. This enables Fast-Start
checkpointing and the Fast-Start Fault Recovery feature, but minimizes its effect
on run-time performance while avoiding the need for performance tuning of
FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET.
10-40 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Tuning Instance Recovery Performance: Fast-Start Fault Recovery
■
Size your online redo log files according to the amount of redo your system
generates. Try to switch logs at most every twenty minutes. Having your log files
too small can increase checkpoint activity and reduce performance. Also note that
all redo log files should be the same size.
See Also:
Oracle Database Concepts for a complete discussion of
checkpoints
Monitoring Cache Recovery with V$INSTANCE_RECOVERY
The V$INSTANCE_RECOVERY view displays the current recovery parameter settings. You
can also use statistics from this view to determine which factor has the greatest
influence on checkpointing.
The following table lists those columns most useful in monitoring predicted cache
recovery performance:
Table 10–4
V$INSTANCE_RECOVERY Columns
Column
Description
TARGET_MTTR
Effective MTTR target in seconds. This field is 0 if FAST_START_
MTTR_TARGET is not specified.
ESTIMATED_MTTR
The current estimated MTTR in seconds, based on the current
number of dirty buffers and log blocks. This field is always
calculated, whether FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET is specified.
For more details on the columns in V$INSTANCE_RECOVERY, see Oracle Database
Reference.
As part of the ongoing monitoring of your database, you can periodically compare
V$INSTANCE_RECOVERY.TARGET_MTTR to your FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET. The two values
should generally be the same if the FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET value is in the practical
range. If TARGET_MTTR is consistently longer than FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET, then set
FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET to a value no less than TARGET_MTTR. If TARGET_MTTR is
consistently shorter, then set FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET to a value no greater than
TARGET_MTTR.
Tuning FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET and Using MTTR Advisor
To determine the appropriate value for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET for your database,
use the following four step process:
■
Calibrate the FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET
■
Determine the Practical Range for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET
■
Evaluate Different Target Values with MTTR Advisor
■
Determine the Optimal Size for Redo Logs
Calibrate the FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET
The FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET initialization parameter causes the database to calculate
internal system trigger values, in order to limit the length of the redo log and the
number of dirty data buffers in the data cache. This calculation uses estimated time to
read a redo block, estimates of the time to read and write a data block and
characteristics of typical workload of the system, such as how many dirty buffers
corresponds to how many change vectors, and so on.
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views
10-41
Tuning Instance Recovery Performance: Fast-Start Fault Recovery
Initially, internal defaults are used in the calculation. These defaults are replaced over
time by data gathered on I/O performance during system operation and actual cache
recoveries.
You will have to perform several instance recoveries in order to calibrate your FAST_
START_MTTR_TARGET value properly. Before starting calibration, you must decide
whether FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET is being calibrated for a database crash or a
hardware crash. This is a consideration if your database files are stored in a file system
or if your I/O subsystem has a memory cache, because there is a considerable
difference in the read and write time to disk depending on whether the files are
cached. The appropriate value for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET will depend upon which
type of crash is more important to recover from quickly.
To effectively calibrate FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET, ensure that you run the typical
workload of the system for long enough, and perform several instance recoveries to
ensure that the time to read a redo block and the time to read or write a data block
during recovery are recorded accurately.
Determine the Practical Range for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET
After calibration, you can perform tests to determine the practical range for FAST_
START_MTTR_TARGET for your database.
Determining Lower Bound for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET: Scenario To determine the
lower bound of the practical range, set FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET to 1, and start up
your database. Then check the value of V$INSTANCE_RECOVERY.TARGET_MTTR, and use
this value as a good lower bound for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET. Database startup time,
rather than cache recovery time, is usually the dominant factor in determining this
limit.
For example, set the FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET to 1:
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET=1;
Then, execute the following query immediately after opening the database:
SQL> SELECT TARGET_MTTR, ESTIMATED_MTTR
FROM V$INSTANCE_RECOVERY;
Oracle Database responds with the following:
TARGET_MTTR ESTIMATED_MTTR
18
15
The TARGET_MTTR value of 18 seconds is the minimum MTTR target that the system can
achieve, that is, the lowest practical value for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET. This
minimum is calculated based on the average database startup time.
The ESTIMATED_MTTR field contains the estimated mean time to recovery based on the
current state of the running database. Because the database has just opened, the
system contains few dirty buffers, so not much cache recovery would be required if
the instance failed at this moment. That is why ESTIMATED_MTTR can, for the moment,
be lower than the minimum possible TARGET_MTTR.
ESTIMATED_MTTR can be affected in the short term by recent database activity. Assume
that you query V$INSTANCE_RECOVERY immediately after a period of heavy update
activity in the database. Oracle Database responds with the following:
TARGET_MTTR ESTIMATED_MTTR
18
30
10-42 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Tuning Instance Recovery Performance: Fast-Start Fault Recovery
Now the effective MTTR target is still 18 seconds, and the estimated MTTR (if a crash
happened at that moment) is 30 seconds. This is an acceptable result. This means that
some checkpoints writes might not have finished yet, so the buffer cache contains
more dirty buffers than targeted.
Now wait for sixty seconds and reissue the query to V$INSTANCE_RECOVERY. Oracle
Database responds with the following:
TARGET_MTTR ESTIMATED_MTTR
18
25
The estimated MTTR at this time has dropped to 25 seconds, because some of the dirty
buffers have been written out during this period
Determining Upper Bound for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET To determine the upper bound
of the practical range, set FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET to 3600, and operate your database
under a typical workload for a while. Then check the value of V$INSTANCE_
RECOVERY.TARGET_MTTR. This value is a good upper bound for FAST_START_MTTR_
TARGET.
The procedure is substantially similar to that in "Determining Lower Bound for FAST_
START_MTTR_TARGET: Scenario" on page 10-42.
Selecting Preliminary Value for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET After you have determined the
practical bounds for the FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET parameter, select a preliminary
value for the parameter. Choose a higher value within the practical range if your
concern is with database performance, and a lower value within the practical range if
your priority is shorter recovery times. The narrower the practical range, of course, the
easier the choice becomes.
For example, if you discovered that the practical range was between 17 and 19
seconds, it would be quite simple to choose 19, because it makes relatively little
difference in recovery time and at the same time minimizes the effect of checkpointing
on system performance. However, if you found that the practical range was between
18 and 40 seconds, you might choose a compromise value of 30, and set the parameter
accordingly:
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET=30;
You might then go on to use the MTTR Advisor to determine an optimal value.
Evaluate Different Target Values with MTTR Advisor
After you have selected a preliminary value for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET, you can use
MTTR Advisor to evaluate the effect of different FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET settings on
system performance, compared to your chosen setting.
Enabling MTTR Advisor To enable MTTR Advisor, set the two initialization parameters
STATISTICS_LEVEL and FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET.
STATISTICS_LEVEL governs whether all advisors are enabled and is not specific to
MTTR Advisor. Ensure that it is set to TYPICAL or ALL. Then, when FAST_START_MTTR_
TARGET is set to a nonzero value, the MTTR Advisor is enabled.
Using MTTR Advisor After enabling MTTR Advisor, run a typical database workload for
a while. When MTTR Advisor is ON, the database simulates checkpoint queue
behavior under the current value of FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET, and up to four other
different MTTR settings within the range of valid FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET values.
Instance Tuning Using Performance Views
10-43
Tuning Instance Recovery Performance: Fast-Start Fault Recovery
(The database will in this case determine the valid range for FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET
itself before testing different values in the range.)
Viewing MTTR Advisor Results: V$MTTR_TARGET_ADVICE The dynamic performance view
V$MTTR_TARGET_ADVICE lets you view statistics or advisories collected by MTTR
Advisor.
The database populates V$MTTR_TARGET_ADVICE with advice about the effects of each
of the FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET settings for your database. For each possible value of
FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET, the row contains details about how many cache writes
would be performed under the workload tested for that value of FAST_START_
MTTR_TARGET.
Specifically, each row contains information about cache writes, total physical writes
(including direct writes), and total I/O (including reads) for that value of FAST_START_
MTTR_TARGET, expressed both as a total number of operations and a ratio compared to
the operations under your chosen FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET value. For instance, a
ratio of 1.2 indicates 20% more cache writes.
Knowing the effect of different FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET settings on cache write
activity and other I/O enables you to decide better which FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET
value best fits your recovery and performance needs.
If MTTR Advisor is currently on, then V$MTTR_TARGET_ADVICE shows the Advisor
information collected. If MTTR Advisor is currently OFF, then the view shows
information collected the last time MTTR Advisor was ON since database startup, if
any. If the database has been restarted since the last time the MTTR Advisor was used,
or if it has never been used, the view will not show any rows.
Oracle Database Reference for column details of the
V$MTTR_TARGET_ADVICE view
See Also:
Determine the Optimal Size for Redo Logs
You can use the V$INSTANCE_RECOVERY view column OPTIMAL_LOGFILE_SIZE to
determine the size of your online redo logs. This field shows the redo log file size in
megabytes that is considered optimal based on the current setting of FAST_START_
MTTR_TARGET. If this field consistently shows a value greater than the size of your
smallest online log, then you should configure all your online logs to be at least this
size.
Note, however, that the redo log file size affects the MTTR. In some cases, you may be
able to refine your choice of the optimal FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET value by re-running
the MTTR Advisor with your suggested optimal log file size.
10-44 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Part III
Part III
Tuning Database Memory
This part contains the following chapters:
■
Chapter 11, "Database Memory Allocation"
■
Chapter 12, "Tuning the System Global Area"
■
Chapter 13, "Tuning the Database Buffer Cache"
■
Chapter 14, "Tuning the Shared Pool and the Large Pool"
■
Chapter 15, "Tuning the Result Cache"
■
Chapter 16, "Tuning the Program Global Area"
11
Database Memory Allocation
1
This chapter describes memory allocation in Oracle Database and the various methods
for managing memory.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
About Database Memory Caches
■
Database Memory Management Methods
■
Using Automatic Memory Management
■
Monitoring Memory Management
About Database Memory Caches
Oracle Database stores information in memory caches and on disk. Memory access is
much faster than disk access. Disk access (physical I/O) take a significant amount of
time, compared to memory access, typically in the order of 10 milliseconds. Physical
I/O also increases the CPU resources required due to the path length in device drivers
and operating system event schedulers. For this reason, it is more efficient for data
requests of frequently accessed objects to be perform by memory, rather than also
requiring disk access. Proper sizing and effective use of Oracle Database memory
caches greatly improves database performance.
The main Oracle Database memory caches that affect performance include:
■
Database buffer cache
The database buffer cache stores data blocks read from disk.
■
Redo log buffer
The redo log buffer stores redo entries of changes made to data blocks in the
buffer cache.
■
Shared pool
The shared pool caches many different types of data and is mainly comprised of
the following components:
■
–
Library cache
–
Data dictionary cache
–
Server result cache
Large pool
The large pool provides large memory allocations for the following Oracle
Database features:
Database Memory Allocation
11-1
Database Memory Management Methods
■
–
Shared server architecture
–
Parallel query
–
Recovery Manager (RMAN)
Java pool
The Java pool stores session-specific Java code and Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
data.
■
Streams pool
The Streams pool provides memory for Oracle Streams processes.
■
Process-private memory
Process-private memory includes memory used for operations such as sorting and
hash joins.
Oracle Database Concepts for information about the Oracle
Database memory architecture
See Also:
Database Memory Management Methods
The goal of memory management is to reduce the physical I/O overhead as much as
possible, either by making it more likely that the required data is in memory, or by
making the process of retrieving the required data more efficient. To achieve this goal,
proper sizing and effective use of Oracle Database memory caches is essential.
Oracle Database provides the following methods to manage database memory:
■
Automatic Memory Management
■
Automatic Shared Memory Management
■
Manual Shared Memory Management
■
Automatic PGA Memory Management
■
Manual PGA Memory Management
Automatic Memory Management
Automatic memory management enables Oracle Database to manage and tune the
database memory automatically. In automatic memory management mode,
management of the shared global area (SGA) and program global area (instance PGA)
memory is handled completely by Oracle Database. This method is the most
automated and is strongly recommended by Oracle. Before setting any memory pool
sizes manually, strongly consider using automatic memory management.
For information about using automatic memory management, see "Using Automatic
Memory Management" on page 11-3.
Automatic Shared Memory Management
If automatic memory management is disabled, then Oracle Database uses automatic
shared memory management to manage SGA memory. In this mode, Oracle Database
automatically distributes memory to individual SGA components based on a target
size that you set for the total SGA memory.
For information about using automatic shared memory management, see "Using
Automatic Shared Memory Management" on page 12-1.
11-2 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Monitoring Memory Management
Manual Shared Memory Management
If both automatic memory management and automatic shared memory management
are disabled, then you must manage SGA memory manually by sizing the individual
memory pools in the SGA. Although this mode enables you to exercise complete
control over how SGA memory is distributed, it requires the most effort because the
SGA components must be manually tuned on an ongoing basis.
For information about using manual shared memory management, see "Sizing the
SGA Components Manually" on page 12-3.
Automatic PGA Memory Management
If automatic memory management is disabled, then Oracle Database uses automatic
PGA memory management to manage PGA memory. In this mode, Oracle Database
automatically distributes memory to work areas in the instance PGA based on a target
size that you set for the total PGA memory.
For information about automatic PGA memory management, see Chapter 16, "Tuning
the Program Global Area".
Manual PGA Memory Management
If both automatic memory management and automatic PGA memory management are
disabled, then you must manage PGA memory manually by adjusting the portion of
PGA memory dedicated to each work area. This method can be very difficult because
the workload is always changing and is not recommended by Oracle. Although
manual PGA memory management is supported by Oracle Database, Oracle strongly
recommends using automatic memory management or automatic PGA memory
management instead.
Using Automatic Memory Management
To use automatic memory management, set the following initialization parameters:
■
MEMORY_TARGET
The MEMORY_TARGET initialization parameter specifies the target memory size. The
database tunes to the value specified for this parameter, redistributing memory as
needed between the SGA and the instance PGA. This parameter is dynamic, so its
value can be changed at any time without restarting the database.
■
MEMORY_MAX_TARGET
The MEMORY_MAX_TARGET initialization parameter specifies the maximum memory
size. The value specified for this parameter serves as the limit to which the
MEMORY_TARGET initialization parameter can be set. This parameter is static, so its
value cannot be changed after instance startup.
If you need tuning advice for the MEMORY_TARGET parameter, then use the V$MEMORY_
TARGET_ADVICE view.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information
about using automatic memory management
Monitoring Memory Management
Table 11–1 lists the views that provide information about memory resize operations.
Database Memory Allocation
11-3
Monitoring Memory Management
Table 11–1
Memory Management Views
View
Description
V$MEMORY_CURRENT_RESIZE_OPS Displays information about memory resize operations (both
automatic and manual) that are currently in progress.
V$MEMORY_DYNAMIC_COMPONENTS Displays information about the current sizes of all
dynamically-tuned memory components, including the total
sizes of the SGA and instance PGA.
V$MEMORY_RESIZE_OPS
Displays information about the last 800 completed memory
resize operations (both automatic and manual). This does not
include operations that are currently in progress.
V$MEMORY_TARGET_ADVICE
Displays tuning advice for the MEMORY_TARGET initialization
parameter.
See Also:
Oracle Database Reference for information about these views
11-4 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
12
Tuning the System Global Area
12
This chapter describes how to tune the System Global Area (SGA). If you are using
automatic memory management to manage the database memory on your system,
then there is no need to tune the SGA as described in this chapter.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
Using Automatic Shared Memory Management
■
Sizing the SGA Components Manually
■
Monitoring Shared Memory Management
Using Automatic Shared Memory Management
Automatic shared memory management simplifies the configuration of the SGA by
automatically distributing the memory in the SGA for the following memory pools:
■
Database buffer cache (default pool)
■
Shared pool
■
Large pool
■
Java pool
■
Streams pool
Automatic shared memory management is controlled by the SGA_TARGET parameter.
Changes in the value of the SGA_TARGET parameter automatically resize these memory
pools. If these memory pools are set to nonzero values, then automatic shared memory
management uses these values as minimum levels. Oracle recommends that you set
the minimum values based on the minimum amount of memory an application
component requires to function properly.
The following memory caches are manually-sized components and are not controlled
by automatic shared memory management:
■
Redo log buffer
The redo log buffer is sized using the LOG_BUFFER initialization parameter, as
described in "Configuring the Redo Log Buffer" on page 13-11.
■
Other buffer caches (such as KEEP, RECYCLE, and other nondefault block size)
The KEEP pool is sized using the DB_KEEP_CACHE_SIZE initialization parameter, as
described in "Configuring the KEEP Pool" on page 13-10.
The RECYCLE pool is sized using the DB_RECYCLE_CACHE_SIZE initialization
parameter, as described in "Configuring the RECYCLE Pool" on page 13-11.
Tuning the System Global Area
12-1
Using Automatic Shared Memory Management
■
Fixed SGA and other internal allocations
Fixed SGA and other internal allocations are sized using the DB_nK_CACHE_SIZE
initialization parameter.
The memory allocated to these memory caches is deducted from the value of the SGA_
TARGET parameter when automatic shared memory management computes the values
of the automatically-tuned memory pools.
The following sections describe how to access and set the value of the SGA_TARGET
parameter:
■
User Interfaces for Setting the SGA_TARGET Parameter
■
Setting the SGA_TARGET Parameter
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Database Concepts for information about the SGA
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about
managing the SGA
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about using
initialization parameters
User Interfaces for Setting the SGA_TARGET Parameter
This section describes the user interfaces for setting the value of the SGA_TARGET
parameter.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Setting the SGA_TARGET Parameter in Oracle Enterprise Manager
■
Setting the SGA_TARGET Parameter in the Command-Line Interface
Setting the SGA_TARGET Parameter in Oracle Enterprise Manager
You can change the value of the SGA_TARGET parameter in Oracle Enterprise Manager
by accessing the SGA Size Advisor from the Memory Parameters SGA page.
Setting the SGA_TARGET Parameter in the Command-Line Interface
You can change the value of the SGA_TARGET parameter in the command-line interface
by querying the V$SGA_TARGET_ADVICE view and using the ALTER SYSTEM command.
Setting the SGA_TARGET Parameter
This section describes how to enable and disable automatic shared memory
management by setting the value of the SGA_TARGET parameter.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Enabling Automatic Shared Memory Management
■
Disabling Automatic Shared Memory Management
Enabling Automatic Shared Memory Management
To enable automatic shared memory management, set the following initialization
parameters:
■
STATISTICS_LEVEL to TYPICAL or ALL
12-2 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Sizing the SGA Components Manually
■
SGA_TARGET to a nonzero value
The SGA_TARGET parameter can be set to a value that is less than or equal to the
value of the SGA_MAX_SIZE initialization parameter. Set the value of the SGA_
TARGET parameter to the amount of memory that you intend to dedicate to the
SGA.
Disabling Automatic Shared Memory Management
To disable automatic shared memory management, set the value of the SGA_TARGET
parameter dynamically to 0 at instance startup.
This disables automatic shared memory management and the current auto-tuned sizes
will be used for each memory pool. If necessary, you can manually resize each
memory pool, as described in "Sizing the SGA Components Manually" on page 12-3.
Sizing the SGA Components Manually
If the system is not using automatic memory management or automatic shared
memory management, then you must manually configure the sizes of the following
SGA components:
■
Database buffer cache
The database buffer cache is sized using the DB_CACHE_SIZE initialization
parameter, as described in "Configuring the Database Buffer Cache" on page 13-1.
■
Shared pool
The shared pool is sized using the SHARED_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter, as
described in "Configuring the Shared Pool" on page 14-8.
■
Large pool
The large pool is sized using the LARGE_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter, as
described in "Configuring the Large Pool" on page 14-21.
■
Java pool
The Java pool is sized using the JAVA_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter.
■
Streams pool
The Streams pool is sized using the STREAMS_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter.
The values for these parameters are also dynamically configurable using the ALTER
SYSTEM statement.
Before configuring the sizes of these SGA components, take the following
considerations into account:
■
SGA Sizing Unit
■
Maximum Size of the SGA
■
Application Considerations
■
Operating System Memory Use
■
Iteration During Configuration
Tuning the System Global Area
12-3
Sizing the SGA Components Manually
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Java Developer's Guide for information about Java
memory usage and the JAVA_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter
Oracle Streams Replication Administrator's Guide for information
about the STREAMS_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter
SGA Sizing Unit
Memory for the buffer cache, shared pool, large pool, and Java pool is allocated in
units of granules. If the SGA size is less than 1 GB, then the granule size is 4MB. If the
SGA size is greater than 1 GB, the granule size changes to 16MB. The granule size is
calculated and fixed when the database instance starts up. The size does not change
during the lifetime of the instance.
To view the granule size that is currently being used for the SGA, use the V$SGA_
DYNAMIC_COMPONENTS view. The same granule size is used for all dynamic components
in the SGA.
Maximum Size of the SGA
The maximum amount of memory usable by the database instance is determined at
instance startup by the value of the SGA_MAX_SIZE initialization parameter. You can
expand the total SGA size to a value equal to the SGA_MAX_SIZE parameter. The value
of the SGA_MAX_SIZE parameter defaults to the aggregate setting of all the SGA
components.
If the value of the SGA_MAX_SIZE parameter is not set, then decrease the size of one
cache and reallocate that memory to another cache if necessary. Alternatively, you can
set the value of the SGA_MAX_SIZE parameter to be larger than the sum of all of the SGA
components, such as the buffer cache and the shared pool. Doing so enables you to
dynamically increase a cache size without having to decrease the size of another cache.
Note: The value of the SGA_MAX_SIZE parameter cannot be
dynamically resized.
Application Considerations
When configuring memory, size the memory caches appropriately based on the
application's needs. Conversely, tuning the application's use of the memory caches can
greatly reduce resource requirements. Efficient use of the memory caches also reduces
the load on related resources, such as latches, CPU, and the I/O system.
For optimal performance, consider the following:
■
■
■
■
Design the cache to use the operating system and database resources in the most
efficient manner.
Allocate memory to Oracle Database memory structures to best reflect the needs
of the application.
If changes or additions are made to an existing application, resize Oracle Database
memory structures to meet the needs of the modified application.
If the application uses Java, investigate whether the default configuration for the
Java pool needs to be modified.
12-4 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Sizing the SGA Components Manually
Oracle Database Java Developer's Guide for information
about Java memory usage
See Also:
Operating System Memory Use
For most operating systems, it is important to consider the following when
configuring memory:
■
Reduce Paging
■
Fit the SGA into Main Memory
■
Allow Adequate Memory to Individual Users
See Also: Your operating system hardware and software
documentation, and the Oracle documentation specific to your
operating system, for more information on tuning operating system
memory usage
Reduce Paging
Paging occurs when an operating system transfers memory-resident pages to disk
solely to load new pages into memory. Many operating systems page to accommodate
large amounts of information that do not fit into real memory. On most operating
systems, paging reduces performance.
To determine whether significant paging is occurring on the host system, use
operating system utilities to examine the operating system. If significant paging is
occurring, then the total system memory may not be large enough to hold the memory
caches for which memory is allocated. Consider either increasing the total memory on
the system, or decreasing the amount of memory allocated.
Fit the SGA into Main Memory
Because the purpose of the SGA is to store data in memory for fast access, the SGA
should reside in the main memory. If pages of the SGA are swapped to disk, then the
data is no longer quickly accessible. On most operating systems, the disadvantage of
paging significantly outweighs the advantage of a large SGA.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Viewing SGA Memory Allocation
■
Locking the SGA into Physical Memory
Viewing SGA Memory Allocation To view how much memory is allocated to the SGA and
each of its internal structures, use the SHOW SGA statement in SQL*Plus, as shown in
Example 12–1.
Example 12–1
Viewing SGA Memory Allocation
SHOW SGA
The output of this statement might look like the following:
Total System Global Area
Fixed Size
Variable Size
Database Buffers
Redo Buffers
840205000
279240
520093696
318767104
1064960
bytes
bytes
bytes
bytes
bytes
Tuning the System Global Area
12-5
Monitoring Shared Memory Management
Locking the SGA into Physical Memory To prevent the SGA from being paged out,
consider locking the SGA into physical memory by enabling the LOCK_SGA parameter.
The database does not use the MEMORY_TARGET and MEMORY_MAX_TARGET parameters
when the LOCK_SGA parameter is enabled.
Allow Adequate Memory to Individual Users
When sizing the SGA, ensure that you allow enough memory for the individual server
processes and any other programs running on the system.
Iteration During Configuration
Configuring memory allocation involves distributing available memory to Oracle
Database memory structures, depending on the needs of the application. The
distribution of memory to Oracle Database structures can affect the amount of
physical I/O necessary for Oracle Database to operate properly. Having a proper
initial memory configuration provides an indication of whether the I/O system is
effectively configured.
After the initial pass through the memory configuration process, it may be necessary
to repeat the steps of memory allocation. Subsequent passes enable you to make
adjustments to earlier steps, based on changes in subsequent steps. For example,
decreasing the size of the buffer cache enables you to increase the size of another
memory structure, such as the shared pool.
Monitoring Shared Memory Management
Table 12–1 lists the views that provide information about SGA resize operations.
Table 12–1
Shared Memory Management Views
View
Description
V$SGA_CURRENT_RESIZE_OPS
Displays information about SGA resize operations that are
currently in progress.
V$SGA_RESIZE_OPS
Displays information about the last 800 completed SGA resize
operations. This does not include operations that are
currently in progress.
V$SGA_DYNAMIC_COMPONENTS
Displays information about the dynamic components in the
SGA. This view summarizes information of all completed
SGA resize operations that occurred after instance startup.
V$SGA_DYNAMIC_FREE_MEMORY
Displays information about the amount of SGA memory
available for future dynamic SGA resize operations.
See Also:
Oracle Database Reference for information about these views
12-6 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
13
Tuning the Database Buffer Cache
13
This chapter describes how to tune the database buffer cache. If you are using
automatic memory management to manage the database memory on your system,
there is no need to manually tune the memory caches described in this chapter.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
About the Database Buffer Cache
■
Configuring the Database Buffer Cache
■
Configuring Multiple Buffer Pools
■
Configuring the Redo Log Buffer
About the Database Buffer Cache
For many types of operations, Oracle Database uses the buffer cache to store data
blocks read from disk. Oracle Database bypasses the buffer cache for particular
operations, such as sorting and parallel reads.
To use the database buffer cache effectively, tune SQL statements for the application to
avoid unnecessary resource consumption. To meet this goal, verify that frequently
executed SQL statements and SQL statements that perform many buffer gets are
well-tuned.
When using parallel query, consider configuring the database to use the database
buffer cache instead of performing direct reads into the Program Global Area (PGA).
This configuration may be appropriate when the system has a large amount of
memory.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for information about tuning
SQL statements
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for information about
parallel execution
Configuring the Database Buffer Cache
When configuring a new database instance, it is impossible to know the correct size for
the buffer cache. Typically, a database administrator makes a first estimate for the
cache size, then runs a representative workload on the instance and examines the
relevant statistics to see whether the cache is under-configured or over-configured.
Tuning the Database Buffer Cache 13-1
Configuring the Database Buffer Cache
This section describes how to configure the database buffer cache. If you are using
automatic shared memory management to configure the Shared Global Area (SGA),
there is no need to manually tune the database buffer cache as described in this
section.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Using the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE View
■
Calculating the Buffer Cache Hit Ratio
■
Interpreting the Buffer Cache Hit Ratio
■
Increasing Memory Allocated to the Database Buffer Cache
■
Reducing Memory Allocated to the Database Buffer Cache
Using the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE View
The V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE view shows the simulated miss rates for a range of potential
buffer cache sizes. This view assists in cache sizing by providing information that
predicts the number of physical reads for each potential cache size. The data also
includes a physical read factor, which is a factor by which the current number of
physical reads is estimated to change if the buffer cache is resized to a given value.
However, physical reads do not necessarily indicate disk reads in Oracle Database,
because physical reads may be accomplished by reading from the file system cache.
Hence, the relationship between successfully finding a block in the cache and the size
of the cache is not always a smooth distribution. When sizing the buffer pool, avoid
using additional buffers that do not contribute (or contribute very little) to the cache
hit ratio.
Figure 13–1 illustrates the relationship between physical I/O ratio and buffer cache
size.
Figure 13–1
Physical I/O Ratio and Buffer Cache Size
Examining the example illustrated in Figure 13–1 leads to the following observations:
■
As the number of buffers increases, the physical I/O ratio decreases.
13-2 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Configuring the Database Buffer Cache
■
■
■
The decrease in the physical I/O between points A and B and points B and C is
not smooth, as indicated by the dotted line in the graph.
The benefit from increasing buffers from point A to point B is considerably higher
than from point B to point C.
The benefit from increasing buffers decreases as the number of buffers increases.
There is some overhead associated with using this advisory view. When the advisory
is enabled, there is a small increase in CPU usage, because additional bookkeeping is
required. To reduce both the CPU and memory overhead associated with
bookkeeping, Oracle Database uses sampling to gather cache advisory statistics.
Sampling is not used if the number of buffers in a buffer pool is small to begin with.
To use the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE view:
1.
Set the value of the DB_CACHE_ADVICE initialization parameter to ON.
This enables the advisory view. The DB_CACHE_ADVICE parameter is dynamic, so
the advisory can be enabled and disabled dynamically to enable you to collect
advisory data for a specific workload.
2.
Run a representative workload on the database instance.
Allow the workload to stabilize before querying the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE view.
3.
Query the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE view.
Example 13–1 shows a query of this view that returns the predicted I/O requirement
for the default buffer pool for various cache sizes.
Example 13–1
COLUMN
COLUMN
COLUMN
COLUMN
Querying the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE View
size_for_estimate
buffers_for_estimate
estd_physical_read_factor
estd_physical_reads
FORMAT
FORMAT
FORMAT
FORMAT
999,999,999,999 heading 'Cache Size (MB)'
999,999,999 heading 'Buffers'
999.90 heading 'Estd Phys|Read Factor'
999,999,999 heading 'Estd Phys| Reads'
SELECT size_for_estimate, buffers_for_estimate, estd_physical_read_factor,
estd_physical_reads
FROM V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE
WHERE name = 'DEFAULT'
AND block_size = (SELECT value FROM V$PARAMETER WHERE name = 'db_block_size')
AND advice_status = 'ON';
The output of this query might look like the following:
Estd Phys
Estd Phys
Cache Size (MB)
Buffers Read Factor
Reads
---------------- ------------ ----------- -----------30
3,802
18.70 192,317,943
60
7,604
12.83 131,949,536
91
11,406
7.38
75,865,861
121
15,208
4.97
51,111,658
152
19,010
3.64
37,460,786
182
22,812
2.50
25,668,196
212
26,614
1.74
17,850,847
243
30,416
1.33
13,720,149
273
34,218
1.13
11,583,180
304
38,020
1.00
10,282,475
334
41,822
.93
9,515,878
364
45,624
.87
8,909,026
395
49,426
.83
8,495,039
424
53,228
.79
8,116,496
10% of Current Size
Current Size
Tuning the Database Buffer Cache 13-3
Configuring the Database Buffer Cache
456
486
517
547
577
608
57,030
60,832
64,634
68,436
72,238
76,040
.76
.74
.71
.69
.67
.66
7,824,764
7,563,180
7,311,729
7,104,280
6,895,122
6,739,731
200% of Current Size
In this example, the output shows that if the cache was 212 MB—instead of the current
size of 304 MB—the estimated number of physical reads would increase by a factor of
1.74, or 74%. Hence, it is not advisable to decrease the cache size to 212MB.
However, increasing the cache size to 334MB may potentially decrease reads by a
factor of .93, or 7%. If an additional 30MB memory is available on the system and the
value of the SGA_MAX_SIZE parameter allows for the increment, it is advisable to
increase the default buffer cache pool size to 334MB.
Calculating the Buffer Cache Hit Ratio
The buffer cache hit ratio calculates how often a requested block has been found in the
buffer cache without requiring disk access. This ratio is computed using data selected
from the V$SYSSTAT performance view. Use the buffer cache hit ratio to verify the
physical I/O as predicted by the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE view.
Table 13–1 lists the statistics from the V$SYSSTAT view used to calculate the buffer
cache hit ratio.
Table 13–1
Statistics for Calculating the Buffer Cache Hit Ratio
Statistic
Description
consistent gets from
cache
Number of times a consistent read was requested for a block
from the buffer cache.
db block gets from cache Number of times a CURRENT block was requested from the buffer
cache.
physical reads cache
Total number of data blocks read from disk into buffer cache.
Example 13–2 shows a query of this view.
Example 13–2
Querying the V$SYSSTAT View
SELECT name, value
FROM V$SYSSTAT
WHERE name IN ('db block gets from cache', 'consistent gets from cache',
'physical reads cache');
In this example, the query is simplified by using values selected directly from the
V$SYSSTAT view, rather than over an interval. It is recommended to calculate the delta
of these statistics over an interval while the application is running, then use these delta
values to determine the buffer cache hit ratio. For information about collecting
statistics over an interval, see Chapter 7, "Automatic Performance Diagnostics".
Using the values from the output of this query, calculate the hit ratio for the buffer
cache using the following formula:
1 - (('physical reads cache') / ('consistent gets from cache' +
'db block gets from cache'))
Oracle Database Reference for information about the
V$SYSSTAT view
See Also:
13-4 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Configuring the Database Buffer Cache
Interpreting the Buffer Cache Hit Ratio
Before deciding whether to increase or decrease the buffer cache size, you should first
examine the buffer cache hit ratio.
A low cache hit ratio does not necessarily imply that increasing the size of the buffer
cache will benefit performance. Moreover, a high cache hit ratio may wrongly indicate
that the buffer cache is adequately sized for the workload.
To interpret the buffer cache hit ratio, consider the following factors:
■
Avoid repeated scanning of frequently accessed data by performing the
processing in a single pass or by optimizing the SQL statement.
Repeated scanning of the same large table or index can artificially inflate a low
cache hit ratio. Examine frequently executed SQL statements with a large number
of buffer gets, to ensure that the execution plans for these SQL statements are
optimal.
■
■
■
Avoid requerying the same data by caching frequently accessed data in the client
program or middle tier.
In large databases running OLTP applications, many rows are accessed only once
(or never). Hence, there is no purpose in keeping the block in memory following
its use.
Do not continuously increase the buffer cache size.
Continuous increases of the buffer cache size have no effect if the database is
performing full table scans or operations that do not use the buffer cache.
■
Consider poor hit ratios when large full table scans are occurring.
Database blocks accessed during a long full table scan are placed on the tail end of
the Least Recently Used (LRU) list and not on the head of the list. Therefore, the
blocks age out faster than blocks read when performing indexed lookups or small
table scans.
Short table scans are scans performed on tables under a certain
size threshold. The definition of a small table is the maximum of 2% of
the buffer cache or 20, whichever is bigger.
Note:
Increasing Memory Allocated to the Database Buffer Cache
If the cache hit ratio is low and your application is tuned to avoid performing full table
scans, consider increasing the size of the buffer cache. If possible, resize the buffer
pools dynamically, rather than shutting down the instance to perform this change.
To increase the size of the database buffer cache:
1.
Set the value of the DB_CACHE_ADVICE initialization parameter to ON.
2.
Allow the buffer cache statistics to stabilize.
3.
Examine the advisory data in the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE view to determine the next
increment required to significantly decrease the amount of physical I/O
performed, as described in "Using the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE View" on
page 13-2.
4.
If it is possible to allocate the extra memory required to the buffer cache without
causing the system to page, then allocate this memory.
Tuning the Database Buffer Cache 13-5
Configuring Multiple Buffer Pools
5.
To increase the amount of memory allocated to the buffer cache, increase the value
of the DB_CACHE_SIZE initialization parameter.
The DB_CACHE_SIZE parameter specifies the size of the default cache for the
database's standard block size. To create and use tablespaces with block sizes
other than the database's standard block sizes (such as for transportable
tablespaces), configure a separate cache for each block size used. Use the DB_nK_
CACHE_SIZE parameter to configure the nonstandard block size needed (where n is
2, 4, 8, 16 or 32 and not the standard block size).
The process of choosing a cache size is the same, regardless of
whether the cache is the default standard block size cache, the KEEP or
RECYCLE cache, or a nonstandard block size cache.
Note:
Note: When the cache is resized significantly (greater than 20%), the
old cache advisory value is discarded and the cache advisory is set to
the new size. Otherwise, the old cache advisory value is adjusted to
the new size by the interpolation of existing values.
Oracle Database Reference and Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide for information about using the DB_nK_CACHE_
SIZE parameter
See Also:
Reducing Memory Allocated to the Database Buffer Cache
If the cache hit ratio is high, then the buffer cache is likely large enough to store the
most frequently accessed data. If this is the case and memory is required for another
memory structure, consider reducing the size of the buffer cache.
To reduce the size of the database buffer cache:
1.
Examine the advisory data in the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE view to determine if
decreasing the size of the buffer cache will significantly increase the number of
physical I/Os, as described in "Using the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE View" on
page 13-2.
2.
To reduce the amount of memory allocated to the buffer cache, decrease the value
of the DB_CACHE_SIZE initialization parameter.
Configuring Multiple Buffer Pools
For most systems, a single default buffer pool is generally adequate. However,
database administrators with detailed knowledge of an application's buffer pool may
benefit from configuring multiple buffer pools.
For segments that have atypical access patterns, consider storing blocks from these
segments in two separate buffer pools: the KEEP pool and the RECYCLE pool. A
segment's access pattern may be atypical if it is constantly accessed (sometimes
referred to as hot) or infrequently accessed (such as a large segment that is accessed by
a batch job only once a day).
Using multiple buffer pools enables you to address these irregularities. You can use
the KEEP pool to maintain frequently accessed segments in the buffer cache, and the
RECYCLE pool to prevent objects from consuming unnecessary space in the buffer
cache. When an object is associated with a buffer cache, all blocks from that object are
13-6 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Configuring Multiple Buffer Pools
placed in that cache. Oracle Database maintains a DEFAULT buffer pool for objects that
are not assigned to a specific buffer pool. The default buffer pool size is determined by
the DB_CACHE_SIZE initialization parameter. Each buffer pool uses the same LRU
replacement policy. For example, if the KEEP pool is not large enough to store all of the
segments allocated to it, then the oldest blocks age out of the cache.
By allocating objects to appropriate buffer pools, you can:
■
Reduce or eliminate I/Os
■
Isolate or limit an object to a separate cache
This section describes how to configure multiple buffer pools and contains the
following topics:
■
Considerations for Using Multiple Buffer Pools
■
Using Multiple Buffer Pools
■
Using the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE View for Individual Buffer Pools
■
Calculating the Buffer Pool Hit Ratio for Individual Buffer Pools
■
Examining the Buffer Cache Usage Pattern
■
Configuring the KEEP Pool
■
Configuring the RECYCLE Pool
Considerations for Using Multiple Buffer Pools
When using multiple buffer pools, take the following considerations into account:
■
Random Access to Large Segments
■
Oracle Real Application Cluster Instances
Random Access to Large Segments
A problem may occur with an LRU aging method when a very large segment
(compared to the size of the buffer cache) is accessed with a large or unbounded index
range scan. Any single segment that accounts for a substantial portion (more than
10%) of nonsequential physical reads can be considered very large. Random reads to a
large segment may cause buffers that contain data for other segments to be aged out of
the cache. The large segment ends up consuming a large percentage of the buffer
cache, but it does not benefit from the cache.
Very frequently accessed segments are not affected by large segment reads because
their buffers are warmed frequently enough that they do not age out of the buffer
cache. However, the problem affects warm segments that are not accessed frequently
enough to survive the buffer aging caused by the large segment reads. There are three
options for solving this problem:
■
■
■
If the object accessed is an index, determine whether the index is selective. If not,
tune the SQL statement to use a more selective index.
If the SQL statement is tuned, move the large segment into a separate RECYCLE
cache so it does not affect the other segments. The RECYCLE cache should be
smaller than the DEFAULT buffer pool, and it should reuse buffers more quickly.
Alternatively, consider moving the small, warm segments into a separate KEEP
cache that is not used for large segments. Size the KEEP cache to minimize misses
in the cache. You can make the response times for specific queries more
Tuning the Database Buffer Cache 13-7
Configuring Multiple Buffer Pools
predictable by storing the segments accessed by the queries in the KEEP cache to
ensure that they do not age out.
Oracle Real Application Cluster Instances
In an Oracle Real Application Cluster (Oracle RAC) environment, consider creating
multiple buffer pools for each database instance. It is not necessary to define the same
set of buffer pools for each instance of the database. Among instances, the buffer pools
can be different sizes or undefined. Tune each instance according to the application
requirements for that instance.
Using Multiple Buffer Pools
To define a default buffer pool for an object, use the BUFFER_POOL keyword of the
STORAGE clause. This clause is valid for the following SQL statements:
■
CREATE TABLE
■
CREATE CLUSTER
■
CREATE INDEX
■
ALTER TABLE
■
ALTER CLUSTER
■
ALTER INDEX
After a buffer pool is defined, all subsequent blocks read for the object are placed in
that pool. If a buffer pool is defined for a partitioned table or index, then each partition
of the object inherits the buffer pool from the table or index definition, unless if it is
overridden by a specific buffer pool.
When the buffer pool of an object is changed using the ALTER statement, all buffers
currently containing blocks of the altered segment remain in the buffer pool they were
in before the ALTER statement. Newly loaded blocks and any blocks that age out and
are reloaded are placed into the new buffer pool.
See Also: Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for information
about specifying BUFFER_POOL in the STORAGE clause
Using the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE View for Individual Buffer Pools
As with the default buffer pool, you can use V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE view to assist in
cache sizing of other pools. After estimating the initial cache size and running a
representative workload, query the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE view for the pool you want to
use.
Example 13–3 shows a query of this view that queries data from the KEEP pool:
Example 13–3
Querying the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE View for the KEEP Pool
SELECT size_for_estimate, buffers_for_estimate, estd_physical_read_factor,
estd_physical_reads
FROM V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE
WHERE name = 'KEEP'
AND block_size = (SELECT value FROM V$PARAMETER WHERE name = 'db_block_size')
AND advice_status = 'ON';
For more information about using the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE view, see "Using the V$DB_
CACHE_ADVICE View" on page 13-2.
13-8 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Configuring Multiple Buffer Pools
Calculating the Buffer Pool Hit Ratio for Individual Buffer Pools
The data in the V$SYSSTAT view reflects the logical and physical reads for all buffer
pools within one set of statistics. To determine the hit ratio for the buffer pools
individually, query the V$BUFFER_POOL_STATISTICS view. This view maintains
statistics on the number of logical reads and writes for each pool.
Example 13–4 shows a query of this view to calculate the hit ratio.
Example 13–4
Querying the V$BUFFER_POOL_STATISTICS View
SELECT name, physical_reads, db_block_gets, consistent_gets,
1 - (physical_reads / (db_block_gets + consistent_gets)) "Hit Ratio"
FROM V$BUFFER_POOL_STATISTICS;
For more information about calculating hit ratios, see "Calculating the Buffer Cache
Hit Ratio" on page 13-4.
Oracle Database Reference for information about the
V$BUFFER_POOL_STATISTICS view
See Also:
Examining the Buffer Cache Usage Pattern
The V$BH view shows the data object ID of all blocks that currently reside in the SGA.
To determine which segments have many buffers in the pool, use this view to examine
the buffer cache usage pattern. You can either examine the buffer cache usage pattern
for all segments or a specific segment, as described in the following sections:
■
Examining the Buffer Cache Usage Pattern for All Segments
■
Examining the Buffer Cache Usage Pattern for a Specific Segment
Examining the Buffer Cache Usage Pattern for All Segments
One method to determine which segments have many buffers in the pool is to query
the number of blocks for all segments that reside in the buffer cache at a given time.
Depending on buffer cache size, this might require a lot of sort space.
Example 13–5 shows a query that counts the number of blocks for all segments.
Example 13–5
Querying the Number of Blocks for All Segments
COLUMN object_name FORMAT A40
COLUMN number_of_blocks FORMAT 999,999,999,999
SELECT
FROM
WHERE
AND
GROUP
ORDER
o.object_name, COUNT(*) number_of_blocks
DBA_OBJECTS o, V$BH bh
o.data_object_id = bh.OBJD
o.owner != 'SYS'
BY o.object_Name
BY COUNT(*);
The output of this query might look like the following:
OBJECT_NAME
NUMBER_OF_BLOCKS
---------------------------------------- ---------------OA_PREF_UNIQ_KEY
1
SYS_C002651
1
..
DS_PERSON
78
OM_EXT_HEADER
701
OM_SHELL
1,765
Tuning the Database Buffer Cache 13-9
Configuring Multiple Buffer Pools
OM_HEADER
OM_INSTANCE
5,826
12,644
Examining the Buffer Cache Usage Pattern for a Specific Segment
Another method to determine which segments have many buffers in the pool is to
calculate the percentage of the buffer cache used by an individual object at a given
time.
To calculate the percentage of the buffer cache used by an individual object:
1.
Find the Oracle Database internal object number of the segment by querying the
DBA_OBJECTS view:
SELECT data_object_id, object_type
FROM DBA_OBJECTS
WHERE object_name = UPPER('segment_name');
Because two objects can have the same name (if they are different types of objects),
use the OBJECT_TYPE column to identify the object of interest.
2.
Find the number of buffers in the buffer cache for SEGMENT_NAME:
SELECT COUNT(*) buffers
FROM V$BH
WHERE objd = data_object_id_value;
For data_object_id_value, use the value of DATA_OBJECT_ID from the previous
step.
3.
Find the number of buffers in the database instance:
SELECT name, block_size, SUM(buffers)
FROM V$BUFFER_POOL
GROUP BY name, block_size
HAVING SUM(buffers) > 0;
4.
Calculate the ratio of buffers to total buffers to obtain the percentage of the cache
currently used by SEGMENT_NAME:
% cache used by segment_name = [buffers(Step2)/total buffers(Step3)]
This method works only for a single segment. For a
partitioned object, run the query for each partition.
Note:
Configuring the KEEP Pool
The purpose of the KEEP buffer pool is to retain objects in memory, thus avoiding I/O
operations. Each object kept in memory results in a trade-off. It is more beneficial to
keep frequently-accessed blocks in the cache. Avoid retaining infrequently-used blocks
in the cache, as this results in less space for other, more active blocks
If there are certain segments in your application that are referenced frequently, then
consider storing the blocks from those segments in the KEEP buffer pool. Typical
segments that are kept in the KEEP pool are small, frequently-used reference tables. To
determine which tables are candidates, check the number of blocks from candidate
tables by querying the V$BH view, as described in "Examining the Buffer Cache Usage
Pattern" on page 13-9.
To configure the KEEP pool:
13-10 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Configuring the Redo Log Buffer
1.
Compute an approximate size for the KEEP buffer pool.
The size of the KEEP buffer pool depends on the objects to be kept in the buffer
cache. To estimate its size, add the blocks used by all objects assigned to this pool.
If you gathered statistics on the segments, query DBA_TABLES.BLOCKS and DBA_
TABLES.EMPTY_BLOCKS to determine the number of blocks used.
2.
Taking two snapshots of system performance at different times.
Query data from the KEEP pool for each snapshot using the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE
view, as described in "Using the V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE View for Individual
Buffer Pools" on page 13-8.
3.
Subtract the more recent values for physical reads, block gets, and consistent
gets from the older values, and use the results to calculate the hit ratio.
A buffer pool hit ratio of 100% may not be optimal. Oftentimes, you can decrease
the size of the KEEP buffer pool and still maintain a sufficiently high hit ratio.
Allocate blocks removed from the KEEP buffer pool to other buffer pools.
4.
Allocate memory to the KEEP buffer pool by setting the value of the DB_KEEP_
CACHE_SIZE parameter to the required size.
The memory for the KEEP pool is not a subset of the default pool.
If an object grows in size, then it might no longer fit in the
KEEP buffer pool. You will begin to lose blocks out of the cache.
Note:
Configuring the RECYCLE Pool
You can configure a RECYCLE buffer pool for blocks belonging to those segments that
you do not want to keep in memory. The purpose of the RECYCLE pool is to retain
segments that are scanned rarely or are not referenced frequently. If an application
randomly accesses the blocks of a very large object, then it is unlikely for a block
stored in the buffer pool to be reused before it is aged out. This is true regardless of the
size of the buffer pool (given the constraint of the amount of available physical
memory). Consequently, the object's blocks do not need to be cached; the cache buffers
can be allocated to other objects.
Do not discard blocks from memory too quickly. If the buffer pool is too small, then
blocks can age out of the cache before the transaction or SQL statement completes its
execution. For example, an application might select a value from a table, use the value
to process some data, and then update the record. If the block is removed from the
cache after the SELECT statement, then it must be read from disk again to perform the
update. The block should be retained for the duration of the user transaction.
To configure the RECYCLE POOL:
■
Allocate memory to the RECYCLE buffer pool by setting the value of the DB_
RECYCLE_CACHE_SIZE parameter to the required size.
The memory for the RECYCLE pool is not a subset of the default pool.
Configuring the Redo Log Buffer
Server processes making changes to data blocks in the buffer cache generate redo data
into the log buffer. The log writer process (LGWR) begins writing to copy entries from
the redo log buffer to the online redo log if any of the following conditions are true:
■
The redo log buffer becomes at least one-third full
Tuning the Database Buffer Cache
13-11
Configuring the Redo Log Buffer
■
LGWR is posted by a server process performing a COMMIT or ROLLBACK
■
A database writer process (DBWR) posts LGWR to do so
When LGWR writes redo entries from the redo log buffer to a redo log file or disk,
user processes can copy new entries over the entries in memory that are written to
disk, as illustrated in Figure 13–2.
Figure 13–2
Redo Log Buffer
LGWR attempts to write fast enough to ensure that space is available in the redo log
buffer for new entries, even if it is frequently accessed. Having a larger redo log buffer
makes it more likely that there is space for new entries, and also enables LGWR to
efficiently process redo records. On a system with large updates, if the redo log buffer
is too small, LGWR will continuously flush redo to disk so that it remains two-thirds
empty.
On systems with fast processors and relatively slow disks, the processors might be
filling the rest of the redo log buffer in the time it takes the redo log writer to move a
portion of the redo log buffer to disk. In this situation, a larger redo log buffer can
temporarily mask the effects of slower disks. Alternatively, consider either improving:
■
The checkpointing or archiving process
■
The performance of LGWR by moving all online logs to fast raw devices
To improve the performance of the redo log buffer, ensure that you are:
■
■
Batching commit operations for batch jobs, so that LGWR is able to write redo log
entries efficiently
Using NOLOGGING operations when loading large quantities of data
This section describes how to configure the redo log buffer and contains the following
topics:
■
Sizing the Redo Log Buffer
■
Using Redo Log Buffer Statistics
Sizing the Redo Log Buffer
The default size of the redo log buffer is calculated as follows:
MAX(0.5M, (128K * number of cpus))
On most systems, sizing the log buffer larger than 1 MB does not provide any
performance benefit. However, increasing the size of the redo log buffer does not have
any negative implications on performance; it merely uses more memory. More
13-12 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Configuring the Redo Log Buffer
importantly, a modestly-sized redo log buffer can significantly enhance throughput on
systems that perform many updates. Applications that insert, modify, or delete large
volumes of data may require a change to the default size of the redo log buffer.
To determine if the size of the redo log buffer is too small, monitor the redo log buffer
statistics, as described in "Using Redo Log Buffer Statistics" on page 13-13. You can
also check if the log buffer space wait event is a significant factor in the wait time for
the database instance. If it is not, then the log buffer size is most likely
adequately-sized.
To size the redo log buffer:
■
Set the size of the redo log buffer by setting the value of the LOG_BUFFER
initialization parameter to the required size.
The value of this parameter is expressed in bytes.
The size of the redo log buffer cannot be modified after
instance startup.
Note:
Using Redo Log Buffer Statistics
The REDO BUFFER ALLOCATION RETRIES statistic reflects the number of times a user
process waits for space in the redo log buffer. This statistic can be queried using the
V$SYSSTAT performance view.
Example 13–6 shows a query of the V$SYSSTAT view for this statistic.
Example 13–6
Querying the V$SYSSTAT View
SELECT name, value
FROM V$SYSSTAT
WHERE name = 'redo buffer allocation retries';
You should monitor the redo buffer allocation retries statistic over a period
while the application is running. The value of this statistic should be near zero over an
interval. If this value increases consistently, then it means user processes had to wait
for space in the redo log buffer to become available. The wait can be caused by the
redo log buffer being too small or by checkpointing. In this case, consider one of the
following options:
■
■
Increase the size of the redo log buffer, as described in "Sizing the Redo Log
Buffer" on page 13-12
Improve the checkpointing or archiving process
Tuning the Database Buffer Cache
13-13
Configuring the Redo Log Buffer
13-14 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
14
Tuning the Shared Pool and the Large Pool
14
This chapter describes how to tune the shared pool and the large pool. If you are using
automatic memory management to manage the database memory on your system, or
automatic shared memory management to configure the Shared Global Area (SGA),
there is no need to manually tune the shared pool and the large pool as described in
this chapter.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
About the Shared Pool
■
Using the Shared Pool
■
Configuring the Shared Pool
■
Configuring the Large Pool
About the Shared Pool
Oracle Database uses the shared pool to cache many different types of data. Cached
data includes the textual and executable forms of PL/SQL blocks and SQL statements,
dictionary cache data, result cache data, and other data.
This section describes the shared pool and contains the following topics:
■
Benefits of Using the Shared Pool
■
Shared Pool Concepts
Benefits of Using the Shared Pool
Proper use and sizing of the shared pool can reduce resource consumption in at least
four ways:
■
■
■
■
If the SQL statement is in the shared pool, parse overhead is avoided, resulting in
reduced CPU resources on the system and elapsed time for the end user.
Latching resource usage is significantly reduced, resulting in greater scalability.
Shared pool memory requirements are reduced, because all applications use the
same pool of SQL statements and dictionary resources.
I/O is reduced, because dictionary elements that are in the shared pool do not
require disk access.
Shared Pool Concepts
The main components of the shared pool include:
Tuning the Shared Pool and the Large Pool
14-1
About the Shared Pool
■
Library cache
The library cache stores the executable (parsed or compiled) form of recently
referenced SQL and PL/SQL code.
■
Data dictionary cache
The data dictionary cache stores data referenced from the data dictionary.
■
Server result cache (depending on the configuration)
The server result cache is an optional cache that stores query and PL/SQL
function results within the shared pool. For information about the server result
cache, see "About the Result Cache" on page 15-1.
Many of the caches in the shared pool—including the library cache and the dictionary
cache—automatically increase or decrease in size, as needed. Old entries are aged out
to accommodate new entries when the shared pool runs out of space.
A cache miss on the library cache or data dictionary cache is more expensive than a
miss on the buffer cache. For this reason, the shared pool should be sized to ensure
that frequently-used data is cached.
Several features require large memory allocations in the shared pool, such as shared
server, parallel query, or Recovery Manager. Oracle recommends using a separate
memory area—the large pool—to segregate the System Global Area (SGA) memory
used by these features.
Allocation of memory from the shared pool is performed in chunks. This chunking
enables large objects (over 5 KB) to be loaded into the cache without requiring a single
contiguous area. In this way, the database reduces the possibility of running out of
contiguous memory due to fragmentation.
Java, PL/SQL, or SQL cursors may sometimes make allocations out of the shared pool
that are larger than 5 KB. To enable these allocations to occur more efficiently, Oracle
Database segregates a small amount of the shared pool. The segregated memory,
called the reserved pool, is used if the shared pool runs out of space.
The following sections provide more details about the main components of the shared
pool:
■
Library Cache Concepts
■
Data Dictionary Cache Concepts
■
SQL Sharing Criteria
Library Cache Concepts
The library cache stores executable forms of SQL cursors, PL/SQL programs, and Java
classes, which are collectively referred to as the application code. This section focuses
on tuning as it relates to the application code.
When the application code is executed, Oracle Database attempts to reuse existing
code if it has been executed previously and can be shared. If the parsed representation
of the SQL statement exists in the library cache and it can be shared, then the database
reuses the existing code. This is known as a soft parse, or a library cache hit. If Oracle
Database cannot use the existing code, then the database must build a new executable
version of the application code. This is known as a hard parse, or a library cache miss.
For information about when SQL and PL/SQL statements can be shared, see "SQL
Sharing Criteria" on page 14-3.
In order to perform a hard parse, Oracle Database uses more resources than during a
soft parse. Resources used for a soft parse include CPU and library cache latch gets.
14-2 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
About the Shared Pool
Resources required for a hard parse include additional CPU, library cache latch gets,
and shared pool latch gets. A hard parse may occur on either the parse step or the
execute step when processing a SQL statement.
When an application makes a parse call for a SQL statement, if the parsed
representation of the statement does not exist in the library cache, then Oracle
Database parses the statement and stores the parsed form in the shared pool. To
reduce library cache misses on parse calls, ensure that all sharable SQL statements are
stored in the shared pool whenever possible.
When an application makes an execute call for a SQL statement, if the executable
portion of the SQL statement is aged out (or deallocated) from the library cache to
make room for another statement, then Oracle Database implicitly reparses the
statement to create a new shared SQL area for it, and executes the statement. This also
results in a hard parse. To reduce library cache misses on execution calls, allocate more
memory to the library cache.
For more information about hard and soft parsing, see "SQL Execution Efficiency" on
page 2-13.
Data Dictionary Cache Concepts
Information stored in the data dictionary cache includes:
■
Usernames
■
Segment information
■
Profile data
■
Tablespace information
■
Sequence numbers
The data dictionary cache also stores descriptive information, or metadata, about
schema objects. Oracle Database uses this metadata when parsing SQL cursors or
during the compilation of PL/SQL programs.
SQL Sharing Criteria
Oracle Database automatically determines whether a SQL statement or PL/SQL block
being issued is identical to another statement currently in the shared pool.
To compare the text of the SQL statement to the existing SQL statements in the shared
pool, Oracle Database performs the following steps:
1.
The text of the SQL statement is hashed.
If there is no matching hash value, then the SQL statement does not currently exist
in the shared pool, and a hard parse is performed.
2.
If there is a matching hash value for an existing SQL statement in the shared pool,
then the text of the matched statement is compared to the text of the hashed
statement to verify if they are identical.
The text of the SQL statements or PL/SQL blocks must be identical, character for
character, including spaces, case, and comments. For example, the following
statements cannot use the same shared SQL area:
SELECT * FROM employees;
SELECT * FROM Employees;
SELECT * FROM employees;
Tuning the Shared Pool and the Large Pool
14-3
Using the Shared Pool
Also, SQL statements that differ only in literals cannot use the same shared SQL
area. For example, the following statements do not resolve to the same SQL area:
SELECT count(1) FROM employees WHERE manager_id = 121;
SELECT count(1) FROM employees WHERE manager_id = 247;
The only exception to this rule is when the CURSOR_SHARING parameter is set to
FORCE, in which case similar statements can share SQL areas. For information
about the costs and benefits involved in cursor sharing, see "Sharing Cursors" on
page 14-17.
3.
The objects referenced in the issued statement are compared to the referenced
objects of all existing statements in the shared pool to ensure that they are
identical.
References to schema objects in the SQL statements or PL/SQL blocks must
resolve to the same object in the same schema. For example, if two users each issue
the following SQL statement but they each have their own employees table, then
this statement is not considered identical, because the statement references
different tables for each user:
SELECT * FROM employees;
4.
Bind variables in the SQL statements must match in name, data type, and length.
For example, the following statements cannot use the same shared SQL area,
because the bind variable names are different:
SELECT * FROM employees WHERE department_id = :department_id;
SELECT * FROM employees WHERE department_id = :dept_id;
Many Oracle products, such as Oracle Forms and the precompilers, convert the
SQL before passing statements to the database. Characters are uniformly changed
to uppercase, white space is compressed, and bind variables are renamed so that a
consistent set of SQL statements is produced.
5.
The session's environment must be identical.
For example, SQL statements must be optimized using the same optimization
goal.
Oracle Database Reference for information about the
CURSOR_SHARING initialization parameter
See Also:
Using the Shared Pool
An important purpose of the shared pool is to cache the executable versions of SQL
and PL/SQL statements. This enables multiple executions of the same SQL or PL/SQL
code to be performed without the resources required for a hard parse, which results in
significant reductions in CPU, memory, and latch usage.
The shared pool is also able to support unshared SQL in data warehousing
applications, which execute low-concurrency, high-resource SQL statements. In this
situation, using unshared SQL with literal values is recommended. Using literal values
rather than bind variables enables the optimizer to make good column selectivity
estimates, thus providing an optimal data access plan.
In a high-currency online transaction processing (OLTP) system, efficient use of the
shared pool significantly reduces the probability of parse-related application
scalability issues. There are several ways to ensure efficient use of the shared pool and
related resources in an OLTP system:
14-4 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Using the Shared Pool
■
Use Shared Cursors
■
Use Single-User Logon and Qualified Table Reference
■
Use PL/SQL
■
Avoid Performing DDL Operations
■
Cache Sequence Numbers
■
Control Cursor Access
■
Maintain Persistent Connections
See Also: Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide for information
about using unshared SQL in data warehousing applications
Use Shared Cursors
Reuse of shared SQL for multiple users running the same application avoids hard
parsing. Soft parses provide a significant reduction in the use of resources, such as the
shared pool and library cache latches.
To use shared cursors:
■
Use bind variables instead of literals in SQL statements whenever possible.
For example, the following two SQL statements cannot use the same shared area
because they do not match character for character:
SELECT employee_id FROM employees WHERE department_id = 10;
SELECT employee_id FROM employees WHERE department_id = 20;
Replacing the literals with a bind variable results in only one SQL statement which
can be executed twice:
SELECT employee_id FROM employees WHERE department_id = :dept_id;
For existing applications where rewriting the code to use bind variables is not
possible, use the CURSOR_SHARING initialization parameter to avoid some of the
hard parse overhead, as described in "Sharing Cursors" on page 14-17.
■
Avoid application designs that result in large numbers of users issuing dynamic,
unshared SQL statements.
Typically, the majority of data required by most users can be satisfied using preset
queries. Use dynamic SQL where such functionality is required.
■
■
Ensure that users of the application do not change the optimization approach and
goal for their individual sessions.
Establish the following policies for application developers:
–
Standardize naming conventions for bind variables and spacing conventions
for SQL statements and PL/SQL blocks.
–
Consider using stored procedures whenever possible.
Multiple users issuing the same stored procedure use the same shared
PL/SQL area automatically. Because stored procedures are stored in a parsed
form, their use reduces run-time parsing.
■
For SQL statements which are identical but are not being shared, query the V$SQL_
SHARED_CURSOR view to determine why the cursors are not shared.
This includes optimizer settings and bind variable mismatches.
Tuning the Shared Pool and the Large Pool
14-5
Using the Shared Pool
See Also:
Oracle Database Concepts for information about shared
cursors
Use Single-User Logon and Qualified Table Reference
In large OLTP systems where users log in to the database with their own user logon,
qualifying the segment owner explicitly instead of using public synonyms
significantly reduces the number of entries in the dictionary cache.
An alternative to qualifying table names is to connect to the database through a single
user logon, rather than individual user logons. User-level validation can take place
locally on the middle tier.
Use PL/SQL
Using stored PL/SQL packages can overcome many of the scalability issues for
systems with thousands of users, each with individual user logon and public
synonyms. This is because a package is executed as the owner, rather than the caller,
which reduces the dictionary cache load considerably.
Oracle encourages the use of definer's rights packages to
overcome scalability issues. The benefits of reduced dictionary cache
load are not as great with invoker's rights packages.
Note:
Avoid Performing DDL Operations
Avoid performing DDL operations on high-usage segments during peak hours.
Performing DDL operations on these segments often results in the dependent SQL
being invalidated and reparsed in a later execution.
Cache Sequence Numbers
Allocating sufficient cache space for frequently updated sequence numbers
significantly reduces the frequency of dictionary cache locks, which improves
scalability.
To configure the number of cache entries for each sequence:
■
Use the CACHE keyword in the CREATE SEQUENCE or ALTER SEQUENCE statement.
Control Cursor Access
Depending on your application tool, you can control how frequently the application
performs parse calls by controlling cursor access.
The frequency with which the application either closes cursors or reuses existing
cursors for new SQL statements affects the amount of memory used by a session, and
often the amount of parsing performed by that session. An application that closes
cursors or reuses cursors (for a different SQL statement) does not require as much
session memory as an application that keeps cursors open. Conversely, that same
application may need to perform more parse calls, using more CPU and database
resources
Cursors associated with SQL statements that are not executed frequently can be closed
or reused for other statements, because the likelihood of re-executing (and reparsing)
that statement is low. Extra parse calls are required when a cursor containing a SQL
statement that will be re-executed is closed or reused for another statement. Had the
14-6 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Using the Shared Pool
cursor remained open, it may have been reused without the overhead of issuing a
parse call.
The ways in which you control cursor access depends on your application
development tool. This section describes the methods used for Oracle Database tools:
■
Controlling Cursor Access Using OCI
■
Controlling Cursor Access Using Oracle Precompilers
■
Controlling Cursor Access Using SQLJ
■
Controlling Cursor Access Using JDBC
■
Controlling Cursor Access Using Oracle Forms
See Also:
The tool-specific documentation for information about
each tool
Controlling Cursor Access Using OCI
When using Oracle Call Interface (OCI), do not close and reopen cursors that you will
be re-executing. Instead, leave the cursors open, and change the literal values in the
bind variables before execution.
Avoid reusing statement handles for new SQL statements when the existing SQL
statement will be re-executed in the future.
Controlling Cursor Access Using Oracle Precompilers
When using the Oracle precompilers, you can control when cursors are closed by
setting precompiler clauses. In Oracle mode, the clauses are as follow:
■
HOLD_CURSOR = YES
■
RELEASE_CURSOR = NO
■
MAXOPENCURSORS = desired_value
The precompiler clauses can be specified on the precompiler command line or within
the precompiler program. Oracle recommends that you not use ANSI mode, in which
the values of HOLD_CURSOR and RELEASE_CURSOR are switched.
See Also: Your language's precompiler manual for information
about these clauses
Controlling Cursor Access Using SQLJ
Prepare the SQL statement, then re-execute the statement with the new values for the
bind variables. The cursor stays open for the duration of the session.
Controlling Cursor Access Using JDBC
Avoid closing cursors if they will be re-executed, because the new literal values can be
bound to the cursor for re-execution. Alternatively, JDBC provides a SQL statement
cache within the JDBC client using the setStmtCacheSize() method. Using this
method, JDBC creates a SQL statement cache that is local to the JDBC program.
Oracle Database JDBC Developer's Guide for information
about using the JDBC SQL statement cache
See Also:
Tuning the Shared Pool and the Large Pool
14-7
Configuring the Shared Pool
Controlling Cursor Access Using Oracle Forms
With Oracle Forms, it is possible to control some aspects of cursor access at run time,
the trigger level, or the form level.
Maintain Persistent Connections
Large OLTP applications with middle tiers should maintain connections, instead of
connecting and disconnecting for each database request. Maintaining persistent
connections saves CPU resources and database resources, such as latches.
Configuring the Shared Pool
This section describes how to configure the shared pool and contains the following
topics:
■
Sizing the Shared Pool
■
Deallocating Cursors
■
Caching Session Cursors
■
Sharing Cursors
■
Keeping Large Objects to Prevent Aging
■
Configuring the Reserved Pool
Sizing the Shared Pool
When configuring a new database instance, it is difficult to know the correct size for
the shared pool cache. Typically, a DBA makes a first estimate for the cache size, then
runs a representative workload on the instance, and examines the relevant statistics to
see whether the cache is under-configured or over-configured.
For most OLTP applications, shared pool size is an important factor in application
performance. Shared pool size is less important for applications that issue a very
limited number of discrete SQL statements, such as decision support systems (DSS).
If the shared pool is too small, then extra resources are used to manage the limited
amount of available space. This consumes CPU and latching resources, and causes
contention. Ideally, the shared pool should be just large enough to cache
frequently-accessed objects. Having a significant amount of free memory in the shared
pool is a waste of memory. When examining the statistics after the database has been
running, ensure that none of these mistakes are present in the workload.
This section describes how to size the shared pool and contains the following topics:
■
Using Library Cache Statistics
■
Using Shared Pool Advisory Statistics
■
Using Dictionary Cache Statistics
■
Increasing Memory Allocated to the Shared Pool
■
Reducing Memory Allocated to the Shared Pool
Using Library Cache Statistics
When sizing the shared pool, the goal is to cache SQL statements that are executed
multiple times in the library cache without over-allocating memory. To accomplish
this goal, examine the following library cache statistics:
14-8 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Configuring the Shared Pool
■
RELOADS
The RELOADS column in the V$LIBRARYCACHE view shows the amount of reloading
(or reparsing) of a previously-cached SQL statement that aged out of the cache. If
the application reuses SQL effectively and runs on a system with an optimal
shared pool size, this statistic should have a value near zero.
■
INVALIDATIONS
The INVALIDATIONS column in V$LIBRARYCACHE view shows the number of times
library cache data was invalidated and had to be reparsed. This statistic should
have a value near zero, especially on OLTP systems during peak loads. This
means SQL statements that can be shared were invalidated by some operation
(such as a DDL).
■
Library cache hit ratio
The library cache hit ratio is a broad indicator of the library cache health. This
value should be considered along with the other statistics, such as the rate of hard
parsing and if there is any shared pool or library cache latch contention.
■
Amount of free memory in the shared pool
To view the amount of free memory in the shared pool, query the V$SGASTAT
performance view. Ideally, free memory should be as low as possible, without
causing any reparsing on the system.
The following sections describe how to view and examine these library cache statistics:
■
Using the V$LIBRARYCACHE View
■
Calculating the Library Cache Hit Ratio
■
Viewing the Amount of Free Memory in the Shared Pool
Using the V$LIBRARYCACHE View Use the V$LIBRARYCACHE view to monitor statistics that
reflect library cache activity. These statistics reflect all library cache activity after the
most recent database instance startup.
Each row in this view contains statistics for one type of item kept in the library cache.
The item described by each row is identified by the value of the NAMESPACE column.
Rows with the following NAMESPACE values reflect library cache activity for SQL
statements and PL/SQL blocks:
■
SQL AREA
■
TABLE/PROCEDURE
■
BODY
■
TRIGGER
Rows with other NAMESPACE values reflect library cache activity for object definitions
that Oracle Database uses for dependency maintenance.
Example 14–1 shows a query of this view to examine each namespace individually.
Example 14–1
Querying the V$LIBRARYCACHE View
SELECT namespace, pins, pinhits, reloads, invalidations
FROM V$LIBRARYCACHE
ORDER BY namespace;
The output of this query might look like the following:
NAMESPACE
PINS
PINHITS
RELOADS INVALIDATIONS
Tuning the Shared Pool and the Large Pool
14-9
Configuring the Shared Pool
--------------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ------------BODY
8870
8819
0
0
CLUSTER
393
380
0
0
INDEX
29
0
0
0
OBJECT
0
0
0
0
PIPE
55265
55263
0
0
SQL AREA
21536413
21520516
11204
2
TABLE/PROCEDURE
10775684
10774401
0
0
TRIGGER
1852
1844
0
0
In this example, the output shows that:
■
■
■
For the SQL AREA namespace, there are 21,536,413 executions.
11,204 of these executions resulted in a library cache miss, requiring the database
to implicitly reparse a statement or block, or reload an object definition because it
aged out of the library cache.
SQL statements are invalidated twice, again causing library cache misses.
This query returns data from instance startup. Using statistics
gathered over an interval instead may better identify the problem. For
information about gathering information over an interval, see
Chapter 7, "Automatic Performance Diagnostics".
Note:
Oracle Database Reference for information about the
V$LIBRARYCACHE view
See Also:
Calculating the Library Cache Hit Ratio To calculate the library cache hit ratio, use the
following formula:
Library Cache Hit Ratio = sum(pinhits) / sum(pins)
Applying the library cache hit ratio formula to Example 14–1 results in the following
library cache hit ratio:
SUM(PINHITS)/SUM(PINS)
---------------------.999466248
In this example, the hit percentage is about 99.94%, which means that only .06% of
executions resulted in reparsing.
Viewing the Amount of Free Memory in the Shared Pool The amount of free memory in the
shared pool is reported in the V$SGASTAT view.
Example 14–2 shows a query of this view.
Example 14–2
SELECT
FROM
WHERE
AND
Querying the V$SGASTAT View
*
V$SGASTAT
name = 'free memory'
pool = 'shared pool';
The output of this query might look like the following:
POOL
NAME
BYTES
----------- -------------------------- ---------shared pool free memory
4928280
14-10 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Configuring the Shared Pool
If free memory is always available in the shared pool, then increasing its size offers
little or no benefit. Yet, just because the shared pool is full does not necessarily mean
there is a problem. It may be indicative of a well-configured system.
Using Shared Pool Advisory Statistics
The amount of memory available for the library cache can drastically affect the parse
rate of Oracle Database. To help you correctly size the library cache, Oracle Database
provides the following shared pool advisory views:
■
V$SHARED_POOL_ADVICE
■
V$LIBRARY_CACHE_MEMORY
■
V$JAVA_POOL_ADVICE
■
V$JAVA_LIBRARY_CACHE_MEMORY
These shared pool advisory views provide information about library cache memory,
enabling you to predict how changing the size of the shared pool can affect aging out
of objects in the shared pool. The shared pool advisory statistics in these views track
the library cache's use of shared pool memory and predict how the library cache will
behave in shared pools of different sizes. Using these views enable you to determine:
■
How much memory the library cache is using
■
How much memory is currently pinned
■
How much memory is on the shared pool's Least Recently Used (LRU) list
■
How much time might be lost or gained by changing the size of the shared pool
These views display shared pool advisory statistics when the shared pool advisory is
enabled. The statistics reset when the advisory is disabled.
The following sections describe these views in more detail:
■
About the V$SHARED_POOL_ADVICE View
■
About the V$LIBRARY_CACHE_MEMORY View
■
About V$JAVA_POOL_ADVICE and V$JAVA_LIBRARY_CACHE_MEMORY
See Also:
views
Oracle Database Reference for information about these
About the V$SHARED_POOL_ADVICE View The V$SHARED_POOL_ADVICE view displays
information about estimated parse time in the shared pool for different pool sizes. The
sizes range from 10% of the current shared pool size or the amount of pinned library
cache memory—whichever is higher—to 200% of the current shared pool size, in equal
intervals. The value of the interval depends on the current size of the shared pool.
About the V$LIBRARY_CACHE_MEMORY View The V$LIBRARY_CACHE_MEMORY view displays
information about memory allocated to library cache memory objects in different
namespaces. A memory object is an internal grouping of memory for efficient
management. A library cache object may consist of one or more memory objects.
About V$JAVA_POOL_ADVICE and V$JAVA_LIBRARY_CACHE_MEMORY The V$JAVA_POOL_
ADVICE and V$JAVA_LIBRARY_CACHE_MEMORY views contain Java pool advisory statistics
that track information about library cache memory used for Java and predict how
changing the size of the Java pool affects the parse rate.
Tuning the Shared Pool and the Large Pool 14-11
Configuring the Shared Pool
The V$JAVA_POOL_ADVICE view displays information about estimated parse time in the
Java pool for different pool sizes. The sizes range from 10% of the current Java pool
size or the amount of pinned Java library cache memory—whichever is higher—to
200% of the current Java pool size, in equal intervals. The value of the interval depends
on the current size of the Java pool.
Using Dictionary Cache Statistics
Typically, if the shared pool is adequately sized for the library cache, it will also be
adequate sized for the dictionary cache data.
Misses on the data dictionary cache are to be expected in some cases. When the
database instance starts up, the data dictionary cache does not contain any data.
Therefore, any SQL statement issued is likely to result in cache misses. As more data is
read into the cache, the likelihood of cache misses decreases. Eventually, the database
reaches a steady state, in which the most frequently-used dictionary data is in the
cache. At this point, very few cache misses occur.
Each row in the V$ROWCACHE view contains statistics for a single type of data dictionary
item. These statistics reflect all data dictionary activity since the most recent instance
startup.
Table 14–1 lists the columns in the V$ROWCACHE view that reflect the use and
effectiveness of the data dictionary cache.
Table 14–1
Data Dictionary Columns in the V$ROWCACHE View
Column
Description
PARAMETER
Identifies a particular data dictionary item. For each row, the value in this
column is the item prefixed by dc_. For example, in the row that contains
statistics for file descriptions, this column contains the value dc_files.
GETS
Shows the total number of requests for information about the corresponding
item. For example, in the row that contains statistics for file descriptions, this
column contains the total number of requests for file description data.
GETMISSES
Shows the number of data requests that are not satisfied by the cache and
required an I/O.
MODIFICATIONS
Shows the number of times data in the dictionary cache was updated.
Example 14–3 shows a query of this view to monitor the statistics over a period while
the application is running. The derived column PCT_SUCC_GETS can be considered as
the item-specific hit ratio.
Example 14–3
Querying the V$ROWCACHE View
column parameter format a21
column pct_succ_gets format 999.9
column updates format 999,999,999
SELECT parameter,
sum(gets),
sum(getmisses),
100*sum(gets - getmisses) / sum(gets) pct_succ_gets,
sum(modifications) updates
FROM V$ROWCACHE
WHERE gets > 0
GROUP BY parameter;
The output of this query might look like the following:
14-12 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Configuring the Shared Pool
PARAMETER
SUM(GETS) SUM(GETMISSES) PCT_SUCC_GETS
UPDATES
--------------------- ---------- -------------- ------------- -----------dc_database_links
81
1
98.8
0
dc_free_extents
44876
20301
54.8
40,453
dc_global_oids
42
9
78.6
0
dc_histogram_defs
9419
651
93.1
0
dc_object_ids
29854
239
99.2
52
dc_objects
33600
590
98.2
53
dc_profiles
19001
1
100.0
0
dc_rollback_segments
47244
16
100.0
19
dc_segments
100467
19042
81.0
40,272
dc_sequence_grants
119
16
86.6
0
dc_sequences
26973
16
99.9
26,811
dc_synonyms
6617
168
97.5
0
dc_tablespace_quotas
120
7
94.2
51
dc_tablespaces
581248
10
100.0
0
dc_used_extents
51418
20249
60.6
42,811
dc_user_grants
76082
18
100.0
0
dc_usernames
216860
12
100.0
0
dc_users
376895
22
100.0
0
In this example, the output shows the following:
■
■
There are large numbers of misses and updates for used extents, free extents, and
segments. This implies that the database instance had a significant amount of
dynamic space extension.
Comparing the percentage of successful gets with the actual number of gets
indicates the shared pool is large enough to adequately store dictionary cache
data.
You can also calculate the overall dictionary cache hit ratio using the following query;
however, summing up the data over all the caches will lose the finer granularity of
data:
SELECT (SUM(gets - getmisses - fixed)) / SUM(gets) "row cache"
FROM V$ROWCACHE;
Increasing Memory Allocated to the Shared Pool
Increasing the amount of memory for the shared pool increases the amount of memory
available to the library cache, the dictionary cache, and the result cache. Before doing
so, review the shared pool statistics and examine:
■
■
If the value of the V$LIBRARYCACHE.RELOADS column is near zero
If the ratio of total V$ROWCACHE.GETMISSES column to total V$ROWCACHE.GETS is less
than 10% or 15% for frequently-accessed dictionary caches, depending on the
application
If both of these conditions are met, then the shared pool is adequately sized and
increasing its memory will likely not improve performance. On the other hand, if
either of these conditions is not met, and the application is using the shared pool
effectively, as described in "Using the Shared Pool" on page 14-4, then consider
increasing the memory of the shared pool.
To increase the size of the shared pool:
■
Increase the value of the SHARED_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter until the
conditions are met.
Tuning the Shared Pool and the Large Pool 14-13
Configuring the Shared Pool
The maximum value for this parameter depends on your operating system. This
measure reduces implicit reparsing of SQL statements and PL/SQL blocks on
execution.
Reducing Memory Allocated to the Shared Pool
If the value of the V$LIBRARYCACHE.RELOADS column is near zero, and there is a small
amount of free memory in the shared pool, then the shared pool is adequately sized to
store the most frequently-accessed data. If there are always significant amounts of free
memory in the shared pool and you want to allocate this memory elsewhere, then
consider reducing the shared pool size.
To decrease the size of the shared pool
■
Reduce the value of the SHARED_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter, while
ensuring that good performance is maintained.
Deallocating Cursors
If there are no library cache misses, then consider setting the value of the CURSOR_
SPACE_FOR_TIME initialization parameter to TRUE to accelerate execution calls. This
parameter specifies whether a cursor can be deallocated from the library cache to
make room for a new SQL statement.
If the CURSOR_SPACE_FOR_TIME parameter is set to:
■
FALSE (the default), then a cursor can be deallocated from the library cache
regardless of whether application cursors associated with its SQL statement are
open.
In this case, Oracle Database must verify that the cursor containing the SQL
statement is in the library cache.
■
TRUE, then a cursor can be deallocated only when all application cursors associated
with its statement are closed.
In this case, Oracle Database does not need to verify that a cursor is in the library
cache because it cannot be deallocated while an application cursor associated with
it is open.
Setting the value of the parameter to TRUE saves Oracle Database a small amount of
time and may slightly improve the performance of execution calls. This value also
prevents the deallocation of cursors until associated application cursors are closed.
Do not set the value of the CURSOR_SPACE_FOR_TIME parameter to TRUE if:
■
Library cache misses are found in execution calls
Library cache misses indicate that the shared pool is not large enough to hold the
shared SQL areas of all concurrently open cursors. If the shared pool does not
have enough space for a new SQL statement and the value for this parameter is set
to TRUE, then the statement cannot be parsed and Oracle Database returns an error
indicating that there is not enough shared memory.
■
The amount of memory available to each user for private SQL areas is scarce
This value also prevents the deallocation of private SQL areas associated with
open cursors. If the private SQL areas for all concurrently open cursors fills the
available memory so that there is no space for a new SQL statement, then the
statement cannot be parsed and Oracle Database returns an error indicating that
there is not enough memory.
14-14 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Configuring the Shared Pool
If the shared pool does not have enough space for a new SQL statement and the value
of this parameter is set to FALSE, then Oracle Database deallocates an existing cursor.
Although deallocating a cursor may result in a subsequent library cache miss (if the
cursor is re-executed), this is preferable to an error halting the application because a
SQL statement cannot be parsed.
Caching Session Cursors
The session cursor cache contains closed session cursors for SQL and PL/SQL,
including recursive SQL. This cache can be useful to applications that use Oracle
Forms because switching from one form to another closes all session cursors
associated with the first form. If an application repeatedly issues parse calls on the
same set of SQL statements, then reopening session cursors can degrade performance.
By reusing cursors, the database reduces parse times, leading to faster overall
execution times.
This section describes the session cursor cache and contains the following topics:
■
About the Session Cursor Cache
■
Enabling the Session Cursor Cache
■
Sizing the Session Cursor Cache
About the Session Cursor Cache
A session cursor represents an instantiation of a shared child cursor, which is stored in
the shared pool, for a specific session. Each session cursor stores a reference to a child
cursor that it has instantiated.
Oracle Database checks the library cache to determine whether more than three parse
requests have been issued on a given statement. If a cursor has been closed three
times, then Oracle Database assumes that the session cursor associated with the
statement should be cached and moves the cursor into the session cursor cache.
Subsequent requests to parse a SQL statement by the same session search an array for
pointers to the shared cursor. If the pointer is found, then the database dereferences
the pointer to determine whether the shared cursor exists. To reuse a cursor from the
cache, the cache manager checks whether the cached states of the cursor match the
current session and system environment.
Note: Reuse of a cached cursor still registers as a parse, even though
it is not a hard parse.
An LRU algorithm removes entries in the session cursor cache to make room for new
entries when needed. The cache also uses an internal time-based algorithm to age out
cursors that have been idle for an certain amount of time.
Enabling the Session Cursor Cache
The following initialization parameters pertain to the session cursor cache:
■
SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS
This parameter sets the maximum number of cached closed cursors for each
session. The default value is 50. Use this parameter to prevent a session from
opening an excessive number of cursors, thereby filling the library cache or forcing
excessive hard parses.
Tuning the Shared Pool and the Large Pool 14-15
Configuring the Shared Pool
■
OPEN_CURSORS
This parameter specifies the maximum number of cursors a session can have open
simultaneously. For example, if its value is set to 1000, then each session can have
up to 1000 cursors open at one time.
These parameters are independent. For example, you can set the value of the SESSION_
CACHED_CURSORS parameter higher than the value of the OPEN_CURSORS parameter
because session cursors are not cached in an open state.
To enable the session cursor cache:
1.
Determine the maximum number of session cursors to keep in the cache.
2.
Do one of the following:
■
■
To enable static caching, set the value of the SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS
parameter to the number determined in the previous step.
To enable dynamic caching, execute the following statement:
ALTER SESSION SET SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS = value;
Sizing the Session Cursor Cache
Use the V$SESSTAT view to determine if the session cursor cache is adequately sized for
the database instance.
To size the session cursor cache:
1.
Query the V$SESSTAT view to determine how many cursors are currently cached in
a particular session.
2.
Query the V$SESSTAT view to find the percentage of parse calls that found a cursor
in the session cursor cache.
3.
Consider increasing the value of the SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS parameter if the
following conditions are true:
■
The session cursor cache count is close to the maximum
■
The percentage of session cursor cache hits is low relative to the total parses
■
The application repeatedly performs parse calls for the same queries
Example 14–4 shows two queries of this view.
Example 14–4
Querying the V$SESSTAT View
The following query finds how many cursors are currently cached in a particular
session:
SELECT a.value curr_cached, p.value max_cached,
s.username, s.sid, s.serial#
FROM v$sesstat a, v$statname b, v$session s, v$parameter2 p
WHERE a.statistic# = b.statistic# and s.sid=a.sid and a.sid=&sid
AND p.name='session_cached_cursors'
AND b.name = 'session cursor cache count';
The output of this query might look like the following:
CURR_CACHED MAX_CACHED USERNAME
SID
SERIAL#
----------- ---------- -------- ----- ---------49 50
APP
35
263
14-16 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Configuring the Shared Pool
This output shows that the number of cursors currently cached for session 35 is close
to the maximum.
The following query finds the percentage of parse calls that found a cursor in the
session cursor cache:
SELECT cach.value cache_hits, prs.value all_parses,
round((cach.value/prs.value)*100,2) as "% found in cache"
FROM v$sesstat cach, v$sesstat prs, v$statname nm1, v$statname nm2
WHERE cach.statistic# = nm1.statistic#
AND nm1.name = 'session cursor cache hits'
AND prs.statistic#=nm2.statistic#
AND nm2.name= 'parse count (total)'
AND cach.sid= &sid and prs.sid= cach.sid;
The output of this query might look like the following:
CACHE_HITS ALL_PARSES % found in cache
---------- ---------- ---------------34
700
4.57
This output shows that the number of hits in the session cursor cache for session 35 is
low compared to the total number of parses.
In this example, setting the value of the SESSION_CACHED_CURSORS parameter to 100
may help boost performance.
Sharing Cursors
In the context of SQL parsing, an identical statement is a SQL statement whose text is
identical to another statement, character for character, including spaces, case, and
comments. A similar statement is identical except for the values of some literals.
The parse phase compares the statement text with statements in the shared pool to
determine if the statement can be shared. If the value of the CURSOR_SHARING
initialization parameter is set to EXACT (the default value), and if a statement in the
shared pool is not identical, then the database does not share the SQL area. Instead,
each SQL statement has its own parent cursor and its own execution plan based on the
literal in the statement.
This section describes how cursors can be shared and contains the following topics:
■
About Cursor Sharing
■
Forcing Cursor Sharing
About Cursor Sharing
When SQL statements use literals rather than bind variables, setting the value of the
CURSOR_SHARING initialization parameter to FORCE enables the database to replace
literals with system-generated bind variables. Using this technique, the database may
reduce the number of parent cursors in the shared SQL area.
When the value of the CURSOR_SHARING parameter is set to FORCE, the database
performs the following steps during the parse phase:
1.
Searches for an identical statement in the shared pool.
If an identical statement is found, then the database skips the next step and
proceeds to step 3. Otherwise, the database proceeds to the next step.
2.
Searches for a similar statement in the shared pool.
Tuning the Shared Pool and the Large Pool 14-17
Configuring the Shared Pool
If a similar statement is not found, then the database performs a hard parse. If a
similar statement is found, then the database proceeds to the next step.
3.
Proceeds through the remaining steps of the parse phase to ensure that the
execution plan of the existing statement is applicable to the new statement.
If the plan is not applicable, then the database performs a hard parse. If the plan is
applicable, then the database proceeds to the next step.
4.
Shares the SQL area of the statement.
For details about the various checks performed by the database, see "SQL Sharing
Criteria" on page 14-3.
Forcing Cursor Sharing
The best practice is to write sharable SQL and use the default value of EXACT for the
CURSOR_SHARING initialization parameter. By default, Oracle Database uses adaptive
cursor sharing to enable a single SQL statement that contains bind variables to use
multiple execution plans. However, for applications with many similar statements that
use literals instead of bind variables, setting the value of the CURSOR_SHARING
parameter to FORCE may improve cursor sharing, resulting in reduced memory usage,
faster parses, and reduced latch contention. Consider this approach when statements
in the shared pool differ only in the values of literals, and when response time is poor
because of a high number of library cache misses. In this case, setting the value of the
CURSOR_SHARING parameter to FORCE maximizes cursor sharing and leverages adaptive
cursor sharing to generate multiple execution plans based on different literal value
ranges.
If stored outlines are generated with the value of the CURSOR_SHARING parameter set to
EXACT, then the database does not use stored outlines generated with literals. To avoid
this problem, generate outlines with CURSOR_SHARING set to FORCE and use the CREATE_
STORED_OUTLINES parameter.
Setting the value of the CURSOR_SHARING parameter to FORCE has the following
drawbacks:
■
■
■
The database must perform extra work during the soft parse to find a similar
statement in the shared pool.
There is an increase in the maximum lengths (as returned by DESCRIBE) of any
selected expressions that contain literals in a SELECT statement. However, the
actual length of the data returned does not change.
Star transformation is not supported.
When the value of the CURSOR_SHARING parameter is set to FORCE, the database uses
one parent cursor and one child cursor for each distinct SQL statement. The same plan
is used for each execution of the same statement. For example, consider the following
SQL statement:
SELECT *
FROM hr.employees
WHERE employee_id = 101;
If the value of the CURSOR_SHARING parameter is set to FORCE, then the database
optimizes this statement as if it contained a bind variable and uses bind peeking to
estimate cardinality. Statements that differ only in the bind variable share the same
execution plan.
14-18 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Configuring the Shared Pool
Note: Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2, setting the value
of the CURSOR_SHARING parameter to SIMILAR is obsolete. Consider
using adaptive cursor sharing instead.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Reference for information about the CURSOR_
SHARING initialization parameter
Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for information about adaptive
cursor sharing
Keeping Large Objects to Prevent Aging
After an entry is loaded into the shared pool, it cannot be moved. Sometimes, as
entries are loaded and aged out, the free memory may become fragmented. Shared
SQL and PL/SQL areas age out of the shared pool according to an LRU algorithm that
is similar to database buffers. To improve performance and avoid reparsing, prevent
large SQL or PL/SQL areas from aging out of the shared pool.
The DBMS_SHARED_POOL package enables you to keep objects in shared memory, so that
they do not age out with the normal LRU mechanism. By using the DBMS_SHARED_POOL
package to load the SQL and PL/SQL areas before memory fragmentation occurs, the
objects can be kept in memory. This ensures that memory is available and prevents the
sudden slowdowns in user response times that occur when SQL and PL/SQL areas
are accessed after being aged out.
Consider using the DBMS_SHARED_POOL package:
■
When loading large PL/SQL objects, such as the STANDARD and DIUTIL packages.
When large PL/SQL objects are loaded, user response time may be affected if
smaller objects must age out of the shared pool to make room for the larger
objects. In some cases, there may be insufficient memory to load the large objects.
■
To keep compiled triggers on frequently used tables in the shared pool.
■
Support sequences.
Sequence numbers are lost when a sequence ages out of the shared pool. The
DBMS_SHARED_POOL package keeps sequences in the shared pool, thus preventing
the loss of sequence numbers.
To keep a SQL or PL/SQL area in shared memory:
1.
Decide which packages or cursors to keep in memory.
2.
Start up the database.
3.
Call the DBMS_SHARED_POOL.KEEP package to pin the objects.
This procedure ensures that the system does not run out of shared memory before
the pinned objects are loaded. Pinning the objects early in the life of the database
instance prevents memory fragmentation that may result from keeping a large
portion of memory in the middle of the shared pool.
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for
information about using DBMS_SHARED_POOL procedures
See Also:
Tuning the Shared Pool and the Large Pool 14-19
Configuring the Shared Pool
Configuring the Reserved Pool
Although Oracle Database breaks down very large requests for memory into smaller
chunks, on some systems there may be a requirement to find a contiguous chunk of
memory (such as over 5 KB, the default minimum reserved pool allocation is 4,400
bytes).
If there is not enough free space in the shared pool, then Oracle Database must search
for and free enough memory to satisfy this request. This operation may hold the latch
resource for significant periods of time, causing minor disruption to other concurrent
attempts at memory allocation.
To avoid this, Oracle Database internally reserves a small memory area in the shared
pool by default that the database can use if the shared pool does not have enough
space. This reserved pool makes allocation of large chunks more efficient. The
database can use this memory for operations such as PL/SQL and trigger compilation,
or for temporary space while loading Java objects. After the memory allocated from
the reserved pool is freed, it is returned to the reserved pool.
For large allocations, Oracle Database attempts to allocate space in the shared pool in
the following order:
1.
From the unreserved part of the shared pool.
2.
From the reserved pool.
If there is not enough space in the unreserved part of the shared pool, then Oracle
Database checks whether the reserved pool has enough space.
3.
From memory.
If there is not enough space in the unreserved and reserved parts of the shared
pool, then Oracle Database attempts to free enough memory for the allocation. The
database then retries the unreserved and reserved parts of the shared pool.
This section describes how to configure the reserved pool and contains the following
topics:
■
Sizing the Reserved Pool
■
Increasing Memory Allocated to the Reserved Pool
■
Reducing Memory Allocated to the Reserved Pool
Sizing the Reserved Pool
Typically, it is not necessary to change the default amount of space Oracle Database
reserves for the reserved pool. However, there may be cases where you need to set
aside space in the shared pool for unusually large allocations of memory.
You can set the reserved pool size by setting the value of the SHARED_POOL_RESERVED_
SIZE initialization parameter. The default value for the SHARED_POOL_RESERVED_SIZE
parameter is 5% of the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter.
If you set the value of the SHARED_POOL_RESERVED_SIZE parameter to more than half of
the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter, then Oracle Database returns an error because the
database does not allow you to reserve too much memory for the reserved pool. The
amount of operating system memory available may also constrain the size of the
shared pool. In general, set the value of the SHARED_POOL_RESERVED_SIZE parameter to
no higher than 10% of the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter. On most systems, this value
is sufficient if the shared pool is adequately tuned. If you increase this value, then the
database takes additional memory from the shared pool and reduces the amount of
unreserved shared pool memory available for smaller allocations.
14-20 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Configuring the Large Pool
When tuning these parameters, use statistics from the V$SHARED_POOL_RESERVED view.
On a system with ample free memory to increase the size of the SGA, the value of the
REQUEST_MISSES statistic should equal zero. If the system is constrained by operating
system memory, then the goal is to have the REQUEST_FAILURES statistic equal zero, or
at least prevent its value from increasing. If you cannot achieve these target values,
then increase the value of the SHARED_POOL_RESERVED_SIZE parameter. Also, increase
the value of the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter by the same amount, because the
reserved list is taken from the shared pool.
The V$SHARED_POOL_RESERVED fixed view can also indicate when the value of the
SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter is too small. This can be the case if the REQUEST_
FAILURES statistic is greater than zero and increasing. If the reserved list is enabled,
then decrease the value of the SHARED_POOL_RESERVED_SIZE parameter. If the reserved
list is not enabled, then increase the value of the SHARED_POOL_SIZE parameter, as
described in "Increasing Memory Allocated to the Shared Pool" on page 14-13.
Increasing Memory Allocated to the Reserved Pool
The reserved pool is too small if the value of the REQUEST_FAILURES statistic is higher
than zero and increasing. In this case, increase the amount of memory available to the
reserved pool.
Increasing the amount of memory available on the reserved
list does not affect users who do not allocate memory from the
reserved list.
Note:
To increase the size of the reserved pool:
■
Increase the value of the SHARED_POOL_RESERVED_SIZE and SHARED_POOL_SIZE
initialization parameters accordingly.
The values that you select for these parameters depend on the system's SGA size
constraints, as described in "Sizing the Reserved Pool" on page 14-20.
Reducing Memory Allocated to the Reserved Pool
The reserved pool is too large if the:
■
■
REQUEST_MISSES statistic is zero or not increasing
FREE_SPACE statistic is greater than or equal to 50% of the SHARED_POOL_RESERVED_
SIZE minimum
If either of these conditions is true, then reduce the amount of memory available to the
reserved pool.
To reduce the size of the reserved pool:
■
Decrease the value of the SHARED_POOL_RESERVED_SIZE initialization parameter.
Configuring the Large Pool
Unlike the shared pool, the large pool does not have an LRU list. Oracle Database does
not attempt to age objects out of the large pool. Consider configuring a large pool if
the database instance uses any of the following Oracle Database features:
■
Shared server
In a shared server architecture, the session memory for each client process is
included in the shared pool.
Tuning the Shared Pool and the Large Pool 14-21
Configuring the Large Pool
■
Parallel query
Parallel query uses shared pool memory to cache parallel execution message
buffers.
■
Recovery Manager
Recovery Manager (RMAN) uses the shared pool to cache I/O buffers during
backup and restore operations. For I/O server processes, backup, and restore
operations, Oracle Database allocates buffers that are a few hundred kilobytes in
size.
This section describes how to configure the large pool for the shared server
architecture and contains the following topics:
■
Configuring the Large Pool for Shared Server Architecture
■
Sizing the Large Pool
■
Limiting Memory Use for User Sessions
■
Reducing Memory Use Using Three-Tier Connections
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Database Concepts for information about the large pool
Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide for information about
sizing the large pool with parallel query
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for information
about sizing the large pool with Recovery Manager
Configuring the Large Pool for Shared Server Architecture
As Oracle Database allocates shared pool memory to shared server sessions, the
amount of shared pool memory available for the library cache and data dictionary
cache decreases. If you allocate the shared server session memory from a different
pool, then the shared pool can be reserved for caching shared SQL.
Oracle recommends using the large pool to allocate the User Global Area (UGA) for
the shared server architecture. Using the large pool instead of the shared pool
decreases fragmentation of the shared pool and eliminates the performance overhead
from shrinking the shared SQL cache.
By default, the large pool is not configured. If you do not configure the large pool,
then Oracle Database uses the shared pool for shared server user session memory. If
you do configure the large pool, Oracle Database still allocates a fixed amount of
memory (about 10K) for each configured session from the shared pool when a shared
server architecture is used. In either case, consider increasing the size of the shared
pool accordingly.
Even though use of shared memory increases with shared
servers, the total amount of memory use decreases. This is because
there are fewer processes; therefore, Oracle Database uses less PGA
memory with shared servers when compared to dedicated server
environments.
Note:
Tip: To specify the maximum number of concurrent shared server
sessions that the database allows, use the CIRCUITS initialization
parameter.
14-22 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Configuring the Large Pool
Tip: For best performance with sort operations using shared servers,
set the values of the SORT_AREA_SIZE and SORT_AREA_RETAINED_SIZE
initialization parameters to the same value. This keeps the sort result
in the large pool instead of writing it to disk.
To configure the large pool:
1.
Verify the pool (shared pool or large pool) in which the memory for an object
resides by checking the POOL column in the V$SGASTAT view.
2.
Set a value for the LARGE_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter, as described in
"Sizing the Large Pool" on page 14-23.
The minimum value for this parameter is 300K.
Sizing the Large Pool
When storing shared server-related UGA in the large pool, the exact amount of UGA
that Oracle Database uses depends on the application. Each application requires a
different amount of memory for session information, and configuration of the large
pool should reflect the memory requirement.
Oracle Database collects statistics on memory used by a session and stores them in the
V$SESSTAT view. Table 14–2 lists the statistics from this view that reflect session UGA
memory.
Table 14–2
Memory Statistics in the V$SESSTAT View
Statistic
Description
session UGA memory
Shows the amount of memory in bytes allocated to the session.
session UGA memory max Shows the maximum amount of memory in bytes ever allocated to
the session.
There are two methods to use this view to determine a correct size for the large pool.
One method is to configure the size of the large pool based on the number of
simultaneously active sessions. To do this, observe UGA memory usage for a typical
user and multiply this amount by the estimated number of user sessions. For example,
if the shared server requires 200K to 300K to store session information for a typical
user session and you anticipate 100 active user sessions simultaneously, then configure
the large pool to 30 MB.
Another method is to calculate the total and maximum memory being used by all user
sessions. Example 14–5 shows two queries of the V$SESSTAT and V$STATNAME views to
do this.
Example 14–5
Querying the V$SESSTAT and V$STATNAME Views
While the application is running, issue the following queries:
SELECT
FROM
WHERE
AND
SUM(value) || ' bytes' "total memory for all sessions"
V$SESSTAT, V$STATNAME
name = 'session uga memory'
V$SESSTAT.STATISTIC# = V$STATNAME.STATISTIC#;
SELECT
FROM
WHERE
AND
SUM(value) || ' bytes' "total max mem for all sessions"
V$SESSTAT, V$STATNAME
name = 'session uga memory max'
V$SESSTAT.STATISTIC# = V$STATNAME.STATISTIC#;
Tuning the Shared Pool and the Large Pool 14-23
Configuring the Large Pool
These queries also select from the V$STATNAME view to obtain internal identifiers for
session memory and max session memory.
The output of these queries might look like the following:
TOTAL MEMORY FOR ALL SESSIONS
----------------------------157125 BYTES
TOTAL MAX MEM FOR ALL SESSIONS
-----------------------------417381 BYTES
The result of the first query shows that the memory currently allocated to all sessions
is 157,125 bytes. This value is the total memory with a location that depends on how
the sessions are connected to the database. If the sessions are connected to dedicated
server processes, then this memory is part of the memories of the user processes. If the
sessions are connected to shared server processes, then this memory is part of the
shared pool.
The result of the second query shows that the sum of the maximum size of the
memory for all sessions is 417,381 bytes. The second result is greater than the first
because some sessions have deallocated memory since allocating their maximum
amounts.
Use the result of either queries to determine the correct size for the shared pool. The
first value is likely to be a better estimate than the second, unless if you expect all
sessions to reach their maximum allocations simultaneously.
Limiting Memory Use for User Sessions
To restrict the memory used by each client session from the SGA, set a resource limit
using PRIVATE_SGA.
PRIVATE_SGA defines the number of bytes of memory used from the SGA by a session.
However, this parameter is rarely used, because most DBAs do not limit SGA
consumption on a user-by-user basis.
See Also: Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for information
about setting the PRIVATE_SGA resource limit
Reducing Memory Use Using Three-Tier Connections
If there is a high number of connected users, then consider reducing memory usage by
implementing three-tier connections. Using a transaction process (TP) monitor is
feasible only with pure transactional models because locks and uncommitted DML
operations cannot be held between calls.
Using a shared server environment:
■
■
■
Is much less restrictive of the application design than a TP monitor.
Dramatically reduces operating system process count and context switches by
enabling users to share a pool of servers.
Substantially reduces overall memory usage, even though more SGA is used in
shared server mode.
14-24 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
15
Tuning the Result Cache
15
This chapter describes how to tune the result cache and contains the following topics:
■
About the Result Cache
■
Configuring the Result Cache
■
Specifying Queries for Result Caching
■
Monitoring the Result Cache
About the Result Cache
A result cache is an area of memory, either in the Shared Global Area (SGA) or client
application memory, that stores the results of a database query or query block for
reuse. The cached rows are shared across SQL statements and sessions unless they
become stale.
This section describes the two types of result cache and contains the following topics:
■
Server Result Cache Concepts
■
Client Result Cache Concepts
Server Result Cache Concepts
The server result cache is a memory pool within the shared pool. This memory pool
consists of the SQL query result cache—which stores results of SQL queries—and the
PL/SQL function result cache, which stores values returned by PL/SQL functions.
This section describes the server result cache and contains the following topics:
■
Benefits of Using the Server Result Cache
■
Understanding How the Server Result Cache Works
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Concepts for information about the server result
cache
Oracle Database PL/SQL Language Reference for information about
the PL/SQL function result cache
Benefits of Using the Server Result Cache
The benefits of using the server result cache depend on the application. OLAP
applications can benefit significantly from its use. Good candidates for caching are
queries that access a high number of rows but return a small number, such as those in
Tuning the Result Cache 15-1
About the Result Cache
a data warehouse. For example, you can use advanced query rewrite with
equivalences to create materialized views that materialize queries in the result cache
instead of using tables.
See Also: Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide for information
about using the result cache and advance query rewrite with
equivalences
Understanding How the Server Result Cache Works
When a query executes, the database searches the cache memory to determine whether
the result exists in the result cache. If the result exists, then the database retrieves the
result from memory instead of executing the query. If the result is not cached, then the
database executes the query, returns the result as output, and stores the result in the
result cache.
When users execute queries and functions repeatedly, the database retrieves rows
from the cache, decreasing response time. Cached results become invalid when data in
dependent database objects is modified.
The following sections contains examples of how to retrieve results from the server
result cache:
■
How Results are Retrieved in a Query
■
How Results are Retrieved in a View
How Results are Retrieved in a Query Example 15–1 shows a query of hr.employees that
uses the RESULT_CACHE hint to retrieve rows from the server result cache.
Example 15–1
RESULT_CACHE Hint Specified in a Query
SELECT /*+ RESULT_CACHE */ department_id, AVG(salary)
FROM hr.employees
GROUP BY department_id;
A portion of the execution plan of this query might look like the following:
-------------------------------------------------------------| Id | Operation
| Name
|Rows
-------------------------------------------------------------| 0 | SELECT STATEMENT
|
| 11
| 1 | RESULT CACHE
| 8fpza04gtwsfr6n595au15yj4y |
| 2 |
HASH GROUP BY
|
| 11
| 3 |
TABLE ACCESS FULL| EMPLOYEES
| 107
--------------------------------------------------------------
In this example, the results are retrieved directly from the cache, as indicated in step 1
of the execution plan. The value in the Name column is the cache ID of the result.
Example 15–2 shows a query of the V$RESULT_CACHE_OBJECTS view to retrieve detailed
statistics about the cached result.
Example 15–2
Querying the V$RESULT_CACHE_OBJECTS View
SELECT id, type, creation_timestamp, block_count,
column_count, pin_count, row_count
FROM V$RESULT_CACHE_OBJECTS
WHERE cache_id = '8fpza04gtwsfr6n595au15yj4y';
15-2 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
About the Result Cache
In this example, the value of CACHE_ID is the cache ID obtained from the explain plan
in Example 15–1. The output of this query might look like the following:
ID TYPE
CREATION_ BLOCK_COUNT COLUMN_COUNT PIN_COUNT ROW_COUNT
---------- ---------- --------- ----------- ------------ ---------- ---------2 Result
06-NOV-11
1
2
0
12
How Results are Retrieved in a View Example 15–3 shows a query that uses the RESULT_
CACHE hint within a WITH clause view.
Example 15–3
RESULT_CACHE Hint Specified in a WITH View
WITH summary AS
( SELECT /*+ RESULT_CACHE */ department_id, avg(salary) avg_sal
FROM hr.employees
GROUP BY department_id )
SELECT d.*, avg_sal
FROM hr.departments d, summary s
WHERE d.department_id = s.department_id;
A portion of the execution plan of this query might look like the following:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------| Id | Operation
| Name
| Rows | Bytes | Cost (%CPU)| Time
|
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
0 | SELECT STATEMENT
|
|
11 |
517 |
7 (29)| 00:00:01 |
|* 1 | HASH JOIN
|
|
11 |
517 |
7 (29)| 00:00:01 |
|
2 |
VIEW
|
|
11 |
286 |
4 (25)| 00:00:01 |
|
3 |
RESULT CACHE
| 8nknvkh64ctmz94a5muf2tyb8r |
|
|
|
|
|
4 |
HASH GROUP BY
|
|
11 |
77 |
4 (25)| 00:00:01 |
|
5 |
TABLE ACCESS FULL| EMPLOYEES
| 107 |
749 |
3
(0)| 00:00:01 |
|
6 |
TABLE ACCESS FULL
| DEPARTMENTS
|
27 |
567 |
2
(0)| 00:00:01 |
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In this example, the summary view results are retrieved directly from the cache, as
indicated in step 3 of the execution plan. The value in the Name column is the cache ID
of the result.
Client Result Cache Concepts
The Oracle Call Interface (OCI) client result cache is a memory area inside a client
process that caches SQL query result sets for OCI applications. This client cache exists
for each client process and is shared by all sessions inside the process. Oracle
recommends client result caching for queries of read-only or read-mostly tables.
The client result cache is distinct from the server result cache,
which resides in the SGA. When client result caching is enabled, the
query result set can be cached on the client, server, or both. Client
caching can be enabled even if the server result cache is disabled.
Note:
This section describes the client result cache and contains the following topics:
■
Benefits of Using the Client Result Cache
■
Understanding How the Client Result Cache Works
Tuning the Result Cache 15-3
About the Result Cache
Benefits of Using the Client Result Cache
OCI drivers, such as OCCI, the JDBC OCI driver, and ODP.NET, support client result
caching. Performance benefits of using the client result cache include:
■
Reduced query response time
When queries are executed repeatedly, the application retrieves results directly
from the client cache memory, resulting in faster query response time.
■
More efficient use of database resources
The reduction in server round trips may result in substantial performance savings
of server resources, such as server CPU and I/O. These resources are freed for
other tasks, thereby making the server more scalable.
■
Reduced memory cost
The result cache uses client memory, which may be less expensive than server
memory.
Understanding How the Client Result Cache Works
The client result cache stores the results of the outermost query, which are the columns
defined by the OCI application. Subqueries and query blocks are not cached.
Figure 15–1 illustrates a client process with a database login session. This client
process has one client result cache shared amongst multiple application sessions
running in the client process. If the first application session runs a query, then it
retrieves rows from the database and caches them in the client result cache. If other
application sessions run the same query, then they also retrieve rows from the client
result cache.
Figure 15–1
Client Result Cache
The client result cache transparently keeps the result set consistent with session state
or database changes that affect it. When a transaction changes the data or metadata of
database objects used to build the cached result, the database sends an invalidation to
the OCI client on its next round trip to the server.
See Also: Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide for details about
the client result cache
15-4 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Configuring the Result Cache
Configuring the Result Cache
This section describes how to configure the server and client result cache and contains
the following topics:
■
Configuring the Server Result Cache
■
Configuring the Client Result Cache
■
Setting the Result Cache Mode
■
Requirements for the Result Cache
Configuring the Server Result Cache
By default, on database startup, Oracle Database allocates memory to the server result
cache in the shared pool. The memory size allocated depends on the memory size of
the shared pool and the selected memory management system:
■
Automatic memory management
If you are using the MEMORY_TARGET initialization parameter to specify memory
allocation, Oracle Database allocates 0.25% of the value of the MEMORY_TARGET
parameter to the result cache.
■
Automatic shared memory management
If you are managing the size of the shared pool using the SGA_TARGET initialization
parameter, Oracle Database allocates 0.50% of the value of the SGA_TARGET
parameter to the result cache.
■
Manual shared memory management
If you are managing the size of the shared pool using the SHARED_POOL_SIZE
initialization parameter, then Oracle Database allocates 1% of the shared pool size
to the result cache.
Oracle Database will not allocate more than 75% of the shared
pool to the server result cache.
Note:
The size of the server result cache grows until it reaches the maximum size. Query
results larger than the available space in the cache are not cached. The database
employs a Least Recently Used (LRU) algorithm to age out cached results, but does
not otherwise automatically release memory from the server result cache.
This section describes how to configure the server result cache and contains the
following topics:
■
Sizing the Server Result Cache Using Initialization Parameters
■
Managing the Server Result Cache Using DBMS_RESULT_CACHE
Sizing the Server Result Cache Using Initialization Parameters
Table 15–1 lists the database initialization parameters that control the server result
cache.
Tuning the Result Cache 15-5
Configuring the Result Cache
Table 15–1
Server Result Cache Initialization Parameters
Parameter
Description
RESULT_CACHE_MAX_SIZE
Specifies the memory allocated to the server result cache.
To disable the server result cache, set this parameter to 0.
RESULT_CACHE_MAX_RESULT
Specifies the maximum amount of server result cache
memory (in percent) that can be used for a single result.
Valid values are between 1 and 100. The default value is
5%. You can set this parameter at the system or session
level.
RESULT_CACHE_REMOTE_EXPIRATION Specifies the expiration time (in minutes) for a result in
the server result cache that depends on remote database
objects. The default value is 0, which specifies that results
using remote objects will not be cached. If a non-zero
value is set for this parameter, DML on the remote
database does not invalidate the server result cache.
To change the memory allocated to the server result cache:
■
Set the value of the RESULT_CACHE_MAX_SIZE initialization parameter to the desired
size.
In an Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) environment, the result cache
is specific to each database instance and can be sized differently on each instance.
However, invalidations work across instances. To disable the server result cache in
a cluster, you must explicitly set this parameter to 0 for each instance startup.
Oracle Database Reference for information about the server
result cache initialization parameters
See Also:
Managing the Server Result Cache Using DBMS_RESULT_CACHE
The DBMS_RESULT_CACHE package provides statistics, information, and operators that
enable you to manage memory allocation for the server result cache. Use the DBMS_
RESULT_CACHE package to perform operations such as retrieving statistics on the cache
memory usage and flushing the cache.
This section describes how to manage the server result cache using the DBMS_RESULT_
CACHE package and contains the following topics:
■
Viewing Memory Usage Statistics for the Server Result Cache
■
Flushing the Server Result Cache
Viewing Memory Usage Statistics for the Server Result Cache This section describes how to
view memory allocation statistics for the result cache using the DBMS_RESULT_CACHE
package.
To view memory usage statistics for the result cache:
■
Execute the DBMS_RESULT_CACHE.MEMORY_REPORT procedure.
Example 15–4 shows an execution of this procedure.
Example 15–4
Using the DBMS_RESULT_CACHE Package
SQLSET SERVEROUTPUT ON
EXECUTE DBMS_RESULT_CACHE.MEMORY_REPORT
The output of this command might look like the following:
15-6 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Configuring the Result Cache
R e s u l t C a c h e M e m o r y R e p o r t
[Parameters]
Block Size = 1024 bytes
Maximum Cache Size = 950272 bytes (928 blocks)
Maximum Result Size = 47104 bytes (46 blocks)
[Memory]
Total Memory = 46340 bytes [0.048% of the Shared Pool]
... Fixed Memory = 10696 bytes [0.011% of the Shared Pool]
... State Object Pool = 2852 bytes [0.003% of the Shared Pool]
... Cache Memory = 32792 bytes (32 blocks) [0.034% of the Shared Pool]
....... Unused Memory = 30 blocks
....... Used Memory = 2 blocks
........... Dependencies = 1 blocks
........... Results = 1 blocks
............... SQL = 1 blocks
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
Flushing the Server Result Cache This section describes how to remove all existing results
and purge the result cache memory using the DBMS_RESULT_CACHE package.
To flush the server result cache:
■
Execute the DBMS_RESULT_CACHE.FLUSH procedure.
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for
information about the DBMS_RESULT_CACHE package
See Also:
Configuring the Client Result Cache
Table 15–2 lists the database initialization parameters that enable or influence the
behavior of the client result cache.
Table 15–2
Client Result Cache Initialization Parameters
Parameter
Description
CLIENT_RESULT_CACHE_SIZE Specifies the maximum size of the client result cache for each
client process. To enable the client result cache, set the size to
32768 bytes or greater. A lesser value, including the default of 0,
disables the client result cache.
Note: If the CLIENT_RESULT_CACHE_SIZE setting disables the
client cache, then a client node cannot enable it. If the CLIENT_
RESULT_CACHE_SIZE setting enables the client cache, however,
then a client node can override the setting. For example, a client
node can disable client result caching or increase the size of its
cache.
CLIENT_RESULT_CACHE_LAG
Specifies the amount of lag time (in milliseconds) for the client
result cache. The default value is 3000 (3 seconds). If the OCI
application does not perform any database calls for a period of
time, then this setting forces the next statement execution call to
check for validations.
If the OCI application accesses the database infrequently, then
setting this parameter to a low value results in more round trips
from the OCI client to the database to keep the client result cache
synchronized with the database.
COMPATIBLE
Specifies the release with which Oracle Database must maintain
compatibility. For the client result cache to be enabled, this
parameter must be set to 11.0.0.0 or higher. For client caching on
views, this parameter must be set to 11.2.0.0.0 or higher.
Tuning the Result Cache 15-7
Configuring the Result Cache
An optional client configuration file overrides client result cache initialization
parameters set in the server parameter file.
The client result cache lag can only be set with the CLIENT_
RESULT_CACHE_LAG initialization parameter.
Note:
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Reference for information about the client result
cache initialization parameters
Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide for information about the
parameters that can be set in the client configuration file
Setting the Result Cache Mode
The result cache mode is a database setting that determines which queries are eligible
to store result sets in the server and client result caches. If a query is eligible for
caching, then the application checks the result cache to determine whether the query
result set exists in the cache. If it exists, then the result is retrieved directly from the
result cache. Otherwise, the database executes the query and returns the result as
output and stores it in the result cache. Oracle recommends result caching for queries
of read-only or read-mostly database objects.
When the result cache is enabled, the database also caches queries that call
non-deterministic PL/SQL functions. When caching SELECT statements that call such
functions, the result cache tracks data dependencies for the PL/SQL functions and the
database objects. However, if the function uses data that are not being tracked (such as
sequences, SYSDATE, SYS_CONTEXT, and package variables), using the result cache on
queries that call this function can produce stale results. In this regard, the behavior of
the result cache is identical to caching PL/SQL functions. Therefore, always consider
data accuracy, as well as performance, when choosing to enable the result cache.
To set the result cache mode:
■
Set the value of the RESULT_CACHE_MODE initialization parameter to determine the
behavior of the result cache.
You can set this parameter for the instance (ALTER SYSTEM), session (ALTER
SESSION), or in the server parameter file.
Table 15–3 describes the values for this parameter.
Table 15–3
Values for the RESULT_CACHE_MODE Parameter
Value
Description
MANUAL
Query results can only be stored in the result cache by using a query hint or table
annotation. This is the default and recommended value.
FORCE
All results are stored in the result cache. If a query result is not in the cache, then the
database executes the query and stores the result in the cache. Subsequent executions
of the same SQL statement, including the result cache hint, retrieve data from the
cache. Sessions uses these results if possible. To exclude query results from the cache,
the /*+ NO_RESULT_CACHE */ query hint must be used.
Note: FORCE mode is not recommended because the database and clients will attempt
to cache all queries, which may create significant performance and latching overhead.
Moreover, because queries that call non-deterministic PL/SQL functions are also
cached, enabling the result cache in such a broad-based manner may cause material
changes to the results.
15-8 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Specifying Queries for Result Caching
Oracle Database Reference for information about the
RESULT_CACHE_MODE initialization parameter
See Also:
Requirements for the Result Cache
Enabling the result cache does not guarantee that a specific result set will be included in
the server or client result cache. In order for results to be cached, the following
requirements must be met:
■
Read Consistency Requirements
■
Query Parameter Requirements
■
Restrictions for the Result Cache
Read Consistency Requirements
For a snapshot to be reusable, it must have read consistency. For a result set to be
eligible for caching, at least one of the following conditions must be true:
■
■
The read-consistent snapshot used to build the result must retrieve the most
current, committed state of the data.
The query points to an explicit point in time using flashback query.
If the current session has an active transaction referencing objects in a query, then the
results from this query are not eligible for caching.
Query Parameter Requirements
Cache results can be reused if they are parameterized with variable values when
queries are equivalent and the parameter values are the same. Different values or bind
variable names may cause cache misses. Results are parameterized if any of the
following constructs are used in the query:
■
■
■
Bind variables
The SQL functions DBTIMEZONE, SESSIONTIMEZONE, USERENV/SYS_CONTEXT (with
constant variables), UID, and USER
NLS parameters
Restrictions for the Result Cache
Results cannot be cached when the following objects or functions are in a query:
■
Temporary tables and tables in the SYS or SYSTEM schemas
■
Sequence CURRVAL and NEXTVAL pseudo columns
■
SQL functions CURRENT_DATE, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, LOCAL_TIMESTAMP,
USERENV/SYS_CONTEXT (with non-constant variables), SYS_GUID, SYSDATE, and SYS_
TIMESTAMP
The client result cache has additional restrictions for result caching.
See Also: Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide for information
about additional restrictions for the client result cache
Specifying Queries for Result Caching
This section describes how to specify queries for result caching and contains the
following topics:
Tuning the Result Cache 15-9
Specifying Queries for Result Caching
■
Using SQL Result Cache Hints
■
Using Result Cache Table Annotations
Using SQL Result Cache Hints
Use result cache hints at the application level to control caching behavior. The SQL
result cache hints take precedence over the result cache mode and result cache table
annotations.
This section describes how to use SQL result cache hints and contains the following
topics:
■
Using the RESULT_CACHE Hint
■
Using the NO_RESULT_CACHE Hint
■
Using the RESULT_CACHE Hint in Views
See Also: Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for information
about the RESULT_CACHE and NO_RESULT_CACHE hints
Using the RESULT_CACHE Hint
When the result cache mode is MANUAL, the /*+ RESULT_CACHE */ hint instructs the
database to cache the results of a query block and to use the cached results in future
executions.
Example 15–5 shows a query that uses the RESULT_CACHE hint.
Example 15–5
SELECT
FROM
GROUP
ORDER
Using the RESULT_CACHE Hint
/*+ RESULT_CACHE */ prod_id, SUM(amount_sold)
sales
BY prod_id
BY prod_id;
In this example, the query instructs the database to cache rows for a query of the sales
table.
Using the NO_RESULT_CACHE Hint
The /*+ NO_RESULT_CACHE */ hint instructs the database not to cache the results in
either the server or client result caches.
Example 15–6 shows a query that uses the NO_RESULT_CACHE hint.
Example 15–6
SELECT
FROM
GROUP
ORDER
Using the NO_RESULT_CACHE Hint
/*+ NO_RESULT_CACHE */ prod_id, SUM(amount_sold)
sales
BY prod_id
BY prod_id;
In this example, the query instructs the database not to cache rows for a query of the
sales table.
Using the RESULT_CACHE Hint in Views
The RESULT_CACHE hint applies only to the query block in which the hint is specified. If
the hint is specified only in a view, then only these results are cached. View caching
has the following characteristics:
15-10 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Specifying Queries for Result Caching
■
■
The view must be one of the following types:
–
A standard view (a view created with the CREATE ... VIEW statement)
–
An inline view specified in the FROM clause of a SELECT statement
–
An inline view created with the WITH clause
The result of a view query with a correlated column (a reference to an outer query
block) cannot be cached.
■
Query results are stored in the server result cache, not the client result cache.
■
A caching view is not merged into its outer (or referring) query block.
Adding the RESULT_CACHE hint to inline views disables optimizations between the
outer query and inline view to maximize reusability of the cached result.
Example 15–7 shows a query of the inline view view1.
Example 15–7
Using the RESULT_CACHE HInt Specified in Inline View
SELECT *
FROM ( SELECT /*+ RESULT_CACHE */ department_id, manager_id, count(*) count
FROM hr.employees
GROUP BY department_id, manager_id ) view1
WHERE department_id = 30;
In this example, the SELECT statement from view1 is the outer block, whereas the
SELECT statement from employees is the inner block. Because the RESULT_CACHE hint is
specified only in the inner block, the results of the inner query are stored in the server
result cache, but the results of the outer query are not cached.
Assume that the same session run a query of the view view2 as shown in
Example 15–8.
Example 15–8
Using the RESULT_CACHE Hint Specified in WITH View
WITH view2 AS
( SELECT /*+ RESULT_CACHE */ department_id, manager_id, count(*) count
FROM hr.employees
GROUP BY department_id, manager_id )
SELECT *
FROM view2
WHERE count BETWEEN 1 and 5;
In this example, because the RESULT_CACHE hint is specified only in the query block in
the WITH clause, the results of the employees query are eligible to be cached. Because
these results are cached from the query in Example 15–7, the SELECT statement in the
WITH clause in Example 15–8 can retrieve the cached rows.
Using Result Cache Table Annotations
You can also use table annotations to control result caching. Table annotations affect
the entire query, not query segments. The primary benefit of using table annotations is
avoiding the necessity of adding result cache hints to queries at the application level.
Because a table annotation has a lower precedence than a SQL result cache hint, you
can override table and session settings by using hints at the query level.
Table 15–4 describes the valid values for the RESULT_CACHE table annotation.
Tuning the Result Cache
15-11
Specifying Queries for Result Caching
Table 15–4
Value
Values for the RESULT_CACHE Table Annotation
Description
DEFAULT If at least one table in a query is set to DEFAULT, then result caching is not enabled at
the table level for this query, unless if the RESULT_CACHE_MODE initialization
parameter is set to FORCE or the RESULT_CACHE hint is specified. This is the default
value.
FORCE
If all the tables of a query are marked as FORCE, then the query result is considered
for caching. The table annotation FORCE takes precedence over the RESULT_CACHE_
MODE parameter value of MANUAL set at the session level.
This section describes how to use the RESULT_CACHE table annotations and contains the
following topics:
■
Using the DEFAULT Table Annotation
■
Using the FORCE Table Annotation
Using the DEFAULT Table Annotation
The DEFAULT table annotation prevents the database from caching results at the table
level.
Example 15–9 shows a CREATE TABLE statement that uses the DEFAULT table annotation
to create a table sales and a query of this table.
Example 15–9
Using the DEFAULT Table Annotation
CREATE TABLE sales (...) RESULT_CACHE (MODE DEFAULT);
SELECT
FROM
GROUP
ORDER
prod_id, SUM(amount_sold)
sales
BY prod_id
BY prod_id;
In this example, the sales table is created with a table annotation that disables result
caching. The example also shows a query of the sales table, whose results are not
considered for caching because of the table annotation.
See Also: Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for information
about the CREATE TABLE statement and its syntax
Using the FORCE Table Annotation
The FORCE table annotation forces the database to cache results at the table level.
Using the sales table created in Example 15–9, assume that you decide to force result
caching for this table, you can do so by using the FORCE table annotation.
Example 15–10 shows an ALTER TABLE statement that uses the FORCE table annotation
on the sales table.
Example 15–10 Using the FORCE Table Annotation
ALTER TABLE sales RESULT_CACHE (MODE FORCE);
SELECT
FROM
GROUP
HAVING
prod_id, SUM(amount_sold)
sales
BY prod_id
prod_id=136;
15-12 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Monitoring the Result Cache
SELECT /*+ NO_RESULT_CACHE */ *
FROM sales
ORDER BY time_id DESC;
This example includes two queries of the sales table. The first query, which is
frequently used and returns few rows, is eligible for caching because of the table
annotation. The second query, which is a one-time query that returns many rows, uses
a hint to prevent result caching.
Monitoring the Result Cache
To view information about the server and client result caches, query the relevant
database views and tables.
Table 15–5 describes the most useful views and tables for monitoring the result cache.
Table 15–5
Views and Tables with Information About the Result Cache
View/Table
Description
V$RESULT_CACHE_STATISTICS
Lists various server result cache settings and memory usage
statistics.
V$RESULT_CACHE_MEMORY
Lists all the memory blocks in the server result cache and
their corresponding statistics.
V$RESULT_CACHE_OBJECTS
Lists all the objects whose results are in the server result cache
along with their attributes.
V$RESULT_CACHE_DEPENDENCY
Lists the dependency details between the results in the server
result cache and dependencies among these results.
CLIENT_RESULT_CACHE_STATS$
Stores cache settings and memory usage statistics for the
client result caches obtained from the OCI client processes.
This statistics table contains entries for each client process that
uses result caching. After the client processes terminate, the
database removes their entries from this table. The client table
contains information similar to V$RESULT_CACHE_STATISTICS.
DBA_TABLES, USER_TABLES,
ALL_TABLES
Contains a RESULT_CACHE column that shows the result cache
mode annotation for the table. If the table is not annotated,
then this column shows DEFAULT. This column applies to both
server and client result caches.
Example 15–11 shows a query of the V$RESULT_CACHE_STATISTICS view to monitor
server result cache statistics.
Example 15–11 Querying the V$RESULT_CACHE_STATISTICS View
COLUMN name FORMAT a20
SELECT name, value
FROM V$RESULT_CACHE_STATISTICS;
The output of this query might look like the following:
NAME
VALUE
----------------------------Block Size (Bytes)
1024
Block Count Maximum
3136
Block Count Current
32
Result Size Maximum (Blocks)
156
Create Count Success
2
Create Count Failure
0
Tuning the Result Cache
15-13
Monitoring the Result Cache
Find Count
Invalidation Count
Delete Count Invalid
Delete Count Valid
0
0
0
0
Example 15–12 shows a query of the CLIENT_RESULT_CACHE_STATS$ table to monitor
the client result cache statistics.
Example 15–12 Querying the CLIENT_RESULT_CACHE_STATS$ View
SELECT stat_id, SUBSTR(name,1,20), value, cache_id
FROM CLIENT_RESULT_CACHE_STATS$
ORDER BY cache_id, stat_id;
The output of this query might look like the following:
STAT_ID
=======
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
NAME OF STATISTICS
==================
Block Size
Block Count Max
Block Count Current
Hash Bucket Count
Create Count Success
Create Count Failure
Find Count
Invalidation Count
Delete Count Invalid
Delete Count Valid
VALUE
=====
256
256
128
1024
10
0
12
8
0
0
CACHE_ID
========
124
124
124
124
124
124
124
124
124
124
The CLIENT_RESULT_CACHE_STATS$ table contains statistics entries for each active client
process performing client result caching. Every client process has a unique cache ID.
To find the client connection information for the sessions performing client caching:
1.
Obtain the session IDs from the CLIENT_REGID column in the GV$SESSION_
CONNECT_INFO view that corresponds to the CACHE_ID column in the CLIENT_
RESULT_CACHE_STATS$ table.
2.
Query the relevant columns from the GV$SESSION_CONNECT_INFO and GV$SESSION
views.
For both server and client result cache statistics, a database that is optimized for result
caching should show relatively low values for the Create Count Failure and Delete
Count Valid statistics, while showing relatively high values for the Find Count
statistic.
See Also: Oracle Database Reference for information about these views
and tables
15-14 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
16
Tuning the Program Global Area
16
This chapter describes how to tune the Program Global Area (PGA). If you are using
automatic memory management to manage the database memory on your system,
then you do not need to manually tune the PGA as described in this chapter.
This chapter contains the following topics:
■
About the Program Global Area
■
Sizing the Program Global Area
■
Limiting the Size of the Program Global Area
About the Program Global Area
The Program Global Area (PGA) is a private memory region that contains the data and
control information for a server process. Only a server process can access the PGA.
Oracle Database reads and writes information in the PGA on behalf of the server
process. An example of such information is the run-time area of a cursor. Each time a
cursor is executed, a new run-time area is created for that cursor in the PGA memory
region of the server process executing that cursor.
Part of the run-time area can be located in the Shared Global
Area (SGA) when using shared servers.
Note:
For complex queries (such as decision support queries), a big portion of the run-time
area is dedicated to work areas allocated by memory intensive operators, including:
■
Sort-based operators, such as ORDER BY, GROUP BY, ROLLUP, and window functions
■
Hash-join
■
Bitmap merge
■
Bitmap create
■
Write buffers used by bulk load operations
A sort operator uses a work area (the sort area) to perform the in-memory sorting of a
set of rows. Similarly, a hash-join operator uses a work area (the hash area) to build a
hash table from its left input.
Tuning the Program Global Area 16-1
Sizing the Program Global Area
Work Area Sizes
Oracle Database enables you to control and tune the sizes of work areas. Generally,
bigger work areas can significantly improve the performance of a particular operator
at the cost of higher memory consumption. The available work area sizes include:
■
Optimal
Optimal size is when the size of a work area is large enough that it can
accommodate the input data and auxiliary memory structures allocated by its
associated SQL operator. This is the ideal size for the work area.
■
One-pass
One-pass size is when the size of the work area is below optimal size and an extra
pass is performed over part of the input data. With one-pass size, the response
time is increased.
■
Multi-pass
Multi-pass size is when the size of the work area is below the one-pass threshold
and multiple passes over the input data are needed. With multi-pass size, the
response time is dramatically increased because the size of the work area is too
small compared to the input data size.
For example, a serial sort operation that must sort 10 GB of data requires a little more
than 10 GB to run as optimal size and at least 40 MB to run as one-pass size. If the
work area is less than 40 MB, then the sort operation must perform several passes over
the input data.
When sizing the work area, the goal is to have most work areas running with optimal
size (more than 90%, or even 100% for pure OLTP systems), and only a small number
of them running with one-pass size (less than 10%). Multi-pass executions should be
avoided for the following reasons:
■
Multi-pass executions can severely degrade performance.
A high number of multi-pass work areas has an exponentially adverse effect on
the response time of its associated SQL operator.
■
Running one-pass executions does not require a large amount of memory.
Only 22 MB is required to sort 1 GB of data in one-pass size.
Even for DSS systems running large sorts and hash-joins, the memory requirement for
one-pass executions is relatively small. A system configured with a reasonable amount
of PGA memory should not need to perform multiple passes over the input data.
Sizing the Program Global Area
Automatic PGA memory management simplifies and improves the way PGA memory
is allocated. By default, PGA memory management is enabled. In this mode, Oracle
Database automatically sizes the PGA by dynamically adjusting the portion of the
PGA memory dedicated to work areas, based on 20% of the SGA memory size. The
minimum value is 10MB.
16-2 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Sizing the Program Global Area
Note: For backward compatibility, automatic PGA memory
management can be disabled by setting the value of the PGA_
AGGREGATE_TARGET initialization parameter to 0. When automatic PGA
memory management is disabled, the maximum size of a work area
can be sized with the associated _AREA_SIZE parameter, such as the
SORT_AREA_SIZE initialization parameter.
This section describes how to size the PGA using automatic PGA memory
management and contains the following topics:
■
Configuring Automatic PGA Memory Management
■
Setting the Initial Value for PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
■
Monitoring Automatic PGA Memory Management
■
Tuning PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
Configuring Automatic PGA Memory Management
When running Oracle Database in automatic PGA memory management mode, sizing
of work areas for all sessions is automatic, and the *_AREA_SIZE parameters are
ignored by all sessions running in this mode. Oracle Database automatically derives
the total amount of PGA memory available to active work areas from the PGA_
AGGREGATE_TARGET initialization parameter. The amount of PGA memory is set to the
value of PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET minus the amount of PGA memory allocated to other
components of the system (such as PGA memory allocated by sessions). Oracle
Database then assigns the resulting PGA memory to individual active work areas
based on their specific memory requirements.
Oracle Database attempts to adhere to the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET value set by the
DBA by dynamically controlling the amount of PGA memory allotted to work areas.
To accomplish this, Oracle Database first tries to maximize the number of optimal
work areas for all memory-intensive SQL operations. The rest of the work areas are
executed in one-pass mode, unless the PGA memory limit set by the DBA (using the
PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter) is so low that multi-pass execution is required to
reduce memory consumption to honor the PGA target limit.
When configuring a new database instance, it can be difficult to determine the
appropriate setting for PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET.
To configure automatic PGA memory management:
1.
Make an initial estimate for the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter, as
described in "Setting the Initial Value for PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET" on
page 16-4.
2.
Run a representative workload on the database instance and monitor its
performance, as described in "Monitoring Automatic PGA Memory Management"
on page 16-4.
3.
Tune the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter using Oracle PGA advice
statistics, as described in "Tuning PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET" on page 16-11.
Oracle Database Reference for information about the PGA_
AGGREGATE_TARGET initialization parameter
See Also:
Tuning the Program Global Area 16-3
Sizing the Program Global Area
Setting the Initial Value for PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
Set the initial value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET initialization parameter based on the
amount of available memory for the Oracle database instance. This value can then be
tuned and dynamically modified at the instance level. By default, Oracle Database
uses 20% of the SGA size for this value. However, this setting may be too low for a
large DSS system.
To set the initial value for PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET:
1.
Determine how much of the total physical memory to reserve for the operating
system and other non-Oracle applications running on the same system.
For example, you might decide to reserve 20% of the total physical memory for the
operating system and other non-Oracle applications, dedicating 80% of the
memory on the system to the Oracle database instance.
2.
Divide the remaining available memory between the SGA and the PGA:
■
For OLTP systems, the PGA memory typically makes up a small fraction of
the available memory, leaving most of the remaining memory for the SGA.
Oracle recommends initially dedicating 20% of the available memory to the
PGA, and 80% to the SGA. Therefore, the initial value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_
TARGET parameter for an OLTP system can be calculated as:
PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET = (total_mem * 0.8) * 0.2 where total_mem is the total
amount of physical memory available on the system.
■
For DSS systems running large, memory-intensive queries, PGA memory can
typically use up to 70% of the available memory.
Oracle recommends initially dedicating 50% of the available memory to the
PGA, and 50% to the SGA. Therefore, the initial value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_
TARGET parameter for a DSS system can be calculated as:
PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET = (total_mem * 0.8) * 0.5 where total_mem is the total
amount of physical memory available on the system.
For example, if an Oracle database instance is configured to run on a system with 4 GB
of physical memory, and if 80% (or 3.2 GB) of the memory is dedicated to the Oracle
database instance, then initially set PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET to 640 MB for an OLTP
system, or 1,600 MB for a DSS system.
Monitoring Automatic PGA Memory Management
Before starting the tuning process, run a representative workload on the database
instance and monitor its performance. PGA statistics collected by Oracle Database
enable you to determine if the maximum PGA size is under-configured or
over-configured. Monitoring these statistics enables you to assess the performance of
automatic PGA memory management and tune the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_
TARGET parameter accordingly.
This section describes how to use performance views to monitor automatic PGA
memory management and contains the following topics:
■
Using the V$PGASTAT View
■
Using the V$PROCESS View
■
Using the V$PROCESS_MEMORY View
■
Using the V$SQL_WORKAREA_HISTOGRAM View
16-4 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Sizing the Program Global Area
■
Using the V$WORKAREA_ACTIVE View
■
Using the V$SQL_WORKAREA View
Using the V$PGASTAT View
The V$PGASTAT view provides instance-level statistics about PGA memory usage and
the automatic PGA memory manager.
Example 16–1 shows a query of this view.
Example 16–1
Querying the V$PGASTAT View
SELECT *
FROM V$PGASTAT;
The output of this query might look like the following:
NAME
VALUE UNIT
-------------------------------------------------------- ---------- -----------aggregate PGA target parameter
41156608 bytes
aggregate PGA auto target
21823488 bytes
global memory bound
2057216 bytes
total PGA inuse
16899072 bytes
total PGA allocated
35014656 bytes
maximum PGA allocated
136795136 bytes
total freeable PGA memory
524288 bytes
PGA memory freed back to OS
1713242112 bytes
total PGA used for auto workareas
0 bytes
maximum PGA used for auto workareas
2383872 bytes
total PGA used for manual workareas
0 bytes
maximum PGA used for manual workareas
8470528 bytes
over allocation count
291
bytes processed
2124600320 bytes
extra bytes read/written
39949312 bytes
cache hit percentage
98.15 percent
Table 16–1 describes the main statistics shown in the V$PGASTAT view.
Table 16–1
Statistics in the V$PGASTAT View
Statistic
Description
aggregate PGA target
parameter
This statistic shows the current value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_
TARGET parameter. The default value is 20% of the SGA size.
Setting this parameter to 0 disables automatic PGA memory
management.
aggregate PGA auto
target
This statistic shows the amount of PGA memory Oracle Database
can use for work areas running in automatic mode. This amount
is dynamically derived from the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_
TARGET parameter and the current work area workload. Hence, it
is continuously adjusted by Oracle Database. If this value is small
compared to the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET value, then most of PGA
memory is used by other system components (such as PL/SQL
or Java) and little is left for work areas. Ensure that enough PGA
memory remains for work areas running in automatic mode.
Tuning the Program Global Area 16-5
Sizing the Program Global Area
Table 16–1 (Cont.) Statistics in the V$PGASTAT View
Statistic
Description
global memory bound
This statistic shows the maximum size of a work area executed in
automatic mode. This value is continuously adjusted by Oracle
Database to reflect the current state of the work area workload.
The global memory bound generally decreases when the number
of active work areas increases in the system. As a rule of thumb,
the value of the global bound should not decrease to less than 1
MB. If it does, increase the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
parameter.
total PGA allocated
This statistic shows the current amount of PGA memory
allocated by the database instance. Oracle Database tries to keep
this number less than the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET value.
However, if the work area workload is increasing rapidly or the
PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter is set to a value that is too low,
it is possible for the PGA allocated to exceed this value by a small
percentage and for a short time.
total freeable PGA
memory
This statistic indicates how much allocated PGA memory can be
freed.
total PGA used for auto
workareas
This statistic indicates how much PGA memory is currently
consumed by work areas running in automatic mode. Use this
number to determine how much memory is consumed by other
consumers of the PGA memory (such as PL/SQL or Java):
PGA other = total PGA allocated - total PGA used for
auto workareas
over allocation count
This statistic is cumulative from instance startup. Over-allocating
PGA memory can happen if the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET value is
too small to accommodate the PGA other component and the
minimum memory required to execute the work area workload.
In this case, Oracle Database cannot honor the PGA_AGGREGATE_
TARGET value, and extra PGA memory must be allocated. If
over-allocation occurs, increase the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_
TARGET parameter using the information provided by the V$PGA_
TARGET_ADVICE view, as described in "Using the V$PGA_
TARGET_ADVICE View" on page 16-12.
total bytes processed
This statistic indicates the number of bytes processed by
memory-intensive SQL operators since instance startup. For
example, the number of bytes processed is the input size for a
sort operation. This number is used to compute the cache hit
percentage metric.
extra bytes read/written When a work area cannot run optimally, one or more extra
passes is performed over the input data. This statistic represents
the number of bytes processed during these extra passes since
instance startup. This number is also used to compute the cache
hit percentage metric. Ideally, it should be small compared to
total bytes processed.
cache hit percentage
This metric is computed by Oracle Database to reflect the
performance of the PGA memory component. It is cumulative
from instance startup. A value of 100% means that all work areas
executed by the system since instance startup are using an
optimal amount of PGA memory. This is ideal but rarely
happens except for pure OLTP systems. Typically, some work
areas run one-pass or even multi-pass, depending on the overall
size of the PGA memory. When a work area cannot run
optimally, one or more extra passes are performed over the input
data. This reduces the cache hit percentage in proportion to the
size of the input data and the number of extra passes performed.
For an example of how this metric is calculated, see
Example 16–2.
16-6 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Sizing the Program Global Area
Example 16–2 shows how extra passes affect the cache hit percentage metric.
Example 16–2
Calculating Cache Hit Percentage
Four sort operations have been executed, three were small (1 MB of input data) and
one was bigger (100 MB of input data). The total number of bytes processed (BP) by
the four operations is 103 MB. If one of the small sorts runs one-pass, an extra pass
over 1 MB of input data is performed. This 1 MB value is the number of extra bytes
read/written, or EBP.
The cache hit percentage is calculated using the following formula:
BP x 100 / (BP + EBP)
In this example, the cache hit percentage is 99.03%. This value reflects that only one
of the small sort operations performed an extra pass, while all other sort operations
were able to run in optimal size. Therefore, the cache hit percentage is almost 100%,
because the extra pass over 1 MB represents a tiny overhead. However, if the bigger
sort operation runs in one-pass size, then the EBP is 100 MB instead of 1 MB, and the
cache hit percentage falls to 50.73%, because the extra pass has a much bigger
impact.
Using the V$PROCESS View
The V$PROCESS view contains one row for each Oracle process connected to the
database instance. Use the following columns in this view to monitor the PGA
memory usage of these processes:
■
PGA_USED_MEM
■
PGA_ALLOC_MEM
■
PGA_FREEABLE_MEM
■
PGA_MAX_MEM
Example 16–3 shows a query of this view.
Example 16–3
Querying the V$PROCESS View
SELECT program, pga_used_mem, pga_alloc_mem, pga_freeable_mem, pga_max_mem
FROM V$PROCESS;
The output of this query might look like the following:
PROGRAM
PGA_USED_MEM PGA_ALLOC_MEM PGA_FREEABLE_MEM PGA_MAX_MEM
-------------------------- ------------ ------------- ---------------- ----------PSEUDO
0
0
0
0
[email protected] (PMON)
314540
685860
0
685860
[email protected] (MMAN)
313992
685860
0
685860
[email protected] (DBW0)
696720
1063112
0
1063112
[email protected] (LGWR)
10835108
22967940
0
22967940
[email protected] (CKPT)
352716
710376
0
710376
[email protected] (SMON)
541508
948004
0
1603364
[email protected] (RECO)
323688
685860
0
816932
[email protected] (q001)
233508
585128
0
585128
[email protected] (QMNC)
314332
685860
0
685860
[email protected] (MMON)
885756
1996548
393216
1996548
[email protected] (MMNL)
315068
685860
0
685860
[email protected] (q000)
330872
716200
65536
716200
[email protected] (TNS V1-V3)
635768
928024
0
1255704
[email protected] (CJQ0)
533476
1013540
0
1144612
Tuning the Program Global Area 16-7
Sizing the Program Global Area
[email protected] (TNS V1-V3)
430648
812108
0
812108
Using the V$PROCESS_MEMORY View
The V$PROCESS_MEMORY view displays dynamic PGA memory usage by named
component categories for each Oracle process. This view contains up to six rows for
each Oracle process, one row for:
■
■
Each named component category:
–
Java
–
PL/SQL
–
OLAP
–
SQL
Freeable
Memory that has been allocated to the process by the operating system, but not to
a specific category
■
Other
Memory that has been allocated to a category, but not to a named category
Use the following columns in this view to dynamically monitor the PGA memory
usage of Oracle processes for each of the six categories:
■
CATEGORY
■
ALLOCATED
■
USED
■
MAX_ALLOCATED
Oracle Database Reference for information about the
V$PROCESS_MEMORY view
See Also:
Using the V$SQL_WORKAREA_HISTOGRAM View
The V$SQL_WORKAREA_HISTOGRAM view shows the number of work areas executed with
optimal, one-pass, and multi-pass memory size since instance startup. Statistics in this
view are divided into buckets. The buckets are defined by the optimal memory
requirements of the work areas. Each bucket is identified by a range of optimal
memory requirements, specified by the values in the LOW_OPTIMAL_SIZE and HIGH_
OPTIMAL_SIZE columns.
For example, a sort operation may require 3 MB of memory to run in optimal size
(cached). Statistics about the work area used by this sort operation are placed in the
bucket defined by:
■
LOW_OPTIMAL_SIZE = 2097152 (2 MB)
■
HIGH_OPTIMAL_SIZE = 4194303 (4 MB minus 1 byte)
Statistics are segmented by work area size, because the performance impact of running
a work area in optimal, one-pass or multi-pass size depends mainly on the size of the
work area. In this example, statistics about the work area are placed in this bucket
because 3 MB lies within that range of optimal sizes.
Example 16–4 and Example 16–5 show two methods for querying this view.
16-8 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Sizing the Program Global Area
Example 16–4
Buckets
Querying the V$SQL_WORKAREA_HISTOGRAM View: Non-Empty
The following query shows statistics for all non-empty buckets:
SELECT low_optimal_size/1024 low_kb,
(high_optimal_size+1)/1024 high_kb,
optimal_executions, onepass_executions, multipasses_executions
FROM V$SQL_WORKAREA_HISTOGRAM
WHERE total_executions != 0;
The result of the query might look like the following:
LOW_KB HIGH_KB OPTIMAL_EXECUTIONS ONEPASS_EXECUTIONS MULTIPASSES_EXECUTIONS
------ ------- ------------------ ------------------ ---------------------8
16
156255
0
0
16
32
150
0
0
32
64
89
0
0
64
128
13
0
0
128
256
60
0
0
256
512
8
0
0
512
1024
657
0
0
1024
2048
551
16
0
2048
4096
538
26
0
4096
8192
243
28
0
8192
16384
137
35
0
16384
32768
45
107
0
32768
65536
0
153
0
65536 131072
0
73
0
131072 262144
0
44
0
262144 524288
0
22
0
In this example, the output shows that—in the 1 MB to 2 MB bucket—551 work areas
ran in optimal size, while 16 ran in one-pass size and none ran in multi-pass size. It
also shows that all work areas under 1 MB were able to run in optimal size.
Example 16–5
Querying the V$SQL_WORKAREA_HISTOGRAM View: Percent Optimal
The following query shows the percentage of times work areas are executed in
optimal, one-pass, or multi-pass size since startup. This query only considers work
areas of a certain size, with an optimal memory requirement of at least 64 KB:
SELECT optimal_count, ROUND(optimal_count*100/total, 2) optimal_perc,
onepass_count, ROUND(onepass_count*100/total, 2) onepass_perc,
multipass_count, ROUND(multipass_count*100/total, 2) multipass_perc
FROM
(SELECT DECODE(SUM(total_executions), 0, 1, SUM(total_executions)) total,
SUM(optimal_executions) optimal_count,
SUM(onepass_executions) onepass_count,
SUM(multipass_executions) multipass_count
FROM V$SQL_WORKAREA_HISTOGRAM
WHERE low_optimal_size >= 64*1024);
The output of this query might look like the following:
OPTIMAL_COUNT OPTIMAL_PERC ONEPASS_COUNT ONEPASS_PERC MULTIPASS_COUNT MULTIPASS_PERC
------------- ------------ ------------- ------------ --------------- -------------2239
81.63
504
18.37
0
0
In this example, the output shows that 81.63% of the work areas were able to run in
optimal size. The remaining work areas (18.37%) ran in one-pass size and none of
them ran in multi-pass size.
Tuning the Program Global Area 16-9
Sizing the Program Global Area
Using the V$WORKAREA_ACTIVE View
The V$WORKAREA_ACTIVE view displays the work areas that are active (or executing) in
the database instance. Small, active sort operations (under 64 KB) are excluded from
this view. Use this view to precisely monitor the size of all active work areas and to
determine whether these active work areas spill to a temporary segment.
Example 16–6 shows a query of this view.
Example 16–6
Querying the V$WORKAREA_ACTIVE View
SELECT TO_NUMBER(DECODE(sid, 65535, null, sid)) sid,
operation_type operation,
TRUNC(expected_size/1024) esize,
TRUNC(actual_mem_used/1024) mem,
TRUNC(max_mem_used/1024) "max mem",
number_passes pass,
TRUNC(TEMPSEG_SIZE/1024) tsize
FROM V$SQL_WORKAREA_ACTIVE
ORDER BY 1,2;
The output of this query might look like the following:
SID
OPERATION
ESIZE
MEM
MAX MEM PASS
TSIZE
--- ----------------- --------- --------- --------- ----- ------8
GROUP BY (SORT)
315
280
904
0
8
HASH-JOIN
2995
2377
2430
1
20000
9
GROUP BY (SORT)
34300
22688
22688
0
11
HASH-JOIN
18044
54482
54482
0
12
HASH-JOIN
18044
11406
21406
1 120000
In this example, the output shows that:
■
■
Session 12 (SID column) is running a hash-join operation (OPERATION column) in a
work area running in one-pass size (PASS column)
The maximum amount of memory that the PGA memory manager expects this
hash-join operation to use is 18044 KB (ESIZE column)
■
The work area is currently using 11406 KB of memory (MEM column)
■
The work area used up to 21406 KB of PGA memory (MAX MEM column) in the past
■
The work area spilled to a temporary segment of 120000 KB (TSIZE column)
When the work area is deallocated—or when the execution of its associated SQL
operator is complete—it is automatically removed from this view.
Using the V$SQL_WORKAREA View
Oracle Database maintains cumulative work area statistics for each loaded cursor
whose execution plan uses one or more work areas. Each time a work area is
deallocated, the V$SQL_WORKAREA view is updated with execution statistics for that
work area.
You can join the V$SQL_WORKAREA view with the V$SQL view to relate a work area to a
cursor, and with the V$SQL_PLAN view to precisely determine which operator in the
plan uses a work area.
Example 16–7 shows three queries of this view.
Example 16–7
Querying the V$SQL_WORKAREA View
The following query finds the top 10 work areas that require the most cache memory:
16-10 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Sizing the Program Global Area
SELECT *
FROM
(SELECT workarea_address, operation_type, policy, estimated_optimal_size
FROM V$SQL_WORKAREA
ORDER BY estimated_optimal_size DESC)
WHERE ROWNUM <= 10;
The following query finds the cursors with one or more work areas that have been
executed in one or multiple passes:
col sql_text format A80 wrap
SELECT sql_text, sum(ONEPASS_EXECUTIONS) onepass_cnt,
sum(MULTIPASSES_EXECUTIONS) mpass_cnt
FROM V$SQL s, V$SQL_WORKAREA wa
WHERE s.address = wa.address
GROUP BY sql_text
HAVING sum(ONEPASS_EXECUTIONS+MULTIPASSES_EXECUTIONS)>0;
Using the hash value and address of a particular cursor, the following query displays
the cursor execution plan, including information about the associated work areas:
col "O/1/M" format a10
col name format a20
SELECT operation, options, object_name name, trunc(bytes/1024/1024) "input(MB)",
TRUNC(last_memory_used/1024) last_mem,
TRUNC(estimated_optimal_size/1024) optimal_mem,
TRUNC(estimated_onepass_size/1024) onepass_mem,
DECODE(optimal_executions, null, null,
optimal_executions||'/'||onepass_executions||'/'||
multipasses_executions) "O/1/M"
FROM V$SQL_PLAN p, V$SQL_WORKAREA w
WHERE p.address=w.address(+)
AND p.hash_value=w.hash_value(+)
AND p.id=w.operation_id(+)
AND p.address='88BB460C'
AND p.hash_value=3738161960;
The output of this query might look like the following:
OPERATION
-----------SELECT STATE
HASH
HASH JOIN
TABLE ACCESS
TABLE ACCESS
OPTIONS NAME
input(MB) LAST_MEM OPTIMAL_ME ONEPASS_ME O/1/M
-------- -------- --------- -------- ---------- ---------- -----GROUP BY
SEMI
FULL
ORDERS
FUL
LINEITEM
4582
4582
51
1000
8
5976
16
5194
16 16/0/0
2187 16/0/0
You can get the address and hash value from the V$SQL view by specifying a pattern in
the query, as shown in the following query:
SELECT address, hash_value
FROM V$SQL
WHERE sql_text LIKE '%my_pattern%';
Tuning PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
To help you tune the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET initialization parameter,
Oracle Database provides two PGA performance advisory views: V$PGA_TARGET_
ADVICE and V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE_HISTOGRAM. By using these views, you do not need
to use an empirical approach to tune the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
parameter. Instead, you can use these views to predict how changing the value of the
PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter will affect key PGA statistics.
Tuning the Program Global Area 16-11
Sizing the Program Global Area
This section describes how to tune the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
initialization parameter and contains the following topics:
■
Enabling Automatic Generation of PGA Performance Advisory Views
■
Using the V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE View
■
Using the V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE_HISTOGRAM View
■
Using the V$SYSSTAT and V$SESSTAT Views
■
Tutorial: How to Tune PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
Enabling Automatic Generation of PGA Performance Advisory Views
Oracle Database generates the V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE and V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE_
HISTOGRAM views by recording the workload history, and then simulating this history
for different values of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter. The values of the PGA_
AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter are derived from fractions and multiples of its current
value to assess possible higher and lower values. These values are used for the
prediction and range from 10 MB to a maximum of 256 GB. The simulation process
happens in the background and continuously updates the workload history to
produce the simulation result. You can view the result at any time by querying these
views.
To enable automatic generation of PGA performance advice views:
1.
Set the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter to enable automatic PGA memory
management.
Setting this parameter to 0 disables automatic PGA memory management and is
not recommended. For information about setting this parameter, see "Setting the
Initial Value for PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET" on page 16-4.
2.
Set the STATISTICS_LEVEL parameter to TYPICAL (the default) or ALL.
Setting this parameter to BASIC disables generation of the PGA performance
advice views and is not recommended.
The contents of the PGA advice performance views are reset at
instance startup or when the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
parameter is changed.
Note:
Using the V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE View
The V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE view predicts how changing the value of the PGA_
AGGREGATE_TARGET initialization parameter will affect the following statistics in the
V$PGASTAT view:
■
cache hit percentage
■
over allocation count
Example 16–8 shows a query of this view.
Example 16–8
Querying the V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE View
SELECT ROUND(pga_target_for_estimate/1024/1024) target_mb,
estd_pga_cache_hit_percentage cache_hit_perc,
estd_overalloc_count
FROM V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE;
16-12 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Sizing the Program Global Area
The output of this query might look like the following:
TARGET_MB
---------63
125
250
375
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1500
2000
3000
4000
CACHE_HIT_PERC
-------------23
24
30
39
58
59
59
60
60
61
67
76
83
85
ESTD_OVERALLOC_COUNT
-------------------367
30
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Figure 16–1 illustrates how the result of the this query can be plotted.
Figure 16–1
Graphical Representation of V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE
Tuning the Program Global Area 16-13
Sizing the Program Global Area
The curve shows how PGA cache hit percentage improves as the value of the PGA_
AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter increases. The shaded zone in the graph represents the
over allocation zone, where the value of the ESTD_OVERALLOCATION_COUNT column is
non-zero. This area indicates that the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter is
too small to meet the minimum PGA memory requirements. If the value of the PGA_
AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter is set within the over allocation zone, then the
memory manager will over-allocate memory and the actual PGA memory consumed
will exceed the limit that was set. It is therefore meaningless to set a value of the PGA_
AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter in that zone. In this particular example, the PGA_
AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter should be set to at least 375 MB.
Beyond the over allocation zone, the value of the PGA cache hit percentage
increases rapidly. This is due to an increase in the number of optimal or one-pass work
areas and a decrease in the number of multi-pass executions. At some point, around
500 MB in this example, an inflection in the curve corresponds to the point where most
(probably all) work areas can run in optimal or at least one-pass size. Beyond this
point, the cache hit percentage keeps increasing, though at a lower pace, up to the
point where it starts to taper off and only slight improvement is achieved with
increase in the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter. In Figure 16–1, this
happens when PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET reaches 3 GB. At this point, the cache hit
percentage is 83% and only marginal improvement (by 2%) is achieved with one extra
gigabyte of PGA memory. In this example, 3 GB is the optimal value for the PGA_
AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter.
Although the theoretical maximum for the PGA cache hit
percentage is 100%, a practical limit exists on the maximum size of a
work area that may prevent this theoretical maximum from being
reached, even when the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
parameter is further increased. This should happen only in large DSS
systems where the optimal memory requirement is large and may
cause the value of the cache hit percentage to taper off at a lower
percentage, such as 90%.
Note:
Ideally, the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter should be set to the optimal
value, or at least to the maximum value possible in the region beyond the over
allocation zone. As a rule of thumb, the PGA cache hit percentage should be higher
than 60%, because at 60% the system is almost processing double the number of bytes
it actually needs to process in an ideal situation. In this example, the value of the PGA_
AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter should be set to at least 500 MB, and as close to 3 GB as
possible. However, the correct setting for the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter
depends on how much memory can be dedicated to the PGA component. Generally,
adding PGA memory requires reducing memory for some SGA components—like the
shared pool or buffer cache—because the overall memory dedicated to the database
instance is often bound by the amount of physical memory available on the system.
Therefore, any decisions to increase PGA memory must be taken in the larger context
of the available memory in the system and the performance of the various SGA
components (which you can monitor with shared pool advisory and buffer cache
advisory statistics). If you cannot reduce memory from the SGA components, consider
adding more physical memory to the system.
Using the V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE_HISTOGRAM View
The V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE_HISTOGRAM view predicts how changing the value of the
PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET initialization parameter will affect the statistics in the V$SQL_
WORKAREA_HISTOGRAM view. Use this view to display detailed information about the
16-14 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Sizing the Program Global Area
predicted number of optimal, one-pass, and multi-pass work area executions for the
PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET values used for the prediction.
The V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE_HISTOGRAM view is identical to the V$SQL_WORKAREA_
HISTOGRAM view, with two additional columns to represent the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
values used for the prediction. Therefore, any query executed against the V$SQL_
WORKAREA_HISTOGRAM view can be used on this view, with an additional predicate to
select the desired value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter.
Example 16–9 shows a query of this view that displays the predicted content of the
V$SQL_WORKAREA_HISTOGRAM view for a value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter
set to twice its current value.
Example 16–9
Querying the V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE_HISTOGRAM View
SELECT low_optimal_size/1024 low_kb, (high_optimal_size+1)/1024 high_kb,
estd_optimal_executions estd_opt_cnt,
estd_onepass_executions estd_onepass_cnt,
estd_multipasses_executions estd_mpass_cnt
FROM V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE_HISTOGRAM
WHERE pga_target_factor = 2
AND estd_total_executions != 0
ORDER BY 1;
The output of this query might look like the following:
LOW_KB
-----8
16
32
64
128
256
512
1024
2048
4096
8192
16384
32768
65536
131072
262144
HIGH_KB
------16
32
64
128
256
512
1024
2048
4096
8192
16384
32768
65536
131072
262144
524288
ESTD_OPTIMAL_CNT
---------------156107
148
89
13
58
10
653
530
509
227
176
133
66
15
0
0
ESTD_ONEPASS_CNT
---------------0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
16
103
47
48
23
ESTD_MPASS_CNT
-------------0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
In this example, the output shows that increasing the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_
TARGET parameter by a factor of 2 will enable all work areas under 16 MB to execute in
optimal size.
Using the V$SYSSTAT and V$SESSTAT Views
Statistics in the V$SYSSTAT and V$SESSTAT views show the total number of work areas
executed with optimal, one-pass, and multi-pass memory size. These statistics are
cumulative since the instance or the session was started.
Example 16–10 shows a query of the V$SYSSTAT view that displays the total number
and the percentage of times work areas were executed in these three sizes since the
instance was started:
Tuning the Program Global Area 16-15
Sizing the Program Global Area
Example 16–10 Querying the V$SYSSTAT View
SELECT
FROM
FROM
WHERE
LIKE
name profile, cnt, DECODE(total, 0, 0, ROUND(cnt*100/total)) percentage
(SELECT name, value cnt, (SUM(value) over ()) total
V$SYSSTAT
name
'workarea exec%');
The output of this query might look like the following:
PROFILE
CNT PERCENTAGE
----------------------------------- ---------- ---------workarea executions - optimal
5395
95
workarea executions - onepass
284
5
workarea executions - multipass
0
0
In this example, the output shows that 5,395 work area executions (or 95%) were
executed in optimal size, and 284 work area executions (or 5%) were executed in
one-pass size.
Tutorial: How to Tune PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
This tutorial provides a guideline for tuning the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
parameter using the various views discussed in this chapter.
To tune PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET:
1.
Set the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter to avoid memory
over-allocation.
Use the V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE view to ensure that the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
value is not set within the over-allocation zone, as described in "Using the
V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE View" on page 16-12. In Example 16–8, the PGA_
AGGREGATE_TARGET value should be set to at least 375 MB.
2.
Maximize the PGA cache hit percentage, based on response time requirements
and memory constraints.
Use the V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE view to determine the optimal value for the PGA_
AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter and set its value to the optimal value, or to the
maximum value possible, as described in "Using the V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE
View" on page 16-12.
Assume a limit X on the memory that can be allocated to PGA:
■
If limit X is higher than the optimal value, set the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_
TARGET parameter to the optimal value.
In Example 16–8, if you have 10 GB to dedicate to PGA, set the value of the
PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter to 3 GB and dedicate the remaining 7 GB to
the SGA.
■
If limit X is less than the optimal value, set the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_
TARGET parameter to X.
In Example 16–8, if you have only 2 GB to dedicate to PGA, set the value of the
PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter to 2 GB and accept a cache hit percentage
of 75%.
3.
Verify that the new value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET parameter will result in
the desired number of optimal and one-pass work area executions and avoid any
multi-pass work area executions.
16-16 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Limiting the Size of the Program Global Area
Use the V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE_HISTOGRAM view to predict the number of optimal,
one-pass, and multi-pass work area executions, as described in "Using the
V$PGA_TARGET_ADVICE_HISTOGRAM View" on page 16-14.
4.
If more PGA memory is required, then increase PGA memory by either reducing
memory from SGA components or adding more physical memory to the system.
5.
At any time, ensure the number of optimal, one-pass, and multi-pass work area
executions matches predictions and tune the value of the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET
parameter if necessary.
Use the V$SYSSTAT and V$SESSTAT views to verify the total number of work areas
executed with optimal, one-pass, and multi-pass memory size since instance or
session startup, respectively, as described in "Using the V$SYSSTAT and
V$SESSTAT Views" on page 16-15.
Limiting the Size of the Program Global Area
In automatic PGA memory management mode, Oracle Database attempts to adhere to
the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET value by dynamically controlling the amount of PGA
memory allotted to work areas. However, PGA memory usage may exceed the PGA_
AGGREGATE_TARGET setting at times due to the following reasons:
■
The PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET setting acts as a target, and not a limit.
■
PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET only controls allocations of tunable memory.
Excessive PGA usage can lead to high rates of swapping. When this occurs, the system
may become unresponsive and unstable. In this case, consider using the PGA_
AGGREGATE_LIMIT initialization parameter to limit overall PGA usage.
This section describes how to limit the size of the PGA using the PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT
initialization parameter and contains the following topics:
■
About PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT
■
Setting PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT
About PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT
The PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT initialization parameter enables you to specify a hard limit
on PGA memory usage. If the PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT value is exceeded, Oracle
Database aborts or terminates the sessions or processes that are consuming the most
untunable PGA memory in the following order:
■
■
Calls for sessions that are consuming the most untunable PGA memory are
aborted.
If PGA memory usage is still over the PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT, then the sessions and
processes that are consuming the most untunable PGA memory are terminated.
In determining the sessions and processes to abort or terminate, Oracle Database treats
parallel queries as a single unit.
By default, the PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT parameter is set to the greater of 2 GB, 200% of
the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET value, or 3 MB times the value of the PROCESSES parameter.
However, it will not exceed 120% of the physical memory size minus the total SGA
size. The default value is printed into the alert log. A warning message is printed in
the alert log if the amount of physical memory on the system cannot be determined.
Tuning the Program Global Area 16-17
Limiting the Size of the Program Global Area
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Database Reference for information about the PGA_
AGGREGATE_LIMIT initialization parameter
Oracle Database Reference for information about the V$PGASTAT
view
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about Oracle
Database Resource Manager and consumer groups
Setting PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT
The PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT initialization parameter can be set dynamically; a database
restart is not necessary. You can set the value of PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT regardless of
whether automatic memory management is being used.
To set PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT:
■
Set the PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT initialization parameter to a desired value in
number of bytes.
The value is expresses as a number followed by K (for kilobytes), M (for
megabytes), or G (for gigabytes). Setting the value to 0 disables the hard limit on
PGA memory.
Oracle Database Reference for information about the PGA_
AGGREGATE_LIMIT initialization parameter
See Also:
16-18 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Part IV
Part IV
Managing System Resources
This part contains the following chapters:
■
Chapter 17, "I/O Configuration and Design"
■
Chapter 18, "Managing Operating System Resources"
17
17
I/O Configuration and Design
The I/O subsystem is a vital component of an Oracle database. This chapter
introduces fundamental I/O concepts, discusses the I/O requirements of different
parts of the database, and provides sample configurations for I/O subsystem design.
This chapter includes the following topics:
■
About I/O
■
I/O Configuration
■
I/O Calibration Inside the Database
■
I/O Calibration with the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool
About I/O
Every Oracle Database reads or write data on disk, the database generates disk I/O.
The performance of many software applications is inherently limited by disk I/O.
Applications that spend the majority of CPU time waiting for I/O activity to complete
are said to be I/O-bound.
Oracle Database is designed so that if an application is well written, its performance
should not be limited by I/O. Tuning I/O can enhance the performance of the
application if the I/O system is operating at or near capacity and is not able to service
the I/O requests within an acceptable time. However, tuning I/O cannot help
performance if the application is not I/O-bound (for example, when CPU is the
limiting factor).
Consider the following database requirements when designing an I/O system:
■
Storage, such as minimum disk capacity
■
Availability, such as continuous (24 x 7) or business hours only
■
Performance, such as I/O throughput and application response times
Many I/O designs plan for storage and availability requirements with the assumption
that performance will not be an issue. This is not always the case. Optimally, the
number of disks and controllers to be configured should be determined by I/O
throughput and redundancy requirements. The size of disks can then be determined
by the storage requirements.
When developing an I/O design plan, consider using Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM). Oracle ASM is an integrated, high-performance database
file system and disk manager that is based on the principle that the database should
manage storage instead of requiring an administrator to do it.
I/O Configuration and Design 17-1
I/O Configuration
Oracle recommends that you use Oracle ASM for your database file storage, instead of
raw devices or the operating system file system. Oracle ASM provides the following
key benefits:
■
Striping
■
Mirroring
■
Online storage reconfiguration and dynamic rebalancing
■
Managed file creation and deletion
See Also: Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide
for additional information about Oracle ASM
I/O Configuration
This section describes the basic information to be gathered and decisions to be made
when defining a system's I/O configuration. You want to keep the configuration as
simple as possible, while maintaining the required availability, recoverability, and
performance. The more complex a configuration becomes, the more difficult it is to
administer, maintain, and tune.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Lay Out the Files Using Operating System or Hardware Striping
■
Manually Distributing I/O
■
When to Separate Files
■
Three Sample Configurations
■
Oracle Managed Files
■
Choosing Data Block Size
Lay Out the Files Using Operating System or Hardware Striping
If your operating system has LVM software or hardware-based striping, then it is
possible to distribute I/O using these tools. Decisions to be made when using an
LVM or hardware striping include stripe depth and stripe width.
■
■
Stripe depth is the size of the stripe, sometimes called stripe unit.
Stripe width is the product of the stripe depth and the number of drives in the
striped set.
Choose these values wisely so that the system is capable of sustaining the required
throughput. For an Oracle database, reasonable stripe depths range from 256 KB to 1
MB. Different types of applications benefit from different stripe depths. The optimal
stripe depth and stripe width depend on the following:
■
Requested I/O Size
■
Concurrency of I/O Requests
■
Alignment of Physical Stripe Boundaries with Block Size Boundaries
■
Manageability of the Proposed System
Requested I/O Size
Table 17–1 lists the Oracle Database and operating system parameters that you can use
to set I/O size:
17-2 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
I/O Configuration
Table 17–1
Oracle Database and Operating System Operational Parameters
Parameter
Description
DB_BLOCK_SIZE
The size of single-block I/O requests. This parameter is also
used in combination with multiblock parameters to determine
multiblock I/O request size.
OS block size
Determines I/O size for redo log and archive log operations.
Maximum OS I/O size
Places an upper bound on the size of a single I/O request.
DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_
READ_COUNT
The maximum I/O size for full table scans is computed by
multiplying this parameter with DB_BLOCK_SIZE. (the upper
value is subject to operating system limits). If this value is not
set explicitly (or is set to 0), the default value corresponds to
the maximum I/O size that can be efficiently performed and is
platform-dependent.
SORT_AREA_SIZE
Determines I/O sizes and concurrency for sort operations.
HASH_AREA_SIZE
Determines the I/O size for hash operations.
In addition to I/O size, the degree of concurrency also helps in determining the ideal
stripe depth. Consider the following when choosing stripe width and stripe depth:
■
■
On low-concurrency (sequential) systems, ensure that no single I/O visits the
same disk twice. For example, assume that the stripe width is four disks, and the
stripe depth is 32K. If a single 1MB I/O request (for example, for a full table scan)
is issued by an Oracle server process, then each disk in the stripe must perform
eight I/Os to return the requested data. To avoid this situation, the size of the
average I/O should be smaller than the stripe width multiplied by the stripe
depth. If this is not the case, then a single I/O request made by Oracle Database to
the operating system results in multiple physical I/O requests to the same disk.
On high-concurrency (random) systems, ensure that no single I/O request is
broken up into multiple physical I/O calls. Failing to do this multiplies the
number of physical I/O requests performed in your system, which in turn can
severely degrade the I/O response times.
Concurrency of I/O Requests
In a system with a high degree of concurrent small I/O requests, such as in a
traditional OLTP environment, it is beneficial to keep the stripe depth large. Using
stripe depths larger than the I/O size is called coarse grain striping. In
high-concurrency systems, the stripe depth can be as follows, where n > 1:
n * DB_BLOCK_SIZE
Coarse grain striping allows a disk in the array to service several I/O requests. In this
way, a large number of concurrent I/O requests can be serviced by a set of striped
disks with minimal I/O setup costs. Coarse grain striping strives to maximize overall
I/O throughput. Multiblock reads, as in full table scans, will benefit when stripe
depths are large and can be serviced from one drive. Parallel query in a data
warehouse environment is also a candidate for coarse grain striping because many
individual processes each issue separate I/Os. If coarse grain striping is used in
systems that do not have high concurrent requests, then hot spots could result.
In a system with a few large I/O requests, such as in a traditional DSS environment or
a low-concurrency OLTP system, then it is beneficial to keep the stripe depth small.
This is called fine grain striping. In such systems, the stripe depth is as follows, where
I/O Configuration and Design 17-3
I/O Configuration
n is smaller than the multiblock read parameters, such as DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_
COUNT:
n * DB_BLOCK_SIZE
Fine grain striping allows a single I/O request to be serviced by multiple disks. Fine
grain striping strives to maximize performance for individual I/O requests or
response time.
Alignment of Physical Stripe Boundaries with Block Size Boundaries
On some Oracle Database ports, a database block boundary may not align with the
stripe. If your stripe depth is the same size as the database block, then a single I/O
issued by Oracle Database may result in two physical I/O operations.
This is not optimal in an OLTP environment. To ensure a higher probability of one
logical I/O resulting in no more than one physical I/O, the minimum stripe depth
should be at least twice the Oracle block size. Table 17–2 shows recommended
minimum stripe depth for random access and for sequential reads.
Table 17–2
Minimum Stripe Depth
Disk Access
Minimum Stripe Depth
Random reads and writes
The minimum stripe depth is twice the Oracle block size.
Sequential reads
The minimum stripe depth is twice the value of DB_FILE_
MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT, multiplied by the Oracle block size.
See Also:
The specific documentation for your platform
Manageability of the Proposed System
With an LVM, the simplest configuration to manage is one with a single striped
volume over all available disks. In this case, the stripe width encompasses all available
disks. All database files reside within that volume, effectively distributing the load
evenly. This single-volume layout provides adequate performance in most situations.
A single-volume configuration is viable only when used in conjunction with RAID
technology that allows easy recoverability, such as RAID 1. Otherwise, losing a single
disk means losing all files concurrently and, hence, performing a full database restore
and recovery.
In addition to performance, there is a manageability concern: the design of the system
must allow disks to be added simply, to allow for database growth. The challenge is to
do so while keeping the load balanced evenly.
For example, an initial configuration can involve the creation of a single striped
volume over 64 disks, each disk being 16 GB. This is total disk space of 1 terabyte (TB)
for the primary data. Sometime after the system is operational, an additional 80 GB
(that is, five disks) must be added to account for future database growth.
The options for making this space available to the database include creating a second
volume that includes the five new disks. However, an I/O bottleneck might develop,
if these new disks are unable to sustain the I/O throughput required for the files
placed on them.
Another option is to increase the size of the original volume. LVMs are becoming
sophisticated enough to allow dynamic reconfiguration of the stripe width, which
allows disks to be added while the system is online. This begins to make the placement
of all files on a single striped volume feasible in a production environment.
17-4 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
I/O Configuration
If your LVM cannot support dynamically adding disks to the stripe, then it is likely
that you need to choose a smaller, more manageable stripe width. Then, when new
disks are added, the system can grow by a stripe width.
In the preceding example, eight disks might be a more manageable stripe width. This
is only feasible if eight disks are capable of sustaining the required number of I/Os
each second. Thus, when extra disk space is required, another eight-disk stripe can be
added, keeping the I/O balanced across the volumes.
The smaller the stripe width becomes, the more likely it is
that you will need to spend time distributing the files on the
volumes, and the closer the procedure becomes to manually
distributing I/O.
Note:
Manually Distributing I/O
If your system does not have an LVM or hardware striping, then I/O must be
manually balanced across the available disks by distributing the files according to each
file's I/O requirements. In order to make decisions on file placement, you should be
familiar with the I/O requirements of the database files and the capabilities of the I/O
system. If you are not familiar with this data and do not have a representative
workload to analyze, you can make a first guess and then tune the layout as the usage
becomes known.
To stripe disks manually, you need to relate a file's storage requirements to its I/O
requirements.
1.
Evaluate database disk-storage requirements by checking the size of the files and
the disks.
2.
Identify the expected I/O throughput for each file. Determine which files have the
highest I/O rate and which do not have many I/Os. Lay out the files on all the
available disks so as to even out the I/O rate.
One popular approach to manual I/O distribution suggests separating a frequently
used table from its index. This is not correct. During the course of a transaction, the
index is read first, and then the table is read. Because these I/Os occur sequentially,
the table and index can be stored on the same disk without contention. It is not
sufficient to separate a data file simply because the data file contains indexes or table
data. The decision to segregate a file should be made only when the I/O rate for that
file affects database performance.
When to Separate Files
Regardless of whether you use operating system striping or manual I/O distribution,
if the I/O system or I/O layout is not able to support the I/O rate required, then you
need to separate files with high I/O rates from the remaining files. You can identify
such files either at the planning stage or after the system is live.
The decision to segregate files should only be driven by I/O rates, recoverability
concerns, or manageability issues. (For example, if your LVM does not support
dynamic reconfiguration of stripe width, then you might need to create smaller stripe
widths to be able to add n disks at a time to create a new stripe of identical
configuration.)
Before segregating files, verify that the bottleneck is truly an I/O issue. The data
produced from investigating the bottleneck identifies which files have the highest I/O
rates.
I/O Configuration and Design 17-5
I/O Configuration
The following sections describe how to segregate the following file types:
■
Tables, Indexes, and TEMP Tablespaces
■
Redo Log Files
■
Archived Redo Logs
Tables, Indexes, and TEMP Tablespaces
If the files with high I/O are data files belonging to tablespaces that contain tables and
indexes, then identify whether the I/O for those files can be reduced by tuning SQL or
application code.
If the files with high-I/O are data files that belong to the TEMP tablespace, then
investigate whether to tune the SQL statements performing disk sorts to avoid this
activity, or to tune the sorting.
After the application has been tuned to avoid unnecessary I/O, if the I/O layout is still
not able to sustain the required throughput, then consider segregating the high-I/O
files.
Redo Log Files
If the high-I/O files are redo log files, then consider splitting the redo log files from the
other files. Possible configurations can include the following:
■
■
■
■
Placing all redo logs on one disk without any other files. Also consider
availability; members of the same group should be on different physical disks and
controllers for recoverability purposes.
Placing each redo log group on a separate disk that does not store any other files.
Striping the redo log files across several disks, using an operating system striping
tool. (Manual striping is not possible in this situation.)
Avoiding the use of RAID 5 for redo logs.
Redo log files are written sequentially by the Log Writer (LGWR) process. This
operation can be made faster if there is no concurrent activity on the same disk.
Dedicating a separate disk to redo log files usually ensures that LGWR runs smoothly
with no further tuning necessary. If your system supports asynchronous I/O but this
feature is not currently configured, then test to see if using this feature is beneficial.
Performance bottlenecks related to LGWR are rare.
Archived Redo Logs
If the archiver is slow, then it might be prudent to prevent I/O contention between the
archiver process and LGWR by ensuring that archiver reads and LGWR writes are
separated. This is achieved by placing logs on alternating drives.
For example, suppose a system has four redo log groups, each group with two
members. To create separate-disk access, the eight log files should be labeled 1a, 1b,
2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, and 4b. This requires at least four disks, plus one disk for archived
files.
Figure 17–1 illustrates how redo members should be distributed across disks to
minimize contention.
17-6 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
I/O Configuration
Figure 17–1
Distributing Redo Members Across Disks
arch
dest
arch
1a
3a
2a
4a
1b
3b
2b
4b
lgwr
In this example, LGWR switches out of log group 1 (member 1a and 1b) and writes to
log group 2 (2a and 2b). Concurrently, the archiver process reads from group 1 and
writes to its archive destination. Note how the redo log files are isolated from
contention.
Mirroring redo log files, or maintaining multiple copies of
each redo log file on separate disks, does not slow LGWR
considerably. LGWR writes to each disk in parallel and waits until
each part of the parallel write is complete. Thus, a parallel write
does not take longer than the longest possible single-disk write.
Note:
Because redo logs are written serially, drives dedicated to redo log activity generally
require limited head movement. This significantly accelerates log writing.
Three Sample Configurations
This section contains three high-level examples of configuring I/O systems. These
examples include sample calculations that define the disk topology, stripe depths, and
so on:
■
Stripe Everything Across Every Disk
■
Move Archive Logs to Different Disks
■
Move Redo Logs to Separate Disks
Stripe Everything Across Every Disk
The simplest approach to I/O configuration is to build one giant volume, striped
across all available disks. To account for recoverability, the volume is mirrored (RAID
1). The striping unit for each disk should be larger than the maximum I/O size for the
frequent I/O operations. This provides adequate performance for most cases.
Move Archive Logs to Different Disks
If archived redo log files are striped on the same set of disks as other files, then any
I/O requests on those disks could suffer when the database is archiving the redo logs.
Moving archived redo log files to separate disks provides the following benefits:
■
The archive can be performed at very high rate (using sequential I/O).
I/O Configuration and Design 17-7
I/O Configuration
■
Nothing else is affected by the degraded response time on the archive destination
disks.
The number of disks for archive logs is determined by the rate of archive log
generation and the amount of archive storage required.
Move Redo Logs to Separate Disks
In high-update OLTP systems, the redo logs are write-intensive. Moving the redo log
files to disks that are separate from other disks and from archived redo log files has
the following benefits:
■
■
Writing redo logs is performed at the highest possible rate. Hence, transaction
processing performance is at its best.
Writing of the redo logs is not impaired with any other I/O.
The number of disks for redo logs is mostly determined by the redo log size, which is
generally small compared to current technology disk sizes. Typically, a configuration
with two disks (possibly mirrored to four disks for fault tolerance) is adequate. In
particular, by having the redo log files alternating on two disks, writing redo log
information to one file does not interfere with reading a completed redo log for
archiving.
Oracle Managed Files
When file systems can contain all Oracle Database data, database administration is
simplified by using Oracle Managed Files. Oracle Database internally uses standard
file system interfaces to create and delete files as needed for tablespaces, temp files,
online logs, and control files. Administrators only specify the file system directory to
be used for a particular type of file. You can specify one default location for data files
and up to five multiplexed locations for the control and online redo log files.
Oracle Database ensures that a unique file is created and then deleted when it is no
longer needed. This reduces corruption caused by administrators specifying the
wrong file, reduces wasted disk space consumed by obsolete files, and simplifies
creation of test and development databases. It also makes development of portable
third-party tools easier, because it eliminates the need to put operating system-specific
file names in SQL scripts.
New files can be created as Oracle Managed Files, while old ones are administered in
the old way. Thus, a database can have a mixture of Oracle Managed Files and
user-managed files.
Note:
Oracle Managed Files cannot be used with raw devices.
Several points should be considered when tuning Oracle Managed Files:
■
■
■
Because Oracle Managed Files require the use of a file system, DBAs give up
control over how the data is laid out. Therefore, it is important to correctly
configure the file system.
Build the file system for Oracle Managed Files on top of an LVM that supports
striping. For load balancing and improved throughput, stripe the disks in the file
system.
Oracle Managed Files work best if used on an LVM that supports dynamically
extensible logical volumes. Otherwise, configure the logical volumes as large as
possible.
17-8 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
I/O Configuration
■
Oracle Managed Files work best if the file system provides large extensible files.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for detailed
information on using Oracle Managed Files
Choosing Data Block Size
A block size of 8 KB is optimal for most systems. However, OLTP systems occasionally
use smaller block sizes and DSS systems occasionally use larger block sizes. This
section discusses considerations when choosing database block size for optimal
performance and contains the following topics:
■
Reads
■
Writes
■
Block Size Advantages and Disadvantages
The use of multiple block sizes in a single database instance
is not encouraged because of manageability issues.
Note:
Reads
Regardless of the size of the data, the goal is to minimize the number of reads required
to retrieve the desired data.
■
■
■
■
If the rows are small and access is predominantly random, then choose a smaller
block size.
If the rows are small and access is predominantly sequential, then choose a larger
block size.
If the rows are small and access is both random and sequential, then it might be
effective to choose a larger block size.
If the rows are large, such as rows containing large object (LOB) data, then choose
a larger block size.
Writes
For high-concurrency OLTP systems, consider appropriate values for INITRANS,
MAXTRANS, and FREELISTS when using a larger block size. These parameters affect the
degree of update concurrency allowed within a block. However, you do not need to
specify the value for FREELISTS when using automatic segment-space management.
If you are uncertain about which block size to choose, then try a database block size of
8 KB for most systems that process a large number of transactions. This represents a
good compromise and is usually effective. Only systems processing LOB data need
more than 8 KB.
See Also: The Oracle Database installation documentation
specific to your operating system for information about the
minimum and maximum block size on your platform
Block Size Advantages and Disadvantages
Table 17–3 lists the advantages and disadvantages of different block sizes.
I/O Configuration and Design 17-9
I/O Calibration Inside the Database
Table 17–3
Block Size Advantages and Disadvantages
Block Size
Advantages
Smaller
Good for small rows with lots of random Has relatively large space overhead due to metadata
access.
(that is, block header).
Larger
Disadvantages
Reduces block contention.
Not recommended for large rows. There might only
be a few rows stored for each block, or worse, row
chaining if a single row does not fit into a block,
Has lower overhead, so there is more
room to store data.
Wastes space in the buffer cache, if you are doing
random access to small rows and have a large block
size. For example, with an 8 KB block size and 50
byte row size, you waste 7,950 bytes in the buffer
cache when doing random access.
Permits reading several rows into the
buffer cache with a single I/O
(depending on row size and block size).
Good for sequential access or very large
rows (such as LOB data).
Not good for index blocks used in an OLTP
environment, because they increase block contention
on the index leaf blocks.
I/O Calibration Inside the Database
The I/O calibration feature of Oracle Database enables you to assess the performance
of the storage subsystem, and determine whether I/O performance problems are
caused by the database or the storage subsystem. Unlike other external I/O calibration
tools that issue I/Os sequentially, the I/O calibration feature of Oracle Database issues
I/Os randomly using Oracle data files to access the storage media, producing results
that more closely match the actual performance of the database.
The section describes how to use the I/O calibration feature of Oracle Database and
contains the following topics:
■
Prerequisites for I/O Calibration
■
Running I/O Calibration
Oracle Database also provides Orion, an I/O calibration tool. Orion is a tool for
predicting the performance of an Oracle database without having to install Oracle or
create a database. Unlike other I/O calibration tools, Oracle Orion is expressly
designed for simulating Oracle database I/O workloads using the same I/O software
stack as Oracle. Orion can also simulate the effect of striping performed by Oracle
Automatic Storage Management. For more information, see "I/O Calibration with the
Oracle Orion Calibration Tool" on page 17-12.
Prerequisites for I/O Calibration
Before running I/O calibration, ensure that the following requirements are met:
■
The user must be granted the SYSDBA privilege
■
timed_statistics must be set to TRUE
■
Asynchronous I/O must be enabled
When using file systems, asynchronous I/O can be enabled by setting the
FILESYSTEMIO_OPTIONS initialization parameter to SETALL.
■
Ensure that asynchronous I/O is enabled for data files by running the following
query:
COL NAME FORMAT A50
17-10 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
I/O Calibration Inside the Database
SELECT NAME,ASYNCH_IO FROM V$DATAFILE F,V$IOSTAT_FILE I
WHERE F.FILE#=I.FILE_NO
AND
FILETYPE_NAME='Data File';
Additionally, only one calibration can be performed on a database instance at a time.
Running I/O Calibration
The I/O calibration feature of Oracle Database is accessed using the DBMS_RESOURCE_
MANAGER.CALIBRATE_IO procedure. This procedure issues an I/O intensive read-only
workload, made up of one megabyte of random of I/Os, to the database files to
determine the maximum IOPS (I/O requests per second) and MBPS (megabytes of
I/O per second) that can be sustained by the storage subsystem.
The I/O calibration occurs in two steps:
■
■
In the first step of I/O calibration with the DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CALIBRATE_IO
procedure, the procedure issues random database-block-sized reads, by default, 8
KB, to all data files from all database instances. This step provides the maximum
IOPS, in the output parameter max_iops, that the database can sustain. The value
max_iops is an important metric for OLTP databases. The output parameter
actual_latency provides the average latency for this workload. When you need a
specific target latency, you can specify the target latency with the input parameter
max_latency (specifies the maximum tolerable latency in milliseconds for
database-block-sized IO requests).
The second step of calibration using the DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CALIBRATE_IO
procedure issues random, 1 MB reads to all data files from all database instances.
The second step yields the output parameter max_mbps, which specifies the
maximum MBPS of I/O that the database can sustain. This step provides an
important metric for data warehouses.
The calibration runs more efficiently if the user provides the num_physical_disks
input parameter, which specifies the approximate number of physical disks in the
database storage system.
Due to the overhead from running the I/O workload, I/O calibration should only be
performed when the database is idle, or during off-peak hours, to minimize the impact
of the I/O workload on the normal database workload.
To run I/O calibration and assess the I/O capability of the storage subsystem used by
Oracle Database, use the DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CALIBRATE_IO procedure:
SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
DECLARE
lat INTEGER;
iops INTEGER;
mbps INTEGER;
BEGIN
-- DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CALIBRATE_IO (<DISKS>, <MAX_LATENCY>, iops, mbps, lat);
DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CALIBRATE_IO (2, 10, iops, mbps, lat);
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('max_iops = ' || iops);
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('latency = ' || lat);
dbms_output.put_line('max_mbps = ' || mbps);
end;
/
When running the DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER.CALIBRATE_IO procedure, consider the
following:
I/O Configuration and Design
17-11
I/O Calibration with the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool
■
■
■
■
■
■
Only run one calibration at a time on databases that use the same storage
subsystem. If you simultaneously run the calibration across separate databases
that use the same storage subsystem, the calibration will fail.
Quiesce the database to minimize I/O on the instance.
For Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) configurations, ensure that all
instances are opened to calibrate the storage subsystem across nodes.
For an Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) database, the workload is
simultaneously generated from all instances.
The num_physical_disks input parameter is optional. By setting the num_
physical_disks parameter to the approximate number of physical disks in the
database's storage system, the calibration can be faster and more accurate.
In some cases, asynchronous I/O is permitted for data files, but the I/O subsystem
for submitting asynchronous I/O may be maximized, and I/O calibration cannot
continue. In such cases, refer to the port-specific documentation for information
about checking the maximum limit for asynchronous I/O on the system.
At any time during the I/O calibration process, you can query the calibration status in
the V$IO_CALIBRATION_STATUS view. After I/O calibration is successfully completed,
you can view the results in the DBA_RSRC_IO_CALIBRATE table.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for more
information about running the DBMS_RESOURCE_
MANAGER.CALIBRATE_IO procedure
Oracle Database Reference for information about the V$IO_
CALIBRATION_STATUS view and DBA_RSRC_IO_CALIBRATE table
I/O Calibration with the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool
This section describes the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool and includes the following
sections:
■
Introduction to the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool
■
Getting Started with Orion
■
Orion Input Files
■
Orion Parameters
■
Orion Output Files
■
Orion Troubleshooting
Introduction to the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool
Oracle Orion is a tool for predicting the performance of an Oracle database without
having to install Oracle or create a database. Unlike other I/O calibration tools, Oracle
Orion is expressly designed for simulating Oracle database I/O workloads using the
same I/O software stack as Oracle. Orion can also simulate the effect of striping
performed by Oracle Automatic Storage Management.
Table 17–4 lists the types of I/O workloads that Orion supports.
17-12 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
I/O Calibration with the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool
For each type of workload shown in Table 17–4, Orion can run tests using different
I/O loads to measure performance metrics such as MBPS, IOPS, and I/O latency. Load
is expressed in terms of the number of outstanding asynchronous I/Os. Internally, for
each such load level, the Orion software keeps issuing I/O requests as fast as they
complete to maintain the I/O load at that level. For random workloads, using either
large or small sized I/Os, the load level is the number of outstanding I/Os. For large
sequential workloads, the load level is a combination of the number of sequential
streams and the number of outstanding I/Os per stream. Testing a given workload at
a range of load levels can help you understand how performance is affected by load.
Note the following when you use Orion:
■
■
Table 17–4
Run Orion when the storage is idle (or pretty close to idle). Orion calibrates the
performance of the storage based on the I/O load it generates; Orion is not able to
properly assess the performance if non-Orion I/O workloads run simultaneously.
If a database has been created on the storage, the storage can alternatively be
calibrated using the PL/SQL routine dbms_resource_manager.calibrate_io().
Orion I/O Workload Support
Workload
Description
Small Random I/O
OLTP applications typically generate random reads and writes whose size is equivalent to
the database block size, typically 8 KB. Such applications typically care about the
throughput in I/Os Per Second (IOPS) and about the average latency (I/O turn-around
time) per request. These parameters translate to the transaction rate and transaction
turn-around time at the application layer.
Orion simulates a random I/O workload with a given percentage of reads compared to
writes, a given I/O size, and a given number of outstanding I/Os. In this Orion workload
simulation, the I/Os are distributed across all disks.
Large Sequential I/O
Data warehousing applications, data loads, backups, and restores generate sequential read
and write streams composed of multiple outstanding 1 MB I/Os. Such applications are
processing large amounts of data, such as a whole table or a whole database and they
typically care about the overall data throughput in MegaBytes Per Second (MBPS).
Orion can simulate a given number of sequential read or write streams of a given I/O size
with a given number of outstanding I/Os. Orion can optionally simulate Oracle Automatic
Storage Management striping when testing sequential streams.
Large Random I/O
A sequential stream typically accesses the disks concurrently with other database traffic.
With striping, a sequential stream is spread across many disks. Consequently, at the disk
level, multiple sequential streams are seen as random 1 MB I/Os.
Mixed Workloads
Orion can simulate two simultaneous workloads: Small Random I/O and either Large
Sequential I/O or Large Random I/O. This workload type enables you to simulate, for
example, an OLTP workload of 8 KB random reads and writes with a backup workload of
four sequential read streams of 1 MB I/Os.
Each Orion data point is a test for a specific mix of small and large I/O loads sustained
for a duration. An Orion test consists of multiple data point tests. These data point
tests can be represented as a two-dimensional matrix. Each column in the matrix
represents data point tests with the same small I/O load, but varying large I/O loads.
Each row represents data point tests with the same large I/O load, but varying small
I/O loads. An Orion test can be for a single point, a single row, a single column, or for
the whole matrix.
Orion Test Targets
You can use Orion to test any disk-based character device that supports asynchronous
I/O. Orion has been tested on the following types of targets:
■
DAS (direct-attached) storage: You can use Orion to test the performance of one or
more local disks, volumes, or files on the local host.
I/O Configuration and Design
17-13
I/O Calibration with the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool
■
■
SAN (storage-area network) storage: Orion can be run on any host that has all or
parts of the SAN storage mapped as character devices. The devices can correspond
to striped or un-striped volumes exported by the storage array(s), or individual
disks, or one or more whole arrays.
NAS (network-attached storage): You can use Orion to test the performance on
data files on NAS storage. In general, the performance results on NAS storage are
dependent on the I/O patterns with which the data files have been created and
updated. Therefore, you should initialize the data files appropriately before
running Orion.
Orion for Oracle Administrators
Oracle administrators can use Orion to evaluate and compare different storage arrays,
based on the expected workloads. Oracle administrators can also use Orion to
determine the optimal number of network connections, storage arrays, storage array
controllers, and disks for the expected peak workloads.
Getting Started with Orion
To get started using Orion, do the following:
1.
Select a test name to use with the Orion –testname parameter. This parameter
specifies a unique identifier for your Orion run. For example, use the test name
"mytest". For more information, see "Orion Parameters" on page 17-15.
2.
Create an Orion input file, based on the test name. For example, create a file
named mytest.lun. In the input file list the raw volumes or files to test. Add one
volume name per line. Do not put comments or anything else in the .lun file.
For example, an Orion input file could contain the following:
/dev/raw/raw1
/dev/raw/raw2
/dev/raw/raw3
/dev/raw/raw4
/dev/raw/raw5
/dev/raw/raw6
/dev/raw/raw7
/dev/raw/raw8
For more information, see "Orion Input Files" on page 17-15.
3.
Verify that the all volumes specified in the input file, for example mytest.lun, are
accessible using the command dd or another equivalent file viewing utility. For
example, for a typical sanity-check try the following on a Linux system:
$ dd if=/dev/raw/raw1 of=/dev/null bs=32k count=1024
Depending on your platform, the file viewing utility you use and its interface may
be different.
4.
Verify that your platform has the necessary libraries installed to do asynchronous
I/Os. The Orion test is completely dependent on asynchronous I/O. On Linux and
Solaris, the library libaio must be in the standard lib directories or accessible
through the shell environment's library path variable (usually LD_LIBRARY_PATH or
LIBPATH, depending on your shell). Windows has built-in asynchronous I/O
libraries, so this issue does not apply.
17-14 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
I/O Calibration with the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool
5.
As a first test with Orion, use –run with either the oltp or dss option. If the
database is primarily OLTP, then use –run oltp. If the database is primarily for
data warehousing or analytics, then use –run dss.
For example, use the following command to run an OLTP-like workload using the
default input file name, orion.lun:
$ ./orion -run oltp
The I/O load levels generated by Orion take into account the number of disk
spindles being tested (or specified with the –num_disks parameter). Keep in mind
that the number of spindles may or may not be related to the number of volumes
specified in the input file, depending on how these volumes are mapped.
6.
The section, "Orion Output Files" on page 17-19 provides sample results showing
the Orion output files. Using the sample file mytest_summary.txt is a good
starting point for verifying the input parameters and analyzing the output. The
sample files mytest_*.csv contain comma-delimited values for several I/O
performance measures. For more information, see "Orion Output Files" on
page 17-19.
Orion Input Files
When you specify the Orion –testname <testname> parameter, this sets the test name
prefix for the Orion input and output filenames. The default value for the –testname
option is "orion".
The Orion input file, <testname>.lun should contain a carriage-return-separated list of
LUNs.
Orion Parameters
Use the Orion command parameters to specify the I/O workload type and to specify
other Orion options.
Orion Required Parameter
The –run parameter is required with the Orion command. Table 17–5 describes the
–run parameter.
I/O Configuration and Design
17-15
I/O Calibration with the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool
Table 17–5
Required Orion Parameter
Option
Description
Default
–run level
Specifies the test run level to be level. This option provides the run level and allows complex
commands to be specified at the advanced level. If not set as –run advanced, then setting any other
parameter, besides –cache_size or –verbose, results in an error.
normal
Except advanced, all of the –run level settings use a pre-specified set of parameters.
The level must be one of:
■
oltp
Tests with random small (8K) I/Os at increasing loads to determine the maximum IOPS.
This parameter corresponds to the following Orion invocation:
%> ./orion -run advanced \
-num_large 0 -size_small 8 -type rand \
-simulate concat -write 0 -duration 60 \
-matrix row
■
dss
Tests with random large (1M) I/Os at increasing loads to determine the maximum throughput.
This parameter corresponds to the following Orion invocation:
%> ./orion -run advanced \
-num_small 0 -size_large 1024 -type rand \
-simulate concat -write 0 -duration 60 \
-matrix column
■
simple
Generates the Small Random I/O and the Large Random I/O workloads for a range of load
levels. In this option, small and large I/Os are tested in isolation. The only optional parameters
that can be specified at this run level are –cache_size and –verbose.
This parameter corresponds to the following Orion invocation:
%> ./orion -run advanced \
-size_small 8 -size_large 1024 -type rand \
-simulate concat -write 0 -duration 60 \
-matrix basic
■
normal
Same as simple, but also generates combinations of the small random I/O and large random
I/O workloads for a range of loads. The only optional parameters that can be specified at this
run level are –cache_size and –verbose.
This parameter corresponds to the following Orion invocation:
%> ./orion -run advanced \
-size_small 8 -size_large 1024 -type rand \
-simulate concat -write 0 -duration 60 \
-matrix detailed
■
advanced
Tests the workload you specify with optional parameters. Any of the optional parameters can
be specified at this run level.
17-16 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
I/O Calibration with the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool
Orion Optional Parameters
Table 17–6
Optional Orion Parameters
Option
Description
Default
–cache_size num
Size of the storage array's read or write cache (in MB). For Large
Sequential I/O workloads, Orion warms the cache by doing random
large I/Os before each data point. Orion uses the cache size to
determine the duration for this cache warming operation. If set to 0, do
not perform cache warming.
Default Value:
Unless this option is set to 0, Orion issues several unmeasured, random
I/Os before each large sequential data point. These I/Os fill up the
storage array's cache, if any, with random data so that I/Os from one
data point do not result in cache hits for the next data point. Read tests
are preceded with junk reads and write tests are preceded with junk
writes. If specified, this 'cache warming' is performed until num MBs of
I/O have been read or written.
–duration num_
seconds
Set the duration to test each data point in seconds to the value num_
seconds.
–help
Prints Orion help information. All other options are ignored with help
If not specified, warming
occurs for a default amount
of time (two minutes). That
is, issue two minutes of
unmeasured random I/Os
before each data point.
Default Value: 60
set.
–matrix type
Type of mixed workloads to test over a range of loads. An Orion test
consists of multiple data point tests. The data point tests can be
represented as a two-dimensional matrix.
Default Value: basic
Each column in the matrix represents data point tests with the same
small I/O load, but varying large I/O loads. Each row represents data
point tests with the same large I/O load, but varying small I/O loads.
An Orion test can be for a single point, a single row, a single column, or
the whole matrix, depending on the matrix type:
■
■
■
■
■
■
basic: No mixed workload. The Small Random and Large
Random/Sequential workloads are tested separately. Test small
I/Os only, then large I/Os only.
detailed: Small Random and Large Random/Sequential workloads
are tested in combination. Test entire matrix.
point: A single data point with S outstanding Small Random I/Os
and L outstanding Large Random I/Os or sequential streams. S is
set by the –num_small parameter. L is set by the –num_large
parameter. Test with –num_small small I/Os, –num_large large
I/Os.
col: Large Random/Sequential workloads only. Test a varying
large I/O load with –num_small small I/Os.
row: Small Random workloads only. Test a varying small I/O load
with –num_large large I/Os.
max: Same as detailed, but only tests the workload at the
maximum load, specified by the –num_small and –num_large
parameters. Test varying loads up to the –num_small and –num_
large limits.
–num_disks value
Specify the number of physical disks used by the test. Used to generate a Default Value: the number of
range for the load. Specifies the number of disks (physical spindles).
LUNs in <testname>.lun.
This number value is used to gauge the range of loads that Orion should
test at. Increasing this parameter results in Orion using heavier I/O
loads.
–num_large value
Controls the large I/O load.
Default Value: no default
Note, this option only applies when –matrix is specified as: row, point,
or max.
When the –type option is set to rand, the parameter argument value
specifies the number of outstanding large I/Os.
When the –type option is set to seq, the parameter argument value
specifies the number of sequential I/O streams.
I/O Configuration and Design
17-17
I/O Calibration with the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool
Table 17–6 (Cont.) Optional Orion Parameters
Option
Description
Default
–num_small
Specify the maximum number of outstanding I/Os for the Small
Random I/O workload.
Default Value: no default
Note: this only applies when –matrix is specified as col, point, or max.
–num_streamIO num
Specify the number of concurrent I/Os per stream as num.
Default Value: 4
Note: this parameter is only used if –type is seq.
–simulate type
Data layout to simulate for Large Sequential I/O workload. Orion tests
on a virtual LUN formed by combining specified LUNs in one of these
ways. The type is one:
■
■
Default Value: concat
concat: A virtual volume is simulated by serially chaining the
specified LUNs. A sequential test over this virtual volume will go
from some point to the end of each one LUN, followed by the
beginning to end of the next LUN, and so on.
raid0: A virtual volume is simulated by striping across the
specified LUNs. Each sequential stream issues I/Os across all
LUNs using raid0 striping. The stripe depth is 1M by default, to
match the Oracle Automatic Storage Management stripe depth,
and can be changed with the –stripe parameter.
The offsets for I/Os are determined as follows:
For Small Random and Large Random workloads:
■
The LUNs are concatenated into a single virtual LUN (VLUN) and
random offsets are chosen within the VLUN.
For Large Sequential workloads:
■
■
With striping (–simulate raid0). The LUNs are used to create a
single striped VLUN. With no concurrent Small Random
workload, the sequential streams start at fixed offsets within the
striped VLUN. For n streams, stream i start at offset VLUNsize * (i
+ 1) / (n + 1), unless n is 1, in which case the single stream start at
offset 0. With a concurrent Small Random workload, streams start
at random offsets within the striped VLUN.
Without striping (–simulate CONCAT). The LUNs are concatenated
into a single VLUN. The streams start at random offsets within the
single VLUN.
This parameter is typically only used if –type is seq.
–size_large num
Specify the num, size of the I/Os (in KB) for the Large Random or
Sequential I/O workload.
Default Value: 1024
–size_small num
Specify the num, size of the I/Os (in KB) for the Small Random I/O
workload.
Default Value: 8
–testname tname
Specify the tname identifier for the test run. When specified, the input
Default Value: orion
file containing the LUN disk or file names must be named <tname>.lun.
The output files are named with the prefix <tname>_.
–type [rand | seq]
Type of the Large I/O workload.
■
rand: Randomly distributed large I/Os.
■
seq: Sequential streams of large I/Os.
Default Value: rand
–verbose
Prints status and tracing information to standard output.
Default Value: option not set
–write num_write
Specify the percentage of I/Os that are writes to num_write; the rest
being reads.
Default Value: 0
This parameter applies to both the Large and Small I/O workloads. For
Large Sequential I/Os, each stream is either read-only or write-only; the
parameter specifies the percentage of streams that are write-only. The
data written to disk is garbage and unrelated to any existing data on the
disk.
Caution: write tests obliterate all data on the specified LUNS.
17-18 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
I/O Calibration with the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool
Caution:
Write tests obliterate all data on the specified LUNS.
Orion Command Line Samples
The following provides sample Orion commands for different types of I/O workloads:
1.
To evaluate storage for an OLTP database:
-run oltp
2.
To evaluate storage for a data warehouse:
-run dss
3.
For a basic set of data:
-run normal
4.
To understand your storage performance with read-only, small and large random
I/O workload:
$ orion -run simple
5.
To understand your storage performance with a mixed small and large random
I/O workload:
$ orion -run normal
6.
To generate combinations of 32KB and 1MB reads to random locations:
$ orion -run advanced -size_small 32 \
-size_large 1024 -type rand -matrix detailed
7.
To generate multiple sequential 1 MB write streams, simulating 1 MB RAID-0
stripes:
$ orion -run advanced -simulate raid0 \
-stripe 1024 -write 100 -type seq -matrix col -num_small 0
8.
To generate combinations of 32 KB and 1 MB reads to random locations:
-run advanced -size_small 32 -size_large 1024 -type rand -matrix detailed
9.
To generate multiple sequential 1 MB write streams, simulating RAID0 striping:
-run advanced -simulate raid0 -write 100 -type seq -matrix col -num_small 0
Orion Output Files
The output files for a test run are prefixed by <testname>_<date> where date is
yyyymmdd_hhmm.
Table 17–7 lists the Orion output files.
Table 17–7
Orion Generated Output Files
Output File
Description
<testname>_<date>_hist.csv
Histogram of I/O latencies.
<testname>_<date>_iops.csv
Performance results of small I/Os in IOPS.
<testname>_<date>_lat.csv
Latency of small I/Os in microseconds.
I/O Configuration and Design
17-19
I/O Calibration with the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool
Table 17–7 (Cont.) Orion Generated Output Files
Output File
Description
<testname>_<date>_mbps.csv
Performance results of large I/Os in MBPS.
<testname>_<date>_summary.txt
Summary of the input parameters, along with the minimum small I/O latency (in secs),
the maximum MBPS, and the maximum IOPS observed.
<testname>_<date>_trace.txt
Extended, unprocessed output.
Caution: If you are performing write tests, be prepared to lose any
data stored on the LUNs.
Orion Sample Output Files
Orion creates several output files as specified in Table 17–7. For the sample "mytest"
shown in the section, "Getting Started with Orion" on page 17-14, the output files are:
■
■
mytest_summary.txt: This file contains:
■
Input parameters
■
Maximum throughput observed for the Large Random/Sequential workload
■
Maximum I/O rate observed for the Small Random workload
■
Minimum latency observed for the Small Random workload
mytest_mbps.csv: comma-delimited value file containing the data transfer rate
(MBPS) results for the Large Random/Sequential workload. In the general case,
this and all other CSV files contains a two-dimensional table. Each row in the table
corresponds to a large I/O load level and each column corresponds to a specific
small I/O load level. Thus, the column headings are the number of outstanding
small I/Os and the row headings are the number of outstanding large I/Os (for
random large I/O tests) or the number of sequential streams (for sequential large
I/O tests).
Example 17–1 shows the first few data points of the Orion MBPS output CSV file
for "mytest". The simple mytest command-line does not test combinations of large
and small I/Os. Hence, the MBPS file has just one column corresponding to 0
outstanding small I/Os. In Example 17–1, at a load level of 8 outstanding large
reads and no small I/Os, the report data indicates a throughput of 103.06 MBPS.
Example 17–1
Large/Small,
Mytest Sample Data Points
0
1,
19.18
2,
37.59
4,
65.53
6,
87.03
8, 103.06
10, 109.67
. .
. . .
. .
. . .
Figure 17–2 shows a sample data transfer rate measured at different large I/O load
levels. This chart can be generated by loading mytest_mbps.csv into a spreadsheet
and graphing the data points. Orion does not directly generate such graphs. The
17-20 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
I/O Calibration with the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool
x-axis corresponds to the number of outstanding large reads and the y-axis
corresponds to the throughput observed.
The graph shown in Figure 17–2 shows typical storage system behavior. As the
number of outstanding I/O requests is increased, the throughput increases.
However, at a certain point the throughput level stabilizes, indicating the storage
system's maximum throughput value.
Figure 17–2
■
Sample I/O Load Levels
mytest_iops.csv: Comma-delimited value file containing the I/O throughput (in
IOPS) results for the Small Random workload. Like in the MBPS file, the column
headings are the number of outstanding small I/Os and the row headings are the
number of outstanding large I/Os, when testing large random, or the number of
sequential streams (for large sequential).
In the general case, a CSV file contains a two-dimensional table. However, for a
simple test where you are not testing combinations of large and small I/Os the
results file has just one row. Hence, the IOPS results file just has one row with 0
large I/Os. As shown in Example 17–2, an example data point with 12 outstanding
small reads and no large I/Os provides a sample throughput of 951 IOPS.
Example 17–2
Large/Small,
0,
Sample Data Points with 12 Small Reads and No Large Reads
1,
2,
3,
6,
9,
12 . . . .
105,
208,
309,
569,
782,
951 . . . .
The graph shown in Figure 17–3, generated by loading mytest_iops.csv into Excel
and charting the data, illustrates the IOPS throughput seen at different small I/O
load levels.
Figure 17–3 shows typical storage system behavior. As the number of outstanding
I/O requests is increased, the throughput increases. However, at a certain point,
the throughput level stabilizes, indicating the storage system reaches a maximum
throughput value. At higher throughput levels, the latency for the I/O requests
also increase significantly. Therefore, it is important to view this data with the
latency data provided in the generated latency results in mytest_lat.csv.
I/O Configuration and Design
17-21
I/O Calibration with the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool
Figure 17–3
■
I/O Throughput at Different Small I/O Load Levels
mytest_lat.csv: Comma-delimited value file containing the latency results for the
Small Random workload. As with the MBPS and IOPS files, the column headings
are the number of outstanding small I/Os and the row headings are the number of
outstanding large I/Os (when testing large random I/Os) or the number of
sequential streams.
In the general case, a CSV file contains a two-dimensional table. However, for a
simple test where you are not testing combinations of large and small I/Os the
results file has just one row. Hence, the IOPS results file just has one row with 0
large I/Os. In the example shown in Example 17–3, at a sustained load level of 12
outstanding small reads and no large I/Os, the generated results show an I/O
turn-around latency of 22.25 milliseconds.
Example 17–3
Sample CSV file with 12 Small Reads and No Large Reads
Large/Small, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12 . . . .
0, 14.22, 14.69, 15.09, 16.98, 18.91, 21.25 . . . .
The graph in Figure 17–4, generated by loading mytest_lat.csv into Excel and
charting the data, illustrates the small I/O latency at different small I/O load
levels for mytest.
Figure 17–4
■
I/O Latency at Small I/O Load Levels
mytest_trace.txt: Contains the extended, unprocessed test output.
17-22 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
I/O Calibration with the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool
Note:
Orion reports errors that occur during a test on standard
output.
Orion Troubleshooting
1.
If you are getting an I/O error on one or more of the volumes specified in the
<testname>.lun file:
■
■
■
2.
Verify that you can access the volume in the same mode as the test, read or
write, using a file copy program such as dd.
Verify that your host operating system version can do asynchronous I/O.
On Linux and Solaris, the library libaio must be in the standard lib
directories or accessible through the shell environment's library path variable
(usually LD_LIBRARY_PATH or LIBPATH, depending on your shell).
If you run on NAS storage:
■
■
■
■
The file system must be properly mounted for Orion to run. Please consult
your Oracle Installation Guide for directions (for example, the section,
Appendix B "Using NAS Devices" in the Database Installation Guide for Linux
x86).
The mytest.lun file should contain one or more paths of existing files. Orion
does not work on directories or mount points. The file has to be large enough
for a meaningful test. The size of this file should represent the eventual
expected size of your datafiles (say, after a few years of use).
You may see poor performance doing asynchronous I/O over NFS on Linux
(including 2.6 kernels).
If you are doing read tests and the reads are hitting untouched blocks of the
file that were not initialized or previously written, some smart NAS systems
may "fake" the read by returning zeroed-out blocks. When this occurs, you see
unexpectedly good performance.
The workaround is to write all blocks, using a tool such as dd, before
performing the read test.
3.
If you run Orion on Windows: Testing on raw partitions requires temporarily
mapping the partitions to drive letters and specifying these drive letters in the
test.lun file.
4.
If you run Orion 32-bit Linux/x86 binary on an x86_64 system: Please copy a
32-bit libaio.so file from a 32-bit computer running the same Linux version.
5.
If you are testing with a lot of disks (num_disks greater than around 30):
■
■
You should use the -duration option (see the optional parameters section for
more details) to specify a long duration (like 120 seconds or more) for each
data point. Since Orion tries to keep all the spindles running at a particular
load level, each data point requires a ramp-up time, which implies a longer
duration for the test.
You may get the following error message, instructing you to increase the
duration value:
Specify a longer -duration value.
I/O Configuration and Design
17-23
I/O Calibration with the Oracle Orion Calibration Tool
A duration of 2x the number of spindles seems to be a good rule of thumb.
Depending on your disk technology, your platform may need more or less
time.
6.
If you get an error about libraries being used by Orion:
■
■
7.
NT-Only: Do not move/remove the Oracle libraries included in the
distribution. These must be in the same directory as orion.exe.
If you are seeing performance numbers that are "unbelievably good":
■
■
8.
Linux/Solaris: See I/O error troubleshooting.
You may have a large read or write cache, or read and write cache somewhere
between the Orion program and the disk spindles. Typically, the storage array
controller has the biggest effect. Find out the size of this cache and use the
-cache_size advanced option to specify it to Orion (see the optional parameters
section for more details).
The total size of your volumes may be really small compared to one or more
caches along the way. Try to turn off the cache. This is needed if the other
volumes sharing your storage show significant I/O activity in a production
environment (and end up using large parts of the shared cache).
If Orion is reporting a long estimated run time:
■
■
■
The run time increases when -num_disks is high. Orion internally uses a linear
formula to determine how long it takes to saturate the given number of disks.
The -cache_size parameter affects the run time, even when it is not specified.
Orion does cache warming for two minutes per data point by default. If you
have turned off the cache, specify -cache_size 0.
The run time increases when a long -duration value is specified, as expected.
17-24 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
18
18
Managing Operating System Resources
This chapter explains how to tune the operating system for optimal performance of
Oracle Database.
This chapter contains the following sections:
■
Understanding Operating System Performance Issues
■
Resolving Operating System Issues
■
Understanding CPU
■
Resolving CPU Issues
See Also:
■
■
Your operating system documentation
Your Oracle Database platform-specific documentation, which
contains tuning information specific to your platform
Understanding Operating System Performance Issues
Operating system performance issues commonly involve process management,
memory management, and scheduling. If you have tuned the Oracle database instance
and still need to improve performance, verify your work or try to reduce system time.
Ensure that there is enough I/O bandwidth, CPU power, and swap space. Do not
expect, however, that further tuning of the operating system will have a significant
effect on application performance. Changes in the Oracle Database configuration or in
the application are likely to result in a more significant difference in operating system
efficiency than simply tuning the operating system.
For example, if an application experiences excessive buffer busy waits, then the
number of system calls increases. If you reduce the buffer busy waits by tuning the
application, then the number of system calls decreases.
This section covers the following topics related to operating system performance
issues:
■
Using Operating System Caches
■
Memory Usage
■
Using Operating System Resource Managers
Using Operating System Caches
Operating systems and device controllers provide data caches that do not directly
conflict with Oracle Database cache management. Nonetheless, these structures can
Managing Operating System Resources 18-1
Understanding Operating System Performance Issues
consume resources while offering little or no performance benefit. This situation is
most noticeable when database files are stored in a Linux or UNIX file system. By
default, all database I/O goes through the file system cache.
On some Linux and UNIX systems, direct I/O is available to the filestore. This
arrangement allows the database files to be accessed within the file system, bypassing
the file system cache. Direct I/O saves CPU resources and allows the file system cache
to be dedicated to non-database activity, such as program texts and spool files.
This problem does not occur on Windows. All file requests by
the database bypass the caches in the file system.
Note:
Although the operating system cache is often redundant because the Oracle Database
buffer cache buffers blocks, in some cases the database does not use the database
buffer cache. In these cases, using direct I/O or raw devices may yield worse
performance than using operating system buffering. Examples include:
■
Reads or writes to the TEMP tablespace
■
Data stored in NOCACHE LOBs
■
Parallel execution servers reading data
In some cases the database can cache parallel query data in the
database buffer cache instead of performing direct reads from disk
into the PGA. This configuration may be appropriate when the
database servers have a large amount of memory. See Oracle Database
VLDB and Partitioning Guide to learn more using parallel execution.
Note:
You may want to cache but not all files at the operating system level.
Asynchronous I/O
With synchronous I/O, when an I/O request is submitted to the operating system, the
writing process blocks until the write is confirmed as complete. It can then continue
processing. With asynchronous I/O, processing continues while the I/O request is
submitted and processed. Use asynchronous I/O when possible to avoid bottlenecks.
Some platforms support asynchronous I/O by default, others need special
configuration, and some only support asynchronous I/O for certain underlying file
system types.
FILESYSTEMIO_OPTIONS Initialization Parameter
You can use the FILESYSTEMIO_OPTIONS initialization parameter to enable or disable
asynchronous I/O or direct I/O on file system files. This parameter is
platform-specific and has a default value that is best for a particular platform.
FILESYSTEMIO_OPTIONS can be set to one of the following values:
■
ASYNCH: enable asynchronous I/O on file system files, which has no timing
requirement for transmission.
■
DIRECTIO: enable direct I/O on file system files, which bypasses the buffer cache.
■
SETALL: enable both asynchronous and direct I/O on file system files.
■
NONE: disable both asynchronous and direct I/O on file system files.
18-2 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Understanding Operating System Performance Issues
See Also:
Your platform-specific documentation for more details
Limiting Asynchronous I/O in NFS Server Environments
In some Network File Storage (NFS) server environments, performance may be
impaired if a large number of asynchronous I/O requests are made within a short
period of time. In such cases, use the DNFS_BATCH_SIZE initialization parameter to
improve performance and increase stability on your system by limiting the number of
I/Os issued by an Oracle process.
The DNFS_BATCH_SIZE initialization parameter controls the number of asynchronous
I/Os that can be queued by an Oracle foreground process when Direct NFS Client is
enabled. In environments where the NFS server cannot handle a large number of
outstanding asynchronous I/O requests, Oracle recommends setting this parameter to
a value of 128. You can then increase or decrease its value based on the performance of
your NFS server.
The default setting for the DNFS_BATCH_SIZE initialization
parameter is 4096. The recommended value of 128 is only applicable
on systems where the NFS server cannot handle a large number of
asynchronous I/O requests and severe latency is detected.
Note:
Oracle Database Reference for information about the DNFS_
BATCH_SIZE initialization parameter
See Also:
Memory Usage
Memory usage is affected by both buffer cache limits and initialization parameters.
Buffer Cache Limits
The UNIX buffer cache consumes operating system memory resources. Although in
some versions of UNIX, the UNIX buffer cache may be allocated a set amount of
memory, it is common today for more sophisticated memory management
mechanisms to be used. Typically, these will allow free memory pages to be used to
cache I/O. In such systems, it is common for operating system reporting tools to show
that there is no free memory, which is not generally a problem. If processes require
more memory, the memory caching I/O data is usually released to allow the process
memory to be allocated.
Parameters Affecting Memory Usage
The memory required by any one Oracle Database session depends on many factors.
Typically the major contributing factors are:
■
Number of open cursors
■
Memory used by PL/SQL, such as PL/SQL tables
■
SORT_AREA_SIZE initialization parameter
In Oracle Database, the PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET initialization parameter gives greater
control over a session's memory usage.
Using Operating System Resource Managers
Some platforms provide operating system resource managers. These are designed to
reduce the impact of peak load use patterns by prioritizing access to system resources.
Managing Operating System Resources 18-3
Understanding Operating System Performance Issues
They usually implement administrative policies that govern which resources users can
access and how much of those resources each user is permitted to consume.
Operating system resource managers are different from domains or other similar
facilities. Domains provide one or more completely separated environments within
one system. Disk, CPU, memory, and all other resources are dedicated to each domain
and cannot be accessed from any other domain. Other similar facilities completely
separate just a portion of system resources into different areas, usually separate CPU
or memory areas. Like domains, the separate resource areas are dedicated only to the
processing assigned to that area; processes cannot migrate across boundaries. Unlike
domains, all other resources (usually disk) are accessed by all partitions on a system.
Oracle Database runs within domains, and within these other less complete
partitioning constructs, as long as the allocation of partitioned memory (RAM)
resources is fixed, not dynamic.
Operating system resource managers prioritize resource allocation within a global
pool of resources, usually a domain or an entire system. Processes are assigned to
groups, which are in turn assigned resources anywhere within the resource pool.
Oracle Database is not supported for use with any UNIX
operating system resource manager's memory management and
allocation facility. Oracle Database Resource Manager, which
provides resource allocation capabilities within an Oracle database
instance, cannot be used with any operating system resource
manager.
Note:
If you have multiple instances on a node, and you want to
distribute resources among them, then each instance should be
assigned to a dedicated operating-system resource manager group
or managed entity. To run multiple instances in the managed
entity, use instance caging to manage how the CPU resources
within the managed entity should be distributed among the
instances. When Oracle Database Resource Manager is managing
CPU resources, it expects a fixed amount of CPU resources for the
instance. Without instance caging, it expects the available CPU
resources to be equal to the number of CPUs in the managed entity.
With instance caging, it expects the available CPU resources to be
equal to the value of the CPU_COUNT initialization parameter. If there
are less CPU resources than expected, then Oracle Database
Resource Manager is not as effective at enforcing the resource
allocations in the resource plan.
Note:
18-4 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Resolving Operating System Issues
See Also:
■
■
■
For a complete list of operating system resource management
and resource allocation and deallocation features that work
with Oracle Database and Oracle Database Resource Manager,
see your systems vendor and your Oracle representative.
Oracle does not certify these system features for compatibility
with specific release levels.
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about
Oracle Database Resource Manager.
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about
instance caging.
Resolving Operating System Issues
This section provides hints for tuning various systems by explaining the following
topics:
■
Performance Hints on UNIX-Based Systems
■
Performance Hints on Windows Systems
■
Performance Hints on HP OpenVMS Systems
Familiarize yourself with platform-specific issues so that you know what performance
options the operating system provides.
See Also: Your Oracle platform-specific documentation and your
operating system vendor's documentation
Performance Hints on UNIX-Based Systems
On UNIX systems, try to establish a good ratio between the amount of time the
operating system spends fulfilling system calls and doing process scheduling and the
amount of time the application runs. The goal should be to run most of the time in
application mode, also called user mode, rather than system mode.
The ratio of time spent in each mode is only a symptom of the underlying problem,
which might involve the following:
■
Paging or swapping
■
Executing too many operating system calls
■
Running too many processes
If such conditions exist, then there is less time available for the application to run. The
more time you can release from the operating system side, the more transactions an
application can perform.
Performance Hints on Windows Systems
On Windows systems, as with UNIX-based systems, establish an appropriate ratio
between time in application mode and time in system mode. You can easily monitor
many factors with the Windows administrative performance tool: CPU, network, I/O,
and memory are all displayed on the same graph to assist you in avoiding bottlenecks
in any of these areas.
Managing Operating System Resources 18-5
Understanding CPU
Performance Hints on HP OpenVMS Systems
Consider the paging parameters on a mainframe, and remember that Oracle Database
can exploit a very large working set.
Free memory in HP OpenVMS environments is actually memory that is not mapped to
any operating system process. On a busy system, free memory likely contains a page
belonging to one or more currently active process. When that access occurs, a soft
page fault takes place, and the page is included in the working set for the process. If
the process cannot expand its working set, then one of the pages currently mapped by
the process must be moved to the free set.
Any number of processes might have pages of shared memory within their working
sets. The sum of the sizes of the working sets can thus markedly exceed the available
memory. When the Oracle server is running, the SGA, the Oracle Database kernel
code, and the Oracle Forms run-time executable are normally all sharable and account
for perhaps 80% or 90% of the pages accessed.
Understanding CPU
To address CPU problems, first establish appropriate expectations for the amount of
CPU resources your system should be using. Then, determine whether sufficient CPU
resources are available and recognize when your system is consuming too many
resources. Begin by determining the amount of CPU resources the Oracle database
instance utilizes with your system in the following three cases:
■
System is idle, when little Oracle Database and non-Oracle activity exists
■
System at average workloads
■
System at peak workloads
You can capture various workload snapshots using the Automatic Workload
Repository, Statspack, or the UTLBSTAT/UTLESTAT utility. Operating system
utilities—such as vmstat, sar, and iostat on UNIX and the administrative
performance monitoring tool on Windows—can be used along with the V$OSSTAT or
V$SYSMETRIC_HISTORY view during the same time interval as Automatic Workload
Repository, Statspack, or UTLBSTAT/UTLESTAT to provide a complimentary view of the
overall statistics.
Workload is an important factor when evaluating your system's level of CPU
utilization. During peak workload hours, 90% CPU utilization with 10% idle and
waiting time can be acceptable. Even 30% utilization at a time of low workload can be
understandable. However, if your system shows high utilization at normal workload,
then there is no room for a peak workload. For example, Figure 18–1 illustrates
workload over time for an application having peak periods at 10:00 AM and 2:00 PM.
18-6 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Resolving CPU Issues
Average Workload and Peak Workload
Functional Demand
Figure 18–1
8:00
10:00
12:00
14:00
16:00
Time
Average Workload
Peak Workload
This example application has 100 users working 8 hours a day. Each user entering one
transaction every 5 minutes translates into 9,600 transactions daily. Over an 8-hour
period, the system must support 1,200 transactions an hour, which is an average of 20
transactions a minute. If the demand rate were constant, then you could build a
system to meet this average workload.
However, usage patterns are not constant and in this context, 20 transactions a minute
can be understood as merely a minimum requirement. If the peak rate you need to
achieve is 120 transactions a minute, then you must configure a system that can
support this peak workload.
For this example, assume that at peak workload, Oracle Database uses 90% of the CPU
resource. For a period of average workload, then, Oracle Database uses no more than
about 15% of the available CPU resource, as illustrated in the following equation:
20 tpm / 120 tpm * 90% = 15% of available CPU resource
where tpm is transactions a minute.
If the system requires 50% of the CPU resource to achieve 20 tpm, then a problem
exists: the system cannot achieve 120 transactions a minute using 90% of the CPU.
However, if you tuned this system so that it achieves 20 tpm using only 15% of the
CPU, then, assuming linear scalability, the system might achieve 120 transactions a
minute using 90% of the CPU resources.
As users are added to an application, the workload can rise to what had previously
been peak levels. No further CPU capacity is then available for the new peak rate,
which is actually higher than the previous.
Resolving CPU Issues
You can resolve CPU capacity issues by:
■
■
Detecting and solving CPU problems from excessive consumption, as described in
"Finding and Tuning CPU Utilization" on page 18-8.
Reducing the impact of peak load use patterns by prioritizing CPU resource
allocation using Oracle Database Resource Manager, as described in "Managing
CPU Resources Using Oracle Database Resource Manager" on page 18-10.
Managing Operating System Resources 18-7
Resolving CPU Issues
■
■
Using instance caging to limit the number of CPUs that a database instance can
use simultaneously when running multiple database instances on a multi-CPU
system, as described in "Managing CPU Resources Using Instance Caging" on
page 18-11.
Increasing hardware capacity and improving the system architecture.
Finding and Tuning CPU Utilization
Every process running on your system affects the available CPU resources. Therefore,
tuning non-database factors can also improve database performance.
Use the V$OSSTAT or V$SYSMETRIC_HISTORY view to monitor system utilization
statistics from the operating system. Useful statistics contained in V$OSSTAT and
V$SYSMETRIC_HISTORY include:
■
Number of CPUs
■
CPU utilization
■
Load
■
Paging
■
Physical memory
Oracle Database Reference for more information on
V$OSSTAT and V$SYSMETRIC_HISTORY
See Also:
You can use operating system monitoring tools to determine which processes run on
the system as a whole. If the system is too heavily loaded, check the memory, I/O, and
process management areas described later in this section.
You can use tools such as sar -u on many UNIX-based systems to examine the level of
CPU utilization on the system. In UNIX, statistics show user time, system time, idle
time, and time waiting for I/O. A CPU problem exists if idle time and time waiting for
I/O are both close to zero (less than 5%) at a normal or low workload.
On Windows, you can use the administrative performance tool to monitor CPU
utilization. This utility provides statistics on processor time, user time, privileged time,
interrupt time, and DPC time.
This section contains the following topics related to checking system CPU utilization:
■
Checking Memory Management
■
Checking I/O Management
■
Checking Network Management
■
Checking Process Management
This section describes how to check system CPU utilization
on most UNIX-based and Windows systems. For other platforms,
see your operating system documentation.
Note:
Checking Memory Management
Check the following memory management areas:
■
Paging and Swapping
■
Oversize Page Tables
18-8 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Resolving CPU Issues
Paging and Swapping Use the V$OSSTAT view, utilities such as sar or vmstat on UNIX,
or the administrative performance tool on Windows, to investigate the cause of paging
and swapping.
Oversize Page Tables On UNIX, if the processing space becomes too large, then it can
result in the page tables becoming too large. This is not an issue on Windows systems.
Checking I/O Management
Thrashing is an I/O management issue. Ensure that your workload fits into memory,
so the computer is not thrashing (swapping and paging processes in and out of
memory). The operating system allocates fixed portions of time during which CPU
resources are available to your process. If the process wastes a large portion of each
time period checking to ensure that it can run and ensuring that all necessary
components are in the computer, then the process might be using only 50% of the time
allotted to actually perform work.
Checking Network Management
Check client/server round trips. There is an overhead in processing messages. When
an application generates many messages that need to be sent through the network, the
latency of sending a message can result in CPU overload. To alleviate this problem,
bundle multiple messages rather than perform lots of round trips. For example, you
can use array inserts, array fetches, and so on.
Checking Process Management
Several process management issues discussed in this section should be checked.
Scheduling and Switching The operating system can spend excessive time scheduling
and switching processes. Examine the way in which you are using the operating
system, because it is possible that too many processes are in use. On Windows
systems, do not overload the server with too many non-database processes.
Context Switching Due to operating system specific characteristics, your system could
be spending a lot of time in context switches. Context switching can be expensive,
especially with a large SGA. Context switching is not an issue on Windows, which has
only one process for each instance. All threads share the same page table.
Oracle Database has several features for context switching:
■
Post-wait driver
An Oracle process must be able to post another Oracle process (give it a message)
and also must be able to wait to be posted. For example, a foreground process may
need to post LGWR to tell it to write out all blocks up to a given point so that it
can acknowledge a commit.
Often this post-wait mechanism is implemented through UNIX Semaphores, but
these can be resource intensive. Therefore, some platforms supply a post-wait
driver, typically a kernel device driver that is a lightweight method of
implementing a post-wait interface.
■
Memory-mapped system timer
Oracle Database often needs to query the system time for timing information. This
can involve an operating system call that incurs a relatively costly context switch.
Some platforms implement a memory-mapped timer that uses an address within
the processes virtual address space to contain the current time information.
Managing Operating System Resources 18-9
Resolving CPU Issues
Reading the time from this memory-mapped timer is less expensive than the
overhead of a context switch for a system call.
■
List I/O interfaces to submit multiple asynchronous I/Os in One Call
List I/O is an application programming interface that allows several asynchronous
I/O requests to be submitted in a single system call, rather than submitting several
I/O requests through separate system calls. The main benefit of this feature is to
reduce the number of context switches required.
Starting New Operating System Processes There is a high cost in starting new operating
system processes. Developers often create a single-purpose process, exit the process,
and then create a new one. This technique re-creates and destroys the process each
time, consuming excessive amounts of CPU, especially in applications that have large
SGAs. The CPU is needed to build the page tables each time. The problem is
aggravated when you pin or lock shared memory because you must access every page.
For example, if you have a 1 gigabyte SGA, then you might have page table entries for
every 4 KB, and a page table entry might be 8 bytes. You could end up with (1 GB / 4
KB) * 8 byte entries. This becomes expensive, because you need to continually ensure
that the page table is loaded.
Managing CPU Resources Using Oracle Database Resource Manager
Oracle Database Resource Manager allocates and manages CPU resources among
database users and applications in the following ways:
■
Preventing CPU saturation
If the CPUs run at 100%, then you can use Oracle Database Resource Manager to
allocate a maximum amount of CPU to sessions in each consumer group. This
feature can ensure that high-priority sessions can run immediately and lower the
CPU consumption of low-priority sessions.
■
Limiting CPU usage for a consumer group
You can use the Resource Manager directive max_utilization_limit to place a
hard limit on the percentage of CPU that a consumer group can use. This feature
restricts the CPU consumption of low-priority sessions and can help provide more
consistent performance for the workload in a consumer group.
■
Limiting damage from runaway queries
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2), Oracle Database Resource
Manager can limit the damage from runaway queries by limiting the maximum
execution time for a call, or by moving a long-running query to a lower-priority
consumer group.
■
Limiting the parallel statement activity for a consumer group
Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2), you can use the Resource
Manager directive parallel_target_percentage to prevent one consumer group
from monopolizing all parallel servers. The database queues parallel statements if
they would cause this limit to be exceeded.
For example, assume that the target number of parallel servers is 64, and the
consumer group ETL has this directive set to 50%. If consumer group ETL is using
30 parallel servers, and if a new parallel statement needs 4 parallel servers, then
the database would queue this statement.
18-10 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Resolving CPU Issues
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide to learn how to use Oracle
Database Resource Manager
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide to learn how to use
parallel query
Managing CPU Resources Using Instance Caging
When running multiple database instances on a single system, the instances compete
for CPU resources. One resource-intensive database instance may significantly
degrade the performance of the other instances. To avoid this problem, you can use
instance caging to limit the number of CPUs that can used by each instance. Oracle
Database Resource Manager then allocates CPU among the various database sessions
according to the resource plan that you set for the instance, thereby minimizing the
likelihood of the instance becoming CPU-bound.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information
about using instance caging
Managing Operating System Resources
18-11
Resolving CPU Issues
18-12 Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide
Index
A
Active Session History, 5-2
report
activity over time, 9-10
load profile, 9-7
top events, 9-7
top files, 9-9
top Java, 9-9
top latches, 9-9
top objects, 9-9
top PL/SQL, 9-9
top sessions, 9-9
Top SQL, 9-8
using, 9-6
reports, 9-2
allocation of memory, 11-1
applications
deploying, 2-19
design principles, 2-9
development trends, 2-16
implementing, 2-14
Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor
actions and rationales of recommendations, 7-6
analysis results example, 7-7
and DB time, 7-3
CONTROL_MANAGEMENT_PACK_ACCESS
parameter, 7-7
DBIO_EXPECTED, 7-8
example report, 7-7
findings, 7-6
overview, 7-1
results, 7-6
setups, 7-7
STATISTICS_LEVEL parameter, 7-7
types of problems considered, 7-3
types of recommendations, 7-6
automatic database diagnostic monitoring, 1-5
automatic segment-space management, 4-4, 10-20,
17-9
Automatic shared memory management, 12-1
automatic SQL tuning, 1-5
automatic undo management, 4-3
Automatic Workload Repository, 1-5
compare periods report
about, 8-1
advisory statistics, 8-12, 8-14
details, 8-9
dictionary cache statistics, 8-14
instance activity statistics, 8-11
I/O statistics, 8-11
latch statistics, 8-13
library cache statistics, 8-14
operating system statistics, 8-10
segment statistics, 8-13
service statistics, 8-10
SQL statistics, 8-10
summary, 8-8
supplemental information, 8-15
time model statistics, 8-9
undo statistics, 8-13
using, 8-8
wait events, 8-10
wait statistics, 8-12
configuring, 6-6
DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY
package, 6-7, 6-10, 6-13
default settings, 6-4
factors affecting space usage, 6-4
managing with APIs, 6-7, 6-10, 6-13
minimizing space usage, 6-4
overview, 6-2
recommendations for retention period, 6-4
reports, 6-19
retention period, 6-4
settings in DBA_HIST_WR_CONTROL view, 6-9
space usage, 6-4
statistics collected, 6-2
turning off automatic snapshot collection, 6-4
unusual percentages in reports, 6-19
views for accessing data, 6-18
awrrpt.sql
Automatic Workload Repository report, 6-19
B
baselines, 1-2, 6-3
performance, 6-1
benchmarking workloads, 2-17
big bang rollout strategy, 2-19
bitmap indexes, 2-11
block cleanout, 10-15
Index-1
block size
choosing, 17-9
optimal, 17-9
bottlenecks
elimination, 1-3
fixing, 3-1
identifying, 3-1
memory, 11-1
resource, 10-37
B-tree indexes, 2-11
buffer busy wait events, 10-13, 10-19
actions, 10-19
buffer cache
contention, 10-20, 10-22, 10-32
hit ratio, 13-4
buffer pools
default cache, 13-7
KEEP, 13-10
KEEP cache, 13-7
multiple, 13-6
RECYCLE cache, 13-7
buffer waits
about, 8-13
business logic, 2-6, 2-14
C
chained rows, 10-15
classes
wait events, 5-3, 10-7
client/server applications, 18-9
column order
indexes, 2-12
COMPATIBLE initialization parameter, 4-2
components
hardware, 2-5
software, 2-6
conceptual modeling, 3-3
consistency
read, 10-14
consistent gets from cache statistic, 13-4
contention
library cache latch, 10-32
memory, 10-1, 11-1
shared pool, 10-32
tuning, 10-1
wait events, 10-30
context switches, 18-9
CONTROL_FILES initialization parameter, 4-2
CONTROL_MANAGEMENT_PACK_ACCESS
initialization parameter
enabling automatic database diagnostic
monitoring, 7-7
CPUs, 2-5
statistics, 10-3
utilization, 18-8
CREATE INDEX statement
PARALLEL clause, 4-7
CURSOR_SHARING initialization parameter, 14-5
CURSOR_SPACE_FOR_TIME initialization
Index-2
parameter, 14-14
cursors
accessing, 14-6
sharing, 14-6
D
data
and transactions, 2-7
cache, 18-1
gathering, 5-1
modeling, 2-10
queries, 2-9
searches, 2-9
database monitoring, 1-5
diagnostic, 7-1
database performance
comparing, 8-1
degradation over time, 8-1
Database Resource Manager, 10-3, 18-4, 18-5, 18-10
database tuning
performance degradation over time, 8-1
transient performance problems, 9-1
databases
diagnosing and monitoring, 7-1
size, 2-9
statistics, 5-1
db block gets from cache statistic, 13-4
db file scattered read wait events, 10-13, 10-20
actions, 10-21, 10-23
db file sequential read wait events, 10-13, 10-20,
10-22
actions, 10-23
DB time
metric, 7-3
statistic, 5-1
DB_BLOCK_SIZE initialization parameter, 4-2, 17-4
DB_CACHE_ADVICE parameter, 13-5
DB_CACHE_SIZE initialization parameter, 13-7
DB_DOMAIN initialization parameter, 4-2
DB_FILE_MULTIBLOCK_READ_COUNT
initialization parameter, 10-21, 17-3, 17-4
DB_KEEP_CACHE_SIZE
initialization parameter, 13-11
DB_NAME initialization parameter, 4-2
DB_nK_CACHE_SIZE initialization parameter, 13-6
DB_RECYCLE_CACHE_SIZE
initialization parameter, 13-11
DB_WRITER_PROCESSES initialization
parameter, 10-28
DBA_HIST views, 6-18
DBA_HIST_WR_CONTROL view
Automatic Workload Repository settings, 6-9
DBA_OBJECTS view, 13-10
DBIO_EXPECTED parameter, 7-8
DBMS_ADDM package
Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor, 7-8
DBMS_ADVISOR package
setting DBIO_EXPECTED, 7-8
setups for ADDM, 7-7, 7-8
DBMS_RESULT_CACHE, 15-6
DBMS_SHARED_POOL package
managing the shared pool, 14-19
DBMS_WORKLOAD_REPOSITORY package
managing the Automatic Workload
Repository, 6-7, 6-10, 6-13
debugging designs, 2-18
default cache, 13-7
deploying applications, 2-19
design principles, 2-9
designs
debugging, 2-18
testing, 2-18
validating, 2-18
development environments, 2-14
diagnostic monitoring, 1-5, 7-1
introduction, 7-1
dictionary cache, 8-14
direct path
read events, 10-23
read events actions, 10-24
read events causes, 10-24
wait events, 10-24
write events actions, 10-25
write events causes, 10-25
disks
monitoring operating system file activity, 10-3
E
emergencies
performance, 3-6
Emergency Performance Method, 3-6
End to End Application Tracing
action and module names, 2-15
enqueue
about, 8-13
enqueue wait events, 10-14, 10-25
actions, 10-26
statistics, 10-9
estimating workloads, 2-17
benchmarking, 2-17
extrapolating, 2-17
EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL
creating temporary tablespaces, 4-5
extrapolating workloads, 2-17
F
FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET
and tuning instance recovery, 10-41
Fast-Start checkpointing architecture, 10-39
Fast-Start Fault Recovery, 10-38, 10-39
FILESYSTEMIO_OPTIONS initialization
parameter, 18-2
free buffer wait events, 10-13, 10-27
free lists, 10-20
full table scans, 10-24
function-based indexes, 2-11
H
hard parsing, 2-13
hardware
components, 2-5
limitations of components, 2-4
sizing of components, 2-4
HOLD_CURSOR clause, 14-7
hours of service, 2-9
HW enqueue
contention, 10-26
I
idle wait events, 10-29
SQL*Net message from client, 10-37
implementing business logic, 2-6
indexes
adding columns, 2-11
appending columns, 2-11
bitmap, 2-11
B-tree, 2-11
column order, 2-12
costs, 2-12
creating, 4-7
design, 2-11
function-based, 2-11
partitioned, 2-12
placement on disk, 17-5
reducing I/O, 2-12
reverse key, 2-12
selectivity, 2-12
sequences in, 2-12
serializing in, 2-12
initialization parameters
CONTROL_FILES, 4-2
DB_BLOCK_SIZE, 4-2
DB_DOMAIN, 4-2
DB_NAME, 4-2
OPEN_CURSORS, 4-2
PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET, 4-7
PROCESSES, 4-2
SESSIONS, 4-2
STREAMS_POOL_SIZE, 4-3, 12-3
instance activity
comparing, 8-11
instance caging, 18-8
instance configuration
initialization files, 4-1
performance considerations, 4-1
instance recovery
Fast-Start Fault Recovery, 10-39
performance tuning, 10-38
Internet scalability, 2-3
I/O
and SQL statements, 10-22
contention, 10-4, 10-7, 10-21, 10-35
excessive I/O waits, 10-21
monitoring, 10-3
objects causing I/O waits, 10-22
Index-3
K
N
KEEP buffer pool, 13-10
KEEP cache, 13-7
NAMESPACE column
V$LIBRARYCACHE view, 14-9
network
hardware component, 2-6
speed, 2-8
network communication wait events, 10-36
db file scattered read wait events, 10-20
db file sequential read wait events, 10-20, 10-22
SQL*Net message from Dblink, 10-37
SQL*Net more data to client, 10-38
L
LARGE_POOL_SIZE initialization parameter, 14-23
latch contention
library cache latches, 10-11
shared pool latches, 10-11
latch free wait events, 10-14
actions, 10-30
latch wait events, 10-30
latches, 9-10
tuning, 1-2, 10-32
library cache, 8-14
latch contention, 10-32
latch wait events, 10-30
lock, 10-35
pin, 10-34
linear scalability, 2-4
locks and lock holders
finding, 10-25
log buffer
space wait events, 10-14, 10-35
log file
parallel write wait events, 10-34
switch wait events, 10-35
sync wait events, 10-14, 10-36
log writer processes
tuning, 17-6
LOG_BUFFER initialization parameter, 13-13
LRU
aging policy, 13-7
latch contention, 10-34
M
managing the user interface, 2-6
max session memory statistic, 14-23
MAX_DISPATCHERS initialization parameter, 4-9
MAXOPENCURSORS clause, 14-7
memory
hardware component, 2-5
PGA statistics, 8-12
statistics, 8-14
memory allocation
importance, 11-1
tuning, 12-6
metrics, 6-1
migrated rows, 10-15
mirroring
redo logs, 17-7
modeling
conceptual, 3-3
data, 2-10
workloads, 2-18
monitoring
diagnostic, 1-5
multiple buffer pools, 13-6
Index-4
O
object-orientation, 2-16
OPEN_CURSORS initialization parameter, 4-2
operating system
data cache, 18-1
monitoring disk I/O, 10-3
optimization
described
optimizer
introduction, 1-4
query, 1-4
Oracle CPU statistics, 10-3
Oracle Enterprise Manager
advisors, 1-5
Performance page, 1-5
Oracle Forms
control of parsing and private SQL areas, 14-8
Oracle Managed Files, 17-8
tuning, 17-8
Oracle Orion
calibration tool parameters, 17-15
command-line options, 17-15
Oracle performance improvement method, 3-1
steps, 3-2
P
package
DBMS_RESULT_CACHE, 15-6
page table, 18-9
paging, 18-9
reducing, 12-5
PARALLEL clause
CREATE INDEX statement, 4-7
parameter
RESULT_CACHE_MAX_SIZE, 15-6
RESULT_CACHE_MODE, 15-8
parameters
initialization, 8-15
parsing
hard, 2-13
Oracle Forms, 14-8
Oracle precompilers, 14-7
reducing unnecessary calls, 14-6
soft, 2-13
partitioned indexes, 2-12
PCTFREE parameter, 4-5, 10-16
PCTUSED parameter, 10-16
performance
emergencies, 3-6
improvement method, 3-1
improvement method steps, 3-2
mainframe, 18-6
monitoring memory on Windows, 18-9
tools for diagnosing and tuning, 1-4
UNIX-based systems, 18-5
Windows, 18-5
performance problems
transient, 9-1
performance tuning
Fast-Start Fault Recovery, 10-38
instance recovery, 10-38
FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET, 10-39
setting FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET, 10-41
using V$INSTANCE_RECOVERY, 10-41
PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET initialization
parameter, 4-2, 4-7, 16-3, 18-3
physical reads from cache statistic, 13-4
PRIVATE_SGA variable, 14-24
proactive monitoring, 1-3
processes
scheduling, 18-9
PROCESSES initialization parameter, 4-2
program global area (PGA)
direct path read, 10-23
direct path write, 10-24
shared servers, 14-22
programming languages, 2-14
Q
queries
data, 2-9
query optimizer, 1-4
See optimizer
R
rdbms ipc reply wait events, 10-36
read consistency, 10-14
read wait events
direct path, 10-23
scattered, 10-20
RECYCLE cache, 13-7
REDO BUFFER ALLOCATION RETRIES
statistic, 13-13
redo logs, 4-3
buffer size, 10-35
mirroring, 17-7
placement on disk, 17-6
sizing, 4-3
space requests, 10-14
reducing
contention with dispatchers, 4-8
paging and swapping, 12-5
RELEASE_CURSOR clause, 14-7
resources
allocation, 2-6, 2-14
bottlenecks, 10-37
wait events, 10-22
response time, 2-9
reverse key indexes, 2-12
rollout strategies
big bang approach, 2-19
trickle approach, 2-19
row cache objects, 10-34
S
sar UNIX command, 18-9
scalability, 2-2
factors preventing, 2-4
Internet, 2-3
linear, 2-4
scattered read wait events, 10-20
actions, 10-21
segment-level statistics, 10-10
selectivity
ordering columns in an index, 2-12
sequential read wait events
actions, 10-23
service hours, 2-9
session memory statistic, 14-23
SESSIONS initialization parameter, 4-2
SGA_TARGET initialization parameter, 4-2
and Automatic Shared Memory
Management, 12-3
automatic memory management, 12-1
shared pool contention, 10-32
shared server
performance issues, 4-7
reducing contention, 4-8
tuning, 4-8
tuning memory, 14-22
SHARED_POOL_SIZE initialization
parameter, 14-13, 14-14
SHOW SGA statement, 12-5
sizing redo logs, 4-3
snapshots
about, 6-2
soft parsing, 2-13
software
components, 2-6
sort areas
tuning, 16-2
SQL statements
waiting for I/O, 10-22
SQL Tuning Advisor, 1-5
SQL*Net
message from client idle events, 10-37
message from dblink wait events, 10-37
more data to client wait events, 10-38
ST enqueue
contention, 10-26
statistics
and STATISTICS_LEVEL initialization
parameter, 1-4
Index-5
baselines, 6-1
consistent gets from cache, 13-4
databases, 5-1
db block gets from cache, 13-4
dictionary cache, 8-14
gathering, 5-1
instance activity, 8-11
I/O, 8-11
latch, 8-13
library cache, 8-14
max session memory, 14-23
memory, 8-14
operating system
comparing, 8-10
PGA memory, 8-12
physical reads from cache, 13-4
segment, 8-13
segment-level, 10-10
service, 8-10
session memory, 14-23
shared server processes, 4-9
SQL, 8-10
time model, 5-1, 8-9
undo, 8-13
waits, 8-12
STATISTICS_LEVEL initialization parameter, 5-5,
10-6
and Automatic Workload Repository, 6-7
enabling automatic database diagnostic
monitoring, 7-7
settings for statistic gathering, 1-4
STREAMS_POOL_SIZE initialization
parameter, 4-3, 12-3
striping
manual, 17-5
swapping, 18-9
reducing, 12-5
switching processes, 18-9
system architecture, 2-5
configuration, 2-7
hardware components, 2-5
CPUs, 2-5
I/O subsystems, 2-5
memory, 2-5
networks, 2-6
software components, 2-6
data and transactions, 2-7
implementing business logic, 2-6
managing the user interface, 2-6
user requests and resource allocation, 2-6
System Global Area tuning, 12-5
tablespaces, 4-4
creating, 4-4
temporary, 4-4
temporary tablespaces, 4-4
creating, 4-4
testing designs, 2-18
thrashing, 18-9
time model statistics, 5-1
comparing, 8-9
TM enqueue contention, 10-26
tools for performance tuning, 1-4
Top Java
Active Session History report, 9-9
top PL/SQL
Active Session History report, 9-9
Top Sessions
Active Session History report, 9-9
Top SQL
Active Session History report, 9-8
transactions and data, 2-7
trickle rollout strategy, 2-19
tuning
and bottleneck elimination, 1-3
and proactive monitoring, 1-3
latches, 1-2, 10-32
resource contention, 10-1
shared server, 4-8
sorts, 16-2
System Global Area (SGA), 12-5
TX enqueue contention, 10-26
T
V
tables
creating, 4-5
design, 2-10
full scans, 10-24
placement on disk, 17-5
setting storage options, 4-5
V$ACTIVE_SESSION_HISTORY view, 5-2, 10-7
V$BH view, 13-9
V$BUFFER_POOL_STATISTICS view, 13-9
V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE view, 13-2, 13-4, 13-5, 13-6,
13-8
V$EVENT_HISTOGRAM view, 10-8
Index-6
U
undo management, automatic mode, 4-3
UNDO TABLESPACE clause, 4-3
UNDO_MANAGEMENT initialization
parameter, 4-2, 4-3
UNDO_TABLESPACE initialization parameter, 4-2
UNIX system performance, 18-5
user global area (UGA)
shared servers, 4-7, 14-22
user requests, 2-6
users
interaction method, 2-8
interfaces, 2-14
location, 2-8
network speed, 2-8
number of, 2-8
requests, 2-14
response time, 2-9
UTLCHN1.SQL script, 10-16
V$FILE_HISTOGRAM view, 10-8
V$JAVA_LIBRARY_CACHE_MEMORY view, 14-11
V$JAVA_POOL_ADVICE view, 14-11
V$LIBRARY_CACHE_MEMORY view, 14-11
V$LIBRARYCACHE view
NAMESPACE column, 14-9
V$QUEUE view, 4-9
V$ROWCACHE view
performance statistics, 14-12
V$RSRC_CONSUMER_GROUP view, 10-3
V$SESS_TIME_MODEL view, 5-2, 10-7
V$SESSION view, 10-8, 10-9, 10-17
V$SESSION_EVENT view, 10-8, 10-17
V$SESSION_WAIT view, 10-8, 10-17
V$SESSION_WAIT_CLASS view, 10-8
V$SESSION_WAIT_HISTORY view, 10-8, 10-17
V$SESSTAT view, 10-3, 14-23
V$SHARED_POOL_ADVICE view, 14-11
V$SHARED_POOL_RESERVED view, 14-21
V$SYS_TIME_MODEL view, 5-2, 10-7
V$SYSSTAT view
redo buffer allocation, 13-13
using, 13-4
V$SYSTEM_EVENT view, 10-8, 10-17
V$SYSTEM_WAIT_CLASS view, 10-8
V$TEMP_HISTOGRAM view, 10-8
V$UNDOSTAT view, 4-3
V$WAITSTAT view, 10-9
validating designs, 2-18
views, 2-12
DBA_HIST, 6-18
vmstat UNIX command, 18-9
W
wait events, 5-3
buffer busy waits, 10-19
classes, 5-3, 10-7
comparing, 8-10
contention wait events, 10-30
direct path, 10-24
enqueue, 10-25
free buffer waits, 10-27
idle wait events, 10-29
latch, 10-30
library cache latch, 10-30
log buffer space, 10-35
log file parallel write, 10-34
log file switch, 10-35
log file sync, 10-36
network communication wait events, 10-36
rdbms ipc reply, 10-36
resource wait events, 10-22
Windows performance, 18-5
workloads, 2-17, 2-18
Index-7
Index-8
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