19-0247; Rev. 1; 4/97 Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC The MAX192 is a low-cost, 10-bit data-acquisition system that combines an 8-channel multiplexer, high-bandwidth track/hold, and serial interface with high conversion speed and ultra-low power consumption. The device operates with a single +5V supply. The analog inputs are software configurable for single-ended and differential (unipolar/bipolar) operation. The 4-wire serial interface connects directly to SPI™, QSPI™, and Microwire™ devices, without using external logic. A serial strobe output allows direct connection to TMS320 family digital signal processors. The MAX192 uses either the internal clock or an external serialinterface clock to perform successive approximation A/D conversions. The serial interface can operate beyond 4MHz when the internal clock is used. The MAX192 has an internal 4.096V reference with a drift of ±30ppm typical. A reference-buffer amplifier simplifies gain trim and two sub-LSBs reduce quantization errors. The MAX192 provides a hardwired SHDN pin and two software-selectable power-down modes. Accessing the serial interface automatically powers up the device, and the quick turn-on time allows the MAX192 to be shut down between conversions. By powering down between conversions, supply current can be cut to under 10µA at reduced sampling rates. The MAX192 is available in 20-pin DIP and SO packages, and in a shrink-small-outline package (SSOP) that occupies 30% less area than an 8-pin DIP. The data format provides hardware and software compatibility with the MAX186/MAX188. For anti-aliasing filters, consult the data sheets for the MAX291–MAX297. ♦ 8-Channel Single-Ended or 4-Channel Differential Inputs ♦ Single +5V Operation ♦ Low Power: 1.5mA (operating) 2µA (power-down) ♦ Internal Track/Hold, 133kHz Sampling Rate ♦ Internal 4.096V Reference ♦ 4-Wire Serial Interface is Compatible with SPI, QSPI, Microwire, and TMS320 ♦ 20-Pin DIP, SO, SSOP Packages ♦ Pin-Compatible 12-Bit Upgrade (MAX186/MAX188) _______________Ordering Information PART TEMP. RANGE MAX192ACPP 0°C to +70°C PIN-PACKAGE INL (LSB) 20 Plastic DIP ±1/2 MAX192BCPP MAX192ACWP MAX192BCWP MAX192ACAP MAX192BCAP MAX192AEPP MAX192BEPP MAX192AEWP MAX192BEWP MAX192AEAP MAX192BEAP MAX192AMJP MAX192BMJP 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C 0°C to +70°C -40°C to +85°C -40°C to +85°C -40°C to +85°C -40°C to +85°C -40°C to +85°C -40°C to +85°C -55°C to +125°C -55°C to +125°C 20 Plastic DIP 20 Wide SO 20 Wide SO 20 SSOP 20 SSOP 20 Plastic DIP 20 Plastic DIP 20 Wide SO 20 Wide SO 20 SSOP 20 SSOP 20 CERDIP 20 CERDIP ±1 ±1/2 ±1 ±1/2 ±1 ±1/2 ±1 ±1/2 ±1 ±1/2 ±1 ±1/2 ±1 ________________________Applications Automotive Pen-Entry Systems Consumer Electronics Portable Data Logging Robotics Battery-Powered Instruments, Battery Management Medical Instruments ____________________________Features See last page for Typical Operating Circuit. SPI and QSPI are trademarks of Motorola Corp. Microwire is a trademark of National Semiconductor Corp. ___________________Pin Configuration TOP VIEW CH0 1 20 VDD CH1 2 19 SCLK 18 CS CH2 3 CH3 4 MAX192 17 DIN CH4 5 16 SSTRB CH5 6 15 DOUT CH6 7 14 DGND CH7 8 13 AGND AGND 9 12 REFADJ SHDN 10 11 VREF DIP/SO/SSOP ________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products 1 For free samples & the latest literature: http://www.maxim-ic.com, or phone 1-800-998-8800. For small orders, phone 408-737-7600 ext. 3468. MAX192 ________________General Description MAX192 Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS VDD to AGND........................................................... -0.3V to +6V AGND to DGND.................................................... -0.3V to +0.3V CH0–CH7 to AGND, DGND ...................... -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V) CH0–CH7 Total Input Current.......................................... ±20mA VREF to AGND .......................................... -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V) REFADJ to AGND...................................... -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V) Digital Inputs to DGND.............................. -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V) Digital Outputs to DGND ........................... -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V) Digital Output Sink Current .................................................25mA Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C) Plastic DIP (derate 11.11mW/°C above +70°C) ......... 889mW SO (derate 10.00mW/°C above +70°C) ...................... 800mW SSOP (derate 8.00mW/°C above +70°C) ................... 640mW CERDIP (derate 11.11mW/°C above +70°C) .............. 889mW Operating Temperature Ranges MAX192_C_P ..................................................... 0°C to +70°C MAX192_E_P .................................................. -40°C to +85°C MAX192_MJP ............................................... -55°C to +125°C Storage Temperature Range ............................ -60°C to +150°C Lead Temperature (soldering, 10sec) ............................ +300°C Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (VDD = 5V ±5%, fCLK = 2.0MHz, external clock (50% duty cycle), 15 clocks/conversion cycle (133ksps), 4.7µF capacitor at VREF pin, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS DC ACCURACY (Note 1) Resolution 10 Relative Accuracy (Note 2) Differential Nonlinearity DNL Bits MAX192A ±1/2 MAX192B ±1 No missing codes over temperature ±1 LSB ±2 LSB Offset Error Gain Error External reference, 4.096V Gain Temperature Coefficient External reference, 4.096V ±2 Channel-to-Channel Offset Matching LSB LSB ±0.8 ppm/°C ±0.1 LSB DYNAMIC SPECIFICATIONS (10kHz sine-wave input, 4.096Vp-p, 133ksps, 2.0MHz external clock) Signal-to-Noise + Distortion Ratio SINAD 66 dB Total Harmonic Distortion (up to the 5th harmonic) THD -70 dB Spurious-Free Dynamic Range SFDR 70 dB Channel-to-Channel Crosstalk 65kHz, VIN = 4.096Vp-p (Note 3) -75 dB Small-Signal Bandwidth -3dB rolloff 4.5 MHz 800 kHz Full-Power Bandwidth CONVERSION RATE Conversion Time (Note 4) Track/Hold Acquisition Time tCONV Internal clock External clock, 2MHz, 12 clocks/conversion 5.5 10 6 tAZ 1.5 µs µs Aperture Delay 10 ns Aperture Jitter <50 ps Internal Clock Frequency 1.7 MHz 2 _______________________________________________________________________________________ Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC (VDD = 5V ±5%, fCLK = 2.0MHz, external clock (50% duty cycle), 15 clocks/conversion cycle (133ksps), 4.7µF capacitor at VREF pin, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL External Clock Frequency CONDITIONS MIN External compensation, 4.7µF 0.1 Internal compensation (Note 5) 0.1 Used for data transfer only TYP MAX UNITS 2.0 0.4 MHz 10 ANALOG INPUT Common-mode range (any input) 0 VDD Single-ended range (unipolar only) 0 VREF 0 VREF -VREF -2 +VREF 2 Analog Input Voltage (Note 6) Unipolar Differential range Bipolar Multiplexer Leakage Current On/off leakage current; VIN = 0V, 5V Input Capacitance (Note 5) ±0.01 ±1 16 V µA pF INTERNAL REFERENCE (reference buffer enabled) VREF Output Voltage TA = +25°C (Note 7) 4.066 4.096 VREF Short-Circuit Current 30 VREF Tempco Load Regulation (Note 8) Capacitive Bypass at VREF Capacitive Bypass at REFADJ 4.126 0mA to 0.5mA output load Internal compensation 0 External compensation 4.7 Internal compensation 0.01 External compensation 0.01 REFADJ Adjustment Range V mA ±30 ppm/°C 2.5 mV µF µF ±1.5 % EXTERNAL REFERENCE AT VREF (buffer disabled, VREF = 4.096V) VDD + 50mV 2.5 Input Voltage Range Input Current 200 Input Resistance 12 Shutdown VREF Input Current 350 20 1.5 µA kΩ 10 VDD 50mV Buffer Disable Threshold REFADJ V µA V EXTERNAL REFERENCE AT REFADJ Capacitive Bypass at VREF Reference-Buffer Gain REFADJ Input Current Internal compensation mode 0 External compensation mode 4.7 µF 1.678 V/V ±50 µA _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3 MAX192 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) MAX192 Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) (VDD = 5V ±5%, fCLK = 2.0MHz, external clock (50% duty cycle), 15 clocks/conversion cycle (133ksps), 4.7µF capacitor at VREF pin, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted. Typical values are at TA = +25°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL –—– –———– EXTERNAL DIGITAL INPUTS REFERENCE (DIN, SCLK, AT REFADJ CS , SHDN ) DIN,SCLK, CS Input High Voltage CONDITIONS VINH DIN,SCLK, CS Input Low Voltage VINL DIN, SCLK, CS Input Hysteresis VHYST DIN, SCLK, CS Input Leakage TYP MAX 2.4 VIN = 0V or VDD DIN, SCLK, CS Input Capacitance CIN (Note 5) SHDN Input High Voltage VINH SHDN Input Low Voltage VINL SHDN Input Current, High IINH SHDN = VDD SHDN Input Current, Low IINL SHDN = 0V SHDN Input Mid Voltage VIM SHDN Voltage, Floating VFLT 0.8 V ±1 µA 15 pF V VDD - 0.5 V V 4.0 µA µA 1.5 SHDN = open 0.5 -4.0 SHDN = open UNITS V 0.15 IIN SHDN Max Allowed Leakage, Mid Input MIN VDD - 1.5 2.75 -100 V V 100 nA DIGITAL OUTPUTS (DOUT, SSTRB) Output Voltage Low VOL Output Voltage High VOH Three-State Leakage Current Three-State Leakage Capacitance IL COUT ISINK = 5mA 0.4 ISINK = 16mA ISOURCE = 1mA 0.3 4 V V CS = 5V CS = 5V (Note 5) ±10 µA 15 pF POWER REQUIREMENTS Positive Supply Voltage VDD Positive Supply Current IDD Positive Supply Rejection (Note 9) PSR 5 ±5% V Operating mode 1.5 2.5 Fast power-down 30 70 Full power-down 2 10 ±0.06 ±0.5 VDD = 5V ±5%; external reference, 4.096V; full-scale input mA µA mV Note 1: Tested at VDD = 5.0V; single-ended, unipolar. Note 2: Relative accuracy is the deviation of the analog value at any code from its theoretical value after the full-scale range has been calibrated. Note 3: Grounded on-channel; sine wave applied to all off channels. Note 4: Conversion time defined as the number of clock cycles times the clock period; clock has 50% duty cycle. Note 5: Guaranteed by design. Not subject to production testing. Note 6: The common-mode range for the analog inputs is from AGND to VDD. Note 7: Sample tested to 0.1% AQL. Note 8: External load should not change during conversion for specified accuracy. Note 9: Measured at VSUPPLY + 5% and VSUPPLY - 5% only. 4 _______________________________________________________________________________________ Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC (VDD = 5V ±5%, TA = TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted.) PARAMETER SYMBOL CONDITIONS MIN Acquisition Time tAZ 1.5 DIN to SCLK Setup tDS 100 DIN to SCLK Hold tDH SCLK Fall to Output Data Valid tDO CLOAD = 100pF CS Fall to Output Enable tDV CLOAD = 100pF CS Rise to Output Disable tTR CLOAD = 100pF 20 TYP MAX UNITS µs ns 0 ns 150 ns 100 ns 100 ns CS to SCLK Rise Setup tCSS 100 ns CS to SCLK Rise Hold tCSH 0 ns SCLK Pulse Width High tCH 200 ns SCLK Pulse Width Low tCL SCLK Fall to SSTRB 200 tSSTRB ns CLOAD = 100pF 200 ns CS Fall to SSTRB Output Enable (Note 5) tSDV External clock mode only, CLOAD = 100pF 200 ns CS Rise to SSTRB Output Disable (Note 5) tSTR External clock mode only, CLOAD = 100pF 200 ns SSTRB Rise to SCLK Rise (Note 5) tSCK Internal clock mode only 0 ns Note 5: Guaranteed by design. Not subject to production testing. __________________________________________Typical Operating Characteristics POWER-SUPPLY REJECTION vs. TEMPERATURE CHANNEL-TO-CHANNEL OFFSET MATCHING vs. TEMPERATURE INTERNAL REFERENCE VOLTAGE vs. TEMPERATURE 0.16 0.30 2.456 2.455 VREFADJ (V) PSR (LSBs) 0.20 0.14 OFFSET MATCHING (LSBs) 0.25 VDD = +5V ±5% 0.15 0.10 2.454 2.453 0.05 0 -0.05 -60 -40 -20 0 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 2.452 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 TEMPERATURE (°C) 0.12 0.10 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 TEMPERATURE (°C) 0 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 TEMPERATURE (°C) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5 MAX192 TIMING CHARACTERISTICS Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADCs MAX192 Pin Description PIN NAME FUNCTION 1–8 CH0–CH7 9, 13 AGND Analog Ground. Also IN- Input for single-enabled conversions. Connect both AGND pins to analog ground. 10 SHDN Three-Level Shutdown Input. Pulling SHDN low shuts the MAX192 down to 10µA (max) supply current, otherwise the MAX192 is fully operational. Pulling SHDN high puts the reference-buffer amplifier in internal compensation mode. Letting SHDN float puts the reference-buffer amplifier in external compensation mode. 11 VREF Reference Voltage for analog-to-digital conversion. Also, Output of the Reference Buffer Amplifier. Add a 4.7µF capacitor to ground when using external compensation mode. Also functions as an input when used with a precision external reference. 12 REFADJ 14 DGND Digital Ground 15 DOUT Serial Data Output. Data is clocked out at the falling edge of SCLK. High impedance when CS is high. 16 SSTRB Serial Strobe Output. In internal clock mode, SSTRB goes low when the MAX192 begins the A/D conversion and goes high when the conversion is done. In external clock mode, SSTRB pulses high for one clock period before the MSB decision. SSTRB is high impedance when CS is high (external mode). 17 DIN Serial Data Input. Data is clocked in at the rising edge of SCLK. 18 CS Active-Low Chip Select. Data will not be clocked into DIN unless CS is low. When CS is high, DOUT is high impedance. 19 SCLK Serial Clock Input. Clocks data in and out of serial interface. In external clock mode, SCLK also sets the conversion speed. (Duty cycle must be 40% to 60% in external clock mode.) 20 VDD Sampling Analog Inputs Reference-Buffer Amplifier Input. To disable the reference-buffer amplifier, tie REFADJ to VDD. Positive Supply Voltage, +5V ±5% +3V +5V DOUT DOUT 3k CLOAD CLOAD DGND a) High-Z to VOH and VOL to VOH DGND b) High-Z to VOL and VOH to VOL Figure 1. Load Circuits for Enable Time 6 3k 3k DOUT DOUT 3k CLOAD CLOAD DGND a) VOH to High-Z DGND b) VOL to High-Z Figure 2. Load Circuits for Disabled Time ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC 18 19 DIN 17 SHDN 10 CH0 CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 CH5 CH6 CH7 1 AGND AGND 13 MAX192 CS SCLK CAPACITIVE DAC 2 3 4 5 6 INPUT SHIFT REGISTER CONTROL LOGIC OUTPUT SHIFT REGISTER ANALOG INPUT MUX REFADJ 12 VREF 11 15 16 DOUT SSTRB T/H OUT 20k A ≈ 1.65 +4.096V CH3 20 14 VDD DGND MAX192 CH6 CH7 COMPARATOR CHOLD INPUT MUX – + ZERO 16pF 10k RS CH2 CH5 REF +2.46V REFERENCE CH0 CH1 CH4 CLOCK IN SAR ADC 7 8 9 VREF INT CLOCK CSWITCH TRACK T/H SWITCH AGND HOLD AT THE SAMPLING INSTANT, THE MUX INPUT SWITCHES FROM THE SELECTED IN+ CHANNEL TO THE SELECTED IN- CHANNEL. SINGLE-ENDED MODE: IN+ = CHO-CH7, IN- = AGND. DIFFERENTIAL MODE (BIPOLAR): IN+ AND IN- SELECTED FROM PAIRS OF CH0/CH1, CH2/CH3, CH4/CH5, CH6/CH7. Figure 4. Equivalent Input Circuit Figure 3. Block Diagram Detailed Description The MAX192 uses a successive-approximation conversion technique and input track/hold (T/H) circuitry to convert an analog signal to a 10-bit digital output. A flexible serial interface provides easy interface to microprocessors. No external hold capacitors are required. Figure 3 shows the block diagram for the MAX192. Pseudo-Differential Input The sampling architecture of the ADC’s analog comparator is illustrated in the Equivalent Input Circuit (Figure 4). In single-ended mode, IN+ is internally switched to CH0–CH7 and IN- is switched to AGND. In differential mode, IN+ and IN- are selected from pairs of CH0/CH1, CH2/CH3, CH4/CH5, and CH6/CH7. Refer to Tables 1 and 2 to configure the channels. In differential mode, IN- and IN+ are internally switched to either one of the analog inputs. This configuration is pseudo-differential to the effect that only the signal at IN+ is sampled. The return side (IN-) must remain stable within ±0.5LSB (±0.1LSB for best results) with respect to AGND during a conversion. Accomplish this by connecting a 0.1µF capacitor from AIN- (the selected analog input, respectively) to AGND. During the acquisition interval, the channel selected as the positive input (IN+) charges capacitor CHOLD. The acquisition interval spans three SCLK cycles and ends on the falling SCLK edge after the last bit of the input control word has been entered. At the end of the acquisition interval, the T/H switch opens, retaining charge on CHOLD as a sample of the signal at IN+. The conversion interval begins with the input multiplexer switching CHOLD from the positive input (IN+) to the negative input (IN-). In single-ended mode, IN- is simply AGND. This unbalances node ZERO at the input of the comparator. The capacitive DAC adjusts during the remainder of the conversion cycle to restore its node ZERO to 0V within the limits of its resolution. This action is equivalent to transferring a charge of 16pF x (VIN+ - VIN-) from CHOLD to the binary-weighted capacitive DAC, which in turn forms a digital representation of the analog input signal. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7 MAX192 Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC Track/Hold The T/H enters its tracking mode on the falling clock edge after the fifth bit of the 8-bit control word has been shifted in. The T/H enters its hold mode on the falling clock edge after the eighth bit of the control word has been shifted in. If the converter is set up for single-ended inputs, IN- is connected to AGND, and the converter samples the “+” input. If the converter is set up for differential inputs, IN- connects to the “-” input, and the difference of IN+ - IN- is sampled. At the end of the conversion, the positive input connects back to IN+, and CHOLD charges to the input signal. The time required for the T/H to acquire an input signal is a function of how quickly its input capacitance is charged. If the input signal’s source impedance is high, the acquisition time lengthens and more time must be allowed between conversions. Acquisition time is calculated by: tAZ = 9 (RS + RIN) 16pF where RIN = 5kΩ, RS = the source impedance of the input signal, and tAZ is never less than 1.5µs. Note that source impedances below 5kW do not significantly affect the AC performance of the ADC. Higher source impedances can be used if an input capacitor is connected to the analog inputs, as shown in Figure 5. Note that the input capacitor forms an RC filter with the input source impedance, limiting the ADC’s signal bandwidth. Input Bandwidth The ADC’s input tracking circuitry has a 4.5MHz small-signal bandwidth, so it is possible to digitize high-speed transient events and measure periodic signals with bandwidths exceeding the ADC’s sampling rate by using undersampling techniques. To avoid high-frequency signals being aliased into the frequency band of interest, anti-alias filtering is recommended. See the data sheets for the MAX291–MAX297 filters. Analog Input Range and Input Protection Internal protection diodes, which clamp the analog input to VDD and AGND, allow the channel input pins to swing from AGND - 0.3V to VDD + 0.3V without damage. However, for accurate conversions near full scale, the inputs must not exceed VDD by more than 50mV, or be lower than AGND by 50mV. If the analog input exceeds 50mV beyond the supplies, do not forward bias the protection diodes of off channels over 2mA. The MAX192 can be configured for differential (unipolar or bipolar) or single-ended (unipolar only) inputs, as selected by bits 2 and 3 of the control byte (Table 3). In the single-ended mode, set the UNI/BIP bit to unipolar. In this mode, analog inputs are internally referenced to AGND, with a full-scale input range from 0V to VREF. In differential mode, both unipolar and bipolar settings can be used. Choosing unipolar mode sets the differential input range at 0V to VREF. The output code is invalid (code zero) when a negative differential input voltage is applied. Bipolar mode sets the differential input range to ±VREF / 2. Note that in this differential mode, the common-mode input range includes both supply rails. Refer to Tables 4a and 4b for input voltage ranges. Quick Look To evaluate the analog performance of the MAX192 quickly, use Figure 5’s circuit. The MAX192 requires a control byte to be written to DIN before each conversion. Tying DIN to +5V feeds in control bytes of Table 1. Channel Selection in Single-Ended Mode (SGL/DIF = 1) SEL2 SEL1 SEL0 CH0 0 0 0 + 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 8 CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 CH5 CH6 CH7 AGND – + – + – + – + – + – + _______________________________________________________________________________________ – + – Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC MAX192 Table 2. Channel Selection in Differential Mode (SGL/DIF = 0) SEL2 SEL1 SEL0 CH0 CH1 0 0 0 + – 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 – CH2 CH3 + – CH4 CH5 + – CH6 CH7 + – – + + – + – + Table 3. Control-Byte Format Bit 7 (MSB) Bit 6 Bit 5 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 (LSB) START SEL2 SEL1 SEL0 UNI/BIP SGL/DIF PD1 PD0 Bit Name Description 7(MSB) START The first logic “1” bit after CS goes low defines the beginning of the control byte. 6 5 4 SEL2 SEL1 SEL0 These three bits select which of the eight channels are used for the conversion. See Tables 1 and 2. 3 UNI/BIP 1 = unipolar, 0 = bipolar. Selects unipolar or bipolar conversion mode. In unipolar mode, an analog input signal from 0V to VREF can be converted; in differential bipolar mode, the differential signal can range from -VREF / 2 to +VREF / 2. Select differential operation if bipolar mode is used. 2 SGL/DIF 1 = single ended, 0 = differential. Selects single-ended or differential conversions. In single-ended mode, input signal voltages are referred to AGND. In differential mode, the voltage difference between two channels is measured. Select unipolar operation if single-ended mode is used. See Tables 1 and 2. 1 0(LSB) PD1 PD0 Selects clock and power-down modes. PD0 Mode PD1 0 0 Full power-down (IQ = 2µA) 0 1 Fast power-down (IQ = 30µA) 1 0 Internal clock mode 1 1 External clock mode _______________________________________________________________________________________ 9 MAX192 Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC Table 4a. Unipolar Full Scale and Zero Scale ZERO SCALE FULL SCALE 0V +4.096V at REFADJ 0V VREFADJ (1.678) at VREF 0V VREF REFERENCE Internal Reference External Reference Example: Simple Software Interface Make sure the CPU’s serial interface runs in master mode so the CPU generates the serial clock. Choose a clock frequency from 100kHz to 2MHz. 1) 2) Set up the control byte for external clock mode, call it TB1. TB1 should be of the format: 1XXXXX11 binary, where the Xs denote the particular channel and conversion-mode selected. Use a general-purpose I/O line on the CPU to pull CS on the MAX192 low. Transmit TB1 and simultaneously receive a byte and call it RB1. Ignore RB1. Table 4b. Differential Bipolar Full Scale, Zero Scale, and Negative Full Scale 3) NEGATIVE ZERO FULL SCALE FULL SCALE SCALE 4) Transmit a byte of all zeros ($00 HEX) and simultaneously receive byte RB2. 5) Transmit a byte of all zeros ($00 HEX) and simultaneously receive byte RB3. 6) Pull CS on the MAX192 high. REFERENCE Internal Reference External Reference at REFADJ 0.at VREF 0V +4.096V / 2 -1/2VREFADJ (1.678) -4.096V / 2 0V +1/2VREFADJ (1.678) -1/2VREF 0V +1/2VREF $FF (HEX), which trigger single-ended conversions on CH7 in external clock mode without powering down between conversions. In external clock mode, the SSTRB output pulses high for one clock period before the most significant bit of the conversion result comes out of DOUT. Varying the analog input to CH7 should alter the sequence of bits from DOUT. A total of 15 clock cycles is required per conversion. All transitions of the SSTRB and DOUT outputs occur on the falling edge of SCLK. How to Start a Conversion A conversion is started on the MAX192 by clocking a control byte into DIN. Each rising edge on SCLK, with CS low, clocks a bit from DIN into the MAX192’s internal shift register. After CS falls, the first arriving logic “1” bit defines the MSB of the control byte. Until this first “start” bit arrives, any number of logic “0” bits can be clocked into DIN with no effect. Table 3 shows the control-byte format. The MAX192 is compatible with Microwire, SPI, and QSPI devices. For SPI, select the correct clock polarity and sampling edge in the SPI control registers: set CPOL = 0 and CPHA = 0. Microwire and SPI both transmit a byte and receive a byte at the same time. Using the Typical Operating Circuit, the simplest software interface requires only three 8-bit transfers to perform a conversion (one 8-bit transfer to configure the ADC, and two more 8-bit transfers to clock out the 12-bit conversion result). 10 Figure 6 shows the timing for this sequence. Bytes RB2 and RB3 will contain the result of the conversion padded with one leading zero, two sub-LSB bits, and three trailing zeros. The total conversion time is a function of the serial clock frequency and the amount of dead time between 8-bit transfers. Make sure that the total conversion time does not exceed 120µs, to avoid excessive T/H droop. Digital Output In unipolar input mode, the output is straight binary (Figure 15). For bipolar inputs in differential mode, the output is twos-complement (Figure 16). Data is clocked out at the falling edge of SCLK in MSB-first format. Internal and External Clock Modes The MAX192 may use either an external serial clock or the internal clock to perform the successive-approximation conversion. In both clock modes, the external clock shifts data in and out of the MAX192. The T/H acquires the input signal as the last three bits of the control byte are clocked into DIN. Bits PD1 and PD0 of the control byte program the clock mode. Figures 7 through 10 show the timing characteristics common to both modes. ______________________________________________________________________________________ Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC MAX192 VDD +5V OSCILLOSCOPE 0.1µF DGND AGND AGND MAX192 0V TO 4.096V ANALOG 0.01µF INPUT SCLK SSTRB CH7 CS DOUT* SCLK +5V DIN 2MHz OSCILLATOR CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 DOUT C2 0.01µF REFADJ SSTRB VREF SHDN N.C. C1 4.7µF +2.5V +2.5V REFERENCE ** * FULL-SCALE ANALOG INPUT, CONVERSION RESULT = $FFF (HEX) **OPTIONAL. A POTENTIOMETER MAY BE USED IN PLACE OF THE REFERENCE FOR TEST PURPOSES. Figure 5. Quick-Look Circuit External Clock In external clock mode, the external clock not only shifts data in and out, it also drives the analog-to-digital conversion steps. SSTRB pulses high for one clock period after the last bit of the control byte. Successive-approximation bit decisions are made and appear at DOUT on each of the next 12 SCLK falling edges (see Figure 6). The first 10 bits are the true data bits, and the last two are sub-LSB bits. SSTRB and DOUT go into a high-impedance state when CS goes high; after the next CS falling edge, SSTRB will output a logic low. Figure 8 shows the SSTRB timing in external clock mode. The conversion must complete in some minimum time, or else droop on the sample-and-hold capacitors may degrade conversion results. Use internal clock mode if the clock period exceeds 10µs, or if serial-clock interruptions could cause the conversion interval to exceed 120µs. Internal Clock In internal clock mode, the MAX192 generates its own conversion clock internally. This frees the microprocessor from the burden of running the SAR conversion clock, and allows the conversion results to be read back at the processor’s convenience, at any clock rate from zero to typically 10MHz. SSTRB goes low at the start of the conversion and then goes high when the conversion is complete. SSTRB will be low for a maximum of 10µs, during which time SCLK should remain low for best noise performance. An internal register stores data when the conversion is in progress. SCLK clocks the data out at this register at any time after the conversion is complete. After SSTRB goes high, the next falling clock edge will produce the MSB of the conversion at DOUT, followed by the remaining bits in MSB-first format (Figure 9). CS does not need to be held low once a conversion is started. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 11 MAX192 Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC CS tACQ SCLK 1 4 8 12 16 RB1 DIN UNI/ BIP START SEL2 SEL1 SEL0 20 RB2 SGL/ DIF PD1 24 RB3 PD0 SSTRB B9 MSB B8 B7 ACQUISITION IDLE A/D STATE RB3 RB2 RB1 DOUT B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0 LSB S1 SO FILLED WITH ZEROS CONVERSION IDLE 1.5µs (CLK = 2MHz) Figure 6. 24-Bit External Clock Mode Conversion Timing (SPI, QSPI and Microwire Compatible) ••• CS tCSH tCSS tCL tCH SCLK tCSH ••• tDS tDH ••• DIN tDV tDO tTR ••• DOUT Figure 7. Detailed Serial-Interface Timing Pulling CS high prevents data from being clocked into the MAX192 and three-states DOUT, but it does not adversely affect an internal clock-mode conversion already in progress. When internal clock mode is selected, SSTRB does not go into a high-impedance state when CS goes high. Figure 10 shows the SSTRB timing in internal clock mode. In internal clock mode, data can be shifted in and out of the MAX192 at clock rates exceeding 4.0MHz, provided that the minimum acquisition time, tAZ, is kept above 1.5µs. Data Framing The falling edge of CS does not start a conversion on the MAX192. The first logic high clocked into DIN is interpreted as a start bit and defines the first bit of the control byte. A conversion starts on the falling edge of SCLK, 12 after the eighth bit of the control byte (the PD0 bit) is clocked into DIN. The start bit is defined as: The first high bit clocked into DIN with CS low anytime the converter is idle, e.g. after VDD is applied. OR The first high bit clocked into DIN after bit 3 of a conversion in progress is clocked onto the DOUT pin. If a falling edge on CS forces a start bit before bit 3 (B3) becomes available, then the current conversion will be terminated and a new one started. Thus, the fastest the MAX192 can run is 15 clocks per conversion. Figure 11a shows the serial-interface timing necessary to perform a conversion every 15 SCLK cycles in external clock mode. If CS is low and SCLK is continuous, guarantee a start bit by first clocking in 16 zeros. ______________________________________________________________________________________ Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC ••• tSTR tSDV SSTRB ••• ••• tSSTRB tSSTRB •• • • SCLK MAX192 ••• CS •••• PD0 CLOCKED IN Figure 8. External Clock Mode SSTRB Detailed Timing CS SCLK DIN 1 2 3 4 5 START SEL2 SEL1 SEL0 UNI/ BIP 7 8 SGL/ PD1 DIF PD0 6 9 10 11 12 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 SSTRB tCONV B9 MSB DOUT A/D STATE IDLE ACQUISITION CONVERSION 10µs MAX B8 B7 B0 LSB S1 S0 FILLED WITH ZEROS IDLE 1.5µs (CLK = 2MHz) Figure 9. Internal Clock Mode Timing Most microcontrollers require that conversions occur in multiples of 8 SCLK clocks; 16 clocks per conversion will typically be the fastest that a microcontroller can drive the MAX192. Figure 11b shows the serial-interface timing necessary to perform a conversion every 16 SCLK cycles in external clock mode. __________ Applications Information Power-On Reset When power is first applied and if SHDN is not pulled low, internal power-on reset circuitry will activate the MAX192 in internal clock mode, ready to convert with SSTRB = high. After the power supplies have been stabilized, the internal reset time is 100µs and no conversions should be performed during this phase. SSTRB is high on power-up and, if CS is low, the first logical 1 on DIN will be interpreted as a start bit. Until a conversion takes place, DOUT will shift out zeros. Reference-Buffer Compensation In addition to its shutdown function, the SHDN pin also selects internal or external compensation. The compensation affects both power-up time and maximum conversion speed. Compensated or not, the minimum clock rate is 100kHz due to droop on the sample-and-hold. To select external compensation, float SHDN. See the Typical Operating Circuit, which uses a 4.7µF capacitor at VREF. A value of 4.7µF or greater ensures stability and allows operation of the converter at the full clock speed of 2MHz. External compensation increases power-up time (see the Choosing Power-Down Mode section, and Table 5). Internal compensation requires no external capacitor at VREF, and is selected by pulling SHDN high. Internal compensation allows for shortest power-up times, but is only available using an external clock and reduces the maximum clock rate to 400kHz. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 13 MAX192 Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC CS tCONV tCSS tSCK tCSH SSTRB tSSTRB SCLK PD0 CLOCK IN NOTE: FOR BEST NOISE PERFORMANCE, KEEP SCLK LOW DURING CONVERSION. Figure 10. Internal Clock Mode SSTRB Detailed Timing CS 1 8 1 8 1 SCLK S DIN CONTROL BYTE 0 S CONTROL BYTE 2 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0 S1 S0 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0 S1 S0 DOUT S CONTROL BYTE 1 CONVERSION RESULT 1 CONVERSION RESULT 0 SSTRB Figure 11a. External Clock Mode, 15 Clocks/Conversion Timing CS SCLK DIN DOUT S S CONTROL BYTE 0 CONTROL BYTE 1 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B0 S1 S0 CONVERSION RESULT 0 B9 B7 B6 CONVERSION RESULT 1 Figure 11b. External Clock Mode, 16 Clocks/Conversion Timing 14 B8 ______________________________________________________________________________________ Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC INTERNAL MAX192 CLOCK MODE EXTERNAL EXTERNAL SHDN SETS FAST POWER-DOWN MODE SETS EXTERNAL CLOCK MODE DIN S X X X X X 1 1 DOUT S X X X X X 0 1 S X X X X X 1 1 DATA VALID (10 + 2 DATA BITS) DATA VALID (10 + 2 DATA BITS) POWERED UP MODE SETS EXTERNAL CLOCK MODE FAST POWER-DOWN VALID DATA INVALID POWERED UP POWERED UP FULL POWERDOWN Figure 12a. Timing Diagram Power-Down Modes, External Clock CLOCK MODE DIN INTERNAL CLOCK MODE S X X X X X 1 0 S X X X X X 0 0 DOUT SSTRB MODE SETS FULL POWER-DOWN SETS INTERNAL CLOCK MODE S DATA VALID DATA VALID CONVERSION CONVERSION POWERED UP FULL POWER-DOWN POWERED UP Figure 12b. Timing Diagram Power-Down Modes, Internal Clock Power-Down Choosing Power-Down Mode You can save power by placing the converter in a low-current shutdown state between conversions. Select full power-down or fast power-down mode via bits 1 and 0 of the DIN control byte with SHDN either high or floating (see Tables 3 and 6). Pull SHDN low at any time to shut down the converter completely. SHDN overrides bits 1 and 0 of DIN word (see Table 7). Full power-down mode turns off all chip functions that draw quiescent current, typically reducing IDD to 2µA. Fast power-down mode turns off all circuitry except the bandgap reference. With the fast power-down mode, the supply current is 30µA. Power-up time can be shortened to 5µs in internal compensation mode. In both software shutdown modes, the serial interface remains operational, however, the ADC will not convert. Table 5 illustrates how the choice of reference-buffer compensation and power-down mode affects both power-up delay and maximum sample rate. In external compensation mode, the power-up time is 20ms with a 4.7µF compensation capacitor when the capacitor is fully discharged. In fast power-down, you can eliminate start-up time by using low-leakage capaci- ______________________________________________________________________________________ 15 MAX192 Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC Table 5. Worst-Case Power-Up Delay Times Reference Buffer ReferenceBuffer Compensation Mode VREF Capacitor (µF) PowerDown Mode Power-Up Delay (sec) Maximum Sampling Rate (ksps) Enabled Internal Fast 5µ 26 Enabled Internal Enabled External 4.7 Full 300µ 26 Fast See Figure 14c 133 Enabled External 4.7 Full See Figure 14c 133 Disabled Fast 2µ 133 Disabled Full 2µ 133 Table 6. Software Shutdown and Clock Mode PD1 PD0 Device Mode 1 1 External Clock Mode 1 0 Internal Clock Mode 0 1 0 0 SHDN State Device Mode Reference-Buffer Compensation 1 Enabled Internal Compensation Fast Power-Down Mode Floating Enabled External Compensation Full Power-Down Mode 0 Full Power-Down N/A tors that will not discharge more than 1/2LSB while shut down. In shutdown, the capacitor has to supply the current into the reference (1.5µA typ) and the transient currents at power-up. Figures 12a and 12b illustrate the various power-down sequences in both external and internal clock modes. Software Power-Down Software power-down is activated using bits PD1 and PD0 of the control byte. As shown in Table 6, PD1 and PD0 also specify the clock mode. When software shutdown is asserted, the ADC will continue to operate in the last specified clock mode until the conversion is complete. Then the ADC powers down into a low quiescent-current state. In internal clock mode, the interface remains active and conversion results may be clocked out while the MAX192 has already entered a software power-down. The first logical 1 on DIN will be interpreted as a start bit, and powers up the MAX192. Following the start bit, the data input word or control byte also determines clock and power-down modes. For example, if the DIN word contains PD1 = 1, then the chip will remain powered up. If PD1 = 0, a power-down will resume after one conversion. 16 Table 7. Hard-Wired Shutdown and Compensation Mode Hardware Power-Down The SHDN pin places the converter into the full power-down mode. Unlike with the software shutdown modes, conversion is not completed. It stops coincidentally with SHDN being brought low. There is no power-up delay if an external reference is used and is not shut down. The SHDN pin also selects internal or external reference compensation (see Table 7). Power-Down Sequencing The MAX192 auto power-down modes can save considerable power when operating at less than maximum sample rates. The following discussion illustrates the various power-down sequences. Lowest Power at up to 500 Conversions/Channel/Second The following examples illustrate two different power-down sequences. Other combinations of clock rates, compensation modes, and power-down modes may give lowest power consumption in other applications. Figure 14a depicts the MAX192 power consumption for one or eight channel conversions utilizing full power-down mode and internal reference compensation. A 0.01µF bypass capacitor at REFADJ forms an ______________________________________________________________________________________ Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC MAX192 COMPLETE CONVERSION SEQUENCE 2ms WAIT CH1 (ZEROS) DIN 1 00 1 FULLPD 01 1 11 FASTPD (ZEROS) CH7 1 00 NOPD 1 FULLPD 01 FASTPD 2.5V REFADJ 0V τ = RC = 20kΩ x CREFADJ 4V VREF 0V tBUFFEN ≈ 15µs Figure 13. FULLPD/FASTPD Power-Up Sequence FULL POWER-DOWN FAST POWER-DOWN 8 CHANNELS 100 1 CHANNEL 10 2ms FASTPD WAIT 400kHz EXTERNAL CLOCK INTERNAL COMPENSATION 1 MAX192-14B MAX192-14A 10,000 AVG. SUPPLY CURRENT (µA) AVG. SUPPLY CURRENT (µA) 1000 1 CHANNEL 8 CHANNELS 1000 100 2MHz EXTERNAL CLOCK EXTERNAL COMPENSATION 50µs WAIT 10 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 RC filter with the internal 20kΩ reference resistor with a 0.2ms time constant. To achieve full 10-bit accuracy, 10 time constants or 2ms are required after power-up. Waiting 2ms in FASTPD mode instead of full power-up will reduce the power consumption by a factor of 10 or more. This is achieved by using the sequence shown in Figure 13. Lowest Power at Higher Throughputs Figure 14b shows the power consumption with external-reference compensation in fast power-down, with one and eight channels converted. The external 4.7µF compensation requires a 50µs wait after power-up, accomplished by 75 idle clocks after a dummy conversion. This circuit combines fast multi-channel conversion with lowest power consumption possible. Full power-down mode may provide increased power savings in applications where the 8k 12k 16k Figure 14b. Supply Current vs. Sample Rate/Second, FASTPD, 2MHz Clock 3.0 2.5 POWER-UP DELAY (ms) Figure 14a. Supply Current vs. Sample Rate/Second, FULLPD, 400kHz Clock 4k CONVERSIONS PER CHANNEL PER SECOND CONVERSIONS PER CHANNEL PER SECOND 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 TIME IN SHUTDOWN (sec) Figure 14c. Typical Power-Up Delay vs. Time in Shutdown ______________________________________________________________________________________ 17 MAX192 Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC OUTPUT CODE OUTPUT CODE FULL-SCALE TRANSITION 11 . . . 111 011 . . . 111 11 . . . 110 011 . . . 110 11 . . . 101 000 . . . 010 FS = +4.096 2 1LSB = +4.096 1024 000 . . . 001 FS = +4.096V 1LSB = FS 1024 000 . . . 000 111 . . . 111 111 . . . 110 111 . . . 101 00 . . . 011 00 . . . 010 100 . . . 001 00 . . . 001 100 . . . 000 00 . . . 000 0 1 2 3 INPUT VOLTAGE (LSBs) FS FS - 3/2LSB -FS 0V +FS - 1LSB DIFFERENTIAL INPUT VOLTAGE (LSBs) Figure 15. Unipolar Transfer Function, 4.096V = Full Scale Figure 16. Differential Bipolar Transfer Function, ±4.096V / 2 = Full Scale MAX192 is inactive for long periods of time, but where intermittent bursts of high-speed conversions are required. typically 20kΩ. At VREF, the input impedance is a minimum of 12kΩ for DC currents. During conversion, an external reference at VREF must be able to deliver up to 350µA DC load current and have an output impedance of 10Ω or less. If the reference has higher output impedance or is noisy, bypass it close to the VREF pin with a 4.7µF capacitor. External and Internal References The MAX192 can be used with an internal or external reference. Diode D1 shown in the Typical Operating Circuit ensures correct start-up. Any standard signal diode can be used. An external reference can either be connected directly at the VREF terminal or at the REFADJ pin. The MAX192’s internally trimmed 2.46V reference is buffered with a gain of 1.678 to scale an external 2.5V reference at REFADJ to 4.096V at VREF. Internal Reference The full-scale range of the MAX192 with internal reference is 4.096V with unipolar inputs, and ±2.048V with differential bipolar inputs. The internal reference voltage is adjustable to ±1.5% with the Reference-Adjust Circuit of Figure 17. External Reference An external reference can be placed at either the input (REFADJ) or the output (VREF) of the internal buffer amplifier. The REFADJ input impedance is 18 Using the buffered REFADJ input avoids external buffering of the reference. To use the direct VREF input, disable the internal buffer by tying REFADJ to VDD. Transfer Function and Gain Adjust Figure 15 depicts the nominal, unipolar input/output (I/O) transfer function, and Figure 16 shows the differential bipolar input/output transfer function. Code transitions occur halfway between successive integer LSB values. Output coding is binary with 1LSB = 4.00mV (4.096V / 1024) for unipolar operation and 1LSB = 4.00mV [(4.096V / 2 - -4.096V / 2)/1024] for bipolar operation. Figure 17, the Reference-Adjust Circuit, shows how to adjust the ADC gain in applications that use the internal reference. The circuit provides ±1.5% (±15LSBs) of gain adjustment range. ______________________________________________________________________________________ Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC MAX192 +5V SUPPLIES MAX192 +5V GND 510k 100k 12 REFADJ R* = 10Ω 0.01µF 24k VDD AGND MAX192 DGND +5V DGND DIGITAL CIRCUITRY * OPTIONAL Figure 17. Reference-Adjust Circuit Figure 18. Power-Supply Grounding Connection Layout, Grounding, Bypassing High-Speed Digital Interfacing For best performance, use printed circuit boards. Wire-wrap boards are not recommended. Board layout should ensure that digital and analog signal lines are separated from each other. Do not run analog and digital (especially clock) lines parallel to one another, or digital lines underneath the ADC package. Figure 18 shows the recommended system ground connections. A single-point analog ground (“star” ground point) should be established at AGND, separate from the logic ground. All other analog grounds and DGND should be connected to this ground. No other digital system ground should be connected to this single-point analog ground. The ground return to the power supply for this ground should be low impedance and as short as possible for noise-free operation. High-frequency noise in the VDD power supply may affect the high-speed comparator in the ADC. Bypass these supplies to the single-point analog ground with 0.1µF and 4.7µF bypass capacitors close to the MAX192. Minimize capacitor lead lengths for best supply-noise rejection. If the +5V power supply is very noisy, a 10Ω resistor can be connected as a lowpass filter, as shown in Figure 18. The MAX192 can interface with QSPI at high throughput rates using the circuit in Figure 19. This QSPI circuit can be programmed to do a conversion on each of the eight channels. The result is stored in memory without taxing the CPU since QSPI incorporates its own micro-sequencer. Figure 20 details the code that sets up QSPI for autonomous operation. In external clock mode, the MAX192 performs a single-ended, unipolar conversion on each of the eight analog input channels. Figure 21 shows the timing associated with the assembly code of Figure 20. The first byte clocked into the MAX192 is the control byte, which triggers the first conversion on CH0. The last two bytes clocked into the MAX192 are all zero, and clock out the results of the CH7 conversion. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 19 MAX192 Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC +5V VDDI, VDDE, VDDSYN, VSTBY ANALOG INPUTS 1 CH0 VDD 20 2 CH1 SCLK 19 3 CH2 CS 18 4 CH3 5 CH4 SSTRB 16 6 CH5 DOUT 15 7 CH6 DGND 14 8 CH7 AGND 13 9 AGND REFADJ 12 10 SHDN VREF 11 MAX192 0.1µF 4.7µF SCK PCS0 DIN 17 MC68HC16 MOSI MISO 0.01µF 0.1µF + 4.7µF VSSI VSSE * CLOCK CONNECTIONS NOT SHOWN Figure 19. MAX192 QSPI Connection TMS320 to MAX192 Interface Figure 22 shows an application circuit to interface the MAX192 to the TMS320 in external clock mode. The timing diagram for this interface circuit is shown in Figure 23. Use the following steps to initiate a conversion in the MAX192 and to read the results: 1) The TMS320 should be configured with CLKX (transmit clock) as an active-high output clock and CLKR (TMS320 receive clock) as an active-high input clock. CLKX and CLKR of the TMS320 are tied together with the SCLK input of the MAX192. 2) The MAX192 CS is driven low by the XF_ I/O port of the TMS320 to enable data to be clocked into DIN of the MAX192. 4) The SSTRB output of the MAX192 is monitored via the FSR input of the TMS320. A falling edge on the SSTRB output indicates that the conversion is in progress and data is ready to be received from the MAX192. 5) The TMS320 reads in one data bit on each of the next 16 rising edges of SCLK. These data bits represent the 10-bit conversion result and two subLSBs, followed by four trailing bits, which should be ignored. 6) Pull CS high to disable the MAX192 until the next conversion is initiated. 3) An 8-bit word (1XXXXX11) should be written to the MAX192 to initiate a conversion and place the device into external clock mode. Refer to Table 3 to select the proper XXXXX bit values for your specific application. 20 ______________________________________________________________________________________ Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC INITQSPI: ;This routine sets up the QSPI microsequencer to operate on its own. ;The sequencer will read all eight channels of a MAX192 each time ;it is triggered. The A/D converter results will be left in the ;receive data RAM. Each 16 bit receive data RAM location will ;have a leading zero, 10 + 2 bits of conversion result and three zeros. ; ;Receive RAM Bits 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00 ;A/D Result 0 MSB LSB 0 0 0 ***** Initialize the QSPI Registers ****** PSHA PSHB LDAA #%01111000 STAA QPDR ;idle state for PCS0-3 = high LDAA #%01111011 STAA QPAR ;assign port D to be QSPI LDAA #%01111110 STAA QDDR ;only MISO is an input LDD #$8008 STD SPCR0 ;master mode,16 bits/transfer, ;CPOL=CPHA=0,1MHz Ser Clock LDD #$0000 STD SPCR1 ;set delay between PCS0 and SCK, ;set delay between transfers Figure 20. MAX192 Assembly-Code Listing ______________________________________________________________________________________ 21 MAX192 * Description : * This is a shell program for using a stand-alone 68HC16 without any external memory. The internal 1K RAM * is put into bank $0F to maintain 68HC11 code compatibility. This program was written with software * provided in the Motorola 68HC16 Evaluation Kit. * * Roger J.A. Chen, Applications Engineer * MAXIM Integrated Products * November 20, 1992 * ****************************************************************************************************************************************************** INCLUDE ‘EQUATES.ASM’ ;Equates for common reg addrs INCLUDE ‘ORG00000.ASM’ ;initialize reset vector INCLUDE ‘ORG00008.ASM’ ;initialize interrupt vectors ORG $0200 ;start program after interrupt vectors INCLUDE ‘INITSYS.ASM’ ;set EK=F,XK=0,YK=0,ZK=0 ;set sys clock at 16.78 MHz, COP off INCLUDE ‘INITRAM.ASM’ ;turn on internal SRAM at $10000 ;set stack (SK=1, SP=03FE) MAIN: JSR INITQSPI MAINLOOP: JSR READ192 WAIT: LDAA SPSR ANDA #$80 BEQ WAIT ;wait for QSPI to finish BRA MAINLOOP ENDPROGRAM: MAX192 Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC LDD #$0800 STD SPCR2 ;set ENDQP to $8 for 9 transfers ***** Initialize QSPI Command RAM ***** LDAA #$80 ;CONT=1,BITSE=0,DT=0,DSCK=0,PCS0=ACTIVE STAA $FD40 ;store first byte in COMMAND RAM LDAA #$C0 ;CONT=1,BITSE=1,DT=0,DSCK=0,PCS0=ACTIVE STAA $FD41 STAA $FD42 STAA $FD43 STAA $FD44 STAA $FD45 STAA $FD46 STAA $FD47 LDAA #$40 ;CONT=0,BITSE=1,DT=0,DSCK=0,PCS0=ACTIVE STAA $FD48 ***** Initialize QSPI Transmit RAM ***** LDD #$008F LDD #$00CF LDD #$009F LDD #$00DF LDD #$00AF LDD #$00EF LDD #$00BF LDD #$00FF LDD #$0000 STD $FD20 STD $FD22 STD $FD24 STD $FD26 STD $FD28 STD $FD2A STD $FD2C STD $FD2E STD $FD30 PULB PULA RTS READ192: ;This routine triggers the QSPI microsequencer to autonomously ;trigger conversions on all 8 channels of the MAX192. Each ;conversion result is stored in the receive data RAM. PSHA LDAA #$80 ORAA SPCR1 STAA SPCR1 ;just set SPE PULA RTS ***** Interrupts/Exceptions ***** BDM: BGND ;exception vectors point here ;and put the user in background debug mode Figure 20. MAX192 Assembly-Code Listing (continued) 22 ______________________________________________________________________________________ Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC MAX192 CS •••• •••• SCLK •••• SSTRB DIN •••• Figure 21. QSPI Assembly-Code Timing CS XF SCLK CLKX TMS320 MAX192 CLKR DX DIN DR DOUT FSR SSTRB Figure 22. MAX192 to TMS320 Serial Interface CS SCLK DIN START SEL2 SEL1 SEL0 UNI/BIP SGL/DIF PD1 PD0 HIGH IMPEDANCE SSTRB DOUT MSB B10 S1 S0 HIGH IMPEDANCE Figure 23. TMS320 Serial-Interface Timing Diagram ______________________________________________________________________________________ 23 Low-Power, 8-Channel, Serial 10-Bit ADC MAX192 Typical Operating Circuit Chip Information TRANSISTOR COUNT: 2278 +5V CH0 0V to 4.096V ANALOG INPUTS VDD VDD DGND AGND C3 0.1µF C4 0.1µF CPU CH7 MAX192 AGND CS SCLK VREF C1 4.7µF DIN DOUT REFADJ C2 0.01µF I/O SCK (SK)* MOSI (SO) MISO (SI) SSTRB SHDN VSS SSOP.EPS Package Information Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. No circuit patent licenses are implied. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. 24 ____________________Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600 © 1997 Maxim Integrated Products Printed USA is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products.
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